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Full text of "The dictionary of national biography : founded in 1882 by George Smith"

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in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/dictionaryofnati01leesuoft 



I 



DICTIONARY 

OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



SUPPLEMENT 

VOL. I. 
Abbott Guilders 



i 



A, 



f 




London.Publlshed by Sim th. mdar ScCd.lS Wilerloo Plaoo 



WallieriCiicit; 




i) 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 

VOL. I. 

Abbott Childers 



i 



1^ 



LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 

[All rights reserved] 



/, 



PREFATORY NOTE 



The Supplement to the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' contains a 
thousand articles, of which more than two hundred represent accidental 
omissions from the previously published volumes. These overlooked 
memoirs belong to various epochs of mediseval and modern history ; 
some of the more important fill gaps in colonial history to which recent 
events have directed attention. 

But it is the main purpose of the Supplement to deal with distin- 
guished persons who died at too late a date to be included in the original 
work. The principle of the undertaking excludes living people, and in 
the course of the fifteen years during which the publication, in alpha- 
betical sequence, of the sixty-three quarterly volumes of the Dictioi^ary 
was in progress, many men and women of eminence died after their 
due alphabetical place was reached, and the opportunity of commemo- 
rating them had for the time passed away. The Supplement contains 
nearly eight hundred memoirs of recently deceased persons, who, under 
the circumstances indicated, found no place in the previously published 
volumes. 

Since the resolve to issue a Supplement to the Dictionary was first 
announced, more than four times as many names as actually appear in 
the supplementary volumes have been recommended to the Editor for 
notice. Every suggestion has been carefully considered, and, although 
the rejections have been numerous, the Editor hopes that he has not 
excluded any name about which information is likely to be sought in 
the future by serious students. Reputations that might reasonably be 
regarded as ephemeral have alone been consciously ignored. The right 

/ 



VI 



Prefatory Note 



of a person to notice in the Dictionary has been held to depend on the 
probability that his career would be the object of intelligent inquiry on 
the part of an appreciable number of persons a generation or more 
hence. 

Owing mainly to the longer interval of time that has elapsed since 
the publication of the volumes of the Dictionary treating of the earlier 
portions of the alphabet, the supplementary names beginning with the 
earlier letters are exceptionally numerous. Half the supplementary 
names belong to the first five letters of the alphabet. The whole series 
of names is distributed in the three supplementary volumes thus : 
Volume I. Abbott — Childers ; Volume II. Chippendale — Hoste ; Volume 
III. How — Woodward. 

It was originally intended that the Supplement to the Dictionary 
should bring the biographical record of British, Irish, and Colonial 
achievement to the extreme end of the nineteenth century, but the death 
of Queen Victoria on 22 Jan. 1901 rendered a slight modification of the 
plan inevitable. The Queen's death closed an important epoch in 
British history, and was from a national point of view a better defined 
historic landmark than the end of the century with which it almost 
synchronised. The scope of the Supplement was consequently extended 
so that the day of the Queen's death might become its furthest limit. 
Any person dying at a later date than the Queen was therefore 
disqualified for notice.^ The memoir of the Queen is from the pen of 
the Editor. 



' During the six months succeeding Queen Victoria's demise, 22 Jan. to 29 July 1901, 
death qualified the following thirty-eight persons for notice by the national biographer of the 
future. In ■ each case the date of the close of life falls outside the limit assigned to the 
present Supplement, and the names are necessarily excluded from it. The list roughly 
indicates the rate at which material for national biography accumulates in the present era. 
The day of death is appended to each name. 



Abthub, William (Wesleyan divine), 9 March. 
Besant, Sib Waltek (novelist), 9 June. 
BowEN, Edwabd Ebnest (master at Harrow and 

song-writer), 8 April. 
Beight, William (ecclesiastical historian), 

6 March. 
Beowne, Sib Samuel, V.C. (general), 14 March. 
Buchanan, Eobeet (poet and novelist), 10 June. 



Gates, Abthub (architect), 15 May. 
Commebell, Sib John Edmund (admiral), 

21 May. 
Dawson, Geobge Meecee (Canadian geologist), 

2 March. 
Dickson, William Puedie (professor of divinity 

at Glasgow and translator of Mommsen), 

10 March. 



Prefatory Note 



Vll 



The choice of Queen Victoria's last day of life as the chronological 
limit of the Supplement was warmly approved by Mr. George Smith, the 
projector and proprietor of the Dictionary. But, unhappily, while the 
supplementary volumes were still in preparation, the undertaking sus- 
tained the irreparable loss of his death (6 April 1901). In accordance 
with a generally expressed wish the Editor has prefixed a memoir of 
Mr. Smith to the first volume of the Supplement ; but, in order to observe 
faithfully the chronological limit which was fixed in consultation with 
Mr. Smith, he has given it a prefatory position which is independent of 
the body of the work. 

A portrait df Mr. Smith, to whose initiative and munificence the 
whole work is due, forms the frontispiece to the first volume of the 
Supplement : it is reproduced from a painting by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., 
which was executed in 1876. 

Much information has been derived by writers of supplementary 
articles from private sources. The readiness with which assistance of 
this kind has been rendered can hardly be acknowledged too warmly. 
The principle of the Dictionary requires that the memoirs should be 
mainly confined to a record of fact, should preserve a strictly judicial 
tone, and should eschew sentiment. The point of view from which the 



Eddis, Eden Upton (portrait painter), 7 April. 
Ellis, Frederick Startridge (bookseller and 

author), 26 Feb. 
Fairbairn, Sib Andrew (engineer), 81 May. 
Farmer, John (musician), 17 July. 
Fitzgerald, George Francis (physicist), 

21 Feb. 
Hall, FitzEdwasd, D.C.L. (philologist), 

10 Feb. 
Haweis, Hugh Reginald (divine), 29 Jan. 
Hopkins, Edward John (organist), 4 Feb. 
HosKiNS, Sir Anthony Hiley (admiral), 

21 June. 
Jeaffbeson, John Cordy (legal and historical 

writer), 2 Feb. 
Lewis, John Travers (archbishop of Ontario), 

6 May. 
Loyd-Lindsay, Robert James, Lord Wantage, 

10 June. 
Monkhouse, Cosmo (art critic), 21 July. 
Ormerod, Miss Eleanor Anne (entomologist), 

20 July. 



Sanford, George Edward Langham, C.B., 
C.S.I, (general), 27 April. 

Saunders, Sir Edwin (dental surgeon), 15 Mar. 

Smith, John Hamblin (mathematician), 10 July. 

Stafford, Sir Edward William, G.C.M.G. 
(premier of New Zealand), 14 Feb. 

Stainer, Sir John (musician), 1 April. 

Stephens, James (Fenian), 29 March. 

Stubbs, William (bishop of Oxford and his- 
torian), 22 April. 

Tait, Peter Guthrie (professor of natural 
philosophy at Edinburgh), 4 July. 

Vane, Catherine Lucy Wilhelmina, Duchess 
op Cleveland, 18 May. 

Warr, George Charles Winter (classical 
scholar), 21 Feb. 

Watkin, Sir Edward (railway director), 13 April. 

Westcott, Brooke Foss (bishop of Durham 
and scholar), 27 July. 

WiLLES, Sir George Ommaney (admiral), 18 Feb. 

YoNGE, Charlotte Mary (novelist and his- 
torical writer), 24 March. 



/ 



viii Prefatory Note 



articles are written cannot therefore be expected always to commend 
itself to the near relatives of their subjects ; but the Editor deems it 
right to state that the great majority of those who have helped in the 
preparation of memoirs of their kinsmen and kinswomen have shown 
every disposition to respect the dispassionate aims which the Dictionary 
exists to pursue. 

A special word of thanks is due to Mr. Thomas Seccombe, Mr. A. F. 
Pollard, and Mr. E. Irving Carlyle, all of whom rendered valuable 
assistance to the Editor during the publication of the substantive work, 
for the zealous aid they have given him in preparing the supplemental 
volumes, to which they have each contributed a very large number of 
articles. Mr. Pollard has also helped the Editor in seeing the 
Supplement finally through the press. 

*^,* In the supplemental volumes cross references to articles that form part of the 
Supplement are given thus [q. v. Suppl.], while cross references to articles that have already 
appeared in the substantive work are given in the ordinary form [q, v.] 






MEMOIR OF GEORGE SMITH 



MEMOIR OF GEORGE- SMITH 



George Smith (1824-1901), publisher, the founder and proprietor of the 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' was of Scottish parentage. His paternal 
grandfather was a small landowner and farmer in Morayshire (or Elginshire), 
who died young and left his family ill provided for. His father, George Smith 
(1789-1846), began life as an apprentice to Isaac Forsyth, a bookseller and 
banker in the town of Elgin. At a youthful age he migrated to London with 
no resources at his command beyond his abilities and powers of work. By 
nature industrious, conscientious, and rehgious, he was soon making steady 
and satisfactory progress. At first he found employment in the publishing 
house of Eivington in St. Paul's Churchyard. Subsequently he transferred 
his services to John Murray, the famous publisher of Albemarle Street, and 
while in Murray's employ was sent on one occasion to deliver proof-sheets to 
Lord Byron. At length, in 1816, he and another Scottish immigrant to 
London, Alexander Elder, a native of Banff, who was Smith's junior by a 
year, went into partnership, and set up in business for themselves on a 
modest scale. They opened premises at 158 Fenchurch Street as booksellers 
and stationers. The new firm was styled Smith & Elder. After three years the 
partners added publishing to the other branches of their business. On 2 March 
1819 they were both admitted by redemption to the freedom of the Stationers' 
Company. Membership of the company was needful at the time for the 
pursuit in London of the publisher's calling. Some four months later, 
on 19 July 1819, Smith & Elder entered their earliest pubHcation in the 
Stationers' Company's register. It was a well-printed collection of * Sermons 
and Expositions of interesting Portions of Scripture,' by a popular con- 
gregational minister. Dr. John Morison of Trevor Chapel, Brompton. Thus 
unobtrusively did the publishing house set out on its road to fame and 
fortune, which it soon attained in moderate measure by dint of strenuous 
endeavour and skilful adaptation of means to ends. 

On 12 Oct. 1820 — little more than a year after the elder Smith had become 
a London publisher — he married. His wife, Elizabeth Murray, then twenty - 
three years old, and thus her husband's junior by eight years, was daughter 



xii Memoir of George Smith 

of Alexander Murray, a successful glass-ware manufacturer in London, who, 
like her husband, was of Elginshire origin. Mrs. Smith was a woman of 
much shrewdness, vivacity, and sanguine temper, in whose judgment and 
resourcefulness her husband, and afterwards her children, placed the utmost 
confidence. The young couple lived, on their marriage, over Smith & Elder's 
shop in Fenchurch Street, and there George Smith, the eldest son and 
second child (of six), was born on 19 March 1824.^ 

Very shortly after his birth the father removed his business and his family 
to 65 Cornhill — to that house which was fated to acquire wide repute, alike in 
literary and commercial circles. There, at the age of six, young George Smith 
suffered an attack of brain fever, and his mother, who showed him special 
indulgence, was warned against subjecting him to any severity of discipline. 
From infancy he was active and high-spirited, and domestic leniency en- 
couraged in him an unruliness of temper which hampered the course of his 
education. But his parents desired him to enjoy every educational advantage 
that lay in their power. At first he was sent to Dr. Smith's boarding school 
at Rottingdean. Thence he passed at the age of ten to Merchant Taylors' 
School, but soon left it for a school at Blackheath, where the master, finding 
him intractable, advised his parents, greatly to their indignation, to send him 
to sea. Although he did well as far as the schoolwork was concerned, his 
propensity for mischievous frolic was irrepressible, and after he had spent a 
few terms at the City of London School his father deemed it wisest to take 
him into his office. He had shown an aptitude for mathematics, delighted in 
chemistry, and had not neglected Latin ; but he was too young to have made 
great advance in the conventional subjects of study when in 1838, at the age 
of fourteen, he began a business career. Subsequently he received lessons at 
home in French, and showed a quick intuitive appreciation of good literature. 
But it was the stir of the mercantile world that first gave useful direction to 
his abundant mental energy. 

During his boyhood his father's firm had made notable progress. On its 
removal to Cornhill, in 1824, Smith & Elder were joined by a third partner, 
and the firm assumed the permanent designation of Smith, Elder, & Co. 
The new partner was a man of brilliant and attractive gifts, if of 
weak and self-indulgent temperament. His entry into the concern greatly 
extended its sphere of action. His guardian, ^neas Macintosh, was chief 
partner in a great firm of Calcutta merchants, and this connection with 
India brought to the bookselling and pubhshing branches of Smith, Elder, 
& Co.'s business the new department of an Indian agency, which in course 
of time far outdistanced in commercial importance the rest of their work. 
At the outset the Indian operations were confined to the export of stationery 
and books to officers in the East India Company's service ; but gradually 
all manner of commodities was dealt with, banking responsibilities were 
undertaken, and Smith, Elder, & Co. ultimately left most of the other Indian 

' During the last twenty-eight years of his life Smith designated himself George M. 
Smith. He had bestowed his mother's name of Murray on all his children, and it was con- 
venient to give a corresponding form to his own signature. 



Memoir of George Smith xm 

agencies in London far behind alike in the variety and extent of their 
transactions. 

It was to the third partner, who had become a liveryman of the 
Clothworkers' Company on 1 March 1837, that Smith was apprenticed on 
beginning his business career. On 2 May 1838 the fact of his apprenticeship 
was duly entered in the Clothworkers' Company's records. 

At the moment that Smith joined the firm it had entered into close 
relations with Lieutenant Waghorn, the originator of the overland route to 
India. While Waghorn was experimenting with his new means of com- 
municating with the east, Smith, Elder, & Co. acted as his agents, and 
published from 1837 the many pamphlets in which he pressed his schemes 
and opinions on public notice. Some of Smith's earliest reminiscences 
related to Waghorn's strenuous efforts to perfect his system, with which the 
boy's native activity of mind enabled him to sympathise very thoroughly. 
All the letters that were sent to India under Waghorn's supervision across the 
Isthmus of Suez and through the Eed Sea were despatched from Smith, 
Elder, & Co.'s oflSce in Cornhill, and those reaching England from India 
by the same route were dehvered there on arriving in London. Young Smith 
willingly helped his seniors to ' play at post office,' and found that part of his 
duties thoroughly congenial. But as a whole his labours in Cornhill were 
arduous. He was at work from half-past seven in the morning till eight 
o'clock in the evening, with very short intervals. His father wisely trained 
him in all the practical details of the stationery and bookselling business. 
He had to mend the office quills, and was taught how to bind books and 
even compose type. The dinner-hour in the middle of the day he often, how- 
ever, contrived to spend at Dyer's riding school in Finsbury Square, where 
he became an expert horseman. Eiding remained all his life his main 
recreation. In 1841, three years after his entry into the firm, his family 
removed to Denmark Hill. 

The steady increase in the firm's general business was accompanied 
by marked activity in the publishing department, and early in the thirties 
that department won an assured reputation. For the first development of 
the publishing branch Mr. Elder was largely responsible, and though he 
applied himself to it somewhat spasmodically, and his ventures were by no 
means uniformly successful, some interesting results were quickly achieved. 
As early as 1826 Smith, Elder, & Co. issued, in partnership with Chalmers & 
Collins, a Glasgow firm, James Donnegan's ' New Greek and English 
Lexicon,' which was long a standard book. In 1827 they undertook single- 
handed the issue of Kichard Thomson's ' Chronicles of London Bridge.' Of 
more popular literary work which the firm produced, the most attractive item 
was the fashionable annual called ' Friendship's Offering.' This elaborately 
illustrated gift-book was originally produced at the end of 1824, under the 
editorship of Thomas Kibble Hervey (subsequently editor of the ' Athenaeum '), 
by a neighbouring publisher, Lupton Eelfe of 13 Cornhill. The number for 
1828 was the first published by Smith, Elder, & Co., and for fourteen con- 
secutive years they continued to make annually an addition to the series. 



xiv Memoir of George Smith 

Hervey was succeeded in the editorship by the Scottish poet, Thomas Pringle, 
and ultimately by Leitch Eitchie, a \v€;ll-known figure in journalism, who 
otherwise proved of service to the firm. The writers in ' Friendship's Offering ' 
were the most distinguished of their day. They included not only veterans 
like Southey, Coleridge, and the Ettrick Shepherd, but also beginners like 
Tennyson and Euskin. The Hon. Mrs. Norton, Miss Mitford, Miss Strick- 
land, were regular contributors. To the volume for 1833 Macaulay contri- 
buted his ' Ballad of the Armada.' The numerous plates in each issue were 
after pictures by the greatest artists of the time, and were engraved by the 
best available talent. When the series was at its zenith of popularity some 
eight to ten thousand copies of each volume were sold at Christmas. 

Another of the literary connections of the firm was Miss Louisa Henrietta 
Sheridan, a daughter of Captain W. B. Sheridan, a very distant relative of the 
well-known family. ' Of her personal attractions Smith cherished from boyhood 
admiring memories. Between 1831 and 1835 she edited for the firm five 
annual volumes entitled ' The Comic Offering, or Lady's Melange of Literary 
Mirth,' which Eobert Seymour, the practical originator of ' Pickwick,' helped 
to illustrate ; and in 1838 Smith, Elder, & Co. produced for her ' The 
Diadem, a Book for the Boudoir,' with some valuable plates, and contri- 
butions by various well-known hands, including Thomas Campbell, James 
and Horace Smith, and Agnes Strickland. 

In its attitude to fiction the young firm manifested, under Leitch Eitchie's 
influence, an exceptional spirit of enterprise. In 1833 Smith, Elder, & Co. 
started a ' Library of Eomance,' a series of original novels and romances, 
Enghsh, American, or translated from foreign tongues, which they published 
at the prophetic price of six shillings. Fifteen volumes appeared under 
Eitchie's editorship before the series ended in 1835. The first was ' The 
Ghost Hunter and his Family,' by John and Michael Banim, the authors 
of ' The O'Hara Family ; ' the fourth was John Gait's ' Stolen Child ' (1833) ; 
the sixth, ' The Slave-King,' a translation from Victor Hugo (1833) ; and the 
fifteenth and last was ' Ernesto,' a philosophical romance of interest by 
William [Henry] Smith (1808-1872), who 'afterwards won fame as author of 
* Thorndale.' 

Among Smith, Elder, & Co.'s early works in general light literature which 
still retain their zest were James Grant's ' Eandom Eecollections of the House 
of Commons ' and ' Eandom Eecollections of the House of Lords ' (1836). 
Nor was the firm disinclined to venture on art publications involving some- 
what large risks. Clarkson Stanfield's * Coast Scenery,' a collection of forty 
views, issued (after publication in serial parts) at the price of 32s. 6d., 
appeared in 1836 ; and ' The Byron Gallery,' thirty-six engravings of subjects 
from Byron's poems, followed soon afterwards at the price of 35s. These 
volumes met with a somewhat cool reception from the book-buying public, 
but an ambition to excel in the production of expensively illustrated volumes 

' On 8 Sept. 1840 she married at Paris Lieut.-colonel Sir Henry Wyatt, and died next 
year, 2 Oct. 1841. 



Memoir of George Smith xv 

was well alive in the firm when, in 1838, Smith first enlisted in its service.^ 
That year saw the issue of the first portion of the great collected edition of 
Sir Humphry Davy's ' Works,' which was completed in nine volumes next 
year. In 1838, too, the firm inaugurated a series of elaborate reports of 
recent expeditions which the government had sent out for purposes of 
scientific exploration. The earliest of these great scientific publications was 
Sir Andrew Smith's ' Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa,' of which 
the first volume was issued in 1838, and four others followed between that 
date and 1847, all embellished with drawings of exceptional beauty by George 
Henry Ford. The government made a grant of 1,500Z. in aid of the publica- 
tion, and the five volumes were sold at the high price of 181. Of like character 
were the reports of the scientific results of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher's 
voyage to the Pacific in the Sulphur : a volume on the zoology, prepared by 
Eichard Brinsley Hinds, came out under Smith, Elder, & Co.'s auspices in 
1843, a second volume (on the botany) appeared in the next year, and a third 
volume (completing the zoology) in 1845. That was Smith, Elder, & Co.'s 
third endeavour in this special class of publication. To the second a more 
lasting interest attaches. It was 'The Zoological Eeport of the Expedition 
of H.M.S. Beagle,' in which Darwin sailed as naturalist. 1,000Z. was advanced 
by the government to the firm for the publication of this important work. 
The first volume appeared in large quarto in 1840. Four more volumes 
completed the undertaking by 1848, the price of the whole being 8Z. 15s. 
Smith, Elder, & Co. were thus brought into personal relations with Darwin, the 
earliest of their authors who acquired worldwide fame. Independently of 
his official reports they published for him, in more popular form, extracts from 
them in volumes bearing the titles ' The Structure and Distribution of Coral 
Eeefs ' in 1842, * Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands ' in 1844, and 
' Geological Observations on South America ' in 1846. 

The widening range of the firm's dealings with distant lands in its capacity 
of Indian agents rendered records of travel peculiarly appropriate to its 
publishing department, and Smith, Elder, & Co. boldly contemplated the 
equipment on their own account of explorers whose reports should serve them 
as literature. About 1840 Austen Henry Layard set out, at their suggestion, 
in the company of Edward Mitford, on an overland journey to Asia ; but the 
two men quarrelled on the road, and the work that the firm contemplated 
was never written. Another project which was defeated by a like cause was 
an expedition to the south of France, on which Leitch Eitchie and James 
Augustus St. John started in behalf of Smith, Elder, & Co.'s publishing depart- 
ment. But the firm was never dependent on any single class of publication. 
It is noteworthy that no sooner had it opened relations with Darwin, the 
writer who was to prove the greatest English naturalist of the century, than 

' Besides the large ventures which they undertook on their own account, Smith, Elder, & 
Co. acted at this time as agents for many elaborate publications prepared by responsible 
publishers of Edinburgh and Glasgow; such were Thomas Brown's ' Fossil Conchology of 
Great Britain,' the first of the twenty-eight serial parts of which appeared in April 1837, and 
Kay's ' Edinburgh Portraits,' 2 vols. 4to. 1838. 



xvi Memoir of George Smith 

its services were sought by him who was to prove the century's greatest art- 
critic and one of its greatest artists in English prose — John Kuskin, It 
was in 1843, while Smith was still in his pupilage, that Euskin's father, a 
prosperous wine merchant in the city of London, introduced his son's first 
prose work to Smith, Elder, & Co.'s notice. They had already published 
some poems by the young man in ' Friendship's Offering.' In 1843 he 
had completed the first volume of ' Modern Painters, by a Graduate 
of Oxford.' His father failed to induce John Murray to issue it on commis- 
sion. The offer was repeated at Cornhill, where it was accepted with alacrity, 
and thus was inaugurated Euskin's thirty years' close personal connection 
\nth. Smith, Elder, & Co., and more especially with George Smith, on whose 
shoulders the whole responsibilities of the firm were soon to fall. 

The public were slow m showing their appreciation of Euskin's 
earliest book. Of the five hundred copies printed of the first edition of 
the first volume of ' Modern Painters,' only 105 were disposed of within the 
year. Possibly there were other causes besides public indifference for this 
comparative failure. Signs were not wanting at the moment that, ambitious 
and enlightened as were many of the young firm's publishing enterprises, 
they suffered in practical realisation from a lack of strict business method 
which it was needful to supply, if the publishing department was to achieve 
absolute success. The heads of the firm were too busily absorbed in their 
rapidly growing Indian business to give close attention to the publishing 
branch ; managers had been recently chosen to direct it, and had not proved 
sufficiently competent to hold their posts long. Salvation was at hand within 
the office from a quarter in which the partners had not thought to seek it. 
A predilection for the publishing branch of the business was already declaring 
itself in young Smith, as well as a practical insight into business method 
which convinced him, boy though he was, that some reorganisation was 
desirable. With a youthful self-confidence, which, contrary to common 
experience, events showed to be justifiable, he persuaded his father late in 
1843 — a few months after the issue of the first volume of ' Modem Painters,' 
and when he was in his twentieth year — to allow him to assume, temporarily 
at any rate, control of the publishing department. Under cautious con- 
ditions his father acceded to his wish, and Smith at once accepted for 
publication a collection of essays by various writers on well-known literary 
people, edited by the somewhat eccentric and impracticable author of 
• Orion,' Eichard Hengist Home. The enterprise called forth all Smith's 
energies. Not only did he supervise the production of the work, which 
was adorned by eight steel engravings, but, in constant interviews with the 
author, he freely urged alterations in the text which he deemed needful 
to conciliate public taste. The book appeared, in February 1844, in two 
volumes, with the title ' The New Spirit of the Age,' and Smith had the 
satisfaction of securing for his firm fair pecuniary profit from this his earliest 
publication. Another edition was reached in July. His second publishing 
venture was from the pen of a somewhat miscellaneous practitioner in litera- 
ture, Mrs. Baron Wilson, who had contributed to Miss Sheridan's ' Diadem ' 



Memoir of George Smith xvii 

as well as to ' Friendship's Offering.* For her he published, also in 1844 
(in June), another work in two volumes, ' Our Actresses, or Glances at Stage 
Favourites Past and Present,' with five engravings in each volume, including 
portraits of Miss O'Neill, Miss Helen Faucit, and Mrs. Charles Kean. His 
third literary undertaking in the first year of his publishing career was of 
more permanent interest ; it was Leigh Hunt's ' Imagination and Fancy.' 

It was characteristic of Smith's whole life as a publisher that he was 
never content to maintain with authors merely formal business relations. 
From boyhood the personality of writers of repute deeply interested him, 
and that interest never diminished at any point of his career. In early 
manhood he was rarely happier than in the society of authors of 
all degrees of ability. With a city clerk of literary leanings, Thomas 
Powell,' he was as a youth on friendly terms, and at Powell's house at 
Peckham he was first introduced to, or came to hear of, many rising men 
of letters. It was there that he first met Home, and afterwards Eobert 
Browning. It was there that he found the manuscript of Leigh Hunt's 
' Imagination and Fancy,' and at once visited the author in Edwardes 
Square, Kensington, with a generous offer for the rights of publication which 
was immediately accepted. Thenceforth Leigh Hunt was a valued literary 
acquaintance, and Smith published for him a whole library of attractive 
essays or compilations. Another house at which he was a frequent guest 
at this early period was that of Ruskin's father at Denmark Hill. Powell 
introduced him to a small convivial club, called the Museum Club, which 
met in a street off the Strand. Douglas Jerrold and Father Prout were 
prominent members. There he first made the acquaintance of George 
Henry Lewes, who became a lifelong associate. The club, however, fell 
into pecuniary difficulties, from which Smith strove in vain to relieve it, 
and it quickly dissolved. 

The grim realities of life were soon temporarily to restrict Smith's oppor- 
tunities of recreation. Towards the end of 1844 a grave calamity befell his 
family. His father's health failed ; softening of the brain declared itself ; and 
recovery was seen to be hopeless. The elder Smith removed from Denmark 
Hill to Boxhill, where he acquired some eight to ten acres of land, and 
developed a lively interest in farming. But he was unable to attend to the 
work of the firm, and his place at Cornhill was taken by his son very soon 
after he came of age in 1845. On 3 May 1846 George Smith was admitted 
by patrimony a freeman of the Stationers' Company, and little more than 
three months later his father died, at the age of fifty-seven (21 Aug. 1846). 
Thereupon the whole responsibility of providing for his mother, his young 
brothers and sisters, devolved upon him. 

' In 1849 Powell emigrated to America, where he became a professional man of letters, 
and published some frankly ill-natured sketches of writers he had met, under the title of 
' Living Authors of England ; ' this was followed by ' Living Authors of America ' (first 
series, 1850). 



VOL. I. — 8TTP. 



xviii Memoir of George Smith 



II 

Smith had no sooner addressed himself to his heavy task than he 
found himself face to face with a crisis in the affairs of the firm of exceptional 
difficulty for so young a man to grapple with. The third partner was 
discovered to be misusing the firm's credit and capital, and had to withdraw 
from the partnership under circumstances that involved grave anxiety to 
all concerned.' Elder, who had not of late years given close attention to 
the business, made up his mind to retire almost at the same time.^ Smith 
was thus left to conduct single-handed the firm's affairs at a moment when 
the utmost caution and financial skill were required to maintain its equili- 
brium Although no more than twenty-two, he proved himself equal to the 
situation. By a rare combination of sagacity and daring, by a masterful yet 
tactful exercise of authority, and by unremitting appUcation, he was able to 
set the firm's affairs in order, to unravel the complications due to neglected 
bookkeeping, and to launch the concern anew on a career of prosperity far 
greater than that it had previously known. 

For a time the major part of his energies and business instinct was devoted 
to the control and extension of the agency and banking department. It is 
difficult to overestimate the powers of work which he brought to his task. 
' It was a common thing for me,' he wrote of this period, ' and many of the 
clerks to work until three or four o'clock in the morning, and occasionally, 
when there was but a short interval between the arrival and departure of the 
Indian mails, I used to start work at nine o'clock of one morning, and neither 
leave my room nor cease dictating until seven o'clock the next evening, when 
the mail was despatched. During these thirty-two hours of continuous work 
I was supported by mutton chops and green tea at stated intervals. I believe 
I maintained my health by active exercise on foot and horseback, and by being 
able, after these excessive stretches of work, to sleep soundly for many hours ; 
on these occasions I generally got to bed at about eleven, and slept till three 
or four o'clock the next afternoon.' ^ 

Astonishing success followed Smith's efforts. The profits rose steadily, and 
the volume of business, which was well under 50,000Z. when he assumed 
control of the concern, multiplied thirteen times within twenty years of his 
becoming its moving spirit. The clerks at Cornhill in a few years numbered 
150. An important branch was established at Bombay, and other agencies 
were opened at Java and on the West Coast of Africa. There was no 
manner of merchandise for which Smith's clients could apply to him in 
vain. Scientific instruments for surveying purposes, the testing of which 
needed the closest supervision, were regularly forwarded to the Indian govern- 
ment. The earliest electric telegraph plant that reached India was des- 
patched from Cornhill. It was an ordinary experience to export munitions 

' He went to India and died at Calcutta, 13 Jan. 1852. 

"^ Mr. Elder left London and died some thirty years later, on 6 Feb. 1876, at Lancing, at 
the age of eighty-six. ^ . Cornhill Magazine,' December 1900. 



Memoir of George Smith xix 

of war. On one occasion Smith was able to answer the challenge of a 
scoffer who thought to name an exceptional article of commerce — a human 
skeleton — which it would be beyond his power to supply, by displaying in his 
ofiBce two or three waiting to be packed for transit. 

Smith's absorption in the intricate details of the firm's general 
operations prevented him from paying close attention to the minutiaB of the 
publishing department ; but the fascination that it exerted on him never slept, 
and he wisely brought into the office one who was well qualified to give him 
literary counsel, and could be trusted to keep the department faithful to the best 
traditions of English publishing. His choice fell on William Smith Williams, 
who for nearly thirty years acted as his ' reader ' or literary adviser. The 
circumstances under which he invited Williams's co-operation illustrate 
the accuracy with which he measured men and their qualifications. At the 
time the two met, Williams was clerk to HuUmandel & Walter, a firm of Htho- 
graphers who were working for Smith, Elder, & Co. on Darvsrin's ' The Voyage 
of H.M.S. Beagle.' On assuming the control of the Cornhill business Smith 
examined with Williams the somewhat complicated accounts of that under- 
taking. After very brief intercourse he perceived that Williams was an 
incompetent bookkeeper, but had exceptional literary knowledge and judg- 
ment. No time was lost in inducing Williams to enter the service of Smith, 
Elder, & Co., and the arrangement proved highly beneficial and congenial to 
both.^ But Smith delegated to none the master's responsibility in any branch 

' William Smith Williams (1800-1875) played a useful part behind the scenes of the 
theatre of nineteenth-century literature. He was by nature too modest to gain any wide 
recognition. He began active life in 1817 as apprentice to the publishing firm of Taylor & 
Hessey of Fleet Street, who published writings of Charles Lamb, Coleridge, and Keats, and 
became in 1821 proprietors of the ' London Magazine.' Williams cherished from boyhood 
a genuine love of literature, and received much kindly notice from eminent writers associated 
with Taylor & Hessey. Besides Keats, he came to know Leigh Hunt and William Hazlitt. 
Marrying at twenty-five he opened a bookshop on his own account in a court near the Poultry, 
but insufficient capital compelled him to relinquish this venture in 1827, when he entered 
the counting-house of the lithographic printers, HuUmandel & Walter, where Smith met 
him. At that time he was devoting his leisure to articles on literary or theatrical topics for the 
* Spectator,' ' Athenaeum,' and other weekly papers. During the thirty years that he spent 
in Smith's employ he won, by his sympathetic criticism and kindly courtesy, the cordial 
regard of many distinguished authors whose works Smith, Elder, & Co. published. The 
paternal consideration that he showed to Charlotte Bronte is well known ; it is fully described 
in Mrs. Gaskell's ' Life ' of Miss Bronte. ' He was my first favourable critic,' wrote Charlotte 
Bronte in December 1847 ; ' he first gave me encouragement to persevere as an author. 
When she first saw him at Cornhill in 1848, she described him as ' a pale, mild, stooping 
man of fifty.' Subsequently she thought him too much given to * contemplative theorising,' 
and possessed by ' too many abstractions.' With Thackeray, Euskin, and Lewes he was 
always on very friendly terms. During his association with Smith he did no independent 
literary work beyond helping to prepare for the firm, in 1861, a ' Selection from the Writings 
of John Euskin.' He was from youth a warm admirer of Euskin, sharing especially his 
enthusiasm for Turner. Williams retired from Smith, Elder, & Co.'s business in February 
1875, and died six months later, aged 75, at his residence at Twickenham (21 Aug.) His 
eldest daughter was the wife of Mr. Lowes Dickinson, the well-known portrait painter ; and 
his youngest daughter. Miss Anna Williams, achieved distinction as a singer. 

a2 



XX Memoir of George Smith 

of the business, and, though publishing negotiations were thenceforth often 
initiated by Williams, there were few that were not concluded personally by 
Smith. 

For some time after he became sole owner and manager at Cornhill Smith 
felt himself in no position to run large risks in the publishing department. 
A cautious policy was pursued ; but fortune proved kind. It was necessary 
to carry to completion those great works of scientific travel by Sir Andrew 
Smith, Hinds, and Darwin, the publication of which had been not only con- 
tracted for, but was actually in progress during Smith's pupilage. The firm 
had also undertaken the publication of a magnum opus of Sir John Herschel 
— his ' Astronomical Observations made at the Cape of Good Hope ' — towards 
the expense of which the Duke of Northumberland had offered 1,000Z. The 
work duly appeared in 1846 in royal quarto, with eighteen plates, at the price 
of four guineas. A hke obligation incurred by the firm in earlier days was 
fulfilled by the issue, also in 1846, of the naturalist Hugh Falconer's ' Fauna 
Antiqua Sivalensis.' Nine parts of this important work were issued at a 
guinea each in the course of the three years 1846-9. In 1846, too, Euskin 
completed the second volume of his ' Modern Painters,' of which an edition 
of 1,500 copies was issued ; and in 1849 Smith brought out the second of 
Buskin's great prose works, ' The Seven Lamps of Architecture,' which 
was the earliest of Euskin's books that was welcomed with practical warmth 
on its original publication. 

In fiction the chief author with whom Smith in the first years of his reign 
at Cornhill was associated was the grandiloquent writer of blood-curdling ro- 
mance, G. P. E. James. In 1844 Smith, Elder, & Co. had begun an elaborate 
collected edition of his works, of which they issued eleven volumes by 1847, 
ten more being undertaken by another firm. Unhappily Smith, Elder, & Co. 
had also independently entered into a contract with James to publish every 
new novel that he should write ; 600Z. was to be paid for the first edition of 
1,250 copies. The arrangement lasted for four years, and then sank beneath 
its own weight. The firm issued two novels by James in each of the years 
1845, 1846, 1847, and no less than three in 1848. Each work was in three 
volumes, at the customary price of 3l5. 6d. ; so that between 1845 and 1848 
Smith offered the public twenty-seven volumes from James's pen at a total 
cost to the purchasers of thirteen and a half guineas. James's fertility was 
clearly greater than the public approved. The publisher requested him to 
set limits to his annual output. He indignantly declined, but Smith per- 
sisted with success in his objections to the novelist's interpretation of the 
original agreement, and author and publisher parted company. In 1848 Smith 
issued a novel by his friend, George Henry Lewes, entitled ' Eose, Blanche, 
and Violet.' Although much was expected from it, nothing came. 

While the tragi-comedy of James was in its last stage. Smith became the 
hero of a publishing idyll which had the best possible effect on his reputation 
as a publisher and testified at the same time to his genuine kindness of heart. 
Few episodes in the publishing history of the nineteenth century are of higher 
interest than the story of his association with Charlotte Bronte. In July 



Memoir of George Smith 



1847 Williams called Smith's attention to a manuscript novel entitled ' The 
Professor,' which had been sent to the firm by an author writing under the 
name of ' Currer Bell.' The manuscript showed signs of having vainly sought 
the favour of other publishing houses. Smith and his assistant recognised 
the promise of the work, but neither thought it likely to be a successful 
publication. While refusing it, however, they encouraged the writer in 
kindly and appreciative terms to submit another effort. The manuscript of 
* Jane Eyre ' arrived at Cornhill not long afterwards. Williams read it and 
handed it to Smith. The young publisher was at once fascinated by its sur- 
passing power, and purchased the copyright out of hand. He always 
regarded the manuscript, which he retained, as the most valued of his literary 
treasures. He lost no time in printing it, and in 1848 the reading world re- 
cognised that he had introduced to its notice a novel of abiding fame. Later 
in 1848 ' Shirley,' by ' Currer Bell,' was also sent to Cornhill. So far ' Currer 
Bell ' had conducted the correspondence with the firm as if the writer were a 
man, but Smith shrewdly suspected that the name was a woman's pseudonym. 
His suspicions were confirmed in the summer of 1848, when Charlotte 
Bronte, accompanied by her sister Anne, presented herself without warning at 
Cornhill in order to explain some misunderstanding which she thought had 
arisen in the negotiations for the publication of ' Shirley.' From the date of 
the authoress's shy and unceremonious introduction of herself to him at his 
ofiice desk until her premature death some seven years later, Smith's personal 
relations with her were characterised by a delightfully unaffected chivalry. 
On their first visit to Cornhill he took Miss Bronte and her sister to the 
opera the same evening. Smith's mother made their acquaintance next day, 
and they twice dined at her residence, then at 4 Westbourne Place. Miss 
Bronte frankly confided to a friend a day or two later her impressions of her 
publisher-host. ' He is a firm, intelligent man of business, though so young 
[he was only twenty-four] ; bent on getting on, and I think desirous of making 
his way by fair, honourable means. He is enterprising, but likewise cool 
and cautious. Mr. Smith is a practical man.' ^ 

On this occasion the sisters stayed in London only three days. But next 
year, in November 1849, Miss Bronte was the guest of Smith's mother 
at Westbourne Place for nearly three weeks. She visited the London sights 
under Smith's guidance ; he asked Thackeray, whose personal acquaintance 
he does not seem to have made previously, to dine with him in order to 
satisfy her ambition of meeting the great novelist, whose work aroused in her 
the warmest enthusiasm. On returning to Haworth in December she wrote 
to Smith : ' Very easy is it to discover that with you to gratify others is to 
gratify yourself ; to serve others is to afford yourself a pleasure. I suppose 
you will experience your share of ingratitude and encroachments, but do not 
let them alter you. Happily they are the less likely to do this because you are 
half a Scotchman, and therefore must have inherited a fair share of prudence 
to qualify your generosity, and of caution to protect your benevolence.' ^ 

» ' Cornhill Magazine,' December 1900 ; cf. Gaskell's ' Life,' ed. Shorter, p. 368 n. 
* Gaskell's ' Life,' ed. Shorter, p. 433. 



xxii Memoir of George Smith 

Another visit — a fortnight long — followed in June 1850. Smith had then 
removed with his mother to 76 (afterwards 112) Gloucester Terrace. Miss 
Bronte renewed her acquaintance with Thackeray, who invited her and her 
host to dine at his own house, and she met Lewes under Smith's roof. Before 
she quitted London on this occasion she sat to George Eichmond for her 
portrait at the instance of her host, who gratified her father by presenting 
him with the drawing together with an engraving of his and his daughter's 
especial hero, the Duke of Wellington. Next month, in July 1850, Smith 
made with a sister a tour in the highlands of Scotland, and he always 
remembered with pride a friendly meeting' that befell him on the journey with 
Macaulay, who was on his way to explore Glencoe and Killiecrankie. At Edin- 
burgh he and his sister were joined on his invitation by Miss Bronte, and they 
devoted a few days to visiting together sites of interest in the city and its 
neighbourhood, much to Miss Bronte's satisfaction. She travelled south with 
them, parting from them in Yorkshire for her home at Ha worth. ^ For a 
third time she was her sympathetic publisher's guest in London, in June 
1851, when she stayed a month with his mother, and he took her to hear 
Thackeray's ' Lectures on the Humourists ' at Willis's Eooms. In a letter 
addressed to Smith, on arriving home, she described him as ' the most spirited 
and vigilant of pubUshers.' In November 1852 Miss Bronte sent to the 
firm her manuscript of ' Villette,' in which she drew her portrait of Smith 
in the soundhearted, manly, and sensible Dr. John, while his mother was 
the original of Mrs. Bretton. In January 1853 Miss Bronte visited Smith 
and his family for the last time. They continued to correspond with each- 
other till near her premature death on 31 March 1855. 

An interesting result of Smith's personal and professional relations with 
Charlotte Bronte was to make him known to such writers as were her friends 
— notably to Harriet Martineau and to Mrs. Gaskell, for both of whom he 
subsequently published much. But more important is it to record that 
Charlotte Bronte was a main link in the chain that drew a writer of genius 
far greater even than her own — Thackeray himself — into Smith's history and 
into the history of his firm. In the late autumn of 1850, after the interchange 
of hospitalities which Miss Bronte's presence in London had prompted, 
Thackeray asked Smith for the first time to publish a book for him, his 
next Christmas book. It was a humorous sketch, with drawings by himself, 
entitled ' The Kickleburys on the Ehine.' Thackeray's regular publishers, 
Chapman & Hall, had not been successful with his recent Christmas books, 
' Doctor Birch and his Young Friend ' and ' Eebecca and Eowena,' and they 
deprecated the issue of another that year. Smith had from early days, since 
he read the ' Paris Sketch-book ' by stealth in Tegg's sale rooms, cherished 
a genuine affection for Thackeray's work, and it had been a youthful ambition 
to publish for him. Williams had in his behalf made a vain bid for ' Vanity 
Fair ' in 1848. Smith now purchased the copyright of ' The Kickleburys ' 
with alacrity, and it was published at Christmas 1850 in an edition of three, 
thousand. Though it was heavily bombarded by the 'Times,' it proved 
' Mrs. Gaskell's 'Life of Charlotte Bronte,' ed. Shorter, pp. 460 sq^. 



Memoir of George Smith xxiii 

successful and at once reached a second edition. ' In 1851, when Smith heard 
that Thackeray was engaged on a new work of importance — which proved to 
be ' Esmond ' — he called at his house in Young Street, Kensington, and 
offered him what was then the handsome sum of 1,200Z. for the right of issuing 
the first edition of 2,500 copies.^ Thenceforth he was on close terms of 
intimacy with Thackeray. He was often at his house, and showed as tender a 
consideration for the novelist's young daughters as for himself. ' Esmond ' 
appeared in 1852 and was the only one of Thackeray's novels to be published 
in the regulation trio of half-a-guinea volumes. Just before its publication, 
when Thackeray was preparing to start on a lecturing tour in America, 
Smith, with kindly thought, commissioned Samuel Laurence to draw 
Thackeray's portrait, so that his daughters might have a competent present- 
ment of him at home during his absence. Before Thackeray's return Smith 
published his ' Lectures on the English Humourists,' and, in order to make 
the volume of more presentable size, added elaborate notes by Thackeray's 
friend James Hannay. In December 1854 Smith pubHshed the best known of 
Thackeray's Christmas books, ' The Eose and the Eing.' ^ 



III 

Meanwhile Smith's private and business life alike underwent important 
change. The pressure of constant application was, in 1853, telling on his 
health, and he resolved to share his responsibilities with a partner. Henry 
Samuel King, a bookseller of Brighton, whose bookselling establishment is 
still carried on there by Treacher & Co., came to Cornhill to aid in the general 
superintendence and to receive a quarter share of the profits. His previous 
experience naturally gave him a particular interest in the publishing depart- 
ment. On 3 July 1853 Charlotte Bronte wrote to Smith : ' I hope your partner 
Mr. King will soon acquire a working faculty and leave you some leisure and 
opportunity effectually to cultivate health.' At the same date Smith became 
engaged to Elizabeth, the daughter of John Blakeway, a wine merchant of 
London, and granddaughter of Edward Blakeway, esq., of Broseley Hall, 
Shropshire. The marriage took place on 11 Feb. 1854. For four years he 
and his wife lived at 112 Gloucester Terrace, where he had formerly resided 
with his mother. Subsequently they spent some time at Wimbledon, and at 
the end of 1859 they settled at 11 Gloucester Square. 

Smith felt from the outset that the presence of a partner at Cornhill 
hampered his independence, but it relieved him of some labour and set him 

• ' The Kickleburys ' bore on the title page the actual year of publication, i.e. 1850. 
Thackeray's earlier and later Christmas books were each post-dated by a year. Thus 
'Eebecca and Eowena,' which bears the date 1850, was published in December 1849. 

2 Cf. Mrs. Bitchie's • Chapters from some Memoirs,' 1894, p. 130. 

^ Thackeray was not yet, however, exclusively identified with Smith, Elder, & Co. ' The 
Newcomes ' in 1853-5, a collected edition of Miscellaneous Writings in 1855-7 (4 vols.), and 
' The Virginians,' 1857-9, were all issued by Bradbury & Evans. 



xxiv Memoir of George Smith 

free to entertain new developments of business. One of his early hopes was 
to become proprietor of a newspaper, and during 1854 he listened with much 
interest to a suggestion made to him by Thackeray that the novelist should 
edit a daily sheet of general criticism after the manner of Addison and Steele's 
' Spectator ' or ' Tatler.' The sheet was to be called ' Fair Play,' was to deal 
vrith literature as well as life, and was to be scrupulously frank and just in 
comment. But, as the discussion on the subject advanced, Thackeray feared 
to face the responsibilities of editorship, and Smith was left to develop the 
scheme for himself at a later period. Newspapers of more utilitarian type 
were, however, brought into being by him and his firm before the notion of 
' Fair Play ' was quite dropped. In 1855 Smith, Elder, & Co. started a weekly 
periodical called ' The Overland Mail,' of which Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Kaye 
became editor. It was to supply home information to readers in India. Next 
year a complementary periodical was inaugurated under the title of ' The Home- 
ward Mail,' which was intended to ofifer Indian news to readers in the United 
Kingdom. ' The Homeward Mail ' was placed in the charge of E. B. Eastwick, 
the orientalist. The two editors were already associated as authors with the 
firm. Both papers were appreciated by the clients of the firm's agency and 
banking departments, and are still in existence. 

In order to facilitate the issue of these ' Mails ' Smith, Elder, & Co. 
acquired for the first time a printing office of their own. They took over 
premises in Little Green Arbour Court, Old Bailey, which had been occupied 
by Stewart & Murray, a firm of printers whose partners were relatives of Mr. 
Elder. The house had been the home of Goldsmith, and Smith was much 
interested in that association. Until 1872, when the printing office was 
made over to Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co., a portion of Smith, Elder, & Co.'s 
general literary work was printed at their own press. 

In 1857 the progress of the firm received a temporary check. The 
outbreak of the Indian mutiny dislocated all Indian business, and Smith, 
Elder, & Co.'s foreign department suffered severely. Guns and ammunition 
were the commodities of which their clients in India then stood chiefly in need, 
and they were accordingly sent out in ample quantities. Jacob's Horse and 
Hodson's Horse were both largely equipped from Cornhill, and the clerks 
there had often little to do beyond oiling and packing revolvers. It was a 
time of grave anxiety for the head of the firm. The telegraph wires were 
constantly bringing him distressing news of the murder of the firm's clients, 
many of whom were personally known to him. The massacres in India also 
meant pecuniary loss. Accounts were left unpaid, and it was difficult to 
determine the precise extent of outstanding debts that would never be 
discharged. But Smith's sanguine and resourceful temper enabled him to 
weather the storm, and the crisis passed without permanent injury to his 
position. Probably more damaging to the immediate interests of Smith, 
Elder, & Co. was the transference of the government of India in 1858 from 
the old company to the crown. Many of the materials for public works 
which private firms had supplied to the old East India Company and their 
officers were now provided by the new India office without the intervention 



Memoir of George Smith xxv 

of agents ; and the operations of Smith, Elder, & Co.'s Indian branch had 
to seek other channels than of old. 

The publishing department invariably afforded Smith a means of dis- 
traction from the pressure of business cares elsewhere. Its speculative 
character, which his caution and sagacity commonly kept within reasonable 
limits of safety, appealed to one side of his nature, while the social intimacies 
which the work of publishing fostered appealed strongly to another side. 
The rapid strides made in public favour by Kuskin, whose greatest works 
Smith published between 1850 and 1860, were an unfailing source of 
satisfaction. In 1850 he had produced Kuskin's fanciful ' King of the 
Golden Eiver.' Next year came the first volume of ' Stones of Venice,' 
the pamphlets on ' The Construction of Sheepfolds,' and ' Pre-Eaphaelitism,' 
and the portfolio of ' Examples of the Architecture of Venice.' The 
two remaining volumes of ' Stones of Venice ' followed in 1853. In 1854 
appeared ' Lectures on Architecture and Painting,' with two pamphlets ; and 
then began the ' Notes on the Eoyal Academy,' which were continued each 
year till 1859. In 1856 came the elaborately illustrated third and fourth 
volumes of ' Modern Painters ; ' in 1857, ' Elements of Drawing,' ' Political 
Economy of Art,' and ' Notes on Turner's Pictures ; ' in 1858, an engraving by 
Holl of Eichmond's drawing of Euskin ; in 1859, ' The Two Paths,' ' Elements 
of Perspective,' and the ' Oxford Museum ; ' and in 1860, the fifth and final 
volume of ' Modern Painters.' The larger books did not have a rapid sale, 
but many of the cheaper volumes and pamphlets sold briskly. It was at 
Euskin's expense, too, that Smith prepared for publication the first volume 
that was written by Euskin's friend, Dante Gabriel Eossetti, * The Early 
Italian Poets,' 1861. In 1850 Euskin's father proved the completeness of 
his confidence in Smith by presenting him with one of the few copies of 
the volume of liis son's ' Poems ' which his paternal pride had caused to be 
printed privately. Smith remained through this period a constant visitor at 
the Euskins' house at Denmark Hill, and there he made the welcome addition 
to his social circle of a large number of artists. Of these Millais became the 
fastest of friends ; while Leighton, John Leech, Eichard Doyle, (Sir) Frederic 
Burton, and the sculptor Alexander Monro were always held by him in high 
esteem. 

It was at Euskin's house that Smith was introduced to Wilkie Collins, 
son of a well-known artist. He declined to publish Collins's first story, 
' Antonina,' because the topic seemed too classical for general taste, and he 
neglected some years later to treat quite seriously Collins's offer of his 
* Woman in White,' with the result that a profitable investment was missed ; 
but in 1856 he accepted the volume of short stories called ' After Dark,' and 
thus began business relations with Collins which lasted intermittently for 
nearly twenty years. 

In the late fifties Charlotte Bronte's introduction of Smith to Harriet 
Martineau bore practical fruit. In 1858 he issued a new edition of her 
novel ' Deerbrook,' as well as her ' Suggestions towards the future Govern- 
ment of India.' These w^ere followed by pamphlets respectively on the 



xxvi Memoir of George Smith 

' Endowed Schools of Ireland ' and ' England and her Soldiers,' and in 1861 
by her well-known ' Household Education.' Subsequently he published 
her autobiography, the greater part of which she had caused to be put into 
type and to be kept in readiness for circulation as soon as her death should 
take place. The firm also undertook the publication of the many tracts and 
pamphlets in which William Ellis, the zealous disciple of John Stuart Mill, 
urged improved methods of education during the middle years of the century. 
To a like category belonged Madame Venturi's translation of Mazzini's 
works which Smith, Elder, & Co. issued in six volumes between 1864 and 
1870. 

At the same period as he became Miss Martineau's publisher there began 
Smith's interesting connection with Mrs. Gaskell, which was likewise due 
to Charlotte Bronte. Late in 1855 Mrs. Gaskell set to work, at the request of 
Charlotte Bronte's father, on his daughter's life. She gleaned many particu- 
lars from Smith and his mother, and naturally requested him to pubhsh the 
book, which proved to be one of the best biographies in the language. But 
its publication (in 1857) involved him in unwonted anxieties. Mrs. Gaskell 
deemed it a point of conscience to attribute, for reasons that she gave in detail, 
the ruin of Miss Bronte's brother Branwell to the machinations of a lady, to 
whose children he had acted as tutor. As soon as Smith learned Mrs. Gaskell's 
intention he warned her of the possible consequences. The warning passed 
unheeded. The offensive particulars appeared in the biography, and, as soon 
as it was published, an action for libel w^as threatened. Mrs. Gaskell was 
travelling in France at the moment, and her address was unknown. Smith 
investigated the matter for himself, and, perceiving that Mrs. Gaskell's state- 
ments were not legally justifiable, withdrew the book from circulation. In 
later editions the offending passages were suppressed. Sir James Stephen, 
on behalf of friends of the lady whose character was aspersed, took part in 
the negotiations, and on their conclusion handsomely commended Smith's 
conduct. 



IV 

In the opening months of 1859 Smith turned his attention to an entirely 
new publishing venture. He then laid the foundations of the ' Cornhill 
Magazine,' the first of the three great literary edifices which he reared by his 
own effort. It was his intimacy with Thackeray that led Smith to establish 
the ' Cornhill Magazine.' The periodical originally was designed with the 
sole object of offering the public a novel by Thackeray in serial instalments 
combined with a liberal allowance of other first-rate literary matter. In 
February 1859 Smith offered Thackeray the liberal terms of 350^. for a monthly 
instalment of a novel, which was to be completed in twelve numbers. The 
profits on separate publication of the work, after the first edition, were to 
be equally divided between author and pubHsher. Thackeray agreed to 
these conditions ; but it was only after Smith had failed in various quarters to 



Memoir of George Smith xxvii 

secure a fitting editor for the new venture — Tom Hughes was among those 
who were invited and decHned — that he appealed to Thackeray to fill the 
editorial chair. He proposed a salary of 1,000Z. a year. Thackeray con- 
sented to take the post on the understanding that Smith should assist him 
in business details. Thackeray christened the periodical * The Cornhill ' 
after its pubhshing home, and chose for its cover the familiar design by 
Godfrey Sykes, a South Kensington art student. The 'Cornhill' was 
launched on 1 Jan. 1860. The first number reached a sale of one hundred 
and twenty thousand copies. Although so vast a circulation was not main- 
tained, the magazine for many years enjoyed a prosperity that was without 
precedent in the annals of English periodical publications. 

Thackeray's fame and genius rendered services to the ' Cornhill ' that are 
not easy to exaggerate. He was not merely editor, but by far the largest 
contributor. Besides his novel of ' Lovel the Widower,' which ran through 
the early numbers, he supplied each month a delightful ' Eoundabout Paper,' 
which was deservedly paid at the high rate of twelve guineas a page. But 
identified as Thackeray was with the success of the ' Cornhill ' — an identifica- 
tion which Smith acknowledged by doubling his editorial salary — Thackeray 
would have been the first to admit that the practical triumphs of the enterprise 
were largely the fruits of the energy, resourcefulness, and liberality of the 
proprietor. There was no writer of eminence, there was hardly an artist 
of distinguished merit (for the magazine was richly illustrated), whose 
co-operation Smith, when planning with Thackeray the early numbers, did 
not seek, often in a personal interview, on terms of exceptional munificence. 
Associates of earher date, like John Euskin and George Henry Lewes among 
authors, and Millais, Leighton, and Eichard Doyle among artists, were 
requisitioned as a matter of course. Lewes was an indefatigable contributor 
from the start. Euskin wrote a paper on ' Sir Joshua and Holbein ' for the 
third number, but Euskin's subsequent participation brought home to Smith 
and his editor the personal embarrassments inevitable in the conduct of a 
popular magazine by an editor and a publisher, both of whom were rich in 
eminent literary friends. When, later in the first year, Euskin sent for serial 
issue a treatise on political economy, entitled ' Unto this Last,' his doctrine 
was seen to be too deeply tainted with sociahstic heresy to conciliate 
subscribers. Smith published four articles and then informed the author 
that the editor could accept no more. Smith afterwards issued ' Unto this 
Last ' in a separate volume, but the forced cessation of the papers in the 
magazine impaired the old cordiality of intercourse between author and 
publisher. 

The magazine necessarily brought Smith into relations with many notable 
writers and artists of whom he had known little or nothing before. He 
visited Tennyson and ofi'ered him 5,000Z. for a poem of the length of the 
' Idylls of the King.' This was declined, but ' Tithonus ' appeared in the 
second number. Another poet, a friend of Thackeray, who first came into 
relations with Smith through the ' Cornhill,' was Mrs. Browning, whose 
* Great God Pan,' illustrated by Leighton, adorned the seventh number (July 



xxviii Memoir of George Smith 

I860). The artist, Frederick Walker, who was afterwards on intimate terms 
with Smith, casually called at the office as a lad and asked for work on the 
magazine. His capacities were tested without delay, and he illustrated 
the greater part of ' Philip,' the second novel that Thackeray wrote for the 
' Cornhill.' It was Leighton who suggested to Smith that he should give a 
trial as an illustrator to George Du Maurier, who quickly became one of the 
literary and artistic acquaintances in whose society he most delighted. 

Two essayists of different type, although each was endowed with distinc- 
tive style and exceptional insight, Fitzjames Stephen and Matthew Arnold, 
were among the most interesting of the early contributors to the ' Cornhill.' 
Stephen contributed two articles at the end of 1860, and through the years 
1861-3 wrote as many as eight annually — on literary, philosophical, and 
social subjects. 

Matthew Arnold's work for the magazine was of great value to its 
reputation. His essay on Eugenie de Gu6rin (June 1863) had the distinction 
of bearing at the end the writer's name. That was a distinction almost 
unique in those days, for the ' Cornhill ' then as a rule jealously guarded 
the anonymity of its authors. On 16 June 1863 Arnold wrote to his mother 
of his Oxford lecture on Heine : * I have had two applications for the lecture 
from magazines, but I shall print it, if I can, in the " Cornhill," because it 
both pays best and has much the largest circle of readers. " Eugenie de 
Gu6rin " seems to be much liked.' ' The lecture on Heine appeared in the 
' Cornhill ' for October 1863. The hearty welcome given his articles by 
the conductors of the ' Cornhill ' inspired Arnold with a ' sense of gratitude 
and surprise.' A paper by him entitled ' My Countrymen ' in February 1866 
* made a good deal of talk.' There followed his fine lectures on ' Celtic 
Literature,' and the articles which were reissued by Smith, Elder, & Co. in 
the characteristic volumes entitled respectively ' Culture and Anarchy ' (1868), 
' St. Paul and Protestantism ' (1869), and ' Literature and Dogma ' (1871). 

With bofh Fitzjames Stephen and Matthew Arnold Smith maintained 
almost from their first introduction to the ' Cornhill ' close personal inter- 
course. He especially enjoyed his intimacy with Matthew Arnold, whose 
idiosyncrasies charmed him as much as his light-hearted banter. He pub- 
lished for Arnold nearly all his numerous prose works, and showed every 
regard for him and his family. While Arnold was residing in the country at 
a later period, Smith provided a room for him at his publishing offices in 
Waterloo Place when he had occasion to stay the night in town.^ 

' ' Letters of M. Arnold,' ed. G. W. E. Eussell, i. 195. 

* Cf. Arnold's ' Letters,' ed. G. W.E. Eussell. On 31 May 1871 Arnold writes to his mother : 
' I have come in to dine with George Smith in order to meet old Charles Lever ' (ii. 57). On 
2 Oct. 1874 he writes again : ' I have been two nights splendidly put up at G. Smith's 
[residence in South Kensington], and shall be two nights there next week. I like now to dine 
anywhere rather than at a club, and G. Smith has a capital billiard table, and after dinner 
we play billiards, which I like very much, and it suits me' (ii. 117). Writing from his home 
at Cobham to his sister on 27 Dec. 1886, Arnold notes : ' We were to have dined with 
the George Smiths at Walton to-night, but can neither go nor telegraph. The roads are 
impassable and the telegraph wires broken ' (ii. 360). 



Memoir of George Smith xxix 

Chief among novelists whom the inauguration of the ' Cornhill Maga- 
zine ' brought permanently to Smith's side was Anthony Trollope. He had 
already made some reputation with novels dealing with clerical life, and when 
in October 1859 he offered his services to Thackeray as a writer of short 
stories — he was then personally unknown to both Smith and Thackeray — 
Smith promptly (on 26 Oct.) offered him 1,000Z. for the copyright of a clerical 
novel to run serially from the first number, provided only that the first portion 
should be forwarded by 12 Dec. Trollope was already engaged on an Irish 
story, but a clerical novel would alone satisfy Smith. In the result Trollope 
began ' Framley Parsonage,' and Smith invited Millais to illustrate it. 
Thackeray courteously accorded the first place in the first number (January 
1860) to the initial instalment of Trollope's novel. Trollope was long a 
mainstay of the magazine, and his private relations with Smith were very 
intimate. In August 1861 he began a second story, entitled ' The Struggles of 
Brown, Jones, and Eobinson,' a humorous satire on the ways of trade, which 
proved a failure. Six hundred pounds was paid for it, but Smith made no 
complaint, merely remarking to the author that he did not think it equal 
to his usual work. In September 1862 Trollope offered reparation by sending 
to the ' Cornhill ' 'The Small House at AlHngton.' Finally, in 1866-7, 
Trollope's ' Claverings ' appeared in the magazine ; for this he received 2,800Z. 
' Whether much or little,' Trollope wrote, ' it was offered by the proprietor, 
and paid in a single cheque.' When contrasting his experiences as con- 
tributor to other periodicals with those he enjoyed as contributor to the 
' Cornhill,' Trollope wrote, ' What I wrote for the " Cornhill Magazine " 
I always wrote at the instigation of Mr. Smith.' ^ 

George Henry Lewes had introduced Smith to George Eliot soon after 
their union in 1854. Her voice and conversation always filled Smith with 
admiration, and when the Leweses settled at North Bank in 1863 he was 
rarely absent from her Sunday receptions until they ceased at Lewes's death 
in 1878. Early in 1862 she read to him a portion of the manuscript of 
' Eomola,' and he gave practical proof of his faith in her genius by offering 
her lO.OOOZ. for the right of issuing the novel serially in the ' Cornhill Maga- 
zine,' and of subsequent separate publication. The reasonable condition was 
attached that the story should first be distributed over sixteen numbers 
of the ' Cornhill.' George Eliot agreed to the terms, but embarrassments 
followed. She deemed it necessary to divide the story into twelve parts 
instead of the stipulated sixteen. From a business point of view the change, 
as the authoress frankly acknowledged, amounted to a serious breach of 
contract, but she was deaf to both Smith's and Lewes's appeal to her to 
respect the original agreement. She offered, however, in consideration of her 
obstinacy, to accept the reduced remuneration of 7,000Z. The story was not 
completed by the authoress when she settled this serial division. Ultimately 
she discovered that she had miscalculated the length which the story would 
reach, and, after all, ' Eomola ' ran through fourteen numbers of the magazine 
(July 1862 to August 1863). Leighton was chosen by Smith to illustrate the 
' Anthony Trollope's ' Autobiography,' i. 231. 



XXX Memoir of George Smith 

story. The whole transaction was not to Smith's pecuniary advantage, but 
the cordiahty of his relations with the authoress remained unchecked. Her 
story of ' Brother Jacob,' which appeared in the ' Cornhill ' in July 1864, was 
forwarded to him as a free gift. Afterwards, in 1866, she sent him the 
manuscript of ' Felix Holt,' but after reading it he did not feel justified in 
accepting it at the price of 5,000Z., which George Eliot or Lewes set upon it. 

Meanwhile, in March 1862 the ' Cornhill ' had suffered a severe blow 
through the sudden resignation of the editor, Thackeray. He found the 
thorns in the editorial cushion too sharp-pointed for his sensitive nature. 
Smith keenly regretted his decision to retire, but when Thackeray took public 
farewell of his post in a brief article in the magazine for April (' To Contri- 
butors and Correspondents,' dated 18 March 1862), the novelist stated that, 
though editor no more, he hoped ' long to remain to contribute to my friend's 
magazine.' This hope was realised up to the moment of Thackeray's 
unexpected death on 23 Dec. 1863. His final ' Eoundabout Paper ' — ' Strange 
to say on Club Paper ' — appeared in the magazine for the preceding Novem- 
ber, and he had nearly completed his novel, ' Denis Duval,' which was to form 
the chief serial story in the ' Cornhill ' during 1864, Nor was Thackeray 
the only member of his family who was in these early days a contributor to 
the magazine. Thackeray's daughter (Mrs. Eichmond Kitchie) had contri- 
buted a paper called ' Little Scholars ' to the fifth number while her father was 
editor, and in 1862, after his withdrawal, Smith accepted her novel, ' The Story 
of Elizabeth,' the first of many from the same pen to appear serially in the 
* Cornhill.' Thackeray's death naturally caused Smith intense pain. He at 
once did all he could to aid his friend's daughters. In consultation with their 
friends, Herman Merivale, (Sir) Henry Cole, and Fitzjames Stephen, he 
purchased their rights in their father's books, and by arrangement with 
Thackeray's other publishers. Chapman & Hall and Bradbury & Evans, who 
owned part shares in some of his works, acquired the whole of Thackeray's 
literary property. He subsequently published no less than seven complete 
collections of Thackeray's works in different forms, the earliest — the ' Library 
Edition ' in twenty-two volumes — appearing in 1867-9. Thackeray's daughters 
stayed with Smith's family at Brighton in the early days of their sorrow, and 
he was gratified to receive a letter from Thackeray's mother, Mrs. Carmichael 
Smyth, thanking him for his resourceful kindness (24 Aug. 1864). 'I rejoice,' 
she wrote, * that such a friend is assured to my grandchildren.' Her ex- 
pressions were well justified. Until Smith's death there subsisted a close 
friendship between him and Thackeray's elder daughter (Mrs. Eitchie), and 
he was fittingly godfather of Thackeray's granddaughter (Mrs. Eitchie's 
daughter). 

On Thackeray's withdrawal from the editorship the office was tem- 
porarily placed in commission. Smith invited Lewes and Mr. Frederick 
Greenwood, a young journalist who had contributed to the second number 
a striking paper, ' An Essay without End,' to aid himself in conducting the 
magazine. This arrangement lasted two years. In 1864 Lewes retired, 
and Mr. Greenwood filled the editorial chair alone until his absorption in 



Memoir of George Smith 



other work in 1868 compelled him to delegate most of his functions to 
Button Cook. 

A singular and somewhat irritating experience befell Smith as proprietor 
in 1869. In April 1868 a gossiping article called ' Don Eicardo ' narrated 
some adventures of ' General Plantagenet Harrison,' a name which the writer 
believed' to be wholly imaginary. In June 1869 Smith was proceeded against 
for libel by one who actually bore that designation. It seemed difficult 
to treat the grievance seriously, but the jury returned a verdict for the 
plaintiff, and assessed the damages at 50Z. In March 1871 Mr. Button Cook 
withdrew from the editorship of the ' Cornhill.' Thereupon Mr. Leslie Stephen 
became editor, and Smith practically left the whole direction in the new 
editor's hands. 

Until Mr. Stephen's advent Smith had comparatively rarely left the helm 
of his fascinating venture. His contributor Trollope always maintained that 
throughout the sixties Smith's hand exclusively guided the fortunes of the 
' Cornhill.' ' It was certainly he alone who contrived to secure most of the 
important contributions during the later years of the decade. On Thackeray's 
death he invited Charles Dickens to supply for the February number of 1864 
an article ' In Memoriam.' Dickens promptly acceded, and declined to accept 
payment for his article. It was to Smith personally that George Eliot presented 
her story of 'Brother Jacob,' which appeared in July following. A year before, 
he had undertaken the publication of two novels, * Sylvia's Lovers ' and ' A 
Dark Night's Work,' by his acquaintance of earlier days, Mrs. Gaskell, and at 
the same time he arranged for the serial issue in the magazine of ' Cousin 
Phillis,' a new novel (1863-4), as well as of her final novel of ' Wives and 
Daughters.' The last began in August 1864 and ended in January 1866. 
With the sum of 2,000Z. which was paid for the work, Mrs. Gaskell purchased 
a country house at Holybourne, near Alton, where, before she had completed the 
manuscript of her story, she died suddenly on 12 Nov. 1865. The relations 
existing between Smith and Mrs. Gaskell and her daughters at the time of her 
death were of the friendliest, and his friendship with the daughters proved life- 
long. As in the case of Thackeray's works, he soon purchased the copyrights of 
all Mrs. Gaskell's books, and issued many attractive collections of them. He was 
also responsible for the serial appearance in the ' Cornhill ' of Wilkie Collins's 
* Armadale,' which was continued through the exceptional number of twenty 
parts (November 1864 to June 1866) ; of Miss Thackeray's ' Village on the 
Cliff,' which appeared in 1866-7 ; of three stories by Charles Lever — ' The 
Bramleighs of Bishop's Folly,' ' That Boy of Norcott's,' and ' Lord Kil- 
gobbin ' — which followed each other in almost uninterrupted succession 
through the magazine from 1867 to 1872 ; of Charles Eeade's ' Put yourself 
in his Place,' which was commenced in 1869 ; and of George Meredith's 
' Adventures of Harry Eichmond,' which began in 1870. 

Most of these writers were the publisher's personal friends. Although 
Eeade's boisterous personality did not altogether attract Smith in private life, 
he was fully alive to his transparent sincerity. Apart from the magazine, he 
' Anthony Trollope's ' Autobiography,' ii. 125. 



xxxii Memoir of George Smith 

transacted much publishing business with Wilkie Collins and with Miss 
Thackeray (Mrs. Eitchie). He pubhshed (separately from the magazine) all 
Miss Thackeray's novels. For a time he took over Wilkie Collins's books, 
issuing a collective edition of them between 1865 and 1870. But this connec- 
tion was not lasting. Smith refused in the latter year to accede to Collins's 
request to publish a new work of his in sixpenny parts, and at the close 
of 1874 Collins transferred all his publications (save those of which the copy- 
right had been acquired by Smith, Elder, & Co.) to the firm of Chatto & 
Windus. Smith was not wholly unversed in the methods of publication 
which Collins had invited him to pursue. He had in 1866 purchased the 
manuscript of TroUope's ' Last Chronicles of Barset ' for 3,000/., and had 
issued it by way of experiment in sixpenny parts. The result did not 
encourage a repetition of the plan. 

One of the pleasantest features of the early history of the ' Cornhill ' was 
the monthly dinner which Smith gave the contributors for the first year at 
his house in Gloucester Square. Thackeray was usually the chief guest, 
and he and Smith spared no pains to give the meetings every convivial 
advantage. On one occasion Trollope thoughtlessly described the entertain- 
ment to Edmund Yates, who was at feud with Thackeray, and Yates wrote 
for a New York paper an ill-natured description of Smith in his character of 
host, which was quoted in the ' Saturday Eeview.' Thackeray made a suffi- 
ciently effective retaliation in a * Eoundabout Paper ' entitled ' On Screens in 
Dining-rooms.' The hospitality which Smith offered his ' Cornhill ' coadjutors 
and other friends took a new shape in 1863, when he acquired a house at 
Hampstead called Oak Hill Lodge. For some ten years he resided there during 
the summer, and spent the winter at Brighton, travelling to and from London 
each day. Partly on Thackeray's suggestion, at the beginning of each summer 
from 1863 onwards, there was issued by Mr. and Mrs. George Smith a general 
invitation to their friends to dine at Hampstead on any Friday they chose, 
without giving notice. This mode of entertainment proved thoroughly suc- 
cessful. The number of guests varied greatly : once they reached as many 
as forty. Thackeray, Millais, and Leech were among the earliest arrivals ; 
afterwards Trollope rarely failed, and Wilkie Collins was often present. 
Turgenieff, the Eussian novelist, was a guest on one occasion. Subsequently 
Du Maurier, a regular attendant, drew an amusing menu-card, in which Mrs. 
Smith was represented driving a reindeer in a sleigh which was laden with 
provisions in a packing-case. Few authors or artists who gained reputation 
in the seventh decade of the nineteenth century failed to enjoy Smith's 
genial hospitality at Hampstead on one or other Friday during that period. 
Under the auspices of his numerous literary friends, he was admitted to two 
well-known clubs during the first half of the same decade. In 1861 he joined 
the Eeform Club, for which Sir Arthur Buller, a friend of Thackeray, pro- 
posed him, and Thackeray himself seconded him. In 1865 he was elected 
to the Garrick Club on the nomination of Anthony Trollope and Wilkie 
Collins, supported by Charles Eeade, Tom Taylor, (Sir) Theodore Martin, 
and many others. He also became a member of the Cosmopolitan Club. 



Memoir of George Smith xxxiii 



The general business of Smith, Elder, & Co. through the sixties was 
extremely prosperous. In 1861 an additional office was taken in the west 
end of London at 45 Pall Mall, nearly opposite Marlborough House. The 
shock of the Mutiny was ended, and Indian trade was making enormous 
strides. Smith, Elder, & Co. had supplied some of the scientific plant 
for the construction of the Ganges canal, and in 1860 they celebrated the 
accomplishment of the great task by bringing out a formidable quarto, 
Sir Proby Thomas Cautley's ' Eeport of the Construction of the Ganges Canal, 
with an Atlas of Plans.' The publishing affairs of the concern were 
meanwhile entirely satisfactory. The success of the ' Cornhill ' had given 
them a new spur. It had attracted to the firm's banner not merely almost 
every author of repute, but almost every artist of rising fame. Not the least 
interesting publication to which the magazine gave rise was the volume 
called ' The Cornhill Gallery : 100 Engravings,' which appeared in 1864. 
Portions of it were reissued in 1866 in three volumes, containing respectively 
engravings after drawings made for the ' Cornhill ' by Leighton, Walker, and 
Millais. Buskin's pen was still prolific and popular, and the many copy- 
rights that had been recently acquired proved valuable. 

With characteristic energy Smith now set foot in a new field of congenial 
activity, where he thought to turn to enhanced advantage the special position 
and opportunities that he commanded in the world of letters. The firm 
already owned two weekly newspapers of somewhat special character — the 
' Homeward Mail ' and * Overland Mail ' — and Smith had been told that he 
could acquire without difficulty a third periodical, ' The Queen.' But it was 
his ambition, if he added to the firm's newspaper property at all, to 
inaugurate a daily journal of an original type. The leading papers paid 
small attention to literature and art, and often presented the news of the day 
heavily and unintelligently. There was also a widespread suspicion that 
musical and theatrical notices, and such few reviews of books as were 
admitted to the daily press, were not always disinterested. It was views like 
these, which Smith held strongly, that had prompted in 1854 Thackeray's 
scheme of a daily sheet of frank and just criticism to be entitled ' Fair Play.' 
That scheme had been partly responsible for Thackeray's ' Koundabout Papers' 
in the ' Cornhill Magazine,' but they necessarily only touched its fringe. 
Thackeray's original proposal was recalled to Smith's mind in 1863 by a cognate 
suggestion then made to him by Mr. Frederick Greenwood. Mr. Greenwood 
thought to start a new journal that should reproduce the form and spirit of 
Canning's ' Anti-Jacobin.' After much discussion the plan of a new evening 
newspaper was finally settled by Smith and Mr. Greenwood. Men of literary 
ability and unquestioned independence were to be enlisted in its service. News 
was to be reported in plain English, but the greater part of the paper was to be 
devoted to original articles on ' public affairs, literature, the arts, and all the 
influences which strengthen or dissipate society.' The aim was to bring into 

YOl. I. — SUP. b 



xxxiv Memoir of George Smith 

daily journalism as much sound thought, knowledge, and style as were possible 
to its conditions, and to counteract corrupting influences. No books published 
by Smith, Elder, & Co. were to be reviewed. The advertisement department 
was to be kept free from abuses. Quack medicine vendors and money-lenders 
were to be excluded. 

Smith himself christened the projected paper ' The Pall Mall Gazette,' in 
allusion to the journal that Thackeray invented for the benefit of Arthur 
Pendennis. To Mr. Greenwood's surprise Smith appointed him editor. King, 
Smith's partner, agreed that the firm should undertake the pecuniary respon- 
sibilities. A warehouse at the river end of Salisbury Street, Strand, on the 
naked foreshore of the Thames, was acquired to serve as a printing-ofiSce, and 
a small dwelling-house some doors nearer the Strand in the same street was 
rented for editorial and publishing purposes. Late in 1864 a copy of the 
paper was written and printed by way of testing the general machinery. 
Although independence in all things had been adopted as the paper's watch- 
word, King, who was a staunch conservative, was dissatisfied with the political 
tone of the first number, which in his opinion inclined to liberalism. He 
summarily vetoed the firm's association with the enterprise. Smith had gone 
too far to withdraw, and promptly accepted the sole ownership. 

The first number of the paper was issued from Salisbury Street on 7 Feb. 
1865, the day of the opening of parliament. It was in form a large quarto, 
consisting of eight pages, and the price was twopence. The leading article by 
the editor dealt sympathetically with ' the Queen's seclusion.' The only 
signed article was a long letter by Anthony Trollope on the American civil 
war — a strong appeal on behalf of the north. The unsigned articles included 
an instalment of ' Friends in Council,' by Sir Arthur Helps ; an article en- 
titled ' Ladies at Law,' by John Ormsby ; and the first of a series of ' Letters 
from Sir Pitt Crawley, bart., to his nephew on his entering parliament,' by 
' Pitt Crawley,' the pseudonym of Sir Eeginald Palgrave. There were three 
of the ' occasional notes ' which were to form a special feature of the paper. 
One page — the last — was filled with advertisements. It was not a strong 
number. The public proved indifferent, and only four thousand copies were 
sold. 

Smith found no difficulty in collecting round him a brilliant band of pro- 
fessional writers and men in public life who were ready to place their pens at 
the disposal of the ' Pall Mall Gazette.' Many of them had already con- 
tributed to the ' Cornhill.' The second number afforded conspicuous proof 
of the success with which he and Mr. Greenwood had recruited their staff. 
In that number Fitzjames Stephen, who had long been a regular contributor 
to the ' Cornhill,' began a series of leading articles and other contributions 
which for five years proved of the first importance to the character of the 
paper. Until 1869 Fitzjames Stephen wrote far more than half the leading 
articles ; in 1868 he wrote as many as two-thirds. When he went to India 
in 1869 his place as leader writer was to some extent filled by Sir Henry 
Maine ; but during his voyage home from India in 1872-3 Fitzjames 
Stephen wrote, for serial issue in the ' Pall Mall,' the masterly articles 



Memoir of George Smith xxxv 

called ' Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity,' which Smith afterwards published 
in a volume. 

When the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' was in its inception, Fitzjames Stephen 
moreover introduced Smith to his brother, Mr. Leslie Stephen, with a view 
to his writing in the paper. Like Fitzjames's first contribution, Mr. Leslie 
Stephen's first contribution appeared in the second number, and it marked 
the commencement of Mr. Leslie Stephen's long relationship with Smith and 
his firm, which was strengthened by Mr. Stephen's marriage in 1867 to 
Thackeray's younger daughter (she died in 1875), and was always warmly 
appreciated by Smith. George Henry Lewes's versatility was once again 
at Smith's command, and a salary for general assistance of 300Z. was paid 
him in the first year. Before the end of the first month the ranks of 
the writers for the ' Pall Mall ' were joined by E. H. Hutton, Sir John 
Kaye, Charles Lever, John Addington Symonds, and, above all, by Matthew 
James Higgins. Higgins was a friend of Thackeray, and a'contributor to the 
' Cornhill ; ' his terse outspoken letters to the ' Times ' bearing the signature 
of ' Jacob Omnium ' were, at the time of their appearance, widely appre- 
ciated. He was long an admirable compiler of occasional notes for the 
'Pall Mall,' and led controversies there with great adroitness. He was 
almost as strong a pillar of the journal's sturdy independence in its early 
life as Fitzjames Stephen himself. Twice in March 1865, once in April, 
and once in May, George Eliot contributed attractive articles on social 
subjects.^ Smith, who had persuaded TroUope to lend a hand, sent him to 
Exeter Hall to report his impressions of the May meetings ; but the fulfil- 
ment of the commission taxed Trollope's patience beyond endurance, and 
the proposal only resulted in a single paper called ' A Zulu in search of a 
Eeligion.' Much help was regularly given by Lord and Lady Strangford, 
both of whom Smith found charming companions socially. Among occa- 
sional contributors were Mr. Goschen, (Sir) Henry Drummond Wolff, Tom 
Hughes, Lord Houghton, Mr. John Morley, and Charles Keade. Thackeray's 
friend, James Hannay, was summoned from Edinburgh to assist in the 
office. 

But, despite so stalwart a phalanx of powerful writers, the public was slow 
to recognise the paper's merits. The strict anonymity which the writers pre- 
served did not give their contributions the benefit of their general reputation, 
and the excellence of the writing largely escaped recognition. In April 1865 
the sales hardly averaged 613 a day, while the amount received for adver- 
tisements was often only 31. Smith's interest in the venture was intense. 
In every department of the paper he expended his personal energy. For the 
first two years he kept with his own hand ' the contributors' ledger ' and ' the 
register of contributors,' and one day every week he devoted many hours at 
home to posting up these books and writing out and despatching the contri- 
butors' cheques. From the first he taxed his ingenuity for methods whereby 
to set the paper on a stable footing. Since the public were slow to appreciate 

' George Eliot's articles were : ' A Word for the Germans ' (7 March), • Servants' Logic ' 
(17 March), 'Little Falsehoods ' (3 April), ' Modem Housekeeping ' (13 May). 

b2 



xxxvi Memoir of George Smith 

the ' Pall Mall ' of an afternoon, he, for three weeks in the second month of 
its existence, suppHed a morning edition. But buyers and advertisers proved 
almost shyer of a morning than of an evening, and the morning issue was 
promptly suspended. Smith's spirits often drooped in the face of the 
obduracy of the public, and he contemplated abandoning the enterprise. 
His sanguine temperament never prevented him from frankly acknowledging 
defeat when cool judgment could set no other interpretation on the position 
of affairs. Happily in the course of 1866 the tide showed signs of turning. 
In the spring of that year Mr. Greenwood requested his brother to contribute 
three papers called ' A Night in a Casual Ward : by an Amateur Casual.' 
General interest was roused, and the circulation of the paper slowly rose. 
Soon afterwards an exposure of a medical quack, Dr. Hunter, who was 
advertising a cure for consumption, led to an action for libel against the 
publisher. Smith, who thoroughly enjoyed the excitement of the struggle, 
justified the comment, and adduced in its support the testimony of many 
distinguished members of the medical profession. The jury gave the plaintiff 
one farthing by way of damages. The case attracted wide attention, and 
leading doctors and others showed their opinion of Smith's conduct by 
presenting him after the trial with a silver vase and salver in recognition, 
they declared, of his courageous defence of the right of honest criticism. A 
year later the victory was won, and a profitable period in the fortunes of the 
' Pall Mall Gazette ' set in. In 1867 the construction of the Thames Embank- 
ment rendered necessary the demolition of the old printing-office, and more 
convenient premises were found in Northumberland Street, Strand. On 
29 April 1868 Smith celebrated the arrival of the favouring breeze by a 
memorable dinner to contributors at Greenwich. The number of pages of the 
paper was increased to sixteen, and for a short time in 1869 the price was 
reduced to a penny, but it was soon raised to the original twopence. In 1870 
the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' was the first to announce in this country the issue 
of the battle of Sedan and Napoleon Ill's surrender. 

The less adventurous publishing work which Smith and his partner were 
conducting at Comhill at this time benefited by the growth of Smith's circle 
of friends at the office of his newspaper. Sir Arthur Helps, who was writing 
occasionally for the ' Pall Mall Gazette,' was clerk of the council and in 
confidential relations vdth Queen Victoria. Smith published a new series of 
his ' Friends in Council ' in 1869. At Helps's suggestion Smith, Elder, & Co. 
were invited in 1867 to print two volumes in which Queen Victoria was 
deeply interested. Very early in the year there was delivered to Smith the 
manuscript of the queen's * Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the High- 
lands, 1848-1861.' It was originally intended to print only a few copies for 
circulation among the queen's friends. Smith was enjoined to take every pre- 
caution for secrecy in the preparation of the book. The manager of the firm's 
printing-office in Little Green Arbour Court set up the tjrpe with a single assis- 
tant in a room which was kept under lock and key, and was always occupied 
by one or other of them while the work was in progress. The queen ex- 
pressed her satisfaction at the way in which the secret was kept. After forty 



Memoir of George Smith xxxvii 

copies had been printed and bound for her private use, she was persuaded 
to permit an edition to be prepared for the pubUc. This appeared in December 
1867. It was in great request, and reprints were numerous. Meanwhile, 
at Helps's suggestion, Smith prepared for pubHcation under very similar con- 
ditions General Grey's ' Early Years of the Prince Consort,' which was written 
under the queen's supervision. A first edition of five thousand copies appeared 
in August 1867. There naturally followed the commission to undertake the 
issue of the later ' Life of the Prince Consort,' which Sir Theodore Martin, 
on Helps's recommendation, took up after General Grey's death. Smith was a 
lifelong admirer of Sir Theodore Martin's wife, Helen Faucit, the distinguished 
actress, whose portrait he had published in his second pubHcation (of 1844), 
Mrs. Wilson's ' Our Actresses.' He already knew Theodore Martin, and the 
engagement to publish his biography of Prince Albert, which came out in five 
volumes between 1874 and 1880, rendered the relations with the Martins very 
close. To Sir Theodore, Smith was until his death warmly attached. In 1884 
Smith brought out a second instalment of the queen's journal, ' More Leaves 
from the Journal of a Life in the Highlands, 1862-1882,' which, like its fore- 
runner, enjoyed wide popularity. 

VI 

In 1868 a new act in the well-filled drama of Smith's business career 
opened. He determined in that year to retire from the foreign agency 
and banking work of the firm, and to identify himself henceforth solely with 
the publishing branch. Arrangements were made whereby his partner. King, 
took over the agency and banking business, which he carried on under the 
style of ' Henry S. King & Co.' at the old premises in Cornhill and at the 
more recently acquired offices in Pall Mall, while Smith opened, under the 
old style of ' Smith, Elder, & Co.,' new premises, to which the publishing 
branch was transferred, to be henceforth under his sole control. He chose 
for Smith, Elder, & Co.'s new home a private residence, 15 "Waterloo 
Place, then in the occupation of a partner in the banking firm of Herries, 
Farquhar, & Co. It was not the most convenient building that could be 
found for his purpose, and was only to be acquired at a high cost. But he 
had somewhat fantastically set his heart upon it, and he adapted it to his 
needs as satisfactorily as he could. In January 1869 he with many 
members of the Cornhill staff permanently removed to Smith, Elder, & Co.'s 
new abode. 

The increase of leisure and the diminution of work which the change 
brought with it had a very different effect on Smith's health from what was 
anticipated. The sudden relaxation affected his constitution disastrously, 
and for the greater part of the next year and a half he was seriously 
incapacitated by illness. Long absences in Scotland and on the continent 
became necessary, and it was not till 1870 was well advanced that his 
vigour was restored. He characteristically celebrated the return of health 
by inviting the children of his numerous friends to witness with him and his 



xxxviii Memoir of George Smith 

family the Covent Garden pantomime at Christmas 1870-71. The party- 
exceeded ninety in number, and he engaged for his guests, after much nego- 
tiation, the whole of the first row of the dress circle. Millais's children filled 
the central places. 

In 1870 Smith's energy revived in its pristine abundance, and, finding 
inadequate scope in his publishing business, it sought additional outlets else- 
where. Early in the year he resolved to make a supreme effort to produce a 
morning paper. A morning edition of the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' was devised 
anew on a grand scale. In form it followed the lines of ' The Times.' Smith 
threw himself into the project with exceptional ardour. He spent every night 
at the office supervising every detail of the paper's production. But the en- 
deavour failed, and, after four months of heavy toil and large expenditure, the 
enterprise was abandoned. Meanwhile the independent evening issue of the 
' Pall Mall ' continued to make satisfactory progress. But the discouraging 
experience of the morning paper did not daunt his determination to obtain 
occupation and investments for capital supplemental to that with which his 
publishing business provided him. Later in 1870 he went into partnership with 
Mr. Arthur Bilbrough, as a shipowner and underwriter, at 36 Fenchurch Street. 
The firm was known as Smith, Bilbrough, & Co. Smith joined Lloyd's in 
1871, but underwriting did not appeal much to him, and he soon gave it 
up. On the other hand, the width of his interest and intelligence rendered 
the position of a shipowner wholly congenial. His operations in that capacity 
were vigorously pursued, and were attended by success. The firm acquired 
commanding interests in thirteen or fourteen saiUng vessels of large tonnage, 
and they built in 1874 on new principles, which were afterwards imitated, 
a cargo boat of great dimensions, which Smith christened Old Kensington, 
after Miss Thackeray's well-known novel. The book had just passed serially 
through the ' Cornhill.' Sailors who were not aware of the source of the name 
raised a superstitious objection to the epithet ' Old,' but Smith, although 
sympathetic, would not give way, and cherished a personal pride in the 
vessel. When in 1879 he resigned his partnership in Smith, Bilbrough, & 
Co., he still retained his share in the Old Kensington. 

Until 1879, when he withdrew from the shipping business, he spent the 
early part of each morning at its office in Fenchurch Street and the rest of 
the working day at Waterloo Place, where, despite his numerous other inte- 
rests, he spared no pains to develop his publishing connection. His settle- 
ment in Waterloo Place almost synchronised with the opening of his cordial 
relations with Eobert Browning. Smith had met Browning casually in early 
life, and Browning's friend Chorley had asked Smith to take over the poet's 
publications from his original publisher, Moxon; but, at the moment, the 
financial position of Smith, Elder, & Co. did not justify him in accepting the 
proposal. In 1868 Browning himself asked him to undertake a collective issue 
of his ' Poetical Works,' and he produced an edition in six volumes. Later in 
the same year Browning placed in Smith's hands the manuscript of * The Eing 
and the Book.' He paid the poet 1,250Z. for the right of publication during five 
years. The great work appeared in four monthly volumes, which were issued 



Memoir of George Smith xxxix 

respectively in November and December 1868, and January and February 
1869. Of the first two volumes, the edition consisted of three thousand copies 
each ; but the sale was not rapid, and of the last two volumes only two 
thousand were printed. Browning presented Mrs. Smith with the manuscript. 
Thenceforth Smith was, for the rest of Browning's life, his only publisher, 
and he also took over the works of Mrs. Browning from Chapman & Hall. 
The two men were soon on very intimate terms. In 1871 he accepted 
Browning's poem of ' Herv6 Eiel ' for the ' Cornhill Magazine.' Browning 
had asked him to buy it so that he might forward a subscription to the fund 
for the relief of the people of Paris after the siege. Smith sent the poet 
lOOZ. by return of post. Fifteen separate volumes of new verse by Browning 
appeared with Smith, Elder, & Co.'s imprint between 1871 and the date of the 
poet's death late in 1889. In 1888, too. Smith began a new collected 
edition which extended to seventeen volumes, and yielded handsome gains 
(in 1896 he brought out a cheaper complete collection in two volumes). 
He thus had the satisfaction of presiding over the fortunes of Browning's 
works when, for the first time in his long life, they brought their author sub- 
stantial profit. Though Browning, like many other eminent English poets, 
was a man of affairs, he left his publishing concerns entirely in Smith's hands. 
No cloud ever darkened their private or professional intercourse. The poet's 
last letter to his publisher, dated from Asolo, 27 Sept. 1889, contained the words 

* and now to our immediate business [the proofs of the volume ' Asolando ' 
were going through the press at the moment] , which is only to keep thanking 
you for your constant goodness, present and future.' ' Almost Browning's last 
words on his deathbed were to bid his son seek George Smith's advice when- 
ever he had need of good counsel. Smith superintended the arrangements 
for Browning's funeral in Westminster Abbey on 31 Dec. 1889, and was 
justly accorded a place among the pall-bearers. 

While the association with Browning was growing close Smith reluctantly 
parted company with another great author whose works he had published 
continuously from the start of each in life. A rift in the intimacy between 
Euskin and Smith had begun when the issue of ' Unto this Last ' in the 

* Cornhill ' was broken off in 1861, and the death of Euskin's father in 1864 
severed a strong link in the chain that originally united them. But more than 
ten years passed before the alienation became complete. For no author did 
the firm publish a greater number of separate volumes. During the forties 
they published three volumes by Euskin ; during the fifties no less than twenty- 
six ; during the sixties as many as eight, including ' The Crown of Wild Olive,' 
' Sesame and LiUes,' and ' Queen of the Air.' In the early seventies Euskin's 
pen was especially active. In 1871 he entrusted Smith with the first number 
of ' Fors Clavigera.* In 1872 the firm brought out four new works : ' The 
Eagle's Nest,' ' Munera Pulveris,' ' Aratra Pentelici,' and ' Michael Angelo and 
Tintoret.' But by that date Euskin had matured views about the distribution 
of books which were out of harmony with existing practice. He wished his 
volumes to be sold to booksellers at the advertised price without discount and 

* Mrs. Orr's ' Life of Eobert Browning,' p. 417. 



xi Memoir of George Smith 

to leave it to them to make what profits they chose in disposing of the books 
to their customers. Smith was not averse to make the experiment which 
Euskin desired, but the booksellers did not welcome the new plan of sale, and 
the circulation of Euskin's books declined. Further difficulties followed in 
regard to reprints of his early masterpieces, ' Modern Painters ' and the 

* Stones of Venice.' Many of the plates were worn out, and Euskin hesitated 
to permit them to be replaced or retouched now that their original engraver, 
Thomas Lupton, was dead. He desired to limit very strictly the number of 
copies in the new editions ; he announced that the time had come for issuing 
a final edition of his early works, and pledged himself to suffer no reprint 
hereafter. These conditions also failed to harmonise with the habitual 
methods of the publishing business. A breach proved inevitable, and 
finally Euskin made other arrangements for the production and publica- 
tion of his writings. In 1871 he employed Mr. George Allen to aid him 
personally in preparing and distributing them, and during the course of the 
next six years gradually transferred to Mr. Allen all the work that Smith, 
Elder, & Co. had previously done for him. On 5 Sept. 1878 Euskin wholly 
severed his connection with his old publisher by removing all his books 
from his charge. 

Despite many external calls on Smith's attention, the normal work of the 
publishing firm during the seventies and eighties well maintained its character. 
The ' Cornhill ' continued to prove a valuable recruiting ground for authors. 
Mr. Leshe Stephen, after he became editor of the magazine in 1871, 
welcomed to its pages the early work of many writers who were in due 
time to add to the stock of permanent English literature. John Addington 
Symonds wrote many essays and sketches for the magazine, and his chief 
writings were afterwards published by Smith, Elder, & Co., notably his ' History 
of the Eenaissance,' which came out in seven volumes between 1875 and 1886. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen himself contributed the critical essays, which were col- 
lected under the title of ' Hours in a Library ; ' and his ' History of Thought 
in the Eighteenth Century,' 1876, was among the firm's more important 
publications. Eobert Louis Stevenson was a frequent contributor. Miss 
Thackeray's ' Old Kensington ' and ' Miss Angel,' Blackmore's ' Erema,' 
Black's 'Three Feathers' and 'White Wings,' Mrs. Oliphant's ' Cariti ' and 

• Within the Precincts,' Mr. W. E. Norris's ' Mdlle. de Mersac,' Mr. Henry 
James's ' Washington Square,' Mr. Thomas Hardy's ' Far from the Madding 
Crowd ' and ' The Hand of Ethelberta,' and Mr. James Payn's ' Grape from a 
Thorn ' were ' Cornhill ' serials while Mr. Stephen guided the fortunes of the 
periodical, and the majority of them were afterwards issued by Smith, Elder, 
& Co. in book form. Another change in the personnel of the office became 
necessary on the retirement of Smith Williams in 1875. On the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Leslie Stephen, his intimate friend, James Payn the noveHst, 
who had previously edited ' Chambers's Journal,' joined the staff at Waterloo 
Place as literary adviser in Williams's place. Payn's taste lay in the lighter 
form of literature. Among the most successful books that he accepted for 
the firm was F. Anstey's 'Vice Versa.' In 1882, when other duties caused 



Memoir of George Smith xii 

Mr. Leslie Stephen to withdraw from the ' Cornhill,' Payn succeeded 
him as editor, fiUing, as before, the position of the firm's ' reader ' in addi- 
tion. With a view to converting the ' Cornhill ' into an illustrated reper- 
tory of popular fiction, Payn induced Smith to reduce its price to sixpence. 
The magazine was one of the earliest monthly periodicals to appear at that 
price. The first number of the ' Cornhill ' under the new conditions was 
issued in July 1883 ; but the pubHc failed to welcome the innovation, and 
a return to the old tradition and the old price was made when Payn retired 
from the editorial chair in 1896. Payn had then fallen into ill-health, and 
during long years of suffering Smith, whose relations with him were always 
cordial, showed him touching kindness. While he conducted the magazine, 
he accepted for the first time serial stories from Dr. Conan Doyle (' The 
White Company,' 1891), H. S. Merriman, and Mr. Stanley Weyman, and thus 
introduced to the firm a new generation of popular novelists. Payn's connec- 
tion with the firm as ' reader ' was only terminated by his death in March 1898. 
Petty recrimination was foreign to- Smith's nature, and the extreme 
consideration which he paid those who worked with him in mutual 
sympathy is well illustrated by a story which Payn himself related under 
veiled names in his ' Literary Eecollections.' In 1880 Mr. Shorthouse's 
' John Inglesant ' was offered to Smith, Elder, & Co., and, by Payn's advice, 
was rejected. It was accepted by another firm, and obtained great success. 
A few years afterwards a gossiping paragraph appeared in a newspaper 
reflecting on the sagacity of Smith, Elder, & Co. in refusing the book. The 
true facts of the situation had entirely passed out of Payn's mind, and he 
regarded the newspaper's statement as a maHcious invention. He men- 
tioned his intention of publicly denying it. Smith gently advised him 
against such a course. Payn insisted that the remark was damaging both to 
him and the firm, and should not be suffered to pass uncorrected. Thereupon 
Smith quietly pointed out to Payn the true position of affairs, and called 
attention to the letter drafted by Payn himself, in which the firm had refused 
to undertake ' John Inglesant.' Payn, in reply, expressed his admiration of 
Smith's magnanimity in forbearing, at the time that the work he had rejected 
was achieving a triumphant circulation at the hands of another firm, to 
complain by a single word of his want of foresight. Smith merely remarked 
that he was sorry to distress Payn by any reference to the matter, and should 
never have mentioned it had not Payn taken him unawares. 



VII 

Meanwhile new developments both within and without the publishing 
business were in progress. The internal developments showed that there was 
no diminution in the alertness with which modes of extending the scope of 
the firm's work were entertained. A series of expensive editions de luxe was 
begun, and a new department of medical literature was opened. Between 
October 1878 and September 1879 there was issued an edition de luxe of 



xiii Memoir of George Smith 

Thackeray's ' Works ' in twenty-four volumes, to which two additional volumes 
of hitherto uncollected writings were added in 1886. A similarly elaborate 
reissue of 'Eomola,' withLeighton's illustrations, followed in 1880, and a like 
reprint of Fielding's ' Works ' in 1882. The last of these ventures proved 
the least successful. In 1872 Smith inaugurated a department of medical 
literature by purchasing, at the sale of the stock of a firm of medical 
pubUshers, the publishing rights in Ellis's ' Demonstrations of Anatomy ' 
and Quain and Wilson's ' Anatomical Plates.' These works formed a nucleus 
of an extended medical library the chief part of which Smith, Elder, & Co. 
brought into being between 1873 and 1887. Ernest Hart acted as 
adviser on the new medical side of the business, and at his sugges- 
tion Smith initiated two weekly periodicals dealing with medical topics, 
which Hart edited. The earlier was the ' London Medical Eecord,' of which 
the first number appeared in January 1873 ; the second was the ' Sanitary 
Eecord,' of which the first number began in July 1874. After some four 
years a monthly issue was substituted for the weekly issue in each case, and 
both were ultimately transferred to other hands. The ' Medical Eecord ' won 
a high reputation among medical men through its copious reports of medical 
practice in foreign countries. The most notable contributions to medical 
literature which Smith undertook were, besides ElHs's ' Demonstrations of 
Anatomy,' Holmes's ' Surgery,' Bristowe's ' Medicine,' Playfair's ' Midwifery,' 
Marshall's 'Anatomy for Artists,' and Klein's 'Atlas of Histology.' He 
liked the society of medical men, and while the medical branch of his business 
was forming he frequently entertained his medical authors at a whist party 
on Saturday nights in his rooms at Waterloo Place. 

Of several new commercial ventures outside the publishing ofi&ce with 
which Smith identified himself at this period, one was the Aylesbury Dairy 
Company, in the direction of which he was for many years associated with his 
friends Sir Henry Thompson and Tom Hughes. Other mercantile under- 
takings led to losses, which were faced boldly and cheerfully. It was almost 
by accident that he engaged in the enterprise which had the most con- 
spicuous and auspicious bearing on his financial position during the last 
twenty years of his life. When he was dining with Ernest Hart early in 
1872, his host called his attention to some natural aerated water, a 
specimen of which had just been brought to this country for the first time 
from the Apollinaris spring in the valley of the Ahr, to the east of the 
Ehine, between Bonn and Coblenz. Smith, who was impressed by the 
excellence of the water, remarked half laughingly that he would like to buy 
the spring. These casual words subsequently bore important fruit. Negotia- 
tions were opened between Smith and Mr. Edward Steinkopff, a German mer- 
chant in the city of London, whereby a private company was formed in 1873 
for the importation of the Apollinaris water into England, Hart receiving an 
interest in the profits. A storehouse was taken in the Adelphi, and an office 
was opened in Eegent Street within a short distance of Waterloo Place. As 
was his custom in all his enterprises. Smith at the outset gave close personal 
attention to the organisation of the new business, which grew steadily from 



Memoir of George Smith xim 

the first and ultimately reached enormous dimensions. The Apollinaris water 
sold largely not only in England, but in America, Europe, India, and in the 
British colonies. The unexpected success of the venture very sensibly 
augmented Smith's resources. The money he had invested in it amounted 
to a very few thousand pounds, and this small sum yielded for more than 
twenty years an increasingly large income which altogether surpassed the 
returns from his other enterprises. In 1897 the business was profitably 
disposed of to a public company. 

In 1880 Smith lightened his responsibilities in one direction by handing 
over the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' to Mr. Henry Yates Thompson, who had lately 
married his eldest daughter. Thenceforth the paper was wholly controlled 
by others. During the late seventies the pecuniary promise of the journal had 
not been sustained. It continued, however, to be characterised by good hterary 
style, and to attract much literary ability, and it still justified its original aims 
of raising the literary standard of journalism and of observing a severer code 
of journalistic morality than had before been generally accepted. In 1870 
Charles Eeade contributed characteristically polemical sketches on social topics 
which were remunerated at an unusually high rate. In 1871 Matthew Arnold 
contributed his brilliantly sarcastic series of articles called ' Friendship's Gar- 
land.' Eichard Jefferies's ' The Gamekeeper at Home ' and others of the same 
writer's rural sketches appeared serially from 1876 onwards. Almost all 
Jefferies's books were published by Smith. At the same time other writers on 
the paper gave him several opportunities of gratifying his taste for fighting 
actions for libel. Dion Boucicault in 1870, Hepworth Dixon in 1872, and 
Mr. W. S. Gilbert in 1873, all crossed swords with him in the law courts 
on account of what they deemed damaging reflections made upon them in 
the ' Pall Mall Gazette ; ' but in each instance the practical victory lay 
with Smith, and he was much exhilarated by the encounters. At length, 
during the crisis in Eastern Europe of 1876 and the following years, 
the political tone of the paper became, under Mr. Greenwood's guidance, 
unflinchingly conservative. Smith, although no strong partisan in politics, 
always incHned to liberalism; and his sympathies with his paper in its 
existing condition waned, so that he parted from it without much searching of 
heart. 

To the end of his life Smith continued to give the freest play to his instinct 
of hospitality. After 1872, when he gave up his houses both at Hampstead 
and at Brighton, he settled in South Kensington, where he rented various 
residences from time to time up to 1891. In that year he purchased the Duke 
of Somerset's mansion in Park Lane, which was his final London home. 
From 1884 to 1897 he also had a residence near Weybridge. Of late years 
he usually spent the spring in the Eiviera, and on more than one occasion 
visited a German watering-place in the summer. Wherever he lived he 
welcomed no guests- more frequently or with greater warmth than the authors 
and artists with whom he was professionally associated. His fund of enter- 
taining reminiscence was unfailing, and his genial talk abounded in kindly 
reference to old friends and acquaintances. The regard in which he was held 



xiiv Memoir of George Smith 

by those with whom he worked has been often indicated in the course of this 
memoir. It was conspicuously illustrated by the dying words of his lifelong 
friend Millais, who, when the power of speech had left him during his last 
illness in 1896, wrote on a slate the words, 'I should like to see George 
Smith, the kindest man and the best gentleman I have had to deal with.' The 
constancy which characterised his intimacies is well seen, too, in his relations 
with Mrs. Bryan Waller Procter. Thackeray had introduced him in compara- 
tively early days to Procter and his family, and the daughter Adelaide, the 
well-known poetess, had excited his youthful admiration. When Procter was 
disabled by paralysis, and more especially after his death in 1874, Smith 
became Mrs. Procter's most valued friend and counsellor. He paid her a weekly 
visit, and thoroughly enjoyed her shrewd and pungent wit. She proved her 
confidence in him and her appreciation of the kindness he invariably showed 
her by presenting him with a volume of autograph letters that Thackeray had 
addressed to her and her husband, and finally she made him executor of her 
will. She died in 1888. To the last Smith's photograph always stood on her 
writing-table along with those of Kobert Browning, James Eussell Lowell, and 
Mr. Henry James, her three other closest allies. Another friend to whom 
Smith gave many proofs of attachment was Tom Hughes. Hughes was not 
one of Smith's authors. He had identified himself in early years too closely 
with the firm of Macmillan & Co. to connect himself with any other publisher. 
But he wrote occasionally for the ' Pall Mall Gazette ; ' he knew and liked 
Smith personally, and sought his counsel when the failure of his settlement at 
Eugby, Tennessee, was causing him great anxiety. 

In 1878 Smith's mother died at the advanced age of eighty-one, having 
lived to see her son achieve fame and fortune. His elder sister died two 
years later, and his only surviving sister, the youngest of the family, was left 
alone. Mainly in this sister's interest, Smith entered on a venture of a 
kind different from any he had yet essayed. He had made the acquaintance 
of Canon Barnett, vicar of St. Jude's, who was persuading men of wealth 
to help in solving the housing question in the east end of London by 
purchasing some of the many barely habitable tenements that defaced the 
slums, by demolishing them, and by erecting on their sites blocks of model 
dwellings. It was one of the principles of Canon Barnett's treatment 
of the housing diflBculty that the services of ladies should be enlisted as 
rent-collectors and managers of house property in poor districts. Under the 
advice of Canon Barnett, Smith, in 1880, raised a block of dwellings of a 
new and admirably sanitary type in George Yard in the very heart of 
Whitechapel. The block accommodated forty families, and the management 
was entrusted to his sister, who remained directress until her marriage, and 
was then succeeded by another lady. In carrying out this philanthropic 
scheme Smith proposed to work on business lines. He hoped to show in 
practice that capital might thus be invested at a fair profit, and thereby to induce 
others to follow his example. But the outlay somewhat exceeded the estimates, 
and, though a profit was returned, it was smaller than was anticipated. Smith, 
his wife, and his daughters took a warm interest in their tenants, whom for 



Memoir of George Smith xiv 

several winters they entertained at Toynbee Hall, and through many summers 
at their house at Weybridge. Many amusing stories used Smith to report of 
his conversation w^ith his humble guests on these occasions. 

VIII 

In 1882 Smith resolved to embark on a new and final enterprise, which proved 
a fitting crown to his spirited career. In that year there first took shape in 
his mind the scheme of the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' with which 
his name must in future ages be chiefly identified. By his personal efforts, 
by his commercial instinct, by his masculine strength of mind and will, by 
his quickness of perception, and by his industry, he had, before 1882, built up 
a great fortune. But at no point of his life had it been congenial to his 
nature to restrict his activities solely to the accumulation of wealth. Now, 
in 1882, he set his mind upon making a munificent contribution to the literature 
of his country in the character not so much of a publisher seeking profitable 
investment for capital as of an enlightened man of wealth who desired at the 
close of his days to manifest his wish to serve his fellow countrymen and to 
merit their gratitude. On one or two public occasions he defined the motives 
that led him to the undertaking. At first he had contemplated producing a 
cyclopaedia of universal biography ; but his friend Mr. Leslie Stephen, whom he 
took into his confidence, deemed the more limited form which the scheme 
assumed to be alone practicable. Smith was attracted by the notion of producing 
a book which would supply an acknowledged want in the literature of the 
country, and would compete with, or even surpass, works of a similar character 
which were being produced abroad. In foreign countries like encyclopaedic 
work had been executed by means of government subvention or under the 
auspices of state-aided literary academies. Smith's independence of temper 
was always strong, and he was inspirited by the knowledge that he was in 
a position to pursue single-handed an aim in behalf of which government 
organisation had elsewhere been enlisted. It would be diflScult in the 
history of publishing to match the magnanimity of a publisher who made 
up his mind to produce that kind of book for which he had a personal 
liking, to involve himself in vast expense, for the sake of an idea, in what 
he held to be the public interest, without heeding considerations of profit 
or loss. It was in the autumn of 1882 that, after long consultation with 
Mr. Leslie Stephen, its first editor, the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
was begun. Mr. Stephen resigned the editorship c^ the ' Cornhill ' in order 
to devote himself exclusively to the new enterprise. The story of the pro- 
gress of the publication has already been narrated in the ' Statistical Account,' 
prefixed to the sixty-third and last volume of the work, which appeared in 
July 1900. Here it need only be said that the literary result did not disap- 
point Smith's expectations. As each quarterly volume came with unbroken 
punctuality from the press he perused it with an ever-growing admiration, 
and was unsparing in his commendation and encouragement of those who 
were engaged on the literary side of its production. In every detail of the 



xivi Memoir of George Smith 

work's general management he took keen interest and played an active part 
in it from first to last. 

While the ' Dictionary ' was in progress many gratifying proofs were given 
Smith on the part of the public and of the contributors, with whom his 
relations were uniformly cordial, of their appreciation of his patriotic 
endeavour. After he had indulged his characteristically hospitable instincts 
by entertaining them at his house in Park Lane in 1892, they invited him to 
be their guest in 1894 at the Westminster Palace Hotel. Smith, in returning 
thanks, expressed doubt whether a publisher had ever before been enter- 
tained by a distinguished company of authors. In 1895 the university of 
Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree of M.A. Some two years later, 
on 8 July 1897, Smith acted as host to the whole body of writers and some 
distinguished strangers at the Hotel M^tropole, and six days afterwards, on 
14 July 1897, at a meeting of the second international library conference at 
the council chamber in the Guildhall, a congratulatory resolution was, on the 
motion of the late Dr. Justin Winsor, librarian of Harvard, unanimously 
voted to him ' for carrying forward so stupendous a work.' The vote was 
carried amid a scene of stirring enthusiasm. Smith then said that during a 
busy life of more than fifty years no work had afforded him so much interest 
and satisfaction as that .connected with the ' Dictionary.' In May 1900, in 
view of the completion of the great undertaking. King Edward VII (then 
Prince of Wales) honoured with his presence a small dinner party given to 
congratulate Smith upon the auspicious event. Finally, on 30 June 1900, the 
Lord Mayor of London invited him and the editors to a brilliant banquet at 
the Mansion House, which was attended by men of the highest distinction 
in literature and public life. Mr. John Morley, in proposing the chief toast, 
remarked that it was impossible to say too much of the public spirit, the muni- 
ficence, and the clear and persistent way in which Smith had carried out the 
great enterprise. He had not merely inspired a famous literary achievement, 
but had done an act of good citizenship of no ordinary quality or magnitude. 

After 1890 Smith's active direction of affairs at Waterloo Place, except in 
regard to the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' somewhat diminished. 
From 1881 to 1890 his elder son, George Murray Smith, had joined him in the 
publishing business ; in 1890 his younger son, Alexander Murray Smith, came 
in ; and at the end of 1894 Eeginald John Smith, K.C., who had shortly before 
married Smith's youngest daughter, entered the firm. After 1894 Smith left 
the main control of the business in the hands of his son, Alexander Murray 
Smith, and of his son-in-law, Eeginald John Smith, of whom the former 
retired from active partnership early in 1899. Smith still retained the 
* Dictionary ' as his personal property, and until his death his advice and the 
results of his experience were placed freely and constantly at the disposal of 
his partners. His interest in the fortunes of the firm was unabated to the end, 
and he even played anew in his last days his former r6le of adviser in the 
editorial conduct of the ' Comhill Magazine.' The latest writer of repute and 
popularity, whose association with Smith, Elder, & Co. was directly due to 
himself, was Mrs. Humphry Ward, the niece of his old friend Matthew Arnold. 



Memoir of George Smith xivii 

In May 1886 she asked him to undertake the publication of her novel of 
' Eobert Elsmere.' This he readily agreed to do, purchasing the right to issue 
fifteen hundred copies. It appeared in three volumfes early in 1888. The 
work was triumphantly received, and it proved the first of a long succession 
of novels from the same pen which fully maintained the tradition of the 
publishing house in its relations with fiction. Smith followed with great 
sympathy Mrs. Ward's progress in popular opinion, and the cordiality that 
subsisted in her case, both privately and professionally, between author and 
publisher recalled the most agreeable experiences of earlier periods of his long 
career. He paid Mrs. Ward for her later work larger sums than any other 
novelist received from him, and in 1892, on the issue of ' David Grieve,* 
which followed ' Eobert Elsmere,' he made princely terms for her with pub- 
lishers in America. 

In the summer of 1899, when Dr. Fitchett, the Australian writer, was on 
a visit to this country, he persuaded Smith to give him an opportunity of 
recording some of his many interesting reminiscences. The notes made by 
Dr. Fitchett largely deal with the early life, but Smith neither completed nor 
revised them, and they are not in a shape that permits of publication. Frag- 
ments of them formed the basis of four articles which he contributed to the 
' Cornhill Magazine ' in 1900-1.' 

Although in early days the doctors credited Smith with a dangerous weakness 
of the heart and he suffered occasional illness, he habitually enjoyed good 
health till near the end of his life. He was tall and of a well-knit figure, 
retaining to an advanced age the bodily vigour and activity which distinguished 
him in youth. He always attributed his robustness in mature years to the 
constancy of his devotion to his favourite exercise of riding. After 1895 he 
suffered from a troublesome ailment which he bore with great courage and 
cheerfulness, but it was not till the beginning of 1901 that serious alarm was 
felt. An operation became necessary and was successfully performed on 
11 Jan. 1901 at his house in Park Lane. He failed, however, to recover 
strength; but, believing that his convalescence might be hastened by country 
air, he was at his own request removed in March to St. George's Hill, 
Byfleet, near Weybridge, a house which he had rented for a few months. 
After his arrival there he gradually sank, and he died on 6 April. He was 
buried on the 11th in the churchyard at Byfleet. The progress of the 
supplemental volumes of the ' Dictionary,' which were then in course of 
preparation, was constantly in his mind during his last weeks of life, and the 
wishes that he expressed concerning them have been carried out. He 
bequeathed by will the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' to his wife, who 
had throughout their married life been closely identified with all his under- 
takings, and was intimately associated with every interest of his varied career. 

Smith was survived by his wife and all his children. His elder son, George 
Murray Smith, married in 1885 Ellen, youngest daughter of the first Lord 

' The articles were ' In the Early Forties,' November 1900; 'Charlotte Bronte,' Decem- 
ber 1900; 'Our Birth and Parentage,' January 1901; and 'Lawful Pleasures,' February 
1901. He contemplated other papers of the like kind, but did not live to undertake them. 



xiviii Memoir of George Smith 

Belper, and has issue three sons and a daughter. His younger son, Alex- 
ander Murray Smith, who was an active partner of the firm from 1890 to 
1899, married in 1893 Emily Tennyson, daughter of Dr. Bradley, dean of 
Westminster. His eldest daughter married in 1878 Henry Yates Thompson. 
His second daughter is Miss Ethel Murray Smith. His youngest daughter 
married in 1893 Eeginald J. Smith, K.C., who joined the firm of Smith, 
Elder, & Co. at the end of 1894 and has been since 1899 sole active partner. 

IX 

In surveying the whole field of labour that Smith accomplished in his 
more than sixty years of adult life, one is impressed not merely by the amount 
of work that he achieved but by its exceptional variety. In him there were 
combined diverse ambitions and diverse abilities which are rarely found together 
in a single brain. 

On the one hand he was a practical man of business, independent and 
masterful, richly endowed with financial instinct, most methodical, precise, 
and punctual in habits of mind and action. By natural temperament sanguine 
and cheerful, he was keen to entertain new suggestions, but the bold spirit 
of enterprise in him was controlled by a native prudence. In negotiation he 
was resolute yet cautious, and, scorning the pettiness of diplomacy, he was 
always alert to challenge in open fight dishonesty or meanness on the part of 
those with whom he had to transact affairs. Most of his mercantile ventures 
proved brilliant successes ; very few of them went far astray. His triumphs 
caused in him natural elation, but his cool judgment never suffered him to 
delude himself long with false hopes, and when defeat was unmistakable he 
faced it courageously and without repining. Although he was impatient of 
stupidity or carelessness, he was never a harsh taskmaster. He was, indeed, 
scrupulously just and considerate in his dealings with those who worked 
capably and loyally for him, and, being a sound judge of men, seldom had 
grounds for regretting the bestowal of his confidence. 

These valuable characteristics account for only a part of the interest 
attaching to Smith's career. They fail to explain why he should have been 
for half a century not merely one of the chief influences in the country which 
helped literature and art conspicuously to flourish, but the intimate friend, 
counsellor, and social ally of most of the men and women who made the 
lasting literature and art of his time. It would not be accurate to describe 
him as a man of great imagination, or one possessed of literary or artistic 
scholarship ; but it is bare truth to assert that his masculine mind and temper 
were coloured by an intuitive sympathy with the workings of the imagination 
in others; by a gift for distinguishing almost at a glance a good piece of 
literature or art from a bad ; by an innate respect for those who pursued 
intellectual and imaginative ideals rather than mere worldly prosperity. 

No doubt his love for his labours as a publisher was partly due to the 
scope it gave to his speculative propensities, but it was due in a far larger 
degree to the opportunities it offered him of cultivating the intimacy of those 



Memoir of George Smith xiix 

whose attitude to life he whole-heartedly admired. He realised the sen- 
sitiveness of men and women of genius, and there were occasions on which 
he found himself unequal to the strain it imposed on him in his business 
dealings ; but it was his ambition, as far as was practicable, to conciliate it, 
and it was rarely that he failed. He was never really dependent on the 
profits of publishing, and, although he naturally engaged in it on strict 
business principles, he knew how to harmonise such principles with a liberal 
indulgence of the generous impulses which wholly governed his private and 
domestic life. His latest enterprise of the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
was a fitting embodiment of that native magnanimity which was the mainstay 
of his character, and gave its varied manifestations substantial unity. 

[This memoir is partly based on the memoranda, recorded by Dr. Fitchett in 1899, to which 
reference has already been made (p. xlvii), and on the four articles respecting his early life 
which Smith contributed to the ' Cornhill Magazine,' November 1900 to February 1901. 
Valuable information has also been placed at the writer's disposal by Mrs. George M. Smith 
and Mrs. Yates Thompson, who have made many important suggestions. Numerous dates have 
been ascertained or confirmed by an examination of the account-books of Smith, Elder, & Co. 
Mention has already been made of Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bronte, Anthony TroUope's 
Autobiography, Mr. Leslie Stephen's Life of his brother Fitzjames, Matthew Arnold's 'Letters ' 
(ed. G. W. E. Eussell), and other memoirs of authors in which reference is made to Smith. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen contributed an appreciative sketch ' In Memoriam ' to the ' Cornhill 
Magazine ' for May 1901, and a memoir appeared in the ' Times ' of 8 April 1901. Thanks 
are due to Mr. C. E. Eivington, clerk of the Stationers' Company, for extracts from the 
Stationers' Company's Eegisters bearing on the firm's early history,] S. L. 



VOL. I.— SUP. 



V 



c> 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FIRST VOLUME OF THE SUPPLEMENT. 



G. A. A. . . G. A. AiTKEN. 
J. G. A. . . J. G. Alger. 
A. J. A. . . Sir Alexander Arbuthnot, 
K.C.S.I. 

. . Sir Walter Armstrong. 

. . J. B. Atlay. 

. . The Rev. Ronald Bayne. 

. . Thomas Bayne. 

. . Professor T. Hudson Beare. 

. . F. E. Beddard, F.R.S. 

. . Professor Cecil Bendall. 

. . H. Beveridge. 

B. The Rev. H. E. D. Blakiston. 

. . The Rev. Canon Bonney, F.R.S. 

. . G. S. Boulger. 

. . T. B. Browning. 

. • The Rev. A. R. Buckland 



W. A. . . 
J. B. A. 
R. B. . . 
T. B. . . 
T. H. B. 

F. E. B. 
C. B. . . 
H. B-E. . 
H. E. D, 
T. G. B. 

G. S. B. 
T. B. B. 
A. R. B. 
E. A. W. 

E. L C. . 

W. C-R. 

E. C-E. . 
A. M. C. 
T. C. . . 
J. S. C. . 

w. p. c. 

L. C. . . 
H. D. . . 



B. E. A. Wallis Budge, Litt.D. 
F.S.A. 

. . E. Irving Carlyle. 

. . William Carr. 

. . Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. 

. . Miss A. M. Clerke. 

. . Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

. . J. S. Cotton. 

. . W. P. Courtney. 

. . Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

. . Henry Davey. 



CD.... 


. Campbell Dodgson. 


R. K. D. . 


. Professor R. K. Douglas. 


J. D-E. . . 


. James Dredge, C.M.G. 


M. G. D. . 


. The Right Hon. Sir Mount- 




STUART Grant Duff, G.C.S.I 


F. G. E. . 


. F. G. Edwards. 


C. L. F. . 


. C. Litton Falkiner. 


C. H. F. . 


. C. H. Firth. 


W. Y. F. . 


. W. Y. Fletcher. 


A. R. F. . 


. Professor A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S 


D. W. F. . 


. Douglas Freshfield. 


R. G. . . . 


. Richard Garnett, LL.D., C.B. 


A, G-E.. . 


. Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 


A. G. . . . 


. The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 


E. G. . . . 


. Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 


H. P. G. . 


. The Rev. H. P. Gurney, 




D.C.L. 


J. C. H. . 


. J. Cuthbert Hadden. 


A. H-N. . 


. Arthur Harden, Ph.D. 


C. A. H. . 


. C. Alexander Harris, C.M.G. 


P. J. H. . 


. P. J. Hartog. 


C. E. H. . 


. C. E. Hughes. 


W. H.. . . 


. The Rev. William Hunt. 


F. V. J. . 


. F. V. James. 


T. B. J. 


. . The Rev. T. B. Johnstone. 


J. K. . . 


. Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 


J. K. L. 


. Professor J. K. Laughton. 


T. G. L. 


. T. G. Law, LL.D. 



lii 


List of Writers 


to 


Volume I 


. — Supplement. 


W. J. L. 


. . W. J. Lawrence. 






G, w. p. . 


G. "W. Prothero, LL.D. 


1. S. L. . 


. . I. S. Leadam. 






E. R 


Ernest Radford. 


E. L. . . 


. . Miss Elizabeth Lee. 






F. R 


Eraser Rae. 


S. L. . . 


. . Sidney Lee. 






W. P. R. . 


The Hon. W. P. Reeves. 


E. M. L. 


. . Colonel E. M. Lloyd, 


R.E. 




S. J. R. . . 


Stuart J. Reid. 


J. R. M. 


. . J. R. Macdonald. 






J. M. R. . 


J. M. RiGG. 


M. M.. . 


. . Sheeiff Mackay, K.C. 






T. S. ... 


Thomas Seccombe. 


E. H. M. 


. . E. H. Maeshall. 






C. F. S. . . 


Miss C. Fell Smith. 


T. M. . . 


. . Sir Theodore Martin, 


K.C.B., 


H. S-N. . . 


Sir Herbert Stephen, Bart. 




K.C.V.O. 






F. G. S. . 


F. G. Stephens. 


A. J. M. 


. . Canon A. J. Mason, D.D. 




C. W. S. . . 


C. W. Sutton. 


L. M. M. 


. . Miss Middleton. 






H. R. T. . 


H. R. Tedder, F.S.A. 


CM... 


. . The late Cosmo Monkhouse 




D. Ll. T. . 


D. Lleufee Thomas. 


N. M. . . 


. . Norman Moore, M.D. 






R. H. V. . . 


Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E.,C.B. 


J. B. N. 


. . J. B. NiAS. 






T. H. W. . 


T. Humphry Ward. 


G. Le G. 


N. G. Le Grys Norgate. 






P. W. . . . 


Paul Waterhouse. 


F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DoNOGHUE. 






W. W. W. 


. Major W. W. Webb, M.D., 


G. P. . . 


. . The Hon. George Peel 








F.S.A. 


A. F. P. 


. . A. F. Pollard. 






B. B. W. . 


B. B. Woodward. 


D'A. P. . 


. . D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 






W. W. . . . 


Warwick Wroth, F.S.A. 



A full Index to the Dictionary, including the Supplement, is 
preparation. The names of articles appearing both in the substantive 
work and in the Supplement will be set forth there in a single alphabet 
with precise references to volume and page. 

The tbllowin;? are some of the chief articles in this vohnue : 



in J^^ 



Sib Henky Wentwokth Aclaxd, Physician, 

by Mr. D'Arcy Power. 
John Couch Adams, Astronomer, by Miss 

A. M. Gierke. 
Alfred, Duke ok Edinburgh and Saxe 

COBURG, by Professor J. K. Laughton. 
Grant Allen, by Mr. J. S. Cotton. 
Loud Armstrong, by the Rev. H. P. Gurney, 

D.C.L. 
Matthew Arnold, bv Dr. Richard Garnett, 

C.B., LL.D. 
John Ball, the Alpine Traveller, by Mr. 

Douglas Freshfield. 
Aubrey Beardsley, by Sir Walter Armstrong. 
Archbishop Benson, by the Rev. Canon 

Mason, D.D. 
Sir Henry Bessemer, by Mr. James Dredge, 

C.M.G. 
George Charles Bingham, third Earl of 

Lucan, Field .Marshal, by Colonel E. M. 

Lloyd. 
Samuel Birch, Egyptologist, by Dr. VVallis 

Budge. 
Richard D. Blackmore, Novelist, by Mr. 

Stuart J. Reid. 



Mrs. Catherine Booth, 'Mother' of the 

Salvation Army, by the Rev. Ronald 

Bayne. 
Lord BOwen, by Sir Herbert Stephen, Bart. 
Charles Bradlaugh, by Mr. J. R. Mac- 

donald. 
John Bright, by Mr. I. S. Leadam. 
Ford Madox P)UO\vs, Painter, by .Mr. F. G. 

Stephens. 
Robert Browning, by Mr. Edmund Gosse. 
Henry Austin Bruce, tirst Lord Aberdare, 

by Sir Mountstuart Grant-Duff, G.C.S.I. 
Edward Burne .Jones, by Mr. T. 

Humphry Ward. 
Frederic Burton, Director of the 

National Gallery, by Sir Theodore Martin, 

K.C.B., K.C.V.O. 
Sir Richard Burton, Author and Scholar, 

by Mr. J. S. Cotton. 
George Douglas Campbell, eighth Duke 

of Argyll, by the Hon. George Peel (with 

an estimate of the Duke's scientific work 

by Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.). 
Arthur Cayley, Mathematician, by Pro- 

fes.sor A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S. 



Sir 



Sir 



I. 1 Supplement. 



^/ 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



SUPPLEMENT 



Abbott 



Abbott 



ABBOTT, AUGUSTUS (1804-1867), 
major-general royal (late Bengal) artillery, 
eldest of five sons of Henry Alexius Abbott 
of Blackheath, Kent, a retired Calcutta mer- 
chant, and of his wife Margaret, daughter of 
William Welsh of Edinburgh, N.B., writer 
to the signet, and granddaughter of Captain 
Gascoyne, a direct descendant of Sir Wil- 
liam Gascoigne (1350-1419) [q.v.], was born 
in London on 7 Jan. 1804. He was elder 
brother of Sir Frederick Abbott [q. v. Suppl.] 
and of Sir James Abbott [q.v. Suppl.] 

The fourth brother, Saundeks Alexius 
Abbott (t?. 1894), was a major-general in 
the Bengal army. He received the medal 
and clasp for the battles of Mudki and Firoz- 
shah, where he distinguished himself and 
was severely wounded. He served with dis- 
tinction in civil government appointments in 
the Punjab and Oude, and after his retire- 
ment in 1863 was agent at Lahore for the 
Sind, Punjab, and Delhi railway, and after- 
wards on the board of direction at home. 
He died at Brighton on 7 Feb. 1894. 

The youngest brother, Keith Edwaed 
Abbott (d. 1873), was consul-general at 
Tabriz in Persia, and afterwards at Odessa, 
■where he died in 1873. He had received 
the order of the Lion and the Sun from the 
•shah of Persia. 

Educated at Warfield, Berkshire, under 
Dr. Faithfull, and at Winchester College, 
Augustus passed through the military col- 
lege of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe, and went to India, receiving a com- 
mission as second lieutenant in the Bengal 
artillery on 16 April 1819. His further com- 

VOL. I.— SUP. 



missions were dated : first lieutenant 7 Aug. 

1821, brevet captain 16 April 1834, captain 
10 May 1835, brevet major 4 Oct. 1842, major 
3 July 1845, lieutenant-colonel 16 June 1848, 
colonel 14 Nov. 1858, colonel-commandant 
Bengal artillery 18 June 1858, and major- 
general 30 Dec. 1859. 

Abbott's first service in the field was at 
the fort of Bakhara in Malwa, in December 

1822. In the siege of Bhartpur in Decem- 
ber 1825 and January 1826 he commanded 
a battery of two eighteen-pounder guns, 
built on the counterscarp of the ditch at the 
north angle, which he held for three weeks 
without relief. He was commended by Lord 
Combermere, and received the medal and 
prize money. On 11 Oct. 1827 he was ap- 
pointed adjutant of the Karnal division of 
artillery. In 1833-4 he served against the 
forts of Shekawati, returning to Karnal. 

On 6 Aug. 1838 Abbott was given the 
command of a camel battery, and joined the 
army of the Indus under Sir John (after- 
wards Lord) Keane for the invasion of 
Afghanistan. He commanded his battery 
throughout the march by the Bolan pass to 
Kandahar, at the assault and capture of 
Ghazni on 23 July 1839, and at the occupa- 
tion of Kabul on 7 Aug. He was mentioned 
in despatches (^London Gazette, 30 Oct. 1839), 
and received the medal for Ghazni, and, from 
the shah Shuja, the third class of the order 
of the Durani empire. The camels of his 
battery having given out were replaced by 
galloways of the country, and he accom- 
panied Lieutenant-colonel Orchard, C.B., to 
the attack of Pashut, fifty miles to the north- 



Abbott 



Abbott 



east of Jalalabad. The fort was captured 
on 18 Jan. 1840, and Abbott was Highly 
commended in Orchard's despatch {Calcutta 
Gazette, 15 Feb. 1840). He took part in 
the expedition into Kohlstan under Briga- 
dier-general (afterwards Sir) Robert Henry 
Sale [q.v.]' "^^^ attributed his success in the 
assault and capture, on 29 Sept., of the fort 
and town of Tutamdara, at the entrance of 
the Ghoraband pass, to the excellent prac- 
tice made by Abbott's guns. On 3 Oct. 
Abbott distinguished himself at the unsuc- 
cessful atack on Jalgah, and was mentioned 
in despatches as meriting Sale's warmest ap- 
probation (London Gazette, 9 Jan. 1841). 
On 2 Nov. 1840 Dost Muhammad was brought 
to bay at Parwandara, and Sale's despatch 
relates that a force of infantry, supported by 
Abbott's battery, cleared the pass and valley 
of Parwan, crowded with Afghans, in bril- 
Hant style {ib. 12 Feb. 1841). 

In September 1841 Abbott was employed 
in an expedition into Zurmat under Colonel 
Oliver. He crossed a pass 9,600 feet above 
the sea, and, after the forts were blown up, 
returned to Kabul on 19 Oct., in time to 
join Sale in his march to Jalalabad. Abbott 
commanded the artillery in the actions at 
Tezin and in the Jagdalak pass, where he 
led the advanced guard {ib. 11 Feb. 1842). 
Sale occupied Jalalabad on 13 Nov., and 
Abbott commanded the artillery during the 
siege. He took part in the sally under Colonel 
Dennie on 1 Dec, when he pushed his guns 
at a gallop to a point which commanded the 
stream, and completed the defeat of the 
enemy. He drove off the enemy on 22 Feb. 
and again on 11 March 1842, when he was 
slightly wounded. He commanded the artil- 
lery in the battle of Jalalabad on 7 April, 
when Akbar Khan was defeated and the siege 
raised. He was most favourably mentioned 
in Sale's despatches, and recommended for 
some mark of honour and for brevet rank 
(ib. 7 and 10 June, and 9 Aug. 1842). 

After the arrival at Jalalabad of Sir 
George Pollock [q.v.], to whose force Abbott 
had already been appointed commandant of 
artillery, Abbott accompanied Brigadier- 
general Monteath's column against the Shin- 
waris. The column destroyed the forts and 
villages, and on 26 July, by the accurate 
fire of Abbott's guns, was enabled to gain 
the action of Mazina. Abbott was thanked 
in despatches {ib. 11 Oct. 1842). He again 
distinguished himself in the actions of Mamu 
Khel and Kuchli Khel on 24 Aug., at the 
forcing of the Jagdalak pass on 8 Sept., and 
at the battles of Tezin and the Haft Kotal 
on 12 and 13 Sept., when he was hotly en- 
gaged and Akbar Khan was finally defeated. 



Kabul was occupied two days later. For 
these services he was mentioned in despatches 
{ib. 8 and 24 Nov. 1842). Abbott returned 
to India with the army, and as one of the 
' illustrious ' garrison of Jalalabad was wel- 
comed by the governor-general, Lord Ellen- 
borough, at Firozpur on 17 Dec. He re- 
ceived the medals for Jalalabad and Kabul, 
was made a C.B. on 4 Oct. 1842, and was 
appointed honorary aide-de-camp to the go- 
vernor-general, a distinction which was con- 
ferred on him by three succeeding governors- 
general. An order was issued that the guns 
of his battery should be inscribed with the 
name 'Jalalabad,' and that they should be 
always retained in the same battery. 

In 1865 Abbott succeeded to the office of 
inspector-general of ordnance, and in 1858 to 
the command of the Bengal artillery. He 
was a member of the committee which re- 
ported on the defences of Firozpur. Ill- 
health compelled him to return home in 
1859. He died at Cheltenham on 25 Feb. 
1867. 

Abbott married, in 1843, Sophia Frances, 
daughter of Captain John Garstin of the 66th 
and 88th regiments, by whom he had, with 
four daughters, three sons, all of whom fol- 
lowed military careers. The eldest, Augus- 
tus Keith {b. 1844), was major Indian staff' 
corps ; the second, William Henry {b. 1845), 
major-general, commanded Munster fusiliers ; 
and the youngest, Henry Alexius {b. 1849), 
is colonel Indian staff" corps and C.B., com- 
manding Malakand brigade. 

Abbott was considered by Sir George Pol- 
lock to be the finest artilleryman in India, 
and Lord Ellenborough caused his name to 
be inscribed on the monument erected in the 
garden of Southam House to commemorate 
the services of those to whom he was espe- 
cially indebted for the success of his Indian 
administration. 

On Abbott's journal and correspondence 
Mr. C. R. Low based the history of ' The 
Afghan War, 1838-42,' which was published 
in 1879. 

[The Afghan War, 1838-42, from the Journal 
and Correspondence of Major-general Augustus 
Abbott, by C. K. Low, 1879 ; India Office Ee- 
cords ; Koyal Engineers Journal, 1893; Profes- 
sional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers, 
1879 ; Stubbs's History of the Bengal Artillery ; 
Vibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes and Men of 
Note ; Stocqueler's Memorials of Afghanistan ; 
Kaye's History of the War in Afghanistan ; Tlie 
Career of Major G. Broadfoot; Havelock's Nar- 
rative of the War in Afghanistan ; Gleig's Sale's 
Brigade in Afghanistan, with an Account of the 
Seizure and Defence of Jalalabad ; Geographical 
Journal, 1894; private sources.] E. H. V. 



Abbott 



Abbott 



ABBOTT, Sir FREDERICK (1805- 
1892), major-general royal (late Bengal) 
engineers, second son of Henry Alexius 
Abbott, and brother of Augustus and Sir 
James Abbott, who are separately noticed 
[Suppl.], was born on 13 June 1805 at 
Littlecourt, near Buntingford, Hertford- 
shire. Educated at Warfield, Berkshire, 
under Dr. Faithfull, and at the military col- 
lege of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe, he received his first commission in 
the Bengal engineers in 1823. His further 
commissions were dated : lieutenant 1 May 

1824, captain 10 July 1832, brevet major 
23 Dec. 1842, major 8 Nov. 1843, brevet 
lieutenant-colonel 19 June 1846, lieutenant- 
colonel 11 Nov. 1846, colonel 20 June 
1854, and major-general 10 Sept. 1858. 

After the usual course of professional in- 
struction at Chatham, Abbott arrived in 
India on 29 Dec. 1823. He was posted to 
the sappers and miners on 28 Feb. 1824, and 
appointed assistant field-engineer under Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir) John Cheape [q. v.] in 
the force under Sir Archibald Campbell in 
the first Burmese war. He was made adju- 
tant to the sappers and miners on 12 Nov. 

1825, and held the appointment until 17 April 

1826, He went through the whole cam- 
paign, and particularly distinguished himself 
in the attack and capture of the heights of 
Napadi, near Prome, on 2 Dec. 1825, when 
he led storming parties in the assaults on 
three stockades in succession, and was men- 
tioned by Campbell in despatches {London 
Gazette, 25 April 1826). 

When the Burmese war was over, Abbott 
was employed in the public works depart- 
ment at Bardwan, Cawnpore, Karnal, and 
elsewhere. He married in 1835, and went 
home on furlough in 1838. On his way back 
to India in 1840 he was shipwrecked at the 
Mauritius. He arrived at Calcutta on 25 Dec. 
1840, and in June 1841 became garrison en- 
gineer and barrack master at Fort William, 
and civil architect at the presidency. 

On 23 Feb. 1842 he was appointed chief 
engineer of the ' Army of Retribution ' under 
Major-general (afterwards Field-marshal Sir) 
George Pollock [q.v.], sent to relieve the 
garrison of Jalalabad, where Abbott's bro- 
ther Augustus [q. v.] commanded the artil- 
lery, and to restore the prestige of British 
arms in Afghanistan. Abbott took part in 
forcing the Khaibar pass on 5 April, but by 
the time Pollock arrived at Jalalabad the 
garrison had relieved itself by its victorious 
action of 7 April with Akbar Khan. Abbott 
was engaged in the attack and capture of 
the fortified villages of Mamu Khel and 
Kuchli Khel on 24 Aug., in forcing the 



Jagdalak pass on 8 Sept., in the actions of 
Tezin and the Haft Kotal on 12 and 13 Sept., 
and in the occupation of Kabul on 15 Sept. 
For his services on these occasions he was 
favourably mentioned in despatches {ib. 
8 and 24 Nov. 1842). Much against his 
will he superintended the destruction of the 
celebrated covered bazaar and the beautiful 
mosque at Kabul, where the body of Sir 
William Hay Macnaghten [q. v.] had been 
exposed to Afghan indignities. Abbott made 
interesting reports on these demolitions and 
on the cantonments of Kabul. For his ser- 
vices in the campaign he received the medal 
and a brevet majority. 

Abbott resumed his post of superintending 
engineer of the north-west provinces on 
30 Dec. 1842, On the outbreak of the first 
Sikh war he was called away again on active 
service on 1 Jan. 1846 to serve in the army 
of the Satlaj. He was placed in charge 
of the military bridging establishment, and 
acted also as aide-de-camp to Sir Henry 
Hardinge, the governor-general, from whom 
he carried confidential despatches to the com- 
mander-in-chief. Sir Hugh Gough, on 7 Feb. 
He took part in the battle of Sobraon on the 
10th. He obtained great credit for the 
rapidity with which he bridged the Satlaj 
after the battle, and enabled the army with 
its siege-train and enormous baggage-train 
to enter the Punjab and advance on Lahore. 
He was mentioned most favourably in des- 
patches, received the medal and a brevet 
lieutenant-colonelcy, and was made a com- 
panion of the order of the Bath, military 
division, on 27 June 1846. On his retire- 
ment from the active list on 1 Dec. 1847 his 
reports on public works continued to be text- 
books by which subsequent operations were 
regulated. 

In 1851 Abbott succeeded Major-general 
Sir Ephraim Gerish Stannus [q. v.] as lieu- 
tenant-governor of the military college of 
the East India Company at Addiscombe. 
He was knighted in 1854. On the amalga- 
mation of the East India and royal services 
in 1861 Addiscombe College was closed, and 
Abbott's appointment ceased. He was a 
member of the royal commission of 1859, 
presided over by Sir Harry David Jones 
fq. v.], on the defences of the United King- 
dom, and in 1866 he was a member of a 
committee to inquire into the organisation 
of the royal engineer establishment at Chat- 
ham. He was also a member of the council 
of military education, but resigned this ap- 
pointment in 1868. He devoted his spare 
time to microscopical investigations and the 
study of polarisation of light. He died at 
Bournemouth on 4 Nov. 1892. 

b2 



Abbott 



Abbott 



Abbott married, on 14 Feb, 1835, in India, 
Frances, daughter of Lieutenant-colonel Cox, 
royal artillery, and widow of Lieutenant- 
colonel H. de Burgh of the Bengal cavalry ; 
his wife and daughter predeceased him. 

[India Office Kecords ; Despatches ; Royal 
Engineers' Eeeords ; Royal Engineers Journal, 
1893 (obituary notice by Major Broadfoot, 
E.E.); London Times, 7 Nov. 1892; Porter's 
History of the Corps of Royal Engineers; 
Vibart's Addiscombe (portrait) ; Low's Life of Sir 
George Pollock ; Kaye's History of the War in 
Afghanistan; Gleig's Sale's Brigade in Afghani- 
stan ; Stocqueler's Memorials of Afghanistan ; 
Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal En- 
gineers, 1879 ; private sources.] R. H. V. 

ABBOTT, SiE JAMES (1807-1896), 
general, colonel-commandant royal (late 
Bengal) artillery, third son of Henry Alexius 
Abbott, and brother of Augustus and Sir 
Frederick Abbott, both of whom are noticed 
above, was born on 12 March 1807. He 
was educated at Blackheath, where one of his 
schoolfellows was Benjamin Disraeli (after- 
wards Earl of Beaconsfield). After passing 
through the military college of the East 
India Company at Addiscombe, Abbott re- 
ceived a commission as second lieutenant in 
the Bengal artillery on 6 June 1823. His 
further commissions were dated : first lieu- 
tenant 28 Sept. 1827, brevet captain 6 June 
1838, captain 4 Aug. 1841, brevet major 
7 June 1849, lieutenant-colonel 4 July 1857, 
brevet colonel 28 Nov. 1857, colonel 18 Feb. 
1861, major-general 19 June 1866, lieute- 
nant-general and colonel-commandant royal 
artillery 27 Feb. 1877, and general 1 Oct. 
1877. 

Abbott arrived in India on 29 Dec. 1823. 
His first active service was at the second 
siege of Bhartpur, under Lord Combermere, 
in December 1825 and January 1826, when 
he served in the second company (com- 
manded by his brother Augustus) of the first 
battalion of foot artillery, and took part in 
the assault and capture of the fortress on 
18 Jan., receiving the medal. He was ap- 
pointed adjutant of the Sirhind division of 
artillery on 21 Sept. 1827. From October 
1835 he was employed in the revenue survey 
of Gorakpur until 8 Aug. 1836, when he 
was placed in charge of the revenue survey 
of Bareli, and was highly commended by 
the deputy surveyor-general for his good 
work. 

In November 1838 Abbott joined the 
army of the Indus, under Sir John (after- 
wards Lord) Keane [q. v.], for the invasion 
of Afghanistan, and marched with it through 
the Bolan pass to Kandahar, where he 
arrived in April 1839, and received fromthe 



amir the third class of the order of the 
Durani empire. In July he accompanied 
Major Elliott D'Arcy Todd [q. v.] as assistant 
political officer in his mission to Herat. On 
29 Dec. 1839 he was sent by Todd to the 
court of Khiva, at a time when the Russian 
general Peroffski was advancing on Khiva 
for the ostensible purpose of negotiating with 
the khan, Hazrat of Khiva, for the release of 
Russian captives detained in slavery by him. 
Abbott, at the earnest entreaty of the khan, 
undertook to visit the Russian court, bearing 
the khan's oifer to liberate all Russian cap- 
tives. He set out by the Mangh Kishlat 
route, under the escort of Hassan Mhatur, 
chief of the Chaodur Turkomans, but on 
reaching the Caspian Sea found that no boats 
had been provided. His small party was 
treacherously attacked on the night 1 of 
22 April 1840 by Kazaks. Abbott escaped 
with his life, but was severely beaten with 
clubs and his right hand injured by a sabre 
cut. His property was plundered, and he 
and his party remained for eighteen days 
prisoners in the tents of the Kazaks, until 
the Akhunzada arrived from Khiva to his 
relief with an escort, and conducted him to 
Novo AlexandrofT. He then crossed the 
Caspian, and proceeded by Orenburg and 
Moscow to St. Petersburg, where he com- 
pleted the negotiations, and arrived in Eng- 
land in August. He received the thanks of 
Lord Palmerston, secretary for foreign affairs, 
for his conduct of the mission, and in 1843 
a pension for the injuries he had received at 
the Caspian. An account of his journey 
was published in the 'Asiatic Journal' of 
July 1843. 

Abbott returned to India in September 
1841, and was appointed second in com- 
mand of the Mairwara local battalion and 
assistant to Captain Dixon, the superinten- 
dent of Mairwara. In 1842 he was appointed 
assistant to the resident at Indore, with 
charge of Nimar, and in 1845 commissioner 
of Hazara. During his rule Hazara rose 
from desolation to prosperity. When Chatar 
Singh, the Sikh chief of Hazara, declared for 
Mulraj of Multan in 1848 and the second 
Sikh war broke out, Abbott had 'gained 
such an influence over the inhabitants of 
the province that he could do whatever he 
pleased with a race whom the Sikhs could 
never control ' (governor-general to secret 
committee, 7 Sept. 1848). He used his in- 
fluence to raise the whole population, and 
after many small affairs remained master of 
the district and of nearly all the forts. He 
drilled the raw levies of the mountaineers, 
and though he was for several months cut 
off from all communications with British 



Abbott 



Abbott 



troops, he baffled the superior forces of the 
Chatar Singh, and occupied with iifteen 
hundred matchlockmen the Marquella pass, 
and hehl at bay sixteen thousand Sikh troops 
and two thousand Afghan horse who were 
preparing to cross. When the battle of 
Gujrat,on 11 Feb. 1849, terminated the war, 
Abbott was still in his position at Nara, 
which he had held while twenty thousand 
Sikhs and Afghans were encamped within 
sight. For his services Abbott received the 
thanks of the governor-general of India in 
council, and of both British houses of par- 
liament, the medal with clasps, and a brevet 
majority. 

Abbott continued to rule in Hazara. In 
December 1852 he commanded the centre 
column of the successful expedition into the 
Black Mountains, destined to punish the 
Hasanzais for the murder of Messrs. Carne 
and Tapp, collectors of the salt tax. For 
his services he received the medal. He left 
Hazara in 1853, after entertaining the in- 
habitants on the Nara hill for three days and 
three nights. He spent all his substance on 
them and left with a month's pay in his 
pocket. Abbottabad, named after him, is a 
permanent memorial of his work in that 
country. He was made a companion of the 
order of the Bath, military division, on 24 May 
1873, and a knight commander on 26 May 
1894. Abbott retired from the active list on 
1 Oct. 1877, and died at Ellerslie, Hyde, Isle 
of Wight, on 6 Oct. 1896. He married : (1) 
at Calcutta, in February 1844, Margaret Anne 
Harriet {d. 1845), eldest daughter of John 
Hutchison Fergusson of Trochraigne, near 
Girvan, Ayrshire, by whom he had a daugh- 
ter Margaret H. A. Fergusson-Abbott ; (2) in 
May 1868, Anna Matilda {d. 1870), youngest 
daughter of Major Reymond de Montmo- 
rency of the Indian army, by whom he had 
a son, James Reymond de Montmorency 
Abbott. 

Abbott had both poetical feeling and lite- 
rary ability. He was the author of the fol- 
lowing works: 1. 'The T'llakoorine, a Tale 
of Maandoo,' London, 1841, 8vo. 2. 'Nar- 
rative of a Journey from Heraut to Khiva, 
Moscow, and St. Petersburgh, during the 
late Russian Invasion of Khiva, with some 
Account of the Court of Khiva and the 
Kingdom of Khaurism,' London, 1843, 2 vols. 
Svo ; 2nd edit., with considerable additions, 
1856; 3rd edit. 1884. 3. ' Prometheus's 
Daughter : a Poem,' London, 1861, 8vo. 

[India Office Kecords ; Despatches ; Times, 
8 Oct. 1896; Vibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes 
and Men of Note ; Stubbs's History of the Ben- 
gal Artillery; Kaye's History of the War in 
Afghanistan ; Kaye's Lives of Indian Officers ; 



Royal Engineers Journal, 1893; The Afghan 
War, 1838-42, from the Journal and Correspon- 
dence of Major-general Augustus Abbott, by 
C. R. Low, 1879 ; The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars, 
by Gough and Innes, 1897 ; private sources.] 

R. H. V. 

ABBOTT, SiK JOHN JOSEPH CALD- 
WELL (1821-1893), premier of Canada, 
was born at St. Andrew's, in the county of 
Argenteuil, Lower Canada, on 12 March. 
1821. 

His father, Joseph Abbott (1789-1863), 
missionary, born in Cumberland in 1789, 
went to Canada as a missionary in 1818, 
became the first Anglican incumbent of St. 
Andrew's, and is still favourably known by 
his story of ' Philip Musgrave ' (1846). He 
died in Montreal in January 1863. He mar- 
ried Harriet, daughter of Richard Bradford, 
the first rector of Chatham in the county of 
Argenteuil. 

His eldest son, John Joseph, was educated 
privately at St. Andrew's, removed to Mont- 
real at an early age, and entered McGill 
University. He took the degree of B.C.L. 
in 1847. Throughout his life he maintained 
a close connection with the university, hold- 
ing the position of dean in the faculty of 
law for several years, and becoming subse- 
quently one of the governors. He received 
in his later life the honorary degree of D.C.L. 

Abbott was received as advocate at the 
bar of Montreal in October 1847, devoting 
his attention to commercial law. In 1862 
he was made queen's counsel. He was ap- 
pointed solicitor and standing counsel for 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in 
1880, and became director in 1887. 

In company with the Redpaths, Molsons, 
Torrances, and others, Abbott signed in 1849 
the Annexation Manifesto, the promoters of 
which expressed a wish that Canada should 
join the United States. But apart from this 
temporary ebullition of discontent his essen- 
tial loyalty was never doubtful. On the 
rumour of the Trent affair in 1861 he raised a 
body of three hundred men called the ' Ar- 
genteuil Rangers ' (now the 11th battalion 
of militia), proffered his services to the 
government, and was employed in patrolling 
the frontier. He was afterwards commis- 
sioned as lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. 

In 1857 he contested the representation 
of his native county of Argenteuil. He 
was not returned but claimed the seat and, 
after an investigation that lasted two years, 
obtained and held it until 1874. In 1860 he 
published the proceedings under the title of 
' The Argenteuil Election Case.' It gives a 
vivid picture of the ways of election com- 
mittees in old Canada, and of the shifts 



Abbott 



Abbott 



common at the polls. In 1862 he entered 
as solicitor-general east the (Sandfield) Mac- 
donald-Sicotte government, a liberal ad- 
ministration which adopted as its principle 
a somewhat peculiar phase of parliamentary- 
development known as 'the double majority.' 
This meant that, inasmuch as the Union Act 
of 1841 gave equal representation to Upper 
and Lower Canada, and the equality itself 
was founded on practical as well as on histo- 
rical and racial grounds, no ministry should 
be satisfied with the confidence merely of 
the whole house ; it must command a majo- 
rity from each section of the province. The 
device was found to be unworkable, and the 
ministry was defeated in 1863, within a year 
of its formation. The house was thereupon 
dissolved, the cabinet reformed, and the pro- 
gramme recast. In the recasting the ' double 
majority ' was abandoned, and hopes were 
held out that the representation problem 
would be solved on the basis of population 
merely. This change brought about the re- 
tirement both of Sicotte, the French-Cana- 
dian leader, and of Abbott, who was the 
ministerial representative for the English of 
Lower Canada. From this time forth he 
leaned to the conservatives. When the issue 
of confederation arose in 1865 he joined 
them openly. 

Short as was his term of office, it was by 
no means unfruitful. He introduced the 
use of stamps in the payment of judicial 
and registration fees in Lower Canada, a 
reform much needed at the time ; he con- 
solidated and remodelled the jury law, which 
obtains in Quebec to-day almost as he left 
it ; he drafted and carried through the house 
an act respecting insolvency, which is the 
foundation of Canadian jurisprudence on 
that subject. His object was to fuse into a 
consistent whole the leading principles of 
English, French, and Scottish law on the 
question, and his attempt is generally re- 
garded as a success. The year following he 
published ' The Insolvent Act of 1864,' with 
notes to show the general framework of the 
statute, the sources of its provisions, their 
juridical harmony and bearing. 

In 1873 Abbott's name figured largely in 
what is called the 'Pacific Scandal.' A 
year earlier he had become fellow-director 
with Sir Hugh Allan in the first project to 
build the Canada Pacific Railway. As the 
elections were at hand Sir Hugh undertook 
to advance certain sums to the conservative 
leaders, and disbursed the money through 
Abbott, then his confidential adviser. The 
total amount acknowledged to have been 
thus received and spent exceeded 25,000/. 
After the elections, which were favourable 



to the conservatives, copies of correspon- 
dence and vouchers regarding the moneys 
came into the hands of the opposition through 
a clerk in Abbott's office, who absconded 
shortly afterwards. The house declined to 
accept the explanation that these sums were 
used in a strictly honourable if not legal 
way, and forced the government to resign. 
On appeal to the constituencies in 1874, the 
conservatives were utterly routed. Abbott 
was returned for his old constituency, but 
was afterwards unseated on the petition of 
Dr. Christie. Four years later, in 1878, he 
was again a candidate, and, though defeated, 
managed to upset the election. In the next 
appeal, 1880, he had a majority, but the re- 
turn was set aside once more. A new elec- 
tion was held in 1881. This time he received 
an overwhelming vote. He was then left 
in undisturbed possession of Argenteuil till 
1887, when he was summoned to the senate. 

His chief legislative work during these 
years had reference to banking ; his principal 
public employment was as delegate to Eng- 
land in connection with the dismissal of 
Mr. Letellier de St.-Just from the position 
of lieutenant-governor of Quebec. The lieu- 
tenant-governor's action in dismissing his 
local advisers had been pronounced uncon- 
stitutional by both branches of the Canadian 
legislature, and the Dominion cabinet there- 
upon recommended his removal. At the in- 
stance of the Marquis of Lome, the governor- 
general, the question was referred to Eng- 
land. Abbott succeeded in his mission of 
securing the home government's assent to 
the dismissal, and the advice of the Domi- 
nion cabinet was accepted by the governor- 
general. From 1887 to 1889 Abbott was , 
mayor of Montreal. 

He sat in the senate for the division of 
Inkerman in Quebec, his summons bearing 
date 13 May 1887. At the same time he 
was sworn of the Canadian privy council, 
and became a member of the cabinet of Sir 
John Alexander Macdonald [q. v.], without 
portfolio. Until the death of Macdonald in 
1891 he acted as the exponent of the govern- 
ment's policy in the upper house. As Sir 
John Sparrow David Thompson [q. v.] de- 
clined to accept the premiership on Mac- 
donald's death, Abbott was prevailed on to 
take it with the post of president of the 
council, the other cabinet members retaining 
their portfolios (June 1891). He was then 
in his seventy-first year and in declining 
health ; on the other hand, the troubles of 
the ministry were deepening day by day, 
particularly in connection with the Mani- 
toba school question. He found the burden 
more than he could bear, and resigned office. 



A Beckett 



A Beckett 



on 5 Dec. 1892. Retiring into private life, 
he sought in vain restoration to health by 
foreign travel. On 24 May 1892 he was 
nominated K.C.M.G. He died at Montreal 
on 30 Oct, 1893. In 1849 he married Mary, 
daughter of the Very Eev. T. Bethune of 
Montreal. 

[Dent's Canadian Port. Gall. iii. 229 ; Dent's 
Last Forty Years, ii. 423-30, 479, 526-8, 534 ; 
Keport of Royal Commission, Canada, 17 Ocr. 
1873 ; Can. Sess. Papers (1879), Letellier Case; 
Morgan's Dom. Ann. Reg. (1879) ; Todd's Pari. 
Govt, in Col. pp. 601-20, 665 ; Cote's Pol. Ap- 
pointments, pp. 25, 68, 171 ; Gemmill's Pari. 
Companion (1892); Toronto Globe, 31 Oct. and 
2 iSov. 1893.] T. B. B. 

A BECKETT, GILBERT ARTHUR 

(1837-1891), writer for ' Punch ' and for the 
stage, eldest son of Gilbert Abbott a, Beckett 
[q. v.], by his wife Mary Anne, daughter of 
Joseph Glossop, clerk of the cheque to the 
hon. corps of gentlemen-at-arms, was born at 
Portland House, Hammersmith, on 7 April 
1837. He entered Westminster school on 
6 June 1849, became a queen's scholar in 
1851, and was elected to Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1855, matriculating on 7 June, and 
graduating B.A. in 1860. In the meantime, 
on 15 Oct. 1857, he had entered at Lincoln's 
Inn, but he was never called to the bar. In 
June 1862 he became a clerk in the office of 
the examiners of criminal law accounts, but 
in the course of a few years, as his literary 
work developed, he gave up this appoint- 
ment. For a time he contributed to the 
' Glowworm ' and other journalistic ven- 
tures. He also sent occasional contribu- 
tions to 'Punch,' but at this time was not 
admitted to the salaried staff. He turned 
his attention to writing for the stage, and 
among his plays, original or adapted, are 

* Diamonds and Hearts,' a comedy (Hay- 
market, 4 March 1867) ; * Glitter, a comedy 
in two acts ' (St. James's, 26 Dec. 1868) ; 

* Red Hands, a drama, in a prologue and 
three acts' (St. James's, 30 Jan. 1869); 
'Face to Face, a drama in tAvo acts' (Prince 
of Wales's, Liverpool, 29 March 1869), and 
'In the Clouds, an extravaganza' (Alexan- 
dra, 3 Dec. 1873). Among the numerous 
libretti that he wrote the most notable were 
those to Dr. Stanford's operas ' Savonarola ' 
and 'The Canterbury Pilgrims,' both pro- 
duced during 1884, the former at Hamburg 
and the latter at Drury Lane. He also 
wrote several graceful ballads, to which he 
furnished both words and music. 

In the meantime, in 1879, Gilbert h, Beckett 
had been asked by Tom Taylor, the editor 
of 'Punch,' to follow the example of his 
younger brother Arthur, and become a 



regular member of the staff of 'Punch.' 
Three years later he was ' appointed to the 
Table.' The ' Punch ' dinners ' were his 
greatest pleasure, and he attended them with 
regularity, although the paralysis of the legs, 
the result qf falling down the stairway of 
Gower Street station, rendered his locomo- 
tion, and especially the mounting of Mr. 
Punch's staircase, a matter of painful exer- 
tion ' (SpiELMANif, Hist, of Punch, 1895, 
p. 383). To ' Punch ' he contributed both 
prose and verse ; he wrote, in greater part, 
the admirable parody of a boy's sensational 
shocker (March 1882), and he developed 
Jerrold's idea of humorous bogus advertise- 
ments under the heading ' How we advertise 
now.' The idea of one of Sir John Tenniel's 
best cartoons for ' Punch,' entitled ' Dropping 
the Pilot,' illustrative of Bismarck's resigna- 
tion in 1889, was due to Gilbert a Beckett. 

Apart from his work on ' Punch,' he 
wrote songs and music for the German 
Reeds' entertainment, while in 1873 and 
1874 he was collaborator in two dramatic 
productions which evoked a considerable 
amount of public attention. On 3 March 
1873 was given at the Court Theatre ' The 
Happy Land: a Burlesque Version of W. S. 
Gilbert's " The Wicked World," 'by F. L. 
Tomline (i.e. W. S. Gilbert) and Gilbert a 
Beckett. In this amusing piece of banter 
three statesmen (Gladstone, Lowe, and Ayr- 
ton) were represented as visiting Fairyland 
in order to impart to the inhabitants the 
secrets of popular government. The actors 
representing ' Mr. G.,' ' Mr. L.,' and ' Mr. A.' 
were dressed so as to resemble the ministers 
satirised, and the representation elicited a 
question in the House of Commons and an 
official visit of the lord chamberlain to the 
theatre, with the result that the actors had 
to change their ' make-up.' In the follow- 
ing year A Beckett furnished the ' legend ' to 
Herman Merivale's tragedy 'The White 
Pilgrim,' first given at the Court in Fe- 
bruary 1874. At the close of his life he fur- 
nished the ' lyrics ' and most of the book for 
the operetta ' La Cigale,' which at the time 
of his death was nearing its four hundredth 
performance at the Lyric Theatre. In 1889 
he suffered a great shock from the death by. 
drowning of his only son, and he died in 
London on 15 Oct. 1891, and was buried in 
Mortlake cemetery. 'Punch' devoted some 
appreciative stanzas to his memory, bearing 
the epigraph ' Wearing the white flower of a 
blameless life ' (24 Oct. 1891). His portrait 
appeared in the well-known drawing of ' The 
Mahogany Tree ' {Punch, Jubilee Number, 
18 July 1887), and likenesses were also given 
in the ' Illustrated London News ' and in 



Abercromby 



Spielmann's ' History of Punch' (1895). He 
married Emily, eldest daughter of William 
Hunt, J.P., of Bath, and his only daughter 
Minna married in 1896 Mr. Hugh Clifford, 
C.M.G., governor of Labuan and British 
North Borneo. 

[lUustr. Lond. Nevrs, 24 Oct. 1891 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1716-1886; Barker and Sten- 
ning's Westminster School Eegister ; Gazette, 
21 March 1821 ; Times, 19 Oct. 1891 ; Athenaeum, 
1891, ii. 658 ; Era, 24 Oct. 1891.] T. S. 

ABERCROMBY, ROBERT WILLIAM 
DUFF (1835-1895), colonial governor. [See 
Duff, Sik Robert William.] 

ABERDARE, Baeon. [See BRrcE, 
Henry Austin, 1815-1895.] 

ACHESON, Sir ARCHIBALD, second 
Earl of Gosford in the Irish peerage, and 
first Baron Worlingham in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom (1776-1849), governor- 
in-chief of Canada, born on 1 Aug. 1776 
(^Hibernian Mag. vi. 645), -was the eldest son 
and heir of Arthur, the first earl, by Milli- 
cent, daughter of Lieutenant-general Edward 
Pole of Radbome in Derbyshire. Entering 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 19 Jan. 1796, he 
matriculated in the university on the 22nd 
of that month, and graduated M.A. honoris 
causa on 26 Oct. 1797. During the Irish 
troubles of the succeeding year he served as 
lieutenant-colonel in the Armagh militia. 
In 1807 he became colonel. 

His political life began with his election 
to the Irish parliament, on 9 Jan. 1798, as 
member for Armagh. He voted in the Irish 
House of Commons against union with Great 
Britain on 20 Jan. 1800, while his father 
cordially supported the measure in the Irish 
House of Lords. The offer of an earldom, 
made in that connection to his father, was 
renewed in 1803, but was not accepted till 
three years later when the whigs came into 
power. 

As Acheson represented a county he be- 
came, by the terms of the Union Act, a 
member of the House of Commons in the 
first parliament of the United Kingdom 
(1801). At the general elections of 1802 
and 1806 he was returned for Armagh, and 
continued to sit in the commons till 14 Jan. 
1807, when he succeeded his father as second 
earl of Gosford. He was chosen a repre- 
sentative peer for Ireland in 1811. While 
he seldom intervened in debate, he gave a 
general support to the whig party and policy, 
especially on Irish questions. In 1832 he 
"was gazetted lord-lieutenant and custos rotu- 
lorum of Armagh, offices which he held for 
life. Nominated captain of the yeomen of 



8 Acheson 

the guard on 3 Sept. 1834, he was on the 
same day called to the privy council. Next 
year — in June — he became prominent as an 
exponent of the whig policy of ' conciliation' 
in Ireland. Having reported, in his capacity 
of lord-lieutenant, in a * conciliatory ' temper, 
on certain Armagh riots, a resolution censur- 
ing both his investigation and report was 
defeated in the commons after a brisk debate. 
Thereupon Joseph Hume [q. v.] proposed a 
motion eulogising Gosford, which receired 
warm support from O'Connell and his fol- 
lowers, and from the radicals generally; it 
was accepted by the government and carried 
amid much enthusiasm. 

On 1 July 1835 Gosford was nominated 
by the prime minister. Lord Melbourne, 
governor of Lower Canada, and governor-in- 
chief of British North America, Newfound- 
land excepted. On the same day he became ^ 
royal commissioner with Sir Gootgo - Grey C^^ 
[(;^--Sappl-.] and Sir George Gipps [q. v.] to 
examine locally into the condition of Lower 
Canada and the grievances of the colonists. 
Four days afterwards he was created a peer 
of the United Kingdom, adopting the title 
of Baron Worlingham from an estate that 
came to him through his wife. Arriving in 
Quebec on 23 Aug. 1835, Gosford assumed 
the reins of government on 17 Sept., imme- 
diately after the departure of Lord Aylmer. 
He left the colony on 26 Feb. 1838. His 
term of office, lasting two and a half years 
and covering the period of the Canadian re- 
bellion, is a dark passage in Canadian his- 
tory, and still occasions much debate. 

His appointment was not received with 
general favour. As constitutional questions 
of deep moment were being mooted, the no- 
mination of an unknown and untried man 
seemed to many hazardous in the extreme. 
The whig remedy for colonial evils, which 
Charles Grant, lord Glenelg[q.v.],the colonial 
minister under Lord Melbourne, embodied in 
the original draft of Gosford's instructions, 
was not based on an examination of colonial 
facts, but proceeded on the assumptions 
that there was a very close analogy between 
Irish and colonial conditions, and that the 
whig policy known in Irish affairs as * con- 
ciliation' needed only a trial to prove an 
absolute success beyond the sea. 

The Melbourne cabinet consequently in- 
structed Gosford to adopt as matter of prin- 
ciple the three chief demands of Louis .Toseph 
Papineau [q.v.] and the political agitators 
in Lower Canada. The first demand that 
the assembly should have sole control of the 
waste or crown lands, and the third demand 
that the legislative council should be elec- 
tive, were to be accepted absolutely; the 



Acheson 



Acheson 



second demand, that the assembly should 
dispose of all revenues independently of the 
executive, was to be accepted with a proviso 
which had reference to the civil list. But 
the ministerial plans were foiled by the king, 
who, before Gosford left England, said to 
him with passionate emphasis : ' Mind what 
you are about in Canada. By God, I will 
never consent to alienate the crown lands 
or make the council elective.' 
. Despite this warning Gosford set himself, 
on arriving in Quebec, the hopeless task of con- 
ciliating those whom he deemed the Cana- 
dian people. They suspected and declined 
his overtures. His attentions to Papineau 
and his friends excited much comment and 
not a little ridicule among the French Cana- 
dians. From the English community he 
held aloof, identifying them, in pursuance 
of the Irish analogy, with a small office- 
holding clique whose headquarters were at 
Quebec. The legislature met on 27 Oct. 
1835, when the governor dwelt at length on 
the commission of inquiry, its scope, and 
the redress of grievances, but he met with 
a serious rebuff. The assembly declined to 
recognise the commission, and assuming a 
defiant attitude refused to grant the supplies 
which the governor demanded. With ex- 
pressions of regret he prorogued the legisla- 
ture. In transmitting to the king a petition 
from the assembly for redress of grievances 
he asked for additional powers. 

Meantime mass-meetings after the Irish 
pattern were organised by ' the patriots ' on 
a large scale ; Gosford's conciliation was de- 
nounced as machiavellian, and he was burnt 
in effigy. Riots took place in Montreal, 
which called for the intervention of the 
troops. But when the leading business men 
in the city petitioned the governor for leave 
to organise a rifle corps to preserve order, 
they received from Gosford a caustic re- 
primand. 

The next session opened on 22 Sept. 1836. 
Gosford submitted new instructions from 
home in full, because garbled copies, he said, 
had got abroad. The new instructions dif- 
fered from the old ones in that they set no 
limit to the commissioners' inquiries. The 
king had meanwhile warned the ministry at 
home that he would permit * no modification 
of the constitution.' Relegating constitu- 
tional issues to the commissioners' report, 
Gosford now pressed the assembly to vote 
supply. But, after some abortive proceed- 
ings, the assembly, to quote Bibaud's sum- 
mary, ' donne un conseil legislatif electif 
comme son ultimatum, une condition sine 
qua non, &c., en d'autres termes, se suicide.' 
Prorogation followed on 4 Oct. 



About this time the commissioners finished 
their report. All its declarations were op- 
posed to the agitators' claims. In accord- 
ance with one of them the House of Com- 
mons at Westminster passed resolutions 
on 6 March 1837 appropriating the Lower 
Canada revenues to the payment of existing 
arrears (142,000Z.) Thereupon Papineau 
took a bolder stand and organised rebellion. 
Gosford, beyond issuing proclamations of 
warning ' to the misguided and inconside- 
rate,' took no steps to secure the public 
peace. But happily the Irish catholics de- 
clared against both Gosford and Papineau, 
who alike looked to them for aid ; they 
made common cause with the English, not 
with the official clique but with the consti- 
tutionalists of Montreal, Quebec, and the 
eastern townships, thus uniting the English- 
speaking population. 

Reluctant to put the Westminster resolu- 
tions into force at the opening of the new 
reign of Queen Victoria, the English ministry 
and Gosford made one more effort to gain 
the assembly. It met on 25 Aug. 1837, the 
members appearing in homespun {etoffe du 
pais) as a protest against the importation 
of goods from abroad. They refused supply, 
repeated their ultimatum, and protested 
alike against the Canadian commissioners' 
recommendations and the resolutions of the 
English House of Commons. The legis- 
lature was dissolved, never to meet again. 
By 2 Sept. Gosford had become convinced that 
Papineau's object was * separation from the 
mother country,' and suggested the expe- 
diency of suspending the constitution. Still 
trusting to the moral force of his procla- 
mations, he took no active steps to dissi- 
pate the gathering storm, and, at the very 
moment when the Roman catholic bishop 
launched his mandement against civil war, 
and the French Canadian magistrates warned 
the people against the misrepresentations of 
the agitators, declined once more all volun- 
tary assistance. At length, when in Septem- 
ber 1837 the province was on the verge of 
anarchy, he intimated to the home govern- 
ment that they ' might feel disposed to en- 
trust the execution of its plans to hands not 
pledged as mine to a mild and conciliatory 
policy.' The actual conduct of affairs passed 
into the hands of Sir John Colborne [q.v.], 
the lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 
who ultimately restored order. Gosford's 
resignation was accepted on 14 Nov., and he 
returned to England. 

Gosford received the thanks of the ministry 
for his services (23 Jan. 1838), together 
with the honour of knight grand cross 
on the civil side (19 July). To the end he 



Acland 



10 



Acland 



remained convinced of the soundness of his 
Irish analogy and the general utility of his 
policy. On this ground he opposed the 
union of Upper and Lower Canada, and cri- 
ticised the terms of the bill sharply in all its 
stages through the House of Lords (1839-40). 
Thenceforth he devoted his attention to his 
estates, to the development of the linen in- 
dustry in Ireland, and the promotion there 
of agriculture generally. He exercised, be- 
sides the lord-lieutenancy, the functions of 
vice-admiral of the coast of the province 
of Ulster. He died at his residence, Market 
Hill, on 27 March 1849. 

On 20 July 1805 he married Mary {d. 
30 June 1841), only daughter of Robert 
Sparrow of Worlingham Hall in Beccles, 
Suftblk. By her he had a son, Archibald, 
third earl of Gosford (1806-1864), and four 
daughters, of whom Millicent married Henry 
Bence Jones [q. v.] 

[Gr. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, iv. 61 ; 
Foster's Peerage of the Brit. Emp. p. 305 ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities (see index, ' Gos- 
ford'); Lodge's Peer, of Ireland, vi. 81 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 3 14, x. 99 ; Gent. Mag. 
xxxi. 537 ; Official Return of Members of Pari. 
1878, pt. ii. (index, 'Acbeson'); Ross's Corn- 
wallis Corresp. iii. 319; Pari. Debates, 1835, 
xxvii. 1071-1112. 3rd ser. xlix. 882, Iv. 246-7 ; 
Col. Official List, 1899, p. 10; Lecky's Hist, of 
Ireland, v. 294; Pari. Papers, 1836xxxix. 1-172, 
1837 xxxiv. 1 ; Ann. Register, Chron. 1836 pp. 
301-15, 1837 p. 299, 1838 p. 317; Brymner's 
Can. Archives, 1883, pp. 160-4 ; Globensky's La 
Rebellion de 1837-8, passim; David's Les 
Patriot es de 1837-8, passim ; Garneau's Hist, 
du Can. iii. 311-50 ; Bibaud's Hist, du Can. ii. 
413-8 ; Greville's Memoirs, iii. 113, 256,271-2, 
276-8; Edinburgh Review, cxxxiii. 319-20; 
Sanders's Lord Melbourne's Papers, pp. 334-6, 
349-50 ; Leader's Life of Roebuck, p. 66 ; Wal- 
pole's Hist, of England, iv. 110-30; Christie's 
Hist, of Lower Can. vol. iv. passim ; Read's 
Canadian Rebellion, ch. ix. and x.; Kingsford's 
Hist, of Can. ix. 586-634, x. 1-104.1 

T. B. B. 

ACLAND, Sir HENRY WENT- 
WORTH (1815-1900), physician, fourth 
son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland [q. v.], was 
born at Killerton, Exeter, on 23 Aug. 1816. 
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland [q. v. Suppl.] was 
his elder brother. Henry was educated first 
by Mr. Fisher, a private tutor, to whom he 
owed much, and afterwards at Harrow 
School, which he entered between August 
1828 and April 1829 ; he was placed in Mr. 
Phelps's house, where, without achieving any 
special distinction, he became a monitor, a 
member of the football eleven, and a racquet 
player. He left school at Easter 1832, but 
did not matriculate at Christ Church, Ox- 



ford, until 23 Oct. 1834, and graduated B.A. 
in 1840, M.A. 1842, M.B. in 1846, and M.D. 
in 1848. At Christ Church he made the ac- 
quaintance of John Ruskin, his junior by 
four years, while both were undergraduates. 
Acland was by nature of an artistic, en- 
thusiastic, and romantic temperament, which 
strongly appealed to Ruskin, and the two men 
became lifelong friends. In 1838, being in 
delicate health, Acland spent nearly two 
years out of England, for the most part 
cruising in the Mediterranean as a guest 
on board H.M.S. Pembroke. While there 
he visited the eastern shores of the Levant 
to study the site of the ancient city of Per- 
gamos, and to explore the banks of the 
Simois and Scamander. One of the results 
of his 'three visits to the Troad was an ac- 
count of the plains of Troy, with a panoramic 
drawing, which was published by James 
Wyatt at O.xford in 1839. He also made 
careful drawings of the sites of the seven 
churches of Asia mentioned by St. Paul. 

In 1840 Acland was elected fellow of 
All Souls' College, Oxford, and in the same 
year, following the wish of his father, he 
commenced the study of medicine, entering 
himself, by the advice of Sir Benjamin Col- 
lins Brodie [q. v.], at St. George's Hospital, 
London. During 1842 he worked hard at 
microscopy with John Thomas Quekett 
[q. v.], and attended the lectures of (Sir) 
Richard Owen [q. v.] upon comparative 
anatomy. In 1843 he migrated to Edin- 
burgh, where he lived with William 
Pulteney Alison (1790-1859), the uni- 
versity professor of medicine. In 1844 he 
gained the gold medal given in the class of 
medical jurisprudence for the best essay on 
' Feigned Insanity.' In 1845 he returned to 
Oxford on being appointed Lee's reader of 
anatomy at Christ Church, Oxford. That 
position he held until 1858. It was while 
Lee's reader that he began, under the inspi- 
ration of Alison and Goodsir, to form at 
Christ Church an anatomical and physio- 
logical series on the plan of the Hunterian 
Museum in London, then under the care and 
exposition of Richard Owen. In 1846 he 
was admitted a licentiate of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians of London, being elected 
a fellow of the college in 1850, and deliver- 
ing the Harveian oration in 1865, the first 
occasion on which it was given in English. 
He served the office of ' conciliarius ' in the 
college during the years 1882-3-4. Mean- 
while, in 1847, he was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. 

Acland's professional position at Oxford 
grew rapidly in importance and influence. 
In 1851 he was appointed physician to the 



Acland 



II 



Acland 



Radcliffe infirmary at Oxford, and Aldrichian 
professor of clinical medicine in succession 
to Dr. John Kidd (1776-1851) [q. v.] In 
1851 also lie was appointed lladcliffe libra- 
rian, the library being then in the building 
now known as the lladclifte Camera. He 
resigned the Lee's readership in 1858 upon 
his nomination to the high post of regius 
professor of medicine in the university of 
Oxford and master of Ewelme Hospital. 
He remained regius professor until 1894, 
and continued to hold the office of Kadclili'e 
librarian until a few months before his death 
in 1900. Acland was also a curator of the 
Oxford University galleries and of the 
Bodleian library. In 1860 he was elected 
an honorary student of Christ Church. 

Outside Oxford Acland's medical attain- 
ments also gained marked recognition. When 
the General Medical Council was established 
in 1858 Acland was chosen to represent the 
university. He continued a member of the 
council for twenty-nine years, during thir- 
teen of which (1874-87) he was president. 
He was local secretary of the British Asso- 
ciation in 1847 when it met for the second 
time at Oxford, and in 1868 he was presi- 
dent of the British Medical Association. In 
1860 he visited, America as a member of the 
suite of H.li.H. the Prince of Wales, and 
on his return to England was appointed an 
honorary physician to his royal highness. 
He was also physician to H. 11.11. Prince 
Leopold, afterwards the Duke of Albany, 
while he was an undergraduate at Oxford. 

Acland was a man of wide sympathies 
and great versatility, who, by the accidents 
of time and position, was able to exercise 
a unique influence on the teaching of medi- 
cine and science at Oxford. Entering the 
university as a teacher while he was still a 
young man, he found it almost mediaeval in 
the character of its medical studies and 
methods. He lived to see the faculty of 
medicine flourishing, in good repute, and 
equipped with the latest means of scientific 
investigation. But he was strongly opposed 
to the idea of making Oxford merely a 
medical school in the strictly medical sense. 
He wished to give every medical graduate of 
Oxford an opportunity of gaining the wide 
culture for which the university has long 
been famed. He maintained that it was the 
function of the university to give a liberal 
education in ' arts,' and that all the sciences 
ancillary to medicine could be well and 
profitably taught within its walls. He was 
of opinion, however, that purely professional 
medical studies could be pursued to greater 
advantage in the metropolis and other large 
centres of population than in Oxford. Im- 



pressed with these views, and convinced that 
the whole question of the teaching of natural 
science in Oxford depended upon their adop- 
tion, he strove hard to introduce biology and 
chemistry into the ordinary curriculum. In 
this effort he was brilliantly successful in the 
face of the most determined opposition, and 
especial credit must be given to him for this 
success, because others, perhaps equally far- 
sighted, had given up the endeavour in de- 
spair and without a struggle in the belief 
that the project was impossible. To accom- 
plish his end Acland had the good fortune 
to gather round him such firm friends and 
strong allies as Dean Liddell, Canon Pusey, 
Dean Church, Bishop Jacobson, Dean Stan- 
ley, and many others, by whose aid success 
was at last achieved. 

During the early years of his tenure of 
the regius professorship the university was 
roused from the apathy into which it had 
fallen as to both the study of modern science, 
and the teaching of medicine, and Acland 
devoted the best years of his life to establish 
on a sound basis a great institution which 
should encourage research and study in 
every branch of natural science, especially 
in relation to the practice of medicine. This 
institution is now known as the Oxford 
Museum. In his efforts to bring his scheme 
to fruition he had the sympathy and aid of 
his friend Ruskin, who assisted him to ob- 
tain, and even made some drawings for, the 
projected building ; and Ruskin contributed 
to a sketch of the museum's objects, which 
Acland published under the title of ' The Ox- 
ford Museum' in 1859. The foundation-stone 
of the building was laid on 20 June 1855, 
and it was opened in 1861. It forms a 
nucleus which, it is hoped, will ultimately be 
the centre of a cluster of buildings equipped 
for the study of the whole realm of nature. 
In 1862, at Acland's suggestion and on the 
advice of Sidney Herbert and W. E. Glad- 
stone, the Radcliffe trustees allowed the 
collections of scientific and medical books 
which formed the Radcliffe library to be 
moved from the Radclifte Camera to the new- 
museum, at the same time increasing the 
annual grant for the purchase of books. The 
museum was thus put into possession of a 
first-rate scientific library. 

Acland devoted much time and thought 
to the subject of state medicine, for he saw 
early its relation to the morality and well- 
being not only of this country but of the 
whole civilised world. In 1869 he served 
on a royal commission to investigate the 
sanitary laws in England and Wales, and 
he wrote at various times a considerable 
number of pamphlets to show the effect of 



Acland 



12 



Acland 



sanitation upon the health of individuals, 
communities, and nations. He also did his 
best to improve the sanitary conditions of 
Oxford and of Marsh Gibbon, a village in 
which he was interested as a trustee. 

Acland's services to medicine and medical 
education were accorded high honours. In 
1883 he was made a companion of the Bath, 
being promoted K.C.B. in 1884, and in 1890 
he was created a baronet. Among many 
other honorary distinctions Acland was both 
M.D. and LL.D. of Dublin, D.C.L. of Dur- 
ham, a member of the medical and philoso- 
phical societies of Philadelphia, Christiania, 
Athens, New York, and Massachusetts, He 
was also a knight of the rose of Brazil, an 
order conferred upon him in recognition of 
his services in the investigation of cholera 
in 1856. 

Acland died at his house in Broad Street 
on 16 Oct. 1900, and was buried in Holywell 
cemetery at Oxford on the 19th. 

He married, on 14 July 1846, Sarah, the 
eldest daughter of William Cotton (1786- 
1866) [q. v.], by whom he had seven sons and 
one daughter. His eldest son, William Ali- 
son Dyke Acland, captain R.N., succeeded 
to the baronetcy. Mrs. Acland died on 
25 Oct. 1878, and the Sarah Acland nursing 
home at Oxford was founded and endowed 
in her memory. 

A half-length portrait in oils of Sir Henry 
Acland, painted by Mr. W. W. Ouless, R.A., 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1886 ; it is now in the possession of his son. 
Dr. Theodore Dyke Acland. 

Acland published: 1. ' The Plains of Troy. 
Hlustrated by a Panoramic Drawing taken 
on the spot, and a Map constructed after 
the latest Survey,' Oxford, 1839, 8vo and 
fol. 2. 'Letter from a Student on some 
Moral Difficulties in his Studies,' London, 
1841, 8vo. 3. 'Feigned Insanity: how 
most usually simulated and how best de- 
tected,' London, 1844, 8vo. 4. ' Remarks 
on the Extension of Education at the Uni- 
versity of Oxford,' Oxford, 1848, 8vo. 
5. ' Synopsis of the Physiological Series in 
the Christ Church Museum, arranged for 
the use of Students after the plan of the 
Hunterian Collection,' Oxford, 1854, 4to; 
an interesting work, as it shows the in- 
fluence exercised by his London and Edin- 
burgh teachers modified by his Oxford sur- 
roundings. 6. ' Memoir of the Cholera at 
Oxford in the year 1854, with considerations 
suggested by the Epidemic. Maps and Plans,' 
London, 1856, 4to. 7. * Notes on Drainage, 
with especial reference to the Sewers and 
Swamps of the Upper Thames,' London, 
1857, 8vo. 8. ' The Oxford Museum,' Ox- 



ford, 1859, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1860 ; 3rd edit. 
1861 ; reprinted with additions in 1893. 
(The first and second editions and the re- 
print contain letters from Ruskin.) 9. ' Bio- 
graphical Sketch of Sir Benjamin Brodie,' 
London, 1864, 8vo. 10. 'The Harveian 
Oration,' London, 1865, 8 vo. 11. 'Medical 
Education : a Letter addressed to the au- 
thorities of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 
and the Johns Hopkins University,' Balti- 
more, 1879, 8vo ; the letter is valuable be- 
cause it shows what debt the most modern 
university in the United States owes to its 
mother in England. 12. ' William Stokes : 
a Sketch drawn for the New Sydenham 
Society,' London, 1882, 8vo. 13. ' Health in 
the Village,' London, 1884, 8vo. 14. ' Village 
Health and Village Life,' London, 1884, 8vo. 

[Personal knowledge ; Sir Henry Acland's 
Works ; Biography in ' Contemporary Medical 
Men and their Professional Work' (Leicester, 
1888, vol. i.); obituary notices in the Times, 
17 Oct. 1900, the Lancet, 1900, ii. 1158, and the 
British MedicalJournal, 1900, ii. 1281 ; CoUing- 
■wood's Life of John Ruskin, 1893 ; information 
kindly given by Dr. Theodore Dyke Acland.] 

D'A. P. 

ACLAND, Sir THOMAS DYKE (1809- 
1898), politician and educational reformer, 
born at Killerton, Devonshire, on 25 May 
1809, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Dyke Acland (1787-1871) [q.v.], by his 
wife Lydia Elizabeth, only daughter of 
Henry Hoare of Mitcham Grove, head part- 
ner in the well-known firm of bankers. Sir 
Henry Wentworth Acland [q. v. Suppl.] 
was his younger brother. Thomas was 
educated at Harrow — where in 1826 he 
won the Peel prize with a dissertation pub- 
lished in the same year as ' Oratio numis- 
mate Peeliano dignata et in Scholae Harro- 
viensis Auditorio recitata die lun. 1 a.d. 
mdcccxxvi ' (London, 8vo) — and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, whence he matriculated on 
28 June 1827, and graduated B.A. with a 
double first in 1831, and M.A. in 1835. His 
tutor was Thomas Vowler Short [q.v.], and 
among his friends were W. E. Gladstone, 
Sir Francis Doyle, Lord Blachford, Lord 
Elgin, and Frederick Denison Maurice. 
From 1831 to 1839 he was fellow of All 
Souls', and in 1837 he was returned to parlia- 
ment as conservative member for West 
Somerset. At the general election of 1841 
he declined to identify himself with the pro- 
tectionists, and though he showed leanmgs 
towards the Young England party during 
that parliament, he followed Peel on his 
conversion to free trade, and did not seek 
re-election to parliament in 1847. 

Acland had from the first interested him- 



Acland 



13 



Adair 



self in educational matters; his early efforts 
were devoted to the maintenance and defence 
of church schools, and to the establishment 
of diocesan theological colleges, but later on 
he became an advocate of more liberal edu- 
cational projects. In 1857-8 he took the 
leading part in the establishment of the 
Oxford local examinations system, publishing 
in 1858 * Some Account of the Origin and 
Objects of the new Oxford Examinations' 
(London, 8vo), which reached a second edi- 
tion in the same year ; on 14 June in the 
same year he was created D.C.L. of Oxford 
University. He had equally at heart the 
improvement of English agriculture and 
the promotion of technical education for the 
benefit of practical farmers, and much of 
the success of the Bath and West of England 
Agricultural Society (the 'Journal' of which 
he conducted for seven years) was due to 
his efforts. In 1851 he published * The 
Farming of Somersetshire ' (London, 8vo), 
and forty years later he wrote an ' Intro- 
duction to the Chemistry of Farming, spe- 
cially prepared for Practical Farmers ' (Lon- 
don, 1891, 8vo). 

Acland also took an active part in the 
volunteer movement ; he raised five corps 
of mounted rifles, was lieutenant-colonel of 
the 3rd Devonshire volunteer rifles from 
1860 to 1881, major of the 1st Devonshire 
yeomanry cavalry from 1872, and published 
'Mounted Rifles ' (London, 1860, 12mo) 
and * Principles and Practice of Volunteer 
Discipline' (London, 1868, 8vo). Acland 
was at the same time a discriminating patron 
of art, and was one of the early admirers of 
Millais, purchasing in 1854 his well-known 
portrait of Ruskin standing by the river 
Finlass ; two sketches by Millais, in which 
Acland figures, both dating from 1853, are 
reproduced in J. G. Millais's ' Life of Millais ' 
(1899, i. 202-3). Another of his friends was 
Ruskin, and in 1871 Acland and William 
Francis Cowper (afterwards Baron Mount- 
Temple) [q. V. Suppl.] were the original 
trustees of Ruskin's Guild of St. George [see 
RtTSKiN, John, Suppl.] 

In 1859 Acland unsuccessfully contested 
Birmingham as a moderate liberal against 
John Bright [q.v. Suppl.], but in 1865 he 
was returned as a liberal for North Devon- 
shire, the representation of which he shared 
with Sir Stafford Northcote [q. v.] (after- 
wards Earl of Iddesleigh) for twenty years. 
He served on the schools commission in 
1864-7, and took an unusually active part 
in the debates in committee on W^. E. Fors- 
ter's education bill in 1870-1. He succeeded 
his father as eleventh baronet on 22 July 
1871, and was sworn of the privy council in 



1883 ; on 30 April 1880 he moved the re- 
election of Henry Bouverie William Brand 
(afterwards Viscount Hampden) [q. v. Suppl.] 
to the speakership. In November 1885 he was 
returned to parliament for West Somerset. 
In the following June he voted in favour of 
Gladstone's first home rule bill, and, as a 
consequence, was defeated by Charles Isaac 
Elton [q. V. Suppl.] in July 1886. This 
closed his political career ; he died at Killer- 
ton on 29 May 1898, ten days after his friend 
Gladstone, who was seven months his junior ; 
he was buried in the family vault at Culm 
St. John on 3 June. A committee has re- 
cently been formed for the purpose of erect- 
ing at Oxford a memorial to Acland in re- 
cognition of his services to the cause of edu- 
cation (see Times, 6 Nov. 1900). 

Acland married, first, on 14 March 1841, 
Mary, eldest daughter of Sir Charles Mor- 
daunt, bart., by whom he had issue two 
daughters and three sons, viz. Sir Charles 
Thomas Dyke Acland, twelfth and present 
baronet, Francis Gilbert {d. 1874), and the 
Right Hon. Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland, 
vice-president of the committee of coun- 
cil on education from 1892 to 1895. His 
first wife died on 11 June 1851, and on 
8 June 1856 Acland married Mary, only sur- 
viving child of John Erskine, and niece of 
the second earl of Rosslyn; she died on 
14 May 1892. 

Besides the works mentioned above, and 
a number of speeches and pamphlets, Ac- 
land published : 1. ' Meat, Milk, and Wheat 
... to which is added a Review of the 
Questions at issue between Mr. [afterwards 
Sir John Bennett] Lawes [q.v. Suppl.] and 
Baron Liebig,' London, 1867, 8vo; and 
2. * Knowledge, Duty, and Faith ; sugges- 
tions for the Study of Principles. . . ,' Lon- 
don, 1896, 8vo. 

[Times, 30 May and 4 June, 1898, and 6 Nov. 
1900; Daily News, 30 May 1898; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Annual Eegister, 

1898 ; Hansard's Pari. Debates ; Official Keturn 
of Members of Pari. ; Burke's and Foster's 
Peerages ; Men of the Time, 1 89.5 ; Andrew- 
Lang's Life and Letters of Sir Stafford North- 
cote, 1890 ; H. L. Thompson's Memoir of Dean 
Liddell, 1900, pp. 258, 271-2; Collingwood's 
Life of Kuskin ; Mowbray's Seventy Years at 
Westminster, p. 47; Tuckwell's Kemini^cences 
of Oxford, 1900; J. G. Millais's Life of Millais, 

1899 ; Acland's works in Brit. Mus. Library.] 

A. F. P. 

ADAIR, JAMES {J. 1775), historian of 
the American Indians, was probably an 
offshoot of the Adair family of Kinhilt, 
Wigtownshire. He went out to America in 
1735, and spent the following forty years of 



Adair 



u 



Adams 



his life as a trader among the Indians of 
Georgia and the two Carolinas. He was a 
close and sympathetic observer of Indian 
life and customs, and in 1775, stimulated 
by the encouragement of a few intimate 
friends, such as Sir William Johnson, hart., 
Colonel George Craghan, George Galphin, 
and Lachlan M'Gilwray, he determined to 
throw his notes into the form of a book. 
He mentions a string of disadvantages 
under which he laboured, notably the 
jealousy, secrecy, and closeness of the 
Indians, but hoped to be able to correct the 
very superficial notions that prevailed as to 
their civilisation. His book was called 
' The History of the American Indians . . . 
containing an Account of their Origin, 
Language, Manners, . . . and other Par- 
ticulars, sufficient to render it A Complete 
Indian System . . . with A New Map of 
the Country ' (London, 4to). 

The value of Adair's work as showing 
the relations between the Indians and the 
English traders was recognised, and a Ger- 
man translation appeared at Breslau in 
1782. It must be admitted that a very 
disproportionate space is given to the hypo- 
thesis that the American Indians are de- 
scended from the lost ten tribes of Israel. 
Thomas Thorowgood, adopting an old idea 
of the Spanish Las Casas, had first main- 
tained this theory in English in 1650 in his 
' Jewes in America.' Both Roger Williams 
and Jonathan Edwards seemed rather in- 
clined to favour the view, which, as elabo- 
rately set forth by Adair, has since found 
champions in Elias Boudinot (' Star in the 
West,'1816) and in Edward King, viscount 
Kingsborough [q. v.] Among the points of 
similarity between the Jews and Indians, 
Adair emphasised the division into tribes, 
worship of a great spirit, Jehovah, notions 
of a theocracy, of ablutions and uncleanness, 
cities of refuge, and practices as regards di- 
vorce and raising seed to a deceased brother. 
The bias imparted by this theory to many 
of Adair's remarks led Volney to condemn 
the whole book unjustly in his 'Tableau 
du Climat et dn Sol des Etats-Unis ' (p. 433). 
The second half of the book is more strictly 
' An Account of the Katahba, Cheerake, 
Muskohge,Choktah, and Chikkasah Nations.' 
Lord Kingsborough reprinted the whole of 
the first part of Adair's work in the eighth 
volume of his sumptuous ' Mexican An- 
tiquities ' (1830 fol.), with an appendix of 
notes and illustrations from inedited works 
by French and Spanish authors, ' afi'ording 
the most satisfactory proofs of Adair's 
veracity in the minutest particulars.' Adair's 
map of the American Indian nations is 



partially reproduced in Winsor's 'History 
of America ' (vii. 448). 

[Adair's History, 1775 ; Lord Kingsborough 's 
Mexican Antiquities, vols. vi. and viii. ; Win- 
sor's Hist, of America, i. 116, 320, 398, 424, 
V. 68 ; Field's Indian Bibliography ; Bancroft's 
Native Kaces, v. 91 (epitomising Adair's views) ; 
AUibone's Diet, of English Literature ; Biogr. 
Diet, of S.D.U.K. 1842, i. 267.] T. S. 

ADAMS, FRANCIS WILLIAM LAU- 
DERDALE (1862-1893), author, born at 
Malta on 27 Sept. 1862, was grandson of 
Francis Adams [q. v.] and son of Andrew 
Leith Adams [q.v.], who married on 26 Oct. 
1859 Bertha Jane, eldest daughter of Fre- 
derick Grundy of the Avenue, Hardwick. 
He was educated at a private school at 
Shrewsbury — the Glastonbury of his auto- 
biographical writing — and from 1878 to 1880 
at Paris. After two years' experience as as- 
sistant master at Ventnor College, he married 
and went to Australia. There, amid some 
hardships and vicissitudes, though he worked 
pretty regularly upon thestaft'of the * Sydney 
Bulletin,' he produced in 1884 his strangely 
precocious autobiographical novel, * Lei- 
cester.' Short stories, poems, and essays fol- 
lowed until, in 1888, he created a limited 
semi-scandalous sensation in Sydney by the 
issue of his ' Songs of the Army of the Night.' 
His verse is chaotic, but the Utopian fervour 
of the poems is striking, and the originality 
often intense. The book was thrice repub- 
lished in London. He now wrote some able 
Australian sketches for the ' Fortnightly 
Review,' and some unconventional criticisms, 
which too often suggest the minor poet come 
to judgment, for the 'New Review.' After 
a couple of years in England, he spent the 
winter of 1892-3 in Alexandria, battling 
hard against incurable lung disease, in his 
endeavour to finish a work upon the iniquity 
of the British occupation of Egypt. During 
the summer he settled at Gordon Road, Mar- 
gate, where, on 4 Sept. 1893, in a fit of 
depression following a heavy loss of blood, 
he mortally wounded himself with a pistol. 
He was twice married, but left no issue. 
Personally he was a man of charming manner 
and no small literary faculty. His passionate 
sympathy with the outcast and oppressed 
drove him into excess both in thought and 
expression. His achievement, like that of 
Marie Bashkirtseft', derives much of its in- 
terest from his sadly premature end ; but 
what he might have achieved by the exer- 
cise of due artistic restraint is at least indi- 
cated by his fine drama ' Tiberius,' embody- 
ing a powerful original conception of the 
tyrant as the deliberate though reluctant 



Adams 



15 



Adams 



exterminator of the anti-social gang of greedy 
and lustful Roman aristocrats. 

Adams published : 1. ' Henry and other 
Tales : a Volume of Poems,' London, 1884. 
2. ' Leicester ; an Autobiography,' London, 
1885. 3. ' Australian Essays,' Melbourne 
and London, 1886. 4. * Madeline Brown's 
Murder,' Sydney, 1886. 5. ' Poetical Works,' 
Brisbane and London, 1886. 6. * Songs of 
the Army of the Night,' Sydney, 1888 ; Lon- 
don,1890, 1893, and 1894. 7. ' John Webb's 
End: a Story of Bush Life,' London, 1891. 
8. ' The Melbournians : a Novel,' London, 

1892. 9. ' Australian Life : Short Stories,' 

1893. Posthumously were issued : 10. ' The 
New Egypt : a Social Sketch,' 1893 ; dedi- 
cated to J. W. Longsdon, who saw the un- 
finished work through the press after his 
friend's death. 11. 'Tiberius: a Drama,' 
with portrait and introduction by Mr. W. M. 
Rossetti, 1894 ; dedicated to his brother, 
who had died of consumption in Queensland 
on 13 Sept. 1892. 12. 'A Child of the 
Age,' 1894 ; a very elaborate rifacimento of 
'Leicester.' 13. ' Essays in Modernity: Cri- 
ticisms and Dialogues,' 1899. 

[Introductions to Songs of the Army of the 
Night and Tiberius, both in the ISQl edition, 
with portraits; Times and Daily Chron. 6 and 
6 Sept. 1893; Athenaeum, 1893, ii. 359, 629; 
Saturday Review, 21 July 1894 ; Boase's Modern 
English Biogr. 1892, p. 15; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

T. S. 

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH (1819-1892), 
astronomer, and discoverer of the planet 
* Neptune,' born on 5 June 1819 at Lid- 
cot, near Launceston, Cornwall, was eldest 
son of Thomas Adams, a tenant farmer, by 
his wife Tabitha Knill Grylls, the possessor 
of a small estate. He read at an early 
age some books on astronomy inherited by 
his mother, established a sundial on the 
parlour window-sill, and observed solar alti- 
tudes with an instrument constructed by 
himself out of pasteboard. His education, 
begun at the village school of Laneast, was 
continued under his relative, John Couch 
Grylls, first at Devonport, later at Saltash 
and Landulph. All his spare time was given 
to astronomy. He studied the subject in 
the library of the Mechanics' Institute at 
Devonport, read Samuel Vince's 'Fluxions,' 
drew maps of the constellations, and com- 
puted celestial phenomena. His account of 
the partial solar eclipse of 15 May 1835, 
viewed at Stoke ' with a small spyglass,' got 
into print in the London papers ; and after 
three weeks' watching he caught sight of 
Halley's comet on 16 Oct. 1835. The deve- 
lopment of his genius for mathematics de- 
termined his parents to afibrd him a uni- 



versity career, and in October 1839 he 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge, as a 
sizar. He graduated in 1843 as senior 
wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, and 
became shortly afterwards a fellow and 
tutor of his college. 

At the age of twenty-two Adams, after a 
thorough study of the irregularities in the 
motion of the planet Uranus, perceived that 
they were due to the presence of an exterior 
planet, the existence of which was not yet 
recognised. He thereupon formed the design 
of locating in the sky the undiscovered ex- 
terior planet. A memorandum to that effect, 
dated 3 July 1841, is preserved among his 
papers, and he had no sooner taken his 
degree than he attacked the problem. Find- 
ing it soluble, he applied, through James 
Challis [q. v.], to Sir George Biddell Airy 
[q. V. Suppl.] for complete observational data, 
and with their aid obtained values for the 
mass, heliocentric longitude, and elliptic ele- 
ments of the unseen body. These Adams 
communicated to Challis in September 1845. 
A paper embodying the same results, and 
containing, as Challis said, ' the earliest evi- 
dence of the complete solution of an inverse 
problem of perturbations,' was deposited by 
Adams at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich, on 21 Oct. 1845, after two fruitless 
attempts to obtain an interview with Airy. 
Seven months later, the French astronomer 
Leverrier announced a conclusion similar to 
Adams's, and in consequence a search for 
the missing planet was begun by Challis on 
29 July 1840. The new planet, which was 
christened ' Neptune,' was however, dis- 
covered at Berlin by the astronomer Galle 
on 23 Sept. from Leverrier's indications, 
Adams's theory remaining undivulged. The 
first public mention of his name relative 
to the event was by Sir John Herschel 
in the 'Athenaeum' of 3 Oct., and a letter 
from Challis to that journal on 17 Oct. 
described in detail the transactions between 
Adams, Airy, and himself. But 'there was 
naturally a disinclination to give full credit 
to facts thus suddenly brought to light at 
such a time. It was startling to realise that 
the astronomer royal had in his possession 
the data which would have enabled the 
planet to be discovered nearly a year before. 
On the other hand, it seemed extraordinary 
that a competent mathematician, who had 
determined the orbit of the disturbing planet, 
should have been content to refrain for so 
long from making public his results' (Glai- 
SHER, Biographical Notice, p. xxii). Adams 
himself explained, forty years later, that his 
reticence was due to his wish that the Eng- 
lish astronomers, to whom he imparted his 



Adams 



i6 



Adams 



calculations, might 'look for the planet and 
find it, so that this country might have had 
the full credit of the discovery' (private 
letter). He sent Airy improved elements 
of the planet on 2 Sept. 1846, and drew up 
shortly afterwards a paper on the subject 
for the British Association, but reached 
Southampton a day too late to present it. 
Finally, on 13 Nov. 1846, he laid before the 
Royal Astronomical Society the long-sup- 
pressed investigation in which he had de- 
termined, from the irregularities of Uranus, 
the orbit and place of Neptune (^Memoirs 
Moyal Astronomical Soc, vol. xvi.). The im- 
portance attached to it was signified by its 
issue as an appendix to the ' Nautical Al- 
manac' for 1861, and as a supplement to 
No. 693 of the ' Astronomische Nachrichten ' 
(2 March 1847). A French version, with a 
brief appendix by Adams, appeared in 1876 
in LiouviUe's 'Journal de Math6matiques' 
(ii. 83). 

The publication stirred widespread ex- 
citement. A long and bitter controversy 
ensued. The scientific world split into 
' Adamite ' and ' anti- Adamite ' factions. But 
their contentions were unshared by the per- 
sonages to whom they related. Adams's 
conduct throughout was marked by the 
utmost dignity and forbearance. He ut- 
tered no complaint; he laid no claim to 
priority ; Leverrier had no warmer admirer. 
He made personal acquaintance with him at 
the Oxford meeting of the British Associa- 
tion in June 1847, and both were Sir John 
Herschel's guests at 'Collingwood in the en- 
suing month. 

Adams refused knighthood in 1847, but 
the Adams prize, awarded bi-annually for 
the best essay in astronomy, mathematics, 
or physics, was founded in 1848, at the uni- 
versity of Cambridge, to commemorate his 
* deductive discovery ' of Neptune. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
7 June 1849. He observed the total eclipse 
of the sun on 28 July 1851 at Frederiksvaern 
in Sweden (^Memoirs Moyal Astro?i. Soc. xxi. 
103). Adams was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the post of superintendent of the 
' Nautical Almanac,' vacant by the death of 
William Samuel Stratford [q. v.] in 1853. 
His fellowship at St. John's expiring in 
1852, he was elected in February 1853 to a 
fellowship of Pembroke College, which he 
held until his death. He occupied the chair 
of mathematics in the university of St. An- 
drews during the session of 1858-9, vacat- 
ing it in consequence of his election, late 
in 1858, to succeed George Peacock [q. v.] 
as Lowndean professor of astronomy and 
geometry at Cambridge. His lectures in 



this capacity were generally on the lunar 
theory. 

Adams's new tables of the lunar parallax, 
communicated to the Royal Astronomical 
Society in 1852, were appended to the 
' Nautical Almanac ' for 1856. In 1853 he 
presented to the Royal Society a memoir on 
the secular acceleration of the moon's mean 
motion, demonstrating the incompleteness of 
Laplace's explanation of the phenomenon 
(Phil. Trans, cxliii. 397). This was highly 
displeasing to French geometers; but the 
attacks of Plana, Hansen, and Pontecoulant 
left unshaken conclusions which were inde- 
pendently verified by Delaunay, Cayley, and 
Sir John William Lubbock [q.v.] Adams re- 
plied to objections in the * Monthly Notices ' 
for April 1860 ; Plana attempted a rejoinder 
in a series of letters to Sir John Lubbock in 
June ; and Pont6coulant continued for some 
time longer to urge threadbare arguments 
in the ' Comptes Rendus.' An admirable 
account of the discussion was inserted by 
Delaunay in the ' Connaissance des Temps ' 
for 1864. Adams refined his methods and 
improved his results in papers published in 
the 'Comptes Rendus' for January 1859 
and in ' Monthly Notices,' June 1880. The 
final upshot was to reduce the value for 
lunar acceleration from 10" to about 6" a 
century. Other points connected with the 
lunar theory were treated of by him in 
separate memoirs presented at intervals to 
the Royal Astronomical Society. 

The Leonid shower of 1866 directed his 
attention to the movements of those meteors. 
Laboriously calculating the effects upon 
them of planetary perturbations, he applied 
them as a criterion for the determination of 
their orbit and period {Monthly Notices, 
xxvii. 247). This, like most of his work, was 
definitively done. His published writings 
in pure mathematics were more elegant than 
extensive, but he enjoyed manipulating long 
lines of figures, and, having calculated thirty- 
one ' Bernouillian numbers,' he employed 
them to obtain the values of ' Euler's con- 
stant ' to 263 places of decimals. His aid 
was frequently asked and granted in com- 
putations of ancient eclipses and of other 
astronomical phenomena. He was an assi- 
duous student of Sir Isaac Newton's works, 
and catalogued with elaborate care the 
voluminous collection of his manuscripts 
presented by Lord Portsmouth to the uni- 
versity. He succeeded Challis as director 
of the Cambridge observatory in 1861, and 
the acquisition in 1870 of a fine transit- 
circle by Simms decided him to undertake 
one of the star-zones assigned for observation 
to various co-operators by the German 



Adams 



17 



Adams 



Astronomische Gesellschaft. The practical 
part of the work was done by Mr. Graham, 
Adams's assistant, and the primary results 
were published in 1897. 

Adams presided over the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society for the terms 1851-3 and 
1874-6. A testimonial was bestowed upon 
him by the society in 1848 for his researches 
into the perturbations of Uranus, and their 
gold medal in 1866 for his contributions to 
lunar theory. The Royal Society adjudged 
him the Copley medal in 1848. Honorary 
degrees were conferred upon him by the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge, of 
Edinburgh, Dublin, and Bologna. He was 
a corresponding member of many foreign 
societies, including the Academies of Paris 
and St. Petersburg. He declined the office 
of astronomer royal on Airy's resignation of 
it in 1881. In 1884 he acted as one of the 
delegates for Great Britain at the Interna- 
tional Meridian Conference of Washington. 

He died after a long illness on 21 J an. 1892, 
and was buried in St. Giles's cemetery, Cam- 
bridge. A portrait medallion of him by Mr. 
Bruce Joy was in 1895 placed in Westminster 
Abbey, close to the grave of Newton, and a 
bust by the same artist was presented by 
Mrs. Adams to St. John's College. Portraits 
of him, painted respectively by Mogford in 
1851 and by Herkomer in 1888, are in the 
combination rooms of St. John's and of 
Pembroke Colleges. A memorial tablet to 
him was erected in Truro Cathedral on 
27 May 1893 {Observatory, xvi. 378), and a 
bust, executed when he was a young man, 
stands on the staircase of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society's rooms in Burlington 
House. A photograph of him, taken by 
Mrs. Myers four months before his death, was 
engraved in the ' Observatory ' for April 1892. 

' Adams was a man of learning as well as 
a man of science. He was an omnivorous 
reader, and, his memory being exact and 
retentive, there were few subjects upon 
which he was not possessed of accurate in- 
formation. Botany, geology, history, and 
divinity, all had their share of his eager 
attention' (Glaishee). He enjoyed novels, 
and collected eight hundred volumes of 
early printed books, which he bequeathed to 
the University library of Cambridge. Great 
political questions affected him deeply, and 
* in times of public excitement his interest 
was so intense that he could scarcely work 
or sleep.' * His nature was sympathetic and 
generous, and in few men have the moral 
and intellectual qualities been more perfectly 
balanced.' The honours showered upon him. 
Dr. Donald MacAlister wrote, 'left him as 
they found him — modest, gentle, and sin- 

TOL. I. — SUP. 



cere.' He married in 1863 Eliza, daughter 
of Haliday Bruce of Dublin, who survives 
him. 

The first volume of his ' Scientific Papers ' 
was published in 1896 at the University 
Press, Cambridge, under the editorship of 
his youngest brother, Professor William 
Grylls Adams, F.R.S. A biographical notice 
by Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, and a steel en- 
graving by Stodart from a photograph of 
Adams by Mayall, are prefixed. This volume 
includes all his published writings. A se- 
cond volume containing those left in manu- 
script, so far as they could be made avail- 
able for publication, appeared in 1901, edited 
by Prof. W. Grylls Adams and Mr. R. A. 
Sampson, M.A. 

[Memoir by Dr. Glaisher prefixed to Adams's 
Scientific Papers ; Monthly Notices, liii. 184; 
Observatory, xv. 174; Nature, xxxiv. 565, xlv. 
301 ; Astronomical Journal, No. 254 ; Grant's 
History of Physical Astronomy, p. 168 ; Edin- 
burgh Review, No. 381, p. 72.J A. M, C. 

ADAMS, WILLIAM HENRY DAVEN- 
PORT (1828-1891), miscellaneous writer, 
born in London on 5 May 1828, grandson of 
Captain Adams, R.N. {d, 1806), was the only 
son of Samuel Adams {b. Ashburton, in Devon- 
shire, 1798, d. 1853), who married in 1827 
Elizabeth Mary Snell. He was christened 
William Henry, and assumed the additional 
name of Davenport by the desire of his 
great-uncle. Major Davenport. He was edu- 
cated privately, under George Dawson, and 
became an omnivorous reader. After some 
experience as a teacher of special subjects in 
private families, he began a life of unceasing 
literary toil by editing a provincial news- 
paper in the Isle of Wight, and while still 
young established a connection with the 
London press through such journals as the 
* Literary Gazette,' the * London Journal,' 
and ' London Society.' He made some repu- 
tation in turn as a writer of popular science, 
a writer for boys, a translator, and a lexi- 
cographer. He supervised a new edition of 
Mackenzie's ' National Cyclopedia,' and did 
a large amount of reading and writing for 
Messrs. Black (for whom he wrote ' Guides ' 
to Kent and Surrey), for Blackie & Son of 
Glasgow, and Nelson & Sons, Edinburgh. 
In 1870 he founded the 'Scottish Guardian,' 
which he edited down to 1878, and subse- 
quently he projected and edited a series of 
volumes called 'The Whitefriars Library of 
Wit and Humour.' He died at Wimbledon 
on 30 Dec. 1891, and was buried at Kensal 
Green. He married in 1850 Sarah Esther 
Morgan, a Welsh lady, by whom he left 
two sons and two daughters, his eldest son, 
W. Davenport Adams, being the author 





Adler 



18 



Adye 



of the ' Dictionary of English Literature ' 
(1878). 

Adams's voluminous compilations, num- 
bering nearly 140 in all, include a number 
of useful translations from the French of L. 
Figuier, J. C. F. Hoefer, A. Mangin, Jules 
Michelet, and B. H. Revoil. His best work 
is contained in the following : 1. 'History, 
Topography, and Antiquities of the Isle of 
Wight,' 1856 and 1884. 2. 'Memorable 
Battles in English History,' 1862, 1868, and 

1878. 3. 'Famous Regiments,' 1864. 4. 'Fa- 
mous Ships of the British Navy,' 1868. 
5. ' Lighthouses and Lightships,' 1870, 1876, 

1879. 6. 'The Arctic World: its Plants, 
Animals, and Natural Phenomena,' 1876. 
7. 'The Bird World,' 1877. 8. 'English 
Party Leaders,' 2 vols. 1878. 9. ' The Merry 
Monarch,' 1885. 10. ' England on the Sea,' 
2 vols. 1885. 11. ' England at War,' 2 vols. 
1886. 12. ' Good Queen Anne,' 1886. 13. 'A 
Concordance to the Plays of Shakespeare,' 
1886. 14. ' Witch, Warlock, and Magician,' 
1889. He also edited a single-volume anno- 
tated edition of Shakespeare's ' Plays.' 

[Times, 31 Dec. 1891 ; Ann. Keg. 1891 ; 
Halkett and Laing's Diet, of Anon, and Pseudon. 
Lit. pp. 609, 1689, 2460, 2530, 2682, 2829; 
Biograph, September 1879; private informa- 
tion.] T. S. 

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS (1803- 
1890), chief rabbi, born at Hanover on 
15 Jan. 1803, was third son of Mordecai 
Adler, rabbi in Hanover, and grand-nephew 
of Rabbi David Tewele Schiff, chief rabbi of 
London in the reign of George III (from 
1705 to 1792). In addition to careful in- 
struction in Hebrew and theology, he received 
a good general education, and he attended 
successively the universities of Gcittingen, 
Erlangen, Wiirzburg, and Heidelberg. On 
27 March 1828 he received a certificate of 
ordination from Abraham Bing, the chief 
rabbi of Wiirzburg, and on 5 June graduated 
Ph.D. from the university of Erlangen. In 
1829 he was elected chief rabbi of the grand 
duchy of Oldenburg, and in 1830 he under- 
took the office of chief rabbi of Hanover, 
which his father was unable to fill from lack 
of qualifications required by the government. 
On 13 Oct. 1844 he was elected chief rabbi 
of London, in succession to Rabbi Solomon 
Hirschel [q. v.], and on 9 July 1845 was in- 
stalled at the great synagogue. He entered 
on his office shortly after the foundation of 
the ' reform ' congregation in Burton Street, 
at a time when one party in the Jewish 
church was urging rapid innovation, while 
another was opposing all change. Adler re- 
presented the moderate party, which desired 



to eSbct improvement by gradual modifica- 
tions. His first efforts were for the im- 
provement of Jewish schools, especially of 
those for the middle class. He inspected the 
schools and pointed out their deficiencies. 
On his initiative a training college for the 
Jewish ministry, known as Jews' College, 
was founded at 10 Finsbury Square on 
11 Nov. 1855, From him also proceeded, on 
24 Sept. 1860, the first proposal for uniting 
the English congregations under one ma- 
nagement, which resulted in the passage of 
the United Synagogues bill through parlia- 
ment in 1870. For many years he lived at 
4 Crosby Square, Bisliopsgate. Subsequently 
he removed to 16 Finsbury Square, and in 
1880 he left London for Brighton, where he 
took a house at 36 First Avenue. His son, 
Dr. Hermann Adler, was at the same time 
appointed to perform the main duties of his 
office, with the title of delegate chief rabbi. 
Dr. Adler died at his residence at Brighton 
on 21 Jan. 1890, and was buried at Willesden 
cemetery on 23 Jan. 

Adler was twice married. By his first 
wife, Henrietta Worms {d. 1854), of Frank- 
fort, he had five children — two sons and three 
daughters. The younger son, Dr. Hermann 
Adler, succeeded him as chief rabbi. By 
his second wife, Celestine Lehfeldt, who 
survived him, he had one son and two daugh- 
ters. 

A portrait of Adler by Solomon Alexander 
Hart [q. v.] is in the vestry room of the great 
synagogue, and another by Mr. B. S. Marks 
was presented to the council by the president 
of the united synagogue. 

Adler published several sermons, and was 
the author of a Hebrew commentary on the 
Chaldee paraphrase of Onkelos on the Penta- 
teuch, ' Nethinah la-ger,' Wilna, 1874 ; 2nd 
edit. 1877. 

[Jewish Quarterly Review, July 1890; Jewish 
Chronicle, 24, 31 Jan. 1890; Biograph, 1881, v. 
136-9.] E. I. C. 

ADYE, Sir JOHN MILLER (1819- 
1900), general, bom at Sevenoaks, Kent, on 
1 Nov. 1819, was son of Major James Pattison 
Adye, R.A., by Jane, daughter of J. Mor- 
timer Kelson of Sevenoaks. His grand- 
father. Major Stephen Payne Adye [q. v.], 
served in the seven years' war as an officer 
of royal artillery ; he had three sons in the 
regiment, and there has been an unbroken 
succession of members of the family in it 
ever since. 

J. M. Adye entered the military academy 
at Woolwich as a cadet in February 1834. 
He passed out at the head of his batch, and 
by his own choice received a commission as 



Adye 



19 



Adye 



second-lieutenant in the royal artillery on 
13 Dec, 1836. He became first-lieutenant 
on 7 July 1839; was sent to Malta in 1840, 
to Dublin (as adjutant) in 1843, and was 
posted to C troop of horse artillery in 1845. 
He was promoted second-captain on 29 July 
1846, and captain on 1 April 1852. He was 
in command of the artillery detachment at 
the Tower of London in the spring of 1848 
when attack by the Chartists was appre- 
hended. 

In May 1854, on the outbreak of the Cri- 
mean war, Adye went to Turkey as brigade- 
major of artillery. Lord Raglan obtained for 
him a brevet ma,jority on 22 Sept., and made 
him assistant adjutant-general of artillery. 
He was present with the headquarter staff 
at Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman, where 
General Fox Strangways, who commanded 
the artillery, was killed close by him. He 
served throughout the siege of Sebastopol, 
and remained in the Crimea till June 1856. 
He was three times mentioned in despatches 
{London Gazette, 10 Oct. and 2 Dec. 1854, 
and 2 Nov. 1855), was made brevet lieute- 
nant-colonel on 12 Dec. 1854, and C.B. on 
6 July 1855. He received the Crimean 
medal with four clasps, the Turkish medal, 
the Medjidie (4th class), and the legion of 
honour (3rd class). 

Adye was stationed at Cork Harbour when 
the Indian mutiny broke out, and in July 
1857 he was sent to India as assistant 
adjutant-general of artillery. From Calcutta 
he went up to Cawnpore, and arrived there 
on 21 Nov. to find that Sir Colin Campbell 
had already left for the relief of Lucknow, 
and that the Gwalior contingent was ad- 
vancing upon Cawnpore. He took part in 
the actions fought there by Windham [see 
WisTDHAM, Sir Charles Ash] on the 26th 
and following days, and brought in a 
24-pounder which had been upset and aban- 
doned in one of the streets of the town. He 
afterwards wrote an account of the defence 
of Cawnpore. He was present at the battle 
of 6 Dec, in which the Gwalior contingent 
was routed by Sir Colin Campbell after his 
return from Lucknow. His administrative 
duties then obliged Adye to return to Cal- 
cutta, and he saw no more fighting during 
the mutiny. He was mentioned in des- 
patches {Lond. Gaz. 29 Jan. 1858), and re- 
ceived the medal. He became regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on 29 Aug. 1857, and was 
made brevet colonel on 19 May 1860. 

In May 1859 he was appointed to com- 
mand the artillery in the Madras presi- 
dency, and in March 1863 deputy adjutant- 
general of artillery in India. In this post, 
which he held for three years, it fell to him 



to carry out the amalgamation of the three 
Indian regiments of artillery with the royal 
artillery, a difficult task demanding patience 
and tact. In November 1863 he joined the 
commander-in-chief. Sir Hugh Rose, at La- 
hore, and was sent by him to the Umbeyla 
Valley, where General Chamberlain's expe- 
dition against the Sitana fanatics was at a 
deadlock. Adye, who was accompanied by 
Major (now Earl) Roberts, was to see 
Chamberlain, and to bring back a personal 
report of the situation. He was present at 
the action of 15 Dec. which finally dispersed 
the tribesmen, and at the burning of Mulka, 
the home of the fanatics, a week afterwards. 
He was mentioned in despatches {Land. Gaz. 
19 March 1864) and received the medal with 
Umbeyla clasp. 

After nine years of Indian service Adye 
returned to England. He had formed 
strong views, to which he afterwards gave 
frequent expression, as to the importance of 
trusting the people of India, and admitting 
them to high office, civil and military. He 
had the fullest faith in a policy of concilia- 
tion and subsidies as the solvent for frontier 
difficulties. He became regimental colonel 
on 6 July 1867. 

On 1 April 1870 he was appointed director 
of artillery and stores. To his administra- 
tion has been attributed the failure of the 
British artillery to keep pace in improve- 
ments with that of other countries. Adye 
was undoubtedly a firm believer in the 
wrought-iron muzzle-loader. But the re- 
version to muzzle-loading had taken place 
in 1863 before he came into office, and it 
was only after he had left office that im- 
provements in gunpowder furnished irresis- 
tible arguments in favour of breech-loading 
[see Armstroitg, Sir William George, 
Suppl.] Outside the duties of his own de- 
partment he was a staunch supporter of 
Cardwell's army reforms; and when they 
were criticised by John Holmes, M.P. for 
Hackney, he wrote a pamphlet in reply, 
* The British Army in 1876,' which was pub- 
lished in 1876. 

In the autumn of 1872 he was sent to the 
Crimea, in company with Colonel Charles 
George Gordon, to report on the British 
cemeteries there. The report was sensible 
enough, involved no great expenditure, and 
was carried out. Adye was made K.C.B. 
on 24 May 1873, and promoted major-gene- 
ral on 17 Nov. 1875. 

On 1 Aug. 1875 he succeeded Sir Lintorn 
Simmons as governor of the military aca- 
demy at Woolwich. He took an active part 
in the discussion which followed soon after- 
wards about the advance of Russia towards 

c2 



Adye 



India and our relations with Afghanistan. 
He made light of the danger from Russia, 
advocated * a consistent policy of forbear- 
ance and kindness' towards Afghanistan, 
and opposed rectifications of frontier. He 
replied (18 Oct. 1878) to Sir James Fitz- 
james Stephen's letters in the ' Times ' in 
support of the forward policy on the North- 
West frontier, and printed a paper for pri- 
vate circulation in December on ' England, 
Kussia, and Afghanistan.' 

When Gladstone returned to office in 
1880, Adye was appointed (1 June) sur- 
Teyor-general of the ordnance, but did not 
succeed in finding a seat in parliament. In 
August 1882, on the outbreak of Arabi 
Pacha's rebellion in Egypt, he accompanied 
Sir Garnet Wolseley to Egypt as chief of 
the staft", with the temporary rank of general, 
and he is entitled to a share of the credit 
for the success of that well-organised expe- 
dition. He was mentioned in despatches 
■ {Lond. Gaz. 8 Sept. and 6 Oct. 1882), and 
received the thanks of parliament, the G.C.B., 
the medal with clasp and bronze star, and 
the grand cross of the Medjidie. 

Adye returned to the war ofiice in Octo- 
ber, but left it at the end of 1882 to become 
governor of Gibraltar. There he tried to 
reconcile the dual interests of a fortress and 
a commercial city, relaxed some of the 
military restrictions on trade, and provided 
recreation rooms for the garrison. He re- 
mained there nearly four years, but on 1 Nov. 
1886 he was placed on the retired list, 
having reached the age of sixty-seven. He 
devoted some of his leisure to a volume of 
autobiographical reminiscences (No. 4,,wfra), 
which was illustrated by his own sketches, 
for he was an excellent artist. He became 
general on 20 Nov. 1884, and a colonel- 
commandant on 4 Nov. 1881. He was also 
honorary colonel, from 6 May 1870, of the 
3rd Kent artillery volunteers and the 3rd 
volunteer battalion of the West Kent regi- 
ment. 

He died on 26 Aug. 1900 at Cragside, 
Rothbury, Northumberland, while on a visit 
to Lord Armstrong. In 1856 he married 
Mary Cordelia, daughter of Admiral the 
Honourable Sir Montagu Stopford, and had 
several children. His eldest son. Colonel 
John Adye, R.A., has seen active service in 
Afghanistan, Egypt, the Soudan, and South 
Africa. His eldest daughter Winifreda Jane 
married, in 1889, Lord Armstrong's grand- 
nephew and heir, Mr. W^illiam Henry Wat- 
son-Armstrong. 

In addition to the pamphlets already men- 
tioned, and an article ' In Defence of Short 
Service ' in the ' Nineteenth Century ' for 



• Ainsworth 

September 1892, Adye wrote: 1. 'The De- 
fence of Cawnpore,' London, 1858, 8vo. 

2. 'Review of the Crimean War to the 
Winter of 1854-1855,' London, 1860, 8vo. 

3. ' Sitana : a Mountain Campaign,' London, 
1867, 8vo. 4. ' Recollections of a Military 
Life,' London, 1895, 8vo. 5. 'Indian Fron- 
tier Policy : an Historical Sketch,' Loudon, 
1897, 8vo. 

[Adye's Recollections of a Military Life, 
1895 ; Times, 27 Aug. 1900.] E. M. L. 

AINSWORTH, WILLIAM FRANCIS 

(1807-1896), geographer and geologist, born 
on 9 Nov. 1807 at Exeter, was the son of 
John Ainsworth of Rostherne in Cheshire, 
captain in the 15th and 128th regiments. 
The novelist, William Harrison Ainsworth 
[q.v.], was his cousin, and at his instance he 
adopted the additional Christian name of 
Francis to avoid confusion of personality. 
In 1827 he became a licentiate of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, where he 
filled the ofiice of president in the Royal 
Physical and the Plinian societies. He 
afterwards proceeded to London and Paris, 
where he became an interne at the school of 
mines. While in France he gained practi- 
cal experience of geology among the moun- 
tains of Auvergne and the Pyrenees. After 
studying at Brussels he returned to Scotland 
in 1829 and founded, in 1830, the ' Edin- 
burgh Journal of Natural and Geographical 
Science,' which was discontinued in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1831, on the appearance of 
cholera at Sunderland, Ainsworth proceeded 
thither to study it, and published his expe- 
riences in ' Observations on the Pestilential 
Cholera,' London, 1832, 8vo. This treatise 
led to his appointment as surgeon to the 
cholera hospital of St. George's, Hanover 
Square. On the outbreak of the disease in 
Ireland he acted successively as surgeon of 
the hospitals at Westport, Ballinrobe, Clare- 
morris, and Newport. He subsequently re- 
corded many incidents of his sojourn in 
' Ainsworth's Magazine ' and the ' New 
Monthly Magazine.' In 1834 he published 
' An Account of the Caves of Ballybunian 
in Kerry,' Dublin, 8vo, in which he showed 
a grasp of geological principles remarkable 
in a treatise of so early a date. 

In 1836 Ainsworth, after studying the 
art of making observations under Sir Ed- 
ward Sabine [q. v.], was appointed surgeon 
and geologist to the expedition to the Eu- 
phrates under Francis Rawdon Chesney 
[q.v.] On his return he published his obser- 
vations under the title of ' Researches in 
Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldsea,' London, 
1838, 8vo, with a dedication to Chesney. 



Ainsworth 



21 



Airey 



Shortly afterwards he was placed in charge 
of an expedition to the Christians of Chaldaea, 
which was sent out by the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society and the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. He proceeded to Me- 
sopotamia, through Asia Minor, the passes of 
Taurus, and Northern Syria, reaching Mosul 
in the spring of 1840. During the summer 
he explored the Kurdistan mountains and 
visited the lake of Urimiyeh in Persian terri- 
tory, returning through Greater Armenia, 
and reaching Constantinople late in 1840. 
The expedition proved more tedious than 
had been anticipated ; the funds for its sup- 
port were exhausted, and Ainsworth was left 
to find his way home at his own expense. 
In 1842 he published an account of the 
expedition entitled ' Travels and Researches 
in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Chaldsea, and 
Armenia,' London, 2 vols. 12mo. Two years 
later, in 1844, he produced his masterpiece, 
the * Travels in the Track of the Ten Thou- 
sand Greeks,' London, 8vo, a geographical 
and descriptive account of the expedition of 
Cyrus and of the retreat of his Greek mer- 
cenaries after the death of the Persian 
prince. In 1854 he furnished a geographical 
commentary to accompany the translation 
of Xenophon's 'Anabasis' by John Selby 
Watson [q. v.], which was issued in Bohn's 
* Classical Library,' and was republished in 
1894 as one of Sir John Lubbock's * Hun- 
dred Books.' 

After his return to England in 1841 
Ainsworth settled at Hammersmith, and 
assisted his cousin, William Harrison Ains- 
worth, in the conduct of several magazines, 
including * Ainsworth's,' ' Bentley's Miscel- 
lany,' and the ' New Monthly.' In 1871 he 
succeeded his cousin as editor of the ' New 
Monthly Magazine,' and continued in that 
post until 1879. For some years he acted 
as honorary secretary to the Syro-Egyptian 
Society, founded in 1844, and he was con- 
cerned with various endeavours to promote 
the adoption of the Euphrates and Tigris 
valleys route to India, with which Ches- 
ney's expedition had been connected. He 
was one of the founders of the West London 
Hospital, and its honorary treasurer until 
his death at 11 Wolverton Gardens, Ham- 
mersmith, on 27 Nov. 1896. He was the 
last survivor of the original fellows of the 
newly formed Royal Geographical Society 
in 1830, was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 14 April 1853, and was 
also a corresponding member of several 
foreign societies. He married, and left a 
son and two daughters. 

Besides the works already mentioned 
Ainsworth was the author of: 1. 'The 



Claims of the Christian Aborigines of the 
Turkish or Osmanlee Empire upon Civilised 
Nations,' London, 1843, 12mo. 2. 'All 
Round the World, an Illustrated Record 
of Travels, Voyages, and Adventures,' Lon- 
don, 1860-2, 4 vols. 4to. 3. ' Wanderings 
in every Clime,' London, 1872, 4to. 4. ' A 
Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expe- 
dition,' London, 1888, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. ' The 
River Kariin, an Opening to British Com- 
merce,' London, 1890, 8vo. He also trans- 
lated Francois Auguste Marie Mignet's 
* Antonio Perez and Philip II,' London, 1846, 
8vo, and edited ' Lares and Penates ' from 
the papers of William Burckhardt Barker 
[q.v.], London, 1853, 8vo. 

[Geogr. Journ. 1897, ix. 98; Biograph, 1881, 
vi. 350-3; Athenaeum, 1896, ii. 799 ; Times, 
30 Nov. 1896; Mrs. Chesney and Mrs. O'Don- 
nell's Life of General Chesney, ed. Stanley 
Lane-Poole, 1885.] E. I. C. 

AIREY, Sir JAMES TALBOT (1812- 
1898), general, born on 6 Sept. 1812, was 
son of Lieutenant-general Sir George Airey 
[q. v.], by Catherine, sister of the second,,^ 
lord Talbot de Malahide. Richard, lord 
Airey [q.v.], was his brother. He was com- 
missioned as ensign in the 30th foot on 
11 Feb. 1830, became lieutenant on 3 May 
1833, and exchanged to the 3rd buffs on 
23 Aug. He was aide-de-camp to the governor 
of Madras from May 1834 to July 1837. Oa 
26 Jan. 1841 he was appointed extra aide- 
de-camp to Major-general Elphinstone, and 
accompanied him to Afghanistan. In the 
latter part of that year he was present at 
the forcing of the Khoord Cabul pass, and 
the actions near Cabul, and on 21 Dec. he 
was given up of his own accord to Akbar 
Khan as a hostage. He was released with 
the other captives on 21 Sept. 1842, joined 
the force sent into Kohistan under Brigadier 
M'Caskill, and was present at the capture 
of Istalif. He was twice mentioned in 
despatches (12 Oct. 1841 and 30 Sept. 1842), 
and received the Afghan medal. He also 
received the bronze star for the Gwalior 
campaign of 1843, in which he took part 
with his regiment. He was promoted cap- 
tain on 22 July 1842, and was aide-de-camp 
to the governor of Ceylon from April 1847 
to March 1851. On 11 Nov. 1851 he became 
regimental major, and on 17 July 1854 he 
exchanged to the Coldstream guards as cap- 
tain and lieutenant-colonel. 

He served throughout the war in the 
Crimea with the light division as assistant 
quartermaster-general, being present at the 
Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman, and the assault 
of the Redan, and he accompanied the ex- 



Airy 



22 



Airy 



pedition to Kertch. He was three times 
mentioned in despatches (28 Sept. and 11 Nov. 
1854, 18 Sept. 1855). He received the 
Crimean medal with four clasps, the Turkish 
medal, the legion of honour (oth class), and 
the Medjidie (4th class). He was made C.B. 
on 5 July 1855. He was promoted colonel 
on 26 Dec. 1859, and became regimental 
major in the Coldstream guards on 22 May 
1866. He was promoted major-general on 
6 March 1868, and commanded the troops at 
Malta from 21 Aug. 1875 to 31 Dec. 1878. 
He became lieutenant-general on 1 Oct. 1877, 
and was placed on the retired list on 1 July 
1881, with the honorary rank of general. 
He was made K.C.B. on 2 June 1877, and 
colonel of the Royal Inniskilling fusiliers on 
13 March 1886. He died in London on 
■ 1 Jan. 1898. He was unmarried. 

[His own narrative of his experience in Afghan- 
istan is given, under the title of * Ttie Cabool 
Captives,' in United Service Mag., November 
1845 to April 1846. See also Times, 3 Jan. 
1898; Army Lists.] E. M. L. 

AIRY, Sir GEORGE BIDDELL (1801- 
1892), astronomer royal, was born at Aln- 
wick in Northumberland on 27 July 1801. 
His father, William Airy of Luddington in 
Lincolnshire, was then collector of excise in 
Northumberland, whence he was transferred 
to Hereford in 1802, and to Essex in 1810. 
Three years later he lost his appointment 
and lapsed into poverty. He died on 
26 March 1827. His wife, Ann, a woman 
of strong natural abilities, was the daugh- 
ter of a well-to-do Suffolk farmer ; she died 
in 1841. 

George Biddell was the eldest of four 
children. At ten years of age he took first 
place in Byatt Walker's school at Colches- 
ter, picked up stores of miscellaneous infor- 
mation from his father's books, and became 
notorious for his skill in constructing pea- 
shooters. From 1812 he spent his holidays 
at Playford, near Ipswich, with his uncle, 
Arthur Biddell, a farmer and valuer, whose 
influence upon his career proved decisive. 
He met at his house Thomas Clarkson [q.v.], 
Bernard Barton [q. v.]. Sir William Cubitt 
[q. v.], Robert and James Ransome [q. v.], 
and studied optics, chemistry, and mechanics 
in his library. From 1814 to 1819 Airy 
attended the grammar school at Colchester, 
where he was noted for his memory, repeat- 
ing at one examination 2394 lines of Latin 
verse. By Clarkson's advice he was sent to 
Cambridge, and entered as sizar of Trinity 
College in October 1819. In 1822 he took a 
scholarship, and in 1823 graduated as senior 
wrangler and first Smith's prizeman. His 



year ranked as an annus mirabilis, and he 
had no close competitor. On his election to 
a fellowship of his college in October 1824, 
he became assistant mathematical tutor ; he 
delivered lectures, took pupils, and pursued 
original scientific investigations. 

Airy's ' Mathematical Tracts on Physical 
Astronomy ' was published in 1826, and it 
immediately became a text-book in the uni- 
versity. An essay on the undulatory 
theory of light was appended to the second 
edition in 1831. For his various optical 
researches, chiefly contained in papers laid 
before the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 
he received in 1831 the Copley medal from 
the Royal Society. He was admitted to 
membership of the Astronomical and Geo- 
logical Societies respectively in 1828 and 
1829, and was awarded in 1833 the gold 
medal of the former body for his detection 
of the * long inequality ' of Venus and the 
earth, communicated to the Royal Society 
on 24 Nov. 1831. The Lalande prize fol- 
lowed in 1834, and on 9 Jan. 1835 he was 
elected a correspondent of the French Aca- 
demy of Sciences. 

A trip to Scotland with his sister, Eliza- 
beth Airy, in the summer of 1823 had 
* opened,' he said, ' a completely new world 
to him.' In the ensuing winter he stayed 
in London with Sir James South [q.v.], met 
Sir Humphry Davy and Sir John Herschel, 
and had his first experience of practical as- 
tronomy. During a walking tour in Derby- 
shire in 1824 he proposed, after two days' 
acquaintance, for Richarda, eldest daughter 
of Richard Smith, rector of Edensor, near 
Chatsworth, and received a benignant re- 
fusal. Thenceforth he concentrated his 
eftbrts upon securing a position in life and 
an income. In 1826 and 1826 he led read- 
ing parties to Keswick and Orleans, seeing 
much, on the first occasion, of the poets 
Southey and Wordsworth, and making ac- 
quaintance in Paris, on the second, with 
Laplace, Arago, Pouillet, and Bouvard. On 
7 Dec. 1826 he was elected Lucasian profes- 
sor of mathematics at Cambridge ; but the 
emoluments of the office — 99Z. per annum, 
with 100^. as ipso facto member of the board 
of longitude — very slightly exceeded those 
of his relinquished tutorship. Airy renewed 
the prestige of the Lucasian chair by his 
ardour for the promotion of experimental 
physics in the university. In his lectures 
on light he first drew attention to the defect 
of vision since called * astigmatism,' from 
which he personally suffered. A trip to 
Dublin in 1827 in quest of the vacant post 
of astronomer royal in Ireland led to no re- 
sult; but on 6 Feb. 1828 he succeeded Robert 



Airy 



23 



Airy 



Woodhouse [q. v.] as Plumian professor of 
astronomy and director of tlie Cambridge ob- 
servatory. His income was now augmented 
to 500/. a year, and thus provided for, he 
succeeded in inducing Richarda Smith to 
marry him on 24 March 1830. At the obser- 
vatory he introduced an improved system of 
meridian observations, afterwards continued 
at Greenwich and partially adopted abroad, 
and set the example of thoroughly reducing 
before publishing them. He superintended 
besides the erection of several instruments, 
and devised the equatorial mount for the 
Cauchoix twelve-inch lens, which was pre- 
sented in 1833 to the institution by the 
Duke of Northumberland. In February 
1835 Sir Robert Peel offered Airy a civil-list 
pension of 300/. a year, which, by his re- 
quest, was settled on his wife; and on 18 June 
1835 he accepted the post of astronomer 
royal, for which Lord Melbourne designated 
him in succession to John Pond [q. v.j 

Airy's tenure of the office of astronomer- 
royal lasted forty-six years, and was marked 
by extraordinary energy. He completely re- 
equipped the Royal Observatory with instru- 
ments designed by himself. The erection in 
1847 of an altazimuth for observing the moon 
in every part of the sky proved of great im- 
portance for the correction of lunar tables. 
A new transit circle of unprecedented optical 
power and mechanical stability was mounted 
in 1851, and a reflex zenith tube replaced 
Troughton's zenith sector in the same year. 
The inauguration in 1859 of a thirteen-inch 
equatorial by Merz finished the transforming 
process. Its use the astronomer royal was 
resolved should never interfere with the 
'staple and standard work' of the establish- 
ment; yet, while firmly adhering to the meri- 
dional system prescribed ' by both reason and 
tradition,' he kept well abreast of novel re- 
quirements. In 1838 he created at Greenwich 
a magnetic and meteorological department, 
Brooke's plan of photographic registration 
being introduced in 1848. From 1854 tran- 
sits were timed by electricity; spectroscopic 
observations were organised in 1868, and 
the prismatic mapping of solar prominences 
in 1874 ; while with the Kew heliograph a 
daily record of sunspots was begun in 1873. 
Meantime Airy accomplished the colossal 
task of reducing all the planetary and lunar 
observations made at Greenwich between 
1750 and 1830, for which he received the 
gold medal of the Royal Astronomical So- 
ciety in 1846, and an equivalent testimonial 
in 1848. The mass of materials thus pro- 
vided was indispensable to the progress of 
celestial mechanics. 

Airy observed the total solar eclipse of 



8 July 1842 from the Superga, near Turin 
{Memoirs of Roy. Astr. Society, vol. xv.), 
and that of 28 July 1851 from Gothenburg 
in Sweden {ib. vol. xxi.) He subsequently 
visited Upsala, was received in audience by 
King Oscar at Stockholm, and on the return 
journey inspected the pumping-engines at 
Haarlem. For the Spanish eclipse of 18 July 
1860 he organised a cosmopolitan expedition, 
which he conveyed to Bilbao and Santander 
in the troopship Himalaya, placed at his dis- 
posal by the admiralty. He fixed his own 
station at Herena, but was disappointed in 
the result. In the autumn of 1854 he super- 
intended an elaborate series of pendulum- 
experiments for the purpose of measuring the 
increase of gravity with descent below the 
earth's surface. Similar attempts made by 
him in the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, in 1826 
and 1828, with the co-operation of William 
Whewell [q. v.] and Richard Sheepshanks 
[q. v.], had been accidentally frustrated. He 
now renewed them in the Harton colliery, 
near South Shields, at a depth of 1,260 feet. 
The upshot was to give 6'56 for the mean 
density of the earth (Phil. Trans, cxlvi. 342), 
a value considerably too high. Airy ex- 
plained the method in a popular lecture at 
South Shields. 

The preparations for the transit of Venus 
in 1874 cost him enormous labour. The 
entire control of the various British expedi- 
tions was in his hands ; he provided twenty- 
three telescopes, undertook the preliminary 
work at the observatory, and the subsequent 
reduction of the vast mass of collected data. 
The volume embodying them was issued in 
1881. Incredible industry and high busi- 
ness capacity alone enabled him to discharge 
the miscellaneous tasks imposed upon him. 
He acted as chairman and working secretary 
of the commission of weights and measures 
(1838-1842), sat on the tidal harbour and 
railway gauge commissions in 1845, on the 
sewers commission in 1848, on the exchequer 
standards and the coinage commissions in 
1868. He experimented in 1838 on the cor- 
rection of compasses in iron ships, devising 
the principle still in use ; contributed ener- 
getically to the improvement of lighthouses, 
aided in the delimitation of the Maine and ^/^ 
Oregon boundaries, and settled the provisions 
for the sale of gas. The reduction of tidal 
observations in Ireland and India, and the 
determination in 1862 of the difference of 
longitude between Valencia, co. Kerry, and 
Greenwich, engaged his strenuous attention. 
He was consulted about the launch of the 
Great Eastern, the laying of the Atlantic 
cable, Babbage's calculating machine, the 
chimes of Westminster clock, and the smoky 



Airy 



24 



Airy 



chimneys of Westminster Palace. A paper 
on suspension bridges, contributed in 1867 
to the Institution of Civil Engineers, was 
honoured with the Telford medal; and he 
delivered in 1869 a set of lectures on 
magnetism in the university of Cambridge, 
besides at sundry times numerous discourses 
to the general public. He failed in 1853 to 
obtain the office of superintendent of the 
Nautical Almanac, although 'willing to take 
it at a low rate for the addition to my 
salary.' 

Airy was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 21 Jan. 1836, frequently sat on 
the council, and was president 1872-73. He 
occupied the same post in the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society during five biennial periods, 
and presided over the British Association at 
its Ipswich meeting in 1851. He became a 
member of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society in 1823, and later of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, of the Royal Irish Academy, and 
of several foreign scientific bodies. On 
18 March 1872 he succeeded Sir John 
Herschel as one of eight foreign members of 
the French Institute ; he was presented in 
1875 with the freedom of the city of London, 
was created D.C.L. of Oxford (20 June 1844), 
LL.D. of Cambridge (1862) and Edinburgh, 
and decided honorary fellow of TrinityCollege, 
Cambridge. The czar Nicholas sent him a 
gold medal specially struck ; and among the 
orders conferred upon him were those of 
Pour le M6rite of Prussia, of the Legion of 
Honour, of the North Star of Sweden, of the 
Dannebrog, and of the Rose of Brazil. On 
17 May 1871 he was appointed companion of 
the Bath, and, a year later (17 June 1872), 
was promoted to be knight commander. His 
wife died on 13 Aug. 1875, and on the ground 
of the lapse of her pension Airy obtained an 
augmentation of his salary to 1,200/. yearly. 
Airy was an indefatigable traveller. In 
1829 he inspected the observatories of Turin, 
Milan, Bologna, and Florence; in 1835 exa- 
mined the Markree refractor in Ireland, and 
in 1848 elaborately tested the great Parsons- 
town reflector. In 1846 he visited Hansen 
at Gotha, Gauss at Gcittingen, and Caroline 
Lucretia Herschel [q.v.] at Hanover ; in 1847 
spent a month at Pulkowa with Otto Struve, 
and, returning by Berlin and Hamburg, saw 
Humboldt, Galle, Repsold, and Rtimker. 
He entered into correspondence with Lever- 
rier in June 1816 about the still unseen 
planet Neptune, and on 9 July suggested to 
Professor Challis a plan of search. In the 
following year he escorted Leverrier to the 
meeting of the British Association at Ox- 
ford. His unjustifiable coldness to John 



Couch Adams [q.v. Suppl.] was doubtless 
due to the embarrassments that followed 
his accidental yet regrettable omission to 
pay due attention to the letter in which 
Adams communicated to him the progress 
of his Neptune investigation. 

Airy resigned the office of astronomer 
royal on 15 Aug. 1881, and resided thence- 
forward, with his two unmarried daughters, 
at the White House, close to Greenwich 
Park, and at Playford, where he had bought 
a cottage in 1845. His main desire was 
to complete the ' Numerical Lunar Theory,' 
upon which he had been engaged from 1872. 
Printed in 1886, the colossal performance 
proved, however, to be undermined by un- 
explained errors. 'With painful alarm,' the 
aged author noted in the preface, ' I find 
that the equations are not satisfied, and that 
the discordance is large.' After two years 
of hopeless struggle, he desisted from efforts 
towards correction which have not been re- 
newed. He continued to enjoy excursions 
to Cumberland and Playford, but a fall on 
11 Nov. 1891 produced an internal injury 
necessitating a surgical operation, which he 
survived only a few days. He died at the 
White House on 2 Jan. 1892, and was buried 
in Playford churchyard. 

* He was of medium stature,' Mr. Wilfrid 
Airy writes, ' and not powerfully built.' ' The 
ruling feature of his character was order. 
From the time that he went up to Cam- 
bridge to the end of his life his system of 
order was strictly maintained.' He enforced 
it upon himself no less rigidly than upon his 
subordinates, and kept up at the Royal 
Observatory a cast-iron discipline, which 
powerfully contributed to the efficiency of 
his administration. He never destroyed a 
document, but devised an ingenious plan of 
easy reference to the huge bulk of his papers. 
In his decrepitude this methodical bent 
tyrannised over him, and * he seemed more 
anxious to put letters into their proper place 
than to master their contents.' * His nature 
was eminently practical, and his dislike of 
mere theoretical problems and investigations 
was proportionately great. He was con- 
tinually at war with some of the resident 
Cambridge mathematicians on this subject. 
Year after year he criticised the Senate 
House papers and the Smith's Prize papers 
very severely, and conducted an interest- 
ing and acrimonious private correspond- 
ence with Professor Cayley on the same 
subject.' A very important feature of his 
investigations was their thoroughness. ' He 
was never satisfied with leaving a result as 
a barren mathematical expression. He would 
reduce it, if possible, to a practical and 



Airy 



25 



Aitchison 



numerical form, at any cost of labour. . . . 
To one who had known, in some degree, of 
the enormous quantity of arithmetical work 
which he had turned out, and the unsparing 
manner in which he had devoted himself 
to it, there was something very pathetic 
in his discovery, towards the close of his 
long life, that " the figures would not add 
up " ' {Autohiograpliy of Sir George Biddell 
Airy, p. 3). 

The amount of his labours almost exceeds 
belief. On the literary side alone they 
have rarely been equalled. He published 
eleven separate volumes, including treatises 
on ' Gravitation ' (1834 and 1884), on ' Tri- 
gonometry ' (written for the Eneyclopcedia 
Metropolitana about 1825 and reprinted in 
1855), on * Partial Differential Equations ' 
(1866), ' On Sound and Atmospheric Vibra- 
tions ' (1868 and 1871). His 'Popular As- 
tronomy,' embodying six lectures delivered 
at Ipswich in 1848, passed through twelve 
editions. And the papers contributed by 
him to journals and scientific collections 
numbered 377, besides 141 official reports 
and addresses. He wrote on * The Figure of 
the Earth,' and on * Tides and Waves,' in 
the ' Encyclopaedia Metropolitana ; ' his * Re- 
port on the Progress of Astronomy,' drawn 
up for the British Association in 1832, is 
still valuable ; he gave the first theory of 
the diffraction of object-glasses in an essay 
read before the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society on 24 Nov. 1834 ; for his discussion 
of the ' Laws of the Tides on the Coasts of 
Ireland ' (PA2V. Trans. 12 Dec. 1844) he was 
awarded a royal medal by the Royal Society 
in 1845 ; he communicated important re- 
searches on ancient eclipses to that body in 
1853, and to the Royal Astronomical Society 
in 1 857 ; and he introduced in 1859 a novel 
method of dealing with the problem of the 
sun's translation (^Memoirs of the Royal As- 
tronomical Society, xxviii. 143). 

Airy left six children, his three eldest 
having died young. His third son, Mr. 
Osmund Airy, was appointed government 
inspector of schools in 1876 ; his daughter 
Hilda married, in 1864, Dr. Routh of Cam- 
bridge. 

[Airy left a detailed autobiography, which 
was published at Cambridge in 1896, under the 
editorship of his eldest son, Mr. Wilfrid Airy, with 
the additions of a personal sketch and a complete 
bibliographical appendix. A portrait is pre- 
fixed, copied from a steel-engraving executed by 
C. H. Jeens in 1878 (Nature, xviii. 689). The 
following sources of information may also be con- 
sulted : Proceedings Eoyal Soc.li. 1 (E.J.Eouth) ; 
Monthly Notices, lii. 212; Observatory, x v. 74 
(E. Dunkin), with a photograph taken on 



his ninetieth birthday; Nature, 31 Oct. 1878 
(Winnecke), 7 Jan. 1892; Times, 5 Jan. 1892; 
English Mechanic, 8 Jan. 1892; Grant's Hist, 
of Physical Astronomy ; Graves's Life of Sir 
"William liowan Hamilton, passim.] A. M. C. 

AITCHISON, Sir CHARLES UM- 
PHERSTON (1832-1896), lieutenant- 
governor of the Panjab, born in Edinburgh 
on 20 May 1832, was the son of Hugh 
Aitchison of that city, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Charles Umpherston of Loan- 
head near Edinburgh. He was educated in 
the high school and university, where he 
took the degree of M.A. on 23 April 1853. 
While a student in the university of Edin- 
burgh, Aitchison attended the lectures of Sir 
William Hamilton (1788-1850) [q. v.] on 
logic and metaphysics. He afterwards passed 
some time in Germany, where he studied the 
works of Fichte, and attended the lectures 
of Tholuck at the university of Halle. In 
1855 he passed fifth at the first competitive 
examination for the Indian civil service, and 
after spending a year in England in the study 
of law and oriental languages he landed at 
Calcutta on 2Q Sept. 1856. In March 1857 
he was appointed an assistant in Hissar, then 
a district of the north-western provinces, 
and in the following month was transferred 
to the Panjab, where he joined shortly after 
the outbreak of the mutiny. Owing to this 
transfer he escaped a massacre of Europeans 
which took place at Hissar on 29 May. His 
first station in his new province was Amrit- 
sar, and immediately after his arrival there 
he was employed under the orders of the 
deputy commissioner in carrying out the 
measures which were taken to prevent the 
Jalandhar mutineers from crossing the Eeas 
river. Shortly afterwards he was appointed 
personal assistant to the judicial commis- 
sioner, in which capacity he compiled *A 
Manual of the Criminal Law of the Panjab ' 
(1860). While thus employed, he was much 
thrown with Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence 
(afterwards Baron Lawrence) [q. v.], with 
whose policy, especially on the Central Asian 
question, and on British relations with Af- 
ghanistan, he was strongly imbued during 
the remainder of his life. In 1892 he con- 
tributed a memoir of Lord Lawrence to Sir 
William Hunter's * Rulers of India ' series. 

In 1859 he joined the secretariat of the 
government of India as under-secretary in the 
political department, and served there until 
1865, when, at the instance of Sir John 
Lawrence, then governor-general, in order 
that he might acquire administrative ex- 
perience, he took up administrative work in 
the Panjab, serving first as a deputy-com- 
missioner and subsequently officiating as com- 



Aitchison 



26 



Aitken 



missioner of Lahore. In 1868 he rejoined 
the secretariat as foreign secretary, and re- 
tained that appointment until 1878. 

As secretary Aitchison was extremely in- 
dustrious and thorough in his work. He 
exercised a marked influence on successive 
governors-general, who regarded him as a 
wise and trusted adviser. During the earlier 
part of his service in the Indian foreign office 
he commenced the compilation of a valuable 
work entitled 'A Collection of Treaties, En- 
gagements, and Sanads relating to India and 
neighbouring Countries ; ' the first volume 
appeared at Calcutta in 1862, and eleven 
volumes were issued by 1892 ; each treaty is 
prefaced by a clear historical narrative. In 
1875 he published a treatise on ' The Native 
States of India,' with the leading cases illus- 
trating the principles which underlie their 
relations with the British government. A 
staunch believer in the policy of masterly 
inactivity, he regarded with grave apprehen- 
sion the measures which, carried out under 
the government of Lord Lytton, culminated 
in the Afghan war of 1878-9. [See Lytton, 
Edward Robert Bulwer, first Earl.] 

Before the war broke out in 1878 he ac- 
cepted the appointmentof chief commissioner 
of British Burma. When holding that office 
he raised two questions of considerable im- 
portance. The first was the question of the 
opium trade as bearing upon Burma. The 
second had reference to the relations of cer- 
tain English public servants with the women 
of the country. Neither of these questions 
was dealt with officially by Ly tton's govern- 
ment ; but with reference to the second the 
viceroy intimated semi-officially that he 
disapproved of a circular which Aitchison 
bad issued, as mixing up morals with poli- 
tics. After Aitchison's departure from the 
province both these questions were taken 
up by his successor, who received the sup- 
port of Lord Ripon's government in dealing 
with them. The number of licensed opium 
shops was then reduced to one-third of 
those previously licensed, and the consump- 
tion of licit opium was reduced by two- 
fifths, involving a loss of revenue of four 
lakhs of rupees. On the other question, the 
principle of Aitchison's circular, stopping 
the promotion of officers who continued the 
practice which he had denounced, was en- 
forced. 

In 1881 Aitchison left Burma to become 
next year (4 April 1882) lieutenant-gover- 
nor of the Panjab. His government there 
was very successful, and popular with all 
classes of the people. He was a staunch 
advocate of the policy of advancing natives 
of India in the public service as they proved 



their fitness for higher posts and for more 
responsible duties. On this point, in con- 
nection with what is known as the Ilbert 
Bill, he advocated measures even more 
liberal than those proposed by Lord Ripon's 
government. He had intended to leave 
India for good when his lieutenant-governor- 
ship came to an end in 1887, but being 
invited by Lord Dufterin to join the council 
of the governor-general and give the viceroy 
the benefit of his experience on the many 
questions which had to be dealt with conse- 
quent upon the annexation of Upper Burma, 
he returned to India for another nineteen 
months. During the latter part of his 
government of the Panjab he had discharged 
the additional duty of presiding over the 
public service commission, and this duty he 
continued to perform after joining the 
governor-general's council. He gave unre- 
mitting attention to this work, and by his 
influence over the somewhat heterogeneous 
body of which the commission was composed 
he induced them to present a unanimous 
report. He retired and finally left India in 
November 1888. Early in the following year 
hesettled in London, but subsequently moved 
to Oxford. In 1881 he was nominated 
K.C.S.I., and in 1882 CLE. He received 
the degree of LL.I). from the university of 
Edinburgh on 24 Feb. 1877, and that of 
honorary M.A. from Oxford University in 
1895. 

Aitchison, an essentially religious man, 
was a consistent and warm supporter of 
Christian missions while in India, and after 
his retirement was an active member of the 
committee of the Church Missionary Society. 
He died at Oxford on 18 Feb. 1896. 

Aitchison married, on 2 Feb. 1863, Bea- 
trice Lyell, daughter of James Cox, D.L., of 
Clement Park, Forfarshire. 

[Twelve Indian Statesmen, by George Smith, 
CLE., LL.D., London, 1898; The India List, 
1896; personal recollections.] A. J. A. 

AITKEN, Sir WILLIAM (1825-1892), 
pathologist, eldest son of William Aitken, a 
medical practitioner of Dundee, was born 
there on 23 April 1825. Having received 
his general education at the high school, he 
was apprenticed to his father, and at the 
same time attended the practice of the Dun- 
dee Royal Infirmary. In 1842 he matricu- 
lated at the university of Edinburgh, and 
in 1848 graduated M.D., obtaining a gold 
medal for his thesis ' On Inflammatory Eff'u- 
sions into the Substance of the Lungs as 
modified by Contagious Fevers' {Edin.Med. 
Surg. Journ., 1849). In October of the same 
year he was appointed demonstrator of ana- 



Alban 



27 



Alban 



tomy at the university of Glasgow, under 
Allen Thomson, and also pathologist to the 
royal infirmary, which posts he held up to 
1855. In that year he was sent out to the 
Crimea under Dr, Robert S. D. Lyons [q. v.] 
as assistant pathologist to the commission 
appointed to investigate the diseases from 
which our troops were suffering {Pari. 
Papers, 1856). In 1860 he was selected for 
the post of professor of pathology in the 
newly constituted army medical school at 
Fort Pitt, Chatham, Avhich was afterwards 
removed to Isetley. This appointment he 
held until April 1892, when failing health 
necessitated his retirement, and he died the 
same year on 25 June. He had been elected 
F.R.S. in 1873, and was knighted at the 
jubilee in 1887. In the following year he 
received the honorary degrees of LL.D. from 
the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. 
He married in 1884 Emily Clara, daughter 
of Henry Allen, esq., who survived him. 
His portrait by Symonds is at Netley Hos- 
pital. 

His works include a well-known * Hand- 
book of the Science and Practice of Medi- 
cine,' 1857, 7th edit. 1880; 'An Essay on 
the Growth of the Recruit and Young Sol- 
dier,' 2nd edit. 1887 ; and an unfinished 
' Catalogue of the Pathological Museum at 
Netley Hospital.' 

[Men and Women of the Time, 13th edit., 
1891; obituary notice in the Lancet; informa- 
tion from J. D. Malcolm, esq., F.E.C.S. Edin.l 

J. B. N. 

ALBAN, St. {d. 304.P), called 'the pro- 
tomartyr of Britain,' and by many mediaeval 
writers, by a strange confusion, ' the proto- 
martyr of the English,' was according to 
Bede a pagan when, during the persecution 
in the reigns of Diocletian and Maximian, 
he gave shelter to a christian cleric and was 
converted by him. After some days the 
'prince,' hearing that the cleric was with 
Alban, sent to arrest him. On the approach 
of the soldiers Alban put on his teacher's 
cloak or cowl, and gave himself up in his 
stead. "When taken before the judge, who 
asked him how he dared shelter a ' sacri- 
legious rebel,' he declared himself a christian, 
and refused to sacrifice to the heathen 
deities. He was scourged and led forth to 
be beheaded outside the city of Verulamium. 
A great multitude accompanied him, and 
thronged the bridge across the river (the 
Ver), whose waters divided so that he crossed 
dryshod. On this the executioner threw 
down his sword, declaring that he would 
rather die with him than put him to death. 
Alban was led to the top of a flower-clad hill 
(the site of the future abbey), where a spring 



of water rose miraculously to quench his 
thirst. One was found to act as executioner, 
and Alban was beheaded. The soldier who 
had refused to execute him was also beheaded, 
and the eyes of him who had taken the exe- 
cutioner's place dropped out. Alban suffered 
cm 22 June. "When the persecution ceased 
a church was built on the place of his mar- 
tyrdom, and there down to Bede's day (731) 
it was believed that frequent miracles were 
wrought. Bede, copying from Gild as, adds 
that at the same time Aaron and Julius were 
martyred at ' Legionum urbs,' or Caerleon, and 
many more of both sexes in various places. 

Doubt has been cast on this narrative, 
because the Diocletian persecution did not 
extend to Britain (Eusebitjs, Historia Eccle- 
8iastica,y'ni. 13, and other authorities quoted 
in Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, i. 
7). Aaron and Julius are certainly rather 
shadowy persons, and the statements of 
Gildas and later writers as to numerous mar- 
tyrdoms, which imply a widespread persecu- 
tion in Britain, are untrustworthy. Yet 
there is not sufficient reason for rejecting 
the individual case of Alban, who may have 
suffered at some other time, and in a merely 
local persecution. In any case his martyr- 
dom rests on fair historical ground, since it 
was believed at Verulamium a century and 
a quarter after the date generally assigned 
to it. For Constantius, in his ' Life of Ger- 
manus' [q. v.], bishop of Auxerre, written 
about forty years after the bishop's death, 
records that in 429 Germanus and Lupus 
visited the tomb of Alban, and that Ger- 
manus took away some earth which was be- 
lieved to be reddened by the martyr's blood. 
Germanus built a church at Auxerre in 
honour of St. Alban, which was standing in 
the eleventh century (liecueil des Ilistoriens, 
X. 172). In the sixth century the martyr- 
dom was recorded by Gildas, and noticed in 
a poem written 569-74 by Venantius For- 
tunatus, afterwards bishop of Poitiers, in 
a line quoted by Bede, whose account of 
Alban was probably taken from some source 
not now known to exist. The foundation of 
the abbey of St. Alban is attributed to Offa 
(d. 796) [q. v.], who was believed to have 
discovered the martyr's body. 

It was believed at St. Albans that Alban's 
body was carried off" by the Danes, and re- 
stored through the agency of the sacristan 
Egwin, who went to Denmark and secretly 
abstracted it. In the twelfth century the 
convent of Ely claimed that they had the 
body, but an inquisition into the matter 
having been made by order of Hadrian IV, 
they definitely renounced their pretensions. 
It is said that v/hile some excavations were 



Albemarle 



28 



Albert 



being made at Verulamium, in the time of 
the ninth abbot, in the latter part of the 
tenth century, an ancient book was dis- 
covered in a wall of the Roman city, bound 
in oak boards, and written in a language 
which none could read save an old priest 
named Unwon. He declared it to contain 
the story of Alban written in the British 
language. By the abbot's command the 
book was translated into Latin, and when 
the translation was finished the original 
volume crumbled away. 

The cleric who was sheltered by Alban 
received the name Amphibalus, which first 
appears in the * Historia Britonum ' of Geof- 
frey of Monmouth [q. v.], and is evidently a 
confusion between the man and his cloak, 
for 'amphibalus' is equivalent to'caracalla,' 
the word used in Bede's story. In 1178 a 
body asserted to be the remains of Amphi- 
balus was found on Redbourn Green, near St. 
Albans, where it was believed that he was 
put to death after the martyrdom of his 
disciple. The body was laid in the abbey 
church, and, at the bidding of Abbot Symon, 
a monk of the house named William trans- 
lated from English into Latin the story of 
Alban and his teacher in an elaborate form, 
supplying, as he says, the name Amphibalus 
from the ' History ' of Geofi'rey of Monmouth. 
The compiler of the * Chronica Majora ' took 
the legend from "William's work. St. Alban 
of Britain has been confused with a St. 
Alban or Albinus of Mainz, said to have 
been martyred in the fifth century, and with 
a martyr Albinus, whose body was trans- 
lated by the Empress Theophano to the 
church of St. Pantaleon at Cologne. At 
least three places in France bear the name 
St. Alban, a village near St. Brieuc (Cotes 
duNord), a village near Roanne (Loire), and 
a small town near Mende (Lozere). 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl. i. cc. 7, 18 (Plummer's 
Bede, 11, 17-20, 33); Constantius's Life of St. 
Germanus, 1, 25, ap. AA. SS. Bolland, Jul. 31, 
v. 202 sqq. 224, 250; Gildas, Hist. p. 17 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) ; Venantius Fortunatus, De Virgini- 
tate, Miscall, viii. 6 (Patrol. Lat. Ixxxviii. 267) ; 
William of St. Albans and notes, ap. AA. SS. 
Bolland, Jun. 22, v. 126 sqq.; Matt. Paris's 
Chron. Maj. i. 149-52, 233, 331, 356-8, ii. 302; 
Gesta Abb, S. Alb. i. 12-18, 27, 70, 176, 192-3 ; 
Geoffrey of Monmouth's Hist. Brit. v. 5, ed. 
Giles; Usher's Antiq. pp. 76-89, 281 ; Bright's 
Early Engl. Church Hist. pp. 6, 7, ed. 1897.] 
^ W. H. 

ALBEMARLE, Eael of. [See Keppel, 
William Coutts, 1832-1894.] 

ALBERT VICTOR CHRISTIAN 
EDWARD, Duke of Claeence and Avon- 
dale and Eakl of Athlone (1864-1892), 



born at Frogmore, Buckinghamshire, on 
8 Jan. 1864, was the eldest son of Albert 
Edward, prince of Wales (now Edward VII), 
and (Queen) Alexandra, eldest daughter of 
Christian IX, king of Denmark, Queen 
Victoria [q. v, Suppl.] was his grandmother, 
and Prince Albert Victor stood next to his 
father in the direct line of succession to the 
throne. He was baptised in Buckingham 
Palace chapel on 10 March following his 
birth, and was privately educated until 1877, 
when he was sent to join the training ship 
Britannia at Dartmouth, In 1879 he went 
with his brother Prince George (now Duke 
of Cornwall and York) on a three years' 
cruise in H.M.S. Bacchante, which sailed 
round the world and visited most of the 
British colonies. An account of the cruise, 
' compiled from the private journals, letters, 
and note-books ' of the young princes, was 
published in 1886 in two stout volumes by 
their tutor, the Rev. John N. (now Canon) 
Dalton. After some tuition in 1882-3 from 
James Kenneth Stephen [see imder Ste- 
phen, Sir James Fitzjames], Prince Albert 
Victor was in October 1883 entered at Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; during the long vaca- 
tions he studied at Heidelberg, and in 1888 
he was created hon. LL.D. of Cambridge. 
He was then sent to Aldershot, became 
lieutenant in the 10th hussars in 1886, major 
in 1889, and in 1889 captain in the 9th 
lancers, captain in the 3rd king's royal rifles, 
and aide-de-camp to the queen. In 1887 he 
visited Ireland, and in 1889-90 India (see 
J. D. Rees, The Duke of Clarence in Southern 
India, London, 1891). On 24 May 1890 he 
was created Earl of Athlone and Duke of 
Clarence and Avondale. On 7 Dec. 1891 
his betrothal was announced with his cousin, 
the Princess Mary of Teck (now the Duchess 
of Cornwall and York). The wedding was 
fixed for 27 Feb. 1892, but on 14 Jan. 1892 
the duke died of pneumonia following influ- 
enza at Sandringham. He was buried in 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, on 20 Jan. 
His place in the direct line of succession to 
the throne was taken by his brother George, 
then Duke of York. A portrait painted by 
J. Sant, R.A., in 1872, and another of him 
and Prince George as midshipmen, painted 
by C. Sohn, were exhibited in the Victorian 
Exhibition; other portraits are reproduced 
in Vincent's ' Memoir.' His death was the 
occasion of many laments in prose and verse, 
of which Tennyson's elegy, published in the 
' Nineteenth Century,' February 1892, is the 
most notable. Lord Selborne wrote at the 
time, * I do not think there has been a more 
tragic event in our time, or one which is 
more likely to touch the hearts of the people 



Albery 



29 



Alcock 



generally ' {Memorials, ii. 373), On 18 Dec. 
1892 King Edward VII, then Prince of 
Wales, laid the foundation-stone of the 
* Clarence Memorial Wing ' of St. Mary's 
Hospital, Paddington, which was designed 
to commemorate the duke's name. 

[Memoir by J. G. Vincent, 1893; G. E. 
C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, viii. 237-8; 
Dalton's Cruise of the Bacchante, 1886 ; Men 
of the Time, ed. 1891 ; Times, 15-21 Jan. 
1892 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] A. F. P. 

ALBERY, JAMES (1838-1889), dra- 
matist, eldest son of James and Amelia 
Eleanor Albery, was born in Swan Street, 
Trinity Square, London, on 4 May 1838. 
After some private schooling he entered an 
architect's office in Fenchurch Street at four- 
teen, and remained there till, on the death 
of his father in 1859, he helped his mother 
in conducting the business of rope and twine 
dealer in the Blackfriars Road. But he had 
already formed the ambition of writing for 
the stage. After several unsuccessful en- 
deavours, he, on 4 June 1866, gave to the 
Lyceum ' Dr. Davy,' an adaptation of * Le 
Docteur Robin,' in which Mr. Herman Vezin 
played David Garrick. On 4 June 1 870 Albery 
obtained at the Vaudeville his most con- 
spicuous success in a three-act comedy called 
' Two Roses,' in which (Sir) Henry Irving 
made a great reputation in the role of Digby 
Grant. This was strengthened by the addi- 
tion (27 Aug.) of ' Chiselling,' a farce by 
Albery and Joseph J. Dalley. On the 250th 
representation of ' Two Roses ' (the perform- 
ance being for (Sir) Henry Irving's benefit), 
Albery delivered an original sketch, entitled 
' Our Secretary's Reply.' * Two Roses ' was 
printed in Lacy's 'Acting Plays,' 1881. 

At the St. James's, 4 March 1871, was pro- 
duced Albery's 'Two Thorns,' which had 
already been played at the Prince of Wales's, 
Liverpool, as ' Coquettes.' On 27 May the 
Vaudeville produced his ' Tweedie's Rights,' 
a grim piece on the subject of delirium 
tremens, and on 9 Sept. his ' Apple Blos- 
soms.' On 23 Oct., at the Lyceum, (Sir) 
Henry Irving appeared as Jingle in Al- 
bery's 'Pickwick,' a poor adaptation from 
Dickens. ' Forgiven ' followed at the Globe 
(9 March 1872). ' Oriana,' a fairy legend, 
was given at the Globe on 15 Feb. 1873, 
and the ' Will of Wise King Kino,' a simi- 
lar experiment, at the Princess's, 13 Sept. 
On 6 April' 1874 'Wig and Gown' was 
played at the Globe, and on the 22nd 
' Pride ' at the Vaudeville. ' The Spend- 
thrift' followed at the Olympic, 24 May 
1875 ; ' The Man in Possession ' at the 
Gaiety, 4 Dec. 1876 ; and ' Jingle,' a revised 
version of his 'Pickwick,' at the Lyceum, 



8 July 1878. With Mr. Joseph Hatton he 
produced at the Princess's, 30 Nov. 1878, 
' Number Twenty, or the Bastille of Cal- 
vados.' To the Haymarket he gave 'The 
Crisis ' (2 Dec. 1878), to the Prince of Wales's 
' Duty,' from ' Les Bourgeois de Pont-Arcy * 
(27 Sept. 1879), and to the Vaudeville ' Jacks 
and Jills' (29 May 1880). To the Criterion 
Theatre he gave a series of successful adapta- 
tions, including ' Pink Dominos ' (founded 
on the French of Hennequin and Delacour). 
Albery's work never fulfilled his promise, 
which at the outset was brilliant. He 
had a wild, extravagant imagination, and in 
' Oriana ' recalled the gifts of Fletcher. He 
was for a time a sort of stock writer to the 
Criterion. At that theatre his wife. Miss 
Mary Moore, whom he married in 1878 when 
she was very young, played female 'lead.' 
He died, while still comparatively young, in 
his chambers in St. Martin's Lane on 15 Aug. 
1889, and was buried on 20 Aug. at Kensal 
Green. 

[Personal knowledge ; Athenaeum, 24 Aug. 
1 889 ; Scott and Howard's Life of Blanchard ; 
Era Almanack.] J. K. 

ALCOCK, Sir RUTHERFORD (1809- 
1897), diplomatist in China and Japan, born 
in 1809, was the son of Thomas Alcock, a 
medical man practising at Ealing, and was 
himself educated for that profession. For a 
time he was house surgeon at Westminster 
Hospital, and in 1832 he was appointed 
surgeon to the British-Portuguese forces 
operating in Portugal. In 1836 he was trans- 
ferred to the marine brigade engaged in the 
Carlist war in Spain, and so highly were his 
services valued that, though he remained 
only a year with his force, he became deputy 
inspector-general of hospitals. On his return 
to England he resumed medical work as lec- 
turer in surgery at Sydenham College. But 
service abroad had fascinated him, and in 
1844, in response to an application for ser- 
vice in China, he was nominated consul at 
Fuchow, one of the ports newly opened to 
trade by the treaty of 1842. On his way to 
his new post he was detained at Amoy, 
where, in the absence of the consul, his 
services were requisitioned. Here, with the 
assistance of Sir Harry Smith Parkes [q. v.], 
he did some excellent work by bringing home 
to the minds of the Chinese officials that 
treaties were solemn engagements, and not 
so many promises that were to be whittled 
away at the will of the mandarins. After a 
year and a half's residence at Fuchow he 
was transferred to Shanghai, whither Parkes 
followed him. 

Alcock had not been long at his new post 



Alcock 



30 



Alexander 



when an incident occurred which well illus- 
trated his courage and determination. Three 
missionaries in pursuit of their work had been 
attacked and grievously ill-treated by a crowd 
of junkmen out of work. As the tao-t'ai 
showed little inclination to punish the rioters, 
Alcock proclaimed that no duties would be 
paid by English ships, and that not one of the 
fourteen hundred grain junks which were 
waiting to sail northwards would be allowed 
to leave its anchorage until the criminals 
had been seized and punished. Though at 
this time there were fifty war junks in the 
harbour and only one British sloop-of-war, 
the bold threat had the desired etiect ; the 
rioters were punished and the grain junks 
were allowed to sail. Under his direction 
the municipal regulations for the government 
of the British settlement at Shanghai were 
established, and the foundations of the vast 
city which has since arisen on the shores of 
the Wongpoo river were laid. 

The services which Alcock had rendered 
at this new port marked him out for promo- 
tion, and in 1858 he was appointed the first 
consul-general in Japan, on the conclusion 
of Lord Elgin's treaty. Alcock proceeded 
at once to Tokio. The admission of foreigners 
into the country had produced a wild ferment 
among the military classes of Japan, a spirit 
which was not long in showing itself in its 
fiercest aspects. Several foreigners were 
murdered in the streets of Tokio, and Alcock's 
Japanese linguist was cut down by a swords- 
man at the gates of the legation. Not con- 
tent with these isolated onslaughts the dis- 
contented Ronins determined to make a 
general attack upon the British legation. 
Without any warning, on the night of 5 July 
1801, they scaled the outer fence, killed the 
gatekeeper and a groom, and rushed towards 
the rooms occupied by the members of the 
legation. These defended themselves so well 
that they beat off their assailants. In the 
following year Alcock returned to England 
on leave. He had already been created a 
O.B., and was now made a knight commander 
of the Bath on 19 June 1862. On 28 March 

1863 he received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. from the university of Oxford. In 

1864 he returned to Tokio. Here troublous 
times were in store for him, and it was 
mainly due to his influence that the battle of 
Shimonoseki, which opened the Straits to 
foreign ships, was fought. 

In 1865 Alcock left Japan on being ap- 
pointed minister-plenipotentiary at Peking. 
There he conducted many delicate and diffi- 
cult negotiations with the Tsungli-yamen, 
and the spirit in which Alcock conducted 
the negotiations was sufficiently illustrated 



by the remark Prince Kung made to him, 
that * if England would only take away her 
opium and her missionaries the relations 
between the two countries would be every- 
thing that could be desired.' In 1871 Sir 
Rutherford resigned his post at Peking and 
retired from the service, settling in London. 
In his retirement he greatly interested him- 
self in hospital nursing establishments, in 
promotion of which his medical knowledge 
proved effective. He served as president of 
the Geographical Society (1876-8) and vice- 
president of the Royal Asiatic Society (1875- 
1878), and was an active supporter of many 
charitable institutions. 

Sir Rutherford died without issue at his 
residence, 14 Great Queen Street, London, 
on 2 Nov. 1897. He married first, on 17 May 
1841, Henrietta Mary(<Z. 1853), daughter of 
Charles Bacon ; and secondly, on 8 July 1862, 
Lucy {d. 1899), widow of the Rev. T. Lowder, 
British chaplain at Shanghai. Two portraits 
of Alcock are reproduced in Michie's ' Eng- 
lishman in China,' one from a drawing made 
in 1843 by L. A. de Fabeck, and the other 
from a photograph taken about 1880. 

Alcock was author of: 1. 'Notes on the 
Medical History and Statistics of the British 
Legion in Spain,' London, 1838, 8vo. 2. 
'Life's Problems,' 2nd edit. London, 1861 , 8vo. 
3. ' Elements of Japanese Grammar,' Shang- 
hai, 1861, 4to. 4. ' The Capital of the Ty- 
coon,' London, 1863, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. 'Familiar 
Dialogues in Japanese, with English and 
French Translations,' London, 1863, 8vo. 
6. ' Art and Art Industries in Japan,' Lon- 
don, 1878, 8vo. He also in 1876 edited the 
' Diary ' of Augustus Raymond Margary 

[q- v.] 

[S. L. Poole and F. V. Dickins's Life of Sir 
Harry Parkes, 2 vols. 1892; The Englishman in 
China during the Victorian Era, by Alexander 
Michie, 1900; personal knowledge.] E. K. D. 

ALEXANDER, Mks. CECIL FRANCES 
(1818-1895), poetess, born in co. Wicklow 
in 1818, was the second daughter of John 
Humphreys, major in the royal marines, by 
his wife, the daughter of Captain Reed of 
Dublin, and niece of Sir Thomas Reed 
[q. v.] She began to write poetry at nine 
years of age, selecting tragic subjects like 
the death of Nelson and the massacre of 
Glencoe. While her father was living at 
Ballykean, in Wicklow, a friendship arose 
between Miss Humphreys and Lady Harriet 
Howard, the daughter of the Earl of Wick- 
low, herself an authoress. Their intimacy 
continued after Major Humphreys removed 
to Milltown, near Strabane, on the borders 
of Donegal and Tyrone. They came under 



Alexander 



31 



Alexander 



the influence of the Oxford movement, and 
turned to writing tracts, the prose part of 
which Lady Harriet supplied, while Miss 
Humphreys contributed a number of poems. 
The tracts began to appear in 1842, excited 
some attention, and were collected into a 
volume in 1848. In 1846 Miss Humphreys 
published ' Verses for Holy Seasons ' (Lon- 
don, 8vo), with a preface by Walter Far- 
quhar Hook [q.v.] ; it reached a sixth edition 
in 1888. There followed in 1848 her ' Hymns 
for Little Children,' for which John Keble 
[q.v.] wrote the preface; this volume reached 
a sixty-ninth edition in 1896. Many of her 
hymns, including * All things bright and 
beautiful,' ' Once in royal David's city,' 
'Jesus calls us o'er the tumult,' 'The roseate 
hues of early dawn,' ' When wounded sore 
the stricken soul,' and 'There is a green hill 
far away,' are in almost universal use in 
English-speaking communities. Gounod, 
when composing a musical setting for the 
last, said that the words seemed to set them- 
selves to music. 

On 15 Oct. 1850 Miss Humphreys was 
married at Camus-j uxta-Mourne to the Rev. 
William Alexander, rector of Termonamon- 
gan in Tyrone. In 1855 her husband became 
rector of Upper Fahan on Lough S willy, and 
in 1867 he was consecrated bishop of Derry 
and Raphoe. He remained in this diocese 
until 1896, the year after his wife's death, 
when he was created archbishop of Armagh. 

Mrs. Alexander devoted her life to chari- 
table work, but she delighted in congenial 
society, and, apart from hymns, wrote much 
musical verse. Tennyson declared that he 
would be proud to be the author of her 
' Legend of Stumpie's Brae.' 

Mrs. Alexander died at the palace, Lon- 
donderry, on 12 Oct. 1895, and was buried 
on 18 Oct. at the city cemetery. She left 
two sons — Robert Jocelyn and Cecil John 
Francis — and two daughters, Eleanor Jane 
and Dorothea Agnes, married to George 
John Bowen. 

Besides the works already mentioned, her 
chief publications are : 1. ' The Lord of the 
Forest and his Vassals : an Allegory,' Lon- 
don, 1848, 8vo. 2. ' Moral Songs,' London, 
1849, 12mo; new edit., London, 1880, 8vo. 
3. 'Narrative Hymns for Village Schools,' 
London, 185.3, 4to; 8th edit., London, 1864, 
16mo. 4. ' Poems on Subjects in the Old 
Testament,' London, 1854, 8vo. 5. ' Hymns, 
Descriptive and Devotional, for the use of 
Schools,' London, 1858, 32mo. 6. 'The 
Legend of the Golden Prayers and other 
Poems,' London, 1859, 8vo. 7. ' The Baron's 
Little Daughter and other Tales,' 6th edit., 
London, 1888, 8vo. Mrs. Alexander also 



contributed ' to ' Lyra Anglicana,' to the 
' Dublin University Magazine,' and to the 
' Contemporary Review.' In 1864 she edited 
for the ' Golden Treasury Series ' a selection 
of poems by various authors, entitled ' The 
Sunday Book of Poetry.' In 1896 the arch- 
bishop of Armagh published, with a biogra- 
phical preface, a collective edition of her pre- 
viously published poems, excluding only some 
on scriptural subjects. 

[Preface to Mrs. Alexander's Poems, 1894 ; 
Times, 14, 19 Oct. 1893; Irish Times, 19, 22 Oct. 
1895 ; Londonderry Sentinel, 15, 17, 19, 22 Oct. 
1895; Dublin University Magazine, October 
1858, September 1859; Stephen Gwynn in Sun- 
day Magazine, January 1896; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology.] E. I. C. 

ALEXANDER, Sib JAMES ED- 
WARD (1803 - 1885), general, born on 
16 Oct. 1803, was eldest son of Edward 
Alexander of Powis, Clackmannanshire, by 
Catherine, daughter of John Glas, provost of 
Stirling. He obtained a Madras cadetship 
in 1820, and a cornetcy in the 1st light 
cavalry on 13 Feb. 1821. He was made 
adjutant of the bodyguard by Sir Thomas 
Munro, and served in the Burmese war of 
1824. Leaving the East India Company's 
service, he joined the 13th light dragoons 
as cornet on 20 Jan. 1825. He was given 
a lieutenancy on half-pay on 26 Nov. As 
aide-de-camp to Colonel (afterwards Sir John 
Macdonald) Kinneir [q. v.], British envoy to 
Persia, he was present with the Persian army 
during the war of 1826 with Russia, and re- 
ceived the Persian order of the Lion and 
Sun (2nd class). On 26 Oct. 1827 he was 
gazetted to the 16th lancers. He went to 
the Balkans during the Russo-Turkish war 
of 1829, and received the Turkish order of 
the Crescent (2nd class). 

He was promoted captain on half-pay on 
18 June 1830, and exchanged to the 42nd 
Highlanders on 9 March 1832. He went to 
Portugal during the Miguelite war (1832- 
1834), and afterwards visited South America 
and explored the Essequibo. Passing next 
to South Africa, he served in the KatEr war 
of 1835 as aide-de-camp to Sir Benjamin 
D'Urban [q. v.]. He led an exploring party 
into Namaqualand and Damaraland, for 
which he was knighted in 1838. He went 
on half-pay on 24 April 1838, but ex- 
changed to the 14th foot on 11 Sept. 1840, 
and went to Canada with that regiment in 
1841. From 1847 to 1855 he was aide-de- 
camp to D'Urban and to Sir William Ro- ^ 
wan, who succeeded D'Urban in command 
of the troops in Canada. He became major 
in the army on 9 Nov. 1846, lieutenant- 



Alexander 



32 



Alexander 



colonel on 20 June 1854, and regimental 
major on 29 Dec. 1854. 

His regiment having been ordered to the 
Crimea, Alexander rejoined it there in May 

1855, and remained in the Crimea till June 

1856. He received the medal with clasp, 
the Sardinian and Turkish medals, and the 
Medjidie (5th class). On his return to Eng- 
land he was appointed to a depot battalion, 
but on 30 March 1858 he returned to the 
14th to raise and command its second bat- 
talion. He took that battalion to New 
Zealand in 1860, and commanded the troops 
at Auckland during the Maori war till 1862, 
receiving the medal. He had become colonel 
in the army on 26 Oct. 1858, and was 
granted a pension for distinguished service 
in February 1864. He was promoted major- 
general on 6 March 1868, and was made 
C.B. on 24 May 1873. On 1 Oct. 1877 he 
became lieutenant-general and was placed 
on the retired list, and on 1 July 1881 he 
was given the honorary rank of general. Pie 
inherited the estate of Westerton, near Bridge 
of Allan, was a magistrate, and deputy-lieu- 
tenant for Stirlingshire, and a fellow of the 
geographical and other societies. He saved 
Cleopatra's needle from destruction, and had 
much to do with its transfer to England in 
1877. He died at Ryde, Isle of Wight, on 
2 April 1885, In 1837 he married Eveline 
Marie, third daughter of Lieutenant-colonel 
Charles Cornwallis Michell. They had four 
sons and one daughter. 

His singularly varied service furnished 
him with materials for a large number of 
volumes of a rather desultory kind. He 
wrote : 1. * Travels from India to England, 
by way of Burmah, Persia, Turkey, &c.,' 
1827, 4to. 2. ' Travels to the Seat of War 
in the East, through Russia and the Crimea, 
in 1829,' 1830, 2 vols. 8vo. 3. ' Transatlantic 
Sketches,' 1833, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. ' Sketches 
in Portugal during the Civil War of 1834,' 
1835, 8vo. 5. ' Narrative of a Voyage of 
Observation among the Colonies of West 
Africa, and of a Campaign in Kaffirland in 
1835,' 1837, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. ' An Expedition 
of Discovery into the Interior of Africa, 
through the Countries of the Great Nama- 
quas, Boschmans, and Hill Damaras,' 1838, 
2 vols. 8vo. 7. * Life of Field-marshal the 
Duke of Wellington,' 1840, 2 vols. 8vo (trans- 
lated into German by F.Bauer). 8. 'L'Aeadie, 
or Seven Years' Exploration in British Ame- 
rica,' 1849, 2 vols. 8vo. 9. ' Passages in the 
Life of a Soldier,' 1857, 2 vols. 8vo. 10. ' In- 
cidents of the Maori War, New Zealand, in 
1860-61,' 1863, 8vo. 11. 'Bush-fighting. 
Illustrated by remarkable Actions and Inci- 
dents of the Maori War in New Zealand,' 



1873, 8vo. 12. 'Cleopatra's Needle, the 
Obelisk of Alexandria, its Acquisition and 
Removal to England described,' 1879, 8vo. 

[Times, 7 April 1885; O'Donnell's Historical 
Eecords of the 14th Kegiment, p. 321 (with 
portrait); Burke's Landed Gentry ; Alexander's 
works above mentioned.] E. M. L. 

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM LINDSAY 

(1808-1884), congregational divine, eldest 
son of William Alexander (1781-1866), wine 
merchant, by his wife, Elizabeth Lindsay (d. 
1848), was born at Leith on 24 Aug. 1808. 
Having attended Leith High School and a 
boarding-school at East Linton, he entered 
Edinburgh University in October 1822, and 
left in 1825. He was a good Latin scholar. 
The repute of Thomas Chalmers [q. v.] led 
him to finish his literary course at St. An- 
drews (1825-27), where he improved his 
Greek. He often accompanied Chalmers 
on his rounds of village preaching. His 
parents were baptists, but on 29 Oct. 1826 
he became a member of the congregational 
church at Leith. In September 1827 he 
became a student for the ministry at the 
Glasgow Theological Academy, under Ralph 
Wardlaw [q. v.] and Greville Ewing [q. v.] ; 
by the end of the year he was appointed 
classical tutor in the Blackburn Theological 
Academy, a post which he filled, teaching 
also Hebrew and all other subjects except 
theology, till December 1831, when he began 
the study of medicine at Edinburgh. This 
not proving to his taste, after some pre- 
liminary trials he became minister (October 
1832) of Newington independent church, 
Liverpool. Here he remained till May 1834, 
but was never formally inducted to the 
pastorate. After a short visit to Germany, 
followed by some literary work in London, 
he was called (1 Nov. 1834) to the pastorate of 
North College Street congregational church, 
Edinburgh, and ordained there on 5 Feb. 
1835. He was soon recognised as a preacher 
of power. Rejecting frequent calls to other 
posts, professorial as well as pastoral, he 
remained in this charge for over forty years, 
with undiminished reputation. He was 
made D.D. of St. Andrews in January 1846. 
In 1852, on the resignation of John Wilson 
(1785-1854) [q. v.], he was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the moral philosophy chair in 
Edinburgh University. His meeting-house, 
improved in 1840, when the name was 
changed to Argyle Square chapel, was bought 
by the government in 1855. For six years 
the congregation met in Queen Street Hall. 
On 8 Nov. 1861 a new building, named 
Augustine Church, was opened on George IV 
Bridge, with a sermon by Thomas Guthrie 



Alexander 



33 



Alford 



[q, v.] : an organ was added on 23 Oct. 1863. 
In 1861 the university of St. Andrews made 
him examiner in mental philosophy. In 
1870 Alexander was placed on the company 
for revision of the Old Testament, In 1871 
he was made assessor of the Edinburgh 
University Court. He resigned his charge 
on 6 June 1877, and in the same year was 
made principal of the Theological Hall (he 
had held the chair of theology from 1854) ; 
this office he retained till July 1881. In 1884 
he was madeLL.D. of Edinburgh University 
at its tercentenary. He died at Pinkieburn 
House, near Musselburgh, on 20 Dec. 1884, 
and was buried on 24 Dec. at Inveresk. He 
married (24 Aug. 1837) a daughter {d. 15 Oct. 
1875) of James Marsden of Liverpool, and 
had thirteen children, of whom eight survived 
him. He was of genial temperament, as 
evidenced by his friendship with Dean Ram- 
say and his membership in the Hellenic 
Society, instituted by John Stuart Blackie 
[q. v.] His habits and tastes were simple. 
Of most of the learned societies of Edin- 
burgh he was a member. His portrait, by 
Norman Macbeth [q. v.], is in the Scottish 
National Portrait Gallery ; a marble bust by 
Hutchinson is in the porch of Augustine 
Church. 

He published, besides numerous sermons 
and pamphlets : 1 . * The Connexion and Har- 
mony of the Old and New Testaments ' (con- I 
gregational lecture, 1840), 1841, 8vo ; 2nd 
edit. 1853, 8vo. 2. 'Anglo-Catholicism,' 
Edinburgh, 1843, 8vo. 3. ' Switzerland and 
the Swiss Churches,' Glasgow, 1846, 16mo. 
4. ' The Ancient British Church ' [1852], 
16mo; revised edition by S. G. Green, 1889, 
8vo. 5. ' Christ and Christianity,' Edin- 
burgh, 1854, 8vo. 0. ' Lusus Poetici.' 1861, 
8vo (privately printed ; reprinted, with ad- 
ditions, in Ross's ' Life ' ). 7. ' Christian 
Thought and Work,' Edinburgh, 1862, 8vo. 
8. 'St. Paul at Athens,' Edinburgh, 1865, 
8vo. 9. ' Sermons,' Edinburgh, 1875, 8vo. 
Posthumous was 10. ' A System of Biblical 
Theology,' Edinburgh, 1888, 2 vols. 8vo 
(edited by James Ross). 

He published also memoirs of John Wat- 
son (1846), Ralph Wardlaw (1856), and 
William Alexander (1867) ; expositions of 
Deuteronomy ('Pulpit Commentary,' 1882) 
and Zechariah (1885) ; and translations of 
Billroth on Corinthians (1837), Havemick's 
Introduction to the Old Testament (1852), 
and Dorner's ' History of the Doctrine of the 
Person of Christ,' vol. i. (1864). He edited 
Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature ' 
(1870, 3 vols.), and several theological works. 
His ' Hymns for Christian Worship ' reached 
a third edition in 1866. 

VOL. I. — SUP. 



To the ' British Quarterly,' the ' British 
and Foreign Evangelical Review,' ' Good 
Words,' and other kindred periodicals he 
frequently contributed ; he edited the 
'Scottish Congregational Magazine,' 1835- 

1840 and 1847-51. To the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ' (eighth edition) he contributed 
several articles on topics of theology and 
philosophy (the publisher, Adam Black 
[q.v.], was a member of his congregation). 
His articles on ' Calvin ' and ' Channing ' 
raised some controversy, and were improved 
in the ninth edition. To the 'Imperial Dic- 
tionary of Biography ' he also contributed. 

[Life and Work, 1887 (portrait), by James 
Boss.] A. G. 

ALFORD, MARIANNE MARGARET, 

ViscotTNTESs Alfokd, generally known as 
Lady Mabiax Alfokd (1817-1888), artist, 
art patron, and author, elder daughter of 
Spencer Compton, second Marquis of North- 
ampton [q. v.], by his wife Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Major-general Douglas Maclean- 
Clephane, was born in 1817 at Rome, where 
her father was then residing. Her childhood 
was spent in Italy, and thence she derived a 
love of that country which lasted through- 
out her life. She came to England in 1830 
with her parents, but in later life returned 
to spend many winters in Rome. On 10 Feb. 

1841 she was married at Castle Ashby to 
John Hume Oust, viscount Alford, elder son 
of John Cust, first Earl Brownlow, and the 
heir to a portion of the large estates of 
Francis Egerton, third and last Duke of 
Bridgewater [q. v.] In 1849 this property 
passed to Lord Alford, but he died in 1851, 
leaving his widow with two sons. A famous 
legal contest known as the Bridgewater Will 
Case followed Lord Alford's death, and his 
elder son's claim to succeed to the Bridge- 
water estates was warmly disputed, but was 
finally settled by the House of Lords in the 
young man's favour on 19 Aug. 1853. 

Lady Marian Alford was an accomplished 
artist, inheriting her tastes in this direction 
from both her parents, and, although she 
enjoyed no regular education in art, her 
drawings and paintings attain a very high 
standard. Her house in London, Alford 
House, Prince's Gate, was built mainly from 
her own designs. She was also a liberal and 
intelligent patron of artists in England and 
Italy, and a friend of the leading artists of 
the day. She was especially interested in 
needlework, both as a fine art and as an em- 
ployment for women, and it was greatly 
through her influence and personal eflbrts 
that the Royal School of Art Needlework in 
Kensington took its rise. For many years 



Alfred 



34 



Alfred 



she collected materials for a history of needle- 
work, which she published in handsome form 
in 1886 under the title of ' Needlework as 
Art.' In society, as well as in art circles, 
Lady Marian Alford was noted for refine- 
ment and dignity, and for her powers of 
conversation. She died at her son's house, 
Ashridge, Berkhampstead, on 8 Feb. 1888, 
and was buried at Belton near Grantham. 
Of her two sons the elder, John William 
Spencer Brownlow Egerton-Cust, succeeded 
his grandfather as second Earl Brownlow, 
and, dying unmarried in 1867, was suc- 
ceeded by his younger brotlier, Adelbert 
Wellington Brownlow Oust, third and pre- 
sent Earl Brownlow, 

[Private information and personal know- 
ledge.] L. C. 

ALFRED ERNEST ALBERT, Duke 
OF Edinburgh and Duke of Saxe-Coburg 
AND Goth A (1844-1900), second son of 
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, was born 
at Windsor Castle on 6 Aug. 1844. In 1866 
Lieutenant (afterwards Sir John) Cowell 
of the royal engineers was appointed his 
governor, and in October 1857 he was esta- 
blished at Alverbank, a cottage near Gosport, 
where he was prepared for the navy by the 
Rev. William Rowe Jolley, a chaplain and 
naval instructor. It was the wish of the 
prince consort that the boy should pass the 
usual entry examination, which he did in 
August 1858, when he was appointed to the 
Euryalus, a 50-gun screw frigate, specially 
commissioned by Captain John Walter Tarle- 
ton, well known as a good and careful officer. 
The Euryalus went in the first instance to 
the Mediterranean, and afterwards to the 
Cape of Good Hope and Natal, giving the 
young prince the opportunity for an ex- 
cursion into the Orange Free State. On his 
return to Cape Town he tilted (on 17 Sept. 
1860) the first load of stones into the sea for 
the breakwater in Table Bay. From the 
Cape the Euryalus went to the West Indies, 
and returned to England in August 1861. 
The prince was then appointed to the St. 
George with Captain the Hon. Francis 
Egerton for service in the Channel, North 
America, West Indies, and the Mediterranean, 
being, by the special desire of his father, 
treated on board as the other midshipmen ; 
on shore he occasionally took his place as 
the son of the queen. It was not, however, 
considered necessary, or indeed advisable, to 
subject him to the prescribed limits of age 
and service. 

In the winter of 1862-3 a prospect of 
securing a foreign throne was suddenly pre- 
sented to Prince Alfred, and as suddenly 



withdrawn. The citizens of the kingdom of 
Greece, having deprived their despotic king, 
Otho, of the crown, marked their confidence 
in England by bestowing the dignity on the 
queen of England's second son by an over- 
whelming majority of votes, cast on an 
appeal to universal suft'rage (6-15 Dec. 1862). 
The total number of votes given was 241,202 ; 
of these Prince Alfred received 230,016. 
His election, which Avas hailed throughout 
Greece with unqualified enthusiasm, was 
ratified by the National Assembly (3 Feb. 
1863). The queen was not averse to Prince 
Alfred's acceptance of the honour, but Lord 
Palmerston, the prime minister, with Earl 
Russell, the foreign secretary, knew that the 
proposal contravened an arrangement already 
entered into with Russia and France, whereby 
no prince of any of these countries could 
ascend the throne of Greece. Accordingly, 
the crown was refused. At Lord Russell's 
suggestion, however, negotiations were 
opened with Prince Alfred's uncle, Duke 
Ernest of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, with a view 
to his filling the vacant office, but it was 
deemed essential that Duke Ernest, who 
was childless, should, if he assented, renounce 
at once his duchy of Saxe-Coburg in favour 
of his nephew, Prince Alfred. This condi- 
tion Duke Ernest and his council declined 
to entertain, and the Greek throne was 
finally accepted (30 March 1863) by (Wil- 
liam) George, second son of Prince Christian 
of Sleswig-Holstein-Gliicksburg, who, in ac- 
cordance with an earlier treaty, soon became 
king of Denmark (15 Nov. 1863). Mean- 
while Alexandra, the sister of the, newly 
chosen king of Greece and daughter of 
Prince Christian, married, on 10 March 
1863, Prince Alfred's brother, the Prince of 
Wales. One result of these transactions 
was the formal execution by the Prince of 
Wales, who was the next heir to his uncle 
Ernest of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in the succes- 
sion to the throne of that duchy, of a deed 
of renunciation, which transferred his title 
in the duchy to Alfred, his next brother 
(19 April 1863). After more than thirty 
years the deed took efiect (Malmesbuey, 
Memoirs, p. 567 ; Dukk Ernest of Saxe- 
Coburg, Memoirs, iv. 85-90 ; Finlat, His- 
tory of Greece, vii. 289 seq.) 

Meanwhile, Prince Alfred steadily pur- 
sued his career in the British navy. On 
24 Feb. 1863 he was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant of the Racoon with Captain Count 
Gleichen [see Victor, Suppl.] In her he 
continued for three years, and on 23 Feb. 
1866 he was promoted to be captain (passing 
over the intermediate rank of commander). 
At the same time he was granted by parlia- 



Alfred 



35 



Alfred 



ment an income of 15,000/. a year, dating 
back to the day of his majority (6 Aug. 1865), 
and on the queen's birthday (24 May 1866) 
he was created Duke of Edinburgh and 
Earl of Ulster and Kent. The orders of the 
Garter, Thistle, and St. Patrick, Grand Cross 
of the Bath, St. Michael and St. George, 
Star of India, Indian Empire, and all the 
principal foreign orders were conferred on 
him. In March 1866 he was elected master 
of the Trinity House ; in June he received 
the freedom of the city of London. 

In January 1867 he commissioned the 
Galatea, and in her visited Ilio Janeiro, the 
Cape, Adelaide, Melbourne, Tasmania, and 
Sydney. At this last place he was shot in 
the back by an Irishman named O'Farrell 
(12 March 1868). The wound was fortu- 
nately trifling, but the indignation excited 
was very great, and O'Farrell was tried, con- 
victed, and executed in the course of a few 
weeks. The Galatea returned to England 
in the summer of 1868. After a short stay 
she again sailed for the far East, visiting 
India, China, and .Japan, where the duke 
was honourably received by the Mikado. 
The Galatea returned to England and was 
paid off in the summer of 1871 . In February 
1876 the duke was appointed to the ironclad 
Sultan, one of the fleet in the Mediterranean 
under Sir Geoffrey Thomas Phipps Hornby 
[q. V. Suppl.] With Hornby he proved him- 
self an apt pupil. He attained a particular 
reputation for his skill in manoeuvring a 
fleet, and that not as a prince, but as a naval 
officer. 

On 30 Dec. 1878 he was promoted, by 
order in council, to the rank of rear-ad- 
miral, and in November 1879 was ap- 
pointed to the command of the naval reserve, 
which he held for three years. During that 
period he mustered the coastguard ships each 
summer, and organised them as a fleet in 
the North Sea or the Baltic. On 30 Nov. 
1882 he was promoted to be vice-admiral, 
and from December 1883 to December 1884 
commanded the Channel squadron. From 
1886 to 1889 he was commander-in-chief in 
the Mediterranean, and it was specially at 
this time that his skill in handling a fleet 
was most talked of. It was commonly said 
that, with the exception of Hornby, no one 
in modern times could be compared with 
him. On 18 Oct. 1887 he was made an 
admiral, and from 1890 to 1893 he was com- 
mander-in-chief at Devonport. On 3 June 
1893 he was promoted to the rank of admiral 
of the fleet. 

A little more than two months afterwards, 
22 Aug. 1893, on the death of his father's 
brother, he succeeded him as reigning duke 



of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in virtue of the 
renunciation in 1863 bj- his brother, the 
Pi;ince of Wales, of the title to that duchy. 
The question was then raised whether as a 
German sovereign prince he could retain his 
privileges as an English peer or his rank as 
an English admiral of the fleet. This last 
he was permitted to hold by an order in 
council of 23 Nov. 1893, but it was under- 
stood that he had no longer a voice or seat 
in the House of Lords. He relinquished, 
too, the income of 15,000/. which had been 
settled on him on attaining his majority, but 
kept the further 10,000/. which was granted 
on his marriage in 1874, as an allowance to 
keep up Clarence House, London, where he 
resided for a part of each year. In Germany 
there were many who affected to resent the 
intrusion of a foreigner among the princes of 
the empire ; but among his own subjects he 
speedily overcame hostile prejudices, adapt- 
ing himself to his new duties and new sur- 
roundings, and taking an especial interest 
in all that concerned the agricultural and 
industrial prosperity of the duchies. A keen 
sportsman, a man of refined tastes, passion- 
ately fond of music, and a good performer 
on the violin, he was yet of a somewhat 
reserved disposition which prevented him 
from being so popular as his brothers ; but 
by those who were in a position to know 
him best he was admired and esteemed. 
He died suddenly at Rosenaii, near Coburg, 
on 30 July 1900 of paralysis of the heart, 
which, it was understood, saved him from 
the torture of a slow death by an internal 
disease of a malignant nature. He was 
buried on 4 Aug. in the mausoleum erected 
by his uncle Duke Ernest II in the cemetery 
at Coburg. 

Duke Alfred married, at St. Petersburg 
on 23 Jan. 1874, the Grand Duchess Marie 
Alexandrovna, only daughter of the Tsar of 
Russia, Alexander II, and left by her four 
daughters, three of whom married in their 
father's lifetime, in each case before com- 
pleting their eighteenth year. The eldest 
daughter. Princess Marie Alexandra Victoria 
(b. 29 Oct. 1875), married, 10 Jan. 1893, 
Ferdinand, crown prince of Roumania; the 
second daughter. Princess Victoria Melita 
(b. 25 Nov. 1876), married, on 19 April 
1894, her first cousin Louis, grand duke of 
Hesse; the third daughter. Princess Alex- 
andra Louise Olga Victoria {b. 1 Sept. 1878), 
married the Hereditary Prince of Hohen- 
lohe-Langenburg on 20 April 1896; the 
fourth daughter. Princess Beatrice Leopol- 
dine Victoria, was born on 20 April 1884. 

Duke Alfred's only son, Alfred Alexander 
William Ernest Albert, born on 15 Oct. 

D2 



Allan 



36 



Allen 



1874, died of phthisis at Meran on 6 Feb. 
1899. The succession to the duchy of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha thus passed, on the renuncia- 
tion both of Duke Alfred's next brother, the 
Duke of Connaught, and of his son, to Duke 
Alfred's nephew, the Duke of Albany, pos- 
thumous son of his youngest brother, Leo- 
pold, duke of Albany, Queen Victoria's 
youngest son. 

A portrait of the duke by Von Angeli, 
dated 1875, is at Windsor, together with a 
picture of the ceremony of his marriage at 
St. Petersburg, which was painted by N. 
Chevalier. 

[Times, 1 Aug. 1900 ; Army and Navy Gazettp, 
4 Aug. ; Milner and Briarley's Cruise of Her 
Majesty's ship Galatea, 1867-8; Sir Theodore 
Martin's Life of the Prince Consort ; Prothpro's 
Life and Letters of Dean Stanley ; Navy Lists ; 
Foster's Peerage.] J. K. L. 

ALLAN, SiH HENRY MARSIIMAN 
HAVELOCK (1830-1897), general. [See 
Havelock-Allan.] 

ALLAEDYCE, ALEXANDER (1846- 
1896), author, son of .Tames Allardyce, 
farmer, was born on 21 Jan. 1846 at Tilly- 
minit, Gartly, parish of Rhynie, Aberdeen- 
shire. Receiving his first lessons in Latin 
from his maternal grandmother (Smith, An 
Aberdeenshire Village Propaganda), he was 
educated at Rhynie parish school, Aberdeen 
grammar school, and the university of Aber- 
deen. In 1868 he became sub-editor of the 
'Friend of India' at Serampore, Bengal. 
Lord Mayo appreciated him so highly that 
he oft'ered him an assistant-commissioner- 
ship, but he kept to journalism. He was on 
the ' Friend of India ' till 1875, having appa- 
rently at the same time done work for the 
* Indian Statesman.' In 1875 he succeeded 
John Capper as editor of the ' Ceylon Times,' 
and one of his early experiences of office was 
tendering an apology to the judicial bench 
for contempt (London Times, 25 April 1896). 
Returning to Europe, he was for a time at 
Berlin and afterwards in London, where he 
wrote for * Eraser's Magazine,' the * Spec- 
tator,' and other periodicals. In 1877 he 
settled at Edinburgh as reader to the house 
of Messrs. William Blackwood and Sons, 
and assistant-editor of ' Blackwood's Maga- 
zine.' He died at Portobello on 23 April 
1896, and was buried in Rhynie parish 
churchyard, Aberdeenshire. 

When comparatively young Allardyce 
married his cousin, Barbara Anderson, who 
survived him. There was no family. 

Allardyce wrote: 1. 'The City of Sun- 
shine,' 1877; 2nd edit. 1894; a vivacious 
tale of Indian life and manners. 2, ' Memoir 



of Viscount Keith of Stonehaven Marischal, 
Admiral of the Red,' 1882 ; a trustworthy 
work. 3. ' Balmoral, a Romance of the 
Queen's Country,' 1893 ; a Jacobite tale. 
4. ' Earlscourt, a Novel of Provincial Life/ 
1894. 

In 1888 he edited two works of rare 
value and interest (each in 2 vols. 8vo) : 
(1") the Ochtertyre MSS. of John Ramsay 
under the title of ' Scotland and Scotsmen 
in the Eighteenth Century,' and (2) ' Let- 
ters from and to Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe ' 
[q. v.] Allardyce regularly wrote political 
and literary articles for ' Blackwood's Maga- 
zine,' and his skill in handling a short story 
is illustrated in the third series of ' Tales 
from Blackwood.' At the time of his death 
he was preparing the volume on Aberdeen- 
shire for Messrs. Blackwood's series of county 
histories. 

[Private information; Times, Scotsman, and 
Aberdeen Free Press of 24 April, and Athenaeum 
of 2 May 1896.] T. B. 

ALLEN, GRANT (1848-1899), man of 
letters and man of science, whose full name 
was Charles Grant Blairfindie Allen, was. 
born at Alwington, near Kingston in Canada, 
on 24 Feb. 1848. He was the second but 
only surviving son of Joseph Antisell Allen, 
a clergyman of the Irish Church who emi- 
grated to Canada in 1840, and survived his 
son by eleven months, dying at Alwington, 
near Kingston, in Canada, on 6 Oct. 1900. 
His mother (Charlotte Catherine Ann) was 
the only daughter of Charles William Grant, 
fifth baron de Longueuil, a title created 
by Louis XIV in 1700, and the only one in 
Canada that is officially recognised. Th& 
mother's family of the Grants came ta 
Canada from Blairfindie in Scotland. 

Grant Allen (as he always styled him- 
self) spent the first thirteen years of his life 
among the delightful surroundings of the 
Thousand Isles, on the Upper St, Lawrence, 
where he learnt to love animals and flowers. 
His earliest teacher was his father. In about 
1861 the family moved to Newhaven, Con- 
necticut, where he had a tutor from Yale. 
In the following year they went again to 
France, and he was placed for a time in 
the College Imperial at Dieppe, before being" 
finally transferred to King Edward's School, 
Birmingham. In 1867 he was elected to a 
postmastership at Merton College, Oxford. 
His undergraduate career was hampered by 
an early marriage — his first wife was always 
an invalid and soon died ; but he gained 
a first class in classical moderations, and a 
second class in the final classical school after 
only a year's reading. In 1871 he graduated 



Allen 



37 



Allen 



B.A., but proceeded to no further degree. 
For the next three years he undertook the 
uncongenial work of schoolmaster at Brigh- 
ton, Cheltenham, and Reading. In 1873 he 
was appointed professor of mental and moral 
philosophy in a college at Spanish Town in 
Jamaica, then founded by the government 
for the education of the negroes. The experi- 
ment of the negro college was a failure. 
The half-dozen students that could be got to 
attend required only the most elementary 
instruction, and the principal died of yellow 
fever. In 1876 the college was finally closed, 
and Allen returned to England with a small 
sum of money in compensation for the loss 
of his post. These three years, however, in 
Jamaica had an important influence on the 
development of Allen's mind. He had leisure 
to read and to allow his ideas to clarify. It 
was during this time that he acquired a fair 
knowledge of Anglo-Saxon for the benefit of 
his pupils. He also studied philosophy and 
physical science, and framed an evolutionary 
system of his own, based mainly on the 
works of Herbert Spencer. In later years 
lie was not much of a student. His views 
were formed when he came back from 
Jamaica, and such they remained to the end. 
While at Oxford Allen had contributed to 
a short-lived periodical, entitled ' The Oxford 
University Magazine and Review,' of which 
only two numbers appeared (December 1869 
and January 1870). On re-settling in Eng- 
land in 1876, he resolved to support himself 
by his pen. His first book was an essay on 
^Physiological ^Esthetics' (1877), which he 
dedicated to Mr. Herbert Spencer and pub- 
lished at his own risk. The book did not sell, 
but it won for the author some reputation, 
and introduced his name to the editors of 
magazines and newspapers. He began to find 
a ready market for his wares — popular scien- 
tific articles, always with an evolutionary 
moral — in the ' Cornhill,' the ' St. James's 
Gazette,' and elsewhere. But such stray 
work did not yield a livelihood ; and Allen 
was glad to accept an engagement of some 
months to assist Sir William Wilson Hunter 
{q. V. Suppl.] in the compilation of the * Im- 
perial Gazetteer of India.' ' I wrote,' he says, 
* with my own hand the greater part of the 
articles on the North- Western Provinces, 
the Punjab and Sind, in those twelve big 
volumes.' For a short time he was on the 
staiFof the * Daily News,' but nightwork did 
not suit him, and he was one of the regular 
contributors to that brilliant but unsuccess- 
ful periodical, ' London' (1878-9). During 
this period he published another essay on 
*The Colour Sense' (1879), which won high 
approval from Mr. Alfred Russell Wallace ; 



three collections of popular scientific articles 
(' Vignettes from Nature,' 1881, ' The Evo- 
lutionist at Large,' 1881, and ' Colin Clout's 
Calendar,' 1888), the value and accuracy of 
which are attested by letters from Darwin 
and Huxley; two series of botanical studies 
on flowers (* Colours of Flowers,' 1882, and 
' Flowers and their Pedigrees,' 1883) ; and a 
little monograph on * Anglo-Saxon Britain ' 
(1881). 

If the last-mentioned be excepted, all 
Allen's early publications from 1877 to 1883 
were in the field of science. Unfortunately, 
he could not live by science alone. He has 
himself described how he became a novelist. 
His first essays in fiction were short stories, 
contributed to ' Belgravia ' and other maga- 
zines under the pseudonym of J. Arbuthnot 
Wilson, and collected under the title of 
' Strange Stories ' (1884). In the opinion of 
his friends he never wrote anything better 
than some of these psychological studies, 
notably 'The Reverend John Greedy' and 
* The Curate of Churnside,' both of which 
appeared in the ' Cornhill.' His first novel 
was ' Philistia,' which originally appeared as 
a serial in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' and 
was published in the then orthodox three 
volumes in 1884, again under a pseudonym 
— t his time Cecil Power. This book is largely 
autobiographical. Though it did not take 
with the public, the author received suffi- 
cient encouragement to go on. During the 
next fifteen years he brought out more than 
thirty books of fiction, of which the only one 
that need be mentioned here is * The Woman 
who did' (1895). Tiiis is a Tendenz-Homan, 
written, as he said, ' for the first time in my 
life wholly and solely to satisfy my own taste 
and my own conscience.' The heroine is a 
woman with all the virtues who, out of 
regard to the dignity of her sex, refuses to 
submit to the legal tie of marriage. The 
disastrous consequences of such a scheme of 
life are developed by the author with re- 
morseless precision. He intended the book, 
in all seriousness, to be taken as a protest 
against the subjection of women, and he 
dedicated it to his wife, with whom he had 
passed ' my twenty happiest years.' The lack 
of humour in it puzzled his friends. The 
public read it eagerly, but were shocked. 
He followed it up with another 'hill-top' 
novel, ' The British Barbarians ' (1896), which 
was an equally inconsequent satire on the 
existing social system, and then quietly re- 
turned to the writing of commonplace fiction, 
some of which appeared under the fresh, 
pseudonym of Olive Pratt Rayner. 

But Allen's intellectual activity was by 
no means confined to novel writing. He 



Allen 



38 



Allingham 



contributed regularly to newspapers, maga- 
zines, and reviews, which contain some of 
his best work, often not reprinted. Of those 
that were republished in book form, the 
fullest light was thrown on the author's real 
views of life in * Falling in Love, with other 
Essays on more exact Branches of Science' 
(1889),and 'Postprandial Philosophy'(1894). 
Twice he returned to the more abstruse 
science of his earlier days. In 1888 he brought 
out 'Force and Energy,' which embodies the 
resultsof his lonelyreadingand cogitations in 
Jamaica, where the first draft of it was pri- 
vately printed (1876). Physicists generally 
declined to discuss his novel theory of dyna- 
mics as being that of an amateur. Never- 
theless Allen persisted in it, and when the 
book passed into the remainder market in 
1894, he presented a copy to a friend with 
this inscription : ' It contains my main con- 
tribution to human thought. And I desire 
here to state that, when you and I have 
passed away, I believe its doctrine will gra- 
dually be arrived at by other thinkers.' His 
other serious work was 'The Evolution of 
the Idea of God' (1897), an inquiry into the 
origin of religions. This book is crowded 
with anthropological lore, and contains nume- 
rous brilliant aperqus, but it labours under 
the defect of attempting to explain every- 
thing by means of a single theory. In con- 
nection with this should be read an essay on 
the origin of tree worship that he prefixed 
to a verse translation of the * Attis' of Ca- 
tullus (1892). In 1894 he issued a volume 
of poems which he modestly entitled ' The 
Lower Slopes' (1894). In technique they 
are the verses of a prose writer, though 
they reveal not a little of the heart of the 
author, and the ideals of his youth, when 
most of them were actually written. In the 
later years of his life Allen found a fresh 
interest in art, and particularly in Italian 
art. To art as a handicraft he had always 
been attracted, as may be seen in his very 
first contribution to the ' Cornhill' on ' Carv- 
ing a Coco-nut.' The appreciation of paint- 
ing and architecture came later, as the re- 
sult of repeated visits to Italy. To his 
scientific mind they fell into their place as 
branches of human evolution. It is this 
unifying conception of art, as well as of his- 
tory, that inspires the series of guide-books 
which he wrote in his last years on Paris, 
Florence, Venice, and the cities of Belgium 
(1897, 1898). 

Grant Allen never enjoyed robust health. 
London was always distasteful to him. In 
1881 he settled at Dorking, where he de- 
lighted in botanical walks in the woods and 
sandy heaths ; but nearly every year he was 



compelled to winter in the south of Europe, 
usually at Antibes, though once or twice he 
went as far as Algiers and Egypt. In 1892 
he bought a plot of ground almost on the 
summit of Hind Head, and built himself a 
charming cottage which he called the Croft. 
Here he found that he could endure the 
severity of an English winter amid surround- 
ings wilder than at Dorking, and with the 
society of a few congenial friends. Conti- 
nental trips he still made, chiefly to prepare 
his guide-books. His favourite holiday resort 
was on the Thames, near Marlow. Early in 
1899 he was seized with a mysterious illness, 
the real nature of which was not detected 
till after his death. After mouths of suSier- 
ing he died on 28 Oct. Plis body was cre- 
mated at Woking, the only ceremony being 
a memorial address by Mr. Frederic Harri- 
son. In 1873, just before starting for Jamaica, 
he married his second wife, Ellen, youngest 
daughter of Thomas Jerrard of Lyme Regis. 
She survives him, together with one son, the 
only issue of the marriage. 

[Grant Allen, a Memoir, by Edward Clodd, 
with portrait and bibliography, London, 1900.] 

J S C 

ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM ' (1824- 
1889), poet, was born at Ballyshannon, Done- 
gal, on 19 March 1824. William Alling- 
ham, his father, who had formerly been a 
merchant, was at the time of his birth mana- 
ger of the local bank ; his mother, Elizabeth 
Crawford, was also a native of Ballyshan- 
non. The family, originally from Hamp- 
shire, had been settled in Ireland since the 
time of Elizabeth. Allingham entered the 
bank with which his father was connected 
at the age of thirteen, and strove to perfect 
the scanty education he had received at a 
boarding-school by a vigorous course of self- 
improvement. At the age of twenty-two 



he received an appointment in the customs, 
successively exercised foMBeveral years at 
Donegal, Ballyshannon, and other towns in 
Ulster. He nevertheless paid almost annual 
visits to London, the first in 1843,aboutwhich 
time he contributed to Leigh Hunt's ' Jour- 
nal,' and in 1847 he made the personal ac- 
quaintance of Leigh Hunt, who treated him 
with great kindness, and introduced him to 
Carlyle and other men of letters. Through 
Coventry Patmore he became known to 
Tennyson, as well as to Rossetti and the 
pre-Raphaelite circle in general. The cor- 
respondence of Tennyson and Patmore 
attests the high opinion which both enter- 
tained of the poetical promise of the young 
Irishman. His first volume, entitled simply 
' Poems ' (London, 1850, 12mo), published in 
1850, with a dedication to Leigh Hunt, was 



Allingham 



39 



Allingham 



nevertheless soon withdrawn, and his next 
venture, 'Day and Night Songs' (1854, Lon- 
don, 8vo), though reproducing many of the 
early poems, was on a much more restricted 
scale. Its decided success justified the publi- 
cation of a second edition next year, with the 
addition of a new title-piece, ' The Music 
Master,' an idyllic poem which had appeared 
in the volume of 1850, but had undergone so 
much refashioning as to have become almost 
a new work. A second series of ' Day and 
Night Songs ' was also added. The volume 
was enriched by seven very beautiful wood- 
cuts after designs by Arthur Hughes, as well 
as one byMillais and one by Ilossetti, which 
rank among the finest examples of the work 
of these artists in book illustration. Alling- 
ham was at this time on very intimate terms 
with Ilossetti, whose letters to him, the best 
that Ilossetti ever wrote, were published by 
Dr. Birkbeck Hill in the ' Atlantic Monthly ' 
for 1896. Allingham afterwards dedicated a 
volume of his collected works to the memory 
of Ilossetti, 'whose friendship brightened 
many years of my life, and whom I never 
can forget.' Many of the poems in this col- 
lection obtained a wide circulation through 
Irish hawkers as broadside halfpenny ballads. 
On 18 June 1864 he obtained a pension of 60/. 
on the civil list, and this was augmented to 
100/. on 21 Jan. 1870. 

In 1863 Allingham was transferred from 
Ballyshannon, where he had again officiated 
since 1856, to the customs house at Ly mington . 
In the preceding year he had edited' Night- 
ingale Valley ' (reissued in 1871 as ' Choice 
Lyrics and short Poems; or, Nightingale 
Valley '), a choice selection of English lyrics; 
in 1864 he edited 'The Ballad Book' for the 
* Golden Treasury ' series, and in the same 
year appeared ' Laurence Bloomfield in Ire- 
land,' a poem of considerable length in tlie 
heroic couplet, evincing careful study of 
Goldsmith and Crabbe, and regarded by him- 
self as his most important work. It certainly 
was the most ambitious, and its want of suc- 
cess with the public can only be ascribed to 
the inherent difficulty of the subject. The 
efforts of Laurence Bloomfield, a young Irish 
landlord returned to his patrimonial estate 
after an English education and a long mi- 
nority to raise the society to which he comes 
to the level of the society he has left, form 
a curious counterpart to the author's own 
efforts to exalt a theme, socially of deep 
interest, to the region of poetry. Neither 
Laurence Bloomfield nor Allingham is quite 
successful, but neither is entirely unsuccess- 
ful, and the attempt was worth making in 
both instances. The poem remains the 
epic of Irish philanthropic landlordism, and 



its want of stirring interest is largely re- 
deemed by its wealth of admirable descrip- 
tion, both of man and nature. TurgenefF 
said, after reading it, ' I never understood 
Ireland before.' Another reprint from 
' Eraser ' was the ' Ilambles of Patricius 
Walker,' lively accounts of pedestrian 
tours, which appeared in book form in 1873. 
In 1865 he published ' Fifty Modern 
Poems,' six of which had appeared in earlier 
collections. The most important of the re- 
mainder are pieces of local or national in- 
terest. Except for ' Songs, Ballads, and 
Stories ' (1877), chiefly reprints, and an occa- 
sional contribution to the ' Athenaeum,' he 
printed little more verse until the definitive 
collection of his poetical works in six volumes 
(1888-93); this edition included 'Thought 
and Word,' ' An Evil May-Day : a religious 
poem ' which had previously appeared in a 
limited edition, and ' Ashley Manor ' (an un- 
acted play), besides an entire volume of short 
aphoristic poems entitled ' Blackberries,' 
which had been previously published in 
1884. 

In 1870 Allingham retired from the civil 
service, and removed to London as sub- 
editor (under James Anthony Froude [q. v. 
SuppL] of ' Eraser's Magazine,' to which he 
had long been a contributor. Eour years 
later he succeeded Froude as editor, and on 
22 Aug. 1874 he married Miss Helen Pater- 
son {b. 1848), eldest child of Dr. Alexander 
Henry Paterson, known under her wedded 
name as a distinguished water-colour painter. 
He conducted the magazine with much ability 
until the commencement, in 1879, of a new 
and shortlived series under the editorship of 
Principal Tulloch. His editorship was made 
memorable by the publication in the maga- 
zine of Carlyle's 'Early Kings of Norway,' 
given to him as a mark of regard by Carlyle, 
whom he frequently visited, and of whose 
conversation he has preserved notes which 
it may be hoped will one day be published. 
After tlie termination of his connection with 
* Eraser,' lie took up his residence, in 1881, at 
AVitley, in Surrey, whence in 1888 he re- 
moved to Hampstead with a view to the 
education of his children. His health was 
already much impaired by the effiects of a ' 
fall from horseback, and he died about a year 
after his settlement at Lyndhurst Road, 
Hampstead, on 18 Nov. 1889. His remains 
were cremated at Woking. 

Though not ranking among the foremost 
of his generation, Allingham, when at his 
best, is an excellent poet, simple, clear, and 
graceful, with a distinct though not ob- 
trusive individuality. His best work is 
concentrated in his ' Day and Night Songs ' 



Allman 



40 



Allman 



(1854), which, whether pathetic or sportive, 
whether expressing feeling or depicting 
scenery, whether upborne by simple melody 
or embodying truth in symbol, always fulfil 
the intention of the author and achieve the 
character of works of art. The employment 
of colloquial Irish without conventional 
hibernicisms was at the time a noteworthy 
novelty. 'The Music Master' (1865), though 
of no absorbing interest, is extremely pretty, 
and although 'Laurence Bloomfield' will 
mainly survive as a social document, the 
reader for instruction's sake will often be de- 
lighted by the poet's graphic felicity. The 
rest of Allingham's poetical work is on a 
lower level; there is, nevertheless, much 
point in most of his aphorisms, though few 
may attain the absolute perfection which ab- 
solute isolation demands. 

Two portraits, one representing Ailing- 
ham in middle, the other in later life, are 
reproduced in the collected edition of his 
poems. 

A collection of proseworks entitled 'Varie- 
ties in Prose ' was posthumously published 
in three volumes in 1893. 

[Athenaeum, 23 Nov. 1889 ; Allingham's pre- 
faces to his poems; Rossetti's letters to him, 
edited by Dr. Birkbeck Hill ; A. H. Miles's Poets 
and Poetry of the Century; private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] R. G. 

ALLMAN, GEORGE JAMES (1812- 
1898), botanist and zoologist, born at Cork 
in 1812, was eldest son of James Allman of 
Bandon, co. Cork. He was educated at 
the Belfast academical institution and at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated 
B.A. 1839, M.B. 1843, and M.D. 1847. In 
1842 he became a member, and in 1844 a 
fellow, of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
Ireland, and on 1 July 1847 he was admitted 
to the ad eundem degree of M.D. at Oxford. 
Originally intended for the bar and then for 
medicine, he abandoned both in order to 
devote himself to the study of natural sci- 
ence, and especially of marine zoology, of 
which he was one of the early pioneers in 
England. His first scientific paper — on 
polyzoa — appeared in 1843 ; it was followed 
by one on hydrozoa in 1844, and in the next 
thirty years Allman published over a hundred 
papers on these and similar subjects. In 
1844 he was appointed, in succession to his 
namesake, William Allman [q.v.], professor 
of botany in Dublin University. On 1 June 
1854 he was elected F.R.S., and in the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed regius pro- 
fessor of natural history, and keeper of the 
natural history museum in the university of 
Edinburgh ; his inaugural lecture was pub- 
lished (Edinburgh, 1855;. 



Allman's reputation rests on his investi- 
gations into the classification and moi-pho- 
logy of the coelenterata and polyzoa. His 
' Monograph of the Freshwater Polyzoa ' 
was published by the Ray Society in 1856, 
and in 1871-2 the same society published in 
two fine folios Allman's most important 
work, ' A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic 
or Tubularian Hydroids.' The way for this 
had been prepared by the * Monograph of the 
Naked-eyed Medusae,' published in 1849 by 
Edward Forbes [q. v.], and by the ' Oceanic 
Hydrozoa ' of Thomas Henry Huxley [q. v. 
Suppl.], published by the Royal Society in 
1859. Six years later Allman was invited 
to report on the hydroids collected by L. F. 
de Pourtales on behalf of the United States 
government in the Gulf Stream ; Allman's 
report formed part ii. of the fifth volume of 
the ' Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard.' In 1883 he performed 
a similar service for the British government, 
contributing a report on hydroids to a series 
of Challenger reports edited by Sir Charles 
Wyville Thomson [q. v.] Allman's report 
is part XX. of the seventh volume (1883). 
For his work on hydroids Allman received 
the Brisbane medal of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh in 1877, the Cunningham medal 
of the Royal Irish Academy in 1878, and 
the gold medal of the Linnean Society in 
1896. 

Meanwhile, in 1 870, Allman retired from 
his professorship at Edinburgh, being pre- 
sented with a testimonial on 29 July. In 
1871 he was elected a member of the Athe- 
naeum Club by the committee. From 1855 
till the abolition of the board in 1881 he 
was one of the Scottish fishery commis- 
sioners, and in 1876 he was appointed a 
commissioner to inquire into the working of 
the queen's colleges in Ireland. He had 
always taken a keen interest in the popula- 
risation of science, and was one of the early 
promoters of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science ; he presided over 
the biological section in 1873, and over the 
united association when it met at Sheffield 
in 1879. He served on the council of the 
Royal Society from 1871 to 1873, and in 
1874 he succeeded George Bentham [q.v.] 
as president of the Linnean Society, to the 
' Journal ' of which he had contributed seve- 
ral papers, the most important being that 
on the freshwater medusa ; he relinquished 
the presidency in 1883, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Sir John Lubbock (now Lord Ave- 
bury). He also acted for many years as 
examiner in natural history for the university 
of London, for the army, navy, and Indian 
1 medical and civil services. 



Allon 



41 



Allon 



On leaving Edinburgh Allman had settled 
first at Weybridge and then in close proxi- 
mity to Mr. Alfred Russel "Vi^allace, at 
Ardmore, Parkstone, Dorset. He died there 
on 24 Nov. 1898, and was buried on the 
29th in Poole cemetery. His wife, Hannah 
Louisa, third daughter of Samuel Shaen of 
Crix, near Colchester, Essex, by whom he 
had no issue, predeceased him in 1890. 

Besides the works mentioned above and 
his numerous scientific papers, of which a 
list is given in the Royal Society's Catalogue, 
Allman published a lecture entitled 'The 
Method and Aim of Natural History Studies' 
(Edinburgh, 1868, Svo), and contributed to 
J. V. Carus's 'Icones Zootomicse' (Leipzig, 
1857, fol.),and ' An Appendix on the Vegeta- 
tion of the Riviera' to A. Bar^ty's ' Nice and 
its Climate' (English transl. London, 1882, 
8vo). In the last year of his life he printed 
a volume of poems for private circulation. 

[Allman's Works in Brit. Museum Library; 
Proc. Linnean Soc. 1895-6, p. 30 ; Lists of Fel- 
lows of the Royal Soc. ; Nature, lix. 202, 269 (by 
Professor G. B. Howes); Cat. Grad. Trin. Coll. 
Dublin; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1716-1886; 
Men of the Time, 1895; Who's Who? 1898; 
Times, 28 Nov. 1898 ; Huxley's Life and Letters 
of T. H. Huxley, 1900.] A. F. P. 

ALLON, HENRY (1818-1892), congre- 
gational divine, born at Welton, near Hull, 
on 13 Oct. 1818, was the son of William 
Allon, a builder and estate steward. He 
was apprenticed as a builder at Beverley, 
where he joined the congregational church, 
and began to preach at the age of seventeen. 
His devout character attracted the attention 
of James Sherman [q. v.], and others, by 
whose influence he was received in 1839 as 
a student at Cheshunt College, where he 
studied theology under John Harris (1802- 
1856) [q. v.] In 1844 he became assistant 
to Thomas Lewis at Union Chapel, Isling- 
ton. He was ordained on 12 June 1844, 
and his preaching at once created a re- 
markable impression. His striking presence 
added to the effect of his delivery, while he 
appealed in his sermons to the intellect 
rather than to the emotions of his hearers. 
On the death of Lewis on 29 Feb. 1852 
Allon became sole pastor of the church. In 
1861 Union Chapel was enlarged, and be- 
tween 1874 and 1877 it was rebuilt. Allon 
did not, however, confine his labours to his 
congregation, but extended them to many 
different fields of action. His services to 
Cheshunt College were very great. After 
Sherman's death in 1862 he filled the hono- 
rary office of secretary, and in 1864 he was 
appointed ministerial trustee, as well as one 
of the trustees of the countess of Hunting- 



don's connection [see Hastings, Selina]. 
He also made extensive journeys through 
the British Isles and the United States, 
where in 1871 he received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Yale University. He 
received a similar distinction from St. An- 
drews in 1885. He was twice elected presi- 
dent of the Congregational Union — in 18G4 
and in 1881 — an unprecedented distinction. 

In literature Allon was equally active, 
while his services to nonconformist music 
were of the first importance. In 1863 he 
compiled a ' Memoir of James Sherman ' 
(London, Svo ; 3rd edit. 1864), and in 1866, 
in conjunction with Henry Robert Reynolds 
[q. V. Suppl.], he undertook to edit the 
* British (Quarterly Review,' the represen- 
tative organ of the free churches [see 
Vatjghak, Robert, 1795-1868]. In 1877 
he became sole editor, and continued in 
this position until the periodical was dis- 
continued inl886. His services to hymnology 
were of great value. He edited the ' Con- 
gregational Psalmist 'in 1858 in conjunction 
with Henry John Gauntlett [q.v.], and new 
editions appeared in 1868, 1875, and 1889. 
A second edition, a ' Chant Book,' was pub- 
lished in 1860 ; a third section, ' Anthems 
for Congregational Use,' in 1872, and a 
fourth, ' Tunes for Children's Worship,' in 
1879. Besides editing these musical works 
he acted as editor to the ' New Congrega- 
tional Hymn-book,' published * Supplemental 
Hymns for Public Worship ' in 1868, 
'Hymns for Children's Worship' in 1878, 
and the ' Congregational Psalmist Hymnal' 
in 1886. By these musical works, and by 
his lectures and writings, among which 
may be mentioned ' The Worship of the 
Church,' contributed to Henry Robert Rey- 
nolds's 'Ecclesia '(1870), Allon did much 
to improve the musical portion of noncon- 
formist worship. As a composer he is only 
represented by one hymn, ' Low in Thine 
agony,' written for Passiontide. 

Allon died at Canonbury on 16 April 
1892, and was buried in Abney Park ceme- 
tery on 21 April. A man of liberal thought 
and wide reading, many of his theological 
opinions were hardly in sympathy with those 
of his more conservative comtemporaries, 
such as John Campbell (1794-1867) [q. v.] 
They exposed him to animadversions, but no 
attack ever excited him to bitterness. In 
1848 he was married at Bluntisham, in 
Huntingdonshire, to Eliza, eldest daughter 
of Joseph Goodman of Witton in that county. 
He left two sons and four daughters. A 
fund to establish a memorial to Allon was 
closed in 1897. By its means the chapel of 
Cheshunt College was enlarged, a new 



Allport 



42 



Allport 



organ provided, and an Allon scholarship 
established. 

Besides the works already mentioned, and 
numerous sermons and pamphlets, Allon 
■was the author of: 1. * The Vision of God, 
and other Sermons,' London, 1876, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1877. 2. ' The Indwelling of Christ, 
and other Sermons,' London, 1892, 8vo. He 
edited in 1869 the ' Sermons ' of Thomas 
Binney [q. v.] with a biographical and criti- 
cal sketch. A number of Allon's letters to 
Reynolds are printed in ' Henry Robert 
Reynolds ; his Life and Letters,' edited by 
his sisters in 1898. 

Allon's son, H enryEeskine Allon (1864- 
1897), musical composer, born in October 
1864, Avas educated at Amersham Hall 
School near Reading, at University College, 
London, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He studied music under VVilliam Henry 
Birch and Frederic Corder. Besides two 
cantatas, ' Annie of Lochroyan ' and ' The 
-Child of EUe,' and many songs, he published 
several sonatas and other pieces for the 
pianoforte, and the pianoforte and violin. 
His work showed originality and power. He 
was one of the promoters of the ' New Musi- 
cal Quarterly Review,' to which he fre- 
quently contributed. He died in London 
on 3 April 1897, and bequeathed his library 
of musical works to the Union Society of 
Cambridge University (information kindly 
given by Mr. L. T. Rowe). 

[Harwood's Henry Allon, 1894 (with portrait); 
Memorials of Henry Allon (with portrait), 1892; 
Congregational Year Book, 1893, pp. 202-5 
(with portrait) ; Historical Sketch, prefixed to 
Sermons preached at the dedication of Union 
Chapel, Islington, 1878; Burrell's Memoirs of 
T. Lewis, 1853; Waddington's Congregational 
History, 1850-1880, pp. 426-46; Congregation 
alist, May 1879 (with portrait) ; J. Guinness 
Rogers in Sunday Magazine, 1892, pp. 387-91.] 

E. I. C. 

ALLPORT, SiE JAMES JOSEPH 

(1811-1892), railway manager, born at Bir- 
mingham on 27 Feb. 1811, was third son of 
William Allport {d. 1823) of Birmingham 
by Phoebe, daughter of Joseph Dickinson of 
Woodgreen, Staffordshire. His father was a 
manufacturer of small arms, and for a time 
prime warden of the Birmingham Proof 
House Company. James was educated in 
Belgium, and at an early age, on the death 
of his father, assisted his mother in the conduct 
of her business. 

In 1839 he entered the service of the newly 
founded Birmingham and Derby Railway as 
chief clerk, and after filling the post of traffic 
manager was soon appointed manager of 
that railway. While in this employment in 



1841 he was one of the first to advocate and 
propose the establishment of a railway clear- 
ing-house system. On the amalgamation of 
his company with the North Midland and 
Midland Counties Railway on 1 Jan. 1844, 
Allport was not selected as manager of the 
joint undertaking, but through the influence 
of George Hudson [q. v.], who had marked 
his ability, was appointed manager of the 
Newcastle and Darlington line. This line 
prospered under his six years' control, and 
developed into the York', Newcastle, and 
Berwick Railway. He was next chosen in 
1850 to manage the Manchester, Shetfield, 
and Lincolnshire, then little more than a 
branch of the London and North- Western ; 
and three years later, on 1 Oct. 1853, he 
was appointed general manager of the Mid- 
land Railway. At this period the Midland 
Company only possessed five hundred miles 
of railroad, consisting of little more than an 
agglomeration of local lines serving the 
midland counties, and was in a position of 
dependence on the London and North- 
western. The extension of his railway 
system and its conversion into a trunk line 
were the first great objects of the new 
manager, and the policy of securing inde- 
pendent approach to the centres of popula- 
tion was now inaugurated, and henceforth 
consistently followed. In 1857 this work 
began by the completion of the Midland 
line from Leicester to Hitchin, which now, 
instead of Rugby, became the nearest point 
of connection with London. In this same 
year Allport was induced to accept the 
position of managing director to Palmer's 
Shipbuilding Company at Jari'ow, and re- 
signed his office in the Midland on 25 May 
1857, but was elected a director on 6 Oct. 
1857. Three years later it was, however, 
found to be to the interest of the Midland 
to recall him to the post of general manager, 
and his services were almost immediately 
successfully employed in opposing a proposed 
bill which would have enabled the London 
and North- Western, the Great Northern, and 
Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Rail- 
ways by far-reaching agreements seriously 
to handicap traffic on the Midland. In 1862 
tlie act of parliament was secured by means 
of which the company was enabled to reach 
Lancashire through the Derbyshire dales, and 
in the following year powers were granted to 
lay down the line between Bedford and Lon- 
don. Not satisfied with this rapid extension, 
Allport in 1866 was mainly responsible for 
the introduction of the bill into parliament 
authorising the creation of the Settle and 
Carlisle line. Great perseverance and de- 
termination on the part -of the manager 



Allport 



43 



Althaus 



•were necessary after the raihvay panic in 
1866 to maintain the company's resolve to 
establish an independent route to the north. 
The difficulties and expense of the enter- 
prise were immense, and its construction 
gave Allport more anxiety than any other 
railway work he had ever undertaken {Rail- 
way News, 1892, p. 685). The line was 
not completed for passenger traffic to Carlisle 
before 1875. The St. Pancras terminus of 
the Midland Railway had been opened on 
1 Oct. 1868. By the securing of a London 
terminus, and the creation of a new and 
independent route to Scotland, Allport's 
main purpose was accomplished, and the 
Midland line was established as one of the 
great railway systems of the country. 

The development of the coalfields in mid- 
England by means of his line was an object 
always kept in view by the general manager, 
and eventually successfully accomplished. 
The process, however, led in 1871 to a severe 
coal-rate struggle with the Great Northern 
Railway, in w^hich Allport's action in sud- 
denly withdrawing through rates to all 
parts of the Great Northern system, besides 
being unsuccessful, proved subsequently 
somewhat prejudicial to the interests of his 
company. Competition with the Great 
Northern was one of the chief reasons which 
in the first instance caused the Midland 
board to decide on running third-class car- 
riages on all trains on and after 1 April 
1872. But Allport was a firm believer from 
the first in the eventual success of a course 
regarded at the time by most railway 
managers as revolutionary, and in after-life 
looked back on the improvement of the 
third-class passenger's lot as one of the 
most satisfactory episodes in his career 
( WiLLiAJis, The Midland Railway^ p. 280). 
The abolition of the second class on the 
Midland system from 1 Jan. 1875 was a 
further development of the same policy ; but 
the change, though now followed on other 
lines, was not at first approved by public 
opinion. 

Allport retired from his post as general 
manager on 17 Feb. 1880, when he was 
presented with 10,000/. by the shareholders, 
and elected as a director of the company. 
In 1884 he received the honour of knight- 
hood, and in 1886 was created a member ol 
the royal commission to report upon the 
state of railways in Ireland. He was a direc- 
tor of several important industrial under- 
takings. After his retirement he inspected 
the New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio rail- 
way system on behalf of the bondholders, 
and exposed its mismanagement. He died 
on 25 April 1,89.2> and was buried in Belper 



cemetery, Derby, on 29 April. He married 
in 1832 Ann {d. 1886), daughter of John 
Gold of Birmingham, by whom he left two 
sons and three daughters. 

[Times, 29 April 1892 ; Railway News, April 
1892 ; Acworth's Railways of England, ed. 
1900, pp. 31, bb, 206; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
1886; Williams's History of Midland Railway; 
and information kindly conveyed by the secretary 
of the Midland Railway Company.] W, C-e. 

ALTHAUS, JULIUS (1833-1900), phy- 
sician, born in Lippe-Uetmold, Germany, on 
31 March 1833, was the fourth and youngest 
son of Friedrich Althaus and Julie l)raescke. 
His father Avas general superintendent of 
Lippe-Detmold, a protest ant dignity equal to 
the Anglican rural dean ; his mother was a 
daughter of the last protestant bishop of 
Magdeburg. He received his classical educa- 
tion at the university of Bonn, and began his 
medical studies at Gottingen in 1851. He pro- 
ceeded thence to Heidelberg and graduated 
M.D. at Berlin in 1855, with a thesis 'de 
Pneumothorace.' He then proceeded to Sicily 
with Professor JohannesMueller (1 801-1 858), 
and thence to Paris, where he worked under 
Professor Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1898). 
Althaus afterwards settled in London, when 
Robert Bentley Todd [q. v.] gave him oppor- 
tunities of undertaking the electrical treat- 
ment of patients at King's College Hospital. 
In 1866 he was mainly instrumental in found- 
ing the Hospital for Epilepsy and Paralysis 
in Regent's Park, to which he was attached 
as physician until his resignation in 1894, 
when he was appointed to the honorary office 
of consulting physician. He was admitted a 
member of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London in 1860. At the time of his death 
he was a corresponding fellow of the New 
York Academy of Medicine, and he had re- 
ceived the insignia of the order of the crown 
of Italy. He died in London on 11 June 1900, 
and was buried at Woking. Althaus married, 
in June 1859, Anna Wilhelmina Pelzer, and 
had three children — two sons and a daughter, 
of whom the latter survives him. 

Althaus was a man of very varied attain- 
ments, with great musical gifts. He was 
greatly interested in the therapeutic effects 
of electricity. He published :1.' A Treatise on 
Medical Electricity,' London, 1859, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1873. 2. ' The Spas of Europe,' Lon- 
don, 1862, 8vo. 3 * On Paralysis, Neuralgia, 
and other Affections of the Nervous System, 
and their successful Treatment by Galvanism 
and Faradisation,' London, 1864, 12mo. 4. 
'On Sclerosis of the Spinal Cord,' London, 
1885, 8vo ; translated into German, Leipzig, 
1884, and into French by J. Morin, with a 



Amos 



44 



Amos 



preface by Prof. Charcot, Paris, 1885, 8vo. 
6. ' Influenza : its Pathology, Symptoms, 
Complications, and Sequels,' 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1892, 12mo. 6. ' On Failure of Brain 
Power : its Nature and Treatment,' 4th edit. 
London, 1894, 12mo. 

[Dr. Pagel's Biographisches Lexicon, 1900; 
obituary notices in the Lancet and British 
Medical Journal, A-ol. i. 1900; Times, 13 June 
1900; private information.] D'A. P. 

AMOS, SHELDON (1835-188(5), jurist, 
fourth son of Andrew Amos [q. v.], by Mar- 
garet, daughter of William Lax [q. v.], born 
in 1835, was an alumnus of Clare College, 
Cambridge, in which university he gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1859 (senior optime in mathe- 
matics, second class in classics), having in 
the preceding year taken the members' prize 
for Latin prose. He was admitted on 2 
June 1859 member of the Inner Temple, 
where he was called to the bar on 11 June 
1862. The honours which he had taken in 
the previous examination did not bring 
briefs to his chambers, but procured him a 
readership at the Temple, which he held 
until his election in 1869 to the chair of 
jurisprudence in University College. In 
1872 he was elected reader under the Coun- 
cil of Legal Education, and examiner in 
Constitutional Law and History to the Uni- 
versity of London. He vacated the reader- 
ship in 1875, the examinership in 1877, and 
the chair of jurisprudence in 1879. His 
health was then gravely impaired, and a 
voyage to the South Seas failed to restore 
it; nor did he find colonial society congenial, 
and after a short residence at Sydney he 
settled in Egypt, practising as an advocate 
in the law courts and devoting his leisure 
time to the study of the complicated social 
and political problems which were then 
pressing for solution. He was resident at 
Alexandria on the eve of the British occu- 
pation, and suffered the loss of his library 
by the bombardment (July 1882). On the 
subsequent reorganisation of the Egyptian 
judicature he was appointed judge of the 
court of appeal (native tribunals). The 
duties of the office proved exceptionally 
onerous to one who, though an accomplished 
jurist, was without experience of adminis- 
tration. Amos's health proved unequal to 
the strain. A furlough in England in the 
autumn of 1885 failed to restore his powers, 
and on his return to Egypt he died suddenly, 
3 Jan. 1886, at his residence at Ramleh, 
near Alexandria. 

Amos married in 1870 Sarah Maclardie, 
daughter of Thomas Perceval Bunting, of 
Manchester, by whom he left issue. 



In early life Amos was a frequent con- 
tributor to the * Westminster Review,' and 
well known as an earnest advocate of the 
higher education and political emancipation 
of women, and as a leader in the crusade 
against the Contagious Diseases Acts. He 
was a friend and admirer of Frederick 
Denison Maurice, with whom he was asso- 
ciated as a lecturer at the Working Men's 
College in Great Ormond Street, London. 
He was widely read in theology and philo- 
sophy, and found Coleridge and Comte 
equally congenial. He never attempted 
any formal exposition of his philosophi- 
cal position, and is understood to have 
remained a devout and essentially ortho- 
dox churchman. As a thinker he is best 
known by his 'Systematic View of the 
Science of Jurisprudence,' London, 1872, 
8vo, and his * Science of Law,' 1874, and 

* Science of Politics,' 1883 (International 
Scientific Series). These works, however, 
have less of the method than of the termi- 
nology of scien(;e, are suggestive rather than 
illuminative, and are marred by irrelevant 
detail and rhetorical rhapsody. Amos is seen 
to better advantage in his less ambitious 

* Lectures on International Law,' London, 
1873, 8vo, his scholarly edition of Manning's 

* Commentaries on the Law of Nations,' 
London, 1875, 8vo (cf. Makning, William 
OKE),and his misnamed ' Political and Legal 
Remedies for War,' London, 1880, 8vo, 
which, by the suppression of a few visionary 
passages, might be readily reduced to a 
sober treatise on the rights and duties of 
belligerents and neutrals. Other works by 
Amos are : 1. * An English Code : its Diffi- 
culties and the Modes of overcoming them : 
a Practical Application of the Science of 
Jurisprudence,' London, 1873, 8vo. 2. * Fifty 
Years of the English Constitution, 1830-80,' 
London, 1880, 8vo. 3. ' Primer of the Eng- 
lish Constitution and Government,' London, 
fourth edition, 1883, 8vo. 4. 'History and 
Principles of the Civil Law of Rome as aid 
to the study of scientific and comparative 
Jurisprudence,' London, 1883, 8vo. He 
was also author of the following pamphlets : 
1. ' Capital Punishment in England viewed 
as operating in the Present Day,' London, 
1864, 8vo. 2. * Codification in England and 
the State of New York,' London, 1867, 8vo. 

3. ' Modern Theories of Church and State : 
a Political Panorama,' London, 1869, 8vo. 

4. ' Diff'erence of Sex as a Topic of Juris- 
prudence and Legislation,' London, 1870, 
8vo. 5. ' The Present State of the Conta- 
gious Diseases Controversy,' London, 1870, 
8vo. 6. * A Lecture on the best Modes of 
studying Jurisprudence,' London, 1870, 8vo 



Anderdon 



45 



Anderdon 



7. ' The Policy of the Contagious Diseases 
Acts of 1866 and 1869, tested by the Prin- 
ciples of Ethical and Political Science,' Lon- 
don, 1870, 8vo. 8. ' The Existing Laws of 
Demerara for the Kegiilation of Coolie Im- 
migration,' London, 1871, 8vo. 9. 'A Con- 
cise Statement of some of the Objections to 
the Contagious Diseases Acts of 1864, 1866, 
and 1869,' London, 1876, 8vo. 10. ' The Pur- 
chase of the Suez Canal Shares and Inter- 
national Law,' London, 1876, 8vo. 11. * A 
Comparative Survey of the Laws in force 
for the Prohibition, Regulation, and Licens- 
ing of Vice in England and other Countries,' 
London, 1877, 8vo. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar ; Grad. Cant. 1800- 
1884; Law List, 1863; Times, 4 Jan. 1886; Law 
Times, 9 Jan. 1886; Law Journ. 9 Jan. 1886 ; 
Solicitors' Journ. 28 Jan. 1886 ; Law Mag. and 
Eev. iii. 691 ; Saturday Kev. xxxir. 5o ; Athe- 
naeum, 1872 i. 557, 1873 i. 245, 1874 ii. 
342, 1880 i. 180, 595, 1883 i. 271; Academy, 
1883, i. 234; Kemembrances of Sheldon Amos 
(privately printed, Leeds, 1889).] J. M.E. 

ANDERDON, WILLIAM HENRY 

(1816-1890), Jesuit, born in New Street, 
Spring Gardens, London, on 26 Dec. 1816, 
was the eldest son of John Laircount An- 
derdon [q. v.] When about fifteen years 
of age he began to attend the classes at 
King's College, London. He matriculated 
on 16 Dec. 1835 at Balliol College, Oxford 
— the college at which his uncle, Henry 
Edward (afterwards cardinal) Manning, had 
graduated five years earlier. Before long 
he gained a scholarship at University Col- 
lege, and he graduated B.A. in 1839 (second 
class in classics), and M. A. in 1842. Taking 
orders, he became curate first at Withyam, 
Kent, and afterwards at Reigate. In 1846 
he was presented to the vicarage of St. 
Margarets with Knighton, Leicester, but 
he resigned that living in 1850, and on 
23 Nov. in the same year he was received 
into the Roman catholic church at Paris by 
Pere de Ravignan in the chapel of Notre- 
Dame de Sion (Gondon, Les lihentes Con- 
versions de VAngleterre, 1851, p. 103). After 
going through a course of theology at Rome, 
he was ordained priest at Oscott by Bishop 
UUathorne in 1853. Subsequently he de- 
livered lectures on elocution and rhetoric 
at Ushaw. 

His sermons drew large congregations 
when he accepted the chaplaincy of the 
Catholic L^niversity in Dublin under the 
rectorship of Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) New- 
man. He held office in that institution from 
1856 to 1863. He also took part in found- 
ing a Franciscan convent at Drumshanbo. 



In 1863 he came to London to take the post 
of secretary to his uncle Manning, who had 
just ascended the arcliiepiscopal throne of 
Westminster. Afterwards he spent two years 
in a mission to America, returning to this 
country in 1870. He received the degree of 
D.D. from Rome in 1869. 

Having resolved to join the Society of 
Jesus he entered the novitiate at Roehamp- 
ton in June 1872, and took the first vows in 
1874, His missionary career as a Jesuit 
began at the church of St. Aloysius, Oxford ; 
he spent a year at Bournemouth, and another 
year at Stonyhurst as prefect of philosophers ; 
and for many years he was engaged in giving 
missions and retreats in various parts of the 
country. He afterwards taught elocution 
to the novices at Manresa House, Roehamp- 
ton, where he died on 28 July 1890. 

His works are: 1. 'A Letter to the 
Parishioners of St. Margaret's, Leicester,' 
London, 1851, 8vo, explaining his reasons 
for joining the communion of the chui'ch of 
Rome ; this letter elicited several replies. 
2. 'Two Lectures on the Catacombs of 
Rome,' London, 1852, 8vo. 3. * Antoine de 
Bonneval : a Story of the Fronde ' (anon.), 
London [1857], 8vo. 4. ' The Adventures 
of Owen Evans, Esq., Surgeon's Mate, left 
ashore in 1739 on a Desolate Island' (anon.), 
Dublin, 1863, 8vo ; commonly known as 
'The Catholic Crusoe.' 5. 'Afternoons with 
the Saints,' 1863. 6. ' In the Snow : Tales 
of Mount St. Bernard,' London, 1868, 8vo. 
7. ' The Seven Ages of Clarewell : the His- 
tory of a Spot of Ground,' London, 1868, 
8vo. 8. ' The Christian ^Esop : Ancient 
Fables teaching Eternal Truths,' London, 
1871, 8vo. 9. 'Is Ritualism Honest?' 1877. 
10. * To Rome and Back : Fly-leaves from 
a Flying Tour,' London, 1877, 8vo. 11. 
'Bracton: a Tale of 1812,' London, 1882, 
8vo. 12. 'Fasti Apostolici: a Chronology 
of the Years between the Ascension of our 
Lord and the Martyrdom of SS. Peter and 
Paul,' London, 1882, 8vo ; second thousand 
enlarged, 1884. 13. 'Evenings with the 
Saints,' London, 1883, 8vo. 14. 'Luther 
at Table,' London, 1883, 8vo. 15. ' Luther's 
Words and the Word of God,' London, 1883, 
8vo. 16. 'What sort of Man was Martin 
Luther? a Word or Two on his Fourth 
Centenary,' London, 1883,8vo. 17. 'Britain's 
Early Faith,' London, 1888, 8vo. He also 
published various controversial pamphlets 
and articles in the ' Dublin Review,' the 
' Month,' and the ' Weekly Register.' 

[Browne's Annals of the Tractarian Move- 
ment, pp. 175, 213; Foster's Alumni Oxen. 
1716-1886; Men of the Time, 11th edit.; Merry 
England, xvi. 1-25, 110-31 (with portrait); 



Anderson 



46 



Anderson 



Pureell's Life of Manning, 3rd edit. ii. 767; 
Times, 30 July 1890 ; Weekly Register, 2 Aug. 
1890, p. 145,] T. C. 

ANDERSON, JAMES ROBERTSON 

(1811-1895), actor, was born in Glasgow on 
8 May 1811, and played first at Edinburgh 
under William Henry Murray [q. v.], then 
on the Nottingham circuit, and at New- 
castle-on-Tyne. From 1834 to 1836 he was 
manager of the Leicester, Gloucester, and 
Cheltenham theatres. His first appearance 
in London was made with Macready on 
30 Sept. 1837 at Covent Garden as Florizel 
in the ' Winter's Tale.' On 23 May 1838 
he was the first Sir Valentine de Grey in 
Knowles's ' Woman's W^it,' and on 7 March 
1839 the first Mauprat in * Richelieu.' At 
Covent Garden he was Biron in * Love's 
Labour's Lost,' and Romeo, and was the 
first Fernando in Knowles's ' John of Pro- 
cida,' and Charles Courtly in * London As- 
surance.' At Drury Lane he was the first 
Basil Firebrace in Jerrold's ' Prisoners of 
War,' Titus Quintus Fulvius in Gerald 
Griffin's * Gisippus,' Earl Mertoun in Brown- 
ing's ' Blot in the 'Scutcheon,' and Wilton 
in Knowles's ' Secretary.' He was also seen 
as Othello, Orlando, Captain Absolute, Harry 
Dornton, Faulconbridge, and Posthumus, 
to which parts at Covent Garden he added 
lago, Cassio, and others. He then in 1846-8 
visited America. On 26 Dec. 1849 he opened, 
as manager, Drury Lane with the ' Merchant 
of Venice.' Among the pieces he produced 
were the ' Elder Brother ' of Beaumont and 
Fletcher, Schiller's ' Fiesco,' * Azael the Pro- 
digal,' Boucicault's ' Queen of Spades,' and 
Mrs. Lovell's ' Ingomar,' in which he played 
the title-role. In 1851 he was Captain Sidney 
Courtown in Sullivan's * Old Love and the 
New,' and the same year, with a loss of over 
9,000/., he retired from management. In 
1853, 1855, 1856, and 1858 America was re- 
visited. He was seen in 1855 at Drury Lane 
as Rob Roy. In 1863 he joined Richard 
Shepherd as manager of the Surrey, and, be- 
fore the house was burned, produced his own 
play, the * Scottish Chief,' and the ' Second 
Part of King Henry VI,' in which he doubled 
the parts of the Duke of York and Jack Cade. 
For his benefit in 1865 at Drury Lane, he was 
Antony in 'Julius Csesar.' After visiting 
Australia in 1807 he reappeared on 26 Sept. 
1874 at Drury Lane as Richard I in Halli- 
day's adaptation of the ' Talisman,' and played 
Antony in * Antony and Cleopatra.' He was 
also seen at the Strand and at many east- 
end and country theatres. Besides the * Scot- 
tish Chief he wrote other dramas, of which 
Cloud and Sunshine ' was produced. On 



16 Dec. 1875 at Drury Lane he was Mercutio, 
and on 1 Nov. 1884 at the Lyceum Tybalt. 
At the outset Anderson, who had a fine 
figure and a superb voice, won general accep- 
tance. Macready, chary of eulogy to any 
possible rival, praised him, and Westland 
Marston held his Ulric in ' Werner ' equal 
to Wallack's. His voice he spoiled and wore 
out. In his later years he acted little. He 
was a familiar figure at the Garrick Club, 
where he was reticent but always welcome. 
Returning thence one evening in February 
1895 to his rooms in the Bedford Hotel, 
Covent Garden, a hundred or two yards ofl^, 
he was garrotted and robbed. From the 
effects of the injuries he neA'er recovered, and 
he died at the Bedford Hotel on 3 March 
1895. lie was buried at Kensal Green. 

[Personal knowledge ; Pascoe's Dramatic List; 
Pollock's Macready ; Scott and Howard's Elan- 
chard; Marston's Recollections of our recent 
Actors; Atlien;ieum, 9 March 1895; Era Alma- 
nack.] J. K. 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1833-1900), natu- 
ralist, second son of Thomas Anderson, secre- 
tary of the National Bank of Scotland, was 
born at Edinburgh on 4 Oct. 1833. After 
passing his school days at the George Square 
Academy and the Hill Street Institution,' 
Edinburgh, he received a junior appointment 
in the Bank of Scotland, which was soon 
abandoned for the medical course in the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. Anderson was a pupil 
of John Goodsir[q.v.], from whom he received 
his anatomical training ; he graduated M.D. 
in 1862, and received the gold medal of the 
university of Edinburgh for zoology. At 
this period he was associated with others in 
the foundation of the Royal Physical Society, 
which rose from the ashes of the Wernerian 
Society in the same city. Anderson was 
one of the early presidents of this society. 
Soon after graduating he was appointed to 
the chair of natural history in the Free 
Church College at Edinburgh, previously 
held by Dr. John Fleming (1785-1857) [q.v.] 
This office he held for about two years. In 
1864 he proceeded to India, and the newly 
established Indian museum at Calcutta was 
in 1865 placed under his charge. The 
museum at Calcutta was built by the go- 
vernment for the housing of the collections 
amassed by the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
who were unable to continue to store upon 
their own premises the rapidly growing 
material. The rich collections, both zoo- 
logical and ethnological, were therefore 
handed over to the government of India. 
Anderson was the first superintendent of 
that collection under the new regime, but his 



Anderson 



47 



Anderson 



office was at first entitled that of curator. 
The duties of the head of this museum were 
varied by three scientific expeditions, to 
which Anderson was attached as naturalist. 
The first of these was undertaken under the 
command of Colonel (Sir) Edward Bosc 
Sladen [q. v.] in 1867. The members of the 
expedition proceeded to Upper Burmah, and 
succeeded m getting as far as Momein in 
Yunnan. A second expedition in 1875-6 in 
tlie same direction, under the command of 
Colonel Horace Browne, was not so success- 
ful, owing to the treachery of the Chinese ; 
Augustus Raymond Margary [q. v.], who 
travelled in front of the rest of the members 
of the expedition, was murdered, and in con- 
sequence the expedition, which had not 
proceeded far beyond the Burmese frontier, 
was compelled to return. The information 
amassed during these two journeys was very 
considerable, and formed the basis of two 
large quarto volumes written by Anderson, 
and published in 1878-9. A third expedi- 
tion was made by Anderson to the Mergui 
archipelago in 1881-2, and was productive of 
much new information in marine zoology, as 
well as of facts concerning the Selungs, a 
tribe inhabiting some of the islands of the 
archipelago. His account of the results of 
this expedition was published in vols, xxi. 
and xxii. of the Linnean Society's 'Journal' 
(1889); as a further result of this mission 
Anderson published in 1890 ' English Inter- 
course with Siam in the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury ' (Triibner's Oriental Series). The large 
amount of scientific work published by 
Anderson led to his election in 1879 as a fel- 
low of the Royal Society. He was created ajj 
honorary LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1885, and 
he was also a fellow of the Linnean Society 
and of the Society of Antiquaries. During 
the last years of his tenure of the office of 
superintendent of the Calcutta museum, he 
was also professor of comparative anatomy 
at the medical school of Calcutta. In 1886 
he resigned his posts at Calcutta, and re- 
turned to London, where he devoted much 
of his attention to the Zoological Society of 
London, attending the scientific meetings 
and serving on the council and as vice- 
president. Anderson's last important under- 
taking was a volume upon the reptiles of 
Egypt, which was intended to be followed 
by a complete account of the zoology of 
that part of Africa. He died at Matlock 
on 15 Aug. 1900. Anderson married Grace, 
daughter of Patrick Hunter Thoms. 

Anderson's scientific work was partly 
zoological and partly ethnological. His 
early training as an anatomist led him to 
treat zoology from the anatomical standpoint, 



and to dwell upon internal structure as well 
as external form in describing new forms of 
life. The vertebrata claimed his attention 
almost exclusively ; and among the verte- 
brata his principal additions to knowledge 
concern the mammalia. The Yunnan expe- 
ditions allowed him to investigate the 
structure of that remarkable, nearly blind, 
fluviatile dolphin of the muddy rivers of 
India, the platanista ; his account is the 
principal source of information respecting 
this long-snouted whale. A small, partly 
freshwater and partly marine, dolphin 
named, on account of its likeness to the 
savage killer (orca), orcella, was described 
by Anderson for the first time in the same 
work, which contains abundant observations 
upon many other creatures. A memoir in 
the ' Transactions of the Zoological Society ' 
(1872, p. 683) upon the hedgehog-like ani- 
mal hylomys is another of his more impor- 
tant contributions to zoology. A variety of 
notes upon apes, reptiles, and birds, largely 
contributed to the Zoological Society of 
London, offer a considerable mass of new 
facts of importance ; they not only add to 
our knowledge of structure, but also throw 
new light on problems of the geographical 
distribution of animals. The ethnological 
work of Anderson is mainly his account of 
the Selungs already referred to. 

His principal works other than contribu- 
tions to the ' Transactions ' and ' Proceedings ' 
of various learned societies are: 1. 'Mandalay 
to Momein,' 1876. 2. 'Anatomical and Zoo- 
logical Researches, comprising an Account of 
the Zoological Results of the two Expeditions 
to Western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875, and a 
Monograph of the two Cetacean Genera, 
Platanista and Orcella,' 1878-9. 3. ' Cata- 
logue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, 
1881, pt, i. 4. ' Catalogue of Archaeological 
Collections in the Indian Museum,' 1883, 
pts. i. and ii. 5. ' Contributions to the Fauna 
of Mergui and its Archipelago,' 1889. (This 
work is a reprint from the ' Journal of the 
Linnean Society,' and contains the contri- 
butions of several specialists.) 6. ' English 
Intercourse with Siam,' 1889. 7. ' A Contri- 
bution to the Herpetology of Arabia,' 1898. 

[Anderson's Works; Eoyal Society's Cat. of 
Seientific Papers; Nature, 27 Sept. 1900; Times, 
17 Aug. 1900; Men of the Time, ed. 1895.] 

F. E. B. 

ANDERSON, Sie WILLIAM (1835- 
1898), director-general of ordnance, born in 
St. Petersburg on 5 Jan. 1835, was the fourth 
son of John Anderson, a member of the firm 
of Matthews, Anderson, & Co., bankers and 
merchants of St. Petersburg, by his wife 



Anderson 



48 



Anderson 



Frances, daughter of Dr. Simpson, He was 
educated at the St. Petersburg high com- 
mercial school, of which he became head. 
He carried off the silver medal, and although 
an English subject received the freedom of 
the city in consideration of his attainments. 
When he left Eussia in 1849 he was pro- 
ficient in English, Russian, German, and 
French. In 1849 he became a student in 
the Applied Sciences department at King's 
College, London, and on leaving became an 
associate. He next served a pupilage at 
the works of (Sir) William Fairbairn [q. v.] 
in Manchester, where he remained three 
years. In 1855 he joined the firm of Court- 
ney, Stephens, & Co., of the Blackball Place 
Ironworks, Dublin. There he did much 
general engineering work. He also de- 
signed several cranes, and was the first 
to adopt the braced web in bent cranes 
(Stoney, Theory of Stmms, 1873, p. 133). 
In 1863 he became president of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers of Ireland. In 
1864 he joined the firm of Easton & Amos 
of the Grove, Southwark, and went to live 
at Erith, where the firm had decided to 
erect new works. He became a partner, 
and eventually head, of the firm which at a 
later date was styled Easton & Anderson. 
At Erith he had the chief responsibility in 
designing and laying out the works. Part 
of the business of the firm at that time was 
the construction of pumping machinery. 
Anderson materially improved the pattern 
of centrifugal pump devised by John George 
Appold [q. v.] In 1870 he proceeded to 
Egypt to erect three sugar mills for the 
Khedive Ismail, which he had assisted to 
design. In 1872 he presented to the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers an account of the 
sugar factory at Aba-el- Wakf (Minutes of 
Proceedinff.'!,'l872-S, xxxv. 37-70), for which 
he received a Watt medal and a Telford 
premium. Anderson next turned his at- 
tention to gun mountings of the MoncrieiT 
type, and designed several for the British 
government, which were made at the Erith 
works. In 1876 he designed twin Mon- 
crieff turret mountings for 40-ton guns for 
the Russian admiralty, which were made at 
Erith and proved highly successful. Later 
he designed similar mountings for 50-ton 
guns for the same country, and about 1888 
he designed the mountings for Her Majesty's 
ship Rupert. About 1878-82 he was oc- 
cupied with large contracts which his firm 
had obtained for the waterworks of Antwerp 
and Seville. To render the waters of the 
river Nethe, which was little better than a 
sewer, available for drinking purposes, he 
invented, in conjunction with Sir Frederick 



Augustus Abel, a revolving iron purifier, 
which proved perfectly effectual. He con- 
tributed a paper on the * Antwerp Water- 
works' to the Institution of Civil Engineers 
(ib. Ixxii. 24-83), for which he received a 
Telford medal and premium. 

About 1888 Anderson was asked by the 
explosives committee of the War Office to 
design the machinery for the manufacture 
of the new smokeless explosive, cordite. He 
had hardly commenced this task when, on 
11 Aug. 1889, he was appointed director- 
general of the ordnance factories. The duties 
of this post prevented him from continuing 
his work in relation to the cordite machinery, 
which was committed to his eldest son. 
Anderson made many improvements in the 
details of the management of the arsenal, 
and introduced greater economy into its ad- 
ministration. 

He was elected a member of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers on 12 Jan. 1869. In 
1886 he was elected a member of council, 
and in 1896 a vice-president. He was also 
a member of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers, of which he was president in 
1892 and 1893. In 1889 he was president 
of section G at the meeting of the British 
Association at Newcastle, and on that occa- 
sion he received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. from Durham University. On 4 June 
1891 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society. He was a vice-president of the 
Society of Arts, a member of the Royal 
Institution, of the Iron and Steel Institute, 
and of other societies. He was also a lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the engineer and railway 
vslunteer staff corps. In 1895 he was 
created C.B., and in 1897 K.C.B. 

Anderson died at Woolwich Arsenal on 
11 Dec. 1898. On 11 Nov. 1856 he married 
Emma Eliza, daughter of J. R. Brown of 
Knighton, Radnorshire, He left issue. 
Anderson contributed numerous papers to 
scientific institutions, and delivered many 
lectures on scientific subjects. His Howard 
Lectures on the * Conversion of Heat into 
Work,' delivered before the Society of Arts 
in 1884 and 1885, were published in 1887 
in the ' Specialist's Series.' A second edi- 
tion appeared in 1889. 

[Minutes of the Proc. of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, 1898-9, cxxxv. 320-6 ; Men of 
the Time, 1895.] E. I. C. 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (1842-1900), 
professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy, 
was born in London on 18 Dec. 1842, and 
educated at the City of London School. 
Upon leaving school he studied at the Lam- 
beth School of Art and obtained a medal 



Anderson 



49 



Andrews 



for artistic anatomy. In 1864 he entered St. 
Thomas's Hospital, where he studied surgery 
Tinder Sir John Simon and Le Gros Clark. 
In successive years he won the first college 
prize, the Physical Society's prize, and in 
1867 carried off the coveted Cheselden medal. 
He passed F.R.C.S. in 1869, and after a 
house-surgeoncy at Derby returned to St. 
Thomas's on the opening of the new build- 
ings in 1871 as surgical registrar and assis- 
tant demonstrator of anatomy. He displayed 
a faculty of illustrating his teaching of ana- 
tomy by drawing, which was the admira- 
tion of successive generations of students. 
In 1873 he was appointed professor of ana- 
tomy and surgery at the newly founded 
Imperial Naval Medical College at Tokio 
and sailed with his newly married wife for 
Japan. There he lectured not only on 
anatomy and surgery, but also on physio- 
logy and medicine. At first he had the 
assistance of an interpreter, but he rapidly 
acquired a working knowledge of the lan- 
guage, and soon gained the afl:ection of his 
pupils. In 1880, after a gratifying audience 
with the emperor, he left Tokio to accept a 
position on the surgical stall' at St. Thomas's, 
where he became senior lecturer on anatomy, 
while he examined in the same subject for 
the College of Surgeons and London Uni- 
versity. A stream of Japanese students 
flowed to St. Thomas's as a result of Ander- 
son's connection with the college at Tokio. 
In 1891 he was promoted from assistant to 
full surgeon to his hospital. 

While in Japan Anderson formed a 
superb collection of Japanese paintings and 
engravings, and upon his return he disposed 
of the bulk of it, forming what is regarded 
as historically the finest collection in Europe, 
to the British Museum. A selection of 
its treasures was exhibited in the White 
Iloom at the Museum between 1889 and 
1 892. Between 1 882, when the transfer was 
made, and 1886 Anderson prepared his 
admirable 'Descriptive and Historical Ac- 
count of a Collection of Japanese and Chinese 
Paintings in the British Museum ' (London, 
1886), containing the most complete account 
which at present exists of the general his- 
tory of the subject. It was followed by his 
great work, ' Pictorial Arts of Japan, with 
«ome Account of the Development of the 
allied Arts and a brief History and Criti- 
cism of Chinese Painting' (issued in port- 
folio form, 1886, 2 vols, with plates). This 
was an expansion of ' A Sketch of the His- 
tory of Japanese Pictorial Art,' published in 
the ' Transactions of the Asiatic Society of 
Japan' for 1878. Of the remainder of An- 
derson's collections many examples were 

VOL. I. — SUP. 



purchased by Ernest Abraham Hart [q. v. 
Suppl.] and have since been dispersed. la 
1885 Anderson had contributed the intro- 
ductory essay on the ' Pictorial and Glyptic 
Arts of Japan' to Murray's handbook for 
that country; in 1888 he issued 'An Histo- 
rical and Descriptive Catalogue of Japanese 
and Chinese Engravings exhibited at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club,' and in 1895 he 
wrote a ' Portfolio ' monograph on ' Japanese 
Wood Engravings: their History, Technique, 
and Characteristics.' Anderson was chair- 
man of the council of the Japan Society 
from its constitution in January 1892 until 
his death. In 1895 he was made a knight 
commander of the Japanese order of the 
Rising Sun. 

In January 1891 he was elected professor 
of anatomy at the Royal Academy in 
the room of Professor Marshall, whose 
worthy successor he approved himself. His 
sudden death on 27 Oct. 1900 was due to a 
rupture of the cord of the mitral valve. He 
was twice married : first, in 1873, to Mar- 
garet Hall, by whom he left a son and a 
daughter ; and, secondly, to Louisa, daughter 
of F. W. Tetley of Leeds, who survives him. 
Of high culture and distinguished appear- 
ance, Anderson's retiring nature alone pre- 
vented him from becoming a more prominent 
personality. Attractive portraits are given 
as frontispiece to ' Transactions of the Japan 
Society' (vol. iv.), and in the 'Lancet' 
(10 Nov. 1900) and ' St. Thomas's Hospital 
Gazette ' (November 1900). 

Anderson wrote a paper, excellently 
illustrated, on ' Art in relation to Medical 
Science' ('St. Thomas's Hospital Reports,' 
vol. XV.), which is the best sketch on that 
subject accessible in English. In 1896 he 
published a small work on ' The Deformities 
of the Fingers and Toes,' and in the same 
year, in conjunction with Mr. Shattock, he 
wrote the section on ' Malformations,' a 
laborious and recondite piece of work in the 
' Nomenclature of Diseases.' 

[Times, 29 Oct. 1900 ; Lancet, 10 Nov. 1900; 
St. Thomas's Hospital Gazette, November 1900; 
City of London School Mag. Nov. 1900 ; Ander- 
son's Works and printed Testimonials (1891) in 
British Museum Library; information kindly 
given by Mr. E. Phene Spiers and Mr. Arthur 
Diosy.] T. S. 

ANDREWS, THOMAS (1813-1885), 
professor of chemistry, born on 19 Dec. 1813, 
was son of Thomas John AndreWs, a linen, 
merchant of Belfast, by his wife, Elizabeth 
Stevenson. He received his early education 
at the Belfast Academy and Academical 
Institution, and then spent a short time in 



Andrews 



50 



Andrews 



his father's office, which he left in 1828 for 
the university of Glasgow, where he studied 
chemistry under Thomas Thomson (1773- 
1852) [q. v.] 

In 1830 he travelled to Paris, where he 
became acquainted with many of the leading 
French chemists, and spent a short time in 
the laboratory of Dumas. The following 
years were occupied in medical studies, first 
at Trinity College, Dublin, then at Belfast, 
and finally in Edinburgh, where in 1835 he 
received the diploma of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of Edinburgh, and graduated M.D. 
Declining the chairs of chemistry in the 
Richmond and Park Street schools of medi- 
cine at Dublin, he established himself in 
practice in Belfast, and was at the same time 
appointed to teach chemistry in the Royal 
Belfast Academical Institution. During ten 
years he was occupied in this way, and 
gradually became known to the scientific 
world as the author of valuable papers on 
subjects connected with voltaic action and 
heat of combination. 

In 1845 Andrews was appointed vice- 
president of the Northern College (now 
Queen's College, Belfast), and resigned both 
his teaching position and his private prac- 
tice. In 1849 came the opening of the 
Queen's Colleges, in the organisation of 
which Andrews had been engaged since 
1845, and he was then appointed to the 
professorship of chemistry in Queen's Col- 
lege, Belfast, a post which he only resigned 
in 1879. During the intervening period, 
while occupied with the afiairs of his col- 
lege and the duties of his chair, he was con- 
stantly engaged in scientific research, and 
published numerous valuable memoirs. 

After his resignation of the offices of vice- 
president and professor of chemistry in 
Queen's College, he lived in great retirement 
in Fort William Park, Belfast. He died on 
26 Nov. 1886, and was buried in the Borough 
cemetery, Belfast. 

In 1842 Andrews married Jane ITardie, 
daughter of Major Walker of the 42nd 
highlanders, by whom he had four daughters 
and two sons. 

Andrews was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 7 June 1849, and an honorary 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
in 1870. The degree of doctor of laws was 
conferred upon him by the university of 
Edinburgh in 1871, by Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, in 1873, and by the university of Glas- 
gow in 1877 ; while the degree of D.Sc. was 
conferred upon him in 1879 by the Queen's 
University of Ireland. He was president of 
the chemistry section of the British Asso- 
ciation at Belfast in 1852, and again at 



Edinburgh in 1871, and was president of the 
association at Glasgow in 1876. In 1880 he 
declined an offer of knighthood. His con- 
nection with Queen's College was comme- 
morated by the establishment after his death 
of an Andrews studentship, and his portrait 
was placed in the examination hall of the 
college. 

Andrews published no less than fifty-one 
scientific papers, the list of which is to be 
found in the ' Royal Society's Catalogue.' 
His most important researches were those 
dealing with heat of combination, ozone, and 
the continuity of the gaseous and liquid 
states of matter. 

The researches on heat of combination, 
carried out from 1841 to 1869, dealt with a 
great variety of chemical reactions and ex- 
hibited a degree of precision far in advance 
of that of previous workers in the same 
field, this being largely due to his improved 
experimental methods. The experiments on 
ozone, which were partly carried out in 
conjunction with P. G. Tait, finally esta- 
blished the fact that this substance, which 
was discovered by Schonbein in 1840, is 
simply an allotropic form of oxygen, and is 
a perfectly definite substance, which can be 
prepared in a number of different ways. 
This work moreover laid the basis for future 
researches by which the exact relation of 
this remarkable gas to the simpler oxygen 
was finally ascertained. 

By far the most brilliant and far-reaching 
of Andrews's discoveries, however, was that 
of the existence of a critical temperature, 
above which a gas cannot be converted into 
a liquid by pressure, however great. The 
records of the behaviour of carbonic acid gas 
under varying temperatures and pressures, 
which were made by Andrews, have become 
classical, and have served as the foundation 
of all the more recent work on the relations 
of the gaseous and liquid states of matter. 
These researches moreover pointed out the 
fundamental condition for the liquefaction 
of all gases. This cannot be accomplished 
unless the temperature of the gas is below 
the critical temperature, and it is by the re- 
cognition of this fact that later experi- 
menters have been able to bring about the 
reduction to the liquid state of all known 
gases, a work which has only recently been 
completed by the liquefaction of hydrogen, 

Andrews is described by his biographers 
as personally a man of simple unpretending 
manner, thoroughly trustworthy and warm- 
hearted. In his laboratory he was distin- 
guished by great manipulative dexterity. He 
took a great interest in social questions, as is 
evidenced by a paper upon the temperance 



Angas 



51 



Anning 



question contributed to the social science 
congress in 1867. Another evidence of the 
same feeling was his devoted and energetic 
exertions on behalf of the poor during the 
Irish famine of 1847. In addition to his 
scientific papers and addresses Andrews pub- 
lished two pamphlets : ' Studium Generale * 
(1867), which contains a strong argument 
against a proposal to sever the teaching 
from the examining university in Ireland ; 
and 'The Church in Ireland' (1869), a plea 
in favour of the proposed disestablishment of 
the church of Ireland and the equitable dis- 
tribution for spiritual purposes of the church 
property among the whole population of the 
island. 

[The Scientific Papers of the late Thomas An- 
drews, -with a Memoir by P. G-. Tait and A. 
Crura Brown (1889); Eoscoe and Schorlemmer's 
Treatise on Chemistry, vol. i. ; Eoseiiberg's Ge- 
schichte der Physik ; Kopp's Die Entwicke- 
lung der Chemie in der neueren Zeit.] 

A. H-K. 
ANGAS, GEORGE FRENCH (1822- 
1886), artist and zoologist, born on 25 April 
1822 in the county of Durham, was the 
eldest son of George Fife Angas [q. v.], by 
his wife, Rosetta French (d. 11 Jan. 1867). 
Some years after his birth his family re- 
moved to Dawlish in Devonshire, where he 
first collected seaside specimens and ac- 
quired a taste for conchology. He was 
educated at Tavistock, and placed by his 
father in business in London. Disliking 
commercial pursuits, he resolved to travel 
and turn to account his natural taste for 
drawing. After visiting Malta and wander- 
ing through Sicily in the autumn of 1841, 
he published a description of his journey in 
1842, dedicated to Queen Adelaide, and en- 
titled ' A Ramble in Malta and Sicily ' 
(London, 4to). The book was illustrated 
from his own sketches. 

To perfect himself as a draughtsman, in 
1842, he studied anatomical drawing in Lon- 
don, and also learned the art of lithography. 
In September 1843 he went to South Aus- 
tralia, a colony of which his father was one 
of the founders. There he joined several 
of (Sir) George Grey's expeditions, and made 
sketches in water colours of the scenery, 
aborigines, and natural history of South 
Australia. Proceeding to New Zealand, he 
travelled over eight hundred miles on foot 
in the wildest regions, and made sketches 
of the country as he journeyed. Returning 
to England, he published his sketches in 
1849 in two imperial folio volumes, entitled 
' South Australia Illustrated' and ' The New 
Zealanders Illustrated,' and also wrote an 
account of his travels under the title ' Savage 



Life in Australia and New Zealand ' (Lon- 
don, 1847, 2 vols. 12mo). He next spent 
two years in South Africa, and published 
the result of his labours in 1849 in another 
imperial folio work, ' The Kaffirs Illus- 
trated.' Several of the original drawings 
have been purchased for the print-room of 
the British Museum. 

Soon afterwards Angas was appointed 
naturalist to the Turko-Persian boundary 
commission, but after reaching Turkey he 
was invalided home. In 1 849 he returned 
to South Australia. AVhen the ' gold fever ' 
broke out in the following year, he accom- 
panied one of the first parties to the Ophir 
diggings, and made many sketches, pub- 
lished in London as ' Views of the Gold 
Regions of Australia' (London, 1851, fol.) 
After visiting other diggings, he settled at 
Sydney, where he obtained the post of director 
and secretary of the government museum. 
This appointment he held for more than 
seven years, returning to South Australia 
on his retirement. Three years later he 
went home to England with his wife and 
family. In his later years he wrote tales of 
adventure and travel for various journals, 
besides a long series of articles on ' Commer- 
cial Natural History,' which appeared in the 
' Colonies and India.' On 3 May 1866 he 
was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society. 
He was also a fellow of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society and of the Zoological Society. 
He died on 8 Oct. 1886. In 1849 he mar- 
ried Alicia Mary Moran, by whom he had 
four daughters. 

Besides the works already mentioned he 
published: 1. 'Polynesia; a Popular De- 
scription ... of the Islands of the Pacific,' 
London, 1866, 8vo. 2. ' The Wreck of the 
Admella, and other Poems,' London, 1874, 
8vo. He illustrated Agricola's 'Descrip- 
tion of the Barossa Range ' (1849), John 
McDouall Stuart's 'Explorations in Aus- 
tralia' (1864), and John Forrest's ' Explora- 
tions in Australia' (1875). He also con- 
tributed a number of papers on mollusca and 
on several Australian mammalia to the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society.' 

[Proceedings of the Linnean Society of Lon- 
don, Julv 1887, pp. 33-4; Hodder's George 
Fife Angas, 1891, pp. 286, 293; Burke's Colo- 
nial Gentry, ii. 649 ; Eoyal Soc. Cat. Scientific 
Papers.] E. I. C. 

ANNING, MARY (1799-1847), dis- 
coverer of the ichthyosaurus, daughter of 
Richard Anning, a carpenter and vendor of 
natural curiosities at Lyme Regis, was born 
in that town in May 1799. On 19 Aug. 
1800 she narrowly escaped death by light- 

b2 



Ansdell 



52 



Ansdell 



ning. She is presumed to have had some 
rudimentary education at the parish school, 
and seems to have learnt from her father 
how to collect fossils, a pursuit she began to 
turn to good account after his death in 1810, 
earning a livelihood thereby. 

It was in 1811 that Mary Anning made 
the discovery to which she owes her fame. 
She noticed some bones projecting from the 
face of a clift' near Lyme, traced the position 
of the skeleton with a hammer, and then 
hired men to dig out the lias block in which 
it was embedded. The skeleton, thirty feet 
long, is now in the British Museum ; its 
discovery created a sensation among geolo- 
gists, and a long controversy took place before 
the name Ichthyosaurus was agreed upon, 
and its position in natural history deter- 
mined. This discovery Mary Anning fol- 
lowed up by finding the first specimen of 
Plesiosaurus, and in 1828 of Pterodactylus 
(WooDWAKD, Geology, 1887, p. 262 ; Owen, 
Paleeontology, pp. 220 sqq. ; Nicholson and 
Ltdekker, Pa/«ow^o/o^y, ii. 1124). Owing 
to her skill and care many fine examples ot 
Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri were discovered 
and preserved. She also discovered the pens 
and ink sacs of fossil Loligo. Among those 
whose studies she assisted, and whose col- 
lections she enriched, were Sir E. Home, Dr. 
W. Buckland, the Kev. W. D. Conybeare, 
Sir H. de la Beche, Colonel Birch, Lord 
Enniskillen, and Sir P. Egerton. A small 
government grant was obtained for her from 
Lord Melbourne, and this, supplemented from 
other sources, procured her a small annuity. 
She died from cancer in the breast on 
9 March 1847, and was buried at Lyme, in 
the church of which the Geological Society 
fifteen years afterwards placed a memorial 
window to her. The local guide book re- 
marked that ' her death was ^in a pecuniary 
sense a great loss to the place, as her 
presence attracted a large number of distin- 
guished visitors' {Beauties of Lyme Regis). 
Among them was the king of Saxony, of 
whose visit an account is given by Carl 
Gustav Car us in his * England und Schott- 
land im Jahre 1844,' Berlin, 1845. 

A posthumous portrait in pastel, executed 
in 1850 by B. J. M. Donne, hangs in the 
apartments of the Geological Society at Bur- 
lington House. 

[Quarterly Journal Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. xxiv; 
Eoberts's Hist, of Lyme Eegis, 1834, p. 284; 
All the Year Round, xiii. 60-3 ; private infor- 
mation.] B. B. W. 

ANSDELL, RICHARD (1815-1885), 
animal painter, a native of Liverpool, was 
born on 11 May 1815, and baptised at St. 



Peter's Church in that city. His grand- 
father had salt works in the neighbourhood 
of Northwich. He was educated at the 
Bluecoat school, Liverpool, and, although 
attracted by art in youth, did not devote 
himself to it with a view to making it his 
profession till he was twenty-one. While 
in Liverpool he studied animal life in the 
country-side. His first appearance in Lon- 
don was in 1840, when two of his pictures, 
'Grouse Shooting' and 'Galloway Farm,' 
were exhibited at the Royal Academy. 
There followed in 1842 an important his- 
torical picture, ' The Death of Sir William 
Lambton ;' but here, as in most of his pic- 
tures, the subject is not the main thing, and 
was selected for representation because the 
scene was on Marston Moor, and the agonies 
of a wounded horse could be well portrayed 
there. His paintings from this time forward 
were very numerous. His success made it 
possible for him to travel, and between 1857 
and 1860 his subjects were found in Spain. 
His earlier paintings show traces of Land- 
seer's influence, and there are works of that 
period produced by Ansdell and Creswick 
together, the latter supplying'_the landscape, 
in which be excelled. His other collabo- 
rators were Mr. W. P. Frith, with whom he 
painted * The Keeper's Daughter,' and John 
Phillip, who helped with the Spanish pic- 
tures. 

Ansdell was honoured no less than three 
times with the Haywood medal, a gift 
awarded to the best pictures shown at the 
exhibitions in Manchester. In 1855 he re- 
ceived a gold medal at the Great Exhibition 
in Paris, the pictures which won it being 
' The Wolf Slayer ' and ' Taming the Drove.' 
He was elected A.R. A, in 1861, and R.A. in 
1870. He exhibited in London galleries, 
mostly at the Royal Academy, as many as 
181 works. The average price of his pic- 
tures between 1861 and 1884 was as nearly 
as possible 750/. A view of St. Michael's 
Mount, Cornwall, was purchased by Baron 
Albert Grant, and realised, at the baron's 
sale in April 1877, 1,410/. 10s. 

In the print room of the British Museum 
are a few indifferent etchings by Ansdell. 
Engravings after his works are numerous 
enough to prove that copies of his works are 
much in request. 

In his later years Ansdell lived at Lytham 
House, Kensington, whence he removed to 
Collingwood Tower, Farnborough. There 
he died on 20 April 1885. He was buried 
at Brookwood cemetery on the 23rd. He 
married in St. Peter's Church, Liverpool, on 
14 June 1841, Maria Romer, also of Liver- 
pool. There were eleven children of the 



Apperley 



53 



Apperley 



marriage, and six sons and two daughters 
survived the artist. 

[Sanders's Celebrities of the Century ; Cyclo- 
paedia of Painters and Paintings, 1886 ; Painters 
and their Works, 1896; Diet, of British Artists, 
1895; W. P. Frith's Autobiography (1889); 
Times, 21, 22, 2-1 April 1885; Liverpool Daily 
Post, 21 April 1885 ; Art Journal, 1860 ; private 
information.] E. E. 

APPERLEY, CHARLES JAMES 

(1779-1843), sporting writer, known as 
* Nimrod,' second son of Thomas Apperley, 
of an old Herefordshire family, was born at 
Plasgronow, Denbighshire, in 1778. In 
1790 he was entered at Rugby, then under 
the mastership of Dr. James, and the home, 
according to ' Nimrod,' of much indiscipline 
and hard drinking. In 1798, on leaving 
Rugby, he was gazetted a cornet in Sir 
Watkin Wynn's ancient light British dra- 
goons, a regiment of fencible cavalry, with 
which he served in the suppression of the 
Irish rebellion. Returning to England in 
1801, when the Denbighshire yeomanry was 
disbanded, he married Winifred, daughter of 
"William Wynn of Peniarth in Merioneth- 
shire, and settled at Hinkley in Leicester- 
shire. In 1804 he moved to Bilton Hall, 
near Rugby, once the pi'operty of Joseph 
Addison. There he hunted with the Quorn, 
the Pytchley, and the Warwickshire hounds. 
Unlike many sporting writers, he himself 
was a splendid rider, a good judge of horse- 
flesh and hounds, and indeed a good all- 
round sportsman. From Bilton he moved 1 
in 1809 to Bitterly Court in Shropshire, and 
accepted a commission as captain in the 
Nottinghamshire militia, known as the Sher- 
wood Foresters. Subsequently he moved I 
to Brewood in Staffordshire, and then to 
Beaurepaire House in Hampshire, where 
experiments in farming ran away with his 
capital. Meantime he had found a source 
of revenue in the publication of his varied 
sporting reminiscences, especially in the 
hunting held. On the ground that no 
'gentleman' ever wrote for a sporting paper, 
he first planned a book on hunting, but he 
was eventually persuaded to offer his ser- 
vices to Pittman, the editor of the 'Sport- 
ing Magazine,' in which his first paper on 
* Foxhunting in Leicestershire ' appeared in 
January 1822. The paper provided him with 
a liberal salary and a stud of hunters, in re- 
turn for which he soon trebled the circula- 
tion. Unhappily in 1830 the ' Sporting Maga- 
zine ' got into difficulties (consequent upon 
the death of its able editor), and, his private 
finances having become involved, Apperley 
had to retire to Calais. During his stay in 



France he became a regular member of the 
staff of the ' Sporting Review.' He began a 
series of volumes of sporting memoirs and 
reminiscences, and in 1835, at the earnest 
request of Lockhart, he published in the 
' Quarterly Review ' his three famous articles 
(which were at first attributed to Lord Al- 
vanley) on ' Melton Mowbray,' ' The Road,' 
and ' The Turf.' A sportsman, who was also 
a wit and something of a scholar, 'Nimrod' 
I had well-nigh a virgin field. As regards 
the archaeology of his subject, his volumes 
rank with those of Pierce Egan and the 
I ' Druid ' [see Dixon, Henky Hall, Suppl.], 
1 while, owing to the excellence of the plates 
by Aiken, they are highly esteemed by col- 
lectors of choice books. 'Nimrod' returned 
to England in 1842, and died in Upper Bel- 
; grave Place, Pimlico, on 19 May 1843. 

He was on friendly and, as a sportsman, 

I on equal terms with many distinguished 

^ racing men and Meltonians. He was intimate 

with Henry Aiken and with George Tatter- 

' sail (' Wildrake'), and helped to introduce 

the work of Surtees to popular appreciation. 

An excellent outline sketch of Nimrod was 

included in Maclise's ' Portrait Gallery.' 

Of Apperley's numerous children the 
second son, William Wynne Apperley, was 
entered as a cornet of Bengal cavalry in 1823, 
became superintendent of the central divi- 
sion of the stud department in Bengal, was 
promoted major in the 3rd European light 
cavalry in 1854, was remount agent at the 
Cape of Good Hope 1857-60, and died at 
Morben, near Machynlleth, Montgomery- 
shire, on 25 April 1872, aged 62. Nearly 
all 'Nimrod's' children and grandchildren 
are stated to have inherited his strong sport- 
ing proclivities. 

The following are ' Nimrod's' publications : 
1. 'Remarks on the Condition of Hunters, 
the Choice of Horses, and their Manage- 
ment,' London, 1831, 8vo ; reprinted from 
' Sporting Magazine ; 4th ed. 1855. 2. ' Nim- 
rod's Hunting Tours, interspersed with Cha- 
racteristic Anecdotes, Sayings, and Doings 
of Sporting Men ... to which are added 
Nimrod's Letters on Riding to Hounds,' Lon- 
don, 1835, 8vo (the original appeared as 
' Letters on Hunting ' in the ' Sporting 
Magazine ' ). 3. ' The Chace, the Turf, and 
the Road. By Nimrod,' London, 1837, 8vo, 
with portrait by Maclise, and thirteen full 
plates (uncoloured) by H. Aiken (a reissue 
in a slightly altered form of the three ' Quar- 
terly ' articles mentioned above) ; reissued 
1843,1852,1870, and 1898. 4. ' Memoirs of the 
Life of the late John Mytton, Esq., of Hals- 
ton, Shropshire,' 1837, 8vo, with eighteen 
coloured plates by Aiken and Rawlins ; re- 



Arbuthnot 



54 



Archbold 



issued 1837, 1869, 1851, 1892. 5. 'Sport- 
ing . . . illustrative of British Field Sports 
(•with engravings and vignettes after Gains- 
borough, Landseer, and other artists) . . . 
edited by Nimrod,' 1838, 4to. 6, ' Nimrod's 
Northern Tour, descriptive of the principal 
Hunts in Scotland and the North of Eng- 
land/ 1838, 8vo (a sequel to No. 2). 7.'Nim- 
rod Abroad,' London, 1842, 2 vols. 8vo. 
8. ' The Horse and the Hound : their various 
Uses and Treatment,' Edinburgh, 1842, 8vo; 
reissued 1858. 9. ' The Life of a Sportsman,' 
1842, 8vo, with thirty-six coloured plates by 
Aiken ; a reissue appeared in 1874 with the 
plates ; the original edition is scarce. 
10. ' Hunting Reminiscences ; comprising 
Memoirs of Masters of Hounds, Notices of 
the Crack Riders,' London, 1843, 8vo, with 
thirty-two plates by ' Wildrake,' Aiken, and 
Henderson. 

[Gent. Mag. 1843, ii. 103; Sporting Times, 
5 Sept. 1885; Baily's Magazine, 1870, i. 253; 
Fraser's Magazine, 1843, vol. ii.; Maclise's Por- 
trait Gallery, ed. Bates ; Malet's Annals of the 
Eoad, 1876, pp. 177 sq. ; Thormanby's Kings of 
the Hunting Field ; Lawley's Life of The Druid 
[H.H.Dixon]; Slater's Early Editions, 1894, 
p. 214; Halkett and Laing's Diet, cf Anon, and 
Pseudon. Lit.] " T. S. 

ARBUTHNOT, SiK CHARLES 
GEORGE (1824-1899), general, born on 
19 May 1824, was fourth son of Alexander 
Arbuthnot, bishop of Killaloe, by Margaret 
Phoebe, daughter of George Bingham. He 
was a younger brother of Sir Alexander 
John Arbuthnot, K.C.S.I. He was educated 
at Rugby, and in spite of his small size dis- 
tinguished himself at football there. After 
passing through the Royal Military Academy 
he was commissioned as second lieutenant 
in the royal artillery on 17 June 1843. 
He was promoted lieutenant on 4 Feb. 1846, 
second captain on 4 April 1851, and first 
captain on 8 March 1855. In May he 
landed in the Crimea, and served during the 
remainder of the siege of Sebastopol. He 
was conspicuous for coolness and daring, and 
was twice wounded. He was mentioned in 
despatches (^London Gazette, 2 Nov. 1855), 
and was given a brevet majority. He also 
received the medal with clasp, the Turkish 
medal, and the Medjidie (5th class). 

He commanded K troop of horse artillery 
from 1857 to 1864, when he became regi- 
mental lieutenant-colonel (19 Dec.) He 
went to India in 1868, where he commanded 
A brigade of horse artillery till 1872, and 
was deputy adjutant-general of artillery 
from 1873 to 1877. From 1 Oct. 1877 to 
31 July 1880 he was inspector-general of 
artillery in India, except while actively em- 



ployed in the Afghan campaigns. In the 
first Afghan campaign he had command of 
the artillery in the Kandahar field force, 
with the rank of brigadier-general ; in the 
second he commanded the second brigade 
of the Khyber division, under Sir Robert 
Bright. He was mentioned in despatches 
{ib. 4 May 1880), received the medal, and 
was made K.O.B. on 24 May 1881, having 
already obtained the C.B. on 20 May 1871. 
He had become regimental colonel on 1 July 
1874, and was promoted major-general on 
16 July 1881. On his return to England in 
1880, he Avas deputy adjutant-general of 
artillery at headquarters from 1 Sept, 1880 
to 31 Aug. 1883, during which time the 
territorial system was first applied to the 
regiment. His firmness and strict sense of 
justice made him an excellent administrator, 
lie was then made inspector-general of artil- 
lery, and on 1 May 1885 he became presi- 
dent of the ordnance committee, receiving at 
the same time a distinguished service pen- 
sion. He returned to India in 1886, being 
appointed to the command of the Bombay 
army on 16 Feb., and transferred to Madras 
on 9 Dec. He succeeded Lord Roberts in 
Burma in 1887, and completed the pacifi- 
cation of that country. His services were 
acknowledged by the Indian government {ib. 
2 Sept. 1887), and he received the medal 
with clasp. 

He became lieutenant-general on 1 April 
1886, and general on 31 July 1890. His 
command of the Madras army came to an 
end on 19 May 1891, when he was placed 
on the retired list. Finally settling in Eng- 
land, he became colonel commandant on 
13 Aug. 1893, and received the G.C.B. on 
26 May 1894. He died at Richmond, Surrey, 
on 14 April 1899. In 1868 he had married 
Caroline Charlotte, daughter of William 
Clarke, M.D., of IBarhados; she survived 
him. 

[Proc. of Royal Artillery Institution, vol. 
xxvi.; Times, 18 April 1899.] E. M. L. 

ARCHBOLD, JOHN FREDERICK 
(1785-1870), legal writer, born in 1785, was 
the second son of John Archbold of co. 
Dublin. He was admitted a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 3 May 1809, and was called 
to the bar on 5 May 1814. From the be- 
ginning of his legal career Archbold devoted 
himself to compiling legal treatises. In 
1811 he brought out an annotated edition 
of Blackstone's 'Commentaries' (London, 
4 vols. 8vo), with an analysis and an epi- 
tome of the work. In 1813 he issued the 
first volume of * A Digest of the Pleas of 
the Crown ' (London, 8vo), a compilation of 



Archbold 



55 



Archbold 



all the statutes, adjudged cases, and other 
authorities upon the subject. This was one 
of three volumes of * A Digest of Criminal 
Law,' which Archbold had prepared for the 
press, hut as several books on the subject 
appeared about the same time he did not 
issue the other two volumes. 

In 1819 he published the first edition of 
what was perhaps his most notable work, 
* The Practice of the Court of King's Bench 
in Personal Actions and Ejectments' (Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 12mo). Previous to its appear- 
ance, * The Practice of the Court of King's 
Bench in Personal Actions,' by William 
Tidd [q. v.], was the leading work on the 
subject ; but, while it maintained its place in 
the United States, it was largely superseded 
in England by Archbold's book, which was 
more explicit in regard to forms of pro- 
cedure. Archbold's ' Practice ' went through 
fourteen editions. The third edition was 
edited by Thomas Chitty [q. v.], who added 
to it the ' Practice of the Courts of Common 
Pleas and Exchequer,' and the ninth edition, 
which appeared in 1855-6, was edited by 
Samuel Prentice. The fourteenth edition, 
published in 1885, was revised by Thomas 
.Willes Chitty and John William St. Law- 
rance Leslie. 

About 1824 Archbold published his * Sum- 
mary of the Law relative to Pleading and 
Evidence in Criminal Cases,' in which he 
incorporated the greater part of the two un- 
published volumes of his ' Digest of Criminal 
Law.' The fourth (1831) and four suc- 
ceeding editions were edited by (Sir) John 
Jervis [q.v.], the tenth (1846) to the fifteenth 
(1862) by William Newland Welsby [q. v.], 
and the sixteenth (1867) to the twentv-first 
(1893) by William Bruce. The twenty- 
second edition, by William Feilden Craies 
and Guy Stephenson, appeared in 1900. The 
work has also gone through several editions 
in the United States. 

In 1829 Archbold published a work upon 
the ' Practice of the Court of Common Pleas.' 
Afterwards the practice of all the courts of 
common law at Westminster was assimi- 
lated, and much altered by the statutes and 
new rules on the subject between 1831 and 1 
1884. To meet the altered conditions he i 
prepared his ' New Practice of Attornies in 
the Courts of Law at Westminster,' which 
appeared in 1838, was remodelled in 1844, 
and reached a third edition in 1846-7 (Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 8vo). On the passage of tlie 
Common Law Procedure Act in 1862 he 
prepared ' The New Rules of Practice in the 
Courts of Law' (London, 1853, 8vo), and 
' The New Practice, Pleadings, and Evidence 
in the Courts of Common Law at Westmin- 



ster' (London, 1853, 12mo), which received 
a supplement in 1854, and attained a second 
edition in 1855 (London, 8vo). 

Archbold's treatises on parish law were 
among his most important elucidations of 
English law. In 1828 he published ' The 
Law relative to Commitments and Convic- 
tions by Justices of the Peace' (London, 
12mo). This was the foundation of his ' Jus- 
tice of the Peace and Parish Officer ' (Lon- 
don, 1840, 3 vols. 12mo), a work intended 
as a practical guide for county magistrates. 
The similar treatise by Richard Burn [q. v.] 
had become, through the additions of suc- 
cessive editors, rather a work of reference 
for lawyers than a guide for magistrates. A 
seventh edition of Archbold's work by James 
Paterson appeared in 1876 (London, 2 vols. 
8vo). The third volume of the original edi- 
tion, which dealt with * The Poor Law,' was 
in especial demand, and developed into a 
separate treatise, which has remained a stan- 
dard authority on the subject ; the twelfth 
(1873), thirteenth (1878), and fourteenth 
(1885) editions of the volume on ' The Poor 
Law ' were prepared by William Cunning- 
ham Glen, and the fifteenth (1898) by James 
Brooke Little. Archbold's latest contribu- 
tion to parish law was ' The Parish Officer ' 
(London, 1852, 12mo); a second edition by 
Glen appeared in 1855. With the fourth 
edition (1864) the editor, James Paterson, in- 
corporated Shaw's * Parish Law ' [see Shaw, 
Joseph]. The eighth edition, by John Theo- 
dore Dodd, appeared in 1895. 

Archbold died on 28 Nov. 1870, at 
15 Gloucester Street, Regent's Park, Lon- 
don. He is said to have been known as 
' pretty Archbold ' (cf. An Appeal to the 
People of the United Kinffdom of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland from James W/iarton,YoTk, 
1836). Besides the works already mentioned, 
he was the author of: 1. 'A Digest of the 
Law relative to Pleading and Evidence in 
Actions, Real, Personal, and Mixed,' Lon- 
don, 1821, 12mo; 2nd edit. 1837. 2. ' The 
Law and Practice in Bankruptcy,' 2nd edit, 
by John Flather, London, 1827, 12mo; 11th 
edit, by Flather, 1866. 3. ' The Jurisdiction 
and Practice of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions,' London, 1836, 12mo; 3rd edit, by 
Conway Whithorne Lovesy, 1869; 4th edit, 
by Frederick Mead and Herbert Stephen 
Croft, 1886, 8vo; 5th edit, by Sir George 
Sherston Baker, 1898, 8vo. 4. ' The Law of 
Nisi Prius,' London, 1843-5, 2 vols. 8vo; 
vol. i. 2nd edit. 1845, 12mo ; 3rd American 
edition by John K. Find! ay, 1853. 5. ' The 
Practice of the Crown Office of the Court of 
Queen's Bench,' London, 1844, 12mo. 6. 'The 
Law of Landlord and Tenant,' London, 1846, 



Archdale 



56 



Archdale 



12mo ; 3rd edit. 1864. 7. ' The Law rela- 
tive to Examinations and Grounds of Ap- 
peal in Cases of Orders of Removal,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 12mo ; 2nd edit. 1858. 8. 'The 
Practice of the New County Courts,' London, 
1847, 12mo ; 9th edit, by John Vesey Vesey 
Fitzgerald, 1885, 8vo ; 10th edit, by Charles 
Arnold White, 1889. 9. 'A Summary of 
the Laws of England in four Volumes,' 
London, 1848-9, 12mo ; only vols. i. and ii. 
appeared. 10. ' The Law relative to Pauper 
Lunatics,' London, 1851, 12mo ; afterwards 
included in his ' Poor Law.' 11. ' The New 
Rules and Forms regulating the present 
Practice and Proceedings of the County 
Courts,' London, 1851, 12mo. 12. « The 
New Statutes relating to Lunacy,' London, 
1854, 12mo; 2nd edit, by W. C. Glen and 
Alexander Glen, 1877, 8vo ; 4th edit, by 
Sydney George Lushington, 1895. 13. "'The 
Law of Limited Liability, Partnership, and 
Joint Stock Companies,' London, 1855, 
12mo; 3rd edit. 1857. 14. 'The Law and 
Practice of Arbitration and Award,' Lon- 
don, 1861, 12mo. 15. 'The Law of Bank- 
ruptcy and Insolvency as founded on the 
recent Statute,' London, 1861, 12mo; 2nd 
edit. 1861. Archbold also edited annotated 
editions of numerous acts of parliament. 

[Boase's Modern English Biography ; Lin- 
coln's Inn Records, 1896, ii. 35; AUibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit.; Marvin's Legal Biblio- 
graphy.] E. I. C. 

ARCHDALE, JOHN (/. 1664-1707), 
governor of North Carolina, was son of 
Thomas Archdale, and grandson of Richai'd 
Archdale, a London merchant, who in 1628 
acquired the manors of Temple Wycombe 
and Iioakes in Buckinghamshire ( Visit. Lon- 
don, i. 24 ; Lipscomb, Buckinghamshire, iii. 
640). Several members of the family were 
educated at Wadham College, Oxford, but 
John does not appear to have been at any 
university. His eldest sister had married 
Ferdinando Gorges, grandson of Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges [q. v.], and in the autumn 
of 1664 Archdale accompanied his brother- 
in-law to New England to make good the 
latter's claim to the governorship of Maine 
(Ca/. State Papers, Amer. and West Indies, 
1661-8, Nos. 868, 921, 1549). He carried 
with him a letter from Charles II, requiring 
the administrators to hand over to Archdale 
the government or to show cause to the con- 
trary. Archdale's request was refused, and 
lie appealed to the commissioners, by whose 
intervention Gorges seems eventually to have 
made good his claim (cf. ib. 1669-74, Nos. 
150, 750). Early in 1674 Archdale returned 
to Englandjbringing with him Gorges's report 



on Maine, which he presented to the council. 
In England he openly identified himself with 
the newly formed body of quakers. 

In 1686 Archdale visited North Carolina, 
and a letter written by him to George Fox 
from Carolina in March is printed in Hawks's 
•History of North Carolina.' In 1687-8 
he was acting as commissioner for Gorges 
in the government of Maine. He had be- 
come one of the proprietors of North Caro- 
lina, and in 1695 he was appointed governor 
of that colony. His administration is said 
to have been singularly successful. 'He 
improved the military system, opened friendly 
communications with the Indians and 
Spaniards, discouraged the inhumanities of 
the former so efl'ectually as to induce them 
to renounce the practice of plundering ship- 
wrecked vessels and murdering their crews ; 
and combined with singular felicity the firm 
requisites of the governor with the gentle 
and simple benevolence of the quaker ' 
(W. G. SiMMS, South Carolina, p. 72). His 
quaker proclivities induced him to exempt 
Friends from service in the colonial militia. 
He also introduced the culture of rice into 
the colony, and on relinquishing the govern- 
ment in 1697 he received the thanks of the 
colony for his services — a recognition that 
had not been accorded to any previous 
governor. 

Soon after his return to England Arch- 
dale was, on 21 July 1698, elected member 
of parliament for Chipping Wycombe, Buck- 
inghamshire. He had allowed himself to 
be nominated ' without his own seeking ' by 
the church party in opposition to the Mar- 
quis of Wharton's nominee {Off. Return, i. 
579; LuTTKELL, Brief Relation, pp. 467, 
469 ; Macatjlay, ii. 692), and his election 
was a blow to the junto. But on 7 Jan. 
1698-9, having ' had the advice of lawyers 
that his affirmation would stand good instead 
of an oath,' he refused to swear. After a 
debate the House of Commons decided 
against him, a fresh writ was issued, and on 
21 Jan. a Thomas Archdale (possibly his 
son; cf. Gardiner, Reg. of Wadham, i. 
374) was elected in his place. 

Archdale took no further part in politics, 
but in 1707 he published his ' New Descrip- 
tion of that fertile and pleasant Province of 
Carolina . . . with several remarkable pas- 
sages of Divine Providence during my time ' 
(London, 4to). It was reprinted at Charles- 
ton in 1822 from a copy in Charleston 
Library, ' supposed to be the only copy 
extant,' but there is another in the British 
Museum Library. It is also reprinted in 
R. R. Carroll's ' Historical Collections on 
Carolina,' New York, 1836. 



Archer 



57 



Archer 



[Archdale's New Description, 1707; Cal- 
State Papers, Amer. and West Indies ; Smith's 
Cat. Friends' Books, p. 123; Hewatt's South 
Carolina ; Holmes's American Annals ; Ban- 
croft's History of the United States; Hutchin- 
son's Collection of Papers, pp. 385-8 ; Commons' 
Journals ; Mr. John Ward Dean in Notes and 
Queries, 4thser. vi. 382; Appleton's Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography.] A. F. P. 

ARCHER, FREDERICK (1857-1886), 
jockey, born at St. George's Cottage, Chelten- 
ham, on 11 Jan. 1857, was the second son of 
William Archer, a jockey of the old school, 
who took over a stud of English horses to 
Russia in 1842, who won the Grand National 
at Liverpool on Little Charlie in 1858, and 
who eventually became landlord of the 
King's Arms at Prestbury, near Cheltenham. 
His mother was Emma, daughter of William 
Hayward, a former proprietor of the King's 
Arms. On 10 Jan. 1867 ' Billy ' Archer ap- 
prenticed his son ' Fred,' a quick, retentive, 
and exceedingly secretive boy, for five years 
to Matthew Dawson [q.v. Suppl.], the trainer 
at Newmarket. As * Billy ' Archer's son he 
was soon given an opportunity of showing his 
mettle, and on 28 Sept. 1870 at Chesterfield, 
upon Atholl Daisy, he won his first victory on 
the turf. Two years later, scaling at that time 
5st 71b, he won the Cesarewitch on Salvanoe, 
and in 1874, in which year the death of Tom 
French made a clear vacancy for a jockey of 
the first order, he won a success upon Lord 
Falmouth's Atlantic in the Two Thousand 
Guineas which proved of the greatest value 
to his career. Thenceforth he became ' a 
veritable mascotte ' of the racing stable 
with which he was connected. In 1874, 
with 530 mounts, he scored 147 wins. In 
1877 he won his first Derby, and also the 
St. Leger, upon Lord Falmouth's Silvio. In 
1884, with 377 mounts, he secured no less 
than 241 wins. His most successful year 
was probably 1885, when he won the Two 
Thousand Guineas on Paradox, the Oaks on 
Lonely, the Derby and St. Leger on Melton, 
and the Grand Prix on Paradox. In his 
last season he won the Derby and St. Leger 
on Ormonde. In all he is said to have worn 
silk 8,084 times, and to have ridden 2,748 
winners. His most exciting victory was 
perhaps the Derby of 1880, when he came 
up from the rear upon Bend Or with an ex- 
traordinary rush, beating Robert the Devil 
by a head. His nerve was of iron, and he 
never hesitated to take the inside of the 
turn and hug the rails at Tattenham Corner. 
The success which enabled him to remain 
premier jockey for the unprecedented period 
of ten years is attributed primarily to his 
coolness and to his judgment of pace. 



For keeping down his racing weight 
(8st 101b in his later years), Turkish baths, 
almost total abstinence from solid food, and 
frequent alkaline medicines were his chief 
resources. In October 1886, with stern de- 
termination, he resolved to waste himself 
down to 8st 71b for the Cambridgeshire. 
He achieved his purpose, but the eftbrt cost 
him his life. lie fell seriously ill, and, in 
the depressed state occasioned by fever con- 
sequent upon long starvation, shot himself 
with a revolver in the afternoon of 8 Nov. 
1886 at his residence, Falmouth House, 
Newmarket. He was buried in Newmarket 
cemetery on 12 Nov., and among the ad- 
mirers who sent wreaths were the Duke of 
Westminster and the Prince of Wales. 

He married on 31 Jan. 1883 Rose Nellie 
{d. 1884), eldest daughter of John Dawson 
of Warren House, Newmarket, by whom he 
left a daughter. By means of retainers, 
fees, and presents he is said to have gained 
over 60,000/. in his professional capacity, and 
he left a considerable fortune. 

[Times, 9, 12, and 13 Nov. 1886; Field, 
13 Nov. 1886 ; Daily Telegraph, 12 Nov. 1886 ; 
Annual Register, 1886, p. 16.5 ; The Archers 
(biographical sketches of AVilliam and Fred. 
Archer), by A Cheltonian, 1885; Chetwynd's 
Racing Reminiscences, 1891 ; Porter's Kingsclere, 
1896, p. 330; Sporting and Dramatic News, 
13 Nov. 1886, portrait.] T. S. 

ARCHER, WILLIAM (1830-1897), 
naturalist and librarian, was the eldest son of 
the Rev. Richard Archer, vicar of Clonduft', 
CO. Down, a member of a family long settled 
in CO. Wexford, and of Jane Matilda, daughter 
of Watkins William Verling of Dublin, his 
wife. Archer was born at Magherahamlet, 
CO. Down, of which place his father was then 
perpetual curate, on 6 May 1830. His father 
died in 1848, leaving a young family in 
straitened circumstances. About 1846 Archer 
came toDublin, Avhere he resided thenceforth, 
and devoted his leisure to the study of 
natural history, for which he had from the 
first evinced a remarkable talent. His special 
gifts in this direction were first shown at 
the meetings of the Dublin Microscopical 
Club, founded in 1857, of which he was for 
many years secretary, and among whose 
members he quickly became notable through 
his investigations in connection with minute 
forms of vegetable and animal life. His 
contributions as a member of this club be- 
tween 1864 and 1879 were published in the 
'Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science,' 
and in the ' Proceedings of the Dublin 
Microscopical Club.' He was also an active 
contributor to the 'Proceedings' of the 



Archer 



s8 



Archibald 



Dublin Natural History Society, and rapidly 
acquired a reputation for original research 
in his favourite science. As a result of 
long and patient investigations, in the course 
of which he made many journeys to distant 
parts of Ireland, he * acquired a knowledge of 
the minute freshwater organisms of Ireland 
unparalleled among British naturalists, and 
perhaps not surpassed for any other country ' 
\Proceedings of Eoyal Society, vol. Ixii.) * It 
is, however, to his work among the protozoa 
that Archer will owe his ultimate place in 
science.' His essay on * Chlamydomyxa 
labyrinthuloides, a new species and genus 
of Freshwater Sarcodic Organism,' won him 
in 1876 his election as a fellow of the Royal 
Society, in whose catalogue as many as fifty- 
nine papers by Archer are enumerated. Prior 
to this he had become a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy, to whose ' Proceedings ' he 
was a diligent contributor. From 1875 to 
1880 he acted as secretary for foreign corre- 
spondence to the Academy, and in 1879 was 
awarded its Cunningham gold medal in re- 
cognition of his scientific attainments. 

Archer's extremely modest and retiring 
disposition was a constant bar to the en- 
largement of his reputation. A distrust of 
his abilities caused him to decline in 1872 
the professorship of botany at the Royal 
College of Science for Ireland. In 1876, 
however, his friends procured his appoint- 
ment as librarian to the Royal Dublin So- 
ciety ; and on the acquisition in 1877 of the 
society's library by the state Archer became 
librarian of the National Library of Ireland. 
He had previously added to his income 
by acting as secretary to a small slate 
company in Munster. Into the discharge of 
the duties of his new office Archer threw 
himself with characteristic zeal, speedily 
acquiring a high reputation among librarians. 
During his tenure of this post the library 
was transferred in August 1890 to the 
handsome building opposite to the Irish 
National Museum, designed by Sir Thomas 
Deane [q. v. Suppl.], the internal arrange- 
ments of which were based entirely on 
Archer's carefully considered recommenda- 
tions. Archer resigned his post in 189.5, and 
he died, unmarried, at his residence, 52 Lower 
Mount Street, Dublin, on 14 Aug. 1897. 

Archer's scientific skill, knowledge, and 
capacity were, according to the testimony of 
competent judges, out of all proportion to 
his public reputation. lie was not only an 
indefatigable worker, but possessed in a 
marked degree that scientific imagination 
which is essential to the highest results in 
research. He was an excellent linguist, and 
acquired a knowledge of German, French, 



and the Scandinavian languages the better 
to pursue his favourite science. 

Archer's chief work as librarian was * his 
admirable dictionary catalogue of the Na- 
tional Library, and the adopting of the 
decimal notation and classification for shelf 
arrangement, a system . . . almost unknown 
when Archer first adhered to it ' {Report of 
National Library of Irelandforl89o). 'Apart 
from the scientific enthusiasm which domi- 
nated his character, Archer had a singular 
charm of manner, a gentleness and refine- 
ment of disposition almost feminine. . . . 
There was no lack of robustness, however, 
about his scientific insight ; but a quaint 
sense of humour would always parry a con- 
tentious criticism ' {Proceedi?iys of Royal So- 
ciety, vol. Ixii.) 

[Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 
vol. iv. 3rd ser. 1898 ; Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, vol. Ixii. ; Notes from the Botanical 
School, Trinity College, Dublin, June 1898, by 
Prof. E. P. Wright, M.D. ; The Irish Natural- 
ist, vol. vi. Oct. 1897, with portrait; The Library, 
ix. 203, with portrait ; Proceedings of the 
Natural History Society of Dublin ; The Re- 
ports of the National Library, 1877-95; Pro- 
ceedings of the Dublin Microscopical Society ; 
private information.] C. L. F. 

ARCHIBALD, Sir ADAMS C4E0RGE v^ 
(1814-1892), Canadian statesman, the son 
of Samuel Archibald and Elizabeth, daughter 
of Matthew Archibald, came of an old Scottish 
family which had settled in the north of 
Ireland, and thence migrated to Nova Scotia 
in 1761. His grandfather, James Archibald, 
had been judge of the court of common pleas 
for the county of Colchester in Nova Scotia. 
Hewas born at Truro, Nova Scotia, on 18May 
1814, and educated at Pictou College ; thence 
he proceeded to Halifax and read for the law 
in the chambers of William Sutherland, 
afterwards recorder of Halifax. He was 
admitted an attorney of Prince Edward 
Island and Nova Scotia in 1838, and called 
to the bar of the latter colony in 1839, for 
some years devoting himself to the practice 
of his profession. 

Archibald entered public life in 1851, when 
he was elected to the House of Assembly of 
Nova Scotia as member for Colchester, and 
during the years which followed he took an 
active part in promoting legislation. He 
was especially interested in measures for the 
management of goldfields, for dealing with 
free education, and for restricting the fran- 
chise to ratepayers. In 1865 he became 
Q.C., and in August 1856 he was appointed 
solicitor-general for the province. On 14 Feb. 
1857 he went out of office with the minis- 
try. Later in the same year he was sent to 



Archibald 



59 



Archibald 



England as one of two delegates to repre- 
sent the rights of the province against the 
General Mining Association, the monopoly 
of which over the coal areas the government 
was endeavouring to destroy. He also took 
part in the discussions on the project of an 
. intercolonial railway for which the help of 
the home govei'nment was desired. He was 
required at the same time to discuss with the 
home authorities the question of the union 
of Nova Scotia with the provinces of New 
Brunswick, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward 
Island ( V. his letter of 2J: Nov. 1866 on union). 
On 10 Feb. 1860 he came into office again 
as attorney-general, and in September 1861 
{Pari. Papers, 1862, xxxvi. 651) was deputed 
to represent Nova Scotia at the conference at 
Quebec respecting the intercolonial railway 
scheme. In 1862 he was appointed advo- 
cate-general in the vice-admiralty court at 
Halifax. On 11? June 1863 he went out of 
office with his colleagues. In June 1864 he 
was delegate of Nova Scotia to a conference 
held at Charlottetown on the question of the 
legislative union of Nova Scotia, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, and New Brunswick, and simi- 
larly attended the conference on the question 
of a more comprehensive scheme of union 
which assembled at Quebec on 10 Oct. 1864. 
In 1866 he proceeded to London to take part 
in the consultations which led up to the 
federation of the Canadian provinces, and 
published a letter, dated 24 Nov. 1866, re- 
cording his views on the subject of colonial 
union. In 1867 he was appointed secretary 
of state for the provinces under the new 
dominion government ; but in 1868, being 
beaten in the contest for Colchester, he re- 
signed his post. In 1869 he was elected to 
the dominion parliament as member for Col- 
chester, but in May 1 870 resigned in order 
^ to become the first lieutenant-governor of 
Manitoba on its transfer from the Hudson's 
Bay Company to the government of the 
dominion. 

On 2 Sept. 1870 Archibald arrived at 
Fort Garry, just as Colonel (now Lord) 
Wolseley was moving out on his Red River 
expedition. He was looked upon by many 
as a French sympathiser, and justified this 
opinion by his conciliatory policy towards 
the rebels. He lost no time in forming the 
rudiments of a council and taking a census 
of the north-west territories with a view to 
the election of an assembly. On 15 March 
1871 he opened the first local parliament. 
He laid the foundation of the north-west 
mounted police and initiated a sound Indian 
policy. On 27 Aug. 1871 he had a mass 
meeting of the Indians and made a treaty 
with them on behalf of the dominion govern- 



ment. Though abused at first by both par- 
ties, his administration proved very success- 
ful ; he maintained with skill his position in 
relation both to the central government and 
the people whom he had to accustom to the 
reign of order. In October 1872 he resigned 
by his own desire, with the unconcealed re- 
gret of the governor- general, the Earl (after- 
wards Marquis) of DufiBrin. 

On 24 June 1873 Archibald was appointed 
judge in equity in Nova Scotia, but on 4 July 
the office of lieutenant-governor became 
vacant, and he succeeded to the post, which 
he filled with such general approbation that 
at the end of his term in 1878 he was re- 
appointed, and did not finally retire from 
this oflice till 4 July 1883. Iii 1888 he was 
once more induced to stand for Colchester, 
and was elected to the Canadian House of 
Commons; but in 1891, at the next general 
election, did not ofifer himself as a candidate. 
He died at Truro on 14 Dec. 1892, and was 
buried in Truro churchyard. 

Archibald was created C.M.G. in 1872, ■ 
and K.C.M.G. in 1886. In 1873 he became a 
director of the Canadian Pacific Railway and 
in 1884 chairman of the governors of Dal- ■ 
housie College. In February 1886 he was 
elected president of the Nova Scotia His- ^ 
torical Society, in the proceedings of which 
he had for some years taken an active part, 
contributing various papers to its collections. 

Archibald was a staunch presbyterian, but 
a man of broad views, of strong will but cool 
judgment, courteous and dignified in bear- 
ing. He married, on 1 June 1843, Elizabeth ^ 
Archibald, daughter of John Burnyeat, in- . 
cumbent of the parish of St. John, Colches- 
ter, Nova Scotia, whose wife was a connec- 
tion of the Archibald family. He had a 
son, who died young, and three daughters, 
all married, one being the wife of Bishop 
Jones of Newfoundland. 

[Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical 
Society, 1895, ix. 197-201 ; Rose's Cyclopaedia of 
Canadian Biography ;Begg's History of the North- 
West, vol. ii. esp. pp. 90-100; the Citizen and 
Evening Chronicle (of Halifax, N.S.), 5 Jiily 
1888 ; Canadian Parliamentary Companion, 
1875.] C. A. H. 

ARCHIBALD, Sie THOMAS DICK- 
SON (1817-1876), judge, born at Truro, 
Nova Scotia, in 1817, was sixth son of Samuel 
George Williams Archibald, LL.D., of Nova 
Scotia, by Elizabeth, daughter of Charles 
Dickson of Onslow, Canada. Like Sir Adams 
George Archibald [q. v. SuppL], he was de- 
scended from Samuel Archibald who emi- 
grated to Nova Scotia from Ireland. The 
father was attorney-general of Nova Scotia, 
1831-41 ; advocate-general, 1837-41 ; mas- 



Argyll 



60 



Armitage 



ter of the rolls and judge of the vice-ad- 
miralty court, 1841-6 ; and sometime speaker 
of the assembly. 

Thomas was educated at Pictou Presby- 
terian College, and in 1837 qualified for prac- 
tice as attorney and barrister-at-law in Nova 
Scotia. A visit to Europe, however, in the 
following year resulted in his settling in 
England, and on 11 Nov. 1840 he was ad- 
mitted at the Middle Temple, where, after 
some years of practice as a certificated 
special pleader, he was called to the bar on 
30 Jan. 1852. He was one of the favourite 
pupils of Serjeant PetersdorfF, whom he 
assisted in the compilation of his * Abridg- 
ment.' At the bar his perfect mastery of 
the technicalities of pleading (then a veri- 
table black art) stood him in such stead 
that, though not an especially persuasive 
advocate, he slowly gained a lead on the 
home circuit. In 1868 he was appointed 
junior counsel to the treasury, and on 
'20 Nov. 1872 he succeeded Sir James 
Ilannen [q. v. Suppl.] as justice of the 
queen's bench, being at the same time in- 
vested with the coif. On 5 Feb. 1873 he 
was knighted. Transferred to the common 
pleas on 6 Feb. 1875 (vice Sir Henry Singer 
Keating, resigned), he retained his place and 
acquired the status of justice of the high 
court on the subsequent fusion of the courts 
by the Judicature Act. He died at his resi- 
dence, Porchester Gate, Hyde Park, on 
18 Oct. 1876, leaving a well-merited repu- 
tation for sound law, unfailing conscien- 
tiousness, and courtesy. 

Archibald married, in 1841, Sarah, only 
daughter of Richard Smith of Dudley 
Priory, Worcestershire, by whom he left 
issue. 

He was author of 'Suggestions for 
Amendment of the Law as to Petitions of 
Right : a Letter to William Bovill, Esq., 
M.P.,' London, 1859, 8vo. 

[Law Mag. and Rev. Feb. 1877; Ann. Reg. 
1876, p. 155; Gent. Mag. 1841, i. 64-5; Eoyal 
Kalendars, 1831-46; Law List, 1852; Law 
Times, Ixii. 11, 15; Burke's Landed Gentry; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby.] 

J. M. R. 

ARGYLL, eighth Duke of. [See Camp- 
bell, George Douglas, 1823-1900.] 

ARMITAGE, EDWARD (1817-1896), 
historical painter, descended from an old 
Yorkshire family, was the eldest of seven 
sons of James Armitage of Leeds, and was 
born in London on 20 May 1817. His educa- 
tion, commenced in England, was completed 
on the continent, mainly in France and 
Germany. Having decided to become a 



painter, he entered at Paris in 1837 the 
studio of Paul Delaroche, of whom he be- 
came a favourite pupil, and who employed 
him as an assistant in painting portions of 
his well-known hemicycle in the amphi- 
theatre of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Paris. 
In 1842 he exhibited at the Salon his first 
large picture, ' Prometheus Bound,' which 
was received with favour. In 1843 he en- 
tered into the cartoon competition for the 
decoration of the new houses of parliament, 
and obtained a premium of 300/. for ' Caesar's 
Invasion of Britain,' the design being placed 
first on the list. In the competition of 1845 
he was again successful, being awarded 200/. 
for 'The Spirit of Religion' (cartoon and 
coloured design), and in 1847 he carried off 
a prize of 600/. for a very large oil painting, 
with life-size figures, of ' The Battle of 
Meeanee,' fought on 17 Feb. 1843, Avhich 
was purchased by Queen Victoria, and is 
now at St. James's Palace. His great suc- 
cess in these competitions was followed by 
commissions to execute two frescoes on the 
walls of the upper waiting hall of the House 
of Lords : ' The Personification of Thames,' 
from Pope, and the * Death of Marmion,' 
from Scott. 

After spending twelve months in study at 
Rome, Armitage exhibited in 1848 for the 
first time at the Royal Academy, sending two 
pictures, ' Henry VIII and Katherine Parr,' 
and ' Trafalgar,' representing the death of 
Nelson. His contributions to the Academy 
exhibitions continued regularly till his death, 
with the exception of the years 1855, 1862, 
1880, and 1892. The subjects of his pictures 
were generally biblical, and he seldom sent 
more than one or two a year. He exhibited 
'Samson' in 1851 and 'Hagar' in 1852. 
During the Crimean war he visited Russia, 
and in 1856 exhibited 'The Bottom of the 
Ravine at Inkerman,'and in 1857 a ' Souvenir 
of Scutari.' He also painted large pictures 
of the ' Heavy Cavalry Charge at Balaclava,' 
and 'The Stand of the Guards at Inkerman,' 
which were not exhibited. In 1858 came 
'Retribution' (now in the Leeds Museum), 
a colossal female figure holding a tiger by 
the throat, allegorical of the suppression of 
the Indian mutiny, and in 1859 ' St. Francis 
and his early Followers before Pope Inno- 
cent III,' a design for a life-size fresco 
(replaced by an oil painting in 1887) in the 
catholic church of St. John the Evangelist, 
Duncan Terrace, Islington. This was fol- 
lowed in 1860 by a design of ' Christ and the 
Twelve Apostles ' for the apse of the same 
church. A head of one of these apostles 
(St. Simon), in fresco, is in the South Ken- 
sington Museum. In 1864 came ' Ahab and 



Armitage 



6i 



Armstrong 



Jezebel,' in 1865 ' Esther's Banquet/ now in 
the Diploma Gallery of the Itoyal Academy, 
and in 1866 ' The Remorse of Judas,' which 
Armitage presented to the National Gallery, 
and 'The Parents of Christ seeking Him/ 
which was engraved for the Art Union under 
the title of ' Joseph and Mary.' In 1867 he 
was elected an associate of the Royal Aca- 
demy, and in 1872 a full member. During 
these five years his subjects were varied in 
character, including ' Herod's Birthday 
Feast,' now in the Corporation Art Gallery 
at Guildhall, * Hero lighting the Beacon to 
guide Leander across the Hellespont,' and 
' A Deputation to Faraday, requesting him to 
accept the Presidency of the Royal Society.' 
The last of these contains portraits of Lord 
Wrottesley, John Peter Gassiot, and Sir 
William Grove, and now hangs in the library 
of the Royal Society. Among the most 
notable of his subsequent works were : ' A 
Dream of Fair Women,' a design for a frieze 
in two sections ; ' The Women of the Old 
Testament' (1872) and 'The Women of An- 
cient Greece' (1874); 'In Memory of the 
great Fire of Chicago, and of the Sympathy 
shown to the Sufferers by both America and 
England' (1872), which was designed for the 
Town Hall at Chicago, and was bought by 
the ' Graphic ; ' ' Julian the Apostate pre- 
siding at a Conference of Sectarians' (1875) ; 
and ' Serf Emancipation : an Anglo-Saxon 
Noble on his Deathbed gives Freedom to his 
Slaves,' now in the Walker Art Gallery at 
Liverpool (1877). 

In 1878 Armitage exhibited 'After an 
Entomological Sale, beati possidentes,^ in 
which he represented himself in a sale room 
rejoicing over a fresh acquisition for his col- 
lection of insects, in company with his friends 
Calderon, Hodgson, Winkfield, and others. 
Another of his tastes is reflected in a ' Yacht- 
ing Souvenir — Lunch in Mid Channel/ which 
was exhibited in 1889. In 1893 he exhibited 
for the last time, sending ' A Moslem Doc- 
trinaire ' and a portrait of his brother, ' The 
late T. R. Armitage, Esq., M.D., the Friend 
of the Blind.' 

In 1871 he was one of the committee of 
artists employed in the decoration of West- 
minster Hall who made a report on fresco 
painting (see Return to House of Commons, 
No. 19 of 1872). In 1875 he was appointed 
professor .and lecturer on painting to the 
Royal Academy. His lectures were pub- 
lished in 1883. Always of independent 
means, Armitage was able to follow his ideals 
in art without regard to fashion or profit, 
and several of his largest works were exe- 
cuted entirely at his own expense. This was 
the case with the large monochrome frescoes 



in University Hall, Gordon Square, in me- 
mory of Crabb Robinson, comprising por- 
traits of twenty-two men eminent in litera- 
ture, art, and other professions. The figures 
are over life-size, and the composition twenty 
yards in length. Figures of saints in Mary- 
lebone church, and the reredos (' Seven Works 
of Mercy') in St. Mark's Church, Hamilton 
Terrace, St. John's Wood, were also gifts. 

As an artist Armitage took an important 
part in the movements for the restoration of 
fresco painting in England, and the decora- 
tion of the houses of parliament with his- 
torical designs. His early training on the 
continent and his employment by Delaroche 
upon a mural painting of a grand character 
influenced the direction of his art throughout 
his life. This art was cold, severe, and aca- 
demic, but always lofty in aim and large in 
design. Armitage did not confine his in- 
terests entirely to art ; he was a great col- 
lector of butterflies, a keen yachtsman, and 
very hospitable host, whether afloat or ashore. 
He passed the board of trade examination for 
a master's certificate, and was a fellow of the 
Geographical Society. He became a ' retired 
academician' about two years before his 
death, which took place from apoplexy and 
exhaustion following pneumonia, at Tun- 
bridge Wells, on 24 May 1896, after an illness 
of about three weeks. He was buried at 
Brighton. In 1853 he married Laurie, 
daughter of William and Catherine Barber 
of Booma, Northumberland. 

[Pictures and Drawings by Edward Armitage, 
K.A. 1898; Cat. of National Gallery (British 
School) ; Men of the Time, 1891 ; obituary no- 
tices in Times and other newspapers; Clement 
and Hutton's Artists of the Nineteenth Century; 
private information.] C. M. 

ARMSTRONG, Sir ALEXANDER 

(1818-1899), naval medical officer, descended 
from a family originally of Cumberland, and 
from Major-general John Armstrong (1673- 
1742 [q.v.]), was the son of Alexander Arm- 
strong of Croghan Lodge, Fermanagh. He 
studied medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, 
and at the university of Edinburgh, where 
he graduated with honours in 1841, and en- 
tered the navy as an assistant surgeon in 
March 1842. After a few months at Haslar 
Hospital and in the flagship at Portsmouth, 
he was appointed in June to the Polyphemus, 
a small steamer in the Mediterranean, and 
in 1843 was placed in medical charge of a 
party landed for the exploration of Xanthus. 
For his scientific observations on this expe- 
dition he received the official thanks of the 
trustees of the British Museum, and by his 
sanitary arrangements won the approval of 
the commander-in-chief, who recommended 



Armstrong 



62 



Armstrong 



liim for promotion. On his return to Eng- 
land in April 1846 he was appointed to the 
Grappler, fitting out for the west coast of 
Africa ; but before she sailed Armstrong was 
moved into the royal yacht, from which, on 
the occasion of the queen's visit to Ireland, 
he was promoted to the rank of surgeon on 
19 Oct. 1849. Two months later he was 
appointed as surgeon and naturalist to the 
Investigator, going out to the Arctic under 
the command of (Sir) Robert John Le 
Mesurier McClure [q. v.], and in her he 
continued the whole time till she was aban- 
doned in 1853, He returned to England 
with McClure in 1854. A great part of the 
comparatively good success of the voyage 
was properly attributed to the excellent ar- 
rangements made and carried out by Arm- 
strong, with the result that no scurvy ap- 
peared on board till the spring of 1852, and 
at no time did it assume dangerous propor- 
tions. For his journal during this voyage 
he was awarded the Gilbert Blane gold 
medal — a reward for the best journal Kept 
by surgeons of the royal navy. In February 
1856 he was appointed to the Oornwallis, in 
which he served in the Baltic during that 
year's campaign, and afterwards, till August 
1856, on)[the North American station. On 
^ 19 July 1858 he was promoted to be deputy 
inspector-general of hospitals and fleets, and 
from 1859 to 1864 was in medical charge of 
the hospital at Malta. On 15 Nov. 1866 
he was promoted to the rank of inspector- 
general, and from 1869 to December 1871 
he was director-general of the medical de- 
partment of the navy. On 17 June 1871 
he was nominated a military K.O.B., and on 
12 June 1873 he was elected F.R.S. He re- 
tired from active service in December 1871, 
living, for the most part, in the Albany, or 
at the Elms, Sutton-Bonnington, near Keg- 
worth, where he died on 4 July 1899. In 
1894 he married the widow of Sir William 
King Hall [q.v.] Armstrong was the author 
of ' Personal Narrative of the Discovery of 
the North- West Passage' (8vo, 1857), and 
of 'Observations on Naval Hygiene' (8vo, 
1858). 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. (2nd edit.); 
Times, 7 July 1899 ; Edinburgh Graduates in 
Medicine, 1867, p. 125; Armstrong's Works; 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

ARMSTRONG, Sik WILLIAM 
GEORGE, Baeon Armstrong of Cragside 
(1810-1900), inventor and organiser of in- 
dustry, was born on 26 Nov. 1810 at No. 9 — 
formerly No. 6 — Pleasant Row, Shieldfield, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

William Armstrong (1778-1867), his 



father, was the son of a yeoman of Wreay, a 
village five miles south of Carlisle. Towards 
the close of the eighteenth century he came 
to Newcastle, commencing his career in that 
city as clerk in the office of Losh, Lubbrin, & 
Co., corn merchants. He was soon taken into 
partnership, and when his seniors subse- 
quently retired he became the sole represen- 
tative of the firm, which was thenceforth 
styled Armstrong & Co., merchants, Cow- 
gate. By his enterprise and ability he con- 
siderably extended the business. He highly 
appreciated the advantages of education, and 
devoted himself with earnestness and per- 
severance to study during his leisure. He 
was especially fond of mathematics, on which 
subject he contributed to the ' Lady's ' and 
' Gentleman's ' Diaries, and collected a large 
library. In 1798 Armstrong joined the Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society, which was 
then five years old. He was a warm sup- 
porter and took an active part for some time 
in its management. He was also one of 
the original founders of the local Natural 
History Society. When it was proposed to 
establish a chamber of commerce in the 
town he gave material aid, and helped the 
scheme to a successful issue. Soon after the 
passing of the Municipal Reform Act in 1835 
he was returned by Jesmond ward to the 
town council, on the eve of his sixtieth 
year, as a reformer. At the next election, 
in November 1839, he was defeated, but 
in 1842 Armstrong resumed his seat with- 
out opposition. During his first period of 
councillorship he took much interest in the 
management of the river Tyne, and he was 
the author of two pamphlets on the subject. 
In December 1843, when Alderman John 
Ridley, chairman of the river committee, 
died, he was unanimously appointed to the 
office, the duties of which he fulfilled through- 
out the inquiries and the stormy debates 
which culminated in the establishment of 
the River Tyne commission. On 3 Jan. 
1849 Armstrong was elected alderman by a 
unanimous vote. He failed to secure elec- 
tion as mayor when he was first nominated 
to that office a few months later, but he 
was chosen mayor in the following year. 
He generally acted with the progressive 
party in the city council. Although he 
had begun life as an independent politician, 
with somewhat reactionary tendencies, his 
sympathies broadened as he grew older, and 
towards the close he became a whig of the 
Grey school, although he was always a 
cautious reformer. In 1824 he argued that a 
canal between Newcastle and Carlisle would 
serve inland commerce better than a railway. 
Again, in 1845, when it was proposed that the 



Armstrong 



(>$ 



Armstrong 



city council should memorialise parliament to 
open the ports for the free admission of grain, 
he spoke strongly in favour of the corn laws. 
He attended to his public duties till within 
a few weeks of his death, which took place 
on 2 June 1857, in the eightieth year of his 
age. He had desired that the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Newcastle should 
select from his library such scientific works 
as it did not already possess. This wish 
was so liberally interpreted by his son that 
in 1858 as manyas 1,284 mathematical works 
and local tracts, most of them of great value, 
were added to the society's library, which 
thus obtained ' a more complete mathemati- 
cal department than any other provincial in- 
stitution in the kingdom' (De. Spence Wat- 
son, Hist, of the Literary and Philosophical 
Soc. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne). 

The elder Armstrong married Ann, eldest 
daughter of William Potter of Walbottle 
House, a highly cultured woman. By her 
he had two children, a son and a daughter. 
The son was the future Lord Armstrong. 
The daughter Ann married on 17 Aug. 1826 
(Sir) William Henry Watson [q. v.], subse- 
quently a baron of the exchequer ; she died 
at Hastings on 1 June 1828, leaving an only 
child, John William Watson, of Adderstone 
Hall, Belford, whose son became her bro- 
ther's heir. 

William George Armstrong was a deli- 
cate child. Left to follow the natural bent 
of his mind, he never failed to amuse him- 
self with mechanical combinations. When 
only five or six he showed considerable in- 
genuity in constructing childish imitations 
of machines which had attracted his atten- 
tion. With a few discarded spinning wheels 
and common household articles he played at 
pumping water, grinding corn, and doing 
other useful work. He set his machinery in 
motion by strings attached to weights hung 
over the handrail of the staircase, so as to 
descend freely from the top to the bottom of 
the house. In the fine summer days he often 
visited the shop of a joiner, John Fordy, 
in the employment of his maternal grand- 
father, William Potter; there he spent many 
happy hours learning the use of tools, mak- 
ing fittings for his engines, and copying the 
joiner's work. 

After attending private schools, first in his 
native city, and afterwards at Whickham, 
Isorthumberland, his health sufliciently im- 
proved to enable him, in 1826, the year of his 
sister's marriage, to enter the grammar 
school at Bishop Auckland. There he re- 
mained for two years as a boarder with the 
head- master, the Rev. R. Thompson. During 
this period he paid a visit to the engineering 



works in that town of William Ramshaw, 
who, impressed with the intelligent interest 
the youth took in the machines, invited him 
to his house. He thus made the acquaintance 
of Ramshaw's daughter Margaret, whom he 
afterwards married. 

Meanwhile, upon leaving school, Arm- 
strong became an articled clerk in the office 
of Armorer Donkin, a solicitor of standing 
in Newcastle. He applied himself with cha- 
racteristic earnestness to the study of law, 
and, having duly served his clerkship, he 
completed his preparation for the legal pro- 
fession in London under the guidance of his 
brother-in-law, W. H. Watson, at that time 
a special pleader of Lincoln's Inn. He re- 
turned to Newcastle in 1833, and became 
a partner in the legal firm to which he had 
been articled, the style being altered to 
Messrs. Donkin, Stable, & Armstrong. Their 
business was a flourishing one, and the in- 
terests of many important families, estates, 
and companies were entrusted to their 
charge. In 1834 Armstrong married Miss 
Margaret Ramshaw. Three years his senior, 
she was a lady of great force of character, 
who sympathised with her husband's labours, 
and loyally aided him in philanthropic work. 

In later years Armstrong named as his re- 
creations ' planting, building, electrical and 
scientific research ; ' but in early life he was 
an enthusiastic fisherman. This pastime 
afforded opportunities for his inventive 
genius. He contrived a new bait-basket, 
and his tackle was continually being im- 
proved. Haunting the Coquet from morn- 
ing to night, he became so skilful that he 
was known in the district as 'the King- 
fisher.' While after trout in Dentdale (York- 
shire, 1835), his attention was attracted to 
an overshot water-wheel, supplying power 
for some marble works. He observed that 
only about one twentieth of the energy of 
the stream was utilised, and from that time 
his thoughts were engrossed by the possi- 
bilities of water- worked machines as motors. 

After his return to Newcastle to devote 
himself to law, scarcely a day passed without 
his visiting Watson's High Bridge engineer- 
ing works. On 29 Dec. 1838 he published 
in the ' Mechanics' Magazine ' the outcome 
of his observations, in an article ' on the 
application of a column of water as a motive 
power for driving machinery.' In the autumn 
of 1839, with Watson's help, he made an 
improved hydraulic wheel, with discs fixed 
on the periphery, arranged to enter suc- 
cessively a tube of corresponding section bent 
into the arc of a circle. A full account ot 
' Armstrong's water-pressure wheel' is con- 
tained in the * Mechanics' Magazine' for 



Armstrong 



64 



Armstrong 



18 April 1840. But although his rotatory 
motor was recognised to be sound in prin- 
ciple — ' a new and most ingenious means of 
applying a neglected, cheap, and almost 
boundless source of power ' — it was not an 
industrial success. With characteristic j udg- 
ment Armstrong sought a more attractive 
solution of his great problem. 

In the autumn of the same year (1840) 
one William Patterson was employed on a 
fixed high-pressure steam-engine at Cram- 
lington Colliery. When he put one hand 
on the safety valve, while the other was 
exposed to a jet of steam from a chink 
in the boiler, he experienced a shock. Many 
persons investigated the phenomenon, but 
Armstrong first arrived at correct conclu- 
sions, which were published in papers on 
'the electricity of effluent steam' (Phil. Mag. 
1841-3). He applied his results to the con- 
struction of a hydro-electric machine, which 
consisted essentially of an insulated boiler, 
from which steam at high pressure escaped 
through specially designed nozzles. This 
formed the most powerful means of gene- 
rating electricity then known, and it is still 
used for the production of electricity of high 
tension. In 1844 ' our talented young towns- 
man' gave two ' very interesting lectures on 
hydro-electricity,' and it is recorded that 
' the perspicuity of his language,' his * in- 
genious and effectual' illustrations, and 'his 
happy manner of explaining . . . the subject 
could scarcely be excelled' {Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. Report). The small hydro-electric 
machine used for these experiments was 
subsequently presented by Lord Armstrong 
to the Durham College of Science at New- 
castle. 

The uses and application of water at the 
time chiefly absorbed his attention, and he 
studied the subject in all its bearings with 
characteristic public spirit. As the popula- 
tion increased the Tyne became undrinkable, 
and the supply of pure water inadequate. 
In 1845 proposals were brought forward to 
form an accumulation reservoir at Whittle 
Dean, and to bring the water by 24-inch 
pipes, then the largest in the world, to 
Newcastle. Armstrong's was the master 
mind which directed the movement {History 
of the Water Supply of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
1851). Messrs. Donkin, Stable, & Armstrong 
were the solicitors to the company, and at 
the first general meeting of shareholders, 
28 July 1845, Armstrong was appointed 
secretary. The directors' report presented 
to the second annual meeting, 25 Feb. 1847, 
announced his resignation with an expression 
■of regret. About this time, in conjunction 
with Thomas Hawksley [q.v, Suppl.J, he in- 



vented a self-acting valve, which is still ex- 
tensively used by water companies, to close 
the pipe automatically when the velocity of 
the water passing through it exceeds a cer- 
tain limit, so as to check the loss of water 
in case of a leak occurring beyond the 
valve. Armstrong's interest in the Whittle 
Dean Water Company continued throughout 
his life. On the death of Mr. A. L. Potter 
in 1855 he Avas elected chairman. He held 
this office till 1867, and it was largely owing 
to his able direction that it developed into 
the important Newcastle and Gateshead 
Water Company. 

' Perseverance generally prevails ' was 
Armstrong's favourite motto. For many 
years he considered the best way of em- 
ploying water power before he arrived at 
the conclusion that water would be more 
useful as a means of distributing than of 
obtaining energy. On this principle he 
planned a crane, every motion of which was 
derived from hydraulic power. In 1845 he 
delivered three lectures to the Literary and 
Philosophical Society ; the first and last 
treated respectively of the spheroidal state 
of liquids and the characteristics of elec- 
tricity. The second (3 Dec.) was ' on the 
employment of a column of water as a 
motive power for propelling machinery,' It 
was illustrated by experiments : • a beautiful 
model, representing a portion of the quay of 
this town, with a crane upon it, adapted to 
work by the action of the water in the street 
pipes, was placed upon the floor.' The model 
worked perfectly, but Armstrong ' stated 
that he did not advocate the immediate 
adoption of his plan, because any plan, how- 
ever useful, might be injured if forced pre- 
maturely forward before the age was ready 
to receive it.' Nevertheless, on 14 Jan. 
1846 he obtained permission from the cor- 
poration to erect an hydraulic crane at the 
head of the quay. This was so great a 
success in loading and discharging ships 
that on the following 9 Nov. he asked to be 
allowed to erect four others, at the same 
time making valuable suggestions for facili- 
tating the handling of the merchandise of 
the port. Armstrong took out his first 
patent — for * apparatus for lifting, lowering, 
and hauling ' — on 31 July 1846. 

Armstrong's scientific attainments were 
now widely recognised, and on 7 May 1846 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
as ' a gentleman well known as an earnest 
investigator of physical science, especially 
with reference to the electricity of steam 
and the hydro-electric machine.' Among 
those who attested his qualifications were 
Faraday, Grove, and Wheatstone. Much 



Armstrong 



6s 



Armstrong 



interest was also manifested in his cranes, 
and many inquiries were made about them. 
The first orders were dealt with in the High 
Bridge works of Mr. Watson, but special 
arrangements were desirable. Thereupon 
four substantial citizens, Messrs. Donkin, 
Potter, C!ruddas, and Lambert, offered the 
money necessary to found special works for 
their manufacture. It was thus that the 
great engineering works at Elswick-on- 
Tyne first came into being. The deed of 
partnership is dated as from 1 Jan. 1847. 
Armstrong, who was the moving spirit, was 
appointed manager of the concern. He 
thereupon retired from the legal profession 
to devote himself to the more congenial pur- 
suits of an engineer. 

The engineering works originally con- 
sisted of offices, four workshops, two houses 
for foremen, and stables, standing on about 
6^ acres on the left bank of the Tyne, a 
little way above Newcastle. Work was 
commenced on 1 Oct. 1847, and the first 
Elswick paysheet for wages due on 15 Oct. 
amounted to 9^. 17s. 10^^. {Northern Coun- 
ties Mag. October 1900). During the earlier 
years the business chiefly consisted in the 
manufacture of Armstrong's newly devised 
hydraulic machinery. The first order for 
the new firm (15 May 1848) was for cranes 
for the Liverpool docks, but from the com- 
mencement Elswick produced a great variety 
of hydraulic machines. A diagonal two- 
cylinder double-acting engine was made for 
the press printing the ' Newcastle Chronicle,' 
while mining machinery for the lead mines at 
Allenheads and winding engines for the 
South Hetton Coal Company were among 
their earliest productions. Armstrong's se- 
cond patent for a water-pressure engine bears 
date 11 May 1848. But in spite of Arm- 
strong's able management the Elswick engi- 
neering works did not at first make very 
satisfactory progress. Orders did not come 
in very rapidly, and there was naturally 
some difficulty at starting in estimating the 
cost of production. The tide of prosperity 
did not flow towards Elswick conspicuously 
till 1850. In March 1852 three hundred 
and fifty men were employed, and their fort- 
nightly wages amounted to 870/. Thence- 
forth the development was steady. 

All the hydraulic apparatus erected by 
Armstrong up to 1849 was worked by water 
from reservoirs, but in that year he was 
commissioned to construct cranes at places 
on the Humber and Tees, where the pressure 
in the town mains was insufficient. To 
avoid the cost of building a high reservoir, 
he employed an air-vessel. This was a cast- 
iron chamber, closed at the top, and the 

TOL. I. — SUP. 



air was compressed by water being pumped 
into it. The working was not altogether 
satisfactory. In the following year (1850) 
he ' was engaged in the construction of the 
Ferry station of the Manchester, Shefflield, 
and Lincolnshire Railway at New Holland, 
and decided to apply hydraulic pressure for 
the cranes. . . . There was no possibility 
of obtaining pressure by a head of water, 
for not only was the surface absolutely 
flat, but the ground, which consisted of 
silt, afforded no foundation. . . . He was 
led to the idea of a new substitute for 
an elevated reservoir. This consisted of a 
large cast-iron cylinder, fitted with a loaded 
plunger to give pressure to the water in- 
jected by the engine. This contrivance he 
called an accumulator. ... In no previous 
instance had a pressure exceeding 90 pounds 
on the square inch been used, but it was 
now decided to adopt a pressure of 600 
pounds' (SiE W. G. Aemstkong, Inst, of 
Civil Engineers, 1876-7, vol. i. pt. iv.) The 
storage capacity of the accumulator is not so 
great as that of a reservoir, but, on the other 
hand, the higher pressures employed enable 
the distributing pipes to be made of smaller 
dimensions than would otherwise be possi- 
ble, and the pressures are more uniform. By 
this invention hydraulic machinery was 
rendered available in almost every situation. 
Being very convenient where power is re- 
quired at intervals and for short periods, it has 
come into extensive use for working cranes, 
hoists, and lifts, opening and shutting dock 
gates, docking and launching ships, moving 
capstans, turn-tables, and the like. In many 
cases it has caused important economies both 
as regards time and money, especially at 
harbours and railway stations, where large 
amounts of traffic have to be dealt with. 
In the navy its applications are so numerous 
that it has been said without it a modern 
warship would be an impossibility. Such 
adaptations were the result of unwearied 
perseverance and unfailing resource. 

In 1 850 Armstrong divided with Mr. W. D. 
Burlinson a prize given by the Glamorgan- 
shire Canal Company, on the merits of his 
crane and accumulator, for ' the best machine 
to transfer coal from barges to ships.' In 
the same year he received the Telford medal 
from the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

Armstrong continued for many years to 
improve his hydraulic machinery, and to de- 
velop countless applications which attracted 
considerable attention. A third patent which 
dealt with the subject was taken out on 
22 April 1856. The ingenuity and utility 
of his inventions in this connection brought 
him almost universal recognition. In 1862 

IE 



Armstrong 



66 



Armstrong 



Cambridge University voted him an honorary 
LL.D. degree; in 1870 Oxford made him a 
D.C.L. ; and in Maj 1878 the Society of 
Arts awarded to him the Albert medal ' be- 
cause of his distinction as an engineer and 
as a scientific man, and because by the 
development of the transmission of power 
hydraulically, due to his constant efforts ex- 
tending over many years, the manufactures 
of this country have been greatly aided, and 
mechanical power beneficially substituted 
for most laborious and injurious labour.' 

But these inventions far from exhausted 
Armstrong's genius, and in middle life he 
applied his mind to improvements in the 
manufacture of the machinery of war, which 
brought him an equally wide and deserved 
reputation. It was just after the outbreak 
of the Crimean war in 1854 that Armstrong 
received at Elswick his first commission from 
the war office ; this was to design submarine 
mines for the purpose of blowing up Russian 
ships that had been sunk in the harbour of 
Sebastopol. Armstrong's mines proved very 
successful, but, as the war progressed, he 
turned his attention more especially to ar- 
tillery. It is said that an incident in the battle 
of Inkerman (6 Nov. 1854) led him to devote 
his energies to the improvement of ordnance. 
In the following month he submitted to Sir 
James Graham a communication 'suggesting 
the expediency of enlarging the ordinary 
rifle to the standard of a field-gun, and using 
elongated projectiles of lead' (Industrial 
Hesources of Tyne, Wear, and Tees, 1863). 
This was followed by an interview with the 
Duke of Newcastle, then secretary of state 
for war, who authorised him to make half 
a dozen guns according to his views. 

Armstrong has himself described in detail 
the evolution of the gun which was soon 
to be widely known by his name. First, he 
considered exhaustively all possible ma- 
terials, and selected shear steel and wrought 
iron. Then he proved experimentally that 
the ordinary method of making guns, by 
forging the metal into the form and boring 
a hole down it, was unsatisfactory. He 
adopted a construction more correct in prin- 
ciple, but more difficult of execution. The 
strength of a metal cylinder does not increase 
in the ratio of its thickness. A cylinder 
offers the greatest resistance to bursting 
when the exterior layers are in a state of 
tension, gradually increasing inwards past 
the neutral point till the internal layers are 
in a state of compression. Therefore an in- 
ternal cylinder of steel was enclosed in a 
jacket made by twisting a wrought-iron bar, 
and welding the turns into a cylinder of 
internal diameter slightly smaller than the 



steel lining. The jacket was expanded by 
heat and slipped over the core, and contract- 
ing in cooling produced the desired distribu- 
tion of tension. Other rings as necessary 
were in turn shrunk on this cylinder. 

At the same time mechanical arrangements 
were contrived to counteract recoil, and to 
facilitate the pointing of the gun. Further- 
more, and this was a device of the utmost 
importance, the gun was made to load at its 
back end. Armstrong invented both the 
screw and the wedge methods of closing 
the breech. In the former case a poAverful 
screw pressed a breech-piece, carrying the 
vent, so as to close the tube. Then the 
rifling was effected by eight spiral grooves 
cut in the bore terminating at the slightly 
expanded loading chamber, the most suit- 
able form and dimensions for which were 
reached after careful investigations. Lastly, 
with unwearied labour and infinite resource, 
he determined the best shape, dimensions, 
and charge for the bullet. The elongated 
form with an ogival head which he designed 
for the projectile has never been improved 
upon. 

Armstrong's first 3-pounder, built in ac- 
cordance with these principles, was com- 
pleted in July 1855. It was derided by 
the artillery officers as a * popgun.' There- 
upon Armstrong made a 6-pounder on the 
same principles, and he continued a series of 
experiments with it for a considerable time 
before submitting it to the war office. The 
earliest of his long series of patents, eleven 
in number, touching ordnance and projec- 
tiles, was dated 11 Feb. 1857 ; the second 
followed on 22 July 1857. At first the mili- 
tary authorities looked coldly upon Arm- 
strong's new gun, but its merit was too great 
to be put aside. On 16 Nov. 1858 the com- 
mittee on rifled cannon, appointed by Gene- 
ral Peel, reported in favour of Armstrong's 
invention on every point. 

Armstrong then behaved with patriotic 
generosity. He gave the nation his valuable 
patents as a free gift, and placed his talents 
at its command. In 1859 he accepted the 
appointment of engineer of rifled ordnance 
at Woolwich, and his great services to the 
state were acknowledged by his creation as 
knight bachelor and civil companion of the 
Bath (23 Feb. 1859). 

On 25 Jan. 1859 the Elswick Ordnance 
Company was formed. The partners were 
Messrs. George Cruddas, Lambert, and the 
manager, George Rendel. Armstrong had 
no pecuniary interest in this new company, 
although its buildings were close to the Els- 
wick engineering works. The Elswick Ord- 
nance Company was established solely to 



Armstrong 



67 



Armstrong- 



make Armstrong guns for the British govern- 
ment under Armstrong's supervision. Ac- 
cordingly over three thousand guns were 
manufactured by the new company between 
1859 and 1863. At the latter date the British 
armament was the finest in existence. But 
there was then a reaction in favour of the 
superior simplicity of muzzle-loading guns. 
The breech-loading mechanism required ac- 
curate fittings and careful use. Breech-loaders 
are unfit weapons for imperfectly instructed 
gunners, and out of place when exposed to 
weather or drifting sand. Armstrong recog- 
nised the invincibility of official obtuseness 
and pre] udice, and gave up his official appoint- 
ment during 1863, when the government 
greatly reduced the orders they placed with 
the Elswick Ordnance Company, and prac- 
tically returned to muzzle-loaders. To that 
form of ordnance the authorities so obsti- 
nately adhered for the next fifteen years that 
England not only lost her supremacy in 
respect to her artillery but fell dangerously 
behind the rest of the world. 

Owing to the withdrawal of government 
support in 1863, the Elswick Ordnance Com- 
pany passed through a serious crisis, but 
Armstrong Avas equal to the situation. The 
ordnance company and its works were in- 
corporated with Armstrong's engineering 
company and its works. Blast furnaces 
were added, and the ordnance company, 
being released from the obligation to make 
guns exclusively for the British government, 
was largely employed by foreign govern- 
ments. Great benefit resulted to the finan- 
cial position of the combined ordnance and 
engineering company. 

Meanwhile Armstrong improved his 
breech-action, and carefully investigated the 
best method of rifling, and the most advan- 
tageous calibre of the bore and structure 
of the cylinder, so as to obtain the greatest 
accuracy in shooting and the longest range 
with the minimum weight. At an early 
period of his gunnery researches he had re- 
cognised the desirabiiity of building up guns 
with thin metal bands instead of large hoops, 
but circumstances interposed a long delay 
before he carried out that principle in prac- 
tice. The plan may have been first suggested 
to him by Captain Blakeney's proposal, pub- 
lished as early as 1855, to substitute wire 
wound at high tension round the core for 
hoops or jackets. The same idea had oc- 
curred independently to Brunei, who gave 
Armstrong a commission for a gun made on 
this principle. The order could not be exe- 
cuted, because it was found that Longridge 
had taken out a patent for this method of 
construction, though he had never carried it 



into execution. After the patent had expired 
Armstrong redirected his attention to the 
subject. In 1 877 he made preliminary trials 
with small wired cylinders, and in 1879 he 
commenced a (3-inch breech-loading gun of 
this construction, which was finished in the 
beginning of 1880. Results obtained with 
this gun were so satisfactory that at last 
even the British ordnance authorities ac- 
knowledged the folly of continuing to manu- 
facture unwieldy muzzle-loaders ; and before 
the year was out, by Armstrong's persistent 
pressure, they were persuaded once more to 
adopt breech-loading guns with polygroove 
rifling. 

Armstrong's strenuous work at his hy- 
draulic machines and his celebrated guns 
by no means exhausted his energies or in- 
terests. At the same time he found oppor- 
tunity to give thoughtful consideration to 
problems of the highest importance to every 
practical engineer in connection with the 
economical use of fuel. In 1855 Armstrong, 
with two other engineers, was entrusted, 
with the award of the 500Z. premium offered 
by the Northumberland Steam Collieries 
Association for the best method of prevent- 
ing smoke in the combustion of Hartley coal 
in marine boilers. Three reports (1857 and 
1868) were founded on a long series of ela- 
borate experiments. His attention having 
been thus attracted to the wasteful use of 
our natural fuel, he took advantage of his 
election to the presidency of the British 
Association, when it met at Newcastle in 
1863, to discuss at length, in his presidential 
address, the probable duration of our coal 
supply. He pointed out how 'wastefuUy 
and extravagantly in all its applications' to 
steam-engines, or metallurgical operations, 
or domestic purposes, coal was being burnt. 
He calculated that in doing a given amount 
of work with a steam-engine only one- 
thirtieth of the energy of the coal is utilised. 
Assuming a moderate rate of increase in coal 
production, he came to the conclusion that 
before two centuries have passed ' England 
will have ceased to be a coal-producing 
country on an extensive scale.' 

There followed a royal commission to 
inquire into the duration of British coal- 
fields (1866), of which Sir W. G. Armstrong 
was a member, and before which he also 
appeared as a witness. His evidence was 
among the most valuable information col- 
lected by it. He twice returned to the sub- 
ject, once in his presidential address to the 
North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers in 1873, and again in 
his presidential address to the mechanical 
section of the British Association at York in 

p2 



Armstrong 



68 



Armstrong 



1883. At York he considered whether the 
'monstrous waste' of the steam-engine might 
not be avoided by electrical methods of ob- 
taining power. In 1863 he had pointed out 
that ' whether Ave use heat or electricity as the 
motive power, we must equally depend upon 
chemical affinity as the source of supply. . . . 
But where are we to obtain materials so 
economical for this purpose as the coal we 
derive from the earth and the oxygen we 
obtain from the air ?' But in 1883 the ad- 
vance of electrical science suggests to him 
that a thermo-electric engine might * not 
only be used as an auxiliary, but in com- 
plete substitution for the steam-engine,' 
because it might be used to utilise ' the 
direct heating action of the sun's rays.' He 
calculated that 'the solar heat, operating 
upon an area of one acre in the tropics, 
•would, if fully utilised, exert the amazing 
power of 4,000 horses acting for nearly nine 
hours every day.' lie foresaw that, * when- 
ever the time comes for utilising the power 
of great waterfalls, the transmission of 
power by electricity will become a system 
of vast importance ' — a prophecy which has 
been fulfilled in a notable manner in subse- 
quent contrivances for the utilisation of 
natural sources of energy at Geneva, Nia- 
gara, and elsewhere. 

Meanwhile the great Elswick works were 
rapidly growing alike in the engineering and 
ordnance branches. To these departments 
a third — that of shipbuilding — was finally 
added. In 1868 the Elswick firm began 
to build ships in the Walker yard of Messrs. 
Mitchell <fc Swan. 

From a very early date Armstrong had 
devoted much attention to problems in con- 
nection with the mounting and working of 
guns on ships, and kindred matters of de- 
sign. He was a steadfast believer in guns 
as against armour. He had himself worked 
at the improvement of armour plating. He 
had produced steel of high tensile strength 
and great toughness by tempering it in an 
oil bath. For some years before the intro- 
duction of high explosives he had taken 
special interest in the design and con- 
struction of the cruiser type, which was 
indeed to a considerable extent originated 
by him. The Elswick firm built several 
vessels of this class at the Walker yard, 
leading up to the Esmeralda, constructed 
for Chili in 1882, which may be described 
as the first modern protected cruiser. Arm- 
strong strongly advocated the construction 
of a large number of vessels of this class 
of moderate size. He believed that they 
would be most eflfective protectors of com- 
merce, and that several acting together 



might even be more than a match for ant 
ironclad. He enumerated their chief fea- 
tures as including ' great speed and nimble- 
ness of movement combined with great 
oft'ensive power . . . little or no side armour, 
but otherwise constructed to minimise the 
efiects of projectiles.' On the introduction 
of high explosives Armstrong modified his- 
views to the extent of recommending that 
even cruisers should be protected by side 
armour. 

In 1882, the shipbuilding firm of Messrs. 
Mitchell & Swan joined forces with Arm- 
strong's company, and the united firms 
became Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell, & 
Co., Limited. In 1883 a new ship-yard was 
established at Elswick, where, under the 
management of Mr, White, now Sir Wil- 
liam White, chief constructor to the admi- 
ralty, and subsequently of Mr. P. Watts, a 
fleet of splendid warships was built. The 
development of the ordnance department of 
the great concern Avent on at the same time 
without interruption. In 1885 a branch 
factory was opened at Pozzuoli on the bay 
of Naples to make guns for the Italian 
government. In 1897 Sir Joseph Whit- 
worth's works at Openshaw, near Man- 
chester, for the manufacture of the Whit- 
worth guns, were incorporated, and the title 
of the combined concerns was changed to 
Sir AV. G. Armstrong, Whitworth, & Com- 
pany. Limited [see Whitworth,Sie Joseph]. 
At the date of Armstrong's death in 1900,, 
the company own, at Elswick alone, two 
hundred and thirty acres, and ' a recent pay- 
sheet shows 36,802/. paid in a single week' 
to twenty-five thousand and twenty-eight 
workmen (N. C. Mag. November 1900). 
Born of Armstrong's genius, the Elswick 
works and their offshoots were almost to 
the end of his life largely indebted to his 
suggestions. But the enormous growth of 
the enterprise was perhaps chiefly due to his 
judicious selection of able colleagues, and to 
the wise liberality by which he stimulated 
and encouraged them to do their best. IMore 
modern developments were mainly initiated 
by his partner. Sir Andrew Noble. 

Armstrong's A'aried activities brought him 
great wealth, which he always put to en- 
lightened uses. In 1863 he purchased some 
land on the east of Rothbury, and among 
the beetling crags of a rugged chine he 
built a stately home, ' Cragside.' He laid 
out roads upon its rocky slopes, he trained 
streams and dug out lakes. He sowed 
flowers, planted rare shrubs, and covered 
the ground with millions of noble trees, till 
the bleak hillside was transformed into a 
magnificent park, and the barren wilderness 



Armstrong 



69 



Armstrong 



"was clothed with beauty. At Cragside, too, 
lie dispensed a princely hospitality, and 
numerous men of distinction were among 
his guests. 

In 1872 Armstrong visited Egypt to ad- 
vise a method of obviating the interruption 
to the Nile traffic caused by the cataracts. 
His interesting lectures to the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Newcastle, de- 
scribing his journey and the antiquities on 
the river-bank, were published in 1874. 

In later life Armstrong's happiest hours, 
when not employed in planting or building, 
were devoted to electrical research in his 
laboratory at Cragside. He expressed the 
opinion that, if he had given to electricity 
the time spent upon hydraulics, the results 
would have been even more remunerative. 

Among his early experiments with his hy- 
<lro-electric machine he had shown that a cot- 
ton filament in two adjacent glasses travels 
towards the positive electrode in one, while 
an encircling tube of water moves towards 
the negative electrode in the other. This 
was the starting-point of his subsequent re- 
searches into the nature of the electric dis- 
charge. About 1892 he repeated the experi- 
ment in a modified form, using a RuhmkorfF 
induction coil giving an 18-inch spark, and 
he suggested that the phenomenon indicated 
the co-existence of two opposite currents in 
the movements of electricity, the negative 
heing surrounded by the positive, like a 
core within a tube. In 1897 Armstrong 
published a beautifully illustrated volume 
on ' Electric Movement in Air and Water,' 
in which he discussed the most remarkable 
series of figures ever obtained by electric 
discharge over photographic plates. In 
these later investigations he employed a 
Wimshurst machine with sixteen plates, 
each 34 inches in diameter. In the follow- 
ing November he invited Dr. H. Stroud, of 
the Durham College of Science, to continue 
his experiments. In a supplement to his 
book (1899) Armstrong developed a method 
of studying the phenomena of sudden elec- 
tric discharge based upon the formation of 
Lichtenburg figures. The results confirm 
the accuracy of the interpretation as to 
positive and negative distribution in his 
earlier work, and also extend the study of 
electric discharge in new directions. 

Throughout his life Armstrong was a 
notable benefactor of his native city. There 
is hardly any meritorious institution in New- 
castle or the neighbourhood, educational or 
charitable, which was not largely indebted 
to his assistance. He was a member of 
council of the Durham College of Science 
(1878-1900). He laid the foundation stone 



of the present buildings (1887), and he was 
a generous subscriber to its funds. He used 
his genius for landscape gardening to beau- 
tify Jesmond Dene, and then presented it to 
the town with some ninety-three acres, part 
of which is included in the Armstrong Park. 
In July 1886 Armstrong was induced to 
ofier himself as a liberal unionist candidate 
for the representation of Newcastle in parlia- 
ment, but, chiefly owing to labour troubles, 
was not returned. Two months afterwards 
he was presented with the freedom of the 
city, and in June 1887 he was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Armstrong in considera- 
tion of his varied and eminent public services. 
He represented Ilothbury on the Northum- 
berland county council, 1889-92. He pur- 
chased Bamborough Castle in 1894, intend- 
ing to devote a portion of it to the purposes 
of a convalescent home. He commenced 
nobly conceived restorations, but he did not 
live to see the completion of his designs. 

Armstrong's great services to scientific 
invention were rewarded by many distinc- 
tions apart from those already mentioned, 
and numerous foreign decorations. He was 
created D.C.L. Durham (1882), Master of 
Engineering, Dublin (1892), and he received 
the Bessemer medal, 1891. He was an ori- 
ginal member of the Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute ; president of the Mechanical Engineers, 
1861, 1862, 1869 ; of the North of England 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers, 1872-3, 
1873-4, 1874-5; of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers, 1882 ; of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Newcastle, 1860-1900; 
of the Natural History Society of Northum- 
berland, Durham, and Newcastle, 1890- 
1900. 

Armstrong died at Cragside on 27 Dec. 
1900. On the last day of the nineteenth 
century his remains were laid beside those 
of his wife (who died on 2 Sept. 1893) in the 
extension of Rothbury churchyard, which 
overlooks the river Coquet. By his death 
Newcastle lost her greatest citizen, who con- 
ferred upon the city not only glory but most 
substantial benefits. Armstrong's name will 
always stand high among the most illustrious 
men of the nineteenth century, who have 
rendered it memorable for the advance in 
scientific knowledge and in the adaptation 
of natural forces to the service of mankind. 

Armstrong had no issue, and his heir was 
his grand-nephew,William Henry Armstrong 
FitzPatrick Watson, son of John William 
Watson (the son of Armstrong's only sister), 
by his wife, Margaret Godman, daughter of 
Patrick Person FitzPatrick, esq., of Fitz- 
Leat House, Bognor. Armstrong's grand- 
nephew, in 1889, on his marriage with. 



Armstrong 



70 



Arnold 



Winifreda Jane, eldest daughter of General 
Sir John Adye [q. v. Suppl.], assumed the 
name and arms of Armstrong in addition to 
those of Watson, in accordance "with the 
wish of his great-uncle. 

Armstrong pursued all his researches with 
grip, tenacity, and concentration, with re- 
markable courage, zeal, and energy under 
the most perplexing circumstances. Fre- 
quently even disappointments and failures 
furnished the key to ultimate success. His 
colleague. Sir A. Noble, has spoken of his 
' extraordinary intuition as to how a result 
would work out. He would very often make 
a guess at a result, while I, after much labour 
and calculation, would reach the same con- 
clusion.' He was a vigorous writer, and his 
expositions of his views were clear and 
forcible; but his busy life left no time for 
fanciful speculations, and but little oppor- 
tunity for literary work, although he was 
the author of a large number of addresses, 
papers, and pamphlets. These treat chiefly 
of engineering and scientific subjects ; three 
are contained in * The Industrial Resources 
of the Tyne, AVear, and Tees,' 1863, of which 
he was joint editor. His most important 
work was his loagnificently illustrated ' Elec- 
tric Movement in Air and Water,' 1897, and 
the supplement, 1899. Among his papers 
the chief are: 1838 and 1840, 'On the Ap- 
plication of a Column of Water as a Motive 
Power for driving Machinery' {Mechanics^ 
Magazine) ; 1841-3, several papers ' On the 
Electricity of Effluent Steam ' {Philosophical 
Magazine) ; 1850, ' On the Application of 
Water Pressure as a Motive Power' {Pro- 
ceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers, vol. 
ix.); 1853, ' On Concussion of Pump Valves' 
{ib. vol. xii.) ; 1857-8, ' On the Use of Steam 
Coals of the Hartley District in Marine 
Boilers;' 1858, 'Water-pressure Machinery' 
{Proceedings of Institute of Mechanical En- 
gineers) ; 1863, 'The Coal Supply ' {British 
Association, Newcastle) ; 1863, ' A Three- 
powered Hydraulic Engine;' 1863, 'The 
Construction of Wrought-iron Rifled Field 
Guns ; ' 1869, ' Artillery ' {Mechanical Engi- 
neers) ; 1873, 'The Coal Supply' {North of 
England Institute of Mining and Mechanical ■ 
Engineers); 1877, 'History of Modern De- 
velopments of Water-pressure Machinery ' 
{Proceedings of Institute of Civil Emjineers, 
vol. 1.) ; 1882, ' National Defences ' '{ibid.) ; 
1883, ' Utilisation of Natural Forces '(Z?n^isA 
Association, York) ; 1883, ' Social Matters ' 
{Northern Union of Mechanics^ Institutes). 
To the ' Nineteenth Century' he contributed 
three papers : ' The Vague Cry for Technical 
Education ' (1888) ; ' The Cry for Useless 
Knowledge' (1888); and 'The New Naval 



Programme ' (1889). He contributed to the 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society ' ' An In- 
duction Machine,' 1892, and ' Novel Effects 
of Electric Discharge,' 1893. 

The chief portraits of Armstrong are : 

(1) by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., at Cragside ; 

(2) full-length by Mrs. L. Waller, in the 
Council Chamber, Newcastle Town Hall 
(this was paid for by public subscription) ; 

(3) by Mr. J. C. Horsley, at Elswick Works ; 

(4) head and shoulders, by Mrs. L. Waller, 
at Cragside, of which copies exist in the 
Jubilee Hall, Rothbury, and the Literary 
and Philosophical Society and the Institute 
of Civil Engineers, London ; (5) miniature 
of W. G. Armstrong, aged 18 ; (6) miniature 
by Taylor (these miniatures both at Crag- 
side) ; (7) bust by A. Munro, at Cragside, 
of which a replica by the artist is in the 
Literary and Philosophical Library. 

[A Life of Lord Armstrong is included in 
'Heroes of Industry,' by HI. E. Jones, 1886, and 
in ' Great Thinkers and Workers,' by K. Coch- 
rane, 1888. A short memoir was written by 
Mr. Watson Armstrong in Cassier's Mag. March 
1896.] H. P. G. 

ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822-1888), 
poet and critic, the eldest son of Dr. Thomas 
Arnold [q. v.], afterwards famous as head- 
master of Rugby, and his wife Mary (Pen- 
rose), was born on 24 Dec. 1822 at Laleham, 
near Staines, where his father then took 
pupils. Thomas Arnold [q. v. Suppl.] was 
his younger brother. Matthew migrated to 
Rugby with his family in 1828, but in 1830 
returned to Laleham as pupil ol^ his maternal 
uncle, the Rev. John Buckland. In August 

1836 he was removed to Winchester, and in 

1837 entered Rugby, which he left in 1841 
for Balliol College, Oxford, where he had 
gained a classical scholarship. In 1840 he 
had won a prize at Rugby with his first re- 
corded poetical production, 'Alaric at Rome ' 
(Rugby, 8vo, only two copies extant ; re- 
printed 1893 and 1896); the work was 
deeply influenced by ' Childe Harold,' and 
in its form of stanza was original for a prize 
poem, but it was not otherwise remarkable. 
Nor was the poem on Cromwell, which 
gained the Newdigate prize in June 1843 
(Oxford, 8vo), distinguished by any special 
characteristic. In 1844 Arnold took a second 
class in lit. hum., and in March 1845 was 
elected to a fellowship at Oriel. After a 
brief experience as a master at Rugby, he 
became in 1847 private secretary to the 
Marquis of Lansdowne, then president of 
the council, and, as such, the minister 
charged with the administration of public 
instruction. In 1851 Lord Lansdowne pro- 



Arnold 



71 



Arnold 



cured for Arnold an inspectorship of schools, 
and on 10 June of that year he fulfilled a 
cherished wish by uniting himself to Frances 
Lucy, daughter of Sir William Wightman 
[q.v.], one of the judges of the queen's bench. 
Up to this time Arnold, though now eight 
and twenty, was known only to a few as a 
member of a highly intellectual Oxford set, 
to which Oiough, Lake, and J. D. Coleridge 
belonged, and to a few more as the author 
of a little volume of verse, * The Strayed 
Reveller and other Poems,' published in 
1849 under the initial * A ' (London, 16mo ; 
five hundred copies were printed, but it was 
withdrawn before many copies were sold 
and is very scarce). His corresp ondence of 
the period, which^houghfu]l_jof_crud^ 



is more" lively and or^inarthan_the letters 
of later years, shows that he was proTqundly 
interested' in" the questions of the day, espe- 
cially in^ the revolutionary movements of 
1848, and haST already conceived the germs of 
most of the ideas which he was afterwards 
to develop. He must have been studying 
French and German, but he seems to have 
made no attempt in the department of 
literary and philosophical criticism in which 
he was afterwards to become potent ; and 
his volume of verse, though including two 
of his best poems, * The Forsaken Merman ' 
and * Mycerinus,' was too unequal as well 
as too diminutive to produce much etiect. 
On the who le h is ment al progress upto 
this date seems sla\v; but eith'er'a iiatural 
process or nis~cont^ct with the busy worldTn 
the discliarge'"dflirs~fealTy arduous duties as 
school inspector effected, a speedy .develop- 
ment ; in 1852 he appears as a jpoet of 
maturejpower, and in 1853 not merely as_a 
poet but as a legislator iipon poetry. The 
volume of 1852 was ' Empedocles on Etna 
and other Poems' (London, 8vo; reissued 
1896, 4to ; the original is only less scarce 
than 'The Strayed Reveller'). The book, 
like its forerunner, was published under the 
bare initial 'A.' It contained, with some 
short lyrics, two long poems, the dramatic 
' Empedocles on "Etna,' and the narrative^ 
'Trisfram and Iseultj which were much' 
more ambitious in design and elaborate in 
execution than anything previously at- 
tempted by Arnold. Both poems had great 
attractions ; the songs of the_harp-player 
Callicles in ' Empedocles ' are extraordmary 
combinations of pictorial beauty with lyrical 
passion, and the third canto of ' Tristram ' 
is a tnasterpiece of descriptive poetryr~~But 
neither the songs of Callicles nor tlie third 
canto of * Tristram ' has much connection 
with the rest of the poem to which each 
belongs. If the finest passages are thus, 



strictly speaking, superfluous, the poems can 
hardly be other than disjointed — and so in- 
deed they are — not apparently from inability 
to conceive the subjects as wholes, but froni 
inaptitude in the combination of details. 
They nevertheless contain sufficient beauty 
to justify by themselves a high poetical re- 
putation, and were accompanied by a num- 
ber of exquisite lyrics, among which it will 
suffice to name 'A Summer Night,' 'The 
Youth of Nature,' ' The Youth of Man,' 
''Isolation,' and ' Faded Leaves.' The spirit 
of these pieces may be described as inter- 
mediate between Wordsworth and Goethe, 
who are elsewhere in the same volume con- 
trasted with each other and with Byron in 
a very noble lyric. If, however, the poet 
neither expressed a new view of life nor 
created a new form of poetry, his style and 
cast of thought were indisputably his own. 
The volume nevertheless failed to win public 
attention, and the author, probably prompted 
less by disappointment than by dissatisfac- 
tion with the defects which he had discovered 
in ' Empedocles,' withdrew it after disposing 
of fifty copies. He was already providing 
himself with a new piece de resistance, better 
adapted to exemplify his creed as a poet. 
He could not have chosen better than in 
'Sohrab an d Rustum ,' which first a^eared 
in ' Poems by MatthewTtrnold^ a new 
edition ' (1 853, 8vo; 185 4 an d 1857, sli ghtly 
altered). Together with a re-issue of the 
most important contents ('Empedocles on 
p]tna ' excepted) of h is former volumes, the 
new volume contained. the_ria'iY_p.Qems„ of 
' The Scholar^rpsy^^and ' Requiescxit,' as 
well as * Sohrab and Rustum.' The last 
piece is an episode from Firdusi's ' Shah- 
Nameh,' noble and affecting in subject, and 
so simple in its perfect unity of action as 
to leave no room for digression, while fully 
admitting the adornments of description and 
elaborate simile. These are introduced with 
exquisite judgment, and, while greatly 
heightening the poetical beauty of the piece, 
are never allowed to divert attention from 
the progress of the main action, which cul- 
minafesTn a^'siHiation ' oF unsurpassable 
pathos. Nothing could have more forcibly 
exemplified the doctrines laid down by the 
author in his memorable preface to this 
volume of ' Poems,' in which he co ndemns 
the prevalent taste for bfllliant ~phrases and 
isolated felicities, and admonishes poets to 
regard above all things unity, c onsisten cy, 
and the total impression of the piece. 

This prefatory essay is a literary land- 
mark and monument of sound criticism. It 
is also of peculiar interest as foreshadowing 
the character of the literary work with 



Arnold 



72 



Arnold 



whicli Arnold's name was hereafter to be 
mainly associated. The intellectual defects 
which the essay denounced were charac- 
teristically English defects. So on discover- 
ing himself to be at is#ue with the hnlk-of 
his countrymen in every region of_oginion, 
Arnold subseq^uently undertook the un- 
popular office of detecto r- gene ral of the in- 
tellectual failings 'oT~E is^ own nation. The_ 
cast of his~mlnd was rather critical than 
I constructive, and_t he gradual drying up o f 
/ his na tive spring ol poetry , at ^o Time 
copious^ left mm no choice between c riticism 
and silence. 

In 1853 the exhaustion of his poetic 
faculty did not seem imminent, and some 
tim e was to elapse before Ar nold assumed 
his dist inctly critical attitude towarcTs'the 
tempe Tof his tim esl In 1855 he published 
* Poems . . . Second Series ' (London, 8vo), 
mostly reprints; but the most important, 
' Balder Dead,' a min iature bl ank-verse epic 
in thejD ianner o f ' S ohrab ancl Ili istum,' was 
new, an^ almost as g reat, a masterpiece of 
noble^athos and dignified narrative. 

In May 1857 Arnold wa's elected to the 
professorship of poetry at Oxford, which he 
held for ten years. He inaugurated his 
tenure of office by publishing in 1858 a 
tragedy, 'Merope,' avowedly intended as a 
poetical manifesto, and therefore condemned 
in advance as a work of reflection rather 
than inspiration. It is stately but frigid: 
the subject evidently had not taken posses- 
sion of him as * Sohrab ' and * Balder ' had 
done. It is also weighted by the unrhymed 
choral lyrics, whose mechanism contrasts 
painfully with^the spontanei ty of the harj - 
player's _songs in ' EmpedQcles_on_Et^na.' 
It is to Arnold's honour that, try as he 
would, he could not write lyrical poetry 
without a lyrical impulsej^uch as caine~lo^ 
him when _ in Novem ber 1857^ie wrote 
' Rugby ChapeP orTTiis fother's deatEy^oF 
when m 1859 he celebrated his deceased 
brother and sister-in-law in * A Southern 
Night,' one of the most beautiful of his 
poems [see Aenold, William Delafield], 
or when he wrote * Thyrsis'^n the death of 
his friend Clo u^h in 186 1. 

' Thyrsis ' and 'A Southern Night ' were 
first issued in Arnold's ' New„Po£insL' of 
1867. Many other pieces that figure in that 
volume evince declining power not so much 
by inferiority of execution as by the in- 
creasing tendencyjto mere reflection :'one of 
the pieces, ~'"SamtBrandan7 was^published 
separately (London, 1867, 4to). His * Poems ' 
were fully collected in two volumes in 1869^ 
when ' Rugby Chapel' was first incIuHeS, 
and again in 1877. By that date his chief 



work as a poet had been long since done. 
The true elegiac note was, however, struck 
once more in * Westminster Abbey,' a poem 
on the death of Dean Stanley in 1881 (in 
* Nineteenth Century,' January 1882), mag- 
nificent in its opening and its close, and 
nowhere unworthy of the author or the 
occasion. (All Arnold's 'poetry reappeared 
in three volumes in 1885, and in a single- 
volume ' Popular edition ' in 1890. ' Selected 
Poems ' were issued as a volume of the ' Gol- 
den Treasury Series' in 1878.) 

Meanwhile Arnold's appointment at Ox- 
ford had prompted two of his most valuable 
efforts in literary criticism. In 1861 he 
published * On Translating Homer : Three 
Lectures given at Oxford' (London, 8vo), 
one of the essays which mark epochs. There 
followed in 1862 a second volume, ' On 
Translating Homer : last Words.' The four 
lectures were first collected in 1896. It 
is true that Arnold's principles were more 
satisfactory than his practice ; his own at- 
tempts at translation were not very success- 
ful ; and the lectures were disfigured by in- 
excusable flippancies at the expense of per- 
sons entitled to the highest respect [see 
Weight, Ichabod Chaeles]. But never 
had the characteristics of Homer himself 
been set forth with such authority, or the 
rules of translation so unanswerably de- 
duced from them, or popular misconceptions 
so effectually extinguished. It is indeed a 
classic of criticism. Almost equal praise is 
due to the lectures * On the Study of Celtic 
Literature ' delivered in 1867, even though 
his knowledge of this subject was by no 
means equal to his knowledge of Homer, and 
the theme is less susceptible of closeness of 
treatment and cogency of demonstration. Its 
chief merit, apart from the fascinating style, 
is to have set forth the essential characteris- 
tics of Celtic poetry, and to have compre- 
hended those qualities of English poetry 
which chiefly distinguish it from that of 
other modern nations under the possibly in- 
exact but certainly convenient denomination . 
of ' Celtic magic' 

In 1859 Arnold issued an able pamphlet, 
'England and the Italian Question,' but, 
with all his poetical and critical activity, he 
was far from neglecting his official duties. 
His correspondence is full of proofs of his 
zeal as an inspector of schools, which are 
further illustrated by the valuable collection 
of his official reports published by Sir Francis 
Sandford after his death. He delighted in 
foreign travel for the purpose of inspecting 
foreign schools and universities, and his ob- 
servations were published in several books 
of great though ephemeral value : * Popular 



Arnold 



73 



Arnold 



Education of France,' 1861 ; ' A French 
Eton,' 1864; * Schools and Universities on 
the Continent,' 1868. At home his opposi- 
tion to Mr. Lowe's revised educational code 
at one time seemed likely to occasion his 
resignation; but he held on, and gave no 
sign of retirement until he had earned his 
pension, except on one occasion, when he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
librarianship of the House of Commons. 
After living some years in London he re- 
moved to Harrow, and in 1873 to Cobham, 
where he remained until his death. His 
domestic life, in general happy, was sadly 
clouded by the successive deaths of three 
sons within a short period. 

As a critic Arnold considerably modiGed 
the accepted form of the English critical 
essay by giving it something of the cast of 
a causerie, a method he had learned from 
one of the chief objects of his admiration and 
imitation, Sainte-Beuve. His critical powers 
were shown to very great advantage in the 
fine series of ' Essays in Criticism ' (1865; 
2nd edit, modified, 1869; Cth edit. 1889). 
Almost all the contents of this volume are 
charming, especially the sympathetic studies 
of Spinoza and Marcus Aurelius, and the 
contrast, combined with a parallel, between 
the religious ideas of Ptolemaic Alexandria 
and mediaeval Assisi, a pair of pictures in 
the manner of Arnold's friend, Ernest 
Renan. The most important essay, how- 
ever, is that on Heine ; for in depicting 
Heine, with perfect justice, as the intel- 
lectual liberator, the man whose "special 
functioiT it was to break up stereotyped 
for ms of thou ght, Arnold consciously or un- 
consciousIyTTelineated the mission which he 
had imposed upon himself, and to which the 
best of his non-official energies were to be 
devoted for many years. He had become 
pr6foundly__di8co ntented with Englis h in- 
diflerence^ to ideas in literature, in politics, 
and in religion, and set himself to rouse His 
countrymen out of what he deemed then* 
intellectual apathy by raillery and satire, 
objurgation in the manner of a Ruskin or~a 
Carlyle not being at all in his way. There 
is a certain incongruity in the bombard- 
ment of such solid entrenchments with such 
light artillery ; it is also plain that Arnold 
is as one-sided as the objects of his attack, 
and does not sufficiently perceive that the 
defects which he satirises are often defects 
inevitably annexed to great qualities. Nor 
was it possible to lecture his countrymen 
as he did without assuming the air of the 
deservedly deteste3 * s uperio r person.' 

With every drawback, together with some 
serious failures in good taste which cannot be 



overlooked, Arnold's crusade agai nst Brit ish 
Philistinism and imperviousness to ideas was 
a? serviceable as it was gallant, and much 
rather a proof of his ailection for his country- 
men than of the contempt for them unjustly 
lai d to his c harge. In literature and allied 
subjects his chief protest against their clia- 
racteristic failings was made in ' Culture jind 
Anarchy' (1869 j, a collection of essays (that 
had first appeared in the ' Cornhill Maga- 
zine ') all leading up to the apotheosis of 
culture a8jlie_miiuster of the ' sweetness and 
light ' essential to the perfect characj;er. In 
politics a more scientific method of dealing 
with public questions was advocated in 
'Friendship's Garland' (1871), a book very 
seriously intended, but too full of persiflage 
for most serious readers. In theology he 
strove to supplant the letter by the spirit in 
* St. Paul and Protestantism' (1870 ; revised 
from the ' Cornhill ; ' 4th edit. 1887) ; ' Lite- 
rature and Dogma: an Essay towards a 
better Apprehension of the Bible ' (1873) ; 
' God and the Bible : a Review of Objections 
to "Literature and Dogma"' (1875); and 
'Last Essays on Church and Religion' 
(1877). These books are not likely to be 
extensively read in the future, but their con- 
temporary influence is a noticeable ingredient 
in the stream of tendency which has brought 
the national mind nearer to Arnold's ideal. 

Arnold's critical interest in poetry re- 
mained at the same time unimpaired. In 
1878 he edited the ' Six Chief Lives ' from 
Johnson's * Lives of the Poets ' (5th edit. 
1889). He made excellent selections from 
Wordsworth (1879) and Byron (1881), ac- 
companied by admirable prefaces ; contri- 
buted the general introduction to Mr. T. H. 
Ward's selections of English poets, and 
wrote for the same collection the critical 
notices of Gray and Keats, valuable as far 
as they go, but strangely restricted in scope. 
In 1881 also he collected Burke's ' Letters, 
Speeches, and Tracts on Irish Affairs ' with 
a preface. He also produced annotated ver- 
sions of tlie writings of the two Isaiahs 
(1872 and 1883), the first of which, as 'A 
Bible-Reading for Schools,' went through 
numerous editions. 

In 1883, greatly to Arnold's surprise, Glad- 
stone conferred upon him a civil list pension 
of 250/., which enabled him to retire from 
the civil service. In the winter of tlie same 
year he started on a lecturing tour in Ame- 
rica. His eldest daughter had married and 
settled in that country. He returned to 
England in the spring of 1884, having reaped 
a fair pecuniary reward from his lectures, 
although he incurred some adverse criticism. 
He paid another visit to America in 1886. 



Arnold 



74 



Arnold 



Among the fruits of his first American tour 
were two powerful lectures — one on the im- 
portance of a high standard of culture, the 
other vindicating literary study as an instru- 
ment of education against the encroach- 
ments of physical science. These, with a 
hardly adequate lecture on Emerson, in 
which he finds much to say about Carlyle, 
were published in 1885 as 'Discourses in 
America.' ' Mixed Essays ' had appeared in 
1879 ; ' Irish Essays and Others ' was pub- 
lished in 1882, and * Essays in Criticism, 
Second Series,' in 1888 ; and he continued to 
the last an active contributor to periodical 
literature, especially in the ' xsineteenth Cen- 
tury.' Essays from this review and from 
' Murray's Magazine ' were issued at Boston 
^ in 1888 as * Civilization in the United 
States.' His last essay, on Milton, appeared 
in the United States after his death. Arnold 
died very suddenly from disease of the heart 
on 15 April 1888 at Liverpool, whither he 
had gone on a visit to his sister to welcome 
his daughter homeward bound from America. 
Matthew Arnold was buried in the church- 
yard of All Saints, Laleliam, in the same 
grave with his eldest son Thomas (1852- 
1868) ; the tombstone bears the inscription 

* Awake, thou Lute and Harp ! I will 
awake right early ' (cf. Winter, Gray Days 
and Gold, 1890). 

Arnold unwisely discouraged all biogra- 
phical memorials of himself, and the only 
authentic record is the disappointing ' Letters 
of Matthew Arnold, 1848-1888,' collected 
and arranged by Mr. G. W. E. Russell in 
two volumes, 1895. These are entertaining 
reading, and pleasing as proofs of the 
extreme amiability of one who was generally 
set down as supercilious and sardonic, but 
are remarkably devoid of insight, whether 
literary or political. This probably arises 
in great measure from their being mostly 
addressed to members of his own family, 
and so wanting the stimulus arising from 
the collision of dissimilar minds. They 
depict the writer's moral character, notwith- 
standing, with as much clearness as attrac- 
tiveness, and his intellectual character is 
sufficiently evident in his writings. If a 
single word could resume him, it would be 

* academic ; ' but, although this perfectly 
describes his habitual attitude even as a 
poet, it leaves aside his chaste diction, his 
pictorial vividness, and his overwhelming 
pathos. The better, which is also the larger, 
part of his poetry is Avithout doubt immor- 
tal. His position is distinctly independent, 
while this is perhaps less owing to innate 
originality than to the balance of competing 
influences. Wordsworth saves him from 



being a mere disciple of Goethe, and Goethe 
from being a mere follower of Wordsworth. 
As a .critic he repeatedly evinced a happy 
instinct for doing the right thing at the 
right time. Apart from their high intel- 
lectual merits, the seasonableness of the 
preface to the poems of 1853, of the lec- 
tures on Homer, and those on the Celtic 
spirit, renders these monumental in English 
literature. His great defect as a critic is 
the absence of a lively aesthetic se nse ; the 
more exquisi t"e beauties of literature do not 
greatly i mpress him unless as vehi cle^foxtlie 
communica tion of ideas. He inherited his 
father's et^cal cast of mind ; conduct interes ts ' 
him more thangenius. Nothing else can 
account for hisHmazriig^ definition of poetry 
as a ' criticism of life : ' and in the same 
spirit, when he ought to be giving a com- 
prehensive view of Keats and Gray, he 
spends his time in inquiring whether Keats 
was manly, and why Gray was unproduc- 
tive. When, however, he could place him- 
self at a point of view that suited him, 
none could write more to the point. His 
characters of Spinoza, Marcus Aurelius, and 
Heine are masterly, and nothing can be 
better than his poetical appreciation of 
Wordsworth, Byron, and Goethe. A great 
writer whose influence on conduct was 
mainly indirect, such as Dickens or Thacke- 
ray, seemed to puzzle him ; Tennyson's 
beauties as a poet were unappreciated on 
account of his secondary place as a thinker ; 
and the vehemence of a Carlyle or a Char- 
lotte Bronte offended his fastidious taste. 
Thus, for one reason or another, he estimated 
the genius of his own age much below its 
real desert, and this unsympathetic attitude 
towards the contemporary representatives 
of English thought perverted his entire 
view of it, political, social, and intellectual. 
Mr. Herbert Spencer criticises some of the 
caprices of his ' anti-patriotic bias ' and eft'ec- 
tively ridicules his longings for an English 
academy in his ' Study of Sociology' (chap- 
ter ix. and notes). Yet, if Ar nold cannot b e 
praised as he praises Soph ocles for having 
' seen life steamlvaud seen It'whole,'Tie at_ 
all events saw what escaped many others ; 
and if he exaggerated the inaccessibility of 
the English mind to ideas, he left it more 
accessible than he found it. This would 
have contented him ; his aim_j\v'as not to 
subjugate opinion but to emancipate it, con- 
tending for the ends of Goeth e jvpith tte 
weapons of Heine. 

A noble portrait of Arnold, by Mr. G. F. 
Watts, R.A., is in the National Portrait 
Gallery (it is reproduced in Arnold's' Poems' 
in the 'Temple Classics,' 1900, which also 



L^ 



Arnold 



75 



Arnold 



contains a bibliographical sketch by Mr. 
Buxton Forman) ; and an excellent likeness 
is engraved as the frontispiece to his ' Poeti- 
cal Works,' 1890 (cf. Harper^s Magazine, 
May 1888). There is as yet no collective 
edition of his writings in England, though 
a uniform edition in ten volumes was issued 
in America (New York, 1884, &c.) ; a biblio- 
graphy was published by Mr. Thomas Bur- 
nett Smart in 1892. ' The Matthew Arnold 
Birthday Book, arranged by his daughter, 
Eleanor Arnold,' with a portrait, was issued 
in a handsome quarto, 1883. 

[Arnold's correspondence is the only compre- 
hensire authority for his life. Professor Saints- 
bury's monograph (1899) is admirable wherever 
it is not warped by hostility to Arnold's specula- 
tive ideas and some of his literary predilections. 
References to him in contemporary literature 
are endless, and he is the subject of innumerHble 
critiques, including essays upon his poetry by 
Mr. A. C. Benson and the present writer, accom- 
panying editions of his poems, and a remarkable 
article on the Poems of 1853 by Froude, in the 
Westminster lie view (January 1854). Tlie 
ethical aspects of Arnold's teaching are examined 
in John M. Robertson's Modern Humanists, 
1891 ; in Gr. White's Matthew Arnold and the 
Spirit of the Age, 1808 ; and in W. H. Hudson's 
Studies in lnt(^rprelation, New York, 1896. 
An interesting sketch of Arnold as a teacher 
is given in Sir Joshua Fitch's Thomas and 
Matthew Arnold in the Great Educators Series, 
1897. A few additional letters were printed 
with Arthur Gabon's Two Essays upon Mat- 
thew Arnold, 1897. There is an interesting 
estimate of Arnold as a thinker in Crozier's My 
Inner Life, 1898, pp. 521-9.] R. G. 

ARNOLD, SiE NICHOLAS (1507?- 
1580), lord justice in Ireland, born about 
1607, was the second but eldest surviving 
son of John Arnold {d. 1545-6) of Churcham, 
Gloucestershire, and his wife Isabel Hawkins. 
His father was prothonotary and clerk of 
the crown in Wales, and in 1541-2 was 
granted the manors of Highnam and Over, 
also in Gloucestershire. Nicholas Arnold 
was one of Henry VIII's gentlemen pen- 
sioners as early as 1526 ; after 1530 he 
entered Cromwell's service, and was by him 
employed in connection with the dissolution 
of the monasteries. In December 1538 he 
was promoted into the king's service, and a 
year later he became one of Henry VIII's new 
bodyguard. On 10 Jan. 1544-5 he was re- 
turned to parliament as one of the knights 
for Gloucestershire. In the same year he was 
in command of the garrison atQueenborough, 
and in July 1546 he was sent to take charge, 
with a salary of 26s. iid. a day, of Boulogne- 
berg, a fort above Boulogne, which passed 
tvith it into English hands by the peace of 



that year. Arnold at once reported that the 
fort was not in a position for defence ; but 
Somerset in 1547 did something to remedy 
the fault, and when on 1 May 1549, four 
months before declaring war, the French 
attacked Boulogneberg, they were completely 
defeated. Arnold had only four hundred 
men and the French three thousand ; Arnold 
was wounded, but the French are said to 
have filled fifteen wagons with their dead 
(Weiotheslet, Chron. ii. 11). A fresh 
attack was made in August, when Arnold, 
recognising the hopelessness of a defence, 
removed all the ordnance and stores into 
Boulogne, and dismantled the fort. For 
the remainder of the war and until the 
cession of Boulogne Arnold acted as one of 
the council there. He was knighted some 
time during the reign of Edward VI, and 
during the latter part of it seems to have 
travelled in Italy {Cal. State Papers, For. 
1547-53, pp. 227, 237, 242). He returned 
to England in time to sit for Gloucester- 
shire in Edward VI's last parliament (Fe- 
bruary-March 1553). 

Arnold made no open opposition to Mary's 
accession, but he fell under suspicion at the 
time of Wyatt's rebellion. On 9 Feb. 
1553-4 the sheriflp of Gloucestershire re- 
ported to the council * words spoken by 
Arnold relative to the coming of the king 
of Spain,' and Wyatt compromised him by 
saying that he was the first to whom Wil- 
liam Thomas [q. v.] mentioned his plot to 
assassinate the queen. On 21 Feb. Arnold 
was committed to the Fleet, being removed 
to the Tower three days later. He remained 
there until 18 Jan. 1554-5, when he was 
released on sureties for two thousand pounds. 
On 23 Sept. following he was even elected 
to parliament' for his old constituency, but 
he still maintained relations with various 
conspirators against Mary, and in January 
1655-6 was implicated in Sir Henry Dudley 
[q. V. SuppL] and Uvedale's plot to drive the 
Spaniards from England [see Uvedale, 
RiCHAEDj'. On 19 April he was again com- 
mitted to the Tower (Machtn, Diary, p. 
104), and his deposition taken on 6 May is 
still extant ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, 
p. 82). On 23 Sept. following he was removed 
to the Fleet, where lie was allowed * liberty 
of the house.' Soon afterwards he was re- 
leased on condition of not going within ten 
miles of Gloucestershire, and even this re- 
striction was relaxed on 3 Feb. 1666-7. 

After the accession of Elizabeth, Arnold 
became sheriflF of Gloucestershire 1658-9, 
and in 1562 he was selected to go to Ireland 
to report on the complaints against Sussex's 
administration. Froude describes him as 



Arnold 



76 



Arnold 



' a hard, iron, pitiless man, careful of things 
and careless of phrases, untroubled with 
delicacy and impervious to Irish enchant- 
ments.' According to a more reasoned 
estimate he was ' a man of resolution and 
industry, who cared little for popularity, 
and might be trusted to carry out his orders ' 
(Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudor s, ii. 50). 
»Sussex resented the inquiry, especially into 
the military mismanagement, and put ob- 
stacles in Arnold's way ; but Arnold made 
out a case too strong to be neglected by the 
English government, and in 1564 he was 
sent back to Ireland with Sir Thomas 
Wroth (1516-1573) [q. v.] and a new com- 
mission. Sussex was granted sick leave, 
and on 24 May 1564 Arnold was appointed 
lord justice during the lord deputy's absence 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 15th liep. App. iii. 
135). He made a rigorous inquisition into 
military abuses, but in the character of ruler 
he was hardly so successful. lie trusted 
too implicitly in Shane O'Neill's professions 
of loyalty, and encouraged him to attack 
the Scots in Ulster; he treated the O'Connors 
and O'Reillys with harshness, archbishop 
Loftus with rudeness, and was unduly par- 
tial to Kildare. His intentions were ex- 
cellent, * but he was evidently quarrelsome, 
arbitrary, credulous, and deficient in personal 
dignity.' His request to be appointed lord 
deputy was refused, and on 22 June 1565 he 
was recalled. Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.] being 
selected to succeed Sussex. 

After Arnold's return to England a series 
of articles was presented against him by 
Sussex, but, beyond calling up Arnold to 
reply, the council took no further steps 
against him. Arnold henceforth confined 
himself to local affairs ; he had been returned 
to parliament for Gloucester city in January 
1562-3, and on 8 May 1572 was again 
elected for the county. He was commis- 
sioner for the collection of a forced loan in 
1569, and he was also on commissions for 
the peace, for the restraint of grain, and for 
enforcing the laws relating to clothiers. 
Much of his energy was devoted to im- 
proving the breed of English horses ; as 
early as 1546 he had been engaged in 
importing horses from Elanders, and in his 
' Description of England,' prefixed to Holin- 
shed, William Harrison (1534-1593) [q. v.] 
writes, ' Sir Nicholas Arnold of late hath 
bred the best horses in England, and written 
of the manner of their production.' No trace 
of these writings has, however, been dis- 
covered. 

Arnold died early in 1581, and was buried 
in Churcham parish church ( Gloucestershire 
Notes and Queries, iv. 270, 271 ; Inquia. post 



mortem Eliz. vol. cxcv. No. 94 ; the order for 
the inquisition is dated 19 June 1581, but the 
inquisition itself is illegible). He married, 
first, on 19 June 1629, Margaret, daughter of 
Sir William Dennys of Dyrham, Gloucester- 
shire, by whom he had issue two sons and a 
daughter ; the elder son, Rowland, married 
Mary, daughter of John Brydges, first baron 
Chandos [q. v.], and was father of Dorothy, 
wife of Sir Thomas Lucy (1551-1605) [see 
under Lucy, Sir Thomas (1532-1000)]. By 
his second wife, a lady named Isham, Arnold 
had issue one son, John, who settled at 
Llanthony. 

[Cal. Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dora. 1547-80, For. 1547-53, 
Irish 1509-75, and Carew MSS. vol. i.; Cal. 
Fiants, Ireland, Eliz.; Hist. MSS. Coram. 15th 
Rep. App. iii. passira; Acts of the Privy Council, 
ed. Dasent; Lascelles's Liber Munerura Hib. ; 
Lit. Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; 
Wriothesley's Chron. ; Chron. Queen Jane and 
Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.) ; Oflf. Ret. Mem- 
bers of Pari. ; Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1623 
(Harl.Soc); Bagwell's Ireland under theTudors, 
vol. ii. ; Froude's Hist, of England ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. vi. 
287, 394.] A. F. P. 

ARNOLD, -THOMAS (1823-1900), pro- 
fessor of English literature, second son of 
Dr. Thomas Arnold [q. v.] of Rugby, and 
younger brother of Matthew Arnold [q. v. 
Suppl.], was born at Laleham, Staines, on 
30 Nov. 1823, Like his brother Matthew 
he was privately taught by Herbert Hill, a 
cousin of Robert Southey, and then, after a 
year at Winchester (1836-7), was entered at 
Rugby, where his master was James Prince 
Lee. The vacations were spent at Fox How 
in Westmoreland, and Arnold had a clear 
recollection of Southey and of Wordsworth 
at Rydal Mount reciting the sonnet that 
he had just composed, * Is there no nook of 
English ground secure ? ' He was elected 
to a scholarship at University College, Ox- 
ford, in 1842, matriculating on 26 Feb., 
graduated B.A.. 1845, M.A. 1865, and was 
entered of Lincoln's Inn on 25 April 1846. 
His college rooms were opposite those of 
Arthur Stanley, and a small debating society, 
'The Decade,' brought him into intimate 
relations with Stanley, Jowett, Shairp, and 
Clough. He met Clough near Loch Ness in 
the long vacation of 1847, and supplied the 
poet with one or two of the incidents forming 
the staple of his ' Bothie of Tober-na- Vuolich' 
(in which poem he himself figures with 
little concealment as 'Philip'). In the same 
year he accepted a clerkship in the colonial 
office, but held it for a few months only, for in 
November 1847 he took a cabin passage to 



Arnold 



77 



Arnold 



Wellington, New Zealand. During the sum- 
mer of 1848 he attempted to start a small 
farm on a clearing in the Makara Valley, two 
sections of which had been purchased by his 
father; but this scheme proved abortive, and 
early in 1849 he started a school at Fort Hill, 
near Nelson. His chief friend in New Zea- 
land was Alfred Domett [q. v.] (Browning's 
' Waring '), through whom he was offered, 
but refused, a private secretaryship to Gover- 
nor (Sir) George Grey. His emoluments at 
Nelson were small, and he was smarting 
under a certain sense of failure when in 
October 1849 he received a letter from Sir 
William Denison offering him the post of 
inspector of schools in Tasmania, which he 
gladly accepted. He performed the duties 
without intermission for six years and a 
half from January 1850, At Hobart Town, 
where his headquarters were, he married on 
13 June 1850 Julia, daughter of William 
Sorell, registrar of deeds in Hobart, and 
granddaughter of Colonel Sorell, a former 
governor of the colony. His life at the Nor- 
mal School in Hobart was uneventful dur- 
ing the next few years, but his mind was 
oscillating upon religious questions, and in 
January 1856 he was received into the Ro- 
man catholic church by Bishop Willson of 
Hobart. This step incensed many of the 
colonists, and Arnold was glad to accept 
eighteen months' leave of absence ; he sailed 
for England with his wife and three chil- 
dren in July, doubling Cape Horn in a small 
barque of four hundred tons, and arriving at 
London in October. A few months later he 
was asked by Newman to go to Dublin, 
with a prospect of employment as professor 
of English literature at the contemplated 
catholic university. While there, between 
1856 and 1862, he gradually put together 
his useful ' Manual of English Literature, 
Historical and Critical' (1862; a work con- 
siderably improved in successive editions, of 
which the seventh, preface dated Dublin, 
December 1896, is the last). Newman re- 
signed the rectorship of the university in 
1858, and in January 1862 Arnold followed 
him to Edgbaston, accepting the post of first 
classical master in the Birmingham Oratory 
School. About this time he made the ac- 
quaintance of Lord Acton, and wrote seve- 
ral articles in his review, the ' Home and 
Foreign.' 

Early in 1865 Arnold's growing liberalism 
began to alienate him from the oratorians. 
Newman would not allow one of his boys to 
receive Dollinger's * The Church and the 
Churches,' which Arnold had selected for a 
prize. This convinced him that his ' con- 
nection with the Oratory was not likely to 



be prolonged,' and he thereupon left it and 
the church of Rome. After taking advice 
with Arthur Stanley, then canon of Canter- 
bury, he built a house (now WyclifFe Hall) 
in the Banbury Road, Oxford, and decided 
to take pupils there. He was candidate for 
the professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford 
in 1876, but his election was prevented by 
the announcement that he had rejoined the 
church of Rome. He now sold his house at 
Oxford, and after a brief interval resumed 
literary teaching in Dublin. He was elected 
fellow of the Royal University of Ireland in 
1882, his status being improved by his ap- 
pointment as professor of English language 
and literature in the University College, St, 
Stephen's Green. His later life was unevent- 
ful. After 1887 he settled exclusively in 
Ireland, and he made pilgrimages in 1898 to 
the shrine of St. Brigit at Upsala in Sweden, 
visiting at the same time the scene of the 
main action of Beowulf, about Roskilde, and 
in 1899 to Rome. Early in 1900 he brought 
out an autobiographical volume entitled 
' Passages in a Wandering Life ; ' he writes 
in an agreeable style of a life of which he 
laments, with needless bitterness, that the 
greater part had been ' restless and unprofit- 
able.' He died at Dublin on 12 Nov. 1900, 
and was buried in Glasnevin cemetery, leav- 
ing several children, the eldest of whom, 
born at Hobart in 1851, is the novelist, Mrs, 
Humphry Ward. After the death of his 
first wife in 1888 he married, in 1890, Jose- 
phine, daughter of James Benison of Slieve 
Rassell, co. Cavan. 

Besides his well-known * Manual of Eng- 
lish Literature,' Arnold wrote ' Chaucer to 
Wordsworth : a Short History of English 
Literature to the present day' (London, 
1868, 2 vols. 12mo; 2nd ed, 1875). His 
editions of English classics are numerous 
and valuable. They include: 1. 'Select 
English Works of .Tohn Wycliffe from Ori- 
ginal Manuscripts,' 1809-71, 3 vols. 8vo. 
2. * Beowulf: an Heroic Poem of the Eighth 
Century, with a Translation,' 1876. 3. 'Eng- 
lish Poetry and Prose, a Collection of 
Illustrative Passages, 1696-1832, with Notes 
and Indexes,' 1879 ; new ed. 1882. 4. 'The 
History of the English by Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon,' 1879. 5. 'The Historical Works 
of Symeon of Durham,' vols. i. and ii. The 
last two texts were edited for the Rolls; 
Series. 

A fine portrait of Thomas Arnold is pre- 
fixed to his autobiographical volume, show- 
ing his marked resemblance as an older 
man to his brother, Matthew Arnold. An 
excellent crayon likeness of him as a 
younger man, by Bishop Nixon of Tas- 



Arnould 



78 



Asaph 



mania, is in the possession of Miss Arnold 
of Fox How. 

[Arnold's Passages in a "Wandering Life, 1900; 
Times, 13 Nov. 1900; Literature, 17 Nov. 1900 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Th3 Tablet, 17 Nov. 
1900; Men and Women of the Time; 13th ed. ; 
Matthew Arnold's Letters, 1894; AUibone'sDict. 
of English Literature; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

ARNOULD, Sir JOSEPH (18U-1886), 
chief justice of Bombay and author, eldest 
son of Joseph Arnould, M.D., was born at 
Camberwell on 12 Nov. 1814. His father 
was owner of White Cross in Berkshire, and 
deputy lieutenant of the county ; the pro- 
perty eventually passed to Sir Joseph. Edu- 
cated at Charterhouse, he went to Oxford, 
where he was admitted at Wadham College 
on 4 Oct. 1831. He was Goodridge exhibi- 
tioner 1833, 1834, 1835, and Hody (Greek) 
exhibitioner 1833 to 1835. In 1834 he won 
the Newdigate prize for English verse, the 
subject being ' The Hospice of St. Bernard.' 
This was recited by him on 11 June, when 
the Duke of Wellington was installed chan- 
cellor of the university. Arnould thereupon 
interpolated two lines to the eftect that he 
whom 

' . . . a world could not subdue 

Bent to thy prowess, chief of Waterloo ' 

(Pyceoft, Oxford Memories, ii. 4). Writ- 
ing to his wife, John Wilson Croker, who 
■was present, styled the verses * very good,' 
adding that, after the last word had been 
spoken, the whole assembly started up, and 
'some people appeared to me to go out of 
their senses — literally to go mad' (TAe 
Croker Papers, ii. 228). 

Arnould graduated B. A. on 13 May 1836, 
having taken a first class. In 1840 he was 
elected moderator of philosophy ; he became 
probationer fellow on 30 June 1838, and on 
11 Jan. 1841 he ceased to be a fellow owing 
to his marriage, and he removed his name on 
25 June 1841. He had been entered at the 
Middle Temple on 10 Nov. 1836, and he was 
called to the bar on 19 Nov. 1841. For a 
time he shared chambers with Alfred Domett 
[q. v.], the poet Browning's * Waring.' He 
practised as a special pleader, and went the 
home circuit. He became a contributor to 
Douglas Jerrold's ' Weekly Newspaper,' many 
of the verses on social questions being from his 
pen. He was afterwards engaged as a leader- 
writer for the ' Daily News.' He continued 
to practise at the bar, and in 1848 he gave 
to the world a work in two volumes on the 
* Law of Marine Insurance and Average.' It 
was so well received as to be reprinted at 
Boston, in America, two years later with 
some additions. 



In 1859 Arnould accepted at the hands of 
Lord Stanley, secretary of state for India, 
a seat on the bench of the supreme court 
of Bombay. He was knighted on 2 Feb. 
1859. He was reappointed to a like office 
in 1862, when the supreme court was con- 
verted into the high court of judicature. 
He retired in 1869, when the natives of 
Bombay presented an address in praise of 
his services, and founded an Arnould scho- 
larship in their university to commemorate 
what he had done to promote the study of 
Mohammedan and Hindu law. A fruit of 
his leisure after his return to England was 
the ' Memoir of the first Lord Denman,' in 
two volumes, which was published in 1873. 

Arnould died at Florence on 16 Nov. 1886. 
He was twice married: first, in 1841, to 
Maria, eldest daughter of II. G. Ridgeway ; 
and, secondly, in 1860, to Ann Pitcairn, 
daughter of Major Carnegie, C.B. 

[Private information ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; List of Carthusians, p. 7; Gar- 
diner's Registers of Wadham College, ii. 346, 
347; Times, 18 Feb. 1886.] F. E. 

ASAPH, or, according to its Welsh forms, 
AssAF, AssA, or Asa {Jl. 570), Welsh saint, 
was the son of a North Welsh prince named 
Sawyl (in old Welsh, Samuil) Benisel, son 
of Pabo [q. v.] The epithet Benisel 
('of the low head') applied to Pabo's son 
(see Harleian MS. 3859 printed in Y Cym- 
mrodor, ix. 179, col. 1), was changed in all 
the later genealogies (see Myvyrian Archaio- 
logy, 1870, pp. 415-7 ; lolo MSS. 102, 106) 
into Benuchel ('of the high head'), thus 
confounding Asaph's father with a Glamor- 
gan chieftain of the name of Sawyl Benuchel, 
who is described in the Welsh triads as one 
of * the three overbearing ones of Britain ' 
(see remarks of Mr. Egertoit Phillimore 
in Bye-Gones, 2nd ser. i. 482-5). The genea- 
logies also represent Asaph as nephew of 
Dunawd, founder of Bangor Iscoed, and 
cousin of Deiniol, first bishop of Bangor in 
Carnarvonshire (cf. Baeing-Gotild, Lives of 
Saints, App. vol. 136). His mother, Gwen- 
assed, was granddaughter of Cunedda 
Wledig, being the daughter of Rhun ' Hael ' 
(or the generous) of Reinuc (Camhro-Brit. 
SS. 266) or, as he is elsewhere called, Rhuf- 
awn of Rhyfoniog {lolo MS. 522), which 
was the name of the cantrev in which St. 
Asaph is situated. He himself was probably 
a native of the adjoining cantrev of Tegengl, 
which corresponds to the western half of 
the main portion of the modern Flintshire, 
a district where many places still bear his 
name, such as Llanasa (his church), Pant- 
asaph (his hollow) near Holywell, Ffynnon 



Asaph 



79 



Ashbee 



Asa (his well) at Cwm, and Onen Asa (his 
ash-tree) (Thomas, p. 5). 

The saint, who is said to have been ' parti- 
cularly illustrious for his descent and beauty,' 
is first heard of in connection with the mis- 
sionary efforts of Cyndeyrn or Kentigern 
[q.v.], the exiled bishop of the northern 
JJritons of Strath Clyde, who about 560 
established a monastery at the confluence of 
the rivers Clwyd and Elwy in what is now 
Flintshire. The site may indeed have been 
selected owing to the cordial welcome which 
the house of Sawyl seems to have extended 
to Kentigern, as the person named Cad wallon, 
who invited Kentigern to the place (Joceltn 
of Furness, Vita S. Kentigemi, c. 23), is 
probably to be identified with a nephew of 
Asaph and a grandson of Sawyl (Philli- 
JIORE, loc. cit.), Sawyl's own attachment to 
Christianity may also doubtless be inferred 
from his epithet of Benisel. Asaph himself 
became a disciple of the missionary, ' imita- 
ting him in all sanctity and abstinence,' and, 
according to the legend, succouring him on 
one occasion by carrying in his woollen habit 
some burning charcoal to warm his shivering 
master. On his return to Strath Clyde about 
570, Kentigern, who 'bore ever a special 
afiection ' for Asaph, appointed him his suc- 
cessor. It is surmised that it was in Asaph's 
time that the monastery was elevated into a 
cathedral foundation, and that, though Ken- 
tio'ern was the founder of the monastery, 
Asaph was in fact the first bishop of the see. 
The name of Kentigern does not seem to 
have ever been associated with the nomen- 
clature of either cathedral or diocese, which, 
though originally known by the Welsh name 
of Llanelwy, has since about 1100 also borne 
the English name St. Asaph, both which 
names co-exist to the present day. ' Bangor 
Assaf ' is also a name applied to the cathe- 
dral in one manuscript (lolo MS. 128). The 
old parish church of St. Asaph, however, 
consists of two equal and parallel aisles, 
known respectively as Eglwys Cyndeyrn and 
Eglwys Asaph, and in this respect served 
as the model for most of the churches of 
the Vale of Clwyd. The dedication of this 
church and that of Llanasa (which is similar 
in form) is to St. Asaph in conjunction with 
St. Kentigern. 

The anniversary or wake of the saint used 
to be celebrated by a fair held at St. Asaph 
on 1 May, on which day he is believed to 
have died, probably about 596. He was 
buried, according to tradition, in the cathe- 
dral. He is said to have written a ' Life of 
St. Kentigern,' which, though not now extant, 
probably formed the basis of the life com- 
piled in 1125 by Jocelyn of Furness (for 



which see Bishop Fokbes's Historians of 
Scotland, vol. v. ; PiNKEETOlf, Vitce Antiq. 
SS. Scotice, 1789). A saying attributed to 
him has, however, survived— ' Quicunque 
verbo Dei adversantur, saluti hominum invi- 
dent ' (Capgeave). ' Myn bagl Assa ' (' By 
Asaph's crosier ') appears as a mediseval oath 
(Lewis Glyn Cothi, p. 371). 

His well, Ffynnon Asa, in the parish of 
Cwm, is a natural spring of great volume, 
described as ' the second largest well in the 
principality.' It was formerly supposed to 
have healing powers, and down to some 
fifty years ago, if not later, persons bathed in 
it occasionally. It is now chiefly noted 
for its trout (Wm. Davies, Handbook for 
the Vale of Clwyd, 1856, pp. 185-6). At St, 
Asaph ' the schoolboys used to show . . . 
the print of St. Asaph's Horseshoe when he 
jumpt with him from Onnen Hassa (Asaph's 
Ash-tree), which is about two miles off"' 
(Willis, Survey, ed. Edwards, 1801, ii. 11). 

[A fragmentary life of St. Asaph, compiled 
probably in the twelfth century from various 
sources of written and oral tradition, was for- 
merly preserved in a manuscript volume called 
Llyfr Coeh, or the Red Book of Asaph, the ori- 
ginal of which has long been lost; but there 
exist two copies of portions of the volume, at 
Peniarth and in the bishop's library respectively 
(as to the latter see Arch. Cambr. 3rd ser. xiv. 
442). See also Life of St. Kentigern, ut supra ; 
Acta Sanctorum, Maii, i. 82; Baring-Gould's 
Lives of the Saints, 1897, vol. for May, p. 17, cf. 
January, p. 187, and App. vol. 136, 171-2; 
D. R. Thomas's History of the Diocese of St. 
Asaph, 1874, pp. 1-6, 61, 179, 219, 271-3, 287, 
292; Rees's Cambro-British Saints, pp. 266, 
593 ; Rice Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 268 ; informa- 
tion kindly supplied by the Rev. J. Fisher, B.D. 
of Ruthin, from notes for his projected Lives of 
"Welsh Saints.] D. Ll, T. 

ASHBEE, HENRY SPENCER (1834- 
1900), bibliographer, the son of Robert and 
Frances Ashbee (born Spencer), born in 
London on 21 April 1834, was apprenticed 
in youth to the large firm of Copestake's, 
Manchester warehousemen, in Bow Church- 
yard and Star Court, for whom he travelled 
for many years. Subsequently he founded 
and became senior partner in the London 
firm of Charles Lavy & Co., of Coleman 
Street, merchants, the parent house of which 
was in Hamburg. At Hamburg he married 
Miss Lavy, and about 1868 organised an 
important branch of the business at Paris 
(Rue des Jeuneurs), where he thenceforth 
spent much time. Having amassed a hand- 
some fortune he devoted his leisure to travel, 
bibliography, and book collecting. He com- 
piled the finest Cervantic library out of Spain, 



Ashbee 



80 



Ashe 



and perhaps the finest private library of the 
kind anywhere, if that of Seiior Bonsoms at 
Barcelona be excepted. He indulged in 
extra-illustrated books, the gem of his col- 
lection being a Nichols's ' Literary Anec- 
dotes,' extended from nine to forty-two 
volumes by the addition of some five thou- 
sand extra plates ; he possessed an extra- 
ordinary series of books illustrated by Daniel 
Chodowiecki, the German Cruikshank ; and 
he formed an unrivalled assortment of 
Kruptadia. Of these he issued privately and 
under the pseudonym of ' Pisanus Fraxi,' 
between 1877 and 1885, a very scarce and re- 
condite catalogue — ' Notes on Curious and 
Uncommon Books ' — in three volumes, en- 
titled respectively * Index Librorum Prohi- 
bitorum' (London, 1877, 4to), 'Centuria 
Librorum Absconditorum ' (1879), and 
'Catena Librorum Tacendorum' (1885). In- 
troductory remarks and an index accom- 
pany each volume. Nearly all the books 
described are of the rarest possible occur- 
rence. Not only is the work the first of 
its kind in England, but as a guide to the 
arcana of the subject it far excels the better 
known 'Bibliographic des principaux 
ouvrages relatifs a I'amour ' (Brussels, 1864, 
6 vols.) of Jules Gay. The bulk of Ashbee's 
Cervantic literature, early editions of Mo- 
liere and Le Sage, and other rare books to 
the number of 8,764 (in 15,299 volumes) 
were bequeathed upon his death to the Bri- 
tish Museum, where they will be marked by 
a distinctive bookplate. 

Ashbee was the joint author with Mr. 
Alexander Graham of ' Travels in Tunisia ' 
(Times, 10 Aug. 1888), and in 1889 he 
brought out his ' Bibliography of the Bar- 
bary States — Tunisia,' a model, like all his 
bibliographical compilations, of thorough 
and conscientious work. In 1890, as a 
member of a small ' Soci^te des Amis des 
Livres,' he contributed ' The Distribution of 
Prospectuses ' to ' Paris qui crie,' a sumptu- 
ous little volume, with coloured plates de- 
signed by Paul Vidal (Paris, 1890, 120 
copies), and in the following year he con- 
tributed a paper on ' Marat en Angleterre ' 
to ' Le Livre ' of his friend Octave Uzanne 
(this was also printed separately). In 1895 
was issued by the Bibliographical Society 
of London the fruit of Ashbee's labour of 
many years, 'An Iconography of Don 
Quixote, 1605-1895' (London, 8vo, with 
twenty-four very fine illustrative engrav- 
ings ; the first sketch of this had appeared 
in the ' Transactions of the Bibliographical 
Society' for 1893). Subsequent to this, as 
his dilettanteism grew more and more re- 
fined, he was contemplating a most elaborate 



bibliography of every fragment of printed 
matter written in the French language by 
Englishmen. Ashbee was a corresponding 
member of the Royal Academy of Madrid, 
and an original member of the Bibliophiles 
Contemporains and of the Bibliographical 
Society of London. He contributed occa- 
sionally to ' Notes and Queries ' from 1877 
onwards, mainly on Cervantic matters ; and 
as late as 28 April 19CX) he addressed the 
Royal Society of British Artists upon his 
favourite subject of 'Don Quixote.' He 
divided most of his time between European 
travel (he was an excellent linguist) and his 
house in Bloomsbury (latterly in Bedford 
Square) ; he died, aged 60, on 29- July 1900 
at his recently acquired country seat of 
Fowler's Park, Hawkhurst. His body was 
cremated and the ashes interred in the 
family vault at Kensal Green, He was 
survived by a widow, an only son, and 
three daughters. In addition to his bequest 
to the British Museum, he bequeathed to 
the South Kensington (Victoria and Albert) 
Museum a collection which comprises 204 
works, mainly water-colour drawings, in- 
cluding early works by Turner, Bonington, 
Prout, Cattermole, De Wint, Cozens, David 
Cox, "William Hunt, and John Varley. He 
bequeathed to the National Gallery a fine 
landscape (' River scene with ruins ') by 
Richard Wilson [q. v.], and Mr. W. P, 
Frith's ' Uncle Toby and Widow Wadman.' 
A water-colour drawing by Sir James D. 
Linton of ' A Gentleman seated in his 
Library ' was a portrait of Ashbee ; it was 
sold at Christie's on 30 March 1901. 

[Times, 1 Aug. 1900; Athenaeum, 4 Aug. 
1900; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. ix. 80, 159, 
9th ser. vi. 122; Standard, 9 Nov. 1900; pri- 
vate information; Brit. M\is. Cat.] T. S. 

ASHE, THOMAS (1836-1889), poet, 
was born at Stockport, Cheshire, in 1836. 
His father, John Ashe (d. 1879), originally 
a Manchester manufacturer and an amateur 
artist, resolved late in life to take holy 
orders, was prepared for ordination by his 
own son, and became vicar of St. Paul's at 
Crewe in 1869. Thomas was educated at 
Stockport grammar school and St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he entered as 
a sizar in 1855 and graduated B. A. as senior 
optime in 1859. He took up scholastic 
work in Peterborough, was ordained deacon 
in 1859 and priest in 1860 ; at Easter 1860 
he became curate of Silverstone, North- 
amptonshire. But clerical work proved 
distasteful, and he gave himself entirely to 
schoolmastering. In 1865 he became mathe- 
matical and modern form master at Learning- 



Askham 



8i 



Astley 



ton College, whence he moved to a similar 
post at Queen Elizabeth's school, Ipswich. 
He remained there nine years. After two 
jears in Paris he finally settled in London 
in 1881. Here he was engaged in editing 
Coleridge's works. The poems appeared in 
the ' Aldine Series ' of poets in 1885. Three 
Tolumes of prose were published in Bohn's 
* Standard Library ; ' ' Lectures and Notes 
on Shakspere" in 1883, 'Table Talk and 
Omniana ' in 1884, and ' Miscellanies, /Es- 
thetic and Literary,' in 1885. Ashe died 
in London on 18 Dec. 1889, but was buried 
in St. James's churchyard, Sutton, Maccles- 
field : a portrait is given in the ' Illustrated 
London News ' and in the ' Eagle ' (xvi. 
109). 

Ashe was a poet of considerable charm. 
He wrote steadily from his college days to 
the end of his life ; but, although his powers 
were recognised by some of the literary 
journals, his poems failed entirely to gain 
the ear of his generation. A lack of vigour 
and concentration impairs the permanent 
value of his larger poems ; but the best of 
Lis shorter lyrics have a charm and grace 
of their own which should keep them alive. 
One or two are quoted in Mr. William 
Watson's anthology, ' Lyric Love ' (' Golden 
Treasury Series '). JEis works are : 1 . ' Poems,' 
1859, 8vo. 2. 'Dryope and other Poems,' 
1861, 8vo. 3. * Pictures, and other Poems,' 
1865, 8vo. 4. ' The Sorrows of Hypsipyle. 
A Poem,] 1867, 8vo. 5. 'Edith, or Love 
and Life in Cheshire. A Poem,' 1873, 8vo. 
6. ' Songs of a Year,' 1888, 8vo. His work 
was collected in one volume in 'Poems' 
(complete edition), London, 1885, 8vo. 

[A selection from Ashe's poetry is given in the 
Poets and the Poetry of the Century, vol. vi. 
<A. H. Miles). It is made by Mr. Haveloek 
Ellis, -who prefixes an Introduction, for which 
the facts were supplied by the poet himself. 
See also the same writer's article on Thomas 
Ashe's Poems in the Westminster Eeview, 1886 ; 
The Eagle (St. John's Coll. Cambr. Mag.), xvi. 
109-34; Crockford's Clerical Directory.] 

E. B. 

ASKHAM, JOHN (1825-1894), poet, 
was born at Wellingborough, Northamp- 
tonshire, in a cottage just off the Market 
Street, adjoining White Horse Yard, on 
25 July 1825. His father, John Askham, a 
native of Raunds in the same county, was 
a shoemaker, and his mother came from 
Kimbolton. The poet, who was the 
youngest of seven, received very little edu- 
cation, but was at Wellingborough Free 
School for about a year. Before he was ten 
lie was put to work at his father's trade. He 
worked some time for Messrs. Singer, but 

VOL. I.— SUP. 



ultimately set up for himself. Amid in- 
cessant toil he found means to educate him- 
self, and his earliest publications give evi- 
dence of a cultivation much beyond that of 
his class. He composed his first verses at the 
age of twenty-five, and later contributed 
poems to local newspapers. He acted as 
librarian of the newly formed Literary In- 
stitute at Wellingborough before 1871, 
when he was elected a member of the first 
school board of the town. In 1874 he be- 
came school attendance officer and sanitary 
inspector of the local board of health. 

Askham published four volumes by sub- 
scription, and through one of his subscribers, 
George Ward Hunt [q. v.], he received a grant 
of 50L from the queen's bounty fund. His 
publications were entitled: 1.' Sonnets on the 
Months and other Poems,' 1863. 2. 'De- 
scriptive Poems, Miscellaneous Pieces and 
Miscellaneous Sonnets,' 1866. 3. ' Judith 
and other Poems, and a (Centenary of Sonnets,' 
1868. 4. 'Poems and Sonnets,' 1875. 
5. ' Sketches in Prose and Verse,' 1893. 

Askham is a good example of the unedu- 
cated poet. He was especially fond of the 
sonnet. The fidelity of his nature poetry was 
remarkable when it is considered that, unlike 
his predecessor, John Clare (1793-1864) 
[q. v.], he had rare opportunities of enjoying 
country life. In his later years he was ren- 
dered helpless by paralysis. He died at Clare 
Cottage, Wellingborough, on 28 Oct. 1894, 
and was buried on 1 Nov. in Wellingborough 
cemetery. He was twice married. By the 
first wife (born Bonham) he had three daugh- 
ters ; the second (born Cox) survived him. 

[Biographical Sketch (with portrait) prefixed 
to Sketches iu Prose and Verse; obituary 
notices in local papers (Wellingborough News, 
Northampton Mercury, &c., 2 Nov. 1894), and 
in Times, 29 Oct. 1894; Works (only ' Sonnets 
on the Months ' is in the British Museum) ; 
private information. The Annual Register 
(obit.) misprints the name and gives wrong 
date of death.] G. Le G. N. 

ASTLEY, SiK JOHN DUGDALE (1828- 
1894), the sporting baronet, a descendant 
of Thomas de Astley, who was slain at 
Evesham in 1265, and of Sir Jacob Astley, 
lord Astley [q. v.], was the eldest son of 
Sir Francis Dugdale Astley (1805-1873), 
second baronet (of the 1821 creation), of 
Everleigh, near Marlborough, by Emma 
Dorothea {d. 1872), daughter of Sir Thomas 
Buckler Lethbridge. Born at Rome in a 
house on the Pincian Hill, on 19 Feb. 1828, 
John was educated at Winchester and Eton, 
and matriculated as a gentleman commoner 
at Christ Church, Oxford, on 4 June 1846. 
About a year later, by the pressing advice 

6 



Astley 



82 



Astley 



of the dean, he went down from Oxford, 
heavily in debt, and in September 1847 was 
sent to study the French language at Clarens 
in Switzerland, where he amused himself by 
shooting gelinottes on the mountains. 

In March 1848 he was gazetted ensign of 
the Scots fusiliers, and for the next few 
years his diary is full of his diversions in 
the shape of racing, cricket, boxing, punting, 
and running, he himself being a first-rate 
sprinter at 150 yards. In 1849 he travelled 
to Gibraltar overland by way of Seville, 
where he witnessed the commencement of 
a bull fight with disgust, and Madrid, 
where he endeavoured to get up a running 
match. In February 1854 he sailed for the 
Crimea with his battalion in the Simoom, 
took an active part in the battle of the 
Alma, was rather severely wounded in the 
neck, and invalided home. In April 1855 
he again volunteered for active service, and 
he gives a frankly humorous account of the 
conflicting motives that prompted him to 
take this step. He reached Balaclava in 
May, was made a brevet-major, and was 
relegated for the greater part of the time to 
hospital duty in the town. At Balaclava 
he became celebrated as a promoter of sport 
throughout the three armies, French, Eng- 
lish, and Sardines, as he designates the 
Italian troops. On his return he was pro- 
moted to a captaincy without examination, 
and subsequently became a lieutenant- 
colonel on the retired list. He obtained 
the Crimean medal with two clasps and the 
Turkish order of the Medjidie. 

On 22 May 1858 Astley married Eleanor 
Blanche Mary, only child and heiress of 
Thomas G. Corbet {d. 1868) of Elsham 
Hall, Brigg, a well-known Lincolnshire 
squire. His wedding trip was on the point 
of coming to a premature conclusion at 
Paris when he opportunely won 1,500/. on 
the Liverpool Cup. Quitting the army in 
the following year, he began to devote him- 
self to racing, the sport which ' in his heart 
he always loved best,' and with which he 
was chiefly identified, notwithstanding his 
fondness for hunting and shooting, and his 
pronounced predilections for the cinder path 
and the prize ring. During the lifetime of 
his father-in-law, who had a horror of the 
turf, he raced under the borrowed name of 
Mr. S. Thellusson, training in Drewitt's 
stable at Lewes, where he learnt by his own 
experience the difficult art of putting horses 
together, at which he obtained a proficiency 
rare among gentlemen. A real horse lover, 
and probably one of the finest judges of 
horseflesh in England, he took an intense 
interest in everything connected with the 



stable, and knew his animals with ' the 
intimacy of a tout or a trainer.' In 1869 
he was chosen a member of the Jockey Club. 
About the same time Drewitt retired from 
his profession, and Astley thenceforth had 
horses witl^Blanton, Joe Dawson, and other 
well-known trainers. He owned a number 
of good horses and won a great many stakes, 
mainly of the lesser magnitude; he also 
betted with the greatest freedom and pluck, 
and was never so happy as when making a 
match. With his usual candour he admits 
that he originally took to betting, as he 
subsequently took to authorship, for the 
purpose of ' diminishing the deficit ' at his 
bankers'. In all, during twenty-six years, 
he won by betting 28,968/,, but he did not 
put by his winnings, and at the end of that 
time was, he informs us with frank com- 
posure, ' dead broke.' While the turf re- 
mained his business amusement Astley had 
still plenty of time to devote to other forms 
of sport. He describes the Sayers and 
Heenan prize fight of 17 April 1860 with 
the gusto of a connoisseur, and he moralises 
in an impressive way upon the degeneracy 
of later gladiators, whose exhibitions he 
nevertheless continued to patronise until the 
end of his life. In 1875 he made the ac- 
quaintance of Captain Webb, the Channel 
hero, and arranged several swimming tour- 
naments for his benefit. In April 1877 he 
matched E. P. Weston, the celebrated Ame- 
rican pedestrian, against Dan O'Leary in a 
walking match of 142 hours for 500/. a side. 
O'Leary won, as he admiringly records, by 
sheer pluck, covering 520 miles in the 
allotted time, and beating Weston by ten 
miles. He arranged a number of similar 
contests, and was barely recouped by the 
gate money. 

Astley succeeded to the baronetcy on 
23 July 1873 ; he became a J.P. for Lincoln- 
shire and Wiltshire, and in 1874 he was 
returned to parliament for North Lincoln- 
shire in the conservative interest, but lost 
his seat in the general election of 1880. 
He died at 7 Park Place, St. James's Street, 
on 10 Oct, 1894, and was buried on 16 Oct. 
at Elsham, his death evoking expressions of 
regret from the whole sporting community 
in England. He left issue — Sir Francis 
Edmund George Astley- Corbet, the fourth 
and present baronet, three other sons, and 
four daughters. 

Sir John Astley published a few months 
before his death ' Fifty Years of my Life in 
the World of Sport at Home and Abroad ' 
(London, 2 vols. 8vo), which contains four 
portraits of 'The Mate,' as Astley was 
known among his associates, and was dedi- 



Atkinson 



83 



Atkinson 



cated by permission to the Prince of Wales 
(afterwards Edward VII). Written in a 
breezy style, abounding in slang, these me- 
mories disarm the critic by their frankness 
no less than by the complete sans gene of 
the narrator, whose gambling propensity 
appears throughout as indomitable as his 
pluck. The book went rapidly through 
three editions, and was described by the 
' Saturday Review ' as ' the sporting memoir 
of the century,' 

[Times, 16 and 17 Oct. 1894 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxen. 1715-1886; Burke's Peerage; Debrett's 
Baronetage: Saturday Eeview, 9 June 1894; 
Field, 20 Oct. 1894 ; Land and Water, 20 Oct. 
1894 ; Astley's Fifty Years of my Life, 1894.] 

T. S. 

ATKINSON, SiE HARRY (1831- 
1892), prime minister of New Zealand, whose 
full name was Henry Albert Atkinson, was 
born at Chester in 1831. Educated at Ro- 
chester school and at Blackheath, he emi- 
grated to Taranaki, New Zealand, in 1855. 
He settled as a farmer at Harworth, about 
four miles from the town of New Plymouth, 
and at the outbreak of the Waitara war in 
1860 was elected captain of a company of 
Taranaki volunteers, winning distinction at 
the engagements of Waireka and Mahoe- 
tahi. From 1863 to 1864 he commanded 
the Taranaki Forest Rangers, a body of bush 
scouts and riflemen which has been de- 
scribed as the worst dressed and most eflfec- 
tive corps the colony ever possessed. In the 
opinion both of the men he led and of com- 
petent onlookers. Major Atkinson's prudence, 
bravery, and untiring energy placed him 
very high among the officers who had to 
overcome the peculiar and very great diffi- 
culties of New Zealand bush warfare. At 
the end of 1864 he became minister of de- 
fence in the cabinet of Sir Frederick Aloy- 
sius Weld [q. v.] and urged the adoption of 
the ' self-reliance policy ' with which Weld's 
name is identified. This was that the im- 
perial troops, of which ten thousand had 
been engaged in the war — for each unit of 
whom the colonists were paying 40Z. a year 
— should be dispensed with, and the de- 
fence of the settlers entirely entrusted to the 
militia and volunteers. Gradually this was 
done, but the Weld ministry was put out of 
office in October 1865, and from 1868 to 
1873 Major Atkinson did not sit in parlia- 
ment. It was in the two years' struggle 
(1874-6) between centralism and provin- 
cialism, which ended in the abolition of the 
provinces into which New Zealand had 
been divided, that his energies brought 
Major Atkinson into the front rank of the 
colony's politicians. Though neither emo- 



tional nor graceful as a speaker, he was per- 
haps the most efiective debater of his day in 
the House of Representatives, where his com- 
mand of facts and figures, clear incisive 
style, and bold straight-hitting methods 
made him feared as well as respected. Three 
times prime minister (in 1876-7, in 1883-4, 
and in 1887-91) and four times colonial trea- 
surer (in 1875-6, in 1876-7, in 1879-83, and 
in 1887-91), he was from 1874 to 1890 the 
protagonist of the conservative party. In 
addition to the abolition of the provinces he 
did away with the Ballance land tax in 
1879 [see Ballance, John, Suppl.], imposed 
a property tax, raised the customs duties in 
1879 and 1888, and gave them a quasi-pro- 
tectionist character, greatly diminished the 
public expenditure in the same years, and in 
1887 reduced the size of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and the pay of minister members 
of parliament. He advocated compulsory 
assurance as a provision for old age, and the 
perpetual leasing instead of the sale of crown 
lands. In 1888 he was created K.C.M.G. 
In 1890 his health broke down ; on the fall 
of his last ministry, in January 1891, he be- 
came speaker of the legislative council ; on 
27 June 1892 he died very suddenly of heart 
disease in the speaker's room of the council 
chamber. Though not well known outside 
New Zealand, his name is held in high esteem 
there as that of a brave and energetic colo- 
nist, a clear-headed practical politician, and 
a sagacious leader in difficult times. 

He was twice married : by his first wife he 
had three sons and a daughter ; by his second, 
two sons and a daughter. 

[Gisborne's New Zealand Rulers nad States 
men (1840-1897), 1897; Grace's Recollections 
of the New Zealand War, 1890 ; Rusden's Hist, 
of New Zealand, Melbourne, 1896; Reeves's 
Long White Cloud, 1899 ; Mennell's Diet, of 
Australasian Biography; New Zealand news- 
papers, 28 June 1892.] W. P. R. 

ATKINSON, JOHN CHRISTOPHER 

(1814-1900), author and antiquary, born in 
1814 at Goldhanger in Essex, where his 
father was then curate, was the son of John 
Atkinson and the grandson of Christopher 
Atkinson {d. 18 March 1795), fellow of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He was educated 
at Kelvedon in Essex, and admitted as a 
sizar to St. John's College, Cambridge, on 
2 May 1834, graduating B.A. in 1838. He 
was ordained deacon in 1841 as curate of 
Brockhampton in Herefordshire, and priest 
in 1842. He afterwards held a curacy in 
Scarborough. In 1847 he became domestic 
chaplain to Sir William Henry Dawnay, 
seventh viscount Downe, who in the same 

g2 



Atkinson 



84 



Atkinson 



year presented him to the vicarage of Danby, 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire, which he 
held till his death. 

Atkinson was an ideal antiquary, endowed 
with a love of nature as well as a taste for 
study. His parish was in the rudest part of 
Yorkshire, and on his arrival he found that 
clerical duties had been almost neglected. 
He set himself to learn the history of his 
parish cure and to gain the friendship of 
his parishioners, and in both objects he suc- 
ceeded. By constant intercourse with the 
people he acquired a unique knowledge of 
local legends and customs. In 1867 he pre- 
pared for the Philological Society ' A Glossary 
of the Dialect of the Hundred of Lonsdale,' 
which was published in the society's ' Trans- 
actions.' This was followed next year by 
* A Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect' (Lon- 
don, 4to), to which, at the instance of the 
English Dialect Society, he made 'Additions' 
in 1876. In 1872 he published the first 
volume of * The History of Cleveland, Ancient 
and Modem,' London, 4to. A fragment of 
the second volume appeared in 1877, but it 
was not completed. By far his best known 
work, however, was the charming collection 
of local legends and traditions which he pub- 
lished in 1891, with the title 'Forty Years 
in a Moorland Parish.' This work, which 
reached a second edition in the same year, 
has been compared to Gilbert White's ' Natu- 
ral History of Selborne,' and perhaps still 
more closely resembles Hugh Miller's ' Scenes 
and Legends of the North of Scotland.' Be- 
sides these more serious compilations Atkin- 
son was the author of several delightful 
books for children. In 1887 he received the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. from Durham 
University, and in 1891 he was installed in 
the prebend of Holme in York Cathedral. 
In 1898 he received a grajit of 100/. a year 
from the civil list. 

Atkinson died at The Vicarage, Danby, on 
31 March 1900. He was thrice married: 
first, at Scarborough on 11 Dec. 1849, to 
Jane Hill {d. 2 April 1860), eldest daughter 
of John Hill Coulson of Scarborough ; 
secondly, on 1 Feb. 1862, at Frome Selwood, 
to Georgina Mary, eldest daughter of Barlow 
Slade of North House, Frome ; and thirdly, 
on 28 April 1884 at Arncliff church, to 
Helen Georgina, eldest daughter of Douglas 
Brown, Q. C . , of Arncliff Hall, Northallerton. 
He had thirteen children. Besides the Avorks 
already mentioned he was the author of: 
1. ' The Walks, Talks, Travels, and Exploits 
of two Schoolboys,' London, 1859, 12mo ; new 
edit. 1892. 2. 'Play-hours and Half-holidays; 
or, Further Experiences of two School- 
boys,' London, 1860, 8vo ; new edit. 1892. 



3. ' Sketches in Natural History ; with an 
Essayon Reason andlnstinct,' London, 1861, 
12mo; new edit. 1865. 4. 'British Birds' 
Eggs and Nests popularly described,' Lon- 
don, 1861, 8vo ; new edit. 1898. 5. ' Stanton 
Grange ; or. At a Private Tutor's,' London, 
1864, 8vo. 6. ' Lost ; or What came of a 
Slip from " Honour Bright,'" London, 1870, 
12mo. 7. 'The Last of the Giant Killers,'Lon- 
don, 1891, 8vo ; new edit. 1893. 8. ' Scenes 
in Fairy-land,' London, 1892, 8vo. He edited: 
1. ' Cartularium Abbathise de Whiteby' 
(Surtees Soc), 1879, 2 vols. 8vo. 2. ' Quarter 
Sessions Records' (North Riding Record 
Soc), 1883-92, 9 vols. 8vo. 3. ' Lonsdale 
Glossary: FurnessCoucher Book' (Chetham 
Soc), 1886-7, 3 vols. 4to. 4. ' Cartularium 
Abbathiae de Rievalle' (Surtees Soc), 18S9, 
8vo. He also contributed many papers to 
various archjEological societies, and in 1872 
assisted Hensleigh Wedgwood [q. v.] to re- 
vise his ' Dictionary of English Etymology.' 

[Times, 3 April 1900; Athenaeum, 7 April 
1900; Guardian, 11 April 1900; The Eagle 
(Cambridge), June 1900 ; Men and Women of 
the Time, 1895; Sunday Mag. 1894, pp. 113- 
120; Supplement to Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. ; Crockford's Clerical Direct.] E. I. C, 

ATKINSON, THOMAS WITLAM 

(1799-1861), architect and traveller, was 
born of humble parentage at Cawthorne, York- 
shire, on 6 March 1799, and received a scanty 
education at the village school. Left an 
orphan when a child, he began to earn his 
own living at the age of eight, first on a 
farm, then as a bricklayer's labourer and 
quarryman, and subsequently in a stone- 
mason's yard. By the time he was twenty he 
was a stone-carver, and in that capacity exe- 
cuted some good work on churches at Barns- 
ley, Ashton-under-Lyne, and elsewhere. At 
the last-named town he settled for a while 
as a teacher of drawing. About this time 
he devoted himself to the study of Gothic 
architecture, and in 1829 published a folio 
volume entitled ' Gothic Ornaments selected 
from the different Cathedrals and Churches 
in England.' In 1827 he went to London, 
and established himself as an architect in 
Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars. Among 
his works at this time was the church of St. 
Nicholas, at Lower Tooting, erected about 
1831. A little later he obtained many im- 
portant commissions in the neighbourhood 
of Manchester, including the Manchester and 
Liverpool District Bank in Spring Gardens, 
in 1834. About 1835 he removed to Man- 
chester, where he began his principal work 
as an architect, St. Luke's church, Cheetham 
Hill. This building, designed in a modified 



Atkinson 



85 



Atlay 



perpendicular style, together with his Italian 
villas and other structures, had a marked 
effect in improving the architectural taste of 
the district. He remained at Manchester 
until 1840, after experiencing some reverses, 
owing probably to a too liberal expenditure 
on works of art. 

Returning to London Atkinson was not 
more fortunate, and in 1842 he went to 
Hamburg, then to Berlin, and lastly to St. 
Petersburg, where he abandoned architec- 
ture as a profession for the pursuits of a 
traveller and artist. This was in 1846, about 
which period he seems to have visited Egypt 
and Greece. By the advice of Alexander 
von Humboldt he turned his attention to 
Oriental Russia, and, being furnished with 
every facility by the Russian government, 
including a blank passport from Emperor 
Nicholas, he set out in February 1848 on 
his long journey, accompanied by his newly 
married wife. His travels extended over 
39,500 miles, and occupied him until the 
end of 1853. His avowed object in this 
expedition was to sketch the scenery of 
Siberia, and he brought back many hundreds 
of clever water-colour drawings, some of 
them five or six feet square, and most valu- 
able as representations of places hitherto un- 
known to Europeans. He kept journals of 
his explorations, which were written with 
much power and freshness. On his return 
to England he published them with some 
amplifications. The first volume was en- 
titled * Oriental and Western Siberia : a 
Narrative of Seven Years' Explorations and 
Adventures in Siberia, Mongolia, the Kirghis 
Steppes, Chinese Tartary, and part of Cen- 
tral Asia. With a Map and numerous Il- 
lustrations,' London, 1858. There followed 
in 1860 a second volume called ' Travels in 
the Regions of the Upper and Lower A moor 
and the Russian Acquisitions on the Con- 
fines of India and China,' London, 1860. 
This work was highly praised by the ' Athe- 
naeum' on its publication, but its authen- 
ticity was subsequently questioned. Doubts 
were raised whether Atkinson had perso- 
nally'travelled on the Amur, and the book 
was shown to be in the main a plagiarism 
of Maack's work on the same topic published 
in St. Petersburg in 1859 ' (Atkenaum, 
9 Sept. 1899). Meanwhile in 1868 Atkinson 
read a paper before the British Association 
' On the Volcanoes of Central Asia.' In the 
same year he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and in 1859 a 
fellow of the Geological Society. To the 
* Proceedings ' of the former body he contri- 
buted in 1869 a paper on a ' Journey through 
some of the highest Passes in the Ala-tu and 



Ac-tu Mountains in Chinese Tartary,' and 
in the ' Journal ' of the Geological Society in 
1860 he wrote ' On some Bronze Relics found 
in an Auriferous Sand in Siberia,' 

Atkinson in person was the type of an 
artistic traveller, thin, lithe, and sinewy, 
' with a wrist like a rock and an eye like a 
poet's; manner singularly gentle, and air 
which mingled entreaty Avith command.' 

He died at Lower Walmer, Kent, on 
13 Aug. 1861. 

He was twice married ; the second time, 
in 1847, to an English governess at St. 
Petersburg. She wrote an interesting ac- 
count of the journeys she took with her hus- 
band, entitled * Recollections of the Tartar 
Steppes and their Inhabitants,' London, 
1863. On 13 June that year she was 
granted a civil list pension of 100/. One of 
his two surviving children, Emma Willsher 
Atkinson, wrote ' Memoirs of the Queens of 
Prussia,' 1858, and * Extremes, a Novel,' 
1859. His son, John William Atkinson, 
who died on 3 April 1846, aged 23, was a 
marine painter. 

[Diet, of Architecture, i. 119; Athenaeum, 
24 Aug. 1861 ; Builder, 31 Aug. 1861, p. 590; 
Proc. Koyal Geogr. Soc. vi. 128 ; Boase's Modern 
English Biography, i. 104 ; Axon's Annals of 
Manchester; Eoyal Academy Catalogues, 1830- 
1842.] C. W. S. 

ATLAY, JAMES (1817-1894), bishop 
of Hereford, was the second son of the Rev. 
Henry Atlay by his wife, Elizabeth Rayner 
Hove'll. Born |0n 3 July 1817 at Wakerly 
in Northamptonshire, he was educated at 
Grantham and Oakham schools, and entered 
St. John's College, Cambridge, as a founda- 
tion scholar in 1836. He was elected to a 
Bell university scholarship in 1837, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1840 as a senior optime and 
ninth classic. In 1842 he was elected to a 
fellowship, and he proceeded M.A. in 1843, 
B.D. in 1850, and D.D. in 1859. After being 
ordained deacon in 1842 and priest in the 
following year, he held from 1843 to 1846 
the curacy of Warsop in Nottinghamshire, 
and from 1847 to 1852 the vicarage of 
Madingley near Cambridge. In 1856 he 
was appointed Whitehall preacher, and in 
1858 and the following year was one of 
the select preachers before the university ; 
but it was by his work and influence as 
tutor of St. John's from 1846 to 1859 that 
he made a mark among his contemporaries 
which spread far beyond the walls of his 
own college. 

In 1859 the trustees of the advowson of 
Leeds elected Atlay as vicar in succession 
to Walter Farquhar Hook [q. v.] The out- 



Atlay 



86 



Attwood 



going incumbent had raised Leeds to the 
position which it still occupies as the most 
important parochial cure in the north of 
England, and Atlay carried on the work of 
his predecessor with conspicuous success. 
His businesslike qualities won him the re- 
spect of a great mercantile community, and 
his sincerity and earnestness of character 
proved irresistible to churchmen and non- 
conformists alike. He initiated a great 
scheme of church extension, and his organis- 
ing capacity made Leeds the best-worked 
parish in the kingdom. He was appointed 
canon-residentiary at Ripon in 1861 ; in 
1867 he refused the bishopric of Calcutta, 
but in 1868 he accepted the oifer made him 
by Disraeli, the prime minister, of the bishop- 
ric of Hereford in succession to Renn Dick- 
son Hampden [q. v.] 

Atlay brought to the management of his 
diocese the same thoroughness which had 
marked his career at Leeds and Cambridge. 
Rarely quitting it except to attend the 
House of Lords or convocation, he lived and 
died among his own people. He made a 
point of officiating in every church of a wide 
though sparsely populated diocese ; his great 
parochial experience rendered him the trusted 
counsellor and guide of his clergy ; his geni- 
ality and frankness, united to a fine presence, 
endeared him to all who were brought near 
him. Archbishop Benson described him as 
* the most beautiful combination of enthu- 
siasm, manliness, and modesty.' A conser- 
vative in politics, he exercised in convocation 
by his strong commonsense and sagacity an 
influence which was scarcely suspected out of 
doors, and in 1889 Archbishop Benson selected 
him as an assessor in the trial of Bishop King 
of Lincoln for alleged ritual offences. Atlay 
was a high churchman of the old school, but 
he enjoyed the respect of all parties in the 
church, and the peace of his diocese was un- 
broken during the stormiest ecclesiastical 
controversies. He died on 24 Dec. 1894, 
after a long illness, and was buried in * the 
ladye arbour ' under the walls of his cathe- 
dral. 

Atlay was married in 1859 to Frances 
Turner, daughter of Major William Martin 
of the East India Company's service, by 
whom he left a numerous family. One of his 
sons, the Rev. George William Atlay, attached 
to the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, 
was murdered by natives on the shores of 
Lake Nyassa in August 1895 ; another, 
Charles Cecil, died in March 1900 of wounds 
received at Wagon Hill, Ladysmith, while 
serving in the imperial light horse. 

There are two portraits of Atlay: one by 
E. A. Fellowes Prynne (1882), the other by 



the Hon. John Collier (1893). The latter 
was a presentation from the diocese, and there 
is a replica of it in the palace at Hereford. 
There is also a fine recumbent effigy in 
Carrara marble in the north transept of 
Hereford cathedral, erected by public sub- 
scription. 

[Times, 25 Dec. 1894 ; Leeds Mercury, 25 Dec. 
1894; Chronicle of Canterbury Convocatioc, 
February 1895; persoualinformation.] 

J. B. A. 

ATTWOOD, THOMAS (1783-1856), po- 
litical reformer, born at Hawne House, in 
the parish of Halesowen, Worcestershire, on 
6 Oct. 1783, was the third son of Matthias 
Attwood (1746-1836), a banker of Birming- 
ham, by his wife Ann {d, 8 Oct. 1834), daugh- 
ter of Thomas Adams of Cakemore House, 
Halesowen. He was educated at the gram- 
mar school at Halesowen, and afterwards at 
that at Wolverhampton. On leaving school 
about 1800, he entered his father's bank in 
New Street, Birmingham. On 9 Sept. 1803, 
when a French invasion was expected, he 
was gazetted a captain in the third battalion 
of the Loyal Birmingham volunteer infantry, 
and retained his commission till 8 March 
1805. In 1806 he married, and took up his 
residence at the Larches, Sparkbrook, near 
Birmingham, whence in 1811 he removed to 
the Crescent, Birmingham. In October 1811 
he was elected high bailiff of Birmingham. 
In the following year he first took a promi- 
nent part in public affairs, by agitating for 
the repeal of the orders in council which 
restricted British trade with the continent 
and the United States. Attwood and 
Richard Spooner were chosen to represent 
to government the position of the manufac- 
turing interest of the town. The orders 
were partially revoked in June, and on 
6 Oct. 1813 the artisans of Birmingham 
presented Attwood with a silver cup in 
acknowledgment of his services. In 1823 
he spoke vehemently against the renewal of 
the East India Company's charter, and, pro- 
ceeding to London, exerted himself to or- 
ganise a parliamentary opposition. Although 
the charter was renewed, many of its con- 
ditions were modified, and the company's 
monopoly of trade was abolished. 

In 1815 or 1816 Attwood first appealed 
to the public on the subject of the currency, 
which became henceforth the central interest 
of his life. He was opposed to the policy of 
government in reducing the paper currency 
while specie was scarce. In his own words, 
' by limiting the amount of our money ' the 
government ' have limited our means of ex- 
changing commodities, and this gives the 
limit to consumption, and the limit to con- 



Attwood 



87 



Attwood 



gumption gives the limit to production.' In 
1816 he published his first currency pam- 
phlet, * The Remedy, or Thoughts on the 
Present Distress.' It reached a second edi- 
tion, and was followed in 1817 by 'Pro- 
sperity Restored, or Reflections on the Cause 
of the Public Distresses ' (London, 8vo), and 
by * A Letter to Nicholas Vansittart on the 
Creation of Money, and on its Action upon 
National Prosperity,' in which he main- 
tained that ' the issue of money will create 
markets, and that it is upon the abundance 
or scarcity of money that the extent of all 
markets principally depends.' Attwood's 
arguments had some influence with Van- 
sittart, and Cobbett complained that in 1818, 
at the suggestion of Attwood, the chancellor 
of the exchequer ' caused bales of paper money 
to be poured forth as a remedy against the 
workings of those evil-minded and designing 
men who were urging the people on for par- 
liamentary reform.' His ' Prosperity Re- 
stored ' attracted the notice of Arthur Young 
(1741-1820) [q. v.], and a correspondence 
ensued, which terminated in the publication 
by Attwood of ' Observations on Currency, 
Population, and Pauperism, in Two Letters 
to Arthur Young' (London, 1818, 8vo). In 
this work he urged that * every increase of 
the population carries with it the ample 
means of its own support ; at least so long 
as the circulating medium is kept equivalent 
to its purposes and as a single acre of land 
remains to be cultivated or improved in the 
country.' Animated by these principles 
Thomas Attwood and his brother Matthias 
opposed Peel's bill in 1819 for the resump- 
tion of cash payments by the bank of Eng- 
land. In 1819 he published two letters of 
remonstrance addressed to the prime mini- 
ster, the Earl of Liverpool. 

In 1830 Attwood, most of whose connec- 
tions were members of the tory party, de- 
finitely declared himself of opposite convic- 
tions by founding, on 25 Jan., the ' Birming- 
ham Political Union for the Protection of 
Public Rights.' The object of the Political 
Union was to secure the adequate represen- 
tation of the middle and lower classes in the 
House of Commons. Similar associations 
were rapidly formed all over the country, 
including the notable Northern Political 
Union, founded by Charles Attwood (1791- 
1875), Thomas's brother, at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, about 1830. These unions enthusias- 
tically supported Earl Grey's government 
during the passage of the reform bill. On 
3 Oct. 1831 an open-air meeting was con- 
vened upon Newhall Hill to protest against 
the rejection of the reform bill by the House 
of Lords. A resolution, supported by a hun- 



dred thousand men, was passed and trans- 
mitted to Lord John Russell, who replied, in 
reference to the opposition in the House of 
Lords, ' It is impossible that the whisper of 
a faction should prevail against the voice of 
a nation.' The Birmingham Union was un- 
justly accused by the tory press of having 
sent emissaries to Bristol to organise the 
riots which took place there, and of having 
secretly introduced ten thousand men into 
London to promote ^ revolution. The whig 
ministry became uneasy at the power of the 
unions, and at their elaborate organisation 
under leaders of various ranks with powers 
to act in cases of emergency. Alarmed at 
the turbulent proceedings in London, they 
issued a proclamation on 22 Nov. against such 
organisations. This manifesto, however, was 
met by the Birmingham Union with a 
motion abandoning the idea of organisation, 
and reverting to the principle of simple 
association. They thus avoided the possi- 
bility of their position being declared illegal. 
On 7 May 1832 the government were de- 
feated in the House of Lords, and imme- 
diately resigned. The result in Birmingham 
was that a number of the more wealthy in- 
habitants joined the Union, which had 
hitherto been confined to the poorer classes. 
On 10 May an immense meeting was held 
on Newhall Hill, the banners and trophies 
being covered in black drapery. It was 
proposed to refuse payment of the taxes, 
but Attwood succeeded in persuading his 
audience to confine themselves to more legal 
methods of resistance. Attwood was also 
in constant communication with the Lon- 
don unions and exerted his influence to pre- 
vent any outbreak of violence. The populace 
was devoted to him, and on a rumour that 
he was to be arrested his house was guarded 
by armed men. On the news of the rein- 
statement of Lord Grey ten thousand people 
assembled round Attwood's dwelling to cele- 
brate the triumph. On 19 May he had an 
interview with Lord Grey at the treasury, 
when the prime minister acknowledged his 
indebtedness to Attwood's exertions, and 
expressed his desire to make some return. 
Attwood, however, declined any reward, re- 
marking that his action had been on public 
grounds alone. On the rumour of fresh op- 
position from the Duke of Wellington, Att- 
wood proposed to assemble a million men on 
Hampstead Heath. On 23 May he received 
the freedom of the city of London, and five 
days later he made a triumphal entry into 
Birmingham amid great enthusiasm. At this 
time he was the ' idol of the populace, his 
portraits were in every shop window, ballads 
in his praise were hawked through every 



Attwood 



88 



Attwood 



street, . . • and twenty boroughs selected 
him to represent them in parliament.' Cob- 
bett, in the * Political Register,' styled him 
* King Tom.' 

On 7 June 1832 the reform bill received 
the royal assent. On 12 Dec. Attwood and 
Joshua Scholefield [see under Scholefield, 
William] were returned to parliament un- 
opposed for the new borough of Birmingham. 
In the House of Commons, like other popular 
leaders, he failed to maintain the reputation 
he had acquired outside. His vehemence 
of manner, his violence of expression, his 
incessant advocacy of his views on the cur- 
rency, and, above all, his disregard for party 
interests disqualified him for success. On 
12 Feb. 1833 he made a strong attack on 
Lord Grey's Irish policy in his maiden speech, 
and expressed his sympathy with Daniel 
O'Connell, a course of action which alienated 
protestant feeling. A motion which he 
brought forward on 21 March ' that a general 
committee be appointed to inquire into the 
causes of the general distress existing among 
the industrious classes of the United King- 
dom, and into the most effectual means of 
its relief,' was defeated, it being universally 
understood that it aimed at rectifying the 
currency. On 20 May a meeting of two 
hundred thousand men at Newhall Hill peti- 
tioned the king to dismiss the ministry : but 
it was clear that many middle-class supporters 
had been alienated by Attwood's support of 
O'Connell. On 18 Jan. 1836, at a meeting 
at the Birmingham Town Hall, Attwood 
threatened the opponents of reform with the 
wrath of twenty millions of men. This 
extravagance caused Benjamin Disraeli to 
address to Attwood the third of his * Let- 
ters of Runnymede,' a vapid rebuke of a 
ridiculous boast. The Political Union, which 
had fallen into abeyance on the passage of 
the reform bill, was revived in May 1837 
as the Reform Association, a title which was 
soon abandoned for the older designation. 

Year by year Attwood became more de- 
mocratic in his political principles, and he 
allied himself with the chartists. The growth 
of the chartist movement alienated many of 
the moderate advocates of reform and com- 
pelled the remainder to take a more extreme 
position. Liberals of birth, rank, or wealth 
gradually disappeared from the ranks of his 
supporters. The Birmingham Political Union, 
which already had proclaimed themselves in 
favour of universal suffrage, the ballot, and 
annual parliaments, were easily brought to 
give a formal adhesion to the charter. Att- 
wood gave his enthusiastic support to the 
great chartist petition. But, though his own 
language had not formerly been free from 



menace, he recoiled from the violence of the 
more advanced chartists, and constantly de- 
precated their threats of appeal to physical 
force. In March 1839 the Birmingham dele- 
gates withdrew from the National Conven- 
tion, protesting against an appeal to arms. 
On 14 June 1839 he presented the chartists' 
monster national petition to the House of 
Commons. It demanded universal suffrage, 
vote by ballot, annual parliaments, the pay- 
ment of members of parliament, and the 
abolition of the property qualification for 
members. On 12 July he moved that the 
house form itself into a committee for the 
purpose of considering the petition, but his 
motion was rejected by a large majority. 

Attwood found that he had lost popularity 
by his tardy repudiation of physical force, 
and the riots which broke out in Birming- 
ham itself in July 1839 showed that his 
influence was gone. Many chartists also de- 
nounced his pet scheme of a paper currency. 
Mortified by his position, he determined to 
retire from public life, and in December 1839 
he published a somewhat querulous farewell 
address to his constituents, and for two years 
sought at St. Heliers to recruit his health, 
which had been impaired by his labours. In 
1843 he was requested by sixteen thousand 
inhabitants of Birmingham to re-enter poli- 
tical life, and he attempted without success 
to organise a ' National Union,' which was 
to hold ' the ministers of the crown legally 
responsible for the welfare of the people/ 
He died on 6 March 1856 at Ellerlie, Great 
Malvern, the house of the physician Walter 
Johnson, and was buried in Hanley church- 
yard, near Upton-on-Severn. On 7 July 
1859 a statue of him by John Thomas was 
unveiled in Stephenson Place, New Street, 
Birmingham. Attwood was twice married. 
On 12 May 1806, at Harbourne church, he 
married his first wife Elizabeth, eldest daugh- 
ter of William Carless {d. 24 June 1787) 
of the Ravenhurst, Harbourne, and aunt of 
Edward Augustus Freeman [q. v. Suppl.] 
By her Attwood had four sons and two 
daughters. The eldest daughter, Angela {d. 
30 Nov. 1870), married Daniel Bell Wake- 
field of New Zealand, and was mother of 
Charles Marcus Wakefield, Attwood's bio- 
grapher. Attwood married, secondly, on. 
30 June 1845, Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph 
Grice of Handsworth Hall, Staffordshire; 
she died without issue on 26 June 1886. 

[Wakefield's Life of Attwood, 1885 (with por- 
traits), printed for private circulation ; Jaffray's 
Hints tor a History of Birmingham, published in 
the Birmingham Journal, Dec. 1855 to June 
1856 ; Runnymede Letters, ed. Hitchman, 1885 ; 
Langford's Century of Birmingham Life, 1868, 



Ayrton 



89 



Baber 



ii. 629-50, 612-48 ; Langford's Modern Birming- 
ham and its Institutions, 1873, i. 92-3, 391-2, 
432, 436 ; Burritt's "Walks in the Black Country, 

1868, pp. 16-22 ; Dent's Old and New Birming- 
ham, 1880, pp. 349-50, 354, 396-414, 460-61; 
Dent's Making of Birmingham, 1894 ; Greville 
Memoirs, 1888, ii. 210, 211, 220; Doubleday's 
Political Life of Sir K Peel, 1856, ii. 23; 164, 
250 ; Mrs. Grote's Life of Grote, 1873, pp. 78-9 ; 
Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell, 1888, i. 
1 99-200 ; Graham Wallas's Life of Francis Place, 
1896.] E. I. C. 

AYKTON, ACTON SMEE (1816-1886), 
politician, born at Kew in 1816, was a son 
of Frederick Ayrton (student at Gray's Inn 
27 Jan. 1802, barrister-at-law about 1805, 
and afterwards practising at Bombay), who 
married Julia, only daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Nugent. Acton Ayrton went to 
India and practised as a solicitor at Bombay, 
returning about 1850 with a moderate for- 
tune. On 30 April 1853 he was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple, with the inten- 
tion of devoting himself to a political career. 

Ayrton sat in the House of Commons from 
1857 to 1874 as liberal member for the Tower 
Hamlets, His long speech, on 24 April 1860, 
in support of the abortive bill for reforming 
the corporation of the city of London {Han- 
sard, clviii. 69-85) attracted attention. To- 
wards the end of his life he resumed his 
interest in that movement. In 1866, when 
addressing a meeting of working men in his 
constituency, he reflected somewhat severely 
on the queen's retirement from public life 
owing to the death of the prince consort, 
and was rebuked with dignity by John 
Bright, who was present at the meeting. 
In the administration formed by Gladstone 
at the end of 1868 Ayrton was nevertheless 
appointed parliamentary secretary to the 
treasury, and held the post until 11 Nov. 

1869. From that date, when he was created 
a privy councillor, to August 1873 he was 
first commissioner of works. 

His administration as commissioner of 
works was not popular, but was marked by 



zeal for economy in the public interest. He 
possessed great ability and varied knowledge, 
with conspicuous independence of character ; 
but his manners were brusque, and he came 
into personal conflict with numerous men 
of eminence with whom his official duties 
brought him into contact. He cut down the 
expenditure on the new courts of justice, 
treated Alfred Stevens [q. v.], the sculptor 
of the Wellington monument at St. Paul's 
Cathedral, as a negligent contractor, and, 
but for the interposition of Robert Lowe, 
would have forced him to surrender his 
models (Martin", Life of Lord Sherbrooke, 
ii. 379-80). He also had protracted diffe- 
rences with Sir J. D. Hooker, the director 
of Kew Gardens, Sir Algernon West, ' in 
some very complicated negotiations, made 
peace between them,' and thought Ayrton 
the * more reasonable man of the two ' 
(West, Recollections, 1832-86, i. 14). With 
two other members of the ministry (Glad- 
stone and Lowe) Ayrton was in March 1873 
unj ustifiably cari cat ured at the Court Theatre 
in London in the burlesque called ' The Happy 
Land,' which was written by W. S. Gilbert 
and Gilbert a Beckett [q. v.] 

In August 1873 Gladstone deemed it pru- 
dent to transfer Ayrton from the office of 
commissioner of works to that of judge-ad- 
vocate-general. He resigned with the rest 
of the ministers in March 1874, and Ayr- 
ton's political career came to a somewhat 
inglorious end. At the general election of 
1874 he contested the Tower Hamlets again, 
but was badly beaten, and after the redis- 
tribution of seats in 1885, in a contest for 
the Mile End division of the Tower Hamlets, 
only 420 votes were tendered for him. 

For the last few years of his life he was 
a daily frequenter of the Reform Club. He 
died at the Mount Dore Hotel, Bournemouth, 
on 30 Nov. 1886. 

[Times, 2 Dec. 1886 (p. 9), 3 Dec. (p. 6), 
4 Dec. (p. 6); Annual Reg. 1886, pp. 168-9; 
Memoir of G. E. Street, pp. 168-70.] 

W. P. C. 



B 



BABER, EDWARD COLBORNE 

(1843-1890), Chinese scholar and traveller, 
the son of Edward Baber and a great-nephew 
of Henry Hervey Baber [q. v.], was born at 
Dulwich on 30 April 1843. He was edu- 
cated under his father at Rossall junior 
school and (1853-62) at Christ's Hospital, 
whence he obtained a scholarship at Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge. He graduated 



B.A. from Magdalene in 1867. In July 1866 
he obtained in open competition a student 
interpretership for China or Siam, and pro- 
ceeded at once to Peking, where his merit 
was soon recognised by the British minister, 
Sir Thomas Wade. After working ten hours 
a day for six months at the language he 
mastered three thousand characters, and 
finished the colloquial course in the most 



Babington 



90 



Babington 



rapid time on record. He passed quickly 
through the various grades of the service, 
was first-class assistant in 1872, when he 
filled for a short time the post of vice-consul 
at Tamsuy in Formosa, and in 1879 was 
raised to the post of Chinese secretary of 
legation at Peking. In the meantime he 
had made three very interesting journeys in 
the interior of China. The first of these 
was made in 1876, when Baber accompanied 
Thomas Grosvenor across Yun-nan toBhamo, 
on the Burmese frontier, to investigate the 
murder of Augustus TlaymondMargary[q.v.], 
of which expedition he drew up a map and a 
narrative, forming the substance of the offi- 
cial blue-book issued in 1877. The second 
was an adventurous tour through the Sze- 
Chuen highlands in 1877, during which he 
visited and studied the language, spoken and 
written, of the remarkable indigenous tribe 
of Lolos, completing much that was at- 
tempted by Baron von Richthofen in 1872. 
A detailed account of this journey, enriched 
by a great amount of miscellaneous infor- 
mation as to Chinese customs and habits of 
thought, was printed in 188G under the title 
' Travels and Researches in Western China ' 
(with three maps), as part i. of the first 
volume of the Royal Geographical Society's 
' Supplementary Papers.' In 1878 he jour- 
neyed from Chungching northward by a new 
line of mountain country, occupied by the 
Sifan tribes, to the now well-known town 
of Tachienlu on the great Lhassa road, and 
wrote a valuable monograph on the 'Chinese 
Tea-trade with Thibet ' (' Suppl. Papers,' 
1886, pt. iv.) On 28 May 1883 he received 
one of the Royal Geographical Society's 
medals, with a highly complimentary address 
from the president. Lord Aberdare. In 1885 
and 1886 he was consul-general in Korea, 
and soon afterwards received the appoint- 
ment of political resident at Bhamo on the 
Upper Irawadi, where he died unmarried on 
16 June 1890, at the age of forty-seven. In 
addition to the works mentioned, Baber, while 
in England during 1883, skilfully condensed 
a narrative of his friend Captain William 
John Gill's ' Journey through China and East- 
ern Tibet to Burmah,' which was issued in 
November 1883 as 'The River of Golden 
Sand.' A portrait of Baber is given in the 
' Geographical Introduction ' to this work. 

[Proceedings of Royal Geographical Society, 
1883, 1886, and 1890; Yule's Introduction to 
Gill's River of Golden Sand, 1883 ; Athenaeum, 
1890, i. 831 ; Times, 23 June 1867.] T. S. 

BABINGTON, CHARLES CARDALE 
(1808-1895), botanist and archaeologist, was 
born at Ludlow on 23 Nov. 1808, His 



father, Joseph Babington (1768-1826), at 
the time of Charles's birth a physician, after- 
wards took holy orders. He had a fondness 
for botany, contributed to Sir James Edward 
Smith's * English Botany,' and taught his 
son the elements of the science. Tlie bota- 
nist's mother was Catherine, daughter of 
John Whitter of Bradninch, Devonshire. 
His grandfather was Thomas Babington of 
Rothley Temple, near Leicester, and his 
pedigree starts from William de IBabington 
of Babington Parva, now known as Baving- 
ton, near Hexham, in the thirteenth century 
{^Collectanea Topographica, ii. 94, viii. 266, 
313; Topographer and Genealogist, i. 137, 
259, 333; Memorials of Charles Cardale 
Babington, 1897). 

After some private tuition and two years 
(1821-3) at the Charterhouse, Babington 
was sent to a private school kept by William 
Hutchins at Bath, in which city his father 
had been compelled by bad health to settle. 
Before going up to Cambridge Babington 
came under the influence of William Wilber- 
force [q. v.], a friend of his father, as he 
afterwards came under that of Charles Simeon 
[q. v.] He entered St. John's College in 
October 1826, graduating B.A. in January 
1830, and proceeding M.A. in March 1833. 
During his first term Spurzheim lectured at 
Cambridge, and a Phrenological Society was 
formed, of which Babington became a mem- 
ber, but it lasted only a few months ; the 
botanical lectures of John Stevens Henslow 
[q. v.], which he attended from 1827 to 1833, 
and entomology, proved more attractive. 

Babington's first published paper was on 
Cambridge entomology in the ' Magazine of 
Natural History ' for 1829 ; he was one of 
the founders of the Entomological Society 
in 1833, earned the sobriquet of 'Beetles 
Babington,' and in his ' Dytiscidse Darwini- 
anse' in the 'Transactions of the Entomologi- 
cal Society' for 1841-3 took part in the de- 
scription of the 'Beagle' collections. A 
list of his entomological papers is given in 
Hagen's 'Bibliotheca Entomologica'(1862j, 
i. 22, 23 ; but all were pubhshed before 1844, 
and his collection was presented to the 
university. In 1830 Babington became a 
fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical So- 
ciety, and he was for many years its secre- 
tary. In the same year he joined the Lin- 
nean Society, and paid the first of a long 
series of botanical visits to North Wales. 
In 1833, on the occasion of the first meeting 
of the British Association at Cambridge, he 
was secretary of the natural history section, 
and from that year until 1871 he was very 
rarely absent from the annual meetings of 
the association, acting as president of the 



Babington 



91 



Babington 



section in 1853 and 1861, and as local secre- 
tary at the second Cambridge meeting in 
1862. 

Babington's first independent publication 
dealt with his favourite study of botany. It 
was his ' Flora Bathoniensis' which first ap- 
peared in 1834, a supplement being added 
in 1839. The critical notes and references 
to continental floras which this little work 
contains indicate the main characteristics of 
Babington's subsequent botanical work. In 
1834 he made the first of many excursions 
into Scotland, and in 1835, with two Cam- 
bridge friends, Robert Manikin Lingwood 
and John Ball [q. v, Suppl.], his first tour 
through Ireland. In this latter year he re- 
cords in his journal the commencement of 
his maynum opus, the ' Manual of British 
Botany,' the first edition, of which did not, 
however, appear until 1843. In the interim, 
in 1837 and 1838, he visited the Channel 
Islands, and in 1839 published his account 
of their flora as * Primitiae Florae Sarnicse.' 
In 1830 he was one of the founders of the 
Ray Club, of which he acted as secretary 
for fifty-five years, and he was on the coun- 
cil of the Ray Society, to which the club to 
some extent gave rise in 1844. The influ- 
ence of the successive editions of the ' Manual ' 
upon field botany can hardly be over-esti- 
mated. Sir James Edward Smith's acquisi- 
tion of Linn^'s herbarium, followed by the 
long isolation of England during the Napo- 
leonic war, had left the botanists of the 
country wedded to the Linntean system and 
ignorant of continental labours in systematic 
and descriptive botany. Babington, in the 
first four editions of his work, harmonised 
English work with that of Germany, and in 
the later editions also with that of France 
and Scandinavia, each edition being most 
carefully corrected throughout. 

Babington's interest in archajology was 
second only to his love of botany. The full 
joui'nals which he kept throughout his life, 
and which were afterwards published {Me- 
morials, Journal, and Botanical Correspon- 
dence, Cambridge, 1897), are, like those of 
Ray, half botany, half archaeology. To the 
publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, of which he was in 1840 one of the 
founders, he contributed more than fifty 
papers {op. cit. pp. 453-4) ; and having joined 
the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 
1850, he acted as chairman of its commit- 
tee from 1855 to 1885. It was said of him 
and his cousin, Churchill Babington [q. v. 
Suppl.], Disney professor of archaeology, that 
* either might fill the chair of the other.' 
He was one of the * four members of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society ' who, in 



1848, published an 'Index to the Baker 
Manuscripts,' and in the ' Catalogue of Manu- 
scripts ' in the Cambridge University Library, 
edited by Charles Hardwick (1821-1859) 
[q. v.] and Henry Richards Luard [q.v.], he 
undertook the heraldic and monastic cartu- 
laries ; but, finding himself deficient in neces- 
sary mediaeval scholarship, he made way, 
after the third volume, for George AVilliams 
(1814-1878). [q.v.] and Thomas Bendyshe. 
In 1851 he published, through the Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society, ' Ancient Cam- 
bridgeshire ; or, an Attempt to trace Roman 
and other ancient Roads through the County,' 
of which a much-enlarged edition was pub- 
lished in 1883. 

But Babington was still pursuing his re- 
searches in natural history. In his Channel 
Island flora, Babington had evinced an inte- 
rest in the critical study of brambles which 
resulted in his publishing in 1840, in the 
'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' 
— of which he had acted as an editor from 
1842 — and in a separate form, ' A Synopsis 
of British Rubi,' which was followed in 1869 
by a more complete work, entitled 'The 
British Rubi,' which was issued at the cost 
of the University Press, and the revision of 
which occupied the last years of his life. 
The study of brambles brought Babington 
into daily fellowship with Fenton John An- 
thony Hort [q. V. Suppl.] In 1846 Babing- 
ton made his only excursion beyond the 
limits of the British Isles, visiting Iceland 
for a few weeks, and it is characteristic of 
the thoroughness of his method that the list 
of plants published immediately afterwards 
in the ' Annals' was revised, with full refer- 
ences to other workers, in the Linnean So- 
ciety's ' Journal' for 1870. In 1860 he pub- 
lished his ' Flora of Cambridgeshire,' which 
set the example of an historical examination 
of the earlier authorities ; and, on the death 
of Professor Henslow in the following year, 
Babington succeeded him. By that time, 
wrote his friend. Professor J. E. B. Mayor 
{Memorials, p. xxi), ' his name in Cambridge 
stood by metonymy for Botany in general. 
Thus when a weed began to choke the Cam 
. . . it was christened Bahingtonia pestifera,' 
Babington's lectures were on those mainly 
anatomical lines that are now considered out 
of date ; and, though his classes dwindled, 
he had little sympathy with histological and 
physiological detail. After his health failed 
he gave up half his professional income to 
his deputy, but retained his chair in order 
to save the university chest the increased 
salary payable to his successor. One of his 
main interests was the improvement of the 
herbarium of the university, for which he 



Babington 



92 



Babington 



secured the appointment of an assistant, and 
upon which he almost always spent more 
than the amount provided by the university. 
Essentially a field naturalist, he visited 
almost every part of the British Isles in his 
search for plants, and always preferred to 
share his pleasure with others, his most fre- 
quent companion from 1845 to 1885 being 
William Williamson Newbould [q. v.] 

Babington had always had a strong inte- 
rest in evangelical mission work, and after his 
marriage at Walcot, near Bath, on 3 April 
1866, to Anna Maria, daughter of John 
Walker of the Madras civil service, this 
interest was intensified. The Church Mis- 
sionary Society, the London City Mission, 
the Irish Church Missions, the Uganda, 
Zenana, and China Missions, the rescue 
work of Dr. Barnardo, and the protestant 
propagandism in Spain and Italy received 
their heartiest support. Jani Alii of Corpus 
Christi College, the Mohammedan missio- 
nary, looked upon the Babingtons' house as 
his home. In 1871 Babington practically 
founded a cottage home for orphan girls at 
Cambridge. In 1874 he published the ' His- 
tory of the Infirmary and Chapel of the Hos- 
pital and College of St. John the Evangelist 
at Cambridge,' while the successive editions 
of the * Manual,' numerous papers, and his 
journal showed that his interest in botany, 
and especially in brambles, continued un- 
abated until the end. From 1886 to 1891 
Babington annually visited Braemar. He 
died at Cambridge on 22 July 1895, and was 
buried in Cherry Hinton churchyard. 

Babington was at his death the oldest 
resident member of the university, and the 
oldest fellow of the Linnean Society. He 
had been elected a fellow of the Geological 
Society in 1835, of the Botanical Society of 
Edinburgh in 1836, of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in 1859, of the Royal Society in 
1851, and of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
in 1882. The name Babingtonia was given 
to a genus of Restiacese by Lindley in 1842 ; 
but this is now merged in LinnS's genus 
Baeckea. Species of Atriplex and Bubus, 
and a variety of Allium, however, bear the 
name Babingtonii. His portrait, by Wil- 
liam Vizard, is in the hall of his college, and 
another is reproduced from a pencil sketch 
by Mrs. Hoare, taken in 1826, in the ' Memo- 
rials.' His herbarium of nearly fifty thousand 
sheets and sixteen hundred volumes of bo- 
tanical works were bequeathed to the uni- 
versity. The Royal Society's Catalogue (i. 
136-9, vii. 62, ix. 91) enumerates 132 papers 
by Babington published prior to 1882, and 
others are enumerated in the * Memorials.' 

Babington's separate publications have 



already been mentioned in chronological 
order. The successive editions of his ' Manual 
of British Botany' were published in 1843, 
1847, 1851, 1856, 1862, 1867, 1874, and 1881. 
Each was in one volume, 12mo, and con- 
sisted of a thousand copies. A ninth edi- 
tion, under the editorship of Messrs. Henry 
and James Groves, is now in preparation. 

[Memorials, Journal, and Botanical Corresp. 
of Charles Cardale Babington, Cambridge, 1897.] 

G. S. B. 

BABINGTON, CHURCHILL (1821- 
1889), scholar, only son of Matthew Drake 
Babington, rector of Thringstone, Leicester- 
shire, was born at Roeclifte in that county 
on 11 March 1821. He was connected with 
the Macaulay family, and slightly, on his 
mother's side, with that of the poet Churchill. 
Charles Cardale Babington [q. v. Suppl.] was 
his cousin. He was entered at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in 1839, and graduated 
B.A. in 1843, taking the seventh place in 
the classical tripos, and a senior optime's in 
mathematics. He was elected a fellow and 
ordained in 1846, in which year he gained the 
Hulsean essay, writing on ' Christianity in 
relation to the Abolition of Slavery.' Some 
four years previously he had vindicated his 
youthful love of natural history in a contri- 
bution to Potter's * History and Antiquities 
of Charnwood Forest' (1842, 4to). He gra- 
duated M.A. in 1846, and S.T.B. in 1853, 
proceeded D.D. in 1879, and was elected an 
honorary fellow of St. John's, Cambridge, in 
1880. In 1849 was published at Cambridge 
his able defence of the English clergy and 
gentry of the seventeenth century against 
Macaulay's aspersions in the famous third 
chapter of the 'History of England' (^Mr. 
Macaulay's Character of the Clergy . . . con- 
sidered). Gladstone, in reviewing Macaulay's 
' History,' was strongly impressed with Ba- 
bington's essays, and considered that he had 
convicted Macaulay at least of partiality. 
In 1850 he was entrusted by the university 
with the task of editing the recently dis- 
covered fragments of ' The Orations of Hype- 
rides against Demosthenes, and for Lyco- 
phron and for Euxenippus' from the papyri 
found at Thebes in Upper Egypt, and his 
edition was issued in two volumes (1850 
and 1853). In 1855 he brought out an 
edition of * The Benefits of Christ's Death,' 
supposed to be by the Italian reformer, Aonio 
Paleario. In 1860 he edited for the Rolls 
Series Pecock's ' Repressor,' and in 1865, for 
the same series, the two first volumes of 
Higden's * Polychronicon.' In 1865 he was 
elected Disney professor of archaeology at 
Cambridge, and published his introductory 
lecture. His contributions to the * Die- 



Bacon 



93 



Bacon 



tionary of Christian Antiquities' were very 
considerable (including the articles on medals, 
glass, gems, inscriptions, seals, rings, and 
tombs), and of great merit. His favourite 
studies, beside numismatics, were botany 
and ornithology. After 1866, in which year 
he left Cambridge and accepted the rectory 
of Cockfield in Suifolk, he was able to con- 
centrate his attention upon this last and 
best loved study, and the result was his very 
thorough monograph on * The Birds of 
Suffolk' (1886), a storehouse of facts upon 
the ornithology of the county. During his 
last years he took up the study of conchology, 
and formed a fine collection both of British 
and exotic shells. He was an exemplary 
parish clergyman, and his archaeological 
competence secured the adequate and taste- 
ful restoration of Cockfield church during 
his incumbency. The last stage was marked 
by the erection of a new organ in 1887. He 
died at Cockfield on 12 Jan. 1889, and was 
buried in the parish churchyard. A stained 
glass window was erected to his memory in 
January 1890. He married in 1869 a daugh- 
ter of Colonel John Alexander Wilson, R. A., 
but left no issue. Besides his separately 
printed works, his contributions to the jour- 
nals of learned societies, such as the * Numis- 
matic Chronicle ' and Hooker's * Journal of 
Botany,' and the ' Suffolk Institute Papers ' 
were numerous. His house was a small 
museum of natural history, coins, and Greek 
vases, and he brought from Cambridge in 
1866 a fine collection of books. 

[Bury and Norwich Post, and Suffolk Herald, 
22 Jan. 1889 ; West Suffolk Advertiser, 14 June 
1890; Guardian, 15 Jan. 1889; Graduati Can- 
tab.] T. S. 

BACON, Sir JAMES (1798-1895), judge, 
son of James Bacon, by his wife Catherine, 
bom Day, of Manchester, was born on 
11 Feb. 1798. His father's origin and his- 
tory are obscure, but he was in intermittent 
practice as a certificated conveyancer at 
Somers Town and elsewhere within the 
metropolitan district between 1805 and 1825. 
The future judge was admitted on 4 April 
1822 member of Gray's Inn, and was there 
called to the bar on 16 May 1827. He was 
also admitted on 3 Oct. 1833 member, and 
on 8 May 1845 barrister ad eundem, at Lin- 
coln's Inn, where, on taking silk, he was 
elected bencher on 2 Nov. 1846, and treasurer 
in 1869. 

For some years after his call Bacon went 
the home circuit, and attended the Surrey 
sessions, reported and wrote for the press. 
He is said to have been for a time sub-editor 
of the * Times ; ' and the admirable stvle of 



his judgments shows that he might have 
achieved high literary distinction had not 
the demands of a growing practice proved 
too exacting. Eventually he limited himself 
to conveyancing, chancery, and bankruptcy 
business, of which he gradually obtained his 
full share. In 1859 he was appointed under- 
secretary and secretary of causes to the 
master of the rolls, and on 7 Sept. 1868 
commissioner in bankruptcy for the London 
district. From the latter office he was ad- 
vanced to that of chief judge under the 
Bankruptcy Act of 1869, which misconceived 
statute he administered with perhaps as much 
success as its nature permitted from its com- 
mencement until its repeal, and the trans- 
ference of the bankruptcy jurisdiction to the 
queen's bench division of the high court of 
justice, in 1883. 

Shortly after his appointment to the chief- 
judgeship in bankruptcy Bacon succeeded 
Sir William James as vice-chancellor on 
2 July 1870, and he held the two offices 
concurrently till 1883. He was knighted on 
14 Jan. 1871. The Judicature Acts of 1873 
and 1875 preserved the title of vice-chan- 
cellor during the lives of the existing vice- 
chancellors, while giving them the status 
of justices of the high court, and providing 
that no future vice-chancellors should be ap- 
pointed. Though junior in office Bacon was 
considerably senior in years to vice-chan- 
cellor Malins, as also to vice-chancellors 
Wickens and Hall. Yet all three died while 
the veteran was still dispensing justice with 
undiminished vigour; and he thus became 
the last holder of a dignity of which he re- 
membered the creation in 1813. 

Bacon after 1883, when the chief-judge- 
ship in bankruptcy was abolished, continued 
his labours as vice-chancellor. He was still 
hale and hearty when on 10 Nov. 1886 he 
retired from the bench at the age of eighty- 
eight. He was then sworn of the privy 
council (26 Nov.) He died of old age at 
his residence, 1 Kensington Gardens Terrace, 
Hyde Park, on 1 June 1895. 

Bacon married, on 23 April 1827, Laura 
Frances {d, 1859), daughter of William 
Cook of Clay^ Hill, Enfield, Middlesex, by 
whom he left issue. 

Bacon's career embraced in its patriarchal 
span a whole era of gradual but incessant 
reform, which is without a parallel in our 
legal history. It was therefore no wonder 
that a vice-chancellor, who had sat at the 
feet of Eldon, and grown grey under St. 
Leonards, should exhibit some of the foibles 
of an old practitioner confronted with a 
new order of things, or that a considerable 
proportion of his judgments should be re- 



Baden-Powell 



94 



Badger 



versed or modified on appeal. Nevertheless, 
to liave united at so advanced an age and 
for so long a period the chief-judgeship in 
bankruptcy with the vice-chancellorship re- 
mains a prodigious feat of mental and physical 
vigour. 

Bacon was one of the most courteous of 
judges, and had also no small fund of wit 
and humour. His pungent obiter dicta not 
unfrequently enlivened the dull course of 
proceedings, and the clever caricature 
sketches with which he illustrated his notes 
provided relaxation for the lords-justices of 
appeal. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar; Gray's Inn Adm. 
Eeg. ; Lincoln's Inn Records ; Law Lists, 1806- 
1815, 1828, 1847, 1869, 1871, 1885; Burke's 
Peerage, 1894; Foster's Baronetage; Times, 
3 June 1895; Ann. Reg. 1895, ii. 183; Law 
Times, 8 June 1895; Law Journ. 13 Nov. 1886, 
17 Feb. 1894, 8 June 1895; Saturday Review, 
8 June 1895; Pump Court, February 1895; 
Ballantine's From the Old World to the New, 
p. 209 ; Selborne's Memorials, Personal and 
Political, i. 291, ii. 164; Men and Women of 
the Time, 1891.] J. M. R. 

BADEN-POWELL, Sir GEOEGE 

(1847-1898), author and politician, [See 
Powell.] 

BADGER, GEORGE PERCY (1815- 
1888), Arabic scholar, born at Chelmsford 
in Essex in April 1815, was a printer by 
trade. His youth was spent at Malta, and 
his knowledge of the Maltese dialect was 
the foundation of his love of Arabic. He 
spent the greater part of 1835 and 1836 at 
Bairut improving his acquaintance with 
Arabic. At Birejik he visited the expedition 
under Francis Rawdon Chesney [q. v.] for 
the exploration of the Euphrates valley. On 
returning to Malta he was associated with 
Ahmad Faris EiFendi in the editorial de- 
partment of the Church Missionary Society. 
He returned to England in 1841, studied at 
the Church Missionary Society's Institution 
at Islington, and was ordained deacon in 
1841 and priest in the following year. On 
account of his intimate knowledge of the 
East, and his unrivalled colloquial know- 
ledge of Arabic, he was chosen by William 
Howley [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, 
and by Charles James Blomfield [q. v.], 
bishop of London, as delegate to the Eastern 
churches, and more especially the Nestorians 
of Kurdistan. He was employed on this 
mission from 1842 till 1844, and he visited 
the Nestorians a second time in 1850. In 
his book on ' The Nestorians and their 
Rituals' (London, 1852, 2 vols. 8vo), a 
work of permanent value to students of 



comparative theology, he gave a history of 
the community and an account of his two 
expeditions, besides a translation of the prin- 
cipal Nestorian rituals from the Syriac. On 
returning to England from his first expedi- 
tion in 1845, Badger was appointed govern- 
ment chaplain on the Bombay establishment, 
and a year later he was appointed chaplain at 
Aden. When Sir James Outram [q.'v.] was 
sent to Aden in 1854 as commandant and poli- 
tical agent, he placed considerable reliance in 
dealing with the Arab tribes on Badger's 
knowledge of the native chiefs and on his in- 
fluence with them. When he was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the Persian expedi- 
tion in November 1856 he obtained the ap- 
pointment of Badger as staff chaplain and 
Arabic interpreter to the force. At the 
conclusion of the campaign of 1857 Badger 
received the war medal. In 1860 he was ap- 
pointed coadjutor to Colonel (Sir) William 
Marcus Coghlan to settle the differences 
which had arisen between the sons of the 
renowned Sayyid Sa'id, the Sayyid Thuwainy, 
who ruled over Oman, and the Sayyid 
Majid, who ruled over Sa'id's East African 
possessions. 

Badger returned to England in 1861, and 
in October accompanied Outram on a visit 
to Egypt. In 1862 he retired from the ser- 
vice, and devoted himself chiefly to lite- 
rature. In 1872 he was appointed secretary 
to Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere [q. v.], on 
a mission to Zanzibar to negotiate the sup- 
pression of the slave trade with the sultan, 
Sayyid Burgash. In recognition of his ser- 
vices Badger was created D.C.L. by the 
archbishop of Canterbury in 1873. Two 
years later he was appointed to attend upon 
the sultan of Zanzibar during his visit to 
England. In 1873 he was created a knight 
commander of the order of the Crown of 
Italy, and in 1880 he was nominated by the 
sultan of Zanzibar a knight of the Gleaming 
Star. 

In 1881 Badger published * An English- 
Arabic Lexicon ' (London, 8vo), which has 
remained the standard work of its kind. It 
was especially notable for its command of 
current Ajrabic nomenclature and phraseo- 
logy- 

Badger died in London on 21 Feb. 1888 
at 21 Leamington Road Villas, Westbourne 
Park, and was buried on 26 Feb. at Kensal 
Green cemetery. Besides the works already 
mentioned, he was the author of: 1. ' De- 
scription of Malta and Gozo,' Malta, 1838, 
12mo ; 5th edit, entitled * Historical Guide 
to Malta and Gozo,' 1872. 2. ' Elementi 
della lingua Inglese, sulla base della Gram- 
matica di Veneroni,' Malta, 1860, 12mo. 



Baggallay 



95 



Bagnal 



3. * Government in its Relations with Edu- 
cation and Christianity in India,' London, 
1858, 8vo. 4. * Sermons on the State of the 
Dead, Past, Present, and Future,' Bombay, 
1861, 8vo; 2nd edit. London, 1871, 8vo. 
5. * A Visit to the Isthmus of Suez Canal 
Works,' London, 1862, 8vo. He edited for 
the Hakluyt Society * The Travels of Lodo- 
vico di Varthema,' London, 1863, 8vo, trans- 
lated by John "Winter Jones [q. v.], and 
Salil Ibn Razik's ' History of the Imams and 
Seyyids of Oman,' London, 1871, 4to. He 
also translated Isidore Mullois's ' Clergy and 
the Pulpit,' London, 1867, 8vo, and contri- 
buted the article * Muhammad and Mu- 
hammadanism ' to Smith's ' Dictionary of 
Christian Biography ' (1882). 

[Badger's "Works ; Academy, 3 March 1888; 
Stock's Hist, of Church Miss. Soc. 1899, i. 349- 
350; Times, 23 Feb. 1888; Crockford's Clerical 
Directory; Goldsmid's James Outram, 1881, 
ii. 89, 90, 176, 376; Martineau's Life of Sir 
Bartle Frere, 1895, ii. 71, 151 ; Men of the Time, 
1887 ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. Supplement.] 

E. L C. 

BAGGALLAY, Sie RICHARD (1816- 
1888), judge, eldest son of Richard Bag- 
gallay, merchant, of London and Kingthorpe 
House, Tooting, Surrey, by Anne, daughter 
of Owen Harden, was bom at Stockwell, 
Surrey, on 13 May 1816. Like his con- 
temporary, William Baliol Brett, Viscount 
Esher [q. v. Suppl.], he was an alumnus of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he read hard, graduating B.A. (four- 
teenth wrangler) in 1839, and proceeding 
M. A. in 1842. He was Frankland fellow of 
his college from 1845 until his marriage in 
1847, and honorary fellow from 1880 until 
his death. Admitted student at Lincoln's 
Inn on 23 March 1837, he was there called 
to the bar on 14 June 1843, and elected 
bencher on 13 March 1861, and treasurer in 
1875. He practised with distinction in the 
rolls court, which during Lord Romilly's 
later years attracted most of the talent of 
the equity bar, took silk in 1861, and was 
made counsel to the university of Cambridge 
in 1869. He was returned to parliament for 
Hereford on 14 July 1865 as a conservative 
reformer, found no difficulty in accepting 
Disraeli's scheme of household suffrage, suc- 
ceeded Brett as solicitor-general on 16 Sept. 
1868, and was knighted as the government 
went out of office (9 Dec.) In the meantime 
he had lost his seat, which he failed to re- 
cover at a subsequent contest (30 March 
1869). He re-entered parliament in 1870, 
being returned on 17 Oct. for Mid-Surrey, 
which seat he retained at the general elec- 
tion of February 1874, and until his eleva- 



tion to the bench. The return of his party 
to power in 1874 reinstated him in the office 
of solicitor-general (27 Feb.), and on the 
early retirement of Sir John Karslake he 
was advanced to the attorney-generalship 
(20 April). 

As attorney-general he piloted the Judi- 
cature Act of 1875 through committee, and 
under that measure he was created (29 Oct. 
1875) justice of appeal, for which was soon 
afterwards substituted the title of lord-jus- 
tice of appeal, and was sworn of the privy 
council. 

On Baggallay thus devolved no small por- 
tion of the heavy burden of construing the 
Judicature Acts, and determining the course 
of procedure under the new system which 
they introduced. The task proved to be be- 
yond his physical powers. In the summer 
of 1882 his health broke down, and a pro- 
longed rest failed completely to restore it. 
He retired from the bench in November 
1885, but assisted occasionally in the de- 
liberations of the privy council until shortly 
before his death, which took place at Brigh- 
ton on 13 Nov. 1888. 

Baggallay was a sound lawyer but hardly 
a strong judge. He married, on 25 Feb, 
1847, Marianne, youngest daughter of Henry 
Charles Lacy of Withdean Hall, Sussex, 
by whom he left issue. 

[Cal. Univ. Camb. 1840-5; Grad. Cant,; 
Foster's Men at the Bar ; Lincoln's Inn Eecords ; 
Law List, 1843, 1861, 1862, 1875, 1876; Gent, 
Mag. 1847, i. 543 ; Members of Parliament 
(official lists) ; Hansard's Pari. Deb. 3rd ser, 
clxxxii. 1578, clxxxvi. 1223,ccx-ccxxvi ; Times, 
14 Nov. 1888 ; Ann. Eeg. 1868 ii. 252, 254, 1888 
ii, 179; Law Times, 5 Dec. 1885, 24 Nov. 1888 ; 
Law Journ. 5 Nov. 1875, 27 May 1882, 17 Nov. 
1888 ; Solicitor's Journ. 17 Nov. 1888 ; Burke's 
Peerage, 1888; Foster's Baronetage; Men of 
the Time, 1884.] J. M. E. 

BAGNAL, Sie HENRY (1556.?-1598), 
marshal of the army in Ireland, born about 
1556, was son of Sir Nicholas Bagnal [q. v. 
Suppl.] and his wife Eleanor, daughter of Sir 
Edward Griffith of Penrhyn. He was edu- 
cated at Jesus College, Oxford, but seems to 
have left the university without a degree 
and gone to serve with his father in Ireland, 
On 6 May 1577 he was associated with his 
father in a commission for the government 
of Ulster {Cal. Fiants, Eliz.No. 3021), and 
in the following year he was knighted. In 
August 1580 he was, with Sir William 
Stanley, in command of the rear of the army 
when Arthur Grey, baron Grey de Wilton 
[q. v.], was defeated by the Irish in Glenma- 
lure (Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors, 
iii. 61). On 26 Aug, 1583 he was granted 



Bagnal 



96 



Bagnal 



in reversion his father's office of marshal of 
the army, and his name was generally in- 
cluded in the commissions for the govern- 
ment of Ulster, for taking musters, and sur- 
veying lands. In September 1584 he went 
to attack thirteen hundred Scots who had 
landed on Rathlin island under Angus Mac- 
donnell, but the ships which should have 
co-operated failed to appear, and the invaders 
were not driven off until Stanley's arrival. 

In 1586 Bagnal visited England, and on 
16 Sept. of that year he wrote to Edward 
Manners, third earl of Rutland [q. v.], whose 
cousin he had married, saying that he was 
* very desirous for his learning's sake to be 
made a parliament man,' and asking if the 
earl had a borough to spare. Thirteen days 
later he was returned to the English parlia- 
ment for Anglesey ; he was also elected for 
Grantham on 24 Oct., but the latter return 
was cancelled. 

In October 1690 Sir Nicholas Bagnal 
resigned his office of marshal on condition 
that his son Henry was appointed to succeed 
him ; he received the post on 24 Oct., and 
was on the same day sworn of the privy 
council. On 18 May 1591 he was made chief 
commissioner for the government of Ulster, 
and soon afterwards Hugh O'Neill, earl of 
Tyrone [q. v.], whose first wife had just 
died, made overtures to Bagnal for the hand 
of his sister Mabel. Bagnal contemptuously 
refused to entertain the proposal, and, to 
keep Mabel out of Tyrone's reach, removed 
her to Turvey, near Swords, the house of 
Sir Patrick Barnewall, who had married 
another sister. Tyrone, however, persuaded 
Mabel Bagnal to elope with him, and they 
were married in August 1591 by Thomas 
Jones (1550P-1619) [q.v.], bishop of Meath. 
Bagnal refused to pay his sister's dowry, 
and a feud began between the two which 
led to Tyrone's revolt and Bagnal's death. 
The countess of Tyrone appears to have 
soon repented of her marriage, and died in 
1596. 

Meanwhile, in September 1593, Bagnal 
invaded Fermanagh from the side of Mona- 
ghan to attack Hugh INIaguire [q. v.], who 
had defeated Sir Richard Bingham [q. v.] at 
Tulsk. At Enniskillen he was joined by 
Tyrone, and together they defeated Maguire 
on 10 Oct. ; both claimed the credit for the 
victory, but this was Tyrone's last service 
to the English crown under Elizabeth, and 
henceforth he and Bagnal were at open war. 
In May 1695 Bagnal relieved Monaghan, 
which was besieged by Tyrone, but in the 
following July his lands were wasted right 
up to the gates of Newry (Ca/. State Papers, 
Irel. 1592-6, pp. 319, 340). In December 



1596 he revictualled Armagh, and again in 
June 1597, nearly capturing Tyrone on the 
latter occasion. In 1598 Tyrone sat down 
before the fort on the Blackwater, and in 
August Bagnal was sent to relieve it ; he 
was given four thousand foot, three hundred 
and twenty horse, and four field-pieces. His 
military capacity was not, however, great ; 
nor was he popular with his men, who had 
earlier in the year almost openly mutinied 
{ib. 1598-9, p. 69). Ill-fortune attended this 
expedition from the start, but it reached 
Armagh without fighting, and thence set 
out for the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater, 
keeping to the right of the main road to 
avoid the necessity of frontal attacks. On 
14 Aug. the English encountered a superior 
force of Tyrone's men, were taken by sur- 
prise, and hampered in their operations by 
the bogs. Bagnal himself was slain early 
in the action, and his body fell into Tyrone's 
hands (cf Cal. Hatfield MSS. viii. 409-412 ; 
Inquis. post mortem, Eliz. vol. cclxi. No. 61). 
In all the English lost 855 killed and 363 
wounded ; the moral effect of the Irish vic- 
tory was enormous, and led to the general 
rising of 1699-1601, which nearly wrested 
Ireland from Elizabeth's grasp. 

Bagnal married Eleanor, daughter of Sir 
John Savage of Rock Savage, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Manners, 
earl of Rutland [q. v.] ; by her, who sur- 
vived him, he had issue three sons and four 
daughters, of whom Anne married Lewis 
Bayly [q. v.], bishop of Bangor. 

[Cal. State Papers, Irel. 1580-98 passim ; Cal. 
Fiants, Eliz. ; Cal. Carew MSS. ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 15th Eep. App. iii. 294 ; Rutland MSS. 
i. 171-2, 207, 348 ; Lascelles's Liber Mun. Hib. , 
Visit, of Cheshire (Harl. Soc), p. 204 ; Foster's 
Alumui Oxon. 1500-1714; The Eeliquary, x. 
110; Annals of the Four Masters ; Cox's 
Hibernia Anglicana; Bagwell's Ireland under 
the Tudors.] A. F, P. 

BAGNAL, Sir NICHOLAS (1610.?- 
1590?), marshal of the army in Ireland, 
born about 1510, was second son of John 
Bagnal {d. 1558), a tailor by trade and 
mayor of Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1519, 
1522, 1526, 1531, and 1533, by his wife 
Eleanor, daughter of Thomas AVhittingham 
of Middlewich, Cheshire, and second cousin 
of William Whittingham [q. v.], dean of 
Durham ( Visit. Cheshire, Harl. Soc. p. 248 ; 
The Reliquary, x. 110). His elder brother, 
Sir Ralph Bagnal, was one of Henry VIII's 
ruffling courtiers, stigmatised by Edward 
Underbill the * Hot Gospeller ' (Narr. of the 
Iteformation, pp. 158, 290); he was granted 
Dieulacres Abbey, Staffordshire, in 1552-3, 
sat in the parliament of October 1553, pos- 



Bagnal 



97 



Bagnal 



sibly for Newcastle-under-Lyme, the return 
for which has been defaced, made some sort 
of protest against the reconciliation with 
Rome, and fled to France, where he was 
implicated in Sir Henry Dudley's conspiracy 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 80). 
On 19 Jan, 1558-9 he was elected for 
Staffordshire, and in January 1562-3 for 
Newcastle-under-Lyme. He squandered the 
lands granted him by Henry VIII largely in 
indiscriminate charity, and Elizabeth is re- 
ported to have promised him in the last re- 
sort the full run of her kitchen. 

Nicholas was a gentleman pensioner of 
Henry VIII, and in 1639 was sent to Ireland. 
There he Ijecame acquainted with Con 
O'Neill, first earl of Tyrone [q. v.], and on 
7 Dec. 1542 the Irish council, ' at the earnest 
suit of Tyrone,' begged Henry VIII for the 

* pardon of one Nic. Bagnalde, late the 
king's servant, who fled on account of a 
murder' (Letters and Papers, 1542, No. 1182). 
This appears to have been granted. Bagnal 
returned to England in April 1544, having 

* served five years with great credit,' and 
took part in the campaign in France in the 
following summer. In March 1546-7 he was 
appointed by Edward VI marshal of the army 
in Ireland {Acts P. C. 1547-50, pp. 77, 462 ; 
Cal. Fiants, Edward VI, No. 13). In Au- 
gust 1548 he was with the lord deputy. Sir 
Edward Bellingham [q. v.], when the Irish, 
who had invaded Kildare under Cahir O'Con- 
nor, were defeated with great slaughter. In 
November 1551 he was sent by Croft to 
expel the Scots who had invaded Dufferin. 
He was knighted in the same year, and on 
22 April 1552 was granted the lands of St. 
Patrick's and St. Mary's abbeys in Newry, 
and the manor of Carlingford. On Mary's 
accession Bagnal lost his oflice of marshal, 
which was conferred on Sir George Stanley. 
He does not appear to have offered any overt 
opposition to Mary's government, but pro- 
bably he shared hisbrother'sprotestant views, 
and on 7 May 1556 he was fined a thousand 
pounds {Acts P. C. 1554-6, p. 268). On 
12 Jan. 1558-9 he was ^ected to Eliza- 
beth's first parliament as member for Stoke- 
on-Trent. 

Much to Bagnal's annoyance, Stanley was 
continued as marshal in Ireland by Eliza- 
beth, and on 23 April 1562 he wrote to the 
queen complaining that his lands brought 
him in nothing, owing to the depredations of 
Shane O'Neill [q. v.], whereas while he was 
in office they were worth a thousand pounds 
a year. Bagnal, however, had to' be content 
with a mere captaincy until Sir Nicholas 
Arnold's recommendations induced her to 
reappoint him marshal in 1565, when Sir 

VOL. I. — SUP. 



Henry Sidney [q.v.] became deputy. Bagnal's 
patent was dated 5 Oct. 1565, but he had 
scarcely taken up the office when, early in 
1566, he entered into an agreement to sell it 
and his lands to Sir Thomas Stucley [q. v.] 
Sidney and Cecil both urged Elizabeth to 
confirm the bargain, but the queen was 
justly suspicious of Stucley, and Bagnal re- 
mained marshal. 

In this capacity he did good service 
against the Irish in Ulster ; he rebuilt 
Newry and made it, unlike most of the 
Elizabethan settlements in Ireland, a real 
colonial success, with the result that Newry 
became an effective bridle for Ulster. He 
held the office of marshal for twenty-five 
years, and was appointed to many other 
commissions besides. On 6 May 1577 he 
was nominated * to have the principal rule 
throughout the province of Ulster' {Cal. 
Fiants, Eliz. No. 3021). On 20 Aug. 1583 
his son Sir Henry obtained the reversion of 
the marshalship, and acted henceforth as his 
father's deputy. Nevertheless, Sir Nicholas 
was on 6 July 1584 appointed chief com- 
missioner for the government of Ulster, and 
in April 1585 he was returned to the Irish 
parliament as member for co. Down. In 
January 1585-6 Sir John Perrot [q. v.] com- 
plained that Bagnal was old and not able to 
perform his duties as marshal. This was 
possibly the beginning of the feud between 
Bagnal and Perrot, which lasted until the 
lord deputy was recalled ; on one occasion 
(15 July 1587) there was an affray between 
the two in Perrot's house {Cal. State Papers, 
Ireland, 1586-8, pp. 353-60). On 20 Oct. 
1590 Bagnal resigned the office of marshal 
on condition that it was conferred on his 
son. Sir Henry. His name does not again 
occur, and he died at the end of 1590 or 
beginning of 1591. 

Bagnal married, about 1555, Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir Edward Griffith of Pen- 
rhyn, and left issue five sons and six daugh- 
ters. Of the sons. Sir Henry is noticed 
separately, and Sir Samuel was knighted by 
Essex at Cadiz in 1596 (Corbett, Drakes 
Successors, p. 97), was made commander-in- 
chief in Ulster on 28 Sept. 1599 during 
Essex's absence, and became marshal in 
1602. Sir Nicholas's daughter Mabel eloped 
with the famous Earl of Tyrone [see under 
Bagnal, Sir Henrt]. 

[Cal. State Papers, Ireland ; Cal. Carew 
MSS. and Book of Howth ; Cal. Fiants, Ireland, 
Edward VI-Elizabeth ; Acts of the Privy Coun- 
cil, ed. Dasent ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 15th Eep. 
App. iii. 142, 154, 217; Off. Ret. Membprs of 
Pari.; Laseelles's Liber Munerum Hib.; Erdes- 
wiek's Staffordshire, p. 493 ; Ward's Hist, of 



Bagot 



98 



Bagot 






Stoke-on-Trent, p. 346 ; Bagwell's Ireland under 
the Tudors; The Reliquary, ed. Jewitt, x. 110.] 

A. F. P. 

BAGOT, SiE CHARLES (1781-1843), 
diplomatist and governor-general of Canada, 
born at Blithfield House in Staffordshire on 
23 Sept. 1781, -was second surviving son of 
William, first baron Bagot of Bagots Brom- 
ley, by bis wife Elizabetb Louisa, eldest 
daugbter of John St. John, second viscount 
Bolingbroke. William Bagot, second baron 
Bagot [q.v.], was bis brother. Educated at 
Rugby, he matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 26 Oct. 1797, and graduated B. A. 
in 1801, and M.A. three years later. On 
12 Nov. 1801 he was admitted to Lincoln's 
Inn. Entering into politics, he took bis seat 
as member for Castle Rising on 22 June 1807. 
In the following August he became parlia- 
mentary under-secretary for foreign affairs 
under Canning, with whom he formed a close 
friendship, but at the close of the year he 
accepted the Chiltern hundreds. Turning to 
diplomacy he was appointed minister-pleni- 
potentiary to France on 11 July 1814. He 
gave place to the Duke of Wellington in 
August, and was sent as envoy-extraordinary 
and minister-plenipotentiary to the United 
States on 31 July 1815. Before his departure 
he was sworn of the privy council (4 Dec. 
1815). Besides settling the irritation con- 
sequent on the American war of 1812-14 
and improving the trade relations between 
the United States and the British provinces, 
he secured the neutrality of the great lakes. 
This arrangement, though it was in the form 
of exchange-notes between Bagot and acting- 
secretary Rush (28 April 1817), was ratified 
as a treaty by the American senate, and was 
proclaimed by President Monroe on 28 April 
1818. It has since subsisted in full force to 
the common benefit of the neighbouring 
peoples. On bis return to England Bagot 
was created G.C.B. (20 May 1820). 

On 23 May 1820 he was nominated am- 
bassador to St. Petersburg. His chief duty 
was, in the language of Canning, 'to keep 
the czar quiet,' because 'the time for Areo- 
pagus and the like of that is gone by.' He 
soon became a persona gratissima with the 
emperor. His subsidiary work included the 
withdrawal of the ukase of 16 Sept. 1821, 
which proclaimed the North Pacific a closed 
sea. He made some progress also in defin- 
ing the boundary between the Russian and 
British possessions in North-west America, 
though the actual treaty was not signed till 
1825. 

On 27 Nov. 1824 Bagot went to The 
Hague. In a letter to Lord Liverpool 
Canning says of this position : ' It is the 



best thing the secretary of state has to give, 
and the only thing he can give to whom he 
pleases. ... I sent Granville to The Hague 
only to keep it open for Bagot.' The experi- 
ment of the reunited Netherlands was then 
in course of trial under the guarantee of 
Europe. The effort of William I to assimi- 
late Holland and Belgium in law, language, 
and religion by legislative force was bringing 
about its natural result, separation of the 
peoples. Bagot had no actual share in the 
final settlement for the independence of 
Belgium, which was concluded in London in 
1831, but he used his influence to secure 
favourable terms and an effective boundary 
for the new kingdom of Belgium. In April 
1835 a special mission to Vienna brought 
his diplomatic career to an end. 

On the retirement of Lord Amherst in 
1828 from the governor-generalship of India 
the post was offered to Bagot but declined. 
He accepted a similar appointment to Canada 
on 27 Sept. 1841, and entered on his duties 
on 12 Jan. following. His term of office was 
short but memorable. The province was in 
a transitionary state. The Union Act of 
1840 had conferred on the united provinces 
of Upper and Lower Canada responsible go- 
vernment, and Bagot's predecessor, Charles 
Edward Poulett Thomson, Lord Sydenham 
[q. v.], had opened the first united parlia- 
ment at Kingston on 13 June 1841, but no 
efficient ministry was in existence To har- 
monise the executive, whose members were 
nominated by the crown, with the elected 
united legislature of the French and Eng- 
lish provinces, was the main object of Bagot's 
rule. He acted with commendable caution. 
Deferring the meeting of the legislative as- 
sembly, he set himself to strengthen the 
existing administration. For this purpose 
he first made a tour of Upper Canada. He 
visited Niagara, laid the foundation-stone of 
King's College, received and replied to ad- 
dresses from municipal bodies, and inter- 
viewed leading men. He failed to conciliate 
the extreme tories, who expected that, as a 
well-known conservative and the nominee 
of Lord Stanley, he would assure their 
power. He accepted the services of an ad- 
vanced reformer like (Sir) Francis Hincks 
[q. v.], and held himself aloof from party in- 
fluences. 

He next turned his attention to Lower 
Canada and the French-speaking population. 
His cheerful disposition, his readiness to 
meet all classes of her majesty's subjects, his 
generous hospitality, coupled with the win- 
ning kindness of his wife, captivated the per- 
sonal regard of a population who were al- 
ready prepossessed in bis favour by reason 



Bagot 



99 



Bailey 



of tlaeir sympatliy ■with the Belgians. The 
appointment of T. Remi Vallieres de St.-Real 
as chief-justice of Montreal, and of Meilleur 
as superintendent of education, deepened the 
good impression. But the politicians for the 
most part held aloof. Their foremost leader, 
. Lafontaine, who had declined office under 
Lord Sydenham, again declined, except on 
terms of reorganising the administration. 
Having exhausted every constitutional means 
to meet the views of the French Canadians, 
he recommended his ministers to meet the 
assembly on 8 Sept. 1842. 

Within a week of the opening of the house 
the complete reorganisation of the ministry 
which Bagot deemed needful came, and with 
it opened the real era of responsible go- 
vernment. The more conservative members 
(Draper, Ogden, Davidson, Sherwood) quickly 
retired from the executive, and the reform 
leaders (Baldwin,Lafontaine,Morin,Aylwin) 
took office. Thus was formed the first colo- 
nial cabinet that was really representative 
of parliament, and responsible to it. The 
V ensuing session was short, but was sufficient 
1/ to affirm the new system. Thirty-trwo acts 
were passed, the most important of which 
were a law establishing a polling booth in 
each township or parish instead of in each 
county as theretofore, a measure levying a 
protective duty on American wheat, and a 
resolution that Kingston should not remain 
the seat of government. The strength of the 
new ministry was thoroughly tested, but in 
uv-a house of eighty-eight members its oppo- 
nents of all shades could not muster more 
' than twenty-eight votes. From this time 
the terms appropriate to parliamentary rule, 
as ministry, cabinet, first minister, premier, 
opposition, leader of opposition, were in 
current use in Canada. The new ministers 
did not return to their constituents for re- 
election till 12 Oct., when the house was 
prorogued to 18 Nov. It did not meet again 
during Bagot's tenure of office. 

The acceptance of a purely parliamentary 
form of colonial government was deemed a 
hazardous experiment among the extreme 
tories alike of Canada and of England. 
Bagot incurred the severe rebuke of Lord 
Stanley, the colonial minister, who deemed 
that Bagot had gone too far in his recogni- 
tion of ministerial responsibility to parlia- 
ment. Lord Stanley's despatches of censure 
have not been published. Their receipt 
proved an irreparable injury to Bagot's health. 
At all times of a weakly constitution, he at 
once requested his recall. When his suc- 
cessor. Sir Charles Theophilus (afterwards 
Baron) Metcalfe [q. v.], arrived, he was too 
ill to be moved from Alwington House at 



Kingston, then the residence of the gover- 
nor, lie surrendered the reins of power on 
30 March ] 843, after he had summoned his 
councillors to his bedroom ; having taken 
leave of them, he placed a paper vindicating 
his action in their hands. He died at Kings- 
ton on 19 May following. His body was 
borne to England by H.M.S. Warspite. 

On 22 July 1806 Bagot married Mary 
Charlotte Anne Wellesley-Pole {d. 2 Feb. 
1845), eldest daughter of William, fourth 
earl of Mornington, and niece to the Duke of 
Wellington. By her he had four sons and 
six daughters, of whom Emily Georgiana 
married George William Finch-Hatton, ninth 
earl of Winchilsea and fifth earl of Notting- 
ham [q. v.] 

[Foster's Jf eerage, p. 50 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Eecords of Lincoln's Inn, 
ii. 7; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890; Han- 
sard's Debates (3rd ser.) vol. ix. p. xiii ; British 
and Foreign State Papers, 1815-41 ; Gent. Mag. 
1843, ii. 201; Stapleton's Some Corresp. of G. 
Canning, i. 182-7; Wellington Despatches, 2nd 
ser. ii. 470-82 ; Johns Hopkins Unir. Studies, 
16th ser., Nos. 1-4, Neutrality of the Lakes ; 
Dent's Can. Portr, Gall. iii. 77-8; Dent's Last 
Forty Years, i. 188, 262 ; Ryerson's Story of 
my Life, pp. 305-7 ; Gerin-Lajoie's Dix Ans au 
Can., pp. 135 et seq. ; Turrotte's Can. sous 
rUnion.pp. 110-38 ; Hincks's Pol. Hist, of Can. 
(1840-50), pp. 24-9; Hincks's Reminiscences, 
pp. 84-6; David's L'Union des deux Canadas, 
pp. 33-45; J. E. Cote's Pol. Appointments.] 

rp -p r> 

BAILEY, JOHN EGLINGTON (1840- 
1888), antiquary, born at Edgbaston, Bir- 
mingham, on 13 Feb. 1840, was the son of 
Charles Bailey, by his wife Mary Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Eglington of Ashbourne. 
His parents removed during his childhood to 
Lancashire. Educated at I3oteler's grammar 
school, Warrington, he entered in his teens 
the counting-house of Ralli Brothers, Man- 
chester, and continued there till 1886. He 
completed his education by attending evening 
classes at Owens College, learned Pitman's 
shorthand, and contributed articles to short- 
hand manuscript or lithographed magazines. 
He very early interested himself in Thomas 
Fuller (1608-1661) [q. v.], delivered a lecture 
on him to the Manchester Phonographic 
Union, which was printed in Henry Pitman's 
' Popular Lecturer,' and devoted his holidays 
to visiting Fuller's various places of resi- 
dence. In 1874, as the fruit of long re- 
searches, Bailey published a life of Fuller, 
which gained him admission into the Society 
of Antiquaries, He also became honorary 
secretary to the Chetham Society, Manches- 
ter, and he was a contributor to the earliest 
volumes of the * Dictionary of National Bio- 

e2 



Baillie-Cochrane 



lOO 



Baines 



graphy.' In 1881 lie started a monthly anti- 
quarian magazine, the 'Palatine Note-Book,' 
which ran for just over four years and ceased 
with the forty-ninth number in 1885. He 
collected many works on stenography with 
a view to writing a history of that art, 
and he possessed a valuable library of anti- 
quarian and general literature. In 1886 ill- 
ness put an end to his studies and projects. 
He died at Manchester on 23 Aug. 1888, 
and was buried at Stretford church on 27 Aug. 
His collection of Fuller's sermons, completed 
and edited by Mr. W. E. A. Axon, was pub- 
lished in 1891. 

His other works, irrespective of contri- 
butions to the Chetham Society, include : 
1. 'Life of a Lancashire Rector during the 
Civil War,' 1877. 2. ' The Grammar School 
of Leigh,' 1879. 3. 'John Whitaker,' 1879. 
4. ' John Dee and the Steganographia of 
Trithemius,' 1879. He edited reprints of 
' Manchester Al Mondo,' 1880 ; Dee's ' Diary,' 
1880 ; and John Byrom's ' Journal,' 1882. 

[Personal knowledge ; Academy, 8 Sept. 
1888; Manchester Quarterly, October 1888; 
Manchester Guardian, 24 Aug. 1888 ; A List of 
the Writings of John Eglington Bailey, by 
Ernest Axon, 1889 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. 
vi. 180; H. Brierley's Morgan Brierley, 1900.] 

J. G. A. 

BAILLIE-COCHRANE, ALEX. D. R. 
W. C, first Bakon Lamington, 1816-1890. 
[See Cochra.ne-Baillie.] 

BAINES, Sir EDWARD (1800-1890), 
journalist and economist, was born at Leeds 
on 28 May 1800, being the second son of 
Edward Baines [q. v.] by his wife Charlotte, 
daughter of Matthew Talbot, currier, of 
Leeds. His earliest education was received 
at a private school at Leeds. Thence he was 
removed to the protestant dissenters' gram- 
mar school at Manchester, known also as the 
New College, at which the eminent chemist, 
John Dalton [q, v.], was mathematical mas- 
ter. While at Manchester, in his fifteenth 
year, he became a Sunday-school teacher in 
the congregational chapel, and continued to 
teach in the Sunday-schools of his deno- 
mination until his election to parliament in 
1859. In 1815 he entered the office of the 
* Leeds Mercury ' and became a reporter of 
public meetings. In this capacity; he was 
present on 16 Aug. 1819 at the ' Peterloo 
Massacre.' In 1818 he was promoted to the 
editorship of the paper, and from that time 
frequently contributed its leading articles. 
During some years he was actively engaged 
in self-education, especially in political eco- 
nomy and subjects of social interest. He 
visited the cotton mills, settlement, and 



school of David Dale [q. v.] and Robert Owen 
[q. v.], and attended lectures at the first me- 
chanics' institute founded in London by Dr. 
George Birkbeck [q. v.] in 1824. Between 
1825 and 1830 he frequently lectured in the 
towns of Yorkshire in favour of an extension 
of these institutions. He travelled in the 
north of England, producing in 1829 a ' Com- 
panion to the Lakes of Cumberland, West- 
moreland, and Lancashire,' which passed 
through three editions. He next went abroad, 
visiting Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, and 
France. A literary memorial of this tour 
was ' A Yisit to the Vaudois of Piedmont,' 
published in 1855 {Travellers' Library, vol. 
vii.) While at Rouen he acquainted himself 
with the details of the French cotton ind ustry, 
and published a letter in the 'Leeds Mercury ' 
(13 May 1826) 'To the Unemployed Work- 
men of Yorkshire and Lancashire on the Pre- 
sent Distress and on Machinery.' The object 
of this address was to check the destruction 
of mills and looms which in 1826 was a com- 
mon crime in the factory districts. Baines 
pointed out that while English workmen 
were destroyingmachinery their French com- 
petitors were improving it. The letter was 
so effective that it was circulated by the 
magistrates of Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

On his return to England Baines threw him- 
self into the various liberal movements of the 
day. He was one of the early advocates of the 
repeal of the corn laws, on which he wrote se- 
veral pamphlets. He supported catholic eman- 
cipation (1829), and in 1830 first proposed, 
in a leading article in the ' Leeds Mercury,' 
the adoption of Brougham as candidate for 
Yorkshire [see BBOtJGHAM, Henry Peter, 
Baron Brotjgham and Vatjx]. In 1835 
he published a ' History of the Cotton Manu- 
facture of Great Britain,' still a standard 
authority. His activity in connection with 
mechanics' institutes bore fruit in 1837, when 
a West Riding Union of Mechanics' Institutes 
was formed, of which he became president, and 
which ultimately extended its operations to 
the whole of Yorkshire. He presided at the 
jubilee meeting of this organisation held in 
Leeds in June 1887. He was an advocate 
of a public education independent of the 
state, an attitude partly due to his noncon- 
formist sympathies, but welcomed by many 
of the leading reformers of that day. His 
views were set forth in a number of pam- 
phlets and in a series of ' Crosby Hall Lec- 
tures ' on the progress and efficiency of volun- 
tary education in England, published in 1848 
(see also Essays upon Educational Subjects, 
ed. A. Hill, 1857). When the country was 
definitely committed to the principle of the 
endowment of elementary education by the 



Baines 



lOI 



Baker 



state, he opposed the state's direction of re- 
ligious teaching. In 1867 he succeeded in 
securing the acceptance of this view by the 
conservative government. His interest in the 
subject of education had been recognised in 
his appointment in 1865 upon the schools in- 
quiry commission. 

Although an earnest free-trader, Baines 
was not a member of the Manchester school 
of non-intervention in foreign politics. Cob- 
den had been re-elected for the West Riding in 
1852, and on 17 Jan. 1855 addressed a meeting 
in the Cloth Hall yard at Leeds, vindicating 
his opposition to the war with Russia. An 
amendment in support of the policy of the 
government being moved was seconded by 
Baines in an effective speech which carried 
the large majority of his audience with him. 

From November 1837 Baines had prac- 
tised total abstinence. His ' Testimony and 
Appeal on the Effects of Total Abstinence ' 
attained a circulation of 284,000 in 1853. 
Subsequently he published an ' Appeal to 
Christians on the National Vice of Intem- 
perance ' (1874), being an address at the in- 
augural meeting of the Congregational Total 
Abstinence Association. 

On 30 April 1859 Baines was returned to 
the House of Commons for his native 
borough. One of his earliest speeches was 
delivered on 8 March 1860 as seconder of 
the address of thanks to the crown for the 
commercial treaty with France, which had 
been negotiated by Cobden. His activity in 
parliament was chiefly directed towards the 
reduction of the borough franchise from a 
10/. to a 61. occupancy. He introduced bills 
with this object in the sessions of 1861, 1864, 
and 1865, but without success. He took a 
strong part in the various questions which 
at this period vitally interested noncon- 
formists, such as the abolition of compulsory 
church rates (1868), the disestablishment of 
the church of Ireland (1869), and the abo- 
lition of university tests (1871). He con- 
tinued to represent Leeds until the general 
election of 1874, when he was defeated. 
On his retirement from parliament he re- 
ceived from Gladstone a letter bearing 
testimony to * the single-minded devotion, 
courage of purpose, perfect integrity, and 
ability ' with which he had discharged his 
duties. 

Baines now devoted himself to literature 
and public work. In 1875 he contributed a 
history of the woollen trade of Yorkshire to 
a work on that county, entitled ' Yorkshire 
Past and Present,' published in four volumes 
by his brother, Thomas Baines (1871-1877) 
[q. v.] This was an amplification of a paper 
originally read by him as president of the eco- 



nomic section of the British Association held 
at Leeds in 1858, ' on the woollen manufacture 
of England with special reference to the Leeds 
clothing district.' The paperwas published in 
March 1859 by the London Statistical Society. 
In the spring of 1880 he was elected chairman 
of the Yorkshire College at Leeds, an office 
he filled for seven years. In the following 
November he received knighthood. A public 
presentation was made to him in the Albert 
Hall, Leeds, on the completion of his eightieth 
year. He maintained his consistent liberalism 
in matters of public policy and supported Mr. 
Gladstone's home-rule bill for Ireland in 
1886. He died on Sunday, 2 March 1890, 
at his house, St. Ann's Hill, Burley. 

Baines married in 1829 Martha, only 
daughter of Thomas Blackburn of Liverpool, 
by whom he had three sons and four daugh- 
ters. Lady Baines died in 1881. In addition 
to the literary works already mentioned Baines 
contributed to the ' Leeds Mercury ' of 5 and 
12 Aug. 1848 a life of his father, which was 
separately published in the same year. 

Two portraits of him in oil are in the pos- 
session of the corporation of Leeds, the one 
painted in 1874 by Richard Waller, the other 
in 1884 by Walter Ouless. An engraved 
portrait from a photograph is in vol. i. of his 
brother's ' Yorkshire.' 

[Leeds Mercury, 3 March 1890 ; Men of the 
Time, 1884; Annual Register; private infor- 
mation.] I. S. L. 

BAKER, Sir SAMUEL WHITE (1821- 
1893), traveller and sportsman, born in 
London on 8 June 1821, was the second son 
of Samuel Baker of Lypiatt Park, Glouces- 
tershire, by Mary, daughter of Thomas Dob- 
son of Enfield. His father was a West 
India merchant, possessing considerable pro- 
perty in Jamaica and Mauritius, and his 
grandfather, Captain Valentine Baker of 
Bristol, won fame by nearly capturing with 
his privateer sloop the Caesar, a French 
frigate of 32 guns, on 27 June 1782. Valen- 
tine Baker [q. v. Suppl.] was his younger 
brother. The early years of Sir Samuel's 
life were spent at Enfield, and after 1833 in 
Gloucestershire, where his father for a time 
rented Highnam Court from Sir John Guise. 
He was educated first at a private school at 
Rottingdean, between 1833 and 1835 at the 
College school, Gloucester, and subsequently, 
in 1838, by a private tutor, Henry Peter 
Dunster, at Tottenham. This somewhat 
desultory course of education was completed 
in 1841 at Frankfort, where he attended 
lectures and learned German. Early in life 
he was interested in natural history and 
geography, and exhibited a remarkable power 



Baker 



102 



Baker 



of observation. His father at first intended 
that he should be his successor in business, 
but a very short experience of office work 
■was enough to show that such a career 
would be unsuitable. Probably the only 
reason which kept Baker from engaging in 
travel sooner than he did was his early 
marriage (3 Aug. 1842) to Henrietta 
Biddulph, daughter of Charles Martin, 
rector of Maisemore. He now spent some 
months in JMauritius, assisting his brother, 
John Baker, in the management of hia 
father's estate, but it was not till 1845 that 
the * spirit of wandering ' seized on him in a 
fashion not to be denied (Bakee, Eight 
Years in Ceylon, p. 374). Possessed of 
moderate independent means, his ardour for 
sport led him first to direct his attention to 
Ceylon. His first visit in 1846, in which he 
was accompanied by his wife, was mainly 
spent in big game hunting, but he was so 
fascinated by the fine country and the joys 
of a hunter's life that he went home in 1847 
determined to return as a colonist. Per- 
suading his brothers John and Valentine to 
follow his lead, he set about the establish- 
ment of an English colony at Newera Eliya, 
a station 6,000 feet above sea level and 
115 miles distant from Colombo by road. 
He purchased land from the government, 
and chartered a vessel for the convoy of his 
party, consisting of eighteen adults, who 
sailed from London in September 1848 e7i 
route for the new settlement. Initial diffi- 
culties were overcome by the spirit of the 
leader, a somewhat barren soil was in course 
of time rendered fertile, and some of the 
original settlers still (1901) remain on what 
is now a flourishing estate. 

During nine years spent in Ceylon Baker 
explored, in the course of most adven- 
turous hunting expeditions, many of the 
more difficult and unknown tracts of the 
island, and established for himself a remark- 
able reputation as a hunter of big game. 
His first book, entitled ' The Rifle and 
Hound in Ceylon,' which appeared in 1853, 
is a vivid narrative of incidents in the sport 
in which he was so constantly engaged. 
Fever from exposure in the jungle began, 
however, in 1854 seriously to affect his 
health, and was the immediate cause of his 
return with his family to England in 1855. 
After the shock occasioned by the sudden 
death of his wife from typhus fever at 
Bagneres-de-Bigorre (29 Dec. 1855), Baker 
sought to lighten his trouble by travelling 
to Constantinople and the east of Europe. 

In March 1859 he undertook the manage- 
ment of the construction of a railway con- 
necting the Danube with the Black Sea 



across the Dobrudsha, and threw himself 
with all his energy into the task (letter from 
Baker to Lord Wharncliffe, 30 March 1859, 
quoted in ' Sir S. Baker: a Memoir'). About 
this period, when travelling in Hungary, he 
first met Florence, daughter of Herr Finian 
von Saas, whom he married in 1860, and 
who became his devoted fellow-traveller. 
On the completion of the Black Sea rail- 
way he for a time travelled in Asia Minor, 
spending several months in the neighbour- 
hood of Sabanga at the end of 1860 and 
beginning of 1861 mainly for purposes of 
sport. 

Stimulated, doubtless, by the example of 
John Hanning Speke [q.v.J' with whom he 
was acquainted, he now determined on travel 
of more ambitious nature. In a letter to 
his sister, 26 .Jan. 1861 {ib. p. 41), he stated 
his project, which was to push on into Cen- 
tral Africa from Khartoum, making for the 
high ranges from which he believed the Nile 
to derive its source. ' For the last few 
years,' he wrote, * my dreams have been of 
Africa.' Love of adventure and the shoot- 
ing of big game impelled him on his course, 
and without seeking it Baker may be said 
to have stumbled on his mission in life {Sir 
Samuel Baker : a Memoir, p. 41). His first 
object was to meet Speke and James Augus- 
tus Grant [q. v. Suppl.], who were expected 
to reach the White Nile some time in 1863, 
As Baker arrived at Cairo 21 March 1861, he 
decided to occupy his time and fit himself 
for his task by a preliminary expedition in 
exploration of the Nile tributaries of Abys- 
sinia. Starting from Berber with his wife 
and but a small following, he made for Kas- 
sala, where he engaged camels and carriers. 
He crossed the Atbara at Korrasi and fixed 
his headquarters at Sofi, just above the con- 
fluence of that river and the Setit. Here he 
made a stay of five months, and explored 
the Setit river, but most of the time was 
spent in big game hunting. His prowess in 
the field won for him the friendship and ad- 
miration of the Hamran Arabs, themselves 
mighty hunters. He explored other tribu- 
taries of the Atbara, including the Bahr-er- 
Salam and the Angareb, and followed up 
the course of the Rehad to its confluence 
with the Blue Nile. Thence he marched to 
Khartoum, where he arrived on 11 June 
1862. The value of the work of exploration 
during this fourteen months' journey and of 
the observations proving the Nile sediment 
to be due to the Abyssinian tributaries was 
publicly recognised by Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison [q. v.], president of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. Baker had also during 
the period gained for himself experience as 



Baker 



103 



Baker 



an explorer, mastered Arabic, and acquired 
the use of astronomical instruments. He 
now spent six months at Khartoum in pre- 
paration for his greater eftbrt. 

Failing to secure government troops as an 
escort, he started on 18 Dec. 1862 up the Nile 
with three vessels, twenty-nine transport 
animals, and a party of ninety-six, including 
forty-five armed men. Gondokoro was 
reached on 2 Feb. 1863, and information 
was there received of two white men who 
were detained on the Upper Nile. On the 
arrival of Speke and Grant on 15 Feb. Baker 
supplied them with stores and placed his three 
vessels at their disposal for their journey 
down the Nile ; no less generous were they 
in informing him of what remained to be 
discovered. Speke gave his own maps, in 
which he had inserted the supposed position 
of the lake into which he had been informed 
the Nile flowed, and from which it issued 
again, and urged his friend to complete the 
discovery of the Nile source. Bakei-'s first 
difficulties were due to the active hostility 
of the slave-dealers, to whose caravan he 
attempted to attach himself. Despite a 
dangerous mutiny of his men he was not 
deterred, but, accompanied by only fifteen 
of his original party, whom he forced to 
obey orders, he followed another company 
of ivory and slave traders returning to the 
Latuka country, regardless of their threats. 
From Latome, where another mutiny among 
his men was only quelled by his own courage- 
ous decision, he marched to Tarrangol6, the 
capital of the Latuka country. He now 
found all progress much hampered owing to 
his dependence on the slave-trader Ibrahim, 
which had become complete because of the 
continued desertion of his men. For a time 
he was practically a captive at Tarrangole 
and the unwilling companion of a slave- 
dealer engaged in harrying the country in 
all directions. In May 1863 he made a short 
reconnaissance to the south, leaving his wife 
with a friendly chief at Obbo, when he 
secured some valuable information with 
regard to the sought-for lake ; but it was 
not till 3 Jan. 1864 that he was able to per- 
suade Ibrahim to direct the course of the 
caravan towards Kamrasi's country and the 
Karuma falls. He arrived at the White 
Nile on 22 Jan., and at the Karuma falls on 
the next day, but experienced great difficulty 
in his dealings with King Kamrasi, from 
whose country it was as difficult to get 
away as in the first instance to approach. 
For carriers, as well as for permission to 
pass through his country, Baker was com- 
pletely dependent on the will of this grasp- 
ing potentate, whose extortion reached its 



climax in a demand for the explorer's wife. 
Leaving the Nile towards the end of February 
with an escort of three hundred of Kamrasi's 
men, whom he was soon glad enough to be 
rid of, Baker pursued his way along the 
right bank of the Kaja river with only 
twelve male followers. Here his troubles 
were enhanced by the dangerous illness of his 
intrepid wife from sunstroke. Threatened 
with her loss at a moment when the journey 
was most toilsome, yet the end near, his 
own health and spirit were wellnigh 
broken ; with unconquerable resolution he 
struggled forward — his wife, in a state of 
coma, being carried in a litter — and on 
14 March 1864 he reached at Mbakovia, a 
south-eastern point of the lake, the object of 
his quest. He records in his journal how he 
' went to the water's edge, drank a deep 
draught, and thanked God most sincerely 
for having guided him when all hope of 
success was lost . . . and named the lake the 
Albert Nyanza.' Baker's observations of the 
lake proved to be curiously inaccurate ; misled 
probably by the haze on the surface (Vande- 
leue's account in Geog. Journal, ix. 369) 
and native reports, he subsequently in error 
described the lake as extending a vast dis- 
tance to the south (Stanley in Darkest 
Africa, ii. 326). He now coasted along the 
eastern shore for thirteen days, when he 
reached Magungo, the entrance of the Vic- 
toria Nile. Obliged to abandon his intention 
of tracing the river northwards from its exit 
from the Albert Nyanza on account of the 
savage nature of the tribes in the Madi and 
Koshi districts, he explored the portion of the 
stream over which Speke had been unable to 
pass, from Magungo to the Island of Patooan, 
and named the Murchison Falls after his 
friend Sir Roderick, the president of the 
Royal Geographical Society. At Patooan he 
remained for two months, dangerously ill 
from fever, and again dependent for trans- 
port on King Kamrasi, by whom he was de- 
tained for several months at Kisuna and 
constantly harassed for further gifts and for 
assistance against the king's enemies. It was 
not until 17 Nov. 1864 that Baker was able 
to start on his return journey north, again in 
the company of the trader Ibrahim. He ar- 
rived at Gondokoro on 17 March, and at 
Khartoum on 3 May I860, after an absence 
of two years and a half. 

The discovery of the Albert Nyanza was 
the most remarkable feat accomplished in 
Baker's adventurous career ; the work of 
Speke and Grant was thus completed, and 
the source of the Nile freed from mystery. 
Though it was left to Stanley (15 Dec. 
1887) to discover the third lake and to 



Baker 



104 



Baker 



correct the account of the extent of the 
Albert Nyanza to the south, Baker's name 
will ever be associated with the solution 
of the problem of the Nile source. The 
fact also that the whole expedition had been 
independently devised and the charges 
thereof defrayed by the traveller added not 
a little to the honour of his achievement. 
On his return to England in October 1865 
he found that the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society had already been 
awarded to him ; and in the following year 
he was presented with the gold medal of the 
Paris Geographical Society, and his services 
were recognised in August 1866 by the 
honour of knighthood. Baker became an 
honorary M.A. of Cambridge in 1866, and 
was elected F.R.S. on 3 June 1869. He 
published his account of the expedition, en- 
titled ' The Albert Nyanza, Great Basin of 
the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile 
Sources,' in 1866, and the work immediately 
became popular, and many editions have 
been issued. 

Baker now spent a few quiet years in 
country life at Hedenham Hall, Norfolk, 
which he rented for a term. He here pre- 
pared his book on the Nile tributaries for 
the press, and wrote his tale of adventure, 
• Cast up by the Sea,' which was published 
in 1868. He was, however, soon to be again 
actively employed ; and at the beginning of 
1869, by request, travelled in the suite 
of the Prince of Wales on his visit to 
Egypt and journey up the Nile. The Khe- 
dive Ismail entered into communication with 
him to secure his services under the Egyptian 
government, and on 1 April 1869 he was 
appointed governor- general of the Equatorial 
Nile basin for a term of four years, with 
the rank of pacha nnd major-general in the 
Ottoman army. The objects of his com- 
mand were set forth under the firman by 
which he was appointed. They included the 
subjection to Egyptian authority of the 
countries situate to the south of Gondokoro, 
the suppression of the slave-trade and the 
introduction of regular commerce, and the 
opening to navigation of the great lakes 
about the Equator. To carry out this am- 
bitious programme Baker was provided with 
some twelve hundred Egyptian and Souda- 
nese troops, and a great quantity of supplies 
of all kinds. He was the first Englishman 
to undertake high office under the Egyptian 
government, and in accepting the command 
was in no way supported by the English 
foreign office. The first difficulty of the 
new governor was to arrive at his seat of 
government ; his intention had been to pro- 
ceed by the Nile from Khartoum to Gondo- 



koro, but the period of high flood was lost 
owing to the transport vessels promised 
by the government not being ready, and 
after a fruitless struggle with the sudd- 
covered stream, he was obliged to fall back 
and wait for the next Nile flood. He 
started again with Lady Baker on 1 Dec. 

1870, and the expedition passing through 
the Bahr Ez Z^raf branch of the river made 
its way with enormous difficulty by cutting 
canals through the sudd. Gondokoro was 
reached on 15 April 1871, and was formally 
annexed to Egyptian sovereignty on 26 May 

1871. As the station was practically in the 
possession of the slave-traders. Baker was 
forced for a supply of porters and provisions 
to come to terms with the great dealer, 
Ahmed Akad, who leased from the Egyptian 
government the monopoly of the ivory trade. 
The hostility, however, of the traders was. 
hardly veiled, and the Bari tribesmen were 
by them incited to attack Baker's force, and 
were only partially subdued after very 
troublesome fighting. Leaving a garrison 
at Gondokoro the new governor started on 
23 Jan, 1872 with 212 officers and men on 
his journey south ; he established stations at 
Afuddo and Faliko, and pushed on through 
Unyoro, which country he publicly declared 
at Masindi on 14 May 1872 to be under the 
protection of the Egyptian government. 
But the young king, Kabrega, behaved with 
a duplicity worthy of his father, Kamrasi, 
and, (encouraged by the slave-traders, at- 
tacked Baker's force when incapacitated by 
drugged or poisoned plantain wine. Though 
able to beat off the attack through the 
devoted bravery of his Soudanese body- 
guard. Baker was obliged to abandon his 
position at Masindi on 14 June 1872, and 
only after seven days' fighting through con- 
stant ambuscades in the long grass on the 
line of march, and after being forced to 
abandon the bulk of his baggage, did he 
succeed in reaching Rionga's country. That. 
sovereign's claim to the kingship of Unyoro 
the governor-general now supported, and 
also communicated with Mtesa, king of 
Uganda, who despatched troops to Unyoro 
in his support. On his return to Faliko he 
was attacked by Aba Saiid, the slave-dealer, 
whom he defeated and captured after a 
pitched battle, and by this success again 
established his authority. He returned to 
Gondokoro on 1 April 1873, leaving garrisons 
at the stations which he had formed on be- 
half of the Egyptian government, and on 
26 May, his period of command having ex- 
pired, started on his return journey to Khar- 
toum. 

Baker's services to Eg\-pt were recognised 



Baker 



105 



Baker 



by the besto-wal of the imperial order of the 
Osmanie 2nd class. His period of govern- 
ment in the Soudan was too short to be suc- 
cessful ; he, however, established the skeleton 
of an administration, and struck the first 
blow against a trade which he found to be 
legalised by the very authority under which 
he was commissioned to destroy it. On his 
return to England he was much feted, and 
accorded an enthusiastic reception by the 
Geographical Society (8 Dec. 1873). He 
published in September 1874 an account of 
his journey and administration under the 
title ' Ismailia; ' this account in two volumes 
■was somewhat hastily written in sixty-four 
days (letter from Baker to Gordon, 8 July 
1875, in Sir S.Baker: a Memoir, p. 227). 

Baker's interest in the future of the 
Soudan never slackened ; he corresponded 
constantly with Gordon, who succeeded him 
in April 1874. To the abandonment of the 
Soudan he was altogether opposed, and in 
the years following that event (1885) he 
never tired, by means of correspondence in 
the press and of communications to the 
ministers of the day, of advocating its re- 
sumption (ib. pp. 343-60), and with con- 
siderable foresight regarded Colonel (now 
Lord) Kitchener as the instrument most 
likely to bring this about (letter of Sir S. 
Baker to Kitchener, 29 April 1892, quoted 
in Sir S. Baker: a Memoir, p. 432). 

In November 1874 he purchased the 
small estate of Sandford Orleigh in South 
Devon, where he resided for a portion of 
each year during the remainder of his life. 
His passionate love of travel he, however, 
maintained ; the greater part of the year 
1879 he spent in'Cyprus, and his impressions 
were recorded in his book * Cyprus as I saw 
it in 1879.' He was constantly in Egypt, 
and between 1879 and 1892 visited India 
seven times, and almost to the end of life bis 
vigorous health enabled him to maintain his 
reputation as the greatest living hunter of 
big game. In whatever quarter of the globe 
he chanced to be, whether in pursuit of ele- 
phants in Africa and Ceylon, tiger-hunting 
in the central provinces in India, deer- 
stalking in Japan, bear-shooting in the 
Eocky Mountains, this iron-nerved sports- 
man ever proved his ability to excel all 
others. He himself regarded the pursuit of 
dangerous game as the best training for 
either an explorer or a soldier {True Tales 
for my Grandsons, p. 176), and to his own 
experiences in the jungle and on the plain 
the development of his remarkable tenacity 
and resource as an explorer was doubtless 
in great part due. 

Baker died on 30 Dec. 1893 at Sandford 



Orleigh, near Newton Abbot; his body was 
cremated and his ashes buried at Grimley, 
near Worcester, on 5 Jan. 1894. By his 
first marriage there were seven children, of 
whom only three daughters survived their 
father. A portrait of Baker from a photo- 
graph is prefixed to the 'Memoir' by Douglas 
Murray, and medallion portraits of both 
the explorer and Lady Baker, engraved by 
C. H. Jeens, appear in his book the ' Albert 
Nyanza ; ' a reproduction of a photograph also 
appears in the ' Geographical Journal ' (iii. 
152). In appearance he was described by 
Lord WharnclifFe, who had been his com- 
panion in big game hunting, as a man of 
very powerful build, of medium height, but 
with very broad shoulders and deep chest, 
and possessing an extraordinary capacity for 
enduring fatigue. 

He wrote with rapidity and fluency, and 
the popularity of his various works is attested 
by the number of reprints and editions 
which have been issued. The following is a 
list of his chief writings : 1. 'The Rifle and 
the Hound in Ceylon,' 8vo, 1853 ; reprinted 
1857,1874,1882,1884,1890,1892. 2. 'Eight 
Years' Wanderings in Ceylon,' 8vo, 1855, 
and 1874, 1880, 1883, 1884, 1890, 1891, 
1894. 3. ' The Albert Nyanza, Great Basin 
of the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile 
Sources,' 1866, 2 vols. 8vo ; numerous sub- 
sequent editions and reprints. 4. ' The Nile 
Tributaries of Abyssinia and the Sword 
Hunters of the Hamran Arabs,' 1867, 8vo ; 
four subsequent editions and numerous re- 
prints. 5. 'Ismailia,' 1874, 2 vols. 8vo; 
2nd ed. 1874 ; 3rd ed. 1878. 6. 'Cyprus as 
I saw it in 1879,' 1879, 8vo. 7. 'Wild 
Beasts and their Ways,' 1890. He also 
wrote two story books : ' Cast up by the 
Sea,' 1868, many times reprinted, and ' True 
Tales for my Grandsons,' 1883. In addition 
to the above Baker published numerous 
pamphlets and articles in reviews, in par- 
ticular in the ' Nineteenth Century,' 1884 ; 
' Fortnightly,' 1886, 1888 ; ' National Re- 
view,' 1888. 

[Baker's works; Sir Samuel Baker, a Me- 
moir, by T. Douglas Murray and A. S. White, 
1895 ; Times, 3! Dec. 1893; Geographical Jour- 
nal, January 1894.] W. C-r. 

BAKER, Sir THOMAS (1771P-1846), 
vice-admiral, of an old Kentish family, and 
a descendant, direct or collateral, of Vice- 
admiral John Baker (1661-1716) [q.v.], was 
born about 1771. He entered the navy in 
1781 on board the Dromedary storeship, and 
was borne on her books till 1785. He was 
then for three yeani in the service of the 
East India Company, but in 1788 returned 



Baker 



io6 



Baker 



to the navy. After serving on the home 
Halifax, and East India stations, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant on 13 Oct. 
1792. In 1793 he had command of the 
Lion cutter, in 179-i of the Valiant lugger, 
and on 24 Nov. 1795 was promoted to be 
commander for good service in carrying out 
despatches to the West Indies. In 1796-7 
he commanded the Fairy sloop in the North 
Sea, and on 13 June 1797 was posted to the 
Princess Royal, apparently for rank only. 
In January 1799 he was appointed to the 
28-gun frigate Nemesis, in which, on 25 July 
1800, when in command of a small squadron 
off Ostend, he met a number of Danish mer- 
chant vessels under convoy of the frigate 
Freya. It was a favourite contention of 
neutrals that the convoy of a ship of war 
was a guarantee that none of the vessels 
carried contraband, and that they were there- 
fore exempt from search. This the English go- 
vernment had never admitted, and, in accord- 
ance with his instructions. Baker insisted on 
searching the Danish ships. The Freya re- 
sisted, but was quickly overpowered, and, 
together with her convoy, was brought into 
the Downs. After some negotiations ^ee 
Whitwobth, Charles, Eael] the affair 
seemed to be amicably arranged, and the 
Freya and her convoy were restored ; but 
the Emperor of Russia made it a pretext for 
renewing the * armed neutrality,' which he 
induced Denmark to join, a coalition which 
immediately led to the despatch of the fleet 
under Sir Hyde Parker (1739-1807) [q.v.] 
and the battle of Copenhagen. Baker's 
conduct had received the entire approval of 
the admiralty, and in January 1801 he was 
appointed to the 36-gun frigate Phoebe, 
which he commanded on the Irish station 
till the peace of Amiens in October 1801. 

On the renewal of the war in 1803 he com- 
missioned the Phoenix of 42 guns, attached 
to the Channel fleet under (Sir) William 
Cornwall! s off Ushant and in the Bay of 
Biscay. On 10 Aug. 1805, being then to the 
north-west of Cape Finisterre, he fell in with 
and, after a brilliant and well-ibught action of 
rather more than three hours' duration, cap- 
tured the French 46-gun frigate Didon, which 
had been sent off from Ferrol on the 6th 
with important despatches from Villeneuve 
to Admiral Allemand, who was on his way 
to join him with five sail of the line. In con- 
sequence of the capture of the Didon, Alle- 
mand never joined Villeneuve, and his ships 
had no further part in the campaign. On 
14 Aug. the Phoenix with her prize joined 
the English 74-gun ship Dragon, and the 
next day the three ships were sighted by 
Villeneuve, who took for granted that they 



were a part of the English fleet under Corn- 
wallis looking for him ; and, not caring to 
risk an encounter, turned south to Cadiz, 
and the fate that befell him off Cape Trafal- 
gar. Baker meantime took his prize to Ply- 
mouth, and, returning to his former station, 
on 2 Nov. sighted the French squadron of 
four ships of the line under Dumanoir, escap- 
ing from Trafalgar. Knowing that Sir Richard 
John Strachan [q. v.] was off Ferrol, he at 
once steered thither, and the same night joined 
Strachan, to whom he gave the news which 
directly led to the capture of the four French 
ships on 4 Nov., the Phoenix with the other 
frigates having an important part in the 
action. A fortnight later Baker was ap- 
pointed to the Didon, from which, in May 
1806, he was moved to the Tribune, which 
he commanded for the next two years in the 
Bay of Biscay with distinguished success. 
In May 1808 he joined the Vanguard as flag- 
captain to Rear-admiral (Sir) Thomas Bertie 
[q. v.] in the Baltic. On leaving her in 1811, 
he spent some time in Sweden ; and from 
1812 to 1815 commanded the 74-gun ship 
Cumberland in the West Indies, in the North 
Sea, and in charge of a convoy of East 
Indiamen to the Cape. In 1814 the Prince 
of Orange conferred on him the order of 
William of the Netherlands, and on 4 June 
1815 he was made a C.B. He was appointed 
colonel of marines on 12 Aug. 1819, was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral on 19 July 1821, 
was commander-in-chief on the coast of 
South America from 1829 to 1833, was 
nominated K.C.B. on 8 Jan. 1831, became 
vice-admiral on 10 Jan. 1837, and was 
awarded a good-service pension of 300Z. a 
year on 19 Feb. 1842. He died at his resi- 
dence, The Shrubbery, Walmer, Kent, on 
26 Feb. 1845. Baker married the daughter 
of Count Routh, a Swedish noble, and by 
her had several children; his second son, 
Horace Mann Baker, died a lieutenant in 
the navy in 1848. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Marshall's Eoy. 
Nay. Biog. ii. (vol. i. pt. ii.), 829 ; James's 
Naval History, vols. iii. and iv. ; Chevalier's 
Hist, do la Marine Franyaise, vol. iii. ; Troude's 
Batailles Navales de la France, vol. iii. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1845, pt. i. p. 436.] J. K. L. 

BAKER, THOMAS BARWICK 
LLOYD (1807-1886), one of the founders of 
the reformatory school system, born in 1807, 
was the only son of Thomas John Lloyd 
Baker ( <Z. 1 841 ) of Hardwicke Court, Glouces- 
tershire, and of Mary, daughter of William 
Sharp of Fulham, and niece of Granville 
Sharp [q. v.] Like his father. Baker went to 
Eton and to Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
matriculated in 1826 but did not graduate. 



Baker 



107 



Baker 



He entered at Lincoln's Inn in 1828, qualified 
as a magistrate for Gloucestershire in 1833, 
and soon afterwards became a visiting justice 
at the county prison of Gloucester. On suc- 
ceeding his father at Hardwicke Court in 
1841, he took an active part in the adminis- 
tration of other local public institutions, was 
one of the founders of the soqial science con- 
gresses, started what is known as the Berk- 
shire system for the suppression of vagrancy, 
was president of the chamber of commerce, 
and captain of the Gloucestershire squadron 
of the yeomanry cavalry. As a member of 
the old high church party, Baker contributed 
liberally to the restoration of Hardwicke, 
Uley, and other churches. He was deputy- 
lieutenant of Gloucestershire, and high sheriff 
in 1847-8. 

Baker's best known work was in connec- 
tion with the establishment of the Hard- 
wicke reformatory school. The Philanthropic 
Society (founded in 1788) and the Refuge 
for the Destitute had for years done much 
for the reformation of youthful criminals, 
and the Philanthropic Society had esta- 
blished a school in London; in 1848, on the 
advice of the Rev. Sydney Turner, then its 
superintendent, the Philanthropic Society's 
school was removed to the Farm school at 
Redhill, and reorganised on the lines of the 
French school at Mettray. Baker's attention 
had been drawn to the question by seeing 
boys in prison at Gloucester, and by a visit 
to the Philanthropic Society's school in Lon- 
don. In 1861 the whole question of the 
treatment of youthful offenders was con- 
sidered at a conference at Birmingham, pro- 
moted by the town clerk, William Morgan, 
and Joseph Hubback of Liverpool. Among 
the results of this conference was the esta- 
blishment of reformatory schools, by private 
philanthropists, in several places {Report 
of Sydney Turner, II. M. Inspector, 1876). 
With the help of George Henry Bengough 
(1829-1865), Baker opened a school at Hard- 
wicke in March 1852, the first inmates being 
three young London thieves. The school 
was at first little more than a labourer's cot- 
tage on a small farm on Baker's estate ; by 
1854 there were seventeen inmates. Ben- 
gough, a rich young squire, worked for two 
years as schoolmaster, living in the house. 
The first Reformatory Schools Act was 
passed in 1854, enabling courts to commit to 
these schools, and the treasury to contribute 
to their support. 

Many particulars of Baker's work are given 
by Professor von Holtzendorft", who made his 
acquaintance in 1861, and published a book 
which was translated by Rosa Gibhard under 
the title, *An English Country Squire, as 



sketched at Hardwicke Castle.' A collec- 
tion of Baker's papers, contributed to news- 
papers or read at meetings of the Social 
Science Association, was after his death 
edited by Herbert Philips and Edmund 
Verney in 1889, under the title, ' War with 
Crime.' This volume contains a reproduc- 
tion of a portrait of Baker at Hardwicke 
Court, by G. Richmond, R.A., which was 
presented to Mrs. Baker by the managers of 
English reformatories. Most of Baker's work 
related to the prevention of crime, in youth 
and in age, and many of the reforms which 
he advocated have been carried into effect. 
He urged that crime was due to a form of 
mental disease, and that the forces against 
it must be carefully marshalled if success is 
to be attained. Sentences should be appor- 
tioned on a scientific principle, the amount 
to depend rather on the antecedents of the 
prisoner than on the heinousness of the par- 
ticular crime. He thought that, in the inte- 
rests alike of the criminal and the public, a 
sentence of imprisonment should be followed 
by a term of police supervision. He depre- 
cated the erection out of the rates of expen- 
sive buildings for reformatories, and held 
that only confirmed offenders should be sent 
to such schools. 

Baker's health broke down in 1882, and 
after that year he took no active part in 
public affairs. He died at Hardwicke on 
10 Dec. 1886. By his marriage, in 1840, 
with Mary, daughter of Nicholas Lewis Fen- 
wick of Besford, Worcestershire, he had two 
sons— Granville Edwin Lloyd Baker (born 
in 1841, high sheriff of Gloucestershire in 
1898) and Henry Orde Lloyd Baker (born in 
1842). 

[Works cited ; Foster's Alumni Oxen. 1715- 
1886 ; Kelly's llnndbook, 1900.] G. A. A. 

BAKER, Sir THOMAS DURAND 

(1837-1893), lieutenant-general, quarter- 
master-general to the forces, son of John 
Durand Baker, vicar of Bishop's Tawton, 
North Devon, was born on 23 March 1837. 
Educated at Cheltenham, he obtained a com- 
mission as ensign in the 18th royal Irish 
regiment of foot on 18 Aug. 1854. His 
further commissions were dated : lieutenant 
12 Jan. 1855, captain 26 Oct. 1858, brevet 
major 21 March 1865, major 12 Nov. 

1873, brevet lieutenant-colonel 1 April 

1874, brevet colonel, 21 April 1877, regi- 
mental lieutenant-colonel 1 July 1881, 
major-general 1 Sept. 1886, temporary lieu- 
tenant-general 29 April 1891. 

Baker served with his regiment at the 
siege of Sebastopol from 30 Dec. 1854 and, 
for his gallantry on 18 June 1855 at the 



Baker 



1 08 



Baker 



attack of the Redan by the way of the 
cemetery and the suburbs of Sebastopol, was 
mentioned in despatches. He was present 
at the fall of the fortress on 8 Sept., and 
returned to England in July 1856. He re- 
ceived the war medal with clasp and the 
Turkish and Sardinian medals. In Novem- 
ber 1857 he embarked with his regiment for 
India, and served with the field force in 
Central India in pursuit of Tantia Topi in 
1858. He was successful in obtaining ad- 
mission to the staff college, and passed out 
in 1862. In the following year he accom- 
panied the 2nd battalion of the Royal Irish, 
which had been recently raised, to New 
Zealand, where he was deputy assistant adju- 
tant-general to the forces in New Zealand 
from 20 March 1864 to 31 March 1866, and 
assistant adjutant-general from that date 
until the end of April 1867. He served 
during the Maori war of 1864 to 1866 in 
the Waikato and the Wanganui campaigns; 
he acted as assistant military secretary to 
Lieutenant-general Sir Duncan Cameron in 
the action of Rangiawhia on 20 Nov. 1863, 
and was staff officer to the force under 
Major-general Carey at the unsuccessful at- 
tack of Orakau on 31 March 1864, when he 
led one of the three columns of assault ; he 
was present at its capture on 2 April. He 
was mentioned in despatches for the gal- 
lantry, untiring energy, and zeal which he 
evinced {London Gazette, 14 May and 
14 June 1864), and received the war medal 
and a brevet majority. 

On 2 Oct. 1873 Baker was appointed as- 
sistant adjutant and quartermaster-general 
of the expedition to Ashanti,and accompanied 
Sir Garnet Wolseley to the Gold Coast. He 
served throughout the campaign, was pre- 
sent at the action of Essaman on 14 Oct., 
took part in the relief of Abrakrampa on 
5 and 6 Nov., in the battles of Amoaful on 
31 Jan. 1874, and of Ordah-su and the cap- 
ture of Kumassi on 4 Feb. From 14 Oct. 
1873 until 17 Dec. 1874 he performed the 
duties of chief of the staff in addition to 
those of quartermaster-general. For his ser- 
vices he was mentioned in despatches by Sir 
Garnet Wolseley, who attributed to Baker's 
untiring energy much of the success that 
had attended the operations, and expressed 
the opinion that he possessed * every quality 
that is valuable to a staff officer.' Baker was 
promoted to a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy, 
received the medal with clasp, and was made 
a companion of the order of the Bath, mili- 
tary division. 

On his return from Ashanti Baker was 
appointed a deputy assistant quartermaster- 
general on the headquarters staff in London 



on 22 May 1874, and an assistant adjutant- 
general on 10 Nov. 1875. He was made an 
aide-de-camp to the queen, with rank of 
colonel in the army, on 21 April 1877. He 
was attached to the Russian army during 
the Russo-Turkish war of 1877, and was 
present at the principal operations. In No- 
vember 1878 he went to India as military 
secretary to Lord Lytton, the governor- 
general. He was with the viceroy at Simla 
when Sir Louis Cavagnari was murdered at 
Kabul in September 1879. Sir Frederick 
(afterwards Earl) Roberts was also at Simla 
on leave of absence from his division in the 
Kuram valley ; and on being ordered to re- 
join at once, and to advance on Kabul to 
exact retribution for the outrage, he applied 
for Baker's services to command the 2nd in- 
fantry brigade. 

Baker accompanied Robertsto Kuram, and 
on 19 Sept. he repulsed an attack on the 
entrenchments of his brigade at the Shutar- 
gardan pass. On 1 Oct. the whole of the 
Kabul field force was assembled in the Logar 
valley ; on the 6th Baker commanded the 
troops in the successful battle of Charasia, 
and on the 9th was with Roberts at the 
occupation of Kabul. In November Baker 
was sent in command of a force to Maidan, 
on the Kabul-Ghazni road, where he repulsed 
an attack and returned to Kabul. On 8 Dec. 
he again commanded a force between Ar- 
gandeh and Maidan, to co-operate with the 
other columns engaged in the operations for 
the destruction of a formidable Afghan com- 
bination, but on hearing of the failure of 
Massey's column he returned to Kabul. On 
13 Dec. he attacked the Afghans on the 
Takht-i-Shah hill, and on the 14th he again 
attacked them on the Asmai heights, but was 
forced by superior numbers to withdraw. 
The army was then concentrated in the 
Sherpur entrenchments. An attack in force 
followed on 23 Dec, when Baker took part 
in the complete defeat and dispersion of the 
Afghans. He shortly after commanded an 
expedition into Kohistan and destroyed a 
fortified post. 

After the arrival at Kabul of Sir Donald 
Stewart [q. v. Suppl.] from Kandahar, and 
the news of the disaster at Maiwand, Baker 
was given the command of one of the in- 
fantry brigades of the force with which Ro- 
berts left Kabul on 9 Aug. 1880 for the 
relief of Kandahar. The celebrated march 
was accomplished in three weeks. Baker, 
with his brigade, took a prominent part in 
the battle of Kandahar on 1 Sept. He then 
returned home. For his services in these 
campaigns he was mentioned in despatches 
{ib. 16 Jan., 4 May, and 3 Dec. 1880), re- 



Baker 



109 



Baker 



ceived the war medal with three clasps and 
the bronze star, and on 22 Feb. 1881 was 
promoted a knight commander of the order 
of the Bath, military division. 

On 30 March 1881 he was appointed a bri- 
gadier-general under Sir Frederick Roberts, 
to command the base and line pf communi- 
cations in Natal in the operations proposed 
to be undertaken after the defeat at Ma- 
j uba Hill against the Boers of the Transvaal ; 
but the government having decided to con- 
clude an armistice, with a view to the ar- 
rangement of terms of peace. Baker saw no 
active service, and returned to England the 
following September. On 1 April 1882 he 
was appointed deputy quartermaster-general 
in Ireland, and on 3 Sept. deputy adjutant- 
general in Ireland. On 10 Oct. 1884 he was 
nominated adjutant-general in the East In- 
die8,with the local rank of major-general. He 
served in the Burmese expedition of 1886 
and 1887, and was mentioned in despatches 
{ib. 2 Sept. 1887). On 15 Feb. 1887 he was 
given the command of a division of the 
Bengal army, which he held until 1890, 
when he was brought home to fill the post 
at the Horse Guards of quartermaster-general 
to the forces. His appointment dated from 
1 Oct. 1890, and on 29 April 1891 he was 
made a temporary lieutenant-general. On 
15 June 1892 he received a good service 
pension. He died of dropsy at Pau on 

9 Feb. 1893, after a brief illness, while on 
leave of absence from his war-office duties. 
He was buried in Bishop's Tawton church- 
yard, Devonshire, on 18 Feb. 

[War Office Records ; Despatches ; Times, 

10 and 20 Feb. 1893; Lord Roberts's Forty 
Years' Service in India ; Fox's New Zealand 
War, 1863-4; Carey's War in New Zealand; 
Alexander's Bush Fighting in Maori War, New 
Zealand ; Shadbolt's Afghan Campaign of 1878- 
1880 ; Ashe's Kandahar Campaign ; Kinglake's 
Hist, of the Crimean War ; Brackenbury's 
Ashanti War.] R. H. V. 

BAKER, VALENTINE, afterwards 
known as Baker Pacha (1827-1 887), cavalry 
officer, a younger brother of Sir Samuel 
Baker [q. v.], was born on 1 April 1827 at 
Enfield. He was educated at the college 
school, Gloucester, and afterwards under a 
private tutor and abroad, and sailed with his 
Ijrother's party for Newera Eliya in Ceylon 
in September 1848. He entered the army 
as an ensign in the Ceylon rifles in 1848, 
but was transferred to the 12th lancers 
in 1852, and took part in the Kaffir war 
(1852-3) with his regiment, when he dis- 
tinguished himself for gallantry in action 
at Berea. During the Crimean war he was 
present at the battle of Tchernaya and at 



the siege and fall of Sevastopol. On obtain- 
ing his majority in 1859 he exchanged into 
the 10th hussars, and was appointed to com- 
mand the regiment in 1860. During his 
command, which lasted for thirteen years, 
he succeeded in developing an extraordinary 
degree of efficiency in his men. In 1858 he 
had published a pamphlet on the British 
cavalry, with remarks on its practical orga- 
nisation, and in 1860 he wrote on the national 
defences. His writings and the excellent 
condition of his regiment gained for him 
a reputation as an authority on cavalry 
tactics. During the Austro-Prussian and 
Franco-German wars he was present as a 
spectator, and during the latter was for a 
short time imprisoned on the suspicion of 
being a German spy. In 1873 he travelled 
through the Persian province of Khorasan, 
starting in April and arriving on his return 
at St. Petersburg in December. He failed 
in his attempt to reach Khiva, but collected 
a quantity of valuable military information, 
which he published in a volume entitled 
' Clouds in the East ' (London, 1876, 8vo), 
to which was added a political and strategi- 
cal report on Central Asia. This work was 
one of the first successful attempts of its 
kind to draw public attention to the advance 
of Russia in Central Asia. In 1874 he was 
given the appointment of assistant quarter- 
master-general at Aldershot. 

Baker's promising career in the English 
army came to a regrettable close in 1875 
when he was convicted (2 Aug. 1875) at 
the Croydon assizes of indecently assaulting 
a young lady in a railway carriage on the 
preceding 17 June. He was sentenced to 
twelve months' imprisonment and a fine of 
500Z. {Times, 3 Aug. 1875). He was conse- 
quently dismissed the army, * her majesty 
having no further occasion for his services.' 

On the occasion of the Russo-Turkish war 
(1877-8) Baker took service under the sultan, 
in the first instance as major-general of 
gendarmerie. But in August 1877, at the 
request of Mehemet Ali Pasha, he was ap- 
pointed staff military adviser at the Turkish 
entrenched camp of Shumla. Subsequently 
he was given command of a division in the 
Balkans. With extraordinary skill, in the 
face of an immensely superior Russian force, 
he fought at Tashkessan one of the most 
brilliant and successful rearguard actions on 
record. In command of little more than 
two thousand effective troops he maintained 
an all-important position for ten hours and 
a half against the Russian guards under 
General Gourko. During this unequal con- 
flict the heroic Prizrend and Touzla battalions 
lost more than half their strength. By this 



Baker 



Baldwin 



stvibborn resistance Shakir Pasha was en- 
abled to retreat in safety from his position 
at Kamarli, In recognition of this success 
Baker was promoted by telegram from the 
porte to the rank of ferik or lieutenant- 
general. During the retreat of Suleiman's 
army he commanded the rearguard, and it 
fell to him to burn the bridge at Bazardjik 
over the Maritza. Later, however, in the 
war, becoming disgusted at the unaccount- 
able abandonment of strong positions by the 
Turkish generals, he requested permission to 
return to England. Baker published in 
1879 his book entitled * War in Bulgaria : a 
Narrative of Personal Experience ' (London, 
2 vols. 8vo), in which he confined himself 
to describing the operations in which he as- 
sisted. He continued in the Turkish ser- 
vice, and after the conclusion of the war 
was commissioned to superintend the carry- 
ing out of the proposed Turkish reforms in 
Armenia. In 1882 he entered the Egyptian 
service on the offer being made to him of 
the command of the newly organised Egyp- 
tian army ; but on his arrival at Cairo this 
offer was withdrawn, and he was given the 
command of the police. Baker was con- 
vinced that the police would sooner or later 
be wanted as a military reserve, and concen- 
trated his attention rather on the semi- 
military gendarmerie than the police proper 
(MiLNER, Egypt, p. 332). His desperate en- 
deavour to relieve Tokar with 3,500 Egyp- 
tian troops and gendarmerie, little better 
than rabble in discipline, met with complete 
defeat at El Teb on 5 Feb. 1884. His own 
account of the action was that, on the 
square being threatened by a force of the 
enemy less than one thousand strong, the 
Egyptian troops threw down their arms and 
ran, allowing themselves to be killed without 
the slightest resistance {ib. p. 169). He 
acted on the intelligence staff of the force 
under Sir Gerald Graham [q.v. Suppl.], and 
guided the advance of the army to the second 
battle of El Teb on 29 Feb. 1884, on which 
occasion he was wounded. 

Baker remained in command of the Egyp- 
tian police till his death, which took place at 
Tel-el-kebir from angina pectoris on 17 Nov. 
1887. He was buried with military honours 
in the English cemetery at Cairo. 

In a despatch from Lord Salisbury to Sir 
Evelyn Baring (now Lord Cromer), dated 
5 Dec. 1887, the great regret of her majesty's 
government was expressed at his death, and 
acknowledgment was made of the important 
services he had rendered to the Egyptian 
government. His great military abilities 
were, however, wasted in the command of a 
civil force ; they were such that * his career 



might have been among the most brilliant in 
our military service '( Tmes, 18 Nov. 1887). 

He married, on 13 Dec. 1865, Fanny, only 
child of Frank Wormald of Potterton Hall, 
Aberford, by which marriage there were two 
daughters, the younger of whom only sur- 
vived her father and married Sir John Car- 
den, bart. 

Besides the works mentioned in the text 
Baker wrote a pamphlet on army reform 
(1869, 8vo) and ' Organisation of Cavalry ' 
for the ' Journal of the Royal United Services 
Institution.' 

[Times, 18 Nov. 1887; Annual Eegister, 1887; 
Sir Samuel Baker, a Memoir, by Murray and 
White, 1895; Baker's works; private informa- 
tion.] W. C-E. 

BALDWIN, ROBERT (1804-1858), 
Canadian statesman, born in York (now 
Toronto), in Upper Canada, on 12 May 1804, 
was eldest son of William Warren Baldwin, 
a physician of Edinburgh, who settled in 
Canada in 1798 in company with his father, 
Robert Baldwin of Summer Hill, Knock- 
more, CO. Cork, Ireland, and there engaged 
in practice as a bai'rister. His mother was 
Phoebe, daughter of William Willcocks, 
sometime mayor of Cork in Ireland, and later 
judge of the home district in Upper Canada. 
Robert received his education at the Home 
district grammar school under John Strachan 
[q.v.], and in 1819 began the study of law. 
On being admitted an attorney and called 
to the bar of the province in Trinity term, 
1825, he was taken into partnership by his 
father, and from that time conducted a large 
and profitable business until 4848, when he 
retired from active practice. Four years 
previously he had inherited a large property 
in Canada. On two occasions he was trea- 
surer of the Law Society and honorary head 
of the Upper Canada bar, holding office for 
the first time in 1847 and 1848, and again 
from 1850 till his death. 

Baldwin's name is inseparably connected 
with the introduction and establishment in 
Canada of parliamentary government. His 
public life dates from 1828, when he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for York. He won 
the seat in January 1830, but was defeated 
after the dissolution in June following, and 
did not again enter the legislative assembly 
until 1841, after the union of Upper with 
Lower Canada, and the grant to the colony 
of responsible or parliamentary government. 

Meantime Baldwin drew up the assem- 
bly's petition to the king, dated 1829, which 
protested against the governor's dismissal of 
a judge, John Walpole Willis [q. v.] This 
document contains what is deemed to be the 
first request on the part of a British colony 



Baldwin 



III 



Baldwin 



for the parliamentary system. But Bald- 
win's ideas on the subject, though far in ad- 
vance of those of the men of his time, were 
still in their formative stage. Seven years 
^^ later his views were matured. On Ji6 Feb. 
1836 he was selected by Sir Francis Bond 
Head [q. v.], lieutenant-governor of Upper 
Canada, as one of his executive council. 
Baldwin's faith in parliamentary govern- 
ment, in its adaptability to colonial con- 
ditions, and the right of British subjects in 
Upper Canada to its enjoyment were com- 
municated to the governor before his appoint- 
ment, and the acceptance of such opinions 
formed the condition upon which he con- 
sented to take office. But the lieutenant- 
governor, ignoring the stipulation, continued 
to act independently of his executive council 
as his predecessors had done. On 4 March, 
therefore, Baldwin drew up a minute or me- 
morandum of remonstrance which the council 
adopted and transmitted to the lieutenant- 
governor. Sir Francis scouted the limitations 
of power which his advisers would have im- 
posed on him. They consequently resigned 
on 12 March. The house was sitting at the 
time. It embraced at once the cause of the 
ministers, endorsed their action, and re- 
affirmed their reasons. This was the earliest 
conscious adoption of parliamentary prin- 
ciples by a colonial assembly. The resigna- 
tion of the ministers was accepted, the house 
dissolved, a new election proclaimed, and the 
question what form the government should 
take was debated at the hustings ; the lieu- 
tenant-governor took an active part in the 
contest, holding himself forth as the main- 
stay of ' British institutions ' and denouncing 
his opponents as * republicans ' or something 
worse. 

Baldwin took no part in the elections, but 
in April paid a visit to England and spent 
about a year there and in Ireland. When 
in London, he sought an interview with 
the colonial secretary, Charles Grant, lord 
Glenelg [q. v.], which was declined, but he 
was invited to send suggestions. They were 
given in a letter dated 13 July 1836, and 
constitute probably the best argument extant 
for the extension of the English govern- 
mental system to the colonial possessions. 
Having done all he could to avert the re- 
bellion which now threatened, Baldwin with- 
drew from public affairs for nearly four years. 
In 1837, when Lord Russell's Canada reso- 
lutions came up for consideration in parlia- 
ment, colonial self-government found no ad- 
vocates. The Upper Canada rebellion broke 
out on 4 Dec. 1837. The lieutenant-governor 
sent to Baldwin asking him to meet William 
Lyon Mackenzie [q. v.] and his misguided 



followers with a flag of truce. Baldwin at 
once complied, and, as written authority for 
his mission was demanded by Mackenzie, 
returned to obtain it. Sir Francis refused 
not only to give a written authority but to 
acknowledge any mission at all. This mes- 
sage Baldwin delivered to the rebels, and re- 
tired forthwith to his own house. Sir Allan 
Macnab [q. v.], relyin^ on statements in the 
published ' Narrative^ of Sir F. B. Head, 
subsequently attacked in the assembly Bald- 
win's action on this occasion, but, on hearing 
Baldwin's account, withdrew his strictures, 
and approved Baldwin's conduct in the cir- 
cumstances. The house took the same view 
(13 Oct. 1842). 

At the request of the governor-general, 
Charles Poulett Thompson, Lord Sydenham 
[q. v.], Baldwin became solicitor-general for 
Upper Canada in 1840, and next year (2 Feb. 
1841), when the union with Lower Canada 
came into force. Lord Sydenham invited him 
to join his executive council. The elections 
to the united legislative assembly soon fol- 
lowed, and Baldwin was returned for two 
constituencies. The legislature was sum- 
moned to meet in June, but, before that took 
place, Baldwin's own suspicions of the 
governor-general's conception of responsible 
or parliamentary government were aroused. 
He had no confidence in the majority of his 
ministerial colleagues, and he approached 
the governor-general for the purpose of hav- 
ing the council reconstructed on a homo- 
geneous basis. Sydenham declined the pro- 
position, and Baldwin at once retired from 
office. Lord Sydenham meant by respon- 
sible government that his executive should 
consist of heads of departments who should 
be solely responsible to him, and that he 
should in turn be responsible to the imperial 
parliament. As the session progressed it 
became evident, notwithstanding the profes- 
sions of certain ministers, that the rule of 
government was prescribed by Lord John 
Russell's despatch of 16 Oct. 1839, which 
had not been published. Baldwin moved 
for its production, which was granted. There- 
upon, on 3 Sept. 1841, he submitted a series 
of resolutions which constitute, says Al- 
phaeus Todd [q, v.], * articles of agreement 
upon the momentous question of responsible 
government, between the executive autho- 
rity of the crown and the Canadian people.' 
They are not legislative but declaratory, and 
sanction this principle : that, in local affairs, 
the local ministers are answerable to the 
local houses for all acts of the executive 
authority. During the debate certain verbal 
alterations, really the work of Lord Syden- 
ham, were suggested and accepted, and the 



Baldwin 



112 



Baldwin 



resolutions passed unanimously. In this 
manner was parliamentary rule formally 
introduced into the colonies. 

Lord Sydenham died shortly afterwards, 
and was succeeded by Sir (Jharles Bagot [q. v. 
Suppl.], who first organised in Canada govern- 
ment by means of a cabinet. The existing 
administration was threatened with defeat 
at the opening of the next session (1842). A 
reorganisation thereupon tooli place. Bald- 
win took office with Sir Louis Lafontaine. 
They accepted the portfolios of attorney- 
general for Upper and Lower Canada respec- 
tively, and became the actual leaders of the 
government, though their pre-eminence in 
the council was not official. Lafontaine 
took charge of the affairs of Lower Canada, 
while those of Upper Canada and matters 
common to the east and west fell into Bald- 
win's hands. Baldwin was defeated on re- 
turn to his constituents after accepting office, 
but was chosen by acclamation to represent 
Rimouski in Lower Canada. The French 
Canadians seized the opportunity to express 
their appreciation of his services on their 
behalf. Baldwin and Lafontaine's adminis- 
tration, which lasted from September of 1842 
to September of 1843, marks the first period 
of cabinet government in Canada. 

With Sir Charles Bagot's successor, Sir 
Charles Theophilus (afterwards Lord) Met- 
calfe [q. v.], who professed his adherence to 
responsible government in Lord Sydenham's 
understanding of the term, Baldwin and his 
colleagues came into conflict. The occasion 
was the making of certain local appoint- 
ments by the governor on his own authority. 
The council remonstrated, and, as their re- 
monstrances were of no avail, resigned. The 
house which was then sitting approved their 
action by a vote of two to one. A session 
of turmoil was brought to an early close, 
followed by a ministerial interregnum that 
lasted nearly nine months. At length Met- 
calfe gathered together a tolerably complete 
cabinet, dissolved the house, and entered the 
electoral arena with all the force he could 
command. He defeated Baldwin by a small 
majority, and set William Henry Draper 
(1801-1877) in power. But Draper proved 
no less tenacious than Baldwin of the rights 
of his position, and the ultimate effect of 
Metcalfe's action was to strengthen respon- 
sible government in the parliamentary sense 
of the term, which was not thenceforth 
called in question in Canada. 

After four years in opposition Baldwin re- 
sumed office in March 1848 with Lafontaine 
under the governor-generalship of Lord 
Elgin. The administration, known again 
as the Lafontaine-Baldwin government 



(although Baldwin was never nominally 
prime minister), was once more framed on 
the basis of a double leadership. As in his 
earlier administration, Baldwin took charge 
of Upper Canada and matters common to 
east and west. The amount of constructive 
legislation eff*ected was unprecedented in 
Canada. Among the special measures asso- 
ciated with Baldwin's name in his own 
section, Canada west, now the province of 
Ontario, are: equal division of intestates' 
land among claimants of the same degree; 
the organisation of the municipal system 
substantially as it now exists ; the establish- 
ment of Toronto University on a non-sec- 
tarian basis; the erection of division or 
small-debt courts, of the courts of common 
pleas and chancery. He had a principal 
share also in the following acts, which were 
of common benefit to both sections of the 
colony: the taking over of the post-office 
from the imperial authorities; the settle- 
ment of the civil list question ; the freeing 
and enlargement of the canals ; the opening 
of the St. Lawrence following the repeal of 
the British navigation laws ; the abolition of 
the old preferential tariff". One act of his 
administration aroused great opposition in 
the province. Known as the Rebellion 
Losses Bill, its purpose was to compensate 
those persons in Lower Canada who had 
suffered loss from the rebellion of 1837-8, 
and were not actually guilty of treason. A 
similar statute had been passed for Upper 
Canada. The bill was held to be unjust to 
the loyal population, but it was really an 
act of local justice. Out of the agitation 
arose a movement, chiefly among the Eng- 
lish-speaking people, for the annexation of 
Canada with the United States. Baldwin 
met this with determined boldness ; nor was 
he less hostile to a demand for Canadian 
independence, a subsidiary reflex of the same 
discontent. Since 1850 there has been no 
serious leaning in either of these directions in 
British North America. 

The occasion of Baldwin's retirement was 
a motion to inquire into the working of the 
court of chancery, which had just been 
established. The house rejected the motion, 
but, as a majority from Upper Canada 
favoured it, he interpreted their vote as an 
expression of non-confidence in him. He 
resigned his portfolio to the regret both of 
opponents and colleagues. In the ensuing 
elections (18ol) he again solicited the suf- 
frage of his old constituency, the North Rid- 
ing of York, but was defeated by one of his 
nominal supporters. In fact, new issues or 
phases of issues were arising, and, as time 
went on, there was a widening breach be- 



Balfour 



"3 



Balfour 



tween Baldwin and the reformers. "With- 
drawing from public life at the early age of 
forty-seven, Baldwin steadily resisted all 
persuasions to return. In 1854 he was made 
companion of the Bath. On 9 Dec. 1858 he 
died, as he had lived, a devoted churchman. 

On the motion of (Sir) Francis Hincks a 
marble bust of him was placed in the as- 
sembly chamber ; his portrait in oil hangs in 
Osgoode Hall, Toronto. 

On 31 May 1827 Baldwin married his 
cousin, Augusta Elizabeth Sullivan, sister 
of Mr. Justice Sullivan ; she died on 11 Jan. 
1836. 

[Taylor's Portr. of Brit. Amer. iii. 65-89 ; 
Dent's Can. Portr. Gall. i. 17-49; Dent's Last 
Porty Years, vol. i. ; Gerin-Lajoie's Dix Ans au 
Can. 1840-50 ; Turcotte's Can. sous I'Union, pts. 
i. ii. ; Morgan's Legal Directory, p. 35 ; Head's 
Narrative, pp. 50, 316, 361 ; Head's Lord Gle- 
nelg's Despatches, pp. 51-65; Ann. Reg. 1836, 
Pub. Doc. 288-300 ; Houston's Constit. Docs, 
pp. 292-304 ; J. E. Cote's Pol. Appmts. pp. 27, 
3(i ; Lord Durham's Report, January 1839; 
i3uller's Reponsible Govt, (pamph.). 1840; Lind- 
sey's Life of W. L. Mackenzie, ii. 64 and App. ; 
Scrope's Life of Ld. Sydenham, pp. 229 et seq. ; 
Kaye's Life of Ld. Metcalfe, ii. 343 et seq. ; 
Kaye's Select, from papers of Lord Metcalfe, pp. 
412-21 ; Wakefield's View of Sir C. Metcalfe's 
Govt. p. 17; Hincks's Reminiscences, pp. 15, 
188-200; Hincks's Hist, of Can. 1840-50, p. 18; 
Grej''s Colonial Policy, i. 206 et seq.; Report 
on Grievances, Upper Canada, 1835, p. 30; 
Ninety-two Resolutions, Lower Canada, 1834; 
Todd's Parlt. Govt, in the Brit. Col. p. 76 ; Han- 
s.ard's Canada Debate(1837), 3rd ser. vols, xxxvi. 
xxxvii. ; Colonial Policv (1850), 3rd ser. vol. 
cviii. ; Pope's Mem. of Sir J. A. Macdonald, i. 
85 ; David's L'Union des deux Canadas, ch. i.- 
vii. ; Read'sRebellionof 1837, pp. 222-32; Hop- 
kins's Canada: an Encyclopaedia, 1898, iii. 28- 
31, 107-8; Ryerson's Story of my Life, pp. 
318-41.] T. B. B. 

BALFOUR, EDWARD GREEN(1813- 
1889), surgeon-general and writer on India, 
the second son of Captain George Balfour 
and his wife, a sister of Joseph Hume, M.P., 
was born at Montrose in Forfarshire on 
6 Sept. 1813. He received his early educa- 
tion at the Montrose academy, proceeded to 
Edinburgh University, and after studying 
surgery became, in ] 833, a licentiate of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of that city. 
In 1834 he went to India and entered the 
medical department of the Indian army, 
and on 2 June 1836 he obtained a com- 
mission of assistant-surgeon. As executive 
officer he had, during various periods until 
1862, medical charge of European and 
native artillery, and of native cavalry and 
infantry of both the Madras and Bombay 

VOL. I.— SUP. 



armies, and was stafF-surgeon at Ahmad- 
nagar in the Deccan and at Bellary in the 
ceded districts. In 1850 he was acting go- 
vernment agent at Chepauk and paymaster 
of the Carnatic stipends. On 31 Dec. 1852 
he attained the rank of full surgeon. 

In 1845 Balfour published * Statistical 
Data for forming Troops and maintaining 
them in Health in different Climates and 
Localities ' (Madras ?), and * Observations 
on the Means of preserving the Health of 
Troops by selecting Healthy Localities for 
their Cantonments' (London), which brought 
him into some prominence as an authority 
on public health. In 1849 he received the 
thanks of the Madras government for his 
report ' On the Influence exercised by Trees 
on the Climate of a Country ' (Madras Jour- 
nal of Literature a7id Science, \9i^%; reprinted 
1849 at Madras with similar reports). In 
the same year a treatise by him on * Statis- 
tics of Cholera ' was published at Madras. 
In 1850 he issued ' Remarks on the Causes 
for which Native Soldiers of the Madras 
Army were discharged the Service in the 
five Years from 1842-3 to 1846-7.' 

During the early years of his service Bal~ 
four devoted much attention to the study 
of oriental languages, and became an expert 
scholar in Hindustani and Persian. In 1850 
he published at Madras, under the title of 
* Gul-Dastah, or the Bunch of Roses,' a 
lithographed series of extracts from Persian 
and Hindustani poets, and founded the Mo- 
hammedan Public Library at Madras, an in- 
stitution containing books in English and 
oriental languages, open to all classes and 
creeds. This service to literature was, on 
his departure from India, gratefully acknow- 
ledged in an address in Persian which was 
presented to him at jVIadras by leading Mo- 
hammedans. From 1854 to 1861 he was often 
employed as Persian and Hindustani trans- 
lator to the government. 

In 1850 an ofl'er made by Balfour to the 
government to form a museum in Madras 
was accepted, and the Government Central 
Museum was established with Balfour as its 
superintendent, an office which he under- 
took without remuneration, and filled till 
1859. While holding this appointment he 
issued, besides several catalogues and general 
reports on the work of the museum, a num- 
ber of publications relating to special 
branches of scientific study. These included 
a classified list of the Mollusca (Madras, 
1855, fol.), a * Report on the Iron Ores ; 
the Manufacture of Iron and Steel ; and the 
Coals of the Madras Presidency' (Madras, 
1855, 8vo), and 'Remarks on the Gutta 
Percha of Southern India ' (Madras, 1855, 



Balfour 



114 



Balfour 



8vo). He also wrote a prefatory descrip- 
tion of the districts dealt with in a ' Baro- 
metrical Survey of India,' issued in 1853 
under the editorship of a committee, of 
which Balfour was chairman, and in 1856 he 
published ' Localities of India exempt from 
Cholera.' 

In 1857 appeared at Madras the work by 
which Balfour is best known, ' The Ency- 
clopaedia of India and of Eastern and 
Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial, and 
Scientific.' This book embodied great ex- 
perience, vast reading, and indomitable in- 
dustry. A second edition in five volumes 
appeared in India in 1873, and between 1877 
and 1884 Balfour revised the book for pub- 
lication in England. After the first edition 
the word ' Cyclopaedia ' was substituted in the 
title for ' Encyclopsedia.' The third edition, 
which was published in London in 1885, 
was at many points superior to the earlier 
impressions. Balfour's outlay on it was 
lavish and ungrudging, but the usefulness 
of the work was soon generally recognised, 
and the whole expenditure was met within 
two years. 

From 1858 to 1861 Balfour was com- 
missioner for investigating the debts of 
the nawab of the Carnatic, at whose 
court he was for many years political agent. 
He acted for a short period as assistant 
assay master at the Madras mint, and in the 
military finance department of India he was 
at Madras examiner of medical accounts. 

In 1862 he joined the administrative grade 
of the Madras medical staflT. He was deputy 
inspector-general of hospitals from 1862 to 
1870, and during this period he served as 
deputy surgeon-general in the Burmah divi- 
sion, the Straits Settlements, the Andamans, 
twice in the ceded districts, twice in the 
■ Mysore division, and for four years with the 
Hyderabad subsidiary force and Hyderabad 
cont ingent. He displayed the utmost energy 
in the personal inspection of his districts, 
and proved his continued interest in scientific 
matters by instituting the Mysore Museum 
in 1866, and by publishing at Madras a work 
on ' The Timber Trees, Timber, and Fancy 
Woods, as also the Forests of India and of 
Eastern and Southern Asia,' which reached 
a second edition in 1862, and a third in 1870. 

From 1871 to 1876 Balfour was, as surgeon- 
general, head of the Madras medical depart- 
ment. In the second year of his period of 
ofiice he conferred a great benefit on the 
natives of India by drawing the attention of 
the Madras government to the necessity for 
educating women in the medical profession, 
native social customs being such that native 
■jvomen, were debarred alike from receiving 



visits from medical men and from attending 
at the public hospitals and dispensaries. As 
a result the Madras Medical College was in 
1875 opened to women, and his services in 
this direction were commemorated in 1891 
by the endowment at Madras University of 
a 'Balfour memorial' gold medal, with the 
object of encouraging the medical education 
of women. Balfour's last publications before 
leaving India were two pamphlets with the 
general title 'Medical Hints to the People 
of India.' They bore respectively the sub- 
titles, ' The Vydian and the Hakim, what 
do they know of Medicine ? ' and ' Eminent 
Medical Men of Asia, Africa, Europe, and 
America, who have advanced Medical 
Science.' Both appeared at Madras in 1875, 
and reached second editions in the following 
year. 

In 1876 Balfour finally returned to Eng- 
land with a good service pension, after forty- 
two years' residence in India. Before his 
departure public acknowledgment of his 
labours was made in an address presented to 
him at Madras by the Hindu, Mohamme- 
dan, and European communities. His por- 
trait was placed in the Government Central 
Museum. 

In England, besides preparing for the press 
the third edition of his 'Encyclopaedia of 
India,' he issued 'Indian Forestry' (1885) 
and ' The Agricultural Pests of India and of 
Eastern and Southern Asia, Vegetable, Ani- 
mal ' (1887). He died on 8 Dec. 1889 at 
107 Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, at the 
age of seventy-six. He married, on 24 May 
1852, the eldest daughter of Dr. Gilchrist 
of Madras. 

Balfour was a fellow of the Madras Uni- 
versity, and a corresponding member of the 
Imperial Royal Geological Institute of 
Vienna. In addition to the works enume- 
rated above, he translated into Hindustani 
Dr. J. T. Conquest's ' Outlines of Midwifery,' 
and procured and printed at his own expense 
translations of the same work in Tamil, Te- 
lugu, and Canarese. He also translated into 
Hindustani Gleig's ' Astronomy,' and pre- 
pared in 1854 a diglot Hindustani and Eng- 
lish ' Statistical Map of the World,' which 
was also rendered and printed in Tamil and 
Telugu. To periodical literature he made 
a large number of contributions on various 
subjects, a list of which is given in the 
' Cyclopfedia of India' (3rd edit. 1885). 

His elder brother. Sir George Balfoitr 
(1809-1894), general and politician, was born 
at Montrose in 1809. He was educated at 
the Military Academy at Addiscombe, en- 
tered the Madras artillery in 1825, and in the 
following year joined the royal artillery, and 



Balfour 



"S 



Ball 



tiltimately rose to the rank of general. He 
served with the Malacca field force in 1832- 
1833, and, as brigade major, in the campaign 
against Kurnool in 1839, being present at 
the battle of Zorapore on 18 Oct. He was 
staff officer of the Madras forces in the war 
against China in 1840-2, and took part in 
the principal actions of the campaign, and 
was elected joint agent for captured public 
property ; he was also receiver of the ransom 
payable under the treaty of Nankin, and he 
settled and paid the hong debts due by the 
Chinese merchants. From 1843 till 1866 
he was consul at Shanghai. He received 
his commission as captain in the artillery 
corps on 26 March 1844, and obtained the 
brevet rank of field officer in the artillery on 
8 Oct; 1.847. From 1849 till 1857 he was 
an acting stipendiary member of the military 
board at the Madras Presidency, and during 
this time was employed as a commissioner 
to inquire into the Madras public works 
establishments. He was made C.B.in 1854. 
He received the brevet rank of lieutenant- 
colonel of the Madras artillery in 1856, in 
1857 he became colonel, and in 1858 attained 
the regimental rank of lieutenant-colonel of 
artillery. In 1860 he was specially com- 
missioned by the viceroy, Lord Canning, to 
inquire into the condition of the native and 
European troops forming the garrison of 
Burmah. He was a member of the military 
finance commission in 1859 and 1860, and 
from 1860 till 1862 he was chief of the 
military finance department formed to ensure 
economy in military expenditure. H is labours 
in this connection met with high commenda- 
tion from the Indian government, and after 
his return to England he was employed in 
1866 on the recruiting commission. The 
thoroughness of his work on this commission 
led to his nomination in 1867 as assistant to 
the controller-in-chief at the war office ; he 
filled this post from 1868 till 1871, and was 
created K.C.B. in 1870. He was promoted 
major-general in 1866, lieutenant-general in 
1874, and general in 1877. In 1872 he was 
elected liberal M.P. for Kincardineshire, and 
held the seat until 1892. In 1875 he sup- 
plied a preface on the ' commercial, politi- 
cal, and military advantages in all Asia' to 
a collection of articles and letters on ' Trade 
and Salt in India Free,' reprinted from the 
'Times.' He died in London on 12 March 
1894 at 6 Cleveland Gardens, S.W. He 
married in 1848 Charlotte Isabella, the third 
daughter of Joseph Hume, M.P. 

[Times. 13 and 15 March 1894, 11 Dec. 1889; 
Cyclopaedia of India; Madras Army List; 
Nineteenth Century, November 1887, article 
on - Medical Women by Dr. Sophia Jex-Blake ; 



Madras University Cal. 1891-2; Kelly's London 
Medical Direct. 1890; "Walford's County Fa- 
milies ; G-uide to City of Madras, 1889 ; private 
information.] C. E. H. 

BALFOUR, THOMAS GRAHAM 

(1813-1891), physician, belonged to the 
family of Pilrig, and was born in Edinburgh 
on 18 March 1813. He was son of John 
Balfour, a merchant of Leith, and his wife 
Helen, daughter of Thomas Buchanan of 
Ardoch. He was great-grandson of James 
Balfour, professor of moral philosophy at 
Edinburgh in 1754, and of Robert Whytt 
[q. v.], the celebrated medical wi-iter and 
professor of physiology at Edinburgh. He 
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1834, and 
in 1836 entered the Army Medical Ser- 
vice and was immediately engaged in the 
first four volumes of the ' Statistics of the 
British Army,' From 1840 to 1848 he 
served as assistant surgeon in the grenadier 
guards. In 1857 he was appointed secre- 
tary to Sidney Herbert's committee on the 
sanitary state of the army, and in 1859 he 
became deputy inspector-general in charge 
of the new statistical branch of the army 
medical department, a post which he held 
for fourteen years. He was elected F.R.S. 
on 3 June 18*58 and in 1860 a fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians of London. In 
1887 he was appointed honorary physician 
to the queen. He was placed on half-pay 
as surgeon-general in 1876, and in his forty 
years of service had done much to improve 
the sanitary condition of the forces. He 
married in 1856 Georgina, daughter of George 
Prentice of Armagh, and had one son, Graham 
Balfour. He died at Coombe Lodge, Wim- 
bledon, on 17 Jan. 1891. 

[Memoir by his cousin, George W. Balfour ; 
private information ; Journal of Eoyal Statisti- 
cal Society, 1891.] N. M. 

BALL,_ JOHN (1818-1889), man of sci- 
ence, politician, and Alpine traveller, born in 
Dublin on 20 Aug. 1818, was eldest son of 
Nicholas Ball [q. v.], judge of the court of 
common pleas in Ireland, and Jane Sherlock 
of Butlerstown Castle, co. Waterford. In 
his early childhood he showed a precocious 
taste for out-of-door observation and works 
on natural science. "When in his seventh 
year he was taken to Switzerland, he was 
deeply affected by the view of the Alps from 
the Jura. He wrote in after life, * For long 
years that scene remained impressed on my 
mind, whether asleep or awake, and perhaps 
nothing has had so great an influence on my 
entire life.' In the following year, at Ems, 
the child's chief occupation was measuring, 

i2 



Ball 



1x6 



Ball 



or trying to measure, tlie height of the hills 
around with a mountain barometer. 

Brought up as a Roman catholic, Ball at 
thirteen was sent for three years to the Ro- 
man catholic college at Oscott, whence he 
went on to Christ's College, Cambridge, being 
admitted in 1835. There, like Darwin, he 
fell under the influence of Professor John 
Stevens Henslow [q. v.], whose botanical 
lectures he attended, and in whose family 
the * wild Irishman ' was a prime favourite. 
He came out as twenty-seventh wrangler in 
1839, but was prevented by his religion from 
taking a degree. After leaving the university 
Ball travelled for four years in different 
parts of Europe, seeing much of men and 
manners, and also of mountains and flowers. 
A valuable paper on the botany of Sicily 
was one of the results of these early travels. 
In 1845 he stayed for some time at Zermatt 
in order to study glaciers, making a series of 
observations. The conclusions he was led 
to, however, coincided so closely with those 
of James David Forbes [q. v.] that he re- 
frained from publishing them, though he 
afterwards contributed several papers to the 
* Philosophical Magazine,' in which he con- 
tested the hypothesis with regard to the 
action of glaciers in the formation of Alpine 
valleys and lake basins that had been lately 
put forward. Ball was called to the Irish 
bar in 1845, but never practised. In 1846 
he was appointed assistant poor-law com- 
missioner. This was at the period of the 
Irish potato famine. The work was severe, 
and in the following year he was forced by 
ill-health to resign. In 1848 he stood un- 
successfully for the borough of Sligo. In 
1849 he was again appointed as second com- 
missioner, a post which he held for two 
years, when he resigned it in order to stand 
as a liberal for county Carlow, for which he 
was elected on 26 July 1852. In the House 
of Commons he advocated most of the liberal 
measures that have since become law : the 
disestablishment of the church of Ireland, a 
readjustment of land tenure, the reduction 
of rents, and a new land valuation, lie was 
not a frequent or a lengthy speaker, but he 
made so decided a mark in the house that 
in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the 
under-secretaryship for the colonies. 

In this position (which he held for two 
years) Ball was able to advance the interest 
of science on several notable occasions. It 
was mainly due to his energetic representa- 
tions that the Palliser expedition was pro- 
perly equipped and sent out to ascertain the 
best routes within British terrritory for 
uniting by rail the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts, Canada and British Columbia. 



Among the results of this enterprise was the 
discovery of four practicable passes, one of 
which is now followed by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway [see Pallisek, Johx]. 

Ball was also instrumental while in office 
In inducing the home government to give 
its support to Sir W. Hooker's eff"orts for 
the publication of floras of all our colonies^ 
compiled on a definite system, which he 
himself drew up, an undertaking equally 
important whether from the commercial or 
from the scientific point of view. 

The combination of scientific zeal and 
sound judgment as to the extent of the sup- 
port which science might reasonably claim 
from the state that Ball displayed while at 
the colonial office led to his opinion being 
often asked, and sometimes acted on. But 
to the end of his life he deplored the com- 
parative indifference to science, and the 
ignorance of its practical bearings on the 
prosperity of nations, shown by the British 
treasury, as well as by British travellers and 
administrators in all quarters of the globe. 

In 1858 Ball contested Limerick. His 
ardent sympathy with Italian liberty ( Cavour 
and Quintino Sella were among his close 
friends) did him harm on this occasion with 
the Irish priests, and through their action he 
was defeated after a keen contest. This- 
result he accepted, despite subsequent oppor- 
tunities of a seat offered him, as a definite 
discharge from public life and office. 

To a man with the tastes he had shown 
from childhood there was little struggle in 
resigning himself to the career of a natural 
philosopher. At the same moment a definite 
direction was given to his leisure by hi» 
nomination as the first president of the 
Alpine Club. That association (founded in 
1857) was composed of a small band of 
enthusiastic lovers of the mountains, who, 
having in common one of the chief pleasures 
of their lives, were anxious to provide fixed 
opportunities for meeting, comparing notes, 
and developing projects for new adventures 
or extended researches. Ball was selected 
as the man who most thoroughly united in 
himself and represented the various motives 
which inspired the first members of the club — 
the zest for adventure, the love of the glories 
of the mountains, or the patient pursuit of 
natural science in the many branches that 
are open to the mountaineer. 

He found another link with the Alps in 
his first wife, a daughter of the Nobile Al- 
berto Parolini, a distinguished naturalist, 
through whom he subsequently came into 
property near Bassano. The task he now 
set himself was the compilation of a guide 
to the whole Alpine chain from the Col di 



Ball 



117 



Ball 



Tenda to the Semmering. ' The Alpine 
Guide' (1863-8) was undoubtedly the most 
important literary product of a life of very 
various activities. Its plan was at once 
comprehensive and clear. A preface dealing 
with the Alps and Alpine travel generally, 
both from the scientific and practical point 
of view, was prefixed to the work. The 
range was then divided into three sections — 
the Avestern, central, and eastern Alps — 
each described in a single volume. The 
lesser subdivisions into groups, based mainly 
but not absolutely on physical considera- 
tions, were made with great skill and have 
proved practically convenient. Throughout 
the work the special geological and botanical 
features of each district are insisted on, while 
the travelling student finds observations in 
detail thrown in at every fitting opportunity. 
The object of the writer is not to conduct 
his readers along certain beaten tracks, but 
to put them in a position to choose for them- 
selves such routes as may best suit their 
individual tastes and powers, to give advice 
as to what is best worth notice, and to show 
what is open to the prudently adventurous. 
The main purposes of the book are kept 
constantly in sight, and it is written 
throughout in a vigorous st3'le which keeps 
its freshness to the end and makes the de- 
scriptive passages pleasant reading, while 
they are relieved from time to time by shrewd 
observations, flashes of quiet humour, or 
tersely told personal adventures. 

Ball was himself rather a scientific traveller 
than a great climber, and his taste for soli- 
tary rambles was perhaps too strong to make 
the numbers needed for safety in the region 
above the snow level altogether congenial to 
him. But the extent of his Alpine travels, 
mostly on foot, is indicated by his own state- 
ment. Before 1863 he ' had crossed the 
main chain forty-eight times by thirty-two 
difierent passes, besides traversing nearly one 
hundred of the lateral passes.' His first 
Alpine feat was the passage of the Monte Rosa 
chain by the Schwarz Thor in 1845, and 
among the summits of which he made the 
first or early ascents were the Pelmo, the 
Tergloo, and the Cima Tosa. 

In 1871 Ball accompanied Sir J. D. Hooker 
and Mr. G. Maw in an expedition to Morocco. 
The object of the journey was to investigate 
the flora of the Great Atlas and determine 
its relations to those of the mountains of 
Europe. In 1882 Ball made a five months' 
voyage to South America. 

Ball's contributions to science were 
mainly geographical, physical, and botanical. 
In the first the most important are ' The 
Alpine Guide' (3 parts, London, 1863-8, 



8vo ; translated into Italian 1888 ; the first 
volume has been re-edited as a permanent 
memorial to him by the Rev. W. A. B. 
Coolidge for the Alpine Club, 1898), his 
* Journal of a Tour in Morocco,' 1878, and 
his 'Notes of a Naturalist in South America,' 
1887, of which Sir J. D. Hooker writes: 
' High authorities have pronounced them to 
be deserving of a corner of the same shelf 
with the works of Humboldt, Darwin, Bates, 
and Wallace.' Of Ball's papers on physical 
subjects the most important were concerned 
with meteorology or hypsometry. His con- 
tributions to botany were both critical and 
theoretical. Among the first his ' Spici- 
legium Florae Maroccanre' {Linnean Soe. 
Journal, ' Botany,' 1878, xvi. 287-742) will 
always remain a classic both for its merits 
and as the earliest work on the flora of that 
region. His * Distribution of Plants on the 
South Side of the Alps,' which he left un- 
finished, was published after his death in 
the * Transactions of the Linnean Society ' in 
1896. Sir J. D. Hooker thus describes Ball's 
theoretical essays in botany : in that ' " On 
the Origin of the Flora of the European 
Alps" {Geogr. Soc. Proc. 1879, pp. 564-88), 
he argued for the high antiquity of the 
Alpine flora, and for the earliest types of 
flowering plants having been confined to 
high mountains (thus accounting for their 
absence in a fossil state), due to the propor- 
tion of carbonic acid gas in the lower regions 
of the earth being too great to support a 
phenogamic vegetation. He further held 
that existing modes of transport are in- 
sufficient to account for the present distri- 
bution of plants. His other theory relates to 
the South American flora, and is given in 
his " Naturalist's Journal." In this he as- 
sumes that the majority of the peculiar 
types of the whole South American flora, 
except possibly a few that originated in the 
Andean chain, had their primitive homes on 
that hypothetical ancient mountain range 
which he had placed in Brazil, and to great 
heights on which they would, under his 
theory, be restricted through the operation 
of the same cause that restricted the Euro- 
pean early types to the highest Alps.' 

Ball suffered from ill-health during the 
last years of his life. He died at his house, 
10 Southwell Gardens, South Kensington, 
on 21 Oct. 1889, 

Ball married twice, in 1856 and 1869. 
His first wife, by whom he had two sons, 
who survive him, has been already named ; 
his second was Julia, daughter of F. O'Beirne, 
esq., of Jamestown, co. Leitrim. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
4 June 1868, and an honorary fellow of his 



Ball 



ii8 



Ball 



college at Cambridge on 3 Oct. 1888. He 
was also a fellow of the Linnean, Geo- 
graphical, and Antiquarian Societies of Lon- 
don, and of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Besides the works mentioned above Ball 
published papers in the Cambridge ' Mathe- 
matical Journal ' on physical science, in the 

* Philosophical Magazine,' and in the ' Re- 
ports ' of the British Association, on the 
geological action of glaciers and on other 
subjects, on botanical subjects in the 
' Botanical Magazine,' * Journal of Botany,' 
the ' Proceedings of the Linnean Society,' 
' The Linnfea,' and the ' Bulletin de la 
Soci6t§ Botanique de France.' On Alpine 
subjects he contributed to the first series of 

* Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers ' (which he 
edited), 1859,8vo, and tothe 'Alpine Journal.' 
He wrote the article ' Alps ' in the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica ' (9th edit.), and an article 
in the * Edinburgh Review,' 1861, on glacier 
theories. He contributed occasionally to 
the * Saturday Review ' and ' Nature.' He 
was also the author of a tract (1847), ' What 
is to be done for Ireland ? ' (2nd edit. 1849), 
and an article in ' Macmillan's Magazine,' 
1873, on Daniel O'Connell. 

[Biographical notices in Proceedings of the 
Eoyal Society, 1889-90, vol. xlviii. p. v ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Eoyal Geographical Society, 
1890, xii. 99 ; Journal of Botany, December 
1889; Alpine Journal, vol. xv. No. 107, Fe- 
bruary 1890, with portrait ; Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society, 1888-90, p. 90 ; Royal Society's 
Cat. of Scientific Papers ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

D. W. F. 
BALL, JOHN THOMAS (1815-1898), 
lord chancellor of Ireland, was the eldest 
son of Major Benjamin Marcus Ball, of the 
40th regiment of foot, an officer who served 
with distinction in the peninsular cam- 
paign ; his mother was Elizabeth, daughter 
of CuthbertFeltus of Hollybrook,co. Carlow. 
Ball probably owed some of his most cha- 
racteristic qualities to his paternal grand- 
mother, Penelope Paumier, a member of an 
old Huguenot family settled in Ireland. He 
was born in Dublin on 24 July 1815 and 
was educated at Dr. Smith's school in Rut- 
land Square, Dublin, and at Dublin Univer- 
sity. Entering Trinity College in 1831 at 
an unusually early age, he obtained a classical 
scholarship in 1833, and in 1835 graduated 
as senior moderator and gold medallist in 
ethics and logic. He was an active member 
during his college days of the College His- 
torical Society, holding in 1837 the office of 
president. In 1844 he took the degree of 
LL.D. During the latter part of his college 
career, and in his earlier days at the bar, 
Ball was a frequent contributor to the 'Dublin 



University Magazine,' and was intimately as- 
sociated with Isaac Butt [q. v.], Samuel and 
Mortimer O'Sullivan [q. v.], Joseph Sheridan 
Le Fanu [q. v.], and others. Ball's contri- 
butions were for the most part concerned 
with historical and biographical subjects, 
but he also wrote some graceful verses. All 
his writings evince sound classical scholar- 
ship and severe and fastidious taste. In 
1840 he was called to the Irish bar, where 
he quickly rose to an eminent position, and 
in 1854 he was called to the inner bar. As 
a queen's counsel his practice lay mainly in 
the ecclesiastical courts, and later in the 
probate and matrimonial division, where 
his knowledge of civil law and argumenta- 
tive subtlety rapidly raised him to the lead- 
ing position. In 1862 the primate, Marcus 
Beresford [q. v. Suppl.], appointed him vicar- 
general of the province of Armagh. This 
appointment marked the commencement of 
his active interest in the affairs of the Irish 
church, of which he was a devoted member. 
In 1863 Ball was elected a bencher of the 
King's Inns, and in 1865 was made queen's 
advocate in Ireland. In the same year he 
first appeared in the arena of politics, coming 
forward at the general election of 1865 as a 
candidate for the university of Dublin in 
the character of an independent churchman. 
The agitation against the Irish establish- 
ment had already commenced ; and Ball, fore- 
seeing the fierceness of the storm, counselled 
legislation for ecclesiastical reform. His 
policy involved the admission of deficiencies 
which the majority of churchmen were not 
prepared to own, and Ball was defeated at 
the polls. In 1867 Ball was nominated as 
a member of the royal commission appointed 
by Disraeli to inquire into the state of the 
church of Ireland, and in the following year 
became a member of the conservative ad- 
ministration as solicitor-general for Ireland. 
Later in the same year he was advanced to 
be attorney-general for Ireland. 

In the meantime Gladstone's declarations 
had raised the issue of disestablishment in a 
direct form, and in face of the impending 
peril the conservative electors of Dublin 
University recognised the importance of 
making Ball's abilities and knowledge of 
ecclesiastical affairs available for the defence 
of the threatened institution. Accordingly 
he was at the general election of 1868 re- 
turned to parliament as member for the uni- 
versity. ' Upon him from that moment 
devolved the task of inspiring, instructing, 
and inspiriting all the opposition that was 
possible in a hopeless minority of 120 to the 
mighty purpose Avhich had rallied and united 
the liberal party ' ( Thnes). On the introduc- 



Ball 



119 



Ball 



tion of the Irish Church Act Ball at once 
took a leading part in the opposition to the 
measure. His speech on the second reading 
•was a remarkable oratorical triumph, and 
placed Ball in the front rank of parliamentary 
speakers. Disraeli, on hearing it, expressed 
to his colleagues his regret that his party had 
not much earlier received the assistance of so 
powerful a champion. Ball's eflbrts were 
sustained throughout the long struggle over 
the details of the bill. Early in 1870, when 
the Marquis of Salisbury was installed chan- 
cellor of the university of Oxford, his services 
were acknowledged by thegift of thehonorary 
degree of D.C.L. of that university. 

Subsequently Ball helped to frame the 
future constitution of the disestablished 
church of Ireland, not only devising and 
drafting that constitution, but acting as 
assessor to the primate in the often stormy 
contentions of the earlier meetings of the 
general synod. 

From 1869 to 1874 Ball remained a 
vigorous member of the conservative oppo- 
sition, and took an active part in the 
debates on Gladstone's Irish land bill 
of 1870 and the Irish university bill of 
1873. His opposition to the first-named 
measure was confined to effective criticism 
of its details; but his objections to Glad- 
stone's university scheme went to the root 
of its principles. But Ball's part in parlia- 
ment was not confined to merely Irish 
questions; one of his finest speeches dealt 
with the Ballot Act. 

In 187-1, on the formation of Disraeli's 
second administration, Ball's position and 
services clearly designated him for the highest 
office in the law in Ireland ; but the prime 
minister desired to retain his services in the 
House of Commons in connection witli the 
Irish judicature bill, and he was reappointed 
attorney-general. The care of the Irish seals 
was meanwhile placed in commission till he 
should be free to undertake their charge. In 
1875 he left his place in parliament to 
become lord chancellor of Ireland. His 
tenure of office in that capacity lasted till the 
resignation of the Disraeli government in 
April 1880. In that period he earned a high 
reputation as a judge ; his judgments, espe- 
cially in appeals from the probate division, 
being marked by legal learning, argumenta- 
tive power, and literary form. On his re- 
tirement from the chancellorship Ball with- 
drew to a great extent from active public 
life. But he accepted in 1880 the nomina- 
tion by Earl Cairns to the office of vice-chan- 
cellor of the university of Dublin. In 1881 
he presided over the section of jurisprudence 
at the meeting of the social science con- 



gress at Dublin, and delivered an enlightened 
address on jurisprudence and the amendment 
of the law. 

On the return of his party to office under 
Lord Salisbury in 1885, Ball's health did 
not allow him to resume the Irish chan- 
cellorship, and he devoted such strength as 
remained to him to literary work. In 1886 
he published * The Reformed Church of 
Ireland,' a work in which he traced with 
impartiality and detachment the history of 
the church from the Reformation to his own 
time. The book won the praises of Canon 
Liddon [q. v.] for its ' very equitable hand- 
ling of matters in which religious passion is 
apt to run riot.' A second and enlarged 
edition appeared in 1890. In 1888 Ball 
issued ' Historical Review of the Legislative 
Systems operative in Ireland from the In- 
vasion of Henry the Second to the Union.' 
Here he sought ' to trace the succession of 
these systems to each other, the forms they 
respectively assumed, and their distinctive 
peculiarities, and at the same time to con- 
sider the controversies connected with the 
claim made by the English parliament to 
legislate for Ireland' (Author's preface). The 
fair and balanced temper in which the author 
dealt with contentious topics was recognised 
by men of every shade of opinion. Glad- 
stone acknowledged Ball's calm and judicial 
method of handling his subject, and the 
great ability with which his uniform up- 
rightness and intention were associated. Mr. 
Goldwin Smith wrote that the book ' would 
stand out like a block of granite amidst the 
tides of political and rhetorical controversy.' 
And Mr. Lecky expressed ' his admiration 
for its clearness and its perfectly judicial im- 
partiality.' A second edition was published 
in 1889. 

From 1890 Ball's failing strength and ad- 
vancing years kept him more and more a 
prisoner in his house at Dundrum,co. Dublin. 
But he retained down to 1895 his office of 
vice-chancellor of the university. Subse- 
quently increasing debility compelled him 
gradually to divest himself of numerous 
honorary offices. Among these may be men- 
tioned those of chancellor of the arch-dio- 
ceses of Armagh and Dublin,. assessor to the 
general synod of the church of Ireland, 
senator of the Royal University, and chair- 
man of the board of intermediate education. 
He died at Dundrum on St. Patrick's day, 
17 March 1898. He was buried at Mount 
Jerome cemetery, Dublin. He had married 
in October 1852 Catherine, daughter of Rev. 
Charles Richard Elrington [q. v.], regius 
professor of divinity in the university of 
Dublin ; she died on 7 Sept. 1887. A por- 



Ballance 



1 20 



Ballantine 



trait of Ball by Mr. Walter Osborne is in 
the hall of the King's Inns at Dublin. 

Apart from his judicial eminence, Ball 
merits remembrance as one of the few Irish- 
men who have been strong enough to impress 
their convictions upon English statesmen. 
As an orator he achieved with great rapidity 
an extraordinary reputation. In his writings 
he was studiously sparing of ornament, and 
both of the treatises mentioned above suffer 
in point of form from excessive condensa- 
tion. But their judicial tone will always 
render them valuable. 

[Ball Wright's Records of Anglo-Irish Families 
of Ball; Dublin Univ. Mag., April 1875; 
obituary notices in the Times, 18 March 1898, 
and in Dublin Daily Express of same date ; 
private information.] C. L. F. 

BALLANCE, JOHN (1839-1893), prime 
minister of New Zealand, born in 1839, was 
the eldest son of Samuel Ballance, farmer, of 
Glenavy, Antrim, Ireland. When fourteen 
he was apprenticed to an ironmonger in 
Belfast, and at eighteen was employed in 
the same business in Birmingham. While 
still young he emigrated to New Zealand 
and settled as a small shopkeeper at Wan- 
ganui, but soon abandoning shopkeeping for 
journalism founded the ' Wanganui Herald.' 
In the Maori war of 1807 he helped to orga- 
nise a company of troopers and received a 
commission, of which he was, however, de- 
prived by the minister of defence on account 
of certain critical articles on the operations 
of the war printed in his newspaper. Plis 
conduct in the field had been good, and the 
war medal was afterwards awarded him. In 
1875 he entered the House of Representa- 
tives and took an active part in abolishing 
that part of the New Zealand constitution 
under which the colony was for twenty-three 
years divided into provinces. Ballance then 
joined the liberal party formed in 1877 under 
Sir George Grey [q. v. SuppL], quickly made 
his mark as a fluent and thoughtful debater, 
and in March 1878 became treasurer in 
Grey's ministry. On his motion a tax on 
the unimproved value of land was imposed 
in the same year; but in 1879, after a pain- 
ful altercation.with his chief, Ballance left 
the government and refused to rejoin it. The 
Grey ministry fell, and a property tax re- 
placed the land tax. 

In 1884 Ballance again became a minister, 
under his former colleague. Sir Robert Stout ; 
this time his portfolios were lands and native 
affairs. Kindly and pacific in dealing with 
the Maori, he aimed at substituting concilia- 
tion for armed force, and in this — nicknamed 
the * one policeman policy ' — he was entirely 



successful. As minister of lands he endea- 
voured to plant bodies of unemployed work- 
men on the soil as peasant farmers holding 
allotments under perpetual lease from the 
crown in state-aided village settlements. 
Though some of these failed, more prospered. 
Ejected from office in 1887, Ballance was 
elected leader of the liberal opposition in 
1889 and formed a ministry in January 1891, 
on the defeat of Sir Harry Atkinson [q. v. 
Suppl.] Though in failing health he did 
not hesitate to stake his ministry's existence 
on a series of progressive measures of a re- 
markably bold and experimental kind. Those 
with which he was most closely and perso- 
nally concerned were : (1) the abolition of 
the property tax, and the substitution there- 
for of a graduated land tax and income tax ; 
(2) the change of life tenure of seats in the 
legislative council — the upper house of the 
colony's parliament — to a tenure of seven 
years ; (3) the extension of the suftVage to 
all adult women; (4) the restriction of pro- 
pei'ty voters to one electoral roll. In addi- 
tion Ballance obtained from the colonial 
office the admission that the viceroy should 
act on the advice of his ministers in respect 
of nominations to the upper house ; also that 
he should take the same advice when exer- 
cising the prerogative of mercy. A.nother 
beneficial measure of Ballance's placed large 
Maori reserves in the North Island under 
the public trustee, opening them to settle- 
ment, but preserving fair rents for the native 
owners. As premier he showed unexpected 
constructive ability and managing skill, the 
progressive policy of his ministry took the 
country by storm, and chiefly to this it is 
due that his party still governs the colony. 
Ballance himself did not live to see the 
effect of this success. At the height of his 
popularity he died after a severe surgical 
operation on 27 April 1893. He was a man 
of quiet manner, amiable temper, simple and 
unassuming in his way of life, yet solid, 
widely read and well informed, and, though 
sensitive to criticism and public opinion, very 
far from being the rash, empty, weak dema- 
gogue he was sometimes called. He was 
twice married, but left no children. 

[Gisborne's Rulers and Statesmen of New Zea- 
land, 2nd edit., 1897; Reeves's Long White 
Cloud, 1898 ; Character Sketch, The Hon. John 
Ballance, by Sir Robert Stout, in Review of Re- 
views (Australian edition), Melbourne, 1893. 
See also New Zealand newspapers, 2S April to 
10 May 1893.1 W. P. R. 

BALLANTINE, WILLIAM (1812- 
1887), serjeant-at-law, born in Howland 
Street, Tottenham Court Road, on 3 Jan. 



Ballantine 



Ballantine 



1812, was the eldest son of William Ballan- 
tine, who was called to the bar from the 
Inner Temple on 5 Feb. 1813, was magis- 
trate of the Thames police, had control of 
the river police force from 1821 tO' 1848, 
and died, aged 73, at 89 Cadogan Place, 
Chelsea, on 14 Dec. 1852. The younger 
"William was educated at St. Paul's School, 
and at Ashburnham House, Blackheath. 
He was admitted to the Inner Temple on 
28 May 1829, and was called to the bar on 
6 June 1834, and occupied rooms in Inner 
Temple Lane. He joined the Middle- 
sex sessions, where his father occasionally 
presided, and where he made the valuable 
acquaintance of (Sir) John Huddleston. 
He subsequently joined the central criminal 
court, and chose the home circuit, compris- 
ing Hertfordshire, Essex, Sussex, Kent, and 
Surrey. In this choice, he tells us, he was 
largely influenced by economical considera- 
tions, for in those days barristers travelled 
two and two in post chaises, public con- 
veyances being forbidden. As a young 
man Ballantine was an assiduous haunter of 
the old literary taverns in Covent Garden, 
and he has recorded a number of brief re- 
miniscences of the brothers Smith, Barham, 
Theodore Hook, AVakley, Frank Stone, 
Harrison Ainsworth, Talfourd, and other 
authors, coming down to Dickens and 
Thackeray and Anthony Trollope. The 
first case of importance in which Ballantine 
was engaged was a suit in the House of 
Lords in 1848 to annul the marriage of an 
heiress, Esther Field, on the ground of 
coercion and fraud. Sir Fitzroy Kelly, Sir 
John Bayley, and other distinguished coun- 
sel were in favour of the bill. Ballantine 
alone opposed it, but his cross-examination 
was so able and searching that the Earl of 
Devon, who was the chairman of the court, 
declined to move the further progress of the 
bill. A murder trial at Chelmsford Assizes 
in 1847 was the first of many in which his 
client's life was involved, and the trial gave 
Ballantine his ' first lesson in the art of silent 
cross-examination.' 

On 3 Nov. 1856 Ballantine received the 
coif of a serjeant-at-law, but he had to wait 
until 1863 to obtain from Lord Westbury 
his patent of precedence, which was re- 
quired to place Serjeants on the same level 
as queen's counsel. In 1863 he was engaged 
in the Woolley arson case, and in the 
following year he received through the 
Marquis d'Azeglio the thanks of the Sar- 
dinian government for his exertions on be- 
half of Pellizzioni, a Sardinian subject. 
During 1867, the last year in which the 
House of Commons enjoyed a jurisdiction 



in the case of contested elections, he prac- 
tised before parliamentary committees in 
work of this kind. In 1868 he lost an 
action in which he defended the 'Daily 
Telegraph ' on a charge of libel, against 
his frequent rival and opponent, Serjeant 
(John Humffreys) Parry [q. v. J He was, 
however, specially appointed by the House 
of Commons in 1869 to prosecute the mayor 
of Cork for eulogising the attempt of O'Far- 
rell to assassinate the Duke of Edinburgh 
(the action was subsequently dropped), and 
he was no less distinguished by the tact 
which he displayed in the notorious ' Mor- 
daunt case ' of 1875. 

The three forensic performances with 
which Ballantine's name is most intimately 
associated are his prosecution in the trial of 
Franz MUller for the murder of Mr. Briggs 
in the autumn of 1864, in which he secured 
a conviction despite the brilliant defence of 
Serjeant Parry ; his defence of the Tich- 
borne claimant during the earlier portion of 
that famous trial in 1871 ; and his defence 
of Mulhar Rao, Gaekwar of Baroda, ar- 
raigned for the crime of attempting to 
poison the British resident in the spring of 
1875. The result in this case, which was 
tried at Baroda in February 1875, was an 
acquittal, but the British and native com- 
missioners were divided as to the guilt of the 
Gaekwar, who was deposed on the grounds of 
incapacity and misconduct. Ballantine had 
extricated himself with skill from his posi- 
tion in the Tichborne case before matters 
became utterly desperate for his client, and 
in the trial of the Gaekwar his cross-examina- 
tion of Colonel (afterwards Sir Robert) 
Phayre [q.v. Suppl.] was considered a master- 
piece. His honorarium of 10,000/. in this 
case is probably among the largest ever paid 
to counsel. 

Ballantine was made an honorary bencher 
of the Inner Temple on 22 Nov. 1878, and 
retired from active work as an advocate 
some three years later. From the Temple 
in March 1882 he signed the preface to his 
* Some Experiences of a Barrister's Life,' an 
uncritical farrago of newspaper and club 
gossip, ranging over the period 1830-1880, 
interspersed with a few legal anecdotes, and 
strung together with little attempt at ar- 
rangement. The compound proved enter- 
taining, and went through edition after edi- 
tion. In November 1882 Ballantine set sail 
for America in the hope that was not to be 
realised of adding to his income by the de- 
livery of a series of readings. After his re- 
turn, in 1884, he issued 'The Old World 
and the New, by Mr. Serjeant Ballantine, 
being a continuation of his Experiences,' a 



Ballantyne 



work characterised by a greater urbanity if 
not by a greater coherence than his previous 
literary essay. Ballantine, who at the 
close of his life was one of the eight sur- 
viving serjeants-at-law, died at Margate on 
9 Jan. 1887. He married on 4 Dec. 1841 
Eliza, daughter of Henry Gyles of London, 
but left no issue. 

Ballantine was for many years a well- 
known figure in metropolitan and especially 
in theatrical and journalistic society. His 
intimate knowledge of human nature made 
him a tower of strength for the defence 
in criminal trials. He was a brisk and 
telling speaker, but owed his unique posi- 
tion rather to his skill as a cross-examiner 
and to the fact that he was a recognised 
adept in the art of penetrating the 
motives and designs of criminals. He 
was generally credited with being the 
orignal of Chaffanbrass in Trollope's novel 
of 'Orley Farm.' The value of his career 
as a pattern for the profession was not un- 
questioned. According to the ' Law Times ' 
' he died very poor indeed,' and ' left 
behind him scarcely any lesson, even in 
his own poor biography, which the rising 
generation of lawyers could profitably learn.' 

A good Woodburytype portrait was pre- 
fixed to ' The Old World and the New,' 1884. 

[Some Experiences of a Barrister's Life, 
1882; Foster's Men at the Bar, ]88o, p. 21; 
Boase's Modern English Biography, 1892, p. 
147; Men of the Time, 12th ed. 1887; Gent. 
Mag. 1853, i. 101; Illustrated News, 1846, i. 
317, and 22 Jan. 1887 (portrait) ; Times, 10 Jan. 
1887 ; Law Times, 15 Jan. 1887.] T. S. 

BALLANTYNE, ROBERT MICHAEL 

(1825-1894), writer of boys' books, born at 
Edinburgh on 24 April 1825, was the son of 
Alexander Ballantyne, a younger brother of 
James Ballantyne [q. v.], the printer of 
Scott's works. He used himself to tell how 
his father was employed to copy for the 
press the early novels of the Waverley series, 
because his handwriting was least known to 
the compositors. His eldest brother was 
James Robert Ballantyne [q.v.'], the distin- 
guished orientalist. 

When a boy of sixteen Robert Michael 
was apprenticed by his father as a clerk in 
the service of the Hudson's Bay Fur Com- 
pany, at a salary commencing at 201. He 
went out to Rupert Land in 1841, and spent 
six years for the most part in trading with 
the Indians. He kept a rough diary of his 
doings, and on his return to Scotland in 
1848 this was published by Blackwood as 
' Hudson's Bay ; or. Life in the Wilds of 
North America.' For the next seven years 



2 Ballantyne 

he occupied a post in the printing and pub- 
lishing firm of Thomas Constable of Edin- 
burgh. In November 1855 the Edinburgh 
publisher, William Nelson, suggested to 
Ballantyne that he should write a book for 
boys, embodying some of his experiences in 
the ' great lone land.' This was rapidly com- 
posed, and successfully issued in 1856 as 
' Snowfiakes and Sunbeams ; or, the Young 
Fur Traders,' the first part of the title being 
dropped in subsequent editions. ' From that 
day to this,' wrote Ballantyne in 1893, ' I 
have lived by making story books for young 
folks.' In his second book, ' Ungava : a 
Tale of Eskimo Land ' (1857), he again 
drew upon the great north-west. In his 
third, the ' Coral Island ' (1857),-in describ- 
ing what he had not seen, he made a some- 
what humorous blunder in regard to the 
cocoanut, which he described as growing in 
the form familiar to the English market. 
Thenceforth he determined ' to obtain infor- 
mation from the fountain-head.' Thus, in 
writing ' The Life Boat ' (1864), he went down 
to Ramsgate and made the acquaintance of 
Jarman, the coxswain of the lil^boat there ; 
in preparing 'The Lighthouse' (1865) he 
obtained permission from the Northern 
Lights Commission to visit the Bell Rock, 
and studied Stevenson's account of the 
building ; to obtain local colour for ' Fighting 
the Flames ' (1867) he served with the Lon- 
don salvage corps as an amateur fireman ; and 
' Deep Down ' (1868) took him among the 
Cornish miners. He visited Norway, Canada, 
Algiers, and the Cape Colony for materials 
respectively for ' Erling the Bold,' ' The 
Norsemen of the West,' * The Pirate City,' 
and ' The Settler and the Savage.' He got 
Captain Shaw to read the proofs of 'Fight- 
ing the Flames,' and Sir Arthur Blackwood 
those of ' Post Haste.' 

In such stories as the above, to which may 
be added ' The World of Ice' (1859), 'The 
Dog Crusoe' (1860), 'The Gorilla Hunters' 
(1862), 'The Iron Horse' (1871), and 
' Black Ivory ' (1873), Ballantyne continued 
the successes of Mayne Reid. But his 
success is the more remarkable inasmuch as, 
though his books are nearly always instruc- 
tive, and his youthful heroes embody all the 
virtues inculcated by Dr. Smiles, his tales 
remained genuinely popular among boys 
(despite the rivalry of Jules Verne, Henty, 
and Kingston) for a period of nearly forty 
years, during which Ballantyne produced a 
series of over eighty volumes. He was a 
thoroughly religious man, an active sup- 
porter of the volunteer movement in its 
early days, and no mean draughtsman, ex- 
hibiting water-colours for many years at the 



Banks 



123 



Bardolf 



Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgli. From 
about 1880 he resided at Harrow, where he 
had many friends, but in October 1893 he 
went to Rome for his health, and he died 
there on 8 Feb. 1894. He was buried in the 
English protestant cemetery at Rome. 

A portrait was prefixed to his rambling 
volume entitled ' Personal Reminiscences of 
Book-making,' published in 1893; another 
appeared in the ' Illustrated London News,' 
17 Feb. 1894. 

[Ballantyne's Personal Eeminiscences ; Aca- 
demy, 17 Feb. 1894; Guardian, 14 Feb. 1894; 
Times, 9 and 10 Feb. 1894 ; Standard, 10 Feb. 
1894; Boase's Modern English Biography, i. 
147 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

BANKS, ISABELLA, known as Mks. 
LiXNJSiJS BAifKS (1821-1897), novelist, 
daughter of James Varley, a chemist in 
Marriott's Court, Brown Street, Manchester, 
who died in 1842, and of his wife Amelia 
Daniels, was born in Oldham Street, Man- 
chester, on 25 March 1821. In early life 
she was in charge of a school at Cheetham, 
near Manchester, Her first literary eiibrt, 
a poem entitled 'A Dying Girl to her 
Mother,' appeared in the ' Manchester Guar- 
dian ' on 12 April 1837. On 27 Dec. 1846 
she married at the Collegiate Church, Man- 
chester, George Linnjieus Banks [q. v.], a 
poet and journalist of Birmingham. She as- 
sisted him in his work, and contributed to 
the periodicals edited by him. Her first 
novel, ' God's Providence House,' was pub- 
lished in I860. Her best-known work, ' The 
Manchester Man,' in three volumes, appeared 
in 1876. It gives an interesting and life- 
like picture of Manchester in the first quarter 
of the century and of the riots of 1819. By 
1881 it was in a fourth edition, and a one- 
volume edition was published later. Other 
novels dealt also with life in ^lanchester 
and its neighbourhood, and Mrs. Banks was 
often called the ' Lancashire novelist,' She 
received a pension from the civil list in 
1895, and died at Dalston on 5 May 1897. 
Her husband predeceased her on 3 May 
1881. A portrait of Mrs. Banks is given in 
* Manchester Faces and Places' (iv. 41). 

She occasionally lectured, and despite de- 
licate health worked hard throughout her 
life. Mrs. Banks had a real love of good 
literature, and took great interest in the 
Shakespeare tercentenary celebration (1864), 
on the committee of which her husband was 
an active and enthusiastic worker. She 
herself baptised, with water from the Avon, 
the memorial oak presented by the queen 
and planted by Samuel Phelps, the actor, on 
Primrose Hill. Her skill as a designer was 



considerable ; she produced original fancy- 
work patterns every month for forty-five 
years. 

Other works by Mrs, Banks are : 1, * Ivy 
Leaves : a Collection of Poems,' 1844. 
2. ' Daisies in the Grass : Songs and Poems ' 
Twith her husband), 1865. 3, ' Stung to 
the Quick,' 1867, 3 vols. ; 1893. 4, ' Glorv : 
a Wiltshire Story,' 1877, 3 vols.; 1892. 
5. ' Ripples and Breakers ' (a collection of 
her later poems), 1878, 1893. 6. ' Caleb 
Booth's Clerk,' 1878, 3 vols. 7. ' Wooers 
and Winners: Under the Scars,' 1880, 8 
vols. 8. 'More than Coronets,' 1881, 1882, 

9. ' Through the Night : Short Stories,' 1882. 

10. ' The Watchmaker's Daughter : Short 
Stories,' 1882. 11. 'Forbidden to Marry,' 
1883, 3 vols. ; under the title ' Forbidden 
to Wed,' 1885. 12, 'Sibylla, and other 
Stories,' 1884, 3 vols. 13. 'In his own 
Hand,' 1885, 3 vols. ; 1887. 14. ' Geoffrey 
Ollivant's Folly,' 1886, 15. ' A Rough Road,' 
1892, 16. 'Bond-slaves,' 1893, 17. 'The 
Slowly Grinding Mills,' 1893, 3 vols, 
18. ' The Bridge of Beauty,' 1894. A uniform 
edition of the novels was commenced in 
1881, but only three volumes were pub- 
lished. 

[Manchester Faces and Places, iv. 40 (De- 
cember 1892) ; Biograph, 1879, i. 200-7 ; Man- 
chester G-uardian, 6 May 1897 ; Allibone's Diet. 
Suppl, i. 87-8 ; Times, 6 May 1897 ; Men of tho 
Time, 14th ed. p. 50.] E. L. 

BARDOLF or BARDOLPH, THOMAS, 
fifth Baeon Baedolf (1368-1408), born at 
Birling, near Cuckmere Haven, Sussex, on 
22 Dec. 1368, was son and heir of William, 
fourth baron Bardolf, by his wife Agnes, 
daughter of Michael, second baron Poynings 
[q. v.] Her sister Mary married Sir Arnold 
Savage [q. v.], the well-known speaker of 
the House of Commons. The family had 
long been settled at Wormegay in Norfolk, 
though the first baron Bardolf by writ was 
son of William Bardolf [q. v.], one of the 
baronial leaders under Simon de Montfort, 
and died in September 1304. William, the 
fourth baron, was Hugh's great-grandson, 
was born about 1349, served in the wars in. 
France and Ireland, and died before 29 Jan. 
1385-6. His will, dated 12 Sept. 1384, is. 
printed in the 'Testamenta Vetusta,' i, 116. 
His younger son. Sir William Bardolf, 
unlike his brother Thomas, remained faith- 
ful to Henry IV, served under the Duke of 
Burgundy in 1411, and died on 25 July. 
1423. His widow married Sir Thomas Mor- 
timer (d. 1402), an adherent of the Duke of 
Gloucester, who had been attainted in 1397,- 
and died on 12 June 1403, 



Bardolf 



124 



Barkly 



Thomas Bardolf succeeded his father as 
fifth baron in 1386. He had married, before 

8 July 1382, Amicia, daughter of Ilalph, 
second baron Cromwell, and aunt of Ralph, 
fourth baron Cromwell [q. v.], and had on 

9 May 1383 been enfeoflPed by his father of 
the manor of Reskington. His mother in 
her will requested Henry Percy, first earl of 
Northumberland [q. v.], to superintend the 
arrangements for her funeral, and Bardolfs 
daughter Anne married Sir William Clifford, 
Northumberland's right-hand man. Bardolf 
therefore naturally followed the political 
lead of the Percies during Richard II's reign. 
On 5 April 1399 he received letters of pro- 
tection on going to Ireland with the king 
(Rymer, viii. 79), but there is little doubt 
that he, like Northumberland, joined Henry 
of Lancaster when he landed in Yorkshire 
in the following July, and from the begin- 
ning of Henry IV's reign he Avas an active 
member of the privy council (Nicolas, Ordi- 
nances, &c. i. 106 sqq.) On 9 Feb. 1400 he 
offered to assist Henry against the French 
or the Scots ' without wages or reward,' and 
accompanied the king on his invasion of 
Scotland in the following August. 

The loyalty of the Percies to Henry IV 
was, however, shortlived , and Bardolf appears 
to have been implicated to some extent in 
Hotspur's rebellion of 1403. He is said to 
have been convicted of treason and pardoned 
{Chron., ed. Giles, p. 42}, but even Mr. 
Wylie is unable to throw light on this 
obscure affair. In any case Bardolf seems 
to have been fully restored to favour, and 
continued a regular attendant at the privy 
council until the beginning of 1405. Secretly, 
however, he was privy to the plots formed 
in the winter of 1404-6. Even at the council 
board he had shown a refractory disposition 
in opposing grants and other measures, and 
when, in May 1405, Henry summoned him 
to Worcester to serve against the Welsh, 
Bardolf disobeyed the order and made his 
way to Northumberland. On 12 June his 
property was declared confiscated, and on 
the 19th the peers found that he had com- 
mitted treason, but suggested that a pro- 
clamation should be made ordering him to 
appear within fifteen days of Midsummer, 
or else to be condemned by default. Instead 
of appearing at York on 10 Aug., the date 
fixed, Bardolf, with Northumberland, fled 
to Scotland. Some of his lands were granted 
to Prince John, afterwards Duke of Bedford, 
and others to Henry and Thomas Beaufort. 

Soon afterwards the Scots proposed to 
surrender Northumberland and Bardolf in 
exchange for the Earl of Douglas, who had 
been captured by the English at Homildon 



Hill ; but the two peers escaped to Wales. 
To Bardolf is ascribed the famous tripartite 
treaty dividing England and Whales between 
Owen Glendower [q. v.]. Sir Edmund Mor- 
timer (1376-1409 ?) [q. v.], and the Earl of 
Northumberland, which was now solemnly 
agreed to. During the spring of 1406 North- 
umberland and Bardolf remained in Wales, 
giving what help they could to Owen Glen- 
dower, but in July they sought safer refuge 
at Paris. There they represented themselves 
as the supporters, not of the pseudo Richard, 
but of the young Earl of March (Ramsay, i. 
112, 113). They failed, however, to obtain 
any material support, were equally unsuc- 
cessful in Flanders, and finally returned to 
Scotland. They had still some secret sup- 
porters in the north of England, where the 
prevalent disorder seemed to oft'er some faint 
hopes of success. In January 1407-8 they 
crossed the Tweed, and advanced to Thirsk, 
where they issued a manifesto. But their 
following was small, and on 19 Feb. they 
were defeated by Sir Thomas Rokeby [q. v.] 
at Bramham Moor. Northumberland was 
killed, and Bardolf, who was captured, died 
of his wounds the same night. His body 
was quartered, and parts of it sent to Lon- 
don, Ljnn, Shrewsbury, and York, the head 
being exhibited at Lincoln {English Chron. 
ed. DavieH, p. 34). Lord Bardolf figures pro- 
minently in Shakespeare's ' Henry IV, part 
ii. ; ' the other Bardolf, Pistol's friend, who 
appears in both parts, and also in 'Henry V,' 
seems to be entirely imaginary. 

By his wife, who died on 1 July 1421, 
Bardolf had issue two daughters : Anne, 
who married first Sir William Clifford, 
and secondly Sir Reginald Cobham ; and 
Joan (1390-1447), who married Sir William 
Phelip (1383-1441) of Bennington, Suffolk, 
and Erpingham, Norfolk [cf. art. Erping- 
HAM, Sir Thomas]. He served at Agin- 
court, was captain of Harfleur 1421-1422, 
treasurer of the household to Henry V, and 
chamberlain to Henry VI, and on 13 Nov. 
1437 was created Baron Bardolf; on his 
death in 1441 the peerage became extinct. 

[Full details of Bardolfs life, -with ample re- 
fermces to the originHl authorities, are given in 
Wylie's Hist, of Henry IV and Ramsay's Lan- 
caster and York. The chief are Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Eotuli Pari.; 
Rymer's Foedera, vol. viii. ; Cal. Hot. Pat. ; Cal. 
Eot. Claus. ; Sussex Archseol. Coll. vol. xi.; 
Blomefield's Norfolk, passim ; G. E. C[okayne]"s 
Complete Peerage.] A. F. P. 

BARKLY, Sir HENRY (1815-1898), 
colonial governor, born in 1815, was the only 
son of ^neas Barkly of Monteagle in Ross- 
shire, a West India merchant. He received a 



Barkly 



125 



Barkly 



commercial education at Bruce Castle school, 
Tottenham, and afterwards engaged in 
business pursuits. On 26 April 1845 he was 
returned to parliament for Leominster as ' a 
firm supporter of Sir Robert Peel's com- 
mercial policy.' He retained his seat until 
his appointment on 12 Dec. 1848 as governor 
and commander-in-chief of British Guiana, 
where he owned estates. On his arrival at 
Georgetown he found that the combined 
court had refused to grant supplies unless 
the salaries of government officials were re- 
duced, and that the members of the court 
regarded every representative of the home 
government as an enemy of the colony. By 
conciliatory proceedings he overcame much 
of this prejudice, and obtained supplies for 
the administration. During his government 
he furnished the British parliament with 
much information concerning the colony, 
and advocated the introduction of coolie 
and Chinese labour, an innovation which 
has since been successfully attempted. He 
also endeavoured to develop the resources 
of the country by the introduction of railways. 
At the close of his term of office he left the 
colony contented and comparatively pro- 
sperous. On 18 July 1853 he was nominated 
K.C.B., and on 9 Aug. he left Guiana to 
succeed Sir Charles Edward Grey [q. v.] as 
governor of Jamaica. In that island, as in 
Guiana, he found a state of tension between 
the legislature and the executive, and he was 
equally successful in bringing about a more 
amicable feeling. Mollified by some modifica- 
tions in the constitution, the assembly con- 
sented to renew the import duty which they 
had suffered to expire. Barkly left the island 
in May 1856. On 24 Nov. he was appointed 
governor of Victoria by Sir William Moles- 
worth [q. v.], in succession to Sir Charles 
Hotham [q.v.] In 1856 he summoned the 
first legislature assembled after the inaugu- 
ration of the system of responsible govern- 
ment in the colony. He remained at Mel- 
bourne until 1863, when he was nominated 
on 17 Sept. governor of Mauritius. The 
question of coolie labour was at that time, 
and long afterwards, of great importance, and 
Barkly did much to place the relations of 
capital and labour on an equitable footing. 

On 19 Aug. 1870 Barkly became governor 
of Cape Colony in succession to Sir Philip 
Edmund Wodehouse [q. v. Suppl.] On his 
arrival at the Cape of Good Hope the ques- 
tion of the establishment of a full measure 
of self-government was under discussion. 
While Barkly, like his predecessor, warmly 
supported the introduction of responsible 
government, he showed more regard for colo- 
nial feeling, and was able to dissipate much 



of the opposition to the new scheme of go- 
vernment by showing that current suspicion 
of it was founded on misapprehension. In 
1872 he succeeded in obtaining the passage 
of an act fully regulating the new form of 
government. In November 1870 Barkly 
was appointed high commissioner for settling 
the affairs of the territories adjacent to the 
eastern frontier of Cape Colony. In October 
1871, on the issue of the Keate award, he 
proclaimed Griqualand West, which con- 
tained the diamond area, a British depen- 
dency. His administration of the district 
was severely criticised as favouring the for- 
mation of the diamond monopoly (cf. Stow, 
A Review of the Barkly Administration, 
1893). On 9 March 1874 he was gazetted 
G.C.M.G. Barkly East in Cape Colony 
and Barkly West in Griqualand West were 
named after him. 

In 1874, however, he found himself at 
variance with the colonial secretary, Lord 
Carnarvon, and with James Anthony Froude 
[q. V. Suppl.], in regard to the question of 
South African confederation. While agree- 
ing with Carnarvon in regarding confedera- 
tion as ultimately desirable, he dissuaded 
him from attempting to force it on Cape 
Colony in face of the hostility of the ministry 
of Sir John Charles Molteno [q. v. Suppl.] 
Barkly realised from his long experience of 
colonial politics that any attempt on the part 
of the home authorities to appeal to the elec- 
torate against the colonial ministry would 
be perilous. His views, however, were not 
adopted, and on the expiration of his term of 
office in 1877 Carnarvon selected Sir Henry 
Bartle Edward Frere [q.v.] to urge on his 
scheme of confederation. On 21 March 1877 
Barkly retired on a pension. On 8 Dec. 
1879 he was nominated one of the commis- 
sioners on the defence of British possessions 
and commerce abroad. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society on 2 June 1864 
and a fellow of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety in 1870. He served on the council of 
the Geographical Society from 1879 to 1883 
and from 1885 to 1889. He was also pre- 
sident of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society in 1887-8, and made 
several interesting contributions to its * Trans- 
actions.' In later life he was an active mem- 
ber of the committee of the London Library. 
He died at 1 Bina Gardens, South Kensing- 
ton, on 20 Oct. 1898, and was buried on 
26 Oct. at Brompton cemetery. Barkly was 
twice married, first on 18 Oct. 1840, at Al- 
denham in Hertfordshire, to Elizabeth Helen, 
daughter of John F. Timins of Hilfield ; she 
died at Melbourne on 17 April 1857. In 
1860 Barkly married Anne Maria, only daugh- 



Barlow 



126 



Barlow 



ter of Sir Thomas Simson Pratt [q. v.] By 
Ms first wife lie had two sons. 

His son, Arthttr Cecil Stfakt Baekly 
(1843-1890), colonial governor, was educated 
at Harrow, and became a lieutenant in the 
carabineers. lu November 1866 he was 
nominated private secretary to his father in 
the Mauritius, and afterwards filled the same 
office at the Cape of Good Hope. In August 
1877 he was appointed a resident magistrate 
in Basutoland. He took part in the Basuto 
campaigns in 1 879 and 1 880, and in November 
1881 was appointed chief commissioner of the 
Seychelles. In January 1886 he became 
lieutenant-governor of the Falkland Islands, 
but returned to the Seychelles in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1888 he was nominated 
governor of Heligoland, where he remained 
until its transfer to Germany in August 
1890. He died on 27 Sept. 1890, while on 
a visit to Stapleton Park, Pontefract. 

[Men and "Women of the Time, 1895; Times, 
22, 26, 27 Oct. 1898; Foster's Baronetage and 
Knightago ; Colonial Office Lists ; Official Re- 
turns of Members of Pari.; Gent. Mag. 18'10 
ii. 536, 1857 ii. 327, 346; Eodway's Hist, of 
British Guiana, 1894, iii. 109-12; Gardner's 
Hist, of Jamaica, 1873, pp. 448, 452 ; Molteno's 
Life and Times of Sir J. C. Molteno, 1900, pas- 
sim ; Martineau's Life of Frere, 1895, ii. 171, 
173 ; Theal's South Africa (Story of the Nations), 
1894, p. 326 ; Reply of President Burgers to the 
Despatches of Sir H. Barkly (Official Corresp.of 
South African Rep.), 1874; Bowen's Thirty 
Years of Colonial Government, ed. S. Lane- 
Poole, 1889, ii. 75-6, 81, 223; Geogr. Journal, 
1898, xii. 621-2.] E. L C. 

BARLOW, PETER WILLIAM (1809- 
1885), civil engineer, born at Woolwich on 
1 Feb. 1809, was the eldest son of Peter 
Barlow [q. v.] In 1826 he became a pupil 
of Henry Robinson Palmer, then acting as 
assistant engineer to Thomas Telford [q. v.] 
Under Palmer he was engaged on the Liver- 
pool and Birmingham Canal and the new 
London Docks. In 1827 he was elected an 
associate member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. In 1834 and 1835 he was em- 
ployed in surveying the county of Kent for 
the London and Dover railway, and in 1836 
he was appointed resident engineer, under 
Sir William Cubitt [q. v.], on the central 
division of the line between Edenbridge and 
Headcorn. In 1838 and 1839 the sections 
from Edenbridge to Redhill and from Head- 
corn to Folkestone were placed in his hands; 
in 1840 he became resident engineer of the 
whole line; and subsequently he was ap- 
pointed engineer-in-chief. In 1842 he de- 
signed and executed the Tunbridge Wells 
branch, a line remarkable from the fact that 



it was executed, with the consent of the 
landowners and occupiers, before the act of 
parliament sanctioning it was obtained. 
During the next eight years he was engaged 
on the extension of the Tunbridge Wells 
branch to Hastings, the North Kent, the 
Ashford and Hastings, and the Redhill and 
Reading railways, and from 1850 he was em- 
ployed in connection with the Newtown and 
Oswestry, the Londonderry and Enniskillen, 
and the Londonderry and Coleraine railways. 
On 20 Nov. 1845 he was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. 

In 1858 Barlow investigated, with the 
assistance of models of large size, the con- 
struction of bridges of great span, paying 
especial attention to the problem of stiffening 
the roadway of suspension bridges. It had 
been supposed that to make a suspension 
bridge as stiff" as a girder bridge it was 
necessary to use lattice girders sufficiently 
strong to bear the load of themselves, and 
that such being the case suspension chains 
were useless. Barlow, however, showed the 
possibility of stiffening suspension bridges by 
comparatively light parallel girders extend- 
ing from pier to pier. Barlow's conclusions 
have been confirmed by William John Mac- 
quorn Rankine [q. v.] {Manual of Applied 
Mechanics, ed. Millar, 1898, p. 370). While 
investigating this problem Barlow examined 
the great railway and road bridge at Niagara, / 
and on his return published ' Observations "^ 
on the Niagara Railway Suspension Bridge ' 
(London, 1860, 8vo). Shortly afterwards a 
company was formed for constructing a 
bridge across the Thames at Lambeth, of 
which he was appointed engineer. This wire 
rope suspension bridge, which was opened 
on 11 Nov. 1862, contained diagonal struts 
in connection Avith the vertical ties from 
which the roadway was suspended. In this 
way a sufficient degree of stiffness was at- 
tained to permit large gas mains to be laid 
across the bridge without any leakage. Lam- 
beth bridge, ' the cheapest bridge in London,' 
which cost with its approaches 45,000^., was 
purchased by the Metropolitan Board of 
Works (Wheatlet and Cunningham, Lon- 
don Past and Present, 1891, ii. 358). 

During the construction of the bridge the 
process of sinking or forcing into the clay 
the cast-iron cylinders which formed the 
piers suggested to Barlow the idea that such 
cylinders could easily be driven horizontally, 
and could be employed in suitable soils for 
tunnelling under river beds. In accordance 
with these theories the Tower subway was 
constructed in 1869 and 1870 by excavating 
a tunnel through the clay bed of the Thames 
by means of a wrought-iron shield, eight feet 



Barlow 



127 



Barlow 



in diameter, pushed forward by powerful 
screw-jacks. The subway was completed for 
10,000/., and is remarkable for simplicity, 
celerity, and economy of construction rather 
than for commercial success. When the 
tunnel was first opened passengers were con- 
veyed in an omnibus drawn by small steam 
engines fixed at the Tower and Tooley Street 
ends. Some difficulties occurring in the 
working, this plan was abandoned, and it was 
found necessary to make the passengers 
■walk (lb. iii. 404). 

Towards the close of his life Barlow's 
eyesight was almost destroyed by an attack 
of cataract. He died at 56 Lansdowne Road, 
Notting Hill, on 19 May 1885. He contri- 
buted a number of treatises to various scien- 
tific publications, and wrote several pam- 
phlets. 

[Biograph, 1881, v. 597-602; Minutes of Proc. 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1884-5, 
Ixxxi. 321-3.] E. I. C. 

BARLOW, SiK ROBERT (1757-1843), 
admiral, eldest son of William Barlow of 
Bath, by Hilare, daughter of Robert 
Butcher of Walthamstow, and brother of 
Sir George Hilaro Barlow [q. v.], was born 
in London on 25 Dec. 1757. On 6 Nov. 
1778 he was promoted to be lieutenant 
of the Courageux with Lord Mulgrave [see 
Phipps, Cokstantine John, second Baeon 
Mflgeave], and continued in her in the 
grand fleet till the peace in 1783, taking 
part in the capture of La Minerve on 
4 Jan. 1781, and the relief of Gibraltar in 
October 1782. From 1786 to 1789 he 
commanded the Barracouta revenue cutter, 
and on 22 Nov. 1790 was promoted to com- 
mand the Childers brig employed on the 
same service on the coast of Cornwall dur- 
ing 1791-2. On 2 Jan. 1793 he was sent 
to look into Brest and see what was doing. 
This the French would not allow, and fired 
on the brig. As the countries were still at 
peace. Barlow hoisted his colours, on which 
all the batteries within range opened on 
him ; but the brig succeeded in getting out, 
one shot only — of 481bs. — striking, but 
without doing any particular damage. 
War was declared on 2 Feb., and on the 
15th, Barlow, still in the Childers, being oft 
Gravelines, captured Le Patriote, privateer, 
the first armed vessel taken in that war. 
He was promoted to be captain on 24 May, 
and in the following year commanded the 
Pegasus frigate which was attached to the 
fleet under Lord Howe, and took part in 
the action of 1 June. lie afterwards com- 
manded the Aquilon, and in December 1795 
was appointed to the Phoebe, a 44-gun 



frigate, in which, on 21 Dec. 1797, he 
captured the Nerfiide of 36 guns ; and on 
19 Feb. 1801 the Africaine, a 44-gun fri- 
gate, but lumbered up by military stores and 
four hundred soldiers, in addition to her 
complement of 315 men. Among such a 
crowd the slaughter was terrible ; her loss 
was returned as two hundred killed and 143 
wounded, that of the Phoebe as one killed and 
twelve wounded. The numbers were cerf i- 
fied by the captain of the Africaine ; but it 
was believed that they fell short of the truth 
(.Tames, iii. 128 ; Chevaliee, iii. 48; Teotjbe, 
iii. 251. These latter, with no means of 
arriving at the exact numbers, give the loss 
of the Africaine as 127 killed and 176 
wounded). 

On 16 June 1801 Barlow was knighted, 
and was shortly afterwards appointed to 
the 74-gun ship Triumph, in the Mediter- 
ranean, which he brought to England, and 
paid off" in the end of 1804. In 1805-6 he 
was flag-captain to I^ord Keith, then com- 
manding-in-chief in the Downs [see Elphin- 
STONE, Geoege Keith, Viscount Keith], 
and in the summer of 1806 he was appointed 
deputy-comptroller of the navy, from which 
office he was moved in September 1808 to 
that of commissioner of Chatham dockyard. 
On 20 May 1820 he was nominated a K.C.B., 
and on his retirement on 24 Jan. 1823 he 
was put on the superannuated list with the 
rank of rear-admiral. On 12 Nov. 1840, at 
the age of eighty-three, he was restored to 
the active list with the rank of admiral of 
the white, and on 23 Feb. 1842 he was 
made a G.C.B. He died at the archbishop's 
palace at Canterbury on 11 May 1843. He 
married in 1785 Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Garrett of Worting in Hamp- 
shire, and by her, who died in 1817, had a 
large family. One of his daughters married 
George, sixth viscount Torrington ; another 
married William, first earl Nelson [q. v.] 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii.) 
44 ; Grent. Mag. (for the most part copied from 
Marshall), 1843, ii. 202; Navy Lists; James's 
Naval Hist. (cr. 8vo) ; Troude's Bataillesnavales 
de la France ; Chevalier's Hist, de la Marino 
fran9aise.] J. K, L. 

BARLOW, THOMAS OLDHAM (1824- 
1889), mezzotint engraver, born at Oldham 
on 4 Aug. 1824, was son of Henry Barlow, 
an ironmonger living in the High Street. 
He was educated at the Old Grammar 
School, Oldham, and was then articled to 
Messrs. Stephenson & Royston, a firm of 
engravers at Manchester, and studied in the 
school of design in that city, where he won 
a ten-guinea prize in 1846 for a drawing en- 



Barlow 



12S 



Barnard 



titled ' Callings from Nature.' He moved 
to Ebury Street, London, in 1847. His first 
independent work was a plate in the line 
manner from John Phillip's ' Courtship,' exe- 
cuted in 1848, and this led to a close friend- 
ship with the painter, the most important of 
whose pictures he subsequently engraved. 
These include 'Dona Pepita,' 1858; 'The 
Prison Window,' 1860; 'The House of 
Commons in I860,' 1866 ; ' Prayer in Spain,' 
1873 ; ' Highland Breakfast,' 1877 ; and the 
celebrated ' La Gloria,' 1877. Barlow was 
the executor of Phillip's will, and drew up 
the catalogue of the collection of his works 
which was brought together at the London 
international exhibition of 1873. In 18.56 
lie engraved Millais's ' Huguenot,' and in I860 
his ' My First Sermon,' and during the latter 
part of his life was largely engaged upon 
that artist's works. The portraits of Bright, 
Gladstone, Tennyson, Newman, Lord Salis- 
bury, and other public characters, painted 
by Millais for Messrs. Agnew, were all en- 
graved by Barlow. Other well-known plates 
by him are the ' Death of Chatterton, after 
it. Wallis ; portrait of Sir Isaac Newton, 
after Kneller ; portrait of Charles Dickens, 
after Frith; and several after Landseer, 
Maclise, Ansdell, and Sant. Barlow en- 
graved Turner's 'Wreck of the Minotaur' 
for the Earl of Yarborough, who presented 
the plate to the Artists' General Benevolent 
Institution, and for the same charity he in 
1856 executed a large etching of Turner's 
' Vintage of Macon.' This he thirty years 
later undertook to complete in mezzotint, 
and he had just accomplished the work at 
the time of his death. Barlow was elected 
an associate engraver of the Royal Academy 
in 1873, a full associate in 1876, and an 
academician in 1881. He was a member 
and for many years secretary of the Etching 
club, and in 1886 was appointed director 
of the etching class at South Kensington. 
Barlow was a very accomplished engraver, 
and one of the last survivors of the old school 
of mezzotint and mixed work. He died at 
his house. Auburn Lodge, Victoria Road, 
Kensington, on 24 Dec. 1889, and was buried 
in the Brompton cemetery. 

Portraits of him were painted by John 
Phillip in 1856, and by Millais in 1886, and 
he sat for the figure of the sick ornitholo- 
gist in the latter's picture, ' The Ruling Pas- 
sion ; ' Millais's portrait is now in the Old- 
ham Corporation Art Gallery, and is repro- 
duced from a photograph in the ' Manchester 
Quarterly,' April 1891. A photographic por- 
trait, with biographical notice, appeared m 
Mr. F. G. Stephens's ' Artists at Home,' 1884. 

Barlow married, in 1851, Ellen, daughter 



of James Cocks of Oldham, who survives. 
In 1891 the Oldham corporation acquired an 
almost complete collection of Barlow's en- 
gravings. 

[Memoir hj Mr. Harry Thornber, reprinted 
from the Manchester Quarterly, April 1891; 
Athenaeum, 28 Dee. 1889 ; Times, 28 Dec. 1889 ; 
Manchester Eveninsr News. 27 Dec. 1889; notes 
kindly supplied by Mr. C. W. Sutton, and private 
information.] F. M. O'D. 

BARNARD, FREDERICK (1846-1896), 
humorous artist, youngest child of Edward 
Barnard, a manufacturing silversmith, was 
born in Angel Street, St. Martin's-le-Grand, 
London, on 26 May 1846. He studied first 
at Heatherley's art school in Newman Street, 
where are still preserved some clever carica- 
tures executed by him of his master and 
fellow pupils, and later under Bonnat in 
Paris. His earliest publication was a set of 
twenty charcoal drawings entitled ' The 
People of Paris,' and he became a very 
popular artist in black and white, chiefly ex- 
celling in the delineation of the types and 
manners of the lower orders of society. As 
early as 1863 he had contributed to ' Punch,' 
and for two years he was cartoonist to ' Fun.' 
Barnard was one of the most sympathetic 
and successful of the interpreters of Charles 
Dickens ; the majority of the cuts in the 
household edition of that author's works 
(1871-9) are from his pencil, and between 
1879 and 1884 he issued three series of 
' Character Sketches from Dickens.' He also 
illustrated novels by Justin Macarthy, H. E. 
Norris, and others, and much of his work 
appeared in ' Good Words,' ' Once a Week,' 
and the ' Illustrated London News.' A fine 
edition of Bunyan's ' Pilgrim's Progress,' 
mainly illustrated by Barnard, appeared in 
1880. He collaborated with Mr. G. R. Sims 
in his ' How the Poor Live,' 1883, and 
during 1 886 and 1887 worked in America for 
Messrs. Harper Brothers. Among his latest 
productions was a series of parallel characters 
drawn from Shakespeare and Dickens, which 
appeared in Mr. Harry Furniss's weekly jour- 
nal entitled ' Lika Joko'in 1894 and 1895. 
Barnard painted a few oil pictures of great 
merit, which appeared from time to time 
at the Royal Academy, and were brought 
together at the exhibition of ' English 
Humorists in Art,' 1889. Of these the best 
are ' My first Pantomime ' and ' My last Pan- 
tomime' (the property of Sir Henry Irving), 
' The Jury — Pilgrim's Progress,' ' Saturday 
Night in the East End,' and 'The Crowd 
before the Guards' Band, St. James's Park.' 
Barnard married in 1870 Alice Faraday, a 
niece of Michael Faraday [q. v.] ■ He was 



Barnato 



129 



Barnato 



accidentally suffocated in a fire at a friend's 
house at Wimbledon on 27 Sept. 1896. 

[Diiily News, 29 Sept. 1 896 ; Illustrated Lon- 
don News, 3 Oct. 1896 (with portrait) ; private 
information.] F. M. O'D. 

BARNATO, BAENETT ISAACS (1852- 
1897), South African financier, born in Aid- 
gate, London, in 1852, was the second son 
of Isaac Isaacs and his wife Leah, who is 
«aid to have been related to Sir George 
Jessel [q. v.], the master of the rolls. His 
grandfather was a rabbi of the Jewish syna- 
gogue in Aldgate, but his father was a gene- 
ral dealer in a street leading out of Aldgate, 
now demolished. Barnett and his elder 
brother Henry were educated at the Jews' 
free school in Bell Lane, Spitalfields, under 
Moses Angel, a teacher of repute. They left 
school at the age of fourteen, and assisted 
in their father's business until 1871, when 
Henry went out to the diamond fields (now 
Kimberley) in South Africa as an amateur 
conjurer and entertainer; he soon got em- 
-ployment as a diamond dealer, and invited 
his brother to join him; for professional pur- 
"poses he had assumed the additional name 
Barnato, by which the brothers were hence- 
forth known. 

Barnett sailed from England in July 
1873 ; he possessed over fifty pounds when 
he reached Cape Town, and the story of his 
-early destitution was merely one of the 
fictions with which Barnato loved to beguile 
interviewers and friends. On reaching Kim- 
berley he began business as a dealer in dia- 
monds, and by 1876, through unremitting 
industry, he had amassed three thousand 
pounds, with which he purchased his first 
claim in the Kimberley mine. His further 
success was mainly due to his recognition of 
the fact that the diamonds were not a 
surface deposit, but had been forced up by 
volcanic action ; hence, when many claims 
were sold under the erroneous impression 
that, the surface yellow soil having been 
worked out, the diamonds were exhausted, 
Barnato bought up the claims, and found, as 
he had expected, that the blue subsoil was 
richer in diamonds than the surface yellow. 
In 1880 he visited London and established 
there the firm of Barnato Brothers as dealers 
in diamonds and financiers. In 1881 he was 
able to float at Kimberley the Barnato Dia- 
mond Mining Company, and thenceforth he 
•set himself to absorb the rival companies in 
Kimberley. A similar policy was followed 
hy Mr. Cecil Rhodes, the moving spirit of 
the De Beers Company, and by 1887 the two 
•companies had eliminated all their com- 
petitors except the French Diamond Com- 

VOL. I. — SUP. 



pany. A severe struggle ensued between 
Mr. Rhodes and Barnato for the control of 
this company; but Mr, Rhodes, backed up 
by the Rothschilds, was too strong for Bar- 
nato, and in 1888 the two companies ended 
the suicidal struggle by determining to amal- 
gamate. The chief difficulty was Barnato's 
objection to Mr. Rhodes's demand that the 
funds of the company should be made avail- 
able for the promotion of his policy of ex- 
pansion towards the north ; but Mr. Rhodes 
carried his point, the company was known 
as De Beers, and Barnato became a life 
governor ; its capital in that year was valued 
at seventeen millions, of which Barnato 
owned a tenth. 

In 1881 Barnato had declined an invita- 
tion to contest the representation of Kim- 
berley in the Cape Assembly, but he was 
from 1880 an active member of the Kimberley 
divisional council, and in 1888 he stood for 
parliament. The struggle lay between the 
De Beers Company and the rest of Kimber- 
ley, Barnato was the nominee of the com- 
pany, and on 14 Nov. was returned at the 
head of the poll. He was re-elected in 
1891 in spite of some unpopularity, due to 
the De Beers policy of restricting the output 
of the mines in order to keep up prices ; but 
he had little aptitude for politics, was seldom 
present, and rarely spoke in the House of 
Assembly. 

Meanwhile in 1888 Barnato turned his 
attention to the Rand in the Transvaal, the 
mineral wealth of which was not yet recog- 
nised ; he bought up many mining claims, 
and invested largely in real property in the 
neighbourhood of Johannesburg, where he 
floated the Johannesburg Waterworks and 
Exploration Company. The mines more 
particularly under his control were the New 
Primrose, New Croesus, Roodepoort, and 
Glencairn mines, but there were few in which 
he did not possess some interest. In Lon- 
don he founded the Barnato Bank, the least 
successful of his ventures, and in the sum- 
mer of 1895 was the principal manipulator 
of the ' Kaffir boom.' In the reaction of the 
following October, due, Barnato afterwards 
suspected, to the preparations for the Jame- 
son raid, he lost three millions ; but in recog- 
nition of his exertions in keeping up prices 
and preventing a panic he was entertained 
at the Mansion House by the lord mayor, 
Sir Joseph Renals, on 7 Nov. 1895, and about 
the same time he became a member of the 
Carlton club. 

In Transvaal politics Barnato took little 
part ; he regarded the gold law as entirely 
satisfactory, and had little sympathy with 
the franchise agitation, declaring that per- 



Barnato 



130 



Barnby 



sonally he would never accept a privilege 
which involved the renunciation of his 
rights as a British subject. He was there- 
fore regarded with some favour by President 
Kruger, and his persuasions were to some 
extent responsible for the president's consent 
to the extension of the Cape railway into 
the Transvaal ; he failed, however, to induce 
the president to withdraw his support from 
the Netherlands railway, or to grant mu- 
nicipal government to Johannesburg. He 
was naturally not initiated into the secret 
of the Jameson raid of December 1895, which 
he afterwards denounced in unmeasured 
terms ; but his nephew, Mr. S. B. Joel, was 
one of the reform committee of .Johannes- 
burg, and after the raid Barnato went to 
Pretoria to plead on the prisoners' behalf; 
he also threatened to close down all his 
mines and throw twenty thousand whites 
and a hundred thousand Kaffirs out of em- 
ployment unless the prisoners were released. 
When their release was eifected Barnato pre- 
sented to Mr. Kruger the two marble lions 
which guard the entrance to what was then 
the presidency at Pretoria. 

Barnato's health began to fail in 1897, 
and on 14 June he threw himself overboard 
from the Scot, not far from Madeira, on his 
way from Cape Town to Southampton ; the 
Cape legislature adjourned on hearing the 
news ; his body was recovered and brought 
to Southampton, where, on the 18th, a 
coroner's jury returned a verdict of * death 
by drowning while temporarily insane.' 
Barnato was buried on the 20th by the 
side of his father in Willesden cemetery ; a 
portrait is prefixed to Raymond's ' Memoir.' 
He married in 1875 at Kimberley, and his 
widow, with two sons and one daughter, 
survived him. 

Barnato possessed a wonderful financial 
aptitude, untiring industry, and a genius for 
stock exchange speculation. He retained 
his ignorance through life, read nothing, not 
even the newspapers, and amused himself 
with the drama of the lower sort, with 
prize-fighting, and horse-racing. He was, 
however, generous, good-natured, and free 
from snobbery. He did not live to com- 
plete the mansion he commenced building 
in 1895 at the corner of Park Lane and 
Stanhope Street. The management of his 
business afi'airs devolved upon his nephew, 
"Woolf Joel, who was assassinated at 
Johannesburg in March 1898, and buried in 
Willesden cemetery on 19 April (see Times, 
20 April 1898). 

[Memoir by H. Raymond, 1897; Times, 
16 and 21 June 1897; Cape Times, 16 June; 
Cape Argus and Johannesburg Star, 1 7 June ; 



Cecil Rhodes, by Vindex, 1900, chap. vi. ; Fitz- 
patrick's Transvaal from Within, 1899; J. 
McCall Theal's South Africa, ed. 1899.] 

A. F. P. 
BARNBY, Sir JOSEPH (1838-1896), 
composer and conductor, son of Thomas 
Barnby, an organist, was born at York on 
12 Aug. 1838. At the age of seven he be- 
came a chorister in the minster, as six of his 
brothers had been before him. He began to 
teach music at the age of ten, and was an 
organist and choirmaster at twelve. At six- 
teen he entered the Royal Academy of Music 
as a student, and (in 1856) was narrowly 
defeated by (Sir) Arthur Sullivan [q. v. 
Suppl.] in the competition for the first j\len- 
delssohn scholarship. After holding the 
organistship of Mitcham church for a short 
time Barnby returned to his native city, 
where for four years he taught music. He 
then definitely settled in London, where he 
successively held the following appointments 
as organist and choirmaster : St. Michael's, 
Queenhithe (30/. per annum) ; St. James 
the Less, Westminster ; St. Andrew's, Wells 
Street (1863-71); St. Anne's, Soho (1871- 
1886). The services at St. Andrew's brought 
him a great reputation by reason of their 
high standard of interpretation and the mo- 
dern character of the music rendered there, 
especially that of Gounod, with which Barnby 
was much in sympathy. Mr. Edward Lloyd 
was a member of the choir. At St. Anne's, 
Soho, Barnby introduced the less-known 
Passion music (St. John) by J. S. Bach, 
which was performed with orchestral accom- 
paniment, then quite a novelty in a parish 
church. 

In 1861 Barnby became musical adviser to 
Messrs. Novello, which appointment he held 
till 1876, At the instigation of Messrs. 
Novello * Mr. Joseph Barnby's choir ' was 
formed under his conductorship in 1867, the 
first concert being given at St. James's Hall 
on 23 May. From 1869 concerts were given 
under the designation ' Oratorio Concerts,' at 
which the low pitch {diapason normal) was 
introduced, and several great works were 
revived and admirably performed, e.g. Han- 
del's 'Jephtha,' Beethoven's great mass in 
D, and Bach's ' St. Matthew Passion.' At 
the end of 1872 the choir was amalgamated 
with that conducted by M. Gounod, and, as 
the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society (now 
Royal Choral Society), began to give con- 
certs on 12 Feb. 1873. For the remaining 
twenty-three years of his life Barnby con- 
ducted this society with conspicuous ability, 
and proved to be a choral conductor of the 
highest attainment. Wagner's ' Parsifal,' in 
a concert-room version, was produced by 



Barnby 



131 



Barnes 



the society, under Barnby, on 10 Nov. 1884, 
and repeated on 15 Nov. Another of his 
important conducting achievements was a 
performance with full orchestra and chorus 
— memorable in the history of church music 
in this country — of Bach's 'St. Matthew 
Passion ' in Westminster Abbey, while Stan- 
ley was dean, on Maundy Thursday, 6 April 
1871. He also conducted the daily concerts 
given by Messrs. Novello in the lioyal Albert 
Hall, 1874-5, the London Musical Society, 
1878-86 (which produced Dvorak's 'Stabat 
Mater ' on 10 March 1883), the Royal Aca- 
demy of Music weekly rehearsals and con- 
certs, 1886-8, and the Cardiff musical festi- 
vals of 1892 and 1895. 

Barnby was appointed precentor of Eton — 
i.e. organist and music master to Eton Col- 
lege — in 1875, which office he held until 
1892, when he became the second prin- 
cipal of the Guildhall School of Music in 
succession to Thomas Weist-Hill [q. v.]; 
this post he retained till his death, which 
took place suddenly at his residence, 20 St. 
George's Square, Pimlico, on 28 Jan. 1896. 
His remains, after a special funeral service 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, were interred in 
Norwood cemetery. A bronze bust by 
Hampton, subscribed for by members of the 
Royal Choral Society, is in the corridor of 
the Royal Albert Hall. 

Barnby was knighted on 5 Aug. 1892, and 
was a fellow of the Royal Academy of Music. 
His compositions, which were almost ex- 
clusively vocal and mostly written for the 
church, include 'Rebekah' (a cantata), 1870, 
and ' The Lord is King ' (Psalra 97), Leeds 
music festival, 1883. He composed forty- 
six anthems; several services (that in E he 
wrote at the age of seventeen) ; thirteen 
carols; oflfertory sentences; thirty-two four- 
part songs (his setting of Tennyson's ' Sweet 
and low,' first performed by Henry Leslie's 
choir on 14 Jan. 1863, has attained an ex- 
traordinary popularity) ; nineteen songs, and 
a series of Eton songs : five vocal trios ; two 
pieces for organ and two for pianoforte. 
Barnby was a prolific composer of hymn- 
tunes, many of which have come into general 
use in English-speaking countries. These, 
to the number of 246, were published in one 
volume in 1897, He edited the music section 
of the ' Hymnary ' (1872), the ' Congrega- 
tional Mission Hymnal ' (1890), the ' Con- 
gregational Sunday School Hymnal' (1891), 
and 'The Home and School Hymnal' (1893). 
He was one of the editors of the * Cathedral 
Psalter' (1873). 

[Musical Herald, May 1892 (p. 131), and 
March 1896 (p. 74) ; Musical Times, February 
and March 1896 (pp. 80, 153) ; James D. Brown 



and S. S. Stratton's British Musical Biography ; 
Novello's Catalogue ; Burke's Peerage &c. 1895.] 

F. G. E. 

BARNES, WILLIAM (1801-1886), the 
Dorsetshire poet, born at Rushay (in the 
parish of Bagber) and baptised at the parish 
church of Sturminster-Newton, Dorset, on 
20 March 1801, was the grandson of John 
Barnes, yeoman farmer of Gillingham, and 
the son of John Barnes, tenant farmer in 
the Vale of Blackmore, in the northern 
corner of his native county. He came of 
an old Dorsetshire family. A direct ances- 
tor, John Barnes, was head-borough of 
Gillingham in 1604, and the head-borough's 
great-grandfather, William Barnes, obtained 
a grant of land in the same parish from 
Henry VIII in 1540. The poet's mother, 
Grace Scott {d. 1806) of Fifehead Neville, 
was a woman of some culture, with an in- 
herent love of art and poetry. 

William went to Mullett's school at Stur- 
minster, and in 1815 his proficiency in hand- 
writing procui'ed his admission to a solicitor's 
office in the small town, whence in 1818 he 
removed to Dorchester. The rector there, 
John Henry Richman, gave him some lessons 
and lent him books. In 1820 there began to 
appear in the local ' Weekly Entertainer ' a 
number of rhymes by Barnes, among them 
some ' Verses to Julia ' (daughter of an ex- 
cise officer at Dorchester named Miles), to 
whom he became betrothed in 1822, the year 
in which his first volume, ' Orra, a Lapland 
Tale,' was published. His versatility and 
intellectual energy at this time were remark- 
able. He set himself to learn wood-engrav- 
ing, and produced eight blocks for Oriswick's 
' A Walk round Dorchester.' Simultaneously 
he worked hard at etymology and language, 
mastering French and studying Italian lite- 
rature, especially Petrarch and his school. 
In 1823 he obtained the mastership of a 
small school at Mere in Wiltshire, and four 
years later he took the Chantry House at 
Mere, married, and began to take boarders. 
In 1829 a number of his woodcuts were in- 
cluded in Rutter's ' Delineations of Somer- 
set.' About the same time he made his first 
visit to Wales, and got a strong hold of the 
idea of purity of language, which became 
almost a passion with him. He became an 
enthusiastic angler, wrote for some itinerant 
players an amusing farce, 'The Honest 
Thief,' began Welsh, and added to his other 
linguistic studies Russian, Hebrew, and 
Hindustani. 

In 1833 he wrote for the * County Chro- 
nicle ' his first poems in the Dorset dialect, 
among them the two unrivalled eclogues, 
' The 'Lotments ' and ' A Bit 0' Sly Coorten.' 

k2 



Barnes 



132 



Barnes 



In June 1835 he left Mere and settled inDurn- 
gate Street, Dorchester, with a promising 
school, transferred in 1837 to a larger house 
in South Street. On 2 March 1838 he put 
his name on the books of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, as a ten years' man. During 
the next six years he contributed some 
of his best archaeological and etymological 
work to the pages of the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine.' The variety of subjects indicates a 
great amount of reading, while his more 
sustained investigations at this period of the 
laws of harmonic proportion show his apti- 
tude for abstract speculations. In 1844 the 
* Poems in the Dorset Dialect ' were issued 
in London by Russell Smith. A cordial 
admirer of the new poet was found in the 
Hon. Mrs. (Caroline) Norton [q. v.], who did 
much to give publicity to Barnes's genius. 

Barnes was ordained by the Bishop of 
Salisbury on 28 Feb. 1847, and, while re- 
taining his school, entered upon new duties 
as pastor of Whitcombe, three miles from 
the county town. He was concentrating a 
great deal of his time now upon Anglo- 
Saxon, of which his ' Delectus ' appeared in 
1849. In the following year he graduated 
B.D. at Cambridge. In 1852 he resigned 
his curacy, and soon afterwards became a 
trusted contributor to the newly started 
' Retrospective Review.' In 1854 he began 
reading Persian (and henceforth, after Pe- 
trarch, he was perhaps most nearly influenced 
by Saadi), and published his ' Philological 
Grammar,' a truly remarkable book, for the 
copyright of which he received 5/. In 1858 
appeared a second series of Dorset poems 
under the title ' Ilwomely Rhymes,' several 
of the pieces in which — notably * The Vaices 
that be Gane' — were effectively rendered into 
French for De Chatelain's *Beaut6s de la 
Po6sie Anglaise.' Barnes had already ap- 
peared as a lecturer upon archaeological sub- 
jects, and he was now encouraged to give 
readings from his dialect poems in the 
various small towns of Dorset. He received 
an invitation from Macready at Sherborne, 
and from the Duchess of Sutherland at 
Stafford House. In 1859 he had a visit from 
Lucien Buonaparte, who had been attracted 
by the poems, and at whose suggestion 
Barnes now translated ' The Song of Solo- 
mon ' into the Dorset dialect. In 1860 he 
was enlisted as a writer for the newly 
founded ' Macmillan's Magazine.' In April 
1861 he was granted, at the instance of 
Palmerston, an unsolicited pension of 701. 
from the civil list. The year was fully occu- 
pied in the preparation of his most consider- 
able philological work, devoted to the theory 
of the fundamental roots of the Teutonic 



speech, and entitled * Tiw,' after the god 
from whom the race derived their name. 
In 1862 he received from Captain Seymour 
Dawson Damer an offer of the rectory of 
Came, which he gladly accepted. 

Barnes was inducted into Came church 
on 1 Dec. 1862. He made an admirable 
country parson, homely and unconventional 
as his rhymes, a scholar with the widest in- 
terests, whose active horizon was yet strictly 
bounded by the Dorsetshire fields and up- 
lands. His work upon the * Dorsetshire 
Glossary ' increased his admiration for the 
vernacular and his dislike of latinised forms. 
He was indignant at the introduction of 
such words as photograph and bicycle, for 
which he would have substituted sunprint 
and wheelsaddle. A collective edition of 
the dialect poems appeared in 1879, and of 
the poet at this late period of his career Mr. 
Hardy contributed to the * Athenajum ' 
(16 Oct. 1886) an interesting vignette. 
Until about 1882 there were ' few figures 
more familiar to the eye in the county town 
of Dorset on a market day than an aged 
clergyman, quaintly attired in caped cloak, 
knee-breeches, and buckled shoes, with a 
leather satchel slung over his shoulders and 
a stout staff in his hand. He seemed usually 
to prefer the middle of the street to the 
pavement, and to be thinking of matters 
which had nothing to do with the scene 
before him. He plodded along with a broad, 
firm tread, notwithstanding the slight stoop 
occasioned by his years. Every Saturday 
morning he might have been seen thus 
trudging up the narrow South Street, his 
shoes coated with mud or dust, according to 
the state of the roads between his rural 
home and Dorchester, and a little grey dog 
at his heels, till he reached the four cross- 
ways in the centre of the town. Halting 
there opposite the public clock, he would 
pull his old-fashioned watch from its deep 
fob and set it with great precision to London 
time.' 

Until he was well over eighty he went on 
working with the same remarkable grasp of 
power and variety of interests. He died at 
Came rectory on 7 Oct. 1886, and was buried 
four days later in the village churchyard. 
By his wife, who died on 21 June 1852, he 
left issue two sons and three daughters. At 
a meeting convened by the Bishop of Salis- 
bury, shortly after Barnes's death, it was 
decided to commemorate the 'Dorsetshire 
Burns ' by establishing a ' Barnes exhibi- 
tion ' at the Dorchester grammar school. A 
bronze statue of the poet by Roscoe Mullins 
has been erected in the churchyard of St. 
Peter's, Dorchester. ,_ 



Barnes 



133 



Barnett 



A * lyric writer of a high order of genius,' 
Barnes was also a most interesting link be- 
tween present and past forms of rural life— 
a repertory of forgotten manners, words, 
and sentiments. Unlike Burns, B6ranger, 
and other poets of the people, he never 
assumes the high conventional style, and he 
entirely leaves alone ambition, pride, despair, 
defiance, and the grand passions, ' His 
rustics are, as a rule, happy people, and 
seldom feel the sting of the rest of modern 
mankind — the disproportion between the de- 
sire for serenity and the power of obtaining 
it.' Like Chaucer, Barnes is filled with the 
joy of life. Less sombre and more rustic 
than those of Crabbe, his eclogues, unrivalled 
in English, are not wholly undeserving of 
comparison with the prototypes of Theo- 
critus and of Virgil. 

Barnes's works comprise: 1. 'A. few 
Words on the Advantages of a more Common 
Adoption of the Mathematics as a Branch of 
Education,' London, 1834. 2. 'Mathematical 
Investigation of the Principle of Hanging 
Doors,Gates, Swing Bridges, and other Heavy 
Bodies,' Dorchester, 1835. 3. ' An Investi- 
gation of the Laws of Case in Language,' 
1840. 4. 'Poems of llural Life, in the 
Dorset Dialect, with a Dissertation and 
Glossary,' London, 1844, 12mo; 1848, 18o2 ; 
4th edit. 1850. 5. .' Se Gefylsta : an Anglo- 
Saxon Delectus,' London, 1849 and 1866. 
6. ' Humilis Domus : some Thoughts on the 
Abodes, Life, and Social Condition of the 
Poor, especially in Dorsetshire,' 1849. 7. 'A 
Philological Grammar grounded upon Eng- 
lish and formed from a Comparison of more 
than Sixty Languages. Being an Introduc- 
tion to the Science of Grammar in all 
Languages, especially English, Latin, and 
Greek,' London, 1854, 8vo. 8. 'Hwomely 
Rhymes : a second Collection of Poems in 
the" Dorset Dialect,' London, 1859 [1858], 
8vo ; 2nd edit. 1863. 9. ' Notes on Ancient 
Britain and the Britons,' London, 1858, 8vo. 
10. ' Views of Labour and Gold,' London, 
1859. 11. 'Tiw; or, a View of the Roots 
and Stems of the English as a Teutonic 
Tongue,' London, 1862, 8vo. 12. ' A Gram- 
mar and Glossary of the Dorset Dialect, 
with the History, Outspreading, and Bear- 
ings of South-Western English,' Berlin, 
1863, 8vo (for the Philological Society). 
13. * Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset 
Dialect: third Collection,' London, 1863, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. 1870. 14. ' Poems of Rural 
Life in common English,' Loudon, 1868. As 
with the dialect poems, these are remarkable 
by the absence of words of Latin origin. 
Several are in dialogue form, and one or 
two (such as ' Home's a Nest') unsurpassed 



for homely pathos. 15. 'Poems of Rural 
Life in the Dorset Dialect : the three Collec- 
tions combined, with a Glossary,' London, 
1879, 8vo. 16. 'Early England and the 
Saxon English,' London, 1869, 8vo. 17. 'An 
Outline of English Speechcraft,' London, 
1878, 8vo. 18. ' An Outline of Redecraft or 
Logic,' London, 1879, 8vo. He contributed 
largely to the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' the 
' Retrospective Review,' also to ' Eraser's' and 
'Macmillan's,' in addition to occasional papers 
in the ' Transactions ' of the British Archaeo- 
logical and the Somerset Archaeological so- 
cieties. Several of his letters and extracts 
from his diary, written in many different 
languages, but mainly in Italian and Welsh, 
are given in the ' Life ' by Barnes's daughter, 
Mrs. LucyBaxter ('Leader Scott'), published 
with a portrait of the poet in 1887. 

[Life of William Barnes, Poet and Philolo- 
gist, 1887; Times, 9 Oct. 1886; Athenaeum, 
1886, ii. 501 (by Mr. Thomas Hardy) ; Academy, 
23 Oct. 1886 ; Doyle's Lectures on Poetry, 1869, 
pp. 55-7o; Miles's Poets and Poetry of the 
Century, iii. 397; The Eagle Mag. xiv. 231; 
Fortnightly Eeview, November 1886; Mac- 
millan's Mng. vi. 16-1; North British Eeview, 
xxxi. 339 ; Mayo's Bibliotheca Dorsetiensis, 
1885, pp. 18, 19, 64-5; Spectator, 16 Oct., 
23 Oct. and 20 Nov. 1886 ; World, 13 Oct. 1886 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

BARNETT, JOHN (1802-1890), musi- 
cal composer, born at Bedford on 15 July 
1802, was the eldest son of a German, 
Bernhard Beer, and of an Hungarian 
mother. The opera composer, Meyer Beer, 
was his second cousin. During the long 
residence of the Beers in England they 
changed their name to Barnett. 

Barnett, ' when a tiny boy, sang like a 
bird ' (DiEUL, Musical Memories), and, at 
the age of ten, was articled to Samuel James 
Arnold [q. v.] Barnett made his first ap- 
pearance at the Lyceum, on 22 July 1813, as 
Dick in ' The Shipwreck,' and at Drury Lane 
in the Avinter pantomime, when he sang 'The 
Death of Abercrombie.' The sweetness and 
strength of his contralto and his command 
of voice were remarkable in a boy of eleven. 
Barnett continued to sing until 1817. By 
this time his voice must have broken, and 
he definitely left the stage. Early studies 
under Horn and the chorus-master, Price, 
were now supplemented by lessons from 
Perez, organist to the Spanish embassy, Fer- 
dinand Ries, Kalkbrenner, William Hors- 
ley, and, later, Schneider von Wartensee at 
Frankfort. 

Before 1818 Barnett had composed a mass 
and published songs; of the latter, 'The 
Groves of Pomona,' a grand scena, was 



Barnett 



134 



Barttelot 



sung by Braham. In these early attempts 
Barnett's strength, of talent and vein of 
poetic feeling were at once recognised, and 
he was advised to cultivate the higher 
branches of his art {Quarterly Musical 
Magazine, 1821-8, passim). His music to 
Wolfe's ' Not a Drum was heard,' had extra- 
ordinary merit ; but he first won popularity 
through * The Light Guitar,' sung by Madame 
Vestris. Henceforward he produced songs 
and ballads with surprising facility, some of 
the most melodious of them (' Rise, gentle 
Moon,' ' My Fatherland,' and others) being 
composed for the plays with music then in 
vogue. For the Lyceum, and especially for the 
Olympic, where Barnett was musical director 
in 1832, he composed a number of musical 
farces. 

This inartistic employment wearied a 
musician of the calibre of Barnett, whose 
aim it became to wed music to poetry in 
true dramatic form, and whose ambition 
seems to have been to write a national 
English opera. But his 'Mountain Sylph,' 
which was produced at the Lyceum on 
25 Aug. 1834, was written under the inspira- 
tion of legendary forest magi and mountain 
spectres belonging to Germany. It met 
nevertheless with the earnest commendation 
of contemporary critics, and after sixty yeai's 
compels admiration. 

The traditional English romance of ' Fair 
Rosamond,' on the other hand, aftbrded Bar- 
nett a subject which might have awakened 
lasting national interest. His opera on the 
subject was produced at Drury Lane on 
28 Feb. 1837. But the librettists perversely 
reduced the story to the level of burlesque. 
The melodies and recitatives after the style 
of Purcell, and the orchestration modelled 
on that of Weber, were wasted upon an 
absurd straining after ' a happy end ' (cf. 
Musical World, March 1837, pp. 172, 188). 
Subsequently Barnett opened St. James's 
Theatre for English opera, but he achieved 
there little success. His consultations with 
Bishop, Rodwell, and others on the best 
means of reforming opera resulted in the 
promise of a patent for the establishment 
of English opera from William IV, who, 
however, died immediately afterwards. 

Barnett now devoted himself to the teach- 
ing of singing (publishing in 1844 a ' School 
for the Voice,' which showed his mastery of 
that subject) and the composing of songs, 
part-songs, and instrumental music. These, 
when set to poetry, were generally distin- 
guished by a tender yet virile strain of 
melody, but in the case of many of his two 
thousand pieces he had to be content with 
humdrum * words for music' 



After a residence for several years from 
1840 onwards at Cheltenham, Barnett with- 
drew to the greater quiet of the Cotswolds. 
He died on 16 April 1890, in his eighty- 
eighth year. He was buried at Leckhamp- 
ton, near Cheltenham. He married in 1837 
the youngest daughter of Robert Lindley 
[q. v.], the violoncellist. She survived him 
until February 1899. Of their children, 
two daughters, who formerly sang under 
the names of Rosmunda and Clara Doria, 
are now Mrs. R. E. Francillon and Mrs. 
Henry M. Rogers. A portrait in oils 
of Barnett at the age of thirty-seven 
was painted by a French artist, and is now 
in the possession of Mrs. R. E. Francillon, 
and another painting by Sydney Paget be- 
longs to his son, Mr. Eugene Barnett ; an 
engraved portrait is given in Athol May- 
hew's ' Jorum of Punch.' 

Barnett's operas are: 1. 'The Mountain 
Svlph,' produced and published 1834, re- 
vived 1836. 2. 'Fair Rosamond,' 28 Feb. 
1837. 3. ' Farinelli,' 8 Feb. 1839. 4. ' Kath- 
leen,' unpublished. He also published an 
oratorio, ' The Omnipresence of the Deity,' 
1830. A long list of songs, duets, part- 
songs, pieces, and musical farces is supplied 
in Brown's ' Biographical Dictionary ' and 
Brown and Stratton's ' Musicians.' 

[European Mag. 1813, p. 46; Theatricalln- 
quLsitor, 1813, passim; Biograph, vi. 455; 
Diehl's Musical Memories, p. 298; Davey's 
Hist, of English Music, pp. 463-6 ; Grrove's 
Diet, of Music, i. 140, 489; private information ; 
authorities cited.] L. M. M. 

BARTTELOT, Sm WALTER BART- 
TELOT, first baronet (1820-1893), politi- 
cian, born on 10 Oct. 1820 at Richmond, 
Surrey, was the eldest son of George Bart- 
telot (1788-1872), of Stopham House, Pul- 
borough, Sussex, hy Emma, youngest daugh- 
ter of James Woodbridge of Richmond. 
The family had been seated in Sussex for 
several centuries. The father served with 
distinction in the royal horse artillery during 
the peninsular war. 

Walter was educated at Rugby, and 
served in the 1st royal dragoons from 1839 
to 1853, when he retired with the rank of 
captain. He was afterwards honorary 
colonel of the 2nd battalion royal Sussex 
regiment. From December 1860 to 1885 he 
was one of the conservative members for 
West Sussex. Then he was returned for the 
newly constituted Horsham division, and 
held the seat until his death. He was a fre- 
quent speaker in the House of Commons. 
On 14 April 1864 he moved an amendment 
to the budget bill, the purport of which was 



Barttelot 



135 



Barttelot 



to apply the surplus to tlie reduction of the 
malt duties rather than of the sugar duties 
as j)roposed by Gladstone. He was compli- 
mented by Disraeli on ' his great ability and 
peculiar candour,' and was supported by a 
speech from Cobden. He however found 
only ninety-nine supporters as against 347. 
In May 1867 he obtained the appointment 
of a select committee on the malt tax, on 
which he served. He gradually came to be 
considered the chief spokesman of the agri- 
cultural interest in the house, while he also 
interested himself in church matters and 
military questions. In 1870 he moved the 
rejection of Osborne Morgan's burials bill, 
which he continued to oppose until it be- 
came law in 1880. In the same year he en- 
deavoured to lengthen the number of years' 
service under the new army enlistment bill 
from three to five years. He was one of the 
most determined opponents of the Irish land 
bill of 1881, and he accepted with great mis- 
givings the act carried in 1889 by his own 
party creating county councils. His last im- 
portant parliamentary appearance was in 
June 1892, when he oifered a searching criti- 
cism of the war office in connection with 
the report of Lord Wantage's committee. 
' There was not a more rigid conservative in 
the United Kingdom or a more generous 
opponent' was the verdict of the leading 
liberal paper on his parliamentary career 
{Daily News, 3 Feb. 1893). 

Barttelot was created a baronet by Disraeli 
in June 1875, was named a C.B. in 1880, and 
sworn of the privy council in 1892. He 
died at Stopham House, Sussex, on 2 Feb. 
1893, on the day of his second wife's funeral. 
He was twice married : first, in April 1852, 
to Harriet, fourth daughter of Sir Christopher 
Musgrave, bart., of Edenhall, Cumberland 
(she died on 29 July 1863) ; and secondly, 
in April 1868, to Margaret, only child of 
Henry Boldero of South Lodge, St. Leonards. 
By the first he had two sons ; the elder, 
Sir Walter George Barttelot (1855-1900), 
second baronet, having formerly served in 
the 5th dragoon guards, was killed during 
the great Boer war at Retief 's Nek, Orange 
Free State, on 23 July 1900, being then 
major 1st Devon yeomanry ; by his wife 
Georgiana Mary, daughter of George Ed- 
mond Balfont of The Manor, Sidmouth, he 
was father of Sir Walter Balfour Barttelot 
(b. 1880), the present baronet. 

Edmund Musgkave Bakttelot (1859- 
1888), second son of the first baronet, born 
on 28 March 1859 at Hilliers, near Petworth, 
Sussex, was educated at Rugby and Sand- 
hurst. He entered the 7th fusiliers in January 
1879, and three months later joined the 2nd 



battalion at Bombay. In the spring of 1880 
he went with the regiment to Afghanistan, 
and took part in the defence of Kandahar 
against Ayoub Khan. Early in 1882 he came 
home on leave, but in August went to Egypt 
as a volunteer attached to the 18th royal 
Irish. On arrival, however, he was trans- 
ferred to the mounted infantry, of which he 
became adjutant. He served with them at 
the battles of Kassassin and Tel-el-Kebir, 
and returned to England in October. In 
February 1883 he again went to Egypt, and 
was attached to the 1st battalion of the 
Egyptian army. (In April he served as 
Colonel Chermside's staft' officer at Suakim. 
From June till August he was on transport 
service, and on 19 Aug. went up the Nile 
in the expedition for the relief of Gordon. 
For his excellent service in connection with 
the transport he was mentioned in des- 
patches, and promoted to the rank of brevet 
major. In the autumn he once more came 
home ; but in January 1887 he obtained a 
year's leave in order to join the expedition 
for the relief of Emin Pasha in Central 
Africa. On 27 Jan. the expedition under 
Mr. (now Sir) H. M. Stanley left Cairo, and 
it reached Zanzibar on 22 Feb. Here sixty 
Soudanese were engaged as soldiers ; Major 
Barttelot was to command them. Three 
days later they sailed, taking with them also 
six hundred Zanzibaris as porters, Tippoo- 
Tib, the slave dealer, and two interpreters, 
and proceeded by way of the Cape to the 
mouth of the Congo river, where they ar- 
rived on 1 8 March. A week later Bartte- 
lot started up the river. Stanley Falls, the 
Congo station of which Tippoo-Tib was made 
governor, was reached on 17 June, Bartte- 
lot being in charge of his escort. Two 
days later he left, and on the 22nd rejoined 
Mr. Stanley at Yambuya, a fortified camp on 
the Aruwimi river. On 28 June Mr. Stan- 
ley set out thence on his march towards 
Emin Pasha, who was supposed to be living 
on the banks of the Albert Nyanza. Bart- 
telot was left in command of the rearguard 
and the camp, with the greater part of the 
stores and ammunition, which he was to 
convey to Mr. Stanley with the help of 
carriers to be supplied by Tippoo-Tib. Mr. 
Stanley expected to return in November, but 
nothing was heard of him at Yambuya, and 
Barttelot was unable, in spite of frequent 
attempts, to induce Tippoo to keep his pro- 
mise. He was also hampered by great mor- 
tality among his men, chiefly caused by bad 
food and by attacks from the Arab encamp- 
ments round Yambuya, which caused him 
constant annoyance. At length he obtained 
with great difficulty a certain number of 



Barttelot 



136 



Bate 



carriers, and on 11 June 1888 (when he had 
heen at Yambuya nearly twelve months) he 
started on the march eastwards to seek out 
Mr. Stanley. The Zanzibaris began to desert 
with their loads within four days, and it 
was found necessary to disarm them. On 
24 June Barttelot, with fourteen Zanzibaris 
and three Soudanese, went back to Stanley 
Falls, and soon after his arrival had a palaver 
with Tippoo-Tib, who gave him full powers 
to deal with the carriers. He then resumed 
his march, and rejoined his main body at 
Banalya (or Unaria) on 17 July, an Arab 
encampment on the Aruwimi. Here, on 
19 July, he was shot through the heart by 
an Arab in a hut, while endeavouring to put 
a stop to the annoyance caused him by the 
man's wife beating a drum and by unautho- 
rised firing. The man, who ran away, was 
tried and executed at Stanley Falls some 
xlays later. Barttelot's body was buried near 
the spot where he fell by Sergeant Bonny, 
the only European who was then with the 
rearguard of the expedition. A month later 
Mr. Stanley arrived at Yambuya on 17 Aug. 
1888. On his return to England he threw 
blame upon Barttelot and the other officers 
left with him at Yambuya for their conduct 
in failing to follow him. Much controversy 
ensued ; but the published narratives of all 
the members of the rearguard, while differ- 
ing on some secondary points, proved the 
impossibility of leaving the camp without 
sufficient carriers and while its occupants 
were in an enfeebled condition. Barttelot 
was a severe disciplinarian, had a somewhat 
hasty temper, and was unversed in dealing 
with orientals, but his character was freed 
of all serious reproach. 

A brass tablet to his memory was erected 
in Stopham church by his brother officers of 
the 7th fusiliers, and another by his com- 
panions in the Emin expedition. A tablet 
was also placed in the memorial chapel, 
Sandhurst, and a stained glass window in 
Storringdon church. 

[For SirWalter Barttelot see Burke's Peerage; 
Men of the Time, 1 3th edit. ; Times, 3 Feb. ] 893 ; 
Sussex Daily News, 3 Feb. ; Hansard's Pari. 
Debates, passim ; Lucy's Diary of Two Parlia- 
ments, i. 434, ii. 210, 211 ; J. M'Carthy's Ee- 
miniscences, ch. xxxiii. 32. 

For Major Barttelot see Life (with Diaries 
and Letters) by his brother, 1890 (French edit. 
1891); Stanley's In Darkest Africa, i. 117-26, 
and chap. xx. ; and the narratives by J. S. 
Jameson (edit. Mrs. Jameson), J. E. Troup, and 
H. Ward, most of which have portraits of Bart- 
telot. See also A Visit to Stanley's Rearguard 
by J. E. Werner (an engineer in service of Congo 
Free State), chaps, x. xi. ; Blackwood, August 
1890.] Gr. Le G. N. 



BATE, CHARLES SPENCE (1819- 
1889), scientific writer, born at Trenick 
House, in the parish of St. Clement, near 
Truro, on 16 March 1819, was the eldest son 
of Charles Bate (1789-1872), a Truro dentist,, 
who married, at St. Clement, Harriet Spence 
(1788-1879). He was educated at Truro 
grammar school from 1829 to 1837, and, 
after being in the surgery of Mr. Blewett 
for two years, devoted himself to dentistry 
under his father's instruction. When quali- 
fied he established himself at Swansea ia 
1841. 

In this Welsh seaport Bate made the ac- 
quaintance of many scientific students, and 
took up the study of natural history. On 
the visit of the British Association to Swan- 
sea in 1848 he became a member of the 
society, and on more than one subsequent 
occasion was the president of a section. He 
was mainly instrumental in procuring its 
visit to Plymouth in 1877, and was a vice- 
president of the meeting. 

Bate left Swansea in 1851, and settled at 
8 Mulgrave Place, Plymouth, whither his 
father had long since migrated from Truro. 
He succeeded to his father's practice as a 
dentist, and rose to be the leading member 
of the profession outside London, receiving 
the license of the Royal College of Surgeons 
in 1860. He was elected a member of the 
Odontological Society in 1856, and acted as 
its vice-president from 1860 to 1862, and as 
its president in 1885, being the first dentist 
in the provinces to fill that office. The 
dental section of the international medical 
congress, held in London in 1881, secured 
his services as vice-president, and in 1883 
he was the president of the British Dental 
Association. 

All the institutions connected with Ply- 
mouth benefited by Bate's enthusiasm. He 
was elected a member of the Plymouth In- 
stitution in 1852, served as secretary from 
1854 to 1860, president in 1861-2 and 1869- 
1870, and member of the council from 1853 
to 1883. He was a curator of the museum 
and the editor of the ' Transactions ' of the 
society from 1 869 to 1883, and in nearly every 
year from 1853 to 1882 he lectured before 
its members. Bate was one of the founders 
of the Devonshire Association, senior general 
secretary in 1862, and president in 1863, 
contributing many papers to its ' Transac- 
tions,' especially on the antiquities of Dart- 
moor, a district very familiar to him. 

Bate was universally recognised as the 
greatest living authority on Crustacea. He 
corresponded with Thomas Edward [q. v.] 
about them from 1856, and between 1861 
and 1865 received from Edward 'multitudes 



Bateman 



137 



Bateman 



of bottles' containing specimens. Their cor- 
respondence shows him ' a thoroughly kind 
and good-hearted man' (Smiles, Thomas 
Edward, pp. 292-350). He was elected 
F.L.S. on 18 April 1854, contributed to the 
second volume of the ' Proceedings,' and to 
the third volume (Zoology) of the ' Journal,' 
but afterwards resigned. On 6 June 1861 
he was elected F.K.S. He partly with- 
drew from practice as a dentist about 1887, 
but was attending to his profession up 
to 9 July 1889, when he was seized with 
illness at his house in Lockyer Street, Ply- 
mouth. 

Bate died at The E,ock, South Brent, 
Devonshire, on 29 July 1889, and was buried 
■with his first wife at Plymouth cemetery. 
He had married at Little Hempston church, 
nearTotnes, on 17 June 1847, Emily Amelia, 
daughter of John Hele and sister of the 
Rev. Henry Hele, the rector ; she died on 
4 April 1884, leaving two sons and a daugh- 
ter. Bate married for a second time in 
October 1887. 

Bate drew up for the trustees of the Bri- 
tish Museum a ' Catalogue of the Specimens 
of the Amphipodous Crustacea ' in their col- 
lection, which wa« published in 1862. To 
insure its accuracy he examined the typical 
specimens in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, 
at the College of Surgeons, and in many 
private collections. * The History of the 
British Sessile-eyed Crustacea,' by him and 
John Obadiah Westwood [q. v.], was pub- 
lished in two volumes (1868-8). His ' Re- 
port on the Crustacea Macrura dredged by 
H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873 
and 1876' formed vol. xxiv., published in 

1888, of the set of reports edited by Sir 
Charles Wyville Thomson [q. v.] and (Sir) 
John Murray. There are about two thou- 
sand specimens, and its preparation took him 
over ten years. 

Bate contributed many papers on dentistry 
to the ' British Journal of Dental Science,' 
the ' Transactions of the Odontological So- 
ciety,' and the ' Medical Gazette.' The titles 
of these and of his scientific and antiquarian 
articles in a variety of ' Transactions ' and 
periodicals are set out in detail in the 
'Bibliotheca Cornubiensis.' 

__ [Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 15-17, 
iii. 1056-7 ; Boase's Collect. Cornub. pp. 57, 
846, 1467 ; Western Morning News, So July 
1889 (p. 5), 1 Aug. (p. 5) ; Trdusactions Devon 
Association, 1889, pp. 60-64; Dental Record, 

1889, p. 428.] W. P. C. 

BATEMAN, JAMES (1811-1897), horti- 
culturist, born on 18 July 1811 at Redivals, 
near Bury in Lancashire,' was the only child 



of John Bateman (1782-1858) of Knypersley 
Hall in Staffordshire, and of Tolson Hall 
in Westmoreland, by his wife Elizabeth 
(rf. 1857), second daughter of George Holt 
of Redivals. He matriculated from Lincoln 
College, Oxford, on 2 April 1829, graduating 
B.A. from Magdalen College in 1834, and 
M.A. in 1845. 

While a young man Bateman took a great 
interest in cultivating tropical fruits, and 
succeeded at Knypersley in bringing to 
maturity for the first time in England the 
fruit of the carambola (Averrhoa Carambola). 
He is best known to botanists, however, for 
his work in connection with orchids. In 
1833 he sent, at his own expense, the collector 
Colley to Demerara and Berbice to collect 
plants, of which he afterwards published a 
description in ' Loudon's Gardeners' Maga- 
zine.' Shortly afterwards he induced G. lire 
Skinner, a merchant trading with Guatemala, 
to send him orchids. In 1837 he commenced 
the publication of his work on ' Orchidacese 
of Mexico and Guatemala,' which he com- 
pleted in 1843. The book, which was in 
atlas folio, comprised a series of coloured 
plates, each costing over 200/. Only one 
hundred copies were printed at twelve guineas 
each. At the sale of the sixth Duke of 
Marlborough's Library a copy was sold for 
77/. Bateman was elected a fellow of the 
Linnean Society on 19 March 1833 and of 
the Royal Society on 8 Feb. 1838. He was 
also a fellow of the Royal Horticultural 
Society. In 1867 he issued ' A Second Cen- 
tury of Orchidaceous Plants ' (London, 4to)., 
Between 1864 and 1874 he published his 
' Monograph of Odontoglossum.' Bateman 
was not only the pioneer of orchid culture, 
he was also one of the first to advocate 
'cool' orchid cultivation. By his lectures 
he greatly increased the popularity of the 
plants in England. His 'Chinese garden,' 
his ' Egyptian court,' and his ' Wellingtonia 
avenue ' at Biddulph were among the first 
experiments of the kind attempted in Eng- 
land. For some years Bateman resided at 
Home House, Farncombe Road, Worthing, 
where he^ cultivated rare plants in a minia- 
ture Alpine garden. He afterwards removed 
to Springbank, Victoria Road, where he died 
on 27 Nov. 1897. He was buried on 2 Dec. 
in Worthing cemetery. On 24 April 1838 
he married Maria Sybilla, third daughter of 
Rowland Egerton Warburton and sister of 
Peter Egerton Warburton [q. v.l By her he 
had three sons — John, Rowland, and Robert 
— and a daughter, Katherine, married to 
Ulrick Ralph Burke [q. v. Suppl.] Bateman 
published several theological pamphlets and 
lectures. 



Bateman 



138 



Bateman 



[Burke's Landed Gentry ; "Worthing Gazette, 
8 Dec. 1897; Times, 2 Dec. 1897; AUibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Simms's Bibliotheea Staf- 
-ford.] E. I. C. 

BATEMAN, JOHN FREDERIC LA 
TROBE-, formerly styled Joh:n^ Feedekic 
Batemai^ (1810-1889), civil engineer, born 
at Lower Wyke, near Halifax, on 30 May 
1810, was the eldest son of John Bateman 
(1772-1851), by his wife Mary Agnes, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin J.,a Trobe, a Moravian mis- 
sionary at Fairfield, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 
At the age of seven he was sent to the 
Moravian school at Fairfield, and two years 
later to the Moravian school at Ockbrook, 
returning after four years more to the Fair- 
field school. When fifteen he was apprenticed 
to a surveyor and mining engineer of Oldham 
named Dunn, and in 1833 he commenced 
business on his own account as a civil engi- 
neer. In 1834 he investigated the causes of 
the floods in the river Medlock, which led 
him to study hydraulic questions more 
closely. In 1835 he was associated with 
(Sir) AVilliam Fairbairn [q. v.], who early 
appreciated, his ability, in laying out the 
reservoirs on the river Bann in Ireland. 
From that time he was almost continually 
employed in the construction of reservoirs 
and waterworks. In all his undertakings he 
advocated soft water in preference to hard, 
and favoured gravitation schemes where they 
were practicable to avoid the necessity of 
pumping. He devoted much attention to 
methods of measuring rainfall, accumulated 
a quantity of statistics on the subject, and 
wrote several papers describing his observa- 
tions. 

The greatest system of waterworks which 
Bateman undertook was that connected with 
Manchester. In 1844 he was first consulted 
in regard to the Manchester and Salford 
water supply. About 1846 the project was 
formed of obtaining water from the Pennine 
hills ; the works in Longdendale were com- 
menced in 1848 and were finished in the 
spring of 1877. In 1884 Bateman published 
a 'History and Description of the Manchester 
Waterworks ' (London and Manchester, 4to), 
which deals with many points of interest to 
the student of hydraulic engineering. The 
Longdendale scheme, however, had been 
designed to supply a population less than 
half that of Manchester in 1882, and it was 
clear that additional sources of supply must 
be looked for. At Bateman's suggestion the 
corporation resolved to construct new works 
at Lake Thirlmere. A bill was introduced 
into parliament in 1878, and, after rejection, 
was passed in 1879, and Bateman superin- 
tended the commencement of the new works. 



In this undertaking he was associated with 
Mr. George Hill of Manchester. 

In 1852 he was requested to advise the 
town council of Glasgow in regard to the 
water supply of the city. In the parlia- 
mentary session of 1854-5, on Bateman's 
advice, a bill was obtained for the supply of 
water from Loch Katrine. The works were 
commenced in the spring of 1856 and were 
completed by March 1860. They extend 
over thirty-four miles, and were described 
by James M. Gale as worthy to ' bear com- 
parison with the most extensive aqueducts 
in the world, not excluding those of ancient 
Rome' {Transactions of the Institution of 
Engineers in Scotland, 1863-4, vii. 27). 

Among other important waterworks by 
Bateman may be mentioned the systems for 
Warrington, Accrington, Oldham, Ashton, 
Blackburn, Stockdale, Halifax, Dewsbury, 
St. Helens, Kendal, Belfast, Dublin, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, Chorley, Bolton, Darwen, 
Macclesfield, Chester, Birkenhead, Glouces- 
ter, Aberdare, Perth, Forfar, ^^^olverhamp- 
ton, Colne Valley, Colne and Marsden, and 
Cheltenham. In 1855 he prepared an im- 
portant paper for the British Association ' On 
the present state of our Knowledge on the 
Supply of Water to Towns,' enunciating 
the general nature of the problem, giving 
an historical outline of previous measures, 
enumerating the various sources from which 
towns could be supplied, and discussing their 
comparative merits. In 1865 he published 
a pamphlet ' On the Supply of Water to 
London from the Sources of the River 
Severn ' (Westminster, 8vo), which created 
considerable discussion. lie designed and 
surveyed the scheme at his own expense, at 
the cost of 4,000Z. or 5,000/. A royal com- 
mission was held, and in 1868 it reported 
very much in favour of the project. It Avas 
purely a gravitation scheme, designed at an 
estimated outlay of 11,400,023/. to convey 
to London 230,000,000 gallons of water a 
day. Bateman was connected with various 
harbour and dock trusts throughout the 
British Isles, including the Clyde Navigation 
Trust, for which he was consulting engineer, 
and the Shannon Inundation Inquiry in 1863, 
on which he was employed by government. 

In addition to his many undertakings at 
home Bateman carried out several works 
abroad. In 1869 he proposed, in a pamphlet 
entitled * Channel Railway,' written in con- 
junction with Julian John Revy, to construct 
a submarine railway between France and 
England in a cast-iron tube. In the same 
year he went out as representative of the 
Royal Society, on the invitation of the khe- 
dive, to attend the opening of the Suez 



Bateman-Champain 139 Bateman-Champain 



Canal, and wrote a long report of his visit, 
which was read to the Society on • 6 Jan. 
1870, and published in the 'Proceedings.' 
In the winter of 1870-1 he visited Buenos 
Ayres, at the request of the Argentine go- 
vernment, for the purpose of laying out 
harbour works for that city. His plans were 
not adopted, but he was afterwards employed 
to design and carry out the drainage and 
water supply of the city. In 1874 he pre- 
pared water schemes for Naples and Con- 
stantinople, and he was also engineer for 
some reclamation schemes in Spain and 
Majorca. The crown agents to the colonies 
employed him in Ceylon to design and carry 
out works for supplying Colombo with water. 

For forty-eight years, from 1833 to 1881, 
Batemau directed his business alone. From 
1881 to 1885 he was in partnership with 
George Hill, and in 1888 he took as partners 
his son-in-law, Kichard Clere Parsons, and his 
son, Lee La Trobe Bateman. Bateman was 
elected a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers on 23 June 1840, and a fellow of 
the Royal vSociety of London on 7 June 1860. 
He was president of the Institution in 1878 
and 1879. He was also a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, the Royal Geographical 
Society, the Geological Society, the Society 
of Arts, and the Royal Institution. In 1883 
he assumed by royal license the prefix, sur- 
name, and arms of La Trobe, in compliment 
to his grandfather. 

Bateman died on 10 June 1889 at his 
residence, Moor Park, Farnham, an estate 
which he had purchased in 1859. On 1 Sept. 
1841 he married Anne, only daughter of 
Sir William Fairbairn. I3y her he had three 
sons and four daughters. 

[Minutes of Proceedings of the. Institution of 
Civil Engineers, 1888-9, xcvii. 392-8; Biograph. 
1881, vi. 103 ; Proceedings of the Royal Soc. of 
London, 1889, vol. xlvi. pp. xlii-xlviii; Burke's 
Landed Gentry.] E. L C. 

BATEMAN-CHAMPAIN, Sir JOHN 
UNDERWOOD (1835-1887), colonel, royal 
(late Bengal) engineers, son of Colonel 
Agnew Champain of the 9th foot (d. 1876), 
was born in Gloucester Place, London, on 
22 July 1835. Educated at Cheltenham 
College and for a short time in fortification 
and military drawing at the Edinburgh 
Military Academy under Lieutenant (after- 
wards Colonel Sir) Henry Yule [q.v.], he 
passed through the military college of the 
East India Company at Addiscombe at the 
head of his term, receiving the Pollock 
medal. He obtained a commission as se- 
cond lieutenant in the Bengal engineers on 
11 June 1853. His further commissions 



were dated : lieutenant 13 July 1857, cap- 
tain 1 Sept. 1863, major 5 July 1872, lieu- 
tenant-colonel 31 Dec. 1878, and colonel 
31 Dec. 1882. He assumed the name of 
Bateman in addition to that of Champain in 
1872 on succeeding to the estate of Halton 
Park, Lancashire. 

After the usual course of professional in- 
struction at Chatham he went to India in 
1854. While acting as assistant principal 
of the Thomason college at Rurki in 1857 
the Indian mutiny broke out, and he at 
once saw active service under Colonel (after- 
wards General Sir) Archdale Wilson [q. v.], 
was adjutant of sappers and miners at the 
actions at Ghazi-ud-din-Nagar on the Hindun 
river on 30 and 31 May, at Badli-ke-Serai 
under Major-general Bernard on 8 June, and 
at the capture of the ridge in front of Delhi. 
During the siege of Delhi Champain took 
his full share of general engineer work in 
addition to his duties as adjutant, and one 
of the siege batteries was named after him 
by order of the chief engineer in acknow- 
ledgment of his services. He was wounded 
by a grape shot on 13 Sept., but, although 
still on the sick list, volunteered for duty 
on 20 Sept., and was present at the capture 
of the palace of Delhi. 

Champain commanded the head-quarters de- 
tachment of Bengal sappers during the march 
to Agra, at the capture of Fathpur Sikri, and 
in numerous minor expedtions. He com- 
manded a mixed force of nearly two thou- 
sand men on the march from Agra to Fath- 
garh, where hejoined the commander-in-chief 
in December 1857. He commanded the 
sappers during the march to Cawnpore and 
to the Alambagh, reverting to the adjutancy 
in March 1858, when he joined the force 
under Sir .lames Outram [q.v.] for the siege of 
Lucknow by Lord Clyde. During the siege 
he thrice acted as orderly ofiicer to Sir 
Robert Napiei", afterwards Lord Napier of 
Magdala [q. v.], by whom he was especially 
thanked for holding with Captain Medley 
and one hundred sappers for a whole night 
the advanced post of Shah Najif, which had 
been abandoned. 

After the capture of Lucknow he erected 
some twenty fortified posts for outlying de- 
tachments. In April he was specially em- 
ployed under Brigadier-general (afterwards 
Sir) John Douglas in the Ghazipur and 
Shahabad districts, was present in fourteen 
minor engagements, and was thanked in 
despatches for his services at the action of 
Balia. He joined in the pursuit of the muti- 
neers, who, after incessant marching and 
fighting, were driven to the Kaimur Hills 
and finally defeated and broken up at Salia 



Bateman-Champain 140 



Bates 



Dahar on 24 Nov. 1858. He received the 
medal and clasps. 

When the mutiny was finally suppressed 
Champain became executive engineer in the 
public "works department at Goudah, and 
afterwards at Lucknow, until February 1862, 
■when he was selected to go with Major (Sir) 
Patrick Stewart [q. v. Suppl.] to Persia on 
government telegraph duty. At that time 
there was no electric telegraph to India. 
The attempt to construct one under a go- 
vernment guarantee had failed, and it was 
determined to make a line by the Persian 
Gulf route directly under government. Cham- 
pain proceeded with Stewart to Bushahr, and 
thence in June to Teheran, where negotia- 
tions were carried on with the Persian go- 
vernment. In 1865 the line was practically 
completed, and on Stewart's death in that 
year Champain was appointed to assist Sir 
Frederic Goldsmid, the chief director of the 
Indo-European Government Telegraph de- 
partment. He spent the greater part of 

1866 in Turkey, putting the Baghdad part 
of the line into an efficient state, and in 

1867 went to St. Petersburg to negotiate 
for a special wire through Russia to join 
the Persian system. This visit gave rise to 
intimate and friendly relations with Gene- 
ral Liiders, director-general of Russian tele- 
graphs, which proved of advantage to the 
service. 

On his way out from England in Septem- 
ber 1869, to superintend the laying of a 
second telegraph cable from Bushahr to 
Jashk, Champain was nearly drowned in the 
wreck of the steamship Carnatic olF the 
island of Shadwan in the Red Sea. After 
coming to the surface he assisted in saving 
lives and in securing succour. In 1870 he 
succeeded Sir Frederic Goldsmid as chief 
director of the government Indo-European 
telegraph. 

In the years from 1870 to 1872 Persia 
suffered from a severe famine, and Champain 
took an active interest in the Mansion House 
relief fund, of which he was for some time 
secretary. He arranged for its distribution 
in Persia by the telegraph staff, and had 
the satisfaction of finding it very well done. 
His sound judgment and unfailing tact, 
together with a power of expressing his 
views clearly and concisely, enabled him to 
render important service at the periodical 
international telegraph conferences as the 
representative of the Indian government. 
Special questions frequently arose the settle- 
ment of which took him to many of the 
European capitals, and in the ordinary course 
of his duties he made repeated visits to 
India, Turkey, Persia, and the Persian Gulf. 



In 1884 the shah of Persia presented him 
with a magnificent sword of honour. In 
October 1885 Champain went for the last 
time to the Persian Gulf to lay a third cable 
between Bushahr and Jashk, afterwards 
visiting Calcutta to confer with government. 
On his way home he went to Delhi to see 
his old friend Sir Frederick (now Earl) 
Roberts, from whom he learned that he had 
been made a knight commander of the order 
of St. Michael and St. George. 

He died at San Remo on 1 Feb. 1887. 
The shah of Persia himself sent a telegram to 
his family expressing his great regret for the 
loss of Bateman-Champain, * qui a laissc 
tant de souvenirs inefia^ables en Perse,' a 
very unusual departure from the rigid eti- 
quette of the court of Teheran. He married 
in 1865 Harriet Sophia, daughter of Sir 
Frederick Currie, first baronet {d. 1875). 
She survived her husband with six sons and 
two daughters of the marriage. Three sons 
are in the army and one in the navy. 

Bateman-Champain was a member of the 
council of the Royal Geographical Society 
and of the Society of Telegraph Engineers. 
He was an accomplished draughtsman. In 
the Albert Hall Exhibition of 1873 a gold 
medal was awarded to a Persian landscape 
which he had painted for liis friend Sir 
Robert Murdoch Smith [q. v. Suppl.] Many 
of the illustrations to Sir Frederic Gold- 
smid's ' Telegraph and Travel ' are from 
original sketches in water-colour by Bate- 
man-Champain. 

[India Office Eeeords; Despatches; Porter's 
History of the Corps of Royal Engineers; 
A'^ibart's Addiscombe, its Heroes and Men of 
Note ; Goldsniid's Telegraph and Travel ; the 
Royal Engineers Journal, 1887, obituary notice 
by Sir R. M. Smith ; Times, 2 Feb. 1887; Ann. 
Reg. 1887 ; Kaye's History of the Sepoy War ; 
Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny; Nor- 
man's Narrative of the Campaign of the Delhi 
Army ; Medley's A Year's Campaigning in India 
and other Works on the Indian Mutiny.] 

R. H. V. 

BATES, HARRY (1850-1899), sculptor, 
born at Stevenage, Hertfordshire, on 26 April 
1850, was son of Joseph and Anne Bates of 
that town. As a lad he was apprenticed as 
carver to Messrs. Bridley & Farmer of 
63 Westminster Bridge Road, and worked 
between 1869 and 1879 on the ornamentation 
of many churches in course of building or 
restoration in the provinces. Returning to 
London, he was able to combine his work 
with attendance at classes in the Lambeth 
art school. Jules Dalou was teacher of 
modelling there, and, although Bates had 
only three months of his teaching, it is im- 



Bates 



141 



Bates 



possible not to regard this as a determining 
influence. The first head which Bates 
modelled at Lambeth obtained a silver medal 
from the South Kensington board of exami- 
ners. Dalou returning to Paris, Bates en- 
tered the Royal Academy schools. The 
authorities there soon gave him not only a 
gold medal but also a travelling studentship 
of 200/. for his bas-relief representing * So- 
crates teaching the people in the Agora;' 
this, done into marble, was subsequently 
presented to the Owens College, Manchester, 
by Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A. Settling 
in Paris, Bates took a studio of his own, and, 
acting on Dalou's suggestion, obtained pri- 
vate tuition from Rodin. Rodin's influence 
proved smaller than might have been ex- 
pected. ' Comparing the " Socrates " mo- 
delled in London with the Virgil reliefs 
modelled in Paris we find in the latter a 
greater freedom and flexibility . . . but 
the peculiar gift of their author is as trace- 
able in the " Socrates " as in the " zEneas " 
and " Dido," and it is not a gift in the use of 
which Rodin could do much to help him. 
His conceptions fall naturally into balance 
and rhythm. They are not inspired with the 
energy, the melancholy, or the tragic hu- 
manity of the French master, but show a 
sympathy with line and a felicity in con- 
centrating its powers so as to arrive at unity, 
to which there is no parallel in Rodin's 
works ' (Sir Walter Armstrong). 

The panels from Virgil form a sort of 
triptych in bronze, and, but for the fact of 
their having been executed in Paris, would 
have been purchased under the terms of the 
Chantrey bequest. This work, exhibited in 
1885, was followed in 1886 by ' Homer,' a 
bas-relief, illustrating Coleridge's line : ' a 
blind old man, and poor,' and forming a 
companion to the ' Socrates,' which was 
shown at the same time. In 1887 appeared 
the three panels illustrating the story of 
Psyche, which proved, if one might judge 
by the demand for framed photographs, to 
be his most popular work ; in 1889, ' Hounds 
in Leash,' an important group (in the 
round) of a young man restraining his boar- 
hounds ; in 1890, the design for the altar 
frontal. Holy Trinity church, Chelsea ; and 
in the same year ' Pandora,' which was 
bought by Chantrey's trustees, and is now 
in the Tate Gallery, Millbank. 

In 1892, when Bates was elected associate 
of the Royal Academy, he exhibited a panel 
in relief, the 'Story of Endymion and Selene;' 
a design for the chimney-piece for which that 
work was intended; a marble bust of J. II. B. 
Warner, esq. ; Guy's medallion in bronze ; 
the memorial of James Tennant Caird ; and 



a door-knocker in silver. In the same year, 
at the Grosvenor Gallery, he showed the 
head, cast in bronze, of the beautiful Rho- 
dope. At the same period, when his repu- 
tation was generally acknowledged, he was 
still very often employed upon decorative 
works for metropolitan buildings. The most 
notable of his latest works were the statue 
of the Queen for Dundee ; a bronze bust of 
* Field-marshal Lord Roberts ; ' and the 
equestrian statue of that general, now in 
Calcutta, which was set up in the courtyard 
at Burlington House during the exhibition 
of 1897, He also commenced a companion 
statue of Lord Lansdowne which was com- 
pleted by Mr. Onslow Ford, R.A., and un- 
veiled at Calcutta by Lord Curzon on 7 Jan. 
1901. 

Bates died on 30 Jan. 1899 at his resi- 
dence, 10 Hall Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
He was buried at Stevenage on 4 Feb. He 
was prevented by illness from completing 
with his own hands all that he had under- 
taken, but his friends superintended, after 
his death, the business of casting the latest 
of his undertakings. That a sculptor, owing 
so much to French teachers, should have 
become famous for works so purely and per- 
fectly English in feeling is proof in itself 
that he was more than merely talented. 

[Portfolio; Artist, December 1897; Times, 
1 Feb. 1899; Tate Gallery, official catalogue; 
private information.] E. K. 

BATES, HENRY WALTER (1825- 
1892), naturalist on the Amazons, born at 
Leicester on 8 Feb. 1825, was grandson of 
Robert Bates, a dyer of hosiery in Leicester, 
and eldest son of Henry Bates {d. 1870), a 
small hosiery manufacturer in the same town. 
After some education at Creaton's boarding- 
school at Billesden, a large village about nine 
miles from Leicester, he was apprenticed in 
1838 to Alderman Gregory, a hosier of Hal- 
ford Street in his native town, his duties com- 
prising the opening and sweeping-up of the 
warehouse between seven and eight in the 
morning. His scanty leisure he devoted to 
self-improvement at the liberally managed 
Mechanics' Institute of the town. His holi- 
days when possible were spent in scouring 
Charnwood Forest for specimens with his 
brothers, for he was already an enthusiastic 
entomologist and collector. The first con- 
tribution he made to entomological litera- 
ture was a short paper ' On Coleopterous 
Insects frequenting Damp Places,' dated 
Queen Street, 3 Jan. 1843, and printed in 
the first number of the ' Zoologist,' to which 
he became a not infrequent contributor. 
About 1845 he obtained a situation as clerk 



Bates 



142 



Bates 



in Allsopp's offices at Burton-on-Trent, under 
the conditions of whicli be fretted a good 
deal. In the meantime, however, he had 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Alfred Russel 
"Wallace, then English master at the colle- 
giate school, Leicester. The works of Hum- 
boldt and Lyell, and Darwin's recently 
published ' Journal ' (1839), proved a bond 
of communion between them. They were 
both also enthusiastic entomologists, and 
were alike growing dissatisfied with their re- 
stricted collecting area. The friends began to 
discuss schemes for going abroad to explore 
some unharvested region, and these at length 
took definite shape, mainly owing to the 
interest excited by a little book by William 
H. Edwards on * A Voyage up the River 
Amazon, including a residence at Para' 
(New York, 1847). This led Mr. Wallace to 
propose to Bates a joint expedition to the 
Amazons, the plan being to collect largely 
and dispose of duplicates in London in order 
to defray expenses, while gathering facts 
towards solving the problem of the origin 
of species. They embarked at Liverpool in 
a small trading vessel of 192 tons on 26 April 
1848, and arrived oiFPara on 27 May. Bates 
made Para his headquarters until 6 Nov. 
1851, when he started on his long voyage to 
the Tapajos and the Upper Amazons, which 
occupied a period of seven years and a half. 
It was from Para that he and Mr. Wallace 
in August 1848 made an excursion up the 
river Tocantins, the third in rank among the 
streams which make up the Amazons system, 
of the grandeur and peculiarities of which he 
wrote a striking account. In September 
1849 he started on his first voyage up the 
main stream in a small sailing vessel (a 
service of steamers was not established 
until 1853), and reached Santarem, which 
he subsequently made his headquarters for 
a period of three years; but on this journey 
he pushed on to Obydos, about fifty miles 
further on. Here he secured a passage in a 
cuberta or small vessel proceeding with 
merchandise up the Rio Negro. The des- 
tination of the boat was Manaos on the 
Barra of the Rio Negro, a spot rendered 
memorable by the visit of the Dutch 
naturalists, Spix and Martins, in 1820. 
Here, some thousand miles from Para, in 
March 1850 Bates and Wallace parted com- 
pany, ' finding it more convenient to explore 
separate districts and collect independently.' 
Wallace took the northern parts and tri- 
butaries of the Amazons, and Bates kept to 
the main stream, which, from the direction 
it seems to take at the fork of the Rio Negro, 
is called the Upper Amazons, or the Soli- 
moens. After sailing three hundred and 



seventy miles up the Solimoens, through 
' one uniform, lofty, impervious, and humid 
forest,' Bates arrived on May-day 1850 at 
Ega. Here he spent nearly twelve months 
before returning to Para, and thus finislied 
what may be considered as his preliminary 
survey of the vast collecting ground which 
will always be associated with his name. 
In November 1851 he again arrived at 
Santarem, where, after a residence of six 
months, he commenced arrangements for an 
excursion up the little-known Tapajos river, 
which in magnitude stands sixth among the 
tributaries of the Amazons. A stay was 
made at the small settlement of Aveyros, 
and from this spot an expedition was made up 
the Cupari, a branch river which enters the 
Tapajos about eight miles above it. At this 
time he was thrown into contact with 
Mundurucii Indians, and was able to ac- 
quire much valuable ethnological informa- 
tion. The furthest point up the Amazons 
system that he visited (in Sept. 1857) was 
St. Paulo, a few leagues north east of Taba- 
tinga and the Peruvian frontier. 

From June 1864 until February 1859 Bates 
made his head-quarters 1,400 miles above 
Para, at Ega, a place which he made familiar 
by name to every European naturalist as the 
home of entomological discoveries of the 
highest interest. At Ega he found five 
hundred and fifty new and distinct species 
of butterflies alone (the outside total of 
English species being no more than sixty- 
six). On the wings of these insects he 
wrote in a memorable passage, * Nature 
writes as on a tablet the story of the modifi- 
cations of species.' During the whole of liis 
sojourn amid the Brazilian forests his specu- 
lations were approximating to the theory of 
natural selection, and upon the publication 
of the ' Origin of Species ' (November 1859) 
he became a staunch and thoroughgoing ad- 
herent of the Darwinian hypothesis. 

On 11 Feb. 1859 Bates .left Ega for Eng- 
land, having spent eleven of the best years 
of his life within four degrees of the equator, 
among many discouragements, and to the 
detriment of his health, but to the perma- 
nent enrichment of our knowledge of one of 
the most interesting regions of the globe. 
During his stay in the Amazons he liad 
learned German and Portuguese, had dis- 
covered over eight thousand species new to 
science, and by the sale of specimens had 
made a profit of about 8001. He sailed from 
Para on 2 June 1859, and upon his arrival 
set to work at once upon his collections. 
His philosophic insight was first fully exhi- 
bited in his celebrated paper, read before the 
Linnean Society on 21 June 1861, ' Oontri- 



Bates 



143 



Bates 



butions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon 
Valley. Lepidoptera : KeViconidse ' (Linnean 
Soc. Trans, vol. xxiii. 1862), described by 
Darwin as ' one of the most remarkable and 
admirable papers I ever read in my life.' It 
was this paper which first gave a due pro- 
minence before the scientific world to the 
phenomenon of mimicry, and with it a philo- 
sophic explanation which at once received 
Darwin's unconditional acceptance. ' I re- 
joice,' wrote the latter with characteristic 
sincerity, ' that I passed over the whole sub- 
ject in the " Origfin," for I should have made 
a precious mess of it ' (cf. Poulton, Colours 
of Aniynals, pp. 217 sq. ; Beddaed, Ani- 
mal Coloration, passim ; Grant Allen on 
' Mimicry,' Encyel. Brit. 9th ed.) Darwin 
strongly recommended Bates to publish a 
narrative of his travels, and with this ob- 
ject introduced him to the publisher, John 
Murray, who proved an invaluable friend. 
In January 1863 Murray issued Bates's 
* Naturalist on the Amazons',' which has 
been described as ' the best work of natural 
history travels published in England.' Apart 
from the personal charm of the narrative. 
Bates as a describer of the tropical forest is 
second only to Humboldt. His breadth of 
view saved him from the narrowness of 
specialism, and he was as far removed as 
possible from what Darwin called ' the mob 
of naturalists without souls.' The book was 
highly praised in the 'Revue des Deux 
Mondes ' for August 1863, but the highest 
compliment it received was the remark of 
John Gould (whose greatest ambition had 
been to see the great river) to the author : 
' Bates, I have read your book — I've seen 
the Amazons.' In April 1862, by the advice 
of numerous friends. Bates applied for a post 
in the zoological department at the British 
Museum, but the post was given to the poet 
Arthur William Edgar 0'Shaughnessy[q.v.], 
whose mind was a tabula rasa as far as zoo- 
logical knowledge was concerned. 

Early in 1864, upon the strong recom- 
mendation of Murray, Bates was chosen 
assistant secretary to the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society. He would have preferred a 
scientific appointment, but he devoted him- 
self assiduously to the work, and showed 
great administrative capacity, especially in 
connection with the removal of the society's 
premises in 1870 from Whitehall Place to 
1 Savile Row. His services were referred 
to in the highest terms by Sir Roderick 
Murchison, and by his successors in the 
direction of the society's affairs. In ad- 
dition to editing the ' Transactions,' he 
edited or supervised and prepared for the 
press a number of interesting volumes, 



among them Mrs. Somerville's * Physical 
Geography ' (1870), Belt's ' Naturalist in 
Nicaragua' (1873), Humbert's 'Japan and 
the Japanese ' (translated by Mrs. Cashel 
Hoey, 1874), Warburton's ' Journey across 
the Western Interior of Australia ' (1875), 
and Cassell's 'Illustrated Travels ' (in 6 vols. 
4to, 1875-6). He also wrote an introduc- 
tion to the appendix volume of Whymper's 
'Travels among the Great Andes.' He 
became F.L.S. in 1871, and was elected 
F.R.S. in 1881. He was elected president 
of the Entomological Society in 1869, and 
again in 1878. He was also a chevalier of 
the Brazilian order of the Rose. He pub- 
lished numerous papers in the Entomo- 
logical Society's ' Journal,' in the ' Entomo- 
logist,' and in the ' Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History.' Large portions of his 
lepidoptera and other collections passed into 
the British Museum. Latterly, however, he 
appropriated his cabinets mainly to the 
coleoptera, and at his death his magnificent 
collection was sold intact to Mr. Oberthur 
of Rennes. The main results of his labours 
as a coleopterist are embodied in Godman 
and Salvin's ' Biologia Centrali-Americana.' 
Like Huxley and like Darwin, after return- 
ing from a long residence abroad. Bates was 
troubled by Carlyle's ' accursed hag,' dys- 
pepsia. He died of bronchitis on 16 Feb. 
1892, after having just completed twenty- 
eight years' valuable service as assistant 
secretary of the Royal Geographical Society. 
He married, in January 1861, Sarah Ann 
Mason of Leicester, who survived him with 
one daughter and three sons, the second of 
these an electrical engineer, the remaining 
two farmers in New Zealand. The Callithea 
Batesii and other entomological species com- 
memorate his discoveries in the Amazons 
valley. 

Bates was an assiduous student of the best 
literature. The selections from his letters 
(mainly to Darwin and Hooker), and a frag- 
ment of an incomplete diary, in the memoir 
by Mr. Edward Clodd, reveal an unmistak- 
able literary gift. But he published only 
the one volume, 'The Naturalist on the 
Amazons,' from which, by Darwin's advice, 
he carefully removed all the ' fine ' passages 
previous to publication. Stripped thus of 
superfluous ornament, the book takes a place 
between Darwin's 'Journal' and Wallace's 
' Malay Archipelago ' as one of the durable 
monuments of English travel literature. The 
narrative grips the reader at once and in- 
spires him with an intense desire to visit the 
regions described, while the concluding medi- 
tation upon the exchange of a tropical for 
an English climate (with the countervail- 



Bates 



144 



Bates 



ing ad%'antages and disadvantages) merits a 
place of high honour among English prose 
extracts. 

Photographic portraits are in the Royal 
Geographical Society's ' Transactions,' 1892 
(p. 245), and in Edward Clodd's short me- 
moir of Bates prefixed to the 1892 reprint 
(from the first edition) of ' The Naturalist 
on the Amazons ' (frontispiece). 

[Memoir of H. W. Bates bj' Edward Clodd, 
1892; Royal Geogr. Soc. Trans. 1892, pp. 177, 
190, 245 sq.; Times, 17 Feb. 1892; lllustr. 
London News, 27 Feb. 1892 (portrait); Clodd's 
Pioneers of Evolution, 1897, 124-7; Grande 
Eocyclopedie, v. 755 ; A. R. Wallace's Travels 
on the Amazon and Rio Negro, and Darwinism ; 
Darwin's Life and Letters, ii. 243 sq.] T. S. 

BATES, THOMAS (1775-1849), stock- 
hreeder, born at Matfen, Northumberland, 
on 16 Feb. 1776, was the younger of the 
two sons of George Bates by Diana {d. 
1822), daughter of Thomas Moore of Bi- 
shop's Castle, Salop, and was descended 
from a family long settled in the district. 
Bates was educated at the grammar school 
at Haydon Bridge, and afterwards at 
Witton-le-Wear school, where ' he never 
joined in his schoolfellows' games, but 
would sit for hours in the churchyard with 
a book ' (T. Bell, History of Shorthorns 
(1871), p. 110). At the age of fifteen he 
was called home to assist in the manage- 
ment of his father's farms. Before he was 
eighteen he became tenant of his father's 
patrimony at Aydon White House. In 
1795 his mother's first cousin, Arthur Blay- 
ney of Gregynog, Montgomeryshire, who had 
always been expected to leave his property 
to Thomas (his godson), died, bequeathing 
all his heritage to Lord Tracy, a stranger 
in blood ; and this was a great disappoint- 
ment to Bates and his family. 

He now threw himself with ' quadrupled 
energy into an agricultural career,' and on 
attaining his majority became tenant of his 
father's small estate of Wark Eals, on North 
Tyne. Becoming intimate with Matthew 
and George Culley [q. v.], through a family 
marriage. Bates was introduced to a large 
circle of agricultural acquaintances on the 
Tees, including Charles and Robert Colling 
fq. V. Suppl.] In 1800, at the age of twenty- 
five. Bates took a twenty-one years' lease 
of two large farms at Halton Castle, at a 
high rent, and with a view to stocking them 
■'purchased his first shorthorn cows from 
Charles Colling, giving him for one of them 
the first one hundred guineas the Collings 
ever sold a cow for ' (Bell, p. 100). 

He speedily achieved renown as a breeder 
of taste and judgment, and at Charles Col- 



ling's famous Ketton sale in 1810 he bought 
for 185 guineas a cow called Duchess, which 
was the foundress of a well-known tribe of 
shorthorns. He exhibited his cattle at the 
local show^s from 1804 to 1812. Wishing to 
follow out the principles of George Culley 
in regard to experiments and trials, he em- 
bodied his views in 1807 in an elaborate 
letter, which he styled ' An Address to the 
Board of Agriculture and to the other Agri- 
cultural Societies of the Kingdom on the 
importance of an Institution for ascertaining 
the merits of different breeds of live stock, 
pointing out the advantages that will accrue 
therefrom to the landed interest and the 
kingdom in general.' In 1809-10-11 he 
spent his winters at the university of Edin- 
burgh to study chemistry, and took, after his 
fashion, copious notes of the lectures on 
various subjects he attended. In 1811 he 
was sufficiently well oft" to buy a moiety 
of the manor of Kirklevington, near Yarm, 
in Cleveland, for 30,000/., 20,000/. of which 
he paid in cash. About ten years later, 
when his lease of Halton ran out, he bought 
Ridley Hall on the South Tyne, and resided 
there till 1831. He then removed to Kirk- 
levington, where he lived for the remainder 
of his life. 

He engaged in correspondence with most 
of the leading agriculturists of the day, and 
aired his own views very freely. Lord Al- 
thorp is said to have remarked to another 
guest when Bates paid him a visit at Wise- 
ton for the Doncaster meeting of 1820, 
' Wonderful man ! he might become any- 
thing, even prime minister, if he would not 
talk so much ' (C. J. Bates, p. 164). Bates 
was a man of remarkable force of character, 
but his love of argument, his combativeness, 
and his plain speaking did not make him a 
universal favourite. 

Owing to his dissatisfaction with the 
awards at the Tyneside Society's show in 
1812, he gave up showing cattle at agricul- 
tural meetings for twenty-six years, and did 
not again exhibit until the first show 
of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, held 
at York in 1838, when he won five prizes 
with seven animals. A year later he made 
a great sensation at the first show of the 
then newly established English Agricul- 
tural Society, held at Oxford in 1839, with 
his tour shorthorns, all of which won the 
prizes, and one of which, called ' Duke of 
Northumberland,' was said to be ' one of the 
finest bulls ever bred ' {Farm. Mag. 1850, 
p. 2). Bates continued showing and win- 
ning prizes at subsequent meetings of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England 
(under which name the English Agricultural 



Battenberg 



145 



Baxendell 



Society was incorporated by charter in 1840) 
and had a great epistolary conflict with the 
executive after the York show of 1848, the 
last he attended. 

Up to 1849 he had enjoyed robust health, 
living almost in the open air, and very 
simply ; but a painful disease of the kidneys 
carried him oiF on 25 July 1849 at the age 
of seventy-four. The ' Farmers' Magazine ' 
for January I80O (xxi. 1 sq.), in an apprecia- 
tive memoir of him, speaks of his liberality 
and hospitality, and describes his litigious- 
ness as * but a nice and discriminating view 
of public duty. . . .' ' Convince his judg- 
ment or appeal to his feelings, and he was 
gentle and yielding; but once rouse his 
opposition, and he was as untiring in his 
warfare as he was staunch and unflinching 
in his character. . . . He had a great de- 
light in addressing the public, using very 
strong language, and always appearing in 
earnest. He wrote a vast number of letters 
to the newspapers, mainly on the politics of 
agriculture. . . . His writing was terse 
and forcible, and he had a remarkable tact 
in making facts bear upon his propositions, 
as well as a wonderful readiness in calcula- 
tion and mental arithmetic' 

The dispersal of Bates's herd of shorthorns 
on 9 May I80O caused great excitement at 
the time, sixty-eight animals selling for 
4,558^. Is. (a full description is given in 
Farmers' Mag. 1850, xxi. 532 sq.) 

Bates was never married. A portrait of 
him at the age of about fifty-five by Sir 
William Ross, R.A., was engraved for the 
' Farmers' Magazine' in 1850, and a repro- 
duction of it appears as the frontispiece 
of the elaborate biography of 513 pages 
written by Mr. Cadwallader J. Bates (his 
great-nephew), and published at Newcastle 
in 1897 under the title ' Thomas Bates and 
the Kirklevington Shorthorns.' From this 
work most of the above facts have been 
drawn. 

[C. .T. Bates's Thomas Bates, 1 897 ; FarniPrs' 
Magazine, 1850 ; Bell's Hist, of Shorthorns.] 

E. C-E. 

BATTENBERG, Prince HENRY of. 
[See Henry Maurice, 1868-1896.] 

BAXENDELL, JOSEPH (1815-1887), 
meteorologist and astronomer, son of Thomas 
Baxendell and Mary his wife, nee Shepley, 
was born at Manchester on 19 April 1815, 
and received his early education at the 
school of Thomas Whalley, Cheetham Hill, 
Manchester. He left school at the age of 
fourteen, but not before his natural love of 
science had been noticed and fostered by his 
mother and by his schoolmaster. Of his 

VOL. I.— SUP. 



powers of observation he made good use 
during six years which he spent at sea from 
his fourteenth to his twentieth year. In the 
Pacific he witnessed the wonderful shower 
of meteors in November 1833. When he 
abandoned seafaring life in 1835 he returned 
to Manchester, and for a while assisted his 
father, who was a land steward. He after- 
wards had a business of his own as an estate 
agent. From the time of his return to his 
native town he pursued, in a quiet unobtru- 
sive way, his studies in astronomy and 
meteorology, in the former of which pursuits 
he had the advantage of the use of the 
observatory of his friend Robert Worthing- 
ton at Crumpsall Hall, near Manchester. 
His first contribution to the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society was made in 1849. He 
subsequently wrote for the Royal Society's 
' Proceedings,' the Liverpool Astronomical 
Society's * Journal,' and a number of other 
publications, but the greater and more im- 
portant portion of his work was contributed 
to the Manchester Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society, of which he became a member 
in January 1858. In the following year he 
was placed on the council, and in 1861 be- 
came joint secretary as well as editor of the 
society's * Proceedings.' The former post he 
retained until 1885, and the latter until his 
death. As colleagues in the secretaryship 
he had Sir H. E. Roscoe until 1873, and 
afterwards Professor Osborne Reynolds. He 
was one of the founders of the physical and 
mathematical section of the society in 1859. 
He was enrolled as a fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1858, but did not 
become F.R.S. until 1884. In February 
1859 he succeeded Henry Halford Jones as 
astronomer to the Manchester corporation. 
Some years subsequently he superintended 
the erection of the Fernley meteorological 
observatory in Hesketh Park, Southport, 
and was appointed meteorologist to the cor- 
poration of that town. From 1873 to 1877 
he was a member of the Crumpsall local 
board. 

His scientific contributions, of which 
sixty-seven are enumerated in the Royal 
Society's ' Catalogue of Scientific Papers,' 
have been ably summarised by Dr. J. Bot- 
tomley in the paper mentioned below. Of 
his astronomical observations, perhaps the 
most important are those embodied in various 
catalogues of variable stars. His meteoro- 
logical and terrestrial-magnetical researches 
were of conspicuous importance, and in re- 
ference to the detection of the intimate con- 
nection between those sciences and solar 
physics he was one of the principal pioneers. 
Among other valuable suggestions for the 



Baxter 



146 



Bayne 



practical application of meteorological science 
was that for the use of storm signals, con- 
cerning which he had a protracted contro- 
versy with the board of trade. He foretold 
the long drought of 1868, and was service- 
able to the Manchester corporation in en- 
abling them to regulate the supply of water 
and so mitigate the inconvenience that en- 
sued. On another occasion he predicted the 
outbreak of an epidemic at Southport. 

His later years were passed at Birkdale, 
near Southport, where he died on 7 Oct. 
1887. In religion he was a churchman and 
a staunch Anglo-Israelite. 

He married, in 1865, Mary Anne, sister of 
Norman Robert Pogson [q. v.], the govern- 
ment astronomer for Madras, and left an 
only son, named after himself, who succeeded 
him as meteorologist to the corporation of 
Southport. 

[Memoir by Dr. James Bottomley in Memoirs 
and Proc. of the Manchester Literary and Phil. 
See. 4th ser. i. 28 ; Proc. Royal Soc. vol. xliii. ; 
Nature, 20 Oct. 1887, p. 58.0 ; Manchester 
Guardian, 10 Oct. 1887; information kindly 
supplied byBaxendell's widow and son.] 

C. W. S. 

BAXTER, WILLIAM EDWARD 
(1825-1890), traveller and author, born on 
24 June 1825 at Dundee, was the eldest 
son of Edward Baxter of Kincaldrum in 
Forfar, a Dundee merchant, by his first wife, 
Euphemia, daughter of William Wilson, a 
wool merchant of Dundee. Sir David Baxter 
[q. v.l was his uncle. He was educated at 
the high school of Dundee and at Edin- 
burgh University. On leaving the university 
he entered his father's counting-house, and 
some years afterwards became partner in 
the firm of Edward Baxter & Co. In 1870 
that firm was dissolved, and he became senior 
partner of the new firm of W. E. Baxter & Co. 
He found time for much foreign travel and 
interested himself in politics. In March 
1855 he was returned to parliament for the 
IMontrose burghs in the liberal interest, in 
succession to Joseph Hume [q. v.], retaining 
his seat until 1885. After refusing office 
several times he became secretary to the 
admiralty in December 1868, in Gladstone's 
first administration, and distinguished him- 
self by his reforms and retrenchments. In 
1871 he resigned this office, on becoming 

i'oint secretary of the treasury, a post which 
le resigned in August 1873, in consequence 
of diflferences between him and the chancellor 
of the exchequer, Robert Lowe. He was 
sworn of the privy council on 24 March 1873. 
Baxter continued to carry on business as a 
foreign merchant in Dundee till his death. 
He died on 10 Aug. 1890 at Kincaldrum. 



In November 1847 he married Janet, eldest 
daughter of J. Home Scott, a solicitor of 
Dundee. By her he had two sons and five 
daughters. 

Besides many lectures Baxter published : 
1. 'Impressions of Central and Southern 
Europe,' London, 1850, 8vo. 2. ' The Tagus 
and the Tiber, or Notes of Travel in Por- 
tugal, Spain, and Italy," London, 1852, 2 vols. 
8vo. 3. * America and the Americans,' Lon- 
don, 1855, 8vo. 4. ' Hints to Thinkers, or 
Lectures for the Times,' London, 1860, 8vo. 

[Dublin Univ. Mag. 1876, Ixxxviii. 652-64 
(with portrait) ; Dundee Advertiser, 11 Aug. 
1890; Official Eeturn of Members of Pari.; 
Foster's Scottish M.P.'s ; AUibone's Diet, of 
PJngl.Lit. ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] E. I. C. 

BAYNE, PETER (1830-1896), journalist 
and author, second son of dharles John 
Bayne {d. 11 Oct. 1832), minister of Fodderty, 
Ross-shire, Scotland, and his wife Isabella 
Jane Duguid, was born at the manse, Fod- 
derty, on 19 Oct. 1830. He was educated 
at Inverness academy, Aberdeen grammar 
school, Bellevue academy, and Marischal 
College, Aberdeen, where he took the degree 
of M.A. in 1850. While an undergraduate 
at Aberdeen he won the prize for an Eng- 
lish poem, and in 1854 was awarded the 
Blackwell prize for a prose essay. From 
Aberdeen he proceeded to Edinburgh, and 
entered the theological classes at New 
College in preparation for the ministry. 
But bronchial weakness and asthma made 
preaching an impossibility, and he turned 
to journalistic and literary work as a pro- 
fession. He began as early as 1850 to 
write for Edinburgh magazines, and in the 
years that followed much of his work ap- 
peared in Hogg's ' Weekly Magazine ' and 
Tait's 'Edinburgh Magazine.' He was 
for a short time editor of the * Glasgow Com- 
monwealth,' and in I806, on the death of 
his friend, Hugh Miller [q. v.], whose life 
he wrote, succeeded him in Edinburgh as 
editor of the ' Witness.' A visit to Germany 
to acquire a knowledge of German led to his 
marriage in 1858 to Clotilda, daughter of 
General J. P. Gerwien. Up to this point his 
career had been uniformly successful, and his 
collected essays had brought him reputation 
not only in Scotland but in America also ; 
but in 1860 he took up the post of editor 
of the * Dial,' a weekly newspaper planned 
by the National Newspaper League Company 
on an ambitious scale in London. The ' Dial ' 
proved a financial failure. Bayne not only 
struggled heroically to save the situation by 
editorial ability, but he lost all his own pro- 
perty in the venture, and burdened himself 



Bayne 



147 



Baynes 



with debts that crippled him for many years. 
In April 1862 he retired from the ' Dial,' and 
became editor of the * Weekly Review,' the 
organ of the English presbyterian church. 
This he resigned in 1865, because his views 
on inspiration were held to be unsound, and 
be declined any further editorial responsi- 
bilities. But he became a regular leader 
writer for the ' Christian World/ under the 
editorship of James Clarke. For more than 
twenty years his peculiar combination of 
broad-minded progressive liberalism with 
earnest and eager evangelicalism gave a 
distinct colour to the religious, social, 
political, and literary teaching of this 
influential paper. He found here the main 
work of his life; but wrote independently 
much on the history of England in the 
seventeenth century, many essays in literary 
criticism, and a biography of Martin Luther. 
He also contributed occasionally to the 
* Nonconformist,' the ' Spectator,' and other 
weekly papers, as well as to the leading 
reviews, notably the * Contemporary Re- 
view,' the * Fortnightly,' the ' British Quar- 
terly,' the ' London Quarterly,' and ' Eraser's 
Magazine.' In 1879 the degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Aberdeen Univer- 
sity. He died at Norwood on 10 Feb. 1896, 
and is buried in Harlington churchyard, 
Middlesex, where he resided during the 
earlier half of his London career. He was 
thrice married, but had issue only by his 
first wife, who died in childbirth in 1865, 
leaving him with three sons and two daugh- 
ters. His second wife, Anna Katharine, 
daughter of Herbert Mayo of Oakhill, 
Hampstead, whom he married in 1869, died 
in 1882 after a life of devotion to the wel- 
fare of his children. His third wife became 
insane towards the end of 1895, and grief 
on this account contributed to his own 
death. 

Besides many uncollected magazine articles, 
several pamphlets, and part of the fourth 
volume of the 'National History of England ' 
(1877), Bayne's chief works are: 1. 'The 
Christian Life, Social and Individual,' Edin- 
burgh, 1855, 8vo; Boston, 1857; new edit. 
London, 1859. 2. 'Essays, Biographical, 
Critical, and Miscellaneous,' Edinburgh, 1859, 
8vo. These were also published in Boston, 
Massachusetts, in two volumes. 3. 'The 
Testimony of Christ to Christianity,' Lon- 
don, 1862, 8vo. 4. ' Life and Letters of Hugh 
Miller,' London, 1871, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. ' The 
Days of Jezebel : an historical drama,' London, 
1872, 8vo. 6. ' Emma Clieyne : a Prose 
Idyll of English Life,' 1875 (published under 
the pseudonym of Ellis Brandt). 7. 'The 
Chief Actors in the Puritan Revolution,' 



London, 1878, 8vo. 8. 'Lessons from my 
Masters — Carlyle, Tennyson, and Ruskin,'' 
London, 1879, 8vo. 9. 'Two Great Eng- 
lishwomen: Mrs. Browning and Charlotte 
Bronte, with an Essay on Poetry,' London, 
1881, 8vo. Most of the essays in 8 and 9 
appeared originally in the ' Literary World.' 
10. ' Martin Luther : his Life and Work,' 
London, 1887, 8vo. 11. ' The Free Church 
of Scotland : her Origin, Founders, and Testi- 
mony,' Edinburgh, 1893 ; 2nd edit. 1894. He 
also wrote an essay on ' English Puritanism ; 
its Character and History,' prefixed to 
Gould's ' Documents relating to the Settle- 
ment of the Church of England,' 1862 [see 
Gould, George]. 

[Men of the Time, 1875; Dial, especially 
issues of 7 Jan. 1860, 4 Oct. isGl, and 17 April 
1862 ; private information.] it. B. 

BAYNES, THOMAS SPENCER (1823- 
1887), philosopher and man of letters, was 
born at Wellington, Somerset, 24 March 
1823, and was the son of Joseph Baynes, 
pastor of the baptist congregation in the 
town. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Ash, was a descendant of Dr. John Ash [q.v.], 
the lexicographer. As a boy he was chiefly 
educated at Bath, and after a brief trial of 
a commercial life, for which he had no taste, 
entered the baptist college at Bristol to pre- 
pare for the ministry. A two years' course 
of study there awoke ambition for a wider 
culture, and after matriculating at the uni- 
versity of London he proceeded to Edinburgh, 
where he studied for five years. In 1846 he 
gained the prize for an essay on logic in the 
class of Sir William Hamilton [q. v.], and 
soon became Hamilton's favourite pupil and 
warm champion, and afterwards contributed 
valuable reminiscences of him to Veitch's 
biography. In 1850 he graduated at the 
university of London, and, returning to 
Edinburgh, became a teacher of philosophy 
at the Philosophical Institution, and subse- 
quently assisted in conducting Hamilton's 
class, the professor, though intellectually as 
competent as ever, being partly disabled 
by the effects of a paralytic stroke, which 
impeded articulation. In 1850 he published 
his prize essay under the title of ' Essay on 
the New Analytic of Logical Forms,' de- 
scribed by Mr. Keynes as 'the authorita- 
tive exposition of Hamilton's doctrines,' and 
in 1851 translated Arnauld's ' Port Royal 
Logic' These introduced him to many of 
the leading thinkers of the period, especially 
to G. H. Lewes, who enlisted him as a 
contributor to the ' Leader,' and took him 
to see Carlyle, of whose conversation he has 
left a lively account in the * Athenseum ' for 

l2 



Baynes 



148 



Baynes 



1887. He also became in 1850 editor of the 
* Edinburgh Guardian,' whose staff included 
many Edinburgh residents of intellectual 
distinction, and to which he himself contri- 
buted humorous letters under the signature 
of 'Juniper Agate.' In 1854 his health 
broke down (' he had a weak heart and only 
half a lung,' says Sir John Skelton), and he 
retired to Rumliill House in Somerset, the 
seat of the Cadburys, and a second home to 
liim since his early boyhood, where he passed 
two years. He there wrote a tract on the 
Somerset dialect, and an essay on Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, published in the 'Edinburgh 
Essays,' 1857. In 1856, having recovered 
his health, he returned to London as a con- 
tributor to the ' Leader,' which had passed 
into the hands of Mr. E. F. S. Pigott, after- 
wards examiner of plays. The new series 
was more brilliant than successful, but ere 
its definitive abandonment Spencer Baynes 
had been appointed examiner in philosophy 
for the university of London, and, marrying 
Miss Gale, had settled in the neighbourhood 
of Regent's Park. In 1858 he became as- 
sistant editor of the ' Daily News,' where he 
rendered invaluable service, especially upon 
questions of foreign policy. His steady sup- 
port of the federal cause during the American 
civil war exercised a wholesome influence 
upon public opinion, and his foresight was 
amply justified by the event. If the same 
could hardly be said of his advocacy of the 
cause of Denmark in the difficult question of 
the Schleswig-Holstein duchies, it procured 
him a flattering invitation to Copenhagen, 
where he was received with much distinc- 
tion. A second breakdown of health occa- 
sioned by overwork compelled him in 1864 
to seek for a less exacting occupation, which 
he obtained by his election to the chair of 
logic, metaphysics, and English literature in 
the university of St. Andrews. 

Baynes's academical post exercised an im- 
portant influence on his subsequent career. 
He now had to instruct in literature, and, 
although far from neglecting the other de- 
partments of his professorial duty, he gra- 
dually became more interested in the new 
pursuit. It compelled him to make a more 
exact study of Shakespeare than he had 
previously done, and with the vigour of 
a fresh mind he approached it on sides in- 
sufficiently explored before him. His inte- 
rest in his own local Somerset speech, into 
which he had already translated the ' Song 
of Solomon ' for Prince Louis Lucien Bona- 
parte, led him to investigate more especially 
Shakespeare's obscure and unfamiliar words, 
and to bring the study of the midland dia- 
lects to bear upon them — a line of research 



of particular value, inasmuch as it alone 
should suffice to dispel the hallucinations 
of the advocates of the 'Baconian theory.' 
Two extremely valuable articles in the 
' Edinburgh Review ' — ' Shakespearian Glos- 
saries ' and ' New Shakespearian Interpre- 
tations,' reprinted in his ' Shakespeare Stu- 
dies ' — were the result of these pursuits. 
His experience as a teacher led him to con- 
sider the question of Shakespeare's school 
learning, and his three essays on ' What 
Shakespeare learned at School,' which ap- 
peared in 'Eraser' for 1879 and 1880, based 
as they were upon a thorough investigation 
of the ordinary grammar school curriculum 
of Shakespeare's time, and illustrated by 
passages from his writings, exploded for ever 
the assumption that the poet must neces- 
sarily have been an ignorant man. Inquiries 
of this nature tended to beget a strong 
local interest in Stratford-on-Avon ; he 
visited and explored the town and neigh- 
bourhood, and the result was seen in his 
comprehensive and most remarkable article 
on Shakespeare in the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica.' As regards the light which may be 
thrown upon Shakespeare by an accurate 
knowledge of the local circumstances sur- 
rounding him, this essay is matchless ; as 
regards the critical study of his writings it 
is no less notably deficient, not by error, but 
by simple omission.- On the one hand, it 
surprises and delights by the presence of so 
much more than could have been reasonably 
looked for, and, on the other, disappoints by 
the absence of much which would have been 
looked for as a matter of course. The essay, 
with three others relating to Shakespeare, 
and another on English dictionaries, was 
published under the title of ' Shakespeare 
Studies ' in 1894. 

Except for these Shakespearian labours 
and the discharge of his professorial duties, 
Baynes's time was entirely engrossed from 
1873 onwards by the superintendence of the 
ninth edition of the ' Eneycloppedia Britan- 
nica.' The editor effaced the writer, for he 
did not even furnish the article on Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, which might have been ex- 
pected, and that on Shakespeare is his only 
contribution. As editor he was most effi- 
cient ; those who worked under his direction 
must ever retain the most agreeable recol- 
lection of his judicious conduct of this great 
undertaking, the soundness of his judgment, 
the extent of his knowledge, and his uniform 
courtesy and considerateness. The labour 
became too severe for one of his delicate 
constitution; in 1880 Professor William 
Robertson Smith [q. v.] was associated with 
him, and the energy of his colleague relieved 



Bazalgette 



149 



Bazalgette 



him of much pressure of work. Pie con- 
tinued nevertheless to labour assiduously 
until his somewhat sudden death in London, 
81 May 1887, a year before the completion 
of the ' Encyclopedia.' The reminiscences 
of Carlyle's conversation, previously men- 
tioned, one of the most lively of his compo- 
sitions, had been printed only a few weeks 
Ereviously. A memorial portrait, by Mr. 
lOwes Dickinson, the gift of friends and 
pupils, was presented to his widow in 1888. 
Baynes was an excellent logician, and 
qualified by the bent of his mind to excel in 
any department of literary research. He 
seems to have been averse to deal with 
matters incapable of exact demonstration : 
hence his biography of Shakespeare, so mas- 
terly in many departments of the subject, 
ignores others ; and his essay on Shelley in 
the ' Edinburgh Review,' in some respects 
the best in the language, is in others incom- 
plete. As a man his character stands among 
the highest. ' He was,' says Sir John Skel- 
ton, ' never weary in well doing, in true 
sympathy, in unaffected kindness. He was 
very keen, satirical, intellectually incisive, 
quite a man of affairs, and accustomed to 
mix with all sorts and conditions of men ; 
but he was one of those rare characters 
which, in the best sense, are without guile.' 
The senate of St. Andrews University, upon 
his death, warmly acknowledged his * ever 
happy influence as a wise counsellor on all 
questions of public and academic policy.' 

[Memoir by Professor Lewis Campbell, pre- 
fixed to Baynes's Shakespeare Studies, 1894; 
Skelton's The Table Talk of Shirley; Veitch's 
Life of Sir William Hamilton ; personal know- 
ledge.] E. G. 

BAZALGETTE, Sir JOSEPH WIL- 
LIAM (1819-1891), civil engineer, son of 
Joseph William Bazalgette, commander in 
the royal navy, was born at Enfield on 
28 March 1819. His family were of French 
extraction. He was educated at private 
schools, and in 1836 became a pupil of Sir 
John Benjamin McNeill [q. v.] Then for a 
short time he was employed on drainage and 
reclamation works in the north of Ireland. 
In 1842 he set up in business as a consult- 
ing engineer at Westminster, being engaged 
chiefly on railway work, but owing to a 
breakdown in his health he was forced very 
shortly afterwards to give up all active work 
for more than a year. 

In 1849 he joined the staff of the metro- 
politan commission of sewers, a body which 
had been created in 1848 to replace the 
eight separate municipal bodies responsible 
for the drainage of London. From 1848 to 



1855 no less than six different commissions 
were appointed, and though schemes for the 
complete drainage of the metropolis were pre- 
pared for the third of these commissions by 
G. B. Forster and William Haywood [q. v. 
Suppl.] (these schemes were described in 
two reports dated March 1850 and January 
1851), nothing was done, and Forster, worn 
out with the anxieties and disappointments, 
resigned oflice. Bazalgette was selected to 
succeed him as engineer-in-chief, and he at 
once, in conjunction with Haywood, set to 
work to prepare a new scheme based on the 
proposals of 1850-1. 

The general board of health, however, put 
a stop to these schemes, and again matters 
were at a deadlock until, by an act passed on 
16 Aug. 1855, the representative body known 
as the metropolitan board of works came 
into being, the board appointing Bazalgette 
their chief engineer. This new body was 
not able, however, to expedite matters, as 
the plans which they ordered to be prepared 
for the main drainage scheme had to be ap- 
proved by government. The plans prepared 
by Bazalgette were submitted in June 1856 
to Sir Benjamin Hall, then chief commis- 
sioner to her majesty's works ; he objected 
to certain portions of the scheme, and the 
whole matter was then referred to a com- 
mission of three engineers, including Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir) Douglas Galton, R.E, 
[q. V. Suppl.] This commission reported in 
July 1857, and somewhat unfavourably to 
the board's plans ; they recommended a much 
more expensive scheme, and a position for 
the outfalls of the main sewers much lower 
down the river. 

The metropolitan board of works referred 
the matter back to their engineer in con- 
sultation with George Parker Bidder [q. v.] 
and Thomas Hawksley [q. v. Suppl.], who 
sent in a report in April 1858, criticising 
the conclusions of the government commis- 
sion, and the whole scheme was again hung 
up. A change of ministry, however, led to 
a rapid change in the state of affairs. Dis- 
raeli introduced a short act, which was 
passed in August 1858, giving the board full 
control with regard to the drainage works 
proposed. The complete designs were at 
once put in hand, the first contracts were 
let, and in 1865 this splendid system of main 
drainage was opened by the prince of Wales 
(afterwards Edward VII), though the whole 
work was not finished until 1875. 

These great works were fully described in 
a paper read by Bazalgette before the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers entitled ' The Main 
Drainage of London and the Interception of 
the Sewage from the River Thames ' {Proc. 



Bazalgette 



150 



Bazalgette 



Inst. Civil Eng. xxiv. 280). Over eighty- 
three miles of large intercepting sewers were 
constructed, a densely populated area of over 
a hundred square miles was dealt with, and 
the amount of sewage and rainfall which 
could be discharged per diem was estimated 
at 420,000,000 gallons. The total cost of 
the works was 4,600,000^. The royal com- 
mission which was appointed in 1882 to con- 
sider the metropolitan sewage discharge, in 
their first report of 31 Jan. 1884, bore strong 
testimony not only to the excellence of the 
original scheme, but also to the professional 
skill shown by Bazalgette * in carrying it 
through all the intricate difficulties of its 
construction.' They also drew attention to 
the powerful influence which had been exer- 
cised through these works in improving the 
general health of the metropolis {Report of 
the Boyal Commission on Metropolitan 
Seicage Discharge, London, 1884). 

The other great engineering work with 
which Bazalgette's name Avill always be 
coupled is the Thames embankment. The 
idea of building such an embankment is a 
very old one, in fact it was proposed by Sir 
Christopher Wren, but it was not until 1862 
that an act was passed empowering the me- 
tropolitan board of works to carry out the 
work. At one time it had been intended 
,to put the control into the hands of another 
body appointed specially for the purpose. 
The work, at any rate as regards the Vic- 
toria embankment, was considerably com- 
plicated by the arrangements necessary for 
the low-level sewers and for the Metropo- 
litan District Railway. The first section 
from Westminster to Blackfriars was com- 
pleted and opened by the prince of AVales 
on 13 July 1870. The Albert and the 
Chelsea embankments and the new North- 
umberland Avenue completed eventually 
the original scheme, the total cost being 
2,160,000/. The engineering features of 
these works were described in detail in a 
paper read before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers by Mr. E. Bazalgette, a son of 
Sir Joseph Bazalgette {Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 
liv. 1). 

In addition to these two great works Sir 
Joseph was responsible for a large amount 
of bridge work within the metropolitan area, 
thrown upon his shoulders by the Metropo- 
litan Toll Bridges Act of 1887. Alterations 
had to be made in many of the old bridges, 
and new bridges were designed for Putney 
and Battersea, and a steam ferry between 
North and South Woolwich. Simultane- 
ously with this work a considerable amount 
of embanking and of alteration of wharf 
levels was carried out in order to diminish 



the danger of flooding at high tides in the 
low-level districts of the metropolis. 

Bazalgette remained chief engineer to the 
metropolitan board of works until its aboli- 
tion in 1889, and replacement by the London 
county council, and he presented altogether 
thirty-three annual reports setting forth in 
detail the engineering works which he de- 
signed on behalf of the board. 

He joined the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers in 1838, he served as a member of the 
council for many years, and became presi- 
dent of the institution in 1884, He was 
made C.B. in 1871, and, after the completion . 
of the embankment, was knighted in Mav 
1874. He died on 15 March 1891 at his 
residence, St. Mary's, Wimbledon Park. He 
married, in 1845, Maria, the fourth daugh- 
ter of Edward Kough of New Cross, Wex- 
ford, and had a family of six sons and four 
daughters. There is a portrait in the pos- 
session of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
a replica of a painting by Ossani, and a bronze 
bust forms, part of a mural monument which 
has been erected by his friends on the 
Thames embankment at the foot of North- 
umberland Avenue. 

Besides the paper and reports mentioned 
above and his presidential address {Proc. 
Inst. Civil Eng. Ixxvi. 2), Bazalgette wrote 
a great number of valuable professional re- 
ports. The chief of those relating to drain- 
age and water supply are : Report on Drain- 
age and Water Supply of Rugby, Sandgate, 
Tottenham, &c., London, 1854. Data for 
estimating the sizes and cost of Metropolitan 
Drainage Works, London, 1855. Reports 
on Drainage of Metropolis, London, 1854, 
1855, 1856, 1865, 1867, 1871 ; Drawings and 
Specifications for Metropolitan Main Drain- 
age Works, London, 1859-73; Tract on ditto, 
London, 1865 ; Reports on Drainage of Lee 
Valley, London, 1882 ; Report on Sewerage 
of Brighton, Brighton, 1883; Thames Conser- 
vancy and Drainage Outfalls, London, 1880 ; 
Plan for purifying the Thames, London, 
1871 ; Report on Thames, London, 1878. 

Bazalgette also wrote Reports on Metro- 
politan Bridges, London, 1878, 1880, and 
on Communications between the north and 
south of the Thames below London Bridge, 
London, 1882. 

Other reports of a miscellaneous character 
are : Short Account of Thames Embankment 
and Abbey Mills Pumping Station, London, 
1868 ; Metropolitan and other Railway 
Schemes, London, 1864, 1867, 1871, 1874 ; 
Inspection of Manure and Chemical Works, 
London, 1865 ; Boring operations at Cross- 
ness, London, 1869; Metropolitan Tram- 
ways, London, .1870: Asphalte for Pave- 



Bazley 



151 



Beach 



ments, London, 1871 ; Experiments of the 
Guano Company, 1873. 

[Obituary notices in Proc. Inst. Civil Eng., 
rol. cv. ; Burke's Peerage &c. 1890; Times, 
16 March 1891.] T. H, B. 

BAZLEY, Sir THOMAS (1797-1885), 
manufacturer and politician, born at Gilnow, 
aear Bolton, on 27 May 1797, was the son of 
Thomas Bazley (1750-1846), who, after being 
3ngaged in cotton manufacture, became a 
journalist. His mother was Anne, daughter 
of Charles Hilton of Horwich, Lancashire. 
He was educated at the Bolton grammar 
school, and at the age of twenty-one began 
business in that town as a yarn agent. In 
1826 he removed to Manchester and entered 
into partnership with Robert Gardner, 
cotton spinner and merchant. Under Bazley's 
management the factories at Halliwell be- 
came models of order and system, including 
proper provision for the intellectual and 
bodily needs of the workpeople. He was 
the first large employer to introduce the 
system of paying weekly wages on Friday 
instead of Saturday. Ultimately Bazley's 
concerns became the most extensive of their 
kind in the kingdom. 

Bazley was one of the earliest supporters 
of the Lancashire Public Schools Association, 
one of the founders of the Anti-Corn-law 
Association, and a member of the council of 
the Anti-Corn-law League. His first public 
speech was made at the opening of the free- 
trade campaign at Liverpool in 1837. In 
1845 he was elected chairman of the Man- 
chester Chamber of Commerce, which posi- 
tion he held until 1859. He continued on 
the board of directors until 1880. He was 
one of the royal commissioners of the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, a member of the royal 
commission for promoting the amalgama- 
tion of the commercial laws of the united 
kingdom, and in 1855 was a commissioner of 
the Paris Exhibition, his services in which 
capacity were recognised by the emperor in 
presenting him with a ribbon of the legion 
of honour. In 1858 he was elected without 
a contest one of the members of parliament 
for Manchester, and sat until 1880, being re- 
elected on four occasions. He retired from 
business in 1862 in order that he might give 
the whole of his time to parliamentary and 
other public duties, which were numerous, 
as he was an active member of many local 
educational and other institutions. In 1869 
he accepted a baronetcy from Gladstone's 
government. 

Bazley died at Lytham, Lancashire, on 
18 March 1885, and was buried at St. John's 
Church, Manchester. 



He married, on 2 June 1828, Mary Maria 
Sarah, daughter of Sebastian Nash of Clay- 
ton, near Manchester ; she died 22 Aug. 1897, 
and left an only child, the present Sir Thomas 
Sebastian Bazley. 

Bazley published the following pamphlets: 

1. 'Cotton as an Element of Industry,' 1852. 

2. 'Lecture upon the Labour of Life,' 1856. 

3. 'National Education: What should it 
be ? ' 1858. 4. ' Trade and Commerce the 
Auxiliaries of Civilisation and Comfort,' 
1858. 5. 'The Barton Aqueduct,' 1859. 
He contributed articles to the 'Encyclo- 
ptedia Britannica ' (8th edit.) on ' Cotton,' 
' Cotton Manufacture,' and ' Manchester.' 
He also wrote various contributions to 
reviews and periodicals, one in particular 
advocating a university in Manchester in 
connection with Owens College. 

[Manchesfer Guardian, 20 and 24 March, and 
8 May 1886; Manchester City News, 30 Oct. 
1880; Bo:ise's Modern English Biography, i. 
202; Burke's Peerage, 1900; Vanity Fair (por- 
trait), 1875; Men of the Time.] C. W. S. 

BEACH, THOMAS MILLER (1841- ^ 
1894), known as 'Major Le Caron,' govern- 
ment spy, second son of J. B. Beach, was 
born at Colchester on 26 Sept. 1841, where 
his father was a rate-collector. He him- 
self passed by his own account a restless 
youth. While serving as apprentice to a 
Colchester draper he paid many illicit visits 
to London, and finally went to Paris. 
Learning of the outbreak of the American 
civil war in 1861 he sailed in the Great 
Eastern for New York. On 7 Aug. 1861 
he enlisted with the federalists in the 8th 
Pennsylvanian reserves under the name of 
Henri Le Caron. He afterwards exchanged 
into the Andersen cavalry, in which corps 
he served for two years with M'Clellan's 
army of the Potomac. In April 1864 he 
married. In July 1864 he received a com- 
mission as second lieutenant. In December 
he was wounded near Woodbury, and was 
present at the battle of Nashville. In 1865 
he acted as assistant adjutant-general, and 
at the end of the war attained the rank of 
major. Le Caron then settled at Nashville 
and began studying medicine. Before 
leaving the federal army he joined the 
Fenian organisation, and in 1866 he fur- 
nished the English government with infor- 
mation about the intended Fenian invasion 
of Canada, which led to the easy defeat of ^ 
John O'Neill's movement on 1 June 1866. 

During 1867 Le Caron visited England, 
and, being introduced by John Gurdon Re- 
bow, M.P. for Colchester, to the authorities, 
agreed to return to the United States as a 



Beach 



152 



Beach 



paid spy, under cover of an active member- 
ship of the Fenian body, Le Caron con- 
tinued in direct and frequent communica- 
tion with the British or Canadian govern- 
ment from this time till February 1889. 

Immediately after his return he resumed 
relations with the Fenian leader O'Neill, 
now United States claim-agent at Nashville. 
On 31 Dec. 1867 O'Neill became president 
of the Fenian organisation (Irish Republi- 
can Brotherhood), and soon afterwards Le 
Caron began to organise a Fenian circle in 
Lockport, Illinois. As ' centre ' of this he 
received O'Neill's reports and sent them 
and other documents to the English gOA'ern- 
ment. At this time Le Caron was at 
Chicago as resident medical officer of the 
state penitentiary (prison), but resigned the 
position in the course of the year, when he 
was summoned by O'Neill to New York, 
and accompanied him to an interview at 
Washington with President Andrew John- 
son, the object of which was to obtain the 
return of the arms taken from the Fenians 
in 1866. He was now appointed military 
organiser of the ' Irish Republican Army,' 
and sent on a mission to the eastern states. 
At the Philadelphia convention of December 
1868 a second invasion of Canada was re- 
solved on by the Fenians. Le Caron, who 
was entrusted with the chief direction of 
the preparations along the frontier, paid a 
visit to Ottawa and arranged with the Cana- 
dian chief commissioner of police (Judge 
M'Micken) a system of daily communica- 
tions. He dissipated some suspicions that 
were entertained of him by the Fenians, and 
early in 1869 he was appointed their assis- 
tant adjutant-general, and forwarded to the 
authorities copies of the Fenian plans of 
campaign. He had already obtained a domi- 
nant influence over Alexander Sullivan, an 
important member of the brotherhood, and 
in the winter of 1869 he further strengthened 
his position by providing O'Neill with a 
loan wherewith to cover his embezzlement 
of Fenian funds. 

Early in 1870 Le Caron, who now held 
the rank of brigadier and adjutant-general, 
had distributed fifteen thousand stand of 
arms and three million rounds of cartridge 
along the Canadian frontier. Owing to in- 
formation furnished by Le Caron to the 
Canadian authorities, the invading force at 
once (26 April) fell into an ambush, and 
were obliged to retreat. O'Neill was ar- 
rested by order of President Grant for a 
breach of the neutrality laws. Le Caron 
fled with his followers to Malone, but on 
the 27th made his way to Montreal. Next 
day he set out for Ottawa, but was arrested at 



Cornwall as a recognised Fenian, and was only 
allowed to proceed under a military escort. 
After a midnight interview with M'Micken 
he left Canada early next day by a different 
route. 

After the repulse of the second invasion 
Le Caron resumed his medical studies, but 
was soon invited by O'Neill, who suspected 
nothing, to help in the movement being pre- 
pared in conjunction with Louis Riel [q. v.] 
Le Caron betrayed the plans to the Canadian 
government. In consequence of his action 
O'Neill was arrested with his party at Fort 
Pembina, on 5 Oct. 1871, just as they had 
crossed the frontier, and Riel surrendered at 
Fort Garry without firing a shot. O'Neill 
was given up to the American authorities, 
but was acquitted by them on the ground 
that the oft'ence was committed on Cana- 
dian soil. Le Caron incurred some blame in 
Fenian circles in consequence of the failure 
of the last movement, and for the next few 
years was chiefly occupied in the practice 
of medicine, first at Detroit (where he gra- 
duated M.D.) and then at Braidwood, a 
suburb of Wilmington. But at Detroit he 
watched on behalf of the Canadian govern- 
ment the movements of Mackay Lomasney, 
who was afterwards concerned in the at- 
tempt to blow up London Bridge with dyna- 
mite ; and he was still in the confidence of 
former Fenian friends. 

Le Caron was not an original member of 
the Clan-na-Gael (the reorganised Fenian 
body). But by circulating the report that 
his mother was an Irishwoman, he gradually 
regained his influence and obtained the 
' senior-guardianship ' of the newly formed 
' camp ' at Braid wood. He was now able to 
send copies of important documents to Mr. 
Robert Anderson, chief of the criminal de- 
tective department in London. In order to 
do this, however, he was obliged to evade by 
sleight of hand the rule of the organisation 
that documents not returned to headquar- 
ters were to be burned in sight of the camp. 

The years 1879-81 witnessed what was 
called ' the new departure ' in the Irish- 
American campaign against England, where- 
by an * open ' or constitutional agitation (re- 
presented in Ireland by the Land League 
and its successor) was carried on side by 
side with the old revolutionary Fenian move- 
ment. The relations between the two were 
very intricate, and Le Caron was closely 
connected with both. Pie entertained at 
Braidwood and professionally attended Mr. 
Michael Davitt when he came to America 
to organise the American branch of the 
Land League, and early in 1881 he saw 
much of John Devoy, who represented the 



Beach 



153 



Beal 



revolutionary side of the inovement. Devoy's 
confidences were exhaustive, and Le Caron 
imparted them fully to Mr. Anderson. In 
the spring of 1881 he was entrusted by 
Devoy with sealed packets to be delivered 
in Paris to John O'Leary (the intermediary 
of the Irish and American branches), and 
Patrick Egan, treasurer of the Land League. 
On his arrival in England in April Le Caron 
showed these to Anderson, and, proceeding 
to Paris, obtained important information from 
well-known Fenians. 

Egan came back with Le Caron from 
Paris to London, and introduced him to 
Irish members of parliament. He had an 
important interview with Charles Stewart 
Parnell in the corridor outside the library of 
the House of Commons, and Parnell com- 
missioned him to ' bring about a thorough 
understanding and complete harmony of 
working ' between the constitutionalists and 
the partisans of the secret movement. Le 
Caron had another interview with the Irish 
leader at the tea room of the house, when 
Parnell gave him his signed photograph. 
After pursuing his inquiries in Dublin, main- 
taining throughout the fullest touch with 
the London authorities, he returned to New 
York in June 1881, attended the convention 
of the Clan-na-Gael at Chicago, and laid 
Parnell's views before the foreign relations 
committee. He also saw much of Dr. Gal- 
lagher and Lomasney, who were preparing 
the ' active ' or dynamite policy. 

Le Caron was also present at the so- 
called Land League Convention at Chicago 
in November 1881, which was packed in 
the interests of the Clan-na-Gael; he fol- 
lowed the movements of the clan with the 
closest attention, and all details of the 
' secret warfare ' (dynamite campaign) were 
at his command. When a schism arose in 
the clan Le Caron found it politic to join 
the majority, headed by Alexander Sullivan 
and his colleagues, who were termed the 

* Triangle.' In August 1884 he attended, 
both as league delegate and revolutionary 
officer, the Boston Convention of the Irish 
National League of America. In 1886 he 
stood for the House of Representatives, but 
lost the election on account of the cry of 

* Fenian general ' raised against him. As a 
delegate to the National League Conven- 
tion of August 1886 Le Caron attended the 
secret caucuses presided over by Egan. In 
April 1887 he paid another visit to Europe, 
and was sent by the English police to Paris 
to watch General Millen, who was then 
negotiating a reconciliation between the 
English and American branches of the clan. 
Le Caron went back to the L^nited States in 



October, but in December 1888 he finally 
left America. 

Subpoenaed as a witness for the ' Times ' 
in the special commission appointed to in- 
quire into the charges made by that paper 
against the Irish members and others, Le 
Caron began his evidence on 5 Feb. 1889, 
and was under examination and cross-ex- 
amination for six days. The efforts of Sir 
Charles Russell [q. v. Suppl.], the counsel 
for the Irish members, failed to impair the 
damaging effect of the bulk of his testimony. 
At the close of the commission (14 Nov. 
] 889) Sir Henry (now Lord) James, counsel 
for the ' Times ' newspaper, defended Le 
Caron from attacks made upon his character. 
After the trial he lived quietly in England. 
He died in London of a painful disease on 
1 April 1894, and was buried in Norwood 
cemetery. His wife returned to America 
some time after his death. 

Le Caron himself, in his 'Twenty-five 
Years in the Secret Service,' maintained 
that he acted from purely patriotic motives. 
Between 1868 and 1870 he received about 
2,000/. from the English and Canadian go- 
vernments, but since that time (he told the 
commission) his salary had not covered his 
expenses. His identity was known to no one 
but Mr. Anderson, who always corresponded 
with him under his real name, Beach. He 
was a dapper, neatly made little man, with 
cadaverous cheeks and piercing eyes. He 
was a teetotaller but a great smoker. His 
coolness and presence of mind were un- 
equalled. An excellent sketch of him as he 
appeared before the Parnell Commission ap- 
pears in a portfolio of sketches drawn by 
Louis Gache and published as a ' Report of 
the Parnell Commission by a Stuff Gowns- 
man' (1890). 

[Twenty-five Years in the Secret Service, 
■with Portraits and Facsimiles, by Major Henri 
Le Caron, 6th ed. 1892 (some excisions had to 
be made under government influence, and the 
portrait of the author was for oI)vious reasons 
suppressed); Essex County Standard, 7 April 
1894, with portrait; Times, 2, 29 April 1894. 
Keport of the Parnell Commission, reprinted 
from Times, ii. 180-233; J. Macdonald's Diary 
of the Parnell Commission (from Daily News), 
pp. 120-37, &c.] a. Le G. N. 

BEAL, SAMUEL (1825-1889), Chinese 
scholar, born at Devonport on 27 Nov. 1825, 
was son of William Beal {d. 1872), a Wes- 
leyan minister. He was educated at the 
Devonport classical school, and matriculated 
as a sizar at Trinity College, Cambridge, on 
13 Nov. 1843. He graduated B.A. in 1847, 
and was ordained deacon in 1851 and priest 
in the following year. After serving as 



Beale 



154 



Beard 



curate at Brooke in Norfolk and Sopley in 
Ilampsliire, he applied for the office of naval 
chaplain, and was appointed to H.M.S. 
Sybille in that capacity (8 Dec. 1852). For- 
tunately for students the Sybille was sent 
to the China station, and, taking advantage 
of the opportunity thus offered him, he de- 
voted his spare time to the study of the 
Chinese language. So proficient did he be- 
come in the colloquial as well as the literary 
dialect that during the war of 1858-8 he 
acted as naval interpreter. But his main ob- 
ject in studying the language was to qualify 
himself for the task of elucidating the dark 
phases of Chinese Buddhism. In this un- 
dertaking he was one of the pioneers, and 
happily left many of the results of his labours. 
On his return to England he was appointed 
chaplain to the marine artillery, and later 
to the Pembroke and Devonport dockyards 
in succession. He was at Devonport from 
1873. In 1877 he was appointed rector of 
Falstone in Northumberland. Three years 
later he was transferred to Wark in the same 
county, and ultimately (1888) to Greens 
Norton in Northamptonshire. In all these 
changes of scene he remained constant to 
his Chinese studies, and some of his best 
work was done in the country rectories 
which he occupied. In 1877 he was ap- 
pointed professor of Chinese at University 
College, London, and in 1885 the degree of 
D.C.L. (Durham) was conferred upon him 
in recognition of the value of his researches 
into Chinese Buddhism. He died at Greens 
Norton on 20 Aug. 1889. Among his prin- 
cipal works were : 1. 'The Travels of Fah- 
hian and Sung-yun; translated from the 
Chinese,' 1869. 2. ' A Catena of Buddhist 
Scriptures from the Chinese,' 1871. 3. ' The 
Romantic Legend of Sakya Buddha, from the 
Chinese,' 1875. 4. ' Texts from the Buddhist 
Canon,' 1878. 6. 'A Life of Buddha by 
Asvaghosha Bodhisattra ; translated from 
the Chinese,' 1879. 6. * An Abstract of four 
Lectures on Buddhist Literature in China,' 
1882. 

[Boase's Collectanea Cornubiensia ; personal 
knowledge ; information kindly given by Dr. 
Aldis Wright.] R. K. D. 

BEALE, THOMAS WILLERT (1828- 
1894), miscellaneous writer, only son of Fre- 
derick Beale {d. 1863), of the music publish- 
ing firm of Cramer, Beale, & Addison of 
Regent Street, was born in London in 1828. 
He was admitted student of Lincoln's Inn 
on 18 April 1860, and was called to the bar 
in 1863; but music claimed his interests, 
and, having received lessons from Edward 
Roeckel and others, he managed operas in 



London and the j)rovinces, and toured with 
some of the most notable musicians of his 
time. Under the pseudonym of ' Walter 
Maynard,' which he frequently used, he 
wrote an account of one of these tours, 
with reminiscences of Mario, Grisi, Giu- 
glini, Lablache, and others, entitled ' The 
Enterprising Impresario' (London, 1867). 
He originated the national music meetings 
at the Crystal Palace with the object of 
bringing meritorious young musicians to the 
front, and took a leading part in the institu- 
tion of the New Philharmonic Society, at 
which Berlioz conducted some of his com- 
positions by Beale's invitation. It was under 
his management that Thackeray came out as 
a lecturer. He wrote a large number of 
songs and pianoforte pieces, besides ' Instruc- 
tions in the Art of Singing' (London, 1853), 
and a series of ' Music Copy Books ' (Lon- 
don, 1871). In February 1877 he produced 
at the Crystal Palace a farce called * The 
Three Years' System,' and a three-act drama, 
' A Shadow on the Hearth ; ' an operetta, 
' An Easter Egg,' was produced at Terry's 
Theatre in December 1893. His autobio- 
graphy, ' The Light of other Days as seen 
through the wrong end of an Opera Glass,' 
was published in 2 vols., London, 1890. He 
died at Gipsy Hill on 3 Oct. 1894, and was 
buried at Norwood cemetery. Late in life 
he married the widow of John Robinson of 
Hong Kong ; she was a good singer and 
musician. 

[Autobiography as above ; Musical News, 
13 Oct. 1894 ; Musical Times, November 1894 ; 
Brown and Stratton's British Musical Bio- 
graphy.] .T. C. H. 

BEARD, CHARLES (1827-1888), uni- 
tarian divine and author, eldest son of John 
Relly Beard [q. v.] by his wife Mary (Barnes), 
was born at Iligher Broughton, Manchester, 
on 27 July, 1827. After passing through 
his father's school, he studied at Manchester 
New College (then at Manchester, now Man- 
chester College, Oxford) from 1843 to 1848, 
graduating B.A. at London University in 
1847. He aided his father in compiling the 
Latin dictionary issued by Messrs. Cassell. 
In 1818-9 he continued his studies at Berlin. 
On 17 Feb. 1850 he became assistant to 
James Brooks (1806-1854) at Hyde chapel, 
Gee Cross, Cheshire, succeeding in 1854 as 
sole pastor, and remaining till the end of 
1866. He had accepted a call to succeed 
John Hamilton Thom [q. v.] at Renshaw 
Street chapel, Liverpool, and entered on this 
charge on 3 March 1867, retaining it till his 
death. In his denomination he took first 
rank as a preacher, and was equally success- 



Beard 



155 



Beardsley 



ful in satisfying a cultured class by his 
written discourses, and in holding a popular 
audience by his spoken word. He was one 
of the secretaries (1857-79) and one of the 
visitors (1883-8) of Manchester New Col- 
lege ; and a founder (18o9) and the first 
secretary of the East Cheshire Missionary 
Association. In addition to denominational 
activities, he combined in an unusual degree 
the pursuits of a scholar with journalistic 
writing and public work. During the cotton 
famine of 1862-4 he was the special corre- 
spondent of the ' Daily News.' For many 
years he was a leader writer on the ' Liver- 
pool Daily Post.' His want of sympathy 
with home rule led him to sever his con- 
nection with political journalism. In the 
management of University College, Liver- 
pool, he took a leading part as vice-president. 
He was Hibbert lecturer in 1883, taking for 
his subject the Reformation. In February 
1888 he received the degree of LL.D. from 
St. Andrews. His numerous avocations 
heavily taxed a robust constitution ; in 1886 
he spent six months in Italy ; in 1887 his 
health was more seriously broken, and his 
congregation made provision for his taking 
a year's I'est. He died at 13 Southhill Road, 
Liverpool, on 9 April 1888, and was buried 
on 12 April in the graveyard of the Ancient 
Chapel, Toxteth Park. A mural tablet to 
his memory was placed in Renshaw Street 
chapel. He married (4 June 1850) Mary 
Ellen, daughter of Michael Shipman, who 
survived him with a son, Lewis Beard, town 
clerk of Coventry, and six daughters. 

Besides many separate sermons and lec- 
tures, he published : 1. * Outlines of Chris- 
tian Doctrine,' 1859, 8vo. 2. ' Port Royal : 
a Contribution to the History of Religion 
and Literature in France,' 1861, 2 vols. 8vo. 
3. ' Christianity in Common Life,' 1872, 
12mo (addresses to working people). 4. 'The 
Soul's Way to God,' 1875, 8vo (sermons). 
5. ' The Reformation ... in its Relation to 
Modern Thought,' 1883, 8vo (Hibbert lec- 
ture). Posthumous were : 6. ' The Uni- 
versal Christ,' 1888, 8vo (sermons). 7. ' Mar- 
tin Luther and the Reformation in Germany 
until ... the Diet of Worms,' 1879, 8vo 
(edited by John Frederick Smith). He 
contributed to the * Christian Reformer,' a 
monthly edited by Robert Brook Aspland 
[q. v.]; on its cessation he projected and 
edited the ' Theological Review' (1864-79). 
He translated into English Renan's Hibbert 
lecture (1880). 

[Liverpool Daily Post, 10 April 1888 ; Chris- 
tian Life, 14 April 1888 ; Evans's Eecord of the 
.Provincial Assembly of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
■ 1896, pp. 72, 103; personal knowledge.] A. G. 



BEARDSLEY, AUBREY VINCENT 

(1872-1898), artist in black and white, born 
in Buckingham Road, Brighton, on 24 Aug. 
1872, was son of Mr. Vincent Paul Beardsley 
and his wife, Ellen Agnes (born Pitt). He 
was educated at Brighton. After leaving 
school he worked for a short time in an 
architect's office, which he left to become a 
clerk in the office of the Guardian Insurance 
Company. At about the age of eighteen he 
began to be known in a narrow circle by 
the strange designs which were soon to make 
him famous. His first chances of employ- 
ment came to him through his friendship 
with Mr. F. H. Evans, the bookseller and pub- 
lisher of Queen Street, London, E.C. His 
earliest important commission was one from 
Messrs. Dent & Co., to illustrate a two- 
volume edition of the ' Morte d' Arthur.' 
For this he produced more than five hundred 
designs, taxing his strength and interest in 
his task to a dangerous point. At about the 
same time he contributed drawings to the 
'Pall Mall Budget.' These were mostly 
theatrical, but they included portraits 
charges of Zola, Verdi, Jules Ferry, and 
others. He also drew for the 'Pall Mall 
Magazine.' Acting on the advice of influ- 
ential friends, Sir E. Burne-Jones and 
M. Puvis de Chavannes among tliem, he 
now abandoned his connection with ' the 
City,' and devoted himself entirely to art. 
He worked for a time in Mr. Fred Brown's 
school, and on the foundation of the short- 
lived ' Yellow Book,' in 1894, accepted the 
post of its art editor. Many of his most origi- 
nal conceptions saw the light in its pages, 
wherein, moreover, he was not averse to play- 
ing with the public by offering them designs 
signed with strange names and displaying 
none of his usual characteristics. His con- 
nection with the ' Yellow Book' lasted little 
more than a year, but a few months later he 
joined Mr. Arthur Symons in the production 
of the ' Savoy,' which lived to see eight num- 
bers (Jan.-Dec. 1896). To the ' Savoy ' he 
contributed three poems and a prose frag- 
ment, ' Under the Hill,' a parody on the 
legend of Tannhaiiser and the Venusberg. 
Much of his work for the ' Savoy ' was pro- 
duced at Dieppe, where he spent part of the 
summer of 1895 in the company of Mr. 
Arthur Symons and some other young writers 
and artists. 

His later work included series of designs 
for Oscar Wilde's ' Salome,' for ' The Rape of 
the Lock' — a series suggested by Mr. Ed- 
mund Gosse, in which his strange fantasy 
reached the acme of elaboration — for ' Made- 
moiselle de Maupin,' and for Ernest Dowson's 
' Pierrot of the Minute.' His last work was 



Beardsley 



156 



Beaufort 



a set of initials for an edition of ' Volpone.' 
These were finished only a week or two before 
his death. 

Beardsley had musical gifts of a high 
order; the charms of his conversation were 
great ; and he had an extraordinary know- 
ledge of books for so young a man. Certain 
sotto voce whisperings of his art were, 
perhaps, to be accounted for by the want of 
physical balance oi the poifrinaire. Through- 
out his life he suffered from weakness of the 
lungs, and his abnormal activity had seemed 
to his friends to be at least partly due to a 
desire to forestall death, and, in spite of its 
imminence, to leave a substantial legacy 
behind him. Few men have done so much 
work in so brief a space of time — work, 
moreover, which was always deliberate and 
finished in the true artistic sense. Shortly 
before his death Aubrey Beardsley was re- 
ceived into the church of Rome. He died 
of consumption at Mentone on 16 March 
1898, and was buried there. 

Beardsley's critics see in his art three 
distinct phases : first, a romantic and Pre- 
liaphaelite phase, in which the influence of 
Burne-Jones and Puvis de Chavannes may 
be traced; secondly, a purely decorative 
phase, based mainly on the Japanese con- 
vention ; thirdly, a more delicate and com- 
plex way of seeing things, induced by his 
study of French art in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. To these Mr. Arthur Symons would 
add a fourth manner, adumbrated in the 
' Volpone ' initials, in which the grotesque 
forms of his earlier styles are discarded for 
acquiescence in nature as she is or may be. 
The weak point in his art is its capricious- 
ness. He fails to convince us completely 
of his sincerity. His peculiarities seem oc- 
casionally to have no sounder foundation 
than a w-ish to be difl^erent. They too often 
lack that inevitable connection with a root 
idea which should characterise all design. 
On the other hand, his inventions betray 
extreme mental activity, and his technique 
a hand at once firm, delicate, and sympa- 
thetic. To some the strange element in his 
work seems merely fantastic; to others it 
appears morbid in the last degree, if not 
worse. One anonymous critic describes his 
art as * the mere glorification of a hideous 
and putrescent aspect of modern life.' A 
more sober judgment might call him a pagan 
infected with a modern interest in psycho- 
logy. A list of his works, complete to the 
end of 1896, was compiled by Mr. Aymer 
Vallance for the ' Book of Fifty Drawings ' 
(1897). 

The best portrait of Beardsley is the photo- 
graphic profile, with his remarkable hands, 



reproduced in 'The Works of Aubrey Beards- 
ley ' (2 vols. 1899, 1901). 

[Times, March 1898; Athenseum, March 
1898; Academy, March 1898; Studio, April 
1898 ; The Yellow Book, pts. 1-4 ; Savoy, pts. 
1-8 ; The Works of Aubrey Beardsley, vol. i., 
The Early Work, with biographical note by 
H. C. Marillier, 1899, and vol. ii., The Later 
Work of Aubrey Beardsley, 1901 ; A. B., by 
Arthur Symons (Unicorn quartos, No. 4), 1898; 
A Book of Fifty Drawings, with catalogue by 
Aymer Vallance; private information.] W. A. 

BEAUFORT, EDMUND, styled fourth 
Duke of Somerset (1438?-1471),born about 
1438, was second of the three sons of 
Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset 
[q. v.], by his wife Eleanor, daughter of Ri- 
chard de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick [q. v.] 
After the defeat of the Lancastrians in 1461, 
Edmund was brought up in France "svith 
his younger brother John, and on the execu- 
tion of his elder brother Henry Beaufort, 
third duke of Somerset [q.v.Suppl.], Edmund 
is said to have succeeded as fourth duke. 
He was so styled by the Lancastrians in 
February 1471, but his brother's attainder 
was never reversed, and his titles remained 
forfeit. In a proclamation dated 27 April 
1471 Edmund is spoken of as 'Edmund 
Beaufort, calling himself duke of Somerset.' 
He returned from France when Edward IV 
was driven from the throne by Warwick's 
defection, and on 4 May 1471 commanded 
the van of the Lancastrian army at the 
battle of Tewkesbury, His position was 
almost unassailable (see plan in Ramsay, ii. 
379), but, for some unknown reason, after 
the battle began he moved down from the 
heights and attacked Edward IV's right 
flank. He was assailed by both the king 
and Richard, duke of Gloucester, and was 
soon put to flight, his conduct having 
practically decided the battle in favour of 
the Yorkists {Arrivall of Edward IV, Cam- 
den Soc. pp. 29-30; Waekwokth, p. 18; 
Hall, p. 300). He was taken prisoner, and 
executed two days later, Monday, 6 May 
1471 ; he was buried on the south side of 
Tewkesbury Abbey, under an arch (Dyde, 
Hist, and Antiq, of Teivkesbury, pp. 21-2). 
His younger brother John had been killed 
during the battle, and as both died unmar- 
ried, ' the house of Beaufort and all the 
honours to which they were entitled became 
extinct.' 

[Arrivall of Edward IV and Warkworth's 
Chron. (Camden Soc.) ; Hall's Chronicle ; Poly- 
dore Vergil ; Cal. Patent Polls ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. iii. 208, 210; Ramsay's Lancaster and 
York, ii. 380-2; Doyle's Official Baronage; 
Gr. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Notes 



Beaufort 



157 



Beaufort 



and Queries, 4th ser. xii. 29, 276. Somerset 
fie;uros somewhat prominently, and not quite 
historically, in Shakespeare's 'Third Part of 
Henry VI/] A. F. P. 

BEAUFORT, HENRY, third Duke of 
Somerset (U36-1464), born about April 
1436, was eldest son of Edmund Beaufort, 
second duke of Somerset [q. v.], by his wife 
Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp,_ 
fifth earl of Warwick [q. v.], and widow of 
Thomas, fourteenth baron Roos of Hamlake. 
Edmund Beaufort, styled fourth duke of 
Somerset [q. v. SuppL], was his younger 
brother. From 1443 to 1448 Henry was styled 
Earl of Mortain orMorteign, and from 1448 
to 1455 Earl of Dorset. He was under age 
when, on the death of his father at the first 
battle of St. Albans (22 May 1455), he suc- 
ceeded as third Duke of Somerset. He was 
regarded as ' the hope of the [Lancastrian] 
party ' (Ramsay), but he also inherited the 
' enmities entailed upon him by his father's 
name ' (Stijbbs, iii. 171). He was brought 
to the council at Coventry, where, in Octo- 
ber 1456, an effort was made to reconcile 
the two parties ; but the meeting was dis- 
turbed by quarrels between Somerset and 
"Warwick, and a brawl between Somerset's 
men and the town watch of Coventry. In 
1457 Queen Margaret of Anjou suggested a 
marriage between Somerset and his cousin 
Joan, sister of James II of Scotland, but the 
proposal came to nothing. On 14 Oct. of 
that year Somerset was made lieutenant of 
the Isle of Wight and warden of Carisbrooke 
Castle. Early in 1458 he took part in the 
council at London which again endeavoured 
to effect a political reconciliation, and it was 
agreed that Richard, duke of York, should 
pay the widowed Duchess of Somerset and 
her children an annual pension of five thou- 
sand marks as compensation for the death of 
the second duke. 

The truce was, however, hollow; Mar- 
garet continued to intrigue against York, 
and in October 1458 proposed that Somerset 
should be appointed captain of Calais in 
place of Warwick. War broke out in 1459, 
and Somerset nearly came into collision 
with Warwick at Coleshill just before the 
battle of Blore Heath. After the defeat of 
the Yorkists he was on 9 Oct. nominated 
captain of Calais. He crossed the channel, 
was refused admittance to Calais by War- 
wick's adherents, but made himself master 
of Guisnes. He fought several skirmishes 
with, the Yorkists between Calais and 
Guisnes until, on 23 April 1460, he suffered 
a decisive reverse at Newnham Bridge, 
called NeuUay by the French (W. WoR- 



CESTEB, p. 479; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 84; 
Hall, p. 206). 

During his absence the Yorkists had won 
the battle of Northampton, but Somerset 
joined the Lancastrians at Pontefract in 
December 1460, captured a portion of the 
Yorkist forces at Worksop on the 21st, and 
won the Lancastrian victory at Wakefield 
(30 Dec.) He marched south with Margaret 
and fought at the second battle of St. 
Albans (17 Feb. 1460-1). This second vic- 
tory was not followed up, the Lancastrians 
retired north, and on 29 March Edward IV 
won the battle of Towton. Somerset 
escaped from the battlefield, and in the fol- 
lowing July was sent by Margaret to seek 
aid from Charles VII of France. That king 
died before their arrival, but Louis XI sum- 
moned Somerset to Tours, and sent him back 
in March 1461-2 laden with promises of 
support, but with very little else. 

Somerset now began to meditate making 
his peace with Edward IV. He had been 
attainted by parliament on 4 Nov. 1461, 
and most of his lands had been granted to 
Richard, duke of Gloucester, and other 
Yorkists {Cal. Fatent Rolls, 1461-5, pp. 29, 
32 ; Stubbs, iii. 196). On his return from 
France he took command of the Lancastrian 
forces in Scotland while Margaret went to 
France, and in the autumn of 1462 he was 
holding Bamborough Castle for the Lancas- 
trians. On 24 Dec, however, he surrendered 
the castle to Sir Ralph Percy and submitted 
to Edward. The king took him to London, 
and treated him with marked favour. He 
received a general pardon on 10 March 1462- 
1463 {ib. 1461-5, p. 261), and was restored 
to his dignities by act of the parliament 
which met on 29 April following {Rot. Pari. 
V. 511). Somerset, however, soon returned 
to his old allegiance. Early in 1464 he 
escaped from a castle in North Wales, where 
he seems to have been kept in some sort of 
confinement, and, after being nearly recap- 
tured, made his way to Margaret on the 
borders. The Lancastrians now made one 
more effort to recover the crown, but at 
Hexham on 14 May 1464 they were utterly 
defeated by John Neville, marquis of Mon- 
tagu [q. v.] Somerset was taken prisoner 
and executed on the held of battle. Parlia- 
ment annulled the act restoring him to his 
dignities, which again became forfeit and 
were never restored. Somerset is described 
by Chastellain as ' un tres grand seigneur et 
un des plus beaulx josnes chevaliers qui 
fust au royaume anglais.' He was probably 
as competent as any of the Lancastrian 
leaders, but their military capacity was not 
great. He was unmarried, and his younger 



Beaufort 



158 



Beaufort 



brother, Edmund Beaufort, was styled fourth 
Duke of Somerset by the Lancastrians. By 
a mistress named Joan Hill, the third duke 
left a son Charles, who was given the family 
name of Somerset, and whose descendants 
became dukes of Beaufort [see Somekset, 
Chaeles, first Eakl op Woecestee], 

[Cal. Eot. Pat.; Rymer's Fosdera; Rotuli 
Pari.; William of Worcester and Stevenson's 
Letters (Rolls Ser.) ; English Chron., ed. 
Davies, Gregory's Collections, Three English 
Chron., and Warkworth's Chron. (Camden Soc); 
Polydore Vergil; Hall's Chronicle; Paston Let- 
ters, ed. Gairdner ; Fortcseue's Governance of 
England, ed. Plummer ; Arthur de Richemont, 
Matthieu D'Eseouchy and Chastellain's Chro- 
niques (Soc. de I'Hist. de France) ; Beaucourt's 
Charles VII ; Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. iii. 
passim; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; Doyle's 
Official Baronage ; G. E. C[okaynp]'s Complete 
Peerage.] A. F. P. 

BEAUFORT, JOHN, first Eael of 
Somerset and Maequis of Doeset and of 
SoMEESET (1373 P-1410), born about 1373, 
was the eldest son of John of Gaunt [see 
John, 1340-1399], by his mistress, and 
afterwards his third wife, Catherine Swyn- 
ford [q. v.] His younger brothers, Henry 
Beaufort, cardinal and bishop of Winchester, 
and Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset, are 
separately noticed, and his sister Joan was 
married to Ralph NeAnlle, earl of Westmor- 
land [q. v.] Henry IV was his half brother. 
The JBeauforts took their name from John 
of Gaunt's castle of Beaufort in Anjou, 
where they were born, and not from Beau- 
fort Castle in Monmouthshire. It was 
afterwards asserted (Ellis, Original Letters, 
2nd ser. i. 154) that John Beaufort was ' in 
double advoutrow goten,' but he was pro- 
bably born after 1372, when Catherine 
Swynford's first husband died; by an act 
of parliament passed on 6 Feb. 1397, shortly 
after John of Gaunt's marriage to Catherine 
Swynford, the Beauforts were legitimated. 
This act, though it ' did not in terms acknow- 
ledge their right of succession to the throne 
. . . did not in terms forbid it ' (Bentlet, 
Excerpta Historica, pp. 152sqq.), but when, 
in 1407, Henry IV confirmed Richard II's 
act, he introduced the important reservation 
'excepta dignitate regali' (Stijbbs, Const, 
Hist. iii. 58-9). 

John Beaufort's first service was with 
the English contingent sent on the Duke of 
Bourbon's expedition against Barbary in 
1390. They sailed from Genoa on 15 May 
of that year, and landed in Africa on 
22 July. On 4 Aug. an attack was begun 
on El Mahadia, but after seven weeks' in- 
effectual siege, the English force re-embarked, 



reaching England about the end of Septem- 
ber. Beaufort was knighted soon after- 
wards (Doyle says in 1391), and in 1394 he 
was serving with the Teutonic knights in 
Lithuania. Probably, also, he was with 
Henry of Derby (afterwards Henry IV) at 
the great battle of Nicopolis in September 
1396, when the Turks defeated the Christians, 
and Henry escaped on board a Venetian 
galley on the Danube. Returning to Eng- 
land, Beaufort was, a few days after his 
legitimation, created (10 Feb. 1396-7) Earl 
of Somerset, with place in parliament be- 
tween the earl marshal and the Earl of 
Warwick. He then took part, as one of 
the appellants, in the revolution of Septem- 
ber 1397, which drove Gloucester from 
power and freed Richard II from all control 
(Stubbs, iii. 21). On 29 Sept. he was 
created Marquis of Dorset, and in the same 
year was elected K.G., and appointed lieu- 
tenant of Aquitaine. His was the second y 
marquisate created in England ; the creation 
is crossed out on the charter roll, and on 
the same day he was created Marquis of 
Somerset, but it was as Marquis of Dorset 
that he was summoned to parliament in 
1398 and 1399, and he seems never to have 
been styled Marquis of Somerset. He re- 
mained in England when Richard II banished 
his half brother Henry of Derby, was ap- 
pointed admiral of the Irish fleet on 2 Feb. 
1397-8, and constable of Dover and warden 
of the Cinque Ports three days later; on 
9 May following he was made admiral of 
the northern fleet. 

He had thus identified himself to some 
extent with the unconstitutional rule of 
Richard's last years, and probably it was 
only his relationship to Henry IV that 
saved him from ruin on Richard's fall. He 
was accused for his share in Richard's acts 
by parliament in October 1399, and pleaded 
in excuse that he had been taken by surprise 
and dared not disobey the king's command. 
He was deprived of his marquisates, and 
became simply Earl of Somerset, but there 
was never any doubt of his loyalty to the 
new king, his half brother. He bore the 
second sword at the coronation on 13 Oct. 
1399, was appointed great chamberlain on 
17 Nov., and in January following was, with 
Sir Thomas Erpingham [q. v. Suppl.], put 
in command of four thousand archers sent 
against the revolted earls. On 8 Nov. 1400 
he was granted the estates of the rebel 
Owen Glendower, but was never able to take 
possession of them. On 19 March 1401 he 
appears as a member of the privy council, 
and four days later was appointed captain 
of Calais. He was sent on a diplomatic 



Beaufort 



159 



Becker 



mission to France in the same year, and 
general suspicion having been created by the 
rebellion of the earls, Somerset was, on the 
petition of the commons, declared loyal. 
In 1402 the commons also petitioned that 
he might be restored to his marquisate, but 
Somerset wisely declined on the ground 
that the title ' marquis ' was strange to 
Englishmen. 

During that year (1402) Somerset was 
actively employed. On 27 April he was 
sent to negotiate with the Duke of Guelders ; 
and in June he escorted to Cologne the 
king's daughter Blanche on her marriage to 
Ludwig of Bavaria. He had been witness 
to Henry IV's marriage by proxy to Joan of 
Brittany at Eltham on 3 April, and later in 
the year he was sent to fetch the new queen 
to England. In October he was one of the 
lords permitted by Henry to confer with 
the commons on condition that this consti- 
tutional innovation was not to be taken as 
a precedent (Stubbs, iii. 37). He also saw 
some service with the fleet, capturing several 
Spanish ships in the channel. He seems to 
have taken no part in the suppression of the 
Percies' revolt in 1403, but on 28 Sept. he 
was made lieutenant of South Wales. On 
13 Feb. 1403-4 he was nominated joint- 
commissioner to treat with France, and on 
20 Oct. 1404 was appointed deputy-constable 
of England. Early in the same year he 
was one of the ministers whom Henry IV, 
as 'a further condescension to public feel- 
ing,' nominated in parliament to form his 
'great and continual council' (^ib. iii. 44). 
From 23 Dec. 1406 to 8 May 1407 he 
was admiral of the northern and western 
fleets. 

Somerset, who had been in failing health 
for some time, died in St. Catherine's Hos- 
pital by the Tower on 16 March 1409-10 
(not, as all the peerages say, on 21 March), 
and was buried in the Abbey church on 
Tower Hill (^English Chron. ed. Davies, p. 
37). An alabaster monument was afterwards 
erected to his memory in St. Michael's chapel, 
Canterbury Cathedral. He married, before 
23 April 1399, Margaret, daughter of Thomas 
Holland, second earl of Kent [q. v.], and by 
her, who afterwards married Thomas, duke 
of Clarence [q. v.], had issue — three sons and 
two daughters. The three sons — Henry 
(1401-1418), John (1403-1444) [q. v.], and 
Edmund (1406 ?-l 455) [q.v.] — all succeeded 
as earls of Somerset ; John and Edmund 
were also dukes of Somerset. Of the daugh- 
ters, Jane or Joan married James I of Scot- 
land, and is separately noticed [see Jane, 
d. 1445], and Margaret married Thomas 
Courtenay, earl of Devon. 



[Gal. Close and Patent Rolls ; Eolls of Parlia- 
ment, vol. iii. ; Rymer's Foedera ; Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Walsingham, 
Trokelowe, Eulog. Historiarum, Waurin, and 
Annales Henrioi IV (Rolls Ser.) ; Monstrelet 
(ed. Soc. de I'Hist. de France) ; English Chro- 
nicle (Camden Soc.) ; Bentley's Excerpta Histo- 
rica and Hist, of the Royal Navy ; Stubbs's 
Const. History ; Ramsay's Lancaster and York ; 
"Wylie's Hist, of Henry IV (gives full references 
for facts of Somerset's career) ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage ; 0. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage.] 

A. F. P. 

BECKER, LYDIA ERNESTINE (1827- 
1890), advocate of women's suffrage, daugh- 
ter of Hannibal Leigh Becker and Mary his 
wife, daughter of James Duncuft of Hollin- 
wood, was born in Cooper Street, Manches- 
ter, on 24 Feb. 1827. She was the eldest of 
fifteen children. Her grandfather, Ernest 
Hannibal Becker, was a German, naturalised 
in England, who settled in business in 
Manchester. Her father had calico-printing 
works at Reddish, near Stockport, and 
afterwards chemical works at Altham, near 
Accrington, Lancashire, where from about 
1838 to 1865 she chiefly lived. During her 
residence in the country she developed a 
great love for botany and astronomy, and in 
1864 published a small volume entitled 
' Botany for Novices.' She read a paper be- 
fore the British Association in 1869, 'On 
Alternation in the Structure of Lychnis 
Diurna, observed in connection with the 
Development of a Parasitic Fungus.' She 
wrote an elementary treatise on astronomy, 
but it was circulated in manuscript only. 
"When she removed with her father to Man- 
chester in 1865 she started a society of 
ladies for the study of literature and science, 
and took a room and gave free lectures ; the 
results, however, were not encouraging. 

The subject of women's suffrage appears 
to have been first brought to her notice at a 
meeting of the Social Science Association at 
Manchester in October 1866, when a paper 
by Madame Bodichon (Barbara Leigh- 
Smith) [q. V. Suppl.] was read. Thenceforth 
she became one of the most active workers 
in the cause, and when the Manchester 
women's suffrage committee was started by 
her assistance in January 1867 she became 
secretary. Her article on ' Female Suffrage' 
in the ' Contemporary Review ' for March 
1867 made her name widely known. Later 
in the same year the Manchester committee 
joined with similar organisations in other 
parts of the country, and the Manchester 
National Society for Women's Suffrage was 
formed. Miss Becker continuing as secretary. 
The public attention given to the subject 



Becker 



160 



Beckman 



was increased by the discussion which fol- 
lowed a paper on ' Some supposed Differences 
in the Minds of Men and Women with re- 
gard to Educational Necessities/ which she 
contributed to the British Association at Nor- 
wich in 1868. In March 1870 the ' Women's 
Suffrage Journal' was started, and Miss 
Becker acted as its editor and chief contri- 
butor to the end of her life. She published 
in 1872 an important pamphlet on the 'Poli- 
tical Disabilities of Women,' first printed in 
the 'Westminster Review,' and in 1873 an- 
other pamphlet entitled ' Libert^y, Equality, 
and Fraternity : a Reply to Mr. Fitzjames 
Stephen's Strictures on the Subjection of 
W^omen.' Her labours for the society were 
incessant. She directed its policy and or- 
ganised the movement as a whole. There 
was hardly an important women's suffrage 
meeting or conference held in any part of 
the kingdom in which she did not take part. 
Her public speaking vras marked not only 
by extreme clearness of utterance, but by its 
lucid statement of fact, its grasp of subject, 
and logical force. She naturally came to be 
a familiar figure in the parliamentary lobbies, 
where her political capacity was fully re- 
cognised. 

At the election of the first Manchester 
school board in 1870, she was a successful 
candidate for a seat, and she was re-elected 
at the seven subsequent elections, always as 
an independent or unsectarian member. She 
kept special watch over the interests of the 
female teachers and scholars, and in the 
general work of the board she bore an active 
and influential part. 

For many years she never missed the 
annual meetings of the British Association, 
and often took part in the discussions. W'lien 
she attended the meeting in Canada in 1884, 
she wrote some descriptive letters to the 
' Manchester Examiner and Times.' She 
died at Geneva on 18 July 1890, and was 
buried there in the cemetery of St. George. 

A portrait of Miss Becker, painted by 
Miss S. L. Dacre, hangs at the office of the 
central committee of the Women's Suffrage 
Society, Westminster, pending the time 
when it can be offered to the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

[Memorial number of the Women's Suffrage 
Journal, August 1890 ; Manchester Examiner 
and Times, 21 July 1890 ; Britten and Boul- 
ger's English Botanists, 1893, p. 13; Koyal 
See. Cat. of Scientific Papers, vii. 118; Shaw's 
Old and New Manchester, ii. 75 (with portrait) ; 
communications from Wilfred Becker, esq., Man- 
chester, also from Miss Helen Blackburn, 
Westminster, who is engaged on a life of Miss 
Becker.] C. W. S. 



BECKETT, GILBERT ARTHUR A. 

(1837-1891), humorist. [See A Beckett.] 

BECKMAN, Sir MARTIN {d. 1702), 
colonel, chief engineer and master gunner of 
England, was a Swedish captain of artillery. 
His brother, a military engineer in the ser- 
vice of Charles I during the civil war, was 
taken prisoner by the parliament forces 
in 1644, but soon after escaped. In 1653 
he joined the royalist exiles at Middelburg, 
the bearer of important information from 
England, and died before the Restoration. 
Martin Beckman in 1060 petitioned Charles 
II for the place of royal engineer, formerly 
enjoyed by his brother, and mentioned that 
he ' was ruined and severely injured by an 
accident at an explosion in the preparation 
of fireworks to be shown on the water in 
the king's honour.' He was accordingly em- 
ployed as an engineer, and his skill in labora- 
tory work led to his appointment on 6 June 
1661 to the expedition under Lord Sand- 
wich as ' firemaster with and in his majesty's 
fleete.' 

He sailed from Deptford with the fleet on 
13 June in the ship Augustine, and, after a 
short time at Alicante, proceeded against 
the pirates of Algiers; but, the enterprise 
failing, the fleet bore away for Tangiers, of 
which possession was taken as part of the 
dow^ry of Catherine of Braganza [q. v.] on 
30 Jan. 1662. Here Beckman made plans 
of the place and of such fortifications as 
he considered necessary, estimated to cost 
200,000/. A governor and garrison were 
left there, and the fleet proceeded to Lis- 
bon to escort Queen Catherine to England. 
Beckman arrived with the fleet at Ports- 
mouth on 14 May. Plans of the actions at 
Algiers were made by him and engraved. 

A plan of Tangiers was sent home before 
the fleet returned, and Pepys mentions in 
his ' Diary ' under date 28 Feb. 1662, that 
he presented to the Duke of York from Lord 
Sandwich ' a fine map of Tangiers, done by 
one Captain Martin Beckman, a Swede, that 
is with my lord. We stayed looking over 
it a great while with the duke.' This map 
is in the collection of George III in the 
British Museum, 

In 1663 Beckman was committed a pri- 
soner to the Tower of London. He stated, 
in a petition to the king and council for a 
trial, that he had been half a year a close 
prisoner through the malice of one person 
for discovering the designs of the Spaniards 
and others against his majesty. He there- 
upon left England. After the raid up the 
Medway by the Dutch fleet under De Ruy- 
ter in 1667, he wrote on 24 June to the king 



Beckman 



i6i 



Beckman 



from Stade in Bremen, that he had brought 
to perfection a mode of firing ships Avhich 
he offered for service against the Dutch, 
who had done him infinite wrongs. He was 
then recalled, and consulted as to fortifica- 
tions at Sheerness to guard the Medway. 
He was placed in charge of these defences 
until on 19 Oct. 1670 he was nominated 
engineer to the office of ordnance, and third 
engineer of Great Britain from 1 July of 
that year. 

On 9 May of the following year, when 
Colonel Thomas Blood [q. v.] and his accom- 
plices stole the crown and sceptre from the 
jewel-liouse in the Tower of London, Beck- 
man, whose official residence was in the- 
Tower, heard the alarm, and after a severe 
struggle made Blood a prisoner. Beckman 
was awarded 100/. for his share in the cap- 
ture. 

In 1672 he visited Carlisle and Cliffiard's 
fort at the mouth of the Tyne, plans of 
which and some cleverly executed water- 
colour views are in the British Museum (see 
Walpoi.e, Anecdotes of Paintinc/, 1888, ii, 
235). In the following year he was an 
engineer of the ordnance train in the expe- 
dition against Holland under Prince Rupert, 
and took part in the naval engagements of 
28 May, 4 June, and 11 Aug. At the end 
of 1674 Charles II gave verbal directions 
that his salary should be increased by 150/. 
per annum. In January 1678 he was ap- 
pointed with Sir Bernard de Gomme [q. v.] 
and Sir Jonas Moore [q. v.] on a commis- 
sion to strengthen the fortifications of Ports- 
mouth and to fortify Gosport, and buy land 
for the purpose. On 3 March a royal war- 
rant secured to him the reversion of chief 
engineer of Great Britain on the death of 
Sir Bernard De Gomrae. 

About this time he was promoted to be 
major in the army. On 7 Feb. 1081 he was 
appointed second engineer of Great Britain, 
and went to Hull as a commissioner to carry 
out the defence works there, and also re- 
ported on the defences of Holy Island and 
Berwick-on-Tweed in 1682 and 1683. In 
April 1 683 he was recalled from Hull to join 
Lord Dartmouth's expedition to Tangier 
as chief engineer. Samuel Pepys [q. v.] 
sailed with this expedition, and his narra- 
tive of the voyage was published in 1841. 
On 29 Aug., when at sea, Pepys read Beck- 
man's project for the destruction of Tangier. 
The object of the expedition — the destruc- 
tion of the mole and defences of Tangier 
and the withdrawal of the garrison — having 
been satisfactorily accomplished, Beckman 
went to Gibraltar, and made a plan of the 
Spanish Rock in two sheets, which is now in 

VOL. I. — SUP. 



the King's Library, British Museum. After 
his return to England he was sent to Scot- 
land to design works for strengthening Stir- 
ling, and he also reported on the defences 
of Carlisle, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Tynemouth, 
and Scarborough castles, Chester, Yarmouth, 
and Landguard fort. 

Shortly after the accession of James II he 
was knighted (20 March 1686). On 11 June 
1685, when Lord Dartmouth's royal regi- 
ment of fusiliers was raised, Beckman was 
given a commission as captain in it, the re- 
giment being generally quartered at the 
Tower of London. On 23 Dec. of this year 
he became chief engineer of Great Britain in 
succession to De Gomme deceased. 

On 14 Feb. 1688 he supervised by royal 
command a display of fireworks from his 
own design on the occasion of the queen's 
delivery. On 11 Aug. he was appointed 
' comptroller of fireworkes as well for war as 
for triumph,' with an allowance of 200/. a 
year. He thus became the first head of the 
royal laboratory at Woolwich and principal 
storekeeper. 

On 15 Oct. he was appointed chief en- 
gineer of the king's train against William of 
Orange, but no action was necessary, and he 
returned to London and served under Wil- 
liam. During the absence this year on 
account of ill-health of Sir Henry Sheeres 
[q. v.], surveyor-general of the ordnance, 
Beckman acted for him. In 1689 he was 
busy with the defences of Hull and Berwick- 
on-Tweed, and obtained a royal warrant 
(23 Aug.) for the execution of his proposed 
fortifications in the Isle of Wight. 

In 1691 he accompanied Major-general 
Thomas ToUemache [q. v.] to Ireland, land- 
ing at Dublin at the latter end of May, and 
took part under Ginkel in the siege of 
Athlone in June, the battle of Aghrim on 
12 July, and the siege of Limerick in August 
and September. He was appointed on 28 Feb. 
1692 to be colonel commanding the ordnance 
train for the sea expedition, and in April he 
sat as a member of General Ginkel's com- 
mittee on the organisation of the train. In 
June he embarked with the train and a force 
of seven thousand men under the Duke of 
Leinster, for a descent upon the French 
coast ; but the French troops proving too 
numerous in the vicinity of La Hogue, the 
troops were landed at Ostend. They cap- 
tured Fumes and Dixmude, which Beckman 
strengthened with new works. He returned 
to England at the end of October. In 1693 
he again commanded the ordnance train in 
the summer expedition. 

At the end of May 1 694 he sailed in com- 
mand of the train and of all the bomb- 



Beckman 



162 



Bedford 



vessels and machines, with the troops under 
Tollemache, and arrived with the fleet at 
Camaret Bay on 7 June, when the land 
attack failed. Dieppe and Havre were then 
reduced to ruins by Beckman's bomb-vessels, 
and the whole coast so harassed and alarmed 
that the inhabitants had to be forcibly kept 
in the coast towns. Having returned to St. 
Helens on 26 July, Beckman and his bomb- 
vessels went with the fleet under Sir 
Clowdisley Shovell to the attack of Dunkirk 
and Calais in September, and then returned 
to England. He afterwards visited the 
Channel Islands and reported on the de- 
fences of Guernsey. His plans of St. Peter's, 
Castle Cornet, and the Bouche de Yale, with 
water-colour sketches, are in the British 
Museum. 

On 22 May 1695 Beckman was appointed 
to the command of the ordnance train and 
the machine and bomb-vessels for the sum- 
mer expedition to the straits of Gibraltar, 
and took part in the operations on the coast 
of Catalonia, returning home in the autumn. 
His demands for projectiles for his bomb- 
vessels were so large that the board of 
ordnance represented that parliament had 
made no provision to meet them. He exer- 
cised a similar command in the summer ex- 
pedition under Lord Berkeley, which sailed 
at the end of June 1696 to ' insult the coast 
of France.' On 3 July Berkeley detached 
a squadron of ten ships of war under Cap- 
tain Mees, E..N., and Beckman with his 
bomb-vessels. They entered St. Martin's, 
Isle of Ilh§, on the 5th under French colours, 
which they struck as soon as they had an- 
chored. They bombarded the place all that 
night and the following day, expending over 
two thousand bombs and destroying the best 
part of the town. On the 7th they sailed 
for Olonne, where a like operation produced 
a similar result, and then rejoined the fleet, 
returning to Torbay. These enterprises 
created such alarm that over a hundred 
batteries were ordered by the French mini- 
stry to be erected between Brest and Goulet, 
and over sixty thousand men were continu- 
ally in arms for coast defence. 

Early in 1697 Beckman surveyed all the 
bomb-vessels, ten of which he reported to be 
in good condition and fitted to take in 
twenty mortars ' which are all we have ser- 
viceable.' On the general thanksgiving for 
peace on 2 Dec. Beckman designed the fire- 
work display before the king and the royal 
family in St. James's Square, London ; his 
drawing representation of it is in the King's 
Library, British Museum. 

Lack of money for defences caused Beck- 
man as much difliculty as his predecessors 



and successors in office. Representations of 
insecurity — in regard to Portsmouth, for ex- 
ample, in 1699 — led to many plans and re- 
ports, but nothing was effected. 

Beckman died in London on 24 June 
1702. He appears to have married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Talbot Edwards, keeper of 
the crown jewels. She was buried at the 
Tower of London on 12 Dec. 1677. Two 
sons, Peter and Edward, were also buried 
there on 7 Feb. 1676 and 29 June 1678 re- 
spectively. The board of ordnance wrote to 
Marlborough that Beckman's death was a 
very great loss. The post remained unfilled 
for nine years. 

[Board of Ordnance Records ; Royal En- 
gineers' Records; Royal Warrants; Cat. of State 
Papers, 1644-1702; various tracts on Fortifica- 
tion, &c. ; Addit. MSS. Brit. Mus. ; Story's 
Impartial Hist, of Wars in Ireland, and Con- 
tinuation, 1693 ; Bayley's Tower of London, 
1821 ; Life, Journals, and Correspondence of 
Samuel Pepys, 1841, also Diary of same; Cam- 
den's Gravesend ; Pocock's Gravesend and Mil- 
ton, 1797 ; Field of Mars, 1801 ; Rapin's Hist. ; 
Hume's Hist. ; Charnock'a Biographia Navalis, 
1795; Campbell's British Admirals; Lord Car- 
marthen's .Tournal of the Brest Expedition, 
1694; Present State of Europe, 1694; Hastod's 
Kent ; Burke's Seats and Arms ; Kennett's Re- 
gister; Strj'pe; Cannon's Hist. Records of the 
18th Royal Irish Regiment.] R, H. V. 

BEDFORD, FRANCIS (1799-1883), 
bookbinder, was born at Paddington, Lon- 
don, on 18 June 1799. His father is believed 
to have been a courier attached to the esta- 
blishment of George III. At an early age he 
was sent to a school in Yorkshire, and on his 
return to London his guardian, Henry Bower, 
of 38 Great Marlborough Street, apprenticed 
him in 1817 to a bookbinder named Haigh, 
in Poland Street, Oxford Street. Only a 
part of his time was served with Haigh,- and 
in 1822 he was transferred to a binder named 
Finlay, also of Poland Street, with whom his 
indentures were completed. At the end of 
his apprenticeship he entered the workshop 
of one of the best bookbinders of the day, 
Charles Lewis [q. v.], of 35 Duke Street, St. 
James's, with whom he worked until the death 
of his employer, and subsequently managed 
thebusiness forLewis'swidow. It was during 
this period that Bedford's talent and indus- 
try attracted the notice of the Duke of 
Portland, who became not only one of his 
most liberal patrons, but also one of his 
staunchest and kindest friends. In 1841 
Bedford, who had left Mrs. Lewis's esta- 
blishment, entered into partnership with 
John Clarke of 61 Frith Street, Soho, who 
had a special reputation for binding books in 



Bedford 



163 



Beith 



tree-marbled calf. Clarke and Bedford car- 
ried on their business in Frith Street until 
1850, when the partnership was dissolved. 
In 1851 Bedford went to the Cape of Good 
Hope for the benefit of his health, where he 
remained a considerable time, the expenses 
of his journey being defrayed by the Duke 
of Portland, and on his return to England 
he established himself in Blue Anchor Yard, 
York Street, Westminster. He afterwards 
added 91 York Street to his premises, and 
remained there until his death, which took 
place at his residence at Shepherd's Bush, 
Hammersmith, on 8 June 1883. Bedford 
was twice married, but had no children by 
either of his wives. 

The work of Bedford is not excelled by 
that of any English bookbinder of his time. 
If not distinguished by much originality, it 
is always in good taste, and although it may 
not be quite equal in finish to that of the 
best of the contemporary French binders, 
for soundness and thoroughness it could not 
be surpassed. Bedford appreciated tall 
copies, and a book never came from his 
hands shorn of its margins. He was also 
a very skilful mender of damaged leaves. 
The number of volumes bound by him is 
very large, and for many years a continuous 
stream of beautiful bindings issued from his 
workshops, the great majority of which are 
now to be found on the shelves of the finest 
libraries of England and America. Many 
of his choicest productions are imitations 
of the work of the great French bookbinders 
of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries, and the bindings of Rogers's 
' Poems ' and * Italy,' of which he bound 
several copies in morocco inlaid with 
coloured leathers and covered with delicate 
gold tooling in the style of Padeloup, are 
exquisite specimens of his skill. These two 
volumes have repeatedly realised upwards 
of one hundred guineas. Bedford himself 
considered that an edition of Dante, which 
he bound in brown morocco and tooled with 
a Grolier pattern, was his chef d'oeuvre, and 
wished it placed in his coffin ; but his request 
was not complied with, and it was sold at 
the sale of his books for 49/. He obtained 
prize medals at several of the great English 
and French exhibitions. His books were 
disposed of by Sotheby, Wilkinson, & 
Hodge, in March 1884, and realised 
4,876/. I65. M. Many of the best examples 
of his work were among them. In addition 
to his skill as a bookbinder, Bedford pos- 
sessed much literary and bibliographical 
knowledge. 

[Athenaeum, 16 June 1883; The Bookbinder, 
i. 65 ; private information.] W. Y. F. 



BEITH, ALEXANDER (1799-1891), 
divine and author, was born at Campbeltown, 
Argyleshire, on 13 Jan. 1799. His parents 
were Gilbert Beith and Helen Elder. Beith's 
father was a land agent and farmer in the 
Kintyre district of Argyleshire, and was a 
man of wide reading, especially in theology 
and church history. After the usual course 
of education at Campbeltown young Beith 
entered the Glasgow University with a view 
to the ministry of the church of Scotland. 
He was licensed by the presbytery of Kin- 
tyre on 7 Feb. 1821. Called to the chapel- 
of-ease at Oban in June following, he 
laboured there until November 1824, when 
he was transferred to Hope Street church, 
Glasgow. There for two years he ministered 
to a large congregation. In 1826 he removed 
to the parish of Kilbrandon, Argyleshire, and 
in 1830 to the parish of Glenelg, Inverness- 
shire. In 1839 he was called to the first 
charge of Stirling. When the agitation on 
the subject of spiritual independence was 
reaching a crisis in the church of Scotland, 
Beith was one of the seven ministers ap- 
pointed in 1842 to preach at Strathbogie in 
spite of the prohibition of the civil courts. 
He was one of the 474 ministers who in 1843 
left the established church and formed the 
free church of Scotland. He and his con- 
gregation removed to a handsome place of 
worship which was subsequently erected in 
Stirling and named the Free North Church. 
In 1847 Beith gave evidence on the question 
of sites before a committee of the House of 
Commons, some landowners having refused 
sites for the erection of buildings in connec- 
tion with the free church. He took a pro- 
minent part in educational and other matters 
affecting the new religious denomination. 
The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him 
in 1850 by the university of Princeton, 
U.S.A. In 1858 he was elected moderator 
of the general assembly of the free church, 
the assembly which first dealt with the 
famous Cardross case. Beith retired from 
the active service of the church in Stirling in 
1876, but continued to take part in the 
general work of the denomination. He was 
a fluent speaker and able preacher; his theo- 
logical position was broad and liberal. When 
the deposition of William Robertson Smith 
[q. v.] was first moved in the assembly, Beith 
proposed and carried a motion that the 
charges be withdrawn and the professor be 
restored to his chair in Aberdeen. *He held 
that critical study of the scriptures was not 
inconsistent with reverence for them and 
belief in their inspiration. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 11 May 1891 in his ninety-third 
year. By his wife Julia Robson {d. 25 Sept. 

u2 



Belcher 



164 



Belcher 



1866) he had fourteen children : six sons 
and eight daughters. His eldest son, Gilbert, 
was member of parliament for the central 
division of Glasgow, 1885, and for the Inver- 
ness district of burghs, 1892-5. Another son, 
John Alexander, was a justice of the peace 
and closely connected for many years with 
philanthropic and educational work in Man- 
chester ; he died in October 1896. Both 
brothers were partners in the well-known 
firm of Beith, Stevenson, & Co., East India 
merchants, Glasgow and Manchester. 

An excellent portrait of Dr. Beith, painted 
by Norman McI3eth, was presented to him 
by his congregation in Stirling, and is in the 
possession of his son Gilbert in Glasgow. 

Dr. Beith was a voluminous writer. Be- 
sides many pamphlets on public questions, 
he published : 1. ' A Treatise on the Baptist 
Controversy' (in Gaelic), 1823. 2. 'A 
Catechism on Baptism,' 1824. 3. 'Sorrow- 
ing yet Rejoicing, a Narrative of successive 
Bereavements in a Minister's Family,' 18.39. 
4. 'The Two Witnesses traced in History,' 
1846. 5. ' Biographical Sketch of the Rev. 
Alex. Stewart, Cromarty,' 1854. 6. ' Christ 
our Life, being a Series of Lectures on the 
first Six Chapters of John's Gospel,' 2 vols. 
1856. 7. ' Scottish Reformers and Martyrs,' 
1860. 8. ' The Scottish Church in her re- 
lation to other Churches at Home and 
Abroad,' 1809. 9. ' A Highland Tour with 
Dr. Candlish,' 1874. 10. ' Memoirs of Dis- 
ruption Times,' 1877. 11. ' The Woman of 
Samaria,' 1880. 

[Personal knowledge; private information; 
Scott's Fasti Eecles. Scotican, 11. i. 61, 70, 101, 
III. i. 43.] T. B. J. 

BELCHER, JAMES (1781-1811), prize- 
fighter, was born at his father's house in St. 
James's churchyard, Bristol, on 15 April 
1781. His mother was a daughter of Jack 
Slack {d. 1778), a noted pugilist, who de- 
feated John Broughton [q. v.] in April 1750. 
* Jim ' Belcher followed the trade of a 
butcher, though he was never formally ap- 
prenticed, and signalised himself when a lad 
by pugilistic and other feats at Lansdown 
fair. He was a natural fighter, owing little 
to instruction in the art. His form is de- 
scribed as elegant ; he was, at any rate, good- 
humoured, finely proportioned, and well- 
looking. He came to London in 1798 and 
sparred with Bill Warr, a veteran boxer, of 
(yovent trarden. On 12 April 1799, after a 
fight of thirty-three minutes, he beat Tom 
Jones of Paddington at Wormwood Scrubbs. 
On 15 May 1800 Belcher, aged 19, met Jack 
Bartholomew, aged 37, on Finchley Com- 
mon, and after seventeen rounds knocked 



him out with a ' terrific ' body blow. On 
22 Dec. 1800, near Abershaw's gibbet on 
Wimbledon Common, he defeated Andrew 
Gamble, the Irisli champion, in five rounds, 
Gamble being utterly confounded by his 
opponent's quickness. On 25 Nov. 1801 he 
met Joe Berks of Wem, and defeated him 
after sixteen rounds of desperate fighting. 
He fought him again on 20 Aug. 1802, and 
Berks retired at the end of the fourteenth 
round, by which time he could scarcely 
stand and was shockingly cut about the 
face. In April 1803 he severely punished 
John Firby, ' the young ruHian,' in a hastily 
arranged encounter. Next month he had 
to appear before Lord Ellenborough in the 
court of king's bench for rioting and fighting, 
upon which occasion he was defended by 
Erskine and Francis Const [q. v.], and was 
merely bound over to come up for judgment 
upon his own recognisance in 400/. 

In July 1803 Belcher lost an eye owing 
to an accident when playing at rackets. 
His high spirit and constitution forthwith 
declined, but he was placed by his friends in 
the ' snug tavern ' of the Jolly Brewers in 
Wardour Street. Unhappily he was stirred 
by jealousy of a former pupil, Hen Pearce, 
the ' Bristol game-chicken,' once more to 
try his fortune in the ring. He had a terri- 
ble battle with Pearce on Barnby Moor, 
near Doncaster, on 6 Dec. 1805. He dis- 
played all his old courage but not his old 
skill or form, and was defeated in eighteen 
rounds. He fought yet again two heroic 
fights with Tom Cribb — the first on 8 April 
1807 at Moulsey in forty-one rounds, when 
Belcher would have proved the winner but 
for his confused sight and sprained wrist — 
the second on 1 Feb. 1809, in answer to a 
challenge for the belt and two hundred 
guineas. Belcher was again defeated after 
a punishing fight in thirty-one rounds, 
though the best judges were of opinion that, 
had Belcher possessed his once excellent 
constitution and eyesight, Cribb must have 
been the loser. This was Belcher's last 
fight. He was one of the gamest fighters 
ever seen in the prize-ring, and probably the 
most rapid in his movements : ' you heard 
his blows, you did not see them.' A truly 
courageous man. Belcher was in private life 
good-humoured, modest, and unassuming ; 
but after his last fight he became taciturn 
and depressed. He was deserted by most 
of his old patrons : one of the best of these 
was Thomas Pitt, the second lord Camel- 
ford, who at his death on 10 March 1804 
left him his famous bulldog Trusty. Bel- 
cher died on 30 July 1811 at the Coach and 
Horses, Frith Street, Soho, a property which 



Bell 



165 



Bell 



he left to his widow ; he was interred in the 
Marylebone burial ground. By the conse- 
quence of his various battles, stated the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' aided by great 
irregularity of living, he had reduced him- 
self to a most pitiable situation for the last 
eighteen months, and at last fell a martyr 
to his indiscretions. Portraits are given in 
' Pugilistica ' and * Boxiaua,' in which Egan 
remarks upon his likeness to Napoleon. A 
link between the silver and golden ages of 
the prize-ring, Belcher was * as well known 
to his own generation as Pitt or Wellington.' 
Like the latter he is commemorated by an 
article of attire, a 'belcher 'or blue and white 
spotted neckerchief, though the term is 
applied loosely to any particoloured hand- 
kerchief tied round the neck. His character 
and appearance are highly eulogised in Dr. 
Conan Doyle's novel, 'Rodney Stone' (chaps. 
X. and XV.) In 1805 a very brief but blood- 
thirsty ' Treatice (sic) on Boxing by Mr. 
J. Belcher' was appended to Barrington's 
'New London Spy ' for that year. 

A younger brother, Tom Belcher (1783- 
1854), was scarcely inferior as a pugilist to 
Jim. He won battles in succession with 
Dogherty, Firby, and some fighters of less 
repute, but he was badly defeated by Dutch 
Sam (Samuel Elias, 1776-1816). He was 
an accomplished boxer and sparrer, and at 
the Tennis Court, during Cribb's proprietor- 
ship, he defeated with the gloves such ex- 
perts as Shaw the lifeguardsman, John 
Gully [q. v.], and the coloured bruiser, 
Molineux. Tom Belcher, who is described 
as ' gentlemanly and inoffensive,' died at 
Bristol on 9 Dec. 1854, aged 71, universally 
respected, having earned a competence as 
tavern-keeper at the Castle, Hoi born, sub- 
sequently kept by Tom Spring [see Winter, 
Thomas], 

[Miles's Pugilistica, vol. i. (portrait) ; Egan's 
Boxiana, i. 120, 334; Fistiana, p. 7; Gent. 
Mag, 1811, ii. 194; Sporting Review, 1884; 
Badminton Library, ' Boxing,' p. 1.35; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. ii. 45 ; Blackwood's Mag. xii. 
462; European Mag. Ix. 157.] T. S. 

BELL, JOHN (1811-1895), sculptor, was 
born at Hopton, Suffolk, in 1811, and was 
educated at Catfield rectory, Norfolk. He 
studied sculpture in the Koyal Academy 
schools, and exhibited his first work at the 
Royal Academy, a religious group, in 1832. 
In 1833 he exhibited ' A Girl at a Brook ' 
and 'John the Baptist' at the Academy, 
and two statuettes at the Suffolk Street 
Gallery, followed by ' Ariel ' in 1834. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1836 
* Psyche feeding a Swan ' and ' Youth, Spring, 



and Infancy ; ' in 1837 ' Psyche and the Dove, 
and a model of ' The Eagle-Shooter,' the first 
version of one of his best statues. In 1837, 
the year in which Bell established his reputa- 
tion, he also exhibited two busts, ' Amoret ' 
and 'Psyche,' at the British Institution, 
Later works were ' Amoret Captive ' (1838), 
' The Babes in the Wood,' and ' Dorothea ' 
(1839), a subject from Cervantes, which was 
repeated in marble in 1841 for Lord Lans- 
downe. Bell repeated ' The Eagle-Shooter ' 
in 1841, and exhibited it with a ' David ' in 
Suffolk Street, A ' Madonna and Child ' 
(Royal Academy, 1840) was his first attempt 
at devotional sculpture. In 1841 he exhi- 
bited ' The Wounded Clorinda,' and in 1842 
he repeated ' The Babes in the Wood,' which 
had become very popular, in marble. The 
latter work is now in the Victoria and Al- 
bert Museum. In 1844 Bell contributed his 
' Eagle-Slayer ' and ' Jane Shore ' to the 
second exhibition at Westminster Hall of 
cartoons and other works designed for the 
decoration of the new houses of parliament. 
He afterwards obtained commissions for 
statues of Lord Falkland and Sir Robert 
Walpole (1854) for St, Stephen's Hall, West- 
minster, Among his other public works in 
London are a statue of Lord Clarendon at 
the Foreign Office, the Wellington monu- 
ment in marble, with statues of Peace and 
War (1855-6), at the Guildhall, the Guards' 
Memorial in bronze (1858-60) in Waterloo 
I'lace, and the marble group of 'The United 
States directing the Progress of America,' 
part of the Albert Memorial, Hyde Park, 
a model for which was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1869. A large copy of 
this work in terra cotta is at Washington. 
Two of Bell's chief works are at Woolwich, 
a marble statue of 'Armed Science' (1855), 
in the royal artillery mess-room, and the 
Crimean artillery memorial (1860) on the 
parade. A bust of Sir Robert Walpole 
(1858) is at Eton, and there is a large monu- 
ment to James Montgomery in Sheffield 
cemetery. Many of Bell's best works are in 
private collections ; for instance, ' Lalage ' 
(1856) in Lord Fitzwilliam's collection at 
Wentworth Woodhouse ; the bronze version 
of ' The Eagle-Slayer ' at the same place ; 
'Andromeda' belongs to King Edward VII, 
' Imogen ' to Lord Coleridge, ' Eve ' to Lord 
Truro. 

Bell's earlier work had shown vigour and 
imagination, and a departure from the frigid 
classicism which had prevailed in English 
sculpture before his time ; but his later 
works at the Royal Academy, such as ' The 
Cross of Prayer ' (1864), ' A Cherub ' (1865), 
' The Foot of the Cross ' (1860), 'Mother and 



Bell 



1 66 



Bell 



Child ' (1867), ' The Octoroon ' (1868), ' The 
Last Kiss' (1869), show a decline in power, 
and are full of religious sentimentality or 
pseudo-classical elegance. He exhibited for 
the last time in 1879, Good engravings of 
some of his most popular statues, ' The Maid 
of Saragossa,' ' Babes in the Wood,' and 

* The Cross of Prayer,' were published in the 

* Art Journal.' Bell presented a collection 
of models of his large works to the Kensing- 
ton Town Hall. 

Bell took an active part in the movement 
which led to the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
and afterwards to the foundation of the 
South Kensington (now Victoria and Albert) 
Museum. He published 'Free-hand Out- 
line,' 1852-4 ; an essay on ' The Four Pri- 
mary Sensations of the Mind,' 1852 ; and 

* Ivan III, a Dramatic Sketch,' 1855. In 
1859 he received a medal from the Society 
of Arts for the origination of the principle 
of entasis as applied to the obelisk, A paper 
by Bell on this subject was published in 
1858 as an appendix to an essay by Richard 
Burgess on the Egyptian obelisks in Rome. 
Bell's last literary work was a theoretical re- 
storation of the 'Venus of Melos' {Magazine 
of Art, 1894, xvii. 16, with a portrait of Bell). 

In private life Bell endeared himself to all 
who knew him. He had retired from the 
active exercise of his profession for many 
years before his death, which took place on 
14 March 1895 at 15 Douro Place, Ken- 
sington, where he had resided for more than 
forty years. 

[Times, 28 March 1895 ; Athenaeum, 6 April 
1895; Biograph, 1880, iii. 178-86.] C. D. 

BELL, THOMAS {f. 1573-1610), anti- 
Romanist writer, was born at Raskelf, near 
Thirsk, Yorkshire, in 1551, and is stated to 
have been beneficed as a clergyman in Lan- 
cashire. Subsequently he became a Roman 
catholic, and being ' hot and eager in that 
profession,' his indiscretion led to his impri- 
sonment at York, where he was ' more 
troublesome to the keeper than all the rest of 
the prisoners together.' This was in or 
about 1573. In 1576 he went to Douay 
College, and in 1579, when twenty-eight, 
entered the English college at Rome as a 
student of philosophy. In 1581, being then 
a priest, he was in the English seminary at 
Rome, and in the following March (1582) 
was sent into England, A few years later 
(1586) he appears as the associate of Thomas 
Worthington [q. v.] and other priests in 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and else- 
where. He was mentioned in 1592 as one 
ill-affected to the government, and he shared 
the fate of other seminary priests in being 



arrested. He was sent to London as probably 
a valuable prize, but he forthwith recanted, 
and was sent back to Lancashire to help in 
the ' better searching and apprehending of 
Jesuits and seminaries,' After this employ- 
ment he went to Cambridge, where he began 
the publication of his controversial writings. 
They comprise: 1, 'Thomas Bels Motives: 
concerning Romish Faith and Religion,' 
Cambridge, 1593, 4to ; 2nd ed. 1605, 2, ' A 
Treatise of Usurie,' Cambridge, 1594, 4to, 
3, ' The Survey of Popery,' London, 1596, 
4to. 4. 'Hunting of the Romish Fox,' 
1598. This is entered on the ' Stationers' 
Register,' 8 April 1598, and Bell himself 
claims the authorship in his ' Counterblast,' 
fol. 44. A more famous work with the 
same title had, however, been published by 
Dr. William Turner {d. 1568) [q. v.], dean 
of Wells, in 1543 (Basle, 8vo). 5. ' The 
Anatomie of Popish Tyrannie, wherein is 
conteyned a Plain Declaration . , , of the 
Libels, Letters, Edictes, Pamphlets, and 
Bookes lately published by the Secular 
Priests, and English Hispanized Jesuites,' 
London, 1603, 4to. 6. ' The Golden Balance 
of Tryall,' London, 1003, 4to ; annexed to 
this is ' A Counterblast against the Vaine 
Blast of a Masked Companion, who termeth 
Himself E. 0., but thought to be Robert 
Parsons, the Trayterous Jesuite.' 7. ' The 
Downefall of Poperie, proposed by way of 
challenge to all English Jesuites and . , . 
Papists,' London, 1604 and 1605, 4to; re- 
printed and entitled ' The Fall of Papistrie ' 
in 1628, Parsons, Bishop Richard Smith, 
and Francis Walsingham (1577-1647) [q, v,] 
wrote answers to this, 8. ' The Woefull 
Crie of Rome,' London, 1605, 4to, 9, ' The 
Popes Funerall : containing an exact and 
pithy Reply to a pretended Answere of a 
, . Libell, called the "Forerunner of Bells 
Downfall," , , , Together with his Treatise 
called the Regiment of the Church,' London, 
1606, 4to. 10, 'The Jesuites Ante-past: 
containing a Reply against a Pretended 
Aunswere to the Downefall of Poperie,' 
London, 1608, 4to. 11, ' The Tryall of the 
New Religion,' London, 1608, 4to. 12. ' A 
Christian Dialogue between Theophilus, a 
Deformed Catholike in Rome, and Remigius, 
a Reformed Catholike in the Church of 
England,' 1609, 4to. 13. 'The Catholique 
Triumph : conteyning a reply to the pre- 
tended answere of B. C. [i.e. Parsons] lately 
published against The Tryall of the New 
Religion,' London, 1610, 4to. 

In his ' Jesuites Ante-past ' (No. 10) he 
states that Queen Elizabeth granted him a 
pension of fifty pounds a year, which 
James I continued to him. 



Bellew 



167 



Bellew 



[John Eglinton Bailey's articles in Notes and 
Queries, 27 Nov. and 4 Dec. 1880 (reprinted for 
private circulation), and authorities there cited ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. of Early Printed Books ; Notes 
and Queries, 18 Dec. 1880, p. 491.] C. W. S. 

BELLEW, HENRY WALTER (1834- 
1892), surgeon-general, born at Nusserabad 
in India on 30 Aug. 1834, was son of Captain 
Henry Walter Bellew of the Bengal army, 
assistant quartermaster-general attached to 
the Cabul army in the disastrous retreat of 
1842. He was educated as a medical student 
at St. George's Hospital, London, and ad- 
mitted a member of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England in 1855. He served 
in the Crimean war during the winter of 
1854-5, and on 14 Nov. 1855 he was gazetted 
issistant-surgeon in the Bengal medical ser- 
vice, becoming surgeon in 1867, and deputy 
airgeon-general in 1881. He went to India 
in 1856, and was at once appointed to the 
corps of guides, but was soon afterwards 
ordered to join Major (Sir) Henry Lumsden 
[q. V. Suppl.] on his Candahar mission, and 
he was serving in Afghanistan during the 
sepoy mutiny. 

Bellew rendered important services to the 
Indian government by his knowledge of the 
natives during the Ambeyla campaign, and 
as civil surgeon at Peshawar his name be- 
came a household word among the frontier 
tribes, whose language be spoke, and with 
whose manners and feelings he was tho- 
roughly familiar. In 1869 Lord Mayo em- 
ployed him to act as interpreter with the 
ameer, Shere Ali, during the durbar at Am- 
bala. In 1871 he accompanied Sir Richard 
Pollock on a political mission to Sista, and 
during 1873-4 he was attached to Sir 
Douglas Forsyth's embassy to Kashgar and 
Yarkand. In 1873 he was decorated with 
the order of a ' companion of the Star of 
India,' and after acting as sanitary commis- 
sioner for the Punjab he was appointed chief 
political officer at Cabul. But the cold and 
hardships he endured at the siege of Sherpvir 
brought on an attack of illness which obliged 
him to leave his post. He retired from the 
service with the rank of surgeon-general in 
November 1886. He died at Farnham Royal, 
Buckinghamshire, on 26 July 1892, and his 
body was cremated at Brookwood. There 
is a bust of Bellew in the United Service 
Museum at Simla. 

Bellew married Isabel, sister of General 
Sir George MacGregor, and by her had two 
daughters and one son, Robert Walter Dillon, 
now a captain in the 16th lancers. 

Bellew belonged to the school of Anglo- 
Indian officials who have helped to build up 
and consolidate the British empire in India 



by acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
natives' habits and modes of thought. He 
was passionately fond of oriental studies, 
and acquired languages with great facility. 
His views on the history of these languages 
did not meet with general approval ; but 
the numerous works he wrote, and the ser- 
vices he rendered to ethnography, grammar, 
and lexicography deserve grateful acknow- 
ledgment. As sanitary commissioner of the 
Punjab it was his custom to visit even the 
small and remote villages, while in the 
larger towns he would assemble the mem- 
bers of the municipality and explain to them 
in a familiar style the advantages of vacci- 
nation and the necessity of using pure water 
and of practising general cleanliness. He 
published in Punjabi a small treatise on 
vaccination, and such simple notes on cholera 
as could be easily understood by the people. 
As an explorer his gift of observation sup- 
plied minute and interesting information 
about regions that had been either unknown 
or but little known before he visited them ; 
while as a political officer and representative 
Englishman on the Punjab frontier he gained 
in the highest degree the confidence of the 
native rulers as well as of their subjects. 

Bellew's works are : 1. ' Journal of a 
Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857,' 
London, 1862, 8vo : full of information 
from a scientific as well as from a political 
point of view. The book is still valuable as 
a study of the character of the warlike hill 
tribes. 2. ' General Report on the Yusuf- 
zais in 1864.' A work of great interest on 
the topography, history, antiquities, tribal 
subdivisions, government, customs, climate, 
and productions of the country. 3. ' A 
Grammar and Dictionary of the Pukkhto or 
Pukshto Language,' London, 1867, 4to. 
4. ' From the Indus to the Tigris, with a 
Grammar and Vocabulary of the Brahoe 
Language,' London, 1874, 8vo. 5. ' General 
Description of the Kashgar,' 1875, 4to. 
6, 'The History of Kashgaria,' Calcutta, 
1875, 4to. 7. 'Kashmir and Kashgar, a 
Narrative of the Journey of the Embassy to 
Kashgar in 1873-4,' London, 1875, 8vo. 
8. ' Afghanistan and the Afghans,' London, 
1879, 8vo. 9. ' The Races of Afghanistan,' 
Calcutta, 1880, 8vo. 10. ' A New Afghan 
Question ; or. Are the Afghans Israelites ? ' 
Simla, 1881, 8vo. 11. 'The History of Cholera 
in India from 1862 to 1881,' London, 1885, 
8vo. 12. ' A Short Practical Treatise on the 
Nature, Causes, and Treatment of Cholera ' 
(a supplement to the preceding work), Lon- 
don, 1887, 8vo. 13. ' An Enquiry into the 
Ethnography of Afghanistan,' Woking, 1891, 
roy. 8vo. 



Bellin 



i68 



Bennett 



[Obituary notices in the Transactions ot the 
Eoyal Asiatic Society, October 1 892, p. 880, the 
Indian Lancet, Calcutta, 1896, vii. 29—31, and 
the Times, 29 July 1892.] D'A. P. 

BELLIN, SAMUEL (1799-1893), en- 
graver, son of John Bellin of Chigwell, 
Essex, was born on 13 May 1799. He 
studied for some' years in Rome, where he 
made some excellent copies of celebrated 
pictures, and acquired great facility as a 
draughtsman. On his return to England, 
about 1834, he devoted himself to engraving, 
and became one of the leading workers in 
mezzotint and the mixed method. His plates, 
which are all from pictures by popular Eng- 
lish painters of the day, include ' The Meet- 
ing of the Council of the Anti-Corn Law 
League,' after J. R. Herbert ; ' Heather 
Belles,' after J. Phillip ; ' The Council of 
War in the Crimea,' after A. Egg ; ' The 
Gentle Warning,' after F. Stone ; ' The Heart's 
Resolve,' and ' The Momentous Question,' 
after S. Setchell ; ' Milton composing " Sam- 
son Agonistes,'" after J. C. Horsley; ' Open- 
ing of the Great Exhibition of 1851,' after 
H. C. Selous ; * Salutation to the Aged 
Friars,' after C. L. Eastlake ; ' Dr. Johnson's 
Visit to Garrick,' after E. M. Ward ; and 
portraits of the Prince Consort, Lord John 
Russell, and Joseph Hume, M.P. His latest 
plate appeared in 1870, when he retired from 
the profession. Bellin drew and etched on 
three plates a panoramic view of Rome from 
Monte Pincio, which he published, with a 
dedication to the Duke of Sussex, in 1835. 
He was an original member of the Graphic 
Society. He died at his house in Regent's 
Park lload, London, on 29 April 1893. 

[Athenaeum, 6 May 1893 ; Andresen's Hand- 
buch fiir Kupferstichsammler.] F. M. O'D. 

BENNETT, Sie JAMES RISDON 

(1809-1 891 ), physician, eldest son of the Rev. 
James Bennett, D.D. [q. v.], nonconformist 
minister, was born at Romsey on 29 Sept. 
1809. He received his education at the 
Rotherham College, Yorkshire, of which his 
father became principal ; and at the age of 
fifteen was apprenticed to Thomas Water- 
house of Sheffield. In 1830 he went to Paris, 
and afterwards to Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.D. in 1833. In the autumn of the 
same year he accompanied Lord Beverley to 
Rome, and spent two or three summers in 
his company and that of Lord Aberdeen. 
On his return to England in 1837 he became 
physician to the Aldersgate Street dispen- 
sary, and lectured on medicine at the Char- 
ing Cross Hospital medical school, and also 
at Grainger's private school of medicine. In 



1843 he was appointed assistant physician 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, and in 1849 full 
physician. On the foundation of the City 
of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest 
in 1848 he was appointed physician to that 
institution ; and from 1843 to its dissolution 
in 1867 acted as secretary to the Sydenham 
Society. In 1875 he was elected F.R.S. 

. Settling in Finsbury Square on his mar- 
riage in 1841, he enjoyed for many years a 
good position as a consultant, especially in j 
connection with chest diseases, having been 
one of the first to introduce into this coun- 
try the use of the stethoscope. In 1876 
he was elected to the office of president of 
the Royal College of Physicians, and was 
knighted. He then removed to CavendisL 
Square, where he died on 14 Dec. 1891. 

He married, in June 1841, Ellen Selfe, 
daughter of the Rev. Henry Page of Rose 
Hill, Worcester, by whom he had nine 
children, of whom six survived. 

His published works include a translation 
of ' Kramer on Diseases of the Ear,' 1837 ; 
an essay on ' Acute Hydrocephalus,' which 
obtained the Fothergillian gold medal of the 
Medical Society of London in 1842, and was 
published in the following year ; and the 
' Lumleian Lectures at the College of Phy- 
sicians on Intra-thoracic Tumours,' 1872. 

[Private information from members of the 
family ; Men and Women of the Time, 13th ed. 
1891; Times, 16 Dec. 1891.] J. 13. N. 

BENNETT, WILLIAM COX (1820- 
1895), miscellaneous writer, born at Green- 
wich on 14 Oct. 1820, was the younger son 
of John Bennett, a watchmaker of that 
place. He was educated at Greenwich in 
the school of William Collier Smithers, but 
when he was nine he was compelled, by 
the death of his father, to remain at home 
to assist his mother in business. Bennett 
took much interest in the affairs of his 
native borough, and succeeded in effecting 
several useful reforms. In 18G8 he proposed 
Gladstone to the liberals of the borough as 
their candidate, and assisted to secure his 
return by very strenuous exertions. He 
was a member of the London council of the 
Education League. In 1869 and 1870 he 
was employed on the staff" of the ' Weekly 
Dispatch' as a leader writer and art critic, 
and subsequently he contributed to the Lon- 
don ' Figaro.' He died on 4 March 1895 at 
his residence at Eliot Cottages, Blackheath, 
and was buried at Nunhead cemetery on 
8 March. 

Bennett was well known as a writer of 
songs. His chief works are: 1. 'Poems,* 
London, 1850, Bvo ; new edit. 1862. 2. ' War 



Bennett 



169 



Bennett 



Songs,' London, 1855, 8vo. 3. * Queen 
Eleanor's Vengeance and other Poems,' 
London, 1867, 8vo. 4. ' Songs for Sailors,' 
London, 1872, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1 873. 5. ' Baby 
May : Home Poems and Ballads,' London, 
1875, 8vo. 6. ' Songs of a Song Writer,' 
London, 1876, 8vo. 7. * Prometheus the 
Fire-Giver: an attempted Eestoration of 
the lost First Port of the Promethean 
Trilogy of /Eschylus,' London, 1877, 8vo. 
8, * The Lark : Songs, Ballads, and Recita- 
tions for the People,' London, 1885, 4to. 
His ' Songs for Sailors ' were set to music 
in 1878 by John Liptrot Ilatton [q. v.] A 
collective edition of his poems appeared in 
1862 in Routledge's ' British Poets.' 

His elder brother, Sir John Bennett 
(1814-1897), sheriff of London and Middle- 
sex, was born on 15 Oct. 1814 at Green- 
wich. He commenced in 1846 the occupa- 
tion of a watchmaker, which he carried on 
at 65 Cheapside until 1889, when he retired. 
He was a common councillor for the ward 
of Cheap from 1862 to 1889, and a member 
of the London school board from 1872 to 
1879, and from 1885 to 1889. In 1872 he 
was sheriff of London and Middlesex, and 
was knighted on the occasion of the national 
thanksgiving for the recovery of the prince 
of Wales. In July 1877 he was elected 
alderman for the ward of Cheap, but was 
rejected by the court of aldermen on the 
ground that he was not a person of fit cha- 
racter. In spite of this decision the ward 
returned him twice more. On the occasion 
of his return for the third time, the court of 
aldermen declared his opponent duly elected 
despite the far inferior number of votes cast 
in his favour. Thereupon Bennett with- 
drew from the struggle. He was a member 
of several city companies. He died at St. 
Leonards-on-Sea on 3 July 1897. In 1843 
he married Agnes (d. 1889), daughter of 
John Wilson of Deptford. 

[Biograph, new series, 1882, i. 57 ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1895 ; the Times, 8 March 
1895.] E. I. C. 

BENNETT, WILLIAM JAMES 
EARLY (1804-1886), ritualist divine, 
^ born on 15 Nov. 1804 at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, Avas the eldest son of William Bennett, 
major in the royal engineers, then stationed 
at that place {Somerset and Wilts Journal, 
21 Aug. 1886). He was admitted at West- 
minster school on 16 Sept. 1816, and in 1818 
became king's scholar. In 1822-3 he was 
captain of the school, and in 1823 he was 
elected to Christ Church, Oxford, matri- 
culating on 9 May 1823. From 1826 to 
1828 he held the post of usher at West- 



minster school, and at the anniversary of 
1841 he was a steward. 

Bennett graduated B.A. in 1827, M.A, 
in 1829. Alter taking holy orders he served 
as assistant minister at St. Peter,Vere Street, 
Marylebone, in 1831, being also the chaplain 
to Marylebone workhouse. For some years 
to 1836 he was curate to Dean Chandler 
at All Souls, Langham Place, Marylebone, 
and from 1836 to 1843 he was minister of 
Portman Chapel. In these positions he ac- 
quired considerable reputation as a preacher, 
mainly in places of worship where low- 
church practices were observed. 

In 1840 Bennett was nominated minister 
of the new district of St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge, and at once set about the erection of 
the new church. The first stone was laid on 
6 Nov. 1840, and the building was conse- 
crated on 30 June 1843, when Bennett be- 
came the first incumbent (Davis, Km'ffhts- 
bridge,'^^. 92-96). From 1846 to 1850 he was 
active in promoting the building of the church 
of St. Barnabas, Pimlico, and it was conse- 
crated on 11 June 1850. Meantime trouble 
had arisen over the ritualistic practices and 
ceremonies, many of which would now pass 
unnoticed, introduced by Bennett into the 
services. The bishop had before June 1850 
complained of some practices at St. Paul's ; 
less than a month afterwards he condemned 
some novelties at St. Barnabas. There were 
riots outside St. Paul's, and the police had 
to guard night and day both the church and 
the parsonage. The situation was further 
complicated by the bull creating Roman 
catholic bishops in England, generally known 
as the * Papal aggression,' and by the cele- 
brated letter with its references to Bennett's 
innovations, which Lord John Russell, then 
one of his parishioners, addressed on this act 
ofthe pope to the bishop of Durham. Bennett 
was unable to stand before the storm. He 
tendered to the bishop his resignation of the 
incumbency on 4 Dec. 1850, and on 25 March 
1851 the vacation took legal effect. 

Many publications resulted from the inci- 
dent. IBennett's curate, the Rev. Alexander 
Chirol, went over to the church of Rome in 
1847, and Bennett thereupon brought out 
' Apostacy : a Sermon in reference to a late 
event at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge,' which 
went through at least eight editions. Chirol 
issued a reply to this attack, and Bennett 
retorted (1847, 2 editions). He addressed 
' A First Letter to Lord John Russell on the 
present Persecution of a certain portion of 
the English Church' (1850, 7 editions), and 
two years later came out with * A Second 
Letter to Lord John Russell ' (2 editions). 
His 'Three Farewell Sermons preached at 



Bennett 



170 



Bennett 



S. Barnabas', Pimlico,' his volume of ' The 
last Sermons preached at St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge, and St. Barnabas', Pimlico,' and ' A 
Farewell Letter to his Parishioners/ were 
all printed in 1851. 

The dowager Marchioness of Bath had 
been a member of Bennett's congregation at 
Portman Chapel, and had remained his friend 
ever since. As the guardian of her son, not 
yet of age, she appointed Bennett to the 
vicarage of Frome Selwood, Somerset. 
The last incumbent of this living had been 
a low churchman, and opposition was raised 
at Frome to a ritualistic successor. The 
bishop of the diocese declined compliance 
with a petition praying him to refuse insti- 
tution, and Bennett took possession of the 
benefice in January 1852. The appointment 
was brought before the House of Commons 
by Edward Horsman [q. v.] on 20 April, 
8 and 18 June 1852, but the matter ulti- 
mately was dropped. 

Bennett issued in that year * A Pastoral 
Letter to the Parishioners of Frome' (3 
editions). The fine church of the parish was 
in a bad state of repair and neglect. He at 
once took measures to restore it, and by 1866 
the works were completed at large cost. In 
his new charge he continued the practices 
which had marked his rule at the church of 
St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and it was 'round 
him that the battle chiefly raged when it had 
passed beyond the cloisters and combination 
rooms of the university.' In 'A Plea for 
Toleration in the Church of England in a 
Letter to Dr. Pusey ' (1867 ; 3rd edit. 1868), 
and in the essay of ' Some Results of the 
Tractarian Movement of 1833,' contributed 
by him to the second series of Orby Shiplev's 
'Church and the World' (1867), Bennett 
made use of some unguarded expressions on 
the Real Presence in the Sacrament. The 
words in the ' Plea for Toleration ' were 
altered at the instance of Dr. Pusey, and the 
pamphlet in the amended form reached a 
third edition. But the council of the Church 
Association, acting through Thomas Byard 
Sheppard 'of Selwood Cottage, Frome, the 
nominal promoter of the proceedings, brought 
these publications before Sir Robert Joseph 
Phillimore [q. v.], the dean of arches, on a 
charge of heresy against Bennett. Phillimore 
at first declined to entertain the charges, but 
was ordered by the privy council to consider 
them, and on 23 July 1870 decided that 
the defendant had not broken the law of the 
church. Appeal was made to the privy coun- 
cil, and on 8 June 1872 Phillimore's view 
was upheld. Bennett was not represented 
by counsel on any of these occasions (^Annual 
Register, 1872, pp. 213-27). 



Bennett continued to work in his parish 
and to take part in the services of his church 
until three days before his death. He died 
at the vicarage, Frome, on 17 Aug. 1888, 
and on 21 Aug. was buried near the grave 
of Bishop Ken, on the south side of thes/ 
chancel. Bennett married, at Marylebone 
in 1828, the eldest daughter of Sir William 
Franklin, principal inspector-general of the 
army. She died at Frome on 2 Aug. 1879. 
His only son, William Henry Bennett, went 
out to Burmah in a regiment of native in- 
fantry, and died at Prome, Burmah, of fever, 
on 22 Aug. 1854. 

Bennett published many single sermons, 
and edited or wrote prefaces to the works of 
sacred writers, especially of Mrs. Lear. The 
most important works that he edited for her 
were (1) 'Tales of Kirkbeck,' two series; 
(2) ' Our Doctor and other Tales of Kirk- 
beck;' (3) 'Tales of a London Parish;' 
(4) ' Cousin Eustace, or Conversations on 
the Prayer-book;' (5) 'Lives of certain 
Fathers of the Church in the Second, Third, 
and Fourth Centuries.' His own works 
comprised, in addition to those already men- 
tioned: 1. 'Sermons on Marriage,' 1837. 
2. 'The Eucharist, its History, Doctrine, 
and Practice,' 1837; 2nd edit. 1846; 3rd 
edit. 1851. 3. 'Sermons on Miscellaneous 
Subjects,' vol. i. 1838, vol. ii. 1840. 
4. ' Neglect of the People in Psalmody 
and Responses,' 1841, 3 edits. 5. 'Guide 
to the Holy Eucharist,' 1842, 2 vols. 

6. ' Lecture Sermons on the Distinctive 
Errors of Romanism,' 1842, 3 edits. 

7. 'Letters to my Children on Church 
Subjects,' 1843, 2 vols. ; 2nd edit. 1850. 

8. ' The Principles of the Book of Common 
Prayer considered,' 1846. 9. ' Crime and 
Education: the Duty of the State,' 1846. 
10. ' The Church, the Crown, and the State : 
two Sermons on the Judicial Committee of 
the Privy Council,' 1850, 4 edits. 11. ' Ex- 
amination of Archdeacon Denison's Proposi- 
tions of Faith on the Holy Eucharist,' 1857. 
12. ' Whv Church Rates should be abolished,' 

1861, 2 edits. 13. 'History of the Church 
of St. John of Frome,' 1866. 14. ' Mission 
Sermons preached at St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge,' 1870. 15. ' Defence of the Catholic 
Faith : a Reply to the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells,' 1873. 16. 'Dream of the King's 
Gardens : an allegory. By a Protestant 
Churchman,' 1873. 17. ' Catechism of De- 
votion,' 1876. 18. 'Foreign Churches in 
relation to the Anglican : an essay towards 
Reunion,' 1882. Bennett edited ' The Theo- 
logian ' and ' The Old Church Porch,' 1854.- 

1862, 4 vols, (from the latter of which were 
reprinted the five volumes of 'The Church's 



Bensly 



171 



Benson 



Broken Unity'), and contributed largely to 
religious periodical literature. Mrs. Lear 
prefixed in 1887 an introduction to a volume 
cf ' Last Words, being a Selection from the 
Sermons of W. J. E. Bennett.' Augustus 
Clissold [q. v.] published a reply to his 
articles in the ' Old Church Porch ' on 
Svvedenborg's teaching. It reached a third 
edition iu 1881.