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578 memoirs appear in the present volume of the Second Supplement, 
which is designed to furnish biographies of noteworthy persons dying 
between 22 Jan. 1901 and 31 Dec. 1911. The contributors number 
180. The callings of those whose careers are recorded here may be 
broadly catalogued under ten general headings thus : 


Administration of Government at home, in India, and the colonies 73 

Army and navy ......... 37 

Art (including architecture, music, and the stage) ... 80 
Commerce and agriculture . . . . . . .16 

Law 29 

Literature (including journalism, philology, and philosophy) . 125 

Rehgion 68 

Science (including engineering, medicine, surgery, exploration, and 

economics) ......... 90 

Social Reform (including philanthropy and education) . . 39 

Sport 21 

The names of eighteen women are included on account of services 
rendered to art, literature, science, and social or educational reform. 

Articles bear the initials of their writers save in a very few cases 
where material has been furnished to the Editor on an ampler scale 
than the purpose of the undertaking permitted him to use. In such 
instances the Editor and his staff are solely responsible for the shape 
which the article has taken, and no signature is appended. 

*^* In the lists of authors' publications only the date of issue is appended to the titles 
of works which were pubhshed in London in 8vo. In other cases the place of issue and 
size are specified in addition. 

Cross references are given thus : to names in the substantive work [q. v.] ; to names 
in the First Supplement [q. v. Suppl. I] ; and to names in the Second and 
present Supplement [q. v. Suppl. II]. 


Page Col. Liue 

28 Farren, "William : for two read six 

48 Garrett, Fydell Edmund: /or Wiston in Essex rearZ Naylancl, Suffolk 





^'•^.^^iGibbs, Henry Hacks, first Baron Aldenham 
» 3 

for His grandfather .... Antony Gibbs and Sons, His grandfather 
Antony Gibbs (1756-18l5j initiated the business in 1789 in Spain, and 
opened the London house in Sept. 1808. In 1808 Gibbs's father, and in 
1813 his uncle William (1790-1875), became partners. In 1821 a branch 
firm was opened in Peru. In 1875 Gibbs succeeded his uncle as head of 
the firm. In 1881 an older firm, Gibbs Bright & Co. of Liverpool and 
Bristol, sometime under the headship of Gibbs's great-uncle George 
(1753-1818), elder brother of Antony Gibbs, was taken over by Antony 
Gibbs and Sons with its Australian branches. 
102 i 50-54 for With other members .... of its council, read He was a member of the 

Council of Keble College, Oxford, which owes its chapel, hall and library 
to his uncle William Gibbs and the latter's sons, Antony and Martin. 

[ Griggs, William : for Hindley read Hendley 

Henley, "William Ernest : for May read August 

Hill, Frank Harrison : f(yr L. G. R. read L. R. 

Holroyd, Henry North, 3rd Earl of ShefBeld : for baronetcy read barony 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton : for daughters, .... transferred to read daughters ; 

the original manuscript is now in 
Hope, Laurence, pseudonym : for Violet Adela read Adela Florence 
Jackson, Samuel Phillips : for In 1856 he removed to read From 1856 he passed 

some time at 
for to read at 
for He moved in later life to Bristol and read Most of his life was spent at 

Bristol, and he 
Jeaffreson, John Cordy : /or 1898 read 1878 
Martin, Sir Theodore : for his read her 


i 50, 58 

ii 28^ 


ii 16 


ii 31 


ii 58 


ii 28-29 


i 18 


i 2-3 




i 23 


ii 23 



A. L. A. . . A, L. ABMSTBONa. 

W. A. . . . Sis Walter Armstronq. 

C. A. . . . C. Atculey, aM.G., LS.O. 

J. B. A. . . J. B. Atlay. 

R. B. ... The Rev. Ronald Bayne. 

T. B. ... Thomas Bayne. 

C. E. A. B.. C. E. A. Bedwell. 

M. B. . . . Mackenzie Bell. 

F. L. B. . . Francis L. Bickley. 

T. G. B. . . The Rev. Professor T. G. 
Bonne Y, F.R.S. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOITLGER. 

J. C. B. . . J. C. Bridge, D.Mus. 

E. M. B. . . E. M. Brockbank, M.D. 

F. H. B. . . F. H. Brown. 

P. H. B. . . Professor P. Hume Brown, 

E. G. B. . . Professor Edward G. Browne. 

A. R. B. . . '^ Rev. A. R. Buckland. 

W. W. B. . vv. W. Buckland. 

J. L. C. . . J. L. Caw, F. S.A.Scot. 

H. H. C. . . Harold H. Child. 

H. P. C. . . H. P. Cholmeley, M.D. 

A. C. ... The Rev. Andrew Clark. 

E. C. ... Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. 

G. A. J. C. . Professor G. A. J. Cole. 

J. C. ... The Rev. Professor James 
Cooper, D.D. 

F. C. ... Professor Frederick Corder. 
V. C. ... Vaughan Cornish, D.Sc. 

J. S. C. . . J. S. Cotton. 
W. C. . . . William Cubbon. 
L. C. . . . Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

G. H. D. . . Sir George H. Darwin, K.C.B., 


H. D. . . . Henry Davey. 

A. D. ... Austin Dobson, LL.D. 

CD. ... Campbell Dodgson. 

J. D. D. . . J. D. Duff. 

R. D. . . . Robert Dunlop. 

P. E. ... Professor Pelham Edgar. 

H. E. . . . The Rev. Professor Henry 

A. R. D. E. The Hon. Arthur R. D. 
Elliot, D.C.L. 

"M. Epstein, Ph.D. 

A. L. Felkin. 

The Rev. T. A. Finlay, S.J. 

Professor C. H. Firth, LL.D., 

His Honour Judge David 

J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly,Litt.D. 


E. . . . 


L. F. . . 


A. F. . . 


H. F. . . 


F. . . . 


F-K. . . 

viu List of Writers in Volume II. — Supplement II. 

W. G. D. F. 

The Rev. W. G. D. Fletcher. 

W. H. G. F. 

. W. H. Grattan Flood, Mus. 


S. E. F. . 

. S. E. Fryer. 

F. W. G. 

Professor F. W. Gamble,F.R.S. 

F. W. G-N. 

. Frank W. Gibson. 

G. A. G. . 

. G. A. Gibson, M.D. 

A. T. G. . 

. The Rev. A. T. Goodrich. 

A. G. . . 

. The Rev. Alexander Gordon. 

R. E. G. . 

. R. E. Graves. 

W. F. G. 

. W. Forbes Gray. 

J. C. H. . 


T. H. . . 

. The Rev. Thomas Hamilton, 


M. H. . . 

. Martin Hardie. 

C. A. H. . 

. C. Alexander Harris, C.B., 


P. J. H. . 

. P. J. Hartog. 

T. F. H. . 

. T. F. Henderson. 

H. H. . . 

. Henry Higgs, C.B. 

A. P. H. 

. A.P. Hillier,M.D.,M.P. [Died 

24 October 1911.] 

A. M. H. 

. A. M. Hind. 

A. R. H. 

. Arthur R. Hinks. 

B. H. H. 

. Bernard H. Holland, C.B. 

H. P. H. 

. H. P. Hollis. 

C. H. . . 

. Sir Charles Holroyd, Litt.D. 

E. S. H-K 

. Miss Edith S. Hooper. 

0. J. R. H. 

. 0. J. R. Howarth. 

A. H-s. . 

. Arthur Hughes. 

T. C. H. 

, T. Cann Hughes, F.S.A. 

C. P. I. . 

. Sir Courtenay P. Ilbert, 

G.C.B., K.C.S.I. 

E. IM T. . 

. Sir Everard im Thurn, 


W. S. J. . 

. W. S. Jackson. 

M. R. J. . 

. Montague R. James, Litt.D., 

F.S.A.J Provost of King's 

College, Cambridge. 

T. E. J. . 

. T. E. James. 

J. K. . . 

. James Kennedy. 

F. G. K. . 

. Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, 


D. R. K. 

. Professor D. R. Keys. 

C. L. K. . 

. C. L. Kingsford, F.S.A. 

P. G. K. . 

. P. G. KONODY. 

J. N. L. . 

. Professor J. N. Langley, 

J. K. L. . 

L. G. C. L. 
W. J. L. . 
E. L. . . 
R. W. L. 

S. L. . . 
C. H. L. . 
W. L-W . 


M. L. . 


E. L. . 


F. L. . 


S. I.. . 


L. . . 


J. L. . 


P. L. . 


V. L. . 


h. . . 


L. . 


R. M. . 

A. A. M. . 


D. M. . 


G. S. M. 


M. . . 


E. M. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor Sir John Knox 
Laughton, Litt.D. 

, L. G. Carr Laughton. 

W. J. Lawrence. 
. Miss Elizabeth Lee. 
. R. W. Lee, D.C.L. 
, Sir Sidney I^ee, LL.D., D.Litt. 

Professor C. H. Lees, F.R.S. 

, Sir WnxiAM Lee-Warner, 

. Colonel E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 

. Professor J. E. Lloyd. 

. B. FossETT Lock. 

. B. S. Long. 

. Professor Henry Louis, D.Sc. 

. Sidney J. Low, 

. Sir Charles P. Lucas, K.C.B,, 

. E. V. Lucas. 

. Perceval Lucas. 

. Reginald Lucas. 

. J. Ramsay Macdonald, M.P. 

. Professor A. A. Macdonell, 

. C. D. Maclean, Mus.Doc. 

. Professor J. G. Swift Mac- 
NEHX, K.C., M.P. 

. Andrew Macphail, M.D. 
. H. E. Malden. 

List of Writers in Volume II. — Supplement II. u 



-N. . . 



M. . . 



. . . 



M. . 


• • 

. . . 



M. . . 

J. E.G.DBM. 



. . . 



. . . 



. . . 



M. . . 



M.. . 


Le G. N. 



N. . . 



. . . 



O'D. . 



T. 0. 



C. . 



P. . . 



. . . 



P. . . 



Miss Annie Matheson. 
D. S. Meldrum. 
Lewis Melville. 

A. H. MiLLAB. 

Viscount Milner, G.C.B., 

J. B. Milner. 

J. E. G. DB Montmorency. 

Norman Moore, M.D. 

Edward Moorhouse. 

Miss S. Morrison. 

A. L. MuMM. 

Robert H. Murray. 

G. Le Grys Noroate. 

Captain C. B. Norman. 

Piin^ip Norman, LL.D., F.S.A. 


G. W. T. Omond. 

W. B. Owen. 

T. E. Page. 

John Parker. 

His Honour Judge E. A. 

David Patrick, LL.D. 

The Rev. Canon E. H. Pbarcb. 

TjHB Rev. L. R. Phelps. 

A. W. P. 

. A. W. Pollard. 

D. Ll. T. . 

r>'A. P. . 

. D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 

J. R. T. . . 

G. W. p. 

. G. W. Prothero, 


J. V. ... 
R. H. V. . . 

D. P-N. . 

. Colonel Sir David 


H. M. V. . 

J. R. . . 

. John Rae, LL.D. 

E. W. . . . 

R. S. R. . 

. R. S. Rait. 

R. W. . . . 

V. R. . . 

. Vernon Rendall. 

A. W. W. . 

W. R. . . 

. William Roberts. 

L. R. . . 

. Lionel Robinson. 

P. W. . . . 

H. D. R. . . H. D. RoLLESTON, M.D. 

R. J. R. . . R. J. Ro^vLETTE, M.D. 

G. W. E. R. The Right Hon. G. W. E. 
Russell, LL.D. 

M. E. S. . . Michael E. Sadler, C.B., LL.D. 

L. C. S. . . Lloyd C. Sanders. 

S Lord Sanderson, G.C.B. 

J. E. S. . . Sir John E. Sandys, Litt.D., 

T. S. ... Thomas Seccombe. 

L. P. S. . . L. P. Sidney. 

A. F. S. . .A. Forbes Sieveking, F.S.A. 

A. H. S. . . A. H. Smith, F.S.A. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. Fell Smith. 

G. S. ... George Smith, CLE., LL.D. 

G. G. S. . . Professor G. Gregory Smith. 

W. F. S. . . W. F. Speab. 

R. S. ... Robert Steele. 

H. S. ... Sir Herbert Stephen, Bart. 

J. A. S. . . Professor J. A. Stewart, 

C. W. S. . . C. W. Sutton. 

H. T-S. . . H. Tapley-Soper. 

J. T. ... James Taylor, M.D. 

W. T. T-D. Sir Whj.lim T. Thlselton- 
Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

D. liLEUFER Thomas. 

J. R. Thuesfield. 

John Venn, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E., 

Colonel H. M. Vibaet. 

Ernest Walker, Mus.D. 

Professor Robert WAUiACE. 

A. W. Ward, Litt.D., LL,D., 


Paul Waterhouse. 

List of Writers in Volume II. — Supplement II, 

F. W. . . 

. Professor Foster Watson. 

H. T. W. 

. Sir Henry Trueman Wood. 

C. W. . . 

. Welch, F.S.A. 

G. S. W. 

. G. S. Woods. 

H. B. W. 

. H. B. Wheatlby, F.S.A. 

H. B. W. 

. H. :6. Woodward, F.R.S. 

A. B. W. 

. Mrs. Blanco White. 

W. W. . 

. Warwick WR0T±r, F.S.A. [Died 

E. T. W. 

. E. T. Whittaker, F.R.S., 


26 September 1911.] 

The following are some of the chief articles in this volume : 

Nellie Farren, by John Parker. 

Sir Michael Foster, by Professor J. N, Langley, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Henry Fowler, Viscount Wolverhampton, by 

A. L. Felkin. 
Frederick James Furnivall, by Sir Sidney Lee, 

LL.D., Litt.D. 
Sir Francis Galton, by Sir George H. Darwin, 

K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Samuel Rawson Gardiner, by Professor C. H. 

Firth, LL.D., Litt.D. 
Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, Earl of Cranbrook, 

by G. S. Woods. 
George, Duke of Cambridge, by Col. E. M. Lloyd, 

Sir William Schwenck Gilbert, by His Honour 

Judge Parry. 
George Joachim Goschen, Viscount Goschen, by 

Hon. Arthur R. D. Elliot, D.C.L. 
Kate Greenaway, by Austin Dobson, LL.D. 
William Court Gully, Viscount Selby, by Sir 

Courtenay Ilbort, G.C.B., K.C.S.L. 
Sir Francis Seymour Haden, by A. M. Hind. 
Field-marshal Sir Frederick Paul Haines, by 

R. S. Rait. 
Sir William Harcourt, by A. L. Armstrong. 
Sir Robert Hart, by Sir Charles Lucas, K.C.B., 

Sir Henry Hawkins, Baron Brampton, by Sir 

Herbert Stephen, Bart. 
William Ernest Henley, by T. F. Henderson. 
AuBERON Herbert, by Arthur Hughes. 
George Jacob Holyoake, by J. Ramsay Mac- 

donald, M.P. 
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, by Sir William 

Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir William Huggins, by H. P. Hollis. 
William Holman Hunt, by Sir Walter Armstrong. 

Sir Henry Irving, by Harold H. Child. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, by J. D. Duff. 

Admiral Sir Henry Keppel, by L. G. Carr 

Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln, by the Right 

Hon. G. W. E. Russell, LL.D. 
Sir Edward FitzGerald Law, by F. H. Brown. 
William Edward Hartpole Lecky, by G. W. 

Prothero, Litt.D., LL.D. 
Alphonse Legros, by Sir Charles Holroyd, 

Dan Leno, by E. V. Lucas. 
Robert James Loyd-Lindsay, Lord Wantage, 

by J. B. Atlay. 
Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, by Bernard H. Hol- 
land, C.B. 
Sir William MacCormac, by D'Arcy Power, 

George MacDonald, by Annie Matheson. 
John MacWhirter, by P. G. Konody. 
Frederic William Maitland, by B. Fossett 

Lord John Manners, 7th Duke of Rutland, by 

Reginald Lucas. 
Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmonth, 

by J. R. Thursfield. 
Sir Theodore Martin, by A. W. Ward, Litt.D., 

LL.D., Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge. 
David Masson, by Professor Gregory Smith. 
Phil May, by E. V. Lucas. 
John Eyton Bickersteth Mayor, by Sir John 

E. Sandys, Litt.D., LL.D. 
George Meredith, by Thomas Seccombe. 
LuDWiG MoND, by P. J. Hartog. 
Sir Lewis Morris, by D. Lleufer Thomas. 
Sir Oliver Mowat, by Professor Pelham Edgar. 
Sir William Muir, by George Smith, CLE., 


D.N.B. Supp. ii. Vol. 







FAED, JOHN (1819-1902), artist, born 
in 1819 at Barlay Mill, near Gatehouso- 
on-Fleet, in the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, was eldest son of James Faed, a 
farmer, miller, and engineer there, whose 
cousin. Sir George Faed, K.C.B., fought 
at Waterloo. The family was notable 
for artistic talent. Thomas Faed, R.A. 
[q. v^. Suppl. I], was the third son. Another 
brother was James Faed the engraver. 
John Faed's native taste for art was 
encouraged by his father. At the outset 
self-taught, he developed talent as a 
miniaturist. Leaving school in 1830, when 
only eleven, he visited next year many 
towns and villages of Galloway, painting 
miniatures for the gentry and middle-classes 
of the district, who regarded him as a 
prod?^y. In 1839 he attended the art- 
classes at Edinburgh, and soon established 
a high reputation there as a minia- 
tm-ist. For over forty years he practised 
in this department of art with eminent 
success. When he had obtained a secure 
position in Edinburgh, he brought thither 
his two brothers, Thomas and James, and 
supported them while they were studying 
art. From 1841 until near the close of his 
Ufe Faed exhibited annually at the Royal 
Scottish Academy. He was chosen an 
associate of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1847, and an academician in 1851. 

Gradually abandoning miniature-paint- 
ing for figure-subjects, Faed found his 
themes in the Bible and the works of 
Shakespeare, Burns, Scott, and the ballad 
literature of Scotland. Among his charao- 

voL. Lxvm. — SUP. n. 

teristic pictures are the following : — 
'Boyhood' (1850); 'The Cruel Sister' 
(1851), and ' Burd Helen ' (now in Kelvin- 
grove Gallery, Glasgow) ; ' The Cottar's 
Saturday Night' (1854); 'Reason and 
Faith,' and 'The Philosopher' (1855); 
'The Household Gods in Danger' (1856) ; 
' Job and his Friends ' (1858) ; and ' Boaz'and 
Ruth' (1860). Other pictures were '.The 
Raid of Ruthven ' (1856), * RosaUnd and 
Orlando,' ' Olivia and Viola,' and ' Shake- 
speare and his Friends at the Mermaid 
Tavern,' a companion picture to Thomas 
Faed's ' Scott and his Friends at Abbots - 
ford.' Both of these last-named pictures 
were engraved by James Faed and were 
Avidely circulated. 

' Annie's Tryst,' suggested by a Scottish 
ballad, his diploma picture for the Royal 
Scottish Academy, dated 1863, is in the 
National Gallery of Scotland, together with 
his notable picture ' The Poet's Dream ' 
(1883), presented by him to the Royal 
Scottish Academy a few weeks before his 
death. ' The Wappinschaw,' an elaborate 
work, with numerous figures, was shown at the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and was purchased 
for 1200/. by James Baird of Ciimbusdoon. 

From 1862 to 1880 Faed was m London, 
exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy. 
Among the pictures shown there were 
'Catherine Seyton,* 'Old Ago,' * The 
Stirrup Cup,' ' John Anderson my Jo,' 
' Auld Mare Maggie,' ' After the Victory,' 
' The Morning before Flodden,' ' Blen- 
heim,' ' In Memoriam,' ' Goldsmith in his 
Study,' and ' The Old Basket-maker.' 



Retiring to Ardmore, Gatehouse, near his 
birthplace, in 1880, Faed painted several 
landscapes in the neighbourhood, one being 
presented by him to Gatehouse town hall. 
He died at Ardmore on 22 Oct. 1902. Faed 
married in 1849 Jane, daughter of J. Mac- 
donald, minister of Gigha in the Hebrides ; 
she died in 1898. A painted portrait of 
Faed is in the possession of Mr. Donald 
Hall, Woodlyn, Gatehouse-on-Fleet. 

Faed's practice as a miniaturist led to 
more elaboration of details in his pictures 
than contemporary taste approved. His 
art is typical of the best Scottish genre style 
of the late Victorian period. 

[W. D. McKay's Scottish School of Paint- 
ing ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, 
revised ed. ; Cat. of Nat. Gal. of Scotland, 
42nd ed. ; Scotsman, 23 Oct. 1902 ; Dundee 
Advertiser, 23 Oct. 1902.] A. H. M. 

1903), etcher and writer on art, born 
at Naples on 7 Feb. 1845, was second 
son in a family of three sons and four 
daughters of George Fagan by his wife 
Maria, daughter of Louis Carbone, an 
officer in the Italian army. Robert Fagan 
[q. v.], diplomatist and artist, was his grand- 
father. The elder brother, Joseph George, 
a major-general in the Indian army, died 
in 1908 ; the younger, Charles Edward, is 
secretary of the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington. His father, who joined 
the diplomatic service, was for many years 
from 1837 attache to the British legation 
at Naples, then the capital of the kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies, and in his official 
capacity gave assistance to Sir Anthony 
Panizzi [q. v.] when on a political mission 
to Naples in 1851 ; he was made secretary 
of legation to the Argentine co^federation 
in 1856, and after settling satisfactorily 
British claims in Buenos Aires in 1858 be- 
came consul-general successively to central 
America in 1860, to Ecuador (1861-5), 
and minister, charge d'affaires, and consul- 
general to Venezuela (1865-9) ; he died of 
yellow fever at Caracas in 1869 (Fagan, 
Life of Panizzi, ii. 101-2). 

Fagan's boyhood was spent in Naples, 
where he early learned Italian and de- 
veloped an interest in Italian life, litera- 
ture, and art. In 1860 he was sent in 
charge of a queen's messenger to a 
private school at Leytonstone, Essex. In 
England, he was kindly received by 
his father's friend, Panizzi {ibid. ii. 213). 
While still a boy, on returning to Naples, 
he carried letters from Panizzi to the 
revolutionary leaders in the Two Sicilies, 
and he imbibed strong revolutionary 

sympathies. Accompanying his father to 
America, he served in the British legation 
at Caracas (1866-7). In 1868 he was 
secretary to the commission for the settle- 
ment of British claims in Venezuela. He 
returned from South America in June 1869, 
and in September stayed in Paris with 
Panizzi' s friend, Prosper Merimee, who 
wrote of him as ' conservant malgre toutes 
les nationalites par oii il a passe I'air de 
V English hoy ' {ibid. ii. 274-5). 

The same month he obtained on Panizzi's 
recommendation a post of assistant in the 
department of prints and drawings in the 
British Museum, afterwards becoming chief 
assistant under George William Reid 
[q. v.] and (Sir) Sidney Colvin successively. 
He retired through ill-health in 1894. A 
somewhat hasty temper occasioned fric- 
tion with his colleagues. Yet during the 
twenty-five years of official life he helped 
to increase the usefulness of his department 
alike for students and the general pubUc. 

He published a ' Handbook ' to his 
department (1876) and a series of volumes 
of service to collectors and connoisseurs, 
viz. 'Collectors' Marks' (1883); 'One 
Hundred Examples of Engravings by F. 
Bartolozzi, with Descriptions and Biographi- 
cal Notice' (4 pts. 1885); *A Catalogue 
Raisonne of the Engraved Works of William 
Woollett' (1885); 'Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Engraved Works of W. Faithorne' 
(1888) ; and ' History of Engraving in 
England ' (3 pts. fol. 1893). He also gave 
lantern lectures on the British Museum 
through the country and published in 
1891 ' An Easy Walk through the British 

His Italian training, which made the 
Italian language as familiar to him as 
English, focussed his main interests on 
Italian art and literature. His chief 
works on these subjects were * The 
Works of Correggio at Parma, with Bio- 
graphical and Descriptive Notes' (folio, 
1873) ; * Catalogo dei disegni, sculture, 
quadri e manoscritti di Michelangelo Buon- 
arroti esistenti in Inghilterra' (in vol. ii. 
of AureUo Gotti's " Vita di M. Buonarroti ' ) 
(1875) ; *The Artof Michel' Angelo Buonarroti 
as illustrated by Various Collection^ in the 
British Museum' (1883), and 'Raffaello 
Sanzio : his Sonnet in the British Museum ' 
(1884). He translated Marco Minghetti's 
' The Masters of Raffaello ' in 1882. 

Fagan was also a practical artist, painting 
well in water-colours, drawing with refine- 
ment, and etching with much delicacy. 
He exhibited at the Royal Academy a 
series of etchings in 1872 depicting views 



and coBlumes of Naples ; an etching of 
G. F. Watts's portrait of »Sir Anthony 
Panizzi in 1878, and two etchings of 
Italian subjects in 1881. Some of tlieso 
appeared in volume form in ' Twelve 
b^tchings ' (1873 fol.). He presented a col- 
lection of his eteliings in various states of 
execution made between 1871 and 1877 to 
the British Museum in November 1879 ; they 
mainly depict Italian scenes and peasants. 

Until Panizzi's death Fagan's relations 
with liim remained close, and Panizzi 
a|)|)ointed liim liis literary executor at his 
death in 1879. In 1880 Fagan published 
Panizzi's biography (2 vols.), which went 
through two editions and received Glad- 
stone's commendation. In the same year 
Fagan edited and published at Florence 
' Lettere ad Antonio Panizzi di uomini 
illustri e di Amici Italiani 1823-70,' and 
in 1881 he issued Merimee's ' Lettres a 
M. Panizzi, 1850-1870,' of which English 
and Italian translations appeared the same 

Fagan, who was a popular lecturer on 
art, travelled widely. He delivered the 
Lowell lectures at Boston in 1891, and in the 
course of long tours personally examined 
almost every art collection in Europe, 
America, and Australia. He advised on 
the arrangement of the art treasures at 
Victoria Museum, Melbourne. 

A popular member of the Reform Club, 
Fagan ])ublished in 1886 ' The Reform 
Club : its Founders and Architect.' After 
his retirement from the museum he Lived 
for the most part in Italy, and built for 
liimself a residence at Florence, where 
he died suddenly on 5 Jan. 1903. He 
married on 8 Nov. 1887 Caroline Frances, 
daughter of James Purves of Melbourne, 
Australia, who survived him. A portrait 
in oils (painted by J. S. Sargent, R.A., 
in 1894) was presented by his widow 
in 1911 to the Arts Club, Dover Street, 
London, W. 

[The Times, 8 Jan. 1903 ; Mag. of Art, 
1903, xxvii. 311 ; Bryan, Diet, of Painters 
and Engravers, 1903 ; Pratt, People of the 
Period, 1897 ; A. Graves, Royal Acad. Ex- 
hibitors, 1905 ; private information.] 

W. B. O. 

FALCKE, ISAAC (1810-1909), art 
collector and benefactor to the British 
Museum, born in 1819 at Yarmouth, was 
one of twenty cliildren. His father removed 
to London soon after his son's birth 
and commenced business as an art dealer 
in Oxford Street, where in due course 
he was joined by his sons, David 
and Isaac. The business was eventually 

moved to New Bond Street (No. 02), and 
there before 1858 Isaac Falcke accumu- 
lated a comfortable fortune. Thenceforth 
he chiefly devoted himself to the study of 
art and to the collection of art treasures 
mainly for his own gratification. He soon 
formed a collection of majolica and lustre 
ware, which owing to some unfortunate 
investment he sold to a kinsman, Frederick 
Davis, a Bond Street dealer, who in his 
turn sold it to Sir Richard Wallace ; 
it now forms part of the Wallace 

Falcke soon recovered his financial 
stability, and next bestowed his chief 
attention on bronzes of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centiu-ies, which were bought by 
Dr. Bode of Berlin, where they fonn the 
nucleus of the splendid collection in the 
Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 

Falcke was through life deeply interested 
in Wedgwood china, and he ultimately made 
a collection of Wedgwood ware which was 
unique. It was exhibited at the opening of 
the Crystal Palace in 1 856, at South Kensing - 
ton in 1862, at Leeds in 1868, at Bethnal 
Green in 1875-6-7, and at Burslem in 1893. 
This collection Falcke presented to the 
British Museum on 17 June 1909. It com- 
prises about 500 pieces, and includes one 
of the few original copies of the famous 
Barberini or Portland vase and a basalt 
bust of Mercury by John Flaxman (see 
Guide to the English Pottery and Porcelain, 
British Museum, 1910, pp. 74-76). 

A fourth collection, a small one of 
Chinese and other porcelain, with some 
good bronzes, Falcke retained till his 
death. It was sold at Christie's on 

19 April 1910, and fetched the large sum 
of 37,769/. 55. ed. 

Falcke died in London on 23 Dec. 1909, 
and was buried in the Jewish cemetery 
at Willesden. 

He married on 13 May 1847 Mary Ann, 
daughter of James Reid, of Edinburgh, 
but left no children. 

[Jewish Chronicle, 2 July 1909, 3 Dec. 
1909; The Times, 29 Dec. 1909, 20 April 
1910; Frederiek Litchfield, Pottery and 
Porcelain, 1905 ; private information.] 

M. E. 

FALCONER, LANOE (pseudonym). 
[See Hawker, Mary Elizabeth, novelist, 
1848-1908.] 8 

1908), Irish liistorian, bom in Dublin on 

20 Sept. 1863, was the second son of Sir 
Frederick Richard Falkiner [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
From the Royal School, Armagh, he went 
to the University of Dublin, graduating 




B.A. in 1886 and proceeding M.A. in 1890. 
At college he wrote an essay on Macaulay as 
an historian, which showed that he then 
formed his conception of the study of his- 
tory. In 1885 he was elected president of 
the college Philosophical Society. Much 
interested in politics, he entitled his presi- 
dential address ' A New Voyage to Utopia,' 
a kind of appeal from the new whigs to the 
old, which was suggested by the passing 
of the third reform bill. In 1887 he was 
called to the Irish bar, and in 1888 he began 
to work actively on behalf of the unionist 
cause. At the general election of 1892 
Falkiner contested, unsuccessfully. South 
Armagh. He served on the recess com- 
mittee whose labours resulted in the 
creation of the Irish department of 
agriculture. Devoting much thought to 
the Irish land problem, he mastered the 
intricacies of the many Irish Land Acts. 
In 1898 he was appointed temporary 
assistant land commissioner, and in 1905 
this appointment became permanent. For 
the first half of his work his duty lay in the 
western counties, for the latter half in the 
southern counties. 

Meanwhile Falkiner was spending much 
time and energy on the study of Irish 
history and literature. He diUgently col- 
lected and sifted original material. His 
first book, ' Studies in Irish History and Bio- 
graphy, mainly in the Eighteenth Century ' 
(1902), threw new and valuable light on 
the history of Ireland in the last quarter of 
the eighteenth century. But subsequently 
he mainly devoted himself to the seventeenth 
century. In 1 896 he became a member of the 
Royal Irish Academy, and after serving on 
the council was elected secretary in 1907. 
Papers read before the academy formed 
the first part of liis ' Illustrations of Irish 
History and Topography, mainly of the 
Seventeenth Century ' (1904). His posthu- 
mous book, ' Essays relating to Ireland ' 
(1909), dealt with the same century. In 
1899 he was appointed, in the room of 
Sir John Thomas Gilbert [q.v. Suppl. I], 
inspector under the historical manuscripts 
commission, with the duty of editing the 
Ormonde papers. From 1902 to 1908 five 
volumes of these seventeenth- century papers 
appeared, containing over 3000 pages — a 
noble contribution to the raw material of 
history. The introductions show his power 
of handling vast masses of evidence. 

Falkiner' s interests extended to literature, 
and in this Dictionary and in Chambers's 
* Cyclopaedia of English Literature ' he dealt 
with men of letters. In 1903 he edited 
the poems of Charles WoKe and selections 

from the poems of Thomas Moore (in the 
• Golden Treasury ' series), and shortly 
before his death he designed editions of 
Moore's complete poetical works and of 
Dean Swift's letters. 

Falkiner died on 5 August 1908, through 
an accident on the Alps while on a brief 
holiday at Chamonix. He was buried in 
the English churchyard in Chamonix. 

On 4 Aug. 1892 he married Henrietta 
Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Newenham 
Deane [q. v. Suppl. I], architect, of Dublin. 
She survived Mm with two daughters. A 
memorial tablet was placed by liis friends 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1910. 

[Memoir by Prof. E. Dowden, prefixed to 
Falkiner' s Essays relating to Ireland, 1909 ; 
Minutes, Royal Irish Acad. 1908-9.] 

R. H. M. 

RICHARD (1831-1908), recorder of Dublin, 
was third son of Richard Falkiner (1778- 
1833) of Mount Falcon, county Tipperary, 
who held a commission in the 4th royal 
Irish dragoons, by his wife Tempo Litton 
(1796-1888). Travers Hartley (6. 1829), an 
elder brother, was a well-known engineer ; 
the fuie railway line from Zurich to Chur 
was his design, and he supervised a large 
portion of the works in connection with 
the Forth Bridge. The family came to 
Ireland from Leeds in the time of the 
Protector, and was long engaged in the 
woollen manufacture. 

Frederick, born at Mount Falcon on 
19 Jan. 1831, was educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1852. He was called to the Irish bar 
in the Michaelmas term of that year, and 
joined the north-east circuit. A man of 
great industry and natural eloquence, he 
soon won a foremost place in the ranks of 
the juniors and held briefs in many impor- 
tant cases. He took silk in 1867, and in 
1875 he was appointed law adviser at 
Dublin Castle, an office since aboUshed, 
In the foUomng year he was appointed 
recorder of Dublin, on the death of Sir 
Frederick Shaw [q. v.]. He threw himself 
with energy into the work of the court, 
and as the ' poor man's judge ' he earned a 
reputation for humanity. During his early 
years as recorder he was called upon to 
decide many intricate points in the licens- 
ing laws. He took a keen interest in 
acts of parliament bearing on compensation 
to workmen for injuries received in the 
course of their employment, and when 
Mr. Chamberlain was engaged in drafting 
liis bill on the subject in 1897 he adopted 
several of Falkiner's suggestions. In 1880 


ho was elected a bencher of the King's 
Inns, and in August 1890 ho was knighted. 
Ho retired from his office on 22 Jan. 1005, 
when ho was niado a privy councillor. 

Falkiner was one of tho most prominent 
members of the general synod of the Church 
of Ireland, and in tho debates of that body, 
especially on financial questions, he fre- 
quently intervened with much effect. He 
was chancellor to the bishops of Tuam, 
Clogher, Kilmore, and Derry and Raphoe. 
He was also chairman of tho board of King's 
Hospital, better known as tho Blue Coat 
School. Of tliis school he published in 1906 
a liistory, wliich is in effect a history 
of Dublin from the Restoration to the 
Victorian era. Falkiner pursued literary 
interests ; ho wrote on Swift's portraits 
(Swift's Prose Works, 1908, vol. xii.), and a 
collection of his ' Literary Miscellanies ' was 
published posthumously in 1909. He died 
at Funchal, Madeira, on 22 March 1908. 

He married twice : (1) in 1861 Adelaide 
Matilda {d. 1877), third daughter of Thomas 
Sadleir of Ballinderry Park, county Tip- 
perary ; and (2) Robina Hall {d. 1895), third 
daughter of N. B. M'Intire of Cloverhill, 
county Dublin. By his first wife he had 
issue three sons, including Caesar Litton 
Falkiner [q. v. Suppl. II], and four 

A portrait by Walter Osborne is in the 
National Gallery, Dublin. 

[A biography by Falkiner' a daughter May, 
prefixed to his Literary MisceUanies; The 
Falkiners of Mount Falcon, by F. B. Falkiner, 
1894; Burke'sLandedGentry of Ireland, 1904.] 

R. H. M. 

FANE, VIOLET (pseudonym). [See 
CuRRiE, Mary Montgomerie, Lady, 1843- 
1905, author.] 

(1814-1906), admiral, born at Stoke, Devon- 
port, on 27 Nov. 1814, was eldest surviving 
son of General Sir Edward Fanshawe (1785- 
1858), R.E., and was grandson of Robert 
Fanshawe, who, after commanding with 
distinction the Monmouth in Byron's action 
off Grenada in 1779 and the Namur on 
12 April 1782, was commissioner of the navy 
at Devonport, where he died in 1823. 
His mother was Frances, daughter of Sir 
Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple [q. v.], of 
whose services at Gibraltar and in Portugal 
in 1808 Fanshawe published (1895) a critical 
account. He entered the navy in 1828, 
and was promoted to be lieutenant in 1835. 
He was then in November appointed to 
the Hastings, in which, and afterwards in 
the Magicienne, he served on tho home 
and Lisbon stations. During the greater 


part of 1838 ho was flag h'eutcnant to 
Rear-admiral Bouverie, the superintendent 
of Portsmouth dockyard, and in November 
was appointed to the Daphne corvette, at 
first off Lisbon, whence ho went out to tho 
Mediterranean, where he took part in the 
reduction of Acre and tho other opera- 
tions on tho coast of Syria in 1840. On 
28 Aug. 1841 Fanshawe was promoted to 
the rank of commander, and in September 
1844 went out to tho East Indies in com- 
mand of tho Cruiser. HLs conduct in 
command of the boats at tho reduction of a 
pirate stronghold in Borneo won for him 
his promotion to captain on 7 Sept. 1845. 
In the Russian war of 1854-6 ho com- 
manded the Cossack, and afterwards the 
Hastings in the Baltic and in the Channel ; 
from May 1856 to March 1859 tho Cen- 
turion in the Mediterranean; from June 
1859 to April 1861 tho Trafalgar in the 
Channel, and from 1 April 1861 he was 
superintendent of Chatham dockyard. In 
November 1863 he was promoted to be 
rear-admiral, and in 1865 was nominated 
a lord of the admiralty. From 1868 to 

1870 he was superintendent at Malta 
dockyard, with his flag in the Hibemia. 
On 1 April he became vice-admiral, and in 

1871 was nominated a C.B. From 1870 to 
1873 he was commander-in-chief on the 
North American station ; during 1875-8 was 
president of the Royal Naval College at 
Greenwich, in succession to Sir Cooper Key ; 
and during 1878-9 was commander-in-chief 
at Portsmouth. On 27 Nov. 1879, his sixty- 
fifth birthday, he was placed on the retired 
list. In 1881 he was nominated a K.C.B., 
and at Queen Victoria's jubilee in 1887 was 
advanced to G.C.B. He continued to take 
an active interest in naval questions, serving 
as vice-president or member of council of 
the Navy Records Society till shortly 
before Ids death. He died on the anniver- 
sary of Trafalgar, 21 Oct. 1906. He married 
on 11 May 1843 Jane {d. 1900), sister of 
Edward, Viscount Card well [q. v.], and had 
issue four sons. Admiral of the Fleet Sir 
Arthur Dalrymple Fanshawe, G.C.B., is his 
third son. 

[Royal Naval List ; G'Byme's Naval 
Biographical Diet. ; Burke's Landed Gentry ; 
The Times, 23 Oct. 1906; Clowes, Royal 
Navy, vi. and vii. 1901-3; information from 
Sir Arthur Fanshawe.] J. K. L. 

(1838-1903), novelist, second son of Jacob 
Farjeon {d. 1865), a Jewish merchant, by 
his wife Dinah Levy of Deal, was born 
in London on 12 May 1838. Educated at 
a private Jewish school until he was 



fourteen, he entered the office of the 
'Nonconformist' newspaper. At the end 
of three years, unwillingness to conform to 
the Jewsh faith caused a disagreement with 
his parents. At seventeen he embarked 
for Australia, travelling steerage ; during 
the voyage he produced some numbers of a 
ship newspaper, ' The Ocean Record,' and 
was transferred by the captain to the saloon. 
From the goldfields of Victoria he went 
to New Zealand, on hearing of rich finds 
there. Soon abandoning the quest of gold, 
he settled at Dunedin as a journalist. He 
assisted (Sir) Julius Vogel [q. v. Snppl. I] 
in the management of the ' Otago Daily 
Times,' the first daily paper established 
in the colony, which Vogel founded in 
1861. Farjeon became joint editor and 
part-proprietor ; but journalism did not 
satisfy his ambition, and he wrote a novel, 
' Christopher Cogleton,' for the weekly 
' Otago Witness,' in which Vogel was also 
interested, a play ' A Life's Revenge,' and 
several burlesques in which the leading parts 
were taken by Julia Matthews, who subse- 
quently won a reputation in London. In 
1866 he published at Dunedin a successful 
tale of Australian life, ' Grif,' and a Christ- 
mas story, ' Shadows on the Snows,' which 
he dedicated to Charles Dickens. 

Encouraged bj'^ an appreciative letter 
from Dickens, Farjeon in 1868 returned to 
England. He travelled by way of New 
York, where he declined the offer by 
Gordon Bennett of an engagement on 
the ' New York Herald ' ; and settled in 
chambers in the Adelphi. During the 
next thirty-five years he devoted himself 
to novel-writing with unceasing toil. The 
success of ' Grif,' which was republished 
in London (1870 ; new edit. 1885), was main- 
tained in a series of sentimental Christmas 
stories. * Blade o' Grass ' (1874 ; new edit. 
1899), ' Golden Grain' (1874), ' Bread and 
Cheese and Kisses ' (1874 ; new edit. 1901), 
and in many conventional three-volume 
novels mainly treating of humble life — 
such as 'Joshua Marvel' (1871), 'Lon- 
don's Heart ' (1873), and ' The Duchess of 
Rosemary Lane' (1876). As a disciple of 
Dickens, Farjeon won passing popularity, 
but he turned later to the sensational 
mystery in which Wilkie Colhns excelled, 
and there his ingenuity was more effective. 
'Great Porter Square' (1884) and 'The 
Mystery of M. Felix ' (1890) are favour- 
able examples of his work in this kind. 
His best novel is the melodramatic ' Devlin 
the Barber ' (1888 ; new edit. 1901). A play 
by Farjeon, ' Home, Sweet Home,' was 
produced by Henry Neville at the Olympic 

Theatre in 1876, and in 1891 George 
Conquest put on at the Surrey Theatre 
Farjeon's dramatised version of his novel 
' Grif,' which had already undergone un- 
authorised dramatisation. In 1873 he sat 
with Charles Reade and others on a 
committee formed by John HoUingshead 
[q. V. Suppl. II] to amend the law so as 
to prevent the dramatisation of novels 
without their writers' assent (Holiings- 
HEAD, My Lifetime, ii. 54). 

In October 1877 he gave readings in 
America from one of his early successes, 
' Blade o' Grass.' 

Farjeon died at his house in Belsize 
Park, Hampstead, on 23 July 1903, and 
his remains were cremated and interred at 
Brookwood. He married on 6 June 1877 
Margaret, daughter of the American actor, 
Joseph Jefferson ; she survived him with 
four sons and one daughter. A head in 
pastels, by Farjeon's nephew, Emanuel 
Farjeon, a miniature-painter well known 
in the United States, belongs to the widow. 

[The Times, 24 July 1903 ; Edmund Downey, 
Twenty Years Ago, 1905, p. 246 ; Tinsley, 
Random Recollections of an Old Publisher, 
1900, ii. 309 ; private information.] L. M. 

FARMER, EMILY (1826-1905), water- 
colour painter, was one of the three children 
of John Biker Farmer, of the East India 
Company's service, by his wife Frances 
Ann, daughter of William Churchill Frost. 
Alexander Farmer, a twin brother of 
her sister Frances, was an artist ; he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy and 
elsewhere from 1855 to 1867, and is 
represented in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum by two small oil paintings of genre 
subjects ; he died on 28 March 1869. 
Emily Farmer was bom in London on 
25 July 1826. She was educated entirely at 
home, and received instruction in art from 
her brother. In early life Miss Farmer 
painted miniatures, but she is best known 
for her refined and well- drawn groups of 
children and other genre subjects. She 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1847, 
and again in 1849 and 1850. In 1854 she 
was elected a member of the New Society 
(now the Royal Institute) of Painters in 
Water Colours, and she was a frequent 
contributor to its exhibitions until the 
year of her death. She resided for more 
than fifty years at Portchester House, 
Portch ester, Hampshire, where she died on 
8 May 1 905. She is buried, with her mother, 
sister, and brother, in the churchyard of 
St. Mary's within the castle at Portchester. 
The Victoria and Albert Museum has two 
water-colour drawings by Miss Farmer, viz. 




'In Doubt' and 'Kitty's Breakfast ' (1883). 
Her best-known work is p(Miiai)s ' Deceiving 
(Jranny,' whicli was extensively reproduced. 
An oil portrait of Miss Farmer by her 
brother Alexander belongs to Miss M. A. 
Waller of Portchesler. 

[Information kindly supplied by Miss M. A- 
Waller; Cataloguos of oils and water-colours, 
Victoria and Albert Museum ; Graves, Diet, 
of Artists, Roy. Acad. Exhibitors, and 
British Institution Exhibitors ; Cat. of the 
Hoy. Acad, and Roy. Inst, of Painters in 
Water Colours ; Art Journal, 1905, p. 224.] 

B. S. L. 

FARMER, JOHN (1835-1901), 
musician, born at Nottingham on 16 Aug. 
1835, was eldest of a family of nine. His 
father, also John Farmer, was a lace manufac- 
turer and a skilful violoncellist ; liis mother, 
whose maiden name was Mary Blackshaw, 
was markedly unmusical, but possessed 
of considerable mechanical inventiveness. 
An uncle, Henry Farmer, was a composer 
and the proprietor of a general music- 
warehouse in Nottingham. Farmer was 
apprenticed to him at a very early age 
after schooling at Hucknall Torkard and 
at Nottingham, and taught himself to 
play piano, violin, and harp. At the age 
of fourteen he was sent to the Conserva- 
torium at Leipzig, where he studied under 
Moscheles, Plaidy, Hauptmann, and E. F. 
Richter, and sang in the Thomaskirche. 
After three years at Leipzig he moved to 
Coburg, studied under Spaeth, and rehearsed 
the choral work at the opera and elsewhere. 
In 1853 he returned to England, and took 
a position in the London branch of his 
father's lace business, where, though the 
work was very uncongenial, he stayed till 
the death, in 1857, of his mother, who had 
strongly opposed an artistic career. He 
then ran away to Zurich, to support him- 
self by music-teaching, solely influenced 
by the residence of Wagner there at the 
time ; he had helped in the production of 
' Tannhauser ' at Coburg, and had ex- 
perienced a strong reaction from the 
strict academicism of Leipzig. 

In 1861 Farmer returned to England, 
and, after some fluctuations of fortune, was 
engaged to give daily piano performances 
at the International Exhibition of 1862. The 
association with Harrow school, which gave 
him his chief reputation, was a fruit of this 
engagement. Some old Harrovians who 
visited the exhibition and were struck with 
Farmer's playing invited him to take charge 
of a small musical society (unconnected 
ofticially with the school itself) in which they 
were interested. He took up his residence 

at Harrow at the end of 1862. In 1864, in 

spite of conservative scruples on the part 
of the authorities, he joined the staff of the 
school as music teacher. To words by 
Harrow masters [see Bowen, Edward 
Ern'est, Suppi. II] ho composed numerous 
songs which won great popularity and 
became an integral part of the permanent 
tradition of the school. In 1885, when 
Dr. Henry Montagu Butler, headmaster 
since 1859, who had given Farmer every 
encouragement, left Harrow, Farmer ac- 
cepted an invitation (previously offered, 
but then declined) from Benjamin Jowett, 
Master of Balliol College, Oxford, to be- 
come organist there. At BalUol he remained 
till his death. Among numerous other 
college activities, he instituted, in the 
college hall, with the Master's full ap- 
proval, classical secular concerts on Sunday 
evenings, which aroused for a short time 
considerable opposition. 

There were many side outlets to Farmer's 
untiring energies. In 1872 a body of 
friends founded the Harrow Music School, 
an institution designed to systematise his 
method of instruction in classical piano 
music. Special stress was laid on the 
study of the work of Bach, the educa- 
tional importance of which Farmer was 
one of the first in England to appreciate. 
He was also one of the earliest and firmest 
champions of Brahms. For the last twenty- 
five years of his life his method was adopted 
by the Girls' Public Day School Company, 
for which (as for many other schools) he 
acted as musical adviser and inspector. 
From 1895 onwards he was examiner to 
the Society of Arts, and he was also busily 
engaged in teacliing and in lecturing in 
schools and in universities outside Oxford, 
taking up towards the end of his life a 
further interest — the music of soldiers 
and sailors. He died at Oxford on 17 July 
1901, after a long paralytic illness. 

Farmer married, at Ziirich on 25 Oct. 
1859, Marie Elisabeth Stahel, daughter of 
a Ziirich schoolmaster ; two of their seven 
children predeceased him. 

Farmer's published compositions include 
numerous songs for Harrow, Balliol, St. 
Andrews, and elsewhere ; oratorios, ' Christ 
and his Soldiers' (1878) and ' The coming 
of Christ ' (1899) ; a fairy opera, ' anderella ' 
(1882); a ' Requiem in memory of departed 
Harrow friends' (1884); and many works 
of smaller dimensions. Several extended 
pieces of chamber-music and other works 
remain in MS. He also edited many 
volumes of Bach and other standard com- 
posers ; ' Gaudeamus, songs for colleges 



and schools ' (1890) ; * Hymns and chorales 
for schools and colleges' (1892); ' Dulce 
domum, rhjmies and songs (old and new) 
for children ' (1893); * Scarlet and Blue, 
songs for soldiers and sailors' (1896). 
He had a remarkable gift for writing 
straightforward healthy tunes suitable for 
unison singing, and to these compositions 
he [himself attached] chief importance. A 
warmhearted enthusiast of magnetic per- 
sonality, with a deep belief in the 
ethical influence] of| music, he did much 
tol popularise the classical composers and 
to .elevate musical taste in the circles in 
which he moved. 

A portrait in oils is in the speech room 
at Harrow school. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information ; 
Abbott and Campbell's Benjamin Jowett 
(1897); Harrow School, ed. E. W. Howson 
and E. Townsend Warner, 1898, passim ; 
Musical Gazette, Dec. 1901.] E. W. 


(pseudonym). [See Heahn, Mary Anne, 
hymn -writer and author, 1834-1909.] 

FARQUHARSON,DA VXD (1840-1907), 

landscape painter, bom at Lochend Cottage, 
Blairgowrie, on 8 Nov. 1840, was the 
younger son in the family of five children 
of Alexander Farquharson, dykebuilder 
there, and Susan Clark his wife. He served 
an apprenticeship in the shop of a painter 
and decorator in Blairgowrie in which was 
working about the same time another 
artist, WiUiam Geddes, who afterwards 
won a considerable reputation as a painter 
of fish. After following his trade in the 
south of Scotland, Farquharson returned 
to his native town, and with his brother 
started the business of A. and D. Far- 
quharson, housepainters. On the dissolu- 
tion of this partnership he devoted himself 
to the art of landscape painting, which, 
with little or no regular training, he had 
long practised in a desultory way. His 
first appearance at the Royal Scottish 
Academy, in 1868, was with a Sol way 
landscape, and his sketching expeditions 
had already taken him as far as Ireland ; 
but his main subjects throughout his career 
were found in his native glens and the 
Perthshire and western highlands. 

About 1872-3 Farquharson removed to 
Edinburgh, and until 1882 had a studio 
there at 16 Picardy Place. His * Last 
Furrow,' exhibited at the Scottish Academy 
in 1878, was purchased and engraved by 
the Royal Association for the Promotion 
of Fine Arts. It was followed by ' Noon- 
day Rest ' (R.S.A. 1879), ' Sheep-plunging ' 

(R.A. 1880), *»The Links of Forth ' (R.S.A. 
1883). In 1882 he was elected A.R.S.A., 
and in the same year he removed to London, 
setthng at first in St. John's Wood, but 
spending many months each j'^ear in paint- 
ing in the Scottish highlands and the west of 
England, with one or two visits to HoUandj 
From 1886 onwards he was a regular ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Academy, where he 
first exhibited in 1877, and he contributed 
once or twice to the New Gallery, while 
his work was always on view at the galleries 
of Messrs. Tooth. In 1897 his picture at 
the Royal Academy, ' In a Fog,' was pur- 
chased for 420Z. under the Chantrey Bequest. 

By this time Farquharson had settled 
finally at Sennen Cove, Cornwall, which 
gave him the subject for a large landscape, 
' Full Moon and Spring Tide,' hung in 
the place of honour in the large gallery 
in the Academy of 1904. 7'his striking 
canvas, painted when the artist was 
sixty-four, first brought him into public 
notice, and it won him the associateship 
of the Royal Academy in the same year. 
With the exception of one or two of the 
foundation members, no artist became 
associated with the Academy at so advanced 
an age. ' Full Moon and Spring Tide ' 
reappeared at the winter exhibition of the 
Academy in 1909, in the McCulloch collec- 
tion, into which it had passed with several 
other of his large canvases, and again at 
the winter exhibition of 1911, with a selec- 
tion of the painter's works, after his death. 
It was thus on view at Burlington House 
on three separate occasions in seven years 
— probably a unique record. 

Farquharson's latest pictures included 
'Bimam Wood' (R.A. 1906), also pur- 
chased by the Chantrev Trustees, and 
' Dark Tintagel ' (R.A. 1907). These, like 
all his large works, were painted with a 
broad and facile brush and a feeling 
for the large aspect of nature, but 
lacked the research and refinement of 
smaller landscapes painted earlier in the 
artist's life. The Manchester Art Gallery 
possesses one of Farquharson's oil-paint- 
ings ; and there are two in the Glasgow 
Art Galleries. 

Farquharson died at Balmore, Birnam, 
Perthshire, on 12 July 1907, and was 
buried in Little Dunkeld churchyard. 
Early in life he married Mary Irvine, whom 
he met in Ireland. She died in 1868. A 
son and daughter survived him. 

[Private information ; Scotsman, 13 July 
1907; The Times, 13 July 1907; Graves, 
Royal Acad. Exhibitors, 1906 ; Cats, of Royal 
Acad, and Royal Scot. Acad.] D. S. M. 




1905), professor of divinity and ecclesiastical 
history at Durham, born in London on 
20 April 1820, was son of Abraham Ecclcs 
Farrar, president of the Wesleyan conference, 
by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Adam Storey of Leeds. Educated at the 
Liverpool Institute, he matriculated in 1844 
at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, obtaining a first 
clasg in the final classical school and a second 
in mathematics, and graduating BA. in 1850. 
In 1851 he was the first winner of the prize 
founded in memory of Arnold of Rugby, with 
an essay on ' The Causes of the Greatness 
and Decay of the Town of Carthage,' and 
in the following year proceeded M.A. and 
was elected Michel fellow of Queen's College. 
In two successive years, 1853 and 1854, he 
won the Denyer prize for a theological essay, 
his themes being respectively ' The Doctrine 
of the Trinity ' and ' Original Sin.' Ordained 
deacon in 1852 and priest in 1853, he 
became tutor at Wadham College in 1855, 
and acted both as mathematical moderator 
and examiner in classics in 1856. He was 
appointed preacher at the Chapel Royal, 
Whitehall, in 1858, and Bampton lecturer 
at Oxford in 1862, and became B.D. and 
D.D. in 1864. 

While at Oxford Farrar published his chief 
literary work, 'Science in Theology, [nine] 
Sermons before the University of Oxford,' 
in 1859, and *A Critical History of Free 
Thought,' the Bampton Lectures in 1862. 
In the former work he sought *to bring 
some of the discoveries and methods of 
the physical and moral sciences to bear 
upon theoretic questions of theology.' The 
Biampton Lectures proved Farrar to be a 
learned and clear historian of ideas. In 
1864 Farrar was appointed professor at 
Durham, and in 1878 he became canon of the 
cathedral. From this time onward , although 
he travelled widely in his vacation, not only 
through Europe but in Asia Minor, his 
life was identified with his work as teacher 
and preacher at Durham. His colleague. 
Dr. Sanday, who described him as ' a bom 
professor,' doubted if * any of the distin- 
guished theologians of the last century . . . 
had at once the same commanding survey 
of his subject and an equal power of impres- 
sing the spoken word upon his hearers. . . . 
His knowledge was encyclopaedic ; and his 
method was also that of the encyclopaedia. 
He was never more at home than in classi- 
fying, dividing, and subdividing. His ex- 
perience in the study of natural science 
dominated his treatment of literature and 
the history of thought.' Of commanding 
height and appearance, and of stately 

manner, hn by * his physical presence height* 
ened the eflect (jf what he said.' 

While at Durham, although he planned 
without executing an English church history, 
he only published a few sermons. He died 
at Durham on 11 June 1905, without issue, 
He married in 1864 Sarah Martha (1824- 
1905), daughter of Robert Wood, a Wesleyan 

[Guardian, 2 Juno 1905 ; Journal of Theo- 
logical Studies, art. by Dr. Sanday, October 
1905 ; Durham University Journal, 14 July 
1905, with list of sermons.] 

(1831-1903), dean of Canterbury, bom 
on 7 Aug. 1831 in the fort at Bombay, 
was the second son of Charles Pinhom 
Farrar, chaplain of the Church Missionary 
Society, by his wife Caroline Turner. 
At the age of three he was sent with his 
elder brother to England, and while under 
the care of two maiden aunts at Aylesbury 
attended the Latin school there. His 
parents came to England for a three years' 
furlough in 1839, and taking a house 
at Castleton Bay in the Isle of Man, sent 
their sons to the neighbouring King 
William's College, where they became 
boarders in the house of the headmaster. 
Dr. Dixon. The culture and comfort of the 
I Aylesbury home and the comparative dis- 
comfort and roughness of the college are 
j described by Farrar in his first story, 
I ' Eric.' The religious teaching was strictly 
I evangelical, but the standard of scholar- 
j sliip was inferior. In eight years Farrar 
rose to be head of the school, developing 
the strong self-reliance which distinguished 
him through life. Among liis schooUellows 
w^ere Thomas Fowler [q. v. Suppl. II], Thomas 
Edward Brown [q. v. Suppl. I], and E. S. 
Beesly. In 1847, when his father left 
India and became curate-in-charge of St. 
James, Clerkenwell, Farrar lived with his 
parents, and attended King's College. 
Thenceforth, owing to his success in winning 
prizes and scholarships, his education cost 
his father nothing. He was fii-st both in 
matriculation at London University and 
in the examination for honours, and gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1852. His chief competitor 
was (Sir) Edwin Arnold [q. v. Suppl. 11 j, 
and among the professors F. D. Maurice 
[q. v.] exercised a strong influence on 
liim. From Maurice he learned a vener- 
ation for Coleridge's religious and philo- 
sopliical writings. In October 1850 ho 
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, with a 
sizarship and a King's (Dollege scholarship, 
and in 1852 he obtained a Trinity College 




scholarship. His novel * Julian Home ' 
draws freely on his Cambridge experiences. 
He was a member of the Apostles' Club. 
He took no part in games. In 1852 he 
won the chancellor's medal for English 
verse with a poem on the Arctic regions. 
In 1854 he was bracketed fourth in the 
classical tripos and was a junior optime in 
the mathematical tripos ; he graduated 
B.A. in 1854, proceeded M.A. in 1857, 
and D.D. in 1874. 

Before the result of the tripos was 
announced, Farrar accepted a mastership 
at Marlborough College, where his friends 
E. S. Beesly and E. A. Scott were already 
at work. The headmaster, G. E. L. 
Cotton [q. v.], afterwards bishop of 
Calcutta, was engaged in the task of revivi- 
fying the school. Farrar at once showed 
special gifts as a master, readiness to make 
friends of his pupils and power of 
stimulating their literary and intellectual 
energies. On Christmas Day 1854 he was 
ordained deacon, and priest in 1857. He 
left Marlborough after a year to take a 
mastership under Dr. Vaughan at Harrow 
(November 1855). In the same year he 
won the Le Bas prize at Cambridge for an 
English essay, and in 1856 he won the 
Norrisian prize for an essay on the Atone- 
ment, and was elected a fellow of Trinity 
College. Dr. Whewell is said to have been 
impressed by his familiarity with Cole- 
ridge's philosophy. 

Farrar soon became a house-master at 
Harrow, where he remained fifteen years, 
serving for the last eleven years under Dr. 
H. M. Butler on Vaughan's retirement (see 
Dr. Butler's estimate of him as a schoolmaster 
in Life, p. 138). At Harrow, Farrar devoted 
all his leisure to literary work — a practice 
which he followed through life. Before he 
left Harrow he had won for himself a public 
reputation in three departments of literature 
— ^in fiction, in philology, and in theology. 
He began with fiction. In 1858 he published 
' Eric, or Little by Little,' a tale of school- 
life, partly autobiographical, which long 
retained its popularity ; thirty-six editions 
appeared in his lifetime. ' Eric ' lacks the 
mellowness and the organic unity of ' Tom 
Brown's School Days,' which appeared 
a year earlier. But it influences boys 
through its vividness and sincerity, which 
reflect Farrar's ardent temperament and 
unselfish idealism. There followed in 1859 
' Julian Home : a Tale of College Life ' 
(18th edit. 1905). In 1862 ' St. Winifred's, 
or the World of School ' (26th edit. 
1903), was printed anon5miously. In 1873, 
under the pseudonym of F. T. L. Hope, 

*The Three Homes: a Tale for Fathers 
and Sons,' was contributed to the ' Quiver.' 
It was not acknowledged till 1896 ; it 
reached its 18th edition in 1903. 

Philology and grammar were Farrar's 
first serious studies, and he was a pioneer 
in the effort to introduce into ordinary 
education some of the results of modern 
philological research. In 1860 he published 
' An Essay on the Origin of Language : 
based on Modern Researches and especialh'^ 
on the Works of M. Renan.' It was 
followed in 1865 by 'Chapters on Lan- 
guage,' of which three editions appeared, 
and in 1870 by ' Families of Speech,' 
from lectures delivered before the Royal 
Institution. The last two were re-issued 
together in 1878 under the general title of 
' Language and Languages.' Farrar was 
an evolutionist in philology, and his first 
essay caught Darwin's attention and led 
to a friendship between the two. On 
Darwin's nomination Farrar in 1866 was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 
recognition of his work as a philologist. 
In order to improve the teaching of Greek 
grammar he composed a card of ' Greek 
Grammar Rules,' which reached its 22nd 
edition, and published ' A Brief Greek 
Syntax' (1867; edit. 1880). He 
explained his educational aims in two 
lectures at the Royal Institution, the first 
of which, ' On Some Defects in Public 
School Education,' urged the serious 
teaching of science and the defects in the 
current teaching of classics. His views 
elicited the sympathy of Darwin and 
Tyndall. In 1867 he edited, under the title 
of ' Essays on a Liberal Education,' a 
number of essays by distinguished univer- 
sity men advocating reforms. In theology 
Farrar first came before the public as con- 
tributor to Macmillan's ' Sunday Library 
for Household Reading' of a popular 
historical account of Seneca, Epictetus, and 
Marcus Aurelius, which he called ' Seekers 
after God' (1868; 17th edit. 1902). After 
the appearance of his first volume of ser- 
mons, ' The Fall of Man and other Sermons ' 
(1868; 7th edit. 1893), he was appointed 
chaplain to Queen Victoria in 1869 (being 
made a chaplain-in-ordinary in 1873) and 
Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge in 1870. 
The Hulsean lectures were printed in 1871 
as ' The Witness of History to Christ ' (9th 
edit. 1892). 

Farrar was a candidate in 1867 for the 
headmastership of Haileybury, but was 
defeated by Dr. Bradby, one of his 
colleagues at Harrow. In 1871 he was 
appointed headmaster of Marlborough 




C()llof];o In succession to Goorgo Gran- 
ville^ Bradley [q. v. Suppl. II]. An out- 
break of scarlet fever had just caused a 
panic among parents, but Farrar soon 
revived confidence and maintained the 
prestige of Bradley's nile, carried out 
sanitary improvements and tlie julditional 
building which had been previously planned, 
and began the teaching of science in 
accordance with his principles of educa- 
tional reform. While at Marlborough he 
made his popular reputation by writing 
the ' Life of Christ.' He sought to meet 
the requirements of the publishers, Messrs. 
Cassell, Petter & Galpin, wlio suggested that 
the sketch should enable readers to realise 
Christ's * life more clearly, and to enter more 
thoroughly into the details and sequence 
of the gospel narratives.' In 1870 he visited 
Palestine \vith Walter Leaf, his pupil at 
Harrow, and his task was completed after 
much liard work in 1874. The success was 
surprising. Twelve editions were exhausted 
in a year, and thirty editions of all sorts and 
sizes in the author's lifetime. It has had 
a huge sale in America and has been 
translated into all the European languages. 
Despite its neglect of the critical problem 
of the composition of the gospels, and the 
floridity which was habitual to Farrar's 
style, his ' Life of Christ ' combined honest 
and robust faith with wide and accurate 
scholarship. The value of the excursuses 
has been recognised by scholars. Farrar 
pursued his studies of Christian origins 
in the 'Life of St. Paul' (1879; 10th 
edit. 1904), an able and thorough survey 
of the Pauline epistles and the problems 
connected with them, and the most valuable 
of Farrar's writings ; in ' The Early Days 
of Christianity' (1882, 5 edits.), in which 
the review of the writings of the New 
Testament was completed ; and in his 
' Lives of the Fathers : Church History in 
Biography' (1889), an attempt to bring 
his survey down to the end of the sixth 

In 1 875 Farrar declined the crown living 
of Hahfax, but next year he accepted a 
canon ry of Westminster with the rectory 
of St. Margaret's parish. His success as 
a preacher both at St. Margaret's church 
and in the Abbey was pronounced, and gave 
him the means of restoring the church. 
He thoroughly reorganised its interior, 
putting in many stained glass windows 
and spending 30,000/. on the building. 
At the same time he sought to restore to 
St. Margaret's its old position as the parish 
church of the House of Commons, and 
largely succeeded. In 1890 he was chosen 

chaplain to the House, and filled the 
position with distinction for five years. 
As a parish priest he earnestly faced his 
parochial responsibilities, and the dninken- 
ness in Westminster slums made him a 
pledged abstainer and an eager advocate 
of temperance. In 1883 he was appointed 
archdeacon of Westminster. 

In 1877 he roused a storm of criticism 
by a course of five sermons in the Abbey 
(Nov.-Dec.) on the soul and the future 
life, the subject of a current discussion in 
the ' Nineteenth Century.' He challenged 
the doctrine of eternal punishment. The 
sermons were published with a preface 
and other additions under the title 
' Eternal Hope' in 1878 (18th edit. 1901), 
and the volumes called forth numerous 
replies, of wliich the most important was 
E. B. Pusey's 'What is of Faith as to 
Everlasting Punishment ? ' Pusey and 
Farrar corresponded, and in some measure 
Farrar modified his position in ' Mercy and 
Judgment : a Few Last Words on Christian 
Eschatology with reference to Dr. Pusey's 
" What is of Faith " ' (1881 ; 3rd edit. 1900). 
Farrar's teaching largely repeated that of 
his master, F. D. Maurice, but he reached 
a far wider audience. At Farrar's suggestion 
the offer was made on Darwin's death in 
1882 to inter his body in Westminster 
Abbey ; Farrar was one of the pall- 
bearers, and preached a notable funeral 
sermon on Darwin's work and character. 
In 1885 Farrar made a four months' preach- 
ing and lecturing tour through Canada and 
the United States. His lecture on Brown- 
ing was reckoned the beginning of that 
poet's popularity in America. His preach- 
; ing created a profound impression. His 
' Sermons and Addresses in America ' 
appeared in 1886. In the same year he 
served as Bampton lecturer at Oxford, his 
selection being an unusual compliment to 
a Cambridge divine. His theme was ' The 
History of Interpretation,' and was handled 
with scholarly effect. 

His broad views long hindered his 
promotion, but in 1895 he became dean 
of Canterbury on the recommendation 
of Lord Rosebery. He threw liimself 
with enthusiasm into his new duties. 
Repair and restoration of Canterbury 
Cathedral were urgent. In three years 
he raised 19,000/. by public subscription. 
The roofs were made watertight and the 
chapter house and crypt thoroughly restored. 
He improved the cathedral services and 
made the cathedral a centre of spiritual life 
for the town and diocese. In 1899 liis right 
hand was affected by muscular atrophy. 




which slowly attacked all his muscles. 
After a long illness he died on 22 March 
1903. He was buried in the cloister-green 
of the cathedral, near Archbishop Temple. 
In 1860 he married Lucy Mary, third 
daughter of Frederic Cardew, of the East 
India Company's service, by whom he had 
five sons and five daughters. 

His portrait by B. S. Marks was painted 
for Marlborough College in 1879, and a 
caricature by ' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity 
Fair ' in 1891. Dean Farrar Street, a new 
street in Westminster, is named after him. 

Farrar exerted a vast popular influence 
upon the religious feeling and culture of 
the middle classes for fully forty years 
by virtue of his enthusiasm, always sincere 
if not always discriminating, and of his 
boundless industry. In his religious views 
he occupied a position between the evan- 
gelical and broad church schools of 

In addition to those already mentioned, 
Farrar issued many other collections of 
sermons, wliich were widely read, and 
separate addresses or pamphlets ; he also 
wrote much for ' The Speaker's Commen- 
tary,' * The Expositor's Bible,' ' The Cam- 
bridge Bible for Schools,' and 'The Men 
of the Bible,' as well as for Smith's ' Dic- 
tionary of the Bible ' and Kitto's ' Biblical 
Encyclopaedia.' Among his independent 
publications were: 1. 'Lyrics of Life,' 
1859. 2. 'General Aims of the Teacher 
and Form Management,' 1883. 3. 'My 
Object in Life,' 1883; 8th edit. 1894. 

4. ' Darkness and Da^vn : a Tale of 
the Days of Nero,' 1891 ; 8th edit. 1898. 

5. ' Social and Present Day Questions,' 
1891; 4th edit. 1903. 6. 'The Life of 
Christ as represented in Art,' 1894 ; 3rd 
edit. 1901. 7. ' Gathering Clouds : Days 
of St. Chrysostom,' 1895. 8. ' Men I have 
Known,' 1897. 9. 'The Herods,' 1897. 
10. ' The Life of Lives : Further Studies in 
the Life of Christ,' 1900. Two selections 
from his works have been published under 
the titles ' Words of Truth and Wisdom ' 
(1881) and ' Treasure Thoughts ' (1886). 

[Life by Farrar' 3 son Reginald Farrar, 
1905, with bibUography; The Times, 23 
March 1903 ; Memoir by Dean Lefroy, pre- 
fixed to biographical edit, of the Life of 
Christ, 1903 ; * Dean Farrar as Headmaster,' 
by J. D. R[ogers] in Cornhill Mag. May 1903 ; 
G. W. E. Russell's Sketches and Snapshots, 
1910 ; Three Sermons preached in Canterbury 
Cathedral, 29 March 1903, by A. J. Mason, 
H. M. Spooner, and H. M. Butler ; Farrar's Men 
I have Known, 1897, and other works, contain 
much autobiography.] R. B. 

FARREN, ELLEN, known as Nellie 
Fabben (1848-1904), actress, born at 
Liverpool on 16 April 1848, was daughter 
of Henry Farren [q. v.] by his wife Ellen 
Smithson, and was grand-daughter of 
WilHam Farren ( 1786-1861 ) [q. v.]. Her first 
appearance is stated to have been made at 
the Theatre Royal, Exeter, on 12 Dec. 1853, 
when she appeared as the young duke of 
York in ' Richard III.' At nine she was at 
the old Victoria Theatre in Waterloo Road, 
London, singing a song which caught the 
popular ear, entitled 'In ninety-five.' At 
eleven she undertook juvenile parts in the 

Her first regular appearance was made 
on the London stage at Sadler's Wells 
Theatre on 26 Dec. 1862, as the Fairy Star 
in * The Rose of Blarney,' a Christmas 
extravaganza, in which she sang and acted 
very prettily. At the Victoria Theatre, 
Waterloo Road, then under the management 
of Frampton and Fenton, she played, 2 Nov. 
1863, the Begum in ' Nana Sahib,' and on 
26 Dec. Hymen in another Christmas piece, 
' GiseUe, or the Midnight Dancers,' as 
well as such parts as Lucy in 'The Fly- 
ing Dutchman,' and Ducie in Boucicault's 
' Colleen Bawn.' 

From the Victoria she migrated to the 
Olympic Theatre, under the management 
of Horace Wigan, first appearing there, on 
2 Nov. 1864, as Fanny in J. M. Morton's 
farce ' My Wife's Bonnet,' and as Gwyn- 
nedd Vaughan in Tom Taylor's 'The 
Hidden Hand.' She remained at this 
theatre until June 1868, playing leading 
parts in the burlesques which formed a 
prominent feature of the entertainment and 
laying the foundation of her fame as a 
burlesque actress. At the same time she 
secured genuine success in comedy charac- 
ters like Charlotte in ' High Life below 
Stairs,' Sam Willoughby in ' The Ticket of 
Leave Man,' the Clown in Shakespeare's 
' Twelfth Night,' Nerissa in ' The Merchant 
of Venice,' and Mary in ' Used Up ' with 
Charles Mathews. Her renderings of 
Robert Nettles in Tom Taylor's ' To Parents 
and Guardians ' and Nan in Buckstone's 
' Good for Nothing ' placed her for comic 
capacity beside Mrs. Keeley [q. v.]. She 
was next seen at the Queen's Theatre in 
Long Acre, under the management of 
Henry Labouchere, where Henry Irving 
was stage-manager and where the company 
included John L. Toole, Charles Wyndham, 
Lionel Brough, Alfred Wigan, John Gayton, 
and Nelly Moore. Here, on 20 June 1868, 
she appeared as Nancy Rouse in Burnand's 
burlesque of * Fowl Play.' 




On 21 Dec. 1868 she joined John HoUings- 
head'e company for the opening of tne 
Gaiety Theatre, appearing as Sprightley in 
' On the Cards,' a conK^ly adapted from 
the French, and as Robert in W. S. 
Gilbert's burlesque ' Robert the Devil.' 
From that date until her retirement she 
was inseparably associated ^vith the Gaiety 
Theatre, playing with success in every 
form of entertainment, from farce, bur- 
lesque, and comic opera to old English 
comedy and Shakespearean drama, under 
the management either of Hollingshead 
or of his successor, Mr. George Edwardes. 
As a boy ' NelUe Farren ' proved at her 
brightest, and in that capacity became the 
idol of the Gaiety audiences. * She could 
play anytliing,' Avrote HoUingshead in * My 
Lifetime,' ' dress in anything, say and do 
anything with any quantity of " go " and 
without a tinge of vulgarity. . . . She 
ought to go do^vn to theatrical posterity 
as the best principal boy ever seen upon 
the stage since Sir WiUiam Davenant intro- 
duced ladies in the drama in the reign of 
Charles II. . . . She was essentially a boy- 
actress — the leading boy of her time — and 
for twenty years I tried to find her " double," 
and failed.' 

She won immense popularity in roles like 
Sam Weller in ' Bardell v. Pickwick ' (24 Jan. 
1871) and in comic singing parts like 
Leporello in Robert Reece's ' Don Giovanni ' 
(17 Feb. 1873), Don Caesar in H. J. Byron's 
' Little Don Csesar do Bazan ' (26 Aug. 1876), 
Thaddeus in Byron's ' The Bohemian 
G'Yurl' (31 Jan. 1877), Faust in his 
' Little Dr. Faust ' (13 Oct. 1877), Ganem in 
Recce's 'The Forty Thieves' (23 Dec. 1880), 
and Aladdin in Reece's burlesque of that 
name (24 Dec. 1881). Later, under Mr. George 
Edwardes's management, she played on 
26 Dec. 1885 Avith enthusiastic acceptance 
Jack Sheppard in ' Little Jack Sheppard,' 
by Henry Pottinger Stephens and William 
Yardley, when she was first associated on the 
stage with Fred Leslie [q. v. Suppl. I] ; she 
was Edmond Dantes in ' Monte Cristo, Jr.' 
by ' Richard Henry ' (23 Dec. 1886), Franken- 
stein, by the same authors (24 Dec. 1887), 
and Ruy Bias in ' Ruy Bias, or the Blas6 
Roue,' by A. C. Torr (Fred Leslie) and 
F. Clarke (21 Sept. 1889). 

In old comedy her best parts included 
Pert in ' London Assurance ' (Drury Lane, 
26 Feb. 1866), Miss Hoyden in * The Man 
of Quality,' adapted from Vanbrugh's * Re- 
lapse' (7 May 1870), Miss Prue in Congreve's 
* Love for Love ' (4 Nov. 1871), Charlotte 
in Bickerstaffe's ' Hypocrit/e,' with Phelps 
(15 Dec. 1873), Lydia Languish in 'The 

Rivals* (7 Fob. 1874), the chambermaid in 
' Tlio Clandestine Marriage,' with Phelps 
(6 Apr. 1874), Tilburina in Sheridan's 'The 
Critic' (13 May 1874), Lucy in 'The Rivals' 
(2 May 1877), and Betsy Baker (5 Dec. 
1883). Slio well sustained her reputation 
l)y performances of Ursula in Shakespeare' f3 
' Much Ado about Notliing ' (Haymarket, 
12 Deo. 1874) and Maria in 'Twelfth 
Night' (4 Mar. 1876). Pathos was com- 
bined mth comic power in roles like 
Clemency Newcome in Dickens's ' Battle of 
Life ' (26 Dec. 1873), Smike in ' Nicholas 
Nickleby ' (23 May 1886), Sam WiUoughby 
in * The Ticket of Leave Man,' as well as 
in Nan in ' Good for Nothing.' 

In 1888-9 she visited America and Aus- 
tralia with Fred Leshe and the Gaiety com- 
pany. She made her last regular appearance 
at the Gaiety as Nan on 6 April 1891, for 
the ' benefit ' of the musical director and 
composer, Wilhelm Meyer Liitz [q. v. Suppl. 
II]. Sailing soon afterwards for Australia 
again, she opened at the Princess's Theatre, 
Melbourne, on 22 Aug. 1891, as Cinder-Ellen 
in Fred Leslie's burlesque ' Cinder-EUen 
up too Late ' ; but before the end of the 
tour she was stricken with cardiac gout, 
which ultimately compelled her withdrawal 
from her profession. After returning to 
England a partial recovery allowed her in 
1895 to undertake on her own account 
the management of the Opera Comique 
Theatre. The res\ilts were disastrous, and 
in three months all her savings vanished. 
A ' benefit ' performance on 17 March 1899, 
at Drury Lane Theatre, on an unprecedented 
scale, brought her the substantial sum of 
7200/., which ensured her an adequate 
provision for life. By arrangement, she had 
the right to dispose of two-thirds of the 
capital sum by w^l, but 1000/. was reserved 
for the establishment at her death of a 
' NeUie Farren ' bed in a children's hospital, 
and 1000/. for division amongst theatrical 

Subsequently ' NelUe Farren ' reappeared 

at other ' benefit ' perfonnances — for 

[ Lydia Thompson at the Lyceum Theatre, 

I on 2 May 1899, as Justice Nell in a sketch 

I of that name, specially Avritten for her, 

and finally in the second scene of 

I George Grossmith junior's revue * The 

1 Linkman ' on 8 April 1903, at the old 

Gaiety Theatre, which was then opened 

for the last time. She died from cardiac 

I gout, at her residence in Sinclair Road, 

West Kensington, on 28 April 1904, and 

was buried in Brompton cemetery amid a 

concourse of admirers reckoned at 5000. 

' Nellie Farren' s ' unboimded spirits and 




good humour, her ready stores of drollery, 
and genuine sympathy with human weak- 
ness or distress gave her omnipotence 
over the average theatre-goer. She was 
neither tall nor beautiful, nor gifted with 
a wholly agreeable speaking or singing 
voice, but the charm of her individuaUty 
triumphed on the stage over all defects. An 
engraved portrait appears in John HolUngs- 
head's ' Gaiety Chronicles.' 

She married on 8 Dec. 1867 Robert 
Soutar (1827-1908), an actor and stage 
manager of the Gaiety Theatre, and left 
two sons, one of whom, Farren Soutar, has 
achieved success on the stage. 

[Personal correspondence and recollections ; 
Hollingshead's Gaiety Chronicles, 1898 ; The 
Times, 29 April 1904; Era, 5 May 1904; 
Farquharson's Short History of the Stage,1909.] 

J. P. 

FARREN, WILLIAM (1825-1908), actor, 
bom at 23 Brompton Square, London, on 
28 Sept. 1825, was natural son of William 
Farren (1786-1861) [q. v.], 'old Farren.' 
Henry Farren [q. v.] was his elder brother. 
Their mother was wife of J. Saville Faucit ; 
Helena Saville Faucit, Lady Martin [q. v. 
Suppl. I], was one of Mrs. Faucit's two legiti- 
mate children. Beginning life as a vocalist, 
' young William Farren ' sang at the Antient 
Concerts in 1848. Turning to the stage, he, 
after slight training in the country, made his 
London debut in the name of Forrester 
at the Strand Theatre, under his father's 
management, on 6 Sept. 1849. On 5 March 
1850 he was the original Moses in Sterling 
Coyne's version of ' The Vicar of Wake- 
field.' Later in the year he accompanied 
his father to the new Olympic, and 
acted under the name of William Farren, 
jun. In January 1852 he appeared as 
Cassio to his brother Henry's Othello, 
and was credited with promise. 

On 28 March 1853 he made his first 
appearance at the Haymarket, under 
Buckstone, as Captain Absolute, and was 
identified with the fortunes of that house 
either in juvenile tragedy or light comedy 
until 1867. His more interesting roles 
were Guibert in Browning's ' Colombo's 
Birthday' (25 April 1853), the leading 
part in Bayle Bernard's new play, ' A 
Life's Trial,' in March 1857 (cf. Henry 
MoRLEY, Journal), Mercury in Bumand's 
farcical comedy, ' Venus and Adonis ' 
(28 March 1864), and Romeo on 31 Aug. 
1867, In October 1869 he was engaged by 
Mrs. John Wood for the St. James's, where 
he appeared as Brizard in Daly's version 
of *Frou Frou' (25 May 1870), and Arthur 
Minton in ' Two Thorns' (4 March 1871), in 

which he struck the critic Dutton Cook as 
happily combining ' ease of manner with due 
impressiveness of delivery.' On 9 Sept. 1871 
Farren migrated to the Vaudeville, with 
which he was long associated. There he was 
the original Sir Geoffrey Champneys in H. J. 
Byron's comedy ' Our Boys ' on 16 Jan. 1875, 
and played the part, without intermission, 
until July 1878. Subsequently he was 
seen at the Royal Aquarium (afterwards 
Imperial Theatre) as Grandfather White- 
head (9 Nov. 1878), in which he was 
deemed inferior in pathos to his father ; 
as young' Mario w ; as Archer in ' The Beaux' 
Stratagem ' (Oct. 1879) ; as Sir Robert 
Bramble in ' The Poor Gentleman ' ; and as 
Adam in IVIiss Litton' s revival of ' As You 
Like It' — a role which he repeated later 
at the opening of the Shaftesbury Theatre 
(20 Oct. 1888). Returning to the Vaude- 
ville, he was Seth Pecksniff in ' Tom 
Pinch' (10 March 1881) and Sir Peter 
Teazle in the elaborate revival of ' The 
School for Scandal ' (4 Feb. 1882). That 
part he resumed at the Criterion in April 
1891 and at the Lyceum in June 1896. 
On 9 Dec. 1882 he challenged further com- 
parison with liis father by playing Sir 
Anthony Absolute. Subsequent parts in- 
cluded Colonel Damas at the Lyceum to 
the Pauline Deschappelles of Miss Mary 
Anderson (27 Oct. 1883). 

In 1887, in conjunction with H. B. 
Conway, Farren started the Conway- 
Farren old comedy company at the Strand, 
appearing there as Lord Ogleby in ' The 
Clandestine Marriage,' old Domton, and 
other characters. At the Criterion on 
27 Nov. 1890 he played with great 
acceptance his father's original part 
of Sir Harcourt Courtly in ' London 
Assurance.' After 1896 his appearances 
on the stage were confined to occasional 
performances of Simon Ingot in ' David 
Garrick ' with (Sir) Charles Wjnidham. 
On his retirement in 1898 he settled at 
Rome. He died at Siena on 25 Sept. 1908, 
and was buried there. 

Farren, like his father, ripened slowly. 
It was not until middle age, when juvenile 
roles were abandoned, that he gradually 
established himself in public favour. One 
of the last of the traditional representatives 
of the Sir Anthony Absolutes and Mr. 
Hardcastles of classic English comedy, he 
achieved in Sir Peter Teazle, according to 
the critics of 1896, ' a masterpiece of sheer 
virtuosity,' but he lacked liis father's powers, 
and his gifts of humorous expression were 
confined to the dry and caustic. 

In 1846 Farren married Josephine 


Klizaboth Davios, who was not connected 

with tlio stage, atul by her had as surviving 
issue a daughter, who lived privately, 
and a son, Percy, an actor, known wliile 
his father was on the stage (from 1882) 
as William Farren, junior, and subsequently 
as William Farren. 

[Pascoo's Dramatic List ; W. Davenport 
A(iams's Diet, of the Drama ; Prof. Henry 
Morlcy's Journal of a London Playgoer ; 
Mowbray Morris's Essays in Theatrical 
Criticism ; Dutton Cook's Nights at the Play ; 
Joseph Knight's Theatrical Notes ; Dramatic 
Year Book, 1892 ; Tatler, 25 Sept. 1901 ; 
Green Room Book, 1908 ; Daily Telegraph, 
28 Sept. 1908 ; private information ; personal 
research.] W. J. L. 

1910), divine, born on 13 Oct. 1821 at 
Silverhill, co. Fermanagh, was the son of 
the Rev. WilUam Fausset by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew Fausset, 
provost of Sligo. The family, of French 
origin, had been settled in co. Fermanagh 
for more than a century. Educated first 
at Dungannon Royal School, he obtained 
at Trinity College, Dublin, a Queen's 
scholarsliip in 1838, the first university 
scholarship and the vice-chancellor's prizes 
for Latin verse and Greek verse m 1841, the 
vice-chancellor's Greek verse prize and the 
Berkeley gold medal in 1842. He graduated 
B.A. in 1843 (senior moderator in classics), 
and won the vice-chancellor's Latin ~verse 
prize both in that year and in 1844. He 
obtained the divinity testimonium (second 
class) in 1845, and graduated M.A. in 1846, 
proceedmg B.D. and D.D. in 1886. 

On graduating, Fausset became a success- 
ful ' coach ' at Trinity College, Dublin, but, 
dra^\^l to parochial work, was ordained 
deacon in 1847 and priest in 1848 by the 
bishop of Durham, and served from 1847 
to 1859 as curate of Bishop Middleham, 
a Durham coUiery village. From 1859 
until his death he was vicar of the poor 
parish of St. Cuthbert's, York. In 1885 
he was made a prebendary of York. A 
good scholar and an eloquent preacher, 
he was an'evangelical of strongly protestant 
sympathies, and AVTote much in support 
of his convictions. He died at York on 
8 Feb. 1910. Fausset was thrice married : 
(1) in 1859toEUzabeth, daughter of WiUiam 
Knowlson, of York, by whom he had three 
sons and one daughter ; (2) in 1874 to Agnes, 
daughter of Major Porter, of Hem bury Fort, 
Honiton, by whom he had one son ; and 
(3) in 1889 to Frances, daughter of the 
Rev. Dr. Strange, vicar of Bishop 



Fauaset showed sound scholarsbip in 
critical editions of ' The Comedies of 
Terence ' (omitting the 'Eunuch') (1844); 
of Homer's ' Iliad,' i.-viii. (1846), one of 
the first editions in English to take ac- 
count of the criticism of Wolff, Niebuhr 
and Grote ; and of ' Livy,' i.-iii., with pro- 
legomena and notes (1849) ; and in trans- 
lations of the 'Hecuba' (1850) and the 
' Medea ' ( 1851 ) of Euripides. His religious 
pubhcations, most of which had wide 
circulation, were: 1. 'Scripture and the 
Prayer-Book in Harmony,' 1854 ; revised 
ed. 1894, an answer to objections against 
the hturgy. 2. Vols. ii. and iv. (Job, 
Ecclesiastes, Malachi, Corinthians I and 
Revelation) in the ' Critical and Explana- 
tory Pocket Bible,' 1863-4. 3. Vols, iii., 
iv., and vi. (Psalms and Proverbs) in 
j the 'Critical, Experimental and Practical 
I Commentary,' 1864r-70. 4. ' Studies in 
I the CL. Psahns,' 1877 ; 2nd edit. 1885, an 
I appUcation of the argument from un- 
1 designed coincidences. 5. ' The EngUsh- 
man's Critical and Expository Bible 
Cyclopaedia,' originally issued in parts, 
I in volume form. 1878. 6. ' Signs of the 
I Times,' 1881. 7. ' Commentary on Judges,' 
1885. 8. 'Guide to the Study of the 
Book of Common Prayer,' 1894,' 3rd edit. 
1903. Fausset also first translated into 
English J. A. Bengel's ' Gnomon of the 
New Testament' (1857), with notes and 
a hfe of Bengel. 

[Record, 18 Feb. 1910; Gospel Magazine, 
April 1910 ; private information and personal 
knowledge.] A. R. B. 

FAYRER, Sir JOSEPH (1824-1907), 
surgeon-general and author, born at 
Plymouth on 6 Dec. 1824, was second 
son of the six sons and two daughters of 
commander Robert John Fayrer, R.N. 
(1788-1849), by his wife Agnes {d. 1861), 
daughter of Richard Wilkinson. 

His father, on retiring from active service 
in the navy, commanded steam-packets 
between Portpatrick and Donaghadee, and 
Liverpool and New York, and was thus a 
pioneer of ocean steam navigation ; in 1843 
he commanded H.M.S. Tenedos as a station- 
ary convict-ship at Bermuda. In Joseph's 
youth the family lived successively at Haver- 
brack, Westmoreland, where Joseph made 
the acquaintance of Wordsworth, Hartley 
Coleridge, and John Wilson (Christopher 
North) ; at Dalrymple, where ho was a 
pupil of the Rev. R. Wallace (1835-6), and 
at Liverpool, where he studied natural 
science at a day school. In 1840, after a 
brief study of engineering, he made a voyage 
to West Indies and South America as mid- 




shipman of the Thames in the new West 
Indian mail steam-packet service. In 
1843 he accompanied his father to Bermuda, 
where an outbreak of yellow fever inclined 
him to the profession of medicine. Entering 
the Charing Cross Hospital in October 1844, 
where his fellow pupils included (Sir) 
William Guyer Hunter [q. v. Suppl. II] and 
Thomas Henry Huxley, he was appointed 
at the end of his second year house surgeon 
at the Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital. 
In July 1847 he was admitted M.R.C.S. 
England, becoming F.R.C.S. in 1878. On 
4 Aug. 1847 he received a commission in the 
royal naval medical service,but soon resigned 
it to travel with Lord Mount-Edgcumbe 
through France, Germany, and Italy. 
While at Palermo the Sicilian revolution 
broke out, and Fajrrer, with his friend Dr. 
Valentine Mott, son of the well-known 
American surgeon, obtained his first ex- 
perience of gunshot wounds. At Rome, 
where he arrived in AprU 1848, he studied 
at the university, and in 1849 obtained there 
the degree of M.D. 

On 29 June 1850 Fayrer left England for 
Calcutta, to become assistant surgeon in 
Bengal. His connection with the Indian 
medical service lasted for forty-five years. 
On the outward voyage Fayrer had medical 
charge of a batch of recruits who proved 
insubordinate ; but when the commanding 
ofl&cer handed them over to Fajrrer, he 
promptly put the ringleader ' in irons and 
restored quiet. Arriving at Fort William 
on 9 Oct. 1850, he spent two years at 
Chinsuja, Cherrapunji in the Khasi Hills, 
and Dacca. His successful service as a field 
assistant-surgeon with the Burma field 
force in the Pegu war of 1852 led Lord 
Dalhousie to appoint him, in July 1853, 
residency surgeon at Lucknow. 

At Lucknow he received on 8 Sept. 1854 
the additional appointment of honorary 
assistant resident, involving political duties. 
On 20 March 1856 he was appointed civil 
surgeon of Lucknow and superintendent of 
charitable institutions. On the annexation 
of Oudh, Fayrer was placed in charge of the 
deposed king's stud of horses, elephants, 
camels, and wild animals. 

During the Mutiny Fayrer's house was 
used both as hospital and fortress, and he 
himself played a prominent part through 
the siege from 30 June until the final relief 
on 17 Nov. 1857 (cf. his Recollections). 
In March 1858 he left for England on 
furlough, and studying in Edinburgh, 
was admitted M.D. in March 1859. On 
29 April, on returning to India, he became 
professor of surgery at the Medical College, 

Calcutta. In January 1867 he was made 
president of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
which he had joined in January 1861, and 
in that capacity proposed a scheme for a 
Zoological society and gardens in Calcutta, 
which was finally carried out in 1875, when 
the gardens were opened by King Edward 
VII, then Prince of Wales. 

In 1868 he was made C.S.I., and in 1869 
surgeon in Calcutta to Lord Mayo, the new 
viceroy. On 1 Jan. 1870 he accompanied 
the Duke of Edinburgh on his travels 
through N.W. India. Owing to failing 
health he came home in March 1872. On 
his arrival he was elected F.R.C.P. London, 
and with (Sir) Lauder Brunton resumed his 
important researches on snake venoms 
which he had begun in India in 1867 and 
which he embodied in a great treatise, 
published in 1872. He joined the medical 
board of the India ofiice in Feb. 1873 and was 
made president on 8 Dec, when he retired 
from the active list of the Indian army as 
a deputy surgeon-general. He continued 
president at the India office till January 
1895, when he retired with the rank of 
surgeon-general and was awarded a good 
service pension in addition to his super- 
annuation allowance. 

Meanwhile, in 1875 Fayrer was selected 
to accompany Edward VII, when Prince of 
Wales, on his tour through India.' The 
expedition left Brindisi on 16 October and 
returned to Portsmouth on 5 May 1876. On 
7 March 1876, at Allahabad, Fayrer was 
made K. C.S.I. On his return he was 
gazetted honorary physician to the prince. 
With the prince he formed a cordial in- 
timacy which lasted for life. He privately 
printed in 1876 'Notes' on the two royal 
visits to India. 

On 19 April 1877 he was elected F.R.S., 
and joined the council in 1895. He was 
made honorary LL.D, of Edinburgh (July 
1878) and of St. Andrews (1890). In 1879, 
as president of the Epidemiological Society, 
he gave an address on 'The Progress 
of Epidemiology in India' (1880). In 

1881 he delivered the Lettsomian lecture 
before the Medical Society of London on 
' Tropical Diseases ' (published with papers 
on like subjects in that year), and in 

1882 the Croonian lectures of the Royal 
College of Physicians on ' The Climate 
and some of the Fevers of India' (1882). 
He represented the government of India at 
the intercolonial congress at Amsterdam 
(with Dr. T. R. Lewis), and at the inter- 
national sanitary congress at Rome (May- 
June 1885). He also represented both the 
Royal College of Physicians of London and 




the University of Edinburgh at the 
tercentenary of Galileo at Pjuiua (Dec. 
1892), when ho made a speech in Italian 
and received the honorary degree of 
doctor of philosophy. On 11 January 1896 
lie was made a baronet. The remainder 
of his life was passed chiefly at Falmouth, 
where he died on 21 May 1907. 

He married on 4 Oct. 1855, at Lucknow, 
Bethia Mary, eldest daughter of Brigadier- 
general Andrew Spcns, who was in command 
of the troops there ; by her he had six sons 
and two daughters. His eldest son, Robert 
Andrew, born on 27 June 1856, died on 
28 Dec. 1904. He was succeeded as second 
baronet by his eldest surviving son, Joseph, 
who joined the Royal Army Medical Corps. 

Despite official and professional calls 
upon his energies, Fayrer was a prolific 
writer on Indian climatology, the pathology 
of Indian diseases, sanitation, and above all 
on venomous snakes. His great work on 
* The Thanatophidia of India, the best book 
on the subject, published in folio in 1872 by 
government, was illustrated with admir- 
able coloured plates from the life by native 
members of the Calcutta School of Art (2nd 
edit. 1874). The book embodies all Fayrer's 
experiments and researches, accounts of 
which were forwarded from India to Dr. 
F. C. Webb, who put them into literary 
shape. To Fayrer's inquiries is due the 
efficacious permanganate treatment of 
venomous snake-bites. But his main con- 
clusions were that there is no absolute 
antidote, and that safety is only to be 
attained when the bite is in such a position 
as to make the application of a ligature 
between it and the heart possible, together 
with the use of the actual cautery. These 
opinions were somewhat modified after 
some later experiments by Fayrer, Brunton, 
and Rogers {Proc. Boy. Soc.y 1904, Ixxiii. 
323) ; it was there shown that recovery 
might be expected if a ligature were applied 
within half a minute or even a longer 
period after a bite, the site of the injury 
being then incised and solid permanganate 
of potassium rubbed in. 

Of his other writings not already men- 
tioned the following are the most important : 
1. ' Clinical Observations in Surgery,' 
Calcutta, 1863. 2. 'Clinical Surgery in 
India,' 1866. 3. * Osteomyelitis and 
Septicaemia and the Nature of Visceral 
Abscess,' 1867. 4. ' Fibrinous Coagula in 
the Heart and Pulmonary Artery as a 
Cause of Death after Surgical Operations,' 
1867. 5. ' Clinical and Pathological 
Observations in India,' 1873. 6. * On the 
Preservation of Health in India,' 1880 (new 


edit. 1894). 7. * Epidemiology of Cholera, 
1888. 8. * Sir James Ranald Martin,' 1897. 
9. ' Recollections of My Life,' 1900. To 
' Quain's Dictionary of Medicine' (1882) 
ho contributed articles on * Effects of 
Venom ' and ' Venomous Animals,' and to 
•AUbutt's System of Medicine' (1894) 
those on * Sunstroke,' * Climate,' and 
' Fevers of India.' 

Fayrer's portrait by Mr. Sydney P. Hall, 
in the Royal Medical College at Netley, 
was unveiled by Lord Wolseley. 

[Lancet, 1 June 1907; Proc. Roy. Soc, B 80, 
1908 ; Favrer's Recollections of My Life, 
1900.] ' H. P. C. 

1909), novelist, born in Pimlico on 3 Jan. 
1831, was third child and the eldest of 
three sons of Charles and Ann Louisa Fenn. 
After a scanty education at private schools, 
Fenn studied at the Battersea Training 
College for Teachers under Samuel Clark 
[q. v.] from 1851 to 1854, and became on 
leaving master of the small national school 
at Alford, Lincolnshire. After some em- 
ployment as a private tutor, he moved to 
London in quest of work, and became a 
printer. Purchasing a small press at Crowle, 
Lincolnshire, he started 'Modem Metre,' 
a httle magazine, entirely in verse, which 
was set up by himself, and ran from May 
to October 1862. In 1864 Fenn became 
part proprietor of the ' Herts, and Essex 
Observer,' published at Bishop's Stortford ; 
but this venture proved no more successful. 
After endless disappointments, a short 
sketch entitled * In Jeopardy ' was accepted 
for 'All the Year Round' in 1864 by 
Dickens, and attracted the notice of other 
editors. Manuscripts were soon accepted 
by James Payn [q. v. Suppl. I] for ' Cham- 
bers's Journal ' and by Edward Walford 
[q. v.] for ' Once a Week.' ' Readings by 
Starlight,' papers on working-class life, 
appeared in 1866 in the * Star ' newspaper 
under the editorship of Justin McCarthy, and 
were coUeeted into four volumes in 1867. 
There soon followed ' Spots and Blots,* 
a similar series, in the ' Weekly Times ' 
under Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Hutton. 

'HoUowdell Grange,' Fenn's first boy's 
story, and ' Featherland,' a natural history 
tale for children, were both published by 
Messrs. Griffith & Farran in 1867 ; and 
from that date onwards he produced novel 
after novel, in magazine, newspaper, and 
volume form, with an industrious rapidity 
which few writers excelled. His separate 
books numbered more than 170. After 
1881 his more successful works were books 



for boys, in which he often effectively 
embodied studies of natural history and 
geography. The boys' books met with 
some success in America, where several 
were reprinted under the general title of 
' The Fenn Books.' 

Meanwhile in 1870 he succeeded Hugh 
Reginald Haweis [q. v. Suppl. II] as editor 
of ' Cassell's Magazine' ; and in 1873 he 
purchased from James Rice [q. v.] ' Once a 
Week,' which he carried on at a loss until the 
close of 1879. He never wholly abandoned 
journalism, and was for some years dramatic 
critic of the ' Echo ' newspaper. In 1887 
he produced at the Comedy Theatre a three- 
act farce, ' The Barrister,' and at Terry's 
Theatre next year he prepared a like piece, 
' The Balloon,' in collaboration with Mr. 
John Henry Darnley. In 1903 he wrote for 
the family a privately printed memoir 
of B. F. Stevens, the American bookseller 
and man of letters. A lover of the country 
and of gardening, Fenn resided for some 
years on a remotely situated farm near 
Ewhurst, in Sussex ; but from 1889 he lived 
at Syon Lodge, Isle worth, an old house 
with a large garden, where he amassed a 
library of some 25,000 volumes and amused 
his leisure in constructing astronomical 
telescopes of considerable size. On the day 
of the completion in 1907 of his last book, a 
memoir of his friend George Alfred Henty 
[q. V. Suppl. 11], Fenn's health finally 
broke. He died after a long illness at 
Syon Lodge on 26 Aug. 1909, and was buried 
in Isleworth cemetery. 

Fenn married in 1855 Susanna, daughter 
of John Leake, of Alford, Lincolnshire, 
who survived him. By her he had two 
sons and six daughters. The eldest son, 
Frederick, and the second son, Clive, engaged 
in literary pursuits. 

[Personal knowledge ; private informa- 
tion ; Sketch, 6 Aug. 1902, an ' interview,' 
with excellent portraits; the Captain, Oct. 
1909.] G. S. B. 

Lady (1823-1905), biographer, born at 
Stillorgan, co. Dublin, in 1823, was eldest 
daughter of Robert RundeU Guinness by 
his wife Mary Anne Seymour. She was 
educated partly at home and partly at 
Woodside, Cheshire. Keenly interested 
from an early age in Irish art and archaeo- 
logy, she made the acquaintance of (Sir) 
Samuel Ferguson [q. v.], and through him 
of George Petrie [q. v.], William Reeves 
[q. v.], and other workers in the same field. 
On 16 Aug. 1848 she married Ferguson, and 
thenceforth shared in his archaeological 
and literary labours, and helped him to 

entertain in their house at 20 North Great 
George Street, Dublin, numerous native 
and foreign guests of like interests. In 
1868 she published her popular book ' The 
Story of the Irish before the Conquest ' 
(2nd edit. 1890), which is still in circula- 
tion. After her husband's death in 1886 
she chiefly occupied herself in writing ' Sir 
Samuel Ferguson in the Ireland of his 
Day,' which appeared in 1896 (Edinburgh 
and London, 2 vols.), and pleasantly if 
discursively described the circle of which 
her husband was the centre. Her ' Life 
of William Reeves, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Down, Connor and Dromore,' followed 
in 1893. Lady Ferguson also prepared 
for posthumous publication her husT3and's 
' Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales 
and Scotland' (Edinburgh, 1887), 'The 
Hibernian Nights' Entertainments ' (Dub- 
lin, 1887 ; three series), and popular 
editions of the ' Lays of the Western Gael ' 
(Dublin, 1887 ; 3rd edit. 1897), ' Confession 
of St. Patrick ' (1888), ' Congal' (Dublin, 
1893), and ' Lays of the Red Branch ' 
(1897). She died at her husband's house in 
Dublin on 5 March 1905, and was buried 
in her husband's grave at Donegore, co. 
Antrim. She had no children. 

[Sir Samuel Ferguson in the Ireland of liis 
Day, 1896; Life of WilUam Reeves, D.D., 
1893; Daily Express, Dublin, 7 March 
1905; Who's Who, 1905; personal know- 
ledge.] D. J. O'D. 

FERGUSSON, Sir JAMES (1832-1907), 
sixth baronet of Kilkerran, governor of 
Bombay, born on 14 March 1832 in Edin- 
burgh, was eldest of four sons of Sir Charles 
Dabymple Fergusson (1800-1849), fifth 
baronet, of Kilkerran in Ayrshire, by his wife 
Helen, daughter of David Lord Boyle [q. v.], 
lord justice-general. Sir David Dalrjrmple, 
Lord Hailes [q. v.], was father of his 
father's mother. A younger brother, Charles 
Dalrymple, who substituted the surname 
Dairy mple for that of Fergusson, was 
created a baronet on 19 July 1887. James 
entered Rugby under Dr. Tait in August 
1845, together with George Joachim (after- 
wards Lord) Goschen, Sir John Stewart, 
who served with him in the Crimea, 
and Sir Theodore Hope, afterwards a 
member of the supreme government in 
India. At school he gained some reputa- 
tion in the debating club, and in 1850 
he proceeded to University College, Oxford, 
having in the previous year succeeded his 
father in the baronetcy. His inclinations 
turned towards a military career, and leav- 
ing Oxford without a degree he entered the 
grenadier guards. With the 3rd battalion 




of that regiment ho served in the Crimean 
war, 1854-5. Ho took part in the battle 
of Ahna and was wounded at Inkerman 
on 5 Nov. 1854. On tliat day tiireo of his 
brother officers were killed and five others 
wounded in the numerous encounters 
which the 1st division sustained, under 
(Jeorj^e, duko of Cambridge. Close to 
him on the field of battle fell his friend 
and neighbour in Scotland, Colonel James 
Hunter Blair (Kinolake's Crimea, vol. vi. 
chap. 6). At tho dying man's suggestion, 
the electors chose Fergusson to take Blair's 
plt\ce in parliament as conservative member 
for Ayrshire, but he remained with the 
forces before Sevastopol until May 1855, 
when Lord Raglan advised him to enter 
upon his parliamentary duties. On his re- 
turn home he received his medal from Queen 
Victoria, and retired from the army on 9 Aug. 
1859. Although his active military career 
was thus brought to an early close, he 
remained an officer of the Royal Company 
of Archers, was colonel commanding the 
Ayr and Wigtown militia from 1858 to 
1868, and also served in his county regi- 
ment of yeomanry. 

In 1857 he lost his seat for Ayrshire, but 
recovered it in 1859, holding it until 1868. 
While attending to county business and 
the duties of a landlord, he devoted 
himself to his parliamentary work, and 
was appointed under-secretary of India 
under Lord Cranborne [see Cecil, Lord 
Robert, Suppl. II] in the Derby government 
of 1866. A year later he was transferred in 
a similar capacity to the home office, where 
there was need for efficient aid to Gathorne 
Hardy (afterwards Lord Cranbrook) [q. v. 
Suppl. II]. The public mind was agitated 
by trades union outrages, the Fenian move- 
ment, and the reform bill. After Disraeli 
succeeded Lord Derby as prime minister in 
February 1868 Fergusson was made a privy 
councillor and governor of South Australia, 
where he arrived on 16 Feb. 1 869. Until 1885 
(save for the period 1875-80) his career was 
identified with the oversea dominions. 

In South Austraha, which was prosperous 
and peaceful, the working of responsible 
government made small demands upon 
the governor. But Fergusson gave material 
assistance to his ministers in organising the 
telegraph system. In 1873 he left South 
Australia for New Zealand, but after Disraeli 
became premier (Feb. 1874) Fergusson re- 
signed his post there in 1875, being made 
K.C.M.G. On his return to England he 
tried to resume his parliamentary career. 
His attempts to capture Frome in 1876 and 
Greenock in 1878 were unsuccessful. But 

he engaged actively in county affairs, and 
on 10 March 1880, on tho evo of Lord 
Beaconsfield's fall from power, ho accepted 
tho post of governor of Bombay in suc- 
cession to Sir Richard Temple [q. v. 
Suppl. II]. When tho new governor was 
installed on 28 April 1880 Lord Lytton had 
tendered his resignation, Abdur Rahman 
was discussing terms with Sir Donald 
Stewart [q. v. Suppl. I] near Kabul, and 
Ayub Khan was meditating the attack upon 
Kandahar, which he successfully delivered 
at Maiwand on 27 July. Thus Fergusson's 
immediate duty was to push forward 
supplies and reinforcements through Sind. 
But his main duties were of an essentially 
civil character and connected with revenue 
administration. Before his arrival Sir 
Theodore Hope had carried through tho 
supreme legislature the Dekhan Agricul- 
turist ReUef Act to enable the peasantry 
to shake off their indebtedness and meet 
the moneylender on more equal terms. Tho 
introduction of so novel an experiment met 
with opposition from the powerful lending 
classes and also from lawyers, who con- 
sidered contracts sacred and the letter of 
bonds inviolable. New rules of registra- 
tion were required, fresh courts instituted, 
and the system of conciUation organised. 
Fergusson, as a proprietor himself, threw 
his experience and heart into the work. 
The Act, which has been since amended, has 
abundantly vindicated its promoters. In 
another direction he sought the welfare 
of the Dekhan peasantry. Temple, while 
immensely increasing the area of forest 
reserves, had severely curtailed forest 
privileges long enjoyed by the cultivating 
classes in the uplands of the Ghat 
districts. Fergusson removed some part 
of the burden of forest conservancy which 
Temple had thrown on the people. He 
moreover inculcated moderation in assessing 
the land revenue and hberaUty in granting 
remissions in times of scarcity. To enable 
the state to deal more readily with famine, 
he gave attention to the ahgnment of the 
new Southern Maratha railway, mainly 
devised to carry food stuffs into districts 
liable to failure of the rains. In the same 
spirit he created the first agricultural 
department, and inaugurated experimental 
farms. In other departments he turned to 
account his experience at the home office. 
In the face of violent agitation he refused 
to exercise the clemency of the crown in 
favour of tho high priest of the Vaishnava 
sect. This holy man had been convicted 
of complicity in postal robberies, and his 
religious followers regarded his punishment 





as an act of impiety. Fond of riding, 
Fergusson covered long distances in his 
tours through a province of 123,000 square 
miles. In earnestness of purpose and in- 
defatigable energy he almost rivalled Sir 
Richard Temple. He did much to develop 
the port of Bombay, and took deep interest 
in education, laying the foundation of the 
native college at Poona which is called by 
his name. He was assisted in his govern- 
ment by his colleague, Sir James Peile [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and at the close of it by (Sir) 
Maxwell Melvill (1834-1887), a man of rare 
distinction. With Peile's aid he was able 
to satisfy Lord Ripon by the steps taken in 
Bombay to develop rural and urban self- 
government. If the Bombay government 
was unable to go as far as that viceroy 
wished, it went further than any other 
province in India. Altogether Fergusson's 
administration in Bombay was successful, 
and he well merited the honour of G.C.S.I. 
which he received on 25 Feb. 1885. 

Fergusson did not await the arrival of 
his successor, Lord Reay, but after making 
arrangements for the Suakin campaign 
relinquished the government on 27 March 
1885, hurrying home to resume a political 
career. On 9 June 1885 Gladstone resigned, 
and on 27 Nov. Fergusson was returned as 
one of the members for Manchester (N.E. 
division). He held the seat until January 
1906. On the return of Lord Sahsbury to 
power on 3 Aug. 1886, Fergusson served 
from 1886 to 1891 as under-secretary in 
the foreign ofifice, and was responsible for 
answering questions and otherwise repre- 
senting that department in the House of 
Commons. He performed his duties with 
stoHd discretion. In 1891 he was made 
postmaster-general, retaining the office until 
Gladstone's return to power in August 1892. 
He did not take office again, but at the 
opening of the new parliament in 1901 
he proposed the re-election as speaker of 
William Court Gully, afterwards Viscount 
Selby [q. v. Suppl. II]. Meanwhile Fer- 
gusson's business capacity found scope as 
director of the Royal Mail Steam Packet 
Company, the National Telephone Com- 
pany, and similar concerns. In the 
interests of the first-mentioned company 
he went to Jamaica in January 1907 to 
attend the conference of the British 
Cotton Growing Association. On the first 
day of the conference, 14 Jan., Kingston 
was overtaken by a terrible earthquake, 
followed by a destructive fire. Fergusson 
was walking in the street near his hotel, 
when he was killed by the fall of a wall. 
He was buried in the churchyard of Half 

Way Tree, near Kingston, and a memorial 
service was held on 21 Jan. in the Guards' 
Chapel, London. 

Fergusson was thrice married: (1) at 
Dalhousie Castle on 9 Aug. 1859 to Lady 
Edith Christian, younger daughter of James 
Andrew Ramsay, first marquis of Dalhousie 
[q. v.] ; she died at Adelaide on 28 Oct. 1871, 
leaving two sons and two daughters; (2) 
in New Zealand on 11 March 1873 to Olive, 
youngest daughter of John Henry Richman 
of Warnbunga, South Australia ; she bore 
him one son, Alan Walter John (1878- 
1909), and died of cholera at Bombay 
on 8 Jan. 1882; (3) on 5 April 1893 to 
Isabella Elisabeth, widow of Charles Hugh 
Hoare, of Morden, Surrey, and daughter 
of Thomas Twysden, rector of Charlton, 
Devonshire. She survived him without 
issue. His elder son by his first wife. 
Major-general Sir Charles Fergusson, D.S.O., 
succeeded him in the title. 

Fergusson's friends in Ayrshire, where he 
was much beloved for his charitable and 
kindly acts, erected to his memory a statue 
in bronze at the corner of WelHngton 
Square in Ayr. It was executed by Sir Gos- 
combe John, R.A., and unveiled by the earl 
of Eglinton in October 1910. In Jamaica, 
too, his memory is preserved in the restora- 
tion of the church of Half Way Tree and a 
mural tablet. 

[The Times, 17 Jan. 1907; Kinglake's 
Crimea ; Colonial and India Office Lists ; 
Administration Reports of Bombay ; Lucy's 
Salisbury and Ball ourian Parliaments ; and 
Parhamentary Reports.] W. L-W. 


(1829-1903), Master of Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, and mathematician, born on 11 Aug. 
1829 at Prinknash Park, Gloucestershire, 
was only child of Thomas Bromfield 
Ferrers, stockbroker, of London (a descen- 
dant of the Taplow Court branch of the 
Ferrers family), by his wife Lavinia, 
daughter of Alexander Macleod of Harris. 
After spending three years, 1844-6, at Eton, 
he lived for about a year as a private pupil 
in the house of Harvey Goodwin [q. v. 
Suppl. I], the mathematician, then vicar of 
St. Edward's, Cambridge, afterwards bishop 
of Carlisle. Admitted a freshman of Caius 
College, Cambridge, on 6 March 1 847, Ferrers 
graduated B.A. in 1851 as senior wrangler 
of his year, being also first ' Smith's prize- 
man.' Next year he was elected fellow of 
his college, and immediately afterwards went 
to London to study law. He was called 
to the bar, as a member of Lincoln's Inn, 
in 1855. 




In 1866, owing to changes in the tutorial 
staff, there was an opening for a new 
mathematical lecturer in Caius College ; 
and the Maxtor, Dr. Edwin Guest {q. v.], 
invited Ferrers, who was by far the best 
mathematician amongst the follows, to 
supply the place. His career was thus 
determined for the rest of his life. For 
many years head mathematical lecturer, 
he was one of the two tutors of the college 
from 1865. As lecturer ho was extremely 
successful. Besides great natural powers 
in mathematics, ho possessed an unusual 
capacity for vivid exposition. He was 
probably the best lecturer, in his subject, 
in the university of his day. He was 
ordained deacon in 1859 and priest in 1861. 
On 27 Oct. 1880 he was elected Master of 
Gonville and Caius College, on Dr. Guest's 
resignation. He was admitted to the degree 
of D.D. on 7 June 1881. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by 
the University of Glasgow in 1883. 

For more than twenty years he was a 
member of the council of the senate at Cam- 
bridge: first in 1865, and continuously 
from 1878 to 1893, when increasing infirmity 
obUged him to decline re-election. In the 
mathematical tripos he acted as moderator 
or examiner more often, it is believed, than 
any one else on record. In 1876 Ferrers 
was appointed a governor of St. Paul's 
School, and in 1885 a governor of Eton 
College. He was elected F.R.S. in 1877. 

In his early days Ferrers was a keen 
university reformer, within the limits in 
which reform was then contemplated. 
He heartily supported the abohtion of 
religious tests, and the thro^dng open of 
all endowments to free competition ; ho 
introduced into his college a more syste- 
matic style of examination than was 
previously in vogue. But he held strongly 
the old view that a thorough training in 
mathematics was essential to a sound 
education. For new subjects, Uke natural 
science and mechanical engineering, he 
had scant sympathy. It was slowly, and 
probably mth some reluctance, that he 
was induced to accept the principle that 
distinction in any subject which was 
recognised and taught in the university 
gave a vaHd claim to a scholarship or 

It was as a mathematician that Ferrers 
acquired fame outside the university. He 
made many contributions of importance 
to mathematical literature. His first book 
was ' Solutions of the Cambridge Senate 
House Problems, 1848-51.' In 1861 he 
published a treatise on 'Trilinear Co- 

ordinates,* of which subsequent editions 
appeared in 1866 and 1876. One of liig 
early memoirs was on Sylvester's de- 
velopment of Poinsot's representation of 
the motion of a rigid body about a fixed 
point. The paper was read before the 
Royal Society in 1869, and pubhshod 
in their * Transactions.' In 1871 he 
edited at the request of the college the 
* Mathematical Writings of George Green ' 
( 1793-1841) [q. v.], a former fellow. Ferrers's 
treatise on ' Spherical Harmonics,' published 
in 1877, presented many original features. 

His contribution* to the * Quarterly 
Journal of Mathematics,' of which he was 
an editor from 1855 to 1891, were numerous 
(see list in the lioy. Soc. Cat. Scientific 
Papers). They range over such subjects 
as quadriplanar co-ordinates, Lagrange's 
equations and hydrodynamics. In 1881 
he applied himself to study Kelvin's 
investigation of the law of distribution of 
electricity in equilibrium on an uninfluenced 
spherical bowl. In this he made the 
important addition of finding the potential 
at any point of space in zonal harmonics. 
{Quart. Journ. Mathematics, 1881). 

In 1879 Ferrers was troubled with the 
first symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis : 
this gradually increased until he was 
rendered a complete cripple. He died at 
the College Lodge on 31 Jan. 1903, at the 
age of seventy-three. 

On 3 April 1866 he married Emily, 
daughter of John Lamb [q. v.], dean 
of Bristol and Master of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge. He had a family of 
four sons and one daughter. 

There is a portrait of him, by the Hon. 
John Collier, in the college. 

[Personal knowledge ; College and Uni- 
versity Records ; Dr. Edward Routh's memoir 
in Royal Society's Proceedings ; Ferrers 
Family History, by C. S. F. Ferrers.] J. V. 

FESTING, JOHNWOGAN (1837-1902), 
bishop of St. Albans, born at Brook 
House, Stourton, Somerset, on 13 Aug. 
1837, was eldest son of Richard Grindall 
Posting by his wife Ehza, daughter of 
Edward Mammatt, of Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 
A younger brother, Major-General Edward 
Robert Festing [h. 1839), R.E., C.B., 
F.R.S., was director of the science museum, 
South Kensington (1893-1904). The family, 
descended from Michael Christian Festing 
[q. v.], the musician, was of German origin. 

Educated at King's school, Bruton, and 
King's College school, London, Festing 
graduated B.A. from Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1860 (D.D. jure dig. 1890) as 


twenty-second senior optime, and in the 
same year was ordained deacon, becom- 
ing priest in 1861. From 18G0 to 1873 
he was curate of Christ Church, West- 
minster. In 1873 he was appointed to 
the vicarage of St. Luke, Berwick Street, 
a poor parish close to Seven Dials, which 
had recently been visited by cholera. 
Festing increased his reputation here for 
pastoral diligence, and on 19 May 1878 
John Jackson, bishop of London, collated 
liim to the important vicarage of Christ 
Church, Albany Street. There the church 
schools, in which he was alwaj^s greatly 
interested, were a prominent feature of 
parish life, w'lile the church itself was a 
recognised centre for the high church 
party, to which Festing adhered. He 
became rural dean of St. Pancras in 1887, 
and on 26 June 1888 prebendary of 
Brondesbury in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

On 24 June 1890 Festing was consecrated 
bishop of St. Albans, succeeding Thomas 
Legh Claughton [q. v. Suppl. I], who had 
resigned but was retaining the use for Ufe 
of the palace at Danbury. The choice of 
a parish priest of no fame for eloquence or 
erudition caused surprise. But Lord SaHs- 
bury, the prime minister, had asked both 
Henry Parry Liddon [q. v.], who had him- 
self declined the see, and R. W. Church [q. v. 
Suppl. I], dean of St. Paul's, to suggest to 
him a man of parochial experience and zeal, 
and each independently suggested Festing. 
As bishop, Festing proved business -Uke, 
sympathetic towards hard work, and devout. 
While in private he urged obedience 
to the Prayer Book, his high church 
sympathies made him unwilling to hamper 
earnest clergy by coercive administration. 
His see embraced the counties of Essex and 
Hertfordshire; and he chose to reside at 
Endsleigh Street, London, W.C, near the 
eliief railway termini. He afterwards 
secured a second house at St. Albans. His 
chief interest lay in the industrial and resi- 
dential expansion of metropolitan Essex. 
Zealous in the cause of foreign missions, 
he mainly devoted himself to the Universities 
Mission to Central Africa, at the inaugura- 
tion of which in the Cambridge senate- 
house he was present on 1 Nov. 1859. He 
was its assistant honorary secretary (1863- 
1882), treasurer (1882-1890), vice-president 
(1890-1892), and president and chairman 
(1892-1902), and advised on aU the details 
of the mission's development. 

Although no scholar, he was a studious 
reader, rising early each day for that pur- 
pose. He was fond of travel and sldlful 
in water-colour drawing. He died uu- 



married at Endsleigh Street of angina 
pectoris on 28 Dec. 1902, and was buried at 
St. Albans. Choir-stalls were placed in 
his memory in St. Albans cathedral in 

[The Times, 29 Dec. 1902; Guardian, 
31 Dec. 1902; Record, 2 Jan, 1903; Central 
Africa (U.M.C.A. mag.), Feb. 1903.] E. H. P. 

FIELD, WALTER (1837-1901), painter, 
youngest son of Edwin Wilkins Field 
[q. v.] by his second wife, Letitia Kinder, 
was born at Windmill Hill, Hampstead, on 
1 Dec. 1837. He was a lineal descendant 
of Oliver Cromwell. After education at 
University College School, London, he 
was taught painting by John Rogers 
Herbert, R.A. [q. v.], and John Pye [q. v.] 
the engraver gave him lessons in chiar- 
oscuro. Making art his profession, he 
painted outdoor figure subjects and land- 
scapes, especially views of Thames scenery, 
which were often enlivened with well- drawn 
figures; he also produced a few portraits. 
At first he worked chiefly in oil, but sub- 
sequently executed many drawings in 
water-colour. His landscapes and coast 
scenes show skilful technique. Between 
1856 and 1901 he exhibited at the Old 
Water Colour Society (Royal Society of 
Painters in Water Colours), at the Royal 
Academy (where he showed forty-two 
pictures), the British Institution (where he 
showed nine pictures), the Royal Society 
of British Artists, Dudley Gallery, and 
elsewhere. He was elected an associate of 
the Old Water Colour Society on 22 March 
1880, but never attained full membership. 
He was also one of the earliest members of 
the Dudley Gallery, whose first exhibition 
was held in 1865. Field, who was devoted 
to his art, was a keen lover of nature ; he 
was untiring in his efforts for the preserva- 
tion of the natural beauties of Hampstead 
Heath, and was the chief founder of the 
Hampstead Heath Protection Society. A 
drinking fountam was erected on the Heath 
to his memory. He resided principally at 
Hampstead. He died at The Pryors, East 
Heath Road, on 23 Dec. 1901, and was 
buried in Hampstead cemetery. 

The Victoria and Albert Museum has 
two water-colour drawings by Field, viz. 
'Boy in a Cornfield' (1866) and ' Giri 
carrying a Pitcher ' (1866) ; and three of 
his Thames views are in the Schwabe 
Collection in the Kunsthalle at Hamburg. 
Among his most popular works were 
' The Milkmaid singing to Isaak Walton,' 
'Henley Regatta,' which contains por- 
traits from sittings of many famous oars- 

Field 23 

men, and * Como unto these Yellow vSands.' 
An cxliibition of oil paintings by Field 
was held at the galleries of the Royal 
Society of Painters in Water Colours in 
►September and October 1902; 216 works 
remaining in his studio after his death were 
sold at Christie's on 17 and 18 Nov. 1902. 

By his wife, Mary Jane Cookson, whom 
he married on 14 May 1868, Walter Field 
had seven children. 

[Information kindly supplied by Miss M. 
Field and Mr F. W. Hay ward Butt ; Miiller 
und Singer, AUgomeincs Kiinstler-Lexicon 
(date of death wrongly given in supplement : 
see death certificate at Somerset House) ; 
Graves, Diet, of Artists, Roy. Acad, and Brit. 
Inst. Exhibitors ; Cats, of Old Water Colour 
Society (those of 1882-1901 contain reproduc- 
tions of works by Field), Victoria and Albert 
Museum (water-colours), and the Hamburg 
Kunsthalle ; The Year's Art, 1891, facing 
p. 86 (portrait); The Studio, Spring No., 1905, 
p. xlii; Illustrated London News, 27 Sept. 
1902.] B. S. L. 

Baron Field of Bakeham (1813-1907) 
judge, bom at Fielden, Bedfordshire, on 
21 Aug. 1813, was second son of Thomas 
Flint Field of that place. After education 
at Burton grammar school he was articled 
to Messrs. Terrell, Barton & Smale, solicitors, 
of Exeter, his articles being subsequently 
transferred to Messrs. Picre & Bolton 
of Lincoln's Inn. In 1843 he became a 
member of the firm of Thompson, Deben- 
ham & Field, Salters' Hall Court, E.C. 
Having entered as a student at the Middle 
Temple on 15 Nov. 1843, and transferred 
himself on 17 Jan. 1846 to the Inner Temple, 
he practised as a special pleader from 
1847 to 1850, and in the latter year was 
called to the bar. He first travelled the 
western circuit, where he enjoyed the 
friendship of John Duke (afterwards Lord) 
Coleridge [q. v. Suppl. I], but soon exchanged 
this for the Midland circuit. He was quickly 
recognised as a sound and painstaking 
lawyer, and obtained a large junior practice, 
chiefly of the kind known as commercial. 
Among his pupils at the bar was Sir James 
Fitzjames Stephen [q. v.], afterwards 
his colleague on the bench. In February 
1804 he was appointed a queen's counsel, 
and in April of the same year was elected 
a bencher of liis imi. He enjoyed for the 
next nine years a ' steady and lucrative ' 
practice, and became the recognised leader 
of his circuit, though his name was not 
widely known to the general public. 

In February 1875, upon the retirement 
from the bench of Mr, Justice Keating, 


and the transfer to the court of common 
pleas of Mr. Justice Archibald, Field waa 
appointed by Lord Cairns to fill the con- 
sequent vacancy in the court of quecn'H 
bench. Ho was the last judge appointed 
to that ancient tribunal, which six months 
later became a division of the liigh court 
of justice, itself a part of the supreme 
court of judicature. He was also nearly 
the last person to be made a serjeant-at-law, 
and he was, like other judges in the same 
situation, re-admitted to the bench of 
his own inn when Serjeants' Inn was 
dissolved in 1876. 

As a judge Field showed great learning, 
a keen and vigorous intellect, and a some- 
what irascible temper, which was due to, 
or was stimulated by, a chronic disorder 
described by himself as a general irritation 
of the mucous membrane. But he never 
allowed physical inconvenience to interfere 
with the thoroughness of his work. In 
his later years he also suffered from 
increasing deafness, and as he insisted 
upon hearing everytliing that was said, 
proceedings before him usually lasted 
longer than his impetuous nature would 
have permitted in more favourable circum- 
stances. His hastiness of manner occa- 
sionally involved him in warm controversy 
with counsel, but he showed no subse- 
quent resentment. 

Field had his share in the trial of 
important litigation. He decided in favour 
of the plaintiff in the first instance the 
remarkable case of Dobbs v. the Grand 
Junction Waterworks Co., and liis judgment 
was ultimately confirmed by the House of 
Lords, which decided that houses were to be 
rated for water on the rated not the gross 
value ; the successful litigant conducted his 
case personally against a great array of 
professional talent (Nov. 1883). The great 
licensing case of Sharpe v. Wakefield was 
also originally tried by Field. And in 
Dalton V. Angus, which decides the right 
of the owner of land to the ' lateral support ' 
of his neighbour's land, the judgment of 
the House of Lords was in accordance with 
Field's answers to the questions which the 
peers had submitted to the judges. 

In 1890 Field retired from the bench, 
taking leave of the profession in the chief 
justice's court. He was sworn of the privy 
council, and on 10 April was created a peer 
by the title of Baron Field of Bakeham near 
Staines, Middlesex. During the next two 
years he sat fairly often in the House of 
Lords, and with Lord Bramwell [q. v. Suppl. 
I] he differed in 1891 from the majority in 
the important case of the Bank of England 




V. Vagliano [see Liddeedalb, William, 
Suppl. 11]. His closing years were passed 
principally at Bognor, and he died there 
on 22 Jan. 1907, and was buried in a family 
vault at Virginia Water. Field married in 
1864 Louisa, daughter of John Smith, who 
died on 24 May 1880 without issue. 

A caricature by 'Spy' appeared in 
* Vanity Fair ' in 1887. 

[The Times, 24 Jan. 1907 ; Foster's Men at 
the Bar ; AVho's Who, 1901 ; personal recol- 
lections.] H. S. 

HENEAGE (1856-1904), imperiahst poli- 
tician, bom at Eastwell Park, Kent, on 
23 Aug, 1856, was fourth son of George 
Wilham Finch-Hatton, tenth earl of 
Winchilsea [q. v.], by his third wife, 
Fanny Margaretta, daughter of Edward 
Royd Rice, of Dane Court, Kent. His 
brother, Murray Edward Gordon Finch- 
Hatton, twelfth earl of Winchilsea (1851- 
1898), M.P. for South Lincolnshire (1884- 
6) and the Spalding division (1885-7), 
was well known as a leading agriculturist. 
Finch-Hatton was educated at Eton, and 
matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, on 
20 Oct. 1874, but did not graduate. In 
1876 he joined a brother in Queensland, 
remaining in the colony till 1883. For some 
time he was engaged in cattle-farming at 
a settlement named Mt. Spencer, but sub- 
sequently went prospecting for gold in 
the Nebo goldfields, some forty miles 
further inland and about 100 from Mackay. 
Gold was found at Mount Britten and shares 
were bought in other claims; but the 
working expenses, chiefly owing to the 
defective communication with the coast, 
made the venture unremunerative, and 
after some eighteen months the Finch- 
Hatton brothers disposed of their rights 
to a Melbourne syndicate, retaining only a 
fourth share in the concern. Finch-Hatton 
always preserved his interest in Queensland, 
and as permanent delegate and chairman 
of the London committee of the North 
Queensland Separation League rendered 
energetic service to the colony. In 1885 he 
published a readable record of his Austra- 
lian experiences in a book entitled ' Advance, 
AustraUa I ' containing a sympathetic esti- 
mate of the ' Blacks ' (aborigines) founded 
on individual intercourse, and thoughtful 
surveys of the sugar and mining industries. 
The final chapter on Imperial Federation 
condemned the action of Lord Derby 
as colonial secretary in deahng with the 
New Guinea question. (For a criticism 
of some views expressed in the book 

see A. Patchett Martik, Australia and 
the Empire, pp. 88-90.) 

On Ms return to England Finch-Hatton 
occupied himself in financial work. But 
his chief interest was in imperial pohtics. 
He was one of the founders of the 
Imperial Federation League, and for some 
time acted as its secretary ; he was 
also secretary to the Pacific Telegraph 
Company, formed for the promotion of 
cable communication between Vancouver 
and Austraha. When, in the autumn of 
1885, he contested East Nottingham as a 
conservative he strongly advocated im- 
perial federation as a prelude to free trade 
Avithin the empire. Finch-Hatton was 
defeated by a majority of 991. Twice 
afterwards, in July 1886 and July 1892, 
he was unsuccessful in the same constitu- 
ency. His opponent at all three elections 
was Mr. Arnold Morley. At the general 
election of 1895 he was returned unopposed 
for the Newark division of Nottingham- 
shire. His poHtical career, however, was 
brief. An able maiden speech (28 April 
1896) on the second reading of the agricul- 
tural rating bill, in which he appealed to 
his twenty years' experience of AustraHan 
land legislation, was followed by bad health. 
Falling out of sympathy with his party, 
he resigned his seat rather suddenly in 
May 1898 {The Times, 13 May 1898). 
He regarded the conservative foreign 
poHcy as too timid, and disapproved 
of the Irish Land Act of 1896 and other 
domestic legislation. When not in London 
he henceforth Uved at Harlech, and in 
1903 was high sheriff of Merionethshire. 
Highly skilled in field sports, a good rifle 
shot and keen huntsman, he excelled at 
golf, often competing for the amateur 
championship. He could also throw the 
boomerang ' like a black.' 

He died, unmarried, from heart-failure on 
his own doorstep at 110 Piccadilly, on 
16 May 1904, ' after having completed the 
last of his morning runs round the park.' 
He was buried in Ewerby churchyard, near 
Sleaford, Lincolnshire. 

[The Times, 18 May 1904; Burke's and 
G. E. C.'s Peerages ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Finch -Hatton's 'Advance, Australia!' 1885; 
Hansard's Pari. Debates; Sleaford Gazette, 

21 and 28 May 1904; MenneU's Diet, of 
Australasian Biogr. ; R. NevUl and C. E. 
Jerningham's Piccadilly to Pall Mall, pp. 
71-3.] G. Le G. N. 

FINLAYSON, JAMES (1840-1906), 
Scottish physician, born in Glasgow on 

22 Nov. 1840, was third son and fourth 
child of the seven children of Thomas 




Finlayflon, a manufact uror in that city, by 
his wifo Goorgina Cainpholl, tlio daughter 
of an army surgeon in India. His older 
brother, Thomas Camiiboli Finlayson, was 
a distinguished congregational minister, first 
at Downing Place, Cambridge, and later 
at Rusholme, Manchester, and was hon. D.D. 
Glasgow (1891). James received his early 
education at the High School of Glasgow, 
and in 1856 entered the old college in 
High Street as an arts student. From 
1857 to 1862 he was in his father's busi- 
ness ; but in 1863 he began the study 
of medicine, and graduated M.B. at Glas- 
gow University with honours on 16 May 
1867, with a thesis on * The value of 
quantitative methods of investigation in 
medicine and allied sciences ' ; he pro- 
ceeded M.D. in 1869, and on 18 April 1899 
was made hon. LL.D. He was admitted 
a fellow of the Royal Faculty of Physicians 
and Surgeons of Glasgow in 1871, and 
was successively honorarv librarian (1877- 
1901), visitor (1899), and president (1900-3) 
of that body. After serving as house 
surgeon at the* Children's Hospital, Man- 
chester, he was assistant to Sir William 
Tennant Gairdner [q. v. Suppl. II] at the 
Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and in 1875 was 
elected physician to the Western Infirmary, 
Glasgow, where he was a recognised teacher 
until his death. He was also physician 
(1883-98) and later consulting physician 
to the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, 
Glasgow, and for many years was medical 
adviser to the Scottish Amicable Insurance 
Company. He set a high standard of 
professional conduct and learning, and had 
a large and important practice in and 
around Glasgow. 

Finlayson was a prohfic writer on all 
aspects of medicine, including diseases of 
children. He wrote 150 papers, 60 of 
which appeared in the * Glasgow Medical 
Journal.' He was especially interested in 
the history of medicine, and gave a number 
of lectures at Glasgow under the title of 
' Bibliographical Demonstrations on Hippo- 
crates, Galen, Herophilus, and Erasi- 
stratus ' (1893-5), the substance of which 
he contributed to * Janus,' an international 
medical journal. His most important works 
were: 1. ' Clinical Manual for the Examina- 
tion of Medical Cases,' 1878; 3rd edit. 
1891. 2. 'Account of the Life and Works 
of Maister Peter Lowe, the Founder of the 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Glasgow,' 1889. 3. ' An Account of the 
Life and Works of Dr. Robert Watt, Author 
of the " Bibhotheca Britannica," ' 1897. To 
* Keating's Cyclopaedia of the Diseases of 

Children* (1889) he contributed an article 
on ' Diagnosis.' 

Finlayson, who was unmarried, died 
suddenly from apoplexy on 9 Oct. 1906 at 
his residence, 2 Woodside Place, Glasgow ; 
his romaias were cremated at the Western 
Necropohs. A bust by McGiUivray belongs 
to his sister. His friends endowed the 
Finlayson Memorial Lecture (on a subject 
connected with medicine, preferably its 
history) at the Royal Faculty of Physicians 
and Surgeons of Glasgow ; the first lecture 
was delivered on 28 Feb. 1908 by Dr. 
Norman Moore on the ' Schola Salemitana.* 

[Glasgow Med. Journ. 1906, Ixvi. 360-7 
(with portrait) ; Brit. Med. Journ. 1900, ii. 
1067 ; information from Sir Hector Oameron, 
M.D.] H. D. R. 

FINNIE, JOHN (1829-1907), landscape 
painter and engraver, son of John Finnic, 
brassf ounder, by his wife Christian Mclndoe, 
was bom at Aberdeen, where he was baptised 
in the parish church on 4 May 1829. After 
serving apprenticeships to a house-painter 
at Edinburgh and a japanner at Wolver- 
hampton he obtained employment with 
William Wales, a glass -painter at Newcastle, 
where he remained five years, attending the 
school of design under William Bell Scott 
[q. V.]. In 1853 he went to London, where he 
studied and taught in the Central School of 
Design at Marlborough House till, in 1855, 
he became master of the School of Art, 
then called the Mechanics' Institution, at 
Liverpool. In this position he continued 
forty-one years and six months, retiring 
at Christmas 1896. He is described as 
the dominating personality in the art hfe 
of Liverpool during that period. He 
began to send to the Liverpool Academy- 
exhibitions in 1856, became an associate 
in 1861, a full member and trustee in 1865, 
and was president of the academy in 
1887-8. He was also president of the 
Artists' Club and of the Liver Sketching 
Club. He joined the Royal Cambrian 
Academy in 1894 and became its treasurer 
in 1897. His earliest etching, the 'Head of 
Windermere,' dates from 1864. After some 
early experiments in etching and engraving 
Finnic adopted mezzotint as his favourite 
process in 1886. Though he exhibited 
pictures at the Royal Academy from 1861 
onwards, and also at the British Institution 
and in Suffolk Street, he was best known 
in London by his original mezzotint 
engravings of landscape, exhibited at the 
Royal Academy and the Royal Society of 
Painters, Etehers, and Engravers, of which 
he became an e^sociate on 24 Oct. 1887, 




and a fellow on 6 April 1895. He sent 
forty-seven contributions in all to the 
society's gallery. His etchings and mezzo- 
tints, which are represented by specimens 
in the print-room of the British Museimi, 
aim too much at a full pictorial effect, 
instead of observing the restrictions of 
graphic art. As a painter he is represented 
in the Walker Art Gallery at Liverpool. 
On retiring from the School of Art, in 1896, 
Finnic broke up his home in Huskisson 
Street and settled at TyAvyn, near Llandudno, 
where he spent his life in painting, engraving, 
and music. He retained full vigour until 
an attack of influenza injured his heart in 
1905. He retiu-ned to Liverpool, where 
he died on 27 Feb. 1907. He was buried 
at Smithdown Road cemetery beside his 
wife, Agnes James EUison, who died on 
8 July 1889. One son. Dr. Ellison Finnic, 
survived him. A memorial exhibition of 
his art, comprising 438 numbers, was held at 
the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, in 1907. 
[Biographical Sketch by E. Rimbaiilt 
Dibdin in Cat. of Finnic Memorial Exhibition, 
Liverpool, 1907 ; Graves, Royal Acad. Ex- 
hibitors, 1905 ; H. C. Marillier, The Liverpool 
School of Painters, 1904, p. 1 19.] C. D. 

FISON, LORIMER (1832-1907), Wes- 
leyan missionary and anthropologist, bom 
on 9 Nov. 1832, was thirteenth child, in 
a family of twenty, of Thomas Fison of 
Bamingham, Suffolk. His mother was a 
daughter of the Rev. John Re3molds, 
whose translations of Fenelon, Massillon, 
and Bourdaloue achieved some popularity. 
After education at Sheffield he matriculated 
as a pensioner from Caius College,Cambridge, 
on 27 June 1855. He studied mathematics 
under Robert Potts [q. v.], the editor of 
Euclid, whose second wife was Fison's sister, 
but left the university at the end of 
his second term after a boyish escapade, 
and sailed for Australia in search of gold. 
Coming under religious influence there, 
he joined at Melbourne the Wesleyan 
communion. In 1863 he was ordained a 
Wesleyan minister, and was almost im- 
mediately after sent to Fiji as a missionary. 
He served there for a first period of eight 
years, till 1871, winning the confidence of 
natives and Europeans. 

WhUe in Fiji Fison got into unusually 
close touch with the natives, and became 
much interested in the subject of family 
relationships. The publication of Lewis 
Morgan's 'Systems of Consanguinity' 
(1871) stimulated his interest and he met 
Alfred William Howitt [q. v. Suppl. II], 
who had been for very many years 
working at the same subject in 

Australia. Fison spent the years 
1871-5 in New South Wales and "Vic- 
toria, combining ministerial labour with 
anthropological research. Thenceforward 
the names of Fison and Howitt were 
associated as fellow-workers [see under 
Howitt, Alfred William, Suppl. II]. In 
1875 he returned to Fiji, and remained 
there till 1884. During this period he was 
principal of the institution at Navuloa for 
the training of natives as teachers. Fison 
wrote a remarkable paper on the little 
understood subject of Fijian land tenure. 
Its substance was first published in the 
' Journal of the Anthropological Institute ' 
in 1881. It was reprinted in pamphlet form 
by the Fiji government press in 1903. Apart 
from this work and his collaboration with 
Howitt in 'Kamilaroi and Kumai' (1880), 
he wrote in the ' Journal of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute ' on Fijian anti- 
quities (1881-95). 

In 1884 Fison on returning to Australia 
engaged till 1888 in ministerial work at 
Hawthorn and at Flemmington in Vic- 
toria. In 1888 he settled at Melbourne 
and from that year to 1905 he edited 
the Melbourne ' Spectator,' a Wesleyan 
periodical. He also helped to found the (Wes- 
leyan) Queen's College in Melbourne Uni- 
versity and was active in its management. 

In 1892 he was president of the an- 
thropological section of the Australian 
Advancement of Science meeting at Hobart 
Town. In 1894 he attended the meeting 
of the British Association at Oxford, when 
the results of his scientific research 
into the organisation of Australian tribes 
received full recognition. Of brilliant gifts 
as a linguist Lorimer excelled in conver- 
sation and greatly impressed scholarly 
society in England. After his return to 
Australia his health soon compelled ab- 
solute repose. But in 1904 he published 
' Tales from Old Fiji,' which — partly perhaps 
because of a natural hesitation to publish 
for general information all that he knew 
about Fijian mythology — is the least 
valuable of his contributions to scientific 
anthropology. In 1905 he was awarded a 
civil list pension of 1501. He died at a house 
which he had built at Essenden, Victoria, 
on 29 Dec. 1907. His widow survived him 
with two sons and four daughters. 

[Fison's writings; Johns' Notable Austra- 
lians, 1908 ; J. G. Frazer's Howitt and Fison, 
in Folldore, June 1909, p. 144 seq. ; The 
Victorian Naturalist, vol. xxiv. April 1908 ; 
AustraHan Methodist Missionary Review, 
Svclney, 4 Feb. 1908 (by Dr. George Brown).] 

K m T, 




1903), inspector of schools and educational 
writer, born in South wark on 13 Fob. 1824, 
was second son in a family of six sons and 
two dausrhters of Thomas Fitch, a clerk in 
Somerset House, by his wife Sarah Tucker 
Hodges. Both parents were natives of Col- 
chester. The eldest son, Thomas Hodges 
(1822-1907), became a Roman catholic and 
eventually was attached to tlio Marist 
Church, Notre Dame de France, in Leicester 
Square, London. The third son, William 
John (1826-1902), was headmaster of the 
Boys' British School, Hitchin, from 1854 
till 1899. From a private school Joshua 
passed to the Borough Road school, South- 
wark, where he became a pupil teacher in 
1838 and a full assistant in 1842. About 
two years later he was appointed head- 
master of the Kingsland Road school, 
Dalston. Studying hard in his spare hours, 
he in 1850 graduated B.A. in the Univer- 
sity of London, and in 1852 proceeded M.A. 
(in classics). 

In 1852, after trial work there in the 
previous year, he joined the staff of the 
Borough Road Training College, soon after 
became vice-principal, and in 1856 succeeded 
to the principalship on the retirement of 
Dr. James Cornwell [q. v. Suppl. II]. He 
proved himself a brilliant teacher, especially 
stimulating his pupils by his lectures on 
' Method ' and by his enthusiasm for litera- 
ture. Through life he laid stress on the 
importance to the teacher of literary 
training. After contributing to some of 
Cornwell's educational treatises, he entered 
in 1861 into the political arena with 
' PubUc Education : Why is a New Code 
needed ? ' In 1862 he helped in the 
organisation of the education section of 
the International Exhibition, and in 1803 
Lord Granville, lord president of the 
council, who on a visit to Borough Road 
was impressed by Fitch's power as a 
teacher, made him an inspector of schools. 

The district assigned to Fitch was the 
county of York, with the exception of 
certain portions of the north and the west. 
His three reports on the Yorkshire district 
admirably describe its educational condi- 
tion then. From 1865 to 1867 as assistant 
commissioner for the schools inquiry com- 
mission, he inspected the endowed and 
proprietary schools in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire and in the city and ainsty of 
York, as well as other endowed schools in 
the North and East Ridings of Yorksliire 
and in Durham, and his reports were most 
thorough and suggestive. In 1869 he 
acted as special commissioner on elementary 

education in the groat towns (Manchester, 
Birmingham, Liverpool, and Leeds), and 
from 1870 to 1877 was an assistant com- 
missioner of endowed schools. 

From 1877 to 1883 Fitch performed 
ordinary official duties as inspector of 
East Lambeth. In 1883 he became chief 
inspector of schools for the eastern division, 
including all the eastern counties from 
Lincoln to Essex. From 1885 to 1889 he 
was inspector of elementary training 
colleges for women in England and Wales. 
He was continued in this post till 1894, five 
years beyond the normal age of retirement 
from government service. 

Occasionally detached for special duties 
in the later period of his public service, he 
prepared in 1888, after a visit to America, 
a report on American education under 
tlie title ' Notes on American Schools and 
Training Colleges ' ; in 1891 a memorandum 
on the ' Free School System in the United 
States, Canada, France, and Belgium ' ; and 
in 1893 ' Instructions to H.M. Inspectors, 
with Appendices on Thrift and Training 
of Pupil Teachers.' 

Fitch's educational activities passed far 
beyond his official work. His association 
with the University of London was always 
close. From 1860 to 1865 and from 1869 
to 1874 he was examiner in EngUsh 
language and history. In 1875 he was 
appointed to the senate, and on his retire- 
ment in 1900 was made a life fellow. 

Much of his energy was always devoted 
to the improvement of the education of 
women. He was an original member of 
the North of England Council for the 
Higher Education of Women (founded in 
1866) and one of those who helped to 
found in 1867 the College for Women at 
Hitcliin, which in 1874 became Girton 
College, near Cambridge. He took an 
active part in the establishment of the 
Girls' Public Day School Company in 
1874, and was foremost among those who 
secured, in 1878, the new charter for the 
University of London wliich placed women 
students on equal terms ^^'ith men. In 
1 890 he with Anthony John Mundella [q. v. 
Suppl; I] and Anna Swan wick [q. v. Suppl; I] 
selected the women's colleges and schools 
among which was distributed the sum of 
60,000/. left by Mrs. Emily Pfeiffer [q. v.] for 
the promotion of women's education. He 
was consulted by Thomas Holloway [q. v.] 
about the constitution of Holloway College, 
Egham, and by the founders of the Maria 
Grey Training College and the Cambridge 
Training College for the training of women 
teachers for secondary schools. 




'In both 1877 and 1878 Fitch lectured 
with great success on practical teaching at 
the College of Preceptors, where he was 
examiner in the theory and practice of 
education (187&-81) and moderator in the 
same subjects (1881-1903). In 1879-80 
he lectured at Cambridge for the newly 
appointed teachers' training syndicates 
and he published his course in 1881 as 
* Lectures on Teaching ' (new edit. 1882). 
The book estabhshed Fitch's position in 
England and America as an expert on school 
management, organisation, and method. 
In 1897 he published ' Thomas and Matthew 
Arnold and their Influence on English 
Education ' in the * Great Educators ' 
series, and in 1900 he collected his chief 
lectures and addresses in ' Educational 
Aims and Methods.' Written with unusual 
charm of style, these volumes emphasised 
Fitch's position as that of a pioneer, 
especially on the practical side of educa- 
tion, as an earnest advocate for the better 
training of the elementary teacher, and for 
the more systematic training of secondary 

The National Home Reading Union 
established by Dr. John Brown Paton 
[q. V. Suppl. II] and Dr. HiU, Master of 
Downing College, owed much to Fitch's 
account of ' The Chautauqua Reading 
Circles,' which he contributed to the ' Nine- 
teenth Century ' after his return from 
America in 1888. 

After his retirement from the board of 
education in 1894 he was still active in 
pubhc work. In 1895 he was a member of 
departmental committees of the board of 
education on industrial and naval and 
dockyard schools. In 1898-9 he was chair- 
man of the council of the Charity Organisa- 
tion Society. In 1902 he helped in the 
organisation of a nature study exhibition 
in London. 

Fitch, who was made hon. LL.D. of St. 
Andrews in 1888, and a chevalier of the 
legion of honour in 1889 by the French 
government in recognition of the services 
he rendered in England to French travel- 
Ung scholars, was knighted in 1896. He 
died at his residence, 13 Leinster Square, 
Bayswater, London, on 14 July 1903, and 
was buried at Kensal Green. In 1856 
he married Emma, daughter of Joseph 
Barber Wilks, of the East India Company. 
She survived him without issue, and in 
1904 received a civil hst pension of 100/. ; 
she died on 1 April 1909. 

A portrait of Sir Joshua by Miss Ethel 
King was presented to him m 1890 in 
recognition of his services to the cause of 

the higher education of women. It is now 
in the possession of Miss Pickton, niece of 
Lady Ktch and adopted daughter of Sir 
Joshua and Lady Fitch. 

[The Rev. A. L. Lilley, Sir Joshua Fitch : 
an Account of his Life and Work (with a 
complete bibliography) ; Educational Record, 
Oct. 1903, pp. 422-3 ; private information.] 

F. W. 
(1851-1901), professor of natural and 
experimental philosophy in the University 
of DubUn, bom at 19 Lower Mount St., 
Dublin, on 3 Aug. 1851, was second of three 
sons of WiUiam FitzGerald [q. v.], rector 
of St. Ann's, DubHn, and afterwards suc- 
cessively bishop of Cork and of Killaloe. 
His mother, Aiuie Frances, was daughter of 
George Stoney of Oakley Park, Birr, King's 
County, and sister of George Johnstone 
Stoney [q. v. Suppl. II]. His younger 
brother, Maurice, was professor of engineering 
in Queen's College, Belfast, froml884to 1910. 
After education at home, under M. A. Boole, 
sister of George Boole [q. v.] the mathema- 
tician, he entered Trinity CoUege, Dubhn, 
at sixteen, and graduated B.A. in 1871 
as first senior moderator in mathematics 
and experimental science, having won the 
university studentship in science. From 
boyhood he had shown an aptitude for 
mathematics, was athletic, and skilful with 
his fingers, but showed Httle abihty for 
languages. For six years (1871-7), with a 
view to a fellowship, he studied the memoirs 
of mathematical physicists, and at the same 
time acquired a Ufe-long reverence for the 
philosophy of Bishop Berkeley. He was 
awarded a fellowship in 1877 and became 
a tutor of the coUege. On the death of 
John R. LesHe in 1881 he became Erasmus 
Smith professor of natural and experi- 
mental philosophy, and held the post tiU his 

Both as tutor and as professor FitzGerald 
exerted himself to bring the teaching of 
physical science at Trinity College up to the 
standard of the time, but he was hampered 
by lack of funds. He started, however, 
a physical laboratory, and gathered round 
him a smaU band of earnest workers whom 
he infected with his own enthusiasm. A 
large proportion of his teaching work was 
necessarily elementary, but his honours 
students fully appreciated his originahty 
and suggestiveness. 

FitzGerald showed a singular insight into 
difficult and obscure branches of physical 
science. His published work, ' not large in 
bulk but very choice and original,' deals 
mainly with the correction and development 




of the electromagnotic theory of radiation 
first put forward by Professor Clork Mawvoll 
[q. V.J. He suggested in 1882 the principle 
of the methoa of production of 'electric 
waves ' wliich Hertz used in 1887, and he 
contributed much himself to our knowledge 
of their properties. He took a leading part in 
the discussion of electrolysis, and supported 
the view, since contirmod, tliat 'cathode 
rays' are streams of electrified particles. 
*He possessed extraordinary versatility, and 
in tlie deepest subject-s was more at home 
than in the trivial,' throwing out luminous 
suggestions 'with splendid prodigality and 
rejoicing if they were absorbed and utilised 
by others.' All his writings — cliiefly con- 
tributions to the periodicals of scientific 
societies — have been collected by Sir Joseph 
Larmor and issued by the DubUn University 
Press as ' The Scientific Writings of the late 
George Francis FitzGerald ' (1902). 

FitzGerald was elected F.R.S. London in 
1883, and in 1899 was awarded a royal medal 
by the society for his investigations in 
theoretical physics. In 1900 he was made an 
honorary fellow of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. He acted as honorary secretary 
of the Royal Dublin Society from 1881 to 
1889, and as registrar of Dublin University 
School of Engineering from 1886. He was 
president of the mathematical and physical 
section of the British Association at Bath 
in 1888, president of the Physical Society 
of London in 1892-3, and chairman of the 
Dublin local section of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers on its foundation in 
1899. For many years he was examiner in 
physics in the University of London, and 
he took a prominent part in the educational 
affairs of Ireland, serving on the boards of 
national, of intermediate, and of technical 
education for Ireland. In educational 
matters * self-satisfied unprogressiveness 
excited his indignation.' 

FitzGerald died at 7 Ely Place, Dublin, 
on 22 Feb. 1901, and was buried at Mount 
Jerome. He married Harriette Mary, 
second daughter of John Hewitt Jellett, 
F.R.S. [q. v.], and had by her three sons 
and five daughters. His widow was awarded 
a civil list pension of 100?. in 1903. A 
charcoal portrait done about 1877 by John 
Butler Yeats belongs to his brother Maurice. 
An enlargement of the engraved portrait 
which forms the frontispiece of the ' Collected 
Works ' hangs in the engineering school of 
Trinity College, DubUn. 

[The Times, 25 Feb. 1901 ; Nature, 7 March 
1901 ; Electrician, 1 March 1901 ; Proc. Roy. 
Soc. vol. 75, 1905 ; Journal Inst. Elect. Eng. 
30, pp. 510, 1244 ; Physical Review, May 1901, 

reprinted in Collected Works ; private in- 
formation from Miss FitzCioralfl, Prof. F. T. 
Trouton, and Prof. W. E. Thrift.] d H. L. 

NAGHTEN (1838-1908), surgeon, bom on 
1 Aug. 1838 at Tullamore, Ireland, was 
son of John FitzGerald of the Indian 
civil service. After attending St. Mary's 
College, Kingston, he received his pro- 
fessional education at Mercers' Hospital 
in Dublin, became L.R.C.S. Ireland in 1857, 
and obtained a commission in the Army 
Medical Staff. A sudden attack of illness 
obliged him to abandon his course at Netley, 
and he made a voyage to Australia in search 
of health. Arriving at Melbourne in July 
1858, he was immediately appointed house 
surgeon at the Melbourne Hospital, and 
held the post for two years, after which he 
began to practise privately as a surgeon in 
Lonsdale Street. In 1860 he was appointed 
full surgeon to the hospital, to which he was 
elected a consulting surgeon on his resigna- 
tion in 1900. He was also consulting 
surgeon to the Queen Victoria, St. Vincent, 
and Austin hospitals. Ho excelled in the 
operative part of his profession, and wrote 
papers for medical journals on cleft palate, 
fractured patella, club foot, drilling in bone 
formations, and like surgical topics. When 
the medical school was started at Mel- 
bourne he proved himself as good a teacher 
as he was a surgeon. In 1884 he revisited 
Ireland, and after examination became 
F.R.C.S. Ireland. He was knighted in 
1897 on the occasion of the diamond 
jubilee of Queen Victoria. He was presi- 
dent of the Medical Society of Victoria 
both in 1884 and in 1890, and of the Inter- 
colonial Medical Congress in 1889. In 1900 
he went to South Africa as consulting 
surgeon to the imperial forces then engaged 
in the Boer war, and for his services was 
made C.B. He published in the ' Inter- 
colonial Medical Journal of Australasia ' 
(1 Dec. 1900) an interesting account of his 
experiences in South Africa, in which the 
work of the Royal Army Medical Corps 
and the nursing staff was commended. 
He died on 8 July 1908 on board the 
s.s. Wyreema between Cairns and Towns- 
ville, while on a voyage for liis health. He 
was buried in the Melbourne general 
cemetery. He married in 1870 Margaret, 
daughter of James Robertson, Launceston, 
Tasmam'a, and by her, who died in 1890, he 
had issue three daughters. 

[Australian Med. Gaz. vol. 27, 1908, p. 428 
(with portrait) ; Lancet, 1908, ii. 200.] 

D'A. P. 




lord justice of appeal in Ireland, bom in 
Dublin on^i28]JAug. 1837, was eldest of the 
three children (two sons and a daughter) of 
Gerald FitzGibbon, K.C., master in chancery 
and a leading member of the Irish bar, by 
his wife Ellen, daughter of John Patterson 
of Belfast. His younger brother, Henry 
{d. 23 Feb. 1912), was at one time president 
of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. 
Gerald became classical scholar in 1858 at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he highly 
distinguished himself in classics, law, 
oratory, and EngUsh composition. He was 
made hon. LL.D. in 1895 [Dublin Univ. Cal. 
1906-7, SuppL). He was always deeply 
devoted to Trinity College, to which he 
said he owed everything and at whose 
service he constantly placed till death his 
eloquence and industry. 

MtzGibbon was called to the Irish bar 
in Hilary Term, 1860, with Edward Gibson, 
afterwards Lord Ashbourne. The two were 
of the same age, and they subsequently took 
together on the same dates the various steps 
which brought them to the bench. Fitz- 
Gibbon was soon the leading junior, both 
on his circuit (the Munster) and in Dublin. 
He refused silk in 1868, when oJBEered it by 
Brewster, lord chancellor, but accepted the 
promotion from Lord Chancellor O'Hagan. 
He was called ' within the bar ' in Trinity 
Term, 1872. FitzGibbon's senior practice 
was large, and he led the Munster circuit 
imtil his retirement from circuit on 
becoming a law officer. Even then he 
was taken ' special ' in important cases 
throughout the country. Among the cases 
in which he proved his eminence as an 
advocate was that of G'KeefEe v. (Cardinal) 
Cullen (May 1873), in which he secured a 
verdict against the cardinal from a Dublin 
jury largely composed of catholics, though 
the verdict was afterwards set aside on 
technical grounds, and that of Bagotv.Bagot, 
a will case, lasting twenty- two days from 
25 April 1878, in which his masterly state- 
ment for the plaintiff, Mrs. Bagot, secured 
her the verdict from a dubious jury, an 
adverse judge, and against the views of a 
host of medical experts [Irish Times, 26 
April 1878 and following days ; Law Rep. 
Ireland, vol. i.). 

In 1876 FitzGibbon, who was a con- 
servative in pontics, became law adviser 
to Dublin Castle, an office since abolished. 
In 1877 he was made solicitor-general for 
Ireland in Lord Beaconsfield's government, 
and held the office imtil 13 Dec. 1878, when 
he was promoted lord justice of appeal. In 
the same year he was elected a bencher of 

the King's Inns, and next year was made 
a privy councillor of Ireland. FitzGibbon's 
career as a judge, which lasted for over thirty- 
one years, was highly distinguished. Many 
of his judgments were reviewed by the 
House of Lords, and in every case where 
he differed from the colleagues of his 
own court his opinion was upheld by the 
House of Lords. In Aaron's Reefs v. 
Twiss, where shares had been allotted on 
a fraudulent prospectus, FitzGibbon differed 
from the lord chancellor of Ireland, the 
master of the rolls, and in a minor degree 
from the other lord justice, and was up- 
held by the lords, Halsbury, Herschell, 
Watson, Macnaghten, Morris, and Davey 
(1896, Appeal Cases, p. 273 ; 1895, 2 Irish 
Reports, p. 207). 

FitzGibbon was also a member of the 
English bar. Admitted to Lincoln's Inn 
on 12 Jan. 1857, he was called in Trinity 
Term, 1861, and was invited to the bench 
on 16 April 1901. He was made a privy 
councillor of England in 1900. 

FitzGibbon was a man of many activities 
outside his profession. He did much 
for education in Ireland. He served 
with Lord Rosse and Lord Randolph 
Churchill on the commission appointed in 

1878 to inquire into the condition and 
management of the endowed schools of 
Ireland (Winston S. Churchill, Lord 
R. Churchill, pp. 78, 79 ; Endowed Schools 
[Ireland), Report of the Royal Commissioners, 
1881). The Report led to the more 
important commission ' on educational 
endowments in Ireland,' of which Fitz- 
Gibbon was chairman from 1885 to 1897. 
During its existence they framed schemes 
dealing with 1350 primary schools, eighty 
intermediate, and twenty-two collegiate 
schools and institutions, and the total 
annual income administered under these 
schemes was over 140,000/. Most of 
FitzGibbon's vacations were devoted to 
this commission. He was also a com- 
missioner of national education in Ireland 
from 1884 to 1896, and in that capacity 
was specially successful in getting the rival 
denominations to agree. 

In 1876 FitzGibbon joined the freemasons 
(Trinity College Lodge), and at once took 
a very active part in the charities. In 

1879 he became a governor of the girls' 
school, and was devoted to its interest. In 
1902 he defrayed the cost of the physical 
and chemical laboratory. After a visit to 
Canada in 1899 he became the representa- 
tive in Ireland of the Grand Lodge of 
Canada. In 1908 he was elected president 
of the General Chapter of Prince Masons 




ill Ireland, and publifihod a volume of 
* Addresses ' delivered in timt ofTico. On 
his death tho freemason brethren founded 
in his memory the * FitzGibbon Memorial 
Gymnasium ' in the girls' school, the * Fitz- 
Gibbon Memorial Burso ' in tho boys' 
school, and tho * FitzGibbon annuity.' 

Ho was also active in the affairs of the 
Church of Ireland, sei-ving for many years 
on the diocesan board of patronage for 
Dublin, and proving his skill in debate in the 
general synod. He wiis chancellor of many 
diocesan courts and lay diocesan nominator 
for the archdiocese of Dublin. He was one 
of tho chief promoters of, and a generous 
contributor to, ' The Auxiliary Fund,' by 
which the great depreciation in the invest- 
ments of the church and the poverty of 
the incumbents was supplemented. 

At his coimtry house at Howth, Fitz- 
Gibbon long entertained at Christmas 
parties of men of all kinds of distinc- 
tion. In later years his regular visitors 
included George Salmon [q. v. Suppl. II], 
provost of Trinity, Monsignor Molloy, 
John (Viscount) Morley, Mr. Arthur Balfour, 
Lords Roberts and Wolseley. But his most 
intimate friend among English politicians 
was Lord Randolph Churchill, whose 
acquaintance he first made at Dublin 
Castle in 1876, when Lord Randolph's 
father, the duke of Marlborough, was lord- 
lieutenant. Subsequently they constantly 
corresponded on frank and confidential 
terms. FitzGibbon wrote to Lord Randolph 
deprecating his acceptance of the chancellor- 
ship of the exchequer in 1886, and expressing 
a preference for Goschen. 

FitzGibbon died at Howth on 14 Oct. 1909, 
and was buried in the graveyard attached 
to the old ruined church of St. Fintan at 
Howth. In the court of criminal appeal 
in England the lord chief justice expressed 
(15 Oct.) sympathy with the bench of 
Ireland on his death, describing him as ' a 
great judge, a profound lawyer, and a man 
of wide and varied learning' [The Times, 
16 Oct. 1909). Such a reference to an 
Irish judge from the bench of England 
seems to have been imprecedented [Laiu 
Times, 23 Oct. 1909). 

FitzGibbon married in 1864 Margaret 
Ann, second daughter of Francis Alexander 
Fitzgerald, baron of the exchequer in 
Ireland, and had issue three sons and four 
daughters. His eldest son, Gerald, is king's 
counsel in Ireland, being the third gener- 
ation of the family to attain that honour. 

Two portraits in oils by Walter Osbonie, 
R.H.A., one in the Masonic girls' school, 
Dublin, the other at Howth, were presented 

by the Order to the school and to Mm. 
Fitz({ibbon respectively. A full-length 
portrait was painted by Miss Harrison for 
tho University Club, Dublin. A portrait in 
judicial robes for tho banqueting hall of the 
King's Inns, by William Orpen, R.A., was 
subscribed for by the bench and bar of 
Ireland. A marble statue by A. Bruce Joy 
is to be placed in St. Patrick's Cathedral. 

[Private information ; Winston S. Churchill, 
Lord Randolph Churchill, 1906 ; Annual 
Report of tho Masonic Fcmalo Orphan School 
of Ireland for 1909 (Dublin, 1910), and 
of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepte<l 
Masons of Ireland for 1909 ; Thorn's Directory, 
1909 ; Tho Irish Reports, Common Law ; 
Tho Irish Reports, Equity ; The Irish Law 
Reports ; AppoalCases (both series) (England) ; 
Endowed Schools (Ireland) Report of the 
Royal Commission, 1881 ; Educational 
Endowments (Ireland), Reports of the Com- 
mission and Evidence, published in 1886 ; 
The Times, 10 Oct. 1909 ; The Law Times, 
23 Oct. 1909.] D. F. 

1909), Shakespearean scholar, bom at 
Deptford Broadway on 5 Sept. 1831, was 
son of John Goss Fleay, linen-draper, by his 
wife Jane. Both parents were of Somerset 
families. Of seven children, three — two sons 
and a daughter — alone lived to maturity. 

Frederick, according to family tradition, 
was able to read at twenty months old. 
Entering, in 1843, Kling's College school, 
where Frederic Harrison was one of his 
companions, he rose to be captain, distin- 
guishing himself alike in classics and 
mathematics. In Oct. 1849 he passed to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, his parents 
accompanying him in order to provide him 
with a home in the town. In his second 
year at Trinity he won an open mathe- 
matical scholarship, and after gaining 
several college prizes, graduated B.A. in 
1853 as thirteenth ^M'angler, and sixth in 
the second class in the classical tripos. He 
was also placed third in the examination for 
Smith's prizes, and impressed the examiners 
with his aptitude for higher mathematics. 
Next year he obtained second place in the 
first class of the moral science tripos, and 
first place in the second class in the natural 
science tripos. Undergraduates dubbed him 
' the industrious flea.' Despite the rare 
distinction of figuring in four tripos lists, 
Fleay just missed a fellowship at Trinity. 
He proceeded M.A. in 1856, and was or- 
dained deacon in that year and priest in 

Adoptuig a scholastic career, he was from 
1856 to 1859 vice-principal of the Oicford 




Diocesan Training College at Culham. 
From 1860 to 1866 he was second master 
and head of the scientific side at Leeds 
grammar school. After six months in 1867 
as second master and head of the modern 
division at King Edward's School, Birming- 
ham, he was headmaster of Hipperholme 
grammar school from 1868 to 1872, and filled 
a like post at Skipton grammar school from 
1872 to 1876, when he abandoned the 
teaching profession. Although his teaching 
was mainly devoted to mathematics and 
science, he was an efficient instructor in 
both classics and Enghsh and interested 
himself in educational theory. Much 
practical value attaches to his 'Hints on 
Teaching,' which he pubUshed in 1874 ; and 
there is ingenuity in his 'Elements of 
English Grammar : Relations of Words to 
Sentences (Word Building) ' (1859, 2 parts), 
and 'Logical Enghsh Grammar' (1884). 

Fleay issued, while a schoolmaster, ' The 
Book of Revelation' (1864), a collection of 
orthodox sermons. But his independent 
and speculative habit of 'mind gradually 
ahenated him from the Church of England, 
and on 7 February 1884 he relinquished 
liis orders. He had studied sympathetically 
Comte's philosophy without accepting 
the Positivist religion. ' Three Lectures 
on Education' which show Comte's in- 
fluence were read at Newton Hall in 
Nov. 1882, and published with a preface 
by Frederic Harrison in 1883. His love 
of more recondite speculation he illus- 
trated in 1889 by privately circulating 
a highly complex mathematical study : 
' Harmonics of Sound and Colour : their 
Law identical, their Use convertible.' 

Meanwhile Fleay was devoting himself 
to literary work. From an early date 
he had interested himself in phonetics 
and in spelling reform. In 1858 he won 
the Trevelyan prize for an essay on 
phonetic spelhng, which convinced one 
of the examiners. Max Miiller, of his 
philological promise. There followed in 
1878 his 'Enghsh Sounds and English 
SpeUing.' In 1879 he joined the newly 
formed Spelling Reform Association and 
edited its journal, ' The Spelhng Reformer ' 
(1880-1). He devised two alphabets, the 
' Victorian form ' for educational purposes, 
and the * Elizabethan form ' for hterary 
purposes. The former departed further than 
the latter from accepted orthography, but 
the method of both was sound. 

In 1874 Fleay joined the New Shakspere 
Society on its foundation by Frederick James 
Fumivall [q. v. Suppl. II], and he appHed 
much of his manifold industry for some 

twenty years to the elucidation of Shake- 
spearean and Elizabethan drama. He con- 
tributed many papers to the ' Transactions 
of the New Shakspere Society.' His Shake- 
spearean books began modestly with an 
* Introduction to Shakespeare Study ' (1877). 
There followed a useful 'Shakespeare 
Manual ' (1878), with editions of Marlowe's 
'Edward II' (1877), and of Shakespeare's 
' King John,' and of the anonymous play 
on the theme (1878), as well as two pam- 
phlets, * Actor Lists, 1578-1642' (reprinted 
from 'Royal Hist. Soc. Trans.' 1881), 
and ' History of Theatres in London ' 
(1882). All these efforts were preliminary 
to his three imposing compilations : ' A 
Chronicle History of the Life and Work 
of William Shakespeare ' (1886), ' A 
Chronicle History of the London Stage,' 
1559-1642' (1890), and 'A Biographical 
Chronicle of the Enghsh Drama, 1559-1642 ' 
(2 vols. 1891). The three works were hand- 
somely printed in limited editions and 
quickly became scarce books. 

Fleay's Shakespearean labours were 
severely practical, even statistical. Liter- 
ary criticism lay outside his scope. He 
analysed with minuteness the changes in 
Shakespeare's metre and phraseology, and 
rigidly apphed metrical and hnguistic tests 
to a determination not only of the chron- 
ology of Shakespeare's and his fellow- 
dramatists' acknowledged work but of 
the authorship of anon37mous plays of the 
era. His arbitrary identifications of the 
writers of the anonymous Ehzabetk drama 
were often startling. He was no less 
dogmatic in his alleged detection of con- 
cealed topical or political allusions in text, 
plot, and character. At the same time the 
immense care with which he traced the 
history of the playing companies in the 
Shakespearean period threw much new hght 
on Enghsh dramatic and theatrical history. 

From Shakespearean and Elizabethan 
themes Fleay finally turned to Egyptology 
and Assyriology, chiefly in their bearing 
on bibhcal criticism. His main results 
were collected in ' Egyptian Chronology ' 
(1899), dedicated to the memory of Edward 
White Benson [q. v. Suppl. I]. His latest 
inquiry concerned the Great Pyramid, on 
which he pubhshed a paper in 1905, 

A self-denying and toilsome student 
who lived a secluded life, Fleay died at 
27 Daffome Road, Upper Tooting, London, 
on 10 March 1909, and was buried at 
Brookwood cemetery, Woking. He married 
on 14 Jan. 1869 Mary Ann Kite, who pre- 
deceased him in 1896. Their only child, 
John, survived him. 




Besides the works cited Fleay published 
•Almond Blossoms,' verse, in 1857; trans- 
lations of 'Breton Ballads' (1870), and 
the 'Poetry of Catullus' and 'Vigil of 
Venus' (1874); *A Guide to Chaucer 
and Spenser' (Glasgow, 1877, in 'Collins's 
School and College Classics'); and 'The 
Land of Shakespeare illustrated' (1889). 

[Private information ; Testimonials collected 
by Fleay, 1803-70 (privately printed) ; Athen- 
wum, March 1909 (by Dr. A. W. Ward); 
Frederic Harrison's Autobiographical Memoirs, 
1911.] S. L. 

FLEMING, GEORGE (1833-1901), 

veterinary surgeon, born at Glasgow on 
11 Marcii 1833, was son of a working 
shocing-smith there. Early in life he was 
taken by his father to Manchester, where 
both were employed in the farrier's shop 
of a veterinary surgeon. He subsequently 
entered the service of a well-known 
veterinary surgeon of Manchester, John 
Lawson, who sent him to Dick's College 
in Edinburgh. He took several medals and 
prizes, and in 1855 obtained the certificate 
of the Highland and Agricultural Society of 
Scotland, which was then recognised as a 
veterinary diploma. At the end of that 
year he entered the army veterinary 
service, and served in the Crimea until the 
termination of the war. In 1860 he 
volunteered for the expedition to North 
Cliina, and was present at the capture of 
the Taku Forts and the surrender of Pekin, 
receiving for his services a medal Avith two 
clasps. Whilst in China he undertook an 
expedition beyond the Great Wall, which 
he described in ' Travels on Horseback 
in Manchu Tartary ' (1865). In 1866 he 
obtained the diploma of the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons, and in 1867 served 
with the army in Syria and Egypt. On his 
return he spent some years with the royal 
engineers at Chatham. In 1879 he was 
appointed inspecting veterinary surgeon at 
the war office, and in 1883 principal 
veterinary surgeon to the army. In 1887 
he was made C.B. and in 1890 he retired 
from the army. 

Fleming became a vice-president of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in 
1867, a year after his admission, and a 
member of council in 1868. He was elected 
president in 1880, when the agitation for 
an act of parliament to restrict the title 
of veterinary surgeon to the diploma- 
holders of the college had become acute, 
and by his energy and pertinacity he was 
mainly instrumental in securing the passage 
through parliament of the Veterinary 

VOL. LXVin. — SUP. II. 

Surgeons Act, 1881, which imposed a 
penalty upon unqualified persons who took 
or usefl the title of veterinary surgeon. 
The misuse of the title had become a 
public scandal. Fleming was in gratitude 
re-elected president for three years in succea- 
sion (1881-4), and again in 1886-7. His 
portrait (full-length) was painted by B. 
Hudson, and presented to the college by 
subscription on 7 May 1883, ' as a token,' 
according to the inscription at the foot, ' of 
sincere esteem and gratitude.' 

He received in 1883 the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the University 
of Glasgow. He died on 13 April 1901 
at Higher Leigh, Combe Martin, North 
Devon, liis residence in later Ufe. He 
was three times married: (1) to Alice, 
daughter of J. Peake of Atherstone in 1863; 
(2) to Susan, daughter of W. Solomon of 
Upchurch, Kent, in 1878 ; (3) to Anna, 
daughter of Colonel R. D. Pennefather of 
Kilbracken, co. Leitrim, who survived him 
and afterwards remarried. 

Fleming was a voluminous writer, con- 
tributing largely to professional journals 
and to general reviews. He translated 
from the French Chauveau's ' Comparative 
Anatomy of the Domesticated Aiiimals ' 
(1873; 2nd edit. 1891), and from the 
German Neumann's 'Parasites and Parasi- 
tical Diseases of the Domesticated Animals ' 
(1892; 2nd edit. 1905). 1? His "^ separately 
published works include : 1. ' Vivisection : 
Is it necessary or justifiable?' 1866. 2. 
'Horse-Shoes and Horse-Shoeing — their 
Origin, History, etc.,' 1869. 3. ' Animal 
Plagues : their History, Nature, and Pre- 
vention,' vol. i. 1871; vol. ii. 1882. 4. 
' Practical Horse-Shoeing,' 1872 ; 10th edit. 
1900. 5. ' Rabies and Hydrophobia,' 
1872. 6. ' A Manual of Veterinary Sanitary 
Science and Policy,' 2 vols. 1875. 7. 
' A Text Book of Veterinary Obstetrics,' 
1878; 2nd edit. 1896. 8. 'The Influence 
of Heredity and Contagion in the Propa- 
gation of Tuberculosis,' 1883. 9. 'Opera- 
tive Veterinary Surgery,' vol. i. 1884. 10. 
'The Practical Horse-Keeper,' 1886. His 
library of 900 volumes of books on pro- 
fessional subjects was given by him in 
1900 to the Royal College of Veterinary 

[The Times, 10 April 1901 ; Veterinary 
Record, vol. xiii. 27 April 1901 ; personal 
knowledge.] E. C. 

FLEMING, JAMES (1830-1908), canon 
of York, born at Carlow on 26 July 1830, 
was youngest of five children of Patrick 
Fleming, M.D., of Strabane, who married 




in 1820 Mary, daughter of Captain Francis 
Kirkpatrick. Both families were of Scottish 
extraction. From 1833 to 1836 the boy 
was in Jamaica, his father having become 
paymaster to the 56th regiment; and on 
his father's death in 1838 his mother, 
who smrvived till September 1876, moved 
to Bath. His two brothers, WiUiam and 
Francis, were sent to Sandhurst, but ulti- 
mately took orders ; William, an old- 
fashioned protestant, died vicar of Christ 
Church, Chislehurst, in May 1900. James 
went to King Edward VI's grammar 
school, Bath, in 1840, and to Shrewsbury 
in 1846, under Benjamin Hall Kennedy 
[q. V.]. He was in the school eleven, and 
won the MiUington scholarship, matricu- 
lating on 15 Nov. 1849 at Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, from which he graduated 
in 1853, proceeding M.A. in 1857 and B.D. 
in 1864. Ordained deacon in 1853 and 
priest in 1854, he was curate, first, of St. 
Stephen, Ipswich (1853-5), and then of 
St. Stephen, Lansdown, in the parish of 
Walcot, Bath (1855-9), with charge of the 
chapel of All Saints, where his plain evan- 
gelical preaching attracted good congrega- 
tions. He started classes of instruction in 
elocution for working people in 1859, and 
was a strong advocate of total abstinence. 
In 1866 he wa» appointed by trustees to the 
incumbency of Camden church, Camberwell, 
formerly held by Henry Melvill [q. v.], and in 
1873 was presented by the marquis (after- 
wards first duke) of Westminster to the 
vicarage of St. Michael, Chester Square. 
Admitted on 19 Feb. 1874, he retained this 
benefice tiU his death, becoming chaplain 
to the duke of Westminster in 1875. 
On 21 June 1899 the second duke of West- 
minster, on behalf of the congregation, pre- 
sented him with an address and 2000Z. 
on the completion of twenty-five years' 
incumbency. During the period parochial 
schools and local churches increased and a 
convalescent home, for which a parishioner 
gave Fleming 23,500Z., was built at Birch- 
ington. Outside his parish his chief in- 
terests were Dr. Bamardo's Homes [see 
Barnardo, Thomas John, Suppl. II]; 
the Rehgious Tract Society, of which he 
was an honorary secretary from 1880 ; and 
the Hospital Sunday Fund, to which he 
trained his congregation to make large 
annual contributions, amounting in twenty- 
eight years to nearly 35,000Z. 

Meanwhile on 30 May 1879 Lord Beacons- 
field nominated Fleming to a residentiary 
canonry in York Minster (see Debate in 
House of Lords, 16 June 1879). William 
Thomson [q. v.], archbishop of York, made 

him succentor on 20 Aug. 1881, and pre- 
centor with a prebendal stall on 3 Jan. 1883. 
In 1880 Lord Beaconsfield was incHned to 
appoint him first bishop of Liverpool, 
but local pressure caused John Charles 
Ryle [q.v. Suppl. I] to be preferred. He after- 
wards decUned the bishopric of Sydney 
with the primacy of Australia, Nov. 
1884 [see Barry, Alfred, Suppl. II], and 
from reasons of income Lord SaUsbury's 
successive offers of the deaneries of Chester 
(20 Deo. 1885) and of Norwich (6 May 
1889). Honorary chaplain to Queen 
Victoria (1876) and chaplain in ordinary 
to her (1880) and to Edward VII (1901), 
Fleming from 1879 preached almost yearly 
before Queen Victoria, and before Edward 
VII, when Prince of Wales, at Sandringham. 
On 24 Jan. 1892 he preached at Sandring- 
ham the sermon in memory of the Duke 
of Clarence [see Albert Victor Christian 
Edward, Suppl. I], which was pubHshed as 
' Recognition in Eternity,' and had a con- 
tinuous sale, reaching in 1911 to about 
67,000 copies. The author's profits, amount- 
ing by May 1911 to 1725?., were distributed 
between two charities named by Queen 
Alexandra — ^the Gordon Boys' Home and 
the British Home and Hospital for In- 
curables. From 1880 Fleming was White- 
head professor of preaching and elocution 
at the London College of Divinity (St. 
John's Hall, Highbury). Three times — 
1901, 1903, and 1907— he was appointed 
William Jones lecturer (sometimes called 
the Golden lectureship) by the Haber- 
dashers' Company. Fleming, who early in 
1877 denounced the ' folly, obstinacy, and 
contumacy ' of the ritualists in * The 
Times ' (25 Jan. 1877), ceased to wear 
the black gown in the pulpit after the 
judgment in CHfton v. Ridsdale (12 May 
1877). But his suspicion of ritualism in- 
creased with his years (c/. Mrs. Creigh- 
ton's Life and Letters of Mandell Greighton, 
ii. 308-309). In later Ufe he supported 
the protestant agitation of John Kensit 
[q. V. Suppl. II]. His personal rela- 
tions with C. H. Spurgeon [q. v.], 
WiUiam Morley Punshon [q. v.], and other 
nonconformist leaders were very cordial. 
Fleming died at St. Michael's Vicarage on 
1 Sept. 1908, and was buried at Kensal Green 
cemetery. A reredos and choir stalls in 
memory of him were placed in St. Michael's 
(1911), and a statue of King Edwyn in York 
Minster. He married, on 21 June 1853, 
at Holy Trinity, Brompton, Grace, elder 
daughter of Admiral Purcell, who died on 
25 May 1903. They had three sons 
and three daughters. A cartoon portrait 




of Fleming by *Spy' appeared in * Vanity 
Fair' in 1889. 

Fleming's personal charm and grace of 
speech made him popular, but ho was 
neither a student nor a thinker. * The 
Stolen Sermon, or Canon Fleming's Theft/ 
a pamplilet issued in 1887 (embodying an 
article in the * Weekly Churchman,' 6 May), 
showed that one of two sermons by Flem- 
ing, published as ' Science and the Bible ' 
(1880), reproduced almost verbatim 'The 
Bible Right,' a sermon by Dr. Talmage 
(♦ Fifty Sermons,' 2nd series, 2nd edit. 1876, 
pp. 312-21). Fleming explained in a pub- 
lished letter that he had inadvertently 
transferred Dr. Talmage's sermon from his 
common-place book. Apart from some 
twenty separate sermons, chiefly for special 
occasions, Fleming pubhshed a useful 
manual on ' The Art of Reading and 
Speaking ' (1896) and ' Our Gracious 
Queen Alexandra ' (1901) for the Religious 
Tract Society. 

[A. R. M. Finlayson, Life of Canon 
Fleming, 1909 ; The Times, 2 Sept. 1908 ; 
Record, 4 Sept. 1908 ; Guardian, 2 and 9 Sept. 
1908 ; Crockford, Clerical Directory, 1908.] 

E. H. P. 

FLETCHER, JAMES (1852-1908), 
naturalist, bom at Ashe, near Wrotham, 
Kent, England, on 28 March 1852, was 
second son of Joseph Flitcroft Fletcher 
by his wife Mary Ann Hayward. The 
eldest son, Flitcroft Fletcher, was an artist 
who exhibited five pictures at the Royal 
Academy ( 1 882-6), dying at the age of thirty- 
six. Fletcher was educated at King's School, 
Rochester, and joined the Bank of British 
North America in London in 1871. In 1874 
he was transferred to Canada and stationed 
at Montreal. In 1875 he entered the 
Ottawa office of the bank, and, resigning 
in May 1876, was employed in the library 
of parliament until 1 July 1887. Fletcher, 
whose leisure was devoted to the study 
of botany and entomology, was then 
appointed entomologist and botanist to 
the recently organised Dominion experi- 
mental farms. Since 1884 he had acted 
as Dominion entomologist in the depart- 
ment of agriculture. Elected a fellow of the 
Linnaean Society on 3 June 1886 and a mem- 
ber of the Entomological Society of America 
and other scientific societies, he was one 
of the founders of the Ottawa Field Natur- 
alists' Club. At his death he was president 
of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 
and honorary secretary of the Royal Society 
of Canada. In 1896 he received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Queen's 

Fletcher was a voluminoua writer. 
To the ' Transactions ' of the Ottawa Field 
Naturalists' Club he contributed a * Flora 
Ottawaensis,' and with George H. Clark 
ho published ' Farm Weeds of Canada ' 
(1006). Valuable papers on injurious insecta 
and on the diurnal lepifloptera appeared at 
intervals. Seventeen species of butterflies 
bear his name. He died at Montreal on 
8 Nov. 1908, and is buried in Beech wood 
cemetery, Ottawa. 

He married in 1879 Eleanor Gertrude, 
eldest daughter of Collingwood Schreiber, 
C.M.G., Ottawa, by whom he had two 

The Ottawa Field Naturalists' Qub 
erected in his memory a drinking-fountain 
with bronze medallion at the experimental 
farm, and had a portrait painted by 
Franklyn Brownell, R.C.A., which now 
hangs in the Ottawa public library. 

[Information supplied by Fletcher's daugh- 
ter, Mrs. R. S. Lake ; memorial notices by 
the Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club in The 
Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xxii. No. 10, Jan. 
1909.] P. E. 

FLINT, ROBERT (1838-1910), philo- 
sopher and theologian, born near Dumfries 
on 14 March 1838, was the son of Robert 
Flint, at that time a farm overseer, by his 
wife (bom Johnston). His first school was 
at Moffat. In 1852 he entered Glasgow 
University, where he distinguished himself 
(without graduating) in arts and divinity. 
Having been employed as a lay missionary 
by the 'Elders' Association' of Glasgow, 
he was licensed to preach in 1858, and 
for a short time acted as assistant to 
Norman Macleod the younger [q. v.], at the 
Barony Church, Glasgow. He was minister 
of the East Church, Aberdeen (1859-62) 
and of Kilconquhar, Fife (186^-4), a 
coimtry parish, which gave him leisiu-e for 
study, improved by visits to Germany. 
On the death of James Frederick Ferrier 
[q. v.] in 1864 Flint was elected to succeed 
him in the moral philosophy chair at St. 
Andrews University, among the competing 
candidates being Thomas EQU Green [q. v.]. 
This chair he held till 1876, when he 
succeeded Thomas Jackson Cra^-ford 
[q. v.] in the divinity chair of Edinburgh 
University. On this appointment he was 
made LL.D. of Glasgow and D.D. of Edin- 
burgh. Thomas Chalmers [q. v.j had 
similajly migrated from the one chair 
to the other. Flint was appointed to a 
number of foundation lectureships. [He 
was Baird lecturer (1876-7); in 1880 he 
crossed to America, and delivered a course 





as Stone lecturer at Princeton ; in 1887-8 
he was Croall lecturer. He was elected 
on 21 May 1883 corresponding member of 
the Institute of France (Academic des 
sciences morales et politiques), and was a 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
He resigned his chair to devote himself to 
literary work, a purpose hampered by 
failing health. For some time he lived 
at Musselburgh. He deUvered the Gifford 
lectures in 1908-9. He died, unmarried, at 
his residence, 3 Royal Terrace, Edinburgh, 
on 25 Nov. 1910. 

Flint was in person spare but well knit ; 
his pale features wore an expression of 
eelf-command ; his dark moustache gave 
distinction to his clerical garb. He had 
few intimates, and lived much of his Hfe 
apart, devoted to his studies, always a 
hard reader, of extraordinary diUgence in 
research and facile power of mastery. He 
had no taste for amusements, country 
walks being his one recreation. With his 
students he was popular, for he was patient 
and kind ; yet it is said that of them all 
only two were ever privileged to accompany 
him in his walks. His methods were 
dehberate, his composition slow and sure 
in a small and neat handwriting, his speech 
measured and with some peculiarities of 
enunciation, e.g. ' awtoms,' ' know-ledge.' 
All his work was planned on a large scale ; 
the cycle of his divinity lectures extended 
to seven sessions ; his best-known books, 
complete in themselves, were parts of wider 
schemes ; his sermons have been described 
as of ' magnificent length and toughness ' ; 
that his preaching was highly esteemed 
was due to his easy grasp of his subject, 
the elevation of his treatment, his straight- 
forward style, and the convincing tones of 
his penetrating voice. As a tMnker his 
characteristic was the confidence with 
which he brought all matters to the test 
of reason, trusting it as a guide to positive 
conclusions, and resting nothing on senti- 
mental or prudential grounds. On Unes 
of independent judgment he followed in 
the succession of Butler and Paley, wel- 
coming every advance of physical science 
and speculative thought as enlarging the 
field for critical investigation and help- 
ing to clear the issue. His students were 
stimulated to the exercise of their own minds 
and to the attainment of a high intellectual 
standard. In church matters he kept aloof 
from many current controversies, but on 
occasion (1882) arguing strongly for the 
maintenance of the national church on a 
basis of ' mutual understanding, concilia- 
tion and peace.' In connection with the 

Edinburgh University tercentenary in 

1884, in a series of professorial portraits 
by William Hole, Flint is etched in 
knightly armour as champion of the 
common faith. On his retirement in 1903 
his portrait, painted by Sir George Reid, 
was presented to him by his students ; it 
is now in his sister's possession, but is 
ultimately to belong to the Edinburgh 

He wrote: 1. ' The Earth is the Lord's,' 
1859 (sermon, Ps. xxiv. 1, 2). 2. ' Christ's 
Kingdom upon Earth,' 1865 (sermons). 
3. ' The Philosophy of History in [Europe] 
France and Germany,' 1874 ; translated 
into French by Professor Ludovic Carrau 
of Besangon. 4. 'Theism,' 1877 (Baird 
Lecture) ; 7th edit., 1889. 5. ' Antitheistic 
Theories,' 1879 (Baird Lecture) ; 3rd edit. 

1885. 6. 'A Sermon,' Edinburgh, 1881 
(on Rev. i. 5). 7. ' The Covenant, 1660 to 
1690,' Edin. 1881 (lecture). 8. ' Christianity 
in relation to other Religions,' Edin. 
1882 (lecture). 9. 'The Duties of the 
People of Scotland to the Church of Scot- 
land,' Edin. 1882 (lectures). 10. ' Vico,' 
1884 (critical biography of Giovanni Bat- 
tista Vico). 11. ' The Claims of Divine 
Wisdom,' Edin. 1885 (sermon to young). 
1 2. ' The Church Question in Scotland,' 
1891. 13. 'History of the Philosophy 
of History,' Edin. 1893 (first section, 
' Historical Philosophy in France and 
French Belgium and Switzerland,' 1893). 

14. 'SociaUsm,' 1894; 2nd edit. 1908. 

15. 'Hindu Pantheism,' 1897. 16. 'Ser- 
mons and Addresses,' 1899. 17. 'Agnosti- 
cism,' 1903 (Croall Lecture). 18. 'Philo- 
sophy as Scientia Scientiarum,' 1904. 19. 
' On Theological, Biblical and other Sub- 
jects,' 1905. Besides these, he wrote many 
articles, especially those on ' Theism ' and 
* Theology,' in the ninth edition of the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 

[Scotsman, and The Times, 26 Nov. 1910 ; 
Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scotic. 1869, 
ii. 458; 1871, iii. 516; W. Hole, Quasi 
Cursores, 1884, 145, sq. (with portrait) ; 
Vapereau, Diet, des Contemp. 1893 ; W. I. 
Addison, RoU of Graduates, Univ. Glasg. 1898, 
198 ; information from Mr. Andrew Clark, 
S.S.C. ; personal recollection.] A. G. 

1903), explorer, born on 4 July 1852 at 
Marshchapel, Lines., was eldest surviving 
son of the Rev. Ayscoghe Floyer (d, 1872) 
by his wife Louisa Sara (1830-1909), daughter 
of the Hon. Frederic John Shore of the 
Bengal Civil Service. His mother, who was 
granddaughter of John Shore, first Baron 
Teignmouth [q. v.], and survived her son, was 




a pioneer in the movement for the syste- 
matic class teacliing of plain needlework in 
English elementary schools, was inspector 
of needlework under the London school 
board, founder of the London Institution 
for Advancement of Plain Needlework, and 
author of several text-books upon the sub- 
ject. After education at Cliarterhouse from 
1865 until 1869, Floyer served for seven 
years in the Indian telegraph service, being 
stationed on the coavst of the Persian Gulf. 
On receiving his long leave, in January 1876, 
he started for the unexplored interior of 
Balucliistan. His journeys there occupied 
liim until May 1877, and his observations 
and surveys earned liim a reputation as a 
bold and intelligent explorer. His results 
were published in ' Unexplored Baluchistan ' 
(1882), with illustrations and map. The 
narrative describes a journey of ex- 
ploration from Jask to Bampur ; a tour 
in the Persian Gulf, visiting the island of 
Henjan and other places; and a journey 
of exploration from Jask to Kirman via 
Anguhran. There are appendices on 
dialects of Western Balucliistan and on 
plants collected. In January 1878 he was 
appointed inspector-general of Egyptian 
t-elegraphs, a post wliich he held until his 
death. He so administered the department 
as to convert an annual loss into a 
substantial annual surplus. He induced 
the government to devote a portion of this 
to experiments in the cultivation of trees 
and plants upon the soil of the desert. He 
took charge of these experiments in the 
capacity of director of plantations, 
state railways and telegraphs of Egypt. 
He cultivated successfully cactus for tibre, 
casuarina for telegraph poles, Hyoscyamus 
muticufi yielding the alkaloid hyoscyamine, 
and other plants. Having discovered 
nitrate of soda in a clay in Upper Egypt, 
he was appointed by the government to 
superintend the process of its extraction. 
At the same time he engaged in exploration. 
In 1884 he made a journey from Haifa to 
Debba, and in 1887- surveyed two routes 
between the Nile and the Red Sea in about 
N. lat. 26°. In 1891 he was appointed by 
the Khedive to the command of an impor- 
tant expedition in a more southern part of 
the same desert (about N. lat. 24°). In this 
expedition he rediscovered the abandoned 
emerald mines of Sikait and Zabbara which 
had been worked at various epochs from 
early times. As the result of Floyer's 
report these mines were reopened. The 
outcome of this expedition, antiquarian, 
scientific, and economic, is fully described 
in his official publication, ' J&tude sur la 

Nord-Etbai entre le Nil and la Mer Rouge * 
(Cairo, 1893, 4to, with maps and illus- 
trations). For services to the military 
authorities Floyer received the British 
malal * Egyi)t, 1882,' with clasp ' The Nile, 
1884-5,' and the Khedive's bronze star. 
Floyer, who was popular with his native 
employes, had a mastery of Arabic and 
possessed an ear for minute differences of 

Floyer died at Cairo on 1 Dec. 1903. 
He married in 1887 Mary Louisa, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. William Richards 
Watson, rector of Saltfleetby St. Peter's, 
Lincolnshire, by whom he left three sons. 

Floyer described his Eg3rptian explora- 
tions in ' The Mines of the Northern 
Etbai ' (' Trans. Roy. Asiatic Soc' Oct. 
1892) ; ' Notes on the Geology of the 
Northern Etbai ' ('Trans. Geol. Soc' 1892, 
vol. xlviii.) ; ' Further Routes in the Eastern 
Desert of Egypt ' (' Geogr. Joum.' May 
1893) ; and 'Journeys in the Eastern Desert 
of Egypt ' (* Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc' 1884 
and 1887). To the ' Journal ' of the ' Institut 
Egyptien' for 1894-6 he contributed many 
papers on antiquarian, botanical, and agri- 
cultural matters. 

[Personal knowledge ; Journ. Roy. Asiatic 
Soc. April 1904.] V. C. 

FORBES, JAMES ST AATS (1823-1904), 
railway manager and connoisseur, born at 
Aberdeen on 7 March 1823, was eldest of 
the six children of James Staats Forbes, 
a member of a Scottish family long settled 
in England, by his wife Ann Walker. 
A brother, William, became manager of the 
Midland Great Western railway of Ireland, 
and was father of Wilham, who is general 
manager of the London, Brighton and 
South Coast railway, and of Stanhope 
Alexander Forbes, R.A. Educated at 
Woolwich, James was brought up in 
London as an engineer, and showing skill 
as a draughtsman, he entered in 1840 the 
office of Isambard Kingdom Brunei [q. v.], 
who was then constructing the Great Western 
Hne. Joining the Great Western Company's 
service, he reached by successive steps the 
post of chief goods manager at Paddington. 
He next secured an appointment on the 
staff of the Dutch-Rhenish railway, then 
under English management, and soon rose 
to the liighest post, bringing the hne, then 
on the verge of bankruptcy, into a state 
of comparative success. On his retirement 
the directors retained his partial services 
as their permanent adviser. In 1861 the 
directors of the London, Chatham and 
Dover railway (which, formed by amal- 




gamation in 1859, was then in the hands of 
a receiver) made him their general manager. 
He had previously been offered, and had 
twice refused, the post of general manager 
of the Great Western railway at a salary of 

Debt, confusion, pressing creditors, and 
lack of money menaced the Chatham and 
Dover company, which was fighting for its 
very existence against two powerful neigh- 
bours, the South Eastern and the London and 
Brighton Unes. Under Forbes's skilful and 
daring leadership the line held its own, and 
in 1871 he joined the board of directors, suc- 
ceeding in 1873 to the post of chairman, 
which he held jointly with that of general 
manager until 1 Jan. 1899. On the amalga- 
mation, at that date, of the Chatham Une 
with the South Eastern, Forbes dechned the 
chairmanship of the joint boards, but acted 
as their adviser. In his management of the 
finances of his own company, his tact in 
presiding at meetings of shareholders, 
and the exceptionally good terms which 
he secured for the Chatham railway in the 
amalgamation, Forbes proved himself a 
skilled diplomatist of great ability. 

He also restored the fortunes of another 
bankrupt concern, the Metropohtan District 
railway; joined its board on 6 Oct. 1870, 
was chairman from 28 Nov. 1872 to 5 Sept. 
1901, and from that date to 17 Feb. 1903 
advisory director. For twenty-five years 
(1870-96) the rivalry between Forbes of 
the Chatham and the District and Sir 
Edward Watkin [q. v. Suppl. II] of the 
South Eastern and the Metropohtan was 
a source of anxiety to the shareholders 
and of much profit to lawyers. Forbes 
was at a great disadvantage, his opponent 
having control over two concerns which 
were solvent and successful and being 
himself a railway strategist of a high 
order. But for the suavity of temper 
and charm of manner of his rival, 
Watkin would probably have succeeded 
in crushing the two younger and poorer 

Forbes was connected with several other 
railways, most of them needing help to 
bring them out of difficulties. He was 
director and at one time deputy-chairman 
of the Hull and Barnsley fine, and financial 
adviser to a still more unfortunate fine, the 
Didcot, Newbury and Southampton; he 
was chairman of the Whitechapel and Bow 
railway, and of the Regent's Canal City 
and Docks railway. This last line was 
incorporated in 1882 for the construction 
of a fine along the Regent's Canal from 
Paddington to the docl^, but no progress 

has yet been made to carry out the scheme. 
His financial ability was widely in request. 
He was chairman of three important 
electric hght companies, a director of the 
Lion Fire Insurance Company, and president 
of the National Telephone Company ; from 
many of these boards he retired towards the 
end of his life. 

Though a rigid economist, Forbes was 
always ready to introduce improvements 
when convinced that they were worth 
their cost. He adopted the block system, 
automatic brakes, and hydrauhc stop blocks. 
To him were due the trials of the twin-ship 
system as represented by the Calais-Douvres, 
and he was largely responsible for the fine 
boats for the cross-Channel service belong- 
ing to the railway companies. Forbes 
excelled as an administrator on broad lines 
and in boldly taking an initiative, but had 
no taste for details. He was a frequent 
witness before ParHamentary Committees, 
and was a first-rate after-dinner speaker 
(cf. Railway News, 9 April 1904). 

In September 1873, at a bye-election, 
he unsuccessfully contested Dover in the 
hberal interest, but did not again seek 
Parliamentary honours. 

Forbes was much interested in art and, 
though his judgment was sometimes at 
fault, enjoyed a considerable reputation as 
a collector. His large collection of works 
of nineteenth-century artists included many 
examples of the Barbizon and modern 
Dutch schools. A selection (about one- 
twelfth) was exhibited at the Grafton Gallery 
in May 1905 {Athenceum, 27 May 1905, 
p. 664). A smaller exhibition, of which a 
printed catalogue appeared, was held in 
July 1908 at the Brighton Library and Art 

Forbes died on 5 April 1904 at his resi- 
dence, Garden Corner, Chelsea Embankment, 
and was buried in the churchyard of West 
Wickham, Kent, the village where he 
formerly lived. 

He married in 1851 Ann {d. 1901), 
daughter of John Bennett, by whom he 
had as surviving issue a son, Duncan, in the 
service of the Great Indian Peninsula rail- 
way, and two daughters, of whom Ann 
Bennett, the elder, married in 1897, as his 
second wife, Major-gen. Sir Charles Taylor 
Du Plat, K.C.B. {d. 1900). 

There is a portrait of Forbes, executed 
in 1881, by Sir Hubert von Herkomer, and 
a marble bust (circ. 1893) by Tcentenoir 
of Florence, both in the possession of his 
executors. A caricature by * Spy ' appeared 
in 'Vanity Fair' in 1900 (vol. xxxii. pi. 




[Authority above cited ; Engineer, 8 April 
1904; The Timrs, April 1904; F. H. 
McCalmont, Pari. Poll Book, 7th edit. 1910, 
pt. 1,87; Dcbrctt; private information.] 

C. VV. 

1901), sculptor, bom in Islington on 27 July 
1862, was son of Edward Ford {d. 1864) by 
his wife Martha Lydia Gardner. His family 
moved to Blackheath while ho was still a 
child. His father, who was in business in 
the City, died when he was barely twelve. 
After he had spent some time at Black- 
heath proprietary school, Ms mother deter- 
mined that he should follow the strong bent 
towards art wliich he had already shown. 
She took liim to Antwerp, where she sent 
liim to the Academy as a student of paint- 
ing. From Antwerp they moved after a 
time to Munich. There Ford studied under 
Wagmuller, who advised him to transfer 
lus attention to modelling, which he did. 
Before leaving Munich Ford married, in 
1873, Anne Gwendoline, the third daughter 
of Baron Frans von Kreuzer. 

On returning to this country about 1874 
Ford settled at Blackheath, whence he sent 
a bust of his wife to the Royal Academy of 
1875. This at once attracted attention, 
and from that time onward the sculptor's 
career was watched with interest. Beginning 
with the statue of Rowland Hill at the 
Royal Exchange (1881), his more important 
works are : ' Irving as Hamlet ' (1883), in the 
Guildhall Art GaUery ; ' Gordon ' (1890), the 
group of the famous general mounted on a 
camel, of which examples are at Chatham 
and Khartoum ; the Shelley memorial in 
University College, Oxford (1892); the 
equestrian statue of Lord Strathnaim at 
Knightsbridge (1895); and the memorial 
to Queen Victoria at Manchester (1901). 
Besides these monumental works Ford 
executed many busts, invariably marked by 
taste in conception, delicate modelling, and 
verisimilitude. The best, perhaps, are the 
heads of Millais, Huxley, Herbert Spencer, 
Orchardson, Matthew Ridley Corbett, the 
duke of Norfolk, Mr. Briton Riviere, Sir 
Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Sir Walter Arm- 
strong, Sir Hubert von Herkomer, and M, 
Dagnan-Bouveret. Ford also modelled a 
series of bronze statuettes. In each of these 
he endeavoured to embody some playful 
fancy which was, occasionally, less sculp- 
turesque than literary. The most successful, 
perhaps, of these are ' Folly ' (bought by the 
Chantrey trustees and now in the Tate 
Gallery), ' The Singer,' ' Applause,' ' Peace,' 
and ' Echo.' He was one of the first 
English sculptors to publish small replicas 

of his statues, which did much to extend 

his reputation. 

Ford was elected A.R.A. in 1888 and 
R.A. in 1895, and became a corresponding 
member of the Institute of Franco. His 
example had much to do with that awaken- 
ing of English sculpture in the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century which 
had its initial impulse in the teaching 
of Dalou at South Kensington and 
was helped by Ford's great personal 
popularity. Like most sculptors he was 
physically powerful, although of medium 
height, but, also Hke most sculptors, 
he overworked liimself, and probably 
shortened his life by the energy with 
which he set about not only his own work 
but that of other people. On the death of 
Harry Bates [q. v. Suppl. I] he undertook 
to complete some of that artist's unfinished 
work, just at a time when commissions 
were coming in thick and fast to his own 
studio. About the middle of 1900 he was 
attacked by a dangerous form of heart 
disease, which left him, after a year of 
more or less precarious health, luiable to 
resist the attack of pneumonia from which 
he died at 62 Acacia Road, N.W., on 
23 Dec. 1901. He was buried at East 
Finchley. He was survived by his mother, 
his wife, four sons, and a daughter. 

The best portrait of Onslow Ford is a 
head by John Macallan Swan [q. v. 
Suppl. II], which is the property of the 
painter's widow. He was also painted by 
Mr. Arthur Hacker, R.A., Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer, R.A., Mr. J. McLure Hamilton, 
and others. A memorial obelisk, including 
a medalUon protrait in profile by A. C. 
Lucchesi and a repUca of Ford's own 
figiue of Poetry from the Shelley memorial, 
was set up at the junction of Grove End 
Road with Abbey Road, in St. John's Wood. 

[The Times, 26 Dec. 1901; Men and 
Women of the Time ; personal knowledge.] 

W. A. 

1904), cricketer and writer on cricket, the 
eldest of seven sons of William Augustus 
Ford, of Lincoln's Inn Fields, by his wife 
Katherine Mary Justice, was bom in London 
on 7 Nov. 1853. Of his brothers, Augustus 
Frank Justice {b. 1858) and Francis 
Gilbertson Justice (b. 1866) distinguished 
themselves in Repton, Cambridge Univer- 
sity, and Middlesex cricket, while a third, 
Lionel George Bridges Justice (6. 1865), 
became headmaster of Harrow in 1910. 
Educated at Eagle House, Wimbledon, 
and at Repton, where he played in the 
cricket eleven (1870-2). William entered 

Forestier- Walker 40 

Forestier- Walker 

St. John's College, Cambridge, as minor 
scholar in 1872, became foundation scholar 
in 1874, and graduated B.A. with second- 
class classical honours in 1876, proceeding 
M.A. in 1878. He was a master at Marl- 
borough College from 1877 to 1886, and 
from that year till 1889 was principal of 
Nelson College, New Zealand. On his return 
to England he became in April 1890 head- 
master of Leamington college, from which 
he retired in 1893. 

Of splendid physique (he was 6 ft. 3 in. 
in height and weighed in 1886 over 
17 stone), Ford was as a cricketer one of 
the hardest hitters ever known, surpassed 
only by Mr. C. I. Thornton. His longest 
authenticated hit was 144 yards; in 
August 1885 at Maidstone he scored 44 
runs in 17 minutes in the first innings, and 
75 runs in 45 minutes in the second innings 
for Middlesex v. Kent. He was a si ow round 
arm bowler and a good field at point. After 
retiring from his work as schoolmaster, 
he wrote much on cricket, publishing 'A 
Cricketer on Cricket ' (1900) ; ' Middlesex 
County C.C. 1864-1899' (1900); and 
•The Cambridge C.C. 1829-1901' (1902). 
fle compiled the articles on ' PubHc School 
Cricket ' for Wisden's * Cricketers' 
Almanack' (1896-1904) and in Prince 
Ranjitsinhji's 'Jubilee Book of Cricket' 
(1897). He also contributed articles to the 
' Cyclopaedia of Sport ' and to the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica,' and the chapter on 
' Pyramids and Pool ' to the Badminton 
volume on * Billiards.' 

Ford died of pneumonia at Abingdon 
Mansions on 3 April 1904, and was buried 
at Kensal Green. He married in 1887 
Miss K. M. Browning, of Nelson, New 

[The Times, 4 and 6 April 1904 ; Wisden's 
Cricketers* Almanack, 1905 ; Hay garth's 
Cricket Scores and Biographies, 1879, xii. 
747 ; xiv. xeii ; Cricket, 17 June 1886 (with 
portrait) ; J. Pycroft'a Cricket Chat, 1886 
(\vith portrait).] W. B. 0. 

TIER (1844^1910), general, -bom at Bushey 
on 17 April 1844, was eldest of the four 
sons of General Sir Edward Walter Forestier- 
Walker, K.C.B. (1812-1881), of the Manor 
House, Bushey, Hertfordshire, by his first 
wife, Lady Jane, only daughter of Francis 
Grant, sixth earl of Seafield. His grand- 
uncle was Sir George Townshend Walker, 
first baronet [q. v.] . Educated at the Royal 
Military College, Sandhurst, he entered the 
Scots Guards as lieutenant on 5 Sept. 1862, 
and was promoted captain on 11 July 1865. 

In 1866-7 he served as A.D.C. to the major- 
general at Mauritius, and from 1869 to 
1873 he was adjutant of his regiment. On 
1 Feb. 1873 he became lieutenant-colonel, 
and afterwards he made his first acquaint- 
ance with South Africa, where he was 
thenceforth employed for the greater part 
of his active career. From 1873 to 1879 
he was on the staff at the Cape of Good 
Hope acting as assistant military secretary 
to the general officer there. In that 
capacity, or on special service, he Avas 
engaged in much active warfare in South 
Africa. In 1875 he served in the expedi- 
tion to Griqualand West. During 1877-8 
he was with lieut. -general Sir Arthur 
Cunynghame [q. v.] through the sixth 
Kaffir war. He was mentioned in des- 
patches, and was made colonel on 15 Oct. 
1878 and C.B. on 11 Nov. following. In 
the course of 1878 he became military 
secretary to Sir Bartle Frere, the high 
commissioner. Throughout the Zulu war of 
1879, of which Frederic Augustus Thesiger, 
second baron Chelmsford [q. v. Suppl. II] 
was in chief command, Forestier- Walker was 
employed on special service. In the early 
stages of the campaign he was principal 
staff officer to No. 1 column, being present 
at the action of Inyezane and during the 
occupation of Ekowe. Subsequently he was 
on the line of communications and in 
command of Fort Pearson and the Lower 
Tugela district. He received the medal 
with clasp, and was mentioned in des- 
patches {Lond. Gaz. 5 March, 18 May 
1879). Returning to England, he was from 
I August to 14 Nov. 1882 assistant adjutant 
and quartermaster-general of the home 
district ; but from 12 Nov. 1884 till Dec. 
1885 he was again in South Africa, serving 
with the Bechuanaland expedition under 
Sir Charles Warren as assistant adjutant 
and quartermaster-general. He was nomin- 
ated C.M.G. on 27 Jan. 1886 and major- 
general on 31 Dec. 1887. From 1 April 

1889 to Dec. 1890 he served as brigadier- 
general at Aldershot, and from 19 Dec. 

1890 to 30 Sept. 1895 he was major-general 
commanding the troops in Egypt. On 
26 May 1894 he was created K.C.B. for his 
services in Egypt. Subsequently he was 
lieut. -general commanding the western 
district of England from 1 Nov. 1895 to 
18 Aug. 1899, with headquarters at Devon- 
port. Shortly before the outbreak of the 
second Boer war it was decided to recall 
Sir WilHam Butler [q. v. Suppl. II] from the 
command of the forces at the Cape, and 
the appointment was offered at very short 
notice to Forestier- Walker, who accepted it. 




lie arrived at Cape Town on 6 Sept. 1899, 
and was there during the chief stages 
of the Boer war. Placed in command of 
the lines of communication, he performed 
his exceedingly innjortant duties with his 
usual thorougluiess. At the outset ho had 
to provide for the defence of a frontier 
1000 miles long, and was active in support 
of Sir Redvers Buller's advance. He was 
twice mentioned in despatches. On 18 April 
1901 he handed over his ix)st to Major- 
general Wyinie, and embarked for England. 
On 7 July 1902 he attained the rank of 
general, and on 1 Sept. 1905 ho succeeded 
Sir George White (1835-1912) as governor 
and commander-in-chief of Gibraltar, having 
just before, on 31 July of the same year, 
been nominated colonel of the King's Own 
Scottish Borderers. He received the re- 
ward for distinguished service in 1893, and 
was nominated G.C.M.G. in 1900. 

He died from heart failure at Tenby on 
30 Aug. 1910, and was buried at Bushey, 
Hertfordshire. In 1887 ho married Mabel 
Louisa, daughter of Lieut. -colonel A. E. 
Ross, late Northumberland fusiliers, and 
left one son. 

A caricature portrait by ' Spy ' appeared 
in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1902. 

[The Times, 1 Sept. 1910; T. Martineau, 
Life of Sir Bartle Fiere, 1895, vol. ii. ; Sir 
Frederick Maurice, History of the War in 
South Africa (1899-1902), 4 vols. 1906-1910; 
The Times History of the War in South 
Africa, ii. 114, iii. 207-8; Walford's County 
FamiUes ; Hart's and Ofl&cial Army Lists ; 
Burke's Peerage.] H. M. V. 

ARNOLD- (1855-1909), secretary of state 
for war. [See Arnold -Forster.] 

FORTESCUE, HUGH, third Earl For- 
tescue (1818-1905), eldest son of Hugh, 
second earl (1783-1861), by his first wife, 
Jj&dy Susan {d. 1827), eldest daughter of 
Dudley Ryder, first earl of Harrowby, was 
born in London on 4 April 1818. A 
younger brother, Dudley Francis Fortescue 
(1820-1909), was M.P. for Andover (1857- 
1874) and a commissioner in lunacy (1867- 
1883). Known till his grandfather's death 
in 1841 as the Hon. Hugh Fortescue, 
and thenceforth till 1859 as Viscount 
Ebrington, he was educated at Harrow 
school and at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He left the university in 1839 to become 
private secretary to his father, then lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, and in 1840-1 he 
was private secretary to Lord Melbourne, 
the prime minister. Elected in 1841 M.P. 
for Plymouth in the whig interest, he held 
the seat for eleven years, having as his 

opponent in 1843 the chartist, Henry 

Vincent [q. v.]. Declining to stand again 
for Plymouth, he unsuccessfully contested 
Barnstaple in 1852, the constituency being 
disfranchised for bribery two years later. 
In 1854 he was returned for Marylebone, 
and he held the seat until 1859, when, 
owing to ill -health, he resigned, and on 5 
December was raised to the peerage in his 
father's barony of Fortescue. On his 
father's death on 14 Sept. 1861, he succeeded 
to the earldom. 

Ebrington, who had advocatetl the repeal 
of the com laws, was appointed a lord-in - 
waiting in the Russell government of 1846, 
and from 1847 to 1851 was secretary to the 
poor law board. He was also appointed 
a member (unpaid) of the Metropolitan 
Consolidated Commission on Sewers in 1847, 
and was its chairman (unpaid) in 1849-51. 
He had no place in the Aberdeen gover- 
ment, but taking great interest in the health 
of the soldiers during the war with Russia, 
he visited in 1856 the barracks and mihtary 
hospitals. Contracting ophthalmia, he lost 
an eye, and seriously injured his health. 
His speeches strenuously advocated sanitary 
improvements in the army, and he spoke 
frequently on the reform of local govern- 
ment in London. After his elevation to the 
peerage, Fortescue took little part in parlia- 
mentary life. Though a Kberal by tradition, 
he differed from Gladstone on the Eastern 
crisis of 1878-9, and sat on the cross benches. 
He declared himself a hberal unionist on the 
home rule controversy in 1886. 

A social reformer of much earnestness. 
Lord Fortescue was the author of numerous 
addresses and pamphlets on local govern- 
ment, health in towns, middle-class educa- 
tion, and other subjects. They included 
' Unhealthiness of Towns,' a lecture 
delivered in the Mechanics' Institute at 
Plymouth (1846) ; ' Representative Self- 
Govemment for the Metropolis,' a letter to 
Lord Palmerston (1854) ; ' PubUc Schools 
for the Middle Classes ' (1864) ; an address 
to the section of statistics and economic 
science, British Association, Plymouth 
(1877) ; and an address read at the Sanitary 
Congress, Exeter (1880). ' Our Next Leap 
in the Dark,' on the francliise bill, a re- 
print from the ' Nineteenth Century ' 
(1884), showed the drift of his poUtical 
ideas. He favoured the extension of the 
powers given to county authorities under 
the Local Government Act of 1888, and 
advocated the establishment of a local 
university in Devonshire. He supported 
Frederick Temple, then bishop of Exeter 
[q. V. Suppl. II], in estabhshing the diocesan 




conference, and spoke at its earlier meetings, 
besides subscribing liberally to schools 
and religious institutions. Fortescue, who 
was a good horseman, was the last man 
who habitually paid calls in London and 
make his way to the House of Lords on 
horseback. He encouraged stag-hunting, 
purchasing the reversion to the greater 
part of Exmoor on the death of Mr. F. W. 
Knight in 1897. 

The earl died at Castle-hill, South Molton, 
on 10 Oct. 1905, having married on 11 March 
1847 Georgiana Augusta Charlotte Caroline, 
eldest daughter of the Right Hon. George 
Lionel Dawson-Damer ; she died on 8 Dec. 
1866. Of his thirteen children, the eldest 
son, Hugh, is the fourth and present earl. 
Sir Seymour John, formerly captain R.N., 
served in Egypt in 1882 and at Suakin in 
1885, and was an equerry -in- waiting to King 
Edward VII; Lionel Henry Dudley was 
killed in action near Pretoria on 11 Jane 
1900, and John WilUam is librarian at 
Windsor to King George V. A daughter, 
Lucy Eleanor, married Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach, first Viscount St. Aldwyn. 

A portrait in oils by Eden Upton Eddis 
(c. 1850) is in possession of the family at 
Castle-hiU. A cartoon portrait of Earl 
Fortescue appeared in * Vanity Fair ' in 1881. 
A part of the chancel of Filleigh, the church 
of the parish in which Castle-hiU stands, was 
adorned in his memory. 

[The Times, 11 Oct. 1905 ; private inform- 
ation.] L. C. S. 

(1841-1904), inspector of mines and professor 
of mining at the Royal School of Mines, 
was second son of Peter Le Neve Foster 
[q. v.], secretary to the Society of Arts from 
1853 to 1879. His mother was Georgiana 
EUzabeth, daughter of the Rev. Clement 
ChevalHer. Born at Camberwell on 23 
March 1841, he was educated first at 
the collegiate school in Camberwell, and 
afterwards at the College Communal of 
Boulogne. In 1857 he graduated Bachelier 
63 Sciences of the empire of France. In 
the same year he entered the School of 
Mines in London, where he took many 
prizes and left a brilliant record. Thence 
he went to the mining school of Freiberg. 
In 1860 he was appointed on the geological 
survey of England, and for five years 
he was engaged in field work in Kent, 
Sussex, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire. His 
first scientific pubUcation was a memoir 
prepared with Wilham Topley on the valley 
of the Medway and the denudation of the 
weald, and was published in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society* (vol. 

xxi). In 1865 he graduated D.Sc. at 
the University of London, and in the 
same year he resigned his post on the 
geological survey and became lecturer to 
the Miners' Association of Cornwall and 
Devon and secretary to the Royal Cornwall 
Polytechnic Society. In 1868 he was 
employed by^ the Khedive^^of Egypt on 
an exploring expedition to examine the 
mineral resources of the Sinaitic peninsula. 
He also reported in the same year on a 
Venezuelan goldfield, and from 1869 to 
1872 he was engineer to a gold-mining 
company in Northern Italy. In 1872 
he was nominated Inspector of Mines 
under the new MetaUiferous Mines Regu- 
lation Act, being appointed to Corn- 
wall. Eight years later — ^in 1880 — he was 
transferred to North Wales, where he re- 
mained for twenty-one years. In 1890, on 
the death of Sir Warington Smyth [q. v.], 
he became professor of mining at the Royal 
School of Mines, an office which he held 
concurrently with his inspectorship. He 
proved an excellent teacher. In 1897, as 
inspector of mines, he investigated the cause 
of an imderground fire in the lead mine of 
Snaefell in the Isle of Man. The cage in 
which he had descended with an exploring 
party was jammed in the shaft, and the party 
was subjected to a process of slow poisoning 
by the carbon monoxide generated by the 
fire. All the contemporary accoimts of 
this accident attest the courage with 
which, in the face of apparently certain 
death, Foster noted his own sensations 
for the benefit of science. Foster never 
recovered from the cardiac injury sustained 
during the process of gradual suffocation. 
For nearly a year he was incapacitated. 

Besides his official work, Foster pro- 
duced numerous reports, and advised on 
many questions connected with mining 
and mining legislation. He served on 
various departmental committees and 
royal commissions, including those for the 
Chicago and the St. Louis Exhibitions. 
He was a juror at the Inventions Exhibi- 
tion in 1885, at Paris in 1867, 1878, 1889, 
and 1900, also at Chicago in 1893. He 
received the legion of honour for services at 
Paris in 1889 ; became F.R.S. in 1892, and 
was knighted in 1903. In 1901 he resigned 
the inspectorship, but the professorship 
he retained until his death, which took 
place on 19 April 1904, at Coleheme Court, 
Earl's Court. He was serving on the royal 
commission on coal supplies at the time. 

Foster translated from the Dutch of 
P. Van Diest a work on Banoa and its 
tin stream works, learning the Dutch 




language for the purpose (Truro, 1867), 
and in 1876, with Wiiliani Galloway, he 
published a translation from the French 
of Prof. Gallon's treatise on mining. 
His principal work was a textbook on 
*Ore and Stone Mining' (1894; 7th edit, 
revised by Prof. S. Herbert Cox, 1910), and 
he wrote the article on Mining in the 9th 
edition of the * Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
Ho was also author of a textbook on 
'Mining and Quarrying' (1903) and of 
numerous memoirs and papers in the 
' Proceedings ' of the Geological and other 
scientific societies and in various scientifio 
periodicals. From 1894 he edited the 
mineral statistics issued by the home 
office, and the annual reports on mines 
and quarries. While he achieved consider- 
able reputation as a geologist and metal- 
lurgist, it was as a miner and a mining 
expert that he was really eminent. Though 
at the beginning of his inspectorship his 
energy in imposing novel restrictions and 
in insisting on the reform and improve- 
ment of existing methods was httle appre- 
ciated by the mining community, he 
ultimately won in both his districts the 
esteem ahke of miners and mine-owners. 

He married in 1872 his cousin, Sophia 
Chevalher, second daughter of Arthur F. 
Tompson of Belton, Suffolk, and had one 
son and two daughters. His widow received 
a civil list pension of 100^. in Aug. 1904. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc. Ixxv. 371 (by Prof. Judd) ; 
Nature, 28 April 1904 (by Hilary Bauerman) ; 
Journal of Soc. of Arts, 29 AprU 1904 (by 
the present writer) ; Trans. American Soc. 
of Mining Engineers, vol. 35 (1904), p. 662 ; 
Engineer, 22 April 1904.] H. T. W. 

FOSTER, JOSEPH (1844-1905), 
genealogist, born at Sunniside, Sunderland, 
on 9 March 1844, was eldest of five sons and 
three daughters of Joseph Foster, a woollen 
draper of Bishop Wearmouth, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Emanuel Taylor. 
Myles Birket Foster, founder of the London 
bottling firm of M. B. Foster & Sons, was 
his grandfather, and Myles Birket Foster 
[q. V. Suppl. I], the water-colour painter, 
was his uncle. His ancestors were 
members of the Society of Friends from 
the earliest times until the resignation of 
his father a few years before his birth. 
Educated privately at North Shields, Sun- 
derland and Newcastle, Foster began 
business in London as a printer, but soon 
abandoned it for genealogical research, 
to which he had devoted his leisure from 
an early age. To that pursuit he hence- 
forth gave up all his time with self- 
denying enthusiasm and industry. 

Foster's genealogical works began with 
pedigrees of the quaker families of Foster and 
Forster (1862; 2nd edit. 1871); of Wilson 
of High Wray and Kendal (1871); and of 
Fox of Falmouth with the Crokers of 
Lineham (1872), all of which were printed 
privately. There followed later pedigrees 
of the families of, Harris, and !^ck- 
house, as well as of Raikes. 

In 1873 he projected his * Pedigrees of the 
County Families of England.' The first 
volume, ' Lancashire Families,' appeared in 
that year, and it was followed by three 
volumes of * Yorkshire Families ' (1874). He 
printed ' Glover's Visitation of Yorkshire ' 
in 1875 ; in 1877 there appeared his 
' Stemmata Britannica,' part only of a 
collection of pedigrees of untitled gentry, 
and in 1878 the * Pedigree of Sir John 
Pennington, Fifth Lord Muncaster.' 

In 1879 he published, in collaboration 
with Mr. Edward Bellasis, Blue Mantle, 
his laborious ' Peerage, Baronetage and 
Knightage.' Foster pursued the main 
methods of Sir Bernard Burke's work ; but 
aiming at greater accuracy, he exposed, 
mythical ancestries, and placed in a section 
entitled ' Chaos ' baronetcies of doubtful 
creation. Foster's imdertaking was violently 
attacked by Stephen Tucker, Rouge Croix, 
in the ' Genealogist,' iv. 64, on account, 
principally, of its heraldry, and F9ster and 
his colleague Bellasis defended themselves 
in a pamphlet, 'A Review of a Review of 
Joseph Foster's Peerage.' ' The Peerage,' 
which was re-isssued in 1881, 1882, and 
1883, was ultimately amalgamated with 
Lodge's, which adopted much of its form. 

In 1881 Foster estabhshed a periodical 
entitled ' Collectanea Genealogica et 
Heraldica,' which appeared at irregular 
intervals up to 1888. There he printed 
serially transcriptions of legal and other 
registers and genealogical researches, some 
of which {i.e. ' Members of Parliament, 
Scotland ') (1882) were re-issued separately, 
and others were left uncompleted. In the 
periodical there also appeared much tren- 
chant criticism and exposure of current 
genealogical myths, in which Foster had 
the assistance of Dr. J. Horace Round. 

Meanwhile Foster, with heroic labour, 
transcribed the admission registers of the 
Inns of Court, and the institutions to 
livings since the Reformation. Some 
fruits of this labour were pubhshed in 
* Men at the Bar : a Biographical Hand- 
List ' (1888); 'Admissions to Gray's Inn, 
and Marriages in Gray's Inn Chapel ' 
(1889); and 'Index Ecclesiasticus : or 
Alphabetical Lists of all Ecclesiastical 




Dignitaries in England and Wales, 1800- 
1840' (1890). 

In 1885 Foster undertook to edit for 
publication the transcripts by Joseph 
Lemuel Chester [q. v.] of the ' Oxford 
Matriculation Register,' and the * Bishop 
of London's Register of Marriage Licences,' 
which had become the property of Mr. 
Bernard Quaritch. Foster copiously sup- 
plemented Chester's work from his own 
independent researches. The ' Oxford 
Matriculation Register,' alphabetically 
arranged, was pubhshed in eight volumes 
under the title 'Alumni Oxonienses'; 
four volumes, covering the period 1715- 
1886, appeared in 1887, and another four 
volumes, covering the period 1500-1714, in 
1891. By way of recognition of this 
service the university gave him the 
honorary degree of M.A. in 1892. Next 
year he carried his work a stage further in 

* Oxford Men and their Colleges.' ' London 
Marriage Licences ' (1521-1869) was pub- 
lished from Chester's transcript in 1887. 

In later life Foster wrote much on 
heraldry. There appeared in 1897 his 

* Concerning the Beginnings of Heraldry as 
related to Untitled Persons.' To a series 
of volumes, issued under the auspices of the 
eighth Lord Howard de Walden and called 
the ' De Walden Library,' Foster contri- 
buted ' Some Feudal Coats of Arms from 
Heraldic KoUs ' (1902) ; ' A Tudor Book of 
Arms,' 'Some Feudal Lords and their 
Seals,' and ' Banners, Standards and 
Badges ' ( 1 904). Foster's heraldic work was 
severely censured by Mr. Oswald Barron, 
editor of the ' Ancestor,' to whose strictures 
he repUed in two pamphlets, ' A Herald 
Extraordinary ' and ' A Comedy of Errors 
from Ancestor III ' (1902-3). 

Foster's work met with very little sup- 
port in his lifetime, though some of his 
compilations are of great and permanent 
value. He was not a scholarly archae- 
ologist, but his energy as a transcriber 
and collector of genealogical data has few 
parallels in recent times. 

He died at his residence, 21 Boundary 
Road, St. John's Wood, on 29 July 1905, 
being buried at Kensal Green cemetery. 
His name is also inscribed on a memorial 
stone in Bishop Wearmouth cemetery. 
He married, on 12 Aug. 1869, Catherine 
Clark, eldest daughter of George Pocock 
of Burgess Hill, Sussex, and by her had 
two sons and three daughters. 

Foster's library of books and manuscripts, 
many of them plentifully annotated, was 
privately dispersed at his death. Four 
volumes of grants of arms were secured for 

the British Museum, Add. MSS. 37147- 

Besides the works mentioned, Foster's 
publications include : 1. ' Our Noble and 
Gentle Families of Royal Descent,' 2 vols. 
4to. 1883; large edit. 1885. 2. 'Noble 
and Gentle Families entitled to Quarter 
Royal Arms,' 1895. He also edited ' Visi- 
tation Pedigrees ' for Durham (1887), for 
Middlesex (1889), for Northumberland 
(1891), and for Cumberland and Westmore- 
land (1891). 

[Allibone's Diet. Suppl. 1891; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
The Times, 1 Aug. 1905 ; private information.] 

P. L. 

FOSTER, SIR MICHAEL (1836-1907), 
professor of physiology in the University of 
Cambridge, bom at Huntingdon on 8 March 
1836, was eldest child in a family of three 
sons and seven daughters of Michael Foster, 
F.R.C.S., surgeon in Huntingdon, by his 
wife Mercy Cooper. Sir Michael's grand- 
father, John Foster, was a yeoman farmer 
of Holywell, Hertfordshire, with anti- 
quarian tastes, who left to the British 
Museum a collection of coins found in his 
neighbourhood. The father was a baptist 
and his family hved in an atmosphere 
of fervent nonconformity. Foster was 
educated first at Huntingdon grammar 
school and later (1849-1852) at University 
College School, London. The religious 
tests demanded by the University of Cam- 
bridge stood in the way of his entering 
for a scholarship there. At the age of 
sixteen he matriculated at the University 
of London, and graduated B.A. in 1854 
with the university scholarship in classics. 
Choosing his father's profession, Foster 
in 1854 began the study of science 
and medicine at University College. 
There in 1856 he obtained gold medals 
in anatomy and physiology, and in 
chemistry. In 1858 he proceeded M.B., 
and in 1859 M.D. of London University. 
The next two years were spent partly in 
medical study in Paris as weU as at home, 
and partly in original investigation. Owing 
to threatenings of consumption he went on 
a sea voyage as surgeon on the steamship 
' Union ' without beneficial result. In 1861 
he joined his father in practice in Hunting- 
don. His health improved, and in 1867 he 
accepted an invitation from Prof. Sharpey 
to become teacher in practical physiology 
in University College, London. There he 
rapidly showed his practical gifts as a 
teacher. Two years later he was appointed 
professor in the same subject, and he 
succeeded Huxley as FuUerian professor 




of physiology at the Royal Institution. 
In 1870 lio left London for Cambridge, 
on his appointment, chiefly on Huxley's 
recommendation, to the newly established 
post of pra^lector of physiology in Trinity 
College. In the following year an honorary 
M.A. degree was conferrenl on him by the 
university, the complete degree being 
conferred in 1884. In 1872 also ho was 
elected F.R.S., and became one of the 
general secretaries of the British As- 
sociation, a post wliich he resigned after 
four years, though ho continued throughout 
liis life to take an active part in the working 
of the association. In 1881 he succeeded 
Huxley as biological secretary of the 
Royal Society, an office which he held 
for twenty- two years. In 1899 he was 
president of the British Association, and 
in the same year was created K.C.B. In 
1900 he was elected M.P. for the University 
of London, and this led him to apply for 
a deputy to perform the duties of his 
Cambridge professorship, and three years 
later to his resignation. In politics Foster 
was a liberal, but on the introduction of 
Gladstone's home rule bill he joined the 
liberal unionists and gave a general support 
to the conservative government. On enter- 
ing the House of Commons he sat at first on 
the government side of the house. He found 
himself unable to support the government 
in several of its measures, notably the 
education bill of 1902, and finally crossed 
the floor of the house, thenceforth voting 
with the liberal opposition. At the 
general election of 1906 he stood for the 
university as a liberal, and was defeated by 
24 votes. On 28 Jan. 1907 he died suddenly 
from pneumo-thorax in London, and was 
buried in the cemetery at Huntingdon, 
For more than thirty years he had Uved at 
Great Shelf ord near Cambridge, where he 
engaged wdth ardour in gardening. 

Foster was twice married: (1) in 1863 
to Georgina {d. 1869), daughter of Cyrus 
Edmonds, by whom he had two children, 
a son, Michael George Foster, M.D. 
(Camb.), practising at San Remo and at 
Harrogate, and a daughter, Mercy, wife of 
J. Tetley Rowe, Archdeacon of Rochester ; 
(2) in 1872 to Margaret, daughter of George 
Rust of Cromwell House, Huntingdon. 

Foster left his mark on his generation 
chiefly as a teacher, a writer of scientific 
works, and an organiser. As a teacher he 
had a large share in the development of 
the present method of making practical 
work in the laboratory an essential part 
of the courses in biological science. In 
his student days, zoology, botany, physi- 

ology and histology — the latter two being 

generally regarded as insignificant parts of 
human anatomy — were taught by means of 
lectures and the exhibition of specimens, 
macroscopic or microscopic. Sharpcy no 
doubt had somewhat extended this simple 
plan before he invited Foster to join him 
in London ; but the first course of practical 
physiology given in England appears to have 
been that given by Foster. In 1870 Huxley 
instituted a course of practical biology, 
with Foster as one of his demonstrators. 
Foster's first care on coming to Cambridge 
was to introduce practical classes in 
physiology, physiological chemistry, his- 
tology, and biology, and these were soon 
followed by a class in embryology. In 
order to facilitate the conduct of these 
classes he co-operated with Burdon- 
Sanderson, Lauder Brunton, and Klein 
in writing a 'Text-Book for the Physio- 
logical Laboratory ' (1873), with his pupil 
F. M. Balfour in writing ' The Elements 
of Embryology' (1874), and obtained the 
assistance of another of his pupils, John 
Newport Langley, in writing ' A Course of 
Elementary Practical Physiology ' (1876), in 
which histology was included. His classes 
were the forerunners of those conducted 
in the laboratories of zoology and botany, 
subsequently established in Cambridge. 
The plan of teaching developed by Foster 
and by Huxley rapidly spread throughout 
Great Britain and America. Foster's 
belief in the value of direct observation 
of natural phenomena was accompanied 
by a beUef in the virtue of research ; and 
this he had a faculty of communicating to 
his pupils. It was through his influence 
that most of his early pupils devoted 
themselves to original inquiry. The earhest 
of these, H. N. Martin, became professor 
in Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A., and 
potently helped to develop biological 
research in America. Foster's many occu- 
pations prevented him taking a leading 
position as an original investigator (cf. 
Journal of Physiology xxxv. 233 for an 
account of his work). The experimental 
trend of his mind was shown in his 
main, and almost sole, relaxation — 
gardening. He hybridised several plants, 
but chiefly irises, and in these chiefly 
the oncocyclus section. Now and again 
he pubUshed a short article in one of 
the horticultural journals (cf. The Garden, 
15 Nov. 1890, 18 Feb. 1893), but a good 
many of Ms hybrids he left undescribed. 

Foster's ' Text - Book of Physiology,' 
published in 1876, gave a critical account 
of the state of physiology at the time ; 




the evidence for and against the current 
theories being dispassionately weighed. 
Its attractive style and its occasional 
passages of vivid Uterary merit placed it, 
amongst text-books, in a class by itseK. 
Both at home and abroad it had an imme- 
diate success. Six editions were pubHshed 
and part of a seventh ; the third edition 
was perhaps the best, since in the later 
remodeUing it lost something of its 
original unity of purpose. He wrote also 
a 'Science Primer of Physiology' (1890), 
a hfe of Claude Bernard (1899), ' A History 
of Physiology during the Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth and Eighteenth Centuries ' (1901), 
and ' Simple Lessons in Health for the Use 
of the Young ' (1906). He was also joint- 
editor of the collected edition of Huxley's 
• Scientific Memoirs ' ( 1 898-1902). Foster in 
1878 founded the ' Journal of Physiology,' 
the first journal in the EngUsh language 
devoted solely to the subject, and remained 
its sole editor until 1894. Its pages were 
confined to accounts of original investiga- 
tion, though for some years an appendix 
was issued giving a fist of books and papers 
of physiological interest pubHshed else- 
where. In its early years most of the rising 
school of American physiologists used it 
as a means of publication. 

Foster had great powers of organisation. 
It was chiefly through him that the 
Physiological Society was foimded in 1875, 
and the International Congress of Physio- 
logists estabUshed in 1889. During his 
long tenure of the office of secretary of 
the Royal Society he seized every oppor- 
tunity of forwarding the cause of science, 
and took a prominent part in most of the 
plans for combined scientific action. He 
strengthened the connection between the 
Royal Society and the government, and 
the most varied forms of scientific expe- 
ditions and explorations found in him 
a strong supporter. His influence was 
perhaps more especially felt in the estab- 
lishment of the International Association 
of Academies, and in the arrangements 
leading up to the publication of the * Inter- 
national Catalogue of Scientific Papers.' 
He was a member of the committee 
appointed by the colonial office to advise 
as to the best means of combating disease ; 
he served on the royal commissions on 
vaccination, disposal of sewage, and tuber- 
culosis, and on the commission appointed to 
consider the reorganisation of the University 
of London. 

Portraits of him were painted by Her- 
komer and by the Hon. John CoUier ; the 
former is in the possession of Trinity 

College, Cambridge ; the latter belongs to 
his son, but a replica of the head and 
shoulders is in the possession of the Royal 

[Year Book of Roy. See. 1906, p. 13 (gives 
list of honours) ; Brit. Med. Journ. 9 Feb. 
1907 ; Journ. of Physiol, xxxv. 233, March 
1907 ; Rendiconti d, R. Accad. d. Lincei 
(Roma), xvi. Ap. 1907 ; Cambridge Rev. 
30 May 1907 ; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1907, p. 42 ; 
Proc. Roy. Soc. B. Ixxx. p. Ixxi, 1908; 
Colorado Med. Journ. Oct. 1900 ; The Garden, 
15 Nov. 1890, 18 Feb. 1893; Gardeners' 
Chron. 1883 ; Garden Life, 9 Feb. 1907.] 

J. N. L. 

FOULKES, ISAAC (1836-1904), Welsh 
author and editor, born in 1836 at the farm 
of Cwrt, Llanfwrog, Denbighshire, was son 
of Peter Foulkes by his wife Frances. 
At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed 
to Isaac Clarke, printer, Ruthin ; in 1857 
he entered the office of the ' Amserau ' 
newspaper in Liverpool, and soon after- 
wards set up a printing business of his 
own in that city, which he conducted 
until his death. He issued in 1877-88 
' Cyfres y Ceinion ' (The Gem Series), a 
series of cheap reprints of Welsh classics 
which gave notable stimulus to the Welsh 
literary revival at the end of the nineteenth 
century. In May 1890 he began to issue 
the ' Cymro ' (Welshman), a weekly Welsh 
newspaper intended primarily for liver- 
pool Welshmen, but soon read widely in 
Wales as well ; Foulkes was both editor 
and pubUsher, and made the journal a 
literary medium of high value. He died 
at Rhewl, near Ruthin, on 2 Nov. 1904, 
and was buried in Llanbedr churchyard. 
He married (1) Hannah Foulkes, by whom 
he had two sons and three daughters ; and 
(2) Sinah Owen. 

Foulkes, who was known in bardic 
circles as ' Llyfrbryf ' (Bookworm), was a 
keen student of Welsh literature, and as 
author, critic, editor and publisher, devoted 
to this cause literary judgment and un- 
flagging energy. He wrote : 1. ' Cymru 
Fu ' (a volume of folklore), pt. i. Llanidloes, 
1862 ; pts. ii. and iii. Liverpool, 1863-4 ; 
2nd edit. Wrexham, 1872. 2. ' Rheinallt 
ap Grufl'ydd' (a novel), Liverpool, 1874. 
3. A memoir of the poet Ceiriog, Liver- 
pool, 1887; 2nd edit. 1902; 3rd edit. 
1911. 4. A memoir of the novelist, 
Daniel Owen, Liverpool, 1903. Among 
other works which he both edited and 
published are ' Enwogion Cjmiru,' a bio- 
graphical dictionary of eminent Welshmen 
(Liverpool, 1870) ; the ' Mabinogion,' with 
a translation into modern Welsh (1880) ; 




'The Poetry of Trobor Mai' (1883); 
'Oriau Olaf,' by Ceiriog (1888). Editione 
of ' Dafydd ap Gwilym.' the ' lolo MSS.,' 
and Yorke's ' Royal Tribes of Wales ' 
were also issued from his press. 

[Bygones (Oswestry), 9 Nov. 1904 ; ' Bry- 
thon ' (Liverpool), 25 May 1911 ; information 
from Mr. Lewis Jones, Ruthin.] J. E. L. 

1903), theologian and writer on the poor 
law, born at Northallerton, Yorkshire, on 
29 Aug. 1835, was son of Thomas Fowle, 
solicitor, and of Mary Welbank, both of 
Northallerton. After education at Durham 
school (1848-53) and at Charterhouse, he 
entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1854 ; 
after a term's stay there he gained 
an open scholarship at Oriel College, 
graduating B.A. in 1858 (M.A. 1861). As 
an undergraduate he took an active part 
in the debates at the Union, and was 
president in 1858. His intimate associates 
included Thomas Hill Green [q. v.] and Prof. 
Albert Venn Dicey, and his sympathies, 
like theirs, were democratic. After reject- 
ing thought of the bar, he took holy orders 
in 1859, becoming curate of Staines in 
^liddlesex. In 1863 he was appointed vicar 
of Holy Trinity, Hoxton. Under his influ- 
ence new schools were built, which, managed 
by a committee of churchmen and non- 
conformists, were the first to be governed 
under a conscience clause. Here in a 
poor and populous parish his advanced 
poUtical ideas gathered strength, and he 
studied closely economic conditions. In 
1868 he became vicar of St. Luke's, Nutford 
Place, and in the same year he reached 
a wider public through an essay on 'The 
Church and the Working Classes ' in 
' Essays on Church PoUtics,' to which 
Profs. Seeley and Westlake also contributed. 

In 1875 he was presented to the rectory 
of IsUp, and there he gave practical effect 
to his theoiies on social questions. He 
instituted and successfully managed an 
allotment system for agricultural labourers, 
and as a poor-law guardian helped to 
reduce out-door relief, to wliich he was 
strongly opposed. 

Meanwhile Fowle's pen was actively 
devoted to both theology and social 
economy. An active-minded broad cliurch- 
man, he endeavoured to reconcile new 
scientific discoveries with old rehgious 
beliefs in three articles on Evolution 
in the 'Nineteenth Century' (July 1878, 
March 1879, Sept. 1881), as well as 
in a pithy and suggestive volume 
called the ' New Analogy,' which he 

published in 1881 under the peoudonym 

of ' Cellarius/ 

To social economy his most important 
contributions were an article in the * Fort- 
nightly Review ' for Juno 1880 advocating 
the abolition of out-door relief and a concise 
manual on ' The Poor Law ' in the ' English 
Citizen' series (1881; 2nd edit. 1890), a 
work which took standard rank at home 
and abroad. 

Fowle actively supported the extension 
of the franchise to the agricultural labourer 
in 1884, but he decUned to accept home 
rule in 1886 and for the next ten years 
was prominent among the liberal unionists. 
His authority on social questions was 
undiminished. To his advocacy was largely 
due the creation of parish and district 
councils under the local government act of 
1894. In 1892 he urged the prudence of 
old-age pensions in a pamphlet called 
'The Poor Law, the Friendly Societies, 
and Old Age Destitution — a Proposed 
Solution ' (new edit. 1895). 

The sudden death of Fowle's only son 
by his second wife in 1805 broke his 
health, and he was compelled by illness 
in 1901 to retire from Islip to Oxford, 
where he died on 14 Jan. 1903. He was 
buried at Islip by the side of his son. 

Fowle was twice married: (1) in 1861, 
to Sarah Susannah {d. 1874), daughter of 
Richard Atkinson, medical practitioner at 
Richmond, Yorkshire, by whom he had seven 
daughters ; (2) in 1876, to Mabel Jane, 
daughter of Jacob Isaacs, a West Indian 
merchant ; she survived him with a 

Fowle, by virtue of his liberal culture, 
his thorough knowledge of social conditions, 
especially in rural districts, and his persua- 
sive eloquence, influenced pubUc opinion 
alike among political leaders and the working 
classes. His published works, besides maga- 
zine articles, reviews, and books already 
mentioned, were : 1. ' Types of Christ in 
Nature : Sermons preached at Staines,* 
1864. 2. ' The Reconciliation of Religion 
and Science,' 1873. 3. ' An Essay on the 
Right Translation of aloiv and auor (.s, re- 
garded as exhibiting the Silence of the New 
Testament as to the Conditions of the Future 
Life,' 1877. 4. 'The Divine Legation of 
Christ,' 1879. 

An enlarged photograph is in the debat- 
ing hall of the Union Society, Oxford. 

[Memoir by Prof. J. Cook Wilson, Oxford, 
1903 ; Oxford Mag. 28 Jan. 1903 ; St. 
Luke's, Nutford Place, Parish Mag. Feb. 
1903 ; Charity Organisation Rev. Sept. 1892 ; 
private information.] W. B. 0. 




FOWLER, THOMAS (1832-1904), presi- 
dent of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, born 
at Burton-Stather, Lincolnshire, on 1 Sept. 
1832, was eldest son of William Henry 
Fowler, by his wife Mary Anne Welch. 
His intellectual development owed much 
in youth to his uncle by marriage, Joseph 
Fowler of Winterton (son of WilUam Fowler 
of Winterton [q. v.] ), who had married his 
father's sister. There was no known kui- 
ship between the two families of the same 

After attending the Hull grammar 
school and the private school of R. Ousby, 
curate of Kirton-in-Lindsey, he entered as 
a day-boy, in January 1848, King William's 
College, Isle of Man, and was promoted to 
the head-form in August. Among his school- 
fellows were Dean Farrar [q. v. Suppl. II], 
Professor Beesly, and the poet Thomas 
Edward Brown [q. v. Suppl. I], who, 
although a year and a half Fowler's senior, 
formed with him a hfe-long friendship (cf. 
^Letters of T. E. Brown, with memoir by 
S. T. Irwin, i. 20). In half -holiday walks 
with Brown, Fowler began to cultivate 
that eye for beauty in nature which always 
stimulated his zest for travel. On 31 May 
1850 he matriculated at Oxford, aged 
seventeen, as postmaster of Merton College. 
Brown was already at Christ Church. In 
1852 Fowler obtained a first class in mathe- 
matical, and a second class in classical, 
moderations ; and in the final examinations 
of 1854 a first in classics and a first in 
mathematics. In the same mathematical 
first classes was his friend Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) [q. v. Suppl. I]; 
together the two read mathematics 
privately with Professor Bartholomew 
Price [q. v.]. 

As an undergraduate Fowler was in full 
sympathy with the ' Oxford movement ' ; 
but about 1854, when he graduated B.A., 
he gave up his tractarian opinions and 
connections, as well as the conservative 
poUtical views in which he had been brought 
up, and adopted in permanence liberal, but 
moderate, opinions in theology and politics. 
In 1855 he was ordained, and became 
fellow and tutor, and in 1857 sub -rector of 
Lincoln College. In 1858 he won the 
Denyer theological prize for an essay on 
' The Doctrine of Predestination according 
to the Church of England.' 

It was during the twenty-six years of his 
residence in Lincoln College (1855-81) 
that he made his name as teacher, writer, 
and man of afEairs. As proctor in 1862 
he first came into close touch with uni- 
versity business. Thenceforth he took a 

leading part in it, either as member of 
Congregation and of the Hebdomadal 
Council, or as delegate of the Clarendon 
Press, the Museum, and the Common 
University Fund. His common sense, 
disinterestedness, bonhomie, and breadth 
and clearness of view account for his 
influence. His opinions on university 
reform received early direction from Mark 
Pattison [q. v.], fellow of his college. 
Fowler gave evidence before the University 
of Oxford commissioners on 26 Oct, 
1877 {Minutes of Evidence taken before 
the University of Oxford Commissioners, 
part i. pp. 92-97) on lines which followed 
Pattison's ' Suggestions on Academical 
Organisation' (1868). ' I advocate,' he said, 
' a transference of the more advanced 
teaching from the colleges to the university 
on the grounds that (1) it would tend to 
create a more learned class of teachers ; 
(2) it would remedy certain gross defects 
in our present system of education [he 
refers here to the immaturity of teachers, 
and the subjection of teachers and taught 
to examinations] ; and (3) it would establish 
a hierarchy of teachers [cf. his evidence 
before university commissioners 11 March 
1873], the places in which could be deter- 
mined by literary and educational merit.' 
In active co-operation with Dean Liddell, 
J. M. Wilson, Dean Stanley, Jowett, and 
others. Fowler played an effective part in 
promoting the important series of reforms 
which included the establishment of natural 
science as a subject of serious study in the 
university, the removal of tests, and the 
various provisions, financial and other, 
made by the commissioners of 1877, 
especially those by which a career at Oxford 
was opened to men willing to devote them- 
selves to study and teaching. 

As a teacher Fowler excelled in the small 
conversational lecture and especially in 
the ' private hour,' to which he devoted 
much time with individual pupils, trying 
to make them read and think for them- 
selves. One of his earhest pupils at Lincoln 
was John (afterwards Viscount) Morley. 
Fowler was public examiner in the final 
classical school (1864^6, 1869-70, 1873 and 
1878-9) ; and he was select preacher 
(1872-4). Fowler was professor of logic 
from 1873 to 1889. He had previously 
published ' The Elements of Deductive 
Logic' (1867; 10th edit. 1892) and 'The 
Elements of Inductive Logic' (1870; 
6th edit, 1892), a manual which follows 
the lines of Mill's ' Logic ' with inde- 
pendence and lucidity. While professor. 
Fowler made his chief contributions to 




literature. His edition of Bacon's ' NovTim 
Organum,' which came out in 1878 {2nd 
edit. 1889), contains a valuable commentary 
on the text ; the introduction clearly pre- 
sents Bacon's place in the history of thought, 
and embodies much bibliographical re- 
search, for which Fowler had an apti- 
tude. His monograph 'Locke' {'English 
Men of Letters ' series, 1880) is notable 
for the historical setting of philosophical 
ideas, a feature already anticipated in 
his Denyer prize essay. An edition of 
' Locke's Conduct of the Understanding, 
with Introduction,' followed (1881 ; new 
edit. 1901); monographs on 'Francis 
Bacon' (1881) and 'Shaftesbury and 
Hutcheson ' (1882) appeared in the 
' English Philosophers ' series ; the latter 
contains interesting new matter from the 
' Shaftesbury Papers.' 

'Progressive Morahty ' (1884; 2nd edit. 
1895) is a short work remarkable for the 
insight with which moral experience is 
probed and analysed, always with the 
practical end in view of discovering prin- 
ciples which may be helpful for the educa- 
tion of character. Of ' The Principles of 
Morals,' part. i. was in print as early as 
1875, but was first published in 1886 in the 
joint names of John Matthias Wilson [q. v.] 
and Fowler ; part ii. (the larger part) came 
out in Fowler's name alone (see prefaces 
to the two volumes and art. Wilson, John 
IVIatthias). Like ' Progressive Morahty,' 
' The Principles of Morals ' is of perma- 
nent value ; it expresses, with a differ- 
ence due to the altered circumstances of 
the nineteenth century, the philosophical 
temper and outlook of the great English 
moralists of the eighteenth century, and 
retains a flavour of their style. Exact- 
ness, and even elegance, of style, very 
noticeable in the sermons which he 
preached at St. Mary's, mark all Fowler's 

On 23 December 1881 Fowler was elected 
president of Corpus Christi College, in 
succession to his friend Wilson. Fowler 
entered thoroughly into the life of his new 
college, writing its history, making himself 
fully acquainted with its educational 
needs and its finance, piloting it skilfully 
through the difficulties of the period of 
transition which followed 1882, when the 
statutes made by the commissioners of 
1877 came into operation, and winning 
the esteem and affection of seniors and 
juniors. His exhaustive ' History of 
Corpus,' pubUshed in 1893 (Oxford His- 
torical Society), is of special interest as the 
history of a ' Renaissance Foundation.' In 


1808 he issued a less elaborate acoonnt of 
the college in the ' Oxford College Histories ' 
series, and between 1889 and 1900 ho 
wrote a series of articles for this Dictionary 
on Corpus men of mark from Fox, the 
founder, to J. M. Wilson, his predecessor in 
the presidency. To this Dictionary he also 
contributed articles on the philosophical 
work of Bacon and Richard Price. 

From 1899 till 1901 Fowler was vice- 
chancellor of the university. The work of 
the office was exceptionally heavy. The 
Boer war was in progress, and he as vice- 
chancellor, by arrangement with the war 
office, was charged with the duty of selecting 
for commissions in the army young uni- 
versity men ready to go to the front. 
From the strain of inquiry and correspon- 
dence involved his health never recovered. 
Largely through his influence the opposition 
in Oxford to conferring the honorary degree 
of D.C.L. at the encaenia of 1899 upon 
Cecil Rhodes, whose munificent endowment 
the university a few years after began to 
enjoy, proved innocuous. 

Fowler, who was made F.S.A. in 1873, 
and hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1882, 
proceeded to the degree of D.D. in 1886 ; 
and was elected hon. fellow of Lincoln in 
1900. He died unmarried in his house at 
Corpus on 20 Nov. 1904, and was buried in 
the cemetery at Winterton. In the church 
there a choir-screen, with inscription, was 
erected to his memory ; and there is a 
tablet in the cloister of Corpus. By his 
will he was a benefactor of the three 
colleges, Merton, Lincoln, and Corpus, with 
which he had been connected. A cartoon 
portrait by E. T. D. appeared in ' Vanity 
Fair ' in 1889 (xxxi. 763). 

[Foster's Alumni Oxonienses ; The Times, 
21 Nov. 1904; Athenaeum, 26 Nov. 1904; 
Oxford Magazine, 23 Nov. 1904; Letters of 
T. E. Brown, ed. with memoir by S. T. Irwin, 
2 vols. 1900 ; Correspondence of Wilham 
Fowler of Winterton in the county of 
Lincoln, ed. by his grandson Canon Fowler 
of Durham, 1907 ; Crockford, 1903 ; Who's 
Who, 1903 ; Minutes of Evidence taken 
before the University of Oxford Commis- 
sioners (of 1877), part i. pp. 92-97 (Fowler's 
evidence taken 11 March 1873 and 26 Oct. 
1877) ; private information supplied by his 
cousin. Canon Fowler, and others ; personal 
knowledge.] J. A. S. 

first Viscount Wolverhampton (1830- 
1911), statesman, bom in Sunderland on 
16 May 1830, was the second son of Joseph 
Fowler, a Wesleyan minister, who was secre- 
tary of the Wesleyan conference in 1848, by 




his third wife, Elizabeth McNeill, daughter 
of Alexander Laing of Glasgow, and step- 
daughter of John Hartley of Smethwick 
and Hunslet. 

Educated at Woodhouse Grove school, 
a school for Methodist ministers' sons near 
Bradford, and at St. Saviour's grammar 
school, Southwark, he was intended for 
the university and the bar; but the 
premature death of his father made other 
plans necessary. Articled to Messrs. Hussey 
of London, he was admitted a solicitor in 
1852. Meanwhile his mother on his father's 
death had settled in Wolverhampton, where 
her step-brother, John Hartley, was then 
living. There in 1855 Fowler joined her, and 
his long association with that city began. 
Next year he was taken into partnership 
there by Charles Corser, and remained a 
member of the firm until 1908. In 1876 he 
also entered into partnership with Sir Robert 
WilHam Perks, becoming senior partner of 
the firm of Fowler, Perks & Co., London. 

Fowler first showed his capacity for public 
life in municipal affairs. Owing to his vigour 
and grasp of business, he quickly made his 
mark in local administration, becoming 
mayor of Wolverhampton in 1863, and 
chairman of the first school board in 1870. 
Several important municipal schemes were 
carried largely owing to his zealous advo- 
cacy ; he was also successful in opposing 
the introduction of pohtics into the muni- 
cipal elections of the town. In 1892 his 
services to Wolverhampton were acknow- 
ledged by his being enrolled as the first 
freeman of the borough. 

In addition to his municipal work Fowler 
took an active part in pohtics. A non- 
conformist Hberal, he soon came to be 
recognised as a powerful representative of 
the party. At the great meeting which 
Gladstone addressed on the Eastern ques- 
tion at Birmingham on 31 May 1877 he 
was chosen to move one of the resolutions. 
His speech on that occasion deeply 
impressed Gladstone. It was not till 
1880, however, that he entered parliament, 
when he was returned for Wolverhampton 
in the hberal interest as colleague of Charles 
Pelham Vilhers [q. v.]. In 1885, when the 
borough was divided into three divisions, 
Fowler was re-elected for the eastern 
division, for which he sat until he was raised 
to the upper house in 1908. 

In addition to his business capacity and 
masculine commonsense, he had a ready 
comnaand of well-chosen language and 
the gift of lucidly presenting a complicated 
case. These quaUties, combined with his 
straightforwardness and his moderation, 

gained for him with exceptional rapidity 
the ear of the house. It soon became 
clear that he was marked outffor office. 
A strong party man, yet moderate and 
cautious in the expression of his views, 
a good Wesleyan, yet one who, after the 
custom of the early methodists, always 
remained in communion with the Church 
of England, he was respected and trusted 
by both sides of the house. On 25 July 
1881 he seconded the liberal amendment 
to Sir Michael Hicks-Beach's vote of censure 
on the government's conduct after Majuba. 
In 1884 he became under-secretary for 
home affairs in Gladstone's second adminis- 
tration, and two years later financial sec- 
retary to the treasury. On assuming the 
latter office he was sworn a member of the 
privy council. 

When, in 1886, Gladstone took up the 
cause of home rule, it was thought that 
Fowler would follow Lord Hartington and 
Mr. Chamberlain in their opposition to the 
measure. In the event, however, possibly 
with some searchings of heart, he remained 
faithful to his chief ; and in the debates 
on the second reading (29 May 1886) he 
made * an admirably warm and convinced 
defence of the policy of the bill.' Lord 
Morley described him at the time as ' one 
of the best speakers in the house ' {Life 
of Gladstone, iii. 336). 

During the six years of opposition which 
followed the rejection of the home rule 
bill (1886-92), Fowler, by his keen criticism 
of the financial policy of the unionist 
government, strengthened his position not 
only as an authority on finance but as an 
excellent debater. 

When Gladstone returned to office in 
Aug. 1892, Fowler became president of the 
local government board with a seat in the 
cabinet for the first time. To him fell 
the duty of piloting the parish councils 
bill through the house. This was his 
greatest legislative achievement. From 
the first he determined to secure as far as 
possible the co-operation of both sides of 
the house in improving the bill. He knew 
his subject thoroughly, and was at the same 
time fair, courteous, and conciliatory ; and 
in the end he carried a most complicated 
measure without once himself moving the 

On the reconstruction of the ministry 
in 1894 by Lord Rosebery, Fowler received 
promotion, becoming secretary of state for 
India. The appointment excited some cavil, 
but no previous secretary of state was in 
greater sympathy with her interests and 
the imperial questions involved. The chief 




events of his short tenure of the Indian 

secretaryship were tlio Chitral campaign in 
April 1895 and the revolt of the Lancashire 
members, led by Sir Henry James, against 
the reimposition of duties on cotton goods 
imported into India. In the debate on 
tliese duties Fowler matle the speech of his 
life (5 Feb. 1895). He explained that the 
duties would not be protective because 
they would be accompanied by a counter- 
vailing excise, and ho pleaded that 
parliament in adopting the duties would 
be acting for the people of India who 
could not act for themselves. The speech, 
which contained the memorable phrase 
' Every member of this house is a member 
for India,' was one of those rare displays 
of argument and eloquence which affect 
votes. The cabinet was tottering when he 
rose to speak ; when he sat down the 
situation was saved, and the government 
had a majority of 195. When asked 
subsequently whether he knew, while 
speaking, the effect he was producing, he 
rephed ' The best part of that speech was 
never spoken ; I saw that I had the house 
with me — and I sat down ! ' In June 1895 
the government resigned after being de- 
feated on the cordite vote, and Fowler 
received the G. C.S.I. , in accordance, it is 
understood, with the wishes of Queen 

During the ten years of opposition 
which followed, Fowler was not a frequent 
speaker in the house. He devoted himself 
to his private affairs, and interested himself 
especially in the development of the tele- 
phone system. He was appointed director 
of the National Telephone Company in 1897, 
becoming president in 1901. Yet when Sir 
Wilham Harcourt [q. v. Suppl. II] retired 
from the leadership of the liberal party in the 
House of Commons in Dec. 1898 Fowler's 
claims to the succession ^were seriously 
urged. The 'Spectator' (17 Dec. 1898) 
described him as ' a man thoroughly capable 
of directing the policy of his party, and, 
what is more, able, if need be, to govern 
the country with power and discretion.' 

In the distracted councils of the liberal 
party which followed. Sir Henry was a 
strong supporter of Lord Rosebery, and 
was one of the vice-presidents of the 
Liberal League. He refused to join in the 
strictures of Sir Henry Campbell Banner- 
man on the conduct of the Boer war, 
declaring that the war was ' just and 
inevitable.' While thus strengthening his 
position with, moderate men on both sides, 
he incurred the hostility of the extreme 
radicals. But it was argued by many 

of the party that had he been ten years 
younger and * inoculated with a dash of 
audacity ' he would have been chosen to 
supersede Sir Henry Campbell- Bannorman 
(Lucy's Balfourian Parliament, 93). When 
Mr. Chamberlain startled the country 
with the tariff reform proposals in 1903, 
and thereby closed up the ranks of the 
liberal party, Fowler, as was natural in an 
old colleague of Villiers, joined heartily in 
the defence of free trade. 

In the liberal ailministration which was 
formed in Dec. 1905, Sir Henry, feeling 
the burden of his seventy-five years, waived 
his claim to a secretaryship of state, and 
accepted the comparatively Hght office of 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 
His inclusion in the cabinet was welcomed 
by moderate men, who hoped that he 
would exercise a moderating influence on 
his younger and less cautious colleagues. 
But though, in Lord Rosebery's words, he 
probably gave the cabinet ' the soundest 
and most sagacious advice,' it is doubtful 
to what extent it was followed. He took 
Uttle part in debate. The strain of constant 
attendance in the House of Commons told 
on him, but his business-like administration 
of the affairs of the duchy met with 
the warm approval of the sovereign. 
In March 1908, on Sir Henry Campbell- 
Bannerman's resignation, Mr. Asquith 
formed a ministry in which Fowler retained 
his former post. But he took the oppor- 
tunity of leaving the lower house. On 
13 April 1908 he was raised to the peer- 
age as Viscount Wolverhampton, taking 
his seat in the upper house on the same 
day as his old friend, John Morley. Later 
in the same year (14 Oct.) he became 
lord president of the council. This was 
the culminating point of his pohtical 
career, and was a remarkable position to 
have been won by a man who, aided by no 
adventitious circumstances, did not enter 
parliament imtil he was fifty, and owed 
everything there to intellect, resolution, and 

Beyond taking charge of the old age 
pensions bill during 1908, Lord Wolver- 
hampton took Uttle part in debate in the 
House of Lords. In Oct. 1909 he received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from the 
University of Bii'mingham, together with 
Mr. Balfour and other distinguished men, 
on the first occasion when the miiversity 
conferred these degrees. Early in 1910 
there were signs that his health was failing ; 
both mind and memory were affected. Wit h 
much in the advanced pohcy of the cabinet 
he was out of sympathy. But he retained 




his post until his medical advisers insisted 
on his taking a prolonged holiday. He 
resigned on 16 June 1910. 

With complete rest his health greatly 
improved, but the death of his \vife at 
Woodthome, Wolverhampton, on 6 Jan. 
1911 completely prostrated him. He died 
at Woodthome on 25 Feb. 1911, and was 
buried in Tettenhall churchyard. 

Fowler married on 6 Oct. 1857 Ellen, 
youngest daughter of George Benjamin 
Thomeycroft of Chapel House, Wolver- 
hampton, and Hadley Park, Shropshire. To 
her devotion and wise counsel he owed 
much. She was made Lady of the Order 
of the Crown of India in 1895. Lord 
Wolverhampton left one son, Henry Ernest, 
who became second viscount, and two 
daughters. The elder daughter, Ellen 
Thomeycroft Fowler (Mrs. Alfred Felkin), 
has under her maiden name won fame as 
the author of ' Concerning Isabel Carnaby ' 
and other novels ; her sister, Edith 
Henrietta, wife of the Rev. WiUiam Robert 
Hamilton, is also a novelist of repute, and 
has written the biography of her father 

There are portraits of Lord Wolver- 
hampton, painted by A. S. Cope, R.A., 
in the Town Hall, Wolverhampton, and in 
the hall of the Law Society, London. A 
repUca of the first is in the possession of 
his son. A cartoon portrait by ' Spy ' 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1892. 

[Private sources ; Mrs. Hamilton' s'biography, 
1912; The Times, 26 Feb. 1911; Burke's 
Peerage ; Paul's History of Modem England.] 

A. L. F. 

FOX, SAMSON (1838-1903), inventor 
and benefactor, bom at Bowling, near Brad- 
ford, Yorkshire, on 11 July 1838, was one 
of three sons of James Fox, a Leeds cloth- 
mill worker, by his wife Sarah Pearson. 
From the age of ten he worked with his 
father at the miU ; but showing mechanical 
aptitude, was soon apprenticed to the Leeds 
firm of Smith, Beacock and Tannett, 
machine-tool makers, where he became 
foreman and later traveller. While there 
Fox designed and patented several tools 
for the machine cutting of bevelled gear 
and for the manufacture of trenails. Sub- 
sequently he started with his brother and 
another— Fox, Brother and Refitt— the 
Silver Cross engineering works for the 
manufacture of special machine tools. In 
1874 he foimded the Leeds Forge Company, 
and he acted as managing director until 1896 
and was appointed chairman in May 1903. 
In 1877 he first patented the Fox cormgated 
boiler furnaces (by which the resisting 

power to external pressure was greatly 
increased), the plates being hammered by 
means of swage blocks under a steam 
hammer. This invention led to the practical 
application of triple expansion engines to 
marine boilers. The steamship Pretoria, 
built in 1878, was the first ocean-going 
steamer to be fitted with Fox's corrugated 
flues. Machinery for rolling in place of 
hammering was undertaken in 1882, and 
a Siemens steel plant was laid down. 
In 1886 Fox took out patents for the 
manufacture of pressed steel underframes 
for railway wagons instead of the old 
wrought-iron frames. The demand for the 
improved form of rolling stock led to great 
extension of the business in Leeds, and to 
the estabHshment of a factory at Joliet, 
near Chicago. There the first pressed steel 
cars used in America were made, as well as 
the ' Fox ' pressed steel bogie trucks. The 
American business grew rapidly and new 
works were erected at Pittsburg, which 
were merged in 1889 in the Pressed Steel 
Car Company. Fox became a member 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 
in 1875 and of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in 1881. A member of the 
Society of Arts from 1879, he was awarded 
in 1885 the society's Howard gold medal 
for his invention of corrugated iron flues. 

By way of faciUtating and lessening the 
cost of his manufacturing processes. Fox 
first employed in England water-gas on a 
large scale for metallurgical and lighting 
purposes. The plant which he set up in 
September 1887 was capable in six months 
of producing 40,000 cubic feet per hour of 
water-gas, which was cheaper than ordinary 
coal gas, and had a far greater heating and 
lighting power {The Times, 2 Jan. 1889). 
Of the British Water-Gas Syndicate, formed 
in 1888, Fox became president, but it went 
into Hquidation in 1893. In 1894 Fox pro- 
duced the first carbide of calcium for making 
acetylene gas by the method discovered by 
T. L. Willson in America in 1888. He was 
the pioneer of the acetylene industry in 
Europe, for which works were set up at 
Foyers, N.B. 

An enthusiastic lover of music. Fox gave 
in 1889 the sum of 45,000Z. for the new 
buildings of the Royal College of Music, 
South Kensington, which were opened by 
King Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) 
on 2 July 1894 {The Times, 23 May 1889 ; 
17 July 1894; Strand Musical Mag. 
Feb. 1895; Graves's Life of Sir George 
Grove, 1903). Fox's benefaction gave 
rise in 1897 to a prolonged Hbel action, 
in which Fox was plaintiff, against Mr. 

Fox Bourne 



Jerome K. Jerome and the publishers of 
' To-day ' for printing articles in the paper 
(May- Aug. 1894 and Jan. 1890 J which 
reflected on Fox's conduct of his business 
and accused Fox of giving largo sums to 
the college in order to give a wrong 
impression of his commercial prosperity. 
After sixteen days' trial, verdict was found 
for plaintiff without costs, the defendants 
undertaking not to republish the libel 
(see The Times, 1 April-11 May 1897). 

Fox took a leading part in the political 
and municipal life of Leeds, and was 
thrice in succession (1889-91) mayor of 
Harrogate, which lie represented on the 
West Riding county council. He was 
J.P. for Leeds and Harrogate, and was 
a member of the Legion of Honour of 
France. On his return from a tour in 
Canada and America, Fox died of blood 
poisoning at Walsall on 24 Oct. 1903, 
and was buried at Woodhouse cemetery, 
Leeds. There is a marble bust portrait 
at the Royal College of Music ; painted 
portraits are at Grove House, Harrogate, 
where Fox resided, and at Leeds Forge, 
Leeds. Fox married on 18 May 1859 Marie 
Ann, daughter of Charles and Alice SUnger, 
and left issue one son and two daughters. 

[The Times, 26 Oct. 1903; Proc. Inst. 
Civil Engineers, 1903-4, vol, civ. ; Proc. Inst. 
Mechanical Engineers, Oct. -Dec. 1903 ; 
Journal, Soc. of Arts, 13 Nov. 1903 ; notes 
from the Leeds Forge Company ; private 
information.] W. B. 0. 

FOX BOURNE. [See Bourne, Henry 
Richard Fox, 1837-1909, social reformer 
and author.] 

FOXWELL, ARTHUR (1853-1909), 
physician, bom atShepton Mallet, Somerset, 
on 13 July 1853, was a younger son of 
Thomas Somerton Foxwell of Shepton 
Mallet and Weston-super-Mare by his 
second wife Jane, daughter of William 
Handcock of Jersey. His elder brother, 
Herbert Somerton Foxwell, is now professor 
of political economy in the University of 

From Queen's College, Taunton, Arthur 
passed to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. with honours in natural 
science in 1877, M.B. with first class in 
medicine in 1881, and proceeding M.A. and 
M.D. in 1891. Meanwhile in 1873 he gradu- 
ated B.A. at London with honours in English 
and moral science, and pursued his medical 
education at St. Thomas's Hospital, London. 
In 1881 he became M.R.C.S. London. He 
became a licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians, London, in 1881, a member in 

1885, and a fellow in 1892. At the college 
in 1889 he read the Bradshawe lecture, 
which he published in 1899 under the title 
' The Causation of Functional Murmurs,' in 
which he deduced from clinical and patho- 
logical experience of cases and elalx>rate 
experiments the conclusion that functional 
murmurs are caused by dilatation of the 
pulmonary artery immediately beyond the 
valve and are not due to change in the 
viscosity of the blood. Tliis view is now 
generally accepted. During the winter of 
1 887-8 he studied at Vienna, chiefly diseases 
of the throat and ear. 

After holding the posts of house physician 
at St. Thomas's Hospital (1881), clinical 
assistant at the Brompton Hospital (1882), 
and junior resident medical officer at the 
Manchester Children's Hospital, Pendlebury 
(1882-3), he was elected as resident 
pathologist at the General Hospital, 
Birmingham (1884), and was honorary 
assistant physician there from 1885 to 1889. 
In 1889 he became honorary physician at 
the Queen's Hospital, Birmingham, where at 
his death he was senior honorary physician. 
At the hospital he was chiefly responsible 
for the construction of the roof ward, only 
partially covered in, and otherwise open 
to the air, in which considerable success 
was obtained in the treatment of various 
diseases apart from those of tuberculous 
nature. He was also for a time patholo- 
gist to the Birmingham Hospital for Women 
and demonstrator in medical pathology in 
the Queen's Faculty of Medicine (at Mason 
College), known as the Queen's College. 
From 1887 to 1901 he was honorary librarian 
at the Medical Institute, Birmingham, of 
which he was president at his death, and 
he edited for a time the ' Birmingham 
Medical Review ' (1886-8). In 1906 he was 
appointed professor of therapeutics in the 
new Birmingham University and received 
the degree of M.Sc. 

Of shy and reserved nature and weak 
health, Foxwell died, from the result of a 
bicycle accident, in the Wanieford Hospital, 
Leamington, on 1 Aug. 1909, and was buried 
in the burial ground of the Franciscans 
at Olton. He married in 1889 Lisette, 
daughter of Charles Hollins of Torquay and 
widow of Robert Pollock of Birmingham. 
He left one daughter. A memorial tablet 
designed by his stepson, Mr. Courtenay 
Pollock, was placed in the Queen's Hospital, 
Birmingham, and an annual prize for a 
clinical essay, open to qualified residents 
in the Queen's, General, and Children's 
Hospitals, Birmingham, endowed in his 

Frankfort de Montmorency 54 


Foxwell's chief publication, apart from 
the Bradshawe lecture, was ' Essays on 
Heart and Lung Disease ' (1896), a collection 
of miscellaneous contributions to the * Pro- 
ceedings ' of medical societies and similar 
pieces ; papers on climate are included, as 
well as the Ingleby lectures on ' The Con- 
dition of the Vascular System in Anaemic 
Debility,' delivered at the Queen's College, 
Birmingham, 1892. He also published 

* The Enlarged Grrhotic Liver ' (1896) and 

* The Spas of Mid Wales' (1899). 

[Brit. Med. Journal and Lancet, 14 Aug. 
1909; Birmingham Med. Rev. Sept. 1909; 
information from Prof. H. S. Foxwell.] 

E. M. B. 

ENCY, third Viscount. [See De Mont- 
morency, Raymond Harvey, 1835-1902.] 

FREAM, WILLIAM (1854-1906), writer 
on agriculture, born at Gloucester in 1854, 
was second son in the family of four sons 
and three daughters of John Fream, builder 
and contractor, by his wife Mary Grant. 
As a boy he was a chorister of Gloucester 
Cathedral, and was always devoted to 
music. After education in Sir Thomas 
Rich's Blue Coat Hospital, he entered the 
employment of a Gloucester corn and seed 
merchant ; but gaining a royal exhibition 
at the Royal College of Science, Dublin, in 
May 1872, he studied there for three years, 
and took prizes in botany, practical chemis- 
try, and geology, with special distinction in 
geology. While in Ireland he made long 
botanical walking tours to the wild district 
of Connemara and other distant parts of 
the country. He became an associate of 
the Royal College by diploma. He also 
matriculated in the University of London, 
and graduated in science with honours in 
chemistry at the first B.Sc. examination 
in 1877. From 1877 to 1879 he was pro- 
fessor of natural history at the Royal 
Agricultural College, Cirencester. In 1879 
he filled a temporary vacancy as lecturer 
and demonstrator in botany at Guy's 
Hospital Medical School. The following 
winter he devoted to biological — more 
especially zoological — study at the Royal 
School of Mines in London and in writing 
for the agricultural press. 

Early in 1880 he joined Professor John 
Wrightson in establishing and developing 
the College of Agriculture at Downton. 
He taught natural history there and 
instituted a series of field classes and 
laboratory demonstrations. 

Fream' paid visits to Canada in 1884, 
1888 and 1891, to examine the agricultural 

conditions, which he described in a series 
of papers. These include a charming pam- 
phlet 'The Gates of the West' (1892); 

* Across Canada: a Report on Canada and 
its Agricultural Resources,' written for and 
published by the government of Canada 
(Ottawa, 1885); 'Canadian Agriculture' 
(parts i. and ii.), 'Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society' (1885); ' The Farms 
and Forests of Canada, as illustrated in the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 ' 
(Toronto, 1886); 'The Provincial Agricul- 
ture of Canada' (London, 1887). In 1888 
he received from the M'Gill University of 
Montreal the hon. degree of LL.D. 

In 1890 Eleanor Anne Ormerod [q. v. 
Suppl. II] chose Fream to be the first 
Steven lecturer in Edinburgh University 
on agricultural entomology; he had in- 
cluded the first course on the subject in 
Great Britain in his curriculum at 
Downton. He remained Steven lecturer 
till death. Fream, who was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate in March 1887 for the office 
of secretary and editor of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society of England, was appointed in 
1890 editor of the'' Journal' of the society, 
when it became a quarterly, relinquishing 
the office in 1900, when it was reduced 
to an annual pubUcation. 

For twelve years, from January 1894 
tin his death, Fream was agricultural 
correspondent of * The Times,' writing 
very efficient weekly articles on agriculture 
and special annual reports on crop returns. 
His articles showed an intense love of 
country life and an intimate knowledge 
of wild flowers. He was a chief examiner 
in the principles of agriculture under the 
science and art department, South Ken- 
sington. In 1890 he was employed by 
the board of agriculture to report on 
agricultural education in Scotland. 

Apart from his writings on Canada, and 
his journalistic work, Fream edited ex- 
haustively the 13th and 14th editions of 
'Youatt's Complete Grazier' (1893 and 
1900). His most widely read book was 

* The Elements of Agriculture ' (British 
agriculture and live stock), published for 
the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
in 1891 (7th edit. 1902); before his death 
some 36,000 copies were sold. ' The 
Rothamsted Experiments on the Growth 
of Wheat, Barley, and the Mixed Herbage 
of Grass-land ' (1888) was a valuable text- 

Fream resided chiefly at Downton, but 
he had working quarters in London, and 
was very popular in congenial society there. 
He died, unmarried, at Downton on 29 May 




1900, and Wcos biiriod in Glouceflter ceme- 

A Frcam memorial fund, subscribed by 
leading agriculturalists, was entrusted to 
the board of agriculture, the income to be 
awarded annually as prizes under special 

[The Times, 31 May 1900.] R. W. 

1908), Canadian poet and journalist, born 
at Levis, opposite Quebec, on 16 Nov. 1839, 
was eldest son of Louis Frechette, a con- 
tractor, whose family was originally estab- 
lished in He de Re, Saintonge. His mother 
was Marguerite Martineau de Lormi^re. 
After education at the Quebec Seminary 
and Nicolet College, young Frechette 
passed to Laval University (Quebec), 
McGill University, and Queen's University. 
Becoming a law-student in Quebec in 1861 he 
published a first volume of (French) poetry 
' Mes Loisirs ' in 1863, and next year was 
called to the bar, but did not practise 
seriously, although he only retired from the 
profession in 1879. - In 1865 he went to 
Chicago and there devoted himself for six 
years to journalism. He then edited 
' L'Amerique,' and was for a time corre- 
sponding secretary of the Illinois Central 
railway in succession to Thomas Dickens, a 
brother of the novelist. His poetic reputa- 
tion was enhanced by a second volume 
of verse * La Voix d'un Exile ' (pt. i. 1866 ; 
pt. ii. 1868), in which he showed the strength 
both of his French patriotism and of his 
clerical antipathies. In 1871 he moved 
to New Orleans. There, while the siege of 
Paris was in progress, he showed his devotion 
to France by fighting a duel with a retired 
German ofiicer, whom he had offended in a 
theatre by avowing his French sympathies ; 
he had never used a sword before. In the 
same year he returned to Quebec. 

Turning to pohtics, he unsuccessfully 
contested his native place, Levis, at the 
general election of 1871 in the liberal 
interest ; but in 1874, when Alexander 
Mackenzie [q. v.] came into power, he won 
the seat. He was a consistent supporter of 
the Mackenzie liberal government. He 
failed to retain the seat in 1878 and 1882, 
and thenceforward devoted to journahsm all 
the energies that he spared from poetry. 
He edited his 'Journal de Quebec,' contri- 
buted largely to ' L'Opinion Publique,' and 
during 1884-5 was editor of * La Patrie.' 
He wrote frequently, too, for the American 
magazines the ' Forum,' ' Harper's,' and 
the * Arena.' In 1889 the Mercier govern- 
ment appointed him clerk of the legislative 

coancil in Quebeo, and he held the post till 

Meanwhile Frechette was publish- " 
further volumes in verse: *Pelc-Ai 
(Montreal, 1877), ' Les Oiseaux do N< iu* 
(Quebec, 1880), 'Les Fleurs Bor^alf s ' 
(Dijon, 1881), 'Les Oubli6s,' and 'Voix 
d'Outro Mcr' (1886), 'La Legende d'un 
Peuple' (1887), and 'Leg FeuiUes Volantes' 
(1891). 'Les Fleurs Boreales ' and 'Les 
Oiseaux de Neige' were crowned by the 
French Academy in 1880, and Frechette was 
the recipient of the first Montyon prize 
for the year. He was also made an officier 
d'Academie laureat of the Institute of 
France. The leading universities of Canada 
conferred honorary degrees upon him (LL.D, 
McGill University, Montreal, and Queen's 
University, Kingston, in 1881, and Toronto 
University m 1900 ; D.Lit. at Laval Uni- 
versity in 1888), and in 1897, the year of 
the diamond jubilee, he was created C.M.G. 
He was furthermore president of the Royal 
Society of Canada. Besides poetry, 
Frechette published prose works, including 
'Lettres aBasile' (1872), 'Histoire Critique 
des Rois de France ' (1881), and ' Originaux 
et Detraquds' (Montreal, 1892), the most 
lively and original of his prose composi- 
tions. A collection of tales, * La Noel an 
Canada,' appeared in both Enghsh and 
French versions (1899-1900). Frechette 
also attempted drama in ' Felix Poutre ' 
(Montreal, 1871), * Papineau,' and ' Vero- 
nica' (in five acts), but these, although 
vigorously written, lack dramatic instinct. 
At his death he had in preparation an 
authoritative edition of his poems. It 
appeared posthimiously at Montreal in 
1908 (three series), and it contains all the 
poems by which Frechette desired to be 
remembered. Age softened his ardours 
against the church, and consequently the 
unclerical verses of * La Voix d'un Exile ' 
find no place in this final edition. He died 
at Montreal on 31 May 1908. 

As a poet Frechette owes much to Victor 
Hugo, both in the mechanism of his Unes 
and in the logical method of developing his 
themes. His poetry is held in high esteem by 
French-Canadians, who rank only Cr^mazie 
beside him. His friend Senator David 
said 'Frechette n'avait pas le souffle, la 
puissance d' invention et de conception de 
Cr^mazie, mais il avait plus d'abondance, 
de souplesse, de forme, il etait plus complet, 
plus 6motif, plus chaud.' If Frechette lack 
Hugo's vibrant lyrical quality, he is by no 
means his unsuccessful imitator in patriotic 
verse. The best measure of his ta,lent will 
be found in 'La Legende d'un Peuple,' 




in which he commemorates with skill, 
vigour, and variety the history of the 
French race. In contrast to William Henry 
Drummond [q. v. Suppl. II], whose French 
types show no resentment against EngUsh 
rule, Frechette presents the rarer French- 
Canadian sentiment which failed to recon- 
cile itself to the events which brought 
* perfide Albion ' upon the scene in 1759. 
For purposes of poetry this attitude of 
mind may pass, but Drummond's is the 
truer picture. 

Frechette married in 1876 Emma, second 
daughter of Jean Baptiste Beaudry, banker, 
Montreal. She survived her husband with 
three daughters. 

[The Times, 2 and 25 June 1908 ; Who's 
WTio, 1908; Sir J. G. Bourinot, Story of 
Canada, 1896, p. 441 (portrait).] P. E. 

FREEMAN,GAGE EARLE( 1820-1903), 
writer on falconry, bom on 3 June 1820 
at Tam worth, Staffordshire, was son of 
Capt. Charles Earle Freeman of the 69th 
regiment by his wife Mary Parsons. 
After private education he was admitted 
a pensioner at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
on 8 July 1840, and graduated B.A. in 
1845, proceeding M. A. in 1850. In later life 
he won at Cambridge four Seatonian prize 
poems on sacred subjects, ' The Transfigura- 
tion' (1882), 'Jericho' (1888), 'Damascus' 
(1893), and 'The Broad and the Narrow 
Way' (1894). 

Ordained deacon in 1846 and priest in 
1847, Freeman held a curacy at Geddington, 
Northants, from 1846 to 1854, and the 
perpetual cure of Emmanuel Church, 
Bolton-le-Moors, from 1854 to 1856. He 
was afterwards incumbent of Macclesfield 
Forest withClough, Cheshire, till 1889, when 
he became vicar of Askham, near Penrith, 
and private chaplain to the earl of Lonsdale. 
This living he held until his death. 

Through life he devoted his leisure 
to hawking, being introduced to the sport 
by WiUiam Brodrick of Belford, Northum- 
berland, afterwards of Chudleigh, Devon 
[see Salvin, Francis Henry, Suppl. II]. 
In Northamptonshire he enjoyed his first 
experience with a kestrel-hawk, equipped 
with a hood of home manufacture, and 
he afterwards flew sparrowhawks, merlins 
and peregrmes at pigeons and larks. But 
he had his best sport later whilst in his 
lonely Cheshire parish, hawking grouse 
with peregrines on Buxton Moor and 
Swythamley, the property of his friend, 
Philip Brocklehurst of Swythamley Park, 
Staffordshire. Next to peregrines, Free- 
man preferred goshawks, with which he 

killed hares and rabbits, with or without 
ferrets. Lord Lilford affirmed that Free- 
man did more to keep English falconers in 
the right way than any man living (preface 
to Lord Lilford on Birds, 1903). To the 
* Field ' newspaper Freeman contributed 
articles on falconry for a quarter of a 
century over the signature ' Peregrine,' and 
on these articles he based two treatises of 
standard value. He had the chief share in 
' Falconry ; its Claims, History, and Practice ' 
(1859), written in collaboration with Francis 
Henry Salvin [q. v. Suppl. II]. This is 
a handbook for beginners, with plates by 
Wolf, now long out of print. Freeman's 
' Practical Falconry ; and how I became a 
Falconer' (1869), is slightly more discursive 
and is now much sought after. Freeman's 
essay, ' On the DesirabiHty of attempting 
to revive the Sport of Falconry by its 
Practice at Alexandra Park ' (1871 ), won the 
second prize (the first being taken by 
Capt. C. Hawkins Fisher of Stroud) in a 
competition held by the Barnet committee 
for promoting the opening of Alexandra 
Park. Freeman contributed the section 
on Falcons and Falconry to ' Lord Lilford 
on Birds' (ed. A. Trevor- Battye, 1903). 
He also published ' Five Christmas Poems ' 
(1860, reprinted from the ' Field,' with 
additions), and ' Mount Carmel, a Story of 
EngHshLife' (1867). 

He died at the vicarage, Askham, on 
15 Dec. 1903, and was buried at Maccles- 
field Forest Chapel. Freeman was twice 
married: (1) on 5 Jan. 1848 to Christiana 
{d. 1886), daughter of John Slade of Little 
Lever, Bolton-le-Moors, by whom he had issue 
eight sons and two daughters ; (2) in April 
1891 to Mary, daughter of Francis William 
Ashton, cotton-spinner and calico printer, 
of Hyde, Cheshire, who survived him. 

[Private information ; Field, 19 Dec. 1903 
The Times, 16 Dec. 1903 (copied in Guardian 
23 Dec.) ; Crocldord's Clerical Directory 
Eagle (St. John's Coll. Mag.), March 1904 
J. E. Harting's Bibliotheca Accipitraria 
E. B. Michell's Art and Practice of Hawking 
Cox and Lascelles, Coursing and Falconry (Bad 
minton Library) ; Penrith Observer, 22 Dec, 
1903; Mid-Cumberland and North West 
morland Gazette, 19 Dec. 1903 ; Brit. Mus, 
Cat. ; Allibone's Diet. Eng. Lit. (Suppl.) 
Freeman's Works. See also Major C. Haw 
kins Fisher's Reminiscences of a Falconer, 
pp. 65, 99-100, with a photographic portrait 
of Freeman.] G. Le G. N. 


(1845-1911), author, born at Bitton rectory, 
Gloucestershire, on 11 Aug. 1845, was 
eldest of the five children of Sir (Henry) 





Bartlo tEdward) Frere, first baronet [q. v.], 
by his wife Catherine, second daughter of 
Lieut. -general Sir George Arthur [q. v.]. 

Privately educated at Wimbledon, she 
went out at the age of eigliteen to Bombay, 
where hor father was governor, and in 
the following year (1864), in her mother's 
absence in England, she was the hostess 
at government house. Profoundly inter- 
ested in the Indian peoples, she accom- 
panied her father on his tours, and gathered 
a large number of folk-lore tales from her 
ayah (Indian ladies' maid), to whom they 
had been handed down by a centenarian 

With an instructive introduction and 
notes by her father and illustrations by her 
sister Catherine, Miss Frere published 
twenty-four of these tales, in March 1868, 
under the title of ' Old Deccan Days.' 
The work was deservedly successful, and 
was four times reprinted (fifth impression 
1898). Max Miiller [q. v. Suppl. I] 
pointed out that Miss Frere' s tales had 
been preserved by oral tradition so 
accurately that some of them were nearly 
word for word translations of the Sanskrit 
in which they were originally told. To 
Anglo-Indians the book ' opened up an 
entirely new field of scientific research . . . 
of inexhaustible wealth ; and it gave a fresh 
impetus to the study of folk-lore in the 
United Kingdom, and throughout Europe 
and the Americas ' (Sir G. Bikdwood). 
' Old Deccan Days ' has been translated 
into German and Marathi, and recently 
selections have been included in Stead's 
' Books for the Bairns ' and in Sarah C. 
Bryant's ' Stories to tell the Children ' 
(New York and London, 1911). 

Miss Frere also wrote a pastoral play, 
* Love's Triumph,' published anonymously 
in 1869, containing sonnets of poetic power 
and tenderness. One or two of her short 
poems subsequently appeared anonymously 
in the ' Spectator,' but most of her verse is 

Accompanying her father to South Africa 
when he was appointed high commissioner 
(March 1877), Miss Frere there, as in India, 
dehghted in the country folk, and was a 
welcome guest at the old Dutch and Eng- 
lish farmhouses. Here, too, she helped 
to dissipate racial prejudices. When she 
and a sister returned to England in 1880, 
shortly before the recall of their father 
by the Gladstone government, they were 
received with most gracious interest at 
Windsor by Queen Victoria. 

In later years Miss Frere travelled exten- 
sively on the continent and in Egypt, and 

was in the Holy Land from the end of 
1906 to August 1908. Living mainly at 
Cambridge, she studied Hebrew, and closely 
followed the results of biblical criticism. 
After some years of faiUng health, she died 
at St. Leonards-on-Sea on 26 March 1911, 
being buried at Brookwood cemetery. 

[Miss Frcre's books ; AthenaDum, 15 April 
1911, memoir by Sir George Bird wood ; 
Cambridge Daily News, April 1911 ; South 
Africa, 8 April 1911 ; information kindly 
suppUed by the family.] F. H. B. 

1909), painter, born on 9 Jan. 1819, at 
Aldfield, near Ripon, Yorkshire, was son of 
William Frith, by his wife Jane Powell, a 
member of the ancient but decayed family 
of Fitz, Shropshire. Both parents were in 
the domestic emplojrment of Mrs. Lawrence 
of Studley Royal. When the boy was 
seven years old his family moved to 
Harrogate, where the father became the 
landlord of the Dragon Hotel. He sent 
his son to a school at Knaresborough which 
appears to have been a ' Dotheboys Hall.' 
The boy next passed to a large school at St. 
Margaret's, near Dover, his master being 
instructed to encourage a gift for art which 
Frith senior thought he could discern in his 
son. Young Frith was allowed to spend 
most of his time in various grotesque 
performances with pencil and chalk. On 
leaving school he had a narrow escape 
from becoming an auctioneer. He finally 
entered Sass's Academy in Charlotte 
Street, Bloomsbury. After two years 
under Sass he won admission to the schools 
of the Royal Academy. WMle still an 
academy student he commenced portrait 
painting. Through an uncle, Scaife, who 
kept an hotel in Brook Street, he obtained 
a practice chiefly among well-to-do farmers 
in Lincolnshire, who paid five, ten, and 
fifteen guineas for heads, kit-cats, and 
half-lengths respectively. 

In 1837 Frith's father died, and his 
mother set up house with her son in 
London, at 11 Osnaburgh Street. In 1839 
he exhibited a portrait of a child at the 
British Institution. In 1840 he painted 
his first subject pictures, exhibiting at 
the Academy that year ' Malvoho before 
the Countess Olivia ' and ' Othello and 
Desdemona.' From that time for many 
years he was faithful to subjects from 
Scott, Steme, Goldsmith, Mohdre, Cervantes, 
Shakespeare, Dickens, and the ' Spectator,* 
all of which gave him the opportunity of 
dressing up liis models in picturesque 
clothes, and of incurring the odium of those 
young men who, as the Pre-Raphaelite 




Brotherhood, were presently to vilify his 
ideals. In 1845 'The Village Pastor' 
secured liis election as A.R.A. Among 
other well-known pictures which he con- 
tributed to the Academy during this 
middle period of his activity are : ' English 
Merry-making a Hundred Years Ago ' (1847); 

* Coming of Age in the Olden Time ' (1849) ; 
'Witchcraft'; 'Sir Roger de Coverley at 
the Saracen's Head ' and a scene from ' The 
Good-Natured Man ' (commissioned by John 
Sheepshanks [q.- v.]), now in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. In 1853 Frith was promoted 
to fill the vacancy left among the academi- 
cians by the death of Turner. Into his 
diploma picture, 'The Sleepy Model,' the 
artist introduced a good portrait of himself. 

Frith visited Belgium, Holland, and 
the Rhine in 1850. A year later he spent 
the summer at Ramsgate, a visit which 
led to an abrupt change in his subjects. 
His diary for 30 Sept. 1851 contains the 
following entry {Autobiography) : ' Began 
to make a sketch from Ramsgate sands 
which, if successful, will considerably 
alter my practice.' The result of this 
sketch was the large picture ' Ramsgate 
Sands,' sometimes called ' Life at the Sea- 
side,' painted in 1853, exhibited in 1854, 
and now in the royal collection. It had 
a great popular success. There followed, 
in 1858, ' The Derby Day,' now in the 
national collection at the Tate Gallery, 
and, in 1862, ' The Railway Station,' 
now owned by Holloway College, both of 
which ecUpsed even the ' Ramsgate Sands ' 
in popularity. These three famous paint- 
ings enjoyed, Uke most of Frith's work, 
an immense circulation in engravings. 
Frith's success led to invitations from 
Queen Victoria to paint the marriage of 
the Princess Royal, and the marriage of 
Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. The first 
offer was declined ; the second was accepted. 
The last pictures in which Frith showed 
his own pecuhar talent in marshalling a 
crowd were ' Charles II's Last Whitehall 
Sunday' (1867) and 'The Salon d'Or, 
Homburg ' (1871). Another crowd, 
painted twelve years later, ' The Private 
View of the Royal Academy ' (1883), was 
far inferior to its predecessors. Frith 
made two ill-advised attempts to rival 
Hogarth. The first of these moralities, 
' The Road to Ruin,' in five scenes, was at 
Burlington House in 1878 ; the second, 

* The Race for Wealth,' in five pictures, 
was shown at a private gallery in King 
Street in 1880. 

Besides those already named, Frith's 
better pictures include ' Dolly Varden ' 

and the portrait of her creator, Charles 
Dickens (painted in 1859), in the Forster 
collection at South Kensington ; ' Claude 
Duval' (1860); * Uncle Toby and the 
Widow Wadman' (1866, now in the Tate 
Gallery) ; * Pope and Lady Mary Wortley- 
Montagu' ; and * Swift and Vanessa.' * The 
Dinner at Boswell's Rooms in Bond Street,' 
which was exhibited in 1869 at the Academy, 
was sold at Christie's in 1875 for 4567^., 
the highest sum then reached for a work 
by a living painter. Frith also painted many 
anecdotic pictures during his later career ; 
of these ' John Knox at Holyrood,' ex- 
hibited in 1886, is a familiar example. But 
here his gift for marshalhng a crowd and 
for painting it with some vivacity had little 
or no scope. 

Frith visited Italy in 1875, and made 
a second tour in the Low Countries in 
1880. In 1890 he joined the ranks of 
the retired Royal Academicians, but he 
survived for nearly twenty years, painting 
to the end. He was a member of the Royal 
Belgian Academy and of those of Antwerp, 
Stockholm, and Vienna. He was a 
chevaher of the Legion of Honour, and 
personally received the badge of C.V.O. 
from Edward VII at Buckingham Palace 
on 9 Jan. 1908, his eighty-ninth birthday 
(cf. Cornhill Mag. 1909). He died at his 
residence in St. John's Wood, London, on 
2 Nov. 1909, and was buried at Kensal 
Green after cremation at Colder' s Green. 
A small collection of his better works was 
exhibited at Burlington House in the winter 
of 1911. It was then recognised that the 
' Derby Day ' and the ' Railway Station ' 
possessed pictorial quaUties, which it had 
become the fashion to deny. 

Frith married on 22 June 1845 Isabelle, 
daughter of George Baker of York. She 
died on 28 Jan. 1880. Of twelve children, 
five daughters and five sons survived their 
father. His son, Mr. Walter Frith, is a 
dramatist and novelist. 

Frith's friends included not only the chief 
artists of the day but many men of 
letters, including Dickens. He published : 
'John Leech, his Life and Work' (1891), 
which is a description of Leech's work 
rather than a biography ; ' My Autobio- 
graphy and Reminiscences ' (1887) ; and 
' Further Reminiscences ' (1888). 

Portraits by himself at the ages respec- 
tively of eighteen and seventy belong to the 
family. A third portrait was painted 
in 1854 by Augustus Egg, R.A. Another 
good early portrait painted by an academy 
student friend, Cowper, who died young, 
was sold after Frith's death. His own head 




figures in the right-hand corner of ' Rams- 
gato Sands' (1853) and ho introduced 
himself as paterfamilias with all his family 
into 'The Railway Station' (1861). A 
cartoon portrait by * Spy ' appeared m 
•Vanity Fair' in 1873. 

[The Times, 4 Nov. 1009; Academy 
Catalogues; A. Graves's Royal Academy 
Exliibitors ; private information ; Mrs. J. E. 
Panton, Leaves from a Life, 1911 ; Mrs. 
E. M. Ward, Reminiscences, 1911 ; Frith 's 
Autobiography 1887, and Reminiscences, 
1888.1 * W. A. 

FRY, DANBY PAOIER (1818-1903), 
legal writer, born in Great Ormond Street, 
London, on 1 Dec. 1818, was second son in 
the family of four sons and four daughters 
of Alfred Augustus Fry, a good scholar and 
linguist, who was accountant and for some 
years a partner in the firm of Thomas 
de la Rue & Co., wholesale stationers. His 
mother was Jane Sarah Susannah Westcott. 
He was named after liis father's friend, 
Danby Palmer of Norwich [cf. Palmer, 
Charles John]. The eldest son, Alfred 
Augustus Fry, was the first English barrister 
to practise in Constantinople. 

Danby was educated at Hunter Street 
Academy, Brunswick Square, London, a 
well-known grammar school conducted 
by Jonathan Dawson, whose sons, George 
Dawson [q. v.] of Birmingham and 
Benjamin Dawson (subsequently proprietor 
of the school and long treasurer of the 
Philological Society), were Fry's school- 
fellows. In 1836 he became a clerk in the 
poor law board, first at Somerset House and 
afterwards at Gwydyr House, Whitehall. 
On 1 April 1848, during the Chartist 
riots, he was officially deputed to report 
to headquarters the proceedings of the 
agitators on Kennington Common. Each 
hour he received messengers to whom he de- 
livered his hastily \vritten reports. Called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 30 Jan. 
1851, he became in October 1871 inspector 
of audits, and on 15 Oct. 1873 assistant 
secretary to the local government board. 
From 1878 until his retirement in 1882 he 
was legal adviser to the board. 

Fry made some reputation as author 
of legal handbooks. As early as 1846 
he produced * Local Taxes of the United 
Kingdom ' (published officially). His 
'Union Assessment Committee Act' (1862; 
8th edit. 1897) ; his ' Lunacy Acts ' (1864 ; 
3rd edit. 1890); * The Law Relating to 
Vaccination' (1869; 7th edit. 1890), and 
'The Valuation [Metropolis] Act' (1869; 
2nd edit. 1872) became standard works. 

Through his father, whose circle of 

acquaintances included Lord Brougham » 
Leigh Hunt, and others interest^ in 
social and pohtical reforms. Fry was 
friendly from an early age with Charles 
Knight and with Sir Rowland HiU's 
family. Economic and philanthropic prob- 
lems occupied much of his attention, but 
his leisure was devoted to philology, and 
he became an expert student of both old 
Enghsh and old French. He helped his 
father in compiUng in MS. an English 
dictionary with the words arranged accord- 
ing to roots. He was an original member 
of the Philological Society, founded in 1842, 
and its treasurer for many years, and was 
a contributor of well-informed papers on 
linguistic subjects to its 'Transactions.* 
He was one of the original committee of the 
Early English Text Society, founded by 
Dr. Fumivall [q. v. Suppl. II] in 1864. 
He was joint author with Etenjamin Dawson 
of a small book * On the Genders of 
French Substantives' (1876). His philo- 
logical studies were pursued till his death. 
He died unmarried, on 16 Feb. 1903, at 
his house, 166 Haverstock Hill, and was 
buried at Highgate cemetery. 

[Personal knowledge.] H. B. W-Y. 

1910), agent-general for Cape Colony, 
bom at West Drayton on 24 Aug. 1831, 
was son of Andrew Gunton Fuller, baptist 
minister, who was a popular preacher 
and an amateur artist of some distinction. 
Andrew Fuller [q.v.], the baptist theologian, 
was his grandfather. His mother was 
Esther Hobson. Mr. Robert Fuller, author 
of ' South Africa at Home,' is his brother. 

Educated at a private school, and 
then at the Bristol Baptist College, 
Fuller became baptist minister at Melks- 
ham, and afterwards served baptist 
chapels at Lewes and Luton. He subse- 
quently turned his attention to literature 
and contributed freely to the press. In 
1864 he went to South Africa to become 
editor of the * Cape Argus.' He rapidly 
became a leader in the social and political 
life in Cape Colony. He won distinction for 
briUiant articles on social and educational 
work in the * Argus,' and was one of the 
promoters of the Cape University. While 
editor of the ' Cape Argus ' Fuller ardently 
advocated responsible government for the 
Cape Colony, which was granted by the 
imperial government in 1872. He was one 
of those chiefly instrumental in educatmg 
colonial opinion on the subject. In 1873 
Fuller was appointed emigration agent to 
the Cape Colony in London, but in 1875 




he returned to Cape Town to take up 
the post of general manager there of the 
Union Steamship Company. He held this 
office for twenty-three years. 

Meanwhile he engaged actively in politics. 
In 1878 he was returned as one of the 
members for Cape Town in the House of 
Assembly, and retained the seat till his 
resignation in 1902. He was an eloquent 
and impressive speaker in parhament and 
advocated every progressive measure. He 
refused office, beUeving that he could serve 
the colony better as a private member. 
In his last years in parhament he was a 
steady and a prominent supporter of Cecil 
Rhodes's policy, and became his intimate 
friend. Li 1898 he was made a director of 
De Beers Consohdated Mines Company, 
and thereupon he resigned his post with 
the Union Co. from a fear that the prominent 
part he took in party poUtics might react 
prejudicially on the welfare of the com- 
pany. At the same time he found time for 
municipal work and was a member of the 
town council, a trustee of the pubho 
library, chairman of the harbour board, 
and a leading spirit in the chamber of 

At the end of 1901 he returned to England, 
and on 1 Jan. 1902 assumed the office of 
agent-general to the Cape, resigning the 
De Beers directorship at the same time ; 
he remained agent-general till 1907. In 
1903 he was made C.M.G. and next year 
K.C.M.G. He died at Tunbridge Wells 
on 5 Sept. 1910. FuUer married (1) in 1855 
Mary Playne, daughter of Isaac HiUier 
of Nailsworth, and by her had three sons 
and a daughter; (2) in 1875 EUzabeth, 
daughter of the Rev. Thomas Mann of 
Cowes. His eldest son, Mr. William Henry 
Fuller, commanded the East London town 
guard during the Boer war of 1899-1902. 

Fuller was a man of high intellectual 
culture, and a profound student of philo- 
sophy. To the end of his life he reviewed 
literary works in the press and contributed 
a notable article to the * Westminster 
Review' on 'Man's Relation to the Uni- 
verse through Cosmic Emotion ' (reprinted 
1902). His last publication was ' Cecil 
Rhodes, a Monograph and Reminiscence ' 
(1910), a valuable contribution to the 
biography of his friend. 

[Anglo- African Who's Who, 1905 ; personal 
knowledge.] A. P. H. 

FULLEYLOVE, JOHN (1845-1908), 
landscape painter, bom at Leicester on 
18 Aug. 1845, was son of John and Eliza- 
beth Fulleylove. He was educated at 

day-schools in that town, and when about 
sixteen was articled as a clerk to FUnt, 
Shenton and Baker, a local firm of archi- 
tects. He developed a strong natural bent 
for the picturesque side of architecture by 
sketching from nature in his free hours, and 
received some instruction in painting from 
Harry Ward, a drawing-master of the school 
of Harding. 

Fulleylove's earliest drawings were views 
of his native town and its neighbourhood. 
Taking up art professionally he began 
to exhibit English subjects in London in 
1871. Subsequently he travelled widely 
at home and abroad in search of themes. 
In 1875 and again in 1880 he made tours 
in Italy. He spent the summer of 1878 
in sketching at Tabley Old Hall, that of 
1879 at Hampton Court, and that of 1882 
at Versailles. 

He was elected an associate of the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water Colours in 
the spring of 1878, and became a member 
next year. Fulleylove moved from Leicester 
to London in 1883 and established liimself 
at first in a house in Mecklenburgh Square, 
later moving (1893) to Great Russell Street, 
and ultimately (1894) to Church Row, 
Hampstead. Besides exhibiting an ever- 
widening range of subjects at the Institute, 
he held many exhibitions of his work at 
the Fine Art Society's galleries in Bond 
Street. Of these individual exhibitions, 
the first consisted of drawings of south- 
eastern France, * Petrarch's Country ' 
(1886) ; this was followed by views of 
Oxford (1888) ; views of Cambridge (1890) ; 
Parisian subjects and studies of Ver- 
sailles (1894). In 1892 he exhibited a 
collection of local sketches at Leicester. 
In the summer of 1895 he visited Greece in 
company with his friends Alfred Higgins 
and Somers Clarke. Ninety drawings made 
during this tour, exhibited at the Fine Art 
Society's gallery in the following spring, 
mark the highest level of his achievement. 

He occasionally practised painting in 
oil, was a member of the Institute 
of Painters in Oil, and contributed oil- 
paintings to the Academy and other 
exhibitions. In the summer of 1898 he 
executed a number of small panel pictures 
of Oxford which were exhibited at the Fine 
Art Society's Gallery in 1899. They were 
painted direct from nature, whereas the 
large oil pictures by which he was occasion- 
ally represented in later years at the 
Academy were worked up from water-colour 

Fulleylove's next exhibition in Bond 
Street (1902) consisted of drawings of the 




Holy Land, but Paloatino did not inspire 
liiin so happily as Greece. In 1904 many 
excellent pencil sketches were exhibited 
at the Goupil Gallery in London, and at 
Edinburgh a series of local views, which 
like most of his latest work, such as the 
drawings of Westminster Abbey, the 
Tower of London, and some Middlesex 
subjects (1907), were executed for repro- 
duction in colour as illustrations to books. 
Some of his Oxford oil sketches and of his 
drawings of Greece and Palestine were 
reproduced in similar form. He himself 
preferred the black-and-white reproductions 
of his earher (1888) Oxford sketches by 
lithography, and of the Greek drawings in 

His health failed suddenly, and he died 
at Hampstead on 22 May 1908. He was 
buried in Highgate cemetery. Fulleylove 
married, in 1878, EUzabeth Sara, daughter 
of Samuel Elgood of Leicester ; she with 
one son and two daughters survived him. 

Fulleylove was an admirable architec- 
tural draughtsman. His early training 
had given him a thorough comprehension 
of construction and detail. His water- 
colour was always laid over a solid and 
carefully completed pencil sketch. In 
colour his earher works are silvery, some- 
times a httle weak, but always harmonious. 
Greater breadth of tone and force of colour 
are noticeable in the Versailles drawings 
of 1893 and in the Greek series, which 
are not only his best productions but 
some of the most brilliant and accom- 
plished water-colour work of his generation. 
A few of his drawings are in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, and he is well represented 
in the Municipal Gallery at Leicester. 

[Graves's Dictionary of Artists, 1760-1893 ; 
Catalogues of the Exhibitions of the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water Colours and of 
the Fine Art Society ; private information.] 


1 (1825-1910), scholar and editor, born at 
Egham, Surrey, on 4 Feb. 1825, was second 
child and eldest son, in a family of five sons 
and four daughters, of George Frederick 
Furnivall by his wife Sophia Barwell. 
The father, a medical practitioner, who had 
been educated at St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital and was in 1805 assistant surgeon of 
the 14th foot, maintained a prosperous 
practice at Egham, and also kept a private 
lunatic asylum at his house, Great Fosters, 
out of which he made a fortune of 200,000^. 
He attended Shelley's wife, Mary, in her 
confinement at Marlow in 1817, and the son 
was fond of quoting his father's reminis- 

cences of Shelley and his household. He 
died on 7 June 1865. 

After attending private schools at Engle> 
field Green, Turnham Green, and Hanwell, 
Furnivall in 1841 entered University College, 
London, and in July 1842 passed the 
I^ondon University matriculation in the 
first division. On 9 Oct. he matriculated 
from Trinity Hall, Cambridge. As a boy 
he hunted at Egham, and before enter- 
ing the university he was a skilled oars- 
man. He quickly won a place in the 
college eight. During the long vacation of 
1845 he built, with the aid of John Beesley, 
a Thames waterman, two sculling boats on 
a new plan. By narrowing the beam and 
extending the outriggers he gave an un- 
precedented leverage to the oar. A wager 
boat on Furnivall' s lines was soon built for 
the champion sculler, Newell, who in it gave 
Henry Clasper, on the Tyne, one of his rare 
defeats (18 Jan. 1846). To sculling Furni- 
vall remained faithful till death, and he 
always ardently advocated its superiority 
to rowing. Despite his lifelong devotion 
to the water he never learnt to swim. As 
an undergraduate he showed a charac- 
teristic impatience of convention and an 
undisciplined moral earnestness. He be- 
came a vegetarian, and remained one for 
a quarter of a century. To tobacco and 
alcohol he was a stranger through life. He 
read mathematics, and was admitted 
scholar of Trinity Hall on 1 June 1843. 
He graduated B.A. in 1847, taking a low 
place among the junior optimes in 1846. 
He proceeded M.A. in 1850. 

On leaving Cambridge, Furnivall entered 
as a student at Lincoln's Inn (26 Jan. 1846). 
He read in the chambers of Charles Henry 
Bellenden Ker [q. v.], a friend of his father, 
a man of wide and enlightened interests. 
He was called to the bar at Gray's Inn 
(30 Jan. 1849), and set up as a conveyancer 
at II New Square. He rented various seta 
of rooms in Lincoln's Inn till 1873, but 
the law had small attraction for him, and 
his attention was soon diverted from 
it. Through Bellenden Ker he came to 
know many men and women who cham- 
pioned social reform and democratic prin- 
ciples. Of these John Malcolm Ludlow 
[q. v. Suppl. II] exerted a predominant 
influence on him. Through Ludlow he was 
drawn into the Christian Socialist move- 
ment, and accepted at first all its tenets. 
He heard Maurice preach at Lincoln's Inn, 
and attended his Bible readings. The doc- 
trine of industrial co-operation appealed 
to him, and he joined the central co-op- 
erative committee. He supported trades 




unionism and identified himself with 
labour agitation, selling his books to give 
lOOZ. to the woodcutters who engaged 
in a strike in 1851. Meanwhile he wrote 
for the ' Christian Socialist,' and published 
in 1850 his first literary work, a pamphlet 
entitled ' Association a Necessary Part of 

Philological study and music also en- 
gaged Fimiivairs youthful attention. He 
joined the Philological Society in 1847, and 
heard Chopin play (26 July 1848) and Jenny 
Lind sing. The current literatiu'e which 
he chiefly admired was the early work 
of Ruskin, with whose outlook on life he 
avowed an eager sympathy. In 1849 a 
chance meeting with Mrs. Ruskin at a 
friend's house led to an invitation to 
Ruskin 's London home. ' Thus began,' 
Furnivall wrote, ' a friendship (with Ruskin) 
which was for many years the chief joy of 
my life.' Of Ruskin, Furnivall was through 
life a wholehearted worshipper, and the 
habit of egotistic reflection which character- 
ised his own writing is often a halting echo 
of Ruskin's style and temperament. 

At the beginning of the intercourse Furni- 
vall sought with youthful ardour to bring 
Ruskin into relation with Maurice. In 1851 
he invited Maurice's opinion of Ruskin's 
theological argument in his 'Notes on 
the Construction of Sheepfolds.' Furnivall 
forwarded Maurice's criticisms to Ruskin, 
and an interesting correspondence passed 
through Furnivall between the two; but 
they had little in common. Furnivall, 
who inclined to Ruskin's rather than 
to Maurice's views, printed this corre- 
spondence for private circulation in 1890 
(NicoLL AND Wise, Anecdotes of the 
Nineteenth Century, ii. 1-46). 

In the spirit of Christian Socialism Furni- 
vall at the same time devoted his best 
energies to endeavours to improve the 
social and educational opportunities of the 
working classes. With Ludlow and others 
he opened as early as 1849 a school for 
poor men and boys at Little Ormond 
Yard, Bioomsbury. In 1852 he joined the 
same friends in forming a working men's as- 
sociation for the purpose of giving lectures 
and holding classes at a house in Castle 
Street East, off Oxford Street. These efforts 
developed into the foundation on 26 Oct. 
1854 of the Working Men's College in Red 
Lion Square, with Maurice as principal. 
Furnivall vigorously helped in the organisa- 
tion of the new college. He spent there five 
nights a week, and actively identified him- 
self with its social, athletic, and educational 
life, Furnivall taught English grammar 

and lectured on English poetry from 
Chaucer to Tennyson. He induced Ruskin 
to teach drawing to the students with 
profitable results. But it was in the 
development of the social side that he 
worked hardest. He accompanied the 
students in botanical walks and on rowing 
excursions. He arranged Sunday rambles, 
and organised concerts and dances. In 
1858, on the advice of Ruskin, he took a 
party of working men on a tour abroad. It 
was Fumivall's only experience of foreign 
travel. He left London with his companions 
for Havre on 6 Sept., and spent three weeks 
walking in Normandy and visiting Paris. 
In 1859 he eagerly helped to organise a 
volunteer corps of college students, and 
became company commander, retaining 
the post for twelve years. Subsequently 
he inaugurated a college rowing club, which 
was named after Maurice. He induced 
the members to engage, under his leader- 
ship, in sculling four and eight races, which 
he introduced to the Thames in 1866; he 
was long the rowing club's guiding spirit. 

Fumivall's devotion to the recreative 
aims of the college, and his emphatic 
advocacy of Sunday as a day of solely 
secular amusement, caused difficulties be- 
tween him and Maurice and other members 
of the college council. His religious views 
had undergone a change. He had been 
brought up in conventional orthodoxy. 
This he abandoned in early manhood for an 
outspoken agnosticism and uncompromis- 
ing hostility to the received faiths. Joining 
the Sunday League which combated Sab- 
batarianism, he described, during 1858, 
the Sunday amusements of the college in 
the League's organ, ' The People's Friend.' 
His somewhat insolent references to 
Maurice led the latter to tender his resig- 
nation of the principalship, and he was 
with difficulty persuaded to remain in 
office. Although a reconciliation was 
patched up, Maurice's relations with Furni- 
vall lost all show of cordiality. Furnivall 
deemed Maurice and the college council to 
be not only unduly conservative in their 
religious views but imdemocratic in refusing 
working men admission to the council. 
Fumivall's activity in the affairs of the 
college ceased only with his life. He never 
lost his early tone of impatience with 
those colleagues whose religious or political 
views differed from his own. But he re- 
tained to the last the ardent devotion of the 
students, and the social development of the 
institution stood deeply indebted to him. 

Fumivall's zeal for literary study rapidly 
developed, and he tried t-o adapt to its 





pursuit the principles of assooiation and 
co-operation which ho advocated in other 
relations of life. Of the Philological 
Society he became one of two honorary 
secretaries in 1853, and was solo secretary 
from 1862 till his death. Ho supported 
with enthusiasm the society's proposals for 
spelling reform, which Alexander John 
EUis [q. V. Suppl. I] devised, and always 
took an active part in promoting such 
reform, adopting in his own WTitings a 
modified phonetic scheme. In another 
direction his energetic participation in 
the Philological Society's work bore more 
valuable fruit. At the end of 1858 the 
society, at Archbishop Trench's suggestion, 
resolved to undertake a supplement to 
Johnson's and Richardson's Dictionaries. 
But Furnivall urged a wholly new diction- 
ary, and his proposal was adopted. On 
the death in 1861 of the first editor of the 
suggested dictionary, Herbert Coleridge 
[q. v.], Furnivall took his place, and he 
worked at the scheme intermittently for 
many years. At the same time he planned 
a ' concise ' dictionary which should be an 
abstract of the larger undertaking. Al- 
though he accumulated much material for 
the double scheme he made little headway 
owing to his varied engagements. In 1876 
the Oxford University Press took over the 
enterprise, appointing Dr. (afterwards Sir) 
James A. H. Murray editor. The 'New 
English Dictionary ' was the result. To 
that great work Furnivall continued to 
contribute to the end of his life. 

Meanwhile Furnivall was concentrating 
his attention on early and middle English 
literature. He deemed it a patriotic duty 
to reprmt from manuscript works which 
were either miprinted or imperfectly 
printed. He valued old literature both for 
its own sake and for the light it shed on 
social history. His Uterary endeavours 
at first centred in the hterature of the 
Arthurian romances, and he inaugmrated 
his editorial labours with an edition of 
LoneUch's fifteenth-century epic ' Seynt 
Graal,' which he prepared for the 
Roxburghe Club (1861, 2 vols. ; re-edited 
for the Early English Text Society, 1874-8). 
Two prominent bibliophile members of 
the Roxburghe Club, Henry Huth [q. v. 
Suppl. 11] and Heru-y Hucks Gibbs, after- 
wards Baron Aldenham [q. v. Suppl. 11], 
enlisted his services. In 1862, for the 
Roxburghe club, he undertook one of his 
most valuable pieces of textual labour, 
the ' Handlyng Synne ' of Robert of Bninne, 
to which he added the ' Manuel des Pechiez ' 
of William of Waddington, unhappily from 

a MS. of inferior textual value. In 1862 
he also printed a collection of early English 
poems from MSS. for the Philological 
Society, and in 1865 he published with 
Macmillan the more attractive * Morte 
d' Arthur,' from an Harleian MS. 

In 1864, with a view to more effectual 
pursuit of his literary aims, Furnivall 
founded the Early English Text Society. 
It began with 75 subscribers, Ruskin and 
Tennyson amongst them. Its first publica- 
tion was Funiivall's edition of a short 
metrical ' Life of King Arthur.' The society 
flourished under Furnivall's energetic guid- 
ance, and he worked hard for it both as 
director and editor for more than forty years. 
He enlisted the co-operation of scholars all 
over the world, who edited texts for the 
society. At first the society's sole aim 
was to print mediaeval MSS. But in 1867 
a second or extra series was instituted 
to include reprints of the work of the 
earliest English printers. At his death the 
society had issued 140 volumes in the 
original series and 107 in the extra series. 
The vastness of the material with which 
I^irnivall sought to deal led him to found 
other societies on similar fines for separate 
treatment of volmninous mediaeval writers. 
Chaucer, Wiclif, and Lydgate each in his 
view needed a society exclusively devoted 
to his interests. It was chiefly at the sug- 
gestion of Henry, Bradshaw [q. v. Suppl. I] 
that Furnivall started in 1868 the Chaucer 
Society. His hope was to form an accurate 
text of the poems by collation of all known 
manuscripts and to ascertain from both 
internal and external evidence the date at 
which each of Chaucer's known works was 
composed. His labour began in 1868 with 
the issue of his six- text edition of the 
* Canterbury Tales,' which provides the best 
possible material for textual study. There 
followed parallel text editions of Chaucer's 
'Mmor Poems' (1871-9), and of his 
' Troilus and Criseyde ' (1881-2). Al- 
though he had collaborators, the most 
important of the Chaucer Society's pubhca- 
tions are the fruit of FurnivaU's own in- 
dustry. He thus set Chaucerian study on a 
new and sure footmg. Another enterprise 
diverted FurnivaU's attention to English 
literature of a later period. In 1868 he 
and Prof. J. VV. Hales edited and printed 
by subscription m three volumes the folio 
MS. of the * Percy Ballads ' [see Percy, 
Thomas]. With a view to continuing 
Percy's labours in rescuing old ballads 
from obhvion, Furnivall thereupon founded 
the Ballad Society, wliich was designed to 
make accessible the large store of ballad 




collections which was not accessible in 
modem reprints. The Roxburghe and Bag- 
ford collections of ballads in the British 
Museum were published (1868-99) by the 
society, together with illustrative pieces of 
popular literature of the sixteenth century. 
Now that Fumivall's researches had 
reached the sixteenth century he proceeded 
to apply to Shakespeare's work the methods 
which had already served the study of 
Chaucer. In 1873 he founded the New 
Shakspere Society, with the object of 
determining ' the succession of his plays ' 
and of illustrating his work and times. 
Many distinguished scholars became vice- 
presidents, and Robert Browning was 
induced to act as president. Furnivall 
organised reprints of early texts and of 
contemporary illustrative literature. To a 
translation of Gervinus's Commentaries on 
Shakespeare (1874) he prefixed an essay 
entitled ' The Succession of Shakspere's 
Work, and the Use of Metrical Tests in 
settling it.' There he laid a stress on the 
metrical tests, which became characteristic 
of the society's labours and evoked the 
ridicule of aesthetic critics (cf. [John 
Jeremiah] Furnivallos Furioso, 1874). 
Much controversy ensued. Swinburne, who 
at first treated Fumivall's learning with 
respect, was moved by the society's me- 
chanical methods of criticism to satirise 
its proceedings in a skit called ' The New- 
est Shakespere Society ' which appeared 
in 'The Examiner' in April 1876. Sub- 
sequently Swinburne denounced Furnivall 
and his friends as ' sham Shakespeareans.' 
Furnivall rephed with heat [Spectator, 
6 and 13 Sept. 1879). When Halliwell- 
Phillipps accepted in 1880 Swinburne's 
dedication of his 'Study of Shakespeare' 
Furnivall brought Halliwell-Phillipps as 
well as Swinburne within the range of his 
attack. In ' Forewords ' to the facsimile 
of the second quarto of Hamlet; dedi- 
cated to Gladstone (1880), he dubbed 
Swinburne * Pigsbrook,' and Halliwell- 
Phillipps ' H-ll-P.' In Jan. 1881 Halliwell 
complained to Browning of this ' coarse 
and impertinent language ' ; but Browning 
declined to intervene, and Halliwell- 
Phillipps privately printed the corre- 
spondence. Furnivall retorted in even 
worse taste in ' The " Co." of Pigsbrook 
& Co.' (1881). Fumivall's conduct had 
little to justify it. Many of the distin- 
guished vice-presidents of the society re- 
signed, and the society was thenceforth 
heavily handicapped. Nevertheless, it con- 
tinued its work imtil 1890. Many of its 
pubhcations were useful, notably its editions 

of Harrison's * Description of England ' 
(1877-8) and Stubbes's 'Anatomic of 
Abuses' (1879), which Furnivall liimself 
prepared. By independent work outside the 
society, Furnivall also, despite his impru- 
dences, stimulated Shakespearean study. 
In 1876 he wrote an elaborate preface to 
' The Leopold Shakspere,' a reprint of 
Delius's text, which the publishers, Messrs. 
Cassell, dedicated to Prince Leopold, duke 
of Albany. The preface was re-issued 
separately in 1908 as * Shakspere — Life 
and Work,' the preliminary volume of the 
' Century ' edition of Shakespeare. With a 
view to facilitating accurate textual criti- 
cism Furnivall supervised, too, the issue 
between 1880 and 1889 of photographic 
facsimiles, prepared by William Griggs 
[q. V. Suppl. II] and Charles Praetorius, 
of the Shakespeare quartos in 43 volumes, 
to eight of which he prefixed critical intro- 
ductions by himself. One of the off- 
shoots of the New Shakspere Society was 
the Sunday Shakspere Society, which was 
founded 18 Oct. 1874 as the outcome of an 
address given by Furnivall to members of 
the National Sunday League when on an 
excursion to Stratford-upon-Avon. 

Three other Hterary societies were due to 
Fumivall's initiative. In 1881 he founded 
the Wiclif Society for the printing of the 
reformer's Latin MSS., and in the same 
year, at the suggestion of Miss E. H. Hickey, 
a devoted admirer of Browning, he inaugu- 
rated the Browning Society for the study 
and interpretation of Browning's poetry. 
Furnivall had read Browning's poetry with 
appreciation, and had come to know the 
poet, whose personality attracted him (cf. 
Furnivall, How the Browning Society came 
into being, 1884). The first meeting of the 
new society was held on 28 Oct. 1881, 
and excited much ridicule. But Furnivall 
and his fellow-members were undismayed, 
and their efforts greatly extended Brown- 
ing's vogue. The poet was always grateful 
to Fumivall for his aid in popularising 
his work. Furnivall compiled an exhaus- 
tive ' Browning Bibliography ' in 1881, and 
arranged for the production on the stage 
of several of Browning's plays, among them 
'In a Balcony' (6 Dec. 1884), 'The Blot m 
the 'Scutcheon' (30 April and 2 May 1885), 
'Retum of the Druses' (26 Nov. 1891), 
and 'Colombe's Birthday' (19 Nov. 1893). 
In 1887 Fumivall became president of 
the society, which lasted till 1892. 
The final society which Furnivall founded 
was the Shelley Society, which lasted 
from 1886 to 1892. Besides reprint- 
ing many original editions of Shelley's 




pooma. tho society pravo a private perform- 
anco of the ' Cenci * at the Grand Theatre. 
I,«Hncrtx>n, on 7 May 1886. 

Fnmivall's work for his societies was un- 
paid, and though ho found time for some 
oxt-omal lahour, including? an edition of 
Rohert de Brunno's * Chronicle of Enc^land ' 
for the Rolls Series in 1887, his literary 
activity was never really remunerative. His 
pecuniary resources were, durincr the last 
half of his life, very small. On his father's 
death on 7 June 1865 he received a sub- 
stantial share of his large estate, but he 
invested all his fortune in Overend and 
Oumev's Bank, Avhich st-opped payment 
in 1867. Furnivall, left well-nigh pennile{?s, 
was forced '^to dispose of his personal 
nropertv, but this his rich friends, Henry 
Hucks Gibbs (afterwards Lord Aldenham) 
and Henry Huth, purchased and restored 
to him. In 1873 he was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the post of secretary to the 
Royal Academy. Among others who 
testified to his fitness were Tennvson. 
William Morris, Charies Kingsley, J. R. 
Seeley, M. Taine, and Delius. Thenceforth 
he lived on his occasional and small literary 
earnings and on an annual payment as 
tnistee of a relative's property until 1884 
when he was granted in addition a civil list 
pension of 150?. 

In 1884 Furnivall, whose reputation as a 
scholar stood high in Germany, received 
the honorary degree of Ph.D. from Berlin 
University. 'In 1901, in honour of his 
75th birthday, a volume entitled * An 
English Miscellany,' to which scholars of 
all countries contributed, was printed at the 
Clarendon Press. At the same time the 
sum of 450Z. was presented to the Early 
English Text Societv, and an eight-sculling 
boat was given to Furnivall. His portrait 
was painted for Trinity Hall, of which he 
was made an hon. fellow on 21 April 1902. 
He received the hon. D.Litt. of Oxford 
University in 1901, and he was chosen an 
original fellow of the British Academy next 

Till his death he advocated with char- 
acteristic warmth the value of sculling 
as a popular recreation. In 1891 he 
fiercely attacked the Amateur Rowing 
Association for excluding working men from 
the class of amateurs. By way of retalia- 
tion he founded on 15 Sept. 1891 the 
National Amateur Rowing Association on 
thoroughly democratic lines. In 1903 he 
became president in succession to the duke 
of Fife, the first president. In 1896 he 
formed, in accordance with his lifelong 
principles, the Hammersmith Sculling Club 
VOL. Lxvni. — SUP. n. 

for girls and men, which wan re-namofl the 
Furnivall Club in 1900. Until the year of 
his death ho sculled each Sunday with 
members of the club from Hammersmith 
to Richmond and back, and took a foremost 
part in the social activities of the club. 

Furnivall died at his London residence 
of cancer of the intestines on 2 Julv 1910, 
and his remains were cremated at Golder'a 
Green. Until his fatal illness prostrate^l 
him, he carried on his varied work with 
little diminution of energy. 

Fumivall's disinterested devotion to many 
good causes entitles him to honourable 
remembrance. The enthusiasm with which 
he organised societies for the purpose of 
printing inedited MSS. and of elucidating 
English literature of many periods stimu- 
lated the development of English literary 
study at home and abroad. His taste as 
a critic was, like his style, often crude and 
faulty. But he was indefatigable in re- 
search, and spared no pains in his efforts 
after completeness and accuracy. In his 
literary labour he was moved by a sincere 
patriotism. But there was no insularity 
about his sympathies. Powerful demo- 
cratic sentiments and broad views domi- 
nated his life. He believed in the virtue 
of athletics no less than of learning, and he 
sought to give all classes of both sexes 
opportunities of becoming fscholars as 
well as athletes. 

Devoid of tact or discretion in almost 
every relation of life, he cherished through- 
out his career a boyish frankness of speech 
which offended many and led him into 
unedifying controversies. He cannot be 
absolved of a tendency to make mischief 
and stir up strife. His declarations of 
hostility to religion and to class distinctions 
were often unseasonable, and gave pain. 
But his defects of temper and manner were 
substantially atoned for not merely by his 
self-denying services to scholarship but 
by his practical sympathy with poverty 
and suffering, and by his readiness to 
encourage sound youthful endeavour in 
every sphere of work. 

In 1862 Furnivall married at the regis- 
trar's office, Hampstead, Eleanor Nickel, 
daughter of George Alexander Dalziel. 
Separation followed in 1883. Of two 
children of the marriage, a daughter, Ena, 
died in infancy in 1866. The son, Percy, 
is a well-known surgeon. 

Of portraits of Furnivall, one by Mr. 
William Rothenstein is at Trinitv Hall. 
Cambridge ; another by A. A. Wolmark 
was presented to the Working Men's College 
in 1908 ; a life-size head, drawn in crayons 




by C. H. Shannon in 1900, was offered ! 
after his death to the National Portrait i 
Gallery; a fourth portrait, by Miss A. 
D. Staveley, is in the English Library 
at University College. In 1912 a small 
memorial fund was applied to the purposes 
of the Working Men's College. 

[Frederick James Fumivall : a volume of 
personal record, with a biography by John 
Munro, Oxford University Press, 1911 ; The 
Working Men's College, 1854r-1904, ed. 
J. Llewelyn Davies, 1904; Proc. Brit. 
Acad, (memoir by Prof. W. P. Ker), 
1909-10, pp. 374^-8 ; An English Miscellany, 
1901, bibliography to date, by Henry Little- 
hales ; personal knowledge.] S. L. 

(1868-1904), painter, born at Staines 
on 13 Jan. 1868, was fourth son of 
Charles WelUngton Furse (1821-1900), 
vicar of Staines, principal of Cuddes- 
don (1873-83), rector of St. John the 
Evangelist, Westminster, and canon of 
Westminster (1883-94), and from 1894 to 
his death in 1900 canon and archdeacon 
of Westminster. The father was eldest 
son of Charles WiHiam Johnson {d. 1854) 
by his wife Theresa, daughter of the 
Rev. Peter Wellington Furse of Halsdon, 
Devonshire, and he assumed the surname of 
Furse in 1864 on succeeding to the Halsdon 
property. William Johnson, afterwards 
Cory [q. v. Suppl. I], was Archdeacon 
Furse's only brother. The artist's mother, 
Jane Diana, second daughter of John 
S. B. Monsell, vicar of Egham and grand- 
daughter of Thomas Bewley Monsell of 
Dunbar, archdeacon of Derry, was his 
father's first wife, and died in 1877, when 
he was nine years old. Of her ten chil- 
dren, the eldest, John Henry Monsell Furse 
(6. 1860), became a well-known sculptor; 
and Michael Bolton Furse, fifth son, became 
bishop of Pretoria in 1909. 

At an early age Charles showed a talent 
for drawing. During a long illness in 
childhood he read Scott's novels, and 
drew illustrations of the scenes which 
appealed to him. Later, he went to 
Haileybury, where he remained tUl he 
was sixteen. In the ordinary work of 
the school he displayed no special capacity, 
but continued to draw pictures of hunting 
scenes for his amusement. On leaving 
Haileybury he joined the Slade school, then 
under Alphonse Legros [q. v. Suppl. II], 
and speedily made his mark. He won the 
Slade scholarship within a year of entrance, 
and became a favourite pupil of his 
masters. Unfortunately, at this early stage, 
symptoms of consumption which was 

ultimately to prove fatal showed them- 
selves, and he was forced to spend a 
winter at St. Moritz. His most intimate 
friend at this time was a fellow-pupil, now 
Sir Charles Holroyd, with whom he spent 
his holidays on the borders of the Lake 
district or near Maidstone, sketching and 
reading. From the Slade school he went 
to Paris, where he studied for some months 
in Julian's atelier, among not very congenial 
company. On returning from Paris he 
studied for a short time under Mr. (now 
Prof.) F. Brown at the Westminster 
School of Art ; but at the age of twenty-one 
he set up for himself. 

He had already exhibited at the Royal 
Academy (1888) a large figure entitled 
' Cain ' ; but his first real success was 
a portrait of Canon Burrows (Royal 
Academy, 1889). This, and a head of 
his uncle, William Cory, shown at the 
Portrait Painters in 1891, secured his 
recognition as an artist of distinction. 
His father was now a canon of Westminster ; 
and Furse lived at his house in Abbey 
Garden, renting a studio close by. Success 
appeared cei-tain, but in the pursuit of 
his art he was hindered by frequent attacks 
of illness. He thought much about the 
principles of his art, and constantly dis- 
cussed them, as well as literary questions, 
with his friends, among whom were promi- 
nent W. E. Henley [q. v. Suppl. II] and the 
group of men connected with the ' National 
Observer.' He read widely, but by predilec- 
tion in the older literature, especially that 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
He occasionally wrote on artistic matters, 
gave lectures on great artists at Oxford 
University extension meetings in 1894 and 
subsequent years, and took part in debates 
at the Art Workers' Guild. 

Although reaUy independent and original, 
he was during early life unconsciously 
attracted by the merits of other painters. 
Thus he passed through several phases, at 
one time being influenced by Frank Holl, 
at another by Whistler, again by the 
Japanese artists, and above all by Mx. J. S. 
Sargent. The study of Tintoretto and 
Velasquez is also evident in many of his 
works. It is true that he assimilated 
rather than copied other styles ; but it 
was not till near the end of his short life 
that he worked himself free of all these 
influences, and developed a noble and 
spontaneous manner of his own. Delighting 
in country life and in every variety of 
sport, he seldom painted landscape pure 
and simple, but introduced it habitually as 
a background or a setting for his figures. 



Horsos wore his special study ; and in his 
equestrian portraits the animal is, from 

► the artistic point of view, as important as 
the man. A whole group of portraits of 
masters of hounds att<\sts his peculiar skill 
in tliis direction. His excellence as a 

» portrait-painter naturally led to his talent 
being employed chiefly in this line ; but in 
the treatment of his subject ho was always 
anxious to place it among suitable sur- 
roundings. In such pictures as the large 
portrait of Lord Roberts, that of * Sir 
Charles Naime,' and the ' Return from the 
Ride,' the accessories, studied with great 
care, form an essential part of the work. 

In 1894 he became engaged to Eleanor, 
sister of Samuel Henry Butcher [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and her sudden death shortly 
afterwards was a blow from which it 
needed all his elasticity to recover. In 
the following year he was advised to 
winter in South Africa, and arrived at 
Johannesburg shortly after the Jameson 
Raid. He painted a picture of ' Doomkop,' 
choosing the moment when the British 
column was approaching the Boers in 
ambush. This picture was shown by the 
artist to President Kruger, but has since 
disappeared. He had some thoughts of 
volunteering for the Matabele war, but 
gave up the idea, and returned to England 
(1896). Two years later he accepted a 
commission, obtained for him by his 
friend, Prof. F. M. Simpson, to execute 
decorative paintings to fill four pendentives 
under the dome over the staircase in the 
Liverpool Town Hall. The remuneration 
was inadequate, but Furse undertook 
the task for the sake of the opportunity 
which it afforded of work on a grand scale 
and of a kind different from anything he 
had hitherto done. In making his designs 
he deliberately adopted the manner of 
Tintoretto, and, while eschewing the real- 

Iistic reproduction of modern industrial and 
commercial conditions, adapted them to 
a treatment at once poetic and vigorous. 
These paintings, which were his chief occu- 
pation for nearly three years, are perhaps 
'the most notable, though not the most 
popular, of all his works. 

Meanwhile the state of his health had 
compelled him to pass a mnter at Davos, 
where (in Feb. 1900) he became engaged 
to Katharine, the youngest daughter of 
John Addington Symonds. He married in 
October of the same year, and with his 
wife passed the following winter also at 
Davos. In 1901 they removed to a new 
house which he had had built for him on 
the high ground near Camberley. Here he 


took the greatest interest in lajnng out 
a small plot of land in formal eighteenth- 
century fashion, and speedily tumerl a 
sandy waste into a beautiful garden. 
Intensely happy in his marriage and a 
settled life in congenial surroundings, he 
worked harder than ever, and in these last 
three years produced some of his meet 
successful pictures — the * Return from the 
Ride,' ' Lord Charles Beresford,' * Diana 
of the Uplands,' 'Cubbing with the York 
and Ainsty.' These works showed that 
he had at length found himself. But 
all the time the disease from which ho 
suffered — tuberculosis — was making pro- 
gress. He passed the winter of 1902-3 
at Davos, spent the spring of 190.3 in 
northern Italy and Spain, and took a 
studio, for the sake of his portrait-painting, 
in London. In the same year he was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy. 
Never sparing himseK, and still full of 
hope and enthusiasm, he gradually grew 
weaker, and died on 16 Oct. 1904. He 
was buried in Frimley churchyard. He 
left two sons, Peter and Paul, the second 
of whom was bom three days before his 
death. In person Furse was tall and some- 
what stout in later life, but muscular 
and vigorous. His features were rounded, 
the face oval, the eyes small but very keen, 
the complexion pale. He was a keen 
sportsman, a good shot and whip, and 
played most games well. His movements 
were quick, and he painted rapidly, with 
a fierce concentration, never hesitating to 
rub out his work over and over again 
if it did not satisfy him. His untiring 
energy, width of interest, and inteUectusJ 
vitality showed themselves in his con- 
versation. He liked nothing better than 
a good argument, but could listen as 
weU as talk ; and his criticism, though 
keen, was entirely free from jealousy and 

Many of his most notable pictiu-es were 
exhibited in the gallery of the New English 
Art Club, of which he was an active member 
from 1891 to his death. He joined in the 
foundation of the International Society, 
and was a member of its council. He 
exhibited also at the Portrait Painters 
and the New Gallery. A collection of his 
works, 53 in number, was shown at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1906. The 
' Return from the Ride ' was bought after 
his death under the Chantrey Bequest; 
* Diana of the Uplands ' was purchased 
by the trustees of the National Gallery. 
Both these pictures are now at the Tate 
Gallery. The larger 'Lord Roberts' 





(unfinished) has been lent by Mrs. Furse to 
the same mstitution. The best likeness of 
Furse extant is a photograph reproduced 
in the illustrated catalogue of the Burling- 
ton Fine Arts Club exhibition (1908). The 
same volume contains a selection from his 
writings (two articles were previously 
published in the 'Albemarle Magazine,' 

Aug. 1892, and the * Studio,' i. 33), with 
a number of letters and the reports of some 
of his lectures. 

[Memoir by Mr. D. S. MacColl, prefixed to 
the catalogue above mentioned (1908) ; 
private information.] G. W. P. 

1904), cricketer. [See Jekner-Fust.] 


1907), musician, born at Hackney on 15 Dec. 
1842, was son of WilUam Gadsby. From 1849 
to 1858 he was a chorister boy at St. Paul's 
at the same time as Sir John Stainer {Mus. 
Times, May 1901). He learnt rudimentary 
harmony imder Mr. W. Bayley, the choir- 
master, but was otherwise self-taught. In 
1863 he became a teacher of the piano, the 
writer being one of his first pupils. Having 
also taught himself the organ, he became 
organist of St. Peter's, Brockley, holding this 
appointment till 1884. He succeeded John 
Hullah [q. v.] as professor of harmony at 
Queen's College, London, and Sir William 
Cusins [q. v. Suppl. I] as professor of piano- 
forte there. In 1880 he was appointed one 
of the original professors (of harmony) at the 
Guildhall School of Music, where he taught 
till his death. A member of the Philhar- 
monic and other musical societies and 
fellow of the College of Organists, he was 
a well-known figure in the musical world. 
His published works include the following 
choral and orchestral cantatas : 'Psalm 130' 
(1862) ; ' Alice Brand ' (1870) ; ' The Lord 
of the Isles' (Brighton Festival, 1879); 
'Columbus' (male voices, 1881); 'The 
Cyclops ' (male voices, 1883) ; music to 

* Alcestis ' (1876) and to Tasso's * Aminta ' 
(for Queen's College, 1898). Other instru- 
mental works were a concert overture, 

• Andromeda ' (1873), an organ concerto in F, 
and a string quartet. Unpubhshed works 
include three other orchestral preludes, 
which have been performed : ' The Golden 
Legend,' 'The Witches' Frolic,' and 
*The Forest of Arden.' Numerous part- 
songs, services, and anthems were printed, as 
well as ' A Treatise on Harmony' (1883) and 
*A Technical Method of Sight-singing' 
( 1 897 ) , which are useful text-books. Gadsby 
was a typical Victorian composer, whose 
works were always well received and never 
heard a second time. An earnest musician, 
whose mission in life was to teach others 
to be like himself, he died on 11 Nov. 1907 
at 53 Clarendon Road, Putney, and was 

buried in Putney Vale cemetery. His 
widow died shortly after him, leaving two 

[Grove's Diet, of Music; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Mus. Times, Dec. 1907 (a good obit, notice 
with portrait); Baker's Biog. Diet. Mus. 
1900 (with portrait) ; personal knowledge.] 

F. C. 

NANT (1824-1907), professor of medicine at 
Glasgow, born in Edinburgh on 8 Nov. 1824, 
was eldest son of John Gairdner [q. v.], 
president of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
Edinburgh, by his wife Susanna, daughter 
of William Tennant. Educated at the 
Edinburgh Institution, Gairdner entered 
as a medical student in 1840 Edinburgh 
University, where he had a brilliant career. 
Immediately after graduation as M.D. 
in 1845, he went with Lord and Lady 
Beverley as their medical attendant to the 
Continent, spending the ensuing winter 
in Rome. On his return to Edinburgh 
in 1846 he acted for the customary two 
years' term as house physician and house 
surgeon to the Royal Infirmary, and 
then settled down to practice in Edinburgh 
in 1848. He was soon appointed patholo- 
gist to the Royal Infirmary, and immedi- 
ately entered upon a career of great scien- 
tific energy, not only throwing himseK into 
the teaching of his subject to large classes 
of undergraduates, but making numerous 
original observations. In 1853 he became 
physician to the Royal Infirmary. He at 
once lectm-ed on the ' Principles and Prac- 
tice of Medicine,' and continued his original 
observations, but restricted himself more 
and more to the clinical investigation of 
disease, at the same time paying close 
attention to the subject of public health, 
then in its infancy. In 1862 he brought 
out at Edinburgh both his classical work 
on 'Clinical Medicine' (12mo) and his 
notable volume, ' Public Health in relation 
to Air and Water.' 

In the same year, 1862, Gairdner was 
appointed professor of medicine in the 




University of Glasgow. From 1863 to 
1872 he was also inodical officer of health 
to the city, and during that period he 
remodelled the sanitary arrangements (cf. 
Public Health Administration in Glasgow, 
a memorial volume of the writings of Dr. 
J. B. Russell, Glasgow, 1905, with a preface 
by Gairdner ; chaps, i. and ii. detail Gaird- 
ner's labours). 

Gairdner was an exceptionally attractive 
lecturer, teaching the diagnosis of disease 
with singular thoroughness, and illumina- 
ting the subject in hand by means of a wide 
literary culture. Despite his activity as 
both teacher and consultant, he con- 
tinued throughout his career his contribu- 
tions to professional literature. In scarcely 
any department in medicine did he fail 
to add something new, in regard either 
to pathological changes or to clinical ap- 
pearances. A series of early papers, ' Contri- 
butions to the Pathology of the Kidney ' 
(Edinburgh, 1848), supplied an early de- 
scription of waxy disease, and there was 
originality of view in ' The Pathological 
Anatomy of Bronchitis and the Diseases 
of the Lung connected with Bronchial 
Obstruction' (Edinburgh, 1850). Later 
he produced ' Insanity : Modern Views as 
to its Nature and Treatment ' (Glasgow, 
1885), and lectures upon ' Tabes Mesenterica' 
(Glasgow, 1888). 

Among the matters on which he threw 
original light of great value were the 
intimate connection between arterial supply 
and myocardial changes ; the reciprocal 
influence of the heart and lungs ; hyper- 
trophy and dilatation; the system of 
representing the sounds and murmurs of 
the heart by means of diagrams ; the 
recognition of tricuspid obstruction, 
aneurism, and angina pectoris ; and with 
Stokes, Balfour and Fagge he helped to 
make certain the diagnosis of mitral 
obstruction. His last contribution to cir- 
culatory disease was the article on aneurism 
in Clifford Allbutt's ' System of Medicine ' 
(vol. vi. 1889). 

Gairdner gave many public addresses on 
general topics. The chief of these were 
collected under the titles of ' The Physician 
as Naturalist ' (Glasgow, 1889), and ' The 
Three Things that Abide ' (1903). 

Gairdner retired from the chair of 
medicine in Glasgow in 1890, when he 
returned to his native city. Many dis- 
tinctions were granted liim. He was made 
hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1883, and hon. 
M.D. of DubUn in 1887 ; was F.R.S. in 
1892; hon. F.R.C.P. Ireland in 1887; 
physician-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria in 

1 881 ; honorary physician to King Edward 
VII in 1901 ; member of the general council 
of medical education and registration, an 
representative of the University of Glasgow, 
1894 ; president of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh in 189^-4 ; and 
president of the British Medical Association 
when it met in Glasgow in 1888. He was 
created K.C.B. in 1898. 

During the last seven years of his life, 
while his intellectual interests and energies 
were unimpaired, Gairdner suffered from 
an obscure affection of the heart, the 
symptoms of which he carefully recorded. 
He died suddenly at Edinburgh on 28 June 
1907. In accordance with his wish, a 
complete account of the clinical and patho- 
logical conditions of his disease was pub- 
hshed by the present writer, in association 
with Dr. W. T. Ritchie. His portrait, 
painted by Sir George Reid, is in the 
University of Glasgow. 

Gairdner married, in 1870, Helen Bridget, 
daughter of Mr. Wright of Norwich ; she 
survived him with four sons and three 

[Proc. Roy. See. 80 B, 1908 ; Life, by G. A. 
Gibson, in preparation; Lancet and Brit. 
Med. Journal, 6 July 1907 ; Edinburgh Med. 
Journal, Scottish Med. and Surg. Journal, and 
Glasgow Med. Journal, Aug. 1907.] G.A.G. 

GALE, FREDERICK (1823-1904), 
cricketer and writer on cricket under the 
pseudonym of ' The Old Buffer,' bom at 
Woodborough, Pewseyvale, near Devizes, on 
16 July 1823, was son of Thomas Hinxman 
Gale, rector of Woodborough and afterwards 
vicar of Godmersham, near Canterbury, 
by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. 
Poore of Andover. After attending Dr. 
Buckland's preparatory school at Laleham, 
Gale was from 1836 to 1841 at Winchester 
College, of which a great-uncle. Dr. W. S. 
Goddard [q. v.], was a former headmaster. 
While at Winchester he played in the cricket 
eleven against Eton and Harrow in 1841, 
and in 1845 he played once both for Kent 
and for the Gentlemen of Kent against the 
Gentlemen of England. He was a hard 
hitter and a good fieldsman, but after 
leaving Winchester gave little time to the 
practice of the game. 

Articled to a member of the London 
firm of Messrs. Bircham & Co., soUcitors, 
Gale long worked with them as parlia- 
mentary clerk, and afterwards as parlia- 
mentary agent on his own account. But, 
deeply interested in cricket and other games, 
he devoted much time to writing about them, 
and he gradually abandoned legal businees 




for the work of an author and journalist. 
Usually employing the pseudonym of 
* The Old Buffer,' he contributed to the 
'Globe' and * Punch,' to the ' Comhill ' 
and ' Baily's Magazine.' He lectured 
occasionally also and he wrote many books, 
the best known of which are ' Public 
School Matches and those we meet there ' 
(1853), ' Ups and Downs of a PubUc School ' 
(1859), • Echoes from Old Cricket Fields ' 
(1871) ; ' Memoir of the Hon. Robert Grim- 
8ton' (1885); 'Modem English Sports: 
their use and abuse' (1885) ; ' The Game of 
Cricket ' (with portrait of Gale) (1887) ; and 
' Sports and Recreations ' ( 1 888) . Through 
his brother-in-law, Arthur Severn, Gale 
became a close friend of Ruskin, to whom 
he dedicated his ' Modem English Sports.' 
Ruskin, who wrote a preface to the book, 
professed complete agreement with Gale's 
'views of life, its duties and pleasures' 
(Ruskin's Works, ed. Cook & W^derbum, 
Index vol.). From 1865 till 1882 Gale 
resided at Mitcham. Interesting himself in 
Surrey cricket, he helped to discover and 
bring out four Surrey professional cricketers 
of distinction — H. Jupp, Thomas and 
Richard Humphrey, and G. G. Jones. In 
later life Gale, after some years spent with 
a son in Canada, became in 1899 a brother 
of the Charterhouse, London. He died in 
the Charterhouse on 24 April 1904, and was 
buried beside his wife at Mitcham. Gale 
married in 1852 Claudia Fitzroy {d. 1874), 
daughter of Joseph Severn [q. v.] ; two 
sons and four daughters survived her. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information ; 
Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack, 1905 ; Hist, 
of Kent County Cricket, 1907.] P. N. 

GALLWEY, PETER (1820-1906), 
Jesuit preacher and writer, born on 13 Nov. 
1820, at Killarney, was son of an agent 
to the Earl of Kenmare. At the age of 
six he was placed at school in Boulogne. 
Thence he passed to Stonyhurst, where 
he entered the Society of Jesus in 1836. 
Having completed his studies in literature 
and philosophy, he was appointed in 1843 
to teach in the College of St. Francis Xavier, 
Liverpool, then at 36 Soho Street. In 1846 
he returned to Stonyhurst to take charge of 
the higher forms. Three years later he 
began his theological studies at St. Beuno's 
College, near St. Asaph, and here he was 
ordained priest in 1852. By 1855 his course 
of training was completed, and in that year 
he was appointed prefect of studies at 
Stonyhurst. He was an excellent school 
organiser, with a rare power of exciting 
enthusiasm among his pupils, but his 

peculiar gifts fitted him still better for the 
spiritual ministry. In 1857 he was trans - 
f erred^to London, and placed in charge of the 
community which served the Farm Street 
church. Here he remained till 1869, when 
he was appointed master of novices at 
Manresa House, Roehampton. In 1873 he 
was appointed provincial of the Jesuit body 
in England. At the beginning of his term 
of office the question of opening a Jesuit 
school in Manchester involved him in a 
controversy with the bishop of Salford, 
Herbert (afterwards Cardinal) Vaughan [q.v. 
Suppl. II] (see Snead-Cox's Life of Cardinal 
VaughaUf vol. i. chap. xii.). Despite epis- 
copal opposition the Jesuits persisted in 
opening their school, and Vaughan then 
appealed to the Pope. The issue was de- 
cided in Rome in June 1875, when the Jesuit 
school in Manchester was closed by order 
of the Holy See. At the end of his period 
of office as provincial Gallwey was named 
rector of the College of St. Beuno, but he 
held the post for only a year. In 1877 he 
returned to the Farm Street church, and 
there continued his labours till his death on 
23 Sept. 1906. 

GaUwey was an effective preacher, but the 
effect was due not so much to any devices 
of oratory as to the note of intense personal 
sincerity and profound religious convic- 
tion which characterised his sermons. The 
same may be said of his longer pubUshed 
works. Possessed of a considerable fund 
of Irish humour, he made good use 
of it in controversy. ' The Committee 
on Convents ' and other pamphlets issued 
in 1870 on the occasion of Mr. Newdegate's 
demand for the inspection of convents are 
noteworthy in this respect. Many of his 
funeral discourses on persons of note 
have been pubhshed. Of these may be 
mentioned that on Sir Charles Tempest 
(1865); on Hon. C. Langdale (1868); on 
Marcia Lady Herries (1883) ; on Lady 
Georgiana Fullerton (1885) ; on Mr. C. Weld 
(1885). Of his sermons on other subjects 
many have been issued in pamphlet form. 
The more important of his longer works are 
'The Angelus Bell,' five lectures (1869); 
'Lectures on Rituahsm' (2 vols. 1879); 
'ApostoHc Succession ' (1889) ; ' The Watches 
of the Sacred Passion ' (3 vols. 1894). 

[Father GaUwey, a Sketch, by Percy Fitz- 
gerald, 1906 ; Discourse at the Requiem Mass 
for Fr. GaUwey, by Rev. M. Gavin, S. J., 1906 ; 
The Times, 25 Sept. 1906.J T. A. F. 

GALTOIf, Sm FRANCIS (1822-1911), 
founder of the school of ' eugenics,' born at 
Birmingham on 16 Feb. 1822, was youngest 




of a family of four daughters and three 
sons born to Samuel Tertius Galton (178^ 
1S44), banker, and his wife Frances Anne 
Vloletta (1783-1874), daughter by a second 
m&rriago of Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731- 
1802) [q. v.], the philosophical poet and 
man of science. The Galtons were members 
of the Society of Friends, and many of 
them were men of ability, amassing 
considerable fortunes as gunsmiths and 
bankers. Through his mother he was 
also related to men and women of mark. 

After education at several small schools 
he was sent for two years (1836-8) to 
King Edward's School at Birmingham, 
but did not profit much from the classical 
curriculum in use there. Being intended 
for the medical profession, after preUminary 
apprenticeships to medical men at Birming- 
ham, he studied for a year (1839-40) at 
the medical school of King's College, 
London. In 1840 he made a rapid tour to 
Vienna, Constantinople, and Smyrna ; and 
at Michaelmas 1840 entered at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He there made friend- 
ships with many notable men and read 
mathematics under WilUam Hopkins (1793- 
1866) [q. v.], but illness prevented him from 
pursuing his course, and he took a 'poll' 
degree in 1844. 

In 1844 his father died, and he found 
himself with means sufficiently ample to 
allow him to abandon the proposed medical 
career. He accordingly made a somewhat 
adventurous journey up the Nile to Khartum 
and afterwards in Syria. On his return he 
devoted himself from 1845 to 1850 to sport, 
but as this did not satisfy his ambition he 
determined to make a voyage of explora- 
tion at his own expense. Damaraland 
in south-west equatorial Africa (now 
German territory), then quite unknown to 
the civilised world, was fixed on as the 
scene of his exploration. Landing at 
Walfish Bay, he penetrated far into the 
interior amid many dangers and hardships, 
and on his return he pubUshed an interesting 
account of his journey entitled ' Tropical 
South Africa ' (1853 ; 2nd edit. 1889). 

This journey made him well known as an 
explorer, and from this time he played an 
important part on the council of the Royal 
Geographical Society, only retiring when 
deafness impeded his usefulness at their 
deliberations. In 1856 he was elected 
F.R.S., and frequently served on the 
council of the Royal Society. 

As a result of his African journey he 
wrote a useful book, ' The Art of Travel ' 
(1855; latest edit. 1872, and latest reprint 
1893), describing artifices of use to travel- 

lers — a valuable vade-mecum for explorers. 
After his return from Africa, although he 
travelled extensively in Europe and be- 
came a member of the Alpine Club, he 
undertook no further exploration, because 
his health had suffered much from the 
hardships he had endured. 

Galton took an active part in the ad- 
ministration of science. From 1863 to 

1867 he was general secretary of the British 
Association ; he was four times a sectional 
president, and twice decUned the presidency. 
In 1863 he pubHshed * Meteorographica, 
or Methods of Mapping the Weather.' In 
this work he pointed out the importance 
of ' anticyclones ' (a word introduced by 
him), in which the air circulates clockwise 
(in the northern hemisphere) round a centre 
of high barometric pressure. This com- 
pleted the basis of the system of weather 
forecasting now in operation throughout 
the civihsed world. He also made other 
considerable contributions to meteorology. 
This work led to his membership from 

1868 to 1900 of the meteorological com- 
mittee and of the subsequent council, 
the governing body of the Meteorological 
Office. He had also previously been 
connected with Kew Observatory, an 
institution initiated by General Sir Edward 
Sabine (1788-1883) [q. v.] for magnetic 
and meteorological observations. He was 
a member of the Kew committee of the 
Royal Society from soon after its founda- 
tion, and was chairman from 1889 to 1901. 

Meteorology did not nearly suffice to 
occupy Galton's active mind ; already 
in 1865 he was occupied with those re- 
searches into the laws of heredity with 
which his name will always be associated. 
In the course of these investigations he 
was led to perceive the deficiency of 
tabulated data as to human attributes. 
He therefore initiated an anthropometric 
laboratory in connection with the Inter- 
national Health Exhibition of- 1884-6, 
for the purpose of collecting statistics as to 
the acuteness of the senses, the strength, 
height, and dimensions of large numbers 
of people. He devised the apparatus and 
organised the laboratory himself. When 
the exhibition was closed the laboratory 
was moved elsewhere, and it was the fore- 
runner of the biometric laboratory at 
University College, London. 

Among the data collected in this way 
were impressions of fingers, and Galton 
thought they might be used for identification- 
Sir William Herschel had previously wished 
to use the method in India, and Dr. Faulds 
had made a similar suggestion in England. 




Galton then confirmed earlier investigations 
which proved the permanence of finger- 
prints from youth to old age, and devis^ a 
dictionary of prints whereby an individual 
leaving a mark may surely be identified. 
The method is now in use in the criminal 
departments of every civihsed country. 
An account of Galton's work is contained 
in his ' Finger Prints ' (1893) ; ' Blurred 
Finger Prints ' (1893) ; and ' Finger Print 
Directory' (1895). 

It is due to Galton more than to any 
other man that many attributes generally 
regarded as only susceptible of^quahtative 
estimate have been reduced to measure- 
ment. For example, he showed how to 
obtain a nimierical measure of the degree 
of resemblance between two persons, and 
he made a map to show the geographical 
distribution of beauty in Great Britain. 
He devised the method of composite 
photographs in which each member of a 
group of persons makes an equal impress 
on the resulting portrait. Another attempt 
to annul the resemblance and to register only 
the individuahty was not very successful. 

To psychology Galton also made contri- 
butions which were important and very 
original. He showed that different minds 
work in different ways, and, for example, 
that visual images play a large part with 
some but not with others. He investigated 
visual memory as to illumination, defimtion, 
colouring, and the like, and the visions seen 
not very infrequently by the sane. Akin 
to this was an inquiry into the patterns 
or pictures associated in many minds with 
numbers. He also experimented on taste, 
on smell, on the muscular sense of weight, 
on the judgment of experts in guessing 
the weight of cattle, and on many cognate 
points. His investigations give him a high 
rank amongst experimental psychologists, 
and yet they were merely collateral to the 
main stream of his work. 

On the'pubhcation in 1859 of the ' Origin 
of Species ' by his cousin, Charles Robert 
Darwin (1809-1882) [q. v.], Galton at once 
became a convert to the views there 
enoimced and began reflecting on the 
influence of heredity on the human race. 
He had been impressed by his own obser- 
vation with the fact that distinction of 
any kind is apt to nm in famihes. He 
therefore made a series of statistical 
inquiries whereby he proved the heritability 
of genius of all kinds. These investiga- 
tions extended over forty years, and the 
results are set forth in his works : ' Here- 
ditary Genius' (1869); 'Enghsh Men of 
Science ' (1874) ; * Human Faculty ' (1883) 

* Natural Inheritance' (1889); and 'Note- 
worthy Famihes' (1906). 

Such investigations necessarily brought 
him to face the fundamental prmciples cf 
statistics, and although his mathematical 
equipment was inadequate he obtained x 
remarkably clear insight into the subject. 
In the hands of Karl Jb'earson and of othecj 
his work led to the formulation of new 
statistical methods. The leading point is 
that he showed how the degree of relation- 
ship between any pair of attributes or any 
pair of individuals may be estimated by 
a numerical factor termed the correlation. 
He also gave a niunerical estimate of the 
average contribution to each individual 
from liis two parents and his remoter 

Collateral to these researches were 
experiments on Darwin's theory of pan- 
genesis by transfusion of the blood of 
rabbits inter se ; the results were however 

The study of heredity led Galton to the 
conviction that the human race might 
gain an indeflnite improvement by breedmg 
trom the best and restricting the offspring 
of the worst. To this study he gave the 
name of ' eugenics,' and it is probably 
by this that he will be best known in the 
future. But he was under no illusion as 
to the rapidity with which favourable 
residts may be attained, and he foresaw 
that it would need a prolonged education 
before an adequate knowledge of the power 
of heredity shall permeate tne community. 
With the object of promoting this education 
he co-operated m the formation of 
' eugenic societies,' and estabhshed in 1904 
a eugenics laboratory to be worked in 
connection with the biometric laboratory 
mentioned above. He further founded in 
1904 a research fellowship and in 1907 a 
scholarship in eugenic researches at Univer- 
sity College. A quarterly journal entitled 
' Biometrika ' had already been initiated in 
1901, and he was ' consulting editor.' 

Galton received many honours, including 
medals from the Enghsh and French Geo- 
graphical Societies in 1853 and 1854 ; a royal 
medal of the Royal Society in 1876 ; Hux- 
ley medal of the Anthropological Institute 
in 1901 ; Darwin medal of the Royal Society 
in 1902 ; Darwin- Wallace medal of the 
Linnsean Society in 1908 ; and the Copley 
medal of the Royal Society in 1910. He was 
made Oflficier de I'lnstruction pubhque de 
France m 1891 ; hon. D.C.L. Oxford in 1894; 
hon. D.Sc. Cambridge in 1895 ; hon. feUow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1902 ; and 
was knighted by patent on 26 June 1909. 




Galton lived chiefly in London, and for 
the latter part of his life at Rutland (»ate, 
going much into society, principally in 
literary and scientific circles. He was 
universally popular and an excellent 
conversationalist, with a very keen sense 
of humour. During the last four or 
live years of his Ufe he became very infirm 
in body, although his intellect remained as 
clear as ever. He died on 17 Jan. 1911 of 
acute bronchitis at Grayshott House, 
Haslemere, a house ho had taken for the 
winter months. He was buried in the 
family vault at Claverdon near Warwick. 

On 1 Aug. 1853 Galton married Louisa 
Jane, daughter of George Butler (1774- 
1853) [q. v.], dean of Peterborough and 
previously headmaster of Harrow School. 
Mrs. Galton died on 13 Aug. 1897 at Royat 
after a long period of ill health ; she had 
no children. 

He left by will his residual estate, 
amounting to about 45,000/., for the 
foundation of a chair of eugenics in the 
University of London, and he wished Karl 
Pearson to be the first professor. The 
capital was to remain as far as possible 
untouched, and a laboratory was to be 
built from other sources. For the latter 
object a subscription has been started 
since his death. 

Portraits of Galton by O. Oakley (setat. 
22, water-colour) and by Charles WeUing- 
ton Furse in oils (1903) are in the possession 
of his nephew, Edward Galton Wheler, at 
Claverdon Leys, Warwick, and a copy of 
the latter by Francis William Carter hangs 
in the hall at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
There is a bronze bust of Galton by ISir 
George Frampton at University College, 
Gower Street, London. In 1908 he wrote 
an amusing work entitled ' Memories of 
my Life,' containing a complete Ust of his 
papers and books. 

[Memories of my Life ; personal knowledge 
and private information, A Life of Galton is 
being prepared by Professor Karl Pearson, 
F.R.S.] G. H. D. 

GALVIN, GEORGE. [See Leno, Dan, 

GAMGEE, ARTHUR (1841-1909), 
physiologist, bom at Florence on 10 Oct. 
1841, was youngest of the eight children 
of Joseph Gamgee (1801-1894) and Mary 
West. His father was a veterinary sur- 
geon and pathologist whose researches, 
particularly on rinderpest, brought him 
recognition both in this country and 
abroad. Joseph Sampson Gamgee (1828- 
1886) [q. v.] was an elder brother. 

Gamgee spent his oarly boyhood in 
Florence, and there imbibed a lifelong love 
of art and literature. When he waa 
fourteen his family returned to England 
and he entered University College school, 
London. Afterwards he proceeded to the 
University of Edinburgh, where he studied 
physics under Peter Guthrie Tait [q. v. 
Suppl. II]. On taking his medical degree 
there he was appointed house-physician to 
the Royal Infirmary. Physiology, especially 
on its chemical side, early interested him ; 
his inaugural thesis for the degree of M.D. 
was on the ' Contributions to the Chem- 
istry and Physiology of Foetal Nutrition ' ; 
it obtained the gold medal in 1862. 

From 1863 to 1869 Gamgee was assistant 
to Dr. Douglas Maclagan, professor of 
medical jurisprudence at Edinburgh, and 
was at the same time lecturer on physiology 
at the Royal College of Surgeons and 
physician to the Edinburgh hospital for 
children. But his interests were centred 
in research, and then and later he published 
various papers elucidating problems of 
physiological chemistry and of the pharma- 
cological action of chemical bodies. The 
most interesting of these were on 'The 
Action of the Nitrites on Blood ' in 1868, 
and on 'The Constitution and Relations 
of Cystine,' issued jointly with Professor 
James Dewar in 1871. 

In 1871 Gamgee worked with Kiihne at 
Heidelberg and with Ludwig at Leipzig, and 
in the same year he was acSnitted M.R.C.P. 
Edinburgh, becoming F.R.C.P. in 1872. In 
the latter year he was also elected F.R.S. at 
the early age of thirty. In 1873 he was 
appointed the first Brackenbury professor 
of physiology in the Owens College, Man- 
chester, now the Victoria University. He 
filled this post for twelve years, having Henry 
Roscoe, Balfour Stewart [q. v.], and Stanley 
Jevons[q. v.] among his colleagues, and he 
took his part with these men in making 
Owens College one of the most conspicuous 
scientific schools in the country. He worked 
with tireless enthusiasm as dean of the 
medical school, and sought with success to 
establish a working arrangement between the 
purely scientific and the apphed aspects of 
medicine. A brilliant teacher, he left his 
impress on many men who have since 
distinguished themselves. In 1882 he was 
president of the biological section of the 
British Association which met at Southamp- 
ton, and from 1882 to 1885 he was FuUerian 
professor of physiology at the Royal In- 
stitution, London. While in London he was 
admitted M.R.C.P. in 1885, and F.R.C.P. 
in 1896. 




Gamgee resigned his chair in Manchester 
in 1886, and practised for a time as a con- 
sulting physician at St. Leonards. He 
was appointed assistant physician to St. 
George's Hospital, London, in 1887, where 
he was also lecturer on pharmacology 
and materia medica in the medical school. 
On resigning these appointments in 1889 
he resumed his scientific work at Cam- 
bridge for a year, and then left England 
for Switzerland, residing first at Berne, 
then at Lausanne, and finally at Mon- 
treux, where he engaged in active practice 
as a consulting physician, devoting all 
his spare time to research in his own 
laboratory. In 1902 he visited the United 
States by invitation to inspect certain 
physiological laboratories where the work 
was chiefly directed towards the study 
of nutrition in health and disease. In 
the same year he delivered the Croonian 
lecture before the Royal Society on ' Certain 
Chemical and Physical Properties of Hssmo- 
globin.' He re-visited America in 1903, 
and at the celebration of Haller's bi- 
centenary at Berne he represented the 
Royal Society. 

He died of pneumonia while on a short 
visit to Paris on 29 March 1909, and was 
buried in the family vault in Amo's Vale 
cemetery, Bristol. He married in 1875 
Mary Louisa, daughter of J. Proctor Clark. 
His widow was granted a civil list pension 
of 70L in 1910. A son predeceased him 
and two daughters survived him. 

Research was Gamgee's main interest 
through life. His intimate knowledge of 
physics and chemistry was linked with ex- 
perience of German methods which he had 
gained more especially in the laboratories 
of his life-long friend, W. Kiihne, the pro- 
fessor of physiology at Heidelberg. Whilst 
lecturing at Manchester Gamgee prepared 
a translation of Ludimar Hermann's 
'Grundriss der Physiologic des Menschen' 
from the fifth German edition. This book, 
which appeared in 1875 (2nd edit. 1878), 
together with the publication of (Sir) 
Michael Foster's textbook of physiology in 
1876, powerfully influenced the develop- 
ment of physiological research in England. 
In 1880 Gamgee published the first volume 
of *A Textbook of the Physiological 
Chemistry of the Animal Body.' The 
second volume appeared in 1893. The pub- 
lication of this book marked an epoch in the 
progress of Enghsh physiological study. 

Certain parts of physiology possessed a 
peculiar fascination for Gamgee. Know- 
ledge of the physical and chemical pro- 
perties of haemoglobin" is largely due to 

him. He was engaged for many years on 
an elaborate research upon the diurnal 
variations of the temperature of the human 
body with specially devised apparatus for 
obtaining a continuous record through- 
out the twenty-four hours. The subject 
had always been in his mind since he had 
worked at Edinburgh under Tait. The 
paper recording his method and results 
appeared in the * Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society,' 1908, series B. vol. cc, 
but his death cut short the investigation. 
Gamgee believed that physiology stood 
in an intimate relation to the practice of 
medicine and that scientific training in a 
laboratory was essential to the advance 
of medicine. An excellent linguist, he 
could lecture fluently in French, German, 
and Italian. His conscientious modes of 
work relegated nothing of it to others ; 
he did everything with his own hands. 

Apart from the publications already 
mentioned, numerous contributions to the 
Proceedings of scientific societies and to 
scientific journals, Gamgee issued in 1884 
*iPhysiology of Digestion and the Digestive 

[Lancet, 1909, i. 1144 (with portrait and 
bibUography) ; Brit. Med. Journal, 1909, i. 933 ; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 

D'A. P. 

RIGUEZ] (1805-1906), singer and teacher 
of singing, born at Zafra in Catalonia on 17 
March 1805, belonged to a family of Spanish 
musicians. His father, Manuel del Popolo 
Vicente Garcia (1775-1832), made a reputa- 
tion as singer, impresario, composer and 
teacher of singing. His mother, Joaquina 
Sitch^s, was an accomplished actress. 
Manuel was the only son. Both his sisters, 
Maria Felicita (Madame Mahbran) (1808-36) 
and Michelle Ferdinande Pauhne (Madame 
Viardot-Garcia) (1821-1910), achieved the 
highest eminence as operatic singers. All 
three children were educated by their 
parents. At fifteen Manuel was studying 
harmony with Fetis in Paris and singing in 
opera with his father at Madrid. In 1825 
the family migrated to America, and at New 
York the father founded an opera house. 
After eighteen months of brilliant success 
the company toured to Mexico, where they 
were robbed of their earnings — some 6000Z., 
it is said, in gold. They then returned 
to Paris, where the father pursued his 
career, but young Manuel, having no taste 
for the stage, became a teacher. In 1830 
he temporarily interrupted his musical 
workj^to^ accept an ' appointment in the 
commissariat of the French army at Algiers, 




and on his return studied medioine in the 

military hospitals of Paris (art. in Musical 
Times, April 1905). In 1840 ho presented 
to the French Institut his ' Memoire sur la 
voix humaino,' wliich was accepted as 
the best authority on the subject. Ap- 
pointed to a professorship at the Paris 
Conservatoire, ho attracted many dis- 
tinguished pupils, including Jenny Lind, 
whom he instructed in Paris from 26 Aug. 
1841 to July 1842 (of. Holland and 
RocKSTBo's Jennij Lind Ooldschmidt, 1891, 
i. 109 seq.). In 1847 he published his world- 
famous ' Traite complet de I'art du chant,' 
of which a simplified abstract appeared as 
' Hints on Singing ' in 1894. In both the 
Uterary and artistic society of Paris Garcia 
filled a prominent place. Early in 1848 he 
resigned his position at the Conservatoire, 
and came to London in June. On 10 Nov. 
he was appointed a professor of singing 
at the Royal Academy of Music. He 
had long closely studied the physiology of 
the voice, and in 1854, for the purpose of 
examining his own larynx and that of 
some of his pupils, he invented the instru- 
ment since known as the larjmgoscope. 
On 24 May 1855 he communicated to the 
Royal Society, through Dr. WiUiam Sharpey 
[q. v.], a paper called ' Observations on the 
Human Voice.' There he explained his 
invention, which proved of enormous value 
in the diagnosis of disease and in surgery 
{Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. 7, p. 399). After 
undergoing some improvement in 1857 by 
Johann Czermak of Pesth (1828-1873), the 
laryngoscope came into universal use as 
a m^cal and surgical appliance. Garcia 
held his professorship at the Royal Academy 
of Music for forty-seven years, only retiring 
in September 1895, at the age of ninety. 
But his bodily and mental activity seemed 
even then unimpaired, and he continued to 
teach privately and to maintain an interest 
in musical affairs until his death at Mon 
Abri, his house at Cricklewood, on 1 July 
1906, at the age of 101 years and four 
months. He was buried in the private 
Roman cathohc burying-ground of St. 
Edward's, Sutton Place, near Woking. 
On 17 March 1905, his hundredth birth- 
day, he was received at Buckingham 
Palace by King Edward VII, who made 
him a C.V.O. ; the German Emperor 
WiUiam II conferred on him the gold medal 
for science; the King of Spain admitted 
him to the order of Alphonso XII ; the 
KLing of Sweden created him chevaher de 
I'ordre de merite ; a banquet which was 
attended by many distinguished persons was 
held in his honour ; and his portrait, painted 

by John S. Sargent, R.A., was presented 

to him. 

^ For more than ^ half a ', century Garcia 
held, by general consent, the position of 
premier singing-teacher in the world. In 
person he was, from youth to old age, 
extremely handsome, with all his father's 
fiery and impetuous disposition. His chief 
recreation was chess. Mr. C. E. Halle owns 
a sketch by Richard Doyle of Garcia and 
his friend, Sir Charles Hall6, at a game, 
wliich is reproduced in MacKinlay's * Life,' 
p. 222. There is also a crayon sketch of 
Garcia, made by his sister PauUne soon 
after the invention of the larjmgoscope. A 
portrait by Rudolf Lehmann was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1869. 
Sargent's portrait Garcia left to the Laryngo- 
logical Society. 

Garcia married at Paris on 22 Nov. 1832 
C6cile Eugenie Mayer {b. 8 April 1814 ; 
d. 18 Aug. 1880), by whom he had two 
sons — ^Manuel (1836-1885) and Gustav, a 
well-known singing teacher (6. 1837) — 
and two daughters — Maria (1842-1867) and 
Eugenie {b. 1844). 

[M. Sterling MacKinlay, Garcia the Cen- 
tenarian and his times, 1908 ; A. G. Tapia, 
Manuel Garcia ; su influencia en la laringologia 
y en el arte del canto, Madrid, 1905 ; Grove's 
Diet, of Music ; Mus. Times, April 1905 (with 
reproduction of Sargent's portrait) ; personal 
knowledge ; private information.] F. C. 


(1829-1902), historian, bom at Ropley, near 
Alresford, in Hampshire, on 4 March 1829, 
was eldest son of Rawson Boddam Gardiner 
by his wife Margaret, daughter of William 
Baring Gould. His gran^ather, Samuel 
Gardiner of Coombe Lodge, Whitchurch, 
was high sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1794 ; 
his paternal grandmother, Mary Boddam, 
was descended from Bridget, eldest daughter 
of the Protector Cromwell, by her marriage 
with Henry Ireton. This pedigree, which 
has not been pubhshed, was carefully 
worked out by Colonel J. L. Chester. 
Gardiner was educated at Winchester 
College, wliich he entered about Michaelmas 
1841, and matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, in October 1847 (J. B. Waine 
WRIGHT, Winchester College, 1830-1906 ; 
Foster, Alumni Oxonienses). In 1850 he 
was given a studentship, and in 1851 he 
obtained a first class in the school of literse 
humaniores. He graduated B.A. in 1851, 
but did not proceed M.A, till 1884, and 
was for theological reasons unable to retain 
his studentship. His parents were Irving- 
ites ; he married in 1866 [the youngest 




daughter of Edward Irving, and was from 
1851 to 1866 a deacon in the Irvingite 
church. His name was removed from the 
church register before 1872. 

After his marriage Gardiner settled in Lon- 
don, and while maintaining himself largely 
by teaching began to study EngHsh history. 
He was admitted to read in the British 
Museum on 8 Nov. 1856, and to the Record 
Office on 1 July 1858. His desire from the 
first was to write the history of the Puritan 
revolution, but he thought it necessary to 
begin by studying the reign of James I. 

* It seemed to me,' he afterwards wrote, 
' that it was the duty of a serious inquirer 
to search into the original causes of great 
events rather than, for the sake of catching 
at an audience, to rush unprepared upon 
the great events themselves.' The first- 
fruits of these researches were some articles 
pubhshed in ' Notes and Queries ' during 
1860, which explained the causes of the 
quarrel between James and his parHament 
and threw fresh hght on his policy towards 
the Roman cathoHcs. , Next, at the in- 
stigation of John Bruce (1802-1869) [q. v.], 
then director of the Camden Society, 
Gardiner edited for that body in 1862 a 
volume of reports and documents, entitled 

* Parliamentary Debates in 1610.' In 
1863 the first instalment of his history 
appeared, ' A History of England from the 
Accession of James I to the Disgrace of 
Chief Justice Coke, 1603-1616 ' (2 vols.). 
This was followed in 1869 by ' Prince Charles 
and the Spanish Marriage ' (2 vols.). The 
reception of these books would have dis- 
couraged most men. About a hundred 
copies of the first work were sold, but most 
of the edition went for waste paper ; the 
second had a circulation of about 500, but 
did not bring the author anything. Gardiner 
persevered, and his third instalment, pub- 
lished in 1875, ' A History of England under 
the Duke of Buckingham and Charles I, 
1624^1628 ' (2 vols.), paidits expenses. The 
fourth instalment, ' The Personal Govern- 
ment of Charles I ' (2 vols. 1877), and the 
fifth, ' The FaU of the Monarchy of Charles I ' 
(2 vols. 1882), produced some small profit. 
This portion of his history was reissued under 
the title of * History of England, 1603- 
1640 ' (10 vols. 1883-4). The next portion 
of his history consisted of three volumes 
issued separately in 1886, 1889, and 1891, 
under the title of ' The Great Civil War,' 
followed finally by three other volumes, 
called ' The History of the Commonwealth 
and Protectorate,' in 1895, 1897, and 1901. 

The regular production of these sixteen 
volumes was made possible by Gardiner's 

methodical and strenuous industry. He 
examined systematically every source of 
information. He studied in the archives 
of different European capitals papers 
illustrating the diplomatic history of the 
Stuart period, and he presented to the 
British Museum two volumes of tran- 
scripts which he had made at Simancas, 
besides other documents copied elsewhere 
(Add. MSS. 31111-2). For many years 
he lived in Gordon Street, within easy reach 
of the British Museum and the Record 
Office ; subsequently, while residing in suc- 
cession at Bromley, Bedford, and Seven- 
oaks, he came up to London nearly every 
day to work in those two storehouses of 
historical materials. His chief recreation 
was cycHng, and in his holidays he 
famiharised himself with the battle-fields 
of the Enghsh civil war and followed the 
campaigns of Montrose in Scotland and 
of Cromwell in Ireland. During the 
greater part of the period in which the 
history was produced Gardiner was actively 
engaged in teaching. From 1872 to 1877 
he was a lecturer at King's College, London, 
and in 1877 he succeeded John Sherren 
Brewer [q. v.] there as professor of modern 
history. Between 1877 and 1894 he 
lectured regularly for the Society for the 
Extension of University Teaching in Lon- 
don. He also taught at Bedford College 
(1863-81) and in private schools near 
London, and lectured at To3nibee Hall. 

Gardiner liked teaching and was an 
admirable popular lecturer. He used 
no notes and spoke in a simple, con- 
versational manner, arranging his facts 
very clearly, and weaving the different 
threads of the subject into a connected 
whole with remarkable skill. His eleva- 
tion of tone and his breadth of view made 
his verdicts on statesmen and his exposition 
of principles impressive as well as con- 
vincing. The six lectures on ' Cromwell's 
Place in History,' given at Oxford in 1896, 
are a good example of his style, though 
they are not printed exactly as they were 
delivered, because they were not written 
till he was asked by his audience to publish 

Besides teaching, Gardiner found time to 
write a number of historical text-books. 
To the ' Epochs of English History,' 
pubhshed by Longmans, he contributed 
in 1874 ' The Thirty Years' War,' and in 
1876 'The Puritan Revolution' (15th 
impression 1902). He was the author 
of an ' Outhne of English History for 
Children' (1881 ; new edit. 1901) and of 
a ' Student's History of England ' for the 




higher classes in schools (3 vols. 1890). 
Ho also selected and edited, for use in the 
Modem History School at Oxford, a 
volume of ' Constitutional Documents of 
the Puritan Revolution ' (1889 ; 3rd edit. 
1906). These and other excellent text- 
books enjoyed a wide circulation. * The 
Puritan Revolution ' was translated into 
Russian, and portions of the * OutUne ' were 
edited as a reading book for German schools. 

In spite of the claims of his history 
and of liis educational work, Gardiner con- 
trived to take a leading part in all enter- 
prises for the promotion of learning. From 
1873 to 1878 he edited the historical depart- 
ment of the * Academy.' To the * Revue 
Historique ' between 1876 and 1881 he 
supplied a series of ' bulletins ' on the 
progress of historical literature in England. 
From the foundation of the ' English 
Historical Review ' in 1886 he was one of 
its chief contributors, and from 1891 to 
1901 its editor. He was director of the 
Camden Society from 1869 to 1897, editing 
for it no fewer than twelve volumes besides 
numerous contributions to its miscellanies. 
He edited two volumes of documents for the 
Navy Records Society and one for the 
Scottish History Society, and was a member 
of the council of each of these bodies. To 
this Dictionary he contributed twenty-one ] 
lives, and he wrote numerous articles for i 
the ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica.' Nor was it only by his 
writings that he forwarded scholarship. 
He could always find time to help other 
historians, and no one was more quick to 
recognise the merits of a beginner or so ready 
to give him advice and encouragement. 

Recognition came slowly to Gardiner, 
who, in spite of his eminence as an historian, 
long maintained himself mainly by teach- 
ing and literary work, neither holding any 
post worthy of his powers nor receiving 
any aid from the endowments designed to 
promote learning. In 1878 Lord Acton 
unsuccessfully pressed Sir George Jessel, 
the master of the rolls, to appoint Gardiner 
deputy keeper in succession to Sir T. D. 
Hardy. In 1882, at Acton's instigation, 
Gladstone conferred upon Gardiner a 
civil list pension of 150^ a year (Paul, 
Letters of Lord Acton to Mary Gladstone, 
1904, pp. 129, 149). In 1884 AU Souls 
College, Oxford, elected Gardiner to a 
research fellowship of the value of 200/. 
a year, in order to help him to continue 
his investigations. In 1892, when his 
tenure of that fellowship ended, he was 
elected by Merton College to a similar 
position, which he retained till his death. 

Many honorary distinctions were also con- 
ferred upon him at homo and abroad. The 
academies or historical societies of various 
foreign countries elected him a member, 
as a recognition of the light his researches 
had thrown upon parts of their national 
history, viz. Bohemia (1870 ?), Massachu- 
setts (1874), Copenhagen (1891), Upsala 
(1893), and Utrecht (1900). In 1887 the 
University of Gottingen gave him the 
degree of doctor of philosophy ; Edinburgh 
that of LL.D. in 1881, Oxford that of 
D.C.L. in 1895, and Cambridge that of 
Litt.D. in 1899. 

In 1894, on the death of Froude, Lord 
Rosebery offered Gardiner the regius pro- 
fessorship of modem history. He refused 
it, because he mshed to reserve his time 
and strength for the completion of his 
book, and was reluctant to leave London, 
which was the most convenient place for 
his work. He consented, however, to fill 
in 1896 the newly created post of Ford 
lecturer at Oxford, and delivered the single 
course of lectures which was required, 
on ' Cromwell's Place in History ' (3rd edit. 
1897). During the later years of his 
life he published only two works of im- 
portance apart from the continuation 
of his history — a monograph on Crom- 
well for Goupil's series of illustrated 
biographies (1899 ; translated into German 
in 1903, with a preface by Professor 
Alfred Stem of Zurich) and a critical 
examination of the history of the gun- 
powder plot (1897) in answer to Father 
Gerard's endeavour to prove that the 
plot was devised by the government for 
its own ends. 

By this time Gardiner's health was 
beginning to fail. He had intended to carry 
his history down to the restoration of 
Charles II, but he finally resolved to end it 
with the death of Cromwell. The third 
volume of the ' Commonwealth and Pro- 
tectorate,' which brought the story down 
to the summer of 1656, was published in 
January 1901 (new edit. 4 vols. 1903). 
In March Gardiner was stricken by 
partial paralysis, and though he rallied 
for a time was never able to work again. 
A chapter of the history, which he left 
in manuscript, was published in 1903, 
and in accordance with his desires the 
book was completed by the present writer 
in his ' Last Years of the Protectorate ' 
(2 vols. 1909). 

Gardiner died at Sevenoaks on 23 Feb. 
1902, a few days before the conclusion of 
his seventy- third year. He married ( 1 ) in 
1856 Isabella, youngest daughter of Edward 




Irving: she died in 1878; (2) in 1882 
Bertha Meriton Cordery, who survived 
him and was granted a civil list pension 
of 751. in 1903. He left six sons and two 

Gardiner was buried at Sevenoaks, and 
tablets in memory of him were placed in 
the cloisters of Christ Church and in Win- 
chester Cathedral. His best memorial is 
his history. Its pages reveal the thorough- 
ness of his workmanship and his single- 
minded devotion to truth. The book 
was based on a mass of materials hitherto 
unknown or imperfectly utilised, and 
those materials were weighed and sifted 
with scientific skill. Each new edition 
was corrected with conscientious care as 
fresh evidence came to light. In his 
narrative minute accuracy and wide re- 
search were combined with sound judg- 
ment, keen insight, and a certain power 
of imagination. Earlier historians of the 
period, and some of Gardiner's own con- 
temporaries, had written as partisans. 
Gardiner succeeded in stating fairly and 
sympathetically the position and the aims 
of both parties. He did not confine him- 
self to relating facts, but traced the growth 
of the religious and constitutional ideas 
which underlay the conflict. No side of 
the national life was neglected. He won 
the praise of experts by his accounts of 
military and naval operations, elucidated 
continually the economic and social history 
of the time, and was the first to show the 
interaction of EngHsh and continental 
politics. The result of his labours was 
to make the period he treated better 
known and better understood than any 
other portion of English history. A nar- 
rative which fills eighteen volumes and 
took forty years to write is necessarily 
somewhat unequal as a literary composi- 
tion. Many critics complained that 
Gardiner's style lacked the picturesque- 
ness and vivacity of Macaulay or Froude ; 
others that his method was too chrono- 
logical. There was truth in both criticisms ; 
but the chronological method was chosen 
because it enabled the historian to show 
the development of events far better than 
a more artificial arrangement would have 
done. He sought to interest his readers 
by his lucid exposition of facts and the 
justice of his reflections rather than by 
giving history the charms of fiction, and 
was content with the distinction of being 
the most trustworthy of nineteenth-century 

[Personal knowledge ; The Times, 25 Feb. 
1902; Athenaeum, 1 March 1902; English 

Hist. Rev., April 1902 ; Quarterly Rev., April 
1902; Atlantic Monthly, May 1902; Proc. 
Brit; Acad. 1903-4 ; Revue Historique, Ixxix. 
232; Historische Zeitschrift, Ixxxix. 190; 
Historisch-politische Blatter, cxxix. 7 ; J. F. 
Rhodes, Historical Essays, 1909 ; a biblio- 
graphy of Gardiner's historical writings, 
compiled by Dr. W. A. Shaw, was pubHshed 
by^the Royal Historical Society in 1903.] 

C. H. F. 

GARGAlSr, DENIS (1819-1903), presi- 
dent of Maynooth College, born at Duleek, 
CO. Meath, in June 1819, was second son 
of Patrick Gargan and Jane Branagan. 

Destined by his parents for the priest- 
hood, he was sent at an early age to St. 
Finian's seminary, Navan. On 25 Aug. 
1836 he entered St. Patrick's College, 
Maynooth, where he showed much promise, 
especially in physics and astronomy. He 
was ready for ordination before the canon- 
ical age. Ordained by Archbishop Daniel 
Murray on 10 June 1843, Gargan was sent 
to the Irish College, Paris, where he taught 
physics and astronomy till 1845. In that 
year he was appointed professor of humanity 
in Maynooth, and in 1859 he succeeded 
Matthew Kelly [q. v.] as professor of 
ecclesiastical history at the college. After 
many years of notable success in this 
position, he was in 1885 made vice-presi- 
dent of the college, and in 1894 became 
its president. Two historic events hap- 
pened during his presidency, namely, the 
centenary celebration of the college foun- 
dation in 1895, and the visit of King 
Edward VII and Queen Alexandra in 1903. 
His management of both ceremonies 
was dignified and impressive. He died at 
Maynooth on 26 Aug. 1903, after sixty 
years' association with the college. 

Though a man of wide and accurate 
scholarship, Gargan published only two 
books, ' The Charity of the Church a 
Proof of its Divinity,' a translation from 
the Italian of Cardinal Balluffi (1885), and 
' The Ancient Church of Ireland, a Few 
Remarks on Dr. Todd's " Memoirs of the 
Life and Times of St. Patrick " ' (Dubhn, 

[Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 1903, pp. 481- 
492 ; Freeman's Journal, 27 Aug. 1903 ; The 
Times, 28 Aug. 1903 ; Centenary History of 
Maynooth College, by Archbishop Healy.] 

D. J. O'D. 

GARNER, THOMAS (183^-1906), 
architect, son of Thomas Garner by his 
wife Louisa Savage, was born at Wasperton 
Hill, Warwickshire, on 12 Aug. 1839. 
Brought up in country surroundings, he 
acquired as a boy a love of riding and 




a knowledge of horsemanship which he 
retained through life. At the age of seven- 
teen (1856) ho entered as a pupil the office 
of (Sir) George Gilbert Scott [q. v.], where 
he was a fellow student with Mr. Thomas 
Graham Jackson, R.A.. Mr. Somers Clarke, 
and John Thomas Micklethwaito [q. v. 
Suppl. II]. He had already made the 
acquaintance of George Frederick Bodley, 
R.A. [q. V. Suppl. fl], who had served 
articles in the same office. After com- 
pletion of his pupilage Garner returned 
to Warwickshire, and there began architec- 
tural practice, partly on his own account, 
partly as an assistant to Scott. 

In 1868 Bodley sought his collaboration, 
and in 1869 they became partners, without 
any legal deed of association. A series of 
beautiful works in ecclesiastical, domestic 
and collegiate architecture was the result 
of this combination [see for description 
Bodley, George Frederick, Suppl. 11]. 
The fine churches of the Holy Angels, Hoar 
Cross, St. Augustine, Pendlebury, and St. 
German, Roath, are the chief buildings of 
definitely united authorship. During the 
partnership it was the practice of the two to 
give separate attention to separate works, 
and among the buildings which under this 
system fell mainly if not entirely to Garner's 
share the chief were St. Swithun's Quad- 
rangle at Magdalen College, Oxford ; the 
small tower in the S.E. angle of ' Tom ' 
Quad, Christ Church ; St. Michael's Church, 
Camden Town ; Hewell Grange, a house for 
Lord Windsor ; the reredos in St. Paul's 
Cathedral ; the monuments of the bishops 
of Ely, Lincoln, and Chichester in their 
respective cathedrals, and that of Canon 
Liddon in St. Paul's. Other designs in which 
it appears that Gamer's authorship was 
either sole or predominant were : churches 
at Bedworth, Peasdown, and Camerton ; 
additions to Bosworth Hall, a house at 
Godden Green, Kent; the reconstruction 
of the chapel at St. Catharine's College, 
Cambridge; class-rooms, chapel, &c., at 
Marlborough College; the altar of King's 
College, Cambridge ; and the restoration of 
Garner's own Jacobean home, Fritwell 
Manor House, Oxfordshire. After the 
perfectly friendly dissolution of partnership 
in 1897 Garner carried out as his own 
work exclusively Yarnton Manor, Oxford- 
shire; the Slipper Chapel, Houghton-le- 
dale ; Moreton House, Hampstead ; and the 
Empire Hotel, Buxton. 

With his partner Bodley, Gamer was 
regarded for many years as an autho- 
ritative ecclesiastical artist. Together they 
were responsible not only for many new 

buildings but also for the decoration, 
often the transforraatioii, of buildings of 
earUer date. In 1902 Garner designed the 
cope worn by the dean of Westminster at 
the coronation of Edward VII. In his 
later years Gamer joined the Church of 
Rome, and after the death of Edward 
Hansom he wafl appointed architect 
to Downside Priory, Bath, where he 
designed the choir in which his own inter- 
ment was to take place. It is said that 
when John Francis Bentley [q. v. Suppl. II], 
the architect of the cathedral at West- 
minster, became aware of his own fatal 
illness, he suggested in answer to the ques- 
tion who should be his successor, * Gamer, 
for he is a man of genius.' 

Garner died on 30 April 1906 at Fritwell 
Manor. He married in 1866 Rose Emily, 
daughter of the Rev. J. N. Smith of Milver- 
ton, Leamington Spa; she survived him 
without issue. 

His residence was for a time at 20 Church 
Row, Hampstead, and his office was in 
Gray's Inn. His art collection was sold in 
January 1907. 

' The Domestic Architecture of England 
during the Tudor Period,' a joint work 
by Garner and Mr. A. Stratton, was 
published in 1908, after Gamer's death, 
under Mr. Stratton's editorship. 

[Builder, xc. 623, 531 (1906) ; information 
from Mrs. Gamer and from Mr. Edward 
Warren.] P. W. 

GARNETT, RICHARD (1835-1906), 
man of letters and keeper of printed books 
at the British Museum, born in Beacon 
Street, Lichfield, on 27 Feb. 1835, was 
elder son of Richard Gamett [q. v.] by his 
wife Rayne, daughter of Jolm Wreaks of 
Sheffield. His uncles Jeremiah Gamett and 
Thomas Gamett (1799-1878) are, like his 
father, noticed separately. Three years 
after his birth his father removed with his 
family to London on becoming assistant 
keeper of printed books at the British 
Museum. Richard was chiefly educated 
at home, but he spent some time at the 
Rev. C. M. Marcus's small private school 
in CaroUne Street, Bedford Square, where 
his companions included Sir John Everett 
Millais [q. v. Suppl. I], Edward Hayes 
Plumptre [q. v.], and William Jackson 
Brodribb [q. v. Suppl. 11]. He was also 
for a term at the end of 1850 at Whalley 
grammar school. Gamett showed excep- 
tional intellectual precocity as a boy. 
He inherited his father's faculty for 
acquiring languages, and before he was 
fourteen he had read for his own amuse- 




ment the whole of the * Poetae Scenici 
Graeci,' Diodoras Siculus's History, the 
works of Boiardo, Ariosto, and Tasso, and 
the stories of Tieck and Hoffmann. All 
his life he studied not only the classics 
but the literature of France, Germany, 
Italy, and Spain. His interest in current 
affairs was at the same time singularly 
active in youth, and he assimilated with 
avidity details of home and foreign poUtics 
and records of sport. 

After his father's death in Sept. 1850 he 
declined, from a confirmed if somewhat pre- 
cocious distrust of the educational efficiency 
of both Oxford and Cambridge, his kinsfolks* 
proposal that he should prepare for one of 
the universities. In the autumn of 1851, 
through the good offices of Anthony Panizzi 
[q. v.], his father's colleague at the British 
Museum, he became an assistant in the 
library there. With the British Museum he 
was closely identified for the greater part 
of his career. His first employment was in 
copying titles for the catalogue, but he was 
soon engaged in the more responsible task of 
revising the titles. Panizzi quickly recognised 
his ability, and entrusted him with the duty 
of classifying fresh acquisitions and placing 
them on the shelves. Panizzi won his whole- 
hearted admiration, and he set himself 
to carry on the traditions which Panizzi 
initiated at the museum. After devoting 
twenty years to subordinate labour at the 
museum, he was made in 1875 assistant 
keeper of printed books and superintendent 
of the reading-room. In spite of his shy 
and nervous manner he at once won golden 
opinions by the courteous readiness with 
which he placed his multifarious stores 
of knowledge at the disposal of readers. 
He was soon engaged on a heavy piece of 
work which added materially to the use- 
fulness of the library to the pubHc. In 
1881 the printing of the general catalogue 
of books which had been suspended since 
1841 was resumed. The superintendence 
of the enterprise fell to Garnett. He 
devoted immense energy to this great 
undertaking. In order to concentrate his 
energies upon it, he in 1884 retired from 
the reading-room, and was mainly occupied 
in editing the catalogue until 1890. In 
that year he was appointed keeper of 
printed books, and the catalogue was com- 
pleted by other hands. 

In 1882 Garnett was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the librarianship of the 
Bodleian Hbrary, Oxford, but his promotion 
to the headship of his department at the 
British Museum fully satisfied his ambitions. 
Many important additions were made to 

the library under his rule. ' A Description 
of Three Hundred Notable Books ' (which 
he purchased for the museum during his 
term of office) was privately printed in 
1899 in honour of his services on his re- 
tirement, and proves the catholicity and 
soundness of his judgment. He was keenly 
aUve to the need of providing room 
for future accessions to the library, and 
in 1887 introduced 'the sliding press,' 
which greatly economised the space at 
his disposal. In 1899, a year before he 
attained the regulation age for retirement, 
he resigned his post, owing to his wife's 
failing health, after forty-eight years' 
service at the museum. Bishop Creighton 
called him ' the ideal librarian ' — a title 
which was well justified by his width of 
literary knowledge and his zealous desire 
to adapt the national library to all reason- 
able public requirements. Although he 
was not a scientific bibliographer, he was 
interested in the purely professional side of 
his work, and won the regard of his fellow- 
librarians. In 1892-3 he was president of 
the Library Association of the United King- 
dom, to whose * Transactions ' he frequently 
contributed. He edited a series of ' Library 
Manuals ' and was president of the Biblio- 
graphical Society in 1895-7. 

From early days Garnett devoted his 
leisure to literature, and during his career 
at the museum steadily won a general 
reputation as a man of letters. After his 
retirement from the museum his pen was 
exceptionally busy, and his literary work 
was in unceasing demand until his death. 

In letters addressed between 1851 and 
1864 to his younger brother, W. J. Garnett, 
who was then in Australia, he described 
his first literary endeavours as well as the 
varied experiences of his bachelor days in 
London. These letters, which have not been 
published, are now in the British Museum 
{Add. MS. 37489). Setting out with poetic 
ambitions which he never wholly abandoned, 
he published anonymously in 1858 his first 
volume, ' Primula ; a Book of Lyrics.' 
This reappeared under his own name with 
additions next year as ' lo in Egypt, and 
other Poems,' and was thoroughly revised 
for a third issue in 1893. There followed 
' Poems from the German' (1862) ; ' Idylls 
and Epigrams, chiefly from the Greek 
Anthology ' (1869 ; republished as ' A 
Chaplet from the Greek Anthology,' 
1892) ; ' Iphigenia in Delphi ' (1891) ; ' One 
Hundred and Twenty-four Sonnets from 
Dante, Petrarch, and Camoens ' (1896) ; 
'The Queen and other Poems' (1901); 
a dramatic jeu d'esprit in blank verse called 




* Williaan Shakespeare, Pedagogue and 
Poacher' (1904); and finally ' De flagello 
myrteo' (1905; new edit. 1906), a collec- 
tion (in prose form but of poetic temper) 
of three hundred and sixty rather suotle 

* thoughts and fancies on love.' Gamett's 
verse displays a cultured, even fastidious, 
taste and much metrical facility, but touch 
of it is a graceful and melodious echo 
of wide reading rather than original im- 
aginative effort. The thought at times 
strikes a cynical note. Probably his most 
valuable poetic work was done in translation. 

In prose Garnett's labours were exten- 
sive and unusually versatile. He was from 
early manhood a voluminous contributor 
to periodicals. At the outset he wrote for 
the ' Literary Gazette ' when owned by 
LoveU Reeve, and for the ' Examiner.' 
Subsequently he regularly wrote on Ger- 
man literature for the ' Saturday Review.' 
Articles from his pen appeared from time to 
time in * Macmillan's Magazine,' in ' Temple 
Bar,' and ' Eraser's Magazine.' At a later 
period he wrote critical introductions to 
innumerable popular reprints of standard 
books, and he diversified literary criticisms 
with many excursions into biography. In 
the * Great Writers ' series he published 
monographs on ' Milton ' (1887), on * Car- 
lyle,' which was drastically reduced before 
publication (1887), and on 'Emerson' 
(1888). To this Dictionary and to the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' he suppUed 
very many memoirs. He had no great 
powers of research and was prone to 
rely for his facts on his retentive 
memory, but his biographical work was 
invariably that of a tasteful, discrimina- 
ting, and well-informed compiler. His 
range of biographical interest extended far 
beyond men of letters, and his biographies 
include those of Edward Gibbon Wake- 
field, the colonial pioneer (1898), and of 
William Johnson Fox, the social reformer 
(pubUshed posthumously and completed 
by Garnett's son Edward in 1910). 

Gamett's most important publications 
were the volumes entitled ' Relics of 
Shelley' (1862) and 'The Twilight of the 
Gods ' (1903). The former was a small col- 
lection of unpubUshed verse by the poet, 
which Garnett discovered among the poet's 
MSS. and notebooks, which had belonged to 
Shelley's widow, and passed on her death 
in 1851 to his son. Sir Percy Shelley. 
With Shelley he had many affinities. His 
good fortune in discovering the poet's 
unknown work gave great satisfaction to 
Sir Percy and to his wife, Lady Shelley. 
Garnett became their intimate friend, and 

VOL. Lxviii. — SUP. n. 

they attested their regard for him bv pre- 
senting him with Shelley's notebooka. 
These fetched 3000/. at the sale of Gamett's 
library after his death. Lady Shelley 
pressed on Gamett the task of preparing 
the full Ufe of her father-in-law, but other 
engagements compelled him to yield the 
labour to Prof. Edward Dowden. Gamett's 
' The Twilight of the Gods' is a series of semi- 
classical or oriental apologues of pleasantly 
cynical flavour in the vein of Lucian. 
The book came out in 1888, and attracted 
no attention, though the earl of Lytton, 
then English ambassador at Paris, promptly 
recognised in a long letter to the author the 
fascination of its imaginative power and dry 
humour. A reprint in 1903 was welcomed bv 
a large audience and estabUshed Gamett s 
reputation as a resoiurceful worker in fiction 
and a shrewd observer of human nature. 

Among Garnett's later works were a 
useful ' History of Itahan Literature ' 
(1897), and he joined Mr. Edmund Gosse 
in compiUng an ' Illustrated Record of 
English Literature* (in 4 vols.); vols. i. 
and ii. were from Gamett's pen (1903). 

Gamett cherished a genuine and some- 
what mystical sense of religion which com- 
bined hostility to priestcraft and dogma 
with a modified belief in astrology. He 
explained his position in an article in the 
' University Magazine ' (1880), published 
under the pseudonym of A. G. Trent, which 
was re-issued independently in 1893 as 
' The Soul and the Stars ' ; it was translated 
into German in 1894. Gamett maintained 
that astrology was * a physical science just 
as much as geology,' but he gave no credit 
to its alleged potency as a fortime-telling 

In 1883 the University of Edinburgh 
conferred on Gamett the honorary degree 
of LL.D., and he was made C.B. in 1895. 
He died at his house, 27 Tanza Road, 
Hampstead, on 13 April 1906, and was 
buried in Highgate cemetery. The chief 
part of his library was sold at Sotheby's 
on 6 Dec. 1906. 

Gamett married in 1863 Olivia Namey 
{d. 1903), daughter of Edward Singleton, 
CO. Clare, and had issue three sons and 
three daughters. His second son, Edward 
(6. 1868), is well known as an author and 

On his retiring from the museum in 1899 
Garnett's friends presented him with his 
p(Ml,rait by the Hon. John Collier. The 
portrait belongs to Garnett's eldest son, 
Robert. A photograviure of it is prefixed 
to ' Three Hundred Notable Books ' (1899). 
A better painting by Miss E. M. Heath is 




in the possession of Gamett's son Edward. 
A bust by (Sir) George Frampton, R.A., 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1899. A caricature by ' Spy ' appeared 
in * Vanity Fair ' in 1895. 

Besides the works enumerated, Gamett 
was author of ' Shelley and Lord Beacons- 
field ' (privately printed, 1887) ; ' The Age 
of Dryden,' a literary handbook (1895); 

• WiUiam Blake, Painter and Poet ' ('Port- 
folio ' monograph, 1895); 'Essays in 
Ldbrarianship and BibUography ' (1899) ; 

* Essays of an ex-Librarian ' (1901). He 
also laboriously compiled from the volu- 
minous MS. collections, chiefly dealing 
with Shropshire, of Jolm Wood Warter 
[q. v.] * An Old Shropshire Oak ' (vols. 
i. and ii. 1886; vols. iii. and iv. 1891), 
and he lent his name as editor to 'The 
Litemational Library of Famous Litera- 
ture,' a popular anthology on a large scale, 
which an American publishing syndicate 
circulated in England in 1901. 

[Notes kindly suppUed by Garnett's brother, 
Mr. W. J. Gamett ; H. Cordier, Le docteur 
Richard Gamett, 1906 ; The Times, 14 April 
1906 ; Athenaeum, 21 April 1906 ; personal 
knowledge.] S. L. 

GARRAN (formerly Gamman), AN- 
DREW (1825-1901), AustraUan journaUst 
and pohtician, bom at Bethnal Green, 
London, on 19 Nov. 1825, was third of 
the thirteen children of Robert Gamman, 
merchant, of London, by his wife Mary Ann, 
daughter of Henry Matthews, architect 
and engineer of the home department of 
the East Lidia Company. Educated at 
Hackney grammar school, London, and 
at Spring Hill College, Birmingham, he 
matriculated in 1843 at London University, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1845 and M.A. 
in 1848. On the conclusion of his univer- 
sity career he visited Madeira for his health, 
and on the same ground finally emigrated 
to Austraha. 

On Garran's arrival at Adelaide in Jan, 
1851 the controversy repecting state aid to 
rehgion was at its height, and of a paper 
called the ' Austral Examiner,' which was 
started to oppose the grant of state aid, 
Garran acted as editor for two years. The 
discovery of gold in Victoria, however, 
nearly depopulated Adelaide for the time, 
and brought the career of the paper to an 
abrupt conclusion. After serving as private 
tutor for a year in the family of Mr. C. E. 
LabiUi^re on a station near Ballan, Victoria, 
he retumed to Adelaide, and in 1854^5 
edited the 'South AustraHan Register.' 

In 1856 he became assistant editor under 

John West of the ' Sydney Morning 
Herald,' and his association with that news- 
paper lasted nearly thirty years. On 
West's death in 1873 he became editor-in- 
chief, and he held the post till the end of 
1885, when his health compelled him to 

At the advanced age of sixty-two, Garran 
entered the pohtical arena. Li 1887 he 
was made a member of the legislative 
council of New South Wales by Sir 
Henry Parkes, and in that capacity his 
wide knowledge of affairs was always 
placed at the disposal of the house. In 
1890 he suggested, and was made presi- 
dent of, a royal commission on strikes, 
and the report which he submitted 
resulted in the passing of the Trades 
Disputes Conciliation and Arbitration 
Act in 1892. Of the council of arbitra- 
tion which this Act established Garran 
was made president (1 Oct. 1892), and he 
thereupon resigned his seat in the legis- 
lative council to avoid all suspicion of 
pohtical bias. In his ' Fifty Years of 
Austrahan History' (ii. 294) Sir Henry 
Parkes bears testimony to Garran's ' care, 
patient labour and abihty in conducting 
the inquiry.' 

In December 1894 Garran withdrew from 
the arbitration council, and on 19 March 
1895 was appointed vice-president of the 
executive council and representative of Mr. 
(now Sir George) Reid's government in the 
legislative council. Owing to failing health 
he resigned the vice-presidency in Nov. 
1898, but remained a member until death. 
He was a member of the parhamentary 
standing committee on public works, a 
commissioner of the Sydney International 
Exhibition (1879), a member of the royal 
commission on noxious trades (1888), and 
of the Bay View lunatic inquiry com- 
mission (1894). 

Garran took much interest in the Uni- 
versity of Sydney, where in earher years 
he attended the law lectures and took 
the degree of LL.D. in 1870. He was 
twice president of the Australian Economic 
Association. He edited in 1886 the ' Pic- 
turesque Atlas of Australasia,' the most 
comprehensive descriptive work on Aus- 
traha hitherto pubhshed. 

He died on 6 June 1901 at his residence, 
Ehzabeth Bay, Sydney, and was buried 
in Rookwood cemetery. He married at 
Adelaide in 1854 Mary Isham, daughter 
of John Sabine, formerly of Bury St. 
Edmunds, and had one son and seven 
daughters. His son, Robert Randolph 
Garran, C.M.G. (6. 10 Feb. 1867), has 




made a reputation in the oommonwealth 
as a constitutional lawyer. 

A full-length panel portrait in oils, by 
Tom Roberts, an Australian artist, is in 
the possession of his widow. 

[Tho Times, Mclbourno Argus, and Sydney 
Morning Herald, 7 Juno 1901 ; Sydney Mail, 
15 June 1901 ; Who's Who, 1901 ; University 
of London General Register, 1901 ; Johns's 
Notable Australians, 1908 ; Year Book of 
AustraUa, 1894-1902 ; Colonial Office Records.] 

C. A. 

1907), pubUcist, bom on 20 July 1865, was 
fourth son of John Fisher Garrett, rector 
of Elton, Derbyshire, by his wife, Mary, 
daughter of Godfrey Gray. He was edu- 
cated at Rossall school and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in the 
summer term of 1887 with a third class in 
classics. At the university he was more 
distinguished at the Union Debating 
Society, of which he was president in 1887, 
than in the schools. But though not taking 
a high degree, he gave in other ways early 
evidence of exceptional literary abihty. 
Some of his translations from the classical 
poets, as well as his original pieces, con- 
tained in a small volume of undergraduate 
verse, ' Rhymes and Renderings,' pubUshed 
at Cambridge in 1887, are remarkable not 
only for their grace and ease of expression 
but for a real poetic feeling. On leaving 
the university Garrett joined the staff of 
the ' Pall Mall Gazette,' and rapidly made 
his mark as a journahst by the force of his 
convictions — he was at this time a very 
ardent radical — the freshness of his style, 
and a happy gift of humour. But he had 
always been delicate, and after two years 
of work in London his health broke down. 
The first symptoms of the disease to which 
he ultimately succumbed, phthisis, became 
apparent, and he was sent for cure to South 
Africa. The remedy was for the moment 
apparently successful, and in any case this 
visit to South Africa in the winter of 
1889-90 led to other consequences most 
important to his career. South Africa was 
at that time entering the critical period of 
her history which terminated in the war 
of 189&-1902. Garrett, an ardent yoimg 
man of exceptionally keen^inteUigence, 
not lacking in audacity, and of most 
winning manners and appearance, was 
quick to seize the sahent points in an 
interesting situation and to make the 
acquaintance of the leading actors in the 
drama. He won the confidence of Sir 
Hercules Robinson [q. v. Suppl. I], then 
high commissioner for South Africa, and 

made great friends with Ceofl Rhodes 
[q. v. Suppl. II], besides establishing 
more or less intimate relations with the 
leading Dutch poUticians, including Jan 
Hofmeyr [q. v. Suppl. IIJ and President 
Kruger. The result was a series of articles 
in the ' Pall Mall Gazette,' subsequently 
published as a book, * In Afrikanderland 
and the Land of Ophir' (1891, 2 edits.), 
which is still the best description of 
South Africa in that momentous phase 
of its development. The next four 
years were again devoted, as far as re- 
current attacks of ill-health permitted, to 
journalistic work in London, first for the 
• Pall Mall Gazette,' then, from 1893, for 
the ' Westminster Gazette,' in the opening 
years of its career, in either case imder 
the editorship of Garrett's friend, (Sir) E. T. 
Cook. In 1894 he also produced a transla- 
tion of Ibsen's ' Brand ' into EngUsh verse 
in the original metres, which, if not perfect 
as a translation, for Garrett was not a great 
Norwegian scholar, is singularly successful 
in reproducing the spirit and poetry of the 

In April 1895 Garrett returned to 
South Africa to become editor of the 
' Cape Times,' the leading English news- 
paper in the sub-continent, and far the 
most important work of Garrett's life was 
done during his four and a half years' active 
tenure of that office (April 1895-August 
1899). He was not only editor of the 
paper but the principal writer in it, and 
being a man of strong character and con- 
victions, gifted moreover with extra- 
ordinary quickness of pohtical insight, he 
on more than one occasion exercised by his 
trenchant pen a decisive influence on the 
course of affairs. In the rapid series of 
stirring events of these four years, the 
raid, the abortive rebelUon in Johannes- 
burg, the struggle between Rhodes and the 
Bond at the Cape, and between Kruger 
and the Uitlanders in the Transvaal, the 
Bloemfontein conference, and the growing 
tension between Great Britain and the 
South African repubUc, Garrett played a 
leading part. His position in South Airican 
poUtics became one of such importance that 
he was practically compelled to add to his 
arduous duties as editor of the ' Cape Times ' 
those of a member of parUament. Returned 
at the Cape general election of 1898 as 
member for Victoria East, he immediately 
took a foremost place in the house of 
assembly, and in the two heated sessions 
preceding the war he was perhaps the most 
eloquent, ^and he was certainly the ^ most 
persuasive, speaker on the * progressive ' 





(i.e. British) side, for, while warmly support- 
ing Rhodes and the poUcy of Lord (then 
Sir Alfred) Milner, he showed great tact 
in dealing with the susceptibiHties of his 
Dutch opponents. Indeed the policy which 
he always advocated, that of a United 
South Africa, absolutely autonomous in 
its own affairs, but remaining part of the 
British empire, is now an established fact, 
readily accepted by men of all parties. 
Garrett's important contribution to that 
result constitutes his chief title to remem- 
brance. But the enormous physical strain 
was too much for his frail constitution. 
In the summer of 1899 his health broke 
down permanently. Obhged to leave South 
Africa, in an advanced stage of consump- 
tion, just before the outbreak of the war, 
he spent the next two or three years in 
sanatoria, first on the Continent and then 
in England, still hoping against hope that 
he might be able to return to an active 
poUtical career. He had already in January 
1900 resigned the editorship of the ' Cape 
Times,' and in 1902 he also gave up his seat 
in the house of assembly. He still from 
time to time, when his health permitted 
the exertion, wrote short articles and 
poems of exceptional merit, which are of 
permanent value, notably his briUiant 
' Character Sketch ' of Cecil Rhodes, 
pubhshed directly after Rhodes' s death in 
the ' Contemporary Review' of June 1902, 
which is by far the most lifelike and best 
balanced picture of that great personahty. 
Of much interest likewise are some of lus 
memorial verses : ' The Last Trek,' written 
on the occasion of President Kruger's funeral 
progress from Cape Town to Pretoria 
{SpectatoTy 10 Dec. 1904), ' In Memoriam 
F. W. R. ' (Frank Rhodes), {Westminster 
Gazette, 27 Oct. 1905), and ' A MiUionaire's 
Epitaph ' [Alfred Beit, q. v. Suppl. II], {ibid. 
20 July 1906). In March 1903 Garrett, then 
a hopeless invahd, was married to Miss 
Ellen Marriage, whose acquaintance he had 
made, as a fellow patient, at the sanatorium 
at Wiston, in Essex. Miss Marriage had been 
completely restored to health, and it was 
doubtless due to her care and devotion that 
Garrett's life was prolonged for another 
four years — ^years of great happiness, de- 
spite his complete physical prostration. In 
June 1904 Mr. and Mrs. Garrett settled in 
a cottage, Wiverton Acre, near Plympton, 
Devonshire. Garrett died there on 10 May 
1907, and was buried at Brixton, Devon- 
shire. To the last he occasionally wrote, 
chiefly on South Africa. Within a month of 
his death he contributed to the ' Standard ' 
(12 April) an article on * The Boer in the 

Saddle,' which showed no loss of his old 
briUiancy and force, although the effort 
involved in writing it was nearly fatal. 

Besides the works mentioned Garrett 
pubhshed ' The Story of an African Crisis ' 
(1897), and he contributed a chapter, 
' Rhodes and Milner,' to ' The Empire and 
the Century ' (1905). The Garrett Colonial 
Library, which was founded by colonial 
admirers in his memory, was opened at the 
Cambridge Union Society on 23 May 1911. 
A pencil portrait by Sir Edward Poynter is 
in the possession of his widow. 

[An exceUent Life by (Sir) E. T. Cook (1909) 
contains many extracts from his letters, a 
good photographic portrait, and, in the 
Appendix, some of his best fugitive pieces 
in prose and verse.] M. 


(1819-1907), physician, born at Ipsmch 
on 13 May 1819, was second child and only 
son of the five children of Robert Garrod 
of that town, by his wife, Sarah Enew 
Clamp. He was educated at the Ipswich 
grammar school, and after being apprenticed 
to Mr. Charles Hammond, surgeon to the 
East Suffolk Hospital, pursued his medical 
course at University College Hospital, 
where he graduated M.B. in 1842, and M.D. 
London in 1843, gaining the gold medal in 
medicine at both examinations. In 1847 
Garrod was appointed assistant physician 
to University College Hospital, where 
he became physician and professor of 
therapeutics and chnical medicine in 1851. 
In the latter year he became a licentiate 
(corresponding to the present member), 
and in 1856 a fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians, where he was Gulstonian 
lecturer in 1857, and lecturer on materia 
medica in 1864. He was elected F.R.S. in 
1858. Having resigned his posts at Uni- 
versity College Hospital he was in 1863 
elected physician to King's College Hospital 
and professor of materia medica and 
therapeutics in King's College ; on his 
retirement in 1874 he was elected consult- 
ing physician. At the Royal College of 
Physicians he was Lumleian lecturer 
in 1883, the first recipient of the Moxon 
medal in 1891, censor (1874-5, 1887), and 
vice-president in 1888. Knighted in 1887, 
he in 1890 became physician extraordinary 
to Queen Victoria, and was an honorary 
member of the Verein fiir innere Medicin 
in Berhn. 

Garrod, a follower of Prout and Bence 
Jones, devoted himself to chemical in- 
vestigation of the problems of disease. 
His name will always be known in con- 




nection with the discovery that in gout 
tho blood contains an increased quantity 
of uric acid, and recent work has tended, 
in tho main, to confirm his views. He 
announced this discovery in 1848 to the 
Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society (of 
which he was vice-president in 1880-1). 
Ho also separated rheumatoid arthritis from 
gout, with which it had previously been 

At the Medical Society of London, 
of which he was orator in 1858 and presi- 
dent in 1860, Garrod gave in 1857 the 
Lett«omian lectures * On the Pathology 
and Treatment of Gout.' He long enjoyed 
an extensive practice, but when old age 
diminished his work as a consultant he 
returned with ardour to his chemical in- 

Garrod died in London on 28 Dec. 1907, 
and was buried in the Great Northern 
cemetery, Southgate. 

He married in 1845 Elizabeth Ann 
{d. 1891), daughter of Henry Colchester 
and Elizabeth Sparrow, of the Ancient or 
Sparrow House in Ipswich. Charles Keene 
of ' Punch ' [q.v.] and Meredith Townsend 
[q. V. Suppl. II] of the ' Spectator ' were 
Lady Garrod's first cousins. He had issue 
four sons and two daughters. The eldest 
son, Alfred Henry [q, v.], and the fourth 
son, Archibald Edward, were, like their 
father, elected fellows of the Royal Society. 
The third son, Herbert Baring, was general 
secretary of the Teachers' Guild of Great 
Britain and Ireland (1886-1909). 

Garrod was author of : 1. ' Treatise on 
Gout and Rheumatic Gout,' 1859 ; 3rd 
edit. 1876, translated into French and 
German. 2. ' Essentials of Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics,' 1855 ; 13th edit. 1890, 
edited by Nestor Tirard, M.D. He also 
contributed articles on gout and rheuma- 
tism to Reynolds's * System of Medicine,' 
1866, vol. i. 

[Brit. Med. Journ., 1908, i. 58 ; information 
from his son, A E. Garrod, M.D., F.R.S.] 

H. D. R. 

GARTH, Sib RICHARD (1820-1903), 
chief justice of Bengal, born at Morden, 
Surrey, on 11 March 1820, was eldest son of 
the six children of Richard Lowndes (after- 
wards Garth), rector of Farnham, Surrey, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of Robert 
Douglas, rector of Salwarpe, Worcestershire. 
His father was the second son of Wilham 
Lowndes of Baldwin Brightwell, Oxfordshire, 
by his wife Ehzabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Richard Garth of Morden, and assumed 
the name and arms of Garth on succeeding 
to his mother's property in 1837. In due 

course Richard became lord of the manor of 


He was educated at Eton, where he played 
in the cricket elevens of 1837-8, and at ClmHt 
Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 
1842 and M.A. in 1845. He was a member 
of the university cricket eleven from 1839 
to 1842, and its captain in 1840 and 1841. 
Admitted a student of Lincohi's Inn on 
9 July 1842, he was called to the bar there 
on 19 Nov. 1847. Joining the home circuit, 
he gained great popularity in the profession, 
and especial repute in commercial cases 
heard at the Guildhall. For many years he 
was counsel to the Incorporated Law Society. 
He took silk on 24 July 1866, and was two 
days later elected a bencher of his inn. In 
the 1866-8 parUament he represented Guild- 
ford in the conservative interest, but was 
defeated at the next general election. 

In 1875 he was appointed chief justice of 
Bengal and was knighted (13 May). A bluff, 
genial, fresh-complexioned man, he looked 
more like a country squire or a naval officer 
than a judge. Popular with all classes of 
society in Calcutta, he did much to bring 
the European and Indian communities into 
closer social touch. His judicial decisions 
were marked by learning, patience, and 
practical good sense, and were rarely reversed 
by the judicial committee of the privy 

Garth came into frequent conflict with 
the Bengal government. The views of the 
high court were then systematically sought 
on legislative proposals, and Garth framed 
confidential minutes. But at the same time 
he often gave subsequent pubHc utterance 
to pronounced opinions about the proposed 
legislation. The most notable example of 
such practice was his vigorous propaganda 
against the Bengal tenancy bill, designed 
to give the cultivators in the permanently 
settled areas clearly defined and trans- 
ferable occupancy rights, and passed into 
law after much controversy in 1885. In 
apubUshed 'Minute' (Calcutta, 1882, 18 pp. 
foUo) he declared the measure to be 
ruinous for the zamindars and to embody a 
pohcy of confiscation. His sincerity was un- 
questioned, but it was improper for the chief 
justice to engage in partisan controversy 
over legislation which he would probably 
have to interpret judicially. He showed 
sympathy with Indian aspirations. He 
promoted the Legal Practitioners Act of 
1879, and he insisted that one of the three 
additional judges appointed to the Bengal 
high coiurt in 1885 should be an Indian. 

Ill-health led to his retirement in March 
1886, shortly before he had qualified for 




full pension. He was named of the privy 
council in February 1888, but was not ap- 
pointed to the judicial committee. A 
strong supporter of the Indian National 
Congress, he wrote *A Few Plain Truths 
about India' (1888), largely in ad- 
vocacy of its views. His vigorous reply 
(1895) to some criticisms of the movement 
by General Su* George T. Chesney [q. v. 
Suppl. rj has been constantly quoted by the 
congress authorities (see Ind. Nat. Congress, 
Madras, 1909, pt. ii. p. 24). Garth promoted 
in July 1899 a memorial to the India office 
from retired high court judges for the 
separation of executive and judicial func- 
tions in the administrative organisation of 

He died at his house in Cheniston Gardens, 
London, on 23 March 1903, and was buried 
at Morden. He married on 27 June 1847 
Clara {d. 15 Jan. 1903), second daughter of 
WiUiam Loftus Lowndes, Q.C., by whom he 
had six sons and three daughters. A por- 
trait of Garth by the Hon. John Collier is in 
the Calcutta high court. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar, 1885 ; India List, 
1903 ; Englishman Weekly Summary, 23 and 
30 March 1886 ; Friend of India and States- 
man Weekly, 26 March 1903 ; India, 27 March 
and 3 April 1903; Wisden's Cricketers' 
Almanack for 1904, Ixxx ; information kindly 
supplied by Lt.-col. Richard Garth, the eldest 
son ; personal knowledge.] F. H. B. 

(1843-1906), major-general, bom near 
Stirling on 3 Dec. 1843, was third son of 
Edward Lloyd Gatacre (1806-91) by his wife 
Jessie, second daughter of William Forbes 
of Callendar House, Falkirk, Stirlingshire. 
The second son is Major-general Sir John 
Gatacre, K.C.B. The father was squire of 
Gatacre in the parish of Claverley, Shrop- 
shire, a manor held by his ancestors from 
the time of Henry II or earlier, and was 
high sheriff of Shropshire in 1856. He 
taught his sons to be good horsemen, and 
it was to home life and parentage that 
Gatacre owed what was most characteristic 
of him — a mind and bodj^ which delighted 
in exercise and seemed incapable of fatigue. 

Educated at Hopkirk's school, Eltham, 
and at Sandhurst, Gatacre was commis- 
sioned on 18 Feb. 1862 as ensign in the 
77th foot, then stationed in Bengal. He was 
promoted Heutenant on 23 Dec. 1864. He 
went to Peshawur with the regiment in 
November 1866, and in 1867 he spent six 
months' leave alone in the upper valleys 
of the Indus, shooting and exploring. 
He was invalided home soon afterwards. 
The 77th returned to England in March 

1870, and he was promoted captain on 
7 Dec. 

In February 1873 he entered the Staff 
College, and after spending two years there 
he was employed four years at Sandhm-st 
as instructor in surveying. In August 
1880, after a year's service on the staff at 
Aldershot, he went back to India mth his 
regiment. He was promoted major on 
23 March 1881, and lieutenant-colonel on 
29 April 1882. He was then serving on the 
staff of Sir Harry Prendergast at Rangoon ; 
but he returned to regimental duty in 
1883, and succeeded to the command of 
the regiment at Secunderabad on 24 June 

From 17 Dec. 1885 to 30 Sept. 1889 
Gatacre was deputy quartermaster-general 
of the Bengal army. In the Hazara expe- 
dition of 1888 he gave striking proof 
of his activity and endurance. He was 
mentioned in despatches, and received the 
D.S.O. and the India medal mth clasp. 
After being in temporary command of 
the Mandalay brigade for twelve months, 
and gaining a clasp for the Tonhon expedi- 
tion, he was made adjutant-general of the 
Bombay army, with the substantive rank 
of colonel and temporary rank of brigadier- 
general (25 Nov. 1890). He had been 
made brevet-colonel on 29 April 1886. He 
was in command of the Bombay district 
from January 1894 to July 1897, but from 
March to September of 1895 he was 
engaged in the Chitral expedition. He com- 
manded the 3rd brigade of the relief force 
under Sir Robert Low [q. v. Suppl. II], 
and on 20 April his brigade was sent 
forward as a flying column, as the Chitral 
garrison were in straits. It reached Chitral 
on 15 MsbV, after a most arduous passage 
of the Lowari pass ; but the garrison had 
already been relieved by Colonel Kelly's 
force from Gilgit. Gatacre received the 
medal and was made C.B. 

On his return from Chitral Gatacre went 
to England for three months in the winter 
of 1895-6. During the summer of 1896 he 
was in temporary command at Quetta, and 
during the first half of 1897 he was fighting 
the plague at Bombay. The deaths there 
in January from this cause rose to more 
than 300 a day. Gatacre not only took 
care of his own troops but served as 
chairman of a committee to deal with the 
problem generally. Thanks to his energy 
and tact, the outbreak was well under 
control by July, when he left India to take 
command of a brigade at Aldershot. Five 
testimonials expressed the gratitude of the 
citizens of Bombay — Christian, Mussulman, 




and Hindu — for what he had done. In 
1900 the gold medal of the Kaiser-i-Hind 
order was awarded him on this account. 

In January 1898 lie went to Egypt, with 
the local rank of major-general, to command 
the British brigade in the advance up the 
Nile for the recovery of Khartoum. He 
brought it into such condition that it Avas 
able to march 140 miles in a week. Ou 

8 April the Anglo-Egyptian army under Sir 
Herbert Kitchener attacked the Mahdist 
forces imder Mahmoud in their intrenched 
camp on the Atbara. The British brigade 
was on the left. Gatacre was one of the first 
men to reach the zariba, and would have 
been speared if liis orderly had not 
bayoneted his aissailant. Kitchener's des- 
patch spoke of his untiring energy and 
devotion to duty, his gallant leading of his 
men, and his hearty co-operation through- 
out {Lond. Oaz. 24 May 1898). Some said 
that he drove his officers and men too hard, 
but he was unsparing of himself. ' In the 
ranks they call him " General Backacher " 
and love him ' (Steevehs, p. 61). He was 
promoted major-general on 25 June. 
In the further operations, which ended 
with the capture of Omdurman (2 Sept.), 
he commanded a division of two British 
brigades. He was again mentioned in 
despatches, received the thanks of parlia- 
ment, and was made K.C.B. (15 Nov.). 
He received the British and Egyptian 
medals with two clasps and the Medjidie 
(2nd class). On 15 Dec. he was made a 
freeman of Shrewsbury, and in February 
1899 he received a reward for distinguished 

On 8 Dec. 1898 he took over command 
of the eastern district. On 21 Oct. 1899 
he embarked for South Africa, to command 
the third division of the army corps sent out 
imder Sir Redvers Buller [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
With one exception all the battalions of 
his division went to Natal to save Lady- 
smith, while Gatacre himself remained in 
Cape Colony, charged with the defence of 
the railway from East London to Bethiilie 
and the country on each side of it. On 
2 Dec. Buller asked Gatacre if he could not 
close with the enemy, or otherwise hinder 
their advance southward. On the night of 

9 Dec. Gatacre made an attempt to seize the 
railway junction at Stormberg. He had by 
this time three battalions (Northumberland 
fusiliers, royal Irish rifles, and royal Scots), 
some mounted infantry, and two batteries 
of field artillery. Without good maps and 
led astray by the guides, his force, instead 
of surprising the enemy, was itself surprised 
on the march. A confused fight followed, 

in which some mischances occurred, and 
retreat became necessary. Many men 
were left beliind, worn out with fatiffae, 
and out of a total of .3035 there was a loss 
of 696. ' I tliink you were quite right 
to try the night attack, and hope better 
luck next time,' was Buller's reply to 
Gatacre's re})ort of his failure. Lord 
Roberts on his arrival investigated the 
facts, and came to the conclusion that 
Gatacre had shown want of judgment and 
of ordinary precaution [Lond. Oaz. 16 March 

By his orders Gatacre acted on the 
defensive for the next three months, 
barring recomiaissances on 23 Feb. and 
5 March 1900. On 15 March he crossed the 
Orange river at Bethulie with his division, 
now numbering 5000 men, and came in 
touch with the main army, which was at 
Bloemfontein. He was placed in charge 
of the lines of communication. On the 
19th he was told ' it is very desirable 
British troops should be seen all over the 
country,' and was asked if he could send a 
force to Smithfield, which he did. On the 
28th Lord Roberts telegraphed, ' If you 
have enough troops at your disposal, I 
should like you to occupy Dewetsdorp,' 
and he sent there three companies of the 
Irish rifles and two of mounted infantry. 
On the 31st, in consequence of De Wet's suc- 
cessful stroke at Sannah's Post, there came 
orders to draw in outlying parties, especially 
the Dewetsdorp detachment. These were 
passed on without delay, and the detach- 
ment reached Reddersburg on 3 April. 
There it was surrounded, and surrendered 
after twenty-four hours' fighting, when 
Gatacre with a small reUeving force was 
within a few miles of it. It is not easy to 
see where he was in fault ; but he was held 
responsible for what had occurred, was 
relieved of his command on 10 April, and 
returned to England (Maurice, ii. 300-11 
and 614). He was informed that there 
was no slur upon his honour, his personal 
courage, his energy and zeal, ' which are be- 
j^ond all question.' He received the Queen's 
medal for South Africa with two clasps. 

He resumed command of the eastern 
district at Colchester, and remained there 
till 8 Dec. 1903. He was placed on the retired 
list on 19 March 1904, but was employed 
for some months in comiection with re- 
mounts and the registration of horses. 
Having joined the board of the Kordofan 
trading company, he went out to explore 
rubber forests in Abyssinia towards the end 
of 1905. He caught fever from camping 
in a swamp, died at Iddeni ou 18 Jan. 1906, 

Gathorne- Hardy 88 Gathorne-Hardy 

and was buried at Gambela. A tablet was 
put up to his memory in Claverley church, 

Gatacre married (1) in 1876 Alice Susan 
Louisa, third daughter of Anthony La 
Touche Kerwen, D.D., dean of Limerick, 
by whom he had three sons, and whom he 
divorced in 1892; (2) on 10 Nov. 1895 
Beatrix, daughter of Horace, Lord Davey 
[q. V. Suppl. II], who surviv^ed him without 

[An admirable life of him, by Lady Gatacre, 
1910 ; The Times, 6 March 1906 ; Captains G. J. 
and F. E. Younghusband, The Relief of Chitral, 
1895; G. W. Steevens, With Kitchener to 
Khartum, 1898; Sir F. Maurice, Official History 
of the War in South Africa ; S.A. War 
Commission, Evidence, ii. 272-8.] E. M. L. 

first Eakl of Cran brook (181^1906), 
statesman, bom on 1 Oct. 1814 at the Manor 
House, Bradford, was third son of John 
Hardy {d. 1855), of DunstaU HaU,' Stafford- 
shire, the chief proprietor of Low Moor 
ironworks, judge of the duchy of Lancaster 
court at Pontefract and member of parlia- 
ment for Bradford, by his wife Isabel, the 
eldest daughter of Richard Gathorne of 
Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland. After 
attending preparatory schools at Bishopton 
near Studley, at Hammersmith, and at 
Haslewood near Birmingham, Gathorne was 
admitted in 1827 to Shrewsbury school, 
and in January 1833 he entered Oriel 
College, Oxford. He graduated B.A. in 
1836 with a second class in classics, and 
proceeded M.A. in 1861 in order to vote 
against Gladstone. On 2 May 1840 
Hardy was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple, and joined the northern circuit. 
Shrewd business qualities combined with 
family interest and Yorkshire clannishness 
soon attracted clients. He rapidly attained 
prominence in his profession, and by 1855 
he had acquired a complete lead on ses- 
sions and at the parliamentary bar. In the 
same year he appUed for silk, but to his 
disappointment promotion was refused him. 
His father's death, however, in 1855 left 
him ample means, and allowed him to 
devote himself to politics. 

Henceforth political interests became all- 
absorbing. In 1847 Hardy had unsuccess- 
fully contested Bradford in the conservative 
interest, and in 1856 he entered the House 
of Commons as conservative member for 
Leominster, which he continued to repre- 
sent till 1865. He rapidly won the 
esteem and confidence of Spencer Walpole 
[q. v.], and on his recommendation he 
was appointed under-secretary for the 

home department on 25 Feb. 1858, in Lord 
Derby's second administration. Like other 
members of the tory party, Hardy began 
by distrusting Benjamin Disraeli, then 
chancellor of the exchequer and leader of 
the House of Commons, as ' a shifty 
and unsafe tactician.' When a circular 
from the chief whip. Sir William Jolliffe 
[q. v.], requested closer attention to his 
parKamentary duties. Hardy impulsively 
tendered his resignation, which he with- 
drew on the interposition of Spencer 
Walpole. He remained in office till the 
fall of the Derby ministry on 14 June 1859. 

In opposition Hardy found more scope 
for initiative and independence. His dash- 
ing attacks on John Bright and Lord John 
Russell contributed to the withdrawal of the 
abortive reform bill of 1860 ; and at the 
end of the session he declined an offer of 
the post of chief whip. Active in champion- 
ing the rights and privileges of the Church 
of England, he helped in 1862 to reject a 
bill relieving nonconformists from the 
payment of church rates. Devotion to the 
established church recommended Hardy to 
the electors of the University of Oxford 
when they were bent, in 1865, on opposing 
Gladstone's re-election. Hardy somewhat 
reluctantly accepted the nomination of the 
conservatives. His victory by a majority 
*of 180 on 18 July gave him a foremost 
place in the affairs of his party. 

On the formation of Lord Derby's third 
administration Hardy was appointed on 
2 July 1866 president of the poor law board, 
and was sworn of the privy council. After 
an exhaustive inquiry he introduced a 
poor law amendment bill on 8 Feb. 1867, 
and carried it through all its stages without 
any substantial alteration. This measure 
for the reUef of the London poor established 
a metropolitan asylum for sick and insane 
paupers, provided separate accommodation 
for fever and smallpox patients, and gave 
some relief to poor parishes by a more 
equitable re-apportionment of the metro- 
politan poor rate and by charging the 
salaries of medical officers upon the 
common fund. 

Hardy remained in the cabinet amid the 
dissensions over the reform bill of 1867, 
to which, despite misgivings, he gave a fuU 
support. Disraeli's personality told upon 
him and he had become an enthusiastic 

In May 1867, on the resignation of Spencer 
Walpole after the Hyde Park riots. Hardy 
accepted the difficult post of home secretary. 
The Hberal opposition compelled him to 
withdraw a bill declaring it to be illegal to 

Gathorne-Hardy 89 Gathorne-Hardy 


U8e the parks for the purposes of political 
discussion. But he faced the Fenian 
conspiracy with courage. He refused to 
commute the capital sentence passed on the 
Fenian murderers at Manchester, although a 
disorderly mob forced its way into the home 
office. His life was repeatedly threatened, 
and warnings which he received compelled 
him to impose special restrictions on Queen 
Victoria's movements. The intimate rela- 
tions which he established \vith Queen 
Victoria [q. v. Suppl. I] at this critical 
period were maintained throughout her 

After the resignation of the Disraeli 
ministry in 1868 Hardy rendered telling 
service to his party in debate, especially 
in conflict with Gladstone. His impas- 
sioned speech on the second reading of 
the Irish church disestablishment bill on 
25 March 1869 proved a formidable, if 
' ail uncompromising, defence of laws and 
institutions as they are ' (Morley, Lije of 
Gladstone, 1903, ii. 265). As occasional 
leader of the opposition in DisraeU's 
absence he lost few opportunities of pro- 
voking collision with the prime minister. 
The appointment of Sir Robert Collier 
(afterwards Lord Monkswell) [q. v.] to 
the judicial committee of the privy council 
and the Ewelme rectory presentation in 
1872 prompted him to scathing criticism, 
which damaged the government. 

On the formation of Disraeli's second 
administration Hardy was appointed secre- 
tary of state for war on 21 Feb. 1874. 
Soon after assuming office he had a passing 
difference with his chief on church matters. 
A moderate although sincere churchman, 
he opposed on 9 July 1874 the public 
worship regulation bill, despite the protec- 
tion given it by Disraeli, and he supported 
Gladstone in a speech which wotS. listened 
to with some disapproval by his own side 
(Lucy, Diary of the Disradi Parliament, 
1885, p. 34). Hardy remained at the 
war office more than four years. The 
army reforms which Viscount Card well 
[q. v.] had inaugurated were still incom- 
plete, and it fell to his successor to supple- 
ment and carry on his work. His regi- 
mental exchanges bill, which was passed 
in 1875, legalised the payment of money 
by officers to those desirous of exchanging 
regiments with them, and was denounced 
by the opposition as restoring the purchase 
system under another name. In the de- 
bates on the Eastern question (1876-8) 
Hardy took a prominent part, cordially 
supporting Disraeli's philo-Turkish poHcy, 
and busily occupying liimself during 1878 in 

making preparations for the despatch of an 
exi>editionary force to the Mediterraneao 
in the event of war. In the debate on 
4 Feb. 1878, when Gladstone urged the 
House of Commons to reject the vote of 
credit of 6,000,000/. which was demanded 
by the government. Hardy impressively 
denounced Gladstone's active agitation in 
the country {ibid. p. 385). 

Wlien Disraeli was forced by ill-health 
to leave the House of Commons in August 
1876 Hardy expected to fill the place of 
leader, and he was disappointed by the 
selection of Sir Stafford Northcote [q. v.], 
but his strong instinct of party loyalty 
led him quickly to resign himself to the 

In the rearrangement of the cabinet 
which followed the resignation of the 
foreign minister, Edward Henry Stanley, 
fifteenth earl of Derby [q. v.], in March 
1878, Hardy became secretary for India in 
succession to Lord Salisbury, who went to 
the foreign office. Reluctance to come into 
competition with Sir Stafford Northcote, 
the new leader of the House of Commons, 
mainly accounted for Hardy's retirement 
to the House of Lords on 11 May 1878, 
when he was raised to the peerage 
as Viscount Cranbrook of Hemstcd. He 
took his title from his country seat in Kent, 
and at the desire of his family he assumed 
the additional surname of Gathornc. 

Lord Cranbrook's first official duty at the 
India office was to sanction the Vernacular 
Press Act of 1878, which empowered the 
government to silence Indian newspapers 
that promoted disaffection, but he struck 
out the clause exempting from the act 
editors who submitted their articles to an 
official censor. He expressed doubt of the 
general principle of the act, declaring that 
the vernacular press was a valuable and one 
of the few available means of ascertaining 
facts of the Indian people's social condi- 
tion and political sentiment (Paul, History 
of Modem England, 1905, iv. 78). His 
relations with the viceroy. Lord Lytton, 
were invariably cordial. When Lytton 
exercised his prerogative of overruling 
his council on the question of reducing 
the cotton duties, Cranbrook in the coun- 
cil at home confirmed Lytton's action 
by his casting vote {East India Cottati 
Duties, White Paper, 1 879). Lord Cranbrook 
fully shared the viceroy's apprehensions 
of Russian expansion in central Asia, 
and supported Lytton's forward policy on 
the north-west frontier, which aimed at 
restoring British influence in Afghanistan. 
When Ajmeer Shere Ali refused to receive the 

Gathorne-Hardy 90 Gathorne-Hardy 

British envoy, he was at one with Beacons- 
field in regarding war as inevitable. In a 
powerful despatch dated 18 Nov. 1878 
he justified the coercion of the Ameer, 
assigning the responsibility for Shere AU's 
estrangement to the action of Gladstone's 
government in 1873 (H. B. Hanna, The 
Seccmd Afghan War, 1899, ii. 135). On 
5 Dec. 1878 he reaffirmed this conviction in 
the House of Lords, despite the attacks of 
Lord Northbrook [q. v. Suppl. II] and other 
liberals {Hansard, 3 S. ccxliii. 40). After 
the conclusion of the peace of Gandamak 
on 26 May 1879 Lord Cranbrook enthu- 
siastically supported the appointment of a 
British resident to Cabul. But the murder 
of the resident. Sir Louis Cavagnari [q. v.], 
on 3 Sept. 1879 reopened the war. As 
soon as Lord Roberts' victories had once 
more restored Anglo-Indian supremacy 
he approved of Lytton's scheme for the 
separation of Kandahar from Kabul as the 
best means of counteracting Russian 
influence. But the practical difficulties of a 
partition proved stronger than he realised, 
for Abdurrahman, the new ameer, claimed 
the whole territory of his predecessor. 
The situation was still precarious when 
the ministers resigned on 22 April 1880. 

After the fall of the Beaconsfield govern- 
ment Lord Cranbrook confined himself 
in opposition to occasional criticism of the 
government in the House of Lords. As 
an advocate of ecclesiastical reform on 
conservative Hnes he sat on the royal com- 
mission on cathedral churches from 1879 
to 1885. His colleagues continued to 
place unbounded confidence in his integrity 
and shrewd judgment, but he played a 
less prominent part in public affairs. With 
Lord Salisbury he was in complete sympathy 
and on terms of close friendship. For Lord 
Randolph Churchill [q. v. Suppl. I] and the 
forward wing of the conservative party he 
had small regard. On 25 June 1885 he joined 
the conservative * government of caretakers ' 
as lord president of the council, a post which 
he again held in Lord SaUsbury's second 
administration from 1886 to 1892. Owing 
to his inability to speak foreign languages 
he declined the foreign secretaryship in 
1886, and likewise had the refusal of the 
Irish yiceroyalty. As lord president of the 
council Cranbrook was mainly concerned 
mth education. His churchmanship made 
him anxious to protect the voluntary schools. 
He cherished doubts of the prudence of the 
education bill of 1891, which established free 
education in elementary schools, but as a 
government measure he felt bound to give 
it official support. 

Lord Cranbrook resigned with Lord 
Salisbury's ministry on 12 August 1892, and 
was created earl of Cranbrook on 22 August. 
After Gladstone was again in power Cran- 
brook denounced with unusual vigour and 
fluency the government's home rule bill 
in the second reading debate in the House 
of Lords on 7 Sept. 1893, when the govern- 
ment was heavily defeated ; in 1886 
and again in 1895 he refused the offer of 
the chairmanship of the house of laymen 
in convocation. After the general election 
of 1895 he retired from public hfe. He 
retained his clearness of mind to the end. 
He died at Hemsted Park on 30 Oct. 
1906, and was buried at Benenden, Kent. 

Lord Cranbrook, who was elected to the 
Literary Society in 1860, was the recipient 
of many honours. In 1865 Oxford conferred 
on him the hon. degree of D.C.L. In 1868 
he was made a bencher of the Inner 
Temple ; and in 1880, on his resignation of 
the India office, he became G.C.S.I. In 
1892 he received the hon. degree of LL.D. 
from Cambridge, and in 1894 he was 
elected an hon. fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford. A good portrait, painted by 
Frank Holl [q. v.], belongs to the family: 
a copy was presented to the Carlton Club 
by his eldest son. A drawing, made by 
George Richmond [q. v.] in 1857, hangs in 
the National Portrait Gallery. A caricature 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1872. 

Cranbrook was a competent and 
strenuous administrator, an admirable 
' House of Commons man,' a good 
debater and platform speaker. His 
speeches were straightforward, dashing 
party attacks ; they excited the enthu- 
siasm of his own side but reached no 
high intellectual level. Although com- 
bative by nature, he bore his poHtical 
opponents no illwill. He had plenty of 
ambition, but was capable of suppressing 
it at the call of party and pubhc interests. 
He was an ardent sportsman and a man of 
varied culture. Although he held strong 
views in church matters, he was free from 
prejudice. He disliked the opposition to 
the appointment of Frederick Temple 
[q. V. Suppl. II] to the bishopric of 
Exeter in 1869, and disapproved the 
attempt of the clerical party to oust Dean 
Stanley [q. v.] from the select preachership 
at Oxford in 1872. He regarded a broad 
and reasonable churchmanship as the 
foundation of conservatism. 

Hardy married on 29 March 1838 Jane, 
third daughter of James Orr of Bally- 
gowan and afterwards of Hollywood House, 
CO. Down, She was made a Lady of the 




imperial order of the c^o^vn of India in 1878, 
and died on 13 Nov. 1897. By her ho had 
issue four sons and five daughters, of whom 
one son and two daughters predeceased 
him. His eldest son, John Stewart, second 
earl (6. 1830), died on 13 July 1911, and 
was succeeded in the title by his eldest 
son, Gathome, third earl of Cranbrook. 
The third son, Alfred Erskino (6. 1845), 
M.P. for Canterbury from 1878 to'^1880 
and for East Grinstead from 1886 to 1895, 
became a railway commissioner in 1905 
and pubUshed a memoir of his father in 1910. 
( [A. E. Gathome Hardy, Gathorno Hardy, 
Ist Earl of Cranbrook, a memoir, 1910 ; The 
Times, 31 Oct., 6 Nov. 1906, and Lit. Suppl. 
24 March 1910 ; Athonajura and Spectator, 
9 April 1910 ; Saturday Review, 19 March 
1910 ; Paul, History of Modem England, 1905, 
vols. iii. and iv. ; Clayden, England under 
Lord Beacons field, 1880 ; Lucy, Diary of 
the Home Rule Parliament, 1896 ; Lady 
Betty Balfour, Lord Lytton's Indian Adminis- 
tration, 1899 ; Sir John Mowbray, Seventy 
Years at Westminster, 1900; Annual Register, 
1860-80; Grant Duff, Notes from a Diary.] 

G. S. W. 
GATTY, ALFRED (1813-1903), vicar 
of Ecclesfield and author, bom in London 
on 18 April 1813, was second surviving son 
of Robert Gatty, solicitor, of Angel Court 
and Finsbury Square, London, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Edward Jones of Arnold, 
Nottinghamshire. The family originally 
came from Cornwall, where it had been 
settled since the fifteenth century. Gatty 
entered Charterhouse in 1825, and was 
removed to Eton in 1829. For a time he 
prepared for the legal profession, but on 
28 April 1831 he matriculated from Exeter 
College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. in 
1836, proceeding M.A. in 1839 and D.D. 
in 1860. Gatty was ordained deacon in 
1 837 and priest in the following year. From 
1837 to 1839 he was curate of Bellerby, 
Yorkshire. In the latter year he married, 
and was thereupon nominated by his 
wife's maternal grandfather, Thomas Ryder 
of Hendon, Middlesex, to the vicarage 
of Ecclesfield, near ShelBfield, which he 
held for sixty-four years. Under his care 
the church was completely restored in 1861. 
In the same year he was appointed rural 
dean. He became sub-dean of York 
minster in 1862, and in the course of his 
career served under six archbishops of 
York. He died at Ecclesfield on 20 Jan. 
1903. Gatty was twice married: (1) on 
8 July 1839 to Margaret (1809-1873) [q. v.], 
youngest daughter of Alexander John 
Scott [q. v.], by whom ho had six sons and 
four daughters ; and (2) on 1 Oct. 1884 

to Mary Helen, daughter of Edwaid New- 
man of Bamsley, Yorkshire, who survived 
him without issue. The third son of the 
first marriage. Sir Alfred Scott-Gatty, has 
been Garter King-of-arms since 1904, and 
the second daughter, Mrs. Juliana Horatia 
Ewing [q. v.], made a reputation as a 
writer for the young. A portrait of Gatty 
by Mrs. S. E. Waller, which was presented 
to him by his parishioners on the fiftieth 
anniversary of his incumbency, belongs''to 
his second son, Reginald Gatty, rector of 
Hooton Roberts, Yorkshire. 

Gatty's literary labours were prolonged 
and various. While still an undergraduate 
he pubb'shed a slight volume of verse, * The 
Fancies of a Rhymer' (1833). Later he 
collaborated with his wife, Margaret Gatty, 
in * Recollections of the Life of the Rev. 
A. J. Scott, D.D., Ix)rd Nelson's chaplain ' 
(1842), in an edition of the * Autobiography 
of Joseph Wolff' (1860), in a descriptive 
account of a tour in Ireland, entitled * The 
old Folks from Home' (1861), and in the 
compilation of *A Book of Sundials' (1872; 
4th edit. 1900). Gatty repeatedly lectured 
before the Sheffield Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, and published a useful 
' Key to Tennyson's " In Memoriam " ' (1881; 
5th edit. 1894). But his name was best 
known as a writer on local topography and 
archaeology. In 1847 appeared his learned 
essay on ' The Bell ; its Origin, History, and 
Uses ' (2nd edit. 1848). This was followed 
in 1869 by an enlarged folio edition of 
Joseph Hunter's ' Hallamshire ' and in 1873 
by a popular history of ' Sheffield, Past and 
Present.' Between 1846 and 1858 Gatty 
also issued four volumes of sermons. 

[The Times, 21 Jan. 1903 ; A. Gatty, A Life 
at One Living, 1884; Men of the Tim'e, 1899; 
private information from Sir Alfred Scott- 
Gatty.] G. S. W. 

GEE, SAMUEL JONES (1839-1911), 
physician, son of William Gee by his wife 
Lydia Sutton, was born in London on 
13 Sept. 1839. His father had a position of 
trust in a business house and his mother was 
a person of remarkable ability. In 1847 
he was sent to a private school at Enfield 
and then to University College school in 
London from 1852 till 1854. He matricu- 
lated at the University of London in May 
1857, studied medicine at University 
College, graduated M.B. in 1861 and M.D. 
in 1865. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians in 1870. He 
was appointed a resident house surgeon 
at the Hospital for Sick Children in Great 
Ormond Street, London, in 1865, and there 




became known to (Sir) Thomas Smith 
[q.v. Suppl. II], the surgeon, through whose 
influence he was elected assistant physician 
at St. Bartholomew's Hospital on 5 March 
1868. On 24 Oct. 1878 he was elected 
physician and on 22 Sept. 1904 consulting 
physician, so continuing till his death. In 
the school of St. Bartholomew's he was 
demonstrator of morbid anatomy (187CM:), 
lecturer on pathological anatomy (1872-8), 
and lecturer on medicine (1878-93). He was 
also assistant physician and physician to the 
Hospital for Sick Children and became one 
of the chief authorities of his time on the 
diseases of children. At the Royal College 
of Physicians he dehvered the Gulstonian 
lectures ' On the heat of the body ' in 1871, 
the Bradshaw lecture ' On the signs of 
acute peritoneal diseases ' in 1892, and 
the Lumleian lectures ' On the causes and 
forms of bronchitis and the nature of pul- 
monary emphysema and asthma ' in 1899. 
He was a censor in the college in 1893-4 and 
senior censor in 1897. He attained a large 
practice and was consulted in all branches 
of medicine. He was appointed physician 
to George, Prince of Wales, in 1901. His 
observation was acute and sj^stematic and 
his treatment always judicious. He de- 
served the reputation which he attained of 
being one of the first physicians of his time. 
He wrote many papers on medical subjects, 
nearly all of which have permanent value. 
The earliest were on chicken-pox, scarlet 
fever, and tubercular meningitis, and ap- 
peared in Reynolds's * System of Medicine,' 
vols. i. and ii. (1866 and 1868), and forty-six 
others appeared in the ' St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Reports.' He pubhshed in 1870 
* Auscultation and Percussion, together 
with other Methods of Physical Examina- 
tion of the Chest' (5th edit. 1906), which is 
at once the most exact and the most literary 
account of its subject in Enghsh. Robert 
Bridges in his ' Carmen Elegiacum ' of 
1877 has described Gee's appearance and 
methods of demonstration at the period of 
his work upon this book : 

* Teque auscultantem palpantem et percu- 
Pectora, sic morbi ducere signa vident.' 

Gee's only other book was * Medical 
Lectures and Aphorisms,' which appeared 
in 1902 and has had three editions. It 
contains fourteen lectures or essays and 
272 aphorisms collected by Dr. T. J. Horder, 
once his house physician. The aphorisms 
represent very well the form of Gee's 
teaching at the bedside. Its dogmatic 
method he had learned from Sir William 

Jenner [q. v. Suppl. I], but his own reading 
of seventeenth-century Hterature coloured 
his expressions both in speaking and writing. 
His description of the child's head in hydro- 
cephalus as distinguished from the enlarged 
skull of rickets and his observations on en- 
larged spleen in children are the passages of 
his writings which may most justly be con- 
sidered as scientific discoveries. He wrote 
a short essay on Sydenham {St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital Reports, vol. xix.), one 
on Abraham Cowley (;S^^. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Journal, 1903), and an article on 
the death of Andrew Marvell {Athenceum, 
5 Sept. 1874). 

He was librarian of the Royal Medical 
and Chirurgical Society from 1887 to 1899, 
and had a wide knowledge of books on 
medicine, his favourite English medical 
writers being Sydenham, Morton, and 
Heberden. He read Montaigne often, 
and had studied Milton, Phineas Fletcher, 
and Hobbes. 

During the period of his active practice 
in London he lived first at 54 Harley Street, 
and then at 31 Upper Brook Street, Gros- 
venor Square. He died suddenly of heart 
disease at Keswick on 3 Aug. 1911. His 
remains were cremated, and his ashes 
deposited in the columbarium of Kensal 
Green cemetery, London. He married, on 
7 Dec. 1875, Sarah, daughter of Emanuel 
Cooper, Mr. Robert Bridges, the poet, being 
his best man. His wife died before him, 
and they had two daughters, of whom one 
survived her father. 

[Personal knowledge ; St. Bart. Hosp. 
Reports, vol. xlvii. ; St. Bart. Hosp. Journal, 
Oct. and Nov. 1911, obit, notices by Norman 
Moore, Howard Marsh, and T. J. Horder ; 
works.] N. M. 

1906), rehgious writer, bom in Edinburgh on 
26 Oct. 1824, was second son of Archibald 
Geikie, presbyterian minister in Toronto 
and subsequently at Canaan, Connecticut. 
Geikie received his early education in Edin- 
burgh, and afterwards studied divinity for 
four years at Queen's College, Eongston, 
Ontario. Ordained a presbyterian minister 
in 1848, he first engaged in missionary 
work in Canada. From 1851 to 1854 he 
was presbyterian minister at HaUfax, Nova 
Scotia. In 1860 he returned to Great 
Britain and held a presbyterian charge at 
Sunderland till 1867, and at Islington 
Chapel from 1867 to 1873. In 1876 he was 
ordained deacon in the Church of England 
and priest next year. He was curate of St. 
Peter's, Dulwich (1876-9), rector of Christ 




Church, Neiiilly, Paris (187^81), vicar 
of St. Mary's, Barnstaple (1883-5), and 
vicar of St. Martin-at-Palace, Norwich 
(1885-90). In 1871 ho was made hon. 
D.D. of Queen's College, Kingston, Ontario, 
and in 1891 hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. In 1890 he retired, owing to ill- 
health, to Bournemouth, whore he died on 
1 April 190G. He was buried at Barnstaple. 
He had been awarded a civil list pension 
of 50/. in 1898. Ho married in 1849 
Margaret, daughter of David Taylor of 
Dublin. She survived him with two sons. 
Geikie enjoyed a wide reputation as a 
writer of popular books on biblical and re- 
ligious subjects. Spurgeon described him 
as ' one of the best religious writers of the 
age.' Scholarly, imaginative, and lucid, his 
chief writings dealt on orthodox hues with 
liistorical and practical rather than with 
theological themes. His most ambitious 
work was * Hours with the Bible, or, the 
Scriptures in the Light of Modem Dis- 
covery and Knowledge ' (10 vols. 1881-4 ; 
new edit, largely re-^vritten, 12 vols. 1896-7). 
His * Life and Words of Christ ' (2 vols. 
1877 ; new edit. 1 vol. 1891) reached a 
circulation of nearly 100,000 copies, and 
Delitzsch placed the book in ' the highest 
rank.' He was deeply interested in the ex- 
ploration of Palestine under the direction 
of Claude Regnier Conder [q. v. Suppl. II], 
and several visits to the country supphed 
him with material for ' The Holy Land and 
the Bible : A Book of Scripture Illus- 
trations gathered in Palestine ' (2 vols. 
1887 ; abridged edit. 1903). Among Geikie's 
other works were : 1. ' George Stanley, or 
Life in the Woods,' 1864 ; 2nd edit. 1874. 
2. 'Entering on Life,' 1870. 3. 'Old 
Testament Portraits,' 1878; new edit, 
entitled 'Old Testament Characters,' 1880; 
enlarged edit. 1884. 4. 'The Enghsh 
Reformation,' 1879, a popular history 
from the ultra-Protestant standpoint which 
ran through numerous editions. 5. * The 
Precious Promises, or Light from Beyond,' 
1882. 6. 'Landmarks of Old Testament 
History,' 1894. 7. 'The Vicar and his 
Friends,' 1901. Geikie was also a volu- 
minous contributor to religious magazines. 

[Scotsman, 3 April 1906 ; Allibone's Diet. ; 
Crockford's Clerical Directory.] W. F. G. 

GELL, Sm JAMES (1823-1905), Manx 
lawyer and judge, bom at Kennaa on 13 
Jan. 1823, was second son of John Gell of 
Kennaa, Isle of Man. The family of Gell 
held land there for more than four centuries. 
After education at Castletown grammar 
school and King WiUiam'e College, Gell 

at sixteen wa« articled to the clerk ^ of 
the rolls, John { McHutchin, in Castle- 
town, and was admitted to the Manx bar 
on 16 Jan. 1846. He enjoyed a largo 
and important practice, and became known 
as the chief authority on Manx law and 
custom. In 1854 he was appointed high 
bailiff of Castletown, and in May 1866, 
the year of the Manx Reform Act, became 
attorney-general. That office he filled 
with distinction for over thirty-two years. 
He drafted with much skill nearly all the 
Acts which came into operation during 
the period. From 1898 to 1900 he was 
first deemster, and from 1900 till death 
clerk of the rolls. 

Gell temporarily filled the post of deputy 
governor in 1897, acting govemor in July 
1902, and deputy governor in November 
1902. He was a member of the legislative 
council and of the Tynwald court for thirty- 
nine years. An intensely patriotic Manxman, 
he championed all the rights and privi- 
leges of the island. He took an active 
part in educational and rehgious work. 
He was chairman of the insiSar justices 
from 1879, a trustee of King WiUiam's 
College, and chairman of the council of 
education from 1872 to 1881. For many 
years he was chairman of the Manx 
Society for the PubUcation of National 
Documents, and he edited in 1867 vol. xii. 
of Parr's 'Abstract of Laws of the Isle 
of Man.' He was also editor for the 
insular government of the statute laws 
of the Isle from 1836 to 1848, and he 
supervised and annotated a revised edition 
of the statutes dating from 1417 to 

An earnest churchman, he was for the 
greater part of his life a Sunday-school 
teacher, and was one of the church com- 
missioners, the trustees of Manx church 
property. He was knighted in 1877. He 
was acting governor when King Edward 
Vn and Queen Alexandra paid their 
surprise visit to the isle in 1902, and he 
received the honour of C.V.O. He died 
at Castletown on 12 March 1905. He 
married on 17 Dec. 1850 Ameha Marcia 
{d. 1899), daughter of WiUiam GiU, vicar 
of Malew, a well-known Manx scholar and 
representative of an ancient local family. 
Of four sons and three daughters, two 
sons, Mr. James Stowell Gell, high bailiff 
of Douglas and Castletown, and William 
Gell, vicar of Pontefract, Yorkshire, with 
one daughter, survive, 

[The Times, 13 March 1905; Men of the 
Time, 1899; official Debates of the Legisla- 
ture, vols. 1 to 22.] W. C. 




CHARLES, second Duke of Cambridge, 
Earl of Tipperary and Baron Culloden 
(1819-1904), field-marshal and commander- 
in-chief of: the army, was only son of 
Adolphus^Erederick, first duke [q. v.], the 
yoimgest son of George III. His mother 
was Augusta Wilhelmina Louisa, daughter 
of Frederick, landgrave of Hesse Cassel. He 
was bom at Cambridge House, Hanover, 
on 26 March 1819, and being at that time 
the only grandchild of George HI, his birth 
was formally attested by three witnesses 
— the duke of Clarence (later WiUiam IV), 
the earl of Mayo, and George Henry Rose, 
P.C. His father was governor-general of 
Hanover, and Prince George Uved there till 
1830, when he was sent to England to be 
under the care of William IV and Queen 
Adelaide. His tutor was John Ryle Wood, 
afterwards canon of Worcester, who had 
great influence over him and won his 
lasting attachment. At Wood's instance he 
began a diary, as a boy of fourteen, a sin- 
gularly naive confession of his shortcomings, 
and he kept it up to within a few months of 
his death. In, 1825 he was made G.C.H., 
and in Aug. 1835 K.G. In 1836 he rejoined 
his parents in Hanover, his tutor being 
replaced by a military governor, Heutenant- 
colonel WiUiam Henry Cornwall of the 
Coldstream guards. He had been colonel 
in the Jager battalion of the Hanoverian 
guards since he was nine years old; he 
now began to learn regimental duty both 
as a private and an officer. 

On the accession of his first cousin, 
Queen Victoria, in June 1837, Hanover 
passed to the duke of Cumberland, and 
the duke of Cambridge returned with his 
family to England. On 3 Nov. Prince 
George was made brevet colonel in the 
British army, and in Sept. 1838 he went to 
Gibraltar to learn garrison duties. He was 
attached to the 33rd foot for drill. After 
spending six months there and six months 
in travel in the south of Europe, he came 
home, and was attached to the 12th lancers, 
with which he served for two years 
in England and Ireland. On 15 April 
1842 he was gazetted to the 8th fight 
dragoons as Heutenant-colonel, but ten 
days afterwards he was transferred to the 
17th lancers as colonel. He commanded 
this regiment at Leeds, and helped the 
magistrates to preserve the peace of the 
town during the industrial disturbances 
in August. 

On 20 April 1843 he was appointed 
colonel on the staff, to command the troops 
in Corfu. He spent two years there, and 

on Lord Seaton's recommendation he 
received the G.C.M.G. He was promoted 
major-general on 7 May 1845. After com- 
manding the troops at Limerick for six 
months, he was appointed to the Dublin 
district on 1 April 1847, and held that 
command five years. He had a large force 
under him, and worked hard at the training 
of the troops. In 1848 political disturb- 
ances made his post no sinecure. By the 
death of his father on 8 July 1850 Prince 
George became duke of Cambridge, and 
an income of 12,000Z. a year was voted him 
by Parliament. He was made K.P. on 
18 Nov. 1851. For nearly two years from 
1 April 1852 he was inspecting general of 
cavalry at headquarters, and the memo- 
randa on the state of the army which he 
then drew up (Verner, i. 39-59) show how 
much he concerned himself with questions 
of organisation. He was in command of 
the troops at the funeral of the duke of 
Wellington. On 28 Sept. 1852 he was trans- 
ferred as colonel from the 17th lancers to 
the Scots f usiHer guards. 

In February 1854 the duke was chosen 
to command a division in the army to be 
sent to the Crimea. He accompanied lord 
Raglan to Paris on 10 April, and went 
thence to Vienna, bearing a letter from 
the Queen to the Emperor Francis Joseph. 
Leaving Vienna on 1 May, he reached 
Constantinople on the 10th. He was 
promoted lieutenant-general on 19 June, 
went with his division (guards and high- 
landers) to Varna, and thence to the Crimea. 
At the Alma (20 Sept.) he and his men were 
in second fine, behind the hght division ; 
but when the latter fell back before the 
Russian counter attack, the guards and 
highlanders came to the front and won the 
battle. At Inkerman (5 Nov. ) the duke with 
the brigade of guards (the highlanders were 
at Balaclava) came to the help of the 2nd 
division very early in the day, and retook 
the Sandbag battery. His horse was shot 
under him, and he found himself left with 
about 100 men, while the rest pushed on 
down the slope. Kinglake describes him 
' with an immense energy of voice and 
gesture . . . commanding, entreating, ad- 
juring' the men to keep on the high 
ground. By the advance of another Russian 
column he was nearly cut off from the main 
position, and he and his aide-de-camp 
*had regularly to ride for it in order to get 
back' (Verner, i. 79). The guards lost 
622 officers and men out of 1361 engaged. 

The duke's courage was high, but he 
had not the imperturbability needed^jfor 
war, and his health had suffered at Varna. 




Of the Alma ho notes, * When all was over 
I could not help crying hko a child ' 
(Veenkr, i. 73). Three days before Inker- 
man ho had written to Queen Victoria 
gloomily about the situation of the army. 
He was * dreadfully knocked up and quite 
worn out ' by the battle, and was per- 
suaded to go to Balaclava for rest. He 
was on board the frigate Retribution, 
when it narrowly escap^ wreck in the 
great storm of 14 November. On the 25th 
he left the Crimea for Constantinople, and 
on 27 Dec. a medical board invalided 
him to England. He was mentioned in 
despatches [Land. Qaz. 8 Oct., 12 and 22 
Nov. 1854) and received the thanks of parUa- 
ment, the medal with 4 clasps, the Turkish 
medal, and the G.C.B. (6 July 1855). 
He declined the governorship of Gibraltar, 
and was anxious to return to the Crimea. 
When general Sir James Simpson [q. v.] 
resigned command of the army there in 
November, the duke tried in vain to succeed 
him. In January 1856 he was sent to 
Paris, to take part in the conference on 
the further conduct of the war, but the 
conclusion of peace in March made its 
plans of no effect. 

On 15 July Lord Hardinge [q. v.] resigned, 
and the duke succeeded liim as general 
commanding in chief. He was promoted 
general, and on 28 July was sworn of 
the privy council. The breakdown in the 
Crimea had led to great changes in army 
administration. The secretary of state for 
war (separated in 1854 from the colonies) 
took over the powers of the secretary at 
war, and of the board of ordnance, which 
was abolished. He also took over the 
militia and yeomanry from the home 
office and the commissariat from the 
treasury. He became responsible to parlia- 
ment for the whole military administra- 
tion ; but the general commanding in 
chief, as representing the crown, enjoyed 
some independence in matters of discipline 
and command, appointments and pro- 
motions. The abolition of the board of 
ordnance brought the artillery and engineers 
under his authority, and the duke was 
made colonel of these two corps on 10 May 
1861. The amalgamation (of which he 
was a strong advocate) of the European 
troops of the East India Company with 
the army of the crown in 1862 gave him 
general control of troops serving in India. 

The volunteer movement of 1859 brought 
a new force into existence. He was not 
unfriendly to it, but had no great faith in 
it, and was opposed to a capitation grant. 
He became colonel of the 1st City of London 

brigade on 24 Feb. 1860. He was president 
of the National Rifle ABSociatioii, which 
was founded in 1859 and had till 1887 its 
ranges at Wimbledon, on land of which 
he was principal owner ; then he foimd it 
necessary to call upon it to go elsewhere, 
and the ranges were transferred to Bisley. 
He took an active part in military educa- 
tion, and helped to found the Staff College. 
He had been appointed a commissioner for 
Sandhurst and for the Duke of York's 
school in 1850, and was made governor 
of the MiUtary Academy at Woolwich in 
1862. On the death of the Prince Consort 
he exchanged the colonelcy of the Scots 
fusiher guards for that of the Grenadier 
guards. On 9 Nov. 1862 he was made field- 

During the first thirteen years of his 
command the duke was in accord with 
successive war ministers, though he was 
continually remonstrating against reduc- 
tions or urging increase of the army. 
But in December 1868 Edward (afterwards 
Viscount) Cardwell [q. v.] became secretary 
of state, with Gladstone as premier, and 
they took in hand a series of reforms which 
were most distasteful to him. First of all, 
the so-called dual government of the army, 
which divided responsibility and was a 
hindrance to reform, was abolished. By 
the War Office Act of 1870 the com- 
mander-in-chief was definitely subordinated 
to the war minister, and became one of 
three departmental chiefs charged respec- 
tively with combatant personnel, supply, 
and finance. To mark the change, the 
duke was required in Sept. 1871 to re- 
move from the Horse Guards to Pall Mall. 
He regarded this as a blow not only to 
his own dignity but to the rights of the 
crown, and the Queen intervened on his 
behalf ; but he had to give way. 

The reconstruction of the war office 
was followed by the adoption of short 
service, the formation of an army reserve, 
the linking of battaUons, and their localisa- 
tion. The purchase of commissions was 
abolished, and seniority tempered by selec- 
tion became the principle of promotion. 
The duke was opposed to all these innova- 
tions. His watchwords were discipline, 
es'prit de corps, and the regimental system, 
all of which seemed to him to be threatened. 
But holding it to be for the interest of the 
crown and the army that he should remain 
at his post, ho accepted a system of which 
ho disapproved. The system held its 
ground notwithstanding party changes, 
and in 1881 it was carried a stage further 
by H. C. E. Childors [q. v. Suppl. 1], the 




linked battalions being welded into terri- 
torial regiments in spite of the duke's 
efforts to unlink them. 

On 24 Nov. 1882 he was made personal 
aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, to com- 
memorate the campaign in Egypt ; and 
on 26 Nov. 1887, when he had completed 
fifty years' service in the army, he was 
made commander-in-chief by patent. At 
the end of that year his functions were 
much enlarged, the whole business of supply 
being handed over to him. Cardwell had 
assigned it to a surveyor-general of the 
ordnance, who was meant to be an experi- 
enced soldier; but the ofl&ce had become 
political, and the complaints about stores 
during the Nile campaign led to its aboU- 
tion. Everything except finance now came 
under the control of the commander-in-chief, 
with the adjutant-general as his deputy. 
During the next few years much was done 
to fit the army for war : supply and trans- 
port were organised and barracks im- 
proved ; but the secretary of state found 
that the military hierarchy hindered his 
personal consultation of experts. 

In June 1888 a very strong commission 
was appointed, with Lord Hartington (after- 
wards duke of Devonshire) [q. v. Suppl. II] 
as chairman, to inquire into naval and 
mihtary administration ; and in May 1890 
they recommended that the office of 
commander-in-chief should be abolished 
when the duke ceased to hold it, and 
that there should be a chief of the staff. 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman [q. v. 
Suppl. II], who became war minister in 
1892, dissented from this recommendation; 
but he thought the powers of the com- 
mander-in-chief ought to be diminished, 
and the duke's retirement was a necessary 
preliminary. The call for this step grew 
louder, and in the spring of 1895 the 
duke consulted the Queen. Though 76 
years of age, he felt himself physically 
and mentally fit for his office. The Queen 
replied, reluctantly, that he had better re- 
sign (Vbrner, ii. 395), and on 31 October 
he issued his farewell order, handing over 
the command of the army to Lord Wolse- 
ley. To soften the blow, the Queen ap- 
pointed him her chief personal aide-de- 
camp and colonel-in-chief to the forces, 
with the right of holding the parade on 
her birthday. 

In announcing to the House of Com- 
mons the duke's approaching retirement, on 
the eve of his own fall (21 June) Camp- 
beU-Bannerman touched on his attractive 
personality, his industry and activity, his 
devotion to the interests of the army, and 

his familiarity with its traditions and 
requirements; but dwelt especially on 
his common sense and knowledge of the 
world, his respect for constitutional pro- 
prieties and for pubHc opinion. The army 
was attached to him because of his fair- 
ness. He bore no ill-will to officers who 
differed from him, but could discuss points 
of difference with good temper (Verneb, 
ii. 272, seq.). Though in the training of the 
troops, as in other things, he was con- 
servative, his thorough knowledge of close- 
order drill, and his outspoken, not to say 
emphatic, comments made him a formidable 
inspecting officer and kept up a high 

Devoted as the duke was to the army, 
it by no means absorbed all his energies. 
He undertook with alacrity the duties 
that fell to him as a member of the royal 
family, which were especially heavy after 
the death of the Prince Consort. For 
instance, in 1862 he was called upon to 
open the international exhibition, to 
entertain the foreign commissioners, and 
distribute the prizes. He was connected 
with a large number of charitable institu- 
tions, and took real interest in them ; but 
two were pre-eminent — the London Hos- 
pital and Christ's Hospital — over both of 
which he presided for fifty years. He 
was elected president of Chnst's Hospital 
on 23 March 1854, and was the first pre- 
sident who was not an alderman of the 
City. From that time onward he worked 
unsparingly for it, though latterly his 
efforts were mainly in opposition to the 
removal of the school to Horsham, *the 
most wanton thing that ever was under- 
taken ' (Sheppard, ii. 322). He was in 
great request as a chairman at dinners 
and meetings for benevolent purposes, for 
though not eloquent he was fluent, and 
had the art of getting on good terms with 
his audience. 

In private life he was the most affection- 
ate of men. His mother lived long enough 
to send her blessing to ' the best son that 
ever Hved,' while he was being enter- 
tained at the United Service Club to 
celebrate his mihtary jubilee. She died 
on 6 April 1889, and within a year he had 
another heavy blow in the death of his 
wife. Disregarding the Royal Marriage 
Act, he had married morganatically on 
8 Jan. 1840 Miss Louisa Fairbrother, an 
actress, then 24 years of age. She Hved in 
Queen Street, Mayfair, as Mrs. Fitzgeorge 
till her death on 12 Jan. 1890. She was 
buried at Kensal Green, the duke being 
chief mourner. 




The duke had rooms at St. James*8 
Palace from 1840 to 1859, when ho removed 
to Gloucester House, Park Lane, left to him 
by his aunt, tho duchess of Gloucester. 
On the death of tho duchess of Cambridge 
the Queen granted him Kew CJottago for 
his life. Ho liad been made ranger of 
Hyde Park and St. James's Park in 1852, 
and of Richmond Park in 1857. In 
addition to tho orders already men- 
tioned, he was made K.T. on 17 Sept. 1881, 
grandmaster and principal grand cross of 
St. Michael and St. George on 23 May 
1869, G.C.S.I. in 1877, G.C.I.E. in 1887, 
and G.C.V.O. in 1897. Of foreign orders 
he received tho black eagle of Prussia 
in 1852, the grand cordon of the legion of 
honour in 1855, St. Andrew of Russia 
in 1874, and the order of merit of Savoy in 
1895. He was made colonel-in-chief of 
the king's royal rifle corps on 6 March 
1869, of the 17th lancers on 21 June 
1876, and of the Middlesex regiment on 
9 Aug. 1898. He was also colonel of 
two Indian regiments — the 10th Bengal 
lancers, and the 20th Punjabis ; of tho 
Malta artillery, the Middlesex yeomanry, 
and the 4th battalion Suffolk regiment j 
of the Cambridge dragoons in the Hano- 
verian army (1852-66), and of the 28th 
foot in the Prussian army (Aug. 1889). 
He received the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
Oxford on 1 June 1853 ; of LL.D. Cam- 
bridge on 3 June 1864 ; and of LL.D. 
Dublin on 21 April 1868 ; and became one 
of the elder brethren of the Trinity house 
on 11 March 1885. He received the freedom 
of the Citv of London, with a sword, on 
4 Nov. 1857, and on 19 Oct. 1896 he was pre- 
sented with an address from the corporation 
and his bust (by Francis Williamson) was 
unveiled at the Guildhall. He was made 
a freeman of York in 1897, of Bath and 
of Kingston in 1898. 

A series of banquets at the military 
clubs and messes marked the duke's 
retirement, but he continued for several 
years to preside at regimental dinners and 
to keep in close touch with the army. He 
was very vigorous for his age, rode in Queen 
Victoria's diamond jubilee procession of 
1 897, and at her funeral in 1901 . He paid his 
last visit to Germany in August 1903, but 
his strength was then giving way. He 
died at Gloucester House on 17 March 1904 
of hicmorrhage of the stomach, having 
outlived by a few weeks the commander- 
ship-in- chief which he held so long. On 
the 22nd he was buried, in accordance 
VTxth his wish, beside his wife at Kensal 
Green. The first part of the service was at 

VOL, Lxvin. — scrp. n. 

Westnunster Abbey with King Edward VII 
as chief mourner. Five field-marshalfl 
and thirteen generals were pall-bearers. 
Tributes were paid to his memory in both 
houses of parhament. He ha/l throe sons : 
Colonel George William Adolphus Fitz- 
george ; Rear-admiral Sir Adolphus Augustus 
Frederick Fitzgeorge, K.C.V.O., who be- 
came equerry to his father in 1897; and 
Colonel Sir Augustus Charles Fretlerick 
Fitzgeorge, K.C.V.O., C.B., who was his 
father's private secretary and equerry from 
1886 to 1895. 

In June 1907 a bronze equestrian statue 
of him by Captain Adrian Jones was placed 
in front of the new war office in White- 
hall, and there is also a statue at Christ's 
Hospital, Horsham. There is a memorial 
window in the chapel of St. Michael and 
St. George in St. Paul's Cathedral. Of 
the many portraits of him the chief are 
one, at the age of 18, by John Lucas (at 
Windsor), and three as a field-marshal, by 
Frank Holl (at Buckingham Palace), Arthur 
S. Cope (at the United Service Club), and 
Sir Hubert von Herkomer (at the R.E. 
mess, Chatham). A caricature portrait 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1870. 

[Willoughby C. Vemer, Military Life of 
the Duke of Cambridge, 1905 ; J. E. Sheppard, 
George, Duke of Cambridge, a memoir of his 
private life, 2 vols. 1906 ; The Times, 18 March 
1904 ; Lettera of Queen Victoria, 1907 ; King- 
lake, Invasion of the Crimea, 1863, &c. ; The 
Panmure Papere, 1908 ; Sir Robert Biddulph, 
Lord Cardwell at the War Office, 1904 ; E. S. C. 
Chiklers, Life of Hu^h 0. E. Childers, 1901 ; 
Pearce, Annals of Christ's Hospital, 1908 ; 
Third Report of Lord North brook's committee 
on army administration, 12 Feb. 1870 (c. 54) ; 
Report of Royal Commission (Penzance) on 
Army Promotion, 5 Aug. 1876 (c. 1669); 
Report of Royal Commission (Hartington) on 
Naval and Military Administration, 11 Feb. 
1890 (c. 5979) ; Catalogues of the Duke's collec- 
tion of plate, pictures, porcelain, books, &o., 
sold at Christie's in 1904.] E. M. L. 


(1838-1910), historical \vriter, bom at Bath 
on 1 Jan. 1838, was eldest of tho three chil- 
dren (two sons and a daughter) of Richard 
Francis George, surgeon, by his wife Eliza- 
beth Brooke. He entered Winchester as a 
scholar in 1849, and succeeded in 1856 
to a fellowship at New College, Oxford. 
He obtained first classes in both classical 
and mathematical moderations in 1858, 
a second class in the final classical school 
in 1859, and a second class in the final 
mathematical-school in 1860. He graduated 
B.A. in 1860, proceedmg M.A. in 1862. 




George was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple on 6 June 1864, and followed the 
western circuit till 1867, when he returned 
to New College as tutor in the combined 
school of law and history. He was 
ordained in 1868, but imdertook no 
parochial work. After the separation of 
the law and history schools in 1872 he 
became history tutor of New College, and 
filled that office till 1891. He played a 
prominent part in the establislunent of 
the inter-collegiate system of lecturing at 
Oxford. He remained a fellow of New 
College till his death. His historical 
writing and teaching were chiefly con- 
cerned with military history {in. which he 
was a pioneer at Oxford) and with the cor- 
relation of history and geography. His 
chief publications, ' Battles of English 
History ' (1895), ' Napoleon's Invasion 
of Russia' (1899), 'Relations of Geo- 
graphy and History ' (1901 ; 4th edit. 1910), 
and ' Historical Evidence ' (1909), all show 
critical acumen and fertility of illustration, 
if no recondite research. His ' Genealogical 
Tables illustrative of Modern History ' 
(1874; 4th edit. 1904) and 'Historical 
Geography of the British Empire ' (1904 ; 
4th edit. 1909) are useful compilations. 

George took a large part in the work 
of the university as well as in the re-organi- 
sation of his own college, which he described 
in his 'New College, 1850-1906' (1906). 
He was one of the first members of the 
Oxford University volunteer corps, and 
for many years he took an important 
share in the work of the local examina- 
tions delegacy. George's interests received 
a new direction from his first visit to Swit- 
zerland in 1860, when he metLesUe Stephen 
at Zermatt and accompanied him up to the 
Riffel by the Gomer glacier. In 1862 he 
accompanied Stephen on the first passage 
by the Jungfrau Joch (Maitland's Life 
of Stephen, chap, vi.), and achieved a first 
ascent of the Gross Viescherhom {Alpine 
Journal, i. 97). In 1863 he made a 
passage of the Col du Tour Noir with 
Christian Aimer as guide, and ' finally 
settled the long-debated question about 
the relative positions of the heads of the 
Argenti^re, Tour, and Saline glaciers, which 
every successive map had professed to 
explain in a different way ' {ibid. pp. 125, 
286). Though he enjoyed the physical 
exercise, his interest in climbing was 
chiefly geographical and scientific. He was 
one of the first Alpine climbers to employ 
photography. He joined the Alpine Club 
in 1861, and the estabUshment of the 
* Alpine Journal ' was suggested at a meet- 

ing in his rooms at New College; he 
edited its first three volumes (1863-7). 
In 1866 he pubhshed 'The Oberland and its 
Glaciers,' written ' to popularise the glacier 
theory of Tyndall' {Alpine Journal, xxv.). 
George was the founder of the Oxford Alpine 

George, who inherited a moderate fortune 
from his father, was director of the West 
of England and South Wales Bank at 
Bristol, although he took no active part 
in the management of its affairs. The 
failure of the bank in 1880 not only injured 
George financially but involved him with 
his fellow-directors in an abortive trial 
for irregularities in keeping the accounts 
{Annual Beg. 3 May 1880, p. 38). George 
died at Holywell Lodge, Oxford, on 
15 Dec. 1910. In 1870 he married AHce 
Bourdillon {d. 1893), youngest daughter of 
WiUiam Cole Cole of Exmouth, by whom 
he had two sons. 

[Personal information ; College and Uni- 
versity Records ; Alpine Journal, vol. xxv. 
May 1911.] R. S. R. 

GERARD, [JANE] EMILY, Madame de 
Laszowska (1849-1905), novehst, bom on 
7 May 1849 at Chesters, Jedburgh, near 
Airdrie, Roxburghshire, was eldest sister of 
General Sir Montagu Gilbert Gerard [q. v. 
Suppl. II for parentage]. Her great-grand- 
father was Gilbert Gerard [q. v.], formerly 
a Scottish Episcopalian. Her mother 
became a Roman catholic in 1848, and 
Emily belonged to that faith. Until the 
age of fifteen she was educated at home ; 
for eighteen months of a long residence with 
her family in Venice (1863-6) she took 
lessons at the house of the Comte de Cham- 
bord with his niece. Princess Marguerite, 
afterwards wife of Don Carlos, and with 
her formed a life-long intimacy; the 
princess died in 1893. After three years 
at the convent of the Sacre Coeur at Rieden- 
burg near Bregenz in Tyrol, Emily married 
on 14 Oct. 1869 Chevalier Miecislas de 
Laszowski, member of an old Polish noble 
family, and an officer in the Austrian army, 
whose acquaintance she made in Venice. 
She lived first at Brzezum, Galicia, and 
after the death of her mother in 1870 her 
sisters joined her there. From 1 880 onwards 
she devoted much time to recording her 
foreign experience in the form of fiction. 
In 1883 her husband was appointed to the 
command of the cavalry brigade in Transyl- 
vania, and she spent two years in the 
province, at Hermannstadt and Kronstadt. 
She embodied her observations in ' The 
Land beyond the Forest : Facts, Figures 
and Fancies from Transylvania * (1888), an 




excellent description of the country and ite 
inhabit-ants. In 1885 her husband retired 
from active service with the rank of \iv,\i- 
tant-general, and they then matle their 
permanent home in Vienna, where she died 
on II Jan. 1905. Her husband predeceased 
her by five weeks (December 1904). There 
were two sons of the marriage. 

In 1880 Emily Gerard collaborated in a 
novel, *Reata' (new edit. 1881), with her 
sister Dorothea, who in 1886 married Julius 
Longard de Longgardo, also an officer in the 
Austrian army. A like partnership produced 

* Beggar my Neighbour' (1882), 'The 
Waters of Hercules ' (1885), and ' A Sensi- 
tive Plant ' (1891). She contributed without 
aid several short tales to Blackwood's and 
Longman's ' Magazines,' reprinted in the 
volumes * Bis ' (1890), and * An Electric Shock 
and other Stories ' (1897), and published 
six novels, of which the best is ' The Voice 
of a Flower ' (1893). She wrote gracefully, 
and made the foreign sotting effective, but 
lacked power of characterisation. She was 
a competent critic ; for nearly two years 
she furnished monthly reviews of German 
literature to 'The Times,' and occasional 
articles on new German books to ' Black- 
wood's Magazine.* 

Other works by Emily Gerard are : 
1. 'A Secret Mission,' 1891. 2. 'A 
Foreigner,' 1896 (inspired by her own 
marriage). 3. * The Tragedy of a Nose,' 
1898. 4. ' The Extermination of Love, a 
Study in Erotics,' 1901. 5. ' The Heron's 
Tower,* 1904. 6. ' Honour's Glassy Bub- 
ble,' 1906 ; and a preface to S. Kneipp's 

• My Water Cure,' 1893. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906 ; The Times, 
12-13 Jan. 1905 ; Athenaeum, 21 Jan. 1905 ; 
Who's Who, 1904; Helen C. Black, Pen, 
Pencil, Baton and Mask : Biographical 
Sketches, 1896 ; WiUiam Blackwood and his 
Sons, vol. iii. (by Mrs. Gerald Potter), 1898, 
pp. 356-8.] E. L. 


(1842-1905), general, bom at Edinburgh on 
29 June 1842, was second son in a family of 
three sons and fom: daughters of Archibald 
Gerard (1812-1880) of Rochsoles, near Air- 
drie, Lanarkshire, by his wife Euphemia Ers- 
kine {d. 1870), eldest daughter of Sir John 
Robison [q. v.]. He was a great-grandson 
of Alexander Gerard [q. v.], philosophical 
writer, and of Archibald Ahson [q. v.], 
father of the historian. The family was 
originally Scottish episcopalian, but the 
mother joined the church of Rome in 1848, 
the father a little later, and the children 
were brought up as Roman catholics. 
Montagu's eldest brother became Father 

John Gerard, S.J., and his eldest sister 
was Jane Emily, Maflamo do Laszowska 
[q. v. Suppl. 11]. Ho was admitted to 
Stony hurst in 1850, and subeoqaently 
passed four years at Ushaw (1865-9). 

After s{X3nding some time on the Conti- 
nent, Gerard went through the usual course 
at Woolwich. He was gazetted lieutenant 
in the royal artillery on 19 April 1864, and 
undertook garrison duty at Gibraltar. In 
1866, on being transferred to the field 
artillery, he was stationed in the central 
provinces, India. In 1867-8 ho was era- 
ployed on the transport train during the 
Abyssinian expedition ; he was mentioned 
in despatches and received the war medal. 
In 1870 he joined the Bengal staff corps, 
and was attached to the Central India 
horse. Promoted captain on 19 April 1876, 
ho acted as brigade major throughout 
the second Afghan war (1878-80), and had 
liis horse wounded at the action of Deh 
Sarak while escorting a convoy from Chara. 
He took part in the second Bazar valley ex- 
pedition and in the defence of Jagdallak. He 
accompanied General (Sir) Charles Gough's 
brigade to Sherpur in December 1879, and 
Lord Roberts's march from Kabul to Kan- 
dahar, and was engaged at the battle of 
1 Sept. 1880. He was twice mentioned 
in despatches, and received the medal 
with two clasps, the bronze star, and 
the brevets of major (22 Nov. 1879) and 
of li3ut. -colonel (2 March 1881). Gerard 
served in the Egyptian campaign of 1882, 
and at Alexandria fought in all the 
actions that followed the bombardment. 
He was appointed deputy assistant ad- 
jutant and quartermaster general of the 
cavalry division, and was present at the 
reconnaissance of 5 Aug. 1882, the battles 
of Kassassin and Tel-el-Kebir, and the 
surrender of Arabi Pasha. In addition to 
being mentioned in despatches he was given 
the medal with clasp, the bronze star, the 
C.B., and the third class of the order of the 
Medjidie. Ho became major on 19 April 
1884 and brevet-colonel on 2 March 1885. 

Gerard had other qualities besides those 
of the successful soldier. In 1881 and 
again in 1885 he was despatched on secret 
missions to Persia. After serving as 
district staff officer of the first class in 
Bengal, he was selected to take charge of 
the tour which the Tsarevitch (aftenvards 
Nicholas II) made in India (Dec. 1890-Feb. 
1891), and the skill with wliich he discharged 
his duties resulted in his appointment in 
1892 as British military attache at St. 
Petersburg. In the negotiations concerning 
the Pamirs boundary dispute he played a 

H 2 




conspicuous part, and when in March 1895 
an agreement was signed between Great 
Britain and Russia for the delimitation of 
their spheres of influence in central Asia, 
Gerard was sent out to the Pamirs at the 
head of a British commission. He met the 
Russian mission under general Shveikovsky 
in June at Lake Victoria, and from that 
point eastwards to the Chinese frontier 
demarcated the line which henceforth 
divided Russian from British interests. 

In 1896 he was nominated to the com- 
mand of the Hyderabad contingent, and 
in 1899 was promoted to the command of 
a first-class district in Bengal. He 
was created C.S.I, in 1896, K.C.S.I. in 
1897, and K.C.B. in 1902. He was pro- 
moted major-general on 1 April 1897, 
lieutenant-general on 12 Sept. 1900, and 
general on 29 Feb. 1904. On the out- 
break of the Russo-Japanese war in 1904 
he went out to Manchuria as chief British 
attache in General Kuropatkin's army; 
but his health succumbed to the rigours of 
the campaign, and he died of pneiunonia at 
Irkutsk on 26 July 1905 on his way home 
from Kharbin. A requiem mass was sung 
at the catholic church of St. Catherine's, 
St. Petersburg, at which both the Tsar 
and King Edward VII were represented. 
The body was subsequently conveyed to 
Scotland, and buried at Airdrie on 8 Sep- 
tember. He married on 19 Sept. 1888 
Helen Adelaide, third daughter of Edward 
Richard Meade, a grandson of John Meade, 
first earl of ClanwiUiam ; she survived him 
with one son. Gerard was devoted to all 
forms of sport, especially big-game shooting, 
and recorded his experiences in ' Leaves 
from the Diaries of a Soldier and a Sports- 
man, 1865-1885 ' (1903). 

[The Times, 28 July, 22 Aug., 9 Sept. 1905 ; 
Tablet, 12 Aug. 1905; Army List, 1905; 
Stonyhurst Magazine, October 1 905 ; H. B. 
Hanna, The Second Afghan War, 1910, iii. 257, 
511 ; private information from Father John 
Gerard, S.J.] G. S. W. 

(1857-1901), orientaUst, bom on 3 June 
1857 at 25 Newton Place, Glasgow, was 
only son of Elias John Gibb, wine merchant, 
and Jane Oilman. Both parents survived 
their son. He was educated first at 
Park School, Glasgow, under Dr. CoUier, 
author of the ' History of England,' and 
afterwards at Glasgow University, where 
he matriculated in 1873, and pursued 
his studies until 1875, but took no 
degree. Prompted on the one hand by a 
strong linguistic taste, and on the other 
by an early deUght in the book of the 

* Thousand and One Nights ' (Alf Layla wa 
Layla), and other Eastern tales, Gibb, who 
was well provided for, devoted himself 
at an early period to the Arabic, Persian, 
and more especially Turkish languages and 
literatures. Gavin Gibb, D.D., a cousin 
of his grandfather, who was professor of 
oriental languages in the University of 
Glasgow from 1817 to 1831, seems to be 
the only connection in Gibb's family history 
with oriental scholarship. It was apparently 
without external help or suggestion that 
Gibb published in 1879, when only twenty- 
two, an English translation of the account 
of the capture of Constantinople by the 
Turks, given by Sa*du'd-Din in the ' Tuju 't- 
Tevarikh ' or ' Crown of Histories.' In 1882 
there followed his 'Ottoman Poems trans- 
lated into EngUsh Verse in the Original 
Forms,' which was the forerunner of his de- 
tailed and ambitious ' History of Ottoman 
Poetry,* on which he gradually concentrated 
his energies. In 1884 he translated from 
the Turkish of Ali Aziz the * Story of Jewad.' 

Moving to London on his marriage in 
1889, and collecting a fine oriental library, 
Gibb lived the life of a studious recluse, 
rarely going further from London than 
Glasgow to stay with his parents. He 
travelled in Francejfand Italy in 1889, 
but never visited Turkey or any Eastern 
country, although he spoke and wrote 
the Turkish language correctly, and 
acquired through his reading a profound 
sympathy with Mohammedan thought. 
He joined the Royal Asiatic Society about 
1881. The first volume of his work on 
Ottoman poetry, containing an introduc- 
tion (pp. 1-136) to the whole subject, not 
less useful to students of Arabic and Persian 
than to those of Turkish literature, and an 
account of the earlier period of Ottoman 
poetry (a.d. 1300-1450), was published in 
1900, but in November next year, while he 
was putting the final touches to the second 
volume, he was attacked by scarlet fever, of 
which he died on 5 Dec. 1901. He was 
buried at Kensal Green cemetery, his funeral 
being attended by the Turkish poet 'Abdu'l 
Haqq Hamid Bey and other Mohammedan 
friends 'and admirers. 

In 1889 Gibb married Ida W. E. Rodri- 
guez (afterwards Mrs. Ogilvie Gregory). 
On his death his library was, with small 
reservations, divided among the libraries 
of the British Museum (which received his 
manuscripts), the Cambridge University 
(which received his Arabic, Persian and 
Turkish books), and the British Embassy 
at Constantinople (which received many 
valuable works on the East). A summary 




list of tho Gibb MSS. is given in his ' History 
of Ottoman Poetry ' (vol. ii. pp. xvi — 
xxxi, 1902). A list of the printed oriental 
books, 422 in number, in the Cambridge 
University Library was compiled by the 
present writer and published by tho 
Cambridge University Press in 1906. 

By desire of Gibb s widow and parents, 
the present writer edited, after Gibb s death, 
the remainder of his ' History of Ottoman 
Poetry,* which, though not complete, was 
in an advanced stage of preparation; 
vol. ii. was published in 1902 ; vol. iii. in 
1904 ; vol. iv. in 1905 ; vol. y. (containing 
three chapters on the * Rise of the New 
School ' and indexes to the whole book) in 
1907 ; and vol. vi. (containing the Turkish 
originals of the poems translated in the 
whole work) in 1909. A seventh supple- 
mentary volume, dealing with the most 
recent development of Turkish poetry, from 
Kem&l Bey to the present time, has been 
written in French by Dr. Riza Tevfiq Bey, 
deputy for Adrianople in the Turkish 
parliament (1911), and is being translated 
into English by the present writer. 

[Personal knowledge and information 
supplied by Gibb's sister, Mrs. Watson ; 
notices by present writer in Athenaeum, 
14 Dec. 1901, and Royal Asiatic Soc.'s 
Journal, 1902, p. 486.] E. G. B. 

(1865-1907), writer on economic history, 
bom at Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, on 
23 May 1865, was eldest son of Joseph 
Henry Gibbins of Port Elizabeth, South 
Africa, by his wife Eleanor, daughter 
of the Hon. J. de Beltgens of Stanford, 
Dominica. Educated at Bradford grammar 
school, he won a scholarship at Wadham 
College, Oxford, in 1883, and obtained a 
second class in classical moderations in 
1885, and a second class also in the final 
classical schools in 1887. He graduated 
B. A. in the following year. In 1890 he won 
the Cobden prize for an economic essay 
in the University of Oxford, and in 1896 
received the degree of D.Litt. at Dublin. 

From 1889 to 1895 he worked as assistant 
master at tho Nottingham high school. 
In 1891 he was ordained deacon and in 
1892 priest, serving the curacy of St. 
Matthew's, Nottingham, from 1891 to 1893. 
From 1895 to 1899 he was vice-principal 
of Liverpool College; from 1899 to 1906 
headmaster of King Charles I school at 
Kidderminster ; in 1906 he was made prin- 
cipal of Lennoxville University in Canada. 
Ill-health obliged him to leave Canada 
after a short stay. On 13 Aug. 1907 he 

was killed by a fall from the train in 
tho Thackley tunnel between Leeds and 
Bradford. He married Emily, third 
daughter of Dr. J. H. Bell of Bradford, by 
wliom ho had one daughter. 

Gibbins devoted himself to economic 
study from his Oxford days and published : 

1. 'Industrial History of England,' 1890. 

2. * The History of Commerce in Europe,* 
1891, 2nd edit. 1897. 3. * English Social 
Reformers,' 1892, 2nd edit. 1902. 4. * British 
Commerce and Colonies,' 1893, 4th edit. 1909. 
5. * Economics of Commerce,' 1894, Spanish 
trans. 1903. 6. ' Industry in England,' 1896. 
7. ' The English People in the Nineteenth 
Century,' 1898; 2nd edit. 1900; Russian 
trans. 1901. 8. 'Economic and Industrial 
Progress of the Centmy,' 1901. He was a 
contributor to Palgrave's ' Dictionary of 
PoUtical Economy ' and edited for Messrs. 
Methuen their ' Social Questions of tho Day ' 
series (1891) and also their 'Commercial* 
series ( 1 893). His economic work popularly 
illustrated the historical methods of eco- 
nomic study. 

[The Times, 14 Aug. 1907 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; private information.] M. E. 

GIBBS, HENRY HUCKS, first Baron 
Aldenham (1819-1907), merchant and 
scholar, bom in Powis Place, Queen Square, 
Bloomsbury, on 31 August 1819, was 
eldest son of George Henry Gibbs (1785- 
1842) of Aldenham, Hertfordshire, and Clif- 
ton Hampden, Oxfordshire, by his ^vife 
Caroline {d, 1850), daughter of Charles 
Crawley, rector of Stowe-nine-churches, 
Northamptonshire. His family came from 
Clyst St. George, and had been settled in 
Devonshire from the time of Richard II. 
Sir Vicary Gibbs [q. v.], the judge, was his 

After education at Redland near Bristol 
and at Rugby, Gibbs entered Exeter CoUege, 
Oxford, in 1838, and graduated B.A. with 
third-class classical honours in 1841, pro- 
ceeding M.A. in 1844, On leaving the 
university he joined on 17 April 1843 the 
London house of Antony Gibbs & Sons, 
merchants and foreign bankers. His grand- 
father, Antony Gibbs (1756-1845), founded 
the firm in 1787 in Spain, with branches in 
Portugal, Peru, and Ecuador ; the London 
house was opened in September 1808. In 
1816 Gibbs's father and his uncle WLUiam 
(1790-1875) became partners, and m 1875 
Henry Hucks Gibbs succeeded his uncle 
WilUam, who was head of the firm from 
1843 till death. In 1881 an older firm, 
established in 1770 at Bristol (as Gibbs, 
Bright & Co.) by Lord Aldenham's grand- 




uncle George (1753-1828), elder brother of 
Antony Gibbs, was taken over by the still 
existing firm of Antony Gibbs & Sons. 

Henry Hucks Gibbs took a leading part 
in London commercial ajBfairs, serving as a 
director of the Bank of England (1853-1901) 
and governor (1875-7). He was specially 
interested in currency questions, was a 
strong advocate of bimetallism, and an 
active president of the Bimetallic League. 
In 1876 he pubUshed ' A Letter to the Mar- 
quess of Salisbury on the Depreciation of 
Silver ' ; in 1879 ' BimetalHsm in England 
and Abroad,' and in 1879 'Silver and 
Gold, a letter to M. Cazalet ' (republished, 
with additions, in 1881 as 'The Double 
Standard '). In 1886 he issued, with Henry 
Riversdale Grenf ell, ' The BimetaUic Con- 
troversy,' a collection of pamphlets, nine 
of which were from his pen ; and in 1893 
he wrote ' A Colloquy on Currency ' (3rd 
edit. 1894). 

Gibbs was a prominent member of the 
conservative party in the City of London, 
and was chairman of the Conservative 
Association there. He was returned to 
parliament as a member for the City at a 
bye-election on 18 April 1891, but retired 
at the general election in July 1892. In 
May 1880 Gibbs with other members of 
his family founded, in the conservative 
interest, the ' St. James's Gazette,' with 
Frederick Greenwood [q. v. Suppl. II] as 
editor, and the paper remained their 
property until 1888. He served in 1877-8 
on the royal commission on the Stock 
Exchange, on the City parochial charities 
commission in 1880, and on the com- 
mission of 1885-6 upon the depression of 
trade. Gibbs, who was a J.P. for Hertford- 
shire and Middlesex, and high sheriff of 
Hertfordshire in 1884, was created Baron 
Aldenham, of Aldenham, on 31 Jan. 1896. 

A strong churchman, Gibbs was a muni- 
ficent benefactor to the church. With Lord 
John Manners, seventh duke of Rutland 
[q. V. Suppl. II], he liberally supported 
the Anghcan sisterhood connected with 
Christ Church, Albany Street, one of the 
earhest established in London. With other 
members of his family he gave largely 
towards building, endowing, and furnish- 
ing Keble College, Oxford, and was a 
member of its council. In conjunction 
with his mother he restored the church 
and endowed the living of Clifton Hamp- 
den on his Oxfordshire estate, and con- 
tributed to the support of St. Andrew's, 
Wells Street, and other churches. A 
member of the house of laymen of the 
province of Canterbury, and treasurer of 

the Church House, he joined the English 
Church Union in May 1862, became trustee 
in 1876, and was a member of its council 
until his death. One of his last public acts 
was to join in the appeal of prominent church- 
men for the support of reUgious instruc- 
tion in schools {The Times, 28 Jan. 1907). 

Inheriting Aldenham House near Elstree 
in 1850 from his mother, he bought the 
rectory and advowson of Aldenham from 
Lord Rendlesham in 1877, and in 1882 
thoroughly restored and reseated the 
church at a cost of 11,000Z., adding in 1902 
an oak choir screen. He took an active 
part in the affairs of the diocese of St. 
Albans (founded in 1877), supporting the 
scheme for a new Essex bishopric and the 
Bishop of St. Albans Fund (of which he 
was a vice-president) for the extension of 
church work in East London. To the 
restoration of the Abbey of St. Albans as 
weU as the support of the new diocese he 
devoted both time and money. A long 
and costly suit with Sir Edmund Beckett, 
Lord Grimthorpe [q. v. Suppl. II], deprived 
him of the honour of restoring the Lady 
chapel of the cathedral, but he obtained 
in spite of Grimthorpe's opposition two 
faculties (on 13 Jan. and 15 July 1890) to 
restore at his own cost the altar-screen, and 
to legalise the work which he had already 
carried out. He published in 1890 a full 
' Account of the High Altar Screen in 
the Cathedral Church of St. Albans.' 
The reredos representing the Resurrection 
was executed in Carrara marble by Alfred 
Gilbert, R.A. The latest of his many 
benefactions to St. Albans Cathedral was 
the division and reconstruction of the great 
organ, by which a complete view of the 
building from east to west was obtained. 

Aldenham, although staunch and out- 
spoken both as tory and churchman, 
maintained the friendhest relations with 
those who differed from him. He cherished 
versatile interests outside commerce, poUtics, 
and ecclesiastical affairs. He was fond of 
shooting, and on 1 Sept. 1864 had the 
misfortune to lose his right hand in a gun 
accident, while he was shooting at Mann- 
head, Devonshire. Despite the disabiUty, 
he continued to shoot, and also to play 
billiards. Endowed with a remarkable 
memory, he had a special gift for 
philology and lexicography. A prominent 
member of the Philological Society 
from 1859, he took great interest in the 
EngUsh Dictionary which was projected 
by the Philological Society in 1854, 
and he sub -edited letters C and K. When 
the project was taken up by the Oxford 




University Press in 1880 with (Sir) James 
Murray as editor, Aldcniiam helped to 
settle the final form of the ' Now English 
Dictionary,' and read and annotaU^d 
every proof down to a few weeks Ijoforo his 
death. He wrote many of tlio articles on 
words connected with banking, currency, 
and commerce, one of the last being 
' pound.' For the Early English Text 
Society ho edited in 18G8 the ' Romance 
of the Chovelere Assigne.' For the Rox- 
burglio Club, of which ho was a member, 
he prepared in 1873 the ' Hystorie of the 
moste noble knight Plasidas,' and in 1884 
the ' Life and Martyrdom of St. Katharine 
of Alexandria.' He was a good Spanish 
scholar, and wrote a booklet for private 
circulation (printed in 1874) on the game 
of cards called ombre. Aldenham was 
deeply versed in liturgical studies and a 
collector of old Bibles. An enthusiastic 
bibhophile, he described in 1888 the chief 
rarities in his library in ' A Catalogue of 
some Printed Books and Manuscripts at 
St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park, and Aldenham 
House, Herts.' His residence, St. Dunstan's, 
Regent's Park, he took on lease from the 
crown in 1856 ; it was formerly tenanted 
by the Marquis of Hertford, who bought 
and installed there the clock and automaton 
strikers of St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street, 
when the church was rebuilt in 1830. 

Aldenham was appointed a trustee of 
the National Portrait Gallery on 18 Nov. 
1890, was elected F.R.G.S. on 28 Nov. 
1859, and F.S.A. on 4 June 1885, serving 
also on the council of the former society. 
Ho was president of Guy's Hospital from 
1880 to 1896. 

Aldenham died at Aldenham on 13 Sept. 
1907 ; his youngest son, Henry Lloyd 
Gibbs, died on the following day, aged 
forty-six ; both were buried at Alden- 
ham. His will, dated 19 March (codicil 
28 Aug.) 1906, was proved in December 
1907 ; the gross estate was over 703,700/., 
much of his property having been dis- 
tributed during his lifetime. He married 
on 6 May 1845 at Thorpe, Surrey, Louisa 
Anne, third daughter of William Adams, 
LL.D,, and Mary Anne Cokayne. His 
wife's brother, George Edward Coka5nie 
[q. V. Suppl. II], married Lord Aldenham's 
sister, Mary Dorothea, on 2 Dec. 1 856. Lady 
Aldenham died at St. Dunstan's, Regent's 
Park, on 17 April 1897, and was buried in 
Aldenham churchyard. Of their surviving 
children — four sons and a daughter — ^Alban 
George Henry succeeded to the peerage, 
having been previously M.P. for the City 
of London (1892-1906) ; Vicary, M.P. for St. 

Albans division, Hertfordshire (1892-1904), 
has re-edited the ' Cfjmploto Peerage * of 
his uncle, George Edward Cokayne 1 and 
Kenneth Francis is archdeacon of St. Albans 
and vicar of Aldenham. 

A miniature portrait (aet. 20) by Sir 
William Ross, R.A. ; a chalk drawing (with 
his eldest son) by E. U. Eddis (1859); a 
half-hmgth portrait by Watta (1878), and 
a fuU-lcngtii by Ouless (1879), Ixjlong to 
the present Lord Aldenham. The Hon. 
Vicary Gibbs possesses a half-length by 
T. Gotch (1888) and a marble baa- 
relief of the head after death by J. Kerr 
Lawson. The Hon. Herbert Gibbs possessea 
a second portrait by Watte (1896), 

[G. E. C. Complete Peerage, ed. Vicary 
Gibbs; The Times, 14 Sept. 1907; Kent's 
and Post Office London directories, 1808-26 ; 
Welch, Mod. Hist, of the City of London, 1896, 
pp. 375-6 ; Burke's Peerage ; Herts Observer, 
21 Sept. 1907 ; St. Albans Gazette, 18 Sept. 
1907 ; Bankers' Mag. (sketch with portrait), 
xlviii. 267-9 ; Men of Note in Commerce 
and Finance, 1900-1, p. 20 ; Whitaker's Red 
Book of Commerce, 1910, p. 374 ; Proc. of 
Soc. of Antiquaries, xxii. 284-5 ; F. H. 
McCalmont, Parliamentary Poll Book, 1906, 
pt. 2, p. 159 ; Church Times, 20 Sept. 1907 ; 
Guardian, 18 Sept. 1907 ; Morning Post, 14 
Sept. 1907 ; Daily Telegraph, 14 Sept. 1907 ; 
private information.] C. W. 

GIFFEN, Sm ROBERT (1837-1910), 
economist and statistician, born at Strath- 
aven, Lanarkshire, on 22 July 1837, was 
younger son of Robert Giffen, a small 
merchant and an elder of the presby- 
terian church, by his wife Janet Wiseman. 
Robert was educated at the village 
school and was put in charge of the 
Sunday-school Ubrary with an elder brother, 
John, who, destined for the ministry, 
died prematurely of consumption. The 
boys read all the books they could find, 
and wrote anonymously short articles and 
poems for a Hamilton newspaper. In 
1850 Robert was apprenticed to a lawyer 
in Strathaven. Three years later he re- 
moved to a lawyer's office in Glasgow, and 
remained there seven years, attending lec- 
tures occasionally at the university. WiUiam 
Black [q. v. Suppl. I], the novelist, was one 
of his closest Glasgow friends (Reid, William 
Black, p. 18). In 1860 he definitely adopted 
journalism as a profession, becoming a repor- 
ter and sub-editor of the * StirUng Journal.* 
In 1862 he came to London as sub-editor 
of the 'Globe' (1862-6). After serving for 
a time with Mr. John (afterwards Viscount) 
Morley on the * Fortnightly Review * he 
joined the staff of the 'Economist,' under 




Walter Bagehot [q. v.], as assistant-editor 
(1868-76), writing the City article from 1870 
to 1876. He was also, from 1873 to 1876, 
City editor of the * Daily News,' contributed 
to * The Times ' and the * Spectator,' and 
was one of the founders of the ' Statist ' in 
1878. Goschen, in his classical * Report on 
Local Taxation' (1871), acknowledged in- 
debtedness to Giffen for assistance in the 
collection of historical material and in 
the compilation of the tables in the ap- 
pendices. In 1876 Giffen was appointed 
to the board of trade as chief of the 
statistical department and controller of 
com returns. In 1882 the commercial 
department of the board of trade, the 
main work of which had since 1876 been 
entrusted to the foreign office, was restored 
and united to the statistical department 
under Giffen, who became an assistant- 
secretary to the board. In 1892 a third 
department, the labour department, was 
added, and Giffen became controller of 
the commercial, labour, and statistical 
departments. He retired from the board 
in 1897 and removed to Chanctonbury, 
Haywards Heath. His varied services 
proved of great value to the board. Mr. 
Joseph Chamberlain, when president, in a 
minute written after the passing of the 
Bankruptcy Act of 1882, described Giffen 
as ' to a great extent the real author of the 
measure, to whose exhaustive memoranda 
on the subject I owe the best part of my 
own knowledge.' He served on various 
departmental committees, was a member 
of the royal commissions on the depression 
of agriculture in Great Britain (1893-7), 
and on the port of London (1900-2), 
and gave important statistical and econo- 
mic evidence before numerous royal 
commissions, notably ^the depreciation of 
silver (1876), the London Stock Exchange 
(1878), gold and silver (1886-8), and 
local taxation (1898-9). 

When accepting office in the civil service, 
Giffen obtained permission to continue to 
publish his views upon matters of economic 
interest. From 1876 to 1891 he edited the 
' Journal of the Royal Statistical Society ' 
(of which he was president, 1882-4), and 
wrote numerous articles and a regular 
contribution of City notes till his death 
for the ' Economic Journal,' the organ of 
the Royal Economic Society, of which he 
was one of the founders in 1890. Twice 
president of the section of economics and 
statistics of the British Association (1887 
and 1901), he gave on the first occasion an 
address on « The Recent Rate of Material 
Progress in England ' and on the second an 

address on *The Importance of General 
Statistical Ideas' (both afterwards pub- 
lished). Weighty'and ^^sagacious in debate, 
he was a pillar of the Political Economy 
Club from 1877 to 1910. Though he 
endeavoured to avoid political partisan- 
ship he presented on occasion the unusual 
spectacle of a civil servant criticising in 
pubhc the policy of ministers of the crown. 
His examination of the finance of Glad- 
stone's home rule proposals in 1893 
was considered a *most powerful and 
damaging indictment,' and led to the 
appointment of the royal commission on 
the financial relations between Great 
Britain and Ireland (1895-6) before which 
he was a witness. He regarded Ireland 
as overtaxed in comparison with Great 
Britain. Starting as a liberal, he became 
successively a liberal unionist in 1886, a 
unionist free-trader, abstaining from sup- 
port of either of the great parties, in 1903, 
and finally ' on balance ' a supporter of 
the unionist party owing to his dislike of 
the budget of 1909-10 as trenching too 
heavily upon capital and direct taxation, 
a view which he recorded in the ' Quarterly 
Review ' for July 1909. Giffen was made 
an honorary LL.D. of Glasgow in 1884, and 
was created C.B. in 1891 and K.C.B. in 1895. 
He died of heart failure at Fort Augustus on 
12 April 1910, while on a visit to Scotland, 
and is buried at Strathaven. 

He married (1) in 1864, Isabella {d. 1896), 
daughter of D. McEwen of Stirhng; (2) 
on 25 Nov. 1896, Margaret Anne, daughter 
of George Wood of Aberdeen. He had no 

Giffen, a prolific writer on economic, 
financial, and statistical subjects, possessed 
a luminous and penetrating mind, great 
stores of information, an intimate ac- 
quaintance with business matters and 
methods, and shrewd judgment. His in- 
structive handling of statistics and hia 
keen eye for pitfalls contributed greatly 
to raise the reputation and encourage 
the study of statistics in this country, 
though he did not develop its technique 
by the higher mathematical treatment. 

A sturdy individualist, Giffen viewed with 
suspicion any infraction of the maxim 
laissez-faire. He beheved in the ' patience 
cure ' for many social and financial evils. 
Though a strong free trader , he conceded 
that a slight customs' preference to colonial 
imports might be justified by political 
considerations. His frame of mind is re- 
flected in his opinion that investors should 
inform themselves and judge for them- 
selves, and not be guided by the advice 




of their bankers, brokers, or friends. Ho 
was in favour of ' free- banking,' under which 
a cheque might be drawn upon any person 
whether a banker or not. He advocated 
the reduction of the representation of Ire- 
land in the imperial parliament, and the 
boring of a tunnel under the Irish Sea with 
a view to closer union. 

His principal published writings, apart 
from separate addresses and pamphlets, 
are : 1. ' American Railways as Invest- 
ments,' in Cracroft's Investment Tracts 
(1872; 2nd and 3rd edits. 1873), written 
at the suggestion of Mr. Bernard Cracroft 
of the Stock Exchange, who provided him 
with materials. This work served to dispel 
some of the indiscriminate mistrust of 
American railways by the British public. 
A French translation by E. de Laveleye 
was published at Li^ge, 1873. 2. 'The 
Production and Movement of Gold since 
1848,' 1873. 3. * Stock Exchange Securities ; 
an Essay on the General Course of Fluctua- 
tions in their Prices,' 1877. 4. ' Essays in 
Finance' (contributions to periodicals), 1st 
series, 2 editions, 1880 ; 6th edit. 1890 ; 2nd 
series, 1886; 3rd edit. 1890. 5. The ' Statist ' 
on Ireland; reprint of 'Economist's' 
[R. G.'s] letters to the ' Statist ' on the 
Irish land and home rule questions, and of 
editorial comments thereon, 1886. 6. 'The 
Growth of Capital,' 1889. 7. 'The Case 
against Bimetallism,' 1892; 2nd edit. 1892. 
8. ' Economic Enquiries and Studies ' 
(contributions to periodicals), 2 vols. 1904. 
Giffen contributed * Growth and Distribu- 
tion of Wealth, 1837-1887,' to vol. ii. of 
T. H. Ward's * Reign of Queen Victoria ' 
(1887), and added a chapter to Lord Farrer's 
•The State in its Relation to Trade' (1902). 
He left completed in manuscript a ' Hand- 
book of Statistics,' not yet published. 

[Personal knowledge ; information from 
Lady Giffen ; Statistical Soc. Journal, May 
1909 (with excellent engraved portrait) ; 
Economic Journal, June 1909.] H. H. 

1905), archdeacon of London and theologian, 
born at Bristol on 18 Dec. 1820, was 
sixth son of Richard Ireland Gifford 
by his wife Helen, daughter of William 
Davie of St^nehouse, Devonshire. After 
education at Elizabeth's Grammar School, 
Plvmouth, he was admitted to Shrewsbury 
School in 1837, under Benjamin Hall 
Kennedy [q. v.], and in 1839 he proceeded 
to Cambridge, winning a scholarsliip at 
St. John's College. He had a distinguished 
university career. In 1842 he won the Pitt 
University scholarship, In 1843 he gradu- 

ated B. A. both as senior classic and fifteenth 
wrangler in the mathematical tripos. In the 
same year ho won the chancellor's modal, 
and was a fellow of his college from 4 April 
1843 tiU 20 March 1844. Ho proceeded 
M.A. in 1846, and D.D. in 1861. In 1843 
he returned to Shrewsbury as second 
master, and in 1848 he was appointed he^- 
master of King Edward's Schcx>I, Bir- 
mingham. He proved a worthy successor 
of James Prince Leo [q. v.], and resigned 
in 1862 owing to ill-health. Gifford, who 
had been ordained in 1844, was honorary 
canon of Worcester (1853-77). In 1865 
he became chaplain to Francis Jeune 
[q. v.], bishop of Peterborough, who pre- 
sented him to the rectory of Walgrave, 
Northamptonshire. He subsequently held 
the post of examining chaplain to two 
successive bishops of London, Jackson 
and Temple. In 1875 he accepted the 
benefice of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, 
and in 1877 was made an honorary canon of 
St. Albans. |In 1883 he was nominated to the 
prebend of Islington in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
and the following year he succeeded 
Piers Calverley Claughton [q. v.] as arch- 
deacon of London and canon of St Paul's. 

Though Gifford was select preacher at 
Cambridge (1864, 1869) and at Oxford 
(1879, 1890-1) he was not an effective 
preacher. He was better known as a scholar 
than as an ecclesiastic. On 24 April 1889 
Gifford resigned his archdeaconry, and 
retired to Arlington House, Oxford, where 
he continued his studies to the last. In 
1903 he was elected an honorary fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. He died in 
London on 5 May 1905. 

Gifford married (1) in 1844, Anne, 
daughter of John Yolland of Plymouth ; 
(2) in 1873, Margaret Symons, daughter of 
Francis Jeune, bishop of Peterborough 
and sister of Francis Henry Jeune, baron St. 
HeUer [q. v. Suppl. II]. He had issue one 

Gifford's contributions to bibhcal and 
patristic learning, which were marked by 
insight and accuracy, included: 1. 'Voices 
of the Past' (1874), the Warburtonian 
lectures delivered at Lincoln's Inn 1870-4. 
2. ' The Epistle to the Romans ' (1881) in 
the * Speaker's Commentary.* 3. ' Baruch 
and the Epistle of Jeremy * (1888) in the 
same series. 4. ' Authorship of Psalm ox.' 
(1892 ; 3rd edit, 1895). 6. • The Catochetical 
Lectures of St. Cyril of Jerusalem' (1894), 
revised translation in vol viL of Nicene 
and Post- Nicene Library. 6. Eusebius's 
' Praeparatio Evangolioa ' (1903), 5 vols., 
text and translation. 


1 06 


[The Times, 6 May 1905 ; Guardian, 10 May 
1905; Church Times, 12 May 1905; Shrewsbury 
School Register (1734r-1908), 1909; Baker, 
History of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1869, 
i. 316 ; The Eagle, June 1905 ; Theologische 
Literaturzeitung, 24 Oct. 1903.] G. S. W. 

GIGLIUCCI, Countess. [See Novello, 
Clara Anastasia, 1818-1908.] 

1901), agricultural chemist, born at Hull on 
1 Aug. 1817, was one of four sons of Joseph 
Gilbert [q. v.], a congregational minister, 
by his wife Ann Taylor [see Gilbert, 
Mrs. Ann]. The family removed in 1825 
to Nottingham, where Gilbert spent his 
boyhood. He was educated at a school 
at Mansfield, and in 1838 entered the 
University of Glasgow, specialising in ana- 
Ijrtical chemistry under Professor Thomas 
Thomson [q. v.]. A gun-shot accident 
in 1832, which caused the loss of one eye, 
impaired his general health for some time. 
He next worked at University College, 
London, in the laboratory of Professor 
Anthony Todd Thomson [q. v.], where 
he had as a fellow-student John Bennet 
Lawes [q. v. Suppl. I], with whom he was 
afterwards closely connected. In 1840 he 
went to Giessen, where he met Lyon 
Playfair [q. v. Suppl. I] and Augustus 
Voelcker [q. v.], worked in the laboratory of 
Ldebig, and took the degree of doctor of 
philosophy. On his return from Giessen he 
acted in 1840-1 as assistant to Anthony 
Thomson at University College, and then 
devoted some time at Manchester to 
the chemistry of calico printing and 

On 1 June 1843 he joined as technical ad- 
viser John Bennet Lawes, who had shortly 
before started the first organised agricultural 
experiment station in the world at his 
ancestral home at Rothamsted; Gilbert 
lived at Harpenden close to the laboratory. 
From June 1843 to August 1900, when 
Lawes died, the two investigators lived 
in unbroken friendship and collaboration. 
' What was Lawes' work was Gilbert's work ; 
the two are indissolubly connected. . . . 
Lawes was essentially the practical agricul- 
turist. . . . Gilbert on the other hand was 
possessed of indomitable perseverance, 
combined with extreme patience and care- 
ful watching of results. With the deter- 
mination to carry out an experiment to 
the very close," he united scrupulous 
accuracy and attention to detail. Each of 
the partners had his own sphere, and the 
influence of the two minds, in themselves 
essentially different, materially contributed 

to the success which attended their joint 
efforts, and made the Rothamsted experi- 
ments a standard for reference, and an 
example wherever agricultural research is 
attempted ' (Dr. J. A. Voelcker in 
Journal Royal AgricuU. Soc. 1901, Lxii. 348, 

Gilbert took an active part in the pro- 
ceedings of various learned societies. He 
joined the Chemical Society in 1841, a few 
weeks after its formation, and became its 
president in 1882-3. He was admitted into 
the Royal Society in 1860, and received 
with Lawes its royal medal in 1867. He 
was elected in 1883 an honorary member 
of the Royal Agricultural Society, in the 
' Journal ' of which many of the results 
of the Rothamsted researches were pub- 
lished. In 1884 he was appointed Sib- 
thorpian professor of rural economy at the 
University of Oxford, and held the pro- 
fessorship for six years, the full term 
allowed by the statute. In 1893 he went 
to the Chicago exhibition, and deUvered in 
the United States seven lectures on the 
Rothamsted experiments. In 1894 Lawes 
and he were presented by the Prince of 
Wales at Marlborough House with the 
Albert gold medal of the Royal Society of 
Arts. He received honorary degrees from 
the universities of Glasgow (LL.D. 1883), 
Oxford (M.A. 1884), Edinburgh (LL.D. 
1890), and Cambridge (Sc.D. 1894). 

On the completion of fifty years of the 
joint labours of Lawes and Gilbert, a 
granite memorial of the event was dedi- 
cated at Rothamsted on 29 June 1893, 
and Gilbert was presented with an address 
and a piece of plate. On 11 Aug. 1893 
he received the honour of knighthood. 
His activity of mind and body continued 
almost to the last, but the death of Lawes 
in 1900 was a great blow to him. He died 
at Harpenden on 23 Dec. 1901, in his eighty- 
fifth year, and was buried in the churchyard 
there close to the grave of Lawes. 

Gilbert married twice: (1) in 1850, 
Eliza Laurie {d. 1853) ; (2) in 1855, Maria 
Smith, who survived him and was granted 
a civil list pension of lOOl. in 1904. He had 
no family by either marriage. His portrait 
in oils, painted by Frank O. Salisbury in 
1900, hangs in the directors' room at the 
laboratory at Rothamsted. 

[Memoir (with portrait) by Dr. J. A. Voel- 
cker in vol. 62 (1901) of the Journal Royal 
Agricult. Soc. of England ; obit, notice by 
Robert Warington, F.R.S., in Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Ixxv. 236-242 ; Trans. Chemical Soc, 1902, 
p. 625 ; Nature, 2 Jan. 1902 ; personal 
knowledge.] E. C. 




(1836-1911), dramatist, born at 17 South- 
ampton Street, Strand, the house of his 
mother's father, Dr. Thomas Morris, on 
18 Nov. 1836, was only son in a family of 
four children of William Gilbert (1804-1890) 
[q. V. Suppl. I] by his wife Atino Morris. 
His second christian name was the surname 
of his godmother. As an infant he travelled 
in Germany and Italy with his parents. 
When two years old he was stolen by 
brigands at Naples and ransomed for 25/. 
In later days when visiting Naples he recog- 
nised in the Via Posilippo the scene of the 
occurrence. His pet name as a child was 
* Bab,' which he afterwards used as a 
pseudonym. He is said to have been a 
child of great beauty, and Sir David Wilkie 
[q. v.] was so attracted by his face that he 
asked leave to paint his picture. At the age 
of seven he went to school at Boulogne. 
From ten to thirteen he was at the Western 
Grammar School, Brompton, and from 
thirteen to sixteen at the Great Ealing 
School, where he rose to be head boy. He 
spent much time in drawing, and wrote 
plays for performance by his schoolfellows, 
painting his own scenery and acting himself. 

In Oct. 1855 he entered the department 
of general literature and science at King's 
College, London {King's Coll. Calendar, 
1855-6, p. 89). Alfred Ainger [q. v. Suppl. II] 
and Walter Besant [q. v. Suppl. II] were 
fellow students. Some of his earliest lite- 
rary efforts were verses contributed to the 
college magazine. He remained a student 
during 1856-7, intending to go to Oxford, 
but in 1855, when he was nineteen years old, 
the Crimean war was at its height, and 
commissions in the Royal Artillery were 
thrown open to competitive examination. 
Giving up all idea of Oxford, he read for the 
army examination aruiounced for Christmas 
1856 (' An Autobiography ' m The Theatre, 
2 April 1883, p. 217). But the war came 
to an abrupt end, and no more officers 
being required, the examination was indefi- 
nitely postponed. Gilbert then graduated 
B.A. at the London University in 1857, 
and obtained a commission in the militia in 
the 3rd battaUon Gordon highlanders. 

In 1857 he was a successful competitor 
in an examination for a clerkship in the 
education department of the privy council 
office, in which * ill-organised and ill- 
governed office ' he tells us he spent four 
uncomfortable years. Coming unexpectedly 
in 1861 into 300/., * on the happiest day 
of my life I sent in my resignation.' He 
bad ah-eady, on 11 October 1855, entered 
the Inner Temple as a student (Foster's 

Men at the Bar). With 100/. of his capital h© 
paid for his call to the bar, which took place 
on 17 Nov. 1863 (cf. * My Maiden Brief,* 
Comhill, Dec. 1863). With another 100/. 
he obtained access to the chamlxjrs of 
(Sir) Charles James Watkin Williams 
[q. v.], then a well-known barrister in the 
home circuit, and with the third 100/. 
he furnished a set of rooms of his 
own in Clement's Inn, but he does not 
appear to have had any professional 
chambers or address in the *Law List.' 
He joined the northern circuit on 15 March 
1866, one of his sponsors being (Sir) John 
Holker [q. v.] {MS. Circuit Records). 
He attended the Westminster courts, the 
Old Bailey, the Manchester and Liverpool 
assizes, the Liverpool sessions and Passage 
Court, but ' only earned 75/. in two years.' 

During the same period he was earning 
a ' decent income ' by contributions to 
current literature. Ho appeared for the 
first time in print in 1858, when he prepared 
a translation of the laughing- song from 
Auber's ' Manon Lescaut ' for the playbill 
of Alfred Mellon's promenade concerts; 
Mdlle. Parepa, afterwards Madame Parepa- 
Rosa [q. v.], whom he had known from 
babyhood, had made a singular success 
there with the song in its original French. 
In 1861 Gilbert commenced both as author 
and artist, contributing an article, three- 
quarters of a column long with a half- 
page drawing on wood, for * Fun,' then 
under the editorship of Henry James 
Byron [q. v.]. A day or two later he was 
requested * to contribute a column of " copy " 
and a half -page drawing every week' 
{Theatre, 1883, p. 218). He remained a 
regular contributor to ' Fun ' during the 
editorship of Byron and that of Byron's 
successor, Tom Hood the younger [q. v.] 
(from 1865). 

There is no evidence that he studied 
drawing in any school, but he was an 
illustrator of talent. In 1865 he made 84 
illustrations for his father's novel, ' The 
Magic Mirror,' and in 1869 he illustrated 
another of his father's books, 'King 
George's Middy.' His illustrations of his 
own ' Bab Ballads ' have much direct 
and quaint humour. In 1874 ' The Pic- 
cadilly Annual ' was described as * profusely 
illustrated by W. S. Gilbert and other 
artists.' One of the ' other artists ' was John 

Having already both written and drawn 
occasionally for * Punch,' Gilbert offered 
that periodical in 1866 liis ballad called 
' The Yam of the Nancy Bell,' but it was 
refused by the editor, Mark Lemon [q. v.], on 




the ground that it was * too cannibalistic for 
his readers' tastes ' {Fifty Bah Ballads, pref., 
1884). Gilbert's connection with * Punch ' 
thereupon ceased. * The Nancy Bell ' ap- 
peared, without illustrations, in ' Fun' on 
3 March 1866. Gilbert's other work in 
*Fun' may be traced by single figure draw- 
ings signed ' Bab.' A series of dramatic 
notices commencing 15 Sept. 1866 and ' Men 
we Meet, by the Comic Physiognomist' 
(2 Feb. to 18 May 1867) are thus illustrated. 
The first illustrated ballad was ' General 
John' (1 June 1867). From this date 
they became a regular feature of the paper. 
But not imtil 23 Jan. 1869, in connection 
with ' The Two Ogres,' was the title ' The 
Bab Ballads ' used. They were first col- 
lected in volume form in the same year. 
Further * Bab Ballads ' continued to appear 
in ' Fun,' at varying intervals until 1871. 
A collected volume of ' More Bab Ballads ' 
followed in 1873. The Bab Ballads estab- 
lished Gilbert's reputation as a whimsical 
humorist in verse. 

At the same time Gilbert contributed 
articles or stories to the magazines — the 
•Comhill' (1863-4), 'London Society,' 

* Tinsley's Magazine,' and ' Temple Bar ' ; 
he furnished the London correspondence 
to the * InvaUde Russe,' and, becoming 
dramatic critic to Vizetelly's 'Illustrated 
Times,' interested himself in the stage. In 
spite of these activities Gilbert found time 
to continue his miUtary duties, and became 
captain of his militia regiment in 1867. 
He retired with the rank of major in 1883. 

At the end of 1866 Gilbert commenced 
work as a playwright. To Thomas William 
Robertson [q. v.], the dramatist, he owed 
the needful introduction. Miss Herbert, 
the lessee of St. James's Theatre, wanted 
a Christmas piece in a fortnight, and 
Robertson recommended Gilbert for the 
work, which was written in ten days, 
rehearsed in a week, and produced at 
Christmas 1866. The piece was a bur- 
lesque on 'L'EKxu? d'Amore,' called 

* Dulcamara, or the Little Duck and the 
Great Quack.' Frank Matthews made a 
success in the title role, and it ran for several 
months and was twice revived. No terms 
had been arranged, and when Mr. Emden, 
the manager, paid Gilbert the 30/. that he 
asked, Emden advised him never again to 
sell so good a piece for so small a sum. 
Thenceforward Gilbert was a successful 
playwright, at first in the lighter branches 
of the drama. Another burlesque on 
*La FigUa del Reggunento,' called 'La 
Vivandidre, or True to the Corps,' was 
produced at the Queen's Theatre on 22 Jan. 

1868, and in it John Lawrence Toole 
[q. V. Suppl. II] and Lionel Brough [q. v. 
Suppl. II] played. It ran for 120 nights. 
A third burlesque, on the ' Bohemian Girl,' 
entitled ' The Merry Zingara, or the Tipsy 
Gipsy and the Popsy Wopsy,' was produced 
at the Royal Theatre on 21 March 1868 by 
Miss Patty OHver. On 21 Dec. 1868 the 
new Gaiety Theatre was opened by John 
Hollingshead [q. v. Suppl. II] with a new 
operatic extravaganza by Gilbert called 
' Robert the Devil,' in which Nellie Farren 
[q.v. Suppl. II] played the leading part. Next 
year, at the opening of the Charing Cross 
(afterwards Toole's) Theatre, on 19 June 

1869, the performance concluded with a 
musical extravaganza by Gilbert, * The 
Pretty Druidess, or the Mother, the Maid, 
and the Mistletoe Bough, a travestie of 
Norma.' Gilbert was much attached to 
second titles. Between 1869 and 1872 
he also wrote many dramatic sketches, 
usually with music, for the German Reeds' 
' entertainment ' at the Gallery of Illus- 
tration, 14 Regent Street. His musical 
collaborator was Frederick Clay [q. v. 
Suppl. I]. On 22 Nov. 1869 they pro- 
duced together * Ages Ago,' which was 
afterwards expanded into the opera 
'Ruddigore'; on 30 Jan. 1871 'A Sensa- 
tion Novel ' ; and on 28 Oct. 1872 ' Happy 
Arcadia.' Arthur Cecil, Comey Grain, and 
Fanny Holland were the chief performers. 

It was under the auspices of the German 
Reeds that Gilbert and (Sir) Arthur 
SuUivan [q. v. Suppl. I] first made each 
other's acquaintance. Sullivan was one 
of the composers of music for German Reed 
plays, and at the Gallery of Illustration 
in 1871 Clay introduced Sullivan to Gilbert 
(Lawrence's Life of Sullivan, p. 84, and 
E. A. Browne's Gilbert, p. 35). They 
soon were at work together on a bur- 
lesque, ' Thespis, or the Gods Grown 
Old,' which was produced at the Gaiety 
Theatre on 26 Dec. 1871 (John Hol- 
lingshead's Gaiety Chronicles, 202-7). 
They often met at Tom Taylor's, and 
engaged together in amateur theatricals 
(Ellen Terry's Story of My Life, 1908), 
but for the present no further dramatic 
collaboration followed. 

Meanwhile Gilbert was assiduously seek- 
ing fame in more serious branches of the 
drama. On 8 Jan. 1870 ' The Princess,' 
a respectful parody on Tennyson's poem, 
was produced at the Olympic with great 
success. This was afterwards the basis of 
the opera * Princess Ida.' John Bald\vui 
Buckstone [q. v.] now commissioned Gilbert 
to write a blank verse fairy comedy on 




Madame de Genlis's story of *Le Palais 

de la V6rit^.* This was produced on 
19 Nov. 1870 at the Ilaymarkct under 
the title of * The ]>alaco of Trutli,' with 
Buckstonc, Madge Robertson (Mrs. Kendal), j 
and W. H. Kendal in the cast. It ran for | 
230 nights. * Pygmalion and Galatea,' a ; 
rather artificial classical romance, was pro- 
duced also at the Haymarket on 9 Dec. 1871. | 
It proved a remarkable success. The play ^ 
was revived at tlie Lyceum with Miss Mary | 
Anderson in 1884 and later in 1888, at the ', 
same theatre, with Miss Julia Neilson in 
the part. Gilbert is said to have made 
40,000/. out of this play alone {Daily 
Telegraph, 30 May 1911). 'The Wicked 
World,' a fairy comedy, followed at the ^ 
Haymarket on 4 Jan. 1873 and was not 
quite so successful as its forerunners. 

In the meantime Gilbert wrote an ex- 
tended series of comedies for Miss Marie 
Litton's management of the new Court 
Theatre in Sloane Square, London. This 
playhouse was opened by Miss Litton with 
Gilbert's 'Randall's Thumb' on 25 Jan. 
1871 ; there followed during Miss Litton's 
tenancy ' Creatures of Impulse ' (15 April 
1871) ; ' Great Expectations ' (28 May), an 
adaptation of Dickens's novel ; ' On Guard ' 
(28 Oct.) ; and ' The Wedding March ' (under 
the pseudonym of F. Latour TomUne) (15 
Nov. 1873). One of Gilbert's plays written 
for the Court Theatre, ' The Happy Land,' 
which Miss Litton produced on 17 March 
1873, caused much public excitement. It 
was a burlesque version of Gilbert's ' Wicked 
World,' designed by himself, but mainly 
worked out by Gilbert Arthur a Beckett 
[q. V. Suppl. I]. Gilbert received 700Z. for 
his share of the Hbretto ( W. S. Gilbert, by 
Kate Field, Scribner's Monthly, xviii. 
(1879), 754). His name did not appear on 
the bill, where the piece was assigned to 
F. L. Tomline (i.e. Gilbert) and a Beckett. 
'The Happy Land' was received with en- 
thusiasm. But three of the actors, Walter 
Fisher, W. J. Hill, and Edward Righton 
(manager of the theatre), were made up to 
resemble respectively Gladstone, Robert 
Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), and A. S. Ayrton, 
members of the liberal administration then in 
office. The lord chamberlain insisted on the 
removal of this feature of the performance. 

Of more serious plays ' Charity,' produced 
on 3 Jan. 1874 at the Haymarket, was the 
story of a woman redeeming her one mistake 
in life by an after career of self-sacrifice. 
It was denounced as immoral by the 
general public, and was withdrawn after a 
run of eighty nights. There followed a series 
of successful comedies in which sentiment 

predominated over Gilbert's habitually 
cynical humour. * .Sweethearts * was pro- 
duced at the Prince of Wales's on 7 Nov. 1874 
under Mrs. Bancroft's management ; * Tom 
Cobb ' at the St. James's, on 24 April 1875 ; 
• Broken Hearts ' on 17 Dec. 1875 at the 
Court Theatre under (Sir) John Hare's 
direction. * Dan'l Druce,' a play of very 
serious tone, and * Engaged ' both came 
out at the Haymarket, on 11 Sept. 1876 and 
3 Oct. 1877 respectively. * Gretchen,' a 
four-act drama in verse on the Faust legend, 
was produced on 24 March 1879 at the 
Olympic. In 1884 Gilbert wrote an am- 
bitious sketch, 'Comedy and Tragedy,' 
for Miss Mary Anderson to perform at the 
Lyceum Theatre (26 Jan. 1884). 

Meanwhile Gilbert acquired a more con- 
spicuous triumph in another dramatic field. 
The memorable series of operas in which 
he and SulUvan collaborated began with 
' Trial by Jury,' which was produced at the 
Royalty Theatre by Madame Selina Dolaro 
on 25 March 1875. A sketch of an operetta 
under this title had appeared in * Fun * 
on 11 April 1868. The words now took 
a new shape, Sullivan suppUed the music, 
and the rehearsals were completed within 
three weeks. Gilbert's hbretto betrayed the 
whimsical humour of his early ' Bab Ballads,' 
as well as the facility of his earlier 
extravaganzas and burlesques. Richard 
D'Oyly Carte [q. v. Suppl. II] was the 
manager of the Royalty. In view of the 
piece's success Carte formed a Comedy 
Opera Company, and gave Gilbert and 
SuUivan a commission to write a larger 
work together. The result was ' The 
Sorcerer,' which was first played at the 
Opera Comique on 17 Nov. 1877, and 
introduced George Grossmith and Rutland 
Barrington to the professional stage. This 
opera proved the forerunner of a long 
series of Uke successes. * The Sorcerer 
was followed by ' H.M.S. Pinafore, or the 
Lass that loved a Sailor,' under the same 
management on 25 May 1878. This ran 
for 700 nights and enjoyed an enormous 
popularity throughout the country. It was 
at once received in America with an * en- 
thusiasm bordering upon insanity * (Kate 
Field in Scribner's Monthly, xviii. 754), and 
after its first production in America Gilbert, 
>vith SulUvan, D'Oyly Carte, and Alfred 
Cellier, the musical conductor, went to New 
York (Nov. 1879) to give it the fresh advan- 
tage of Gilbert's personal stage management 
and Sullivan's own orchestral interpreta- 
tion. While in New York they produced 
for the first time a new opera, * The Pirates 
of Penzance, or the Slave of Duty,' which 




was brought out at the Fifth Avenue 
Theatre on New Year's Eve, 31 Dec. 1879. 
The party returned to England in time 
to produce 'The Pu-ates of Penzance' 
at the Opera Comique on 3 April 1880. 
This ran for a year. 'Patience, or 
Bunthome's Bride ' came out at the Opera 
Comique on 23 April 1881, and at the 
height of its triumph, on 10 Oct. 1881, it 
was transferred to the 'Savoy' — the new 
opera house built by D'Oyly Carte for the 
Gilbert and Sullivan operas. 'Patience' 
was a satire on the current ' aesthetic move- 
ment ' and enjoyed great popularity. 

The succeeding ' Savoy operas ' were 
•lolanthe, or the Peer and the Peri' 
(25 Nov. 1882) ; ' Princess Ida, or Castle 
Adamant,' based on Gilbert's comedy 
'The Princess' (5 Jan. 1884); and 'The 
Mikado, or the Town of Titipu ' (14 March 
1885). The last piece ran for two years, 
was played over 5000 times in America, 
and found favour on the Continent. It 
was the most popular of all Gilbert and 
SulUvan's joint works. It is said Gilbert, 
Sullivan, and Carte each made 30,000Z. 
out of it. ' Ruddigore, or the Witch's 
Curse,' an elaboration of the German Reed 
piece ' Ages Ago,' followed on 22 Jan. 1887 ; 
' The Yeoman of the Guard, or The Merry- 
man and His Maid ' on 3 Oct. 1888, and 
* The Gondohers, or The King of Barataria ' 
on 7 Dec. 1889. The partnership was 
shortly afterwards interrupted. A disagree- 
ment on financial matters arose between 
Gilbert and Carte, and Gilbert thought that 
SuUivan sided with Carte. Separating for the 
time from both Sullivan and Carte, Gilbert 
wrote his next libretto, ' The Mountebanks,' 
for music by Alfred Cellier. It was pro- 
duced at the Lyric Theatre on 4 Jan. 1892. 

In writing these operas Gilbert first 
wrote out the plot as though it were an 
anecdote, and this he expanded to the 
length of a magazine article with sum- 
maries of conversations. This was over- 
hauled and corrected and cut down to a 
skeleton, and then broken up into scenes 
with entrances and exits arranged. Not 
until the fifth MS. was the play illustrated 
by actual dialogue. Sometimes a piece 
would after a fortnight's rest be re- written 
entirely afresh without reference to the 
first draft. In arranging the scenes, too, 
no trouble was too great. In 'H.M.S. 
Pinafore ' Gilbert went down to Portsmouth 
and was rowed round about the harbour 
and visited various ships, and finally pitched 
upon the quarter-deck of the Victory for 
his scene, which he obtained permission to 
sketch and model in every detail. 

Gilbert's partnership with Sullivan and 
Carte was resumed in 1893, when he and 
Sullivan wrote 'Utopia Limited, or the 
Flowers of Progress.' It was produced at 
the Savoy on 7 Oct. 1893, but was not so 
popular as its predecessors, although it ran 
till 9 June 1894. Gilbert's next opera, ' His 
Excellency,' had music by Dr. Osmond Carr 
(Lyric, 27 Oct. 1894) ; it was followed by 
revivals of older pieces. In ' The Grand 
Duke,' which came out on 7 March 1896 
at the Savoy, Gilbert and Sullivan worked 
together for the last time. Thenceforth 
Gilbert pursued his career as a playwright 
spasmodically and with declining success. 
A fanciful drama, 'Harlequin and the Fairy's 
Dilemma,' was produced without much 
acceptance by Mr. Arthur Bourchier at 
the Garrick Theatre (3 May-22 July 1904). 
On 11 Dec. 1909 his opera ' Fallen Fairies,* 
with music by Edward German, came out 
at the Savoy. His final production was 
' The Hooligan,' a grim sketch of the last 
moments of a convicted murderer, played 
by Mr James Welch at the Coliseum in 1911. 

Gilbert's successes as a dramatist brought 
him wealth, which he put to good purpose. 
He built and owned the Garrick Theatre 
in Charing Cross Road, which was opened in 
1889. In 1890 he purchased of Frederick 
Goodall, R. A. [q. v. Suppl. II], the house and 
estate of Grims Dyke, HarrowWeald, Middle- 
sex. The estate covered 100 acres and the 
house had been built for Goodall by Norman 
Shaw. Gilbert added an observatory and 
an open-air swimming lake. He was 
something of an astronomer as well as a 
dairy farmer, bee-keeper, and horticulturist. 
He was made J.P. in 1891 and D.L. for 
Middlesex, and devoted much time to his 
magisterial duties. In 1907 he was 
knighted. He was a well-known member of 
the Beefsteak, Junior Carlton, and Royal 
Automobile Clubs, and was elected by the 
committee to the Garrick Club on 22 Feb. 

Gilbert died from heart failure brought 
on by over-exertion while saving a young 
lady from drowning in his swimming lake at 
Grims Dyke on 29 May 1911. The body was 
cremated at Colder' s Green and the ashes 
buried at Great Stanmore church, Middlesex. 

Gilbert was, perhaps, the most out- 
standing figure among Victorian play- 
wrights. Few if any contemporary writers 
for the stage made so much money from 
that source alone, none acquired so wide a 
fame. In all his writing there is an effort 
after Hterary grace and finish which was in 
his early days absent from contemporary 
drama. His humour consists mainly in 


1 1 1 


logical topsy-turveydom in a vein so 
peculiar to Gilbert aa to justify the bestowal 
on it of the epithet ' (iilbortiaii.' Ho 
himself disclaimed any knowledge of Gil- 
bcrtian humour, stating that ' all humour 
properly so called is based upon a grave 
and quasi-respectful treatment of the 
ludicrous.' His satire hits current foibles 
with imvarying urbanity and with no 
Aristophanic coarseness. The success of his 
operas was largely due to their freedom from 
vulgarity and to the excellence of the lyrics, 
which not only were musical and perfect in 
form but applied mastery of metro to the 
expression of the most whimsical and fan- 
ciful ideas. He had little or no ear for 
tune, but a wonderful ear for rhythm. 
Gilbert's words and metre imderwent no 
change in the process of musical setting. 

Gilbert believed that the playwright 
should dominate the theatre. He was a 
master of stage management. In a pri- 
vately printed preface to * Pygmalion and 
Galatea ' he pointed out that ' the supreme 
importance of careful rehearsing is not 
sufficiently recognised in England.' His 
experience, for which he vouched by 
statistics, taught him that when his pieces 
were carefully rehearsed they succeeded, and 
when they were insufficiently rehearsed they 
failed. A sufficient rehearsal for a play he 
then considered to be three weeks or a 
month. His conduct at the rehearsals of his 
adaptation of 'Ought we to visit her' (a 
comedy in three acts by Messrs. Edwardes 
and Gilbert), produced at the Royalty 
on 17 Jan. 1874, led to a quarrel with 
Miss Henrietta Hodson [q. v. Suppl. II], 
which was renewed over the production 
of 'Pygmalion and Galatea' in January 
1877. Miss Hodson published * A Letter ' 
in the same year complaining of Gilbert's 
dictatorial action, to which Gilbert replied 
in * A Letter addressed to the Members 
of the Dramatic Profession.' Gilbert de- 
veloped the practice of Tom Robertson, 
who was perhaps the first English play- 
wright to impress his personal views at 
rehearsal on the actor. Gilbert re- 
hearsed his pieces in his study by means 
of a model stage and figures, and 
every group and movement were settled 
in the author's mind before the stage re- 
hearsals began. Until Gilbert took the 
matter in hand choruses were prac- 
tically nothmg more than a part of the 
stage setting. It was in * Thespis ' that 
Gilbert began to carry out his expressed 
determination to get the chorus to play its 
proper part in the performance. 

Gilbert had in ordinary society a ready, 

subtle, and incisive wit. He was aggressive 
and combative and rarely let the discomfort 
of a victim deprive hhn and his companions 
of a brilliant epigram or a ready repartee. 
Nevertheless he had a kind heart, and 
was only a cynic after the manner of 
Thackeray. Many of the artists who 
worked under him bore testimony to his 
personal kindness. He was not interested 
in sport. He had a constitutional objection 
to taking life in any form. * I don't 
think I ever wittingly killed a blackbeetle,* 
he said, and added ' The time will come 
when the sport of the present day will be 
regarded very much as we regard the 
Spanish bull-fight or the bear-baiting of our 
ancestors' (William Abchbe, R&U C<m- 

He married in 1867 Lucy Agnes, daughter 
of Captain Thomas Metcalf Blois Turner, 
Bombay engineers. His wife survived 
him without issue. A portrait painted by 
Frank HoU, R.A., in 1887 is destined for 
the National Portrait Gallery. He also 
owned a portrait of himself by Herman 
Gustavo Herkomer and a bronze statuette 
by Andrea Lucchesi. 

Besides the plays already mentioned, 
Gilbert wrote the following dramatic 
pieces : * Harlequin Cock Robin and Jenny 
Wren, or Fortunatus, the Three Bears, the 
Three Wishes, and the Little Man who 
wooed the Little Maid,' pantomime (26 
Dec. 1866) ' Allow Me to Explain,' farce, 
altered from the French (Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, 4 Nov. 1867) ; ' Highly Improb- 
able,' farce (New Royalty, 5 Dec. 1867) ; 
' No Cards ' (German Reeds, 29 March 
1869) ; ' An Old Score,' comedy-drama in 
three acts (Gaiety Tlieatre, 19 July 1869) ; 
' The Gentleman in Black,' opera bouffe in 
two acts, music by Frederick Clay (Charing 
Cross Theatre, 26 May 1870) ; ' Our 
Island Home' (Gallery of Illustration, 
20 June 1870); *A Medical Man,' a 
comedietta (Drawing Room Plays, 1870) ; 
' The Realms of Joy,' farce by F. Latour 
Tomline, i.e. Gilbert (Royalty Theatre, 
18 Oct. 1873) ; ' Committed for Trial,' a 
piece of absurdity in two acts, founded on 
' Le Reveillon ' of H. Meilhac and L. Halevy 
(Globe Theatre, 24 Jan. 1874, revived 
at the Criterion, 12 Feb. 1877, as 'On 
Bail'); 'Topsy-turveydom,' extravaganza 
(Criterion Theatre, 21 Mar. 1873) ; * King 
Candaules' (1875); 'Eyes and No Eyes, 
or the Art of Seeing,' a vaudeville, music 
by T. German Re^, founded on Hans 
Andersen's * The Emperor s New Clothes * 
(St. George's Hall, 5 July 1875) ; ' Princess 
Toto,' comio opera in three acts, musio 




by Frederick day (Strand Theatre, 
2 Oct. 1876) ; * The Ne'er-do-Weel,' drama 
(Olympic Theatre, 25 Feb. 1878) ; * Fog- 
gerty's Fairy,' a fairy comedy (Q-iterion, 
16 Dec. 1881) ; ' Brantinghame Hall,* 
drama (St. James's Theatre, 29 Nov. 1888) ; 

* The Brigands,' opera bouffe in three acts, 
music by Offenbach, adapted from *Les 
Brigands ' of Meilhac and Halevy (Avenue 
Theatre, 16 Sept. 1889) ; *Rosencrantz and 
Guildenstem/ a travesty on 'Hamlet,' in 
three tableaux (Vaudeville Theatre, 3 June 
1891 ); ' Haste to the Wedding,' comic opera, 
music by George Grossmith (Criterion 
Theatre, 27 July 1892), a version of 
E. M. Labiche's *Un Chapeau de Faille 
d'ltahe,' played at the Court Theatre as 
*The Wedding March' on 15 Nov. 1873; 
*The Fortune Hunter,* drama (Theatre 
Royal, Birmingham, 27 Sept. 1897). 

Collected editions of Gilbert's dramatic 
work appeared as * Original Plays ' (4 series, 
187&~1911) and * Origmal Comic Operas' 
(8 parts, containing * Sorcerer,' *H.M.S. 
Pinafore,' * Pirates of Penzance,' * lolanthe,' 

* Patience,' * Princess Ida,' 'Mikado,' and 
'Trial by Jury,' 1890). He also published 

* Songs of a Savoyard,' a collection of songs 
from the Savoy operas, illustrated by Gilbert 
(1890), and * Foggerty's Fairy and other 
Tales' (1890). 

[ WiUiani Schwenck Gilbert,an Autobiography 
in The Theatre, 2 April 1883, pp. 217 seq. ; 
Edith A. Browne, W. S. Gilbert, 1907 ; Arthur 
Lawrence, Life of Sir Arthur Sullivan, 1899 ; 
WiUiam Archer, English Dramatists of To- 
day ; William Archer, Real Conversations ; 
Percy Fitzgerald, The Savoy Opera and the 
Savoyards; Daily Telegi-aph, 30 May 1911; 
The Times, 30 May-2 June, 18 Aug. (will), 
1911; John HoUingshead's Gaiety Chronicles, 
1898; Kate Field's W. S. Gilbert in Scribner's 
Monthly, 1879, xviii. 754 ; Smalley's London 
Letters, 2 vols., 1890 ; and his Anglo-American 
Memories, 1911; The English Aristophanes, art. 
by Walter Sichel, in Fortnightly Review, 1912; 
W. Davenport Adams, Diet, of the Drama.] 

E. A. P. 

GILLIES, DUNCAN (1834-1903), 
premier of Victoria, Australia, born in 
January 1834 at Over-Newton, a suburb 
of Glasgow, was second son of Duncan 
Gillies, a market gardener of that place, 
by Margaret his wife. After education 
at Glasgow High School he began a busi- 
ness career in a counting-house in his 
native city. He read much in his leisure, 
chiefly in history. 

In 1852 he emigrated to Australia, and 
landing at Port Phillip, Victoria, proceeded 
to the Ballarat gold-fields, where for some 

time he worked as a digger. In 1853-4 he 
was one of the leaders of the miners in 
their resistance to the demands of the 
government, though from the outset he 
was strongly opposed to the use of violence 
and took no part in the affair of the 
Eureka stockade. Becoming known among 
his fellows as a ready speaker, he was 
elected a member of the local mining 
court, and in February 1858 he became 
a member of the Ballarat mining board, 
which then superseded that court. 

GiUies, who had become a working partner 
in the Great RepubHc (mining) Company, 
was returned 'to the Legislative Assembly 
in 1859 as the miners' representative for 
Ballarat West, being re-elected in 1861, 
1864, 1866, and 1868. He soon became one 
of the foremost debaters. On 11 May 1868 
he took office as president of the board of 
land and works and commissioner of 
crown lands and surveys in the unpopular 
Sladen ministry, and was sworn a member 
of the executive council. Promptly re- 
jected on seeking re-election, he sought a 
constituency where his growing antipathy 
to democracy might find favour. At the 
next general election, in March 1870, he was 
returned unopposed for Maryborough. 

On 10 June 1872 he joined the Francis 
ministry as commissioner of railways and 
roads, and he retained the office when the 
cabinet was reconstructed under George 
Briscoe Kerf erd in July 1 874. He retired on 
2 Aug. 1875, but was commissioner of lands 
and survey and president of the board of 
land and works and minister of agri- 
culture in the last McCulloch government 
(25 Oct. 1875-21 May 1877). At the 
general election of May 1877 GilHes was 
returned for Rodney, but he was unseated 
on petition on the ground that undue in- 
fluence had been exercised by the land 
department during the contest. He was 
exonerated from any personal knowledge of 
this abuse, and was re-elected for the same 
constituency on 2 Nov. 1877. He was 
prominent in the opposition to the party led 
by (Sir) Graham Berry [q. v. Suppl. II]. 

From 5 March to 3 Aug. 1880 he was 
commissioner of railways in the Service 
government, and although a strong con- 
servative and free-trader he took office 
as commissioner of railways and minister 
of pubHc instruction in the Service-Berry 
coahtion which ruled the colony from 8 
March 1883 to 18 Feb. 1886. When 
Service and Berry retired on the last 
date, and the ministry was reconstructed, 
again on a coahtion basis, GiUies became 
premier and treasurer and Deakin chief 




secretary, each representing his own party 
in the cabinet and the Assembly. 

Tlie period of the Gillies-Doakin minis- 
try was marked by groat social and political 
activity. The revenue and expenditure of 
the colony increased to an unprecedented 
degree, whilst railways were extended in 
all directions. Useful legislation was pro- 
moted, of which the most important was 
the Irrigation Act of 1886 with its numerous 
off-shoots, but the government before its 
term of office ended had to contend with 
acute labour troubles, culminating in dis- 
astrous strikes. In 1887 Gillies declined 
the honour of K.C.M.G. 

At the general election of March 1889 
Gillies was returned for the Eastern 
Suburbs of Melbourne, and the govern- 
ment's power seemed unimpaired, though 
there were signs of coming difficulty. The 
first session passed without disaster, but 
in the second session a direct vote of want 
of confidence was carried on 30 Oct. 1890, 
by 55 votes to 35. GilUes resigned on 
6 Nov. and led the opposition to the 
Munro and Shiels governments. GiUies 
was a consistent supporter of the cause 
of Australian federation. He represented 
Victoria at several intercolonial con- 
ferences as well as in the second and 
third sessions of the federal council of 
Australasia. He presided at the federal 
conference held in Melbourne in Feb. 
1890, and was one of the representatives 
of Victoria at the national Australasian 
convention which met in Sydney in March 
and April 1891. 

From 6 Jan. 1894 to 5 Jan. 1897 GiUies 
was agent-general for the colony in 
London. Returning to Melbourne, he again 
entered Parhament (14 Oct. 1897) as member 
for Toorak, and was re-elected in 1900. On 
14 Oct. 1902 he was unanimously chosen 
as speaker of the House of Assembly. 
But failing health hampered the perform- 
ance of his duties. He died of heart failure 
on 12 Sept. 1903 in the Speaker's apart- 
ments at the State Parhament House, 
and was buried in Melbourne general 

GiUies lacked many of the qualities of a 
popular leader. Even among his poUtical 
supporters his general demeanour was 
somewhat cold and unsympathetic, but 
he gained respect by his conspicuous fair- 
ness and magnanimity. His speeches were 
models of clearness and force. He proved 
himself a powerful leader of the house, 
and in that capacity displayed tact and 

A portrait of GUUes in oils, three-quarter 

VOL. LXVm.— SUP. u. 

length, by Tennyson Cole, is in the National 
Gallery of Victoria at Melbourne. 

[The Times, 14 Sept. 1903; Melbourne 
Ago, 14, 16, 16 Sept. 1903; Melbourne 
Argus, 14 Sept. 1003 ; Australasian, 19 Sept. 
1903 ; Johns's Notable AustraUans, 1908 ; 
Turner's History of the Colony of Victoria, 
vol. ii. 1904; AustraUan Year Book, 1904; 
MennoU's Diet, of Australas. Biog. 1902 ; 
CJolouial Office Records.] C. A. 

GIROUARD, DfiSIR:6 (1836-1911), 
Canadian judge, born at St. Timothy, co. 
Beauhamois, Province of Quebec, on 7 July 
1836, was son of Jerdmie Girouard by 
his wife Hippohte Piccard. He was 
descended on the father's side from Antoine 
Girouard, private secretary to De Ramezay, 
governor of Montreal in 1720. After at- 
tending the Montreal CoUege he took the 
law course at McGiU University, obtaining 
the first prize three years consecutively, 
and graduating B.C.L. in 1860, D.C.L. in 
1874 ; he was also LL.D. of Ottawa Uni- 
versity. He was called to the bar of Lower 
Canada in October 1860, and was appointed 
Q.C. in October 1880. He attained great 
distinction at the bar, especiaUy in com- 
mercial cases, and was a weU-known writer 
on legal and international questions. In 
1860, before he was caUed, he pubhshed a 
useful treatise in French on biUs of ex- 
change. He also wrote on the civil laws of 
marriage and on the Insolvent Act. He 
was one of the chief coUaborators in • La 
Revue Critique,' which in 1873-4 gave 
expression to the dissatisfaction of the 
Montreal bar with the then existing Quebec 
court of appeals and led to the reconstitu- 
tion of that court in 1874. He first stood 
for the Canadian Parhament in 1872, but 
was not successful tiU 1878, when he became 
conservative member for the constituency 
of Jacques Cartier, and held the seat for 
seventeen years, untU the close of lus poUti- 
cal career. In Parhament, where he proved 
a good debater, he carried in 1882 a biU 
legaUsing marriage with a deceased wife's 
sister. Later, in 1885, with some other 
conservative French-Canadian members, 
he opposed the government on the subject 
of the execution of Louis Riel [q. v.]. He 
was chainnan of the standing committee 
on privileges and elections, presiding in one 
weU-known case — the Langevin-McGreevy 
case — over 104 sittings. He was offered a 
seat in the dominion cabinet, but preferred 
a judgeship, and was appointed in September 
1895 to the bench of the supreme court of 
Canada. He was senior puisne judge when 
he died at Ottawa from a carriage accident 
on 22 March 1911. 




Girouard was not only eminent as a 
lawyer and judge, but he was also an 
authority on the early history of the settle- 
ment of Montreal. In recognition of his 
historical researches he was presented by 
the governor-general with the Confedera- 
tion medal in 1895. He began pubHshing 
the results of his studies in 1889, and in 1893 
his papers, translated by his son, D. H. 
Girouard, were collected at Montreal under 
the title ' Lake St. Louis, Old and New, 
and CavaUer de la Salle.' 

He was three times married : ( 1) in 1862 to 
Marie Mathilde, daughter of John Pratt of 
Montreal ; she died in 1863 ; (2) in 1865 to 
Essie, daughter of Dr. Joseph Cranwill of 
Ballynamona, Ireland ; she died in 1879 ; 
(3) on 6 Oct. 1881 to Edith Bertha, youngest 
daughter of Dr. John Beatty of Cobourg, 
Ontario. He left four daughters and six 
sons, one of his sons by his second wife being 
Sir Percy Girouard, at one time governor 
of the East Africa Protectorate. 

[The Times, 23 March 1911 ; Montreal Daily 
Star, 22 March 1911 ; Canadian Parliamentary 
Guide ; Canadian Who's Who, 1910 ; Morgan's 
Canadian Men and Women of the Time, 1898.] 

C. P. L. 

1903), novelist, bom in the Market Place, 
Wakefield, on 22 Nov. 1857, was eldest child 
in a family of three sons and two daughters 
of Thomas Waller Gissing (1829-1870), 
a Suffolk man of literary and scientific 
attainments, who settled at Wakefield as 
a pharmaceutical chemist, was author of 
a ' Wakefield Flora,' and corresponded on 
botanical subjects with Hooker, Bentham, 
and other botanists. The novehst's mother 
(still Uving) was Margaret, daughter of 
George Bedford of Dodderhill, a well-known 
solicitor in Droitwich. A younger brother, 
Algernon, enjoys some reputation as a 
novelist. George, who was profoundly 
influenced by his father, passed from 
private day schools in Wakefield to Lin- 
do w Grove, a Quaker boarding-school at 
Alderley Edge, where his unsociability and 
intellectual arrogance asserted itself at 
times unpleasantly, but where he shone on 
speech-days (see Barn in Exile, chap, i.). 
In 1872 he came out first in the kingdom 
in the Oxford local examination, and ob- 
tained an exhibition at Owens College, 
Manchester. At the end of his first session 
he won Dr. Ward's EngUsh poem prize; 
he also gained a special prize for classics 
and the Shakespeare scholarship, and took 
a high place with honours in the London 
intermediate arts (see Owens Coll. Union 
Mag. Jan. 1904, p. 80). Unhappily, at this 

critical period, as at other times of his life, 
amorous propensities led him into serious 
trouble. His career at Owens broke off 
in disgrace, and his pride cut him adrift 
and made a temporary pariah of him ; his 
health, too, was temporarily impaired by 
* insane ' overwork at college. 

For eight or nine years after his dis- 
appearance from Manchester his resources 
were extremely precarious, and he was 
dogged by many hardships. After a 
brief period of clerkship at Liverpool 
he crossed as a steerage passenger to 
America, and was for a short time 
a classical tutor and then a gas-fitter at 
Boston. At Niagara he contemplated sui- 
cide ; in Chicago he came near to absolute 
starvation. His experiences as a penniless 
rover in American cities are described with 
little deviation in ' New Grub Street ' and 
elsewhere. Although he was neither morose 
nor eccentric in motive or bearing, he showed 
a curious inability to do the sane, secure 
thing in the ordinary affairs of life. An 
ill-considered marriage increased his em- 
barrassment. He lacked social nerve, and 
the everyday conflicts of social intercourse 
bewildered and confounded him. Early 
attempts to obtain remunerative employ- 
ment in the American press failed. In 
1877, however, he managed to return to 
Europe, and then in the quiet atmosphere 
of Jena studied Goethe, Haeckel, and 
Schopenhauer, to be followed by Comte and 
Shelley. He became an adept in rehgious 
and metaphysical discussion, and boxed the 
compass of opinion like his own Godfrey 
Peak (in Born in Exile). His correspon- 
dence at this time with a friend in Berlin, 
Herr Edward Bertz, author of ' Philosophie 
des Fahrrads ' (1900) and other works, 
forms an autobiographical document of 
extraordinary impressiveness and candour. 

On his return to England about the 
close of 1878 he illustrated his debt 
to Germany in a crude but powerful 
novel entitled ' Workers in the Dawn ' 
{AthenoBumy 12 June 1880), in which the 
Wertherian hero is, of course, the author, 
while Casti is his Teutonic confidante. 
Gissing, who risked the greater part of his 
ready money upon this book, confidently 
anticipated large profits. But the book 
was read by few save the critics, who de- 
nounced its ' dangerous ' tendencies, and 
Gissing was once more faced by hunger 
and destitution. Copies, however, were 
sent to Mr. John Morley and to Mr. Frederic 
Harrison, both of whom recognised its 
power and interest. In 1882 the author 
became tutor to Mr. Harrison's sons; he 




obtained other pupils and an opening for 
occasional articles (such as a sketch ' On 
Battersoa Bridge ') in the ' Pall Mali 
Gazette.' His means were still small, but 
ho was no longer destitute ; yet his un- 
practical contempt for journalism, his 
idealism as an artist, no less than the neces- 
sity of providing an allowance, however 
small, for the wife from whom he was sepa- 
rated, involved him often in pecuniary 
diflficulties. Devoted to classical literature, 
he read assiduously in the British Museum, 
neglecting the chance of obtaining further 
pupils and of contributing to the 'Fort- 
nightly,' and cultivating the conception of 
himself as a social outlaw. His next books, 
'The Unclassed' (1884; new edit. 1895), 
dedicated to his lifelong friend, Mr. Morley 
Roberts, 'Isabel Oarendon * (1886), 
'Demos* (1886), and 'Thyrza' (1887), 
were all written from this point of view, 
and illustrated the degrading effects of 
poverty on character. 

' Demos,' which was the first of his 
books to attract any popular attention, 
brought him 100/., and with this sum 
he carried out a long cherished ambition 
of visiting the classic sites upon which he 
lived in imagination. He sailed on a collier to 
Naples, where he began ' The Emancipated ' 
(published in 1890), described Ms first 
sight of Vesuvius as ' the proudest moment 
of his life,' and proceeded thence to Rome 
and Athens. On his return he put ' The 
Emancipated ' for a time aside and wrote 
for serial publication in the * Comhill ' * A 
Life's Morning * (1888), the most vernal in 
atmosphere of any of his novels ; but it was 
followed by the gloomy ' The Nether World ' 
(1889), a full-length study of the animal con- 
ditions of semi -starvation, which goes far 
to justify Gissing's title as the ' spokesman 
of despair.' This and * New Grub Street * 
(1891), a realistic study of the ruin by 
[jecuniary care and overwork of an author's 
powers of imagination, for wliich he re- 
ceived 150/., are the most closely observed 
and vigorously characterised of all his 
fuller developed novels. 

Gissing's first wife was now dead, and in 
1890 he married again, with unfortunate 
results. Comparative success enabled him 
to live away from London. At Exeter 
he wrote the disquieting and introsi)ec- 
tive 'Bom in Exile* (1892) and began 
'Denzil Quarrier ' (1892; new edit. 1907), 
which he completed at Dorking, where he 
met George Meredith, one of his earliest ap- 
preciators. Li 1892-3 he wrote at Clevedon 
♦The Odd Women' (new edit. 1907), an 
artistic study of three luckless and moneyless 

women. His novels henceforth, with the 
partial exception of ' In the Year of Jubilee * 
(1894), ' Eve's Ransom ' (1895), and * The 
Whirlpool' (1897), in which there is a re- 
currence of his old semi-autobiographical 
manner, show an inferior artistic sincerity. 
His critical study of ' Charles Dickens ' 
(1898; illustr. edit. 1902) is a masterly 
vindication of Dickens, whom he had wor- 
shipped from youth. 

During the last ten years of his life he 
re-visited Wakefield several times, and spent 
much time in southern England, at Bud- 
leigh, and at Epsom. His love of the 
countryside, of English living, and English 
manners he described in papers in the 
' Fortnightly Review ' under the title 
of ' An Author at Grass ' ; they were 
reprinted as * Private Papers of Henry 
Ryecroft ' in 1903. The autobiographical 
value with which they were credited is a 
testimony to their artistic success, but they 
faithfully reflect his lonely temper and his 
impatience of control. In the autumn of 
1897 he revisited Italy with Mr. H. G. WeUs, 
and his experiences in the Calabrian por- 
tion of his tour were recorded in the graphio 
pages of * By the Ionian Sea ' (1901). 
At Rome, too, fresh material was accumu- 
lated for ' Veranilda,' the most deliberate 
of his works, an historical romance of the 
city in the fifth century — the time of 
Theodoric the Goth. When in England 
again he contributed short stories to the 
weekly illustrated papers and wrote * The 
Town Traveller ' (1898) and ' Our Friend 
the Charlatan' (1901), inferior novels, 
refashioning some old material. The state 
of his lungs rendered it desirable for him 
to go south at the close of 1901. Mov- 
ing from Paris to Arcachon, and thence 
to St. Jean Pied -du -Port, he there com- 
pleted for bread and butter an easy-going 
romance of real life, ' Will Warburton ' 
(1905), and in June began for fame liis 
historical romance ' Veranilda.* He was not 
destined to finish the romance. In Nov. 
he moved to St. Jean de Luz, contracted 
a slight cliill, and died of pneumonia on 
28 Dec. 1903, at the age of forty-six. By 
his second wife, from whom he was long 
separated, he left issue two sons, Walter 
Leonard and Alfred Charles Gissing, to 
whom a joint pension of 141. was in 1904 
allotted during their minority from the 
civil fist. The unfinished ' Veranilda ' 
was published in 1904 (with a foreword by 
Mr. JbYederic Harrison). Gissing carried 
his classical learning easily and lightly, 
but his classical romance will not rank 
with the novels of his early manhood. 





The intellectual beauty and sincere 
friendliness of Gissing's nature were ob- 
scured by a peculiar pride or sensitiveness. 
His idiosjTicrasies wore down as he grew 
older, but he lost also his extraordinary 
power of intensifying the misery of the 
world's finer spirits who are thrown among 

* the herd that feed and breed ' and are 
stupidly contented. His prose style is 
scholarly, suave, subtle, and plastic. Critics 
have deemed him a classicist who missed 
his vocation, but few classicists have 
written so much or so well. His imperfect 
understanding of the joie de vivre re- 
duced his public while he lived ; but there 
are signs that his work is obtaining a better 
co-ordinated appreciation since his death. 

In addition to the works already enu- 
merated Gissing wrote : 1. * The Paying 
Guest,' 1895. 2. 'Sleeping Fires,' 1895. 

3. * Human Odds and Ends ' (stories), 1898. 

4. * The Crown of Life ' (early chapters 
semi-autobiog.), 1899. 5. ' The House of 
Cobwebs, and other Stories ' (with an 
introductory survey of Gissing's books by 
the present writer), 1906. 

A portrait appears in William Rothen- 
stein's 'English Portraits' (1898), reduced 
in later (pocket) editions of the popular 

* Ryecroft Papers.' A drawing by Mr. H. G. 
Wells is reproduced in the * New York 
Critic' The MSS. of Gissing's novels 
passed to his brother Algernon. 

[The Times, 29 Dec. 1903 ; Guardian, 6 Jan. 
1904 ; Outlook, 2 Jan. 1904 ; Sphere, 9 Jan. 
1904 (portrait) ; Athenseum, 2 and 16 Jan. 
1904, 7 July 1906 ; Academy, 9 and 16 Jan. 
1904; New York Nation, 11 June 1903; 
Independent Rev., Feb. 1904 ; New York 
Critic, June 1902; Bookman, July 1906; 
Albany, Christmas No., 1904 ; Monthly Rev. 
vol. xvi. ; Murray's Mag. iii. 506-18; National 
Rev., Oct. 1897, Nov. 1904, Nov. 1906 ; Satur- 
day Rev., 19 Jan. 1895 and 13 April 1896 ; 
Gent. Mag., Feb. 1906; C. F. G. Masterman's 
In Peril of Change, 1905, pp. 68-73 ; Atlantic 
Monthly, xciii. 280; Upton Letters, 1905, 
p. 206; English Illustrated Rev., Nov. 1903 ; 
Nineteenth Cent., Sept. 1906; Fortnightly 
Rev., Feb. 1904; Manchester Guardian, 
23 May 1906; Evening News, 18 June 
1906; Manchester University Mag., May 
1910 ; George Gissing, an Impression, by H. G. 
Wells, originally written as introduction to 
Veranilda ; private information.] T. S. 

1902), chemist, bom at 7 Chatham Place 
West, Hackney, London, on 7 March 1827, 
was the eldest son of John Gladstone by his 
wife Ahson Hall. The second son, George 

(1828-1909), a prominent educationalist, 
was for many years chairman of the School 
Board of Hove, Sussex. The father came 
from Kelso, where the family had been 
established since 1645, and after a successful 
career as a wholesale draper and warehouse- 
man retired from business in 1842. John, 
after being privately educated, entered 
in 1844 University College, London, and 
attended the chemistry lectures of Professor 
Thomas Graham [q. v.], gaining a gold medal 
for original research, and publ^hing a paper 
on guncotton and xyloidine. In 1847 he 
went to Giessen University, where he was 
a pupil of Liebig, and after graduating 
Ph.D. there he returned to London 
in 1848. From 1850 to 1852 he was 
lecturer on chemistry at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital, and in 1853 he was elected F.R.S. 
He sat on the royal commission which 
inquired into Hghthouses, buoys and 
beacons from 1859 to 1862, and on the 
committee which the war office appointed 
in 1864 to investigate questions regarding 
guncotton. He succeeded Michael Fara- 
day [q. v.] as Fullerian professor of chemi- 
stry at the Royal Institution in 1874, but 
resigned in 1877. Amongst the other 
important offices he held in scientific 
societies were president of the Physical 
Society (1874), of which he was a founder, 
and of the Chemical Society (1877-9) ; in 
1892 he was made an honorary D.Sc. of 
Trinity College, DubHn, on the occasion 
of its tercentenary celebrations, and in 
1897 he received the Davy medal from 
the Royal Society. 

Gladstone was one of the founders of 
the new science of physical chemistry. 
A long series of papers — Professor Tilden 
estimates them at 140 by himself alone, and 
seventy-eight in collaboration — contributed 
to various learned societies through life 
contains the record of his researches. In 
his earher years his chief discoveries con- 
cerned chemistry in relation to optics, 
and the refraction and the dispersion 
of liquids. He was one of the earhest 
students in spectroscopy, and published 
several papers, one written with Sir David 
Brewster, on the ' Solar Spectrum.' In 
1872, with his assistant Alfred Tribe, he 
discovered that zinc covered with spongy 
copper would decompose water, and from 
that time the copper-zinc couple has 
become one of the most familiar pieces 
of chemico-electrical apparatus. The dis- 
covery was immediately followed by experi- 
ments as to the value of the copper-zinc 
union as a reducing agent for both organic 
and inorganic compounds. The results 




were published in tho * Journal of tho 

Chemical Society * between 1872 and 1875. 
Papers on a similar subject, ' Tho Chemistry 
of the Secondary Batteries of Plants and 
Faure,' which were communicated to 
•Nature' (1882-3), appeared in 1883 in 
volume form. 

As reformer and promoter of education, 
Gladstone holds liigh rank. Ho was a 
pioneer of technical education and manual 
instruction, and one of tho earliest advo- 
cates of the introduction of science into 
elementary schools. From 1873 to 1894 he 
sat on the London School Board, being vice- 
chairman from 1888 to 1891. In 1868 ho 
contested the parliamentary representation 
of York as a Uberal, but was imsuccessful, 
and though he was frequently asked to 
stand for other constituencies (cf. Ldfe of 
Lord Kelvin, p. 701), liis membership of the 
school board remained his only public 
office. To tliis he gave time and thought 
liberally, and as chairman of the school 
management and the books and apparatus 
committees he was responsible for many 
of the changes in the curriculum and 
improvements in the methods of education, 
which ho described in the memorandum 
ho contributed to the 'Life and Letters 
of Professor Huxley ' (i. 350). He was an 
ardent advocate of spelling reform, and 
succeeded in 1876 in getting the school 
board to pass a resolution in its favour. 
The Spelling Reform Association was 
started^ in 1879 after a meeting in his 

Gladstone was active in philanthropic 
and charitable work, and keenly interested 
in Cliristian endeavour, organising devo- 
tional meetings and bible classes among 
educated men and women. He was a 
vice-president of the Christian Evidence 
Society, and wrote and lectured frequently 
for it on Christian apologetics. He pub- 
lished ' The Antiquity of Man and the 
Word of God * (anonymously) ( 1864) ; 
♦Theology and Natural Science' (1867); 
* Points of Supposed Collision between 
the Scriptures and Natural Science' (1880) 
(in Christian evidence lectures, 2nd ser.); 
and 'Miracles' (1880) (t6. 4th ser.). He 
was one of the earliest collaborators with 
Sir George Williams [q. v. Suppl. II] in 
the work of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, with which he was connected 
from 1850; he was specially active in its 
international relationships. 

Gladstone died at 17 Pembridge Square, 
Netting Hill, London, on 6 Oct. 1902, and is 
buried in Ken sal Green cemetery. He was 
twice married : (1) in 1852, to Jane May 

(d. 1864), only child of Charles Tilt, the 
publisher, by whom he had one son and six 
daughters ; (2) in 1869, to Margaret, 
daughter of David King, LL.D. [q. v.] ; 
she died in 1870, leaving a daughter. A 
cartoon portrait of Gladstone by * Spy * 
appeared in * Vanity Fair ' in 1891. 

Itesidos the works mentioned Gladstone 
was author of: 1. A memorial volume on 
his first wife ([)rivatoly printed), 1866, 
2. ' Michael Faraday,' 1872 (often reprinted), 
a work inspired by intimate personal know- 
ledge and friendship. 3. ' Spelhng Reform 
from an Educational Point of View,* 1878 
(2nd edit. 1879). 4. 'Object Teaching,' 1882. 
He contributed to the * Memoirs * issued 
by the Egypt Exploration Fund papers 
on the composition of the metals found 
in the course of the explorations (cf. the 
volume on ' Dendereh,' 1900). He also 
wrote a few hymns, which have been 
included in collections like * H3ann8 for 
Christian Associations.' 

[Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. 75, 1905; Trans. 
Chemical Soc, April 1905 ; Nature, 16 Oct. 
1902 ; Phonetic Journal, 2 Jan. 1897 ; private 
information.] J. R. M. 

GLAISHER, JAMES (1809-1903), 
astronomer and meteorologist, bom at 
Rotherhithe on 7 April 1809, was son of 
James Glaisher, who soon removed with his 
family to Greenwich. There the boy, whose 
opportunities of education were slender, 
made the acquaintance of William Richard- 
son, an assistant at the Royal Observatory, 
then under the direction of John Pond 
[q. v.], astronomer royal. Glaisher visited 
the observatory and was deeply impressed 
by Pond's delicate manipulation of the 
scientific instruments. A younger brother 
John became a computer in the observatory. 
From 1829 to 1830 James worked on the 
ordnance survey of Ireland under Lieut. -col. 
James. The occupation was thoroughly 
congenial, but serious illness brought on by 
exposure tenninated the engagement. In 
1833 Prof, (afterwards Sir George) Airy 
[q. V. Suppl. I], then director of the Cam- 
bridge University observatory, appointed 
Glaisher an assistant there, and with the 
equatorial he made a series of observations 
of the position of Halley's comet at its 
return in 1835. On 18 June 1835 Airy 
became astronomer-royal at Greenwich, 
and Glaisher followed him to the Royal 
Observatory on 4 Dec. He was succeeded 
at Cambridge by his brother John, who 
ten years later was assistant to Dr. John 
Lee (1783-1866) [q. v.] at Hartwell House, 
Aylesbury, and died in 1846. 




In 1838 Airy put Glaisher in charge at 
Greenwich of the new magnetic and meteoro- 
logical department, which was at first 
designed to last for a period of three years. 
But the t€rm was afterwards extended to 
five, and the department was finally made 
permanent. As its chief till 1874 Glaisher 
organised the science of meteorology, and 
earned for himself the title 'Nestor of 

Scientific meteorology was in its infancy 
when Glaisher began his work in it, and his 
first efforts were devoted to improving the 
instnunents and organising observations. 
In February 1847 he communicated to 
the Royal Society his first important 
research — ^the result of three years' experi- 
ments — on ' The amount of the radiation 
of heat at night from the earth and from 
various bodies placed on or near the surface 
of the earth.' In 1847 he published his 
useful ' Hygrometrical Tables adapted to 
the Use of the. Dry and Wet Bulb Thermo- 
meter,' which passed through very many 
editions. From 1848 to 1876 he regularly 
commimicated to the Royal Society or 
the Meteorological Society tabulations and 
discussions of meteorological observations 
made at Greenwich. An error which Glaisher 
detected in 1847 in one of the registrar- 
general's quarterly meteorological reports 
led him to organise a system of precise 
meteorological observation which succeeded 
where all previous attempts had failed. He 
induced sixty volunteers (mostly medical 
men and clergymen) in different parts of 
the country to take daily weather notes 
with the accurate standard thermometer 
invented by Richard Sheepshanks [q. v.]. 
Filling up vacancies as they occurred 
among these volunteer observers, Glaisher 
succeeded in maintaining his voluntary 
service till his death. From 1847 to 1902 
he prepared the meteorological reports for 
the registrar-general's returns of births, 
deaths and marriages. During 1849 he 
helped the 'Daily News,' by inspecting 
apparatus and offering various suggestions, 
to establish a daily weather report, which 
was first tried on 31 Aug. 1848, and being 
then soon abandoned, was revived in 
permanence with Glaisher's co-operation in 
the following year. 

Glaisher joined the Royal Astronomical 
Society in 1841, and was elected F.R.S. 
in 1849. Other societies in whose affairs 
he was active were the Royal Microscopical, 
of which he was president in 1865-8, and 
the Photographic, of which he was president 
from 1869 to 1892. The British Meteoro- 
logical Society, now the Royal Meteorolo- 

gical Society, was formed with Glaisher as 
secretary on 3 April 1850 at a meeting 
summoned by John Lee [q. v.] at Hartwell 
House. Glaisher remained secretary until 
1872, but during 1867-8 retired from this 
office to serve as president. Through the 
Society's early years, Glaisher was its 

Glaisher endeavoured with energy to 
illustrate the practical value of meteoro- 
logical research. He sought to define the 
relations between the weather and the 
cholera epidemics in London in 1832, 
1849, and 1853-4 in a meteorological report 
for the general board of health in 1854. 
Glaisher often gave evidence before 
parliamentary committees on bills deal- 
ing with water supply, and in 1863 
he prepared an official report on the 
meteorology of India. He studied the 
meteorological conditions affecting water 
supply and joined the board of directors 
of gas and water companies at Harrow 
and Barnet. 

Glaisher was brought prominently into 
public notice by his active association with 
aeronautics. In 1861 the British Associa- 
tion reappointed a committee which had 
made some unsuccessful efforts in 1852 
to pursue meteorological observation from 
balloons. A large balloon was constructed 
for the purpose by Henry Coxwell [q. v. 
Suppl. I], and in it he and Glaisher made 
with necessary instruments eight ascents 
in 1862. In four of these ascents from 
the Crystal Palace, and in one from Mill 
Hill, Hendon, Glaisher accompanied Cox- 
well as an ordinary passenger on ascents 
for public exhibition. The greatest height 
attained on these occasions was between six 
and seven thousand feet. Three ascents from 
Wolverhampton were arranged solely in the 
interest of the British Association's com- 
mittee, and immense altitudes were scaled. 
On 17 July 1862, the first ascent from 
Wolverhampton, a height of 26,000 feet was 
reached, and on 18 August, 23,000 feet. The 
most remarkable feat was the third ascent 
from Wolverhampton on 5 September, when 
the height was reckoned at nearly seven 
miles (cf. British Association Report, 1862, 
pp. 384, 385). At an elevation of 29,000 
feet Glaisher became imconscious. Coxwell 
temporarily lost the use of his limbs, 
but seized with his teeth the cord which 
opened the valve, and by this means 
caused the balloon to descend from an 
altitude of 37,000 feet. Neither Glaisher 
nor Coxwell suffered permanent injury. 
Glaisher made many later ascents: 
eight in 1863, eight in 1864, and four in 




1865 and 1866. He published in full 
detail liis meteorological observations in the 
* British Association Reports ' (1802-6). Sub- 
sequently ho ascended in a captive balloon 
at Chelsea, at the invitation of its owner, Mr. 
Gitlard, and made observations at low alti- 
tudes (cf. British Associatian Report, 1869). 
In 1809 Glaisher contributed an account of 
his ascents to ' Voyages Aeriens,' in which 
C. Flammarion, W. D. Fonville, and G. 
Tissandier were his coadjutors. He after- 
wards superintended the production of 
the English edition of that book under the 
title * Travels in the Air ' (1871 ; new edit. 
1880). The Aeronautical Society was 
founded in 1806, and Glaisher wa8 its first 
treasurer. But his mterest in aeronautics 
was always subsidiary to the scientific 
results to be obtamed by their means. 

In spite of hi« devotion to meteorology, 
Glaisher always maintained his interest in 
astronomy and mathematical science. In 
1875 he joined the committee of the British 
Association on mathematical tables of which 
his son, Dr. J. \V. L. Glaisher, was reporter. 
With help suppUed by a grant from 
the association he completed for this 
committee the ' Factor Tables' begun 
by Burckhardt in 1814 and continued by 
Dase in 1802-5. Glaisher computed the 
smallest factor of every number not divisible 
by 2, 3, or 5 of the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
millions, those of the first, second, third, 
seventh, eighth, and ninth millions having 
been dealt with by his predecessors. 
Glaisher pubHshed his enumerations in 
3 vols. 4to, 1879-83. 

After retiring from the Royal Observa- 
tory at Greenwich, in 1874, Glaisher con- 
tinued to supply his quarterly report 
to the registrar-general until the last 
year of his life. He took great interest 
in the Palestine Exploration Fund, being 
chairman of the executive committee from 
1880; he contributed to the pubUcations 
fifteen papers on meteorological observations 
made in Palestine. 

Glaisher retamed his vigour of mind and 
body mitil near his death at The Shola, 
Croydon, on 7 Feb. 1903, in the ninety- 
fourth year of his age. A bust presented 
by the fellows of the Royal Photographic 
Society in 1887 belongs to the Royal 
Meteorological Society. 

Glaisher married in 1843 Cecilia Louisa, 
youngest daughter of Henry Belville, 
first assistant at the Royal Observatory. 
He had two sons and a daughter. Dr. 
James Whitbread Leo Glaisher, F.R.S., L? 
his surviving son. 

Besides the works cited and papers 

communicated to the Royal Society, the 
Royal Astronomical Society, the Meteoro* 
logical Society, and the British Associa- 
tion, Glaisher translated Flammarion'g 
' Atmosphere ' and Guillcmin's ' World of 
Comets Ml 870). 

[Quarterly Journ. Roy. Meteorolog. See 
(by Mr. Marriott), vols. xxix. and xxx. ; Roy; 
Astron See. Monthly Notices (by W. EIHh) 
1903 ; Observatory Mag., March 1903; private 
information.] H. P. H. 

GLENESK, first Baron. [See Bobth- 
WICK, Sir Algernon, 1830-1908.] 

GLOAG, PATON JAMES (1823-1906), 
theological writer, bom at Perth on 
17 May 1823, was eldest son in the family 
of six children of WilUam Gloag, banker, 
by his wife Jessie Bum. William Ellis 
Gloag, Lord Kincaimey [q. v. Suppl. II], 
was a younger brother. His eldest sister, 
Jessie Bum Gloag, established in Perth one 
of the first ragged schools in Scotland. 
After finishing his school training at Perth 
Academy in 1839, Gloag studied at Edin- 
burgh University (1840-3). Owing mainly 
to the disruption of 1843 he left Edinburgh 
and completed at St. Andrews (1843-6) the 
curriculum preparatory for the ministry 
of the Church of Scotland. 

Licensed a preacher by Perth presbytery 
on 10 June 1846, Gloag, from 1848 to 
1857, was first assistant, and then successor, 
to Dr. Russell at Dunning, Perthshire, 
and from 1860 to 1870 was parish 
minister of Blantyre, Lanarkshire, where 
he provided a new parish church, and 
established a savings bank. Meanwhile 
he published ' A Treatise on Assurance 
of Salvation' (1853), 'A Treatise on 
Justification ' (1850), ' Primeval World, or 
Relation of Geology to Theology ' (1859), 
' The Resurrection ' (1862), and ' Practical 
Christianity* (1866). In 1857, 1862, and 
1867 ho visited Germany, where he made 
friends with Tholuck and other divines, 
and familiarised himself with German theo- 
logical Uterature. 

In 1871 ho became parish minister of Gala- 
shiels, and while there greatly extended 
his reputation as preacher and author. In 
1879 he was Baird lecturer, taking for his 
subject * The Messianic Prophecies.* A 
new church was completed in 1881 to meet 
the needs of his growing congregation. 
Although no ardent ecclesiastic, he moved 
in the general assembly of the Church of 
Scotland of 1887 for the relaxation of the 
eldership test. In 1889 he was moderator 


1 20 


of the general assembly, and in his closing 
address he urged the importance of the 
highest possible culture for the Christian 
minister. In June 1892 he resigned his 
parochial charge, devoting himself in Edin- 
burgh to theological research, and finding 
recreation in the study of numismatics. In 
1896-9 he was interim professor of bibUcal 
criticism in Aberdeen University. In March 
1867 Gloag had received the honorary 
degree of 6.D. from St. Andrews, and he 
was made LL.D. of Aberdeen in April 1899. 
Li 1897 his ministerial jubilee was celebrated 
by studenta and friends. After 1898 his 
health gradually failed. He died at 
Edinburgh on 9 Jan. 1906, and was interred 
in the family burying-ground in Dunning 
churchyard. The Galashiels parishioners 
placed a memorial window in St. Paul's 
Church, Galashiels. On 23 Jan. 1867 
Gloag married Elizabeth S. Lang, third 
daughter of the Rev. Gavin Lang of Glas- 
ford. She survived him without issue. 
While Gloag was moderator the members 
of his congregation presented him with 
his portrait in oils, by Sir George Reid, 
P.R.S.A., which remains in Mrs. Gloag's 

Gloag*s later theological pubHcations 
show the influence of German scholar- 
ship of the Uberal orthodox school. Chiefly 
valuable for their analytical criticism and 
exegesis of the New Testament, they give 
no support to the new higher criticism. 
The chief of them are: 1. 'Commentary 
on the Acts of the Apostles,' 2 vols. 1870. 
2. * Introduction to the Pauline Epistles,' 
1874. 3. * Commentary on the Epistle of St. 
James,' 1883. 4. * Exegetical Studies,' 1884. 
6. * Introduction to the CathoHc Epistles,' 
1887. 6. * Commentary on the Thessa- 
lonians,' 1887. 7. ' Introduction to the 
Johannine Writings,' 1891. 8. * Introduction 
to the Synoptic Gospels,' 1895. 

Gloag translated into EngUsh Lechler and 
Gerok's ' Apostelgeschichte ' in 1865, Meyer's 
* Apostelgeschichte ' in 1887, Liinemann's 
*Thessaloniker'inl880, andHuther's * St. 
James and St. Jude ' in 1881. In 1880 he 
edited, with memoir, a volume of sermons 
by Dr. Veitch, Edinburgh. He issued as 
•Bible Primers' a 'Life of St. Paul' 
(1881), and a 'Life of St. John' (1892). 
In 1891 he published * Subjects and Mode 
of Baptism.' 

[Mrs. Gloag's Paton J. Gloag, D.D., LL.D., 
1908 ; information from Mrs. Gloag ; Life and 
Work Magazine, July 1889 and February 
1900 ; Scotsman and Glasgow Herald, 10 Jan. 
1906 ; Border Standard, 6 July 1907.] 

T. B. 

KiNCAiRNEY (1828-1909), Scottish judge, 
bom at Perth on 7 Feb. 1828, was son of 
WiUiam Gloag, banker in Perth, by his 
wife Jessie, daughter of John Bum, writer 
to the Signet, Edinburgh. Educated at 
Perth grammar school and Edinburgh 
University, he passed on 25 Dec. 1853 to 
the Scottish bar, where he enjoyed a fair 
practice. A conservative in politics, he 
was not offered promotion till 1874, when 
he was appointed advocate depute on the 
formation of Disraeli's second ministry. 
In 1877 he became sheriff of Stirling and 
Dumbarton, and in 1885 of Perthshire. 
In 1889 he was raised to the bench, when 
he took the title of Lord Kincaimey. His 
career as a judge proved eminently success- 
ful. He died at Kincaimey on 8 Oct. 
1909, and was buried at Caputh. In 
1864 Gloag married Helen, daughter of 
James Burn, writer to the Signet, Edin- 
burgh, by whom he had one son, William 
Murray Gloag, professor of law at Glasgow 
University, and three daughters. There is 
a portrait of him, by Sir George Reid, at 

[Scotsman, 9 Oct. 1909 ; Roll of the Faculty 
of Advocates ; Records of the Juridical 
Society ; History of the Speculative Society, 
pp. 32, 145, 201.] G. W. T. O. 

GODFREY, DANIEL (1831 - 1903), 
bandmaster and composer, eldest of four 
sons of Charles Godfrey, bandmaster of 
the Coldstream guards for fifty years, was 
born at Westminster on 4 Sept. 1831. His 
eldest brother, George William Godfrey, was 
well known as a playwright. Daniel was 
educated at the Royal Academy of Music, 
where he subsequently became professor of 
military music and was elected a fellow. 
In his early days he was a flute player in 
JulUen's orchestra and at the Royal Itahan 
Opera. In 1856, on the recommendation 
of Sir IMichael Costa, he was, through the 
influence of the Prince Consort, appointed 
bandmaster of the Grenadier guards, and one 
of his first duties was to play into London 
the brigade of guards returning from the 
Crimea. In 1863 he composed his famous 
' Guards ' waltz for the ball given by the 
officers of the guards to King Edward VII 
and Queen Alexandra, then Prince and 
Princess of Wales, on their marriage. This 
was followed by the ' Mabel ' and ' Hilda ' 
waltzes, which enjoyed universal popularity. 
During one of the visits of the guards 
band to Paris, Bizet, the composer of 
' Carmen,' unconsciously caught the theme 
of one of them, and it figures in the finale to 




the first act of Bizot's 'Les Pecheurs des 
Perles.* Godfrey mode a tour with his band 
in the United States in 1876 in celebration 
of the centenary of American Independence. 
It was the first visit of an Enghsh military 
band since the creation of the republic, 
and a special Act of Parliament had to bo 
passed to authorise it. At Queen Victoria's 
jubilee (1887) he was promoted second- 
lieutenant — the first bandmaster who re- 
ceived a commission in the army. He 
was also decorated with the jubilee medal 
and clasp. In 1891 he reached the age 
limit of sixty, but his period of service was 
tjxta.ded for five years. He retired from 
the army on 4 Sept. 1896, with the reputa- 
tion of England's leading bandmaster. 
Subsequently he formed a private military 
band wliich played at the chief exhibitions 
in England and with which he twice toured 
America and Canada. He rendered spl endid 
service to the cause of military music, and 
was very successful as an 'arranger ' of com- 
positions for military bands. He died at 
Beeston, Nottinghamshire, on 30 June 1903. 
Godfrey married in 1856 Joyce Boyles, by 
whom he had two sons and three daughters. 
His eldest son, Dan Godfrey (6. 1868), a well- 
known conductor, is musical director to the 
corporation of Bournemouth. A cartoon of 
Godfrey by * Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity 
Fair ' on 10 March 1888. 

[Musical Times, Aug. 1903 ; British Musical 
Biogr. ; Grove's Diet, of Music, 1906, ii. 
192; Theatre, 1891, 1899 (portrait); private 
information.] J. C. H. 


1902), editor and author, born on 2 Oct. 
1831 at his maternal grandmother's house 
at Moyne, co. Wicklow, was eldest child of 
James Godkin [q. v.], presbyterian clergy- 
man and journalist with strong nationalist 
sympathies. His mother, Sarah Lawrence, 
was of Cromwelhan ancestry. Of delicate 
health, he spent his early childhood mainly 
in Wicklow, and when seven years old was 
sent to a preparatory school in Armagh, 
where his father was then living. For 
over four years, from 1841 to 1846, he was at 
Silcoates school for the children of congre- 
gational ministers, near Wakefield in York- 
shire. In 1846 he entered Queen's College, 
Belfast, Sir Robert Hart [q. v. Suppl. II] 
being a younger contemporary. He was 
first president of the Undergraduates' 
Literary and Scientific Society ; at the time 
(he wrote later) * John Stuart IVIill was 
our prophet, but America was our Promised 
Land ' {Life and Letters, i. p. 12). In 1851 
he graduated B.A. and went to London 

to read for the bar at Lincoln's Inn, taking 
rooms in the Temple. He soon turned to 
authorship and journalism. Godkin under- 
took some literary work for Cassell's 
publishing house, with which his father waa 
connected. In 1853 that finn published 
his first book, * The History of Hungary 
and the Magyars from the Earliest Period 
to the Close of the Late War.' In Octol^r 
1853 the * Daily News ' sent him out as 
special correspondent to Turkey on the 
eve of the Crimean war. He joined Omar 
Pasha's army, and was in the Crimea until the 
end of the war, returning home in September 
1855. This experience gave him a lifelong 
hatred of war ; he held that the most 
important result of the Crimean war was 
' the creation and development of the special 
correspondents of newspapers ' {Life and 
Letters, i. 100). 

After writing for a short time for the 
* Northern Whig ' at Belfast, he went out 
in November 1856 to the United States, 
and almost immediately made a tour in 
the southern states, noting the effects of the 
slave system. He corresponded with the 
London ' Daily News,' and was admitted to 
the bar of the state of New York in Feb. 
1858. In 1860 he made a tour in Europe 
for his health. While he was in Europe 
the American civil war broke out, and he 
strongly supported the North, wTiting to 
the ' Dady News ' in condemnation of the 
British attitude with regard to the Trent 
incident. On returning to the United 
States in September 1862, while continuing 
his letters to the 'Daily News,' he wTote 
for the 'New York Times,' the 'North 
American Review,' and ' Atlantic Monthly.' 
He also took charge for a short time of the 
' Sanitary Commission Bulletin.' In 1864 
he wrote of himself ' I am by nature 
rather fitted for an outdoor than an indoor 
life. I have not got the literary temjiera- 
ment ' {Life and Letters, i. 229). In July 
1865 he established in New York a weekly 
journal ' The Nation,' to represent indepen- 
dent thought in the United States. The 
paper was started by subscription, but it 
did not pay in its early stages, and after 
the first year he took it over almost entirely 
as his private venture. He edited and 
wrote most of it till 1881, when he sold it 
to the ' Evening Post,' of which it became 
a kind of weekly edition. In 1883 he 
became editor in chief of both papers, 
retiring on account of ill-health in 1899. 
During most of this time his sub-editor was 
his friend, W. P. Garrison, son of WilHam 
Lloyd Garrison. 
The first prospectus of the * Nation ' stated 




that it * will not be the organ of any 
party, sect, or body' [Life and Letters, i. 238). 
It thus inaugurated a new departure in 
American journalism, and it influenced 

Eublic opinion in the United States, not 
y the extent of its circulation, which was 
comparatively smaU, but by its literary 
power and transparent honesty. Its con- 
tributors included the most accomphshed 
men of letters on both sides of the Atlantic. 
(Sir) Leslie Stephen [q. v. Suppl. II], who 
stayed with Godkin in New York in 1868 and 
formed a high opinion of his character and 
capacity, was English correspondent of the 
paper from that year till 1873 (Maitlanp's 
Life, i. 207-237). The 'Nation' 'was 
read by the two classes which in America 
have most to do with forming political and 
economic opinion, editors and university 
teachers ' (Bryce, p. 378). Its superiority 
was 'due to one man, Mr. E. L. Godkin, 
with whom,' wrote J. R. Lowell, ' I do not 
always agree, but whose ability, informa- 
tion, and unflinching integrity have made 
the " Nation " what it is ' {Life and Letters, 
i. 251). He was a determined opponent 
of corruption in political and municipal 
life in America. Though his poUtical 
sympathies had lain with the republican 
as against the democratic party, yet 
on pubHc grounds, as a civil service 
reformer and as a freetrader, in 1884, he 
supported Cleveland's candidature for the 
presidency as against Blaine. His paper 
was the recognised organ of the indepen- 
dents or 'Mugwumps' between 1884 and 
1894. On the other hand he strongly 
opposed Cleveland when in 1895 he at- 
tacked England in his Venezuelan message. 
He was especially outspoken against 
Tammany Hall and its system, and was 
subjected in consequence to virulent 
attacks and constant Ubel actions by the 
leaders of Tammany. In December 1894, 
after the temporary defeat of Tammany, 
largely or mainly owing to his efforts, 
he was presented with a loving cup ' in 
grateful recognition of fearless and un- 
faltering service to the city of New York ' 
{Life and Letters, ii. 181). He was opposed 
to the Spanish-American war, as well as 
to the South African war of Great Britain, 
and to the American annexation of Hawaii 
and the Philippines. He was also opposed, 
on economic grounds, to high tariffs, to the 
silver policy, and to bimetallism. 

In 1870 he decHned an offer of the 
professorship of history at Harvard Univer- 
sity. In 1875 he removed to Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, but went back to New York 
in 1877. In 1875 he became a member of a 

commission appointed to devise a * Plan for 
the government of cities in the State of 
New York,' which reported to the New 
York Legislature in 1877. In 1895 he 
was made an unpaid civil service com- 
missioner. In 1889 he paid a visit to 
England, after an interval of twenty-seven 
years. Thereafter he kept in close touch 
with men and events in the United Kingdom, 
among the closest of his English friends 
being Mr. James Bryce and Professor A. V. 
Dicey. He was, like his father before him, 
a lifelong advocate of home rule for Ireland, 
and contributed two articles to the Uberal 
'Handbook of Home Rule' (1887) edited 
by Mr. Bryce. As home ruler, free trader, 
opponent of war and annexation, and advo- 
cate of honest and economical admini- 
stration, he was in line with the advanced 
section of the hberal party in the United 
Kingdom, before socialism had come to the 
front, and he criticised with some bitterness 
the leaders on the tory side. His views 
are fully expounded in his ' Reflections and 
Comments ' (New York, 1895) ; ' Problems 
of Modern Democracy ' (New York, 1 896) ; 
and ' Unforeseen Tendencies of Democracy ' 
(Boston, 1898). In 1897 he was made, to his 
great pleasure, an hon. D.C.L. of Oxford. 
After serious illness in 1900 he sailed for 
England in May 1901 , spent some time in the 
New Forest, died at Greenway on the Dart 
in Devonshire on 21 May 1902, and was 
buried in Hazelbeach churchyard in North- 
amptonshire. An inscription on his grave 
by Mr. Bryce describes him as ' Publicist, 
economist and moralist.' In Ms memory 
the ' Godkin Lectures,' on ' The Essentials 
of Free Government and the Duties of 
the Citizen,' were established at Harvard 

Godkin was married twice: (1) in 1859, 
at Newhaven, Connecticut, to Frances Eliza- 
beth {d. 1875), elder daughter of Samuel 
Edmund Foote, by whom he had three chil- 
dren, one of whom, a son, survived him ; (2) 
in 1884 to Katherine, daughter of Abraham 
Sands. Both wives were of American 

Godkin was a man of marked talent. 
He combined with wide reading and know- 
ledge of many countries a personal attraction 
which made him the ' faithful friend and 
charming companion ' of the leaders of 
thought in both England and America. He 
gave his life's work to his adopted country, 
the United States, but he was never com- 
pletely assimilated. Matthew Arnold con- 
sidered him ' a typical specimen of the 
Irishman of culture ' {Life and Letters, ii. 1). 
His Irish blood gave him singular frankness 




and buoyancy of spirits, ©specially in his 
earlier years, together with a trenchant 
style, powers of sarcasm and humour, 
and keen sympatliies. His political views, 
which were deemed by many Englishmen the 
' soundest ' and ' sanest ' in America, were 
those of a philosophic radical, though in 
later and more pessimistic years ' a dis- 
illusioned radical ' {Ldfe and Letters, ii. 238). 
He belonged to the school, without sliaring 
the pedantry, of the early Benthamites, 
and he remained to the end of his life an 
atlvanced liberal in the sense which would 
have been given to that term between 1848 
and 1870. He was not so much a man of 
original ideas as original in the strength 
and constancy with which he held by his 
principles and beliefs. By the mere force of 
his convictions and the ability with which 
he illustrated them he evoked a fervent 
enthusiasm for the commonplaces of good 
govermuent and honest administration. 

[Authorities cited ; Life and Letters of 
Ed\sin Lawrence Godkin, edited by Rollo 
Ogdeu, 1907 ; James Bryce, Studies in Con- 
temporary Biography, 1903 ; J. F. Rhodes, 
Historical Essays, 1909 ; Letters of Alexander 
Macniillan, p. 235 ; The Times, 23 May 1902 ; 
Annual Register, 1902 ; private information.] 

C. P. L. 

1907), Hampshire antiquary, only surviv- 
ing son of Edward Godwin, a draper of 
Winchester, and afterwards a farmer of 
Melksham, by his wife Mary Tugwell, was 
born at Winchester on 4 July 1846. With 
an only sister, Sarah Louisa, he was brought 
up at Winchester, and was educated there at 
a private school. After engaging in private 
tuition, and quahfying in 1868 at the 
London Ck)llege of Divinity, he was ordained 
deacon in 1869 and priest in 1870. He 
subsequently proceeded to Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he gained the Cluff memorial 
prize in 1882, and graduated B.A. in 1884 
and B.D. in 1887. After filling curacies at 
Heanor (1869-72), East Bergholt (187^^6), 
and Capel St. Mary (1876-7), he was ap- 
pointed chaplain of the forces hi 1877, and 
continued in the army until 1890, serving 
at Malta, Cairo, Dublin, the Curragh, and 
Netley Hos])ital. From 1890 to 1893 he 
was vicar of East Boldre, and after holding 
other parochial appointments, became 
curate in charge of Stokesby, Great Yar- 
mouth, in 1904. 

Godwin was best known as an antiquary 
and local historian. He was one of the 
founders of the Hampshire Field Club and 
Archoeological Society, and was a leading 
authority on the history of Hampshire 

and neighl>ouring counties. His * Civil 
War in Hampshire, 1642-45, and tho 
Story of Basing House* (1882; new 
edit. 1904) embodies exhaustive researchea 
into original authorities. Ho also wrote, 
amongst other toiK)graphical works, * The 
Green Lanes of Hampshire, Surrey, and 
Sussex ' (1882), and (with H. M. G^ilbert) 
' Bibhotheca Hantoniensis ' (1891). He was 
editor of * Hampshire Notes and Queries ' 
1896-9. His special knowledge was freely 
placed at the service of antiquarian and 
scientific societies. Ho died suddenly of 
heart failure while staying for the night 
at an inn in Little Walsingham on 10 Jan. 
1907, and was buried in the churchyard of 
that village. Godwin was twice married : 
(1) on 13 Feb. 1870 to Mary Godwin (of 
a different family), by whom ho had one 
daughter; (2) on 8 Aug. 1899 to Rose 
Elizabeth, daughter of George Jay of 
Camden Town, who survived lum without 

In addition to the works mentioned, 
Godwin pubhshed : 1. ' A Guide to the 
Maltese Islands,' 1880. 2. 'Materials for 
English Church History, 1625-49,' 1895. 
He left unpublished 'French Prisoners of 
War at Rye and Winchester.' 

[Hampshire Observer and Hampshire 
Chronicle, 19 Jan. 1907 : Orockford's Clerical 
Directory ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private infor- 
mation.] C. W. 

pianist and composer, was bom of Jewish 
parents on 21 Aug. 1829 in the * free city ' 
of Hamburg, where Mendelssohn was born 
in 1809. His grandfather and father were 
Hamburg merchants, with an English con- 
nection, their firm having branches in 
Glasgow and Manchester. In early youth 
Otto was given pianoforte lessons by Jakob 
Schmitt (younger brother of Aloys), and 
harmony lessons by Fried. W. Gnmd. 
Mendelssohn opened the Leipzig Conser- 
vatorium on 3 April 1843, and Goldschmidt 
entered it in the following autumn. He 
studied there assiduously for three years, 
attending Mendelssohn's select class for 
pianoforte phrasing, and learning pianoforte 
technique from Plaidy and counterix)int 
from Hauptmann. He came to know 
Joachim, while W. S. Rockstro [q. v.] was a 
fellow-student. Jemiy Land [q. v.] appeared 
at the Gewandhaus at Leipzig on 4 Dec. 
1845. From 1846 to 1848 Goldschmidt 
taught and played in Hamburg. In 1848 
he was sent to Paris to study under 
Chopin, but the revolution drove him 
to England before he could fulfil his 




purpose. On 31 July 1848 he played in 
London at a concert given for charity by 
Jenny Lind (who was by this time aban- 
doning the stage) in the concert-room of 
Her Majesty's Theatre ; he also appeared 
in London on 27 March 1849 at Ella's 
Musical Union. In January 1850 he 
met Jenny Lind at Liibeck. In the 
same year she began a long American tour 
under Phineas T. Bamum. In May 1851, 
when her musical director, pianist, and 
accompanist, Benedict, was leaving for 
England, she sent for Goldschmidt to take 
his place. They were married at Boston 
according to the rites of the Episcopal 
Church on 5 Jan. 1852. Her age was then 
thirty- two, his twenty- three. From 1852 
to 1855 they Uved in Dresden, making 
frequent concert- tours. In 1856 they came 
to England, and shortly settled there. In 
1859 Goldschmidt became naturahsed in 
this country. In 1862 he began to edit 
with Sir William Stemdale Bennett [q. v.] 
the ' Chorale Book for England,' in which 
German stock-tunes were set to hymn-' 
translations already made by Catherine 
Winkworth in her ' Ljn-a Germanica.' In 
1863 and 1866 Goldschmidt conducted the 
choral portions of the festival when Jenny 
Lind appeared at Diisseldorf at the Whit- 
suntide Niederrheinisches Musikfest, where 
she had already sung in 1846 and 1855. In 
1863 he joined the Royal Academy of Music 
as pianoforte professor, under Charles Lucas 
as principal. In 1866 Stemdale Bennett be- 
came principal, and Goldschmidt was from 
1866 to 1868 vice-principal. From 1864 
to 1869 he advised Dr. Temple about music 
at Rugby. In 1867 Jenny Lind sang at 
Hereford musical festival, and Goldschmidt 
produced there his ' Ruth, a Biblical Idyll ' ; 
this was heard again in 1869 at Exeter Hall, 
and in Dusseldorf on 20 Jan. 1870, when 
Jenny Lind made her last pubhc appearance 
except for charity. In 1876 A. D. Coleridge, 
an enthusiastic amateur, got together an 
amateur choir for the first performance in 
England of Bach's B minor Mass (26 April 
1876, St. James's HaU). The ' Bach Choir ' 
thereupon came into being and Goldschmidt 
was appointed conductor. He held that 
office till 1885. His wife helped in the 
chorus. He edited many masterpieces 
for the collection called the ' Bach Choir 
Magazine.' In 1876 he was elected a 
member of the Athenaeum Club under 
Rule 11. His wife died on 2 Nov. 1887. 
In February 1891 he pubUshed a valuable 
collection of her cadenzas and fioriture. 
He died on 24 Feb. 1907 at his house, 
1 Moreton Gardens, South Kensington, and 

was buried by his wife's side at Wynds 
Point on the Malvern Hills. He left two 
sons and a daughter. 

Although Goldschmidt' s opportunities 
came through his wife's celebrity, he used 
them wisely, and his German thorough- 
ness, his sincerity of disposition, and his 
courtly manner made him a welcome factor 
in numberless musical activities. He was 
a knight of the Swedish order of the 
Vasa (1876), and was given the Swedish 
gold medal ' litteris et artibus,' with the 
commander ribbon of the polar star (1893). 
He was a chief officer or honorary member 
of the majority of London musical institu- 
tions. He owned the original autograph of 
Beethoven's 1802 letter to his brothers, 
called ' Beethoven's Will,' and presented 
this in 1888 to the Hamburg Stadt- 
bibliothek. As a performer he was a 
surviving link with the Mendelssohn 
period, and his direct testimony to Men- 
delssohn's style as a pianist (clear and 
expressive, but almost pedalless) was im- 
portant. He said that Mendelssohn stood 
always throughout his two-hour class. 
As a composer, Goldschmidt belonged to 
Mendelssohn's era ; besides ' Ruth,' his 
published works were, ' Music, an Ode ' 
(Leeds, 1898), a pianoforte concerto, a 
pianoforte trio, and various studies and 
pieces for the pianoforte. His publications 
are numbered down to op. 27. 

[The Times, 26 Feb., 1 March, 13 May 1907 
(A\dll) ; Holland and Rockstro's Life of Jenny 
Lind ; Musical Herald, May 1896 ; private 
information.] C. M-n. 


(1818-1908), major-general, born on 19 May 
1818 at Milan, was only son of Lionel Prager 
Goldsmid, an officer of the 19th dragoon 
guards, and grandson of Benjamin Gold- 
smid [q. v.], Jewish financier. He early 
showed an aptitude for foreign languages, 
and after education at an English school 
in Paris he passed through King's College 
school to King's College, London. In 
January 1839 he received a commission 
in the East India Company's army, and 
in April joined the 37th Madras native 
infantry. In August 1840 his regiment 
was ordered to China, and there Goldsmid 
served as adjutant in the actions at Canton 
and along the coast, for which he received 
the Chinese war medal. In the course of 
the campaign he first turned his attention 
to the study of Oriental languages, for which 
he showed a marked faculty. Returning to 
India in 1845 he qualified as interpreter in 
Hindustani ; he was appointed interpreter 




for Persian in 1849 and for Arabic in 1851. 
In tho last year ho obtained his company, 
and was promoted assistant-adjutant- 
general of tho Nagpur subsidiary field 
force. Shortly after, thanks to the influence 
of General John Jacob [q. v.], Goldsmid 
entered the civil service, tirst as deputy 
collector and then as assistant-commissioner 
for the settlement of alienated lands in 
the newly acquired province of Sind. 

On his return to England in 1855 he 
volunteered for active service in the Crimea, 
and was attached to the Turkish contingent 
at Kertch under General Sir Robert Vivian 
[q. V.]. Here he soon acquired a knowledge 
of Turkish. In recognition of his services 
ho received the Turkish war medal, the 
order of tho Medjidie {4th class), and a 
brevet majority in the army. He returned 
to India in 1856, and took up judicial 
work at Shikarpur. Subsequently he 
served on the staff of Sir Bartle Frere [q. v.], 
then chief commissioner of Sind, and 
during the Mutiny he distinguished himself 
in various dangerous missions. 

In 1861 Goldsmid first became connected 
with the great scheme for linking up East 
and West by telegraph. In that year he 
arranged with the chiefs of Baluchistan 
and Makran for telegraph construction 
along tho coast of Gwadar; his success 
in the negotiations was acknowledged 
by the Bombay government. In 1863 he 
was promoted brevet lieu t. -colonel. In 
1864 he was selected to superintend the 
gigantic task of carrying the wires from 
Europe across Persia and Baluchistan 
to India. He accompanied Col. Patrick 
Stewart when laying the Persian Gulf 
cable, and later proceeded by way of 
Bagdad and Mosul to Constantinople. 
There, after protracted negotiations, he 
carried through the Indo-Ottoman tele- 
graph treaty. In 1865, on the death of 
Col. Patrick Stewart, he was appointed 
director-general of the Indo-European 
telegraph, and at once started for Teheran 
to assist in negotiating a telegraph treaty 
with the Persian government. For liis 
services in securing the Anglo-Persian 
convention he was made a C.B. in 1866, 
and received the thanks of the government 
of India. From Teheran he travelled 
overland to India and back again to 
Europe to settle tho terms of admission 
of the Indo-European telegraph to the 
European system. Subsequently Goldsmid 
personally superintended the construction 
of the telegraph line across the whole ex- 
tent of Persia. Of that arduous work he 
gave an interesting and characteristically 

modest account in * Travel and Telegraph ' 


After resigning tho directorship of the 
[ndo-Europ(!an telegraph in 1870, Goldsmid 
was appointed in tho following year a 
commissioner for the delimitation of the 
boundary between Persia and Baluchistan, 
and his award was eventually accepted by 
the Shah's government. In the same year 
Goldsmid was entrusted with the even 
more delicate task of investigating the 
claims of Persia and Afghanistan to the 
province of Seistan. A full account of 
tho proceedings of the commission is 
contained in the voluminous collection of 
papers, entitled ' Eastern Persia ' (1870-72), 
wMch was edited with an introduction 
by Goldsmid, and published under the 
authority of the India office in two volumes 
in 1876. It was a singular testimony to 
Goldsmid's tact and ability that despite 
the determined procrastination of the 
Persian commissioners a temporary settle- 
ment of this thorny question was reached, 
but not till the British commissioners had 
twice visited the disputed territory. The 
arbitral award was published at Teheran 
on 19 Aug. 1872 ; Persia was confirmed in 
the possession of Seistan, while a section of 
the Helmund was left in Afghan territory. 
The strict impartiality of the award satisfied 
neither party, but it had the desired effect 
of keeping the peace. For his services 
Goldsmid was created a K.C.S.I. in 1871, 
and received the thanks of the government 
of India. He retired from the army on 
1 Jan. 1875 with a special pension and 
the rank of major-general. 

Goldsmid's public career was not ended. 
In 1877 he was appointed British repre- 
sentative on the international commission 
to inquire into Indian immigration in 
Reunion. A joint report was issued in 
February 1878, and a separate report iu 
the following April. In 1880 Goldsmid 
accepted the post of controller of crown 
lands (Daira Sanieh) in Egypt, and witnessed 
the outbreak there in September 1881. 
In June 1882 he was despatched by Lord 
Granville [q. v.] on a diplomatic mission 
to Constantinople ; and on his return to 
Alexandria he rendered useful service in 
the campaign of 1882 by organising the 
inteUigence department, for which he 
received the thanks of Viscount Wolseley 
and the war office. On liis resigning the 
control of the crown lands on 1 May 1883 
the Khedive bestowed on him the Osmanie 
decoration of the second class and the 
bronze star. 
On leaving Egypt, Goldsmid accepted 




from Leopold II, King of the Belgians, 
the post of * administrateur d6egu6 de 
I'association intemationale ' in the Congo, 
and he undertook the organisation of the 
administrative system in the new state 
But soon after reaching the Congo Golds - 
mid's health broke down, and he returned 
to England on 31 Dec. 1883. Thenceforth 
he resided mainly in London, devoting 
himself to hterary work connected with his 
Oriental studies, and taking an active 
interest in various religious and philan- 
thropic institutions. He died at Brook 
Green, Hammersmith, on 12 Jan. 1908, 
and was buried at Hollingboume, Kent. 
On 2 Jan. 1849 he married Mary {d. 1900), 
eldest daughter of Lieut. -general George 
Mackenzie Steuart, by whom he had issue 
two sons and four daughters. 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, and to many pamphlets and re- 
views, Goldsmid published ' Saswi and 
Punhu,' a poem in the original Sindi, with a 
metrical translation (1863), and an authori- 
tative life of ' Sir James Outram ' (2 vols. 
1880; 2nd edit. 1881). His knowledge of 
Eastern languages placed him in the 
forefront of Oriental critics. He joined 
the Royal Asiatic Society in 1864, and was 
an ordinary member of the council for brief 
periods between 1875 and 1889. He held 
the post of secretary from November 1885 
to June 1887, and that of vice-president 
from 1890 to 1905. He was also a vice- 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
and presided over the geographical section 
of the British Association at the Birming- 
ham meeting of 1886. 

[The Times, 13 Jan. 1908 ; Journal, Royal 
Asiatic See, April 1908, art. by T. H. 
Thornton ; Geographical Journal, Feb. 1908, 
art. by Sir T. H. Holdich ; Sir Frederick 
Goldsmid, Travel and Telegraph, 1874 ; Sir 
Frederick Maurice, Campaign of 1882 in 
Egypt, 1908, p. 21 ; L. Fraser, India under 
Lord Curzon and After, 1911, p. 117.] 

G. S. W. 

GOODALL, FREDERICK (1822-1904), 
artist, bom in St. John's Wood, London, 
on 17 Sept. 1822, was son of Edward 
Goodall [q. v.], the line engraver, by his 
wife Alice Le Petit, granddaughter of a 
Frenchman who was a printer of coloured 
engravings. Goodall's two brothers, Ed- 
ward Goodall and Walter Goodall [q. v.], 
also made a reputation as artists. 

Frederick, who as a child was fascinated 
by Turner's drawings, was educated at 
the Wellington Road Academy, a private 
school which Charles Dickens had attended. 
From thirteen to twenty-one he was a pupil 

of his father, who taught him oil painting ; 
he also joined at sixteen a hfe class in St. 
Martin's Lane, where Etty had received in- 
struction. In 1838 he went on a sketching 
tour through Normandy, and soon after ex- 
tended his travels to Brittany and Ireland. 

As early as 1836 Goodall exhibited 
water-colour paintings of Willesden Church 
and Lambeth Palace at the Society of Arts ; 
the second picture was awarded the Isis 
medal of the society. At the same place 
he exhibited in 1838 an oil paintings 
' Finding the Dead Body of a Miner in the 
Thames Tunnel,' which was awarded the 
large silver medal of the society. In 1839, 
when only seventeen, he showed at the 
Royal Academy his * French Soldiers in a 
Cabaret.'- Thenceforth he was a regidar 
exhibitor at the Academy imtil 1902, only 
omitting the three years 1858, 1871, and 
1874. Two of his eariy works, * The Tired 
Soldier ' (1842) and ' The Village HoHday * 
(1847), are now in the Vernon collection at 
the Tate Gallery and show the influence 
of Wilkie, a good copy of whose * Penny 
Wedding' belonged to Goodall's father. 
A picture, ' Raising the Maypole,' at the 
Academy in 1851, proved very popular, and 
an engraving widely extended its vogue. 
In 1852 Goodall was elected A.R.A. His 
'Cranmer at the Traitor's Gate' (1856) 
was engraved in line by liis father. His 
promise attracted the notice of Samuel 
Rogers and Sir Robert Peel, and he early 
enjoyed the patronage of picture buyers. La 
1857 Goodall visited Venice and Chioggia. 

The winter of 1858 and the spring of 
1859 were spent in Egypt, which Goodall 
revisited in 1870. From the date of his 
first Egyptian sojourn to the end of his 
career Goodall largely devoted himself to 
Eastern subjects, and thus vastly extended 
his popularity. The first of his Eastern 
paintings was ' Early Morning in the 
Wilderness of Shur' (Royal Academy in 
1860). There followed ' The First Bom * 
(1861) and ' The Retum of a Pilgrim from 
Mecca* (1862). Elected R.A. in 1863, 
Goodall exhibited in 1864, as his diploma 
work, ' The Nubian Slave,' Among paintings 
of hke theme which followed were : ' The Ris- 
ing of the Nile ' (1865), ' Hagar and Ishmael * 
(1866), *Rebekah at the WelP (1867), 
'Jochebed'- (1870), 'Head of the House 
at Prayer ' (1872), ' Subsiding of the Nile' 
(1873), 'Rachel and her Flock' (1875), 
'The Return from Mecca' (1881), 'The 
Flight into Egypt ' (1884), ' Gordon's Last 
Messenger ' (1885), and * By the Sea of 
Galilee ' (1888), now at the People's Palace, 
Mile End. In 1889 he painted EngUsh 




landscapes such as 'A Distant View of 
Harrow on the Hill' (1889) and * Beachy 
Head' (1896). Moanwhilo ho pursued his 
Eastern themes in ' Sheep-Shearing in Egypt ' 
(1892) and ' I^ban's Pasture' (1895). ♦ In 
1897 ' The Ploughman and the Shepherdess ' 
was acquired for the Tate Gallery by public 
subscription. Goodall from time to time 
in later life painted portraits. Among his 
Bitters were Sir Moses Montcfiore (1890), 
William Beatty- Kingston, his wife (1890), 
his daughter^ Rica (1894), and (Sir) Ander- 
son Critchett (1898). Goodall's portrait by 
himself was exliibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1881. 

In 1876 Goodall purchased the estate of 
Grims Dyke, Harrow, and on it his friend 
Norman Shaw built an imposing residence. 
But after some twelve years Goodall 
returned to London, and his Harrow house 
passed in 1890 to Sir William Schwenck 
Gilbert [q. v. Suppl. II]. At the end of 
his life he published a volume of gossiping 
• Reminiscences ' ( 1 902). He died on 29 July 
1904 at 62 Avenue Road, St. John's Wood, 
where he had resided since his removal 
from Harrow, and was buried in Highgate 

He married in 1872 Alice, daughter of 
John Tarry, a lawyer, and by her had a 
large family, including Frederick Trevelyan 
Goodall [q. v.] and Howard Goodall [q. v.], 
both artists, who predeceased him. 

Goodall fully satisfied the public taste, 
which liked a story told in paint clearly, 
correct in detail, and with a certain simple 
kind of sentiment. His painting throughout 
his career showed much teclmical abihty 
but very little inspiration. 

[Goodall's Reminiscences, 1902, with list of 
pictures and drawings ; Graves's Royal Acad. 
Exhibitors, 1905-6; The Times, 31 July 1904.] 


GOODMAN, Mrs. JULIA, whose 
maiden name was Salaman (1812-1906), 
portrait painter, bom in London on 9 Nov. 
1812, was eldest of the family of twelve 
sons and two daughters of Simeon Ken- 
sington Salaman by his wife AUce Cowen. 
Charles Kensington Salaman [q. v. Suppl. 
II] was her eldest brother After attending 
a private school in Islington, Julia developed 
a taste for art, receiving lessons from Robert 
Falkner, a pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds. At 
first she successfully copied old masters but 
soon devoted herself to portrait painting, 
and obtained many commissions. In 1838 
she exhibited for the first time at the Royal 
Academy, her last picture appearing there 
in 1901. Among her sitters were many 

persona prominent in 'society, incltidin|; the 

Earl of Westmorland, Sir John Erichsen, 
Sir Francis Goldsmid, Sir^G. A. Macfarren, 
Prof. David Marks [q. v.. Suppl. IIj, and 
Gilbert [Abbott k Beckett. Her portraits 
in oils or pastels' numbered more than a 
thousand. She died at Brighton on 30 Dec. 
1906, and was buried in the Golder's Green 
cemetery of the West London Synagogue 
of British Jews. 

In 1836 she married Louis Goodman, a 
City merchant, who died in 1870. Among 
her seven children were Edward John 
Goodman, at one time sub-editor of the 
* Daily Telegraph,' and Walter Goodman, 
a portrait painter, who painted a good 
portrait of his mother. 

[Jewish Chronicle, 4 Jan. 1907.] M. E. 

SKINNER (1821-1904), Scottish antiquary, 
bom at Keith, Banffshire, in 1821, claimed 
descent from the Gordons of Glenbucket, 
in Strathdon. Educated at Keith School 
and then at Madras College, St. Andrews, 
he gained, when fifteen years of age, the 
Grant bursary at St. Andrews University, 
and graduated there with distinction in 
1840, proceeding M.A- in 1842. Appointed 
organising master in the (episcopal) national 
schools at Edinburgh, he was ordained 
deacon in the Scottish Episcopal Church 
in 1843 and priest the next year. After 
a first curacy to the bishop of Moray 
(Dr. Low) at Pittenweem, Fifeshire, 
he removed in 1843 to Forres as 
curate to Alexander Ewing, afterwards 
bishop of Argyll and the Isles at 
Forres ( 1 843-4). His experiences at Pitten- 
weem are narrated in his ' Scotichronicon.' 
In 1844 he was translated to the charge of 
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Glasgow, 
the oldest post- Reformation church in 
Scotland, and there he remained till 1890, 
when he retired owing to advancing years. 
At Glasgow he devoted much energy to 
the development of episcopacy, and raised 
funds wherewith to remodel and endow 
his church. He was a pioneer in effecting 
the removal of ruinous tenements and 
slums in the neighbourhood, thus ini- 
tiating the movement which resulted in 
the Glasgow Improvement Act of 1866. 
His ' High Church ' tendencies sometimes 
led to friction in his ovm denomination ; 
but his earnest philantliropic work brought 
him general admiration. 

Gordon led at the same time a strenuous 
literary life, closely studying the history of 
the catholic and the episcopal churches in 
Scotland, and the antiquities of Glasgow. 




His chief publication was * The Ecclesias- 
tical Chronicle for Scotland ' (4 vols. Glas- 
gow, 1867), an elaborate and erudite work, 
which displayed much research ; the first 
two volumes, entitled * Scotichronicon,' 
contain a sketch of the pre- Reformation 
church, and an extended version of Keith's 

* Catalogue of Scottish Bishops ' ; the third 
and fourth volumes, entitled ' Monasticon,' 
give the history of the Scottish monasteries, 
and biographies of the Roman catholic 
bishops of the post-Reformation mission. 
Gordon also pubhshed (all at Glasgow) : 
1. ' Glasghu Facies ' (a history of Glasgow, 
written in a Hvely style), 1872. 2. ' The 
Book of the Chronicles of Keith, Grange, 
Ruthven, Caimey, and Botriphnie,' 1880. 

3. New edition of Lachlan Shaw's 'His- 
tory of the Province of Moray,' 1882. 

4. ' Zona, a Description of the Island,' 
1885. 5. * Vade Mecum to and through 
the Cathedral of St. Kentigem of Glasgow,' 
1894. Gordon also contributed an article 
on the ' Scottish Episcopal Church ' to 
the ' Cyclopaedia of Religious Denomina- 
tions ' (London, 1853), and wrote on 

* Meteorology ' to several encyclopaedias 
and journals. In 1857 he received the de- 
gree of D.D. from Hobart College, U.S.A. 
He was an enthusiastic Freemason, having 
been initiated as a student at St. Andrews 
in 1841, and he was the oldest member of 
the craft at his death. After resigning 
the charge of St. Andrew's Church in 1890 
he lived in retirement at Beith, Ayrshire, 
and died there on 23 Jan. 1904. He was 
interred with masonic honours in Beith 

[Glasgow Herald, 25 Jan. 1904; Scottish 
Guardian, 6 Feb. 1904; Clergy List, 1904; 
private information.] A. H. M. 

(1832-1908), general, bom on 12 Jan. 
1832 at Aberdeen, was twin son of 
Captain William Gordon (1788-1834), 2nd 
Queen's royal regiment. The father served 
through the Peninsular war, and married 
at Santarem in 1818 Marianna Carlotta Loi, 
daughter of Luiz Con9alves de Mello, a 
government oJBficial in the province of 
Estremadura. His twin brother is General 
Sir Thomas Edward Gordon, K.C.B. The 
twins were the youngest children in a 
family of four sons and a daughter. John 
was educated at Dalmeny and at the 
Scottish Naval and Military Academy, 
Edinburgh, and with his twin brother 
entered the army, joining the 29th foot 
on 21 Aug. 1849, and becoming lieutenant 
on 9 Jan. 1864. He served in the Indian 

Mutiny campaign of 1857-8 with the Jaun- 
pur field force, attached to 97th regiment. 
He was at the actions of Nasrutpur, Chanda 
(31 Oct.), Ameerpur, and Sultanpur, at the 
siege and capture of Lucknow, and storm- 
ing of the Kaiser Bagh. The medal with 
clasp was awarded him. From September 
1858 to April 1859 he acted as field-adjutant 
to Colonel (Sir) William Turner, com- 
manding the troops on the Grand Trunk 
Road, near Benares, and the field force 
during operations in Shahabad. He was 
engaged in the final attack on Jugdes- 
pur, and in the action of Nowadi, and 
the subsequent pursuit. Mentioned in 
despatches, he was promoted captain on 
2 Dec. 1859, and was made brevet-major 
on 30 Nov. 1860 {Land. Oaz. 22 Feb. 1859). 
Gordon performed regimental duty in India 
for the next eighteen years ; he was pro- 
moted major in 1860 and exchanged into 
the 46th regiment. Subsequently he was 
given the command of the 29th Punjab 
infantry, becoming lieut.-colonel on 21 Aug. 
1875, and brevet colonel on 23 Feb. 1877. 
He served with the Jowaki Af ridi expedition 
in 1877-8, and was thrice mentioned in 
despatches, receiving the medal and clasp. 
In the Afghan war of 1878-9 he played 
a prominent part, commanding the 29th 
Punjab infantry, which was attached to 
the Kurram Valley column. He led a 
reconnaissance in force at Habib Kila on 
28 Nov. 1878, and discovered that the 
Afghans, so far from abandoning their 
guns as had been reported, had taken 
up a strong position on the top of the 
pass. Gordon's report made Sir Frederick 
(afterwards Lord) Roberts abandon all idea 
of a frontal attack on the Peiwar Kotal 
(Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, 
1898, p. 354). Gordon's regiment formed 
the advance guard in the turning move- 
ment on the Spingawi Kotal on 2 Dec. 
During the night march some Pathans of 
the 29th Punjab infantry fired signal shots 
to warn the enemy of the British advance. 
The regiment was immediately displaced 
from its leading position. An inquiry 
instituted by Gordon resulted in the dis- 
covery of some of the culprits. Sub- 
sequently he was engaged in the Zaimukht 
expedition, including the assault of Zava, 
where he commanded the right column of 
General Tytler's force. For his services in 
the Afghan war he received the medal with 
clasp and was made C.B. in 1879. In ex- 
peditions to Karmana and against the 
Malikshahi Waziris in 1880 he was brigadier- 
general in command of the troops {Lond, 
Oaz. 4 Feb. and 7 Nov. 1879). He also 




served in the Mahsud Waziria expedition 
in 1881, when ho commanded the second 
cohnnn ; ho was mentioned in despatches 
and was tlianked by the government of 
India. From 1882 to 1887 he commanded a 
brigjulo of the Bengal army, and was made 
major-general on 20 Dec. 1886. In the Bur- 
mese expedition he commanded his brigade 
(1886-7), and he conducted the operations 
which succeeded in opening up the country 
between Manipur and Kendat. Once 
more he received the thanks of the 
government of India [Loml. Oaz. 2 Sept. 
1887). Returning to England, he was 
made assistant military secretary at head- 
quarters in 1890, and retained the office 
till 1896. He was promoted lieu t. -general 
in 1891 and general in 1894. On 1 Jan. 
1897 he was nominated member of the 
council of India, and held the post for 
ten years. He was advanced to K.C.B. in 
1898, and to G.C.B. in 1908, and became 
colonel of 29th Punjab infantry in 1904. 
He resided in his last years at 35 Onslow 
Square, London, S.W. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 2 Nov. 1908, and was buried in 
the Dean cemetery there. He married in 
1871 Ella {d. 1903), daughter of Edward 
Stratheam, Lord Gordon of Drumeam 
[q. v.], lord of appeal in ordinary, and had 
issue two surviving sons, both captains 
in the army. 

In 1904 Gordon published a history of 
the Sikhs, illustrated by himself. 

[The Times, 3 Nov. 1908 ; Lord Roberts, 
Forty-one Years in India, 30th edit. 1898 ; 
J. M. BuUock and C. O. Skelton, A Notable 
Military Family, The Gordons in Griamachary, 
1907; Dod's Knightage; Official and Hart's 
Army Lists ; Sir T. E. Gordon, A Varied Life : 
a record of military service in India, 1906, 
p. 236 acq. ; H. B. Hanna, Second Afghan 
War, 1910, iii. 118 ; W. H. Paget, Records of 
Expeditions against the North- West Frontier 
Tribes, 1884 ; private information from Sir 
T. E. Gordon.] H. M. V. 

HENRY, sixth Duke of Richmond and first 
Duke of Gordon (1818-1903), lord presi- 
dent of the council, bom on 27 Feb. 1818 
at Richmond house, Whitehall (replaced by 
Richmond terrace after 1819 ; Wheat ley 
and Cunningham's London, iii. 162), was 
the eldest son of Charles Gordon-Lennox, 
fifth duke of Richmond [q. v.]. Known 
until his succession to the dukedom as 
the Earl of March, he was educated 
at Westminster School and Christ Church, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1839. He 
entered as a cornet the royal regiment of 
horse guards, retiring aa captain in 1844, 

VOL. Lxviu. — SUP. n. 

but never saw active senrioe. March wa« 
an aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington 
(1842-52), as was his father before him, 
and to Lord Hill, the duke's succcfisor as 
commander-in-chief (1852-4). Meanwhile 
he was returned for West Sussex in the 
conservative interest at the general elec- 
tion of 1841, and held the seat until the 
death of his father on 21 Oct. 1860. 
He spoke with some frequency, and Ixicarao 
a recognised authority on agricultural 
questions. In March 1859 he was ap- 
pointed president of the poor law board 
in Lord Derby's second ministry, and was 
sworn of the privy council ; but his tenure 
of ojfice was brief, as the ministry fell in 
June. After the return of the conservatives 
to office in July 1866 Richmond was made 
knight of the garter on 15 Jan. 1867. He 
followed his leaders on parliamentary 
reform, and at the reconstruction of the 
government after the resignations of Lords 
Cranbome and Carnarvon and General 
Jonathan Peel [q. v.], he became president 
of the board of trade on 6 March 1867. In 
1869, when the liberals had returned to office, 
he was ' sorely against opposing the second 
reading (of the Insh church bill), but went 
with his party ' (Gathorne Hardy's First 
Earl of Cranbrook, i. 272). Next year he 
accepted the leadership of the conservative 
party in the House of Lords, which had 
been in abeyance since the retirement of 
Derby from public life in 1868 [see 
Stanley, Edward George Geoffrey 
Smith]. The relations between Richmond 
and Disraeli were at first not altogether 
cordial. In parliament, though he never 
attempted high oratory, Riclunond proved 
a vigorous upholder of conservative princi- 
ples. In 1872, while permitting the ballot 
bill to pass its second reading without a 
division, he carried an amendment making 
seeret voting optional by eighty-three votes 
to sixty-seven. On a suh^quent amend- 
ment he retorted on Granville with so 
much warmth that the clerk had to read the 
standing order against ' sharp and taxing 
speeches ' (Fitzalvurice's Oraninlley ii. 
108, 110; Hansard, ccxi., col. 1841). The 
commons having rejected his amendment, 
he pressed it to a division, and was defeated 
by 157 votes to 138. 

On the formation of Disraeli's government 
in February 1874, Richmond became lord 
president of the council, though he would 
have preferred the secretAryship for war. 
He accepted his disappointment ' like a 
true man, professing himself ready to act 
for the best of the party ' {Oathome- Hardy ^ 
i. 335). On 18 May he introduced in a 




conciliatory speech the Scotch church 
patronage bill, substituting appointment by 
election for lay patronage in the Church 
of Scotland, and the measure became law. 
He also carried the Endowed Schools Act 
amendment bill, which had been hotly 
debated in the commons. Richmond's 
agricultural holdings bill of the following 
session, introduced on 12 March 1875, estab- 
lished presumption in favour of the tenant 
with compensation for various classes of 
improvements ; it passed the lords without 
a division. During the debates he expressed 
himself strongly against any interference 
with liberty of contract between landlord 
and tenant {Hansard, ccxxii. col. 963). 
In 1876 he took charge of the elementary 
schools bill, a measm*e supplementary to 
the Act of 1870, and designed to enforce 
attendance ; but his burials bill of 1877 
was withdrawn after an amendment allow- 
ing nonconformist services in churchyards 
had been carried against him in the lords 
by 127 votes to 111. On 13 Jan. 1876 
Richmond had been created Duke of 
Gordon and Earl of Kinrara in the peerage 
of the United Kingdom ; the title of Duke 
of Gordon in the peerage of Scotland had 
expired in 1836 with his great-uncle, George, 
fifth Duke of Gordon [q. v.]. In August 
1876, on DisraeU's promotion to the peer- 
age, Richmond ceased to be leader in the 
lords. His efforts for the agricultural inter- 
est continued ; in 1878, on the outbreak 
of cattle disease, he carried the contagious 
diseases (animals) bill, which dealt strin- 
gently with infection in the homesteads 
and made slaughter of imported beasts com- 
pulsory, except when the privy council 
was satisfied that the laws of the exporting 
country afforded reasonable security against 
disease. The measure did not go as far 
as Richmond wished, but he administered 
it drastically, reorganising the veterinary 
department of the privy council, which was 
afterwards replaced by the board of agricul- 
ture. The farming industry being grievously 
depressed, a royal commission on agriculture 
was appointed (4 Aug. 1879), and Richmond 
accepted the chairmanship. Admirably 
suited for the position, he conducted a wide 
inquiry lasting until July 1882, when his 
colleagues presented him with a token of 
esteem in silver. A prehminary report, 
dated 14 July 1881, dealt with Irish 
land tenure and cautiously admitted defects 
in the Ulster custom and ' Griffith's 
valuation.' The final report, signed unani- 
mously, though with supplementary memo- 
randa expressing dissidence on various 
points, recommended reforms connected 

with local administration, tithe rent- 
charge, the law of distress, and compulsory 
compensation for unexhausted improve- 
ments [Preliminary Report, Pari. Papers, 
1881 [c. 2778], XV. 1 ; Final Report, Pari. 
Papers, 1882 [c. 3309], xiv. 1). Its chief 
outcomes were the Agricultural Holdings 
Act, passed by the hberal government in 
1883, and the creation of the board of 

After the death of Lord Beaconsfield 
(19 April 1881), Richmond in a speech of 
' excellent taste and judgment ' proposed 
SaUsbury for the leadership of the opposi- 
tion in the lords, though privately ' giying 
indications that he woidd fain have kept it ' 
{Gathorne- Hardy, ii. 163). The health of the 
duchess decided him not to advance his 
claims. He continued to take an active part 
in debate, while acting occasionally as a drag 
on the impetuosity of his new leader. He 
spoke incisively on the agricultural hold- 
ings bill of 1883, which went too far for his 
taste, and on the fall of Khartoum. Of his 
amendments, one making general the con- 
dition that in estimating compensation no 
account should be taken of the improved 
value which was due to the inherent 
qualities in the soil was accepted, after 
some demur, by the government. He 
dechned, however, to do anything which, 
by risking the success of the bUl, would be 
' repugnant to the feelings of the whole 
of the tenant farmers of the country ' 
[Hansard, cclxxxiii. col. 1828). During 
the crisis of 1884, produced by the refusal 
of the peers to pass a franchise bill unac- 
companied by a redistribution of seats, 
Richmond's influence was on the side of 
peace. Summoned by Queen Victoria, 
who held him in high regard, he visited 
Balmoral on 13 Sept., and though Gladstone 
characterised what passed in the direction 
of compromise as ' waste of breath,' the 
ensuing correspondence with Sir Henry Pon- 
sonby [q. v.] ' set up a salutary ferment ' 
(Morley's Gladstone, iii. 130, 131). The 
duke opened communications with Lord 
Granville, making clear that the opposition 
was acting in good faith [Gathorne- Hardy, 
ii. 203). Northcote declared that the duke's 
action led ' to Httle more than a confer- 
ence between the duke. Lord Salisbury, and 
Lord Cairns, and to a substantial agree- 
ment as to the course to be taken over the 
House of Lords ' (A. Lang's Stafford North- 
cote, First Earl of Iddesleigh, ii. 205) ; it is 
clear that his mediation was of value. 
Richmond's part was nearly played. In 
the short-lived conservative ministry of 
1885-6 he acted as secretary for Scotland, 




but when the second Salisbury government 
was formed in 1886 he 'went down to 
Scotland deliberately, and so put himself 
out of the way ' {Qatharne-Uardij, ii. 254). 
Gradually ceasing to take part in public 
life, he died at Gordon castle after a short 
illness on 27 Sept. 1903, and was buried in 
the family vault in Chichester Cathedral. 

Richmond, who was a conscientious and 
large-hearted man, by no means confined 
his pubUc duties to poHtics. He was 
chancellor of the University of Aberdeen in 
1861, receiving an hon. LL.D. in 1895 ; was 
appointed lord-lieutenant of the county of 
Banff in 1879, and ecclesiastical commis- 
sioner in 1885. In Sussex he succeeded hLs 
father as chairman of the county bench and 
was chairman of the West Sussex county 
council. He joined the Royal Agricultural 
Society in 1838, six months after its estab- 
lishment, was member of the council from 
1852 to 1857, and from 1866 to his death, 
was elected trustee in 1869, and was 
president both in 1868, when the show was 
held at Leicester, and in 1883, when it was 
held at York. At the general meeting of 
that year King Edward VII, then Prince 
of Wales, addressed him as * the farmers' 
friend,' a title acknowledged by the duke 
to be the proudest be could bear. In 
1894, when the show was held at Cam- 
bridge, he received the degree of hon. 
LL.D., having become hon. D.C.L. of 
Oxford in 1870. The duke was elected 
vice-president of the Smithfield Club in 
1860, and was president in 1866 and 1875. 
He inherited and improved the famous flock 
of Southdown sheep at Goodwood and the 
herd of shorthorns at Gordon castle. He 
was a generous landlord ; many of the 
crofters and small farmers on Speyside 
held on a merely nominal rent, and he 
built a concrete stone harbour for Port 
Gordon in 1878 at the cost of 15,000/. 

Richmond was elected member of the 
Jockey Club in 1839, but took no active 
part in racing. Though the importance of 
the Goodwood meeting declined, owing to 
the rise of richer organisations elsewhere, 
he maintained its hospitality. The Tsar 
Alexander II and the Tsarina were his 
guests in 1873 ; the Crown Prince and Prin- 
cess of Germany (afterwards the Emperor 
and Empress Frederick), King Edward VII, 
and Queen Alexandra visited him on 
many occasions. At his Scottish hunting 
seat, Glenfiddich Lodge, he shot grouse and 
stalked, and was a skilled sahnon-fisher 
in the Gordon castle waters {The Times, 
29 Sept. 1903, where a charge of undue 
exercise of proprietorial rights is refuted by 

Henry Ffennell). He revived the old hunt 

at Charlton, but eventually sold the hounds. 

The duke married on 28 Nov. 1843 Frances 
Harriett, daughter of Algernon Frederick 
Greville, Bath king-at-arms and private sec- 
retary to the Duke of Wellington ; she died 
on 8 March 1887. Of his four sons, the 
eldest, Charles Henry (6. 27 Dec. 1845), is 
the seventh and present duke. Of his two 
daughters, Caroline was his constant com- 
panion in later life ; Florence died in 1895. 

The duke's portrait, painted in 1886 by 
Sir George Reid, was presented to him by 
his Scotch tenantry, and is now at Gordon 
castle. Another portrait by Sir Francis 
Grant, P.R.A., presented by the Sussex 
tenantry, is at Goodwood. A cartoon 
portrait appeared in * Vanity Fair ' in 1870. 

[Article by Sir Ernest Clarke in Journal 
Royal Agricultural Soc., vol. Ixiv. 1903 ; The 
Times, 28 Sept. 1903 ; Paul, Modern England, 
1905, iii. and iv.] L. C. S. 

1901), surgeon -general, bom at Limerick 
in 1840, was eldest son of Wilham Ringrose 
Gore, M.D., by his wife, Mary Jeners WU- 
son. He was educated in London, Paris, 
and Dublin, taking honours in science and 
medicine at Queen's College, Cork, in 1858, 
graduating M.D. at the Queen's University, 
Ireland, and being admited L.R.C.S., Ire- 
land, in 1860. He joined the army medical 
staff in 1861, and was appointed assistant 
siu-geon to the 16th lancers. When the 
regimental service was reduced he volun- 
teered for service in West Africa, and took 
part in the bombardment and destruction 
of the Timni town of Massougha, on the 
Sierra Leone river, on 10 Dec. 1861, the 
attack on Madoukia on 27 Dec, and the 
storming and capture of the stockaded 
fetish town of Rohea on 28 Dec, He was 
mentioned in general orders for his services 
and for bravery in bringing in a wounded 
officer. In 1868 he was recommended for 
promotion on account of services rendered 
during an epidemic of yellow fever at Sierra 
Leone. He acted as sanitary officer to the 
quartermaster-general's staff during the 
Ashanti war in 1873, and was severely 
wounded in the action of 3 Nov. near 
Dunquah, and again at Quarman on 
17 Nov. After six vears' service at various 
base hospitals and as principal medical 
officer of the army of occupation in Egypt 
(1882) Gore was appointed principal 
' medical officer north-west district, Mhow 
division, central India, and afterwards lin 
a similar position to the forces in India, 
In this capacity he was responsible for the 
medical arrangements of the Chitral and 




North-West Frontier campaigns of 1896 
and 1897. He retired from the army in 
1898, was made C.B. in 1899, and was 
granted a distinguished service pension. 

He died at his residence, Dodington 
Lodge, Whitchurch, Shropshire, on 10 March 
1901. He married in 1866 Rebecca, 
daughter of John White, by whom he had 
two sons and two daughters. 

Gore was author of : 1. *A Medical 
History of our West African Campaigns,' 
1876. 2. * The Story of our Service under 
the Crown,' 1879. 

[Brit. Med. Journal, 1901, i. 679; in- 
fonnation from Dr. W. R. Gore, his son.] 

D'A. P. 

GORE, GEORGE (1826-1908), electro- 
chemist, bom at Blackfriars, Bristol, on 
22 Jan. 1826, was son of George Gore, a 
cooper in a small way of business in that 
city. He was educated at a small private 
school, from which he was removed at 
twelve to become an errand boy. At 
seventeen he was apprenticed to a cooper, 
following the trade for four years and 
supplementing his scanty education in his 
leisure horn's. In 1851 he migrated to Bir- 
mingham, which was thenceforth his home. 

He first found employment at Birming- 
ham as timekeeper at the Soho works, next 
as a practitioner in medical galvanism ; 
he subsequently became a chemist to a 
phosphorus factory, afterwards (1870-80) 
was lecturer in physics and chemistr}'- in 
King Edward's School, and finally, from 
1880 onwards, was head of the Institute 
of Scientific Research, Easy Row, Bir- 
mingham, which Gore conducted privately, 
and where he resided for the remainder of 
his life. 

Gore possessed an intuition for research, 
and passed triumphantly from one field 
of physical inquiry to another. Between 
1853 and 1865 he published in the ' Philoso- 
phical Magazine,' ' Pharmaceutical Journal,' 
* Journal of the Chemical Society,' and else- 
where thirty papers embodying researches 
in chemistry and electro-metallurgy. Three 
dealing with the properties of electro- 
deposited antimony were pubUshed in the 
' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society.' Other important researches re- 
lated to the properties of liquid carbonic 
acid and hydrofluoric acid. In 1865 he was 
elected F.R.S. (with the support, among 
others, of Faraday, Tyndall, and Joule) 
on the ground of being the discoverer of 
amorphous antimony and electrolytic 
sounds, and for researches in electro- 

Gore's discoveries in electro-metallurgy 
gave him a high reputation in Birmingham, 
where manufacturers eagerly availed them- 
selves of new methods which he suggested 
for improving the art of electroplating. He 
was author of three valuable technical 
treatises : ' The Art of Electro-metallurgy ' 
(1877; 5th edit. 1891); 'The Art of 
Scientific Discovery ' (1878) ; ' The Electro- 
lytic Separation and Refining of Metals' 
(1890). To wider fields of speculation 
Gore contributed ' The Scientific Basis of 
National Progress ' (1882) and ' The Scien- 
tific Basis of Morality' (1899), where he 
gave expression to strong materiaUstic 
views. The University of Edinburgh made 
him hon. LL.D. in 1877, and in 1891 he was 
allotted a civil list pension of 150Z. Of 
frugal habits, apparently denoting restricted 
means, he secretly amassed a moderate 
competence. He died at Birmingham 
on 20 Dec. 1908, and was buried there at 
Warstone Lane cemetery. He married in 
1849 Hannah, daughter of Thomas Owen, 
baptist minister, and had issue one son and 
one daughter. His wife predeceased him 
in 1907. By his will he directed that his 
residuary estate (about 5000Z.) should be 
divided equally between the Royal Society 
of London and the Royal Institution of 
Great Britain, to be apphed in * assisting 
original scientific discovery.' In view of 
the public disposal of his property, his 
daughter, Mrs. Alice Augusta Gore Fysh, 
was granted in 1911 a civil list pension of 

[Roy. Soc. Proc. vol. Ixxxiv. A. ; Roy* 
Soc. Catal. Sci. Papers ; I^Nature, vol. Ixxix. ; 
The Times, 24 Dec. 1908 (will) ; Birmingham 
Daily Post, 24 Dec. 1908 ; Men of the Time, 
1899 ; private information. For list of Gore's 
electrical researches, see Electrician's Direc- 
tory, 1892.] 

GORE, JOHN ELLARD (1845-1910), 
astronomical writer, bom at Athlone in 
Ireland on 1 June 1845, was son of John 
Ribton Gore, archdeacon of Achonry. 
After being educated privately he entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he obtained 
his engineering diploma with high distinc- 
tion in 1865. Three years later, passing 
second in the open competition, he joined 
the Indian government works department 
and worked as assistant engineer on the 
construction of the Sirhind canal in the 
Punjab. There he began his observation 
of the stars, which had for first result the 
publication in 1877 of a small book entitled 
'Southem Objects for Small Telescopes.' 
Gore retired from the Indian service in 




1879 with a pension. Thenceforth ho lived 
first at Balli.sodare, co. Sligo, witli liis fatlior 
until (ho latter'a death, and afterwards in 
Dublin. He devotcxl himself to observations 
of the stars, principally with a binocular, 
for he never had a large telesc()j)e, and 
to writing on astronomy. Variable stars 
were cliictly the subject of his observations. 
In 1884 he presented to the Royal Irish 
Academy a ' Catalogue of Known Variable 
Stars ' (enlarged and revised edit. 1888). A 
similar compilation by him, giving a list of 
the then computed orbits of binary stars, 
waspublislicd by the Irish Academy in 1890. 
At the same time Gore wrote much on 
astronomy for general reading. In some 
of liis popular books he discussed with 
much judgment the theories of structure 
of the universe. 'Planetary and Stellar 
Studies' appeared in 1888; 'The Scenery 
of the Heavens' in 1890 {2nd edit. 1893); 
'Astronomical Lessons' in 1890; 'Star 
Groups ' in 1891 ; ' An Astronomical 
Glossary' in 1893 ; 'The Visible Universe ' 
in 1893; 'The Worlds of Space ' in 1894 ; 
and ' The Stellar Heavens ' in 1903. In 
Studies in Astronomy' (1904) and in 
'Astronomical Essays' (1907) he collected 
articles and essays that had appeared in 
magazines. His latest work, ' Astronomical 
Facts and Fallacies,' came out in 1909. 
Gore published many papers in the monthly 
notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society on 8 March 1878, was 
a member of council of the Royal DubUn 
Society, and a member of the Royal Irish 
Academy. He was at one time a leading 
member of the Liverpool Astronomical 
Society, and was chosen a vice-president 
of the British Astronomical Association on 
its foundation, and director of the variable 
star section. He died unmarried in Dubhn 
from the effects of a street accident on 
18 July 1910. 

[Who's Who, 1910 ; Monthly Notices, Roy. 
Astr. Soc, Feb. 1911.] H. P. H. 

GORST, Sir [JOHN] ELDON (1861- 
1911), consul-general in Egypt, bom at 
Auckland, New Zealand, on 25 June 1861, 
was eldest son of the Right Hon. Sir John 
Eldon Gorst, who had gone out to New 
Zealand in 1860, by his wife Mary Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Rev. Lorenzo Moore of 
Christchurch. For a time he assumed the 
additional christian name of Lowndes to 
distinguish him from his father. Educated 
at Eton, he went to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1880, graduating B.A. in 1883 as 
21st wrangler, and proceecUng M.A. in 1903. 

He was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple in 1885, and in the same year was 
appointed, after a competitive examina- 
tion, an attach^ in the diplomatic service. 
In September 1886 he was sent as an attach^ 
to the British agency at Cairo, and thus 
began his connection with Egypt. In 
May 1887 he was granted an allowance for 
knowledge of Arabic, and in October was 
promoted to be a third secretary in the 
diplomatic service; on 1 April 1892 he 
became a second secretary, and in May 
1901 a secretary of legation. Meanwhile 
he had taken service under the Egyptian 
government, and had in November 1890 
been appointed controller of direct revenues, 
serving in that capacity under Alfred (after- 
wards Viscount) Milner. In 1892 he suc- 
ceeded Milner as under-secretary of state 
for finance, and in 1894 he was' appointed 
to a newly created post, that of adviser 
to the ministry of the interior. This ap- 
pointment was created with the object of 
decentralising the pohce, and combining 
an increase in the number of Egyptian 
as compared with European officers with 
efficient European control at headquarters, 
viz. at the ministry of the interior (Cromer, 
Modem Egypt, 1908, ii. 488). The selection 
of Gorst for the new appointment was 
evidence of the confidence which was felt 
in his abiUty and his tact, and was justified 
by the results (cf. Colvin, The Making of 
Modem Egypt, 1906, p. 339). In 1898 he 
succeeded Sir Elwin Palmer [q. v. Suppl. II] 
as financial adviser. The holder of the 
office is in effect ' the most important 
British official in Egypt ' (Cromer, Modem 
Egypt, ii. 286 ; Milner, Englajul in 
Egypt, 3rd edit., 1893, p. 105), and Gorst, 
who was made C.B. in 1900 and K.C.B. 
in 1902, fiUed it untU 1904 with uniform 
success. After assisting at Paris in the 
negotiation of the Anglo-French agreement 
which settled outstanding questions with 
regard to Egypt, Gorst was transferred in 
May 1904 to the foreign office in London 
as an assistant imder-secretary of state. 
Three years later, in 1907, he succeeded 
Lord Cromer as agent and consul- 
general in Egypt, ranking as minister 
plenipotentiary in the diplomatic service. 
He arrived at Cairo in April 1907, and Lord 
Cromer left on 4 May. In the House of 
Commons, on 11 April 1907, the foreign 
secretary, Sir Edward Grey, stated that 
the appointment had been made after 
consultation with Lord Cromer, who 
had full confidence in Gorst's abiUty to 
continue his work. Gorst was, in Lord 
Cromer's opinion, ' endowed with a singular 




degree of tact and intelligence' {Modern 
Egypt, ii. 292). He had proved himself a 
broad-minded administrator, hard-working, 
with great aptitude for finance and a good 
knowledge of the Arabic language. Gorst 
himseK defined the aim of British poHcy 
in Egjrpt as ' not merely to give Egypt the 
blessings of good administration, but to 
train the Egyptians to take a gradually 
increasing share in their own government ' 
{Reports an Egypt and the Sudan in 1910, 
Cd. 5633, May 1911, p. 1). The necessary 
quaUfications were knowledge of the verna- 
cular, sympathy with the feelings, the way, 
and the thought of the people, and even 
with their prejudices, and tact, power of 
effacement, and unlimited patience {Reports 
for 1909, Cd. 5121, April 1910, p. 50). 

Gorst entered on his difficult duties at 
a very difficult time. The year 1907 was 
marked by financial depression due to 
overtrading and excessive credit, and by one 
of the worst Nile floods on record. Next 
year, 1908, he reported progress in satisfying 
the reasonable aspirations of the Egyptian 
people, but noted that Egyptian feehng 
had been affected by the unrest in other 
Mohammedan countries. The virulence 
of the extreme nationahst party made it 
necessary in 1909 to revive the press law 
and to pass a special ' Loi soumettant 
certains individus a la surveillance de la 
Pohce ' ; in February 1910 the Egyptian 
prime minister, Boutros Pasha, was mur- 
dered. In his report for 1910, the last 
which he wrote, Gorst recorded the compara- 
tive failure of representative institutions 
in Egypt in the form of the legislative 
council and general assembly, and he 
emphasised the necessity of caution in 
countenancing principles of self-govern- 

Like Lord Durham in his celebrated 
report on Canada; like Lord Dufferin in 
his report on Eg3rpt ; and like his own 
immediate predecessor. Lord Cromer, Gorst 
insisted on the wisdom of promoting 
municipal and local self-government, and 
one of the chief measures passed during 
his tenure of office was a law for enlarging 
the powers of the provincial councils, which 
came into force on 1 Jan. 1910. His 
administrative pohcy was subjected to 
criticism by pohticians of both the advanced 
and the reactionary schools, but he 
was uniformly supported by the British 
government. He died prematurely, after 
a painful illness, on 12 July 1911, at his 
father's house. The Manor House, Castle 
Combe, Wiltshire, and was buried in the 
family vault at Castle Combe. He was 

succeeded as consul-general in Egypt by 
Lord Kitchener. 

Gorst was made a G.C.M.G. in 1911 on the 
coronation of King George V, and held the 
first class of the Medjidie (1897) and the 
first class (grand cordon) of the order of 
Osmanie (1903). He was a keen sports- 
man. He married on 25 June 1903 Evelyn, 
daughter of Charles Rudd, of Ardnamurchan, 
Argyllshire, and had one daughter. 

[The Times, 13 July 1911 ; Foreign Office 
List ; Who's Who ; Blue Books ; MUner, 
England in Egypt, 3rd edit., 1893; Sir 
Auckland Colvin, The Making of Modem 
Egypt, 1906 ; Cromer, Modem Egypt, 1908.] 

C. P. L. 

Viscount Goschen (1831-1907), statesman, 
bom on 10 Aug. 1831 at his father's house in 
the parish of Stoke Newington, was eldest 
son and second child in the family of two 
sons and five daughters of William Henry 
Goschen, a leading merchant of the City of 
London, by his wife Henrietta, daughter of 
William Alexander Ohmann. His youngest 
brother, Sir William Edward Goschen, be- 
came British ambassador at Berlin in 1908. 
The father was son of Georg Joatchim Goschen, 
an eminent pubHsher and man of letters 
at Leipzig, the intimate friend of Schiller, 
Goethe, Wieland and other ' heroes of the 
golden age of German literature ' (see Lord 
Goschen, Life and Times of Georg Joachim 
Goschen, 1903). In 1814 young William 
Henry Goschen came to London, where, with 
his friend Henry Friihling from Bremen, 
he founded the financial firm of Friihling 
& Goschen. A man of strong character, 
great industry, and deep religious con- 
victions, he found time throughout an 
exceedingly busy life to indulge his love of 
literature and his taste for music. 

From nine to eleven (1840-2) Goschen 
attended daily the * Proprietary School ' 
at Blackheath. Thence his father sent him 
for three years to Dr. Bernhard's school at 
Saxe Meiningen. During this period he 
only once visited England, usually spending 
his holidays with his German relations. 
His father, who intended his son for a 
business career, now thought he perceived 
in him qualities which would ensure success 
in public life in England. For this end it 
was desirable that young George should 
mix more than he had yet done with Eng- 
lish boys ; and it was with the view of 
making an Englishman of him that he 
was sent in August 1845 to Rugby entering 
the house ofBonamy Price [q. v.], afterwards 
professor of poHtical economy at Oxford. 
After his first year, Goschen grew to like 




his surroundings and to be popular with 
his schoolfellows. Ho rose to be head of 
the school, and in that capacity ho made 
Ills first reported speech, on the occasion 
of the resignation of the headmaster, A. C. 
Tait (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury). 
Amongst the boys he had been already 
recognised as the best debater in the school, 
especially in reply. Though liis rise in the 
school had been rapid, it was not till 
June 1848 that he achieved positive dis- 
tinction by winning the prize for the 
p]nglish essay ; and shortly afterwards the 
English prize poem for the year. In 1849 
he won the Queen's medal for the English 
historical essay ; and in 1850, the prize 
for the Latin essay, ' Marcus Tullius 
Cicero.' In the autumn of 1850, after a 
couple of months of travel on the continent, 
Goschen entered Oxford as a commoner of 
Oriel. He failed to win scholarships at 
University and Trinity, but in 1852 his 
college awarded him an exhibition. 
Though in the technical Oxford sense his 
' scholarship ' was not considered pre- 
eminent, he obtained a double first in 
classical honours, with the general reputa- 
tion in 1 853 of having been ' the best 
first in.' At the Union he won great fame 
by his speeches on political and literary 
subjects ; and in his last year was president 
of that society. In the previous year he 
had founded the ' Essay Club,' of which 
the original members were Arthur Butler, 
first headmaster of Haileybury, Charles 
Stuart Parker of University, H. N. Oxenham, 
the Hon. George Brodrick, W. H. Fremantle 
of Balliol, and Charles Henry Pearson 
(cf. Memorials of Charles Henry Pearson, 
1900). Having graduated B.A. in 1853, 
Goschen entered actively into the business 
of his father's firm, by whom in October 
1854 he was sent to superintend affairs in 
New Granada, now part of the United 
States of Colombia. After two years in 
South America he returned home, and on 
22 Sept. 1857 married Lucy, daughter 
of John Dalley, a marriage which greatly 
conduced to the happiness of his future 
life. He now energetically devoted him- 
self to business in London, rapidly making 
a reputation with commercial men, amongst 
whom he was known as the 'Fortunate 
Youth.' Wlien only twenty-seven he was 
made a director of the Bank of England. 
In 1861 he acliieved wider fame by publish- 
ing his ' Theory of the Foreign Exchanges ' 
(5th edit. 1864), a treatise which won the 
attention of financial authorities and business 
men all over the world, and which has been 
translated into the principal languages of 

Europe. In 1863» a yaoanoy having 

occurred in the representation of the City 
of London, Goschen was returned unopposed 
a» a supporter of Lorrl Palmerston's govern- 
ment. His views were those of a strong 
liberal, as liberalism was understood in 
those days ; and he pledged liimself to the 
ballot, abolition of church rates, and the 
removal of religioas disabilities. On the 
latter subject, the abolition of tests in 
the universities, he took a leading position 
in the House of Commons, fiercely contend- 
ing with Lord Robert Cecil (afterwards Lord 
Salisbury) [q. v. Suppl. 11], who struggled 
hard to maintain the old close connection 
between the universities and the Church of 
England. At the opem'ng of the session of 
1864 Goschen achieved a marked success in 
seconding the address to the speech from 
the throne. But the pains which he took 
to distinguish his position in the liberal 
party, especially as regards foreign poUoy, 
from that taken up by Richard Cobden and 
John Bright, called forth, not imnatiurally, 
vigorous remonstrance from the former (Li/e, 
i . 7 1 ). Before parliament was dissolved (July 
1865), Goschen' s knowledge of commercial 
matters, his brilHant speech on the address, 
and his abihty in fighting the battle against 
tests, had given him a good standing in 
the House of Commons ; and when the new 
parhament met. Lord Russell, who had 
succeeded Lord Palmerston as prime 
minister, invited him to join his ministry 
as vice-president of the board of trade 
(November 1865) ; and two months later 
to enter his cabinet as chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster (January 1866). On 
the same day Lord Hartington (afterwards 
Duke of Devonshire) [q. v. Suppl. II], with 
whom in after years Goschen was to be closely 
associated, entered the cabinet for the first 

Goschen now retired finally from busi- 
ness and from the firm of Friihling & 
Goschen, and henceforward devoted him- 
self wholly to a political career. In the 
short-lived ministry of Lord Russell, and 
on the front bench of opposition during 
the Derby- Disraeli government wliich suc- 
ceeded it, Goschen took an active part with 
Gladstone and other leading liberals in 
the reform struggles of the day. At 
the dissolution of 1868, standing as a 
strenuous advocate of Irish disestablish- 
ment, he was returned again for the City, 
this time at the head of the poll ; and on 
Gladstone's forming his first adminis- 
tration, Goschen entered his cabinet as 
president of the poor law board. There he 
showed great zeal as a reformer of local 




government (see his remarkable Report of 
the Select Committee of 1870), and in sub- 
stituting methodical administration for the 
chaotic system, or want of system, which 
had grown up. On the health of H. C. E. 
Childers breaking down, Goschen was 
appointed in March 1871 to succeed him as 
first lord of the admiralty, a department 
which at that time was subjected to much 
public censure. Here his administration 
proved eirtraordinarily successful in restor- 
ing the general confidence and in winning 
the enthusiastic admiration of the naval 
service. In 1874 the unwillingness of 
Goschen and Cardwell to reduce the 
estimates for 1874^5 below what they 
considered the needs of the country re- 
quired was an important element in 
determining Gladstone's sudden dissolu- 
tion (January 1874). Tliis resulted in 
the advent to power for six years of 
Disraeli, and accordingly Goschen, who 
was again re-elected for the City, found 
himself for the first time in the House of 
Commons one of a minority, which on 
Gladstone's withdrawal was led by Lord 
Hartington. Until 1880 the interest of 
the public and parliament was mainly 
occupied with foreign affairs, and Goschen 
as a leading member of the liberal 
party was in continual consultation with 
Lord Hartington and Lord Granville on 
the serious condition of things in eastern 
Europe. His great position as a financier 
and a man of business, and his more than 
ordinary acquaintance with foreign politics, 
had led to his being chosen by the council 
of foreign bondholders, with the approval 
of the foreign office, and at the invitation 
of the viceroy of Egypt to proceed to that 
country, which was in a state bordering 
on bankruptcy, to investigate and report 
upon the financial position. With M. 
Joubert, representing the French bond- 
holders, Goschen proceeded to Cairo, their 
joint efforts resulting in the promulgation 
of the Khedivial decree of 16 Nov. 1876, 
the Goschen decree, as it came to be called 
(Cromer, Modem Egypt, i. 13-15). 

When Goschen returned to England, 
Gladstone's anti-Turkish agitation was at 
its height. In 1877, when Lord Hartington 
accepted on behalf of the liberal party the 
policy pressed upon parUament by Sir George 
Trevelyan, of equalising the county and 
borough franchise, Goschen's strong sense 
of duty compelled him to protest against 
what he believed must lead to the complete 
monopolising of political power by a 
single class of the community. This 
difference with his political friends as to a 

main ' plank ' of the party ' platform ' 
proved to be a turning-point in his career. 
At the general election in April 1880 
Goschen, who had retired from the repre- 
sentation of the City of London, was 
returned for Ripon. The electorate repu- 
diated Lord Beaconsfield, and Gladstone 
at the head of a large majority again be- 
came prime minister. Goschen felt it 
incumbent upon him to hold aloof from 
the new administration. Gladstone offered 
him the vice-royalty of India, which he 
declined. He consented, however, to go 
in May 1880 on a special and temporary 
mission to Constantinople as ambassador 
to the Sultan, without emolument ; retain- 
ing, with the approval of his constituents, 
his seat in the House of Commons. The 
object of the British government was to 
compel the Turks, by means of the concert 
of Europe, to carry out the stipulations 
of the treaty of Berlin as regards Greece, 
Montenegro and Armenia, and to get 
established a strong defensive frontier 
between Turkey and Greece. Goschen has 
recounted at length the difficulties he 
encountered, and has described his inter- 
views with Prince Bismarck at Berlin, and 
the negotiations at Constantinople with 
the representatives of the great powers 
{Life of Lord Goschen, vol. i. chap. vii.). 
His mission lasted for a year, and in June 

1881 he was again back in London, receiv- 
ing the congratulations of Gladstone and 
GranviUe upon the successful accomplish- 
ment of a most difficult task. 

In the political situation at home he found 
much that he disliked. The fight over the 
Irish land bill was virtually at an end. A 
fierce struggle was raging between the 
government and the followers of Parnell, 
and Goschen felt it right at such a time to 
do what he could to strengthen the executive 
against the forces of disorder. In June 

1882 he declined Gladstone's invitation 
to join his cabinet as secretary of state 
for war. In November 1883 Gladstone 
pressed him strongly to accept the speaker- 
ship of the House of Commons, which he 
also declined, partly because he felt th^ 
his short sight would prove a disqualifica- 
tion for the successful performance of the 
duties of the chair. In truth Goschen was 
becoming more and more dissatisfied with 
the position of the liberal party, in which 
he feared the rapid growth of the influence 
of the advanced section led by ]kr. 
Chamberlain and Sir Charles Dilke. He 
set himself to strengthen Gladstone 
against radical influences, and to secure 
for the present and future that due weight 




within the party should bo given to 
moderate liberalism. But though dis- 
approving much in Gladstone's conduct 
of affairs — foreign policy, Ireland, Egypt, 
South Africa — ho was by no means dis- 
posed to place unlimited confidence in the 
conservative leader, Lord Salisbury. The 
ambition and influence of Lord Randolph 
Churchill in Goschcn's eyes still further 
weakened the claims of party conservatism 
to the public confidence. He had, moreover, 
been disappointed that his outi stand 
against a democratic franchise had found 
no conservative support. In January 
1885 Goschen withdrew from the Reform 
and Devonshire Clubs ; and his speeches 
to great meetings in the country gave 
further evidence of the independent stand- 
point he had now assumed. By moderate 
men of all parties those speeches were 
welcomed and admired. 

The last session of the parliament elected 
in 1880 was momentous. In February 1885 
came the news of the fall of Khartoum. A 
motion of censure on the Gladstone govern- 
ment was defeated only by fourteen votes, 
and Goschen voted in the minority. In 
June a combination between conservatives 
and Pamellites defeated the government 
on a clause of the budget. Goschen voted 
with the goverimient. Lord SaUsbury at 
once became prime minister, and Lord 
Randolph Churchill leader of the House of 

The city of Ripon, which Goschen repre- 
sented, was to lose its separate representa- 
tion under the Reform Act of 1885, and an 
influential committee in Edinburgh invited 
Goschen to become a candidate for one of 
the divisions of that city at the coming 
general election. During the following 
autimm Goschen's speeches in Scotland and 
elsewhere made a great impression on the 
public {Goschen's Political Speeches, Edin- 
burgh, 1886). Their high tone, their clear 
reasoning, the independent and disinterested 
character of the speaker, and the absence 
of claptrap or appeal to unworthy motives, 
were a refreshing contrast to much of the 
platform oratory of the day. At the 
same time the late ministers were freely 
disclosing their individual views to 
the public. Mr. Chamberlain was the 
spokesman of extreme radicalism, and 
found in Goschen his chief antagonist. 
Lord Hartington, whose allegiance to the 
liberal party had never wavered, spoke 
out as essentially a leader of moderate 
liberals, whilst Gladstone by studied 
indefiniteness endeavoured to keep all 
sections of liberals united under his 

'umbrella.' Pamell throw the whole 
voting power of Irish nationalistfl on to 
the side of the conservatives. And though 
little was said about it at the general 
election, Goschen clearly saw that 
Pamell's policy of homo rule, and Glad- 
stone's line with reference to it, were the 
questions of the future. In vain he mught 
(July 1885) from Gladstone some explana- 
tion of his views {Ldfe of Lord Ooachen, 
vol. i. chap. ix.). 

In November 1885 Goschen, supported 
by moderate liberals and conservatives, 
won an easy triumph in East Edinburgh 
over an advanced radical candidate. 
The effect, however, of the general election 
as a whole was to make it impossible for 
either of the great parties to hold power 
without the assistance of the Irish 
nationahsts. Hence a remarkable develop- 
ment of the party position occurred. The 
majority of the liberal party coalesced 
with Pamell and his followers ; and Glad- 
stone was placed in power to carry out 
the policy of home rule. Goschen threw 
himself into the struggle for the union with 
conspicuous abihty and zeal. With Lord 
Hartington he formed and inspired the 
liberal unionist party, and brought about 
that alliance with Lord Salisbury which 
was essential if the union was to be saved. 
At the great meeting at the Opera House 
on 14 April 1886, the first outward sign of 
this new alliance, Groschen's speech was the 
one that most deeply stirred the enthusiasm 
of his audience. In the House of Commons 
and all over the country he did battle for 
his cause with a fiery impetuosity which 
hitherto had hardly been recognised as 
part of his character. His hope that Lord 
Hartington should be the centre and 
leader of a strong body of moderate opinion 
was now reaUsed. But the division in the 
liberal party was not so much between 
those who were known as whigs and radicals, 
as between unionists and home rulers ; 
and thus many of the strongest radicals, 
such as Mr. Chamberlain and John Bright, 
were amongst Lord Hartington's most 
vigorous supporters. The union triumphed 
in the House of Commons, where Gladstone's 
home rule bill was defeated on 7 June 1886, 
and when the unionists secured a majority 
at the general election in July, Lord 
Salisbury formed a conservative adminis- 
tration. In East Edinburgh, however, 
Goschen was defeated by the home rule 
candidate. Dr. Wallace; but he did not 
relax his efforts outside the House of 
Commons in the unionist cause. On Lord 
Randolph Churchill's sudden resignation 




(20 Dec. 1886) of the chancellorship of the 
exchequer in Lord Salisbury's government, 
and the lead of the House of Commons, 
Goschen, with the approval of Lord Hart- 
ington, accepted the offer made to him 
by Lord SaUsbury to enter his cabinet as 
Lord Randolph's successor, W. H. Smith 
[q. v.] at the same time undertaking to 
lead the House of Commons. 

Goschen's accession to the ministry at this 
crisis was of the greatest importance in keep- 
ing the unionist government on its feet. He 
met, nevertheless, one more personal reverse, 
in his failure to win back from the liberal 
home rulers the Exchange division of Liver- 
pool (26 Jan. 1887). A fortnight later he 
was elected by a majority of 4000 for St. 
George's, Hanover Square, a seat which he 
retained till he went to the House of Lords. 
Henceforward, as a member of the Salisbury 
government, sharing the responsibility 
of his colleagues, Goschen necessarily 
played a less individual part than hereto- 
fore in the pubhc eye, though he took a 
prominent share in the fierce conflicts 
inside and outside parliament against the 
powerful home rule alliance between 
liberals and Irish nationalists. For six 
years in succession he brought forward 
the budget, meeting with much skill the 
steadily growing expenditure of the 
country, whilst boasting with truth that 
at the same time he was gradually reducing 
its debt. His most memorable achieve- 
ment whilst chancellor of the exchequer 
was his successful conversion of the national 
debt in March 1888 from a 3 per cent, 
to a 2|, and ultimately a 2^ per cent, stock. 
The great courage and ability required to 
carry through this operation received the 
recognition of political opponents, including 
Gladstone, not less than of his own friends. 
During the 'Baring crisis' in November 
1890 his courage and firmness as finance 
minister were again demonstrated. The 
situation was saved ; whilst he absolutely 
refused to yield to pressure to employ 
the funds or credit of the state to buttress 
up the solvency of a private institution 
(L^7e, vol. ii. chap, vii., and note in 
Appendix IIL by Lord Welby). In 
the same year a good deal of unpopu- 
larity fell to Goschen's share, resulting from 
the * licensing clauses ' (ultimately aban- 
doned) which it was proposed to intro- 
duce into the local taxation bill, for pro- 
viding out of taxes on beer and spirits a 
compensation fund to facilitate the reduc- 
tion in the number of public-houses. 

At the end of 1891 Mr. Arthur Balfour 
succeeded to the leadership of the House 

of Commons {Life, ii. 186 seq.) ; but the 
days of the unionist ministry were 
already numbered, and the general election 
of the following June placed Gladstone 
once more in power. Over the home 
rule bill of 1893 the old controversy of 
1886 was revived in all its bitterness, and 
Goschen was again in the front rank of 
the combatants. ;In opposition, he formally 
joined the conservative party, became a 
member of the Carlton Club, and repeated 
with undiminished power the efforts he had 
made nine years before to sustain the cause 
of the union. This time, however, Glad- 
stone's policy was accepted by the House 
of Commons ; but only to be rejected by 
the House of Lords, who were supported 
by the country at the general election of 

Lord Salisbury's new administration 
was joined by Lord Hartington, Mr. 
Chamberlain, and other liberal unionists, 
whilst Goschen to his great satisfaction 
went to the admiralty (June 1895), 
where twenty years before he had won 
well-earned fame. His last period at the 
admiralty, which lasted till the autumn of 
1900, was eventful ; for though the country 
remained at peace with the great powers 
of the world, our foreign relations at times 
became severely strained. Difficulties con- 
nected with Venezuela, Crete, Nigeria, Port 
Arthur, Fashoda, and German sympathy 
with President Kriiger, brought the possi- 
bility of rupture before the eyes of all men. 
Goschen felt that a very powerful British 
navy was the best security for the peace of 
the world, as well as for our own protec- 
tion, and the vast increases of our naval 
establishments and the consequent growth 
of naval estimates were generally approved. 
The strain of these five years told upon his 
strength. The death of Mrs. Goschen in the 
spring of 1898 had been a heavy trial ; and the 
weight of advancing years determined him 
to retire from office before the approaching 
general election. Accordingly on 12 Oct. 
1900, to the regret of the public and the 
naval service, he resigned, and in December 
was raised to the House of Lords as Viscount 
Goschen of Hawkhurst, Kent. 

The remainder of his life Lord Goschen 
hoped to spend mainly at Seacox Heath, his 
home in Kent, with more leisure than he 
had found in the past for seeing his family 
and friends, for indulging his strong taste 
for reading, and for attending to the 
interests of his estate. In 1903 he pub- 
lished the life and times of his grand- 
father, f on which he had long been 
engaged; and in 1905 a volume of ' Essays 




and Addresses on Economic Questions.* 

Tills last consisted of contributions to the 
* Edinburgh Review ' and of addresses read 
to various bodies and institutions at 
dilTerent times, and of valuable comments 
by the author on the further light that the 
lapse of years had thrown upon the subjects 
treated. On the death of Lord Salisbury, 
Goschcn was chosen chancellor of Oxford 
University (31 Oct. 1903), and devoted him- 
self with energy to the interests of the uni- 
versity. He had been made hon. D.C.L. of 
Oxford in 1881, and hon. LL.D. of Aberdeen 
and Cambridge in 1888, and of Edinburgh 
in 1890. 

Goschen's political life was by no means 
over. When in 1903 Mr. Chamberlain's fiscal 
policy was announced, causing rupture in the 
ministry and the unionist party, Goschen 
again came to the front as one of the foremost 
champions of free trade. He had, as he said, 
worked out these financial and commercial 
problems for himself ; and accordingly he 
joined the Duke of Devonshire and other free- 
trade unionists in a vigorous effort to defeat 
a policy certain, in his opinion, to bring 
disaster on the nation. In the House of 
Lords and in the country, till the general 
election of January 1906 had made free 
trade safe, he threw himself into the con- 
flict with much of his old energy and fire ; 
and in the new parliament he once more 
solemnly warned conservative statesmen 
against the danger of identifying their 
party with the fiscal policy of Mr. Chamber- 
lain. During the remainder of the session, 
he took part occasionally in the proceedings 
of the House of Lords, showing none of the 
infirmities of age excepting that his eye- 
sight, never go^, had deteriorated. On 
7 Feb. 1907 he died suddenly in his home 
at Seacox, and was buried at Flimwell. 
Goschen left two sons and four daughters. 
His elder son, George Joachim, succeeded 
to the viscountcy. 

Goschen showed throughout the whole 
of his career a remarkable consistency 
of character as a statesman, notwith- 
standing the fact that part of his official 
life was passed under Gladstone's, part 
under Lord Salisbury's leadership. Always 
moderate in his opinions, which were 
the outcome of honest and deep in- 
vestigation, he disliked the exaggerations 
of party protagonists, and was as vehement 
in support of moderation as were the 
extremists on either side in fighting for 
victory. At the head of great departments, 
his industry, his grasp of principles, his 
mastery of details, and his determination 
to secure efficiency were conspicuous. 

But in the premure of adminiistrative work 
he remcmlx;red that his responsibilities as 
cabinet minister were not limited to bis own 
department, and in all matters of geoenl 
policy, especially as regards foreign i^ain, 
of which he haa exceptional knowledge, his 
counsels carried great weight. His courage 
and independence won him in a high 
degree the respect and confidence of Mb 
countrymen ; and Queen Victoria placed 
much reliance on his judgment and his 
patriotism. Nature had not endowed him 
with the qualities that make an orator 
of the first rank. His voice was not good, 
nor his gestures and bearing graceful. Yet 
he proved again and again on public plat- 
forms that he possessed the power not only 
of interesting and leading men's minds but 
also of stirring their enthusiasm to a very 
high pitch. He never spoke down to his 
audience, or appealed to prejudice, but 
exerted himself to lead them to think and 
to feel as he himself thought and felt. His 
speeches very frequently contained some 
turn of expression or phrase which caught 
the public ear and for the time was in 
everyone's mouth. In 1885, * He would not 
give a blank cheque to Lord Salisbury.' 
In his great fight against Irish nationalism, 
* We would never surrender to crime or time.' 
In the fiscal controversy, * He would be no 
party to a gamble with the food of the people. ' 
Goschen throughout his life did much use- 
ful public work outside the region of active 
politics. He had become an ecclesiastical 
commissioner in 1882. From its initiation in 
1879 Goschen was a vigorous supporter of 
the movement for the extension of university 
teaching in London, and for many years 
he gave great assistance to the movement. 
With him the loss of office never meant 
the cessation of employment. In his 
private life his personal qualities and 
sympathetic nature won for him a large 
circle of real friends, whilst in society at 
large a strong sense of humour, his wide 
general knowledge of men and books, his 
power of conversation and of promoting 
good talk in others, made him highly 
valued. In his own house in the country 
and in London, where he delighted to 
gather round him friends and acquaintances, 
he carried the intenseness of interest 
characteristic of his working hours into 
the amusements of the day. It was not 
for the purposes of brearlwinning alone 
that he set a high value on education. 
' Livelihood is not a life,' he said to the 
Liverpool Institute (29 Nov. 1877, on 
Imagination). * Education must deal with 
your lives as well as qualify you for yonr 




livelihoods.' He knew from his own experi- 
ence how much education had done for his 
life outside those regions of business and poli- 
tics where his chief energies had been spent. 

A portrait in oils by Rudolf Lehmann 
(1880) is in the possession of the present 
viscount and is now at Seacox Heath ; a 
second, by Mr. Hugh A. T. Glazebrook, is 
at Plaxtol, Kent, in the possession of his 
daughters. A cartoon portrait of Goschen 
by *Ape' appeared in * Vanity Fair' in 

[Arthur D. Elliot, Life of Lord Goschen, 
2 vols. 1911, compiled from private papers and 
correspondence ; see also Bernard Holland, 
Life of the Eighth Duke of Devonshire, 2 vols. 
1911, and Morley's Life of Gladstone, 1903 ; 
Hansard's Debates : Annual Register ; Times 
reports of speeches.] A. R. D. E, 

CHANT HADSLEY (1847-1905), diplo- 
matist, bom at Walfield, near Hertford, 
on 2 Nov. 1847, was grandson of Admiral 
Thomas Le Marchant Gossehn [q. v.] and 
eldest son of Martin Hadsley GosseUn 
of Ware Priory and Blakesware, Hert- 
fordshire, by his wife Frances Orris, eldest 
daughter of Admiral Sir John Marshall 
of GiUingham House, Kent. Educated 
at Eton College and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, he entered the diplomatic service 
in 1868, and after working in the foreign 
office was appointed attache at Lisbon 
in 1869. He was transferred to Berlin 
in 1872, where he remained till promoted 
to be second secretary at St. Petersburg 
in 1874. During the congress at Berlin 
in 1878 he was attached to the special 
mission of the British plenipotentiaries, 
Lord Beaconsfield and Lord Sahsbury. 
He was transferred from St. Petersburg 
to Rome in 1879, returned to St. 
Petersburg in the following year, and to 
Berlin in 1882. In 1885 he was promoted 
to be secretary of legation, and was 
appointed to Brussels, where he served till 
1892, taking charge of the legation at 
intervals during the absence of the minister, 
and being employed on occasions on special 
service. In November 1887 he was ap- 
pointed secretary to the duke of Norfolk's 
special mission to Pope Leo XIII on the 
occasion of the pontiff's jubilee. In 1889 
and 1890 he and Mr. (afterwards Sir Alfred) 
Bateman of the board of trade served as 
joint British delegates in the conferences 
held at Brussels to arrange for the mutual 
pubUcation of customs tariffs, and in 
July of the latter year he signed the con- 
vention for the estabUshment of an inter- 

national bureau for that purpose. He 
was also employed as one of the secretaries 
to the international conference for the 
suppression of the African slave trade, 
which sat at Brussels in 1889 and the 
following year and resulted in the General 
Act of 2 July 1890. In recognition of his 
services he was in 1890 made C.B. Later 1 
in that year he was one of the British I 

delegates at the conference held by repre- 
sentatives of Great Britain, Germany, and 
Italy to discuss and fix the duties to be 
imposed on imports in the conventional 
basin of the Congo, and he signed the 
agreement which was arrived at in 
December 1890. In April 1892 he was 
promoted to be secretary of embassy at 
Madrid, was transferred to BerUn in the 
following year, and to Paris in 1896, receiving 
at the latter post the titular rank of 
minister plenipotentiary. In 1897 he was 
selected to discuss with French com- 
missioners the question of coohe emigra- 
tion from British India to Reunion, 
and in that and the following year he 
served as one of the British members 
of the Anglo-French commission for the 
dehmitation of the possessions and spheres 
of influence of the two countries to the 
east and west of the Niger river. The 
arrangement arrived at by the commission 
was embodied in a convention signed at Paris 
on 14 June 1898, and provided a solution 
of questions which had gravely threatened 
the good relations between the two coun- 
tries. At the close of these negotiations 
he was created K.C.M.G. From July 1898 
to August 1902 he held the home appoint- 
ment of assistant under-secretary of state 
for foreign affairs, and was then sent to 
Lisbon as British envoy, a post which he 
held till his death there on 26 Feb. 1905 
from the effects of a motor-car accident. 
The relations of Great Britain with Portugal 
during Gosselin' s residence were uneventful, 
but King Edward VII' s sense of his services 
was marked by his preferment as K.C.V.O. 
in 1903 and as G.C.V.O. in 1904. 

Gosselin possessed in a high degree 
fair judgment, good temper, and charm 
of manner. He was an accompUshed 
musician, and possessed a deficacy of touch 
and a power of artistic interpretation 
on the pianoforte almost unrivalled even 
among professional artists. 

GosseUn joined the communion of the 
Church of Rome in 1878. He married in 
1880 Katherine Frances, daughter of the 
first Lord Gerard, and left one son, Alwyn 
Bertram Robert Raphael, captain in the 
Grenadier guards, and three daughters. 




[The Times, 27 Feb. 1905 ; Oscar Browning's 
Memoirs, 1911 ; Foreign Oflice List, 1906, 
p. 397.] S. 

GOTT, JOHN (1830-1906), bishop of 
Truro, bom on 25 Dec. 1830, was third son 
of William Gott of Wythor Grange, Ijcods, 
by Margaret, daughter of William Ewart 
of Mosslcy HiU, Liverpool. His grand- 
father was Benjamin Gott of Armlcy 
Hoase, who introduced the factory system 
into the woollen trade of I..eods, and con- 
tributed greatly to the prosperity of the 
to^\^l. Educated first at Winchester, he 
matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford, 
on 7 Juno 1849, and graduated B. A. in 1853, 
proceeding M.A. in 1854, B.D. and D.D. in 
1 873. After a year at Wells Theological Col- 
lege and some time spent in travel, he was 
ordained deacon in 1857 and priest in 1858. 
From 1857 to 1861 he was curate of Great 
Yarmouth, and from 1861 tol863 had charge 
of St. Andrew's Church. In 1863 the vicar 
of Leeds gave him the perpetual curacy 
of Bramley, Leeds ; and in 1873, on the 
appointment of J. R. Woodford [q. v.] to 
the see of Ely, Gott was chosen by the 
crown his successor as vicar of Leeds. The 
appointment gave satisfaction from the 
intimate association of the Gott family 
with the commercial life of the city, and 
was amply justified by Gott's work. He 
started a church extension movement, with 
the result that, during his twelve years at 
Leeds, eight new churches were consecrated 
and the building of four others begun ; he 
founded in 1875 Leeds clergy school ; took a 
leading part in 1880 in the establishment of 
Victoria University, of the court of which 
the crown made him a member ; promoted 
the university extension movement in the 
West Riding ; and was the generous friend 
of all good works. Li 1886 Gott was made 
dean of Worcester, a post which ho filled till 
1891. He extended the usefulness of the 
cathedral as a diocesan centre, and entered 
fully into the life of the diocese. 

In 1891 Gott succeeded to the see of Truro 
on the resignation of George Howard Wil- 
kinson [q. V. Suppl. II]. Consecrated at St. 
Paul's on 29 Sept. 1891, he saw in 1903 the 
completion of Truro Cathedral ; founded a 
bishop's clergy fund for the aid of clergy in 
time of ill-health or other necessity ; and 
diUgently visited all parts of his diocese. 
A high churclmian, but not a strong 
partisan, he signed in January 1901 the 
bishops' letter inviting clergy to accept 
the positions defined in the Lambeth 
* Opinions.' He died suddenly at his 
residence, Trenython, near Par, on 21 July 
1906 and was buried at Tywardreath. 

Gott married in 1868 Harriot Mary, 
daughter of W. Whitaker Maitland of 
Loughton Hall, Essex; she died in London 
on 19 April 1906; by her ho had one son 
and throe daughters. A portrait by W. W. 
Ouless was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1899. Another, painted in 1903, is in 
the dining-hall of Leeds clergy school. 

Apart from his charge delivered in 1896 
on * Ideals of a Parish,' Gott wrote only 
one book, * The Parish Priest of the Town * 
(1887), which had a wide circulation. He 
inherited a fine library, which was dispersed 
by sale at Messrs. Sotheby's in March 1908 
and July 1910. It included a set of the 
four foho editions of Shakespeare, of 
which the first folio realised 1800/., 22 
July 1910. 

[Yorkshire Post, 23 July 1906 ; Yorkshire 
Weekly Post, 6 May 1911 ; Guardian, 21 April 
and 28 July 1906 ; Record, 27 July 1906 ; 
The Times, 23 and 26 July 1910 ; and Foster, 
Alumni Oxonienses.] A. R. B. 

1909), general, bom at Calcutta on 14 Nov. 
1833, was third son in a family of four 
sons and four daughters of George Gough, 
Bengal civil service, of Rathronan House, 
Clonmel, co. Tipperary, by Charlotte 
Margaret, daughter of Charles Becher, 
Chancellor House, Tonbridge, Kent. His 
elder brother. Sir Charles John Stanley 
Gough, V.C. (6. 1832), still survives (1912). 
Field-marshal Viscount Gough [q. v.] was 
his grand-uncle. After education privately 
and at Haileybury College (1851-2) he 
joined the Bengal army on 4 Sept. 1853, 
becoming lieutenant on 9 Aug. 1855 and 
captain on 4 Jan. 1861. 

On his arrival in India he perceived the 
likelihood of a sepoy revolt, but his warnings 
were disregarded by the authorities (Lord 
Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, 1898, 
p. 48). He was at Meerut on the outbreak 
of the Indian Mutiny, and served through- 
out the subsequent war. On 24 Aug. 1857 
he was woimded in attempting to seize 
some mutineers at Khurkowdeh, and was 
rescued by his elder brother, Charles, who 
won in the campaign the Victoria cross. 
He served as adjutant of Hodson's horse 
throughout the siege of Dellii, and was at 
the action of Rohtuck (18 Aug.), where by 
a feigned retreat Hodson drew the enemy 
into the open and then completely routed 
them. Gough was wounded and his horse 
was shot under him. He accompanied the 
column under Colonel Greathed which was 
despatched to the relief of Cawnpore, and 
commanded a wing of the regiment in the 
actions at Bulaudshahr (27 Sept.), Aligarh 


142 Gough-Calthorpe 

(5 Oct.), and Agra (10 Oct. 1857), where he 
execiited a dashing flank charge. On 1 2 Nov. 
1857, when in command of a party of Hod- 
son's horse near Alambagh, he charged 
across! ^ swamp and captured two guns, 
which were defended by a vastly superior 
body of the enemy (Lord Roberts, Forty- 
me Years in India, p. 170). His horse was 
wounded in two places and his turban cut 
through by sword thrusts whilst he was in 
combat with three sepoys. He was men- 
tioned in Sir Colin Campbell's despatches 
of 18 and 30 Nov. 1857 {Selections from 
State Papers in Military Department, 1857-8, 
ii. 339), and for his gallantry on this 
occasion he was awarded the Victoria 
cross, like his elder brother. Gough also 
distinguished himself in the operations 
roimd Lucknow on 25 Feb. 1858, when he 
set a brilliant example to his regiment on 
its being ordered to charge the enemy's 
guns. He engaged in a series of single 
combats, but was at length disabled by a 
musket ball through the leg while charging 
two sepoys with fixed bayonets. On this 
day Gough had two horses killed under him, 
a shot through his helmet and another 
through his scabbard. After the capture 
of Lucknow on 25 March 1858 he retired 
to the hills to recover from his wounds. 
Gough was mentioned in despatches on 
several occasions for * distinguished bravery,' 
and was twice thanked by the governor- 
general of India, besides receiving the brevet 
of major and a medal with three clasps 
{Land. Oaz. Dec. 1857, 16 and 29 Jan. 
1858, and 15 Jan. 1859). 

Gough subsequently took part in the 
Abyssinia campaign in 1868. He com- 
manded the 12th Bengal cavalry, and was 
present at the capture of Magdala, being 
mentioned in despatches and receiving the 
medal and being made C.B. on 14 Aug. 1868 
{Lmd. Oa^. 16 and 30 June 1868). He 
was promoted lie ut. -colonel in 1869, and 
received the brevet of colonel in 1877. 
Gough, who served throughout the Afghan 
war, was in command of the cavalry of 
the Kuram field force in 1878-9. At the 
forcing of the Peiwar Kotal on 2 Dec. 
1878 he was the first to reach the crest, and 
pursued with his cavalry the flying enemy 
along the Alikhel road. At the action of 
Matun, by dismounted fire and several bold 
charges, he succeeded notwithstanding the 
difficult nature of the groimd in driving 
the tribesmen to the highest ridges, from 
which they were dislodged by the artillery 
(7 Jan. 1879). In September j 1879, on the 
renewal of the war after the massacre of 
the Cavagnari mission, he served with the 

Kabul field force as brigadier-general of 
communications, and was present at the 
engagement of Charasiab on 6 Oct. and 
in the various operations round Kabul in 
December 1879 (wounded). On Sir Frederick 
(afterwards Lord) Roberts's march to 
Kandahar Gough was in command of the 
cavalry brigade, and took part in the 
reconnaissance of 31 August at Pir Paintal 
(Hanna, Second Afghan War, iii. 498). He 
was in command of the troops engaged in 
the cavalry pursuit after the battle of 
Mazra on 1 Sept. 1880. For his services 
he was mentioned six times in "ciespatches 
{Lond. Gaz. 4 Feb., 21 March, 7 Nov. 
1879; 4 May, 3 and 31 Dec. 1880). 
He was awarded the medal with four clasps, 
the bronze decoration, and was created 
K.C.B. on 22 Feb. 1881. 

Gough attained the rank of major-general 
in 1887 and of lieut. -general in 1891, and 
commanded the Lahore division of the 
Indian army ( 1 887-92 ) . He became general 
in 1894 and retired from the army in 1897. 
On 20 May 1896 he was nominated a 
G.C.B., and two years later was appointed 
keeper of the crown jewels at the Tower 
of London. There he died in St. Thomas's 
Tower on 12 May 1909, and was buried 
at Kensal Green cemetery. On 8 Sept. 
1863 he married Annie Margaret, daughter 
of Edward Eustace Hill and his wife. 
Lady Georgiana Keppel ; he had issue four 
sons and four daughters. 

He published in 1897 his reminiscences 
of the Indian Mutiny, entitled * Old 

[Sir Hugh Goiigh's Old Memories, 1897 ; 
G. W. Forrest, History of the Indian Mutiny, 
vol. ii. 1904 ; Burke's Peerage ; L. J. Trotter, 
Hodson of Hodson's Horse, 1901 ; Men of the 
Time, 1899 ; Hart's and Official Army Lists ; 
The Times, 14 and 19 May 1909 ; Indian Mutiny, 
selections from State Papers in Military Depart- 
ment, 1857-8, ed. G. W. Forrest, 3 vols. 1893 ; 
Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, 30th 
ed. 1898; S. P. OUver, The Second Afghan 
War, 1878-80, 1908 ; H. Septans, Les expedi- 
tions anglaises en Asie, Paris, 1897.] 

H. M. V. 

CHOLMONDELEY, sixth Baron Cal- 
THORPE (1829-1910), agriculturist, bom at 
Elvetham, Hampshire, on 8 Nov. 1829, was 
third son in the family of four sons and six 
daughters of Frederick Gough Calthorpe, 
fourth Baron Calthorpe (1790-1868), by his 
wife Lady Charlotte Sophia, eldest daughter 
of Henry Charles Somerset, sixth duke of 
Beaufort. The family descended from 
Sir Henry Gough {d. 1774), first baronet, of 

Gough-Calthorpe 143 


Edgbaston, whose heir Henry, by his 
second wife, Barbara, heiroas of Reynolds 
Calthorpo of Eivethani, succeeded in 1788 
to the Elvetham estates, and taking the 
surnamo of Calthorpo, was created Baron 
Calthorpe on 15 June 1796 [see Calthorpe, 
Sir Henry]. Augustus was educated at 
Harrow from 1845 to 1847 and matriculated 
at Merton College, Oxford, on 23 Feb. 1848, 
graduating B.A. in 1851, and proceeding 
M.A. in 1855. In adult life he devoted 
himself to sport, agriculture, and the 
duties of a county magistrate. He lived 
on family property at Perry Hall, Stafford- 
shire, serving as high sheriff of that county 
in 1881. At the general election of 1880 he 
stood vdth Major Fred Bumaby [q. v.] as 
conservative candidate for the undivided 
borough of Birmingham, near which a part 
of the family estates lay, but was defeated, 
P. H. Muntz, John Bright, and Mr. Joseph 
Chamberlain being returned. On the death 
on 26 June 1893 of his eldest brother, 
Frederick, fifth baron (1826-1893), who was 
unmarried (his second brother, George, had 
died unmarried in 1843), he succeeded to 
the peerage as sixth baron. On the family 
estates at Elvetham he started in 1900 
what has become a noted herd of shorthorn 
cattle, and his Southdown sheep and 
Berkshire pigs were also famous. He 
showed generosity in devoting to public 
purposes much of his property about 
Birmingham. He made over to the corpora- 
tion in 1894 the freehold of Calthorpe Park 
near that city, which his father had created 
in 1857, and took much interest in the 
development of the new Birmingham Uni- 
versity. In 1900 he and his only son, 
Walter (1873-1906), presented 27^ acres 
of land, valued at 20,000/., for the site of 
the university buildings, and in 1907 he 
gave another site, immediately adjacent, of 
nearly 20 acres, of the estimated value of 
15,000/., for a private recreation ground 
for the students. He died after a short 
illness at his London residence at Grosvenor 
Square on 22 July 1910, and was buried 
at Elvetham, after cremation at Golder's 
Green. He was succeeded in the title by his 
next brother, Lieut. -general Sir Somerset 
John Gough-Calthorpe (6. 23 Jan. 1831). 
He married on 22 July 1869 Maud Augusta 
Louisa, yoimgest daughter of the Hon. 
Octavius Duncombe, seventh son of Charles 
Duncombe, first Lord Feversham, bv whom 
he had one son, Walter (who preaeceased 
him), and four daughters. 

[The Times, 23 and 28 July 1910 ; Harrow 
School Reg. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Burke's 
Peerage.] E. C. 

1909), master printer of copper plates, wm 
born at HoUoway Road, Islington, on 7 Oct. 
1842. His father, John Fry Goulding, 
foreman printer to Messrs. Day & Son, 
was^ married in 1833 to EUzabtjth Rogers, 
who^ belonged to an old stock of Spitalfields 
weavers, and his grandfather, John Golding, 
also a copper-plate printer, was appren- 
ticed in 1779 to a still earlier William 
Golding, a copper-plate printer of St. 
Botolph, Bishopsgate. In 1854 Frederick 
Goulding was sent to a day school con- 
ducted at the National Hall, Holbom, by 
William Lovett [q. v.], a well-known Char- 
tist. On^24 Jan. 1857 he was apprenticed to 
Messrs. Day & Son, 6 Gate Street, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, originally a firm of lithographic 
printers, but then concerned largely with 
the printing of engravings, to which 
branch of their business Goulding was 
attached. In his spare time through 1858 
and 1859 he studied at the schools of art in 
Wilmington Square, Clerkenwell, and Castle 
Street, Long Acre, also attending lectm-es 
at the Royal Academy Schools. In 1859 
he a#ted as * devil ' to James MacNeill 
Whistler [q. v. Suppl. II] in the printing of 
some of his etchings, and in the same year 
assisted his father in printing a series of 
etchings by Queen Victoria and the Prince 
Consort. At the Great Exhibition of 1862 
he gave a daily demonstration of copper- 
plate printing for Messrs. Day & Son, 
from May till November, and began there 
the personal friendship with Sir Francis 
Seymour Haden [q. v. Suppl. 11] which 
lasted till the end of his Ufe. 

By this time Goulding was a master of 
the ' art and mystery ' of his craft, and 
began to use his spare time in the evenings 
and on Saturdays by working for private 
clients at his own residence, Kmgston 
House, 53 Shepherd's Bush Road. Among 
those for whom he printed were Seymour 
Haden, Legros, Whistler, and Samuel 
Palmer. In 1881 he felt justified in embark- 
ing upon a printing business of his own, 
and built a studio, largely extended later, in 
the garden at the back of Kingston House. 
Among artists whose etchings he printed 
were Frank Short, Strang, Pennell, Rodin, 
Holroyd, Rajon and R. VV. Macbeth ; in 
fact few etchers or engravers did not claim 
Goulding's assistance. In ' About Etching ' 
(1879) Haden described Goulding as 'the 
best printer of etchings in England just 
now.' From 1876 till 1882 he acted as 
assistant to Alphonse Legros [q. v. Suppl. II] 
in an etching class held weekly at the 
National Art Training School, now the 




Royal College of Art, and from 1882 to 
1891, when he was succeeded by Sir 
Frank Short, was entirely responsible for 
the conduct of the class. From 1876 to 
1879 he also assisted Legros in an etching 
class held at the Slade School. On 7 Feb. 
1890, at a full meeting of the coimcil of the 
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers, he was 
unanimously elected the first master printer 
to the society. 

In Goulding's case the craft of plate 
printing depended on something more 
than mere handicraft. He combined with 
remarkable dexterity of workmanship a 
singular understan^g of each artist's 
aim, and so played no small part in the 
revival of etching in the nineteenth century. 
For his amusement and instruction he 
produced a few etchings of his own ; their 
organic weakness of line is concealed by 
masterly printing. 

He died, after five years' continuous ill- 
health, on 5 March 1909, and was buried in 
Kensal Green cemetery. On 16 Dec. 1865 
he married Melanie Marie Alexandrine 
Piednue, and had three sons and a 
daughter (now Mrs. Pickford). A portrait 
in oils by Mr. Alfred Hartley, R.E., belongs 
to his daughter ; there is also a dry-point 
etching by Mr. W. Strang, A.R.A., and a 
photo-engraving by Mr. Emery Walker from 
a photograph taken by Sir Frank Short. 

[Frederick Goulding, Master Printer of 
Copper Plates, by the present writer, 1910, 
based on private information and on memor- 
anda left by Goulding. The volume contains 
the fuU text of a lecture on the theory and 
practice of his craft delivered by Goulding to 
the Art Workers' Guild in 1904.] M. H. 

LEVESON- (1819-1907). [See Leveson- 


GRACE, EDWARD MILLS (1841-1911), 
cricketer, bom at Downend, near Bristol, 
on 28 Nov. 1841, was third of five sons 
of Henry Mills Grace (1808-1871) of Long 
Ashton, Somerset, medical practitioner and 
cricketing enthusiast, who had settled in 
1831 at Downend. His mother was Martha, 
daughter of George Pocock, proprietor of 
a boarding school at St. Michael's Mill, 
Bristol. His brothers, Henry (1833-1895), 
Alfred (6. 1840), WiUiam Gilbert (&. 1848), 
and George Frederick (1850-1880), who all 
studied medicine, devoted themselves to 
cricket, the two youngest obtaining world- 
wide reputations for their aU-round play. 
After education at Long Ashton, where he 
showed the family zeal for cricket, Grace 
studied medicine at the Bristol Medical 

School ; he became M.R.C.S. England and 
L.R.C.P. Edinburgh in 1865, and L.S.A. in 
1866. At first residing at Marshfield, he 
settled in 1869 at Thombury, where he 
practised till his death, and took a pro- 
minent part in the life of the town. He 
was coroner for West Gloucestershire from 
1875 till 1909, and held the office of 
district officer for the Thombury board of 
guardians, was chairman of the Thornbury 
school board, and a member of the parish 
council. He died of cerebral haemorrhage 
at his residence, Park House, Thornbury, 
on 20 May 1911. He was married four 
times, and left a widow, five sons and four 

Grace, who was in youth a good athlete 
and fast runner, inherited from his father 
an aptitude for cricket, and was the first 
of the %mily to become famous at the 
game. Oh 7 August 1855, at the age of 
thirteen, he was chosen for his long-stopping 
to represent 22 of West Gloucestershire 
V. the All England eleven. ' William Clarke, 
the secretary and manager of the All 
England eleven, acknowledged his promise 
by presenting him with a bat ( W. G. Grace's 
Reminiscences, pp. 5-6). He first appeared 
at Lord's in July 1861, playing for South 
Wales V. M.C.C., and next year he established 
his position as one of the finest batsmen in 
England. He first represented the Gentle- 
men V, Players in July 1862, and played 
on twelve occasions between 1863 and 1869, 
and after an interval of seventeen years 
played for the last time in 1886. He was 
the only amateur member of George Parr's 
team to Austraha in 1863, but he met with 
small success. In August 1862, playing as a 
substitute for the M.C.C. v. the Gentlemen 
of Kent, at Canterbury, Grace carried his 
bat through the innings, scoring 192 not 
out, and captured aU ten wickets in the 
second innings — a double feat only equalled 
by his brother William in 1886 and by Vyell 
Edward Walker [q. v. Suppl. II] in 1859. 
Grace's most notable seasons were those of 
1863, of 1864, and of 1865. In 1863, when 
he made during the season 3000 runs, he, 
when playing for twenty of the Lansdown 
Club, Bath, scored 73 against a team which 
included Tinley, Jackson, and Tarrant, 
leading bowlers of England. In June 1865, 
when playing for eighteen of the Lansdown 
Club at Sydenham Field, Bath, he scored 
121 against the United All England XI, ' an 
epoch-making event, as such achievements 
against the All England team were almost 
unheard of ' ( W. G. Grace's Reminiscences, 
p. 28). Although after 1865 Grace's fame 
was overshadowed by that of his younger 




brothors, William (Jilhort and Goorgc Fred- 
crick, he long had a share in most of their 
triumphs in tho matches between the 
fJentlemen and Players ; from 1867 to 
1874 the amateurs lost only a single match. 
The three Graces played for Kngland against 
the Australians ((V-8 Sept. 1880), an incident 
unparalleUxl in international cricket history. 
In August of the same year, at Clifton, 
Grace scored 65 and 43 (of 191 and 97 
resix^ctively) for Gloucestershire v. tho 
Australians. Tho brilliant play of the 
Graces raised Gloucestershire to a first- 
class county in 1869, and champion county 
in 1876 and 1877. Grace was secretary of 
tho Gloucestershire club from 1871 until 

Quick of eye and limb, Grace was a 
rapid scorer and forcible hitter. Of un- 
orthodox style, he was one of the first to 
employ the ' pull ' stroke, hitting well- 
pitched ofiF-balls to the on-boundary with 
consummate ease. His nerve, judgment, 
and speed made him ' the best point ' ever 
kno\vn, taking tho ball almost off tho 
bat (Daft, Kings of Cricket, p. 107). 
Grace ceased to plav in county cricket 
in 1896, but played almost until nis death 
for the Thornbury team, which ho man- 
aged and captained for 35 years. In 1910, 
at the age of seventy, he played for them 
in some forty matches, meeting with much 
success as a lob bowler. During his cricket- 
ing career he scored over 76,000 runs and 
took over 12,000 wickets ; he had an in- 
exhaustible supply of cricketing recollec- 
tions, which he would relate with much 
vivacity. He was a bold rider to hounds. 

[W. G. Grace's Cricketing Reminiscences, 
1899 ; Daft, Kings of Cricket, pp. 106-7 (with 
portrait, p. 13) ; K. S. Ranjitsinhji's Jubilee 
Book of Cricket, 1897, pp. 378-80; Hay- 
garth's Scores and Biographies, vii. 114-5; 
Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack, 1911, p. 201 
(for Thornbury performances) ; 1912 (for 
memoir) ; Lancet, 27 May 1911.] W. B. O. 

1906), writer on Scottish history, bom in tho 
manse of North Berwick, on 3 Oct. 1842, 
was youngest of eleven children of Robert 
Balfour Graham, D.D., minister of the 
established church of North Berwick, by 
liis Nvife Christina, daughter of Archibald 
La^vrio, D.D., minister of Loudon. At an 
early ago he showed a great love of read- 
ing and spent most of his pocket-money 
on books. On the death of liis father in 
1855, his mother took him and her young- 
est daughter to Edinburgh, where, two 
years afterwards, he entered the university. 

VOL. Lxvin. — SUP. n. 

Although showing no absorbing intcront 
in the work of tho classes and acquir- 
ing no university distinctions, ho was 
a prominent and clever speaker in the 
debating societies. After being licenced 
as a probationer of tho Church of Scotland 
in 1865, ho was assistant at Bonhill, 
Dumbartonshire, until he was appointed 
in March 1868 to the charge of Nen- 
thom, Berwickshire.' Here he made 
tho acquaintance of Alexander Russel 
[q. v.], editor of tho 'Scotsman,' who was 
accustomed to come to Nen thorn in 
summer; and ho became a frequent con- 
tributor to tho * Scotsman ' of reviews 
and leading articles. Of non-theological 
tendencies and widely tolerant in his 
opinions, ho was, after the death of Dr. 
Robert Leo [q. v.], of Old Greyfriars church, 
Edinburgh, asked to become a candidate 
for the vacancy, but dechned. In 1884 he 
was translated to Hyndland parish church, 
Glasgow, where he remained till his death 
on 7 May 1906. In 1878 he married Alice, 
daughter of Thomas Carlyle of ShawhiU, 
advocate, and left a son, who died in Egypt, 
and a daughter. 

Graham's principal work is * Social Life of 
Scotland in the Eighteenth Century ' (1899, 
2 vols. ; 3rd edit. 1906), graphically descrip- 
tive as well as learned. His ' Scottish Men of 
Letters of the Eighteenth Century ' (1901 ; 
2nd edit. 1908) is also very readable. For 
Blackwood's series of * Foreign Classics ' he 
wrote a monograph on * Rousseau ' (1882) ; 
and his ' Literary and Historical Essays * 
(pubHshed posthumously in 1908) include 
' Society in France before tho Revolution * 
(lectures at the Royal Institution, Feb. 1901) 
and a paper on ' Russel of the " Scotsman." ' 

[Scotsman, and Glasgow Herald, 8 May 1906 ; 
Graham's Essays, 1908, pref.] T. F. H. 

FERGUSON (1840-1906), artist, bom at 
Kirkwall on 27 Oct. 1840, was only son of 
Alexander Spears Graham, \iTiter to the 
signet and cro^\'n chamberlain of Orkney 
(like his father before him), by his wife 
EUza Stirling. About 1850, some time 
after their father's death, Thomas and an 
only sister went to Edinburgh to live with 
their grandmother. 

The boy's artistic instincts asserted 
themselves early. When little more Uian 
fourteen he was on the recommendation 
of the painter James Drummond [q. v.] 
enrolled (9 Jan. 1855) a student of the 
Trustees Academy. He proved an apt 
pupil in the talented group of McTaggart, 
Orcharddon, Pettie, Chalmers, and the 




rest, who gathered round the recently 
appointed master, Robert Scott Lauder 
[q. V.]. Although he was the youngest of 
the coterie, Graham's talent and personal 
charm gave him a prominent place in it. 
He began to exhibit at the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1859, but in 1863 he joined his 
friends Orchardson and Pettie in London. 
With Mr. C. E. Johnston, another Edin- 
burgh-trained artist, the three shared a 
house in Fitzroy Square. Subsequently he 
occupied studios in Gloucester Road and 
Delancy Street, settling for good in 1886 at 
96 Fellows Road, South Hampstead. 

Save John MacWhirter, Graham spent 
more time abroad than any of his associates. 
As early as 1860 he went to Paris with 
McTaggart and Pettie, and two years later 
he paid, with Pettie and George Paul Chal- 
mers, the first of several visits to Brittany, 
which supplied many pleasing and congenial 
subjects. In 1864 he was in Venice, where 
he did some charming sketches, and about 
1885 he paid a prolonged visit to Morocco, 
then little exploited by artists, where he 
penetrated to Fez, and painted ' Easmet ' 
(now in the Dundee Gallery) and other 
oriental subjects. But the picturesque 
Fifeshire fishing villages, the Httle seaports 
on the Moray Firth, and the wild west coast 
of Scotland were perhaps his favourite 
sketching grounds. 

Graham's earlier pictures engagingly 
combine quaint naturalism and imaginative 
insight. ' A Young Bohemian ' (1864), in 
the National Gallery of Scotland, is a 
delightful example of his work at that 
time. Later his handling broadened and 
his feeling for light and movement increased, 
and in pictures such as ' The Clang of the 
Wooden Schoon,' ' The Passing Salute,' or 
* The Siren ' he attained much rhythmic 
beauty of design, great charm of high- 
pitched and opalescent colour, and a fine 
sense of atmosphere. And, if lower in 
tone and more sombre in colour, ' The 
Last of the Boats ' and a few other dramatic 
pictures of the sea are, in their different 
mood, equally successful. His art, how- 
ever, was too sensitive and refined to 
command wide attention, and, owing to 
extreme fastidiousness, he was a somewhat 
uncertain executant. The only distinction 
conferred upon him was honorary member- 
ship of the Royal Scottish Academy, which 
he received in 1883. Latterly he gave 
much of his time to portraiture, in which 
his finest gifts had Httle scope. His most 
successful pictures rank with the best 
achievements of his school. 

He died unmarried while on a visit to 

Edinburgh on 24 Dec. 1906. * Tom ' Graham, 
whose winning manners and brilliant con- 
versational powers made him a great 
favourite with his friends, was exceptionally 
handsome. Excellent portraits of him by 
himself and by Orchardson and Pettie be- 
long to his sister, and he served as model 
for these two artists on several occasions, 
notably in ' The First Cloud ' by the former, 
and in ' The Jacobites ' by the latter. 

[Private information ; personal knowledge ; 
exhibition catalogues ; Report of R.S.A. for 
1907; Scotsman, 25 Dec. 1906; Sir W. 
Armstrong's Scottish Painters, 1887 ; J. L. 
Caw's Scottish Painting, 1908.] J. L. C. 

GRAHAM, WILLIAM (1839-1911), 
philosopher and political economist, bom at 
Saintfield, co. Down, in 1839, was a younger 
son of Alexander Graham, farmer and horse- 
dealer, by his wife Maria' Crawford, a de- 
scendant of a Scottish presbyterian family 
which came to Ireland in Charles II's time 
to escape rehgious persecution. The father 
died poor while his son was very young, and 
it fell to the mother, a woman of spirit 
and intelligence, to bring up the children 
— ^four sons and a daughter — amid many 
hardships. Wilham obtained a foundation 
scholarship at the Educational Institute, 
Dundalk, and being well grounded there 
in mathematics and English was soon 
engaged as a teacher in the royal school 
at Banagher, where he remained till he 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, in July 

At Trinity College Graham won dis- 
tinction in mathematics, philosophy, and 
English prose composition. During most 
of his college course he worked outside the 
university as headmaster successively of 
two important schools in or near Dublin. 
But a foundation scholarship in mathe- 
matics which he won in 1865 gave him an 
annual stipend together with free rooms 
and commons. He graduated B.A. in 1867, 
and thereupon engaged in coaching students 
in mathematics and especially philosophy. 
His success as private tutor enabled him to 
give up his school work. He devoted much 
time to the study of philosophy, and in 
1872 he published his first book, ' Idealism, 
an Essay Metaphysical and Critical,' a 
vindication of Berkeley against Hamilton 
and the Scottish school. 

Graham, who had proceeded M.A. in 
1870, left Dublin in 1873 to become 
private secretary to Mitchell Henry, M.P. 
[q. V. Suppl. II], but resigned the post 
in 1874 and settled in London. In 1875 
he was appointed lecturer on mathematics 




at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and ho 
engaged at the same time in Utcrary 
and tutorial work ; but the best part 
of his tinio for sonic years was given to 
the preparation of the most important 
of his books, ' The Creed of Science,' 
which appeared hi 1881. This is a work 
of great freshness and power, discussing 
how far the new scientific doctrines 
of the conservation of energy, evolution, 
and natural selection necessitated a re- 
vision of the accepted theories in 
philosophy, theology, and ethics. It was 
well received, running to a second edition 
in 1884, and it evoked the admiration 
of Darwin, Gladstone, and Archbishop 
Trench. In bigoted circles Graham's argu- 
ment was foolishly credited with atheistic 
tendencies. This wholly unfounded sus 
picion caused the Irish chief secretary, 
8ir Michael Hicks Beach, to withdraw an 
offer which he made to Graham of an 
assistant commissionorship of intermediate 
education in Oct. 1886. In London Graham 
was soon a welcome figure in the best 
intellectual society. His many friends 
there included men of the eminence of 
Carlyle, Lecky, and Froude. Carlyle wrote 
of finding in him ' a force of insight and a 
loyalty to what is true, which greatly dis- 
tinguish him from common, even from 
highly educated and what are called 
ingenious and clever men.' One of his 
strong points was his conversational gift. 
Professor Mahaffy wrote of him at the 
time of his death, ' His highest genius 
was undoubtedly for intellectual recreation. 
In this he had few equals' [Athenceum, 
25 Nov. 1911). 

Meanwhile his increasing reputation had 
led to his election in 1882 to the chair 
of jurisprudence and political economy 
in Queen's College, Belfast. This post he 
held till 1909, when ill-health compelled 
his retirement. At Belfast he enjoyed the 
enthusiastic regard of a long succession 
of pupils. He was professor of law 
for ten years before he joined the legal 
profession. In 1892 he was called to the 
bar at the Inner Temple without any 
intention of practismg. His duties at 
Belfast allowed him still to reside most of 
the year in London, and in his leisure he 
produced a succession of works on pohtical 
or economic subjects. ' Social Problems ' 
came out in 1886, ' Socialism New and Old ' 
in 1890, ' English Political Pliilosophy from 
Hobbes to Maine ' in 1899, and ' Free Trade 
and the Empire ' in 1904. He also read a 
paper on trusts to the British Association 
at Belfast in 1902, and was a frequent 

contributor to the * Nineteenth Century,* 
' Contemporary Review,' and * Economic 
Journal.' He was for many years examiner 
in political economy and also in philosophy 
for the Indian civil service and the Royal 
University of Ireland, and in English 
for the Irish intermediate education 

He received the honorary degree of 
Litt.D. from Trinity College, DubUn, in 
1905. His health began to fail in 1907, 
and he died unmarried in a nursing home 
in Dublin on 19 Nov. 1911, being buried in 
Mount Jerome cemetery there. 

[Graham's Autobiographical MS. notes ; 
Irish Times, 20 Nov. 1911 ; personal know- 
ledge.] J. R. 


1902), principal of Queen's University, 
Kingston, Canada, bom on 22 Dec. 1835 at 
Albion Mines, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 
was third child of James Grant, who, spring- 
ing from along hne of Scottish farmers, emi- 
grated from Banffshire in 1826, and married 
five years later Mary Monro of Inverness. 

Owing to the accident of losing his right 
hand at the age of seven, the boy was 
brought up to be a scholar. At Pictou 
Academy he gained in 1853 a bursary 
tenable at either Glasgow or Edinburgh 
University. He chose Glasgow, and seven 
years later, on the completion of a distin- 
guished course, he received his testamur 
in theology, and was ordained (Dec. 1860) 
by the presbytery of Glasgow as a mission- 
ary for Nova Scotia. He dechned an 
invitation from Norman Macleod [q. v.] 
to remain in Glasgow as his assistant. 

After occupying various mission-fields 
in his native province and in Prince Edward 
Island, he accepted a call in 1863 to the 
pulpit of St. Matthew's Church, the leading 
Church of Scotland church in Halifax. 
Grant, who saw the need of a native 
trained ministry for the established 
presbyterian church in Nova Scotia, 
struggled without success to establish a 
theological hall at Hahfax, by way of 
supplement to Dalhousie College, which 
largely through his efforts was reorganised 
as a non-sectarian institution in 1863. 
Meanwliilo he directed his efforts to the 
union of the presbyterian church throughout 
Canada. The federation of the proWnces 
in 1867, which Grant eagerly supported, 
gave an impulse to the spirit of union, and 
15 June 1875 saw the first General Assembly 
of the united church. 

In 1877 Grant, who had for some years 
identified himself with educational reform, 

L 2 




became principal of Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ontario, a presbyterian founda- 
tion. He received the honorary degree of 
D.D. from Glasgow University in the 
same year. Queen's University was at 
the time in financial difficulties, and 
he undertook two strenuous campaigns 
in 1878 and 1887 to obtain increased 
endowment from private sources. The 
immediate financial situation saved. Grant 
concentrated his energies upon securing 
adequate recognition and aid from the 
provincial legislature; but he was faced 
by a prejudice against state-aided denomin- 
ational colleges, which was encouraged by 
the claim of the University of Toronto to 
be the only properly constituted provincial 
university. In 1887 Queen's University 
rejected federation with Toronto. But 
Grant's political influence steadily grew, 
and he secured for his university in 1893 
a state-endowed school of mines, which 
subsequently became the faculty of 
practical science in the university. In 
1898 Grant sought to sever the tie 
between the presbyterian church and the 
arts faculty of Queen's. In 1900 he forced 
his views upon the church assembly, but 
he died two years later, and the assembly 
of 1903 reversed his poHcy, which was 
not enforced till June 1911. Grant's 
preponderating influence in education led 
to an invitation (which was refused) 
from Sir Oliver Mowat [q. v. Suppl. II] in 
1883 to resign his principalship and accept 
the portfoHo of education in his cabinet. 
Grant held that the education administra- 
tion in the province should be wholly 
'Withdrawn from politics. 

Grant acquired an intimate knowledge 
of the country, having twice traversed the 
continent. In 1872 he accompanied Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Sandford Fleming on his 
preliminary survey of a route for the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, and in 1883, 
again with Mr. Fleming, he examined a 
route through the mountains. The first 
journey Grant recorded in 'Ocean to 
Ocean' (1873), and the impressions of 
both journeys are merged in four articles 
contributed to ' Scribner's Magazine ' in 
1880, and in ' Picturesque Canada,' a 
pubhcation which he edited in 1884. 

To the press and to periodicals Grant 
frequently communicated his views on 
pubHc questions. His poHtical comments 
in the ' Queen's University Quarterly ' 
were widely read. He powerfully supported 
the new imperiaUsm, and urged on Canada 
her imperial responsibiUties. He became 
president of the Imperial Federation 

League, Ontario, in 1889. To reHgious 
literature Grant contributed one book of 
importance, * Religions of the World ' 
(Edinburgh 1894; 2nd edit., revised and 
enlarged, 1895). This has been translated 
into many European languages and into 

Grant showed his courage and independ- 
ence at the close of his life in his trenchant 
criticism of the temperance party, which 
aimed at the total prohibition of the hquor 
traffic. To restore his health, which was 
impaired by his endowment campaign of 

1887, Grant made a tour of the world in 

1888. In 1889 he was elected moderator 
of the general assembly of the presbyterian 
church in Canada, and became LL.D. of 
Dalhousie University in 1892. In 1891 
he was elected president of the Royal 
Society of Canada. He was president of 
the St. Andrew's Society, Kingston, from 
1894 to 1896. In 1901 he was created 
C.M.G. He died at Kingston on 10 May 
1902. He was buried in Cataraqui cemetery 
in the same town. 

On 7 May 1867 Grant married Jessie, 
eldest daughter of William Lawson of 
Halifax, Nova Scotia. His only surviving 
child, William Lawson Grant, is professor 
of history in Queen's University, Kingston. 
A portrait of Grant by Robert Harris 
(1889) is in the Convocation Hall of Queen's 
IJniversity, Kingston ; a bust by Hamilton 
McCarthy (1891) is in the library and 
senate room there. 

[Life by W. L. Grant and Frederick Hamil- 
ton, Toronto, 1904, and Edinburgh and London 
1905.] P. E. 

GRANT, SIR ROBERT (1837-1904), 

lieutenant-general, royal engineers, bom at 
Malabar HiU, Bombay, on 10 Aug. 1837, 
was younger son of Sir Robert Grant 
[<!• ^']» governor of Bombay, and was 
nephew of Lord Glenelg [q. v.]. His mother 
was Margaret {d. 1885), only daughter of 
Sir David Davidson of Cantray, Nairnshire, 
N.B., who married as her second husband 
Lord Joscehne Wilham Percy, M.P., second 
son of George fifth duke of Northumberland. 

Robert was educated at Harrow with 
his elder brother Charles [see below]. 
When he was seventeen he passed first in a 
public competitive examination for vacan- 
cies in the royal artillery and the royal 
engineers caused by the Crimean war, and 
was gazetted second heutenant in the royal 
engineers on 23 Oct. 1854, becoming first 
lieutenant on 13 Dec. of the same year. 

After six months' training at Chatham 
Grant was sent to Scotland. In February 




1857 ho was transforrcd to tho Jamaica 
command in tho West Indies, and 'at [tho 
end of 1858 he served on tho staff as fort 
adjutant at Boliso in British HonchiniH. 
Ho passed first in tho examination for tlie 
Staff College, just estabhshcd; but after 
a few montlis there (Jan.-May 1859) ho 
was aide-de-camp to Lieut. -general Sir 
William Fenwick WiUiams [q. v.], tho 
commander of the forces in North America 
for six years. On 8 Aug. 1860 ho was 
promoted second captain. Ho was at 
liomo for tho final examination at the Staff 
College, in which ho again easily passed 
first, despite his absence from tho classes, 
and from January to Juno 18G1 ho was 
attached to tho cavalry and artillery at 

Finally returning from Canada in Juno 
18G5, Grant did duty at Chatham, Dover, 
and Portsmouth, and was promoted first 
captain on 10 July 1867 and major on 
5 July 1872. From 1 Jan. 1871 to 
1877 ho was deputy assistant adjutant- 
general for royal engineers at tho war 
oflBce, and from 1877 was in command of the 
royal engineers troops, consisting of tho 
pontoon, telegraph, equipment and depot 
units at Aldershot. Ho was promoted 
lieut. -colonel on 1 July 1878. In May 
1880 ho was appointed commanding royal 
engineer of tho Plymouth subdistrict, and 
on 31 Dec. 1881 commanding royal engineer 
of tho Woolwich district. He was promoted 
colonel in the army on 1 July 1882, and 
a year later was placed on half pay. He 
remained unemployed until 5 May 1884, 
when he was given the R.E. command in 
Scotland, with the rank of colonel on the 

On 20 March 1885 he left Edinburgh 
suddenly for Egypt to join Lord Woleeloy, 
who had telegraphed for his services, as 
colonel on tho staff and commanding 
royal engineer with the Nile expeditionary 
force. Bte served with the headquarters staff 
and afterwards in command of the Abu 
Fatmeh district during tho evacuation, 
but he was taken seriously ill mth fever 
and was invalided home in August. For 
his services ho was mentioned in despatches 
of 13 June 1885 {Lond. OazeUe, 25 Aug. 
1885). Not anticipating so speedy a ter- 
mination to the campaign, the authorities 
had filled up his appointment in Scotland 
and he had to wait nearly a year on half pay. 

On 1 July 1886 Grant was appointed 
deputy adjutant-general for royal engineers 
at the war oflBco. On 25 May 1889 he was 
created C.B., military division, and on 
23 Oct. made a temporary major-general. 

Before he had quite completed his five 
years aa deputy adjutant - general Grant 
was appointed to the important post of 
inspector-general of fortifications (18 April 
I 1891), with tho temporary rank of licut.- 
general, dated 29 April 1891. He succeeded 
to tho establishment of major-generals on 
9 May 1891, and became lieut. -general 
, on 4 Juno 1897. As inspector-general of 
j fortifications Grant was an ex-officio 
i member of tho joint naval and mihtary 
committee on defence, and president of tho 
colonial defence committee. During his term 
of office important works of defence and 
of barrack construction were carried out, 
under the loan for defences and mihtary 
works loan. His services were so highly 
valued that they were retained for two 
years beyond the usual term. He was 
promo tecf K.C.B. on 20 May 1896. On 
leaving tho war office (17 April 1898) 
Grant's work was highly commended by 
the secretaries of state for war and the 
colonies, and ho was awarded a distinguished 
service pension of 100^. a year. He was 
given the G.C.B. on 26 June 1902, and 
retired from the service on 28 March 1903. 
His health was failing, and he died on 
8 Jan. 1904 at Ins residence, 14 Granville 
Place, Portman Square, London, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

Always cool and self-contained, Grant was 
gifted with a sure judgment and a retentive 
memory. A portrait in oils by C. Lutyens, 
painted in 1897, hangs in the R.E. officers' 
mess at Aldershot, and a repUca is in Lady 
Grant's possession. She has also a portrait in 
oils of Sir Robert Grant by Henty, painted in 
1887. He married in London, on 24 Nov. 
1875, Victoria Alexandrina, daughter of John 
Cotes of Woodcoto Hall, Shropshire, and 
widow of T. Owen of Condover Hall in tho 
same county. There were three cliildren of 
the marriage, a daughter who died young, 
and twin sons, both in the army, of whom 
the younger, Robert Joscchne, was killed at 
Spion Kop on 24 Jan. 1900. 

Sm Chakles Grant (1836-1903), elder 
brother of Sir Robert Grant, was bom in 
1836, and educated at Harrow, Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and at Haileybury, Ho 
entered tho Bengal civil service in 1858, was 
appointed a commissioner of tho central 
provinces in 1870, and acting chief com- 
missioner in 1879, when ho became an 
additional member of the govemor- 
genoral's council. In 1880 he was acting 
secretary to the government of India for 
tho home, revenue, and agricultural depart- 
ments, and in 1881 was appointed foreign 
secretary to tho government of India. He 

Grant Duff 


Grant Duff 

was created C.S.I, in 1881, and in 1885 
K.C.S.I. on retirement. He died suddenly 
in London on 10 April 1903. He married : 
(1) in 1872 Ellen {d. 1885), daughter of 
the Rt. Hon. Henry Baillie of Redcastle, 
N.B. ; and (2) in 1890 Lady Florence Lucia, 
daughter of Admiral Sir Edward Alfred John 
Harris, and sister of the fourth earl of 
Malmesbury. She was raised to the rank 
of an earl's daughter in 1890. Su* Charles 
Grant edited the 'Central Provinces 
Gazetteer' (2nd edit. 1870). 

[War Office Records; Royal Engineers 
Records ; The Times, 13 April 1903 and 9 and 
10 Jan. 1904 ; Royal Engineers Journals, 
February 1904.] R. H. V. 

ELPHINSTONE (1829-1906), statesman 
and author, elder son of James Grant Duff 
[q. v.] by his wife Jane Catherine, daughter 
of Sir Whitelaw AinsHe [q. v.], was born at 
Eden, Aberdeenshire, on 21 Feb. 1829. He 
was educated at Edinburgh Academy, the 
Grange School, and at BaUiol College, 
Oxford (1847-50). Among his contem- 
porary friends at Oxford were Henry Smith, 
Henry Oxenham, Charles Pearson, Goldwin 
Smith, Charles Parker, and John Coleridge 
Patteson. He graduated B.A. in 1850 with 
a second class in the final classical school, 
and proceeded M.A, in 1853. On leaving 
Oxford he settled in London and read for 
the bar, and in 1854 passed with honours, 
second to James Fitzjames (afterwards 
Mr. Justice) Stephen, who later became 
one of his most intimate friends for life, 
in the LL.B. examination of London Uni- 
versity. In the same year (17 Nov.) he 
was called to the bar by the Inner 
Temple, and while a pupil in the chambers 
of WilUam Ventris (afterwards Lord) Field 
[q. V. Suppl; II] joined the Midland circuit, 
and obtained his first brief because he was 
the only person present who could speak 
German. He was one of the earHest contri- 
butors to the ' Saturday Review,' and 
lectured at the Working Men's College, of 
which Frederick Denison Maurice was first 

In December 1857 Grant Duff was 
returned as the Hberal member for the 
Elgin Burghs, and held this seat with- 
out intermission until he was appointed 
governor of Madras in 1881. In 1860 and 
in each subsequent year he addressed to 
his constituents an elaborate speech, mainly 
on foreign policy, and he came to speak 
on this topic with recognised authority. 
His knowledge of the subject, largely derived 
from intimate conversation with foreigners 

of distinction in their own languages, was 
singularly wide and accurate, and his treat- 
ment of it entirely free from political 
acerbity. These speeches, which were 
from time to time re-pubhshed collectively, 
possess historical interest. 

When Gladstone formed his first ministry 
in 1868, Grant Duff was appointed (8 Dec.) 
under-secretary of state for India, and he 
retained the office until the ministry finally 
resigned in 1874. In that year he paid a 
first visit to India. In 1880 he joined 
the second Gladstone ministry as under- 
secretary for the colonies, being sworn 
a member of the privy council on 8 May. 
It is probable that neither the domestic 
nor the colonial policy of the government 
during the next twelve months was sup- 
ported by Grant Duff with unreserved 
enthusiasm, and on 26 June 1881 he 
accepted without hesitation the offer of the 
governorship of Madras, which brought to 
an end his twenty-four years' unbroken 
representation of his constituency hi the 
House of Commons. 

The presidency of Madras during the 
period of Grant Duff's government was free 
from critical events, but he devoted him- 
self strenuously and successfully to his 
administrative duties, and the minutes in 
which from time to time he recorded and 
commented on the course of public affairs 
were models alike of assiduity and of style. 
Sir Louis Mallet [q. v.], under-secretary for 
India, commented upon the receipt of the last 
he wrote, ' I doubt whether any previous 
governor has left behind so able and com- 
plete a record.' Grant Duff left Madras in 
November 1886, and after making some stay 
in S5rria returned to England in the spring of 
1887. In March he was invested at Windsor 
with the G.C.S.L He had been made CLE. 
in 1881. 

On settling again in England Grant Duff 
made no effort to re-enter political life. 
The home rule controversy had embittered 
politics in his absence, and he had neither 
the requisite physical robustness nor any 
relish for violent conflict. A scholar, a 
calmly rational politician, and a man of 
almost dainty refinement both physically 
and morally, he devoted himself thence- 
forward to study, to authorship, and to the 
cultivation of the social amenities in which 
his experience was probably as wide and as 
remarkable as that of any one of his 
contemporaries. He was in the habit of 
meeting or corresponding with almost every- 
one of any eminence in social life in England, 
and with many similar persons abroad. 
He was a member of almost every small 

Grant Duff 



social club of the liighest class. In Febmaiy 

1858, the month that ho first took his 
seat in parliament, he was elected a raom- 
l)or of the * Cosmopolitan ' and of the 
Atii(M\anim. In 1889 ho joined ' The Club,' 
and for some years Iwforo his dcatli was 
its treasurer — ' the only permanent official, 
and tlie guardian of its records.' He also 
belonged to the Literary Society (from 1872) 
and Grillion's (from 1889), and was in 186G 
the founder of the Breakfast Chib, and the 
most assiduous attendant at its meetings. 

Grant DufT pubUshed numerous articles, 
essays, and memoirs, a volume of original 
verse (printetl privat<>ly), and an anthology of 
the Victorian poets. All of them show learn- 
ing, cultivation, and style; but the prin- 
cipal literary work he left behind him is his 
' Notes from a Diary.' He began a diary in 
1851, and from 1873 kept it with the inten- 
tion that the bulk of it should be published. 
He published the first two volumes 
(1851-72) in 1897; further sets of two 
volumes each followed in 1898, 1899, 1900, 
1901, 1904, and 1905. The fourteen volumes 
bring the record down to 23 Jan. 1901, when 
Grant Duff kissed hands as a privy coun- 
cillor on the accession of King Edward VII. 
He declares in his preface to the first 
two volumes that his object has been to 
make it ' the lightest of light reading,' and 
the most ' good-natured ' of books. The 
' Notes ' contain practically no politics, but 
are a purely personal record of the people he 
met, and the things they said. The result 
is a collection of excellent stories and 
memorable sayings, which form a valuable 
contribution to social history. 

Grant Duff travelled much. He visited 
at different times Coburg, Dresden, Russia, 
Spain, Darmstadt (during the war of 1870), 
Athens, the Troad, India (seven years 
before his appointment to Madras), Syria 
(where he spent a winter at Haifa in a house 
lent to him by Laurence Oliphant), and 
Bucharest. In all these places he fre- 
quented the society of rulers, ambassadors, 
authors, and other remarkable people. 
He received from M. Ollivier a full 
and confidential account of the political 
events immediately preceding the Franco- 
Prussian war. He met Garibaldi in the 
height of his fame, and was for many 
years on terms of friendship with the 
Empress Frederick of Germany. From 
1866 to 1872 he filled for two consecutive 
terms the office of lord rector of Aberdeen 
University. From 1889 to 1893 he was 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
and from 1892 to 1899 was president of 
the Royal Historical Society. He was 

elected F.R.S. in 1901, and was nominated 
a Crown trustee of the British Museum in 

In person Grant DufT was slight, delicately 
made, and habitually gentle in speech and 
manner, thougli he would upon cxjcasion 
express himself with great animation. He 
suffered through life from indifferent health, 
and in particular from astigmatic vision 
to such an extent that it was extremely 
difficult for him to read or write for 

He was the tenant for considerable 
periods of Hampden House, Berkshire, York 
House, Twickenham, and Knebworth 
Finally ho bought Lexden Park, near 
Colchester, and in each of these houses 
he practised a wide hospitality. He cljed 
at his London house on Chelsea Embank- 
ment on 12 Jan. 1906, and was buried at 
Elgin cathedral. 

Grant Duff married on 13 April 1859 
Anna Julia, only daughter of Edward 
Webster of North Lodge, Ealing. By 
her he had four sons and four daughters. 
His elder sons, Arthur and Evelyn, are 
respectively minister at Dresden and 
consul-general, with the rank of minister, 
at Buda-Pest. Grant Duff's portrait in 
crayons by Henry T. Wells, dra^\^l for 
reproduction for Grillion's Club, is in the 
possession of Lady Grant Duff at Earl 
Soham Grange, Framlingham. 

Grant Duff published, besides * Notes 
from a Diary ' : 1. ' Studies of European 
Politics,' 1866. 2. 'A Political Survey,' 
1868. 3. ' Elgin Speeches,' Edinburgh, 
1871. 4. ' Notes on an Indian Journey,' 
1876. 5. ' Miscellanies, Political and 
Literary,' 1878. 6. ' Memoir of Sir Henry 
Maine,' 1892. 7. 'Ernest Renan,' 1893-8. 

8. 'Memoir of Lord De Tabley,' 1899. 

9. ' A Victorian Anthology,' 1902. 10 ' Out 
of the Past : some Biographical Essays,' 
2 vols. 1903. 11. ' Gems from a Victorian 
Anthology,' 1904. 

[Notes from a Diary ; Banffshire Herald. 
16 Jan. 1906 ; The Times, 13 Jan. 1906 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry ; private information ; 
jxjrsonal kno\Nledge.] H. S. 

1911), judge, born at Lewes on 23 Oct. 1835, 
was second son of George Grantham of 
Barcombe Place, Sussex, by his wife Sarah, 
daughter of William Verrall of Southower 
Manor, Lewes. He was cducAted at King's 
College ScIkkjI, London, and was entered 
a student of the Inner Temple on 30 April 
1860. A pupil in the chambers of James 
(afterwards Lord) Hannen [q. v. Suppl. I], 




he obtained in January 1863 the studentship 
given by the council of legal education, 
and was called to the bar on the 26th of 
the same month. Choosing the south- 
eastern circuit, a good local connection in 
Sussex aided him at the start, and his 
pleasant manner, combined with courage, 
pertinacity, and great industry, soon 
secured him a steady practice. He obtained 
the reputation of being 'a very useful 
junior in an action on a builder's account, 
in a running-down case, in a compensation 
case, and especially in disputes in which a 
combined knowledge of law and horseflesh 
was desirable.' He took silk on 13 Feb. 
1877, and was made a bencher of his Inn on 
30 April 1880, serving the oJBfice of treasurer 
in 1904. 

As a leader Grantham achieved con- 
siderable success on circuit, but in London 
he failed to make any conspicuous mark. 
His real and absorbing interest was in 
politics ; a conservative of the most ortho- 
dox school, gifted with an excellent plat- 
form manner and considerable rhetorical 
power, Grantham took a prominent part 
in the conversion to tory democracy of 
the working-men of London and the home 
counties. At the general election of 
February 1874 he was returned together 
with James Watney for East Surrey by 
a large majority, which he substantially 
increased in April 1880. After the redis- 
tribution of seats in 1885 he was selected 
to contest the borough of Croydon, carved 
out of his old constituency, and although 
the seat was regarded by the local conser- 
vatives as a forlorn hope, he defeated 
his liberal opponent, Mr. Jabez Balfour, 
by over 1000 votes. There was no more 
accompHshed or successful electioneer in 
the south of England, and his services 
were widely in request as a platform 
speaker. By the death of his elder brother 
George in 1880 he had become squire of 
Barcombe and lord of the manor of 
Camois Court, a position which gave him 
additional prestige in ' the country party.' 
He became deputy chairman and even- 
tually chairman of the East Sussex quarter 
sessions. In parhament he was a fairly 
frequent speaker, with a special mission to 
unmask and defeat the machinations of 
Gladstone ; he was conspicuous among 
the mihtant spirits on the conservative 
benches. In January 1886, before he had 
the opportunity of taking his seat on his re- 
election for Croydon, he was made a judge 
of the Queen's Bench Division, in succes- 
sion to Sir Henry Lopes [q. v. Suppl. I], and 
was knighted. It was Lord Halsbury's first 

judicial appointment, and there were many 
conflicting claims among conservative law- 
yers. In * Whitaker's Almanack ' for 1886 
the name of Sir John Gorst, then solicitor- 
general, was printed among the judges 
instead of that of Grantham. 

On the bench he showed himself inde- 
fatigable and painstaking, and he never 
failed to clear his Ust on circuit. He 
was shrewd in his judgment of character, 
had a varied assortment of general know- 
ledge, and his manly, downright ways 
made a favourable impression on juries. 
He had a competent knowledge of law for 
the ordinary work of nisi prius, and his 
industry and energy made a strong con- 
trast to the methods of some of his col- 
leagues. But he lacked the breadth of 
mind and the grasp of intellect necessary 
for trying great and comphcated issues, and 
he was a very unsatisfactory judge in com- 
mercial cases. Among his failings was an 
inabihty to refrain from perpetual comment ; 
his ' obiter dicta ' brought him into collision 
at one time or another with nearly every 
class of the community — deans, pubHcans, 
chairmen of quarter sessions, the council of 
the bar, the Durham pitmen, his brother 
judges. His love of talking was not con- 
ducive to the dignity of the bench, and 
towards the close of his career he was given 
strong hints in the press that the public 
interest would . be best served by his 

In the spring of 1906 Grantham found 
himself on the rota of judges appointed 
to try election petitions, a task for which 
his strong and somewhat intemperate 
political views rendered him pecuharly 
unfit. His decisions at Bodmin, at Maid- 
stone, and at Great Yarmouth, all of which 
favoured the conservative claims to the seats, 
caused much dissatisfaction. On 6 July 1906 
a motion to take into consideration his 
proceedings at Yarmouth was introduced 
into the House of Commons by Mr. Swift 
MacNeill, nationalist M.P. for South Done- 
gal. Grantham was severely criticised and 
as strongly defended. At the suggestion 
of the prime minister, Sir Henry Campbell- 
Bannerman, the house decHned ' to take 
the first step in a course which must lead 
to nothing less than the removal of the 
judge from the bench.' Grantham felt 
the stigma deeply, but was unwise enough 
to revive the memory of the debate, some 
five years later (7 Feb. 1911), by an in- 
discreet speech to the grand jury at Liver- 
pool, which brought upon him in the House 
of Commons from Mr. Asquith, the prime 
minister, the severest rebuke which has 




ever been dealt to an English judge by 
a minister of the crown. Yet Grantham 
was perfectly sincere in liia l)cli(^f that in the 
discharge of his office he was uninfluenced bv 
pohtical partiality, nor was Mr. Arthur Hal- 
four exceeding the truth when he declared in 
the course of the 1906 debate that ' a more 
transparently natural candid man than Mr. 
Justice Grantham never exercised judicial 

A fine model of the English country 
gentleman, a liberal landlord, always ready to 
champion tiie cause of iiis poorer neigiibours 
against local boards and the red tape of 
ofhcialdom.^Grantham was devoted to all 
out-of-door sports; he was a notable critic 
of horseflesh, was one of the founders 
of the Pegasus Club, and used to act as 
judge at the bar point to point races. 
An enthusiastic volunteer, he would some- 
times appear at the ' Inns of Court ' dinners 
in the scarlet coat, which had descended 
to him from an ancestor, of the old Blooms- 
bury Association or * Devil's Own.' In 
the long vacation of 1910 he paid a visit 
to Canada, and won all hearts by his 
picturesque personality and outspoken 
opinions. Though he had sat on the bench 
for upwards of a quarter of a century, and 
had been for some years the senior puisne, 
his physical powers showed no sign of 
decay when he succumbed to a sharp 
attack of pneumonia, d5dng at Ms house 
in Eaton Square on 30 Nov. 1911. He was 
buried at Barcombe. 

He married on 16 Feb. 1865 Emma, 
eldest daughter of Richard Wilson of Chid- 
dingley, Sussex, who survived him ; there 
was issue of the marriage two sons and five 
daughters. A portrait of Grantham by A. 
Stuart-Wortley is at Barcombe ; an earlier 
oil painting by Bernard Lucas is in the 
jwssession of his younger son, Mr. F. W. 

[The Times, 1 Dec. 1911 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Foster's Men at the Bar ; Hansard, 
4th series, clx. 370, 6th series, xxii. 366; 
personal knowledge.] J. B. A. 

1907), economist, son of Benjamin Gray, 
congregational minister, by his wife Emma 
Jane Kirkman, was born on 11 Aug. 1862 
at Blandford, Dorset. He was educated 
privately by his father, and read omni- 
vorously on his own account. In 1876 
he entered a London warehouse, but found 
the work distasteful. His father vetoed, 
in 1882, a plan which he had formed of 
emigrating, and from 1883 to 1886 he 
taught in private schools, at the same time 

eagerly pursuing Ws own studies. Of nenM- 
tive and self-centred temiKjraraent, he 
interested himself early in social questions. 

In September 1886 Gray entered New 
College, Ivondon, to prepare for the congre- 
gational ministry. He paid much attention 
to economics and won the Ricardo economic 
scholarship at University College. In 1892 
he went to Leeds to work under the Rev. 
R. Westrope at Bclgrave (congregational) 
Chapel. But congregational orthodoxy dis- 
satisfied liim, and in 1894 he joined the 
Unitarians. He served as unitarian minis- 
ter at Warwick from that year till 1897. 
From 1898 to 1902 he was in London, 
engaged in social work at the Bell Street 
Mission, Edgware Road, and studying at first 
hand the economic problem of philanthropy. 
His views took a strong socialistic bent, 
and he joined the Independent Labour 
Party. But a breakdown in health soon 
compelled his retirement from active work. 
Removing to Hampstead he devoted him- 
self to research into the history of philan- 
thropic movements in England. In 1905 
he lectured at the London School of Econo- 
mics on the philanthropy of the eighteenth 
century. He died of angina pectoris on 
23 June 1907, at Letch worth, whither he 
had been drawn by his interest in the 
social experiment of the newly established 
Garden City. His ashes were buried there 
after cremation. In 1898 Gray married 
Miss Eleanor Stone, who edited his Hterary 

' The History of English Philanthropy 
from the Dissolution of the Monasteries to 
the First Census ' (1905) and ' Philanthropy 
and the State ' (pubHshed posthumously, 
1910) are substantial embodiments of much 
original research and thought. Gray traces 
tlirough the social history of the nineteenth 
century a uniform tendency, whereby the 
effort of the individual is replaced by 
that of the State. In spite of his strong 
socialist convictions he writes with scholarly 
restraint and fairness, and tlurows light on 
tangled conditions of contemporary life. 

[A Modem Humanist : miscellaneous papers 
by B. Kirkman Gray, with a memoir by H. B. 
Binns and Clementina Black, 1910.] 


1905), baptist minister and bibliophile, bom 
at Fahnouth on 20 Dec. 1822, was eldest son 
of the family of five soas and four daughters 
of Samuel Green, baptist minister, of Fal- 
mouth and afterwards of Thrapston andLon- 
don, by his wife Eliza, daughter of Benjamin 
Lepard, of cidtured Huguenot descent. 
From 1824 to 1834 Green was with his 




family at Thrapston, and when they 
moved to Walworth in 1834 he was sent 
to a private school at Camberwell, where 
his literary tastes were encouraged. After 
leaving school, and until the age of nineteen, 
he worked in the printing-office of John 
Haddon in Finsbury, and then acted as 
tutor in private schools at Cambridge 
and Saffron Walden. 

In 1840 he entered Stepney College 
(now Regent's Park College) to prepare 
for the baptist ministry, and graduated 
B.A. in the University of London in 1843. 
After ministerial posts at High Wycombe 
in 1844 and at Taunton in 1847, he became, 
in 1851, classical and mathematical tutor 
at Horton (now Rawdon) College, Brad- 
ford, and was from 1863 to 1876 president 
there. He impressed his students as a 
scholar of broad sympathies and a stimu- 
lating teacher (Prof. Medley in Centenary 
of Rawdon College, 1904; Rev. James 
Stuart in Watford Observer, Sept. 1905). 

As a preacher Green proved a special 
favourite with children. Long connected 
with the Sunday School Union, where he 
succeeded his father as editor of the monthly 
' Notes on Lessons,' he was elected in 1894 
a vice-president of the union. His addresses 
and lectures to children on the Bible and 
his contributions to the ' Union Magazine ' 
were afterwards separately published under 
various titles. He also wrote for children 
' The Written Word ' (12mo. 1871), a book 
of merit; 'The Apostle Peter' (1873; 3rd 
edit. 1883), and ' The Kingdoms of Israel 
and Judah' (2 vols. 1876-7). As the first 
Ridley lecturer at Regent's Park College in 
1883, Green delivered the substance of his 
excellent ' Christian Ministry to the Young.' 

In 1876 Green came to London to serve 
as editor, and in 1881 as editorial secretary, 
of the Religious Tract Society. Thence- 
forth his main energies were devoted to 
literary work, in which towards the end of 
his long life he was aided by his elder son, 
Prof. S. W. Green. His most important 
work was his ' Handbook to the Grammar 
of the Greek Testament,' published in 1870 
(revised editions in 1880, 1885, 1892, and 
1904), which was followed in 1894 by a 
primer which had also a wide circulation. 
A companion volume on the Hebrew of the 
Old Testament appeared in 1901. In 
1898 he published his Angus lecture on 
'The Christian Creed and the Creeds of 
Christendom ' ; in 1903 'A Handbook of 
Church History,' a compact and compre- 
hensive manual ; in 1904 a revised edition 
of Dr. Angus's ' Bible Handbook ' (new 
^and posthumous edition 1907), bringing 

that useful work up to date. In a revised 
edition of the EngKsh Bible (1877), designed 
by Joseph Gumey (1804^1879) [q. v.]. Green, 
with Dr. George Andrew Jacob, headmaster 
of Christ's Hospital (1853-68), was respon- 
sible for the New Testament. For the 
Religious Tract Society's series of ' Pen and 
Pencil Sketches' he wrote wholly or in 
part 'Pictures from England' (1879 and 
1889), 'France' (1878), 'Bible Lands' 
(1879), 'Germany' (1880), 'Scotland' (1883; 
new edit. 1886), and ' Italy ' (1885). 

Green was president of the Baptist 
Union at Portsmouth in 1895, and dehvered 
from the chair two addresses, which were 
published. He also read a paper on 
' Hymnody in our Churches,' a subject 
in which he was deeplv interested. For 
John Rylands (1801-1888) [q. v.] of Man- 
chester he printed for private circulation 
an admirable anthology, ' Hymns of the 
Church Universal' (1885), arid was chair- 
man of the editorial committee of the 
'Baptist Hjminal.' 

An appreciative and widely read critic 
of secular literature, he was the adviser 
of John Rylands's widow, of Stretford near 
Manchester, in various literary and bene- 
volent schemes from the time of her hus- 
band's death in 1888. He and his third son, 
J. Arnold Green, assisted Mrs. Rylands in 
the erection of the John Rylands Library, 
Manchester, which was opened in 1899. 

In 1900 Green received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from the University of St. 
Andrews. Retaining his vitality to the 
last, he died at Streatham on 15 Sept. 1905, 
and was buried in Norwood cemetery. He 
married in October 1848, at Abingdon, 
Berkshire, Elizabeth Leader, eldest daughter 
of James Collier ; she died on 23 May 1905, 
having issue three sons and one daughter. 
His third son, J. Arnold Green, born on 
23 Aug. 1860, died on 13 Sept. 1907. 

A presentation portrait in oils by H. A. 
Olivier, subscribed for in 1900 by students 
of Rawdon and other friends, was handed 
by Green to the college at its annual meeting 
in June 1905. 

Besides the works mentioned and other 
smaller reUgious and educational works, 
Green published : 1. ' Religious Hindrances 
to Religious Revival,' 1845. 2. ' The Work- 
ing-Classes of Great Britain, their Present 
Condition, &c.,' 1850. 3. ' Clerical Sub- 
scription and National Morality ' (Bicen- 
tenary Lectures), 1862. 4. 'What do I 
believe?' 12mo. 1880; Welsh translation, 
1882. 5. ' The Psalms of David and Modern 
Criticism,' 1893. 6. 'The Story of the 
Rehgious Tract Society,' 1899. 




[Momoir by Rev. James Stuart in the Watford 
Observer, Sept. 100'), roprintini and extended 
in the Baptist Handbook, 190G ; Christian 
World, 21 Sept. 1905 ; Athennonm, 23 Sept. 
1905, p. 403 ; personal information kindly 
supplied by Professor S. W. Green.] C. W. 

KATE (184G-1001), artist, was born at 
Cavendish Street, Hoxton, on 17 March 1846, 
being the second daughter of John Greena- 
way, a draughtsman and engraver on wood, 
long connected with the earlier days of the 
' Illustrated I»ndon News ' and Punch.' 
Her mother's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Jones. Early residence at a farmhouse at 
Rolleston, a Nottinghamsliire village, served 
to nourish and confirm her inborn love of 
art ; and she early developed that taste 
for childhood and cherry blossoms which 
became, as it were, her fitting pictorial 
environment. As a girl she studied draw- 
ing in various phices, eventually joining 
the art school at South Kensington, where 
the headmaster, Richard Burchett [q. v.], 
thought highly of her abiUties. One of 
her contemporaries was Ehzabeth Thomp- 
son (afterwards Lady Butler) ; another 
was Helen Paterson, afterwards Mrs. 
William Allingham. She later ' took the 
life' at Heatherley's, and studied under 
Alphonse Legros [q. v. Suppl. II] in the Slade 
School at University College. In 1868, being 
then twenty-two, she exlubited at the Old 
Dudley Gallery a water-colour dramng 
entitled ' Kilmeny.' This was followed 
by other works, e.g. the * Spring Idyll ' 
(' Apple Blossom)' of 1870, in which year she 
also sent to Suffolk Street for the first time 
' A Peeper ' (cliildren playing), which fore- 
shadowed her later successes in the domain 
of Uttle people. In 1877 she sent to the 
Royal Academy (and sold for twenty 
guineas) her first contribution, ' Musing ' ; 
and in 1889 she was elected a lady member 
of the Institute of Painters in Wat«r 
Colours, to which she frequently contri- 
buted portraits, studies, and designs. But 
long ere tliis date she had acliieved a wide 
and well-earned reputation as an inimitable 
exponent of cliild-life, and an inventor of 
children's books of a specific and very 
original kind. Her country experiences 
had stored her imagination with quaint 
costumes and unhackneyed accessories, and 
her quiet habit of mind and fondness for the 
subject enabled her to create a particularly 
engaging gallery of small folk. She was also 
fortunate enough to find in William John 
Loftie [q. v. Suppl. II] and Henry Stacy 
Marks, R.A. [q.v. Suppl. I], friends judicious 
enough to persuade her to cultivate her own 

bent of invention. After preluding for 
Messrs. Marcus Ward of Belfast and for 
others in valentines and Christmas cards, 
and drawing for minor magazines, she made 
a first success in 1879 with * Under the 
Window,' the precursor of a long line of 
popular works, which brought her both 
fame and money, and a list of which is 
given hereafter. She was occasionally 
tempted from her predestined walk by 
demands for book illustrations (e.g. Bret 
Harto's ' Queen of the Pirate Isle '), or by 
eflorts on a larger and more ambitious 
scale ; but in the main she went her own 
way, and confined herself generally to the 
field in which, though she had many 
imitators, she had no formidable rivals. 
Now and then, as in ' Under the Window ' 
and ' Marigold Garden,' she was her own 
rhynier ; but although she possessed a 
true poetic impulse, her executive power 
was hardly on a level with it. As an artist 
she had, however, not only popularity but 
many genuine admirers, who fully appre- 
ciated the individuahty of her charm. 
Ruskin, of whom she was long a favoured 
correspondent, wrote enthusiastically of 
her work in ' Praeterita ' and elsewhere ; 
and both in Germany and France she was 
higMy estimated. Three exhibitions of her 
works took place at the Fine Arts Society 
during her Ufetirae, namely, in 1880, 1891, 
and 1898 ; and these were followed in 
January 1902 by a fourth after her death. 
She died in her fifty-fifth year, on 6 Nov. 
1901, at No. 39 Frognal, Hampstead, the 
house which had been built for her by 
]VIr. Norman Shaw, and where she resided 
with her parents. She was cremated at 
Woking, and her remains were interred at 
Hampstead cemetery. 

Much of Miss Greena way's preUminary 
work was done for the old ' People's 
Magazine,' * Ldttle Folks,' * Cassell's Maga- 
zine,' and the pictorial issues of Messrs. 
Marcus Ward and Co. She illustrated 
! nine of Madame D'Aulnoy's * Fairy Tales ' 
(1871); Miss Katlileen Knox's 'Fairy 
Gifts' (1874); the 'Quiver of Love' 
(\\ith Walter Crane), a collection of valen- 
tines (1876); Mrs. Bonavia Hunt's 
' Poor Nelly' (1878) ; the ' Topo ' of Lady 
CoUn Campbell (1878), further described 
as ' A Tale about English Children in 
Italy ' ; and the ' Heir of RedclyfTe ' 
and 'Heartsease' (1879). Of her first 
real success, * Under the Window, Pictures 
and Rhymes for Cliildren' (1879), nearly 
70,000 copies were sold in England, in 
addition to 30,000 French and German 
issues. Then came 'Kate Greena way's 




Birthday Book for Children ' (1880), with 
verses by Mrs. Sale Barker ; ' Mother 
Goose ; or, the Old Nursery Rhymes ' 
(1881) ; 'A Day in a Child's Life,' with music 
by Myles B. Foster, the organist of the 
FoundUng Hospital (1881) ; and ' Little 
Ann and other Poems,' by Jane and Ann 
Taylor (1883). By the first three and the 
last of these five books she is said to have 
made a clear profit of 8000Z. Next came 
a ' Painting Book of Kate Greenaway ' 
(1884) ; the ' Language of Flowers ' (1884) ; 

* Mavor'£. EngUsh Spelling Book ' (1884) ; 

* Marigold Garden ' (1885) ; ' Kate Green- 
away's Alphabet ' (1885) ; ' Kate Green- 
away's Album' (1885); 'A Apple Pie' 
(1886); *The Queen of the Pirate Isle,' 
by Bret Harte (1886) ; ' The Pied Piper 
of Hamehn,' by Robert Browning (1889) ; 
Kate Greenaway' s ' Book of Games,' 
(1889); 'The Royal Progress of King 
Pepito,' by Beatrice F. Cresswell (1889) ; 
and the ' April Baby's Book of Tunes,' by 
the author of * Ehzabeth and her German 
Garden ' (the Countess von Arnim) (1900). 
From 1883 (two issues) to 1895 she pro- 
duced an annual ' Almanack.' In 1896 
this was discontinued ; but a final number 
appeared in 1897. She designed many very 
beautiful book-plates, that of Frederick 
Locker-Lam pson [q. v- Suppl. I] being a 
fair example ; and she also illustrated for 
Ruskin in 1885 (2nd edit. 1897) an old 
book of nursery rhymes for which he had a 
great admiration, ' Dame Wiggins of Lee 
and her Seven Wonderful Cats.' 

[The chief authority for KLate Greenaway's 
fife is the exhaustive volume published in 1905 
by M. H. Spielmann and G. S. Layard. This, 
amply illustrated by reproductions of draw- 
ings and water-colours, and enriched by 
copious extracts from the artist's correspond- 
ence with Ruskin, is also written with much 
critical insight, and genuine sympathy for 
Miss Greenaway's aims and achievement. To 
a subsequent volume, Kate Greenaway : 
Sixteen Examples in Colour of the Artist's 
Work (Black's British Artists), 1910, Mr. 
Spielmann prefixed a short study. See 
also Ruskin 's Fors Clavigera, and Praeterita ; 
Chesneau's La Peinture Anglaise, 1882 ; 
Alexandre's L'Art du Rire et de la Caricature, 
1893 ; Recollections of Lady Dorothy Nevill, 
1906; and the De Libris of the present 
writer, 1908, pp. 93-104. There is an attrac- 
tive article in the Century Magazine, vol. 75, 
p. 183, by Mr. OHver Locker-Lampson, M.P., 
with whose family Miss Greenaway was on 
terms of friendship.] A. D. 

(1865-1906), writer on ancient history 
and law, second son of Nathaniel Heath 

Greenidge by his wife Elizabeth Cragg 
Kellman, was bom on 22 Dec. 1865 at 
Belle Farm Estate, Barbados, in which 
island his father's family had been settled 
since 1635. His father, for many years 
vicar of Boscobel parish, was afterwards 
headmaster of various schools, and enjoyed 
a high reputation as a teacher. The eldest 
son, Samuel Wilberforce, of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, was 25th wrangler 
in the Cambridge mathematical tripos of 
1886, and died in 1890. 

Greenidge was educated at Harrison 
College, Barbados, winning in 1884 the 
Barbados scholarship, and in the same year 
(15 Oct.) matriculating at Balliol College, 
Oxford. Elected to an exhibition in the 
following year, he was placed in the first 
class both in classical moderations in 1886 
and in the final classical school in 1888. He 
graduated B.A. in the same year, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1891 and D.Litt. in 1904. 
On 5 Dec. 1889 he was elected, after 
examination, fellow of Hertford College. 
There he became lecturer in 1892 and tutor 
in 1902, and he retained these offices until 
his death. He was also lecturer in ancient 
history at Brasenose College from 1892 
to 1905. He vacated his fellowship at 
Hertford on his marriage in 1895, and on 
29 June 1905 was elected to an official 
fellowship at St. John's. He examined in 
the final classical school in 1895-6-7-8. 
He died suddenly at his residence in Oxford 
of an affection of the heart on 11 March 1906, 
and was buried in Holywell churchyard. 

Greenidge married on 29 June 1895 Edith 
Elizabeth, youngest daughter of William 
Lucy of Oxford, and had issue by her 
two sons. On 28 March 1907 a civil list 
pension of 75Z. was granted to his widow 
'in consideration of his services to the 
study of Roman law and history,' but she 
died on 9 July 1907. 

In spite of his early death, and con- 
stant employment in academic teaching, 
Greenidge' s Uterary work is notable for its 
quality and quantity. Shortly after gradu- 
ating he contributed numerous articles to a 
new edition of ' Smith's Dictionary of 
Antiquities ' (1890-1). His first book, ' In- 
f amia, its Place in Roman Public and Private 
Law,' was published at Oxford in 1894. 
There followed 'A Handbook of Greek 
Constitutional History' (1896); 'Roman 
Public Life' (1901), and 'The Legal Pro- 
cedure of Cicero's Time' (Oxford, 1901), 
which was the most important of Green idge's 
completed works. He also revised Sir 
William Smith's ' History of Rome' (1897), 
and the first part (down to the death 




of Justinian) of the ' Student's Gibbon * 
(1899). In 1903, in co-oixiration with Miss 
A. M. Clay, ho produced ' Sources for 
Roman History, b.o. 133-70' (Oxford) 
designed t-o prepare the way for a new 
• History of Rome.' In 1904 he contributed 
an liistorical introduction to the fourth 
edition of Poste's ' Gaius.' In the same 
year appeared the first volume of ' A 
History of Rome during the Later Republic 
and Early Principato,' covering the years 
133 to 104 B.C. Tlus work was designed 
to extend to the accession of Vespasian 
and to fill six volumes, but no second 
volume was issued. Much of Greenidge's 
most interesting work is to be found in 
scattered articles, more particularly in 
the ' Classical Review.' His merit aa an 
historian hes in his accurate accumulation 
of detail, combined with critical insight 
and power of exposition, which were not 
unmixed ^vith occasional paradox. 

A portrait m oils, subscribed for by the 
boys of the school, hangs in the hall of 
Harrison College, Barbados. 

[Oxford Magazine, vol. xxiv. nos. 16 and 
17 ; Journal of Comp. Legislation, new series, 
vol. vii. pt. i. p. 282 ; private information.] 

R. W. L. 

1909), journalist, bom in London on 
25 March 1830, was eldest child in the 
family of eleven children of James Caer 
Greenwood, a coach-builder in Kensington, 
by his wife Mary Fish. His brother, James 
Greenwood, made a reputation as a volumi- 
nous story writer and journalist. Charles 
Greenwood {d. 1905), a popular sporting 
writer, best known as ' Hotspur ' of the 
' Daily Telegraph,' was no relation. Fred- 
erick, after being privately educated in 
Kensington, was apprenticed at about the 
age of fifteen to a firm of publishers and 
printers, but his indentures were volun- 
tarily cancelled by the head of the firm in 
a year, and he was engaged as a reader. 
In 1851 Messrs. Clarke, Bee ton & Co. 
consulted him as to the publication of the 
first English reprint of ' Uncle Tom's 
Cabin' (Tatler, 4 Dec. 1901). From the 
age of sixteen he supported himself, and at 
twenty he married (1850). 

Greenwood was soon writing for papers 
and magazines. In 1853 he contributed a 
' Life of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte ' 
to a general account of ' The Napoleon 
Dj-nasty,' described as \vTitten ' by the 
Berkeley men and another.' It was 
republished imder his own name with the 
title ' Life of Napoleon III, Emperor of the 
French,' in 1855; in a brief introduction 

Greenwood ' conf eBses to little knowledge 
of " politics " and lens cars.' The book 
shows a real comprehension of politics, 
and gives promise of the writer's mature 
stylo and method. For a time hia chief 
ambition was to make a reputation ae a 
novelist and story writer. In 1864 ap- 
peared * The Loves of an Apothecary.' 
To 'Tait's Magazine' he contributed a 
story, ' The Path of Roses,' republished with 
numerous illustrations in 1869. A three- 
volume novel, ' Under a Cloud,' written in 
collaboration with his brother James, 
appeared first in ' The Welcome Guest * 
and then as a separate publication in 1860. 
He was a constant contributor to the 
' Illustrated Times,' a paper started by 
Henry Vizetelly [q. v.] in 1855, just before 
the repeal of the Stamp Act (cf. Vizetelly's 
Glances Back, 1893). 

In September 1861 Greenwood became 
first editor of the * Queen,' at the outset a 
profusely illustrated paper, which gave a 
certain prominence to fashions but was 
largely literary and political. In July 
1863 the ' Queen ' was combined with 
the ' Lady's Newspaper,' and Greenwood's 
connection with it ceased. Meanwhile 
he had established close relations with 
George Smith, chief proprietor of the pub- 
lishing firm of Smith, Elder & Co. He 
contributed (Feb. 1860) ' An Essay without 
an End ' to the second number of the 
' Cornhill Magazina,' which Smith in- 
augurated under Thackeray's editorship. 
Greenwood's strongest story, ' Margaret 
Denzil's History,' which contains powerful 
drawing of character, appeared in the 
magazine in 1863, and separately in Novem- 
ber 1864 (2 vols.). When Thackeray re- 
signed the editorship in 1862, Greenwood 
and George Henry Lewes [q. v.] directed 
the ' Cornhill ' under George Smith's 
superintendence. Lewes withc&ew in 1864, 
and Greenwood was sole editor till 1868. 
But his bent was to journalism of the 
highest kind. A scheme for an independent 
daily paper, to be largely modelled both 
in form and tone on Canning's * Anti- 
Jacobin,' had been for some time in his 
mind, and ho had proposed it to Mr. Parker, 
owner and publisher of * Eraser's Magazine/ 
who declin^ immediate action. Greenwood 
did not contemplate acting as editor, and 
consulted Carlyle on the choice of one. 
Meanwhile George Smith was considering a 
like design, and when Greenwood brought 
his scheme to him in 1861, ho at once re- 
solved to give it effect. Greenwood, to his 
surprise, was appointed editor. Smith's 
partner, Henry Samuel King, declined 




responsibility, and the venture was Smith's 
personal concern. A brilliant band of con- 
tributors, most of whom were already in 
personal relations with Smith as a pubUsher, 
was collected. The paper was named the ' Pall 
Mall Gazette,' after the journal described in 
Thackeray's ' Pendennis.' The hrst number 
appeared on 7 Feb. 1865 [see Smith, George, 
Suppl. I]. The ' Pall Mall ' struggled with 
difficulty into financial success, but its 
triumph was secured early in 1866, by the 
publication in it of 'A NigM in a Casual 
Ward, by an Amateur Casual,' three papers 
written by James Greenwood at the sugges- 
tion of his brother. In Greenwood's words 
they served ' to cut the rope of the 
balloon.' After 1868 Greenwood became 
entirely absorbed in the paper. 

As editor he acquired an exceptional per- 
sonal influence. Able writers covered under 
his guidance a wide field of interests, social, 
literary, and political. But the marked 
character of the ' Pall Mall ' was given 
by Greenwood's individuality. (Sir) Leslie 
Stephen [q. v. Suppl. II], long a con- 
tributor, called the paper 'the incarna- 
tion of Greenwood.' His dominance was 
especially great on the political side. He 
haxi shared the liberal opinions of his 
generation, and he never became a con- 
servative in the strict party sense. 
Thoroughly patriotic, he was no bUnd 
follower of any party leader. A vigilant 
observer of foreign affairs, and a profound 
admirer of Bismarck, he came to distrust 
Gladstone's domestic and foreign policy. 
The foreign policy of the conservative 
government of 1874-80 found in him an 
ardent champion. The keen watch he kept 
on events abroad enabled him in 1875 to 
acquire early information of the intention 
of the Khedive Ismail Pasha to sell his Suez 
Canal shares, and of the serious risk that 
they would pass into the possession of a 
French sj^dicate. He at once communi- 
cated first with the foreign secretary. Lord 
Derby, who was not inclined to move in the 
matter, and then with the prime minister. 
Lord Beaconsfield, who acted on his advice. 
There is no doubt that the purchase of the 
shares was first suggested by Greenwood, 
although his claim to that credit has been 
questioned (letters by Greenwood and others 
in The Times, 15 April, 11 May, 27 Dec. 
1905 ; 13, 26 Jan., 10 Feb. 1906). Through 
the Russo-Turkish war of 1876-8 he 
vehemently attacked in the ' Pall Mall ' 
Gladstone's sentimental crusade against 
Turkey, the maintenance of whose integrity 
was in his opinion a primary English 

In April 1880 the * Pall Mall Gazette,' 
then (in Leshe Stephen's phrase) ' the most 
thorough-going of Jingo newspapers,' was 
presented by its proprietor, George Smith, to 
his son-in-law, Mr. Henry Yates Thompson, 
who avowed his intention to convert the 
paper into a radical poHtical organ. Green- 
wood and all the members of the staff left. 
At the beginning of May the ' St. James's 
Gazette ' was founded by some members 
of the firm of Antony Gibbs & Co., in order 
to give Greenwood the opportunity of con- 
tinuing his advocacy of the old policy of 
the ' Pall Mall ' [see Gibbs, Henry Hucks, 
Lord Aldenham, Suppl. II]. In the new 
paper Greenwood fought for the same cause 
with the same spirit and capacity as in the 
old. He powerfully advocated the occupa- 
tion of Egypt in 1882, and was the whole- 
hearted opponent of the Irish nationaUsts. 
No newspaper helped more effectively 
to destroy Gladstone's power and to pre- 
pare the way for the long predominance 
of the unionist party. But various causes, 
of which the strongest was the decHne of a 
taste for serious joumahsm in the pubHc, 
rendered it impossible for the ' St. James's ' 
to attain to the prosperity of the ' Pall 
Mall.' After the death of one of the pro- 
prietors, George Gibbs, on 26 Nov. 1886 the 
financial control passed to his cousin Henry, 
who was not equally in harmony with 
Greenwood's views. In 1888 Greenwood 
persuaded Edward Steinkopff to buy the 
paper. But the new proprietor refused his 
editor the freedom he had so far enjoyed, 
and Greenwood retired suddenly and in 
anger within the year. In January 1891 
he founded in pursuit of an early design the 
' Anti- Jacobin,' at first as a threepenny 
and then as a sixpenny weekly paper. But 
the taste of the pubHc was against him 
here also, and the ' Anti-Jacobin ' was 
discontinued in January 1892. 

Meanwhile Greenwood became a con- 
tributor to the ' Saturday Review ' and other 
papers, and to ' Blackwood's ' and the chief 
magazines, and he engaged anew in Htera- 
ture, publishing ' The Lover's Lexicon ' 
in 1893 and ' Imagination in Dreams ' 
in 1894. A series of papers which appeared 
in * Blackwood's' under the general title of 
the 'Looker On' in 1898-9 ceased owing 
to the support given by the magazine to 
the war in South Africa. On that subject 
Greenwood shared the views of the pro- 
Boers. He always distrusted Mr. Chamber- 
lain and the radical unionists, and had a 
scornful disHke of the South African 

Greenwood, who was quick to detect 





literary merit, was the j)rivato adviser of 
many literary men who achiovod eminence. 
(Jeorgo Meredith was among his friends, and 
drew him jus Richard llt>cknoy in ' Celt and 
Saxon' (1910) (of. W. T. Stead in Renew 
of Jieview/i, July 1910, p. 57). At a dinner 
given in liis honour in London on 9 April 
1905, Mr. J. M. Barrio 8jK)kc warmly of 
his debt to (Jreenwoocl's early encourage- 
ment. His editorial skill and instinct were 
only equalled by the i)erfect sincerity of 
his opimons, and his absolute disinterested- 
ness. Greenwood died at liis house in 
Sydenham on 14 Dec. 1909. 

Greenwood's \vife,Katherine Darby, whom 
he married in 1850, belonged to a landed 
family of Quaker connections in Hampsliire. 
She died in 1900. Of Greenwood's five 
children, a son and two daughters survived 
him. His daughters were granted a civil 
list ix^nsion of 100/. in 1910. 

[Information from the family ; personal 
knowledge; Leslie Stephen's Life of Fitz- 
james Stephen, 1895 ; Herbert Paul's 
History of Modern England, 1905, vols. iii. 
and iv. ; Tinsley, Random Recollections, 
i. 303. Maitland's Life of Leslie Stephen 
(1905) and Hyndraan's Record of an Adven- 
turous Career (1911) give estimates of Green- 
wood as editor from contributors' points 
of view.] 

GREENWOOD, THOMAS (1851-1908), 
promoter of public hbraries, son of William 
and Nanny Greenwood, was bom at Wood- 
ley, near Stockport, Cheshire, on 9 May 
1851, and educated at the village school. 
Benefiting by membersliip of a mutual 
improvement society conducted by WiUiara 
Urwick [q. v. Suppl. II.], then congre- 
gational minister of Hatherlow, Cheshire, 
he made excellent use of the Manchester 
pubhc Ubrary and similar institutions. 
After serving as clerk in a local hat works 
ho was for a short time a traveller with a 
Sheffield firm, and then for about three 
years assistant in a branch library at 
Sheffield. About 1871 he removed to 
I>mdon to join the staff of the ' Iron- 
monger.' In 1875 with W. Hoseason 
Smith he founded the firm of Smith, 
Greenwood & Co., afterwards Scott, Green- 
wood & Co., printers and publishers of 
trade journals and technical books. 
The firm at once founded the ' Hatters' 
Gazette,' and the * Pottery Gazette,' an 
organ of the glass and china industries, 
and in 1879 the ' Oil and Colour Trades 
Journal.' Greenwood himself was the chief 
editor of these journals. He superintended 
all the pubhcations of the firm, which 
included many important technical works. 

His early acquaintance with public 
Hbraries and his i)ersonal gratitude to 
them convinced him of the need of increas- 
ing their number and improving their 
organisation. Thanks U) nis advocacy 
many rate-supported hbraries were opened 
in London and elsewhere in commemora- 
tion of the jubilee of Queen Victoria. His 
manual on ' l*ublic Libraries, their Organis- 
ation, Uses and Management,' appeared in 
1886 and at once took standard rank. 
The work reached a fifth edition in 

A warm admirer of Edward Edwards 
(1812-1886) [q. v.], a pioneer of municipal 
public libraries, Greenwood collected his 
{personal rehcs and part of his hbrary, and 
these he presented, with a handsome book- 
case, to the Manchester public library, of 
wliich Edwards was the first hbrarian. In 
1902 he wrote an interesting biography 
of Edwards, embodying the early history 
of the Ubrary movement, and he placed a 
granite monument over Edwards's grave at 
Niton, Isle of Wight. 

Greenwood formed a large bibliographical 
library, illustrating all phases of biblio- 
graphical work and research, which he 
presented to the Manchester public library 
in 1906, making additions to it afterwards, 
and leaving at his death sufficient money for 
its maintenance. ' The Thomas Greenwood 
Library for Librarians ' contains about 
12,000 volumes. He also founded a small 
library at Hatherlow in honour of his old 
pastor WiUiain Urwick. 

Formerly a fellow of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, Greenwood travelled 
extensively, and in Japan in 1907 con- 
tracted an illness of which ho died at Frith 
Knowl, Elstree, Hertfordshire, on 9 Nov. 
1908. His remains after cremation at 
Golder's Green were interred at Hatherlow 
congregational church. He married Mari- 
anne, daughter of Wilham Pettet, and had 
a son and two daughters. 

In addition to the works named he wrote : 
1. ' A Tour in the United State® and 
Canada,' 1883. 2. ' Eminent NaturaUsts,' 
j 1886. 3. ' Grace Montrose, an unfashion- 
' able novel,' 1886, 4. ' Museums and Art 
Galleries,' 1888. 5. 'Sunday School and 
Village Libraries,' 1892 ; 6. ' Greenwood's 
Library Year Book,' 1897, 1900, 1901. 

[The Times, and Manchester Guardian, 
11 Nov. 1908; Oil and Colour Trades 
Journal, 14 Nov. 1908 (with portrait) ; Who's 
Who, 1908; W. E. A. Axon in Library 
Association Record, June 1907 (description of 
the library for librarians) ; personal know- 
ledge.] C. W. S. 


1 60 


GREGO, JOSEPH (1843-1908), writer 
on art, bom on 23 Sept. 1843 at 23 Gran- 
ville Square, Clerkenwell, was elder son of 
Joseph Grego (1817-1881), a looking-glass 
manufacturer, by his wife Louisa EmeHa 
Dawley. His grandfather, Antonio Grego, 
a native of Como, settled in London before 
1821 as a looking-glass manufacturer, the 
firm becoming Susan Grego & Sons in 
1839, and Charles & Joseph Grego in 
1845. After education at private schools 
Grego was for a time with Lloyds, the under- 
writers. Inheriting the spirit of collecting 
from his father, he drifted into that pursuit, 
combining it with dealing, art joumahsm, 
and authorship. He specialised as writer 
and collector in the work of Gillray, Row- 
landson, Morland, and Cruikshank, and was 
an acknowledged authority on all of them. 
He was chiefly responsible for the edi- 
tion of James Gillray' s 'Works' in 1873, 
although the name of Thomas Wright 
(1810-77) [q. v.] alone appears in the 
title-page, and he edited ' Rowlandson the 
Caricaturist' (2 vols. 4to, 1880). Both 
books, which illustrate Grego's compre- 
hensive and thorough method of work, 
became standard books of reference. He 
collected much material for a life of 
Morland, which he did not complete. 
In 1904 he published ' Cruikshank's 
Water Colours,' with an introduction 
and reproductions in colours. In 1874 
he compiled a volume of ' Thackerayana ' 
(dated 1875), based upon books with 
marginal and other sketches, from Thack- 
eray's sale ; owing to copyright difficulties 
the volume was immediately suppressed, 
but was reissued in 1898 (cf. Athenceum, 
9 May 1908). A frequent writer on art in 
periodicals and the press, and editor of 

* Pears' Pictorial,' 1893-6, he wrote 'History 
of Parhamentary Elections in the Old 
Days, from the Time of the Stuarts to 
Victoria' (1886; new edit. 1892), and edited 
R. H. Gronow's ' Reminiscences ' with illus- 
trations *made up' from contemporary 
prints (1889) ; VuiUier's 'History of Danc- 
ing,' to which he contributed a sketch of 
dancing in England (1898); 'Pictorial 
Pickwickiana : Charles Dickens and his 
Illustrators ' (2 vols. 1899); and Goldsmith's 

* Vicar of Wakefield,' including Forster's 
essay on the story (1903). 

Grego, who was always ready to lend 
prints and drawings for public exhibitions, 
occupied much of his time in organising 
exhibitions, chiefly of 'Enghsh Humorists 
in Art.' He was himself facile with his 
pencil, doing much work as a designer of 
theatrical costumes, and etching the designs 

of others. He invented a system of repro- 
ducing eighteenth-century colour prints 
in such exact facsimile that they have 
often been mistaken for originals. He was 
a director of Carl Hentschel, Ltd., photo- 
engravers, 1899-1908, and a substantial 
shareholder in the firm of Kegan Paul 
& Co. (of which company he was a director 
from Jan. 1903 till his death) and of 
the ' Graphic ' Company. 

He died unmarried on 24 Jan. 1908 at 23 
Granville Square, where he was bom and 
which he occupied all his life. His vast 
accumulations of prints, drawings, and books 
were dispersed on his death (at Christie's 
28 April and 4 June 1908, and at Puttick 
and Simpson's April, June, and July 1908). 

Jules Bastien-Lepage drew a small head 
of Grego in pen and ink on a visit to 
London, about 1880-1. 

[The Times, 28 Jan. 1908; Athenaeum, 
2 Feb. 1908; Graphic, 1 Feb. 1908 (with 
portrait from a photo) ; information kindly 
supplied by his only sister, Mrs. Bruce- 
Johnston, by Mr. Thomas J. Barrafct, and 
by Mr. H. Thornber.] W. R. 

(1819-1905), Austrahan explorer and poUti- 
cian, bom on 1 Aug. 1819 at Famsfield, 
Nottinghamshire, was second son of Lieu- 
tenant Joshua Gregory, of an old Notting- 
hamshire family, by his wife Frances, sister 
of Charles Blissett Churchman of London. 
His father, a Heutenant in the 78th 
regiment (Ross-shire Buffs), was wounded 
at El Hamed in Egypt, and compelled to 
retire from the service, receiving in lieu 
of pension a grant of land in the new 
settlement on the Swan River (now Western 
Australia), whither he went with his wife 
and family in Jime 1829. 

After being privately educated in England 
and in his new home, young Gregory in 
1841 obtained employment in the survey 
department of Western Australia, and in 
August 1842 he was appointed assistant 
surveyor, holding the office till November 
1854. In 1846, having obtained leave 
of absence, he began exploring work in 
the interior of the continent, starting on 
7 August from Bolgart Spring, accompanied 
by his brothers Francis Thomas and Henry. 
He was soon stopped, however, in his 
progress eastward by an immense salt lake 
which compelled him to turn north-west, 
where he discovered some excellent seams 
of coal at the headwaters of the river Irwin. 
In September 1848 he led a party (some- 
times known as the ' Settlers' Expedition ') 
to the northward, and succeeded in reaching 
a point 350 miles north of Perth. The 






ro8ult« of tho expedition wore to reveal 
tlio pivstoral woaltli of tho MvirohiHon and 
Champion Bay dintricts and tho disoovory 
of a lode of galona in tho bod of tho Murchi- 
Hon rivor. Later in tho same year (:irogory 
accompanied the j^ovemor, Oapt. Charlos 
Fitzgerald, R.N., on a visit to the mineral 
discovery, which proved to be of more 
importance than was at first supposed. 

In 1855-6 Gregory undertook an expedi- 
tion under the auspices of the Royal 
Geographical Society with the dual purpose 
of exploring the previously unknown in- 
terior of the northern territory of Australia 
and searching for traces of the lost explorer 
Friedrich Wilholm Ludmg Leichhardt[q. v.]. 
Starting from the mouth of the Victoria 
river, the party ascended that river to its 
source, crossed the watershed to the 
southward-flowing Sturt creek, and then 
made its way to the gulf of Carpentaria 
and thence to the Dawson and across the 
northern peninsula to the east coast. The 
result was the shedding of much light on 
the rivers of this region, the discovery of 
the water parting fonned by the Newcastle 
ranges, and the charting in sixteen months 
of 5000 miles of hitherto unknown wilds, 
but no certain traces of Leichhardt were 
found. For his achievements on this 
expedition Gregory was in 1857 awarded 
the founder's medal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. 

In 1858 he undertook his last exploring 
expedition, when he was despatched by the 
New South Wales government to renew 
the search for Leichhardt. He started 
from Sydney on 12 Jan. and reached the 
Barcoo in April. In latitude 24° 25' and 
longitude 145° S. he found a tree marked L 
and some stumps of others which had been 
felled with an axe. In May he reached the 
Thompson river, and followed it till it ran 
out in plains of baked clay. He then 
pushed down Cooper and Strzlecki Creek, 
and arrived at Adelaide after a seven 
months' exploration, which left the fate of 
Leichhardt as much in doubt as ever. 

On his return from his last expedition 
he was employed in defining the southern 
boundary of Queensland, and became 
surveyor-general for the new colony, a post 
which he held from 23 Dec. 1859 to 11 
March 1875. Thenceforward until 1 Sept. 
1879 he was geological siuveyor of the 
southern district of the colony. On 10 Nov. 
1882 he was nominated a member of the 
legislative council, but did not take his seat 
tiU 26 June 1883. He played a prominent 
part in the debates, his intimate knowledge 
of the country and its resources and his 

VOL. Lxvm. — SUP. n. 

fund of sdcntifio and other infonnation 
securing him an att-cntivo hearing even 
from those who difTere<l from him. It wafl 
his custom to sit always on tho opposition 
benches, in order that ho might bo moro 
free to criticise the varioiis government 

Gregory took an active interest in 
municipal affairs. He was one of the first 
members of the Toowong shire council, and 
when the shire was gazetted a town in 1902 
he was chosen first mayor. He was a 
trustee of the Queensland Museum from 
1876 to 1899, and from 1876 to 1883 sat on 
the commission to inquire into the condition 
of the aborigines. 

He took a keen interest in scientific 
work of all kinds, and in 1895 was president 
at Brisbane of the Australian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, devoting 
his opening address to a sketch of the 
geological and geographical history of 

He was created C.M.G. on 27 Feb. 1875, 
and K.C.M.G. on 9 Nov. 1903. He died 
unmarried on 25 June 1905 at his resi- 
dence, Rain worth, Brisbane, and was buried 
in Toowong cemetery. 

Gregory, according to Sir Hugh Nelson, 
' contributed more to the exact physical, 
geological, and geographical knowledge of 
Austraha than any other man, for his 
explorations have extended to west, north, 
east, south, and central Austraha.' He 
was joint author of * Journals of Aus- 
trahan Exploration ' (Brisbane, 1884) with 
his brother, Francis Thomas Gregory 
(1821-1888), who was in the survey ofiice 
of Western Austraha from 1842 to 1860 ; 
Francis accompanied his brother Augustus 
in his first exploring expedition in 1846, and 
led two expeditions himself in 1858 and 
1861, being awarded the gold medal of the 
Royal Geographical Society in 1863 ; going 
to Queensland in 1862, he was nominated to 
the legislative council in 1874, and was for 
a short time postmaster-general in the first 
McDwraith Ministry. 

[The Times, and Brisbane Courier, 26 June 
1905; West Australian, 27 June 1905; 
Geographical Journal, vol. 26, 1905 ; Western 
Australian Year Book for 1902-4 ; Mcnnell's 
Diet, of Australas. Biop., 1892 ; Burke's 
Colonial Gentry, 1891 ; Favenco's History of 
Australian Exploration, 1888 ; Blain's Cyclo- 
ptcdia of Australasia, 1881 ; Heaton's Aus- 
tralian Dictionary of Dates, 1879 ; Howitt's 
History of Discovery in Australia, vol. ii. 
1865 ; Tenison Woods's History of the 
Discovery and Exploration of Australia, vol. 
I IL 1865.] C. A. 




1909), painter, born in Southampton on 19 
April 1850, was grandson of John Gregory, 
engineer-in-chief of the auxiUary engines in 
Sir John Franklin's last Arctic expedition, 
and was eldest child (in a family of three sons 
and five daughters) of Edward Gregory, a 
ship's engineer, by his wife Mary Ann Taylor. 
On leaving Dr. Cruikshank's private school 
at fifteen he entered the drawing-office, 
in his native town, of the Peninsular and 
Oriental steamship company, in whose em- 
ploy his father sailed ; but though always 
keenly interested in all kinds of mechanism, 
he had set his mind upon being a painter. 
Making the acquaintance at Southampton 
of Hubert Herkomer (now Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer, R.A.), whose family had settled 
there, he started a life-class with him. In 
1869 Gregory went to London, and with 
Herkomer joined the South Kensington Art 
School. Subsequently he studied for a short 
time at the Royal Academy. He was soon 
employed in the decorations of the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, and in 1871, with his 
friends Herkomer and Robert Walker Mac- 
beth [q. V. Suppl. II], began working for the 
' Graphic,' which had just been started 
by WiUiam Luson Thomas [q. v. Suppl. I]. 
Gregory at first contributed sketches from 
the theatres, but soon freely transcribed 
sketches sent home from the French army 
at the front by Mr. Sydney P. Hall. Gre- 
gory's illustrations, which were sometimes 
signed by both himself and Hall, dis- 
covered the variety and ingenuity of his 
draughtsmanship. He ceased to work 
regularly for the ' Graphic ' about 1875. 

Gregory was not a frequent exhibitor 
at Burhngton House. His mark as a 
painter was first made by an oil-painting, 
' Dawn ' (now in the possession of Mr. John 
Sargent, R.A.), originally shown at Des- 
champs' gallery in 1879. Much of his best 
work appeared at the exhibitions of the 
Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, 
of which he was elected associate in 1871 
and member in 1876. He succeeded Sir 
James Linton as president in 1898. From 
1875 to 1882 his contributions to the 
Academy were mainly portraits, including 
that of Duncan McLaren, M.P., a repUca 
of which is in the Scottish National Portrait 
Gallery. As early as 1883 he was elected 
with Macbeth to the associateship, and he 
became academician in 1898, after the 
completion and exhibition of his ' Boulter's 
Lock : Simday Afternoon,' a work which 
hardly justified the years of elaboration 
spent upon it. 

Gregory's art was honoured abroad, 

both his oils and his water-colours being 
awarded gold medals at the inter- 
national exhibitions of Paris (1889 and 
1900) and Brussels (1898), and at the 
Munich Jahresausstellung (1891). Pro- 
bably his water-colours and some of his 
drawings on wood will have a more enduring 
fame than his oils. In all mediums he 
showed cleverness and resource as a 
draughtsman, and a technical skill that was 
especially remarkable in his water-colours. 
His art suffered in the end through a fas- 
tidious preoccupation with the technical 
problems of his craft. For many years his 
paintings, which were not numerous, were 
acquired as soon as they were finished by 
Charles J. Galloway of Manchester, at whose 
death they were dispersed with the rest 
of his collection at Christie's on 24 June 
1905, Gregory's water-colours bringing large 

Besides ' Dawn ' and ' Boulter's Lock,' 
Gregory's principal oil pictures were ' Pic- 
cadilly : Drawing-room Day ' (R.A. 1883) ; 
' Last Touches,' ' St. George ' (which was 
etched by Paul Rajon), 'Miss Galloway,' 
'The Intruders' (R.A. 1884); 'Maroon- 
ing' (now in the Tate Gallery) (R.A. 
1887); 'Fanny Bunter ' and ' Apres,' 
his diploma picture (R.A. 1890); and 
' Spoils of Opportunity ' (R.A. 1893). His 
chief contributions to the Royal Institute 
were : ' The Inception of a Song,' * The 
Honeymoon,' ' Sir Galahad,' ' The Sanctum 
Invaded,' 'A Look at the Model,' ' Souvenir 
of the Institute,' 'The Fugitive,' 'Master 

Gregory, despite a bad stammer, showed 
unusual aptitude for affairs as president of 
the Institute and was a conscientious and 
popular visitor at the schools of the Academy, 
in the counsels of which he exerted much 
weight. He died at his residence, Brompton 
House, Great Mario w, on 22 June 1909, and 
was buried in Great Marlow churchyard. 
He married in 1876 Mary, daughter of 
Joseph Joyner, who survived him without 

' A Look at the Model ' (the property 
of Mr. H. W. Henderson) and the ' Souvenir 
of the Institute ' are self-portraits. Two 
other portraits of himself, painted by him 
in 1875 and 1883, are in the possession of 
Mrs. Alfred Henry, London. A portrait by 
John Parker, R.W.S., belongs to his widow. 
Early in his career Gregory was invited 
to contribute his portrait to the Uffizi 
Gallery at Florence, but never finished 
one to his satisfaction. 

[Private information ; Graves's Royal 
Academy Exhibitors, 1905-6.] D. S. M. 




GREGORY, ROBERT (1819-1911), dean 

of St. raiil's, lK)m at Nottingham on 9 Feb. 
1819, was the oldest son of Kohort Gregory, 
mercliant, of Nottingham by his wife Anno 
Sophia, daughter of Alderman Oldknow, 
grocer, Nottingham. His parents were 
methodists; both died in 1824. Educated 
privatt>ly, Gregory entered a Liveqwol 
shipping-oflfice in 1835. At the age of 
twenty -one, influenced by the ' Tracts for 
the Times,' he resolved to be ordained. 
He was admitted a gentleman commoner of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 2 April 
1840 ; graduated B.A. in 1843, proceeding 
M.A. in 1846, and D.D. in 1891 ; was Denyer 
theological prizeman in 1850 ; and was 
ordained deacon in 1843, priest in 1844, 
by the bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 
After serving the curacies of Bisley, Glou- 
cestershire (1843-7), Panton and Wragby, 
Lincolnshire (1847-51), and Lambeth parish 
church (1851-3), Gregory was from 1853 to 
1873 vicar of St. Mary-the-Less, Lambeth. 
A zealous incumbent, ho improved the 
church, built schools, founded a school of 
art, and closely identified himself with church 
work in elementary education. In 1867 he 
was select preacher at Oxford, and served 
on the royal commission on ritual. 

In 1868 Gregory was appointed canon of 
St. Paul's, but for five years still held his 
Lambeth living. In 1870 H. P. liddon 
[q. v.] became canon, and in 1871 R. W. 
Church [q. v. Suppl. I] was made dean. 
With them Gregory worked in fullest 
harmony for the attainment of Church's 
purpose, • to set St. Paul's in order, as 
the great English cathedral, before the 
eyes of the country ' {Life and Letters of 
Dean Church, p. 200). As treasurer of the 
cathedral he negotiated with the ecclesias- 
tical commission the arrangement of the 
cathedral finances which helped to make 
reform possible. The changes made were 
not universally welcomed, but Gregory 
was unmoved by criticism. Church de- 
scribed him as ' of cast iron ' {Life and 
Letters, p. 235). Four lectures contrasting 
the social conditions of England in 1688 
and 1871, delivered by Gregory in St. Paul's 
in Nov. 1871, drew on him the charge 
of misusing the cathedral. The advance 
in the cathedral ritual and the decoration 
of the fabric led to hostility, which reached 
its height in the litigation of 1888-9 over 
the reredos, during which Gregory zealously 
supported the |X)licy of Frederick Temple 
[q. V. Suppl. IIJ. bishop of London. 

For forty-three years Gregory was a 
member of the lower house of Canterbury 
convocation. He entered it as proctor 

for the archdeaconry of Surrey in 1868, and 
became proctor for the dean and chapter 
in 1874. His influence was immediately 
felt, more especially on educational questions 
I and in defence of liigher Anglican policy. 
W. C. Magee in 1881 wrote of him as ' the 
Cleon of the lower house ' {Life, ii. 154) ; 
and J. W. Burgon, in a published letter of 
I the same year, said ' In the lower house of 
I convocation you . . . obtain very much 
I your own way.' On the delivery of the 
j Purchas judgment, Gregory joined Liddon 
in telling John Jackson [q. v.], bishop of 
! London (2 March 1871), that the judgment 
I would not be obeyed by them [see Purchas, 
I John]. In 1873 he was forward in defence 
of the Athanasian Creed ; in 1874 he 
presented to convocation a petition in 
favour of retaining the impugned ' orna- 
ments ' of the church ; in 1880, during 
the burials bill controversy, he favoured 
the abandonment by churchmen of the 
graveside service, if nonconformists could 
also be silenced. In 1881 he supported 
the memorial for the toleration of ritual, 
and in convocation presented a gravamen 
and reformandum to the same effect. An 
ardent supporter of church schools and 
long treasurer of the National Society, 
Gregory was elected a member of the 
London school board in 1873, but did not 
seek re-election when his three years' term 
ended. He was also a member of the 
education commission in 1886, and of the 
City parochial charities commission in 1888. 
Appointed dean of St. Paul's on the 
death of Church in 1890, and installed 
on 5 Feb. 1891, Gregory continued his 
predecessor's policy, carried out in the 
face of some criticism the decoration of 
the cathedral with mosaics, and retained 
to advanced age the closest interest in 
the cathedral work. He resigned on 1 May, 
died at the deanery on 2 Aug. 1911, and was 
buried in the crypt of St. Paul's. He com- 
bined a simple faith and clear convictions, 
firmly held and boldly defended, with 
much administrative ability and singular de- 
votion to the fife and work of his cathedral. 
He was tmce married : (1) in 1844 to Mary 
Frances, daughter of WiUiam Stewart of 
Dublin {d. 1851), by whom he had two 
sons who survived him ; and (2) in 1861 
to Charlotte Anne, daughter of Admiral 
the Hon. Sir Robert Stopford, by whom he 
had four daughters, of whom three survived 
him. A portrait by Sir William Richmond, 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1899, 
now hangs in the dining-room of the 
St. Paul's deanery. 

In addition to some sermons, Gregory 





published: 1. * Are we better than our 
Fathers?' 1872. 2. *The Position of the 
Priest ordered by the Rubrics in the 
Communion Service interpreted by them- 
selves,' 1876. 3. ' Elementary Education : 
Some Account of its Rise and Progress in 
England,' 1895. 

[The Times, 3 and 7 Aug. 1911 ; Guardian, 
4 and 11 Aug. 1911 ; The Autobiography of 
Robert Gregory, ed. by Ven. W. H. Hutton, 
1912; John Hannah, a Tribute of AfiEection, 
Two Sermons, with Memoirs of Robert and 
Anne Sophia Gregory (Nottingham, 1824) ; 
J. J. Hannah, The Lighter Side of a Great 
Churchman's Character, 1912; W. P. W. 
Phillimore, County Pedigrees, vol. i. Notting- 
hamshire ; T. Fowler, History of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, pp. 318, 444 ; J. 0. 
Johnston, Life of H. P. Liddon, 1904, pp. 
145-8 ; Davidson and Benham, Life of A. C. 
Tait, 1891, vol. ii. chap. xxix. ; M. C. Church, 
Life and Letters of Dean Church, 1895, 
pp. 200 seq. ; J. W. Burgon, Canon Robert 
Gregory : a Letter of Friendly Remonstrance, 
1881.] A. R. B. 

GRENFELL, GEORGE (1849-1906), 
baptist missionary and explorer of the 
Congo, bom at Ennis CJottage, Trannack 
Mill, Sanoreed, near Penzance, on 21 Aug. 
1849, was son of George Grenfell of Tran- 
nack Mill, afterwards of Birmingham, by 
his wife Joanna, daughter of Michael and 
Catherine Rowe of Botree, Sancreed. 
Grenfell shared with Francis Wallace Gren- 
fell, first baron Grenfell, and William 
Henry Grenfell, first baron Desborough, 
a common ancestor in Paskow Greinfield 
(1658). Educated at a branch of King 
Edward's school, Birmingham, Grenfell was 
apprenticed to Messrs. Scholefield & Good- 
man, a hardware and machinery firm in 
Birmingham. The loss of an eye in early 
life in no way impaired his energy. 
Though his parents were anglicans he soon 
joined Heneage Street baptist chapel, where 
he was admitted to membership by baptism 
on 7 Nov. 1864. Influenced by the lives of 
David Livingstone [q. v.] and Alfred Saker 
(1814r-1880), the 'Apostle of the Came- 
roons,' Grenfell, in September 1873, entered 
the Baptist (Ilollege, Stokes Croft, Bristol, 
and on 10 Nov. 1874 the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society accepted him for work in the 
Cameroons under Alfred Saker. The two 
arrived there in January 1875. Grenfell's 
earliest work consisted in following the 
Yabiang river up to Abo and in discovering 
the lower course of the Sanaga river as far 
as Edea. 

Grenfell, who moved to Victoria, Came- 
roons, in 1877, continued to explore the 

rivers inland, especially the Wuri, and in 
1878 made an ascent of the Mongo ma 
Loba mountain. On 5 Jan. 1878 he was 
instructed to undertake pioneer work with 
the Rev. T. J. Comber up the Lower 
Congo. After the discoveries in 1877 of Sir 
Henry Morton Stanley [q. v. Suppl. II], 
Mr. Robert Arthington of Leeds had offered 
lOOOZ. to the Baptist Missionary Society 
for such work. A preliminary expedition, 
with the help of the (Dutch) Afrikaansche 
Handels - Vereeniging, preceded Grenfell 
and Comber's arrival at San Salvador on 
8 Aug. 1878. Received there by the King 
of Kongo, Dom Pedro V or Ntolela, they 
pushed on to the Makuta country, but at 
Tungwa the chief forbade their proceeding 
towards the Upper Congo. Soon Grenfell 
co-operated with Comber and others in 
starting mission stations at Musuko, Vivi, 
Isangila, and Manyanga in July 1881, 
and so to Stanley Pool. On 28 Jan. 
1884, in a small steel ' tender,' twenty-six 
feet long, Grenfell set out to survey the 
Congo up to the Equator at a point 18° 
long. E., passing the mouth of the Kwa 
river and visiting Bolobo, Lukolela, and 
Irebu, and inspecting the confluence of the 
Mubangi and the Congo. He now made his 
headquarters at Arthington, near Leo- 
poldville, and on 13 June 1884 he success- 
fully launched at Stanley Pool the Peace,''a 
river steamer, with seven water-tight com- 
partments of Bessemer steel, which was 
built by Messrs. Thomycroft, at Chiswick, 
at Mr. Arthington's cost, and under 
Grenfell's supervision, in 1882. It was 
constructed to draw only eighteen inches 
when carrying six tons of cargo, and to 
take to pieces at the cataracts. 

On 7 July 1884 the Peace started on her 
first voyage of discovery, taking Grenfell 
and Comber along the Kwa, Kwango, and 
Kasai rivers. On the second Peace expedi- 
tion (13 Oct. 1884) ' he was unquestionably 
the first to prove the independent status 
of the Mubangi ' ; discovered the Ruki or 
Black river ; navigated the Ikelemba ; 
found himself in contact with actual 
cannibals in the Bangala region ; ascended 
the Itimbiri or Rubi river up to 2° 50' N. 
lat. ; visited Tippoo Tib (Tipu-Tipu) at 
Stanley Falls on 24 Dec. 1884 ; and followed 
the Mubangi for 200 miles up to what have 
since been called] Grenfell Falls, 4° 40' N. 
lat., * by far the most northerly point yet 
reached in the exploration of the Congo 
basin ' (Sir H. H. Johnston, (?. Qrenfell 
and the Congo, pp. 116, 127). 

On the third voyage of the Peace (2 Aug. 
1885) Grenfell was accompanied by his wife. 




his little daughtor, von Fran9oi8, a German 
explorer, and eight native children from 
tho^ mission schools. This time his^ object 
was to explore the allluenU of the Congo 
from the eiist and the south — tlie Lulongo, 
the Maringa, and the Busira or Juapa, on 
wliich he found dwarf tribes (the Batwa). 

His fourth journey (24 Feb. 1886), in 
company with Baron]^ von Nimptsch, of 
the Congo Free 8tate,^and Wissmann, the 
German explorer, took liim up the main 
stream of the Kasai, thence up the Sankuru, 
the Luebo, and the Lulua (careful notes 
being taken of the Bakuba and Baketo 
tribes), and so back to the Congo and on 
to Stanley Falls. On the fifth voyage (30 
Sept. 1886) he passed up the Kwa and the 
Mtini to Lake Leopold II, and on the sixth 
(December 1886), with Holman Bentley, he 
explored the Kwango up to the Kingunji 
rapids. In all these journeys ho made 
exact observations, which were published 
in 1886 by the Royal Geographical Society, 
and together with his chart of the Congo 
Basin gained for him the founder's medal 
of the society in 1887. 

During his furlough he was received 
by King Leopold at Brussels in July 
1887. Hearing (9 Aug.) of the death of 
Comber, he returned at once to the Congo 
and was busily occupied on the Peace in 
supplying the needs of the mission stations. 
But in September 1890 the Congo Free 
State, in spite of protest, impounded the 
vessel for operations against the Arabs. 
Grenfell came home and after long negotia- 
tions the Peace was restored, an indemnity 
being declined. A second steamer, the 
Goodwill, also made by Messrs. Thorny- 
croft, was launched on the Upper Congo, 
December 1893. 

On 13 Aug. 1891, Grenfell, who had 
received the Belgian order of Leopold 
(chevaher), was invited to be Belgian 
plenipotentiary for the settlement with 
Portugal of the frontier of the Lunda, and 
was allowed by the Baptist Missionary 
Society to accept the offer. On 17 Nov. 
1892 Grenfell and his wife reached Mwene 
Puto Kasongo, the headquarters on the 
Kwango of the brutal Kiamvo, with whom 
they had a peaceful interview. Below the 
Tungila he met Senhor Sarmento, the 
Portuguese plenipotentiary, and after in- 
specting the rivers of the Lunda district 
the party reached St. Paul de Loanda 
(partly by railway) on 16 June 1893, the 
delimitation being agreed upon during 
July. He was made commander of the 
Belgian order of the Lion and received the 
order of Christ from the king of Portugal. 

From 1893 to 1900 Grenfell remained 

chiefly at Bolobo on the Congo, where a 
strong mission station was established. 
After a visit to England in 1900, he started 
for a systematic exploration of the Amwimi 
river, and by November 1902 had reached 
Mawambi, about eighty miles from the 
western extreme of the Uganda protectorate. 
Between 1903 and 1906 he was busy with a 
now station at Yalemba, fifteen miles cast 
of the confluence of the Aruwimi with the 
Congo. Meanwliile he found difficulty in 
obtaining building sites from the Congo 
Free State, which accorded them freely to 
Roman catholics. He grew convinced of 
the evil character of Belgian administra- 
tion, in which he had previously trusted. 
In 1903 King Leopold despatched at Gren- 
fell's entreaty a commission of inquiry, 
before which he gave evidence, but its 
report gave him httle satisfaction. Gren- 
fell died after a bad attack of blackwater 
fever at Basoko on 1 July 1906. His salary 
never exceeded 180/. a year. Grenfell 
was twice married : (1) On 11 Feb. 
1876, at Heneage Street baptist chapel, 
Birmingham, to Mary Hawkes, who died, 
after a premature confinement, at Akwatown 
on the Cameroon river on 10 Jan. 1877; 
(2) in 1878, at Victoria, Cameroons, to 
Rose Patience Edgerley, a West Indian. 
His eldest daughter, Patience, who, after 
being educated in England and at Brussels, 
returned to the Congo as a teacher, died of 
haematuric fever at Bolobo on 18 March 1899. 

A memorial tablet was unveiled in 
Heneage Street baptist chapel, Birming- 
ham, on 24 September 1907. 

Grenfell was an observant explorer (cf. 
Bentley, Pioneering on the Congo, ii 
127-128) and an efficient student of native 
languages. He promoted industrial training, 
and gave every proof of missionary zeal. 

[The Times, 1 Aug. 1906 ; Sir Harry John- 
ston, George Grenfell and the Congo, 1908, 
2 vols. ; George Hawker, Life of George Gren- 
fell, 1909 (portraits); W. Holman Bentley, 
Life on the Congo (introduction by G. Gren- 
fell), 1887 ; Shirley J. Dickins, Grenfell of the 
Congo, 1910 ; Lord Mountmorres, The Congo 
Independent State, 1906, pp. 110 ff.l 

E. H. P. 

(1845-1906), expert in naval gunnery, 
bom at Rugby on 12 June 1845, was son 
of Algernon Grenfell, a clerk, by his wife 
Maria Guerin Price. 

Joining the navy as a cadet on 13 Dec. 
1859, when fourteen, Grenfell passed out first 
from the Britannia, and gained as sub- 
lieutenant the Beaumont Testimonial in 




1865. He qualified as gunnery lieutenant 
in 1867, and was appointed first lieutenant 
on H.M.S. Excellent on 22 Sept. 1869. 
While holding this appointment he worked 
out with Naval Engineer Newman what 
are claimed to have been the first designs 
of hydrauUc mountings for heavy naval 
ordnance. He also engaged in literary 
work of a technical character, contributing 
to ' Engineering ' and service journals. 
On 31 Dec. 1876 he was made commander, 
and on 1 May 1877 was appointed, on 
account of his linguistic attainments, 
second naval attache to the maritime 
courts of Europe. He also acted as naval 
adviser to the British representatives at 
the BerUn Congress of 1878. On 22 Sept. 
1882 the sloop Phoenix, under his com- 
mand, foundered off Prince Edward 
Island. No lives, however, were lost. 
Grenfell retired with the rank of captain 
on 2 Dec. 1887. 

Grenfell was afterwards for many years 
associated with the experimental work of 
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. He was 
the first to direct the Admiralty's attention 
to the night-sighting of gims ; and about 
1891, on the introduction of the incan- 
descent electric lamp, he invented his 
' self -illuminating night sights for naval 
ordnance.' The invention was for fi^fteen 
years attached to all heavy guns in the 
British navy, and was adopted by some 
foreign navies. Grenfell was also one of 
the first to suggest the use of sight-scales 
marked in large plain figures for naval 
guns, and advocated, though without 
success, the adoption of a telescopic light 
for day use. He also worked out the 
arrangement subsequently adopted for 
quick-firing field artillery, by which the 
changes of angle between the line of sight 
and the axis of the bore which are required 
when firing at a moving target can be 
effected without altering the fine of sight. 

In April 1877 Grenfell read before the 
Institution of Naval Architects an able 
paper advocating the trial of Griison's 
chilled cast-iron armour in England, and 
in 1887 he pubUshed ' Griison's Chilled Cast- 
iron Armour ' (translated from the German 
of Julius von Schutz). He helped to form 
the Navy League, and served at one time 
on its executive committee. He died at 
Alverstoke, Hampshire, on 13 Sept. 1906. 

[The Times, 26 Sept. 1906 ; Engmeering, 
28 Sept. 1906; Capt. H. Garbett, Naval 
Gunnery, 1897 ; C. Orde Brown, Armour and 
Its Attacks by Artillery, 1893; Clowes, History 
of the Royal Navy, vol. 7, 1903 ; the Navy 
List, Jan. 1888.] SEE 


whose maiden name was Shirreff (1816- 
1906), promoter of women's education, bom 
on 7 March 1816, was younger daughter 
of Admiral William Henry Shirreff by his 
wife Elizabeth Anne, daughter of the Hon. 
David Murray ; Emily Sliirreff [q. v.] was 
her elder sister. In youth Maria was 
constantly abroad, and became an accom- 
plished linguist. In later years, until she 
was prevented by ill-health, she went every 
winter to Rome. She early interested herself 
in the condition of women's education and 
position. On 7 Jan. 1841 she married her 
first cousin, WilUam Thomas Grey (1807- 
1864), nephew of the second Earl Grey [q. v.] 
Her husband, who was a wine merchant in 
London, died on 13 March 1864. There 
were no children of the marriage. 

Mrs. Grey collaborated with her sister. Miss 
Shirreff, in ' Passion and Principle ' (1841), 
and in ' Thoughts on Self -Culture ' (1850), 
but after her husband's death in 1864 concen- 
trated her attention on women's education. 

When the Report of the Schools Inquiry 
Commission of 1870 revealed the unsatis- 
factory condition of the education of girls 
in this country, Mrs. Grey read a paper 
at the Social Science Congress at Leeds, 
October 1871, advocating the establishment 
throughout England of large day schools 
for girls with boarding-houses in connec- 
tion. For that purpose she formed in 1872 
the ' National Union for the Higher Educa- 
tion of Women.' A mercantile company 
was created under the style of ' The Girls' 
PubUc Day School Company,' which pro- 
vided the funds needed to give practical 
effect to the purposes of the union. Until 
1879 Mrs. Grey was organising secretary 
of the union, which was dissolved in 1884. 
In 1906 the company was converted into a 
trust, which now (1912) has thirty-three 
schools and over 7000 pupils. 

In order to ensure a supply of com- 
petent teachers for these new girls' schools, 
Mrs. Grey founded a training college for 
women teachers in secondary schools, of 
which again she acted as honorary organis- 
ing secretary. The college was opened in 
1878, with four students, in premises lent 
by William Rogers [q. v.], rector of 
Bishopsgate. After a removal in 1885, 
the college was installed in 1892 in its 
present quarters at Brondesbury, and 
became known as the Maria Grey Training 
College. Mrs. Grey throughout helped the 
college by donations of money and by un- 
ceasing effort to interest others in the work. 
Mrs. Grey, who was an admirably 
persuasive speaker, was at the same time 




a strong advocate of the parliamentary 
enfranchisement of women, She was a 
member of the central society of the 
women's suffrage movement. In 1877 she 
wrote the pamplilet ' The Physical Force 
Objection to Woman's Suffrage.' 

For the last fifteen years of her life Mrs. 
Grey was an invalid, but she maintained 
to the end her interest in women's educa- 
tion and progress. She died on 19 Sept. 
190G at 41 Stanliope Gardens, Kensington. 

Many of her speeches were pubhshed as 
pamphlets. Besides the books in wliich she 
collaborated with Miss Sliirreff, she pub- 
lished in 1858 a novel, ' Love's Sacrifice ' ; 
in 1887 a translation of Rosmini Serbati's 
' The RuUng Principle of Method applied to 
Education ' ; and in 1889 ' Last Words to 
Girls on Life in School and after School.' 

[The Times, 21 and 24 Sept. 1906 ; Journal 
of Education, Oct. 1906 ; Burke's Peerage ; 
of. Hare's Story of My Life, vol. iv. ; private 
information.] E. L. 

1908), Anglo-Indian administrator, bom at 
Watford, HertfordsWre, where liis father 
was serving as locum tenens, on 20 July 
1838, was only son of the three children 
of Henry Griffin, incumbent of Stoke-by- 
Clare, Suffolk, by his wife Frances Sophia, 
who had a family of four sons and six 
daughters by a first husband, Mr. Welsh. 

Griffin was educated at Maiden's pre- 
paratory school, Brighton, and then at 
Harrow, which he soon left, on account of 
illness. After tuition by Mr. Whitehead of 
Chatham House, Ramsgate, he passed the 
Indian civil service examination in 1859, 
and was posted to the Punjab as an 
assistant commissioner on 17 Nov. 1860. 
* His conversational powers and ready wit 
made him popular in society ; but he soon 
proved himself in addition an effective 
writer, a fluent speaker, and, despite a 
somewhat easy-going manner, a man of 
untiring industry ' (Journ. East India 
Assoc. April 1908). He is the original of the 
brilliant civilian portrayed in Sir Henry 
Cunningham's novel ' Chronicles of Dusty- 
pore ' (1875), and was credited with the 
authorship of Aberigh Mackey's * Twenty- 
one Days in India' (1880), satiric sketches 
of Anglo-Indian life, which first appeared 
anonymously in 'Vanity Fair' (1878-9). 
Sir Robert Montgomery [q. v.], houtenant- 
govemor of the Punjab, turned Griffin's 
literary abiUties to good purpose by se- 
lecting him to prepare liistorical accounts 
of the principal Punjab famihes and of the 
rulers of the native principaUties. The 
work, which involved immense research, was 

based both on official documents and on 
records and information gathered from the 
chiefs and nobles themselves. His ' Punjab 
Cliiefs,' historical and biographical notices 
of the principal families of the Punjab 
(Lahore, 1865) ; * The Law of Inheritance to 
Sikh Chiefships previous to the Annexation ' 
(Lahore, 1869) ; and * The Rajas of the 
Punjab' (Lahore, 1870; 2nd edit. I^ondon, 
1873), at once took rank as standard works. 

Griffin served as under-secretary to the 
local government from April 1870 ; offici- 
ating secretary from March 1871 ; on 
special duty to frame track rules between 
the Punjab and Raj pu tana from February 
1873 ; and as superintendent of the Kapur- 
thala state from April 1875. He was 
on special duty at the Paris Exhibition of 
1878, and was appointed permanent chief 
secretary of the Punjab in November of that 
year. His official minutes, rapidly dictated 
to shorthand writers, were models of style. 

Griffin's great opportunity came in the 
later phases of the Afghan war. ' After 
lengthened consideration,' wrote Lord 
Lytton semi-officially in Feb. 1880, *I have 
come to the conclusion that there is only 
one man in India who is in all respects 
completely quahfied by personal ability, 
special official experience, intellectual 
quickness and tact, general commonsense 
and Uterary skill, to do for the government 
of India what I want done as quickly as 
possible at Kabul, and that man m 
Mr. Lepel Griffin.' Accordingly in March 
1880 the viceroy furnished Griffin with 
an elaborate minute on the pohcy to be 
adopted in Afghanistan, and gave him 
superintendence of negotiations at Kabul, 
in subordination only to the military com- 
mander, Sir Frederick (now Earl) Roberts. 
Griffin reached Kabul on 20 March, and 
at once entered into communication with 
Abdur Rahman, who had returned to the 
country after ten years' exile in Russian 
territory, and was beginning to estabUsh 
himself in Afghan Turkestan. Griffin by 
his masterly tact overcame Abdur Rahman's 
suspicions of Enghsh poUcy and finally, 
in circumstances which seemed most un- 
promising, helped to establish him on the 
Afghan throne and to inspire him perma- 
nently with a friendly feehng for England. 

Before Griffin's labour was completed 
Lytton resigned; but the new viceroy, 
Lord Ripon [q. v. Suppl. II], offered 
Griffin sympathetic support. At a durbar 
at Kabul on 22 July the wishes and 
intentions of the government were ex- 
plained to the Afghans by Griffin in a 
Persian speech, and Abdur Rahman was 




formally acknowledged as Ameer of Kabul, 
Griffin meeting hmi at Zimma, sixteen 
miles north of Kabul, a few days later, and 
discussing the conditions of British recog- 
nition and questions of future relationship. 
Griffin's official minute, dated 4 Aug., gave 
impressions of the new ruler which subse- 
quent events proved singularly correct. ' The 
interview had the happiest results,' writes 
Lord Roberts in his ' Forty-one Years in 
India,' 'and must have been extremely 
gratifying to Mr. Griffin, whom we all 
heartily congratulated on the successful 
ending to the very delicate and difficult 
negotiations, which he had carried on with 
so much skill and patience.' The British 
defeat at the hands of Ayub Khan at 
Maiwand on |27 July sUghtly postponed 
the settlement, and Griffin remained at 
Kabul until the withdrawal of the British 
troops after the rout of Ayub Khan's 
army by General Roberts on 1 Sept. He 
was made C.S.I, in July 1879, and K.C.S.I. 
in May 1881. He also received the Afghan 
medal. The Ameer admired Griffin's skil- 
ful diplomacy, and wrote that * he deserved 
the title of "Lord of Kabul " just as much 
as Roberts did that of " Lord of Kanda- 
har" ' (Abdub Rahman's Life, 1900, ii. 115). 

After this triumph Griffin became 
agent to the governor-general in central 
India in February 1881. He was instru- 
mental in effecting valuable reforms in 
Gwahor, Indore, Bhopal, and some smaller 
states, and he won the regard of the 
chiefs. His action in securing in 1884 the 
degradation of Sidik Hasan Khan, second 
consort of Shah Jehan, Begam of Bhopal 
from 1868 to 1901, for his usurpation of 
power and his covert disloyalty is warmly 
conmiended by her daughter, the present 
Begam Sultan Jahan, in * An Account of My 
Life ' (1912). When home on leave in 1886 
Griffin was a royal commissioner for the 
Indian and Colonial Exhibition, and at the 
Queen Victoria jubilee in the following year 
he was on special duty with the Maharaja 
Shivaji Rao Holkar of Indore. Refusing 
Lord Dufferin's invitation to supervise the 
reorganisation of Burma, after the annexa- 
tion of the upper province in 1886, Griffin 
remained in central India until his retire- 
ment from the service in January 1889. 
He had hoped for the Ueutenant-govemor- 
ship of his old province in 1887, when Sir 
Charles Aitchison [q. v. Suppl. I] retired, but 
his imconventional frankness seems to have 
made the government shy of giving adequate 
recognition to his exceptional abilities. 

On educational policy in India Griffin 
held original views. His constant inter- 

course with the Indian aristocracy bred in 
him distrust of the system of making the 
English language the sole instrument of the 
higher native education. With Dr. G. W. 
Leitner (1840-1899), principal of the Govern- 
ment CoUege, Lahore, he early in his career 
urged the employment in teaching of the 
Indian vernaculars, and the award of 
honours for proficiency in Eastern hterature 
and learning, as well as for English. Ulti- 
mately at his instigation a university 
college was established in 1870 at Lahore 
to give effect to these principles, and when 
the Punjab University was created there 
in Oct. 1882, one of the five faculties 
was for Oriental learning. Yet the Oriental 
faculty which alone sought to employ 
in tuition other languages than English 
never flourished and is now practically 
defunct {Quinquennial Report on Indian 
Education, 1902-7). The Inayat Ali- 
Griffin prize is annually given in his 
memory for the highest marks in Mahom- 
medan law in the first law examination. 
Griffin further helped Leitner to estabUsh 
without much success the Oriental Institute 
at Woking, to enable Indian students in 
England to adhere to their caste and 
communal customs. Griffin also founded 
in 1885, with Leitner and Mr. Demetrius 
Boulger, the fibrst editor, the ' Asiatic 
Quarterly Review,' which long enjoyed a 
prosperous career. 

On settHng in England Griffin interested 
himself in Uterature, finance, and politics. 
As chairman of the Imperial Bank of Persia 
he did much for British prestige in Persia, 
and in 1903 the Shah conferred upon him 
the imperial order of the Hon and the sun. 
He was also chairman of the Burma ruby 
mines, and was on the boards of other 
companies. From 1894 to his death he 
was chairman of the East India Association, 
which disinterestedly advocated the inter- 
ests of India. He took an active part in 
its proceedings, which were fully reported 
in the ' Asiatic Quarterly Review.' 

He constantly wrote in the magazines 
and spoke in public on Indian questions, 
and while upholding the conservative view 
of Indian administration, showed a warm 
regard for the Indian people as well as for 
the native princes. He vigorously espoused 
the cause of Indians in the Transvaal and 
elsewhere in South Africa, heading depu- 
tations to the secretaries of state for India 
and the colonies on the subject in 1907. He 
was a supporter of the liberal unionist cause 
in home pohtics, and in 1900 he contested 
unsuccessfully West Nottingham in their 




Griffin died of pneumonia at his residence, 
Cadogan Gardens, London, on 9 March 1908. 
The body was cremated at Goldcr's Green 
and liis ashes were deposited in the 
private chapel of Colonel Dudley Sampson, 
Buxshalls, Lindfield, Sussex. 

He married on 9 Nov. 1889 Marie 
EUzabeth, elder daughter of Ludwig 
Leupold of La Coronata, Genoa, Italy, 
agent to the North German Lloyd S.N. Co. 
at Genoa ; she survived him with two 
sons, born in 1898 and 1900 r&spectively. 
His widow afterwards married Mr. Charles 
Hoare. A drawing of Griffin by C. W. 
Walton is reproduced in the Begam's 
'Account of My Life' (1912), p. 128. 

In addition to the books already mentioned 
Griffin wrote : 1. ' The Great Repubhc,' a 
hostile criticism of the United States of 
America, 1884, reproducing articles in the 
• Fortnightly Review.' 2. ' Famous Monu- 
ments of Central India,' fol. 1886. 3.' Ran jit 
Singh ' in * Rulers of India ' series, 1892. 

[Record of Services, Bengal Estab., 1888 ; 
India Office List, 1907 ; Lord Lytton's Indian 
Administration, 1899 ; Roberts, Forty-one 
Years in India, 1898 ; Imp. Gaz. of India, vols, 
viii. and xx. ; Sultan Jahan Begam's Life, 1912 ; 
Ameer Abdur Rahman's Life, 1900 ; Joum. 
East India Assoc, April 1908 ; The Times, 
and Standard, 11 March 1908; Indian Rev., 
June 1904 ; notes kindly supplied by Mr. F. L. 
Petre ; personal knowledge.] F. H. B. 

HOTCHKIN (1826-1906), Sanskrit scholar, 
bom at Corsley, Wiltshire, on 25 May 1826, 
was son of Robert Clavey Griffith (1792- 
1844), rector of Corsley (1815-44) and of 
Fifield Bavant, also in Wiltshire (1825-44), 
by his wife Mary Elizabeth Adderly, daugh- 
ter of Ralph Hotchkin of Uppingham Hall. 
Educated first at Westminster school and 
then at Uppingham, Ralph proceeded with 
an exhibition from Uppingham to Queen's 
College, Oxford, which he entered as a com- 
moner on 16 March 1843. Obtaining an 
honorary f oiui:h class in classics, he graduated 
B.A. on 29 Oct. 1846, and proceeded M.A. 
on 22 June 1849. At Oxford he became a 
pupil of Professor Horace Hayman Wilson 
[q. v.], and gaining the Boden Sanskrit 
scholarship in 1849, continued the study of 
Sanskrit to the end of his life. From 1850 
to 1853 he was assistant master of Marl- 
borough College, of which he was also 
librarian. In 1853 he joined the Indian 
educational service, and on 17 December 
became professor of English literature at the 
Benares Government College. His promo- 
tion was rapid : on 1 June 1854 he became 
headmaster of the college. He encouraged 

sport, and showed thorough sjrmpatby with 
Indian students. In the following year he 
was entnisted, in addition to his other duties, 
with the charge of the Anglo-Sanskrit de- 
partment ; and in 1866 he was appointed 
inspector of schools in the Benares circle. 

During his first eight years in India 
(1853-61) Griffith devoted himself not only 
to the study of Sanskrit but to that of 
Hindi, the most widely spoken vernacular 
of northern India, under Pandit Ram Jason, 
the head Sanskrit teacher of the college, to 
whom he was much attached. Throughout 
the Mutiny Griffith worked quietly in his 
bimgalow amid the surrounding disorder 
and timiult. 

On the retirement of James Robert 
Ballantyne [q. v.] in 1861 Griffith succeeded 
to the principalship of the Benares College. 
He held the post for seventeen years, in the 
course of which he acted three times for short 
periods as director of public instruction. 
On 15 March 1878 he left the Benares 
College after a quarter of a century's service, 
and from that date till 1885 was director 
of public instruction in the North-west 
Provinces and Oudh. His success in official 
life, both as an administrator and a teacher, 
was uninterrupted. On his retirement he 
received a special pension, the honour of 
CLE., and the thanks of the government. 
Calcutta University made him a fellow. 

Unmarried and without close family ties 
in England, Griffith, after reaching India in 
1853, never saw his native country again. 
On his retirement he withdrew to Kotagiri, 
a beautiful hill station, some 7000 feet high, 
in the Nilgiri district, Madras, residing 
with his brother Frank, an engineer in 
the public works department of the Bom- 
bay presidency, who had settled there in 
1879. At Kotagiri he tranquilly engaged 
in the study and translation of the Vedas. 
He died (7 Nov. 1906) and was buried there. 

An enthusiastic lover of fiowers and of 
poetry, he was sensitive and reserved, but 
genial in sympathetic society. His pupils 
and admirers at Benares perpetuated his 
memory on his retirement in scholarships 
and prizes at the Sanskrit college. In the 
college library hangs a photograph of his 
portrait painted by F. M. Wood. 

Griffith was attracted by the literary rather 
than by the linguistic side of Sanskrit. But 
he rendered a great service to the direct 
study of the language by founding in 1866 
the ' Pandit,' a monthly journal of the 
Benares College, devoted to Sanskrit 
literature. This he edited for eight years. 
More than forty amiual volumes have 
already appeared. 




To the translation of Sanskrit poetry- 
Griffith devoted himself for nearly half 
a century. He began at Marlborough 
College with his ' Specimens of Old 
Indian Poetry' (1852), containing selec- 
tions tastefully translated in various 
rhyming metres from the two great epics, 
the ' Mahabharata ' and the 'Ramayana,' 
and from the works of India's greatest 
poet, Kalidasa. An extract from the drama 
* Sakuntala ' is in blank verse. At Marl- 
borough also he made a translation in 
heroic couplets of Kahdasa's court epic, 
the ' Kumara-sambhava,' under the title 
of 'The Birth of the War-god' (1853; 
2nd edit. 1879). There followed 'Idylls 
from the Sanskrit ' (1866), selections similar 
to those in his first book, and ' Scenes 
from the R4m4yan ' (1868). His translation 
of the whole epic, the ' Ram&yan of 
V41miki,' in rhyming octosyllabic couplets, 
occasionally varied by other metres, was 
completed in five volumes (1870-5). 
Having paid some attention to the study 
of Persian, he published in 1882 a version 
of ' Yuzuf and Zuleika,' which was his only 
excursion in translation outside Sanskrit. 

After his retirement to the Nilgiri Hills, 
Griffith turned from classical Sanskrit to 
the sacred scriptures of the Hindus, the 
Vedas. The * Rigveda ' or Veda of hymns, 
which represent the higher religion of the 
ancient Indo-Aryans, appeared in a verse 
translation entitled ' Hymns of the Rigveda, 
with a Popular Commentary,' in four 
volumes (Benares, 1889-92; 2nd edit. 2 
vols. 1896-7). There followed the ' Hymns 
of the Samaveda,' or Veda of chants con- 
cerned with the Soma ritual (Benares, 1893) ; 
the ' HjTnns of the Atharvaveda,' or Veda 
mainly consisting of magical spells (2 vols. 
Benares, 1895-6), and finally ' The Texts 
of the White Yajiirveda,' or sacrificial 
Veda (Benares, 1899). Li these trans- 
lations Griffith abandoned rhyme and 
rendered each verse by one syllabically 
harmonising with the original and generally 
divided into corresponding hemistichs. 
Griffith's command of poetical diction 
enabled him to reproduce the form and 
spirit of the ancient hymns better than by 
means of prose or of rhyming verse. His 
method of interpretation is eclectic ; it follows 
partly the mediaeval commentators, partly 
the researches of Western scholars, supple- 
mented by investigations of his own. His 
renderings cannot be reckoned authoritative, 
but they are the only versions that present 
the general spirit of the ancient hymns to 
the EngUsh reader in an attractive form. 
Thus Griffith was not only the most 

voluminous, but also the best translator of 
ancient Indian poetry that Great Britain 
has yet produced. 

[Griffith's published works ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxonienses ; Who's Who, 1904 ; 
information furnished by the Provost of 
Queen's CoUege, Oxford ; letter from Mrs. 
H. L. Griffith (sister-in-law) ; note suppHed 
by Pandit Rama Krishna (formerly professor 
of mathematics at Benares and at Agra, 
retired collector of Ghazipur).] A. A. M. 

FREDERICK (1838-1908), inspector of 
prisons and author, born on 9 Dec. 1838, 
at Poona, India, was second son of Lieut. - 
colonel John Griffiths of the 6th Royal 
Warwickshire regiment. After education 
at King Wilham's College, Isle of Man, he 
entered the army as ensign in the 63rd 
(now Manchester) regiment on 13 Feb. 1855. 
He was present at the siege and fall of Sevas- 
topol, and took part in the expedition to 
Kinbum, for which he received the Crimean 
medal. He was promoted lieutenant on 
27 July 1855. In 1856 his regiment was 
stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, but on 
being nominated aide-de-camp to Sir 
Wniiam Eyre [q. v.], commanding the 
troops in British North America, Griffiths 
was transferred to Toronto. The appoint- 
ment, however, was not confirmed by the 
war office, and he returned home on 
leave. He pursued his military studies 
at the Hythe school of musketry, and in 
1860 he passed fifth into the Staff College. 
In Nov. 1861, owing to the threatened war 
with the United States over the ' Trent ' 
affair, Griffiths was ordered to rejoin his 
regiment at Halifax. He was promoted 
captain on 12 Feb. 1862. 

From 1864 to 1870 he was brigade major 
at Gibraltar. His administrative capacity 
was recognised by his appointment to the 
temp(^rary charge of the convict establish- 
ment at Gibraltar ; and his success in 
enforcing discipline led him to enter the 
prisons service at home. Griffiths was 
deputy-governor of Chatham (1870-2), 
of Millbank (1872-4), and of Wormwood 
Scrubbs prisons (1874-81). From 1878 to 
1896 he was inspector of prisons, and 
undertook the task of unifying the methods 
of administration throughout the country. 
He became an acknowledged authority 
on European prison systems and on the 
history of London gaols. His ' Memorials 
of Millbank' (1875; 2nd edit. 1884) and 
'Chronicles of Newgate' (1884) were 
serious works of research ; and he added 
to his reputation in 1890 by winning the 
Tsar's gold medal for a monograph on John 




Howard [q. v.]. In 1896 he represented 
England at the international congress of 
criminal anthropologists at Geneva. 

Griffiths retired from the army with the 
rank of major on 13 May 1875, and devoted 
his leisure to literature and journalism. 
He had already some experience as editor 
of the ' Gibraltar Chronicle ' in 1864 ; and 
he became a frequent contributor to many 
journals. He edited papers and magazines so 
\vidcly difleront as ' Home News' (1883-88), 
the * Fortnightly Review' (1884), and the 
'World' (1895). From 1901 to 1904 he 
was editor of the ' Army and Navy Gazette ' 
in succession to Sir William Howard 
Russell [q. v. Suppl. II]. 

But it was as a writer of sensational 
tales of prison life that Griffiths was best 
known to the public, and in such stories 
as 'Secrets of the Prison House' (1893), 
'A Prison Princess' (1893), 'Criminals I 
have known ' (1895), ' Mysteries of Police 
and Crime ' (1898 ; 3rd edit. 1904), ' The 
Brand of the Broad Arrow' (1900), and 
'Tales of a Government Official' (1902), 
he revealed his extensive experience of the 
habits and characteristics of the criminal 
classes. His detective stories, like ' Fast 
and Loose ' (1885), ' No. 99 ' (1885), ' The 
Rome Express' (1896), and 'A Passenger 
from Calais ' (1905), were modelled on 
those of Gaboriau, and were inspired by his 
intimate acquaintance with French police 
methods. In his earUer novels, ' The 
Queen's Shilling ' (1873), ' A Son of Mars ' 
(1880 ; 2nd edit. 1902), and ' The Thin Red 
Line' (1886; 2nd edit. 1900), he drew 
mainly on his Crimean experiences, while 
' Lola ' (1878) was a faithful transcript 
of garrison life at Gibraltar. Altogether 
he published thirty novels. 

He also contributed to the official ' His- 
tory of the War in South Africa, 1889-1902 ' 
( 1906-10 ; 4 vols. ) ; and was author of several 
popular historical works. 

Griffiths was a genial companion, a keen 
sportsman, and an amusing raconteur. He 
died at Victoria Hotel, Beaulieu, in the 
South of France, on 24 March 1908. He 
married on 18 Jan. 1881 Harriet, daughter 
of Richard Reily, who survived him. 

[Fifty Years of Pubhc Service, by Arthur 
Griffiths, 1904 (frontispiece portrait) ; The 
Times, 26 March 1908 ; Army and Navy 
Gazette, 28 March 1908 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. S. W. 

GRIGGS, WILLIAM (1832-1911), 
inventor of photo-chromo -lithography, son 
of a lodge-keeper to the duke of Bedford at 
Woburn, Bedfordshire, was born there on 
4 Oct. 1832. Losing his father in childhood, 

he was apprentioed at the age of twelve to the 
carpentering trade, and coming to London 
when eighteen, ho was employed as an artisan 
in the Indian Court of the Great Exhibition 
of 1851. He improved his scanty education 
at night classes at King's College and else- 
where, and in 1855 was selected to be 
technical a.ssistant to the reporter on 
Indian products and director of the Indian 
Museum, then in the India House, Leaden- 
hall Street. 

His artistic tastes and keen interest in 
photography were encouraged by Dr. John 
Forbes Watson [q. v.], who became his 
chief in 1858, and at his instance Griggs 
was installed at Fife House, Whitehall, 
pending completion of the India office, 
in a studio and workshops for photo-litho- 
graphic work. He had familiarised himself 
with the processes of photo-zincography 
discovered by the director -general of the 
Ordnance Survey, General Sir Henry James 
[q. V.]. By careful experiment he found 
that the use of cold, instead of hot, water in 
developing the transfer left the gelatine in 
the whites of the transfer, thus giving firmer 
adhesion to the stone and serving as a sup- 
port to the fine lines. He also invented 
photo-chromo-lithography by first printing 
from a photo-lithographic transfer a faint 
impression on the paper to serve as a * key,' 
separating the colours on duplicate negatives 
by varnishes, then photo-lithographing the 
dissected portions on stones, finally regis- 
tering and printing each in its position and 
particidar colour, with the texture, Ught 
and shade of the original. 

He greatly cheapened the production of 
colour work by a simplified form of this 
discovery, viz. by a photo -Uthographic 
transfer from a negative of the original 
to stone, printed as a * key ' in a suitable 
colour, superimposing thereon, in exact 
register, transparent tints in harmony 
with the original. Opaque colours, when 
necessary, were printed first. So far from 
keeping secret or patenting these improve- 
ments, Griggs described and gave practical 
demonstrations of them to the London 
Photographic Society (14 April 1868). He 
was thus a pioneer in the wide diffusion of 
colour work and half-tone block-making, 
and helped to bring about rapid cylindrical 
printing. But for his ' brilliant and pains- 
taking work, chromo -lithography as a 
means of illustrating books would be almost 
a lost art, Uke that of coloured aquatint ' 
(Martin Hardie's English Coloured Books, 
1906, pp. 255-6). 

Griggs established photo-lithographic 
works at his Peckham residence in 1868, 




soon after the publication of his first notable 
achievement — the beautiful plates illustra- 
ting Dr. Forbes Watson's ' Textile Manu- 
factures and Customs of the People of 
India' (1866), which was followed by 
those illustrating ' Tree and Serpent Wor- 
ship in India ' (1868), by James Fergusson 
[q. V.]. He also reproduced some of the 
Prince Consort's drawings for Queen Victoria, 
and was thereafter chromo-Uthographer 
to her Majesty and subsequently to King 
Edward VII. Though the contents of the 
India Museum were dispersed between South 
Kensington and elsewhere in 1878, he 
continued to serve the India office till 
Sept. 1885, thenceforth devoting himself 
exclusively to his own business. 

In reproductions of old manuscripts and 
letterpress texts Griggs was as successful as in 
chromo-hthography. His production of fifty 
copies of the ' Mahabhasya ' (the standard 
authority on Sanskrit grammar), consisting 
of 4674 pages (1871), was carried out for 
6000/. less than the estimate for a tracing 
of the original MS. by hand. More widely 
known, however, are his Shakespeare 
quartos, with critical introductions by 
Frederick James FurnivaU [q. v. Suppl. II] 
and others, in 43 vols. (1881-91), which were 
sold at 6s. each, while the hand- traced fac- 
similes by E. W. Ashbee, superintended by 
James Orchard HalliweU-Phillipps [q. v.], 
had been sold at five guineas each. 

On the initiative of Sir George Birdwood, 
who gave him constant encouragement, 
Griggs secured in 1881 the patronage of 
the committee of council on education for 
a series of shilling ' Portf ohos of Industrial 
Art,' 200 of which have been issued, chiefiy 
selected from the Chinese, Persian, Arabian, 
Sicihan, Italian, Russian, and Spanish 
specimens at South Kensington. Under an 
arrangement with the government of India^ 
also negotiated at Sir George's instance, 
he issued from Jan. 1884 the quarterly 
* Journal of Indian Art and Industry,' in 
imperial quarto (25.), which is stiU carried 
on by his successors in business. A notable 
work in the same field, edited by Colonel 
T. H. Hindley, was his * Asian Carpet 
Designs' (1905) of 150 coloured plates, 
sold at 18Z. a copy. Nor was he less 
successful in illustrating such works as Dr. 
James Burgess's reports on the archaeology 
of Western India through a long series 
of years, and his 'Ancient Monuments of 
India' (1897 to 1911); Colonel T. H. 
Hindley's many works on the art and 
history of Rajputana ; facsimiles of 
illuminated MSS. at the British Museum 
(1889-1903), and other works for the 

trustees ; Sir Richard Temple's ' Thirty- 
Seven Nats ' in Burma (1906) ; and many 
scientific works, such as Dr. M. C. Cooke's 
' Illustrations of British Fungi ' (2nd edit. 
6 vols. 1884^8) and his 'Handbook' 
thereof (2nd edit. 1887). The fullest, 
though by no means a complete, list of 
Griggs's works is given in the 'Journal of 
Indian Art,' Jan. 1912. 

Griggs married in 1851 Elizabeth Jane 
Gill {d. 1903), and in his later years was 
assisted in business by his two sons. The 
firm of W. Griggs & Sons was formed into 
a pubHc company on 20 Dec. 1906. He was 
for a time managing director, but owing 
to ill-health resigned aU connection with 
the company in January 1910. 

He died at Worthing on 7 Dec. 1911, 
being buried in the Forest Hill cemetery. 
His second son, Walter, carries on an inde- 
pendent business on his father's lines. 

[Sir George Birdwood' s introd. to Relics of 
Hon.E.I.Co., 1909; Martin Bardie's Eng- 
lish Coloured Books, 1906 ; Journ. of Photo- 
graphic See. of London, No. 192, 18 April 
1868 ; Photo-Chromo-Lithography, pamphlet 
by Griggs, 1882 ; Journ. of Indian Art, 
Jan. 1912, obit, by Col. Hindley ; The Times, 
8 Dec. 1911 ; Printers' Register, 8 Jan. 1912 ; 
information supplied by Mr. Walter Griggs ; 
personal knowledge.] F. H. B. 

GRIMTHORPE, first Babon. [See 
Beckett, Sir Edmund, 1816-1905.] 

1902), Romany scholar and miscellaneous 
writer, second son of Robert Hindes Groome 
[q. v.], archdeacon of Suffolk, was bom at 
his father's rectory of Monk Soham on 
30 Aug. 1851. Through his father's mother 
there was a family connection with East 
Dereham, and, there is some ground for 
believing, blood-relationship with George 
Borrow [q. v.]. In 1861 he was at school at 
Wyke Regis, near Weymouth. From 1865 
to 1869 he was at Ipswich grammar school 
under Dr. H. A. Holden [q. v. Suppl. I], 
where he distinguished himself both in 
Latin prose and in Latin verse. There 
too he won several cups for rowing, 
and helped to found and edit a school 
magazine. He read for a year with 
Francis de Winton at Boughrood on the 
Wye, and went up to Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, matriculating in October 1870 ; in 
1871 "he was elected postmaster of Merton 
College. Even in early boyhood gypsy 
life seen in glimpses had exercised a singular 
fascination over him ; an assistant master 
at Ipswich had given him some real know- 
ledge of Romany and of gypsy lore ; and 




at Oxford he came to know gypeies inti- 
mately, a fact wliich gave a now turn to 
his life. Ho loft Oxford without taking 
a degree, spent somo time at Gottingcn, 
and for years lived much with gvpsics at 
home and abroad ; he travolloci on tho 
Puszta with Hungarian gypsies, and else- 
where with Roumanian and Roumelian 
companies, and he married in 1876 a wife 
of English gypsy blood, Esmeralda Locke, 
from wliom he afterwards separated. 

In 1876 Groome settled down to regular 
literary work in Edinburgh. He was soon one 
of the most valued workers on the staff of the 
' Globe Encyclopaedia ' (6 vols. 1876-9). In 
1877 he began to edit * Suffolk Notes and 
Queries ' in the * Ipswich Journal.' He 
edited the ' Ordnance Gazetteer of Scot- 
land ' (6 vols. 188^5 ; 2nd edit. 1893-5), 
which took rank as a standard work of 
reference. In 1886 he joined the literary 
staff of Messrs. W. & R. Chambers, and 
as sub-editor and copious contributor gave 
invaluable assistance in preparing the new 
edition of ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia ' 
(10 vols. 1888-92). He had a large share 
in a gazetteer (1 vol. 1895), and was joint- 
editor of a biographical dictionary, both 
published by the same house. Mean- 
while he was an occasional contributor to 

* Blackwood's Magazine,' the ' Bookman,' 
and other periodicals, wrote many articles 
for this Dictionary, and did much sys- 
tematic reviewing for the ' Athenaeum.' 

* A Short Border History ' was issued in 
1887. The delightful sketches of his father 
and his father's friend, Edward FitzGerald, 
pubhshed as ' Two Suffolk Friends ' in 
1895, were expanded from two articles 
in ' Blackwood's Magazine ' in 1889 and 

At the same time Groome wrote much 
on gypsies. His article on 'Gipsies,' con- 
tributed to the ninth edition of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica,' made him known to 
the world as a gypsyologist. ' In Gipsy 
Tents' (1880; 2nd edit. 1881) recorded 
much of his own experience. He was joint- 
editor of the * Journal of the Gypsy Lore 
Society ' (1888-92 ; revived in 1907), and 
a paper by him on 'The Influence of the 
Gypsies on the Superstitions of the EngUsh 
Folk ' was printed in 1891, in the * Transac- 
tions of the International Folk-Lore Con- 
gress.' Mr. Watts -Dunton has said that in 
Groome's remarkable Romany novel with 
the oddly irrelevant name of ' Kxiegspiel ' 
(1896) ' there was more substance than in 
five ordinary stories,' the gypsy chapters, 
with autobiograpliical elements, being 

* absolutely perfect.' * Gypsy Folk Tales ' 

(1899) contains over seventy tales with 
variants from many lands, and the elabo- 
rate introduction is a monument of 
erudition and ripe scholarship. He pro- 
duced also an edition of Borrow's 
' Lavengro ' (1901), with notes and a 
valuable introduction. When his working 
powers failed him, Groome was assisting 
in the preparation of a new edition of 
' Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Litera- 
ture ' (3 vols. 1901-1903) ; and for more 
than a year he was a confirmed invaUd. 
He died in London on 24 January 1902, 
and was buried beside his father and 
mother in Monk Soham churchyard. 

Nothing in Groome's life is more 
remarkable than that he should have passed 
so swiftly and cheerfully from a veritable 
Bohemia of romance into the bondage of 
systematic labour, and have worked in the 
new conditions with a rare efficiency. A 
singularly alert, swift, and eager intellect, 
he was unwearied in research, impatient 
of anything less than precision, a frank 
and fearless critic ; thoroughly at home 
in wide fields of historical and philological 
research, and in some of them a master. 
A man of strong convictions and not a few 
prepossessions, he had a knowledge of 
the romantic side of Scottish history such as 
few Scotsmen possess, notably of Jacobite 
literature in all its ramifications native 
and foreign. His vivacious style showed 
a marked individuality. Men like Swin- 
burne and Mr. Watts -Dunton cherished 
his friendship, and he maintained a corre- 
spondence with eminent scholars all over 
Europe (e.g. August Friedrich Pott and 
Franz von Miklosich) ; some of his many 
letters to C. G. Leland are quoted in Mrs. 
Pennell's ' Life of Leland ' (1906). 

[Who's Who, 1900; Scotsman, 25 Jan. 
1902 ; Mr. Watts - Dunton's memoir in 
Athenaeum, 22 Feb. 1902 ; information from 
brothers ; personal knowledge.] D. P. 

1906), registrar of Oxford University, bom 
at Redruth in Cornwall on 9 Nov. 1845, 
was fourth son of James Grose. An elder 
brother, James, went to India in 1860 in 
the civil service, and died as member of 
council at Madras on 7 June 1 898. Educated 
at Manchester grammar school, under the 
strenuous high - mastership of Frederick 
William Walker [q. v. Suppl. II], Grose 
was elected to a scholarship at BalUol 
College, Oxford, in 1864. He was one 
of the few to obtain four first classes, 
two in moderations and two again in the 
final schools (classics and mathematics). 




He graduated B.A. in 1868, proceeding 
M.A. in 1871. He entered as a student at 
Lincoln's Inn, but his plans changed and 
he did not go to the bar. In 1870 he was 
elected to a fellowship at Queen's College, 
being appointed tutor in the following year, 
and there the rest of his Ufe was spent. 
In 1872 he was ordained deacon, but his 
clerical work was confined to the duties of 
college chaplain and sermons in the chapel. 
In 1887 he was elected to the hebdomadal 
council, and in 1897 to the office of 
university registrar, which he held till his 
death. In 1871 he had been president of 
the Um'on ; and in 1887, when the finances 
of the society were in low water, he was 
appointed to the new office of senior 
treasurer, which likewise he continued to 
hold till his death. Between 1876 and 1898 
he served as examiner in the school of 
literae humaniores no less than a dozen 
times. He was also president of the Asso- 
ciation for the Education of Women and 
of the Women's Suffrage Society, and 
latterly a member of the education com- 
mittee of the Nottinghamshire county 
council. His only contribution to litera- 
ture was to assist Thomas Hill Green [q. v.] 
in editing ' The Philosophical Works of 
David Hume ' (187^5). 

Grose's best work was done in his rooms 
at Queen's. Shy and raserved in manner, 
with gestures that were awkward and a 
voice that was gruff, he won the respect and 
affection of many generations of under- 
graduates. Himself unmarried, he de- 
voted his time and his money to fatherly 
relations among an ever expanding circle 
of those who were to him in the place of 
sons. He followed closely every stage of 
bis pupils' future life, however far removed 
they might be from Oxford. In his early 
years he had been a keen fives-player 
and an Alpine climber. He was a member 
of the Alpine Club from 1900 till death, 
latterly his chief outdoor pursuit was field 
botany. Almost to the last he travelled 
much abroad, his interest being divided 
between natural scenery and art museums. 
In 1894 he paid a nine months' visit to 
India. His rooms ultimately became a 
storehouse of artistic objects and photo- 
graphs brought back from foreign lands. 
He died in college, after a long and painful 
illness, on 11 Feb. 1906, and was buried at 
Holywell cemeterj. The Union Society, 
who had two years before presented him 
with a service of silver plate inscribed 
' Viro strenuo, suis carissimo, optime de 
Bocietate merito,' adjourned their debate 
out of respect to his memoi^. His portrait 

by R. E. Morrison was presented by 
members of the college in 1903 and was 
hung in the college hall. After his death 
a memorial fund was formed for the 
assistance of undergraduates in need of 

[Personal knowledge ; two pamphlets on the 
occasion of his death, printed at Oxford for 
private circulation, 1906.] J. S. C. 

GUBBINS, JOHN (1838-1906), breeder 
and owner of race-horses, born on 16 Dec. 
1838 at the family home, Kilfrush, co. 
Limerick, was fourth son of Joseph Gubbins 
by his wife Maria, daughter of Thomas 
Wise of Cork. Of three surviving brothers 
and five sisters, the third brother, Stamer, 
who was 6 feet 6 inches tall and of pro- 
portionate build, joined the army, and, 
attaining the rank of captain, distin- 
guished himself in the Crimean war, 
where, discarding his sword, he carried 
a heavy blackthorn stick; subsequently 
he bred horses at Knockany, where he 
died on 7 Aug. 1879, aged forty-six, owing 
to the fall upon him of a horse which he 
had been ' schooling ' over fences. 

John Gubbins, after being educated 
privately, inherited the Knockany pro- 
perty from his brother Stamer, and pur- 
chased the estate of Bruree, co. Limerick. A 
fortune was also left him by an uncle, Francis 
Wise of Cork. Setthng at Bruree in 1868, 
he spent about 40,000?. in building kennels 
and stables, and buying horses and hounds. 
He hunted the Limerick country with 
both stag and fox hounds, and was no 
mean angler, until forced to stop by the 
operations of the Land League in 1882. 

From youth he took a keen interest in 
horse - racing. At first his attention was 
mainly confined to steeplechasers, and he 
rode many winners at Punchestown and 
elsewhere in Ireland. He was the owner 
of Seaman when that horse won the grand 
hurdle race at Auteuil, but had sold him to 
Lord Manners before he won the Grand 
National at Liverpool in 1882. Usna was 
another fine chaser in his possession. Buy- 
ing the staUions Kendal and St. Florian, 
he bred, from the mare Morganette, Galtee 
More by the former and Ard Patrick by the 
latter. Galtee More won the Two Thousand 
Guineas and the St. Leger as well as the 
Derby in 1897, and was afterwards sold to 
the Russian government for 21,000Z., who 
later passed him on to the Prussian govern- 
ment for 14,000Z. The latter govern- 
ment also bought Ard Patrick for 21,000Z. 
a day or two before he won the Echpse 
stakes of 10,000Z. in 1903, when he defeated 




Soeptre and Rook Sand after an excep- 
tionally exciting contest. Other notable 
horses bred by Jolin Gubbins wore Blair- 
findo (winner of the Irish Derby) and 
Revenue. In 1897 he hoade<l the list of 
winning owners with a total of 22,739/., and 
was third in the list in 1903. His horses 
were at various times trained by H. E. 
Linde (in Ireland), Joussiflfe (at Lambourn), 
and S. DarUng (at Beckhampton.) After 

1903 John Gubbins was rarely seen on a 
racecourse owing to failing health, and in 

1904 he sold his horses in training. In 
1905, however, his health having apparently 
improved, he sent some yearlings to Cran- 
borne, Dorset, to be trained by Sir Charles 
Nugent, but before these horses could run 
he died at Bruree on 20 March 1906, and 
was buried in the private burial ground 
at Kilfrush. He was high sheriff of co. 
Limerick in 1886, as well as J. P. and D.L. 
A warm-hearted, genial personality, he was 
a kind and indulgent landlord and em- 
ployer, and a sportsman of the best type. 

In 1889 he married Edith, daughter of 
Charles Legh, of Addington Hall, Cheshire ; 
she predeceased him without issue. His 
estates passed to his nephew, John 
Norris Browning, a retired naval surgeon. 

[Notes supplied by Mr. D. R. Browning, 
of Bruree, co. Limerick ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Sportsman, 21 March 1906 ; Baily's 
Magazine, May 1906 ; Ruff's Guide to the 
Turf.] E. M. 

(1835-1910), divine and author, bom on 
11 Aug. 1835 at Montpelier House, near 
Kingstown, Ireland, was eldest son in the 
family of one daughter and three sons of 
John Grattan Guinness (1783-1850), captain 
in the army, who saw service in India. 
His mother was Jane Lucretia, daughter 
of Wilham Cramer (an accompUshed vio- 
linist and composer, who was son of Johann 
Baptist Cramer [q. v.]), musical composer, 
and was widow of Captain J. N. D'Esterre, 
who was killed by Daniel O'Connell [q. v.] 
in a duel in Feb. 1815. His grandfather, 
Arthur Guinness of Beaumont, co. Dublin, 
established the first Sunday school in 
Ireland in Dublin in 1786. During their 
father's lifetime the family lived variously 
at Dublin, Liverpool, Clifton, and Chelten- 
ham. After education at private schools at 
Clevedon and Exeter, Guinness at the age of 
seventeen went to sea, and travelled through 
Mexico and the West Indies. On his return 
to England in March 1853 he experienced 
religious' conversion.' Li Jan. 1856 he entered 
New College, St. John's Wood, London, was 

ordained as an undenominational erangelist 
in July 1857, and entered on evangelistic 
work, to which he thenceforth devoted his 
life at home and abroad. He met with 
great success as a preacher in London, 
rivalling Charles Haddon Spurgcon [q. v.] 
in popularity, and preaching often at the 
Moorficlds Tabernacle, the charge of 
which he was offered but declined. There 
followed preaching tours on the Conti- 
nent in Jan. 1858, in Ireland in Feb. 1858 
and in 1859, and in America from Nov. 
1859 to May 1860. After his first marriage 
on 2 Oct. 1860 he and his wife spent twelve 
years in incessant travelling. He visited 
Canada in 1861 and Egypt and Palestine 
in 1862. He then held a short pastorate 
at Liverpool, and afterwards worked in 
Ireland. Towards the close of 1865 Guin- 
ness took a house at 31 Bagot Street, 
Dublin, with a view to forming a training 
home for evangelists and missionaries. In 
1866 he also conducted in Dublin the Merrion 
Hall Mission, and there he helped to bring 
Thomas John Bamardo [q. v. Suppl. II] 
under religious influence. In 1867 he left 
Dublin for Bath. Work in France occupied 
much of his time from 1868 to 1872. Next 
year he founded in London, and directed 
till his death, the East London Institute 
for Home and Foreign Missions, for the 
training of young men and women for home 
and foreign missionary work. The Insti- 
tute was first located at 29 Stepney Green, 
and subsequently at Harley House, Bow. 
Bamardo was a co-director. During the 
first year the students numbered 32. At 
the end of three years branches were 
formed in London, and one was installed at 
Hulme Cliff College, Curbar, Derbyshire. 
Accommodation was provided for 100 men 
and women; over 1100 men and women 
have since been trained. 

With the opening up of the Congo and 
the publication of H. M. Stanley's letters 
at the end of 1877, Guinness and his wife 
resolved to concentrate on foreign missions. 
A monthly magazine, * The Regions Beyond, ' 
was started in 1878. The Livingstone 
Inland Mission was formed in the Cx^ngo 
in 1878, and in 1880 became a branch of 
the institute, with Guinness as director and 
Mrs. Guinness as secretary. It was trans- 
ferred to the control of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union in 1884 (see Mrs. Guin- 
NESs's The New World of Central Africa, 
1890). A new mission to the interior of 
Africa, the Congo Balolo Mission, was 
founded in 1889,and others followed in South 
America — in Peru in 1897, and the Argentine 
in 1899. The organisations were combined 




in 1899 to form * The Regions Beyond Mis- 
sionary Union,' an unsectarian body whose 
activities were further extended to India 
by the formation of the Behar mission in 
the Bengal presidency in 1901. 

Although Guinness did not himself 
visit the interior of Africa, he went in the 
interest of his societies to Algeria in 1879, 
to America in 1889 (where he inspired the 
creation in Boston and Minneapolis of 
training institutions similar to his own), 
to India and Burma in November 1896, and 
to China and Japan in 1897. A second visit 
to Eg3^t in 1900 bore good fruit among the 
Sudanese. In 1903 Guinness went with his 
second wife on a five years' missionary tour 
round the world, visiting Switzerland (1903), 
America and Canada (1904), Japan and China 
(1905), Australia and New Zealand (1906), 
and South Africa (1907). He received the 
degree of D.D. from Brown University, 
Providence, U.S.A., m 1889. 

Guinness died after four months' illness 
on 21 June 1910 at Bath, where he spent his 
last two years, and was buried in the Abbey 
cemetery there. He was twice married. 
His first wife, Fanny (1831-1898), daughter 
of Edward Marlborough Fitzgerald (<i. 1839), 
and grand-daughter of Maurice Fitzgerald 
of Dublin, whom he married at Bath 
on 20 Oct. 1860, was one of the first 
women evangelists. She joined in all her 
husband's work, was secretary of the East 
London Institute and of the Livingstone 
Inland Mission, was editor of ' The Re- 
gions Beyond ' from 1878, and, besides col- 
laborating with her husband, independently 
published ' The Life of Mrs. Henry Denning ' 
(Bristol, 1872) and 'The New World of 
Central Africa' (1890). She died at Cliff 
House, Curbar, Derbyshire, on 3 Nov. 1898, 
and was buried in Baslow churchyard. 
She had six daughters, of whom two only 
survived childhood, and two sons. All the 
children engaged in their parents' missionary 
efforts. The eldest son. Dr. Harry Grattan 
Guinness (6. 1861), is a director of the mission 
at Harley House. The younger daughter, 
Lucy Evangeline (Mrs. Karl Kumm, 1865- 
1906), edited ' The Regions Beyond' for some 
nine years after her mother's death, published 
books on South America and India, and was 
a writer of verse. Her father published a 
memoir of her in 1907. Guinness married 
secondly, on 7 July 1903, Grace, daughter of 
Russell Hurditch, by whom he had two sons. 

In collaboration with his first wife 
Guinness published several works on 
prophecy. The most important, 'The 
Approaching End of the Age in the Light of 
History, Prophecy, and Science,' published 

m 1878 (8th edit. 1882), went through four- 
teen editions. Other joint publications were 
'Light for the Last Days' (1886) and 'The 
Divine Programme of the World's History' 
(1888). Guinness published also in 1882 a 
translation of Brusciotto's grammar of the 
Congo language, and 'A Grammar of the 
Congo Language as spoken in the Cataract 
Region below Stanley Pool,' containing 
specimen translations from the Bible, which 
were printed separately as ' Mosaic History 
and Gospel Story.' His many other 
volumes included ' The City of the Seven 
Hills,' a poem (1891), and ' Creation centred 
in Christ ' (2 vols. 1896). 

[The Times, 22 June 1910 ; Men and Women 
of the Time, 1899 ; Thirteen Sermons, 1859 
(with brief sketch of Guinness' s life and 
portrait at age of 22) ; Harper's Weekly, 
1860 (portrait) ; In Memoriam number of 
Regions Beyond, Jan.-Feb. 1911 (with por- 
traits) ; Enter Thou, New Year's number 
of Regions Beyond, 1899, containing memoir 
of Mrs. Guinness with illustrations ; J. S. 
Dennis, Christian Missions and Social Progress, 
3 vols. 1906; Dwight, Tupper, and Bliss, 
Encyc. of Missions, 1904 ; James Marchant, 
Memoirs of Dr. Barnardo, 1907.] W. B. O. 

count Selby (1835-1909), Speaker of the 
House of Commons, bom in London on 
29 Aug. 1835, was second son of Dr. James 
Manby Gully [q. v.], the well-known 
physician of Great Malvern, by Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Court. He was edu- 
cated privately, and at the early age of six- 
teen went to Trinity College, "^ Cambridge. 
He was popular at the university and was 
chosen president of the Cambridge Union. 
In 1856 he graduated B.A. with a first class 
in the moral sciences tripos, then recently 
estabHshed, and proceeded M.A. in 1859. 
On 26 Jan. 1860 he was called to the bar at 
the Inner Temple, and joined the northern 
circuit. He shared the usual struggles of 
a junior barrister, and there is a well- 
authenticated story of a meeting between 
three members of the circuit who, despair- 
ing of their prospects at home, agreed to 
try their fortunes in India or the colonies. 
But they reconsidered their determination, 
and all of them rose to eminence in their own 
country. The three were Charles Russell 
[q. V. Suppl. I], afterwards lord chief 
justice of England, Farrer Herschell [q. v. 
Suppl. I], afterwards lord chancellor of 
Great Britain, and Gully, who gradually 
established a good practice at the bar, 
especially in commercial cases at Liverpool. 
He had a soimd knowledge of law, and a 
fine presence and attractive personality. 




According to a contemporary, who spoke 
with intimate knowledgo, ho * was one of the 
straightcst advocates a circuit over saw.' 
He took silk' in 1877, was elected a 
bencher in 1879, and eventually became 
leader of the northern circuit. 

In 1880 ho felt that his position at the bar 
justified liini in entering political life, and 
at the general election of that year he stood 
as a Uberal candidate for Whitehaven, 
where the Lowther influence was strong 
against him. His opponent was George 
Cavendish Bentmck, and he was defeated by 
182 votes. Nor was he more successful in 
1885, when he tried again and was again 
defeated by the same opponent. It was 
not until 1892 that he obtained a seat in the 
House of Commons. Robert Ferguson, 
the liberal member for Carhsle, dissented 
from Gladstone's home rule pohcy, and 
at the general election of 1892 GuUy was 
selected as a Uberal candidate in his place. 
He was opposed by F. Cavendish Ben- 
tinck, but was returned by a majority of 143, 
and retained the seat until he left the House 
of Commons. In the same year he was 
appointed recorder of Wigan. 

In the House of Commons Gully did not 
take a very active part in debates, but was 
known, and Uked, as a quiet member, 
apparently more interested in his pro 
fessional than in his pohtical work. His 
opportunity came in 1895. In the April of 
that year Mr. Speaker Peel resigned his post. 
The Uberal majority was smaU, dwindling 
and precarious, and the imionists resolved 
to nominate a member of their own party 
as his successor. The candidate whom they 
selected was Matthew White Ridley [q.v. 
Suppl. II], afterwards home secretary and 
first Viscount Ridley. On the liberal 
side Mr. Leonard Courtney (now Lord 
Courtney of Penwith), who had been chair- 
man of ways and means, was suggested by 
the cabinet. But his attitude on the 
Irish question and his somewhat brusque 
individuaUsm were certain to aUenate liberal 
and nationaUst votes. Sir Henry Camp- 
beU Bamierman [q. v. Suppl. IIJ avowed 
his willingness to take the post, and he 
would apparently have been accepted by 
the unionists. But Sir WilUam Harcourt 
was unwilUng to lose so valuable a 
coUeague. Then Gully was suggested as 
a ' safe ' man, whom all the sections 
of the liberal party would support. The 
suggestion is said to have come from 
Henry Labouchere. Gully was adopted 
as the liberal candidate, and on 10 April 
ho was elected against Sir Matthew White 
Ridley by a majority of eleven votes. The 


opposition resented their defeat, and it was 
intimated that in the event of an early change 
of government the unionist party, if return^ 
to power at a general election, would not 
feel bound to continue Gully as speaker in 
a new parliament. On 25 June, after Lord 
Rosebery's retirement. Lord Salisbury 
became prime minister, parUament was 
dissolved on 8 July, and at the general 
election the unionist party obtained a large 
majority. Gully's seat at CarUsle was con- 
tested, but he succeeded in retaining it 
by an increased majority. During the 
short interval which elapsed between Gully's 
election to the office of speaker and the dis- 
solution of parUament he had firmly estab- 
Ushed his reputation as an exceUent 
occupant of the chair, and when the new 
parUament met in August the notion of 
opposing his re-election was abandoned, the 
tradition of continuing in office an efficient 
speaker was maintained, and on the motion 
of Sir John Mowbray, the father of the 
house, he was unanimously re-elected. He 
retained his office, after another re-election 
in 1900, \mtil his retirement in March 

GuUy had a difficult task to perform in 
succeeding the majestic and awe-inspiring 
Peel, but he proved himself equal to the 
task. Handsome, dignified, courteous, 
impartial, he sustained the judicial tradi- 
tions of many parUamentary generations. 
His professional training enabled him to 
master quickly the rules and practice of 
the house, and his judicial temperament 
secured their impartial appUcation. There 
were some who criticised his interpretation 
of them as too technical, to others it some- 
times appeared that, as is natural to men of 
sensitive conscience, he inclined too much, 
in cases of doubt, to the side to which he 
was poUticaUy opposed ; but no one ever 
questioned his fairness of mind. One re- 
regrettable incident lost him the confidence 
of the Irish nationalist party. On 5 March 
1901, at a sitting of the committee of supply, 
the chairman, Mr. Lowther (afterwards 
speaker), had granted the clo8xu*e, and a 
division was caUed ; but when the order was 
given to clear the house, about a dozen Irish 
members refused to leave their seats. The 
speaker was sent for, and repeated the order ; 
but the members refused to leave the house, 
and were forcibly removed by the police. 
The rule thus enforced was not embodied 
in any standing order and has since been 
expressly repealed. But there is no doubt 
that it represented the then existing 
practice of the House. Wliether its en- 
forcement could have been avoided is a 




question about which anyone acquainted 
with the difficulties of such situations 
would hesitate to express a confident 

In March 1905, after nearly ten years' 
service. Gully found himself compelled, on 
the groimd of health, to resign the office of 
speaker. The strain of his work was much 
increased by the serious illness of his wife, 
to whom he was devotedly attached. In 
accordance with custom, he received a 
peerage and a pension, and a vote of thanks 
from the House of Commons. He took as 
his title (Viscount Selby) the family name 
of his wife. Release from his official 
duties restored his health, and during the 
remaining years of his life he was a regular 
attendant at debates of the House of Lords, 
and served the public in many ways. He 
was chairman of the royal commission on 
motor cars, and also of the commission on 
vaccination; chairman of the board of 
trade arbitration committee in 1908, and 
a member of the permanent arbitration 
court at the Hague. He was also chair- 
man of the executive committee of the 
Franco-British Exhibition of 1908. Gully 
was made an hon. LL.D. of Cambridge 
in 1900, and an hon. D.C.L. of Oxford 
in 1904, and received the freedom of the 
City of London on his resignation of the 
office of speaker. His health greatly 
suffered from his wife's death on 15 Nov. 
1906. He was taken seriously ill whilst 
staying at Menaggio, on the lake of Como, 
in September 1909, and being brought home 
made a temporary recovery. He died on 
6 November in that year at his country 
seat, Sutton Place, Seaford, and was buried 
at Brookwood . He married on 1 5 April 1 865 
Ehzabeth Anne Walford {d. 1906), eldest 
daughter of Thomas Selby of Whitley and 
Wimbush in Essex. He had issue four 
daughters and two sons. His elder son, 
James WilUam Herschell, succeeded to the 
peerage. His younger son, Edward Walford 
Karslake, was for many years private 
secretary both to his father and to his 
father's successor as speaker, and is now 
examiner of private bills for the two houses 
of parUament. The best portrait of Gully 
is that by Sir George Reid in the speaker's 
official house. Another portrait, painted 
by the Hon. John CoUier in 1898, is in 
the hall of the Inner Temple. A cartoon 
portrait by ' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity 
Fair' in 1896. ^ 

[The Tunes, 8-11 Nov. 1909 ; Carlisle 
Express and Examiner, 13 Nov. 1909 ; A. I. 
Dasent, Lives of the Speakers, 1911 ; personai 
knowledge.] C P I 

I 1904), man of science, eldest son of Henry 
Gumey by his wife Eleanor Palin, was bom 
in London on 7 Sept. 1847. He entered 
the City of London School in 1856, under 
the headmastership of Dr. Mortimer, and 
remained there until 1866 ; at the school 
he gained the Beaufoy mathematical 
medal, and was head of the school in 
science in 1865. In 1866 he proceeded 
to Clare College, Cambridge, where he 
specialised in science and mathematics. 
He rowed in his college boat, and ran for 
the university in the inter-university 
sports of 1868 and 1869. He graduated 
B.A. in 1870 as fourteenth wrangler, and 
was fourth in the first class of the natural 
science tripos. At the university Gurney 
studied mineralogy and crystallography 
under Professor William Hallowes Miller 
[q. v.], and acted for a while as Miller's 
deputy. Gurney was also the senior 
lecturer at Clare College in mathematics 
and natural sciences. Elected to a college 
fellowship in April 1870, he held it until 
1883, when he was senior fellow of his 
college. In 1871 he took holy orders, and 
was appointed curate to Canon Beck, rector 
of the college living of Rotherhithe, and 
subsequently officiated for many years as 
curate at St. Peter's Church, Bayswater. 
Shortly after his marriage in 1872 he 
became lecturer for Walter Wren at 
Wren's tutorial establishment in Powis 
Square, Bayswater. Gumey's sound 
mathematical knowledge, clear method of 
teaching, and powers of organisation were 
found of such value that he became in 
1877 managing partner of the firm of 
Wren & Gurney, which rapidly acquired 
celebrity as a preparatory establishment 
for young men wishing to enter the army, 
the Indian civil service, and other home or 
foreign office departments. 

Meanwhile he had kept up his interest in 
mineralogy, and in 1875 he published his 
only book, a small but clear and useful 
work on crystallography, one of the 
manuals of elementary science issued 
by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. In 1876 Gumey helped to 
found the Crystallogical Society, and was 
a member of its &*st council. In 1894 
he was appointed to the post of prin- 
cipal of the Durham College of Science, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in succession to Dr. 
William Garnett. At a critical period in 
the history of the College of Science Gumey 
showed tact, abiUty, and powers of con- 
ciliation and administration. Next year 
Gurney added the duties of professor of 




mathematics to the burden of the princi- 

Ealship, retaining the chair until>,1904. 
a 1895 ho to(jk a proniinont part in 
foimding a department of minoralogv and 
crystallography at the college, and was 
himself the first lecturer, giving his services 
gratuitously. In 1890 the honorary degree 
of D.C.L. was conferred upon liim by the 
University of Durham. 

To meet the additional accommodation 
which the growth of the college made im- 
perative, Gurney arranged an influential 
public meeting at Newcastle in 1899, where 
a strong committee was formed to collect 
subscriptions. In 1901, at Gurney's sugges- 
tion, the Armstrong Memorial Fund was 
devoted to the completion of the coUege, as a 
memorial of Lord Armstrong. The college 
thereupon took the name of Armstrong 
College. The new buildings were duly 
commenced in 1904. 

Gurney died through a mountain accident 
in Switzerland on 13 Aug. 1904, having 
apparently lost his footing wliiLst out 
alone on La Roussette near Arolla. He 
was buried at Ganerew in Herefordshire. 
In 1872 he married at Whitchurch, Here- 
fordshire, Louisa, daughter of the Rev. 
H. Selby Hele of Grays, Essex. He left 
a family of nine daughters ; the eldest, 
Mary, is head mistress of the Newcastle 
high school for girls. 

Gurney was essentially a teacher and an 
organiser of teaching, who combined great 
abilities as an administrator with a sound 
knowledge of scientific principles and 
marked powers of clear exposition. He 
acted as chaplain to the bishop of Newcastle, 
and warden and chaplain of the Newcastle 
diocesan house of mercy. For the first 
supplement of tliis Dictionary he wrote 
the memoir of Lord Armstrong. He also 
privately printed ' The Continuity of Life ' 
(1876) and *A Sermon on Words' (1882), 
and contributed notes on geology to the 
* Transactions ' of the Institute of Mining 

There is a bust of Gurney by Mr. C 
Neuper in Armstrong College library, and 
an oil painting by A. H. Marsh in the hall. 

[Minoralogical Mag., vol. xiv. Oct. 1904, 
No. 63, pp. 61-4 ; Newcastle Diocesan Gaz., 
Sept. 1904, p. 110 ; the Northerner, vol. v. 
No. 1. Nov. 1904, p. 2 ; Lady Clare Mag., 
vol. iv. No. 1, Oct. term, 1904, p. 7 ; City of 

London School Mag., No. 160, March 1905, 
p. 3.] H. L. 

GUTHRIE, WILUAM (1835-1908), 
legal writer, bom at Culhom HouBe, 
Stranraer, on 17 Aug. 1835, was son of 
George Guthrie of Appleby, chamberlain 
to the earl of Stair, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Robert MoDonall. Educated 
at Stranraer Academy and at the Uni- 
versities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, he 
passed to the Scottish bar in 1861, but 
never acquired much practice in the courts. 
Devoting liimself to the study of law, he 
became editor of the ' Journal of Juris- 
prudence ' (1867-74) and an official re- 
porter of cases decided in the court of 
session ( 1871-4). In 1872 he was appointed 
registrar of friendly societies for Scot- 
land, and in 1874 one of the sheriff- 
substitutes of Lanarkshire. In 1881 he 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Edinburgh University, and in 1891 
represented the Faculty of Advocates 
at the International Law Association. In 
1903 he was raised to the position of 
sheriff- principal at Glasgow, where he 
took a prominent and useful part in public 
affairs. He died in the house of his son, 
David Guthrie, C.A., Glasgow, on 31 Aug. 
1908. He was buried in the Cathcart 
cemetery, Glasgow. He married Char- 
lotte Carruthers, daughter of James 
Palmer of Edinburgh, by whom he had 
four sons and two daughters. 

Guthrie was an industrious legal writer. 
His principal publications (all at Edin- 
burgh) were : 1. The fourth edition of 
Robert Hunter's ' Treatise on the Law 
of Landlord and Tenant,' 1876. 2. ' Select 
Cases decided in the Sheriff Courts of Scot- 
land,' 1878. 3. Translations of Savigny's 
' Private International Law ' (copiously 
annotated), 1869, 1880. 4. Editions 
of Erskine's ' Principles of the Law of 
Scotland,' 1870, 1874, and 1881. 6. 
Editions of Bell's ' Principles of the Law 
of Scotland,' 1872, 1885, 1889, and 1899. 
He also edited George Guthrie's * Bank 
Monopoly the Cause of Commercial Crises ' 
(1864 and 1866) and 'The Law of Trades 
Unions in England and Scotland under 
the Trade Union Act of 1871 ' (1873). 

[The Times, Scotsman, and Glasgow 
Herald, 2 Sept. 1908.] G. W. T. 0. 






(1818-1910), etcher and surgeon, the son of 
Charles Thomas Haden, M.D. (1786-1824), 
was bom at 62 Sloane Street on 16 Sept. 
1818. A biographical notice of his father 
by Dr. Thomas Alcock was prefixed to 
his work, 'Practical Observations on the 
Management and Diseases of Children,' pub- 
lished posthumously in 1827. His mother, 
Emma, was daughter of Samuel Harrison 
[q. v.], the vocalist, and was herself an 
excellent musician. 

Haden received his general education at 
Derby School, Christ's Hospital, and 
University College, London, and continued 
his professional studies in the medical 
schools of the Sorbonne, Paris, and at 
Grenoble, where he acted as prosecteur 
in 1839, and, later, lecturer on surgical 
anatomy at the military hospital. In 
1842 he became a member, and in 1857 
a fellow, of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
From 1851 to 1867 he was honorary suigeon 
to the Department of Science and Art. He 
had settl^ in private practice at 62 Sloane 
Street in 1847, moving in 1878 to 38 Hert- 
ford Street, Mayfair. In addition to the 
labours of a large private practice, he 
found time for much public work in rela- 
tion to surgical science, serving on the juries 
of the International Exhibitions of 1851 
and 1862, and contributing in this capacity 
in 1862 an exhaustive report, remarkable 
for its championship of the operation of 
ovariotomy. He was consulting surgeon to 
the Chapel Royal, a vice-president of the 
obstetrical society of London, and one of 
the principal movers in the foundation 
of the Royal Hospital for Incurables in 
1850. Throughout his life he maintained 
a vigorous campaign against cremation, 
as well as against certain abuses which 
had become more or less inseparable 
from the old-fashioned methods of burial, 
advocating a natural ' earth to earth ' 
burial, which he effected by his inven- 
tion of j a papier-mdcM coffin. He pub- 
lished on the subject several pamphlets, 
*The Disposal of the Dead,' 'A Protest 
against Cremation,' ' Earth to Earth' (1875), 
and ' Cremation an Incentive to Crime ' 
(2nd edit. 1892). Among his fellow practi- 
tioners he was noted for an instinctive 
power of diagnosis, due largely to a disci- 
plined sense of vision. Much of his spare 
time in the evenings while a student in 

I Paris was spent in the" art ^schools, and 
quite apart from his purely ,Vartistic incli- 
nation he was always a staunch advocate 
of the use of drawing in training the hand 
and eye of the surgeon. 

Haden sought relaxation from his pro- 
fessional work of surgeon, which he pursued 
till 1887, in the art and study of etch- 
ing. His etched work, although technically 
that of an amateur, is the chief memorial 
of his life. Except for a few plates after 
Turner, and some family portraits after 
Wright of Derby, his work is entirely 
original. It includes a few portraits and 
figure studies, but is chiefly devoted to 
landscape. Here he was an artist of great 
truth and keenness of vision, and his best 
work shows a real sense of style, a true 
appreciation of the value of line, and a 
thorough command of an eminently virile 
technique. Most of his etchings, which 
number two hundred and fiifty in all (Nos. 66 
and 57 in Dr. Harrington's catalogue are 
in reality different states of a single plate), 
were done during the years of his greatest 
professional activity. He was not only 
assiduous in drawing and etching when 
in the country, but even on his professional 
rounds he was seldom without a plate in 
his pocket or in the carriage, ready to use 
the etching needle to record his impressions 
as another would a note-book. 

Six of his plates, the records of an 
Italian journey, date as early as 1843-4, 
but there was an interval of fourteen years 
before he took up etching again in 1858. 
By that time Haden had come into close 
relations with James Abbott McNeill 
Whistler [q. v. Suppl. II], whose half-sister 
Dasha Delano Whistler, Haden married 
on 16 Oct. 1847. The etchings of Whistler 
and Haden bear traces of a mutual 
influence which is well exemplified in 
portraits by both (Harrington, No. 9; 
Wedmore, No. 25) of Lady Haden reading 
by lamplight. The two etchings were done 
o|^ the same evening in 1858, the year in 
which Whistler published the thirteen prints 
of the * French set.' 

One half of Haden's etchings were pro- 
duced in the decade succeeding 1859, sixty- 
eight being done in the two years 1864-5 
alone. Then in 1877, when ho was staying 
at Newton Manor with Sir John Charles 
Robinson, and afterwards travelhng with 
Robinson in Spain, he completed his record 




number for one year, etching thirty-nine 
plates. Between 1859 and 1887 ho was in- 
termittently regular in liis pastime, two years 
being the longest interval that ho allowed 
to pass without etching a plate. After 
1887 no plato is rocordcxl until 1896, and 
in the next three years, 1896-8, ho did 
eighteen plates, including a considerable 
number of mezzotints, a process which 
he chiefly practised at this late period of 
his activity. His last plate, a sketch of 
VVoodcoto Park, done on a pewter plate 
from the artist's bedroom window, is dated 

Except for the twenty-five etchings 
wliich appeared in Paris under the title 
' fitudes a I'eau-forto ' in a portfolio with 
text by Philippe Burty (1865-6), nearly 
all Haden's etcliings were put into com- 
merce separately by the artist. Pieces of 
capital importance in the sale-room are the 
'Thames Fishermen' (Harrington, No. 
11) ; * By-road in Tipperary ' {ib. No. 30) ; 
the larger ' Shere Mill Pond ' [ib. No. 38) ; 
'Sunset in Ireland' {ib. No. 51); *La 
Belle Anglaise' {ib. No. 90); the * River 
in Ireland ' {ib. No. 91), and, most popular 
of all, the ' Breaking up of the Agamemnon ' 
{ib. No. 145), a subject repeated in a later 
plate {ib. No. 229). But these pi^es 
capitales are by no means the best of his 
work, wliich is as often found in the plates 
of less rarity and value. Special praise 
is due to the series of dry-points done in 
1877 near Swanage, e.g. ' Windmill Hill,' 
No. 1 (H. No. 163) ; and for breadth and 
vigour of style in pure etching ' Sawley 
Abbey ' {ib. No. 148) ; ' By Inveroran ' 
{ib. No. 149); the 'Inn, Purfleet ' {ib. 
No. 139) ; the ' Easex Farm ' {ib. No. 155) ; 
and the ' Boat House ' {ib. No. 156). 

Haden's practical services to British 
etching include the foundation in 1880 
of the Society (now the Royal Society) 
of Painter-Etchers, whose president he 
remained until his death. His public 
service was rewarded in 1894 by a knight- 
hood, and his distinction recognised abroad 
by honorary membership of the Ins ti tut 
de France in 1905, the Academic des Beaux 
Arts, and the Societe des Artistes Fran9ais. 
He was elected a member of the Athenaeum 
in 1891 under Rule II. Among the medals 
awarded him at various times for etch- 
ing were Grands Prix at the Expositions 
Universelles at Paris in 1889 and 1900. 
He exhibited etchings in the Royal Academy 
from 1860 to 1885, using the pseudonym 
of H. Dean in the exliibitions of 1860 to 
1864. He also produced a large i number 
of landscape drawings (now preserved in the 

f collections of Mr. F. ScArmour Haden, Dr. 
I H. N. Harrington, tho Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and elsewhere), some of the earliest 
I being in water-colour, but the majority exe- 
! cuted in black chalk, characterised by great 
! breadth and vigour of handling ; he reoeived 
I a modal for some exhibitcsd at the Inter- 
national Exhibition, Chicago, 1893. Most 
of Haden's etchings were done direct on 
the copper without the aid of preliminary 
studies, but drawings which were used as 
studies for twenty-seven etchings are 

Tho chief collections of his etchings 
are in the British Museum, the Avery col- 
lection in the New York Public Library, 
the Allbright Art Gallery, Buffalo, and the 
private collections of Dr. H. N. Harrington 
(who was one of Haden's executors) and 
Mr. Harris B. Dick of New York. Special 
exhibitions of his etchings were held by the 
Fine Art Society (1878-9), at the Corpora- 
I tion Art Gallery, Derby (1886), by the Royal 
I Society of Painter-Etchers (1889), Wunder- 
|lich & Co.. New York (1890), P. & D. 
' Cohiaghi (1901), F. Keppel & Co., New 
I York (1901, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1908-9), 
! Grolier Club, New York (1902), at the 
Salon d'Automne. Paris (1907), by Obach & 
' Co., London (1907), T. & R. Annan & Co., 
Glasgow (1910), Ernest Brown & PhilHps, 
Leicester Galleries (1911, Dr. H. N.*Har- 
I rington's collection, with his valuable 
preface to the catalogue). 
j As a critic and writer on art, Haden 
I will be chiefly remembered as a pioneer 
I of the scientific criticism of Rembrandt's 
! etchings (of which he had a considerable 
collection). He was largely responsible 
for the Rembrandt exhibition at the Bur- 
j lington Fine Arts Club in 1879, and his 
I introductory remarks to the catalogue 
gave the chief impetus to the criticism that 
has divided so much school work from 
the master's OAni etching. In addition to 
this introduction (published separately in 
1879 as ' The Etched Work of Rembrandt ' ; 
French trans. 1880), his most valuable 
publications on art include * About 
Etching' (1879; 3rd edit. 1S81), 'The 
Relative Claims of Etching and Engraving 
to rank as Fine Arts and to be represented 
as such in the Royal Academy' (1883), 
'The Art of the Painter- Etchers ' (1890), 
'The Royal Society of Pain ter- Etchers ' 
(1891) (this and the preceding reprinted 
from the ' Nineteenth Century '), * The 
Etched Work of Rembrandt, True and 
False' (a lecture, 1895), his 'Presidential 
Address to the Royal Society of Painter- 
Etchers, 1901 ' (1902). 

Haig Brown 


Haig Brown 

On retiring from his London practice 
in 1887 Haden lived in the neighbour- 
hood of Alresford, Hampshire. From 
1888 he resided at Woodcote Manor, 
an old Elizabethan house, where he died 
on 1 June 1910. Lady Haden died in 
1908 By her he had one daughter 
and three sons, his eldest son, Francis 
Seymour, C.M.G., being distinguished in 
the colonial service in South Afnca. 

There are two painted portraits of Haden, 
both done by Jacomb Hood in 1892, 
one being in the possession of his son, 
Mr. F. Seymour Haden, the other belonging 
to the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers. 
There is a portrait drawing by Alphonse 
Legros (done about 1883, and once m 
the possession of Messrs. Keppel of New 
York). His portrait was etched by himself 
(3 plates), L. Flameng (1875), L. Lacretelle 
(1878), W. Strang (1883), H. von Herkomer 
(2 plates, 1892), and Percy Thomas (1900) ; 
it was engraved by C. W- Sherborn (1880), 
and was mezzotinted by A. Legros (1881), 
G. Robinson (1887), and Sir Frank Short 
(1911, after the Painter-Etchers' portrait 
by Jacomb Hood). 

[H. N. Harrington, Descriptive Catalogue, 
1910 (including a complete series of repro- 
ductions of the etchings) ; The Times, 2 June 
1910; information supplied by his son, 
Mr. Francis Seymour Haden.] A. M. H. 

1907), master of Charterhouse, bom at 
Bromley by Bow, Middlesex, on 3 Dec. 1823, 
was third son of Thomas Brown of Edin- 
burgh by his wife Amelia, daughter of John 
Haig, of the family of 'Haig of Bemer- 
syde.' In his tenth year he received a 
presentation to Christ's Hospital, where he 
remained, first in the junior school at 
Hertford, and later on in London, until 
1842. Throughout life he maintained a 
close connection with the Hospital, of 
which he became a ' donation governor ' in 
1864, and from that time took an active 
part in the work of the governing body, 
his experience being of especial service in 
connection with the removal of the school 
to Horsham in 1902. He was author, in 
1899, both of 'The Christ's Hospital 
Carmen ' in Latin, and of ' The School 
Song ' in English, with an added version 
in Greek, French, and German. In 1842 
he entered Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. in 1846 as eighth junior 
optime in the mathematical and second 
in the first class in the classical tripos. 
Elected a fellow in October *1848 (M.A. 

1849), and taking holy orders (deacon 1852 
and priest 1853), he engaged in college 
work until 1857, when he was appointed 
headmaster of Kensington proprietary 

In 1863, on the resignation of Dr. Richard 
Elwyn of the headmastership of Charter- 
house, Haig Brown was appointed his 
successor on 12 Nov., in spite of the long 
established tradition that ' the School- 
master,' such was then his title, should 
have been educated at the school. On his 
first public appearance in Charterhouse at 
the Founder's Day dinner (12 Dec), Haig 
Brown sat next to Thackeray, who died 
twelve days later. Next year Haig Brown 
proceeded LL.D. at Cambridge. 

The position of Charterhouse was at this 
time critical. Placed in the heart of 
London, and with the new Smithfield 
Market at its doors, its existence as a 
boarding-school was rapidly becoming im- 
possible, and the report of the Public 
Schools' Commission, issued early in 1864, 
definitely recommended its removal. Apart 
from the objections of politicians like A. S. 
Ayrton [q. v. Suppl. I], who denounced the 
removal as an injury ' to twenty, thirty, or 
even 50,000 families in the metropolis,' who 
had a claim to benefit by its endowments, 
a stubborn resistance was offered by the 
governors and their chairman, Archdeacon 
Hale, the master of the hospital, whose 
authority was then superior to that of 
* the Schoolmaster.' Haig Brown thereupon 
issued a circular to old Carthusians, laying 
the whole case before them, the result 
being that they voted in the proportion of 
ten to one for removal, wliile he also won 
over Lord Derby, an influential governor, 
who became prime minister in June 
1866, and he secured the support of 
Gladstone, who had recently been made a 
governor. In May 1866 the governors 
decided on the removal, and a private bill, 
giving the necessary powers, was introduced 
in the House of Lords, passed the House of 
Commons on 16 August, and became law 
four days later. 

The new and admirable site at Godal- 
ming was accidentally discovered by Haig 
Brown, who, when on a visit to his wife's 
father at his rectory of Hambledon in the 
neighbourhood, heard that the ' Deanery 
Farm estate ' was for sale, walked over the 
same day, and made up his mind. The 
governors, who had sold a large portion of 
their London estate to Merchant Taylors' 
school for a price far below its real value, 
refused, by what proved to be a very 
costly error, to purchase more than fifty- 

Haig Brown 



five acres, a large part of which was useless 

cither for buildings or for playing-fields, 
and niado provision for the accommodation 
of only about 180 boys. But the main 
point was carried ; the first sod was turned 
on Founder's Day 1869, and on 18 June 
1872 the new school was occupied by 
117 old and 33 new boys. From that 
moment its progress was marvellous. * The 
Schoolmaster' no longer occupied a posi- 
tion subordinate to the ' Master ' of the 
hospital, but by the appointment of a 
* now governing body of Charterhouse 
school ' (distinct henceforth from the ' gover- 
nors of Charterhouse'), in accordance with 
the Public Schools Act of 1868, he became 
a headmaster, with the very ample statutory 
powers which that act bestowed. Once 
Haig Bro\^Ti held power he knew how to 
use it. Fearless himself, he inspired all 
around him with his own courage and 
confidence. Within a few years, in addi- 
tion to the three houses originally built 
by the governors, eight others were erected 
by various masters entirely at their own 
risk, until by September 1876 the number 
of boys had grown to 500, the number to 
which it was then wisely limited, though it 
afterwards crept up to 560. In 1874 the 
school chapel was consecrated, and from 
then for more than thirty years frequent 
additions were made to the school in the 
shape of class-rooms, a hall, a museum, 
and new playing-fields. When Haig Brown 
retired in 1897 he had earned the title 
which he everywhere bore of ' our second 

In 1872 the future of Charterhouse was 
precarious ; in 1897 it was secure ; and the 
result waa mainly due to the powerful, 
single-minded personality of the head- 
master. He was not a great teacher, 
certainly no theorist about education, no 
lover of exact rules, and rather one who 
allowed both boys and masters the largest 
measure of independence. Like the other 
three great schoolmasters of the century, 
Arnold, Thring, and Kennedy, he neither 
sought nor received ecclesiastical prefer- 
ment. Though bold to make changes, he 
was loyal to the past, so that ho became 
the living embodiment of ' the spirit of the 
school,' both in its old and its new ' home.' 
A man ' of infinite jest,' though he could be 
very stem, he was always very human, so 
that ' Old Bill,' as he was called, was an 
object equally of awe and of affection. 

On his retirement from the school in 
1897 he was appointed master of Charter- 
house (in London). Ho took an active 
part in the government of the hospital, 

and remained an energetio member of the 

governing body of the school. Among 
other distinctions bestowed on him were 
those of honorary canon of Winchester in 
1891, and honorary fellow of Pembroke, his 
old college at Cambridge, in 1898. He waa 
also made oflficicr de 1' Academic in 1882, and 
officier de I'lnstruction publiquo in 1900. 
He died at the Master's lodge at the hospital 
on 1 1 Jan. 1907, and was buried in the chapel 
at Charterhouse School. 

Haig Brown married, in 1857, Annie 
Marion, eldest daughter of the Rev. E. E. 
Rowsell. During the forty years of his 
school work she rendered him untiring 
assistance. By her he was father of five 
sons and seven daughters. 

As a memorial of his work at the school 
a seated statue in bronze by Harry 
Bates, A.R.A. (who died before the work 
was wholly finished), was set up in front 
of the school chapel in 1899. His portrait 
by Frank HoU (etched by Hubert von 
Herkomer) was placed in the great hall in 

Haig Brown's published works are the 

* Sertum Carthusianum ' (1870); 'Charter- 
house Past and Present ' (Godalming, 1879) ; 
and ' Carthusian Memories and other Verses 
of Leisure ' (with portrait, 1905), a collection 
of various prologues, epilogues, epigrams, 
and other fugitive pieces. Three of his 
hymns, ' O God, whose Wisdom made the 
Sky,' ' God, Thy Mercy's Fountams,' and 

* Auctor omnium bonorum,' have a per- 
manent place in the service for Founder's 
Day, and are worthy of any collection. 

[Wilham Haig Brown of Charterhouse, 
written by some of his pupils, edited by his 
son, H. E. Haig Brown, 1908 ; personal 
knowledge.] T. E. P. 

HAIGH, ARTHUR ELAM (1855-1905), 
classical scholar, bom at Leeds on 27 Feb. 
1855, was third son, in a family of three 
sons and two daughters, of Joseph Haigh, 
chemist, by his ^v^fe Lydia, daughter of 
Charles James Duncan. He was educated 
at Leeds grammar school, where he gained 
nearly every school distinction. On 22 Oct. 
1874 he matriculated from Corpus Christ i 
College, Oxford, with a scholarship, and 
began his hfelong career of study and 
teacliing at the imiversity. As an under- 
graduate he was versatile and successful. 
He took a first class in classical moderations 
in 1875 and in literae human lores in 1878 ; he 
won the two Gaisford prizes for Greek verse 
(1876) and Greek prose (1877), the Craven 
scholarship (1879), and the Stanhope prize 
for an essay on the 'Pohtical Theories of 




Dante' (1878). He made pungent and 
witty speeches at the Union on the liberal 
side, and he rowed in the Corpus eight 
when it was near the head of the river. 
On graduating B.A. in 1878 (M.A. 1881) 
he was elected to a fellowship at Hertford, 
which he held till 1886. He became classical 
lecturer at Corpus also in 1878, and for the 
next twenty-seven years was constantly 
engaged in teaching at that and other 
colleges. In 1901 he was admitted fellow 
of Corpus, and was appointed senior tutor 
the following ^ year. He was classical 
moderator in 1888-9, and again in 1897-8. 
Haigh collaborated with T. L. Papillon 
in an edition of Virgil with a very careful 
text (1892) ; and he published ' The Attic 
Theatre' (1889) and 'The Tragic Drama 
of the Greeks ' (1896). These works, which 
gave Haigh a general reputation, exhibit 
sound scholarship, independent judgment, 
the faculty of lucid exposition, and a 
wide range of classical and miscellaneous 

Haigh laid more stress than most Oxford 
tutors of his time on verbal accuracy and 
the need for close textual study. But the 
limitations of his method were consistent 
with broad and sympathetic literary in- 
terests. He studied English literature with 
the same fastidious diligence which he 
bestowed upon the classics, and was a 
cultivated and extremely well-informed 
critic of the English poets, and of some of 
the greater writers of Germany, France, 
and Italy. 

Haigh took little part in university 
business or society, living a tranquil 
family life and cherishing a few intimate 
friendships. He died somewhat suddenly 
at his residence in the Parks at Oxford on 
20 Dec. 1905, and was buried in Holywell 

In Aug. 1886 he married Matilda Forth, 
daughter of Jeremiah Giles Pilcher, J. P., 
D.L. She predeceased him in July 1904, 
leaving four children. 

[Personal knowledge; Foster's Alumni 
Oxonienses ; article by A. G. (i.e. A. D. Godley, 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford) in the 
Oxford Magazine, 24 Jan. 1906.] S. J. L. 


(1819-1909), field-marshal, bom on 10 Aug. 
1819, at the Parsonage Farm, Kirdford, 
Sussex, was youngest child in the family of 
three sons and a daughter of Gregory Haines, 
C.B. (1778-1853), who was in Welhngton's 
commissariat throughout the Peninsular 
war and at Waterloo, and ended his 
career as commissary-general in Ireland, 

by his wife Harriet, daughter of John 
Eldridge of Kirdford. The father was de- 
scended from prosperous Sussex yeomen, 
of whom the most remarkable was Richard 
Haines (1633-1685), author, among other 
works, of * The Prevention of Poverty ' (1674) 
and * A Method of Government for Public 
Working Almshouses' (1679). Educated 
at Midhurst school and in Brussels and 
Dresden, Frederick, following the example 
of his two elder brothers, entered the army, 
being gazetted ensign in the 4th (the 
King's Own) regiment on 21 June 1839. 
He joined his regiment at Bangalore, 
where his eldest brother, Gregory, hSl just 
married a daughter of Sir Hugh (after- 
wards the first viscount) Gough [q. v.], 
who was in command of the Mysore 
division. This family connection led in 
1844 to the appointment of Haines, who 
had been promoted lieutenant in 1840, 
as A.D.C. to Gough, then commander-in- 
chief in the East Indies. In the first Sikh 
war he was acting military secretary to 
the commander-in-chief, and fought at 
Moodkee and at Ferozeshah, where he was 
dangerously wounded. His services were 
rewarded by a captaincy, without pajnuent, 
in the 10th foot (May 1846), whence he 
exchanged, in March 1847, into the 21st 
foot (the Scots fusiliers). From 23 May 
1846 to 7 May 1849 he was military 
secretary to Lord Gough, and was present 
at the skirmish at Ramnuggur, the 
operations for the crossing of the Chenab, 
and the battles of Chillianwalla and Gujerat. 
For the services rendered in this capacity 
he was given a brevet majority in June 
1849 and a brevet lieut. -colonelcy in August 

In 1854 Haines accompanied the 21st 
foot to the Crimea, and was present at 
the actions of the Alma and Balaclava. 
His rank as a brevet lieut. -colonel placed 
him at the battle of Inkerman (5 Nov. 
1854) in command of a small body of troops. 
The detachment held for six hours the barrier 
on the post road which guarded the approach 
to the second division camp, and the exploit 
in Kinglake's opinion ' augments the glory 
of the day as far as concerns the English, 
and gives much more simplicity, and con- 
sequently more grandeur, to the battle 
than would otherwise belong to it.' Haines 
was also responsible for sending troops 
to silence the Russian artillery on Shell 
Hill, and thus helped to bring the battle to 
its final crisis. After the battle of Inker- 
man he succeeded to a majority in the 
21st foot, and he was promoted to a brevet 
colonelcy (28 Nov. 1854)] in [^recognition 




of his conduct. In April 1856 he was 

gazetted lieu t. -colonel, unattached, and 
from Juno 1855 to January 1856 he was 
assistant adjutant-general at Aldorshot, 
whore tho camp was in course of con- 
stmction. From Juno 1856 to Juno 1860 
ho was military secretary to tho commander- 
in-chief at Madras, Sir Patrick Grant [q. v. 
Suppl. 1], and accompanied him to Calcutta 
during the interval between the death of 
General Anson and the arrival of Sir Colin 
Campbell in the summer of 1857. In 
Oct. 1859 he was gazetted lieut. -colonel 
of the 8th foot, which he commanded 
from Sept. 1860 to Aug. 1861. After 
brief periods of service as an acting bri- 
gadier-general at Aldershot, as deputy 
adjutant-general at headquarters in 
Ireland, and as a brigadier-general in 
Ireland, he was promoted major-general 
(Nov. 1864) and held the command of the 
Mysore division from March 1865 to March 
1870. On his return from India he became 
quartermaster-general at headquarters from 
Nov. 1870 to March 1871, and from May 
1871 to Dec. 1875 was commander-in-chief 
at Madras, becoming a K.C.B. in 1871 and 
a lieutenant-general in 1873. 

From April 1876 to April 1881 Haines 
was commander-in-chief in India. From 
the beginning of his term of office the 
attention of the Indian government was 
occupied by difficulties with Russia and 
with Afghanistan. When an Anglo-Russian 
war seemed imminent, in 1876, he 
strongly opposed a proposal of the viceroy, 
Lord Lytton [q.v.], for an invasion of central 
Asia by a small force ( Life, pp. 216-24). 
He did not oppose Lytton' s ' fonvard 
policy,' and he regarded the Afghan war as 
inevitable ; but he differed entirely from 
the viceroy's estimate of the forces required 
for the purpose, and he disapproved of 
such measures as Cavagnari's suggestion 
of a surprise attack on Ali Musjid. He 
believed that the Kuram valley, to the 
strategic value of which Lytton and his con- 
fidential adviser. Sir George Colley [q. v.], 
attached great importance, was a cul-de-sac 
and useless as a military rout© to Kabul. 
The reinforcements on which Haines in- 
sisted at the outset of the campaign of 
1878-9 proved to be required, and for his 
general supervision of the war he received the 
thanks of both houses of parliament and 
was given the grand cross of the Star of 
India in July 1879. He was made G.C.B. 
in 1877, and on the institution of the Order 
of the Indian Empire in 1878 he became, 
ex officio, CLE. 
In the Afghan campaign of 1879-80 

Haines had again serious differences with 

Lord Lytton about the Kuram route, 
the number of troops required, and the 
relation of the commander-in-chief to 
commanders in tho field. His relations 
with Lytton' s successsor, Lord Ripon 
[q. V. Suppl. II], were more cordial, but 
his warnings of the danger of an attack 
on Kandahar by Ayub Khan were dis- 
regarded by the viceroy. He acquiesced 
unwillingly in General Burrows' advance on 
the Helmund river, and ordered Bombay 
troops to move up in support. After the 
defeat of Burrows at Maiwand (27 July 
1880) Haines suggested the relief of 
Kandahar by a force from Kabul com- 
manded by General Roberts. For his 
services in the conduct of operations in 
the war of 1879-80 Haines received 
again the thanks of both houses of parlia- 
ment, and was offered a baronetcy, which 
he declined. The close of his term of 
command was occupied with discussions 
about the recommendations of the Indian 
Army Commission of 1879, from which 
he dissented, urging the continuance of 
separat-e presidential armies. 

From 1881 until his death Haines lived 
in London. He represented the British 
army at the Russian manoeuvres of 1882 
and at the German manoeuvres of 1884. 
He had become a general in 1877 and was 
raised to the rank of field- marshal in 
1890. He was colonel of the roj'al 
Munster fusiliers from 1874 to 1890, when 
he became colonel of his old regiment, 
the royal Scots fusiliers. In his closing 
years he was much interested in foreign 
policy, especially in central Asian ques- 
tions, in art, the drama, and in cricket. 
He died in London on 11 June 1909, and 
was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

Haines married in 1856 Charlotte (rf. 1881), 
daughter of Col. E. Miller of the Madras 
army, and had three sons. A portrait 
by the Hon. John Collier (1891) is at the 
United Service Club, Pall Mall, London. 
A caricature by J. T. C. appeared in 
♦ Vanity Fair ' in 1876. 

[Memoir of Richard Haines, 1633-85, by 
Charles Reginald Haines, privately printed, 
1809 ; Army Lists ; A. W. Kinglake, Invasion 
of the Crimea, vol. vi. 1877 ; G. B. Malleson. 
Ambushes and Surprises? 1885 ; Report and 
Evidence of the Indian Arniv Commission 
of 1879; R. 8. Rait, Life of' Hugh, First 
Viscount Gough, 1903. and Life of Sir Freder- 
ick Haines, 1911 ; Lady Betty Balfour's Lord 
Lytton's Indian Administration, 1899 ; H. B. 
Hanna, Second Afghan War, 3 vols. 1899-1910 ; 
The Times, 14 June 1909.] R. S. R. 




RENCE, first Baron Halibttrton (1832- 
1907), civil servant, third son of Thomas 
Chandler Haliburton [q. v.] and Louisa, 
daughter of Capt. Lawrence Neville, was 
bom at Windsor, Nova Scotia, on 26 Dec. 
1832. He was educated at King's College 
in that town, the oldest university in 
the dominion, from which he received in 
1899 an honorary D.C.L. degree. He 
was called to the Nova Scotian bar in 
1855, but a few months later he re- 
ceived a commission in the commissariat 
department of the British army, and during 
the later stages of the Crimean war he 
served as a civil commissary at the base in 
Turkey. After the Peace of Paris he was 
posted to the forces in Canada. In Novem- 
ber 1859 he was appointed deputy assistant 
commissary general, and transferred to the 
London headquarters ; in 1869 he was 
made assistant director of suppHes and 
transports, resigning his commission in the 
army and formaUy entering the civil 
service. In this capacity he consoHdated 
and greatly simplified the chaotic arrange- 
ments which regulated the transport and 
travelling allowances of the army at home. 
In 1872 he was appointed deputy accountant 
general in the military department of the 
government of India, which post he held 
till 1875 ; on returning to the war ofiice 
he acted as chairman of a committee which 
brought about a much-needed decentrahsa- 
tion and effected substantial economies in 
that office. In 1878 he was appointed 
director of supplies and transport, and it 
devolved upon him to supervise the vic- 
tualling of the army during eight campaigns, 
which included the Nile expedition of 1884-5. 
On the testimony of Lord Wolseley no 
army that he had been associated with 
was so well fed as the British troops were 
on that occasion, in circumstances of un- 
precedented difficulty. In recognition of 
his services, HaHburton was made C.B. 
in 1880 and K.C.B. in 1885. On the 
aboUtion of the office of civihan director of 
suppUes and transports in 1887 he was 
placed temporarily on the retired list ; but 
after serving on several important pubUo 
inquiries at home and abroad he became 
in May 1891 assistant under-secretary for 
war, and in 1895 permanent under-secretary, 
which office he held till his retirement by 
operation of the age-limit in 1897. He was 
made G.C.B. in that year, and in 1900 was 
raised to the peerage under the title of 
Baron Haliburton of Windsor in the 
province of Nova Scotia and dominion of 

In 1891 he served as representative of 
the war office on the committee, of which 
Lord Wantage [q. v. Suppl. II] was the head, 
to investigate the terms and conditions 
of service in the army. His dissentient 
report contained a strong defence of the 
principle of the existing short service system, 
and effectually neutraUsed the recommen- 
dations in the direction of modifying it 
upon which the rest of the committee stood 
agreed. In December 1897, after his 
retirement from the war office, he con- 
ducted a vigorous newspaper campaign in 
' The Times ' against Amold-Forster [q. v. 
Suppl. II] and others on the same topic 
of * Short versus Long Service.' His letters 
were subsequently reprinted in pamphlet 
form ; as were also another series contri- 
buted to the same newspaper in 1901 on 
' Army Administration in Three Centuries.' 
It is no exaggeration to say that he was the 
first to explain to the public generally, and 
to not a few among military critics, the 
real nature of Lord Cardwell's reforms and 
of the army reserve created by them. 
During his later {years he became a convert 
to the principle of universal service, and a 
few weeks before his death he formulated 
in the pages of the * Nineteenth Century ' 
a scheme for universal military training. 
He died at Bournemouth on 21 April 1907, 
and was buried at Brompton cemetery. 
Haliburton represented the finest t3^e of 
civil servant, uniting indefatigable industry 
with great lucidity of expression and 
breadth of view. He worked, moreover, 
in complete harmony with the military 
officials in the war office, and his opinion 
was held in high regard by those soldiers 
on the active list who were best versed 
in the' problems of miHtary administra- 
tion. On 3 Nov. 1877 he married Marian 
Emily, daughter of Leo Schuster and 
widow of Sir WiUiam Dickason Clay, 
second baronet ; she survived him without 

[Lord Haliburton, a Memoir of his Public 
Services, by J. B. Atlay, 1909; private in- 
formation.] J. B. A. 

(1816-1902), congregationalist divine, born 
at Maidstone on 22 May 1816, was son of 
John Vine Hall [q. v.], proprietor of the 
' Maidstone Journal,' by Mary, daughter of 
James Teverill of Worcester. Educated 
at Rochester and at Totteridge, he entered 
his father's printing house at fourteen, 
working successively as compositor, reader, 
and reporter. In 1837 he went to High- 
bury College, in training for the congre- 




gational ministry, graduated B.A. at Lon- 
don University in 1841, and in 1842 was 
ordained pastor of Albion Church, Hull. 
There ho gathered a largo congregation, 
was in demand as a preacher, and in 1834 
issued his first publication, a sermon on 
* Christian Union.' His tract * Come to 
Jesus,' issued in 1848, made his name 
widely kno\vn. Over 4,000,000 copies in 
some forty languages or dialects were 
circulated during the author's life. 

In 1854 Hall became minister of 
Surrey Chapel, Blackfriars, the scene of 
Rowland Hill's labours. His success was 
pronounced. As a mental discipline, he 
read for the degree of LL.B. at London 
University, which \vith a law scholarship 
he obtained in 1856. During the American 
civil war he was conspicuous for his advo- 
cacy of the northern cause, and in 1866 he 
was appointed chairman of the Congrega- 
tional Union. He was warmly welcomed 
on visiting Canada and the United States 
in 1867, was made D.D. of Amhurst 
University, and afterwards declined the 
offer of a pastorate in Chicago. During 
the controversy attending the education 
act of 1870 Hall sought to effect a re- 
conciliation between W. E. Forster, the 
minister in charge of the measure, and non- 
conformist members of the Birmingham 
League, who distrusted Forster's policy. 
Hall was also the means of bringing 
Gladstone, with whom he became well 
acquainted, into conference with represen- 
tative nonconformists. Throughout his 
career he sought to promote closer relations 
between church and dissent. In 1876 the 
congregation of Surrey Chapel moved to 
Christ Church, Westminster Bridge Road, 
built, mainlv through Hall's exertions, at a 
cost of 64,000^. In 1892 he resigned his 
pastorate, and in the same year received 
the D.D. degree from Edinburgh Univer- 
sity. He died in London on 18 Feb. 1902, 
and was buried at Abney Park cemetery. 

Hall was an accomplished preacher, a 
man of wide sympathies, artistic feeling 
and evangelical fervour. For many years 
his work was done amid circumstances of 
great trial. He married, on 14 April 1846, 
Charlotte,, daughter of Dr. Gordon of 
Hull. They separated in 1870. Litiga- 
tion followed. Hall filed and withdrew a 
petition for divorce in 1873, but was suc- 
cessful in a second suit, which he initiated 
in 1879, when a counter-charge of adultery 
against him was withdrawn. A decree nisi 
was made absolute on 17 Feb. 1880. On 
29 March 1880 he married Harriet Mary 
Margaret, eldest daughter o'f Edward Knipe, 

of Water Newton, Huntingdonshire, who 
survived him. There were no children of 
either marriage. Busts in terra cotta and 
bronze by Edward Onslow Ford [q. v. 
Suppl. II] were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1878 and 1885 respectively. 

Hall, in addition to many tracts, minor 
works, and several volumes of verse, con- 
taining seven h)rmn8 in ' common use ' 
(Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology), pub- 
lished: 1. *The Author of "The Sinner's 
Friend,"' 1860, a brief memoir of his 
father, whose autobiography he edited in 
1865. 2. * Plain Truths Plainly Put,' 1861. 

3. * Sermons,' Boston and New York, 1868. 

4. ' Homeward Bound and other Sermons,' 

1869. 6. ' From Liverpool to St. Louis,' 

1870. 6. * Prayer : its Reasonableness 
and Efficacy,' 1875. 7. 'The Lord's 
Prayer : a Practical Meditation,' 1883. 
8. ' Gethsemane : or Leaves of HeaUng 
from the Garden of Grief,' 1891. 9. * Atone- 
ment, the Fundamental Fact of Christ- 
ianity,' 1893. 10. 'Newman Hall: an 
Autobiography,' 1898. 

[Hall's Autobiography, 1898 ; The Times, 
9 Aug. 1879, 18 Feb. 1880, 19 Feb. 1902; 
T. W. Reid's Life of W. E. Forster, 1888, 
i. 539-42.] A. R. B. 

HALL, FITZEDWARD (1825-1901), 
philologist, born at Troy, New York, on 
21 March 1825, was eldest in the family 
of five sons and one daughter of Daniel 
Hall, lawyer, by his wife Anginetta 
Fitch. A younger brother, Benjamin 
Homer Hall, was a barrister and was 
city chamberlain of New York (1874-7 
and 1884-5). After education at his 
native town, at Walpole, New Hampshire, 
and Pouglikeepsie, Hall took the civil 
engineer's degree at Troy Rensselaer 
polytechnic in 1842. He early showed 
a passion for English words and phrases, 
which grew with his maturer years. He 
entered Harvard in 1846, but before his 
' commencement ' he was sent early in 
1846 to Calcutta in pursuit of a runaway 
brother. Wrecked off the Ganges in 
September, and compelled for the moment 
to stay in India, Hall took lessons in 
Hindustani and Sanskrit, and finally 
resolved to remain in order to master 
the languages. After three years in 
Calcutta (where he studied Hindustani, 
Persian, Bengalee, and Sanskrit) and five 
months at Ghazipur, Hall removed to 
Benares m January 1850. At the govern- 
ment college there Hall was appointed tutor 
in Feb. 1850 and professor of Sanskrit and 
English in 1853. In July 1855 he became 


1 88 


inspector of public instruction for Ajmere- 
Mervvira at Rajputana, and in Dec. 1856 
for the central provinces at Saugor. There 
he served as a rifleman for nine months 
during the Sepoy mutiny. He then spent 
eighteen months in England, France, and 
America, and revisiting England in I860 
received the hon. degree of D.C.L. from 
Oxford University. He finally left India 
in 1862, and settled in London as professor 
of Sanskrit, Hindustani, and Indian juris- 
prudence in King's College, and librarian 
at the India office. From 1864 till his 
death he was examiner in Hindustani and 
Hindi for the civil service commissioners ; 
he was also examiner in Sanskrit in 1880, 
and in English in 1887. 

From his early years in India, Hall 
devoted himself with exceptional zeal 
and industry to the study of both Indian 
and English Uterature and philology. 
While at Benares he followed the example 
of the principal of the college, James 
Robert Ballantyne [q. v.], in discovering 
many unknown Sanskrit manuscripts, 
and in editing and translating several 
Sanskrit and Hindi works. He was the 
first American to edit a Sanskrit text, 
viz. ' The Atmabodha, with its commen- 
tary, and the Tattvabodha,' two Vedanta 
treatises (Mirzapur, 1852). Subsequently he 
edited and published at Calcutta the * San- 
khyapravachana ' (1856) and the *San- 
khyasara' (1862), fourteenth- and sixteenth' 
century works respectively on the Sankhya 
materialist system of philosophy ; the 
' Suryasiddhanta ' (1859), the ' Vasavadatta ' 
(1859), and the ' Das'arupa, with its com- 
mentary and four chapters of Bharata's 
Natyasastra' (1865). He also prepared 
in 1859 a valuable classified 'Index 
to the BibUography of Indian Philoso- 
phical Systems.' Of works in Hindi, Hall 
pubhshed ' The Tarkasangraha, translated 
into Hindi from the Sanskrit and Eng- 
Ush' (Allahabad, 1850); 'The Rajamti,' 
a collection of Hindu Apologues (Allaha- 
bad, 1854) ; and ' The Siddhantasangraha ' 
(Agra, 1855). He also translated into 
Hindi Ballantyne's * Synopsis of Science ' 
(Agra, 1855) and edited his Hindi 
Grammar (London, 1868), and a Hindi 
Reader (Hertford, 1870). Other of Hall's 
works on India were ' Lectures on the 
Nyaya Philosophy,' m both Sanskrit and 
Enghsh (Benares, 1862) ; and ' A Rational 
Refutation of the Hindu Philosophical 
Systems, translated from the Huidi and San- 
skrit' (Calcutta, 1862). He subsequently 
re-edited and annotated (Sir) Horace 
Hayman Wilson's translations of the 

* Rigvedasamhita ' (1866) and of the 
' Vishnupurana ' (vols. 1-5 pt. 1, 1864-70 ; 
vol. 5 pt. 2 (mdex), 1877). 

While librarian at the India office Hall 
directed much of his attention to EngUsh 
literature. He edited some books (1864-9) 
for the Early English Text Society, of 
which he was an original member of com- 
mittee. In 1869 he retired from the India 
office and removed to The Hill House, 
Marlesford, Suffolk. There he divided his 
time between his edition of the ' Vishnu- 
purana ' and research in EngUsh philology. 
' Recent Exemplifications of False Philo- 
logy' (New York, 1872) contained a pun- 
gent criticism of Richard Grant White's 
' Words and then: Uses' (New York, 1870). 
'Modem EngHsh' (1873) and ' On Enghsh 
Adjectives in -able ' (1877) contained much 
that was new and valuable. From 1878, 
when Dr. (afterwards Sir) James A. H. 
Murray became editor of the ' New Enghsh 
Dictionary,' Hall rendered the undertak- 
ing material aid. ' As a voluntary and 
gratituous service to the history of the 
English language, [he] devoted four hours 
daily to a critical examination of the proof 
sheets, and the filling up of deficiencies, 
whether in the vocabulary or the quotations ' 
(Preface to New Eng. Diet, Oxford, 1888). 
During the same period Hall contributed 
down to M some 2200 words and expressions 
in the Suffolk dialect, which he had heard 
and noted, to Prof. Wright's ' Dialect 
Dictionary.' He left at his death hundreds J 
of long lists of quotations for Sir James * 
Murray's use. 

Hall died at his home at Marlesford, 
Suffolk, on 1 Feb. 1901. His ashes after ^ 
cremation were interred in Oakwood m 
cemetery, Troy, New York. He married ■ 
at Delhi in 1854 Ameha Warde {d. 1910), I 
daughter of Lieut, -colonel Arthur Shuldham 
of the East India Company's service. Of 
five children of the marriage, three died 
young ; a son and daughter survived him. 
There is a brass tablet to Hall's memory in 
Marlesford church. He received in 1895 
the hon. degree of LL.D. from Harvard, 
to which during his lifetime he gave some 
thousand Oriental manuscripts, many of 
them unique. 

[New York Nation, 14 Feb. 1901 (memoir 
by Wendell Philhps Garrison) ; Modern 
Language Notes, Brooklyn, March 1901 ; 
Bookman, New York, xiii. 516, July 1901 
(with portrait taken in 1893) ; Appleton's Cycl. 
of American Biogr. 1887 ; The Times, 
15 Feb. 1901 ; information from Sir J. A. H. 
Murray, and from son, Mr. Richard D. 
HaU.] W. B. 0. 




HALL, Sib JOHN (1824-1907), premier 
of New Zealand, bom at Hull on 18 Dec. 
1824, was third son of George Hall, ship- 
o^vne^, of Hull and of Elloughton, York- 
shire. In his eleventh year he went 
abroad to finish his education in Germany, 
Switzerland, and Paris. He spent the three 
years 1840-3 in a merchant's office at Hull. 
In 1843 he entered the secretary's depart- 
ment of the London General Post Office, 
and soon became private secretary to the 
secretary of the post office. He served as a 
volunteer in the hon. artillery company and 
as a special constable during the Chartist 
riots of 1848. 

In 1862 he emigrated to Lyttelton, 
New Zealand, bought a neighbouring sheep 
run, and remained a prominent citizen of 
the province of Canterbury for the rest of 
his life. In 1853 the provincial councils 
were called into being by Sir George Grey 
[q. V. Suppl. I], and Hall became the 
member for Christchurch district of the 
Canterbury provincial council, on which he 
sat, except during his occasional absences 
from the colony, until the councils were 
abolished in 1876 by act of the central 
legislature. From 7 Feb. to May 1855 he 
was provincial secretary, and from May 1855 
to 1859 was a member of the provincial 
executive. After a visit to England he 
became in 1862 member for the Mount 
Cook district ; in 1864 he was re-elected to 
the provincial executive and was until 1869 
secretary for public works. 

Meanwhile he had been made resident 
magistrate for Lyttelton, sheriff, and 
commissioner of poUce on 27 Nov. 1856 ; 
a resident magistrate for the colony on 
27 April 1857 ; and a justice of the peace in 
May 1857. From December 1858 to July 
1863 he was a resident magistrate for 
Christchurch, and from January 1862 to 
15 June 1863 first mayor of Christchurch. 
He was also the first chairman of Selwyn 
county council, and chairman (in 1869) 
of the Westland provincial coimcil. Li 
June 1863 he was commissioner of the 
Canterbury waste lands board. As a 
provincial poUtician ho is best kno^vn as 
the originator of the road board system in 
Canterbury, and for his sheep ordinance. 

In 1855 elections were held for the first 
responsible parhament that assembled in 
New Zealand, and Hall was one of the 
Christchurch members for the house of repre- 
sentatives until 1859. On 20 May 1856 he 
became colonial secretary \mder Sir WilUam 
Fox [q. V. Suppl. I], but the ministry lasted 
only for a fortnight ; during that period 
Hall spoke against voting by ballot. On 

his return from England in 1862 he was 

called to the legislative council (4 July). 
Resigning] in February 1866, ho was 
at once re-elected to the lower house 
by the Heathcote division as a supporter 
of Sir Frederick Aloysius ,^Weld [q. v.] 
and an opponent of provincialism, 
holding the seat till 1872. He was a 
member of the executive council under 
the Stafford ministry (24, Aug. 1866- 
28 June 1869), postmaster-general (24 Aug. 
1866-5 Feb. 1869), and electric telegraph 
commissioner (12 Oct. 1866-5 Feb. 1869). 
In 1867 he attended the intercolonial 
postal conference in Melbourne. During 
1868 he acted as colonial treasurer during 
Sir WiUiam Fitzherbert's absence and drew 
up an able financial statement. 

In 1872 he was called to the legislative 
council. He was a member of the executive 
council 20 July-10 November 1872, and 
colonial secretary in the Waterhouse cabinet 
from 11 Oct. 1872 till 3 March 1873. lU- 
health then drove him to England till 1875. 
He became a member of the executive 
council under (Sir) Harry Atkinson [q. v. 
Suppl. I], without a portfolio, on 1 Sept. 1876. 
On 13 Sept. the government resigned, and 
he was not reappointed in the reconstituted 
ministry on account of his health. 

As a prominent Anglican he strongly 
opposed the education act of 1877, 
which established secular education. With- 
drawing from the upper house, he was 
chosen member for Selwyn in the general 
election of 1879. For some months he 
was leader of the opposition, and early 
in October he carried a hostile motion 
against Sir George Grey by a small majority. 
On the 8th he formed a ministry. He 
remained premier, supported by Sir 
Frederick Whitaker [q. v.] and Sir Harry 
Atkinson, imtil 21 April 1882 ; iU-health 
then compelled his retirement, but he 
continued to advise his colleagues. In 
the same year he visited England and 
was made a K.C.M.G. Premier during a 
period of great commercial depression. Hall 
was continually faced by a need for retrench- 
ment and fresh taxation. The chief work 
of his government was the repeal of Sir 
George Grey's land-tax, the suppression of 
a Maori demonstration headed by the 
prophet Te Whiti, and the passing of the 
triennial parliaments bill and the universal 
suffrage bill, both measures which had been 
supported by the party he defeated. 

Hall again sat in the house of representa- 
tives for Selwyn from 1883 until 1894, 
when he retired from pohtical fife. In 1890 
he represented New Zealand at Melbourne, 




at the first conference on Australasian 
federation. In 1893 he introduced into 
the ministry's electoral bill an amendment 
conferring the vote upon women, a reform 
which he had always actively supported. 
It was passed into law on the eve of the 
general election. In 1905 he was chosen 
master of the Leathersellers' Company in 
London, but was unable to leave New 
Zealand to take the office. In 1906, the 
year of the New Zealand exhibition, he 
became first mayor of Greater Christchurch. 
On 25 Oct. he fell ill, and on 25 June 1907 
he died at Park Terrace, Christchurch, and 
was buried in the family vault in Hororata 

He married in 1861 Rose Anne {d. 1900), 
daughter of WiUiam Dryden, of Hull. By 
her he had issue three sons and one daughter. 

[Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biog. j 
Gisborne's New Zealand Rulers and States- 
men, 1897 (with portrait) ; Rusden's Hist, of 
New Zealand ; Reeves' The Long White Cloud ; 
speeches and obituary notices in New Zealand 
Times, Auckland Star, Canterbury Times, 
3 July 1907 (portrait).] A. B. W. 

HALLE [formerly Norman-Neruda], 
Halle (1839-1911), viohnist, was third 
child and second daughter of Josef Neruda 
(1807-75), organist of the cathedral of 
Briinn, Moravia, where she was bom on 
21 March 1839. Ahnost in infancy Wihna 
began to play the violin. Her teacher was 
Leopold Jansa. At the age of seven she 
played one of Bach's sonatas at Vienna, and 
her fine rendering excited general astonish- 
ment. A tour through North Germany with 
her family followed. On 30 April 1849 she 
appeared at the Princess's Theatre, London, 
and on 11 Jime played a concerto of De 
B^riot at the Philharmonic concerts. 
Other tours through Europe spread her 
fame. In 1864 she made most successful 
appearances at Paris, and there she married 
in the same year Ludwig Norman, a 
Swedish musician, taking the surname of 
Norman-Neruda. She returned to London 
in 1869, appeared at the Philharmonic 
concerts, and remained till Christmas, 
leading the quartets at the Monday popular 
concerts. The favour accorded her brought 
her back to London] every winter. She 
was specially distinguished as a quartet- 
leader. In 1876 Prince Alfred, afterwards 
duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, joined 
with Earls Dudley and Hardwicke in 
presenting her with the celebrated Stradi- 
vanus vioUn that had belonged to Ernst. 
In 1886 she was left a widow. On 26 July 

1888 she married her second husband. Sir 
Charles Halle [q. v. Suppl. I], with whom 
she had long been professionally associated. 
After his death in 1895 King Edward VII, 
then Prince of Wales, became president of 
an influential committee which was formed 
to raise a fund for her benefit. As a result, 
the title-deeds of a palace at Asolo were 
presented to Lady Halle. After the death 
on 11 Sept. 1898 of her only son (by her 
first husband) in a mountaineering acci- 
dent in the Dolomites, Lady Halle settled 
at Berlin as a teacher, re- visiting England 
every year and being formally appointed 
in 1901 violinist to Queen Alexandra. On 
25 Jan. 1908 she played at the concert in 
London in memory of Joachim, who was 
one of her frequent associates. She died 
at Berlin from inflammation of the lungs on 
15 April 1911. Effective technique, superb 
bowing, an indefinable touch of genius in 
her interpretations gave her a unique place 
among violinists ; her tone scarcely yielded 
in fulness to the greatest male performers. 

[The Times, 17 April 1911 ; Strad, May 1911 ; 
Musical Standard, 29 March 1902 (portrait) ; 
Grove's Diet, of Music, arts. Neruda, Stradi- 
vari, and Violin, and the Appendix ; A. Ehrlich, 
Beriihmter Geiger (Engl. edit, with portrait); 
personal reminiscences from 1872.] H. D. 

(1806-1901), first lieutenant-governor of 
Bengal, son of Thomas Halliday of Ewell, 
Surrey, was born there on Christmas 
Day 1806. A younger brother. General 
John Gustavus (6. 1822), long served on 
the Mysore commission. Halliday entered 
Rugby in 1814, and completed his education 
at the East India College, Haileybury, 
1823-4. He was appointed to the Bengal 
civil service and arrived in Calcutta on 
8 June 1825. Halliday first served as junior 
assistant to the company's agent in the 
Saugor division, and assistant registrar of 
the Sadar (supreme) court. He was joint 
magistrate and deputy collector in Bundel- 
khund and afterwards in NoakhaH and 
Balu (1831-5) ; from Feb. 1835 magistrate 
and collector at Dacca, and next at Cuttack ; 
and from April 1836 secretary to the board 
of revenue. In May 1838 he was appointed 
judicial and revenue secretary in Bengal, 
and, in addition, from March 1840 to 1843 
he was junior secretary to the government 
of India both in the same and in the legis- 
lative departments. In 1849 he was made 
secretary in the home department by Lord 
Dalhousie, who held a high opinion of him 
and was distressed when, in Jidy 1852, after 
twenty-seven years' uninterrupted service, 




Halliday was compelled by ill-health to 
take long leave home. He was on sixteen 
occasions examined by the Parliamentary 
committees on the renewal of the East 
India Company's charter, granted in 1853. 

Returning to India, he took his seat on the 
governor-general's council on 5 Oct. 1853, 
on the nomination of the court of directors, 
Bengal, hitherto directly administered by 
the governor-general, was constituted on 
1 May 1854 a lieutenaat-governorship, and 
Dalhousie appointed Halliday as ' the fittest 
man in the service ... to hold this great 
and important office ' of ruler of a territory 
comprising 253,000 square miles, with a 
population inadequately estimated at forty 
millions. Sir John Kaye credited him 
with natural ability, administrative saga- 
city, and a sufficiency in council which had 
won him general confidence (Hist, of Sepoy 
War, 9th edit. p. 58). Halliday sought 
with vigour to reform the administration 
of Bengal, the most backward of the great 
provinces of India (Sir John Strachey's 
India, chap. xxii.). In a valuable minute 
(30 April 1856) he submitted a scheme for 
the complete reorganisation of the poKce, 
and carried much of it into effect. Road 
communications were improved and ex- 
tended, and HalUday supervised the up- 
country administration by prolonged and 
difficult tours in all directions. On several 
matters he came into conflict with members 
of the government of India, and in a 
private letter (6 Jan. 1856) Dalhousie was 
constrained to confess that ' he has so 
managed that I beheve he has not in 
Bengal a single influential friend but 
myself' (Dalhousie's Private Letters, 1901). 
In hearty sympathy with the policy of 
educational advance laid down in the 
despatch of Sir Charles Wood, first Vis- 
count Hahfax [q. v.], Halliday appointed 
a director of pubHc instruction for Bengal 
in Jan. 1855, placed the presidency col- 
lege on an improved footing, and in 1856 
initiated the Calcutta University, the act of 
incorporation being passed in the following 

A rebellion in June 1855 of the wild 
Santal tribes, who were suffering from the 
extortions of money-lending mahajans, 
was, in spite of preliminary protests from 
the supreme government, suppressed by 
martial law (Nov.-Dec). The Santal 
country was placed under special officers 
and the five districts named the Santal 
Parganas. Halhday was also faced by 
agrarian difficulties. By the Act of 1859 
— known as the"! ' Magna Charta of the 
ryots' — he restricted the landlord's powers 

of enhancement in specified cases, gave 

occupancy rights to tenants of twelve yean 
standing, and improvcxi the law relating 
to sales of land for revenue arrears. 

Bengal was not the chief centre of the 
Sepoy mutiny, but Halhday was closely asso- 
ciated with its suppression. His influence 
over the governor-general Canning was great, 
and to facilitate constant communication 
he removed from his official residence, Bel- 
vedere, to rooms overlooking Government 
House, Calcutta. There was no member 
of the government whom Canning ' so 
frequently consulted or whose opinions 
he so much respected ' (Kaye). It was 
under his strong persuasion that Canning 
allowed British troops to replace the Sepoy 
guard at Government House in August (Sir 
H. S. Cunningham's Earl Canning, 1891, 
p. 126). In his final minute (2 July 1859) 
regarding the services of civil officers. Can- 
ning credited Halliday — the * right hand of 
the government of India ' — with effectually 
checking the spread of rebeUion in Bengal, 
Halliday's ' Minute on the Bengal Mutinies' 
(30 Sept. 1858) ejives full particulars of 
his activities (see Buckland's Bengal under 
the Lieutenant-Oovemors). He was included 
on 18 Mar. 1858 in the thanks which had 
been voted by both Houses of Parliament to 
the governor-general and others. He was 
also thanked by the East India Company 
(10 and 17 Feb. 1858), and the court of 
directors acknowledged his services in 
detail in a despatch dated 4 Aug. 1858. 
Retiring from the heutenant-governorship 
on 1 May 1859, he was created (civil) 
K.C.B. a year later. 

Halhday was inevitably exposed to the 
censure which Canning's clemency in 
restraining the spirit of revenge provoked. 
Halliday stoutly defended in an official 
minute his own educational pohcy, to which 
Sir George Russell Clerk [q. v. Suppl. I] and 
others attributed the revolt. But more per- 
sistent was a personal controversy in which 
Halliday was involved for some thirty 
years with a subordinate officer, WiUiam 
Tayler [q. v.], commissioner of Patna, 
Behar. With Tayler, Halliday's relations 
were strained before the Mutiny. Tayler 
had printed ' for private circiilation ' a 
violent ' Protest against the Proceedings of 
the Lieut. -Gov. of Bengal in the Matter of 
the Behar Industrial Institution ' (Calcutta, 
1857). Subsequently Halhday doubted the 
prudence of Tayler' s procedure at the 
opening of the outbreak, and with the 
approval of the governor-general removed 
him from his commissionership (4 Aug.). 
Halliday appointed a Mahommedan to be 




deputy commissioner at Patna, and non- 
official Europeans resented so strongly 
Canning's sanction of the appointment that 
it was made one of the grounds in the 
Calcutta petition for Canning's recall. 
Anglo-Indian opinion rallied to the side 
of Tayler, whose published attacks on 
HaUiday continued (see The Patna Crisis, 
1858). Finally Tayler refused assurances 
of future good conduct, and, resigning the 
service on full pension on 29 March 1859, 
pursued his agitation for redress of alleged 
wrong till his death in 1892. The open 
controversy scarcely closed before 14 June 
1888, when a motion by Sir Roper Leth- 
bridge for a select committee on Tayler's 
case was opposed by the under-secretary 
for India (Sir John Gorst) and defeated 
by 164 to 20 (cf. Parliamentary Payers: 
HaUiday' s Memorandum, 1879, No. 238, and 
Tayler's reply, 1880, No. 143; vide also 
1879, No. 308, and 1888, Nos. 226, 247, and 
258). * The Times ' and the historians of the 
mutiny, Malleson and Mr. T. Rice Holmes, 
vehemently denounced HalUday's treatment 
of Tayler, while Sir John Kaye supported 
Tayler with reservations. The controversy 
is more judicially reviewed by Mr. G. W. 
Forrest in his * History of the Indian 
Mutiny ' (vol. iii. 1912), who shows Tayler 
to have been mistaken, theatrical, and 

Meanwhile on 29 Sept. 1868 HaUiday 
was appointed to the council of India, 
and there being no statutory limit of tenure, 
remained a member until his resignation on 
31 Dec. 1886. His salaried pubhc service 
had then extended over sixty-one years. 

HaUiday was a musician of unusual 
capacity, performing on the contra basso. 
He gave and took part in concerts when 
Ueut. -governor of Bengal, earning the 
sobriquet of ' Big Fiddle.' In later years 
his great stature and commanding figure 
made him conspicuous in many an orchestra 
at high-class concerts at the Crystal Palace 
and elsewhere. Retaining Ms faculties 
and memory imimpaired when a nona- 
genarian, he could vividly describe in the 
twentieth century as an eye-witness the last 
suttee (widow-burning) near Calcutta, just 
before the practice was prohibited by the 
regulation of 1829. He died on 22 Oct. 1901 
at his residence, 21 Bolton Gardens, South 
Kensington, and was buried at Brompton 

He married in 1834 EUza, daughter of 
General Paul Macgregor, of the East India 
Company's army. She died in 1886, and had 
a numerous family. The eldest son, Frederick 
Mytton, Bengal C.S., was sometime commis- 

sioner of Patna and member of the board of 
revenue ; another son is Lieut. -general George 
Thomas, late of the Bengal cavalry ; and 
a grandson, Sir Frederick Loch Halliday, 
is commissioner of pohce, Calcutta. 

[C. E. Buckland's Bengal under the 
Lieut. -Governors, Calcutta, 1902, i. 1-162; 
Mutiny histories by Kaye, MaUeson, Forrest, 
and Holmes ; Sir W. Lee-Warner's Life of 
Dalhousie, 1904 ; Dalhousie's Private Letters, 
1910 ; Pari, papers on Tayler's cass, cited 
above, and Tayler's books and pamphlets ; 
Pari. Debates, 1879, 1880, and 1888; India 
List, 1901 ; The Times, 24 Oct. 1901.] 

F. H. B. 

HAMBLIN SMITH. [See Smith, James 


1909), pathologist, born on 6 March 1849 at 
Falkirk, was third child and second son of 
the nine children of George HamUton, M.D., 
practitioner in that town, who wrote numer- 
ous articles in 'Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' 
by his wife Mary Wyse, daughter of a naval 
surgeon. A sister Mary married on 9 Feb. 
1891, as his second wife, Charles Saunders 
Dundas, sixth Viscount Melville. At the 
age of seventeen Hamilton became a 
medical student at Edinburgh, and was 
attracted to pathology by the influence of 
ProfessorWiUiam Rutherford Sanders [q. v.]. 
After quaUf3n[ng in 1870 he was house sur- 
geon at the old Edinburgh Infirmary, resi- 
dent medical officer at Chalmers' Hospital, 
Edinburgh,and for two years at the Northern 
Hospital, Liverpool, where he Avrote the essay 
on * Diseases and injuries of the spinal cord * 
which in 1874 was awarded the triennial 
Astley Cooper prize of 300Z. awarded by 
the medical staff of Guy's Hospital. This 
enabled him to spend two years in working 
at pathology in Vienna, Munich, Strassburg, 
and Paris. In 1876 he returned as demon- 
strator of pathology to Edinburgh, where 
his teaching came as a revelation to the 
students. He was also pathologist to the 
Royal Infirmary. During Professor Sanders's 
iUness (1880-1) he deUvered the lectures, but 
was disappointed in not being elected his 
successor. In 1882, when an extra-mural 
teacher in Edinburgh, he was appointed to 
the chair of pathology founded by Sir WiUiam 
James Erasmus Wilson fq. v.] at Aberdeen. 
There his Ufe's work was done. He entirely 
organised the teaching, so that at his resigna- 
tion through iU-health in 1908 the patho- 
logical department had a European reputa- 
tion and pupils in all parts of the world, 
as was shown by the volume of ' Studies 
of Pathology' (edited by W. BuUoch) 
which they dedicated to him in 1906 at 




the quater-contonary of tho University of 
Abordoon. Tho book contftin^t an article 
by Hamilton on * Tho AHinontary Canal 
aa a Sourco of Infection * nnd his portrait. 
An enthusiastic and inspiring teacher, 
with a strong personality and great powers 
of organisation, iio was tho first to intro- 
duce the practical teaching of bacteriology 
into general class work. He initiated tho 
bacteriological diagnosis of diphtheria and 
typhoid fever in tho north of Scotland, 
and did much to apply pathology to the 
usas of ordinary life. He investigated the 
diseases of sheep known as * braxy * and 
* louping ill,' and was chairman of the 
departmental committee on this question 
appointed by the board of agriculture in 
1901, which presented its report in 1906. 
He confirmed the description of the ' braxy ' 
microbe given in 1888 by Ivar Nielsen and 
discovered the bacillus of * louping ill.* He 
wrote widely on all branches of pathology, 
especially on the nervous system, tuber- 
culosis, and other diseases of the lungs, and 
on the healing of wounds. His textbook on 
pathology '(2 vols. 1889-94) was recognised 
as a standard work. 

He was F.R.S.Edin., and in 1908 was 
elected F.R.S.London. In 1907 the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh made him an honorary 
LL.D. He was a connoisseur in music and 
a facile draughtsman. He died on 19 Feb. 
1909 at Aberdeen, and was buried there. 
Hamilton married : (1) in 1880, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Griffith, by whom he 
had two sons and one daughter ; (2) in 
1894, Catherine, daughter of John Wilson 
of South Bankaskine, Falkirk; she died 
without issue in June 1908. 

[Information from his brother, G. G. Hamil- 
ton, and from W. Bulloch ; Proc. Roy. Soc. 
81 B.] H. D. R. 


(1847-1908), treasury official, bom at 
Salisbury on 7 Jul}^ 1847, was eldest son 
of Walter Kerr Hamilton [q. v.], bishop 
of Salisbury, whose friendship with Glad- 
stone descended to his son. His mother 
was Isabel Elizabeth, daughter of Francis 
Lear, dean of Salisbury. Educated at 
Eton (1860-5) and Christ Church, Oxford 
(1866-8), he entered the treasury in 1870, 
before he could take his degree. He was 
private secretary to Robert Lowe, chancellor 
of the exchequer (1872-3), to his father's 
friend, Gladstone (1873-4), and again to 
Gladstone in his second administration 
(1880-5). With Gladstone his relations 
were always intimate. Gladstone wrote 
to him, on his ceasing to be his private 

VOL. LXVin. — SUP. u. 

secretary (30 June 1885) : * As to your 

services to me, they have been simply 
indescribable ' (Morley's Glad/done, iii. 
210-1). Hamilton published 'Mr. Glafl- 
stone,' a monograph, m 1898, in the preface 
to which he speaks of himself as ' one who 
was privileged to know Mr. Gladstone for 
nearly forty years and still more privilegwl 
to have been brought into the closest con- 
tact with him for a considerable time,* 

In June 1885 Hamilton became a prin- 
cipal clerk in tho finance branch of the 
treasury, in 1892 assistant financial secre- 
tary, in 1894 assistant secretary, and in 
1902 permanent financial secretary and 
joint pennanent secretary with Sir GJeorge 
Murray, until the autumn of 1907, when he 
was compelled by ill-health to retire from 
the service. He was made C.B. in 1885 ; 
K.C.B. in 1894; G.C.B. in 1906, and 
a privy councillor in 1908 ; he also 
held the honours of K.C.V.O. and LS.O. 
He died, unmarried, at Brighton on 3 Sept. 
1908, and was buried in Brierhton cemetery. 

As an official, Hamilton devoted himself 
to the financial rather than the administra- 
tive side of the treasury, and mastered the 
details of City business and banking. He was 
thus specially connected with Goschen's 
great financial measures, and published an 
account of them in ' Conversion and Re- 
demption : an Account of the Operations 
under the National Debt Conversion Act, 
1889' (1889). 

Without striking brilliancy, Hamilton 
gained to a remarkable degree the con- 
fidence and affection of those whom he 
served. In nearly every case official rela- 
tions led to private friendship. In personal 
life he found his chief interest in music, 
and he was the author of various musical 
compositions. His colleagues in the treasury 
presented him with his portrait by Mr. 
John da Costa in March 1908, after his 

[Who's Who ; The Times, 9 and 28 Oct. 
1907, 4 Sept. 1908 ; private information.! 

C. P. L. 

(1845-1907), poet and novelist. [See Lke- 

HAMPDEN, Second Viscount. [See 
Brand, Henry Robert (1841-1906), 
governor of New South Wales.] 

1901), centenarian and philanthropist, 
born in Caatlo Street, All Hallows, London 
Wall, on 9 June 1793, was younger daughter 
of John Sanderson of Amthorpe, Yorkshire, 




and later of London. Her father, after 
coming to London, joined the Society of 
Friends ; her mother died when she was 
under two years old. Intimacy with the 
Gumeys led to her assisting Elizabeth 
Fry [q. v.] in her work of visiting prisons ; 
her elder sister, Mary, who became the 
wife of Sylvanus Fox, was akeady en- 
gaged in the like service. The sisters also 
took part in the anti-slavery movement. 
In 1826 EUzabeth married, as his second 
wife, Cornelius Hanbury, of Plough Court, 
Lombard Street, chemist, member of the 
old-established firm, now Allen & Hanburys 
Ltd. He was first cousin to the Gurneys 
of Earlham. His first wife was Mary, only 
child of WiUiam Allen [q. v.], his partner. 
By him she was mother of two children, 
a son, Cornehus, and a daughter, Charlotte. 

Mrs. Hanbury was acknowledged a 
minister in the Society of Friends in 1833. 
With her husband she resided successively 
at Bonchurch, Stoke Newington, and on 
Blackdown Hills near WeUington, Somerset. 
Her husband died at The Firs, Blackdown, 
in 1869. Eighteen years later his widow 
moved with her daughter to the house of 
her son, Cornelius, at Richmond. She re- 
tained her clearness and activity of mind 
till the end of her long Hfe, being keenly 
interested in the prison work of her daughter 
(see below) and in the missionary labours 
of two daughters of her son, Elizabeth 
and Charlotte Hanbury, in China and 
India. During May 1900, when in her 
108th year, she sent a message to the 
Friends' yearly meeting in London, and 
aftei-wards through the Dowager Countess 
of Erroll forwarded a greeting to Queen 
Victoria from ' her oldest subject.' Mrs. 
Hanbury died at Dynevor House,Richmond, 
Surrey, on 31 Oct. 1901, aged 108 years 
4 months and 3 weeks. She was buried 
at Wellington. Her portrait was painted 
in her 100th year by Percy Bigland, and 
now belongs to Lady Hanbury (widow of 
her husband's great-nephew) of La Mortola, 
Ventimiglia. A rephca is in the possession 
of Mrs. Hanbury's son. Only four or five 
other British subjects have on authentic 
evidence died at the same advanced age. 
Since her death three persons have been 
certificated to die at a greater age. 

The daughter, Charlotte Hanbury 
(1830-1900), prison reformer, bom at Stoke 
Newington on 10 April 1830, taught as a 
girl in ragged schools and visited the poor. 
On Blackdown she established several 
schools and mission rooms. She travelled 
largely in Europe and had friends in Ger- 
many, France, Spain, and Italy. In 1889 

she commenced a series of visits to Morocco 
with a view to ameliorating the lot of 
Moorish prisoners. She established a Moor- 
ish refuge in Tangier and travelled in the 
interior of the country. At her death at 
Richmond, Surrey, on 22 Oct. 1900, she 
committed the care of the Tangier mission 
to her cousin, Henry Gurney. Her 
autobiography, a remarkable record, was 
edited by her niece, Mrs. Albert Head, 
in 1901. 

[Annual Monitor, 1902, pp. 43-51; The 
Times, 1 Nov. 1901 ; Charlotte Hanbury : 
an Autobiography, 1901 ; Life of Mrs. Albert 
Head (Caroline Hanbury), by Charlotte Han- 
bury (the younger), 1905 ; information from 
Mrs. Hanbury's son, Mr. Cornelius Hanbury.] 

C. F. S. 

(1832-1908), surgeon - general, bom at 
Somerstoun House, parish of Laracor, near 
Trim, co. Meath, on 13 Jan. 1832, was one of 
the fourteen children of Samuel Hanbury, a 
large landowner, by his wife Louisa, daughter 
of Charles Ingham, rector of KUmessan and 
Kilcool, CO. Meath. A brother, William, also 
in the army medical service, was with the 
24th regiment when it was annihilated at 
Chilhanwallah in 1849, assisted Florence 
Nightingale [q. v. Suppl. II] in establishing 
the hospital at Scutari, and was in charge of 
Netley Hospital until his death. Another 
brother. Fleet-surgeon Ingham Hanbury, 
R.N., after distinguishing himself at Tel-el- 
Kebir (mentioned in despatches and the 
bronze decoration and C.B.), died on his way 
to India in 1884. 

Hanbury graduated M.B. from Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1853. He entered the 
army medical service as an assistant surgeon 
on 30 Sept. 1853 ; was promoted surgeon 
on 20 Feb. 1863 ; surgeon-major on 1 March 
1873 ; brigade surgeon on 27 Nov. 1879 ; 
deputy surgeon-general on 5 May 1881 ; 
surgeon major-general on 14 June 1887, and 
retired from the service on 13 Jan. 1892. He 
was elected an honorary F.R.C.S. Ireland 
on 19 July 1883 and F.R.C.S.England, on 
14 April 1887 (his diploma of membership 
being dated 23 Feb. 1859). 

Hanbury was quartered for some years at 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, before he was sent to 
China and thence to India. He served with 
the Bazar valley expedition in the Afghan 
war of 1878-9, and was present during the 
march from Kabul to the relief of Kanda- 
har. He was under fire in the battle of 1 Sept. 
in that campaign, was mentioned in des- 
patches, received the medal and clasp, the 
bronze decoration, and the C.B. (1881). He 
was principal medical officer under Lord 




Wolseley during the Egyptian campaign of 
1882, when he was present at the battle 
of Tel-el-Kobir, and for the first time oauswl 
wounds to be drcHsod on the battlefield. 
Twice mentioned in despatches, he wfus 
made K.C.B. He served as principal 
medical officer at the Horse Guards and at 
Gibraltar (1887-8), and was surgeon-general 
of the forces in Madras (1888-92). In 1905 
he received the reward for distinguished 
service. Tall (6 feet 1 inch in height), alert, 
and handsome, of great indep)endenoe and 
energy, Hanbury was a popular master of 
hounds at Ootacamund. Ho died at 
Bournemouth on 2 June 1908. 

He married in 1876 Hannah Emily, 
daughter of James Anderson of Coxlodge 
Hall, Northumberland, and widow of 
Colonel Carter, C.B. 

[Brit. Med. Journal, 1908, i. 1463 ; Lancet, 
1908, i. 1731 ; information from the Rev. S. 
Smartt, vicar of Newry.] D'A. P. 

(1845-1903), pohtician, bom on 24 Feb. 
1845 at Bodehall House, Tam worth, was 
only son of Robert Hanbury of Bodehall, 
a country gentleman of moderate landed 
estate but of ample means derived chiefly 
from collieries, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of Major T. B. Bamford of Wilnecote 
Hall, Warwickshire. > Left an orphan in 
early childhood, Hanbury was educated at 
Rugby and at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, where he was well known as an 
* oar.' He graduated B.A. in 1868 with 
a second class in literaB humaniores. At 
the age of twenty-seven he beeame in 
1872 conservative member for Tam worth 
borough, and held that seat until 1878, | 
when he was elected for North Stafford- ' 
shire. He lost this seat at the general 
election of 1880, and for the next five years 
threw himself energetically into the work 
of conservative organisation. He contested 
Preston unsuccessfully in 1882, but won 
the seat in 1885, retaining it with increasing 
majorities imtil his death. : 

A vigilant and imsparing critic of the 
estimates even in the conservative parhament ' 
of 1886-92, he was regarded at first as some- j 
thing of a free-lance ; but when the Uberals 
returned to power in 1892, he and his allies, 
Mr. Thomas Gibson Bowles and (Sir) George 
Christopher Trout Bartley [q. v. Suppl. II], 
kept up a ceaseless warfare in committee 
of supply upon the policy of the government 
in every department. He was particularly 
energetic in attacking from the financial 
side Gladstone's home rule bill of 1893, and 
it was largely due to him that the question 

of the national store of cordite asfomed 
the importance that inspired Mr. Brod- 
rick's motion of June 1895, on which the 
Rosebery ministry was defeated. 

When the Salisbury government came 
into power, Hanbury was made a privy 
councillor and financial secretary of the 
treasury. That post he held until 1900. 
The unionist ministry was then recon- 
structed after the general election of that 
year, and Hanbury succeeded Mr. Walter 
Long as president of the board of agricul- 
ture, with a seat in the cabinet. The 
change was regarded with some suspicion 
by the agricultural community ; but 
Hanbury went amongst the farmers on 
all available occasions, delivered speeches 
at agricultural gatherings, and won general 

A man of exceptionally fine physique, 
Hanbury died suddenly from pneumonia 
on 28 April 1903, at his London residence, 
Herbert House, Belgrave Square. Mr. 
Arthur Balfour, the prime minister, spoke 
in the House of Commons, with the approval 
of all parties, the same evening (28 April), 
of Hanbury' s love for the House of Com- 
mons, of his accurate knowledge of its pro- 
cedure, of his assiduous attendance ; to the 
board of agriculture he had successfully 
brought an originality of method and 
desire to adapt a young office to the needs 
of the agricultural community. He was 
buried in the churchyard at his country 
residence. Ham, near Ashbourne. 

Hanbury was twice married (but left no 
issue): (1) in 1869toIsmenaTindal(ci. 1871), 
daughter of Thomas Morgan Gepp of 
Chelmsford ; (2) in 1884 to Ellen, only child of 
Colonel Knox Hamilton ; she survived him, 
marrying shortly after Victor Bowring, and 
taking the name of Bowring-Hanbury. 
Hanbury's eldest sister married Sir Archi- 
bald Milman, clerk assistant to the House 
of Commons, and there was a family law- 
suit, carried up to the House of Lords, 
about the terms of his will. It was finally 
held on 7 Feb. 1905, by the earl of Halsbury 
and Lords Macnaghten, Davey, James, 
and Robertson (Lord Lindley dissenting) 
that upon the true construction of Hanbury s 
will there was an absolute gift of the 
testator's real and personal estate to his 
wife, subject to an executory gift of the 
same at her death to such of his nieces as 
should survive her {The Times Law Reports^ 
xxi. 252). 

A caricature by *Spy* appeared in 
•Vanity Fair' (1896). 

[The Times, 29 April and 7 May 1903; 
Annual Register for 1903 [119], 130.] E. C. 





VERING (1869-1909), playwright, bom 
on 26 Sept. 1869 at Southampton, was 
third and youngest son of four children of 
Charles Wright Hankin, a descendant of 
the ancient Cornish family of Kestell, 
and at one time headmaster of King 
Edward VI's grammar school, Southampton. 
His mother was Mary Louisa {d. 1909), 
daughter of Edmund Thomas Wigley Perrot, 
who inherited estates at Craycombe, 
Worcestershire. In January 1883 Hankin 
entered Malvern College as house and 
foundation scholar, and at the age of seven- 
teen he won an open postmastership at 
Merton College, Oxford, as well as a close 
Ackroyd scholarship, for which he was 
qualified hereditarily through his mother. 
He matriculated on 21 Oct. 1886, and took 
second classes in honour moderations (1888) 
and in the final classical school (1890). On 
leaving the university Hankin engaged 
in journalism in London. From 1890 he 
contributed to the ' Saturday Review.* In 
1894 he joined the staff of the ' Indian Daily 
News ' at Calcutta. After a year in India 
an attack of malaria drove him home. For 
a time Hankin worked on * The Times,' and 
he contributed to other papers dramatic 
criticisms and miscellaneous articles. His 
keen wit and shrewd commonsense were seen 
to advantage in two series of papers which 
appeared in ' Punch * and were afterwards 
pubUshed independently, viz. * Mr. Punch's 
Dramatic Sequels' (1901), which added 
supplementary acts to the great classics 
of the English drama, and * Lost Master- 
pieces* (1904), a series of subtle parodies of 
eminent authors in both prose and verse. 

Plajrwriting of a realistic frankness was 
Hankin's main ambition. The first of his 
plays to be acted was *The Two Mr. 
Wetherbys,* which was privately performed 
in London by the Stage Society in Feb. 
1903 and later by Mr. William Hawtrey 
in Australia and New Zealand. When in 
1905 the strain of a journalist's life in 
London compelled him to retire to 
Campden in Gloucestershire, he mainly 
devoted himself to writing for the stage. 
His translation of Brieux's ' Les trois filles 
de Monsieur Dupont ' was produced, again 
privately, by the Stage Society in 1905, 
and its boldness excited some censure.