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0. A 

A. J. A. . 

T. A. A. . . 
P. B. A. . . 
W. E. A. A. 
G. F. K. B. 

E. B 

G. V. B. . 
G. T. B. . 
W. G. B. . . 
G. C. B. . 
A. S. B. . 
H. B. . . . 
A. A. B. . 
A. E. B. . 
A. H. B. . 
G. W. B. . 
H. M. C. . 
A. M. C. . 
T. C. . . . 
C. H. C. . 
W. P. C. . 
M. C. . . . 
A. D. . . . 
T. F. T. D. 
J. W. E. . 

F. E. . . 
L. F. . . 
C. H. F. 
J. G. . . 
E. G. . . 
J. W.-G. 
J. T. G.. 





W. E. A. AXON. 



. G. C. BOASE. 

. A. H. BULLEN. 
. Miss A. M. CLERKE. 
. C. H. COOTE. 



. Louis FAGAN. 
. C. H. FIRTH. 


. J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 

A. G-T. . . 
A. G-N. . 
G. G. . . 
A. G. . . . 
E. G. . . . 
A. H. G. 
E. E. G. 

A. B. G. , 
J. A. H. 
E. H. . . . 
W. J. H. 
T. F. H. 
T. E. H. , 
J. H. . . 
E. H-T. . 
W. H. . . 
E. I. . . 

B. D. J. 

E. C. J. 
A. J. . . 
P. W. J. 

C. F. K. 
C. K. . . 
J. K. . . 
J. K. L. 
S. L. L. 
W. B. L. 
M. M'A. 
G. P. M. 
J. M-L. . 
C. T. M. 

F. T. M. 
J. M. . . 
A. M. . . 
C. M. . 






. A. H. GRANT. 

. E. E. GRAVES. 







. Miss INGALL. 

. P. W. JOYCE, LL.D. 

. C. F. KEARY. 




. S. L. LEE. 





. C. T. MARTIN. 






List of Writers. 

N. M.. . 
J. B. M. 
J. N. . . 
J. H. 0. 
J. F. P. 
K. L. P. 
S. L.-P. . 
E. E. . . 
J. M. K. 
J. H. E. 
L. S-T. . 
G-. B. S. 
W. E. S. 
W. B. S. 
L. S. . 



J. P. PAYNE, M.D. 
J. M. EIGG. 



C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 

H. E. T. . . H. E. TEDDER. 


H. A. T. . . H. A. TIPPING. 





F. W-T. . . . FRANCIS WATT. 

H. T. W. . . H. TRUEMAN WOOD. 






BEAL, WILLIAM (1815-1870), re- 
ligious writer, was born in 1815, and edu- 
cated at King s College, London, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He took the degree 
of B.A. in 1841 ; in the same year he was 
ordained deacon, and he was made vicar of 
Brooke near Norwich in 1847. The degree 
of LL.D. was conferred on him by the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen. He is best known as 
the promoter of harvest homes for country 
districts in 1854. At Norwich he was vice- 
president of the People's College, and corre- 
sponding member of the Working Men's Con- 
gregational Union. He died in 1870. He 
was the editor of the 'West of England Maga- 
zine' and author of the following works: 
1. ' An Analysis of Palmer's Origines Litur- 
gicse ' (1850). 2. ' The Nineveh Monuments 
and the Old Testament.' 3. 'A Letter to 
the Earl of Albemarle on Harvest Homes.' 
4. 'A First Book of Chronology' (1846). 
He edited with a preface 'Certain godly 
Prayers originally appended to the Book of 
Common Prayer.' 

[Men of the Time, 7th eel. ; Brit, Mus. Cat.] 

A. G-N. 

BEALE, FRANCIS (Jl. 1656), was the 
author of the ' Royall Game of Chesse Play, 
sometimes the Recreation of the late King 
with many of the Nobility, illustrated with 
almost one hundred Gambetts, being the study 
of Biochimo, the famous Italian/ London, 
1656. A portrait of Charles I, engraved by 
Stent, forms the frontispiece of the volume ; 
the dedication is addressed to Montague, Earl 
of Lindsey. The book is translated from 
Gioacchimo Greco's famous work on chess ; 
was reissued in 1750, and again in 1819 (with 
remarks by G. W. Lewis). He contributed 
a poem to < The Teares of the Isle of Wight 
shed on the tombe of ... Henrie, Earle of 


Southampton, ... as also James, Lord 
Wriothesley,' London, 1625 ; a copy of which 
is in the Grenville Library. The poem is 
reprinted in Malone's ' Shakspeare ' (1821), 
xx. 452. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum 
in MSS. Addl. 24489 f. 285.] S. L. L. 

BEALE, JOHN, D.D. (1603-1683 ?), 
scientific writer, was descended from a good 
family in Herefordshire, in which county he 
was born in 1603, being nephew of Sir Wil- 
liam Pye, attorney in the court of wards 
(BoTLE, Works, v. 429). He was educated 
first at Worcester School, and afterwards at 
Eton, whence he proceeded in 1629 to 
King's College, Cambridge, where he read 
philosophy to the students for two years 
(HAKWOOD, Alumni Etonenses, 228). 'At 
his entrance into that university he found 
the writings of the Ramists in high esteem, 
from which they sunk within three or four 
years after, without the solicitation of any 
party or faction, or other concernment, 
merely by the prevalence of solid truth and 
reasonable discourse. And the same fate soon 
after befel Calvinism in both universities' 
(Bi-RCH, Hist, of the Royal Society, iv. 235). 
From childhood Beale had been diligent in 
cultivating the art of memory, and he him- 
self has left us an account of the marvellous 
proficiency which he attained. He says : 
' By reading Ovid's " Metamorphoses " and 
such slight romances as the " Destruction of 
Troy," and other discourses and histories 
which were then obvious, I had learned a 
promptness of knitting all my reading and 
studies on an everlasting string. The same 
practice I continued upon theologues, logi- 
cians, and such philosophers as those times 
yielded. For some years before I came to 
'Eton, I did (in secret corners, concealed from 


others' eyes) read Melancthon's Logicks, 
Magirus's Physica, Ursin's Theologica, Avhich 
was the best I could then hear of : and (at 
first reading) by heart I learned them, too 
perfectly, as I now conceive. Afterwards, in 
Cambridge, proceeding in the same order and 
diligence with their logicians, philosophers, 
and schoolmen, I could at last learn them by 
heart faster than I could read them I mean, 
by the swiftest glance of the eye, without 
the tediousness of pronouncing or articula- 
ting what I read. Thus I oft-times saved 
my purse by looking over books in stationers' 
shops. . . . Constantly I repeated in my bed 
(evening and morning) what I read and 
heard that was worthy to be remembered ; 
and by this habitude and promptness of 
memory I was enabled, that when I read to 
the students of King's College, Cambridge 
(which I did for two years together, in all 
sorts of the current philosophy), I could pro- 
vide myself without notes (by mere medita- 
tion, or by glancing upon some book) in less 
time than I spent in uttering it ; yet they 
were then a critical auditory, whilst Mr. Bust 
was schoolmaster of Eton ' (BoYLE, Works, 
v. 426). 

Beale, who graduated B.A. in 1632, M.A. 
in 1636, and was subsequently created a 
doctor of divinity, spent some time in foreign 
travel, being at Orleans in 1636, when he 
was thirty-three years of age. His love of 
learning brought him into frequent corre- 
spondence with Samuel Hartlib and the 
Hon. Robert Boyle. Two of his letters to 
Hartlib on 'Herefordshire Orchards' were 
printed in 1656, and produced such an effect, 
that within a few years the author's native 
county gained some 100,000/. by the fame 
of its orchards (GouGH, Brit. Topog. i. 415). 
In the preface Beale makes the following 
autobiographical remarks : ( My education 
was amongst scholars in academies, where 
I spent many years in conversing with 
variety of books only. A little before our 
wars began, I spent two summers in travel- 
ling towards the south, with purpose to know 
men and foreign manners. Since my ret urn 
I have been constantly employ'd in a weighty 
office, by which I am not disengaged from 
the care of our public welfare in the peace 
and prosperity of this nation, but obliged to 
be the more solicitous and tender in preserv- 
ing it and promoting it.' 

Beale resided chiefly in Herefordshire until 
1660, when he became rector of Yeovil, in 
Somersetshire, where he spent the remainder 
of his life. He was also rector of Sock 
Dennis in the latter county. He was an 
early member of the Royal Society, being de- 
clared an honorary one on 7 Jan. 1662-3, and 


elected a fellow on the 21st of the same 
month. In 1665 he was appointed chaplain 
to King Charles II. In his last letter to 
Boyle, dated 8 July 1682, he mentions that 
he was then entering into his eightieth year, 
and adds that 'by infirmities lam constrained 
to dictate extempore, and do want a friend 
to assist me.' It is probable that he did not 
live long after this. 

Samuel Hartlib, writing to Boyle in 1658, 
says of Beale : ' There is not the like man 
in the whole island, nor in the continent 
beyond the seas, so far as I know it I mean, 
that could be made more universally use of, to 
do good to all, as I in some measure know 
and could direct' (BOYLE, Works, v. 275). 

His works are : 1. ' Aphorisms concerning 
Cider,' printed in John Evelyn's ' Sylva, or a 
Discourse of Forest Trees,' 1644, and entitled 
in the later editions of that work, ' General 
Advertisements concerning Cider.' 2. 'Here- 
fordshire Orchards, a Pattern for all Eng- 
land, written in an Epistolary Address to 
Samuel Hartlib, Esq. By I. B.,' Lond. 1656, 
8vo ; reprinted in Richard Bradley's l New 
Improvements of Planting and Gardening,' 
1724 and 1739. 3. Scientific papers in the 
1 Philosophical Transactions.' 4. Letters to 
the Hon. Robert Boyle, printed in the 5th 
volume of that philosopher's works. 

[Information from the Rev. Dr.Luard; Birch's 
Hist, of the Royal Society, iv. 235 ; Gough's 
British Topography, i. 415, ii. 221, 225, 391, 
634; Boyle's Works, v. 275, 277, 281, 346. 
423-510 ; Harwood's Alumni Eton. 228 ; Worth- 
ington's Diary, i. 122; Birch's Life of Boyle, 
115; Collinson's Somersetshire, iii. 212; Felton, 
On the Portraits of English Authors on Garden- 
ing, 2nd ed. 21 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 447, iv. 
256; Addit. MSS. 6271, f. 10, 15948, ff. 80, 136, 
138; Thomson's History of the Royal Society. 
Append, xxiv.] T. C. 

BEALE, MARY (1632-1697), portrait 
painter, born in Suffolk in 1632, was the 
daughter of the Rev. J. Cradock, vicar of 
Walton-upon-Thames. She is said to have 
learned the rudiments of painting from Sir 
Peter Lely, but it is more probable, as Vertue 
thought, that she received instruction from 
Robert Walker, and only copied the works of 
Lely, who was supposed to have had a tender 
attachment to her, and through whose influ- 
ence she obtained access to some of the finest 
works of Van Dyck, by copying which she ac- 
quired that purity of colouring for which her 
portraits are remarkable. She married Charles 
Beale, the lord of the manor of Walton, in 
Buckinghamshire, who had some employment 
under the board of green cloth, and took great 
interest in chemistry, especially the manufac- 
ture of colours, in which he did business with 



Lely and other painters of the day. His 
diaries, from 1672 to 1681, contain notes of 
matters connected with art and artists, and 
afford the fullest account of Mrs. Beale's life 
and works during that period. The extracts 
given by Walpole prove that she copied many 
of Lely's pictures, and some of these have 
doubtless been assigned to that painter. 
'There were above thirty of these pocket-books, 
but the greater number appear to have 
been lost. Mrs. Beale was one of the best 
female portrait painters of the seventeenth 
century, and was employed by many of the 
most distinguished persons of her time. She 
painted in oil, water-colours, and crayons; 
her heads being very often surrounded by an 
oval border painted in imitation of carved 
stone. Her price was five pounds for a head, 
and ten pounds for a half-length. Mrs. Beale 
died in Pall Mall, London, 28 Dec. 1697, and 
was buried under the communion-table in St. 
James's Church. She was of an estimable 

BEALE, ROBERT (1541-1601), diplo- 
matist and antiquary, is said to have been 
descended from a family settled at Wood- 
bridge in Suffolk. Of his parents, however, 
we know nothing but their names, Robert and 
Amy. He married Edith, daughter of Henry 
St. Barbe, of Somersetshire, sister of the wife 
of Sir Francis Walsingham. Apparently, he 
very early formed decided opinions upon the 
theological controversies of his age ; for he 
seems to have been obliged to quit England 
at some date during Queen Mary's reign, and 
not to have returned until after the accession 
of Elizabeth. It is probably to this period 
that he refers when, at a much later date, he 
writes that in his youth he ' took great pains 
in travelling in divers countries en foot for 
lack of other abilities.' In 1562 Lord John 
Grey consulted him concerning the validity 
of the marriage of his niece with Edward Sey- 
mour, earl of Hertford, and Beale in conse- 
quence made a journey to the continent for the 

n -t i i n 11 

character and very amiable manners, and had I purpose of laying the case before the learned 
among her contemporaries some reputation as Oldendorpius and some eminent Italian canon- 
u poet. Dr. Woodfall wrote several poems in ists. The opinion which Beale formed after 

her honour, under the name of Belesia. Her 
portrait, from a paint ing by herself, is engraved 
in the Strawberry Hill edition of Walpole's 
' Anecdotes of Painting.' Portraits by her 
of King Charles II., Abraham Cowley, Arch- 
bishop Tillotson, and Henry, sixth duke of 
Norfolk, are in the National Portrait Gallery ; 
another of Archbishop Tillotson is at Lambeth 
Palace ; those of Dr. Sydenham and Dr. Croone 
are in the Royal College of Physicians ; that of 

~L>^"U ~\1T!1"1^! * _. A j l T i c^ .1 

consultation with these sagacious persons, and 
which he subsequently maintained in a Latin 
tract, has stood the test of time ; for though a 
royal commission, with Archbishop Parker at 
its head, pronounced the marriage void, its 
validity was established in 1606, and has 
never since been questioned. 

In 1564 he obtained some post in con- 
nection with the English embassy in Paris. 
"What was the precise nature of his duties 

Bishop Wilkins is at the Royal Society ; that j does not appear ; but they seem to have 
of John Milton at Knole; that of James, duke sometimes carried him into Germany. Ap- 
of Monmouth, at Woburn Abbey ; her own ' parently, Walsingham found him in Paris on 
portrait is in the gallery of the Marquis of i his appointment as ambassador-resident there 

j 1 -,T i . -i * 1 ^* AT /\ T "I 1 1 * T j t - 

Bute ; and other portraits by her are in the 
collections of Earl Spencer, the Duke of Rut- 
land, and the Earl of Ilchester. 

Mrs. Beale had two sons, BARTHOLOMEW, 
who commenced life as a portrait painter, but 

in 1570, and made him his secretary. In the 
correspondence between Burghley and Wal- 
singham of this period he is frequently men- 
tioned as carrying despatches to and fro be- 
tween Paris and London. He appears to 

afterwards studied medicine under Dr. Syden- j have been .'a witness of the massacre of St, 
ham, and practised at Coventry : and CHARLES, | Bartholomew two years later (24 Aug. 1572), 
who followed his mother's branch of art. He ! which furnished him with material for a ' Dis- 
was born 28 May 1660, and after studying j course by way of Letter to the Lord Burghley/ 
under Thomas Flatnian, the miniature painter [written shortly after the event. The same 
and poet, assisted his mother in draperies and ! year he succeeded Robert Monson, then raised 
backgrounds. He painted portraits both in I to the bench, as M.P. for Totnes. It must 
oil and in water-colours, and some few in ; have been about this time that he was ap- 
crayons, but soon after 1689 he was compelled pointed clerk to the council, as in a letter 
by weakness of sight to relinquish his profes- j dated 1591 he states that he had then held 

won, and died in London, but in what year is 
not known. There are portraits of Archbishop 

that post nineteen years. In April 1575 he 
was sent to Flushing to recover goods which 

Burton and Bishop Burnet engraved after him j the Flushingers had seized, consisting partly 
by Robert White. of merchandise and partly of property of the 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. Wor- ; Earl of Oxford ; and in the following year 
num), 1849, ii. 537-44 ; Scharf s Catalogue of the he accompanied Admiral Winter to the Low 
National Portrait Gallery, 1884.] R. E. G. I Countries to demand the liberation of the 

B 2 


English merchant ships on which the Prince 
of Orange had laid an embargo in the Scheldt 
in retaliation for acts of piracy committed by 
English privateers upon Dutch shipping. 
The ships were set free at once, but a pecu- 
niary indemnity for the detention, which 
Beale was instructed to claim, was the subject 
of much dispute, and apparently was never 
conceded. In June 1576 Augustus, elector of 
Saxony, had summoned to Torgau a conven- 
tion of Saxon divines for the purpose of set- 
tling certain disputed questions of theology, in 
particular, whether omnipresence was or was 
not an attribute of the physical body of Jesus. 
The result of their labours was seen in the 
'Book of Torgau,' which, after revision at Ber- 
gen in the following year by James Andrea, or 
Andreas, chancellor and provost of the univer- 
sity of Tubingen, and certain other eminent 
theologians, was issued under the title, l For- 
mula of Concord,' as the only authoritative ex- 
position of the orthodox creed of Saxony. This 
work not only explicitly affirmed the ubiquity 
of the body of Jesus to be an integral part of 
the creed, but declared all such as denied 
that doctrine (Oyptocalvinists, as they were 
called) to be heretics. At this juncture 
Elizabeth saw fit to despatch Beale on a kind 
of circular tour to visit the courts of the 
Lutheran princes of Germany, and put in a 
plea for toleration in favour of the Crypto- 
calvinists. We learn from one of his papers 
that, for the purposes of this mission, 'he 
made a long and winter journey, making a 
circuit to and fro of 1400 English miles at 
the least, repairing personally to nine princes, 
and sending her majesty's letters to three 
others.' Elsewhere he says that ' he obtained 
that which he was sent for, i.e. that the Elector 
of Saxony and Palatine would surcease from 
proceeding to a condemnation of other re- 
formed churches that did not agree with the 
ubiquitaries.' Languet, in a letter to Sidney, 
dated Frankfort, 8 Jan. 1577-8, is able to write : 
' Master Beale has met with no small difficul- 
ties in going through his appointed task, but 
by his prudence and dexterity he has so sur- 
mounted them that I hope our churches are 
saved from the perils which threatened them 
from the movements of Jacobus Andreas and 
some other theologians.' In the same letter 
Languet praises Beale's ' agreeable conversa- 
tion,' and 'his character, genius, and manifold 
experience.' Beale was at that time return- 
ing to England, and Languet's letter, with 
which he was entrusted, was to serve as an 
introduction to Sidney. Writing of marriage, 
Languet observes : < Take the advice of Mas- 
ter Beale on the matter. He believes that 
a man cannot live well and happily in celi- 
bacy.' In another letter he writes that Beale 


'often used to launch out into the praises of 

According to Beale's account he was very 
ill provided with funds for this journey, while 
his royal mistress, of course, complained of 
his extravagance. In a letter to the lord 
treasurer vindicating himself from the charge 
he says : * And I protest upon my allegiance 
that the gifts I gave at the Duke of Brun- 
swick's in ready money and money's worth 
for her majesty's honour, being her gossips,, 
and having had nothing to my knowledge 
sent unto them (and in other places), came to- 
better than 100/. And whoso knoweth the- 
fashions and cravings of these princes' courts 
may well see that, having been at so many 
places, I could not escape with less. My 
charges came in this voyage to 932/. one way 
or another. Before my going over I sold a 
chain which I had of the Queen of Scots for 
65/.' The fact that Beale received a token of 
esteem from Mary Stuart is interesting in 
connection with his subsequent relations with 
that unfortunate lady. During Walsingham's 
absence in the Netherlands in the summer of 
1578 Beale acted as secretary of state, as also- 
in 1581 and 1583, on occasion of Walsingham's 
missions to France and Scotland in those 
years. In the autumn of 1580 he took part 
in the examination of Richard Stanihurst, 
the Jesuit, ' touching the conveying of the- 
late Lord Garret [Gerald Fitzgerald, Lord 
Offaley] into Spain at the instigation of 
Thomas Fleming, a priest,' and in 1581 
was one of the commissioners who took the 
depositions of Edmund Campion before his 
trial. It is significant, however, that the 
commission under which he acted extended 5 
only to threatening with torture. When it 
was determined to have actual recourse to* 
that method of persuasion, Beale's name was 
omitted (doubtless at his own request) from 
the commission. This yearWalsiiigham, being 
appointed governor of the Mines Royal, made 
Beale his deputy. According to the latter's 
own account he did his duty in this post for 
fifteen years, keeping the accounts with regu- 
larity, without receiving any remuneration. 
Between 1581 and 1584 he was employed in 
negotiating with the Queen of Scots at Shef- 
field. Caniden suggests that he was chosen 
for this business on account of his notorious 
bias in favour of puritanisni, designating him 
' hominem vehementem et austere acerbum," 
' quo non alter Scotorum Reginse prse reli- 
gionis studio iniquior.' However this may 
have been, it is certain that he soon came to- 
be suspected of secret partiality to the cause 
of Mary, and of something like treachery 
to the council. Of these negotiations he 
gives the following account : ' Six several 




times or more I was sent to the late Queen 
of Scots. At the first access iny commission 
was to deal with her alone. Afterwards I 
did, for sundry respects, desire that I might 
not deal without the privity of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, being a nobleman and a coun- 
cillor. She was with much difficult} 7 brought 
to make larger offers unto her majesty than 
she had before done to any others whose ne- 
gotiations I had seen. I was then suspected 
to have been, as some term it, won to a new 
mistress. Whereupon the charge was com- 
mitted to the said earl and Sir Walter Mild- 
may, and I was only appointed to attend 
upon them to charge her by word of mouth 
with certain articles gathered out of the earl's 
;and my letters. She avowed all that we had 
reported, and, I thank the Lord, I acquitted 
myself to be an honest man.' 

Beale was hardly fit to treat with a 
person of such dexterity and resource as 
Mary Stuart. She seems to have contrived 
to delude him with the idea that she had 
really given up ambition, and was desirous 
only to live a retired life for the rest of her 
-days. This appears from the tone of a letter 
to Walsingham, written in the spring of 1583. 
A year later he appears to have formed a 
j uster estimate of the character of the queen. 
'* With all the cunning that we have,' he then 
wrote to Walsingham, ' we cannot bring this 
lady to make any absolute promise for the 
performance of her offers, unless she may be 
assured of the accomplishment of the treaty. 
Since the last break off she is more circumspect 
how she entangle herself.' 

Next year (1585) Beale was returned to 
parliament for Dorchester, which place he 
-also represented in the two succeeding parlia- 
ments (1586 and 1588). In November 1586 
he was despatched with Lord Buckhurst to 
Fotheringay, to notify the Queen of Scots of 
the fact that sentence of death had been 
passed upon her. Early in the following year 
Beale carried the warrant to Fotheringay and 
performed the ghastly duty of reading it 
aloud in the hall of the castle by way of preli- 
minary to the execution, of which he was an 
eye-witness, and wrote an account. Though 
a zealous puritan, Beale seems to have had a 
dispassionate and liberal mind. During the 
persecution of the Jesuits which marked the 
latter years of Elizabeth's reign, he fearlessly 
and ably maintained the principle of tolera- 
tion, both in parliament and as a writer. 
Thus, we know that he published a work 
impugning the right of the crown to fine or 
imprison for ecclesiastical offences, and con- 
demning the use of torture to induce confes- 
sion, and followed it up at a later date with 
a second treatise upon the same subject. We 

cannot fix the precise date of either of these 
books, but we may infer that the second was 
a recent publication in 1584 from the fact 
that Whitgift then thought it necessary to 
take cognisance of its existence by drawing 
up and laying before the council a ' schedule 
of misdemeanours ' alleged to have been 
committed by its author, of Avhich the con- 
tents of these two works furnished the prin- 
cipal heads. What precisely he meant to do 
with this formidable indictment (the articles 
were fourteen in number) remains obscure. 
Probably he wished to procure Beale's dis- 
missal from the post of clerk of the council. 
If so, however, he was disappointed, as ap- 
parently no notice whatever was taken of it. 
In the spring of the same year Beale had 
shown the archbishop the manascript of 
another work which he had nearly com- 
pleted, dealing with another branch of the 
same subject, viz. the proper prerogative of 
the bishops, which the archbishop refused to 
return when Beale (5 May) presented himself 
at Lambeth to receive it. On this occasion 
a great deal of temper appears to have been 
lost on both sides, Beale predicting that the 
archbishop would be the overthrow of the 
church and a cause of tumult, and Whitgift 
accusing Beale of levity and irreverence, 
speaking in very disparaging terms of his 
work, and saying that ' neither his divinity 
nor his law was great.' Beale addressed a 
lengthy epistle to the archbishop (7 May), in 
which he avers that ' by the space of twenty- 
six years and upwards he has been a student 
of the civil laws, and long sith could have 
taken a degree if he had thought (as some do) 
that the substance of learning consist eth more 
in form and title than matter, and that in divi- 
nitie he has read as much as any chaplain his 
lordship hath, and when his book shall be 
finished and answered let others judge thereof.' 
In the summer he served under Leicester 
I in the Netherlands during the ill-fated at- 
tempt to relieve Sluys, in what precise capa- 
city does not appear, but we infer that he was 
j employed in connection with the transport 
! department. In 1589 he was employed in 
| negotiation with the States, and next year 
j we find him engaged with Burghley and 
Buckhurst in adjusting the accounts of Pere- 
! grine Bertie, Lord Willoughby, commander in 
: the Netherlands. In 1592 the attitude which 
Beale assumed in a debate upon supply, 
coupled with an animated speech which he 
1 made about the same time against the in- 
! quisitorial practices of his old enemies the 
bishops, gave so much offence to the queen 
that he was commanded to absent himself both 
from court and from parliament. In 1592 
he addressed a lengthy letter to the lord 



treasurer, vindicating his opinions on church 
government with great learning and consider- 
able apparent ability. The same year he was 
returned to parliament for Lostwithiel, in 
Cornwall. In 1 595 the Earl of Essex appears 
to have tried to deprive Beale of his office of 
clerk to the council in favour of one of his 
own creatures. Accordingly, we find Beale 
writing (24 April 1595) a letter to the lord 
treasurer, in which he sets forth his claims to 
consideration at great length and with no 
little emphasis. It appears from this docu- 
ment that he had held this office for twenty- 
three years, that ' he enjoyed it with the fee 
of 50/. yearly under the great seal of Eng- 
land,' and that he was then suffering from 
several grievous maladies, amongst them 
gout and stone. Beale also at this time held 
another post, that of clerk to the council in 
the northern parts, and resided at York at least 
for some part of the year. The emoluments 
of the office at York amounted, according to 
Beale's own reckoning, to 400/. yearly, though 
nominally he had there but 337. by instruc- 
tions only alterable without other warrant or 
assurance.' Beale concluded his letter by beg- 
ging that on the score of his growing infir- 
mities he might be allowed a deputy to do 
the business of the office at York during his 
absence. His request w r as granted, one John 
Feme being appointed in the following Au- 
gust. In 1597 he was joined with Sir Julius 
Csesar in a commission to examine into com- 
plaints by the inhabitants of Guernsey against 
Sir Thomas Leighton, the governor of that 
island. In 1599 he was placed on a special 
commission to hear and adj udge the grievances 
of certain Danish subjects who complained of 
piratical acts committed by English subjects. 

In 1600 he was appointed one of the envoys 
to treat for peace with the King of Spain at 
Boulogne. The negotiation fell through, the 
representatives not being able to agree upon 
the important question of precedency. Next 
year Beale died at his house at Barnes, 
Surrey, at eight o'clock in the evening of 
25 May. He was buried in Allhallows 
Church, London Wall. He appears to have 
left no son, but we know of two daughters, 
of whom one, Margaret, married Sir Henry 
Yelverton, justice of the common pleas in 
the time of Charles I, who thus became 
possessed of Beale's books and papers, which 
were long preserved by his descendants in the 
library of the family 'seat at Easton-Maudit, 
Northamptonshire. The library w r as sold in 
1784. The manuscripts are now in the 
British Museum. The other daughter, Ca- 
therine, married Nathaniel Stephens, of 
Easington, Gloucestershire. 

Beale was a member of the Elizabethan 

Society of Antiquaries, and is mentioned by 
Milles in the epistle dedicatory to his ' Ca- 
talogue of Honour ' by the designation of 
1 worthy Robert Beale, that grave clerk of the- 
council,' as one of the ' learned friends ' from 
whom he had received assistance. He seems 
also to have taken an interest in geographi- 
cal discovery; for in Dr. Dee's 'Diary,' under 
date 24 Jan. 1582, we read : ' I, Mr. Awdrian 
Gilbert, and John Davis, went by appoint- 
ment to Mr. Secretary Beale his house, where 
only we four were secret, and we made Mr. 
Secretary privy of the north-west passage,, 
and all charts and rutters were agreed upon 
in general.' Such of Beale's letters as have 
been printed are dated vaguely ' at his poor 
house in London.' He certainly had another 
house at Priors Marston, in Warwickshire, 
as he is described as of that place in the in- 
scriptions on the tombstone of his wife and 
daughter Catherine. 

Throughout life Beale was a close student 
and ardent collector of books. He is the 
author of the following works: 1. 'Argu- 
ment touching the Validity of the Marriage 
of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, with 
Mary, Queen-dowager of France (sister to 
King Henry VIII), and the Legitimacy of 
the Lady Frances, their daughter.' In Latin, 
MS. Univ. Libr., Cambr. Dd. 3, 85, art. 18., 
2. 'A Large Discourse concerning the Mar- 
riage between the Earl of Hertford and the- 
Lady Catherine Grey.' In Latin, MS. Univ. 
Libr. Cambr. li. 5, 3, art. 4. This work con- 
tains also the opinions of the foreign jurists 
consulted by Beale upon the case. 3. ' Dis- 
course after the Massacre in France,' 15 pp. 
MS. Cotton, Tit. F. iii. 299. 4. ' Rerum 
Hispanicarum Scriptores aliquot ex Biblio- 
theca clarissimi viri Domini Robert! Beli 
Angli.' Frankfort, 3 vols. folio, 1579; 
Contents : Vol. i., M. Aretius, Jo. Gerun- 
densis, Roderici Toletani, Roderici Santii, 
Joannis Vas?ei ; vol. ii., Alfonsia Carthagena,. 
Michaelis Ritii, Francisci Faraphpe, Lucii 
Marinei Siculi, Laurentii Vail re, ^Elii An- 
tonii Nebrissensis, Damiani a Goes : vol. iii.,. 
Al. Gomecius De Rebus Gestis Fr. Ximenis 
Cardinalis. 5. l A Book against Oaths mi- 
nistered in the Courts of Ecclesiastical Com- 
mission from her Majesty, and in other Courts 
Ecclesiastical.' Printed abroad and brought 
to England in a Scotch ship about 1583. 
Strype's l Whitgift,' vol. i. bk. iii. c. xii. pp. 
211-12. 6. 'A Book respecting Ceremonies,, 
the Habits, the Book of Common Prayer, and 
the Power of Ecclesiastical Courts,' 1584.. 
Strype's t Whitgift,' vol. i. bk. iii. c. v. pp. 
143-5, 212, vol. iii. bk. iii. nos. v. vi. 
7. ' The Order and Manner of the Execution 
of Mary Queen of Scots, Feb. 8, 1587.* 



Strype's ' Annals,' vol. iii. bk. ii. c. ii. p. 383. 
8. ' Means for the Stay of the Declining and 
Falling away in Religion.' Strype's * Whit- 
gift,' vol. iii. bk. iii. no. xxxv. 9. ' Opinions 
concerning the Earl of Leicester's Placard to 
the United Provinces.' MS. Cot. Galba, c. 
xi. 107. 10. ' A Summary Collection of cer- 
tain Notes against the Manner of proceeding 
ex officio by Oath.' Strype's < Whitgift, 
vol. ii. bk. iv. c. ix. 11. ' Observations upon 
the Instructions of the States-General to the 
Council of State, June 1588.' MS. Cott. 
Galba, D. iii. 215. 12. ' A Consideration of 
certain Points in the Treaty to be enlarged 
or altered in case her Majesty make a new 
Treaty with the States, April 1589.' MS. 
Cott. Galba, D. iv. 163. In this Beale was 
assisted by Dr. Bartholomew Clerke. 13. 'Op- 
position against Instructions to negotiate 
with the States-General, 1590.' MS. Cott. 
Galba, D. vii. 19. 14. i Collection of the 
King of Spain's Injuries offered to the Queen 
of England.' Dated 30 May 1591. With a 
' Vindication of the Queen against the Ob- 
jections of the Spaniards.' MS. Harl. 253, 
art. 33. 15. ' A Deliberation of Henry Kil- 
ligrew and Robert Beale concerning the Re- 
quisition for Restitution from the States. 
London, August 1595.' MS. Cott. Galba, D. 
xi. 125. 16. ' A Collection of Official Papers 
and Documents.' MS. Addit. 14028. 17. 'His- 
torical Notes and Collections.' MS. Addit. 
14029. 18. Letters. Several of Beale's 
letters have been printed. They are marked 
by considerable energy of style. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 311-14, 552; 
Burghley State Papers, ed. Murdin, 355, 778, 
781, eel. Haynes, 412-17; Digges's Complete 
Ambassador; Willis's Not. Parl. iii. ; Mosheim's 
Eccles. Hist. (tr. Murdock), cent. xvi. sect. iii. 
part ii. cap. i. 39 n: Corresp. of Sidney and 
Languet (ed. Pears), 132-6, 228-30; Lodge's 
Illustr. of British Hist. ii. 262-70, 273, iii. 109; 
Lodge's Life of Sir Julius Caesar, 15 ; Fronde's 
Hist, of England, xi. 541, 660 ; Fuller's Church 
Hist. (ed. Brewer), v. 15, 22-6; Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland (1509-1573), Scotland (1509- 
1603), Domestic (1547-1580); Thomas's Hist. 
Notes, i. 393 ; Strype's Annals, iii. parts i. and 
ii. ; Strype's Whitgift ; Strype's Parker ; Cam- 
den's Eliz. i. 260, 338, 445, 457 ; Britannia (ed. 
Gough), ii. 178 ; Cabala, ii. 49, 59-63, 86, 88 ; 
Nicolas's Life of W. Davison, 64 ; Nicolas's Life 
of Hatton, 461; Dr. Dee's Diary, 18, 38, 46; 
Zurich Letters, ii. 292, 296, 298 ; Hearne's Coll. 
Cur. Discourses, ii. 423 ; Jardine on Torture, 
87, 89; Wright's Eliz. i. 480, ii. 244, 254, 354; 
Sadler State Papers, i. 389 ; Ellis's Letters (3rd 
ser.), iv. 112; Stow's Survey of London, ii. c. 7; 
Kymer, xvi. 362, 412; Parl. Hist. i. 883-6; 
Moule's Bibl. Herald, 67 ; Harris's Cat. Libr. 
Hoyal Inst. 313; Coxe's Cat. Cod. MSS. Bib. 

Bod. iv. 8*27; Win wood's Memorials; Hardwicke, 
State Papers, i. 340, 342, 344, 352, 357; Bridges' 
Hist. Northamptonshire, ii. 163; Atkyns's Glou- 
cestershire, 218; Cat. Cot. MSS.; MSS. Harl. 7, 
f. 245, 82, f. 43, 1110 f. 102; MSS. Lansd. 27, 
art. 32 ; 42, art. 79- 82 ; 51, art. 26; 65, art. 67 ; 
67, art. 10; 68, art. 107, 111 ; 72, art. 73; 73, 
art. 2; 79, art. 80; 143, art. 59 ; 155, art, 62 ; 
737, art. 2; MSS. Addit. 2442, f. 186; 4114, 
f. 181, 5935, 11405, 12503, 14028, 14029; Mal- 
colm's Lond. Eediviv. ii. 67 ; Cat. Univ. Libr. 
MSS. i. 195, iii. 473; Lysons's Environs, i. 22 ; 
Madden's Guide to Autograph Letters &c. in 
British Museum, p. 5.] J. M. R. 

BEALE, WILLIAM, D.D. (d. 1651), 
royalist divine, was elected from West- 
i minster School to a scholarship at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1605, and proceeded 
B.A. in 1609-10. He was chosen a fellow 
of Jesus College in the same university in 
1611, commenced M.A. in 1613, was ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Caermarthen in 1623, 
and was created D.D. in 1627. Beale be- 
came master of Jesus College on 14 July 
1632, and on 20 Feb. 1633-4 he was ad- 
mitted master of St. John's College, 'per 
majorem partem sociorum ex mandate regio.' 
In 1634 he was chosen vice-chancellor of 
the university. On 27 Oct. 1637 he was 
presented by his majesty to the rectory of 
Paulerspury in Northamptonshire. He had 
also the rectory of Cottingham in the same 
county, and in 1639 he was presented to the 
sinecure rectory of Aberdaron. 

In the year 1642 Beale took an active 
part in urging the various colleges to send 
money and plate to the king at Nottingham. 
Oliver Cromwell, having failed to intercept 
the treasure in Huntingdonshire, proceeded 
to Cambridge with a large force, surrounded 
St. John's College while its inmates were at 
i their devotions in the chapel, and carried off' 
Beale, whom with Dr. Martin, master of 
Queen's, and Dr. Herne, master of Jesus 
College, he brought in captivity to London. 
The prisoners were conducted through Bar- 
tholomew fair and a great part of the city, 
j to be exposed to the insults of the rabble, 
; and finally were shut up in the Tower. 
I At this period Beale w^as deprived of his 
' mastership and all his ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments. From the Tower the prisoners were 
removed to Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate 
Street, and on 11 Aug. 1643, after having 
i been in detention a year, they were put on 
board a ship atWapping, with other prisoners 
; of quality and distinction, to the number of 
I eighty in all, ' and it was afterwards known, 
upon no false or fraudulent information, that 
there were people who were bargaining to 
sell them as slaves to Algiers or the American 




islands' (MS. Addit. 5808, f. 152). At 
length, after a confinement of three years, 
Beale was released by exchange, and joined the 
king at Oxford. There he was incorporated 
D.D. in 1645, and in the following year he 
was nominated dean of Ely, though he was 
never admitted to the dignity. He was one 
of the divines selected by the king to accom- 
pany him to Holdenby (646). Ultimately 
he went into exile and accompanied the em- 
bassy of Lord Cottington and Sir Edward 
Hyde to Spain. His death occurred at Madrid 
on 1 Oct. 1651. The antiquary Baker gives 
this curious account of his last illness and 
clandestine interment : l The doctor, not long 
after his coming to Madrid, was taken ill, and 
being apprehensive of danger and that he 
had not long to live, desired Sir Edward 
Hide and some others of the family to re- 
ceive the holy sacrament with him, which he 
in perfect good understanding, though weak 
in body, being supported in his bed, conse- 
crated and administered to himself and to 
the few other communicants, and died some 
few hours after he had performed that last 
office. He was very solicitous in his last 
sickness lest his body should fall into the 
hands of the inquisitors, for the prevention 
whereof this expedient was made use of, that 
the doctor dying in a ground chamber, the 
boards were taken up, and a grave being dug, 
the body, covered with a shroud, was de- 
posited therein very deep, and four or five 
bushels of quicklime thrown upon it in order 
to consume it the sooner. Everything in 
the room was restored to the same order it 
was in before, and the whole affair, being 
committed only to a few trusty persons, was j 
kept so secret as to escape the knowledge or 
suspicion of the Spaniards, and may so re- 
main undiscovered till the resurrection.' 

Beale greatly embellished the chapel of 
St. John's College, and left manuscripts and 
other books to the library. His portrait is 
in the master's lodge. Sir Edward Hyde, ' 
afterwards Lord Clarendon, in one of his 
manuscript papers styles Dr. Beale his worthy 
and learned chaplain, commemorates the 
blessings he had enjoyed from him, and be- 
moans his loss ; while Baker, the historian 
of St. John's, declares him to have been one of , 
the best governors the university or college j 
ever had. Contributions of his are found in 
almost all the collections of poems published j 
on state occasions by the university of Cam- 
bridge during his time. 

[Addit. MSS. 5808 ff. 151, 152, 5858 f. 194, I 
5863 f. 91 ; Baker's Hist, of St. John's Coll. | 
Camb., ed. Mayor ; Cambridge Antiquarian Com- 
munications?, ii. 157 ; Alumni Westmon. 73, 74; 
Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic., ed. Hardy ; Bent- 

ham's Hist, of Ely, 231, 232; Bridges's North- 
amptonshire, i. 313 ; Cooper's Memorials of 
Cambridge, ii. 88 ; Cooper's Annals of Cam- 
bridge, iii. 328 ; Prynne's Tryal of Abp. Laud, 
73, 167, 177, 193, 357, 359, 360 ; Parr's Life of 
Abp. Usher, 471 ; Life of Dean Barwick, 22, 32, 
41, 444; Baker's Northamptonshire, ii. 205.] 

T. C. 

BEALE, WILLIAM (1784-1854), musi- 
cian, was born at Landrake, in Cornwall,! Jan. 
1784. He was a chorister at Westminster 
Abbey under Dr. Arnold until his voice broke, 
when he served as a midshipman on board the 
Revolutionnaire, a 44-gun frigate which had 
been taken from the French. During this 
period he was nearly drowned by falling 
overboard in Cork harbour. On his voice 
settling into a pure baritone he left the sea, 
and devoted himself to the musical profession. 
He became a member of the Royal Society 
of Musicians on 1 Dec. 1811. On 12 Jan. 
1813 he won the prize cup of the Madrigal 
Society for his beautiful madrigal, l Awake, 
sweet Muse,' and on 30 Jan. 1816 he ob- 
tained an appointment as one of the gentle- 
men of the Chapel Royal, in the place of 
Robert Hudson, deceased. At this period he 
was living at 13 North Street, Westminster. 
On 1 Nov. 1820 Beale signed articles of ap- 
pointment as organist to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and on 13 Dec. following he re- 
signed his place at the Chapel Royal. In 
December 1821 he threw up his appointment 
at Cambridge, and returned to London, 
where, through the good offices of Dr. Att- 
wood, he became successively organist of 
Wandsworth parish church and St. John's, 
Clapham Rise. He continued occasionally 
to sing in public until a late period of his 
life, and in 1840 he won a prize at the 
Adelphi Glee Club for his glee for four voices, 
' Harmony.' He died at Paradise Row, 
Stockwell, 3 May 1854. Beale was twice 
married: (1) to Miss Charlotte Elkins, a 
daughter of the groom of the stole to 
George IV, and (2) to Miss Georgiana 
Grove, of Clapham. His voice was a light 
baritone, and he is said to have imitated 
Bartleman in his vocalisation. He was an 
extremely finished singer, though somewhat 
wanting "in power. His compositions, which 
principally consist of glees and madrigals, 
though few in number, are of a very high 
degree of excellence, and often rival, in their 
purity of melody and form, the best composi- 
tions of the Elizabethan madrigalists. 

[Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal ; Records 
of the Royal Society of Musicians; London 
Magazine for 1822, p. 474; Records of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; information from Mr. W. 
Beale.] W. B. S. 



BEALES, EDMOND (1803 - 1881), 
political agitator, was born at Newnham, a 
suburb of Cambridge, on 3 July 1803, being 
a son of Samuel Pickering Beales, a merchant 
who acquired local celebrity as a political 
reformer. He was educated at the grammar 
school of Bury St. Edmunds, and next at 
Eton, whence he proceeded to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was elected to a 
scholarship (B.A. 1825, M.A.. 1828). Called 
to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1830, he 
practised as an equity draughtsman and con- 
veyancer. For several years he greatly in- 
terested himself in foreign politics. He pro- 
moted the earliest demonstration on behalf 
of the Polish refugees, was a member of the 
Polish Exiles' Friends Society, and of the 
Literary Association of the Friends of Poland ; 
was president of the Polish National League, 
and chairman of the Circassian Committee ; 
a member of the Emancipation Society during 
the American civil war, of the Jamaica Com- 
mittee under Mr. James Stuart Mill, and of 
the Garibaldi Committee. It was in connec- 
tion with Garibaldi's visit to England in 1864 
that Beales's name first became known to the 
general public. He then maintained the 
right of the people to meet on Primrose Hill, ! 
and a conflict with the police occurred. At 
that time he published a pamphlet on the j 
right of public meeting, but it was as presi- j 
-dent of the Reform League that Beales be- i 
came best known. In 1864 a great political I 
agitation in connection with trade societies I 
was begun. The first public meeting of the 
association was held in the Freemasons' j 
'Tavern under the presidency of Beales, who 
from that time till his promotion to the judi- 
cial bench was identified with the principles 
of manhood suffrage and the ballot. In 1865 
the association developed itself under the 
name of the Reform League. The Reform 
Bill introduced by Earl Russell's government 
in 1866 was heartily supported by the league, 
and after the rejection of that measure by the 
House of Commons the league renewed its 
agitation for manhood suffrage and the ballot. 
Then followed gigantic meetings in Trafalgar 
Square, which the conservative government 
vainly endeavoured to suppress. Sir Richard 
Mayne, the first commissioner of police, 
issued a notice to the effect that the meeting 
announced for 2 July 1866 would not be per- 
mitted. Beales, however, stated his deter- 
mination to attend the meeting, and to hold 
the government responsible for all breaches of 
the peace. This step led Sir Richard Mayne 
to withdraw the prohibition, and the meeting 
of 69,000 persons was held without a single } 
breach of the law. Then came the memo- j 
rable 23 July, and the immense gathering 

near the gates of Hyde Park, when Beales 
displayed great courage and coolness. While 
he and the other leaders were returning from 
the Marble Arch to Trafalgar Square, the 
mob pushed down the iron railings surround- 
ing the park, which they entered in large 
numbers, but they were eventually driven out 
by the combined efforts of the military and 
the police. The following day Beales had an 
interview with Mr. Spencer Walpole, the 
home secretary, and afterwards proceeded to 
the park and caused intimation to be given 
that no further attempt would be made to 
hold a meeting there ' except only on next 
Monday afternoon (30 July) at six o'clock, 
by arrangement with the government.' The 
mission of the league was virtually at an end 
when Mr. Disraeli's Reform Bill passed in 
1867. Beales resigned the presidency on 
10 March 1869, and three days later the 
league was formally dissolved. Beales was 
a revising barrister for Middlesex from 1862 
to 1866, when, in consequence of the active 
part he had taken in political agitation, the 
lord chief justice, Sir Alexander Cockburn, 
declined to reappoint him. Mr. Beales was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the Tower 
Hamlets in 1868. In September 1870 Lord 
Chancellor Hatherley appointed him judge 
of the county court circuit No. 35, compris- 
ing Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire. 
He died at his residence, Osborne House, 
Bolton Gardens, London, on 26 June 1881. 

He published various pamphlets on Poland 
and Circassia, and on parliamentary reform ; 
also a work on the Reform Act of 1867. 

[Men of the Time (1879); Times, 28 June 
1881; Irving's Annals of our Time; Annual 
Register, 1866. pp. 98-102; McCarthy's Hist, of 
our own Times, iii. 360, iv. 80, 84.] T. C. 

BERT DE (d. 1400?), judge, was doubtless 
descended from the Belknape found in the 
Battle Abbey list of the nobles who followed 
the Conqueror into England. Nothing ap- 
pears to be known of the subsequent history 
of the family until we find Robert de Beal- 
knap settled in Kent, as lord of the manor of 
Hempstead, in the fourteenth century. Ac- 
cording to a deed dated 1 March 1375, Sir 
Robert de Belcknappe granted certain lands 
near Chatham to the prior and convent of 
Rochester; and his parents' Christian names 
were John and Alice. A certain Bealknap 
appears as a counsel in the year book for 
1 346-7, and may have been the father of Sir 
Robert. Sir Robert himself is first mentioned 
in the year book for 1362-3. In 1365 and 
1369 Bealknap was named one of the com- 
missioners appointed to survey the coast 




of Thanet, and take measures to secure the 
lands and houses in the district against the 
encroachments of the sea. In 1366 he was 
appointed king's sergeant, with a salary of 
20/. per annum, at the same time doing duty 
as one of the justices of assize, at a salary of 
the same amount. In 1372 he was placed on 
a commission entrusted with the defence of 
the coast of Kent against Invaders. In 1374 
he was nominated one of seven sent ad paries 
transmarinas,wiih a special mandate to confer 
with the envoys of the papal court, not, as Foss 
absurdly says, ' as to the reformer Wicliff,' 
who was himself a member of the embassy, 
but for the purpose of bringing about a happy 
settlement of such questions as involved the 
honour of the church and the rights of the 
crown and realm of England, and in the same 
year he was made chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas, but was not knighted till 1385. 
In 1381, on the outbreak of the insurrection 
against the poll-tax, afterwards known as 
that of Wat Tyler, he was sent into Essex 
with a commission of trailbaston to enforce 
the observance. of the law, but the insurgents 
compelled the chief justice to take an oath 
never more to sit in any such sessions, and 
Bealknap was only too glad to make his escape 
without suffering personal violence. In 1386 
the impeachment of Michael de la Pole, earl 
of Suffolk, for waste of the revenues and cor- 
ruption, was followed by the transfer of the 
administrative authority to a council of nobles 
responsible to the parliament. The king, at 
the instigation of his friends, summoned the 
judges to a council at Nottingham (August | 
1387). With the exception of Sir William 
Skipwith, all the judges attended. They 
were asked whether the late ordinances by I 
which Pole had been dismissed Avere dero- I 
gatory to the royal prerogative and in what I 
manner their authors ought to be punished. 
The questions were answered by the judges 
in a sense favourable to the king ; and a for- ; 
mal act of council was drawn up, embodying i 
the questions and the answers, and sealed ' 
with the seal of each judge. We learn from 
Knyghton that Bealknap protested with some 
vigour against the whole proceeding ; but he 
yielded eventually to the threats of death 
with which the Duke of Ireland and the Earl 
of Suffolk plied him. Early next year all the 
judges who had subscribed this document 
(except Tresilian, who was summarily exe- 
cuted) were removed from their offices, ar- ! 
rested, and sent to the Tower, by order of 
the parliament, on a charge of treason. They 
pleaded that they had acted under compulsion , 
and menace of death. They were, however, I 
sentenced to death, with the consequent at- i 
tainder, and forfeiture of lands and goods 

but at the intercession of the bishops the 
sentence was commuted for one of banish- 
ment into Ireland, the attainder, however, 
not being removed. Drogheda was selected 
as the place of Bealknap's exile, and he was- 
ordered to confine himself within a circuit 
of three miles round it. An annuity of 
40 J. was granted for his subsistence. He 
was recalled to England in 1397. In the 
same year an act of restitution was passed, 
by which Bealknap and the other attainted 
judges were restored to their rights. This 
act, however, was shortly afterwards an- 
nulled, i.e. in 1399, on the accession of 
Henry IV. In 1399 the commons petitioned 
parliament for the restoration of his estates. 
He seems to have died shortly afterwards, 
since he did not join with his former col- 
leagues, Holt and Burgh, when, in 1401, they 
petitioned parliament for a removal of the at- 
tainder. A case in which Bealknap's wife 
sued alone inspired Justice Markham with 
two barbarous rhyming hexameters 

Ecce modo mirum quod femina fert breve Regis, 
Non nominando virum conjiinctum robore legis. 

This lady, who is designated indifferently 
Sybell and Juliana, was permitted to remain 
in possession of her husband's estates in spite 
of the attainder until her death in 1414- 
1415. They then escheated to the crown ; but 
Hamon, the heir of Sir Robert, at the time 
petitioned parliament for a removal of the 
attainder, and the prayer was granted. Sir 
Edward Bealknap, great-grandson of the 
judge, whose sister Alice married Sir W. 
Shelley, a justice of the common pleas in the 
time of Henry VIII, achieved considerable 
distinction during the reigns of that monarch 
and of his predecessor, both as a soldier and 
a man of affairs. 

[Hasted's Kent, ii. 69 ; Duchesne'sHist. Norm. 
Script. Ant. 1023 ; Year Books, 20 and 36 Ed- 
ward III ; Lewis's Isle of Thanet, 200 ; Rymer's. 
Foedera. ed. Clarke, iii. 870, 952, 961, 1007, 
1015; Liber Assis. 40 Edward III; Leland's- 
Collect. i. 185; Devon's Brantingham's Issue 
Roll, 369, 370 ; Devon's Issiies of the Exch. 240; 
Stow's Annals, 284; Knyghton Col. 2694; Holin- 
shed, ii. 781-2 ; Chron. A. Mon. S. Alb. (Rolls- 
series), 380-2; Rot. Parl. iii. 233-44, 346, 358, 
461 ; Trokelowe et Anon Chron. (Rolls Series), 
195-6. 303: State Trials, i. 106-20; Abbrev. 
Rot. Orig. ii. 319 ; Cal. Inq. p m. iv. 7 ; Cotton's. 
Records, 331, 540.] J. M. R. 


(1797-1872), military writer and antiquary, 
was the son of William Beamish, Esq., of 
Beaumont House, co. Cork, and was born on 
31 Dec. 1797. In November 1816 he obtained 
a commission in the 4th royal Irish dragoon 



guards, in which corps he purchased a troop 
in 1823. In 1825 he published an English 
translation of a small cavalry manual written 
by Count F. A. von Bismarck, a distinguished 
officer then engaged in the reorganisation of 
the Wiirtemberg cavalry. Beamish 's pro- 
fessional abilities brought him to notice, and 
he received a half-pay majority in the fol- 
lowing year. Whilst attached to the vice- 
regal suite in Hanover he subsequently pub- 
lished a translation of Count von Bismarck's 
1 Lectures on Cavalry,' with original notes, 
in which he suggested various changes soon 
after adopted in the British cavalry. He also 
completed and edited a history of ' the King's 
German Legion ' from its formation in the 
British service in 1803 to its disbandment 
in 1816, which was published in England in 
1834-7, and is a model of military compila- 
tions of its class. After quitting Hanover 
Beamish devoted much attention to Norse 
antiquities, and in 1841 published a summary 
of the researches of Professor Eafn of Copen- 
hagen, relative to the discovery of America by 
the Northmen in the tenth century. Although 
the fact had been notified as early as 1828 
(in a letter in NILE'S Register, Boston, U.S.), 
it was very little known. Beamish 's modest 
volume not only popularised the discovery 
by epitomising the principal details in Rafn's 
great work l Antiquitates Americans ' (Co- 
penhagen, 1837), but it contains, in the 
shape of translations from the Sagas, one of 
the best summaries of Icelandic historical 
literature anywhere to be found within an 
equal space. Beamish, like his younger 
brother, Richard, who was at one time in the 
Grenadier guards, was a F.R.S. Lond. and an 
associate of various learned bodies. He died 
at Annmount, co. Cork, on 27 April 1872. 

His works were : 1. * Instructions for the 
Field Service of Cavalry, from the German of 
Count von Bismarck,' London, 1825, 12mo. 
2. ' Lectures on the Duties of Cavalry, from 
the German of Count von Bismarck,' London, 
1827, 8vo. 3. ' History of the King's German 
Legion/ 2 vols. London, 1834-7, 8vo. 4. 'The 
Discovery of America by the Northmen in the 
Tenth Century, with Notes on the Early Set- 
tlement of the Irish in the Western Hemi- 
sphere,' London, 1841, 8vo ; a reprint of this 
work, edited by the Rev. E. F. Slafter, 
A.M., was published by the Prince Society of 
Albany, N.Y., in 1877. 5. ' On the Altera- 
tions of Level in the Baltic,' British Asso- 
ciation Reports, 1843. 6. ' On the Uses and 
Application of Cavalry in War,' London, 
1855, 8vo. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry ; Army Lists ; Pub- 
lications of the Prince Society, Albany, N.Y. ; 
Beamish 's Works.] H. M. C. 


1868), clergyman and author, was born 
at Warrington, Lancashire, 16 Jan. 1828, 
being the only son of William Beamont, 
solicitor, of that town, and author of ' An- 
nals of the Lords of Warrington,' and other- 
works. After attending the Warrington 
grammar school for five years he was, in 
1842, removed to Eton College, where he- 
remained till 1846, bearing off Prince Albert's 
prize for modern languages, and the New- 
castle medal and other prizes. He entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1846, took 
high honours, gained the chancellor's medal,, 
and was awarded a fellowship in 1852. He 
graduated B.A. in 1850, and M.A. in 1853. 
After his election as fellow of Trinity he 
commenced a tour in Egypt and Palestine, 
and on being ordained in 1854 he spent some 
time at Jerusalem, where he engaged ear- 
nestly in the education of intending mission- 
aries to Abyssinia, in Sunday school work, 
and in preaching not only to the English 
residents but to the Arabs in their own 
tongue. He afterwards acted as chaplain in 
the camp hospitals of the British army before- 
Sebastopol. In 1855 Beamont returned 
home, and became curate of St. John's, Broad 
Street, Drury Lane, London, in which parish 
he worked with great zeal until 1858, when 
he accepted the vicarage of St. Michael's,, 
Cambridge. He died at Cambridge, 6 Aug. 
1868, at the age of forty, his death being" 
hastened by a fever caught in the East. 
He was buried in Trinity College ChapeL 
Beamont's life was one of unremitting self- 
denying usefulness, and in addition to his 
successful parochial labours and his pioneer 
efforts for church extension in Barnwell and 
Chesterton, he was the main instrument of 
founding the Cambridge School of Art (1858) 
and the Church Defence Association (1859). 
He was also the originator of the Church 
Congress (1861), in the foundation of which 
he was aided 'by his friend, Mr. R. Reynolds 
Rowe, F.S.A. His published writings are : 

1. 'Catherine, the Egyptian Slave,' 1852. 

2. ' Concise Grammar of the Arabic Lan- 
guage,' 1861. 3. ' Cairo to Sinai and Sinai 
to Cairo, in November and December 1860 r 
(1861). In conjunction with Canon W. M. 
Campion he wrote a learned yet popular 
exposition of the Book of Common Prayer, 
entitled ' The Prayer-Book Interleaved,' 1868. 
Among his pamphlets are the ' Catechumen's 
Manual,' ' Paper on Clergy Discipline,' and 
i Fine Art as a Branch of Academic Study/ 

[Information from Mr. W. Beumont and Mr. 
E. R. Rowe ; Warrington Guardian ; Cambridge 
Chronicle, 15 Ang. 1868-; G. W. Weldon. in the 
Churchman, August 1883, p. 326.] C. W. S. 




BEAN or BEYN, SAINT (Jl. 1011), was, 
according to Fordun (Scotichron. iv. 44), ap- 
pointed lirst bishop of Murthlach by Mai- 
col mil, at the instance of Pope Benedict VIII. 
This statement is confirmed by what professes 
to be a fragment of the charter of Malcolm II 
(1003-1029?), preserved in the register of 
the diocese of Aberdeen (Registrum Aber- 
donense, i. 3), but the genuineness of the 
document is called in question by Professor 
Innes in his preface to the publication (p. 
xvi) as contradicting an older record, printed 
in the preface (p. xvii), which gives the date 
of the foundation of the see as 1063. In 
any case there is no doubt that Bean, or 
Beyn, was the first bishop of the see. Dr. 
Reeves (Martyroloyy of Donegal, p. 337) 
identifies St. Bean with the Irish Mophiog, 
the day of both (16 Dec.) being the same. 
In Molanus's additions to Usuardus, St. Bean 
is distinctly referred to as a native of Ire- 
land : ' In Hybernia natalis Beani primi epi- 
scopi Aberdonensis et confessoris ' (Marty ro- 
logium, sub die). According to Camerarius 
he administered the affairs of his diocese for 
two-and-thirty years. He is not to be con- 
founded with the St. Bean whose day is 
16 Oct., and who was venerated at Fowlis 
in Strathearn. 

[Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis (Mait- 
land Club, 1845) ; Collections for Aberdeen 
(Spalding Club, 1843), i. 123, 141, 142, 649, 
ii. 253, 254, 258; Brittania Sancta, p. 319; 
Usuardus's Martyrologium ; Reeves and Todd's 
Martyrology of Donegal, 337-9 ; Camerarius's 
De Scot. Port. p. 202 ; Forbes's Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints, 377.] 

JOHN (fl. 1566), draughtsman, was born 
near Rochester about 1532, and was educated 
at Oxford. He is said to have become a fellow 
of St. John's College in 1558 and of Exeter 
College on 30 June 1566. He graduated 
B.A. 29 March 1561, and MA. 13 Feb. 
1564-5. Before the close of 1566 he was 
dean of his college, and was elected senior 
proctor of the university on 20 April 1579, 
Ms colleague being Thomas (afterwards Sir 
Thomas) Bodley. In 1570 he was granted 
four years' leave of absence, probably for 
study abroad, and in 1572 received the degree 
of B.C.L. from a continental university. 
Nothing further is ascertainable about his 
personal history. 

In September 1566, on the visit of Queen 
Elizabeth to Oxford, Bearblock prepared 
small drawings of all the colleges, the 
earliest of their kind, for each of which his 
friend Thomas Neal, Hebrew reader in the 
university, wrote descriptive verses in Latin. 
The views, which were greatly admired, were 

displayed on the walls of St. Mary's Church 
for several days, and there examined by the 
queen. A carefully executed copy of them, 
which is still extant, was subsequently pre- 
sented to the Bodleian Library by John 
More in 1630; but the original sketches, 
having been given to St. John's College, were 
granted in 1616 to Sir Thomas Lake, and ap- 
parently lost. Bearblock's drawings, with 
Neal's verses, were engraved in 1713, at the 
end of Hearne's edition of Dodwell's 'De 
Parma Equestri Woodwardiana Dissertatio.' 
In 1728 they were again engraved in the 
margin of a reproduction of Ralph Aggas's 
map of Oxford, first engraved in 1578, and 
in 1882 they were for the third time re- 
produced, with Neal's verses, in a volume 
privately printed at Oxford. Bearblock 
wrote an elaborate account of the queen's 
visit to Oxford in 1566 under the title of 
' Commentarii sive Ephemerae Actiones rerum 
illustrium Oxonii gestarum in adventu sere- 
nissimae principis Elizabeths.' The pamph- 
let was dedicated to Lord Cobham and to 
Sir William Petre, a munificent benefactor 
of Exeter College, but it was not printed 
until 1729, when Hearne published it in an 
appendix (pp. 251-96) to his edition of the 
'Historia et Vita Ricardi II.' Bearblock 
refers to the exhibition of his drawings on 
page 283. A map of Rochester by Bear- 
block, of which nothing is now known, was 
extant in the time of Anthony a Wood. 
Tanner erroneously gives Bearblock's name 
as Beartlock. 

[Boase's Registrum Collegii Exoniensis, pp. 
45, 207 ; Wood's Athen. Oxon., ed. Bliss, i. 577 ; 
Fasti Oxon. i. 168 ; Annals of Oxford, ed. Gutch, 
ii. 159; Tanner's Bibliotheca, p. 82; Rye's Eng- 
land as seen by Foreigners, p. 208 ; Madan's in- 
troduction to the reproduction of the drawings 
in 1882; History of Rochester, ed. 1817, p. 73.] 

S. L. L. 

1761), antiquary, descended from an ancient 
Worcestershire family, was born at Worcester 
on 1 May 1697 (SUSANNAH BBAECROFT'S pre- 
face to Relics of Philip Bearcroft}. He was 
educated at the Charterhouse, of which he 
was elected a scholar on the nomination of 
Lord Somers in July 1710. On 17 Dec. 1712 
he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford. 
In 1716 he took his B.A. degree, in 1717 he 
became probationary, and in 1719 actual, 
fellow of Merton College, taking his MA. 
degree in the same year. He was ordained 
deacon in 1718 at Bristol, and priest in 
1719 at Gloucester. He accumulated the 
degrees of B.D. and D.D. in 1730. He was 
appointed preacher to the Charterhouse in 



1724, chaplain to the king in 1738, secretary 
to the Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts in 1739, rector of Stormonth, 
Kent, in 1743, and master of the Charter- 
house on 18 Dec. 1753. In 1755 he was col- 
lated to a prebendal stall in Wells Cathedral. 
Bearcroft published 'An Historical Ac- 
count of Thomas Sutton, Esquire, and of his 
foundation of the Charterhouse ' (London, 
1737). He also intended to publish a col- 
lection of the rules and orders of the Charter- 
house, but was prevented by the governors, 
some extracts only being printed in a quarto 
pamphlet and distributed among the officers 
of the house (GouGH, British Topography, 
i. 691). From his account of Sutton, Smythe's 
historical account of the Charterhouse was 
largely derived. In Nichols's ' Bowyer ' Bear- 
croft is spoken of as l a worthy man, but 
with no great talents for writing.' Some of 
his sermons were published both before and 
after his death. He died on 17 Oct. 1761. 

[Gent. Mag. xxxi. 538 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
i. 650 ; Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanae, ii. 
202. In the Eawlinson MSS. fol. 1 6 1 52 (Bodleian 
Libr.), where a brief account appears, the date 
of birth is given as 21 Feb. 1695.] A. G-N. 

BEARD, JOHN (1716 P-1791), actor 
and vocalist, was bred in the king's chapel, 
and was one of the singers in the Duke of 
Chandos's chapel at Cannon. His musical 
training was received under Bernard Gates, 
and his reputation as a singer was gained in 
the representations given by Handel at Covent 
Garden Theatre of ' Acis and Galatea,' ( Ata- 
lanta,' and other works. The favour of 
the public was, however, won by the de- 
livery of Galliard's hunting song, 'With 
early horn.' Beard's first appearance as an 
actor took place at Drury Lane 30 Aug. 
1737, the opening night of the season 1737-8, 
as Sir John Loverule in ' The Devil to pay/ a 
ballad opera extracted by Charles CofFey from 
1 The Devil of a Wife ' of 'Thomas Jevons. On 
8 Jan. 1738-9 Beard espoused Lady Henrietta 
Herbert, only daughter of James, first earl 
of Waldegrave, and widow of Lord Edward 
Herbert, the second son of William, second 
marquis of Powis. After these nuptials, 
concerning which, curiously enough, no men- 
tion is found in peerages of authority, Beard 
retired for a while from the stage, to which 
he returned in 1743-4. His married hap- 
piness, which is said to have been excep- 
tional, was interrupted, 31 May 1753, by the 
death of his wife, to whom Beard erected a 
handsome monument in St. Pancras church. 
She died in her thirty-seventh year. Six 
years later he married Charlotte, daughter of 
Rich, the manager of Covent Garden Theatre, 

who survived him and died in 1818 at the 
great age of 92. Beard's reappearance is 
said to have taken place at Drury Lane about 
1743. He is first distinctly traced at Covent 
Garden on 23 Dec. 1743, when he played Mac- 
heath in Gay's l Beggars' Opera ' to the Polly 
Peachum of Mrs. Clive. Macheath remained a 
favourite character with him. Beard stayed 
at Covent Garden for some years. On 19 June 
1758 he is heard of at Drury Lane, playing 
Macheath to the Polly of Miss Macklin. On 
10 Oct. 1759 he returned to Covent Garden, 
in which he had since his marriage a species 
of interest, and reappeared as Macheath. 
Polly was now played by Miss Brent, whose 
performance of the part w r as sufficiently 
popular to give new life to Gay's opera, and 
obtain for it a run, all but unbroken, of 
thirty-seven nights. After the death of Rich, 
his father-in-law, 26 Nov. 1761, Beard, who 
through his wife became a shareholder in 
the theatre, undertook its management. 
Shortly after assuming the control, February 
1763, he resisted with determination an at- 
tempt on the part of rioters, who had been 
successful with Garrick at Drury Lane, to 
force him to grant admission at half-price 
at the close of the third act of each perform- 
ance. Certain ringleaders were brought be- 
fore the lord chief justice. After under- 
going a serious loss by the destruction of 
property and the subsequent closing of the 
theatre, Beard was compelled to submit. On 
23 May 1767, in his original character of 
Hawthorne in BickerstafFs opera, l Love in 
a Village,' he retired from the stage, for 
which loss of hearing had disqualified him. 
His death took place 5 Feb. 1791 at Hamp- 
ton, in Middlesex, to which place he had 
betaken himself upon his retirement. He is 
buried in the vault of Hampton church. 
Beard enjoyed great and deserved popularity. 
Charles Dibdin says that he considers him, 
' taken altogether, as the best English singer/ 
and states that ' his voice was sound, male, 
powerful, and extensive. His tones were 
natural, and he had flexibility enough to exe- 
cute any passages however difficult' {Com- 
plete History of the Stage, v. 363). His praise 
is, however, established by the fact that 
Handel composed expressly for Beard some 
of his greatest tenor parts, as in ' Israel in 
Egypt,' ' Messiah,' { Judas Maccabseus,' and 
'Jephthah.' Churchill celebrates him, and 
Davies, who states that Beard excelled greatly 
in recitation (Misc. iii. 375), speaks of him as 
the jolly president of the Beefsteak Club 
(iii. 167). His moral and social qualities are 
indeed a theme of general commendation. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Dib- 
din's Complete History of the Stage ; Grove's 



Dictionary of Musicians ; Bellamy's Apology ; 
Gilltland's Dramatic Mirror; Thespian Diction- 
ary; Gent. Mag. for 1791.] J. K. 

1876), unitarian minister, born at Southsea, 
Hants, in 1800, was sent, at the age of 
twenty, to the unitarian college at York, 
where he was fellow-student with Dr. Mar- 
tineau. In 1825 he took charge of a unita- 
rian congregation at Salford, Manchester. 
Shortly afterwards he opened a school, where 
his son, the Rev. Charles Beard (Hibbert 
lecturer, 1883), was educated. In 1838 the 
university of Giessen bestowed on him the 
honorary degree of D.D. in recognition of his 
services to religious and general literature. In 
1848 he removed to a chapel built for him in 
Strangeways, Manchester, from which he re- 
tired in 1864. During his ministry there he 
.started a scheme for educating young men 
for home missions, which originated the Uni- 
tarian Home Missionary Board or College, 
-of which Beard was the first principal. In 
1862, at his suggestion, was founded the Me- | 
morial Hall, Manchester, to commemorate the i 
non-compliance with the Act of Uniformity j 
of 1662 of two thousand English clergymen, j 
From 1865 to 1873 he was minister of a chapel j 
at Sale, near Ashton-on-Mersey, where he : 
died in 1876. 

Beard's zeal in the cause of public educa- ; 
tion led to the reforms adopted of late years j 
in the Manchester grammar school, and to j 
"the formation of a Lancashire association 
for popular education. By the labours of | 
Beard and his friends this subject was con- 
stantly brought under the notice of the go- 
vernment, until Mr. Forster's bill was intro- ' 
duced. The latter was largely suggested, and 
in the main drafted, by some of the earlier 
members of the association, founded, chiefly 
T)y the exertions of Beard, thirty years be- | 
fore. By his writings he also contributed I 
'to the cause of education ; he wrote the ; 
papers on Latin, Greek, and English litera- j 
ture for Cassell's ' Popular Educator,' and, ' 
with the Rev. Charles Beard, compiled the j 
'Latin Dictionary' for the same publishers. I 
His topographical description of Lancashire | 
in Knight's ' Illustrated England,' and a * Life i 
of Toussaint 1'Ouverture' (1853), complete 
the list of his writings on general subjects. 

His theological fervour, inherited from his 
ancestor Relly, a universalist preacher of the 
eighteenth century, was shown in his various 
religious writings. Chief amongst these are I 
his controversial works in defence of christi- i 
anity (1826, 1837, 1845) ; many papers in ! 
the ' Christian Reformer,' the ' Westminster 
Heview,' 'Journal of Sacred Literature,' 

Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature,' 
Kitto's 'Papers for Sunday Reading,' and 
'People's Dictionary of the Bible ' (1847). 
He also published ' Handbook of Family 
Devotion from the German of H. Zschokke ' 
(1862), 'Life and Writings of Theodore 
Parker from the French of Dr. R6ville ' 
(1865), 'Autobiography of Satan' (1874), 
and many minor theological works, ori- 
ginal and translated. Beard was the first 
editor of the ' Christian Teacher,' now the 
'National Review,' and also started the 
1 Unitarian Herald.' 

[Manuscript autobiographical sketch in the 
possession of C. W. Sutton, Esq. ; Unitarian He- 
rald, 1 Dec. 1876, and 4 May 1877; Manchester 
G-uardian, 24 Nov. 1876; Manchester Weekly 
Times, 25 Nov. 1876; Ireland's List of Dr. 
Beard's Works, 1875.] E. I. 


BEARD, THOMAS, D.D. (d. 1632), 

puritan divine, and the schoolmaster of Oliver 
Cromwell at Huntingdon, was, it is believed, 
a native of Huntingdon, but the date of his 
birth is unknown. He received his educa- 
tion at Cambridge, and probably took there 
his degree of D.D. On 21 Jan. 1597-8 he 
was collated to the rectory of Hengrave, 
Suffolk, which he held for a very short time. 
Not very long afterwards Beard became 
master of Huntingdon hospital and gram- 
mar school. It was at this school that 
Cromwell was educated in the early years 
of the seventeenth century. In a letter 
dated 25 March 1614, in the Cottonian 
MSS. (Julius, C. iii.), Beard asks Sir Robert 
Cotton for the rectory of Conington, being 
tired of the painful occupation of teaching. 
In 1625-6, as we learn from an indenture, 
made 23 March, between ' the bailifs and 
burgesses of the town of Huntingdon, patrons 
of the hospital of St. John in Huntingdon, 
of the one part, and Thomas Beard, doctor in 
divinity, and master of the said hospital, and 
Robert Cook of Huntingdon, gentleman, of 
the other part,' Beard was holding a lecture- 
ship at Huntingdon, and his puritan zeal in 
his mastership and preaching had given great 
satisfaction to the townspeople. 'All the 
said parishes and town of Huntington were,' 
runs the document, ' for a long time before 
the said Thomas Beard became master of the 
said hospital, utterly destitute of a learned 
preacher to teach and instruct them in the 
word of God ; but sithence the said Thomas 
Beard became master of the said hospital, 
being admitted thereunto by the presentation 
of the said bailifs and burgesses, the said 
Thomas Beard hath not only maintained a 
grammar school in the said town, according 



to the foundation of the said hospital, by him- 
self, and a schoolmaster by him provided at his 
own charges, but hath also been continually 
resident in the said town, and painfully 
preached the word of God in the said town 
of Huntington on the Sabbath-day duly, to 
the great comfort of the inhabitants of the 
said town ' (Add. MS. British Museum, 
15665, p. 126 ; SANFOKD'S Studies and Illus- 
trations of the Great Rebellion, 1858, pp. 
240-1). In 1633 Laud, then archbishop, 
.succeeded in putting the lectureship down. 

In 1628, when the Bishop of Winchester 
(Neile), who, while Bishop of Lincoln, had j 
been Beard's diocesan, was accused before the j 
House of Commons of anti-puritan practices, j 
Beard was summoned as a witness against 
him. According to Cromwell's speech in the 
debate on the subject, Beard had been ap- 
pointed in 1617 to preach a sermon on the 
Sunday after Easter in London, in which, ac- 
cording to custom, he was to recapitulate three 
; sermons previously preached before the lord 
mayor from an open pulpit in Spital Square. 
Dr. Alabaster was the preacher whom Beard 
had to follow, and so far from agreeing to 
repeat Alabaster's sermons, he announced his 
intention of exposing his support of certain 
'* tenets of popery.' f Thereupon,' Cromwell 
continued, * the new Bishop of Winton, then 
Bishop of Lincoln, did send for. Dr. Beard 
and charge him, as his diocesan, not to 
Breach any doctrine contrary to that which 
Alablaster had delivered. And when Dr. 
Beard did, by the advice of Bishop Felton, 
preach against Dr. Alablaster's sermon and 
person, Dr. Neile, now Bishop of Winton, did 
reprehend him, the said Beard, for it' (GrAK- 
DINER'S History (1884), vii. 55-6). Before 
Beard could give his 'testimony from his 
'Own lips,' the parliament was dissolved. 

In 1630 he was made a justice of peace 
for the county. He was married, and had 
: issue. In the parish registers of Hunting- 
don are entries of his own and of his wife's 
death ' Mr. Thomas Beard, Doctor of Divi- 
nity, was buried 10 January 1631[-2],' and 
' Mrs. Mary Beard, widow, 9 December 1642.' 
She seems to have been a Mary Heriman, and 
to have been married 9 July 1628. Brayley (in 
his Beauties of England and Wales, vii. 354) 
gives the inscription on a brass in the nave 
of All Saints Church, Huntingdon, to Dr. 
Beard's memory : ' Ego Thomas Beard, Sacrae 
Theologiae Professor : In Ecclesia Omnium 
Sanctorum Huntingtonise Verbi Divini Pre- 
dicator olim : Jam sanus sum : Obiit Jantiarii 
8, an. 1631.' 

Beard's earliest and most famous book first 
appeared in 1597. Its title-page runs thus : 
u The Theatre of Gods ludgements ; or, a 

Collection of Histories out of Sacred, Eccle- 
siastical, arid Prophane Authors, concerning 
the admirable ludgements of God upon the 
transgressours of his commandements. Trans- 
lated out of French, and avgmented by more 
than three hundred Examples, by Th. Beard. 
London, printed by Adam Islip,' 8vo. It 
was in the ' Theatre of ludgement ' that first 
appeared the tragical account of Christopher 
Marlowe's death. Other editions followed 
in 1612 and 1631, with additions. A fourth 
edition in folio of 1648 is well known. In 1625 
he published ' Antichrist the Pope of Home ; 
or the Pope of Rome is Antichrist. Proved 
in two treatises. In the first, by a full defi- 
nition of Antichrist, by a plain application 
of his definition agreeing with the pope, by 
the weaknesse of the arguments of Bellar- 
mine, Florimond, Raymond, and others, 
which are here fully answered,' 4to. Beard 
left in manuscript an ' Evangelical Tragoedie : 
or, A Harmonie of the Passion of Christ, ac- 
cording to the four Evangelistes ' (Royal 
MS., 17 D. xvii ; CABLET'S Cat. of MSS. of 
the King's Library, 270). A full-length 
portrait of Beard is prefixed to the only other 
literary production of his calling for notice, 
viz. ' Pedantius, Comoedia olim Cantab, acta 
in Coll. Trin. nunquam ante haec typis evul- 
gata,' 1631. 

[Brook's Lives of the Puritans, ii. 396-7 ; 
Carlyle's Cromwell ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum 
in Brit. Mus. ; Huntingdon Register.] 

A. B. G. 

BEARD, WILLIAM (1772-1868), bone 
collector, the son of a farmer at Banwell, 
Somerset, was born on 24 April 1772. He 
received such education as the parish clerk, 
who was also the schoolmaster of the village, 
could give him. Like his father, he worked 
on the land. He married and bought a small 
estate, which he farmed himself. Excited by 
the tradition that Banwell Hill contained a 
large cavern, he persuaded two miners to 
join him (September 1824) in sinking a shaft. 
'At a depth of about 1 00 feet they came to 
a stalactite cave. While making a second 
opening lower down the side of the hill, in 
order to form a better approach to this cave, he 
discovered a smaller cavern containing animal 
bones. With some help procured for him by 
the Bishop of Bath and Wells (G. H. Law), 
to whom the land belonged, Beard dug out 
the cavern, and found among the debris a 
number of bones of the bear, buffalo, reindeer, 
wolf, &c. Captivated with his discovery, he 
let his land, and spent all his time in search- 
ing for bones and putting them together. He 
acted as guide to the many visitors who came 
to see the cavern and the bones he collected. 

Beard more 



He soon learned something of the scientific 
importance of his discoveries, and became an 
eager collector of the contents of the bone- 
caves of the neighbourhood, at Hutton, Blea- 
don, and Sandford. He was a reserved man, 
of quaint manners, and with a high opinion 
of his own skill. The nickname of the ' Pro- 
fessor' given him by the bishop greatly 
pleased him, and he was generally called by it. 
He died on 9 Jan. 1863 in his ninety-sixth 
year. He retained his bodily and mental 
activity almost to the day of his death. He 
was a small man, of short stature and light 
build. There is a bust of him in Banwell 
churchyard, and an engraving representing 
him at the age of seventy-seven in Rutter's 
' Delineations of Somersetshire.' His collec- 
tion of bones was bought by the Somerset- 
shire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society, and is now in the museum at Taun- 
ton Castle. Some idea of its value may be 
gained from the fact that it includes a large 
number of the bones of the Felis spelcea, one 
skull being the most perfect that has been 
found in England. 

[Information received from Mr. W. Edginton 
of Banwell ; Rutter's Delineations of Somerset- 
shire, 147-60 ; Somersetshire Archseol. and Nat. 
Hist. Soc.'s Proc. ii. 103, xiv. 160.] W. H. 

1872), civil engineer, was born at Nottingham 
on 19 March 1816. He began his professional 
education as pupil to a Plymouth architect, 
and subsequently to the well-known engineer 
Mr. J. M. Rendel, whose partner he ultimately 
became. Much of the experience he obtained 
respecting water supplies and so forth was 
gained in works undertaken at this time. 
His partnership with Mr. Rendel ceased in 
1848. In 1850 Beardmore became sole 
engineer to the works for the drainage and 
navigation of the river Lee. In the same 
year appeared, with the title of ' Hydraulic 
Tables,' the first edition of a book which, 
under the fuller description of ( Manual of 
Hydrology ; containing I. Hydraulic and other 
Tables ; II. Rivers, Flow of Water, Springs, 
Wells, and Percolation ; III. Tides, Estuaries, 
and Tidal Rivers; IV. Rain-fall and Evapora- 
tion,' afterwards became the text-book of 
the profession for hydraulic engineering. The 
above title is that of the third and enlarged 
edition, which appeared in 1862. During 
the remaining ten years of his life Beard- 
more's practice as an engineer was greatly 
extended by this work. He died on 24 Aug. 
1872, at Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, whither 
he had moved in 1855. 

[Annual Report of the Institute of Civil En- 
gineers, 17 Dec. 1872.] A. D. 

BEATNIFFE, RICHARD (1740-1818), 
bookseller, was born in 1740 at Louth in 
! Lincolnshire, and was adopted and edu- 
cated by his uncle, the Rev. Samuel Beat- 
! niffe, rector of Gay wood and Bawsey in Nor- 
i folk. He was apprenticed to a bookseller at 
| Lynn of the name of Hollingworth, who was 
in the habit of taking four apprentices. 
When we are told that all the four were ex- 
pected to sleep in one bed, that the sheets 
I were changed only once a year, and that the 
I youths were dieted in the most economical 
manner, it says much for the sturdiness of 
Beatniffe that he was the only apprentice 
Hollingworth had for forty years who re- 
I mained to serve his full time. The tempta- 
tions of the hand of his master's daughter, 
who was deformed in person and unpleasing 
in manners, together with a share in the busi- 
ness, were not able to retain Beatniffe in 
Lynn. Upon the termination of his appren- 
ticeship he went to Norwich, and worked 
there for some years as a journeyman book- 
binder. His old master Hollingworth, if 
harsh, must have been also generous, since he 
advanced Beatniffe 500/. for the purchase of 
the stock of Jonathan Gleed, a bookseller of 
London Lane, in Norwich. 

Shortly after this period Beatniffe produced 
his excellent little ' Norfolk Tour, or Travel- 
ler's Pocket Companion, being a concise de- 
scription of all the noblemen's and gentlemen's 
seats, as well as of the principal towns and 
other remarkable places in the county,' of 
which the first edition appeared in 1772, the 
second in 1773, the third in 1777, the fourth 
in 1786, the fifth in 1795, and the sixth and 
last in 1808, ' greatly enlarged and improved.' 
This edition extended to 399 pages, or about 
four times the size of the first. In the ad- 
vertisement the author states that he had 
carefully revised every page, ' and by the 
friendly communications of several gentle- 
men in the county and [his] own observations 
during the last ten years greatly enlarged ' 
it. Improvements and additions were made 
by the author to each successive edition, and 
most of the places described were person- 
ally visited. It is written in a plain man- 
ner, and is full of information. Mr. W. Rye 
says : ( The numerous editions to which it 
ran show it had considerable merit, and in its 
notes and illustrations there is much useful 
and interesting reading ' (Index to Norfolk 
Topogr. 1881, p. xxvii). 

His biographer tells some characteristic 
anecdotes of the bookseller's unyielding tory- 
ism, of his rebuffs to chaffering customers, and 
of his unwillingness to supply the London 
trade. He preferred to sell to private buyers, 
and indeed was often loth to part with his 



v jewels,' as he styled his rarities. Beloe, who 
knew him, has described Beatniffe as ' a 
shrewd, cold, inflexible fellow, who traded 
principally in old books, and held out but 
little encouragement to a youth who rarely 
had money to expend. . . . The principal fea- 
ture of this man's character was suspicion of 
.strangers, and a constant apprehension lest 
he should dispose of any of his libri rarissimi 
to some cunning wight or professed collector. 
If any customer was announced as coming 
from the metropolis, he immediately added 
at least one-third to his price ' {Sexagenarian, 
1818, ii. 246). Booksellers have not unseldom 
thought it necessary to cultivate blunt and 
-eccentric manners ; but Beatniffe's knowledge 
of books, skill as a bookbinder, and business 
habits, made him a prosperous tradesman. 
For many years he owned the best collection 
of old books among provincial dealers, and 
was long the first secondhand bookseller 
in Norwich. He published a few works. 
His first catalogue was printed in 1779, and 
his last in 1808 ; they contained many rare 
-volumes, which he knew how to price at their 
full value. Among the libraries purchased 
by him was that of the Rev. Dr. Cox Macro, 
of Little Haugh in Suffolk, who died in 1767, 
after having brought together a rich treasure 
of early-printed books, old poetry, original 
letters, and autographs. The library remained 
unexamined for forty years, when it came 
into Beatniffe's hands at the commencement 
of the century for the small sum of 150/. or 
160/. On being sold piecemeal the collection 
realised nine or ten times as much. 

Beatniffe married Martha Dinah Hart, who 
died in 1816, daughter of a writing-master 
and alderman of Bury St. Edmund's, by 
whom he had a son and a daughter. Having 
amassed a considerable fortune, Beatniffe re- 
tired from business a short time before his 
death, which took place 9 July 1818, in the 
seventy-ninth year of his age, at Norwich. 
He was buried in the nave of the Norwich 
'Church of St. Peter at Mancroft. 

[Biography by the Eev. James Ford in 
Nichols's Illustrations, vi. 522-8 ; see also iv. 
746, viii. 491 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 672, 
Tin. 467, ix. 365; Gent. Mag. 1818, ii. 93, 286.1 

H. E. T. 

(1494-1546), cardinal archbishop of St. An- 
drews, was the third son of John Bethune of 
Balfour, elder brother of Archbishop James 
Bethune. He studied at the universities of 
St. Andrews and Glasgow, and in his six- 
teenth year was sent to Paris, where he stu- 
died both the civil and the canon law. About 
that time his uncle presented him to the rec- 


tory of Campsie, and in 1523 he resigned in 
his nephew's favour the abbacy of Arbroath, 
though the pope dispensed the young abbot 
from taking orders till two years later. In 
1537 David Beaton was consecrated bishop 
of Mirepoix in Foix, and very shortly after 
Pope Paul III made him cardinal of San Ste- 
fano on Monte Celio. He succeeded his 
uncle as archbishop of St. Andrews in 1539, 
and was murdered at St. Andrews in 1546. 
From a very early age he was resident for 
Scotland at the court of France, was made 
lord privy seal in 1528, and chancellor in 
1543. He was also proto-notary apostolic 
and legate a latere from 1543. Till he be- 
came primate Beaton was frequently employed 
on foreign diplomatic service, for which his 
education and abilities specially fitted him. 
He negotiated the marriage of James V with 
Magdalen, daughter of Francis I, and on her 
death he was sent on the commission to bring 
to Scotland the king's second wife, Mary of 
Guise. He continued his uncle's policy of 
knitting closer the alliance with France, and 
standing on the defensive against England. 
It was due to his influence that James V re- 
jected all his uncle Henry's proposals, and 
refused to act in concert with him in religious 
reforms. On the death of James V in 1542, 
Beaton produced a will appointing himself 
and the earls of Huntly, Argyle, and Arran, 
joint regents. This will his opponents re- 
jected as a forgery. Arran was declared 
governor of the kingdom by the estates. 
Beaton was arrested ; but his imprisonment 
was more nominal than real, as Lord Seaton, 
to whose custody he was committed, was one 
of his sworn partisans, and very shortly re- 
stored him to his own castle. It was sus- 
pected that his arrest was merely a pretence 
to secure him against being kidnapped by the 
English. For a short time the English party, 
which was also that of the reformers, tri- 
umphed. The governor drew the preachers 
round him, and two treaties with England 
were set on foot. One in July 1543 arranged 
the marriage of Mary with Henry's son 
Edward; the other concluded an alliance 
with England. But no sooner did the cardinal 
find himself at liberty than he raised a faction 
against the governor and the English mar- 
riage. His party mustered in great force, and 
escorted the queen and her mother from Lin- 
lithgow to Stirling Castle in July 1543, a pro- 
ceeding which was approved at the next 
meeting of the estates. Arran, too, dismissed 
the preachers, and went over to the cardinal's 
party on 8 Sept. 1543. The English treaties 
were repudiated 24 Sept. 1543, a step which 
provoked a declaration of war from England ; 
and when Hertford invaded Scotland in 1544 




he had special instructions to seize the car- 
dinal and raze his castle of St. Andrews, 
which Beaton had meanwhile been busily 
fortifying, and had made so strong that he 
feared neither English nor French. When 
the English fleet was seen in the Firth of 
Forth, both the cardinal and the governor 
hastened out of reach of the invaders, 

As a persecutor the cardinal was even 
more zealous than his uncle. His memory 
has been held up to execration for his cruel- 
ties to the reformers, especially for the burn- 
ing of Wishart. But as the reformers were 
in secret treaty with England, their political 
as well as their religious creed made it im- 
possible to let the preaching of their doctrines 
pass unnoticed ; and it has now been ascer- 
tained that Wishart was a willing agent in 
the plots laid by Henry against the cardinal. 
George Wishart was the most popular of the 
preachers, and had many powerful supporters 
among the nobles who upheld them. In 1546 
the cardinal called a provincial assembly of 
the clergy at the Blackfriars, Edinburgh. 
George Wishart was at Ormiston, a laird's 
house in the neighbourhood. There he was 
arrested by the Earl of Both well, acting for 
the cardinal, and brought to St. Andrews, 
where he was tried on a charge of spreading 
heretical doctrines, condemned, and burnt on 
2 March 1546. At this time the cardinal 
was at the height of his power. Most of the 
nobles were bound to him by bonds of man- 
rent or promises of friendship, and he had 
just married his natural daughter Margaret 
to David Lindsay, afterwards ninth earl of 
Crawford. But the friends of Wishart, the 
lairds of Fife, were determined to avenge his 
death and secure their own safety by getting 
the cardinal out of the way before he could 
carry out a scheme he had in hand for their 
destruction. John Leslie, brother to the Earl 
of Rothes, had sworn on the day of Wishart's 
death that his whinger and hand should 
be ' priests to the cardinal.' This bloody 
threat he fulfilled. Entering the castle by 
stealth in company with his nephew Norman, 
and Kircaldy of Grange, they surprised the 
cardinal in his bedroom, murdered him, and 
took possession of the fortress, 29 May 1546. 
Beaton's greatest gift was the power he had 
of gaining ascendency over the minds of 
others. He ruled in turn the councils of 
James V, of the governor and the queen dowa- 
ger, and had great influence with Francis I. 
He left several natural children, and the im- 
morality of his private life, as well as his 
pride and cruelty, has been much enlarged 
upon by his religious opponents. After his 
body had lain nine months in the sea tower of 

the castle, it was obscurely buried in the con- 
vent of the Blackfriars at St. Andrews. 

[Knox's History, ed. Laing; Sir David Lyn de- 
say's poem of The Cardinal ; Keith's Catalogue 
of Bishops ; Spottiswood's History of the Church 
of Scotland; Sir James Balfour's Manuscript Ac- 
count of the Bishops of St. Andrews ; Register of 
the Diocese of Glasgow, edited by Cosmo Innes ; 
Sadler's State Papers ; Chambers's Biographies 
of Eminent Scotchmen.] M. M'A. 

1539), archbishop of Glasgow and St. An- 
drews, was the sixth son of James Bethune 
of Balfour in Fife. He was educated at St. 
Andrews, where he took his master's degree 
in 1493. His first preferment was the chantry 
of Caithness, to which he was presented in 
1497. He rose by rapid strides to the high- 
est honours in the church and state. He was 
made provost of the collegiate church of Both- 
well in 1503, prior of Whithorn, and abbot 
of Dunfermline in 1504. He also held the 
two rich abbacies of Kil winning and Arbroath. 
He was elected bishop of Galloway, but was 
translated to the archbishopric of Glasgow in 
1509, and became archbishop of St. Andrews 
and primate in 1522. He then resigned Ar- 
broath to his nephew David, reserving half 
the revenue for his own use for life. He also 
held the offices of lord treasurer from 1505, 
and chancellor from 1513 ; but he resigned 
the treasury on his advancement to the see 
of Glasgow, and was nominally deprived of 
the chancellorship in 1526, though his suc- 
cessor was not appointed till some years later. 
During the minority of James V, Beaton is one 
of the most prominent figures in Scottish his- 
tory. Albany, the regent, withdrew to France 
whenever he could ; and though the govern- 
ment was nominally in the hands of a com- 
mission of regency, the country was distracted 
by the feuds of the factions of the Douglases 
and the Hamiltons. Beaton, who was one 
of the regents, was more apt to stir the strife 
than to stay it. When appealed to by Bishop 
Douglas of Dunkeld to avert a fray that 
seemed imminent, Beaton swore on his con- 
science he could not help it ; but as he laid 
his hand on his heart to give weight to his- 
words, the ring of the coat of mail he wore- 
beneath his vestments betrayed that he had 
come ready armed for the fray, and provoked" 
the retort : f Methinks, my lord, your con- 
science clatters.' In the tumult which fol- 
lowed, known as ' Clear-the-causeway,' the^ 
Douglases won the day. Beaton sought 
sanctuary at the altar of the church of the* 
Greyfriars, and would have been torn from 
it and slain but for the timely interference of 
Bishop Douglas. At this period the nation 



was hanging in the balance between France 
and England. Both countries were eager to 
secure Scotland, and each made offers of find- 
ing a bride for the young king. Margaret 
Tudor, the queen mother, and Angus, fa- 
voured England. Beaton threw all his weight 
into the French scale, and it was chiefly due 
to him that the old league with France was 
maintained, and James wedded to Magdalen 
of France instead of to Mary of England. 
The ' greatest man both of lands and expe- 
rience within this realm, and noted to be very 
crafty and dissimulating,' was the report of 
Beaton which the English ambassador sent 
home, and Wolsey, who well knew that all 
his schemes concerning Scotland were futile 
as long as Beaton was at large, laid many a 
crafty plot for getting hold of him. He sug- 
gested diets on the border and conferences in 
London, at which the chancellor must repre- 
sent the kingdom of Scotland, having an un- 
derstanding with Angus that he was to be 
kidnapped on the way ; but Beaton was too 
wary for him. Secure in his sea-girt castle of 
St. Andrews, he pursued a policy of his own, 
and would not pledge himself to either party. 
He kept up direct and independent communi- 
cation with France through his nephew David, 
who was Scottish resident at the French court. 
During the latter years of his life this nephew 
acted as his coadjutor. 

As primate, Beaton was constant in his 
efforts to assert his superiority over the see 
of Glasgow. The strife between the two 
archbishops led to unseemly brawls at home, 
and pleas carried to the court of Rome, 
whereof the expenses, the estates complained, 
caused ' inestimable dampnage to the realme.' 
He also strove to smother the seeds of the 
new religious doctrines by burning their most 
diligent sower, Patrick Hamilton, lay abbot 
of Fern in Ross-shire. He is called the 
proto-martyr, as being the first native-born 
Scot who suffered death for teaching the doc- 
trines which afterwards became those of the 
established kirk. He died at the stake in St. 
Andrews in 1528. His death proved even 
more persuasive than his living words, inso- 
much that a shrewd observer counselled the 
archbishop to burn the next heretics in the 
cellar, for the l smoke of Mr. Patrick Hamil- 
ton had infected as many as it blew upon.' 
Nevertheless, Henry Forest was burned at St. 
Andrews, and Daniel Stratton and Norman 
Gourlay at Edinburgh, during Beaton's pri- 
macy. Beaton founded the new Divinity 
College at St. Andrews, and built bridges and 
walls at Glasgow. He died in 1539 at St. 

[Register of the Diocese of Glasgow, edited by 
Cosmo Innes ; Keith's History of the Church of 

Scotland ; Spottiswood's History ; Keith's Cata- 
logue of Bishops ; State Papers, Henry VIII ; 
Chambers's Biographies of Eminent Scotchmen.] 

M. M'A. 


(1517-1603), archbishop of Glasgow, second 
\ son of John Bethune of Balfour, and nephew 
of the cardinal, was the last Roman catholic 
archbishop of Glasgow, and was consecrated 
at Rome in 1552. At fourteen he was sent 
to Paris to study, and at twenty was em- 
ployed by Francis on a mission to the queen 
dowager of Scotland. On the death of his 
j uncle, the cardinal, he was in possession of 
I the abbacy of Arbroath, but was required to 
give it up to George Douglas by the governor. 
Beaton was the faithful friend and counsellor 
of the queen regent all through her struggles 
with the lords of the congregation. He was 
a determined opponent of religious reform, 
and protested in the parliament of 1542 
against the act allowing ' that the halie 
writ may be usit in our vulgar tongue.' It 
was to Beaton the regent handed the lords' 
remonstrance when it was presented to her, 
with ' Please you, my lord, to read a pasquil,' 
and in the civil war which followed he shared 
with the. French auxiliaries all the hardships 
and privations of the siege of Leith. On the 
death of the regent Beaton went to France 
with the French allies, taking with him the 
muniments and treasures of his diocese, to 
keep them safe out of the hands of the re- 
formers. Among them was the Red Book 
of Glasgow, which dated from the reign of 
Robert III. He deposited these documents 
in the Scotch college at Paris, and continued 
to live in that city till his death in 1603. 
He acted during the whole of that time as 
Scottish ambassador at the French court, and 
still took a lively interest in the affairs of 
Scotland. He also administered the queen's 
revenues as dowager of France, and received 
a salary of 3,060 livres for his services. 
Mary kept up an active correspondence with 
Beaton, and was anxious to keep his good 
opinion. She wrote to him herself giving the 
first news of Darnley's murder, dwelling 
strongly on the merciful interposition of Pro- 
vidence that had prevented her sharing her 
husband's fate. Beaton in his reply points 
out to her that to find out and punish the 
murderers is the only way in which she can 
prove her innocence before the world. In 
1598, on account of the f great honours done 
to his majestie and the country by the said 
archbishop in exercising and using the 
office of ambassadoir,' he was restored to his 
1 heritages, honours, dignities, and benefices, 
notwithstanding any sentences affecting him/ 
He was as much respected and liked by the 





French as by his own countrymen. He held 
several French preferments, the abbey de la 
Sie in Poitou, the priory of St. Peter's, and 
the treasurership of St. Hilary of Poictiers ; 
but it was thought much to his credit that he 
had sent none of the revenues which he drew 
from them out of the kingdom. During his 
life Beaton was a constant benefactor to the 
Scots College founded in Paris in 1325 for 
the benefit of poor Scots scholars, and at his 
death he left to it his fortune and his manu- 
scripts, including a vast mass of correspond- 
ence. These manuscripts, together with the 
greater part of the ancient records which he 
had brought with him from Glasgow, were, 
on the outbreak of the revolution, sent to 
St. Omer for safety, and have since been lost 
eight of. He died in Paris, and was buried 
by his own desire in the church of St. Jean 
de Lateran, within the precincts of which he 
had lived for forty-five years (30 April 1603). 
In his eloffefunebre,whichweiS attended by the 
nuncio and many other magnates and a great 
concourse of people, he is styled l unique 
Phoenix de la nation 6cossaise en qualit6 de 
prelat.' Unique he certainly was among the 
churchmen of that time in leaving behind 
him an unblemished reputation, for even 
his enemies could rake up no scandal either 
in his private or public life to bring against 

[Oraison Funebre by Abbe Gayer, Paris, 1603; 
Kegister of the Diocese of Glasgow; Knox's His- 
tory with Laing's notes ; Queen Mary's Letters ; 
Cosmo Innes's Sketches of E arly Scottish History ; 
Chambers's Biographies of Eminent Scotchmen.] 

M. M'A. 

BEATSON, ALEXANDER (1759-1833), 
lieutenant-general in the East India Com- 
pany's service, governor of St. Helena, and 
experimental agriculturist, was second son 
of Eobert Beatson, Esq., of Kilrie, co. Fife. 
He obtained a cadetship in 1775, and was 
appointed to an ensigncy in the Madras in- 
fantry, 21 Nov. 1776. He served as an 
engineer officer in the war with Hyder Ali, 
although he appears never to have belonged 
to the engineers. As lieutenant, he served 
with the Guides in Lord Cornwallis's cam- 
paigns against Tippoo Sultaun; and eight 
years after, as a field officer, was surveyor- 
general with the army under Lieutenant- 
general Harris, which captured Seringapatam 
in 1799. He attained the rank of colonel 
1 Jan. 1801. 

After he had quitted India, Beatson was 
appointed to the governorship of St. Helena, 
which he held from 1808 to 1813. The 
island, which then belonged to the East 
India Company, was in a very unsatisfactory 

condition. The scanty population had been 
nearly swept off by an epidemic of measles 
a short time previously, and, although re- 
cruited by emigrants from England and by 
Chinese coolies, was in a wretched state. 
The acts of the home authorities in sup- 
pressing the spirit traffic and other matters 
gave rise to great discontent, resulting in a 
mutiny in 1811, which was put down by the 
firmness of Beatson, who also introduced a 
better system of cultivation and many other 
beneficial measures. After his return to 
England, he devoted much attention to ex- 
periments in agriculture at Knole farm near 
Tunbridge Wells, and Henley, Essex. He 
became major-general July 1810, lieutenant- 
general June 1814, and died 14 July 1833. 
Beatson was the author of the following 
works : 1. ' An Account of the Isles of 
France and Bourbon,' 1794, which was never 
printed, and remains in manuscript at the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 13868). 2. < A 
View of the Origin and Conduct of the 
War against Tippoo Sultaun' (London, 
1800, 4to). 3. < Tracts relative to the Island 
of St. Helena,' with views (London, 1816, 
4to), and other smaller works on the island 
besides contributions to the St. Helena 
1 Monthly Register.' 4. * A New System 
of Cultivation without Lime or Dung, or 
Summer Fallowing, as practised at Knole 
Farm, Sussex' (London, 1820, 8vo); and 
various papers on improvements in agri- 

[Dodswell and Miles's Alph. Lists Ind. Army ; 
Vibart's Hist, of Madras Sappers and Miners, 
vol. i. ; Beatson's writings.] H. M. C. 

WORTH (1803-1874), classical scholar, was 
educated first at Merchant Taylors' School, 
and afterwards at Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B. A. in 1825 and 
M.A. in 1828. He was elected a fellow of 
his college soon after taking his first degree, 
and was senior fellow at the time of his death 
(24 July 1874). He compiled the 'Index 
Grsecitatis yEschyleae,' which was published 
at Cambridge in 1830 in the first volume of 
the ' Index in Tragicos Grtecos. 1 An edition 
of Ainsworth's ' Thesaurus Linguae Latinae,' 
revised by Beatson, was issued in 1829, and 
republished in 1830 and in 1860. His other 
works were : 1. ' Progressive Exercises on 
the Composition of Greek Iambic Verse . . . 
For the use of King's School, Canterbury,' 
Cambridge, 1836; a popular school book, 
which reached a tenth edition in 1871. 
2. ' Exercises on Latin Prose Composition,' 
1840. 3. < Lessons in Ancient History,' 1853. 




4. An edition of Demosthenes' Oration against 
the Law of Leptines, 1864. 

[Athenaeum, 1 Aug. 1874 ; Luard's Grad. Can- 
tab. 1760-1856; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

M.D. (d. 1874), surgeon-general, graduated 
in arts and medicine at Glasgow, where he 
took the degree of M.D. in 1836. In 1838 he 
joined the army medical department, and 
did duty on the staff' in Ceylon from 1839 to 
1851. He was surgeon to the 51st foot in the 
second Burmese war, and subsequently served 
in Turkey during the Crimean war, where 
he rendered valuable services in the organi- 
sation of the hospitals at Smyrna. After 
serving as deputy inspector-general in the 
Ionian islands and Madras, he became 
surgeon-general in 1863, and was appointed 
principal medical officer of European troops 
in India, an appointment which he held for 
the customary five years. For the next 
three years he was in medical charge of the 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley ; and in 
1871 was appointed principal medical officer 
in India for the second time. He was ap- 
pointed a C.B. in 1869. He died suddenly 
at Simla on 7 June 1874. Beatson, who was 
an honorary physician to the queen, was 
accounted one of the ablest officers in the 
army medical service, but it is in the records 
of the department, at home and in India, 
rather than in professional literature, that 
his labours will be noticed. 

[Ann. Keg. 1874; Army Lists; Lancet, June 
1874.] H. M. C. 


1818), compiler and miscellaneous writer, was 
born in 1742 at Dysart in Fifeshire. He was 
educated for the military profession, and on 
one of his title-pages describes himself as 
'late of his majesty's corps of Royal En- 
gineers.' It was probably as a subaltern in 
this corps that he accompanied the unsuc- 
cessful expedition against Rochefort in 1757, 
and was present with the force which, reach- 
ing the West Indies early in 1759, failed in 
the attack on Martinique, but succeeded in 
capturing Guadaloupe. He is represented 
in 1766 as retiring on half-pay, and as failing, 
in spite of repeated applications, to secure 
active employment during the American 
war. Afterwards he seems to have betaken 
himself to practical agriculture in his native 
county, his writings on the subject being 
such as could have scarcely emanated from 
any one not a practical agriculturist. He 
became an honorary member of the Board 
of Agriculture, of the Royal Highland 
Society of Scotland, and of the London So- 
ciety of Arts. For the information of the 

first of these bodies he drew up an elabo- 
rate ' General View of the Agriculture of 
the County of Fife, with observations on 
the means of its improvement,' which was 
published in 1794, and in which he styles 
himself ' Robert Beatson, Esq., of Pitterdie.' 
In this report he advocated long leases and 
the encouragement of small holdings. In 
1798 he published ' An Essay on the Com- 
parative Advantages of Vertical and Hori- 
zontal Windmills, containing a description of 
an horizontal windmill and watermill upon 
a new construction,' &c. For this wheel he 
took out a patent, and a model of it was ex- 
hibited in London. To the fifth volume of 
A. Hunter's ' Georgical Essays ' (York, 1804) 
Beatson contributed practical papers (in one 
of them he speaks of having recently made an 
agricultural tour in many parts of England) 
on farm-buildings, farmhouses, barns, and 

Besides writing on agriculture, Beatson 
was the author of several works of much 
more general utility. In 1786 he published 
in three parts his well-known 'Political Index 
to the Histories of Great Britain and Ireland, 
or a complete register of the hereditary 
honours, public offices, and persons in office 
from the earliest periods to the present time.' 
It was dedicated to the author's friend, 
Adam Smith, who had expressed approval 
of the work. From its completeness as well 
as accuracy, it is a most useful, valuable, and 
indeed a unique work of reference. In 1788 
it reached a second edition, in two volumes, 
containing nearly twice as much matter as 
the first, and a third edition in 1806. In 
1790 appeared, in three volumes, Beatsou's 
' Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Bri- 
tain, from the year 1727 to the present time/ 
also a useful work, in which the naval element 
predominates. To the narrative are appended 
lists of the ships in the squadrons and fleets 
of France and Spain as well as of Great 
Britain during the period dealt with, and 
also despatches, state papers, and geogra- 
phical descriptions of the places referred to 
in the text. In 1807 appeared the last of 
Beatson's works, of reference, three volumes 
of ' A Chronological Register of both Houses 
of Parliament from the Union in 1708 to the 
Third Parliament of the United Kingdom of 
Grreat Britain and Ireland.' Besides lists of 
3eers qualified to sit in each parliament, 
bounties and boroughs alphabetically ar- 
ranged are given in chronological order, with 
;he names of their members in every house 
f commons during the period embraced, and 
notes chronicling as they arose the changes, 
with their causes, in the representation of 
each constituency. Election petitions and 




the decisions on them are likewise given with 
a statement of the elective authority, and of 
the nature of the electoral franchise in each 
constituency. Beatson was also the author 
of a pamphlet on the indecisive engagement 
fought off Usliant by the fleets under Ad- 
miral Keppel and Count d'Orvilliers < A 
New and Distinct View of the memorable 
Action of the 27th July 1778, in which the 
Aspersions cast on the Flag Officers are shown 
to be totally unfounded.' He died at Edin- 
burgh on 24 Jan. 1818. One obituary no- 
tice describes him as 'late barrack-master at 
Aberdeen.' It is uncertain whether Edin- 
burgh or Aberdeen university conferred on 
him his degree of LL.D. 

[Beatson's writings; Gent. Mag. for April 
1818; Annual Biography and Obituary for 1819; 
Biographical Dictionary of the Living Authors 
of Great Britain and Ireland, 1816.] F. E. 

BEATTIE, GEORGE(1786-1823),Scotch 
poet, was the eldest son of a crofter and sal- 
mon fisher at Whitehills, near St. Cyrus, 
Kincardineshire, where he was born in 1786. 
He received a good education at the parish 
school. During his boyhood he was noto- 
rious for his frolics and love of practical jokes. 
It is also related of him that on Saturday 
afternoons it was his delight to wander among 
the ' braes ' of St. Cyrus, and that he used to 
1 visit the auld kirkyard with a kind of me- 
lancholy pleasure.' When the boy was about 
thirteen years of age, his father obtained 
a situation on the excise at Montrose, and 
* young George,' it is said, walked all the way 
to his new home ' with a tame kae (jackdaw) 
on his shoulder.' After an ineffectual attempt 
to become a mechanic he obtained a clerkship 
in Aberdeen, but six weeks later his employer 
died, bequeathing him a legacy of 50/. Return- 
ing to Montrose, Beattie entered the office of 
the procurator-fiscal, and on the completion 
of his legal education in Edinburgh he esta- 
blished himself in Montrose as a writer or at- 
torney. His remarkable conversational gifts, 
especially as a humourist, rendered him a 
general favourite among his companions, and, 
being combined with good business talents, 
contributed to his speedy success in his pro- 
fession. In 1815 he contributed to the ' Mont- 
rose Review ' a poem, ' John o' Arnha,' which 
lie afterwards elaborated with much care, and 
published in a separate form, when its rol- 
licking humour and vivid descriptions soon 
secured it a wide popularity. Its incidents 
bear some resemblance to those of 'Tarn 
o' Shanter,' of which it may be called a pale 
reflex. In 1818 he published in the ' Review ' 
a poem in the old Scotch dialect, written 
when he was a mere boy, and entitled the 

1 Murderit Mynstrell.' The poem, which is 
in a totally different vein from 'John o' 
Arnha,' is characterised throughout by a 
charming simplicity, a chastened tenderness 
of sentiment, and a delicacy of delineation 
which are sometimes regarded as the special 
attributes of the earlier English poets. In 
1819 he published also in the ' Review ' the 
' Bark,' and in 1820 a wild and eerie rhap- 
sody, entitled the l Dream.' He also wrote 
several smaller lyrics. In 1821 Beattie made 
the acquaintance of a young lady with whom 
he contracted a marriage engagement. Be- 
fore, however, the marriage was completed, 
the lady fell heir to a small fortune, and re- 
jected Beattie for a suitor who occupied a 
better rank in life. Deeply wounded by the 
disappointment, Beattie from that time medi- 
tated self-destruction. After completing a 
narrative of his relations with the lady, con- 
tained in a history of his life from 1821 to 
1823, he provided himself with a pistol, and, 
going to St. Cyrus, shot himself by the side 
of his sister's grave 29 Sept. 1823. Since his 
death his poems have gone through several 
editions, and a collection of them, accom- 
panied with a memoir, has been published 
under the title ' George Beattie, Montrose, a 
poet, a humourist, and a man of genius/ by 
A. S. M* Cyrus, M.A. 

[Memoir mentioned above.] T. F. H. 

BEATTIE, JAMES (1735-1803), poet, 
essayist, and moral philosopher, was born 
at Laurencekirk, Kincardine, Scotland ; on 
25 Oct. 1735. His father, a shopkeeper 
and small farmer, dying in 1742, the boy was 
supported by his eldest brother, David, who 
sent him in 1749 to the Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, where he soon obtained a bursary. 
At Aberdeen he studied Greek under Thomas 
Blackwell, author of < An Inquiry into the 
Life and Writings of Homer,' but showed 
no aptitude for mathematics. In 1753, having 
taken the degree of M.A., and being anxious 
to obtain immediate employment in order to 
relieve his brother from further expense, he 
accepted the post of schoolmaster and parish 
clerk to the parish of Fardoun, near Laurence- 
kirk. Here he made the acquaintance of 
Lord Gardenstown and Lord Monboddo, and 
began to come into notice by his contributions 
to the 'Scots Magazine.' He had always 
been fond of music, and now cultivated it 
zealously in his retirement. We are assured 
by his biographers that, in his admiration 
for the romantic scenery, he would often 
stay whole nights under the open sky, re- 
turning home at sunrise. The impressions 
gained during his residence at Fardoun are 
apparent in the descriptive passages of his 



best and most celebrated poem, written many 
years afterwards, the * Minstrel.' With a 
view to entering the church he returned 
during the winter to the Marischal College, 
in order to attend some divinity lectures. In 
1758 he was appointed to a vacant master- 
ship at the grammar school of Aberdeen; 
and two years afterwards, much to his own 
surprise, was raised, by the influence of a 
powerful friend, to the chair of moral philo- 
sophy and logic in the Marischal College. 
He began to lecture in the winter session of ! 
1760-1, and for upwards of thirty years 
continued to discharge his duties with in- 
dustry and ability. There existed at Aber- 
deen a literary and convivial club, known as ! 
the ' Wise Club/ consisting chiefly of pro- 
fessors who used to meet once a fortnight at j 
a tavern to read essays. Beattie was ad- 
' xnitted to membership, and enjoyed the society | 
of Dr. Reid, Dr. Campbell, Dr. Gregory, and 
other worthies. 

In 1761 he published his first volume, 
* Original Poems and Translations,' dedicated I 
to the Earl of Erroll, consisting of pieces j 
contributed to the ' Scots Magazine ' and ' 
verses recently composed. ' This collection,' 
says his biographer, Sir William Forbes, f was 
very favourably received, and stamped Dr. 
Beattie with the character of a poet of 
great and original genius.' The poet, too 
sensible to form such an astounding judg- 
ment, used in later years to destroy all the 
copies that he could find, and only four pieces 
from the collection were allowed to accom- 
pany the * Minstrel.' 

' Beattie's first visit to London was paid in 
the summer of 1763, on which occasion he 
made a pilgrimage to Pope's villa at Twicken- | 
ham. In 1765 he published a smoothly I 
written but inanimate poem, the ' Judgment 
of Paris,' and later in the same year * Verses j 
on the Death of Churchill,' a most abusive j 
performance which he afterwards suppressed. [ 
In the autumn of 1765 Beattie addressed a j 
letter in terms of extravagant flattery to the i 
poet Gray, who was on a visit to the Earl of , 
Strathmore at Glammis Castle. ' Will you j 
permit us,' he wrote, ' to hope that we shall ' 
nave an opportunity at Aberdeen of thanking ! 
you in person for the honour you have done | 
to Britain and to the poetic art by your ines- 
timable compositions ? ' In response arrived 
a letter of invitation to Glammis; a very 
cordial meeting followed, and a lasting friend- 
ship sprang up between the poets. A new 
edition of Beattie's poems appeared in 1766. 
Writing to Dr. Blacklock on 22 Sept. of that 
year, he announced that he was engaged on 
a poem in the Spenserian stanza, wherein he 
proposed to be either ' droll or pathetic, de- 

scriptive or sentimental, tender or satirical, 
as the humour strikes.' In May of the fol- 
lowing year he recurred to the subject :- < My 
performance in Spenser's stanza has not ad- 
vanced a single line these many months. It 
is called the " Minstrel." The subject was 
suggested by a dissertation on the old min- 
strels which is prefixed to a collection of 
ballads lately published by Dodsley in three 
volumes.' In 1768 he wrote (in the * Aberdeen 
Journal') a poetical address in broad Scotch 
to Alexander Ross, author of a poem in that 
dialect, ' The Fortunate Shepherdess.' 

On 28 June 1767 Beattie married Mary 
Dunn, daughter of the rector of the grammar 
school, Aberdeen. This lady became some 
years afterwards afflicted with insanity, a 
malady inherited from her mothei. At first 
it showed itself in strange follies, as when 
she took some china jars from the mantel- 
piece and arranged them on the top of the 
parlour-door so that they might fall on her 
husband's head when he entered (DYCE'S 
Prefatory Memoir to Beattie 1 s Poems in the 
Aldine Series). Finally she became so violent 
that she had to be separated from the family. 
Two sons were the issue of the marriage. 

Hitherto Beattie had been known only as 
a poet ; he now aspired to make his mark as 
a philosopher. In his professorial capacity 
he had been compelled to make some ac- 
quaintance with the writings of Hume, and 
he now announced his intention of exposing 
the absurdity of that philosopher's system. 
' Our sceptics,' he writes to Dr. Blacklock, 
' either believe the doctrines they publish, or 
they do not believe them; if they believe 
them they are fools, if not they are some- 
thing worse.' The result of Beattie's in- 
quiries was given to the world in 1770 under 
the title of an t Essay on Truth.' Being 
anxious to sell the manuscript to a publisher, 
Beattie had asked his friends Sir William. 
Forbes and Mr. Arbuthnot to conduct negotia- 
tions. These gentlemen, finding a difficulty 
in disposing of the manuscript, determined 
to publish the book on their own account, 
wrote to the author that the manuscript was 
sold, and sent him fifty guineas. The book 
was received very favourably, passed through, 
five large editions in four years, and was 
translated into French, German, Dutch, and 
Italian. In the history of philosophy it has 
not the slightest importance. The loose, 
commonplace character of the professor's 
reasoning made the essay popular among such 
readers as wish to be thought acquainted with 
the philosophy of the day, while they have 
neither the ability nor inclination to grapple 
with metaphysical problems. Attacks on. 
Hume in singularly bad taste abound through- 



out the book. Hume is said to have com- | 
plained that he ' had not been used like a | 
gentleman ; ' and this probably is the only 
notice that he deigned to take of the pro- 
fessor's labours. 

In 1771 appeared anonymously the first 
book of the ' Minstrel,' which passed through 
four editions before the publication (in 1774) 
of the second book. The harmony of versi- 
fication and the beauty of the descriptive 
passages have preserved this poem from the 
oblivion which has overtaken Beattie's other 
writings. Immediately after the publication 
of the first book Gray wrote to congratulate 
the author and offer some minute criticism. 
In a letter to the Dowager Lady Forbes, 
dated 12 Oct. 1772, Beattie confessed that 
he intended to paint himself under the cha- 
racter of Edwin. 

His health having been impaired by the 
labour bestowed on the composition of the 
' Essay on Truth,' Beattie went for a change 
to London in the autumn of 1771. Here he 
made the acquaintance of Mrs. Montagu, 
Hawkesworth, Armstrong, Garrick, and Dr. 
Johnson. In one of his letters he writes : 
' Johnson has been greatly misrepresented, 
I have passed several days with him and 
found him extremely agreeable.' He returned ! 
to Aberdeen in December. Partly for the I 
sake of his health and partly in the hope of 
improving his prospects, he came again to : 
London in April 1773, accompanied by his ! 
wife. Having called on Lord Dartmouth | 
with a letter of introduction, he was shortly 
afterwards invited to wait on Lord North, 
who assured him that the king should be made 
acquainted with his arrival. At the .same 
time he became familiar with Dr. Porteus, 
afterwards bishop of London. By Lord 
Dartmouth he was presented, at the first 
levee after his arrival, to the king, and a few 
days later he received the honorary degree 
of doctor of laws at Oxford. On 20 Aug. 
an official letter arrived from Lord North's 
secretary announcing that the king had con- 
ferred upon him 200/. a year. Shortly after- 
wards Beattie paid his respects to the king 
and queen at Kew, and was received very 
affably. ' I never stole a book but one,' said 
his majesty, l and that was yours. I stole it 
from the queen to give it to Lord Hertford 
to read.' They conversed on the state of 
moral philosophy and deplored the progress 
of infidelity, the king remarking that he 
' could hardly believe that any thinking man 
could really be an atheist, unless he could 
bring himself to believe that he made him- 
self; a thought which pleased the king ex- 
ceedingly, and he repeated it several times 
to the queen.' About this time his portrait 

was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, who 
generously made him a present of it. In the 
picture Beattie is represented in his doctor's 
gown, Vith the ' Essay on Truth ' under his 
arm; beside him stands Truth, holding in 
one hand a pair of scales, and with the other 
thrusting down three figures (two of which 
are meant to represent Hume and Voltaire) 
emblematic of Prejudice, Scepticism, and 
Folly. After five months' stay in London 
Beattie returned to Aberdeen. 

In 1773 Beattie declined the offer of the 
vacant chair of moral philosophy at Edin- 
burgh ; nor could he be persuaded to accept 
a living in the Anglican church. Three years- 
afterwards appeared a new edition, published 
by subscription, in quarto, of the 'Essay 
on Truth,' to which were appended three 
essays, ' On Poetry and Music as they affect 
the Mind,' 'On Laughter and Ludicrous 
Composition,' and ' On the Utility of Classical 
Learning.' A new edition of the ' Minstrel,' 
together with such other poems as the author 
wished to preserve, was published in 1777. 
A letter to Dr. Blair, ' On the Improvement 
of Psalmody in Scotland,' was printed for 
private circulation in 1778, which was fol- 
lowed (in 1779) by a l List of Scotticisms,' 
published for the use of those who attended 
his lectures. In 1780 he contributed a paper 
1 On Dreaming ' to the l Mirror ; ' and in 1783 
he published ' Dissertations Moral and Cri- 
tical,' a book which met with the most en- 
thusiastic praise from Cowper, who declared, 
in a letter to Hayley, that Beattie was the 
only author he had seen l whose critical and 
philosophical researches are diversified and 
embellished by a poetical imagination that 
makes even the driest subject and the leanest 
a feast for epicures.' 

To seek relief from domestic troubles (his 
wife's insanity being now confirmed), Beattie 
paid a visit to London in 1784, and after- 
wards spent some time with Dr. Porteus 
(now bishop of Chester) at Hunton near 
Maidstone. In 1786 he published his l Evi- 
dences of the Christian Religion,' and in the 
following year he came again to London, on 
which occasion he visited the king and queen 
at Windsor. The first volume of his ' Ele- 
ments of Moral Science ' appeared in 1790, 
and about this time he superintended an 
edition of Addison's l Periodical Papers,' 
adding a few notes to Tickell's Life and 
Johnson's Remarks. Vol. ii. of the ' Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ' 
contains some remarks by Beattie l On Pas- 
sages of the Sixth Book of the ^Eneid.' On 
19 Nov. he suffered a severe affliction by the 
loss of his eldest son (aged 22), James Hay 
Beattie, a young man of considerable promise. 



In the following April he went with his 
second son to London, and spent some time 
at Fulham with Dr. Porteus, now bishop 
of London. The second volume of ' Ele- 
ments of Moral Science,' which contained a 
strong attack on the slave trade, appeared in 
1793; and in the same year his favourite 
sister, Mrs. Valentine, died. His health be- 
came now so impaired that he was unable to 
attend to his duties and was obliged to en- 
gage an assistant. He continued, however, 
to deliver occasional lectures until 1797. In 
1794 he issued for private circulation ' Essays 
and Fragments in Prose and Verse, by James 
Hay Beattie ' (published afterwards for sale 
in 1799), to which he prefixed an affecting 
biographical sketch. Meanwhile his second 
son, Montagu, became seriously ill, grew from 
bad to worse, and died in 1796. As he looked 
for the last time on the body, the father ex- 
claimed, 1 1 have now done with the world.' 
He was quite stupefied with grief, and for a 
time his memory forsook him. In April 1799 
he was struck with palsy, which kept him 
almost speechless for eight days. From this 
attack he recovered, but the malady frequently 
returned, and he eventually succumbed to it, 
after great suffering, on 18 Aug. 1803. He 
was buried next to his sons in St. Nicholas's 
churchyard, Aberdeen, and Dr. James Gregory 
wrote a Latin inscription for his tomb. In 
his later years he had grown somewhat cor- 
pulent, but it was noticed that he grew 
thinner a few months before his death. 

A life of Beattie by Sir William Forbes, 
who had much enthusiasm but little judg- 
ment, appeared in 1806. Beattie's letters, of 
which there is a profusion in these volumes, 
are for the most part dull and cumbersome. 

[Bower's Account of the Life of James Beattie, 
1804 ; Sir W. Forbes's Account of the Life and 
Writings of James Beattie,' 1806: Edinburgh 
Review, No. xix. The best edition of Beattie's 
'Poems ' is in the Aldine Series, edited by Rev. 
Alexander Dyce. In the British Museum there 
is a copy of the second edition of Forbes's book, 
containing manuscript annotations by Mrs. Piozzi, 
formerly Mrs. Thrale, who (as we learn from 
Boswell's Johnson) once declared that ' if she 
had another husband she would have Beattie.'] 

A. H. B. 

BEATTIE, JAMES HAY (1768-1790), 
son of Dr. James Beattie, author of the 
' Minstrel,' was born at Aberdeen on 6 Nov. 
1768. Having received the rudiments of his 
education at the grammar school of his native 
city, he was entered, in his thirteenth year, 
as a student in Marischal College. From the 
first he showed premature capacity. He took 
his degree of M.A. in 1786. In June 1787, 
when he was not quite nineteen, on the 

unanimous recommendation of the Senatus 
Academicus of Marischal College, he was ap- 
pointed by the king ' assistant professor and 
successor to his father ' in the chair of moral 
philosophy and logic. Although very young,, 
he fulfilled the requirements of his position. 
He was studious and variously cultured, 
being especially devoted to music. But his 
career was destined to be brief. On 30 Nov. 
1789 he was prostrated by fever. He lingered 
in ' uttermost weakness ' for a year, and died 
19 Nov. 1790, in his twenty-second year. 
In 1794 his heart-broken father privately 
printed his l Remains ' in prose and verse, 
and prefixed a ' Life.' The book was pub- 
lished in 1799. 

[Beattie's Life of his son.] A. B. G-. 


1875), was born at Dalton, Annandale. His 
father, James Beattie, had been educated as 
an architect and surveyor, but his real occu- 
pation was that of a builder. He lost his 
life by an accident in 1809. It has been said 
that his son inherited from him his classical, 
and from his mother his poetical, tendencies. 
TheBeattieshad been settled in Dumfriesshire 
for several generations. When just fourteen 
he went to school at Clarencefield Academy 
in Dumfriesshire, and during his stay there of 
six years, under the rector, Mr. Thomas Fer- 
gusson, attained a competent knowledge of 
Latin, Greek, and French. In 1812 he became 
a medical student at Edinburgh University, 
and took his M.D. degree with credit in 
1818. He helped to keep himself at the uni- 
versity by undertaking, during a portion of 
his college course, the mastership of the 
parochial school at Cleish, Kinross-shire, and 
other kinds of tuition. Of his university 
days he says : ' At college I acquired the 
usual accomplishments of young men of my 
own humble standing in society. I danced 
with "Doigt," wrestled and fenced with 
Roland, read to a rich dotard in the even- 
ings, and sat up night after night to make 
up for lost time, and then took a walk on 
the Calton Hill as a substitute for sleep; 
but even then, when surrounded by gay and 
brilliant companions, I never forgot my reli- 
gious duties, and the God whom I remem- 
bered in my youth has not forsaken me in 
my old age.' He remained for two years at 
Edinburgh after taking his diploma, living 
chiefly ' out of his inkhorn,' teaching, lectur- 
ing, translating, and conducting a small pri- 
vate practice. During this period he wrote 
1 The Lay of a Graduate,' i Rosalie,' and ' The 
Swiss Relic.' He afterwards practised me- 
dicine in Cumberland, and in 1822 was in 
London preparing to settle in Russia. This 



project he abandoned on becoming engaged to 
be married to a young lady of fortune, and 'no 
inconsiderable attractions/ Miss Elizabeth 
Limner. He accordingly spent three months 
in Paris, attending the hospitals, returned to 
London, was married in the autumn of 1822, i 
and was about to commence a medical practice ! 
at Dover when he received a summons from the ' 
Duke of Clarence (afterwards William IV), I 
to whom he had been introduced by Admiral 
Child, a connection of Mrs. Beattie's, to attend 
the duke's family on a visit to the courts of } 
Germany. At the close of the winter he re- 
sumed his studies in Paris, and the next two 
years he spent travelling and studying IE 
Italy, Switzerland, and on the Rhine. At 
the end of 1824 he entered upon a medical 
practice at Worthing (the salubrity of whose 
climate he recommended in a pamphlet pub- 
lished in 1858), but left it in the following 
March to again accompany the Duke and j 

Duchess of Clarence to Germany. On this 

occasion, at Gottingen, he made the ac- | 
quaintance of Blumenbach, of whom he says : 
1 Though I have been in company with some 
of the prime spirits of the age, I have met 
none from whose conversation I have derived 
so much solid and original information.' He 
also busied himself in investigating the medi- 
cinal properties of the most renowned Ger- 
man spas. In recrossing the Channel in 
October on the steamer Comet he was nearly 
wrecked on the Goodwin Sands. On his re- i 
turn to London he published ' The Helio- I 
trope ' and ' The Courts of Germany,' which j 
lie completed in a new edition in 1838. \ 
Early in 1826 he for the third time formed ' 
one of the suite of the Duke of Clarence on. j 
a German visit, and ingratiated himself with ! 
the Queen of Wiirtemberg, Princess Royal 
of Great Britain. When she visited Eng- 
land he was sent for to attend her at Hamp- 
ton Court and Windsor. He repaid her 
majesty's good opinion by a nattering me- 
moir of her in 1829. The only recompense 
Dr. Beattie ever received for all his services 
to the Duke of Clarence, extending over 
some fourteen years, including, during three 
years, those also of private secretary, were a 
service of silver plate and a letter certifying 
him to be * a perfect gentleman.' Dr. Beattie, 
however, appears to have been grateful. The 
duchess added l a pair of bracelets for Mrs. 
Beattie, knit by her own hands,' and, after 
lier coronation, a gold medallion, as a mark 
of her majesty's esteem and regard ; while 
the King of Prussia, whom he had profes- 
sionally attended, also sent him a gold me- 
dallion accompanied by *a complimentary 
autograph letter.' 

In 1827 Dr. Beattie was admitted a licen- 

tiate of the Royal College of Physicians, 
London, and established himself in Hamp- 
stead, where for eighteen years he enjoyed 
an extensive practice. In 1835 and 1836 he 
travelled in Switzerland and in the land of 
the Waldenses, and in the former year was in 
Paris at the time of Fieschi's attempt upon 
the life of Louis-Philippe, and in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the explosion. He was too 
a frequent contributor to the periodicals, and 
he published during this period two poems 
' John Huss ' and * Polynesia ' ' Ports and 
Harbours of the Danube,' and a series of de- 
scriptive and historical works, beautifully il- 
lustrated by his friend and fellow traveller, 
the well-known W. H. Bartlett [q. v.], on 
' Switzerland,' < Scotland,' l The Waldenses,' 
' Castles and Abbeys of England,' and ' The 
Danube.' He also edited the ' Scenic Annual,' 
for which the poet Campbell was supposed to 
be responsible, ' Beckett's Dramatic Works,' 
and ' Lives of Eminent Conservative States- 
men.' Of the 'Scenic Annual' a leading cri- 
tical journal observed, ' The name of Campbell 
is a sufficient pledge for its poetic character ; ' 
while Beattie, in a memorandum for the year 
1838, wrote : ' Published " Scenic Annual," 
by which I gained for Campbell 200/. clear ; 
all the pieces, three excepted, are mine? ' Scot- 
land Illustrated' passed through several 
editions, and elicited the acknowledgment 
from its publisher, Mr. Virtue, ' that the 
prosperity he had attained was mainly owing 
to Dr. Beattie's literary assistance.' 

In 1833 Dr. Beattie was introduced by her 
biographer, Madden, to the Countess of Bles- 
sington, and became her very useful friend. 
She frequently availed herself of his services 
as a poetical contributor to her * Book of 
Beauty ' and other annuals, bestowing upon 
him in return for his verses ^a large amount 
of fluent flattery, and a general invitation 
to Seymour Place for any ' evenings between 
ten and half-past twelve,' a privilege of which 
Beattie could not avail himself in conse- 
quence of the state of his eyes. When Lady 
Blessington was deserted by many, Beattie 
remained her firm friend. Madden tells us 
that ' the very last letter, a very short time 
before the crash at Gore House, was one of 
entreaty for his exertions among the pub- 
lishers to procure for her "any kind of literary 
employment ; " and the answer to that appli- 
cation was a letter of pain at the failure of 
every effort to accomplish her wishes.' Beat- 
tie's relations with Lady Byron also would 
appear to have been confidential. A friend 
of Beattie's, whose obituary of him may be 
found in the ' Dumfriesshire and Galloway 
Herald ' (24 March 1875), says that Beattie 
told him that Lady Byron ' had imparted to 



him the true reason of her separation from 
her husband, and that it was not the one 
given by Mrs. Stowe.' 

vDr. Beattie was long intimate with Thomas 
Campbell, and was selected by the poet as his 
biographer, an office which he discharged in 
1849 by the publication of ' The Life and 
Letters of Thomas Campbell,' in three vo- 
lumes. In 1833 Beattie speaks of Campbell 
as coming to take up his quarters at ' Rose 
Villa,' Beattie's cottage at Hampstead, where 
on former occasions he had experienced much 
benefit, and adds : ' These visits in after life 
were frequently repeated, and whenever he 
found himself relapsing into a depressed state 
of health and spririts, " Well," he would say, 
"I must come into hospital," and he would re- 
pair for another week to " Campbell's Ward," 
a room so named by the poet in the doctor's 
house.' In 1842 Campbell's ' Pilgrim of Glen- 
coe' appeared, dedicated ; To William Beattie, 
M.D., in remembrance of long subsisting and 
mutual friendship.' Both as physician and 
friend Beattie seems to have been the great 
stay of the poet's declining years. On hear- 
ing of Campbell's illness in 1844, Beattie 
hastened to his bedside at Boulogne, and 
never left him again until all was over. 
Campbell's cherished wish to find his last 
resting-place in Westminster Abbey would 
probably never have been realised but for 
Beattie, nor would a statue have been placed 
in 'Poet's Corner' to his memory had not 
Beattie collected contributions to it, and 
made good a considerable deficit out of his 
own pocket. He was also intimate with 
Samuel Rogers, who attributed his longevity 
to the care and vigilance of his physician, 
and who requested him to perform for him 
the same sad office Beattie had discharged 
for Campbell that of closing his eyes in 
death. His intercourse with Rogers was, 
however, far less close than that with 

In 1845 Beattie's wife died, and soon after- 
wards he gave up regular practice as a physi- 
cian ; but he continued to the close of his life 
to give medical advice to clergymen, men of 
letters, and others without accepting profes- 
sional fees, and otherwise to occupy his time 
in works of charity. In 1846 he published, 
for instance, a memoir of his friend Bartlett 
for the benefit of the artist's family, which 
realised 400/., and through his influence 
with the prime minister obtained a pension 
of 75/. a year for his widow. This was the 
last of his systematic literary works, but he 
continued to contribute papers to the Archaeo- 
logical Society, and to write articles for the 

Beattie's only strictly professional work, 

unless we except his pamphlet on 'Home 
Climates and Worthing,' was a Latin treatise 
on pulmonary consumption, the subject of 
his M.D. thesis at Edinburgh. Some of his 
works were translated into German and 
French. He was foreign secretary to the 
British Archaeological Society, fellow of the 
I Ethnological Society, member of the His- 
torical Institute, and of thelnstitut d'Afrique, 

Dr. Beattie lost 7,000/. by the failure of 
the Albert Assurance office. This was a 
great shock to one of his advanced age, and 
probably accelerated his end ; but he bore 
the loss with manly fortitude, and all he said 
in reference to it (to a writer in the ' Medical 
Times ') was that ' he should be obliged to 
give up his charitable donations to the amount 
of 300/. a year.' Dr. Beattie's own verdict 
on his laborious, painstaking, benevolent, and 
interesting life, t Laboriose vixi nihil agendo,' 
is much more modest than correct. He died 
on 17 March 1875, at 13 Upper Berkeley 
Street, Portman Square, at the age of eighty- 
two, and was buried by the side of his wife 
at Brighton. He had no children. It is 
understood that he left an autobiography, 
which has not yet seen the light. 

[Scotsman, 26 March 1875 ; Dumfriesshire 
and Galloway Herald, 24 March 1875; Medical 
Times, 3 April 1875 ; Rogers's Scottish Minstrel ; 
Madden's Literary Life and Correspondence of 
the Countess of Blessington ; Cooper's Men of 
the Time, 9th edition ; Beattie's Journal of a 
Residence in G-ermany ; Beattie's Life and Cor- 
respondence of Thomas Campbell.] P. B.-A. 


1842), surgeon on board the Victory at the 
battle of Trafalgar, entered the service of 
the navy at an early age, and saw much ser- 
vice in it in various districts of the globe. 
In 1806 he was appointed physician to the 
Greenwich Hospital, an office which he re- 
tained till 1840. He attended Lord Nelson 
after he received his mortal wound, and pub- 
lished ' An Authentic Narrative of the Death 
of Lord Nelson, with the Circumstances pre- 
ceding, attending, and subsequent to that 
Event ; the Professional Report of his Lord- 
ship's Wound ; and several Interesting Anec- 
dotes,' 1807, 2nd edition, 1808. He gives in 
the book a representation of the ball which 
killed Nelson, with the pieces of the coat, 
gold lace, and silk pad which remained fixed 
in it. The ball Beatty retained in his posses- 
sion in a crystal case mounted in gold. Beatty 
obtained the degree of M.D. from the uni- 
versity of St. Andrews on 14 Oct. 1817, was 
made licentiate of the College of Physicians 
on 22 Dec. of the same year, and was elected 
F.R.S. on 30 April 1818. On 25 May 1831 



he received the honour of knighthood from 
William IV. He died in York Street, Port- 
man Square, on 25 March 1842. 

[Gent. Mag. (N.S.)xviii. 209; Annual Kegister 
for 1842, p. 260 ; Nicholas's Despatches and Let- 
ters of Nelson; Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), 
iii. 177.] T. F. H. 

WARWICK (d. 1315), a lord ordainer, suc- 
ceeded his father, William, earl of Warwick, 
the grandson of Walter de Beauchamp [see 
BEAUCHAMP, WALTER DE, d. 1236], in 1298. 
He distinguished himself at once by his bravery 
at Falkirk (22 July 1298), for which he re- 
ceived grants of estates in Scotland, and he 
did homage for his lands 15 Sept. (Hot. Fin. 

26 Ed. I. m. 1). He was one of the seven 
earls who signed the famous letter to the pope 
(12 Feb. 1301), rejecting his authority in the 
Scottish question. He also took part in the 
next Scotch campaign (1303-4), including the 
Biege of Stirling; and, attending King Edward 
to his last campaign, was present at his death 
(7 July 1307), when he was warned by him 
against Piers Gaveston. On the accession of 
Edward II Gaveston returned to England, 
and dubbed Warwick, in insult, from his 
swarthy complexion, ' the black cur of Arden ' 
(T. WALS. i. 115). Warwick took part in pro- 
curing his banishment (18 May 1308), and 
alone refused to be reconciled to his recall in 
the summer of 1309 (Chronicles, ii. 160). 
With Thomas of Lancaster, who now headed 
the opposition, and the Earls of Lincoln, 
Oxford, and Arundel, he declined (HEMINGB. 
ii. 275) to attend the council at York (26 Oct. 
1309), and presented himself in arms, against 
the king's orders, at the council of West- 
minster (March 1310). Here he joined in 
the petition for the appointment of t or- 
dainers,' and was himself chosen (Chron. i. 
170, 172) to act as one (20 March 1310). He 
refused the royal summons to the Scottish 
campaign (June 1310), busied himself in the 
preparation of the ' ordinances,' and attended 
their publication in St. Paul's Churchyard 

27 Sept. 1310 (Chron. i. 270, ii. 164). On 
the return of Gaveston (who had been ban- 
ished by the ordinances) in January 1312, 
Lancaster and his four confederates took up 
arms, seized him, and committed him to the 
custody of Pembroke, by whom he was" left 
in charge for a time at Deddington Rectory, 
near Warwick. At daybreak, on Sunday, 
10 June, the Earl of Warwick, with 100 
footmen and forty men-at-arms, surprised 
him and carried him off to Warwick Castle 
(TROKELOWE, 76, Chron. i. 206). On the 
arrival of Lancaster, with Hereford and 
Arundel, Gaveston was handed over to them 

and beheaded by them on Blacklow Hill ? 
outside Warwick's fief (19 June 1312), the 
earl himself declining to be present, and re- 
fusing to take charge of the corpse (Chron. 
i. 210). Edward instantly threatened ven- 
geance, and Warwick and his confederates 
met at Worcester to concert measures for 
their mutual defence (ib. ii. 182). At tha 
head of his foresters of Arden (ib. ii. 184) he 
joined their forces at Ware in September, and 
remained there during the negotiations of the 
autumn, till peace was proclaimed on 22 De- 
j cember (ib. i. 221, 225). On 16 Oct. 1313 
I the confederates were finally pardoned, but 

i 1 refused the following year to serve in the 
Scotch campaign, on the plea that the f or- 
dinances ' had been disregarded (TROKELOWE, 
83, Chron. ii. 201). A year later the Earl of 
Warwick fell ill and died (10 Aug. 1315), 
not without suspicions of poison (T. WALS. 
i. 137). His untimely death, at forty-three, 
was lamented by the chroniclers as that of a 
( discreet and well-informed man' (Chron. 
i. 236), whose wise advice had been invalu- 
ble to the ordainers, and who had been 
unanimously supported by the country (ib. 
ii. 212). So highly was his sagacity esteemed, 
that the Earl of Lincoln, the counsellor of 
Edward I, urged his son-in-law, Thomas of 
Lancaster, on his death-bed (February 1311) 
to be guided by him in all things (TROKE- 
LOWE, 53). 

[Chronicles of Edward I and II (Eolls Series) ; 
Chronica J. de Trokelowe (ib.) ; Thomas of 
Walsiugham (ib.) ; Rymer's 1'oedera ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 229 ; Stubbs's Constitutional His- 
tory, chap, xvi.] J. H. E. 

WARWICK (1425-1445), was born at Hanley 
Castle 21 March 1425, and succeeded his 
father, Richard, earl of Warwick [see BEAU- 
CHAMP, RICHARD DE, 1382-1439], in 1439. 
In consideration of his father's merits he 
was created premier earl by patent 2 April 
1444, and duke of Warwick three days 
later, with precedence above the duke of 
Buckingham (which precedence was compro- 
mised by act of parliament the same year). 
He is asserted to have been also crowned 
king of the Isle of Wight by Henry (Mon. 
Ang. ii. 63 ; LELAND'S Itinerary ; NICOLAS'S 
Synopsis, ed. Courthope, p. 500), but for this 
there is no evidence (CoKE, &th Inst. p. 287 j 
STUBBS'S Const. Hist. iii. 433). He died at 
Hanley 11 June 1445, and was buried at 
Tewkesbury, leaving an only child, Anne, 
who died young, 3 Jan. 1449. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 247 ; Lords' Third 
Report on the Dignity of a Peer, pp. 155, 157, 
210.] J. H. R. 



BEAUCHAMP (d. 1388), minister of Richard II, 
was the grandson and heir of John de Beau- 
champ of Holt (brother of William, earl of 
Warwick). He was steward of the house- 
hold to Richard II from his accession ; was 
created by him 'lord de Beauchamp and 
baron of Kidderminster ' 10 Oct. 1387 (being 
the first baron created by patent) ; was im- 
peached of treason at the instance of the lords 
appellant, with Sir Simon Burley [q. v.] and 
others, by the ' Wonderful Parliament,' 12 
March 1388, and was convicted after Easter, 
and beheaded on Tower Hill 

[Thomas of Walsingham (Rolls Series), ii. 
173-4 ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 250 ; Reports on 
the Dignity of a Peer. i. 345, v. 81.] J. H. R. 

WARWICK (1382-1439), a brave and chival- 
rous warrior in an age of chivalry, of an ancient 
family, whose ancestry was traced to the 
legendary Guy of Warwick, was the son of 
Thomas, earl of Warwick [see BEAUCHAMP, 
THOMAS BE], by Margaret his wife, daughter 
of William, Lord Ferrers of Groby. He was 
born atSalwarp, in Worcestershire, on 28 Jan. 
1382. His godfathers at baptism were King 
Richard II and Richard Scrope, afterwards 
archbishop of York, who was esteemed a 
saint by the people after he was beheaded for 
rebellion against Henry IV. Earl Richard's 
first biographer, Rous who speaks of Scrope 
as ' then bishop of Lichfield ' has been fol- 
lowed by later writers hitherto, though a 
reference to Le Neve shows that he was not 
^a bishop till 1386. We have no record of 
Beauchamp's boyhood, but in his eighteenth 
year he was made a knight of the Bath at 
the coronation of Henry IV. He succeeded 
his father as earl of Warwick in 1401, from 
whom he received as a bequest, in addition 
to his inheritance, ' a bed of silk, embroidered 
with bears, and his arms ' (DUGDALE, i. 238). 
On 26 Jan. 1403, when within two days of 
attaining his majority, he jousted at the 
coronation of Henry IV's queen, Joan of 
Navarre. On 13 Feb. following he had livery 
-of his lands after performing homage. That 
same year he was retained to serve the king 
with 100 men-at-arms and 300 archers, John 
Lord Audley being then of his retinue, and 
was put in commission for arraying the men 
-of Warwickshire. He put Owen Glendower 
to flight and captured his banner. He fought 
against the Percys at the battle of Shrews- 
bury (1403), and is said to have been made 
knight of the Garter not long after. Some, 
however, have questioned this date upon in- 
ternal evidence, thinking his admission to the 
Border must have been about 1420 ; but if the 

accounts of the Wardrobe have been cor- 
rectly enrolled, it was at least not later than 
1416 (RYMER, ix. 335). 

In 1408 he obtained leave of the king to 
visit the Holy Sepulchre. He crossed the 
Channel and first visited his kinsman, the 
Duke of Bar, with whom he spent eight days ; 
then went on to Paris, where at Whitsuntide 
he was the guest of Charles VI, who, wear- 
ing his crown at the feast, caused him to sit 
at his own table, and afterwards gave him a 
herald to conduct him through his realm to 
Lombardy. Here he was presently met by 
another herald, despatched by Sir Pandolph 
Malatete or Malet, to challenge him to cer- 
tain feats of arms at Verona before Sir 
Galeot of Mantua. He accepted, and after 
performing a pilgrimage to Rome, the combat 
took place, in which he gained the victory. 
Indeed, he was on the point of killing his 
opponent outright, when Sir Galeot cried 
* Peace,' and put an end to the combat. He 
went on to Venice, where the doge received 
him in state, and in course of time reached 
Jerusalem. He performed his vows, and set 
up his arms on the north side of the temple. 
While in the Holy City, he is said to have 
received a visit from the sultan's lieutenant, 
who said that he was familiar with the story 
of his ancestor, Guy of Warwick, which 
' they had in books of their own language.' 
I As remarked by Warton (Hist, of Enyl. 
I Poetry, section iii.), the thing is by no means 
i incredible ; but it may be observed that it is 
! an error to talk of Rous, on whose authority 
! it rests, as a contemporary writer. It is 
| added that the sultan's lieutenant declared 
to the earl privately his belief in Christianity, 
and repeated the Creed to him, but said he 
dared not profess himself a Christian openly. 
From Jerusalem he returned to Venice, 
and after travelling in Russia, Lithuania, 
Poland, Prussia, Westphalia, and other parts 
of Germany, he returned to England in 1410. 
The king immediately retained him by in- 
denture to serve with his son Henry, Prince 
of Wales, he receiving a pension of 250 marks 
a year out of the prince's exchequer at Car- 
marthen. That same year he was also joined 
with the bishop of Durham and others to 
treat with the Scots. In 1413 he was lord 
high steward at the coronation of Henry V, 
and was soon afterwards appointed a com- 
missioner, both for an alliance with Burgundy 
and for a truce with France (RYMER, ix. 34- 
38). In the beginning of the year 1414 he 
was very instrumental in suppressing the Lol- 
lard rising ; and about this time we find him 
first mentioned as deputy of Calais (ib. 111). 
On 20 Oct. in the same year he was commis- 
sioned to go with certain bishops to represent 



England at the council of Constance, and 
on 16 Nov. Sir William Lisle, jun., was ap- 
pointed his lieutenant to supply his place at 
Calais during his absence. The splendour of 
the English embassy at the council is said 
to have excited general admiration and as- 
tonishment. The earl appears, however, to 
have returned to England pretty early next 
year, as we find him at the Blackfriars in 
London on 21 May (RYMER, ix. 319). In 
August he accompanied the king in the in- 
vasion of France ; but after the siege of 
Harfleur the king sent him home again, along 
with his brother Clarence, in charge of a 
number of prisoners and a quantity of the 
spoils of war (MONSTRELET, i. 226). 

It is said that when he was appointed 
deputy of Calais the French were expected 
to besiege the place ; but that when he found 
their forces were bent in a different direction 
he caused some new feats of chivalry to be 
instituted, of which a curious description 
may be seen in Dugdale. In 1416 he re- 
ceived the Emperor Sigismund at Calais on 
his way to England, and also conducted the 
Duke of Burgundy to Calais to a conference 
with Henry V. Next year he was appointed 
to receive the surrender of Caen Castle. So 
great was Henry's confidence in his military 
skill that he divided the chief commands in 
Normandy between himself, his brother Cla- 
rence, and the Earl of Warwick. In 1418 he 
won Domfront from the French, and joined 
the king at the siege of Rouen. Dugdale's 
statement, that he was sent to besiege Nully 
Levesque, is clearly an error, owing to a mis- 
reading of Walsingham's words, who really 
says that the Earl of Kyme was despatched 
on that mission. While the English army 
lay before Rouen the Dauphin made overtures 
for peace, and Warwick, along with other 
commissioners, was appointed to discuss 
matters with his deputies (RYMEK, ix. 626). 
But these negotiations took no effect. In 
January 1419 Warwick was the principal 
commissioner to receive the capitulation of 
Rouen ; after which he was again employed 
in frequent negotiations, not now with the 
dauphin's party, but with the Burgundian 
faction, who had charge of the imbecile king 
(RYMER, ix. 717, 750-1, 774-5, 782, 813). 
He arranged the truce preparatory to the 
treaty of Troyes and the marriage of Henry V 
to Katharine of France. It was presumably 
on the capture of Aumarle, or Aumale, in 
Normandy, this year, that the king granted 
him the additional title of earl of Aumarle, 
which he bore in his later years. In 1420 
he besieged and took Melun. He returned 
to England with the king in 1421, and 
acted as deputy to the Duke of Clarence, 

steward of England at Queen Katharine's 
coronation. In 1422 he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to receive the surrender 
of Meaux, and assisted in the rescue of the 
Duke of Burgundy's city of Cosne when it 
was besieged by the dauphin. 

That same year Henry V died. So great 
had been the confidence he reposed in War- 
wick that he bequeathed to him the care of 
the education of his infant son, Henry VI, 
and his wishes were complied with by the 
council a few years later. On 10 July 1423 
his commission as captain of Calais was re- 
newed for two years dating from 4 Feb. pre- 
ceding. Yet he appears to have resided 
chiefly in England for several years as mem- 
ber of the council during the king's minority. 
On 1 June 1428 the council gave him a formal 
commission under the great seal to take 
charge of Henry's education a task in which 
four years later he demanded special autho- 
rity to chastise his pupil when necessary, and 
to remove from his presence any associate 
whose influence might not tend to improve 
him. In 1429, at Henry's coronation at 
Westminster, he bore the king to church. 
In 1430 he went to Edinburgh, and arranged 
a truce with Scotland. Next year he was 
again in Normandy, and took a notable 
prisoner named Poton de Xaintrailles beside 
Beauvais. But we find him at Westminster 
again in August 1433 (RYMER, x. 555). He 
made his will at Caversham, in Oxfordshire, 
8 Aug. 1435. Next year he crossed the 
Channel to protect Calais from a threatened 
siege by the Duke of Burgundy ; and in 1437 
(having meanwhile returned to England) he 
was again sent over sea, being appointed 
on 16 July lieutenant of France and Nor- 
mandy, and discharged by the council of the 
care of the king's person. It was the most 
serious responsibility he had yet undertaken ; 
for the English dominion in France was even 
then manifestly giving way, and though his 
predecessor, the Duke of York who was 
now to be withdrawn had achieved some 
marked success, he had been very ill sup- 
ported. Warwick accordingly took care to 
make special conditions touching his appoint- 
ment, and particularly stipulated that if 
those conditions were not fulfilled he might 
return without blame (STEVENSON, Wars of 
the English in France, ii. Ixvi-lxx). He set 
sail from Portsmouth on 29 Aug., and re- 
mained in France till his death, which oc- 
curred at Rouen on 30 April 1439, hastened, 
in all probability, by the grave anxieties of 
his position. His body was brought home 
and buried at Warwick, where his magnifi- 
cent tomb and effigy are still to be seen in a 
chapel attached to the collegiate church of 



Our Lady, which was built by his executors 
under his will. 

We have not related all the deeds of this 
hero of chivalry. The most characteristic 
were collected a generation later by John 
Rous, chaplain of the chantry founded by 
this earl at Guy's Cliff in Warwickshire, and ' 
illustrated by pencil drawings of high artistic 
merit. The manuscript containing them is 
still preserved in the Cottonian Library ; 
the drawings have been engraved by Strutt 
(Manners and Customs, vol. ii. pi. vii-lix), 
and the narrative they illustrate has been j 
embodied in Dugdale's notice of this earl. It i 
is to be regretted that the drawings and the 
narrative have never been published together, j 
They are certainly a most interesting product I 
of the art and literature of the middle ages, | 
exhibiting our earl as the mirror of courtesy ; 
and refinement in many things of which we ! 
have not taken notice ; among others, his \ 
declining to be the bearer of the Emperor 
Sigismund's precious gift to Henry V the 
heart of St. George when he knew that the ! 
emperor intended to come to England him- j 
self, suggesting that it would be more accept- 
able to his master if presented by the em- 
peror in person. 

Besides the manuscript just referred to and ! 
the chapel built by his executors, there is 
one other memorial of this earl still abiding 
in the curious stone image of Guy of War- 
wick exhibited to visitors to Guy's Cliff, j 
It was executed and placed there by his j 
orders. It certainly does not suggest that ! 
he was a very discriminating patron of art : 
of which, indeed, there is little appearance 
otherwise ; for it was his father that built 
Guy's Tower in Warwick Castle, and his 
executors that built the chapel at Warwick 
in which his bones repose. 

The earl was twice married. His first 
wife was Elizabeth, daughter and heir of 
Thomas, Lord Berkley, by whom he had three 
daughters. His second, whom he married by 
papal dispensation, was Isabella, widow of 
his cousin, Richard Beauchamp, earl of 
Worcester, who was slain at Meaux in 1422. ! 
It was by this second marriage that he had j 
his son and heir, Henry [see BEAUCHAMP, j 

[Dugdale's Baronage; Dugdale's Warwickshire, 
i. 408-11 ; Cotton MS. Julius, E iv. ; Walsing- 
ham's Historia Anglicana and Ypodigma Neu- 
striae ; Fabyan ; Hall ; Gregory, in Gairdner's 
Historical Collections of a London Citizen; 
Leland's Itinerary, vi. 89 ; Paston Letters, No. 
1 8 ; Rymer, ix. x.j J. G. 


1481), bishop of Salisbury and chancellor of 

the order of the Garter, was the son of Sir 
Walter Beauchamp [q. v.] and brother of 
William Beauchamp, Lord St. Amand. Of 
the date of his birth there is no record, but 
it was probably about the year 1430. For his 
elder brother, Lord St. Amand, first received 
summons to parliament in 1449 by reason of 
his marriage with the heiress of the old barons 
of St. Amand ; and as early marriages were 
the rule in those days, he was probably not 
much over one-and-twenty when he took his 
seat in the House of Lords. Nothing, how- 
ever, is known about Richard Beauchamp 
previous to the year 1448, when, being at 
that time archdeacon of Suffolk, he was 
nominated bishop of Hereford by Pope 
Nicolas V on 4 Dec. His consecration took 
place on 9 Feb. following. But he had only 
remained in this see a year and a half when 
he was translated by papal bull, dated 
14 Aug. 1450, to Salisbury, and received 
restitution of the temporalities on 1 Oct. 
In 1452 his name appears for the first time 
in the register of the Garter as performing 
divine service at a chapter of the order at 
Windsor, which he did also in 1457 and 1459. 
It would thus appear that he acted occasion- 
ally as chaplain to the order long before he 
became their chancellor; for, as Anstis ob- 
serves, he could not have claimed to officiate 
at Windsor as diocesan, the college being 
exempt from his jurisdiction. On 10 Oct. 
1475 he was appointed chancellor of the 
order by patent of King Edward IV, the 
office being created in order to provide a 
more convenient custodian for the common 
seal of the brotherhood, which by the statutes 
was to be kept only by one of its members, 
who should be in attendance upon the king's 
person. From this time till his death he was 
present at most, if not all, the chapters of 
the Garter; and in 1478 the deanery of 
Windsor was given him, to hold along with 
his bishopric. He was installed on 4 March. 
He moreover procured the incorporation of 
the dean and canons of St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, which was granted by patent of 
6 Dec. 19 Edw. IV (1479). He died on 
16 Oct. 1481, of what illness does not appear, 
and is said to be buried at Windsor. Hi& 
will was proved on 8 Feb. 1482. 

[Godwin ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Anstis's Register 
of the Order of the Garter ; Ashmole's History 
of the Garter, 89.] J. G. 


1252), judge, was a minor at the death of 
his father, Robert de Beauchamp, lord of 
Hatch, Somerset, in 1211-12. Adhering to 
John, he was appointed constable of Oxford 
and sheriff of the county towards the close 



of 1215, and received grants of land for his 
services to the king. He was raised to the 
bench by Henry III 6 July 1234, and ap- 
pointed a justice itinerant in August 1234 
and April 1238. He last appears as a judge 
in 1241-2, and died shortly before 1 Feb. 
1251-2, when his son did homage for his 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 253 ; Foss's Judges of 
England, 1848, ii. 230.] J. H. R. 

OF WARWICK (d. 1401), statesman, was son 
of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, 
who had distinguished himself at Crecy, 
Poitiers, and elsewhere, and was one of the 
founders of the order of the Garter. He 
succeeded his father 13 Nov. 1369, being 
then twenty-four years old. He accompanied 
John of Gaunt in the fruitless French cam- 
paign of 1373, and took part shortly after in 
the descent on Britanny (T. WALS. i. 318). 
In the ' Good Parliament ' of 1376, and in 
those of February and of October 1377, he 
was one of the committee of magnates deputed 
by the lords to act in concert with the com- 
mons for reform, and he was placed on the 
commission of inquiry in that of 1379. The 
parliament now. insisted on a governor for 
the king, and Warwick was appointed, 
' communi sententia,' to the post (ib. 427), 
and was placed on the commission of re- 
trenchment in the parliament of January 
1380 (Fcedera, iv. 75). On the rising of the 
villeins in 1381 he was despatched, with 
Thomas Percy, against those of St. Ed- 
mund's (T. WALS. ii. 28). He accompanied 
Richard in his Scotch campaign (1385), at 
the head of 600 archers and 280 men-at- 
arms, the largest contingent in the field 
(MS. ut infra) ; but on the king commencing 
his struggle for independence, joined the oppo- 
sition which was forming under Gloucester 
and Derby. Of a retiring and somewhat in- 
dolent disposition, and unsuited to his great 
station among the nobles, he withdrew for 
the time to Warwick, and indulged his tastes 
in quietude, till the decision of the judges 
in Richard's favour (25 Aug. 1387) com- 
pelled him to come forth from his seclusion 
and join Gloucester and Arundel in their ad- 
vance on London (T. WALS. ii. 164). From 
Waltham Cross (14 Nov. 1387) they issued 
a manifesto against the king's advisers, and 
formally ' appealed ' them of treason, 27 De- 
cember. A parliament was summoned in 
February (1388), and the ministers accused 
by ' the lords appellant ' were tried and con- 
demned. The lords appellant retained power 
till 3 May 1389, when Richard, by a coup 
d'etat, removed them from his council ; and 

the earl, again withdrawing to Warwick, 
occupied himself in adding to his castle and 
building the nave of St. Mary's Church. 
Richard, ever eager for vengeance on the 
opposition, contrived, in 1396, that Warwick 
and Nottingham should quarrel over the 
lands of Gower ; and the former, who lost 
his case, may have been goaded into joining 
the alleged, but most obscure, conspiracy at 
Arundel in July 1397 (Chronique, 5-6), re- 
vealed by Nottingham to Richard. Invited 
by the king, with Gloucester and Arundel, to 
a banquet 8 July, he alone came, and was ar- 
rested (ib. 9, T. WALS. ii. 222), and committed 
to the Tower (his quarters giving name to ' the 
Beauchamp Tower '). Tried in parliament, 
on 28 Sept., his courage failed him, and 
pleading guilty (' confessa toute la traison '), 
he threw himself on the king's mercy 
(Chronique, 10, T. WALS. 226, TROK. 219-20). 
He was sentenced to forfeiture and to im- 
prisonment for life in the Isle of Man, where 
he was harshly treated by the governor, 
William le Scrope (TROK. 252). But on 
12 July 1398 he was recommitted to the 
Tower, whence he was liberated, on Henry's 
triumph, in August 1399. Hastening to 
meet the king and Henry, he returned with 
them to town, and attended Henry's first 
parliament (October 1399), in which he at- 
tempted to deny his confession of 1397, but 
was silenced by Henry (TROK. 307-8). He 
was also one of those who challenged Arun- 
del (ib. 310), and he is said, with other mag- 
nates (1 Jan. 1400), to have urged Henry to 
put Richard to death (Chronique, 78). On 
6 Jan. 1400 he set out with the king from 
London against the rebel lords (ib. 82), but 
after their capture disappeared from public 
life, and died 8 July 1401 (T. WALS. ii. 
247, TROK. 337). He was succeeded by 
his son, Richard de Beauchamp, 1382-1439 
[q. v.]. 

[Chronique de la Traison (Eng. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Thomas of Walsingham and Trokelowe (Rolls 
series) ; a Latin MS. 6049, Bibl. du Roy, f. 30 ; 
Dugdale's Baronage, i. 236 ; The Rows Roll of 
the Earls of Warwick, 1845; Stubbs's Consti- 
tutional History, chaps, xvi. xviii.] J. H. R. 

judge, was son and heir of William de 
Beauchamp, lord of Elmley, Worcester, and 
hereditary castellan of Worcester and sheriff 
of the county. A minor at his father's 
death, he did not obtain his shrievalty till 
February 1216 (Pat. 17 John, m. 17). De- 
claring for Louis of France on his arrival 
(May 1216), he was excommunicated by the 
legate at Whitsuntide, and his lands seized 
by the Marchers (Claus. 18 John, m. 5). But 




hastening to make his peace, on the acces- 
sion of Henry, he was one of the witnesses 
to his reissue of the charter (11 Nov. 1216), 
and was restored to his shrievalty and cas- 
tellanship (Pat. 1 Hen. Ill, m. 10). He also 
attested Henry's ' Third Charter,' 11 Feb. 
1225. In May 1226 and in January 1227 
he was appointed an itinerant justice, and 
14 April 1236 he died (Ann. Tewk. 101), leav- 
ing by his wife (a daughter of his guardian, 
Roger de Mortimer), whom he had married 
in 1212, and who died in 1225 (Ann. Wore. 
400), a son and heir, William, who married 
the eventual heiress of the earls of War- 
wick, and was grandfather of Guy, earl of 
Warwick [see BEAUCHAMP, GUY DE]. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 226 ; Foss's Judges of 
England, 1848, ii. 231.] J. H. K. 

1415), lawyer and soldier, was the younger 
son of John de Beauchamp, of Powyke and 
Alcester, the grandfather of John, first Baron 
Beauchamp of Powyke. At first he studied 
the law, but afterwards distinguished himself 
as a soldier under Henry IV and Henry V 
in the French wars. Upon his return from 
France after the battle of Agincourt, he was 
elected knight of the shire for Wiltshire, and 
on 16 March 1415-16 was chosen speaker of 
the House of Commons. This office, however, 
Sir Walter did not hold long, as parliament 
was dissolved in the same year. He was 
employed as counsel by his relative, Richard 
Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, to argue his 
claim of precedency before the House of Com- 
mons. This quarrel between the Earl of 
Warwick and John Mowbray, earl marshal, 
which took up much of the time of the ses- 
sion of 1425, was terminated by the restora- 
tion of the forfeited dukedom of Norfolk to 
Mowbray. Sir Walter was married twice, 
first to Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Peter de la Mere ; and secondly to Elizabeth, 
daughter and coheiress of Sir John Roche, 
knight. By this second marriage he had three 
children, one of whom, William, was, in 1449, 
summoned to parliament as fourth Baron St. 
Amand, in right of his wife, the great-grand- 
daughter of Almeric, third Baron St. Amand. 
Another was Richard, bishop of Salisbury 
[see BEAUCHAMP, RICHARD DE, 1430 P-1481J. 

[Manning's Lives of the Speakers, pp. 60-2 ; 
Burke's Extinct Peerage (1883), pp. 32 and 34.1 

GK F. K. B. 


1260), baronial leader and judge, succeeded 
his father, Simon de Beauchamp, lord of 
Bedford, in 1207-8. He took part in John's 
expedition to Poitou (1214), but joined the 


baronial host at Stamford, Easter 1215 (M. 
PARIS, 253-5), and entertained them at 
Bedford as they marched on London. He 
was among the baronial leaders excommuni- 
cated by name 16 Dec. 1215 (ib. 227), and 
his castle was seized the same month by 
John's general, Fulk de Breaute, who was 
allowed to retain it. Belonging to the ex- 
treme party, he fought with them at Lincoln 
(19 May 1217), and was there taken prisoner 
by the royal forces (M. PARIS), but made his 
peace before the end of the year (Claus. 1 
Hen. Ill, m. 4). On the capture and de- 
struction of Bedford Castle in 1224 [see 
BREAUTE, FULK DE], the site was restored to 
him (Claus. 8 Hen. Ill, m. 7 dors.; cf. Royal 
Letters, 1085). He acted as sheriff of Bed- 
fordshire and Buckinghamshire 1234-7, and 
on 6 July 1234 was appointed a baron of the 
exchequer, in which capacity he reappears in 
1237. He seems to have attained an unusual 
age, dying, according to Foss, in 1262, but 
according to the t Annals of D unstable ' (p. 
215), which are probably right, in 1260. His 
younger son John fell at Evesham (T. 
WYKES), having succeeded his brother Wil- 
liam shortly before. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 223 ; Foss's Judges of 
England, 1848, ii. 234.] J. H. K. 

1846), admiral, third son of Aubrey, fifth 
duke of St. Albans, was entered on the 
books of the Jackal cutter in 1782, and in 
1783 was appointed to the Salisbury, bearing 
the flag of Vice-admiral John Campbell on 
the Newfoundland station. Afterwards he 
served in the West Indies under Commodore 
Gardner, and returned to England in 1789 
as acting lieutenant of the Europa, in which 
rank, however, he was not confirmed till the 
Spanish armament of the following year. In 

1792 he went to the Mediterranean as lieu- 
tenant of the Druid frigate, and on 16 Sept. 

1793 was posted by Lord Hood and appointed 
to the command of the Nemesis of 28 guns. 
In March 1794 he was transferred to the 
Juno of 32 guns, and attached to the squa- 
dron employed, under Admiral Hotham, in 
the blockade of Toulon. The Juno was also 
in company with the fleet in the action of 
14 March 1795, which resulted in the cap- 
ture of the Qa ira and Censeur, and was one 
of the squadron, under Commodore Taylor, 
which convoyed the homeward trade in the 
following autumn, and when the Censeur 
was recaptured by the French off Cape St. 
Vincent (7 Oct.) On his return to England 
Lord Amelius was appointed to the Dryad 
frigate, of 44 guns and 251 men, and on the 
coast of Ireland, on 13 June 1796, captured 





the Proserpine, of 42 guns and 348 men, 
after a brilliant and well-managed action, j 
in which the Dryad lost only 2 killed and I 
7 wounded, whilst the loss of the Proser- | 
pine amounted to 30 killed and 45 wounded 
(JAMES'S Naval History (ed. 1860), i. 304, 
369). He captured also several of the enemy's 
privateers, and in 1800 was appointed to the 
Fortunee, 40 guns, employed in the Channel 
and in attendance on the king at Weymouth. 
During the next ten ytars he commanded 
different ships the Majestic, Saturn, and 
Royal Oak, all 74's in the Channel, and 
in 1810 had charge of the debarkation of 
Lord Chatham's army at Walcheren, and con- 
tinued, during the operations on that coast, 
as second in command under Sir Richard 
Strachan. On 1 Aug. 1811 he became a 
rear-admiral, but during that and the two 
following years he continued in the North 
Sea, stretching in 1813 as far as the North 
Cape in command of a small squadron on 
the look-out for the American Commodore 
Rogers, who was reported to be in that lo- 
cality. In the following year he commanded 
in Basque Roads, and conducted the nego- 
tiations for the local suspension of hostilities. 
In August 1819 he was advanced to be a 
vice-admiral, and from 1824 to 1827 com- 
manded in chief at Lisbon and on the coast 
of Portugal. He became a full admiral on 
22 July 1830, and ended his active service 
as conimander-in-chief at Plymouth, 1836-9. 
Croker, writing to Lord Hertford, describes 
a ludicrous scene which took place on New 
Year's eve 1833, at the Brighton Pavilion, 
when the king (William IV) danced a 
country dance with Lord Amelius as his 
partner. ' I am told,' says Croker, ' by one 
who saw it, that the sight of the king and 
the old admiral going down the middle hand- 
in-hand was the most royally extravagant 
farce that ever was seen' (Croker Papers, 
1884, ii. 200). Beauclerk was a fellow of 
the Royal Society, was made K.C.B. on 
2 Jan. 1815, G.C.H. on 29 March 1831, 
G.C.B. on 4 Aug. 1835, and principal naval 
aide-de-camp on 4 Aug. 1839. He died on 
10 Dec. 1846. His portrait, bequeathed by 
himself, is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. 

[Marshall's BoyalN a v. Biog.ii. (vol.i., part ii.), 
484 ; O'Byrne's Diet, of Nav. Biog. ; Gent. Mag. 
Feb. 1847, p. 201.] J. K. L. 

(1710P-1741), captain in the royal navy, 
was the eighth son of Charles, first duke of 
St. Albans. After some previous service he 
was made post-captain on 1 April 1731, and 
appointed to the Ludlow Castle, which ship 
he commanded on the Leeward Islands sta- 

tion for about eighteen months. Through 
the years 1734-5 he commanded the Garland 
in the Mediterranean, and in 1737-9 the 
Dolphin on the same station. He returned 
home in January 1739-40, and was almost 
immediately appointed to the Weymouth of 
60 guns, from which, in the course of the 
summer, he was transferred to the Prince 
Frederick of 70 guns, one of the fleet which 
sailed for the West Indies with Sir Chaloner 
Ogle on 26 Oct. 1740. On the afternoon of 
one of the first days in January 1740-1, as 
the fleet was off the west end of Hispaniola, 
four large ships were sighted. The admiral 
signalled the Prince Frederick and five other 
ships of the line to chase. Towards dusk the 
strangers hoisted French colours, but did not 
shorten sail, and they were not overtaken 
till nearly ten o'clock. The Prince Frederick 
was the headmost ship, and Lord Aubrey 
hailed the ship he came up with, desiring- 
her to heave to. As she neither did so nor 
answered his hail, he fired a shot across her 
bows ; she replied with a broadside, and as 
the other ships came up a smart interchange 
of firing took place, after which they lay by 
till daylight. Their nationality was then 
apparent ; they were really French ships, 
and the two squadrons parted with mutual 
apologies. The affair passed as a mistake, 
and probably was so on the part of the Eng- 
lish. The fleet, under Sir Chaloner Ogle, 
arrived at Jamaica on 7 Jan. and joined Vice- 
admiral Vernon, under whose command it 
proceeded to Cartagena on the Spanish main. 
There, in the attack on the Boca Chica, Lord 
Aubrey was slain on 22 March 1740-1. A 
handsome monument to his memory was 
erected in Westminster Abbey, and a pen- 
sion of 2007. per annum was conferred on his 
widow, which she enjoyed till her death on 
30 Oct. 1755. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. iv. 221 ; Beatson's 
Naval and Military Memoirs, i. 69 ; Official Let- 
ters, &c. in the Public Eecord Office. ] J. K. L. 

1726), first DTJKE OF ST. ALBANS, son of 
Charles II by Nell Gwynn, was born at his 
mother's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields on 
8 May 1670. It is said that one day when 
the king was with Nell Gwynn she called to 
the child, l Come hither, you little bastard, 
and speak to your father.' ' Nay, Nelly , r 
said the king, t do not give the child such a 
name.' ' Your majesty/ she answered, i has 
given me no other name by which I may 
call him.' Upon this the king gave him the 
name of Beauclerk, and created him Earl of 
Burford (GEANGEE, iii. 211 ; Ellis Corre- 
spondence, i. 209 w.) The story can scarcely 




be accurately told, for the child was created j 
Baron Heddington and Earl of Burford, both I 
in Oxfordshire, before the end of 1670, the 
year of his birth. In 1684 he was created | 
Duke of St. Albans, and on Easter day of 
that year accompanied his father and two 
other natural sons of the king, the Dukes 
of Northumberland and Richmond, when 
Charles II made his offering at the altar at 
Whitehall, the three boys entering before 
the king within the rails. He was at that 
time, Evelyn says, ' a very pretty boy' (Diary, 
ii. 195, 199). During the last illness of his 
mother it was said that he was about to go 
into Hungary, and return a good catholic, 
and that l the " fraternity ' (the other na- 
tural sons of the late king) ' would be on the 
same foot or give way as to their advan- 
tageous stations' (Ellis Corresp. i. 264). 
On his mother's death on 14 Nov. 1687 he 
received a considerable estate (LUTTRELL, 
i. 420), and the next year fulfilled one part 
of the general expectation, for in 1688 he 
served in the imperial army against the Turks, 
and was present at the talking of Belgrade on 
20 Aug. of that year. Meanwhile, the regi- 
ment of horse he commanded in England 
was placed under the command of Colonel 
Langston, who in November 1688 brought 
it to join the Prince of Orange. The duke 
took his place in the House of Lords on 
9 Nov. 1691. On 17 May 1693 he left for 
Flanders, and served under William III in 
the campaign of Landen. A false report 
was brought to London that he had fallen in 
that battle. The duke was a gallant soldier, 
and was highly esteemed by the king, who 
gave him many tokens of his regard. On 
his return from Flanders William made him 
captain of the band of pensioners. He at- 
tempted to reform the corps, but on a com- 
plaint made by certain of the members the 
council decided that it was to be kept on 
the same footing as it had been under Lord 
Lovelace, the last captain (LUTTKELL, iv. 250, 
260). In April 1694 the duke married Lady 
Diana Vere, daughter and sole heiress of 
Aubrey de Vere, twentieth and last Earl of 
Oxford. He served in Flanders as a volun- 
teer in the July following. In August he 
received a pension of 2,000/. a year from the 
crown, half of which was paid out of the 
ecclesiastical first-fruits (LUTTKELL, iii. 358 ; 
BURNET'S Works, vi. 300). The hereditary 
office of master falconer and the reversion of 
the office of register of the High Court of 
Chancery had been granted him by his father. 
The reversion came to him in 1697, and was 
worth 1,500/. a year. In the summer of that 
year he was again with the king in Flanders. 
On his return after the conclusion of the 

peace of Ryswick, William gave him ' a sett 
of coach horses finely spotted like leopards.' 
In December he was sent to Paris to offer 
the king's congratulations on the marriage 
of the Duke of Burgundy with Mary Ade- 
laide, daughter of Victor Amadeus II of 
Savoy. He had the good fortune the next 
year to escape from three highwaymen, who, 
on the night of 18 June, plundered between 
thirty and forty persons on Hounslow Heath, 
the Duke of Northumberland being among 
those attacked. These men * attempted ' the 
Duke of St. Albans, ' but he was too well 
attended ' (LUTTKELL, iv. 394). In 1703 he 
received a further grant of 800/. a year voted 
by the parliament of Ireland. The duke voted 
for the condemnation of Dr. Sacheverell. On 
the triumph of the tory ministry in January 
1712 he was dismissed from his office of 
captain of the pensioners ; he was, however, 
reinstated by George I, and in 1718 was made 
a knight of the Garter. He died in 1726. 
His brother James had died at Paris in 1680. 
The Duchess of St. Albans, who was a cele- 
brated beauty, died in 1742. The duke had 
eight sons by her. The eldest succeeded 
to his father's title ; the third was created 
Lord Vere of Hanworth in 1750 ; the fifth, 
Sydney, a notorious fortune-hunter, was the 
father of Topham Beauclerk [q. v.] ; the eighth 
son was Aubrey Beauclerk [q.v.]. 

[LuttrelTs Brief Eelation of State Affairs; 
Evelyn's Diary, ed. 1854 ; Ellis Correspondence, 
ed. Hon. Gr. A. Ellis ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of 
England, iii. 211, 3rd edit.; Burnet's Own Time, 
Oxford ed. ; Collins's Peerage of England, ed 
Brydges, i. 244; Walpole's Letters, i. 118, ed. 
Cunningham.] "W. H. 

1808), amateur artist, was born 24 March 
1734. She was the eldest daughter of Charles 
Spencer, second duke of Marlborough. Her 
sister, Lady Betty Spencer, was afterwards 
countess of Pembroke. Lady Diana, or, as 
she was more frequently called, Lady Di, was 
married in 1757 to Frederick St. John, second 
Viscount Bolingbroke, 'nephew and heir of 
the great Lord Bolingbroke. In 1768 she 
was divorced by act of parliament. Two 
days later she was married at St. George's to 
Topham Beauclerk [q. v.] Johnson, according 
to Boswell (Life of Johnson, ch. xxik.), spoke 
of her character with great asperity, although 
he knew her ; but he admitted subsequently 
that she nursed her sick husband (Beauclerk) 
* with very great assiduity ' (Letter to Boswell, 
21 Jan. 1775). Beauclerk died in 1780. His 
widow survived him for many years. In later 
life she resided at Spencer Grove, Twickenham, 
which she decorated with her own paintings. 




Walpole speaks of her art with, all the ex- 
travagant enthusiasm which he employs in 
praising his friends. She executed a series 
of seven large designs ' in sut-water ' (her 
first attempt of the kind) for his ' Mysterious 
Mother.' To these he devoted a closet at 
Strawberry Hill, which he christened the 
'Beauclerk Closet/ where they hung on 
Indian blue damask. ' Salvator Rosa and 
Guido could not surpass their expression and 
beauty/ he says ( Correspondence, ed. Cunning- 
ham, vi. 311, 452, vii. 265). In 1778 she 
made a drawing of Georgiana, duchess of 
Devonshire, which Bartolozzi engraved. He 
also engraved a set of illustrations which 
she prepared for the Hon. W. R. Spencer's 
translation of Burger's ' Leonora/ published 
by Bensley in 1796. In the following year the 
same publisher issued the ' Fables of John 
Dryden/ with ' engravings from the pencil of 
the Right Hon. Lady Diana Beauclerc/ en- 
graved by Bartolozzi, and his pupil, W. N. 
Gardiner. Bartolozzi also reproduced some 
of her designs of children, cupids, &c. Rey- 
nolds painted her portrait in 1763, when she 
was Lady Bolingbroke. According to a note 
in Hardy's ' Life of Charlemont/ 1812, i. 345, 
Sir Joshua thought highly of her artistic 
abilities, and said that t many of her lady- 
ship's drawings might be studied as models.' 
Hume describes her as ( handsome and agree- 
able and ingenious, far beyond the ordinary 
rate ' (Private Corr., 1820, 251-2), and Bos- 
well on his own account (Life of Johnson, 
ch. xxix.) bears witness to her ' charming 
conversation.' Lady Beauclerk died in 1808, 
aged 74. 

"[Walpole's Letters, and Anecdotes of Painting; 
Boswell's Johnson ; Tuer's Bartolozzi.] A. D. 

BEAUCLERK, TOPHAM (1739-1780), 
a friend of Dr. Johnson, was the only son of 
Lord Sydney Beauclerk and a grandson of 
the first Duke of St. Albans. He was born 
in December 1739, and on the death of his 
father, 23 Nov. 1744, succeeded to the estates 
which Lord Sydney Beauclerk, a man noto- 
rious in his day for fortune-hunting, had in- 
herited from Mr. Richard Topham, M.P. for 
Windsor. Topham Beauclerk matriculated at 
Trinity College, Oxford, 11 November 1757, 
but does not seem to have taken any degree. 
Whilst there he had the good fortune to 
make the acquaintance of Bennet Langton. 
Beauclerk's tastes were widespread, both in 
science and literature ; his conversation was 
easy and vivacious, with that ' air of the 
world ' which showed that he had seen much, 
and knew how to describe what he had seen. 
But his talents would have passed away 
without leaving any record behind them had 

he not sought the acquaintance of Dr. John- 
son, and been loved by him with signal de- 
I votion. From 1757 to 1780 his name and 
I his good qualities are written in the pages of 
I Boswell. He married, at St. George's, Han- 
over Square, 12 March 1768, Lady Diana 
Spencer, eldest daughter of the second Duke 
of Marlborough, two days after she had been 
divorced from Lord St. John and Boling- 
broke, and she made an excellent wife to her 
new husband. Beauclerk died at Great 
; Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 11 March 1780, 
leaving issue one son and two daughters. 
His library of 30,000 volumes, housed, as 
Horace Walpole remarks, in a building ' that 
reaches half-way to Highgate/ was sold by 
auction April-June 1781, and was especially 
i rich in English plays and English history, 
travels and science. A catalogue (' Biblio- 
theca Beauclerkiana ') is in the British Mu- 
seum. Many of Beauclerk's letters are in 
the possession of Lord Charlemont. 

[Brydges's Collins's Peerage, i. 249 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1. 155 (1780); Hardy's Lord Charlemont; 
Cornhill Mag. xxx. 281-96 (1875), by G. B. H. 
(Hill).] W. P. C. 

LOFOCO, ROBERT DE (Jl. 1190), was 
a secular canon of Salisbury. Educated at 
Oxford he gained, at an early age, a re- 
putation for learning, and became the friend 
of Giraldus Cambrensis, Walter Map, and 
other scholars. He is said to have written 
a work entitled i Encomium Topographic/ 
after hearing the ' Topographia Hibernise ' of 
Giraldus read by the author at a festival at 
Oxford. A second work, ' Monita salubria/ 
is also attributed to him by Bale ; and a 
poem in praise of ale, 'Versus de commen- 
datione Cervisiae/ in a manuscript in the 
Cambridge University Library (Gg. vi. 42), 
bears his name. 

[Bale, iii. 36 ; Works of Giraldus Cambr. 
(Bolls Series), vol. i. 1861, p. 72, vol. iii. 1863, 
p. 92 ; Wright's Biog. Brit. Lit. Anglo-Norman 
Period, 1846, p. 469.] E. M. T. 


DE (fl. 1305), judge, was probably of the same 
family as Nicholas de Beaufo of Beaufo's 
Manor, Norfolk, a contemporary of the judge. 
One Radulphus de Bello or Bella Fago (botli 
genders are found, though the masculine pre- 
dominates) is mentioned in Domesday Book 
as holding extensive estates in Norfolk, and 
the bishop of Thetford also there mentioned 
we know from other sources to have been 
William de Beaufo, called by Godwin inac- 
curately Galsagus, and by others still more 
corruptly Welson. It may be mentioned in 




passing that many other varieties of the name 
are found, such as Belfagus, Beaufou, Beau- 
fogh, Beaufour, Belflour, Beufo, Beufew, and, 
in the eighteenth century, Beaufoy. How the 
bishop of Thetford stood related to Radulphus 
de Bello Fago we do not certainly know. 
Of Ralph nothing more is known than has 
already been stated, while of William [q.v.] 
we know little more than the dates of his 
appointment to the see of Thetford and his 
death. That Roger de Beaufo was a lineal 
descendant of either Ralph or William de 
Bello Fago cannot be affirmed, nor can his v re- 
lation to his contemporary Nicholas de Beau- 
fo, of Beaufo's manor, be precisely determined, 
and we cannot connect him with Norfolk, 
all the estates which he is known to have 
possessed being situate in Berkshire and Ox- 
fordshire ; but the singularity of the name 
renders it highly probable that he was derived 
from the same original stock as the Norfolk 

The earliest mention of him occurs in the 
roll of parliament for 1305, when he was as- 
signed with W T illiam de Mortimer and others 
as receiver of petitions from Ireland and 
Guernsey, with power to answer all such as 
might not require the attention of the king. 
In the same year he received, with the same 
W r illiam de Mortimer, a special commission 
to try an action of 'novel disseisin' i.e. 
ejectment brought by one John Pecche 
against the abbot of Westminster for the re- 
covery of a messuage and one carucate of land 
in Warwickshire. From the writ it appears 
that the ordinary justices itinerant for that 
county were in arrear with their business, and 
it would seem that Mortimer and Beaufo were 
appointed 'justices of assize for that occasion 
only. In the same year and that following 
he travelled the large western circuit of that 
day, which stretched from Cornwall to South- 
ampton in one direction, and Staffordshire 
and Shropshire in another, as one of the first 
commission of trailbaston issued for those 
counties. The popular odium which he ex- 
cited, and of which the memory is preserved 
by a line, 'Spigurnel e Belflour sunt gens 
de cruelte,' in a ballad of the time celebrating 
the doings of the commission, proves him 
to have displayed exceptional vigour in the 
performance of his duty. In a writ of un- 
certain date he is joined with William de 
Bereford and two other judges in a commis- 
sion to inquire into the obstruction of the 
Thames between London and Oxford by 
weirs, locks, and mills, which was considered 
so serious a grievance by the merchants who 
were in the habit of travelling or sending 
goods by water between the two towns, that 
they had petitioned the king for its redress. 

We find him summoned with the other judges 
to parliament at Northampton by Edward II 
in 1307, and to attend the coronation of that 
monarch in 1308. He was not summoned to 
parliament after that year. He is classed as 
a tenant of land or rents to the value of 20/. 
or upwards in Berkshire and Oxfordshire 
in a writ of summons to muster at London 
for service overseas issued in 1297 ; in 1301 he 
was included in the list of those summoned 
to attend the king at Berwick-on-Tweed with 
horses and arms for the invasion of Scotland, 
as one of the contingents to be furnished by the 
counties of Bedford and Buckingham. From 
a grant enrolled in the King s Bench we know 
that he possessed land at Great Multon, in 
Oxfordshire, and from the record of an assize 
of ' novel disseisin ' preserved in the rolls of 
the same court it appears that his daughter 
Isabella acquired by marriage a title to an 
estate in Little Bereford in the same county, 
which a subsequent divorce and remarriage 
was held not to divest. Later on, one Hum- 
frey Beaufo of Bereford St. John, Oxfordshire, 
is mentioned by Dugdale as having married 
a lady named Joan Hugford, whereby the 
manors of Edmondscote or Emscote in War- 
wickshire, and Whilton in Northampton- 
shire, passed into his family in the reign of 
Henry VII. From him descended the Beau*- 
fos or Beaufoys of Edmondscote and Whilton. 
The manor of Whilton was sold in 1619 by 
the then lord, Henry Beaufo, mentioned by 
Dugdale as lord of the manor of Edmonds- 
cote in 1640. His daughter, Martha Beaufoy, 
married Sir Samuel Garth, the author of 
the 'Dispensary,' and their daughter Martha, 
who inherited the estates, married, in 1711, 
William Boyle, grandson of Roger, the first 
earl of Orrery. 

[Godwin, De-Praesul. 426, 731; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, iii. 216 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, i. 200, 
404, ii. 465 ; Eot. Parl. i. 168 b, 218 b, 475 b ; Ky- 
mer (ed. Clarke), i 970 ; Wright's Political Songs 
(Camden Society), 233 ; Parl Writs, i. 155, 291, 
353, 408, ii. div. ii. pt. i. 3, 17, 18. 21, 23 ; Plac. 
Abbrev. 214, 299 ; Dugdale's Ant. Warwickshire, 
189; Baker's Hist. Northamptonshire, i. 232; 
Domesday Book, fols. 190 6-201 b, 225 J-229 b 
Coll. Top. et Gen. viii. 361 ; Foss's Judges of 
England.] J- M. E. 

GALSAGUS, VELSON (d. 1091), bishop 
of Thetford, was, apparently, a son of Robert 
Sire de Belfou, who fought on the Conqueror's 
side at Senlac, and whose lordship was situ- 
ated in the neighbourhood of Pont-1'Eveque. 
His brother Ralph received several lord- 
ships in Norfolk from the Conqueror, and 
was a personage of great importance in East 



Anglia. Of the bishop little is known ex- 
cept the fact that he was consecrated at 
Canterbury by Lanfranc in 1086, and that 
he died in 1091. Before his elevation to the 
episcopate he appears to have acted as chan- 
cellor; so at least he is designated in a deed 
attested by him at some date in or subsequent 
to 1080 the date is so far fixed by the fact 
that another attesting witness was William 
de Carlisle, bishop of Durham, who was not 
appointed till 1080 by which the Conqueror 
empowered Ivo Tailboys to endow the church 
of St. -Nicholas of Angers with the manor of 
Spalding. Whether he was married, and 
had 1 a '-son who succeeded to some of his 
estates ; ' whether he was a monk at Bee ; 
whether- he was the husband of Agnes de 
Tony,' and father of Richard de Bellofago, 
who was archdeacon of Norwich in his time ; 
finally, whether any such person ever existed, 
and whether he were not identical with his 
successor, Herbert de Losinga, are questions 
which have been discussed by antiquaries. 

Roger de Bellafago, who lived [see BEATJ- 
FETJ or BELLO FAGO, ROGER BE] in the time 
of ' Edward I, may with probability be 
reckoned as a member of the same family 
as the bishop. 

[Munford's Analysis of the Domesday Book 
for the County of Norfolk, 8vo, 1858, "p. 31 ; 
Planche's The Conqueror and his Companions, 
8vo, 1874, ii. 283; Blomefield's Norf., iii. 465; 
Norfolk Antiquarian Miscell., 8vo, 1877, i. 413 ; 
Stubbs's Reg. Sacr. Anglic.] A. J. 


LL.D. (1739-1821), geographer, born on 

I Oct. 1739 at East Barnet, was the son of 
refugee (1700-1788), who became pastor of 
the Huguenot church in Spitalfields in 1728, 
and of that in Parliament Street, Bishops- 
gate, in 1729 ; entered the church of England 
in 1731 ; married Esther Gougeon in London, 

II June 1738, and was rector of East Barnet 
from 1739 to 1743. Going to Ireland with 
Lord Harrington, the father became rector of 
Navan in 1747, was provost and archdeacon 
of Tuam from 1753 to 1758, was rector of 
Clonenagh from 1758 until his death thirty ! 
years later, and published in English, in 1788, 

* A Short Account of the Doctrines and Prac- i 
tices of the Church of Rome, divested of all 
Controversy.' His brother, Louis de Beau- : 
fort, published (in 1738) a work on the un- j 
certainty of Roman history, supposed to have 
given some suggestions to Niebuhr. 

Daniel Augustus was educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, of which he was elected a 
scholar in 1757. He became B.A. in 1759, 

M.A. in 1764, and LL.D. (honoris causa) in 
1789. He was ordained by the Bishop of 
Salisbury, and, in succession to his father, 
was rector of Navan, co. Meath, from 1765 
to 1818. In 1790 he was presented by the 
Right Hon. John Foster to the vicarage of 
Collon, co. Louth. He afterwards built the 
church at Collon, where he remained until 
his death in 1821. He was successively col- 
lated to the prebendal stalls of Kilconnell, in 
the diocese of Clonfert (3 Oct. 1818), and of 
Mayne, in the diocese of Ossory (20 April 

Dr. Beaufort took a prominent part in the 
foundation of Sunday schools and in the 
preparation of elementary educational works. 
The Royal Irish Academy owed its forma- 
tion in great measure to his exertions. His 
most important work was his map of Ireland, 
published in 1792, and accompanied by a 
memoir of the civil and ecclesiastical state of 
the country. All the places marked on the 
map are systematically indexed in the memoir 
and assigned to their respective parishes, 
baronies, &c. In the preface the author 
states that this map was prepared from ori- 
ginal observations to remedy the defects of 
existing maps of Ireland. Competent autho- 
rities pronounce it and the memoir to be 
valuable contributions to geography. The 
publication of this work was encouraged 
by the Marquis of Buckingham, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. Beaufort married Mary, 
daughter and coheiress of William W^aller, 
of Allenstown, co. Meath. Their elder son, 
William Louis Beaufort (1771-1849), was 
rector of Glanmire, and prebendary of Rath- 
cooney, Cork, from 1814 until his death in 
1849. Their younger son was Sir Francis 
Beaufort [q. v.]. 

[Information from W. M. Beaufort, Esq. ; 
Times, 18 June 1821; Gent. Mag. vol. ix. ; 
Cotton's Fasti Hibernici ; Monthly Review, xiii. 
173; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography.] 

A. Gr-N. 

BEAUFORT, EDMUND (d. 1455), 
second DUKE OF SOMERSET, statesman and 
general, was the younger brother of Duke 
John, and excelled him in the brilliancy of 
his early military exploits. He held his first 
command in France in 1431, and nine years 
later he succeeded in recapturing Harfleur, 
the loss of which had shaken the English 
ascendency in Normandy. He was at once 
invested with the garter on the scene of his 
triumph. In 1442 he obtained the earldom 
of Dorset for having relieved Calais, and on 
his return home after a successful expedition 
into Anjou in conjunction with his future 
antagonist the Duke of York, he was raised 
to a marquisate. But on succeeding his 




brother in the Somerset titles (to the earldom after a three weeks' siege. His position 

in 1444 and the dukedom in 1448), though in Normandy was gone, that in England 

he gained in political influence, military threatened. Suffolk and two ministerial 

success deserted him. The government had bishops had been murdered, Cade and the 

just recognised that England could not Kentish rebels had occupied London, and 

hope to permanently hold France as a con- York was preparing to take advantage of his 

quered country, and sought an honourable popularity and seize upon the government, 

peace. With this end in view they con- After five years' marriage Henry remained 

eluded a truce in 1444, and shortly afterwards 
married Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou, 

childless. Of the two possible heirs to the 
throne, Margaret, Somerset's niece, repre- 

ceding Anjou and Maine, nominally to her ! sented the parliamentary, York the here- 
father, really to Charles VII. This policy i ditary title. Whichever party was in power 
was wholly unpopular in England, where at the moment of the sickly king's death 
the warlike spirit remained in the ascendant : j would crown their candidate. Supported by 
and the Duke of York, seizing the oppor- Henry, Somerset, on his return from Caen, 
tunity of Gloucester's -death to head the op- carried on the government despite the popu- 
position to the court, was superseded in the J lar hate ; but success abroad would alone 

lieutenancy of France by Somerset, whose 
uncle, Cardinal Beaufort, was chief minister. 
The truce was taken advantage of by the 
French to prepare for a final effort to drive 
the foreigner out, while the English minis- 
ters and commanders were especially engaged 
in swelling their private fortunes. On the 
one side patriotism, on the other love of 
plunder, led to frequent breaches of the 
truce, and removed more and more the pro- 
spect of a definitive peace. At length the 
commander of one of the English detach- 
ments, with the secret support of Somerset, 
surprised the town and castle of Fougeres, 
and Somerset, who probably profited largely 
by the spoils, refused to give it up, or even 
exchange it. Hence in 1449 regular war re- 
commenced, in which the English were com- 
pletely overmatched. Their outposts fell 
rapidly into the hands of the French, who 
in October invested Rouen. The inhabitants 
were their eager partisans, and Somerset, 
unable to contend with enemies within and 
without, retired into the castle. His energy 
seemed paralysed ; he had neither courage 
to make a desperate effort to cut his way 
out, nor determination to at once capitulate 
on honourable terms. At last, being hard 
pressed, he qpnsented to give up not only 
Rouen but six other strongholds and a large 
sum of money 'for the deliverance of his 
person, wife, children, and goods.' The par- 
liamentary opposition in England at once 
impeached Suffolk, now chief minister, and 
prepared accusations against Somerset. But 

secure him in power against the attacks of 
York, and he bent every effort to re-establish 
the English ascendency in Gascony, where 
the strictness of French rule was unpopular. 
He got supplies from parliament, and raised 
a fleet and army. But the death of the 
veteran Talbot and the surrender of the 
English at Chatillon in 1453 put an end to 
his hopes. The disaster brought on Henry's 
first attack of insanity ; parliament, now 
supreme, appointed York protector, and sent 
Somerset to the Tower. He was saved from 
further proceedings against him by the re- 
covery of the king, who restored him to power 
and made him captain of Calais, the only con- 
tinental appointment remaining in his gift. 
Though the birth of a Prince of Wales changed 
the quarrel of the two dukes from a dynastic 
into a personal one, it was none the less 
bitter. After what had passed one could 
not brook the existence of the other. Failing 
to get his enemy tried for treason, York ap- 
pealed to arms, and, according to a contem- 
porary, raised a force and ' attacked Somerset, 
who was then in St. Albans, preferring that 
Somerset should be taken prisoner than that 
he should be seized and slain by Somerset.' 
The first battle of St. Albans was fought in 
May 1455, and in it Somerset was killed. 
His blood was the first shed in the war of 
the Roses, which proved fatal to his sons, 
and ended the male line of the Beauforts. 

[The Wars in France under Henry VI, Rolls 
Series, No. 22 ; Blondel's Reductio Normannise, 
Rolls Series, tfo. 32; Rot. Parl. v. 210-81; 

Henry VI retained his ministers, and, by Stow's Chronicle, 385-400.] 
pawning his jewels and resorting to other 
such financial expedients, sought to raise 
a sufficient force for the campaign of 1450 

Unfortunately the English troops were cut 
to pieces at Formigny in May, and a huge 
French army advanced against Caen, where 
Somerset lay with a garrison of 3,000 men. 
As no relief was possible, he capitulated 

H. A. T. 

1857), rear-admiral and hydrographer to the 

navy, was the son of the Rev. Daniel Au- 
gustus Beaufort [q. v.], rector of Navan, 
county Meath, himself a topographer of some 
distinction. His sister Frances married 
Richard Lovell Edgeworth, and was thus the 



stepmother of Maria Edgeworth, the novelist. 
He entered the navy in June 1787, under 
the care of Captain Hugh Cloberry Christian, 
on board the Colossus ; during the Spanish 
armament of 1790 he was a midshipman of 
the Latona frigate, with Captain Albemarle 
Bertie, and was afterwards with the Hon. 
Robert Stopford, in the Aquilon, 32 guns, 
one of the repeating frigates in Lord Howe's 
action of 1 June 1794. H^ followed Captain 
Stopford to the Phaeton, 38 guns, and in her ! 
he saw much active and splendid service, in- I 
eluding Cornwallis's retreat, 17 June 1795, | 
and the capture of the Flore, 36 guns, on 
8 Sept. 1798. Beaufort was made a lieu- 
tenant on 10 May 1796 ; and on 28 Oct. 1800, 
being then first lieutenant of the Phaeton, 
under Captain James Nicoll Morris, he com- 
manded the boats of that ship when they cut 
out the Spanish ship, San Josef, of 26 guns, 
from under the guns of Fangerolle Castle, 
near Malaga; in this service he received 
nineteen wounds in the head, arms, and body, 
three sword cuts and sixteen musket shots, 
and dearly won his promotion to the rank of ! 
commander, which bore date 13 Nov., as ' 
well as a wound pension of 45Z. For some 
years after this he was unemployed at sea, and 
in 1803-4 assisted his brother-in-law, Mr. 
Edgeworth, in establishing a line of tele- 
graphs from Dublin to Galway. In June 1805 
he was appointed to the command of the 
Woolwich, armed store-ship, in which, during 
the presence of the fleet off Buenos Ayres in 
1807, he made an accurate survey of the 
entrance to the Rio de la Plata. In May 
1809 he was appointed to the Blossom, em- 
ployed in convoy duty on the coast of Spain. 
On 30 May 1810 he was advanced to post 
rank, and appointed to the Frederiksteen 
frigate. During the two following years he 
was employed in the archipelago, principally 
in surveying the coast of Karamania, and in- 
cidentally in suppressing some of the most 
barbarous of the Mainote pirates. His work 
was brought to an untimely end by the attack 
of some Turkish fanatics on his boat's crew, 
20 June 1812. Beaufort was badly wounded 
in the hip, and after months of danger and 
suffering at Malta was obliged to return to 
England, and the Frederiksteen was paid off 
on 29 Oct. The account of this survey and 
exploration he afterwards published in an 
interesting volume entitled ' Karamania, or 
a brief description of the South Coast of 
Asia Minor, and of the Remains of Antiquity ' 
(8vo, 1817) ; and, it is said, refused to accept 
any payment for the manuscript on the 
ground that the materials of the work were 
acquired in his majesty's service and in the 
execution of a public duty. For many years 

after his return to England he was engaged 
in constructing the charts of his survey, with 
his own hand, and the charts were engraved 
directly from his drawings, as sent in to 
the Hydrographic Office. In 1829 he was 
appointed hydrographer to the navy, and 
during the twenty-six years through which 
he held that post rendered his name almost 
a synonym in the navy for hydrography and 
nautical science. It is still preserved by the- 
general introduction of the scale of wind 
force, and the tabulated system of weather 
registration in common use both afloat and 
ashore. These expedients occurred to him 
when he was captain of the Woolwich, 
1805, and wished to -render the ship's log- 
at once more concise and more comprehen- 
sive. In April 1835 he was a member of a 
commission for inquiring into the laws under 
which pilots were appointed, governed, and 
paid ; and in January 1845 of another com- 
mission for inquiring into the state of har- 
bours, shores, and rivers of the United 
Kingdom. On 1 Oct. 1846, according to an 
order in council just issued, he was made a rear- 
admiral on the retired list ; and on 29 April 
1848 he was made a K.C.B. in acknowledg- 
ment of his civil services as hydrographer, 
which post he continued to hold almost till 
the last. He retired in 1855, only two years 
before his death on 17 Dec. 1857. A sub- 
scription memorial took the form of a prize 
awarded annually to that young naval officer, 
candidate for the rank of lieutenant, who- 
passes the best examination in navigation 
and other kindred subjects, at the Royal Naval 
College, in addition to which a portrait, by 
Stephen Pearce, was placed in the Painted 
Hall at Greenwich Hospital. His scientific 
work was solely in connection with his office ^ 
though a fellow of the Royal Society, his- 
name as an author does not appear in the- 
' Philosophical Transactions,' and the only 
papers attributed to him in the ' Royal So- 
ciety Catalogue' are: 1. l Account of an 
Earthquake at Sea,' in ' Edinburgh Journal 
of Science,' v. (1826), 232-4. 2. < Determina- 
tion of the Longitude of Papeete, from ob- 
servations of a Partial Eclipse of the Sun,' 
in ' Monthly Notices of Royal Astron. Soc/ 
xiv. (1853-4), 48-9. He was for many years 
engaged in his own house in preparing the- 
extensive Atlas published by the Society 
for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. For 
this labour of many years, to execute which 
he rose daily between five and six, he received 
no remuneration, except a magnificent copy 
of the large edition of the ' Gallery of Por- 
traits,' presented only to him, the king of 
the French, and the Duke of Devonshire. 
He was a fellow of the Royal and Royal 



Astronomical Societies, and a member of the 
Royal Irish Academy, a corresponding mem- 
ber of the Institute of France and of the 
United States Naval Lyceum. 

Sir Francis married Alicia Ma gdalena Wil- 
born in 1815, served in the Bengal civil 
service from 1837 to 1876, and was for many 
years judge of the twenty-four Purgunnahs, 
Calcutta. He was the author of the well- 
known ' Digest of the Criminal Law Pro- 
cedure in Bengal' (1850), and died in 1879. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. vi. (supplement, 
part ii.), 82 ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1858, i. 118; information from W. M. 
Beaufort, Esq.] J. K L. 

BEAUFORT, HENRY (d. 1447), bishop 
of Winchester and cardinal, was the second 
and illegitimate son of John of Gaunt by 
Catherine, widow of Sir Hugh Swynford. 
His parents having been married in 1396, 
their children were the next year declared 
legitimate by Richard II, and the king's pa- 
tent of legitimation was confirmed by par- 
liament. In common with his brother John, 
earl of Somerset, and Thomas, duke of Exeter, 
Henry took his name from Beaufort Castle, 
in Anjou, the place of his birth. He is said 
to have studied at Oxford, but he spent the 
greater part of his youth at Aachen, where 
he read the civil and the canon law. He 
was made prebendary of Thame 1389, and of 
Sutton 1391, both in the diocese of Lincoln. 
He held the deanery of Wells in 1397, and, 
having been appointed bishop of Lincoln by 
papal provision, was consecrated 14 July 
1398, after the death of John Bokyngham 
[see BOKYNGHAM, JOHN]. The next year 
he became chancellor of the university of 
Oxford. The election of his half-brother, 
Henry of Lancaster, to the throne, gave the 
Bishop of Lincoln a prominent place in the 
kingdom. Forming a kind of constitutional 
court party, he and his brother steadily up- 
held the Lancastrian dynasty, while at the 
same time they were opposed to the masterful 
policy of Archbishop Arundel [q. v.]. Bishop 
Beaufort was made chancellor in 1403, and 
in the same year was named as a member 
of the king's ' great and continual council.' 
On the death of William of Wykeham, in 
1404, he was nominated to the bishopric of 
Winchester by papal provision, and in the 
spring of the next year received the spirituali- 
ties of the see. He resigned the chancellorship 
on his translation to Winchester. He is said 
to have been the tutor of the Prince of Wales. 
He certainly exercised considerable influence 
over him. While the king was in a great 
measure guided by Arundel, the prince at- 

j tached himself to the younger and more 
! popular party, of which the Bishop of Win- 
| Chester was the head. In 1407 the arch- 
bishop, who was then chancellor, gained a 
triumph over the Beaufort s ; for when in 
that year the king exemplified and confirmed 
the patent of their legitimation granted by 
Richard, he inserted in it words (' excepta 
regali dignitate ') which expressly excluded 
j them from the succession. As, however,, 
I these words do not occur in the document 
confirmed by parliament in the preceding 
reign, they have no legal value, though pro- 
bably this fact was not recognised at the time. 
The strength of Bishop Beaufort and the 
weakness of the archbishop alike lay in the 
parliament. Arundel felt himself unable to 
continue in office, and in 1410 Thomas Beau- 
fort was made chancellor. As the new 
chancellor was not installed when the par- 
liament met, his brother the bishop declared 
the cause of summons. Taking as the text 
of his discourse l It becometh us to fulfil all 
' righteousness,' he dwelt on the relations of 
I England with France and Scotland, and on 
the duty of loyalty to the crown. Dr. Stubbs, 
who in his 'Constitutional History' (iii. c. 18) 
has given a masterly sketch of the career of 
Bishop Beaufort as an English politician, ha& 
pointed out the probability that during the 
administration of Thomas Beaufort the Prince 
of Wales ruled in the name of his father; 
for during this period the illness of Henry IV 
| seems to have rendered him incapable of 
performing the duties of kingship. The rule 
of the prince involved the predominance of 
the Bishop of Winchester in the council. 
The divergence of the parties of Beaufort 
and Arundel came to a climax in 1411. A 
family quarrel probably hastened the issue 
of the struggle. On the death of John Beau- 
fort, earl of Somerset, the bishop's brother, 
in 1410, Thomas of Lancaster, the earl's- 
nephew, married his widow, and demanded 
that Bishop Beaufort should give up to him 
part of a sum of 30,000 marks, which he 
had received as the earl's executor. The 
bishop refused the demand, and in the quarrel 
which ensued the Prince of Wales upheld his. 
uncle against his brother. Prince Henry and 
the bishop were alike anxious to secure the 
continuance of their power. With the assent 
of the numerous lords of their party they 
tried to prevail on the king to resign the 
crown, and to allow the prince to reign in 
his stead. The king was much angered at 
this request, and dismissed the prince from 
the council. Bishop Beaufort and his whole 
party seem to have shared the disgrace of 
the prince ; for in November the commons 
prayed the king to thank the Prince of Wales, 



the Bishop of Winchester, and other lords 
for their labour and diligence during the time 
that they were of the council. The arch- 
bishop succeeded Thomas Beaufort as chan- 
cellor in 1412. The change in the adminis- 
tration brought with it a change in foreign 
politics. The Bishop of Winchester agreed 
with the prince in upholding the cause of 
the Duke of Burgundy, and in 1411 the 
united forces of the English and Burgundians 
gained a brilliant victory over the Arma- 
gnacs at St. Cloud. On the accession of 
Arundel to power the alliance with Burgundy 
was suddenly broken, and an expedition was 
sent to help the Armagnacs. 

When, in 1413, the prince succeeded his 
father as Henry V, he at once gave the chan- 
cellorship to Bishop Beaufort, who accord- 
ingly, on 15 May 1413, opened the first par- 
liament of the reign. On 23 Sept. he sat as j 
one of the assessors of the archbishop on the ' 
trial of Sir John Oldcastle. In opening the 
parliament held at Leicester in the April 
of the next year he referred at some length 
to the dangerous rising which followed 
Oldcastle's escape. Preaching on the words 
'He hath applied his heart to understand 
the laws,' he described how the Christian 
faith was in danger of being brought to 
naught by the Lollard confederacy, and the 
peace of the realm by riots, and called on 
the estates to aid the crown in the work of 
government by their good advice. The bishop | 
was this year sent to France, along with I 
other ambassadors, to propose terms which | 
were too hard to be accepted even in the dis- 
tracted state of that kingdom. In opening | 
parliament on 4 Nov. 1415 the chancellor en- 
larged on the noble exploits of the king in the 
war with France, and made an appeal to the 
gratitude of the people, which was answered 
by a liberal grant. The war, however, placed 
the king in constant need of money, and 
Henry found his uncle the chancellor always 
ready to lend. As Beaufort cannot have in- 
herited any great estates, and as the income 
of his see, considerable as it was, was by no 
means large enough to supply him with the 
vast sums which he lent the crown from time 
to time, as well as to provide him with the 
means of indulging his taste for magnificence, 
it is probable that his constant power of 
finding ready money was the result of singular 
financial ability, combined with a high cha- 
racter for integrity. Knowing how to use 
money, and using it with boldness, careful to 
maintain his credit, and not afraid of making- 
Ms credit serve him, Beaufort gained immense 
wealth. While he guarded this wealth care- 
fully, he never refused to lend it for the sup- j 
port of the crown. In 1416 he lent the kin 

14,000/., secured on the customs, and received 
a certain gold crown to be kept as a pledge 
of repayment. Having been relieved of his 
office in the July of 1417, the bishop left 
England, nominally on a pilgrimage. The 
real object of his journey was to attend the 
council then -sitting at Constance. His ar- 
rival at the council was coincident, and can 
scarcely have been unconnected, with an im- 
portant change in the position of parties. 
Up to that time the English and the Germans 
worked together in endeavouring to force the 
council to undertake the reformation of the 
church. In alliance with the Emperor Sigis- 
mund, Henry, by the English representatives, 
opposed the election of a pope until measures 
had been taken to bring about this reforma- 
tion. On the other hand, the Latin nations 
sided with the cardinals in demanding that 
the council should at once proceed to the 
election of a pope, and should leave the work 
of reformation to be accomplished by him. 
Henry had, however, suffered from reformers 
in his own kingdom. Whatever the reasons 
of the king may have been for changing his 
policy, there can be no doubt that the Bishop 
of Winchester carried out this change. He 
effected a compromise, to which the emperor 
was forced to agree. At his suggestion the 
council pledged itself to a reformation to be 
effected after the election of a pope. The 
conclave was formed. It was believed in 
England that the Bishop of Winchester was, 
among many others, suggested as the future 
pope. The choice of the conclave fell on 
the Cardinal Colonna, who took the title 
of Martin V. The new pope was not un- 
mindful of the good service rendered him by 
Beaufort, and on 28 Dec. nominated him car- 
dinal, without specifying any title. Claim- 
ing a universal right of presentation, and 
intent on bringing the English church into 
subservience to the see of Rome, Martin 
hoped to find in Beaufort an instrument for 
carrying out his schemes of aggression. He 
intended to apply to the king to 'allow the 
bishop to hold the see of Winchester in 
commendam, and to accept him as legate a 
latere holding office for life. He mistook the 
king with whom he had to deal. When Arch- 
bishop Chichele, who had succeeded Arundel 
in 1414, heard of the plan, he wrote to Henry, 
who was then in France, and remonstrated 
against such an outrage on the liberties of 
the kingdom and on the rights of his own 
see. Henry refused to allow the bishop to 
accept the office of cardinal, saying, if we 
may trust the account of the matter given in 
1440 by the Duke of Gloucester, that ' he had 
as lief sette his coroune besyde hym as to 
see him were a cardinal's hatte, he being a 




cardinal.' Great as must have been the j the chancellor. On 30 Oct. 1425. the duke 
bishop's disappointment, the refusal of the j persuaded the mayor to keep London Bridge 
king did not alienate him from his attach- j against the bishop, and so prevent him from 
ment to the crown ; for when in 1421 Henry I entering the city. The men of the bishop 
returned to England to raise money for a and of the duke well nigh came to blows. All 
fresh expedition, Beaufort, who had as yet i the shops in London were shut, the citizens 
only received in repayment part of his former crowded down to the bridge to uphold their 
loan, lent him a further sum of 14,000/., '< mayor, and had it not been for the interfe- 
making a total debt of 22,306/. 18*. 8d., and j rence of the archbishop and the Duke of 

again received from the hands of the trea- 
surer a gold crown as security for repayment. 
In the December of the same year he stood 
godfather to the king's son, Henry of Win- 
chester. And the next year the king, when 
on his deathbed, showed his confidence in 

Coimbra, a dangerous riot would have taken 
place. The chancellor wrote urgently to 
Bedford begging him, as he valued the wel- 
fare of the king, his safety, and the safety of 
the kingdom, to return to England with haste. 
On the return of Bedford the council tried to 

him by naming him one of the guardians of arrange the dispute. Matters were, however, 
the infant prince. j still unsettled when the parliament, called 

In the debates on the regency which fol- I the Parliament of Bats, met at Leicester on 
lowed the death of Henry V, Beaufort op- 18 Feb. 1426. At the petition of the com- 
posed the ambitious claims of the Duke of mons Bedford and the lords undertook an 
Gloucester, the late king's youngest brother, arbitration. Gloucester charged the chan- 
During the long and bitter quarrel which cellor with refusing to admit him into the 
ensued between the uncle and nephew, Beau- Tower, with purposing to slay him at Lon- 
fort's wise and loyal policy stands in strong don Bridge, and with designing to seize the 
contrast to the wild schemes by which Glou- I person of the king. He also declared that 
cester, as protector in the absence of his ! he had plotted against the life of Henry V 
brother Bedford, sought his own aggrandise- when prince of Wales, and had counselled 
ment at home and abroad. In December 
1422 Beaufort was named a member of 
the council, and powers were granted to 
that body which strictly limited the autho- j tinct denial of the truth of the charges of 
rity of the protector. When, in 1424, Glou- I treason against Henry IV, Henry V, and 
cester was about to leave England on his Henry VI, that Bedford should thereupon 
futile expedition against Hainault, the bishop | declare him ' a true man to the king, his 

him to take the crown from his father. 
Beaufort made answer to these accusations. 
The lords decreed that he should make a dis- 

was again appointed chancellor. In the ab- 
sence of both Bedford and Gloucester the 

father, and his grandfather,' and that he and 
Gloucester should take each other by the hand. 

whole burden of the government rested on The bishop must have felt the pacification, 

him, and in consideration of his extra 
work he received an addition of 2,000/. to 

which was effected on 12 March, a distinct 
defeat. He resigned the chancellorship, and 

his salary. His administration was unpo- applied for license to perform a vow of pil- 
pular in London, where the citizens were : grimage by which he was bound. He does 
attached to the Duke of Gloucester. The ! not, however, seem to have left England, 
favour which the chancellor showed to the ' and his name appears twice in the proceedings 
Flemings angered the merchants, and some of the council during the remainder of the 
ordinances restraining the employment of year. 

labourers, which were made by the mayor and 
aldermen, and were approved by the council, 
set the working classes against the govern- 
ment. Threatening bills were posted on the 
gates of the bishop's palace, and a tumultuous 
meeting of men of ' low estate ' was held l at 
the Crane of the Vintry,' in which some 
loudly wished that they had the bishop there, 
that they might throw him into the Thames. 
Beaufort took the precaution of placing in 
the Tower a garrison composed of men from 
the duchy of Lancaster. While affairs were 
in this uneasy state, the Duke of Gloucester 
returned to England. The strictures of the 
council on his foolish expedition doubtless 
helped to fan the discord between him and 

Encouraged by the condition of the go- 
vernment in England, the pope renewed his 
plan of making the Bishop of Winchester a 
cardinal, which had been defeated by the 
vigorous policy of Henry V. His special 
object in conferring this office on Beaufort at 
this time was to gain his help against the 
Hussites. The bishop was nominated car- 
dinal-priest of St. Eusebius on 24 May 1426. 
He left England in company with the Duke 
of Bedford in March of the next year, and on 
Lady day received the cardinal's hat from 
the hands of the duke in St. Mary's church 
at Calais. In accepting the cardinalate 
Beaufort made a false step, which brought 
him into much trouble. The legatine com- 




mission which accompanied his new dignity 
lessened his popularity, and gave occasion to ! 
his enemies to attack him. His energies 
were to some extent diverted from the service 
of his country, and men naturally looked on 
him as identified with the papal policy which, 
under Martin V, was antagonistic to the ec- 
clesiastical liberties of England. The new ! 
cardinal lost no time in obeying the papal 
call for help in the Hussite war. With the 
full approval of the emperor he accepted the ; 
office of legate in Germany, Hungary, and 
Bohemia. At the moment of his entrance 
into Bohemia a combined attack was made 
by three armies of the crusaders upon the 
Hussites at Mies. The attack failed, and at 
Tachau the cardinal met the German host in 
full flight. He bade them turn against their 
pursuers, and, planting a cross before them, j 
succeeded for a moment in his attempt to 
rally the panic-stricken multitude. At the 
sight of the advancing army of the Bohe- { 
mians the Germans again turned and fled. 
The cardinal vainly called on them to halt and j 
make a stand against their enemies. In his 
indignation he tore the flag of the empire and ! 
cast it before the feet of the German princes, j 
His efforts w r ere fruitless, and the close ap- 
proach of the Bohemian army forced him to j 
share the flight of the Germans. The pope j 
wrote him a letter encouraging him to perse- j 
vere in the crusade. He exhorted him to 
restore ecclesiastical discipline in Germany, 
and to put an end to the quarrel between the 
archbishops of Coin and Maintz, that the 
German churchmen might be more earnest in 
the crusade. 

The cardinal returned to England to raise 
money for the prosecution of the w^ar, and 
on entering London 1 Sept. 1428 was received | 
with great state by the mayor and aldermen, j 
When, however, he opened his legatine com- ' 
mission, the Duke of Gloucester refused to I 
recognise it, as contrary to the customs of | 
the kingdom, and Richard Caudray, the king's 
proctor, argued the case against him. Beau- I 
fort promised not to exercise his legatine 
functions without the king's leave, and the 
matter was dropped for the time. In February 
1429 the cardinal went to Scotland on civil 
as well as ecclesiastical business, and had an 
interview near Berwick with James and with 
his niece, Joan the queen. On his return 
Gloucester made an effort to deprive him of 
his see by bringing before the council the 
question whether he, as a cardinal, might law- 
fully officiate at the chapter of the order of 
the Garter on St. George's day, a right which 
pertained to him as bishop of Winchester. 
The question was left undecided; but the 
council requested him not to attend the ser- 

vice. In after years he officiated on these 
occasions without any objection being made. 
In spite of the somewhat doubtful attitude 
of the council he obtained leave to raise a 
body of troops for the Bohemian war, and to 
publish the crusade. On 22 June he again 
set out for Bohemia. Disasters in France, 
however, caused the council to press on him 
the necessity of allowing his troops to serve 
six months with the regent. Beaufort agreed 
to this, and stayed himself with the regent 
in France. He excused his conduct to the 
pope by declaring that he was forced to obey 
the king's command, and that his troops 
would have refused to follow him had he not 
done so. The death of Martin V, in February 
1431, put an end to Beaufort's legation and 
to his part in the Bohemian Avar. 

At the close of 1429 Beaufort received 
1,000/. to defray the expenses of a mission 
which he w r as about to undertake to the 
court of Philip, duke of Burgundy, who had 
just married his niece, Isabella of Portugal. 
His compli.ance in lending the troops which 
he had raised for the crusade evidently 
strengthened his position at home ; for an 
attempt made by Gloucester in the December 
following to shut him out from the council, 
on the ground of his being a cardinal, was 
answered by a vote that his attendance was 
lawful, and was to be required on all occa- 
sions except when questions between the 
king and the papacy w r ere in debate. Alarmed 
at his increasing power, Gloucester persuaded 
him to accompany the king to France in 
April 1430, and during 1430-1 he was con- 
stantly employed in the aftairs of that king- 
dom. In November 1430 he lent the king" 
2,81 61. 13s., and an order was made in 
council the following year for the repay- 
ment of this and of other sums which were 
owing to him. On 17 Dec. 1431 he crowned 
Henry YI king of France at Paris. Mean- 
while, Gloucester took advantage of his ab- 
sence to make another attempt to deprive 
him of his see. This attack seems to have 
been made in the name of the crow r n ; for in 
a general council, held 6 Nov., the king's ser- 
jeants and attorney argued that he could not, 
as cardinal, continue to hold an English 
bishopric. At this council the Bishop of 
Worcester, in answer to a question from Glou- 
cester, asserted that he had heard the Bishop 
of Lichfield, who acted as Beaufort's proctor, 
say that the cardinal had bought an exemp- 
tion from the jurisdiction of Canterbury for 
himself and his see. The Bishop of Lichfield, 
who was present, seems neither to have de- 
nied nor confirmed this statement. The 
council was not disposed to proceed in haste 
in a matter of such importance, and made aa 




order that documents should be searched, 
and the question was put off until the return 
of the king. Three weeks afterwards, how- 
ever, Gloucester was more successful in the 
privy council, where the number of bishops 
was larger in proportion to the lay councillors . 
than in the general council. This preponde- : 
ranee of the clerical element was contrary to 
Beaufort's interest ; for Archbishop Chichele 
naturally bore him no good will, and the 
chance of a vacancy of the see of Winchester 
excited the hopes of the other bishops. Ac- 
cordingly, in this council writs were sealed 
of prsemunire and attachment upon the sta- 
tute against the cardinal. Some valuable 
jewels also belonging to him were seized at 
Sandwich. The cardinal boldly faced the 
danger. He returned to England and attended 
the parliament which met in May 1432. 
There, in the presence of the king and of the 
Duke of Gloucester, he demanded to hear 
what accusations were brought against him. 
He had come back, he said, because the de- 
fence of his name and fame and honour was 
more to him than earthly riches. Gloucester 
was foiled by this appeal to the estates, and 
In answer to his demand the cardinal was 
assured that the king held him loyal. He 
further demanded that this answer should 
"be delivered under the great seal, which was 
accordingly done. The parliament then pro- 
ceeded to consider the seizure of his jewels. 
In order to get them at once into his posses- 
sion the cardinal deposited the sum of 6,000/. ; 
and as in 1434 an order was made that this 
money should be repaid, it is evident that on 
inquiry the seizure was shown to have been 
made unlawfully. He also lent the crown 
another sum of 6,000 /., and further respited 
a debt of 13,000 marks. Beaufort owed 
his victory in this, which was the greatest 
crisis of his life, to the support of the par- 
liament ; and on the petition of the commons 
a statute was framed exonerating him from 
the penalties of any offences which he 
might have committed against the Statute 
of Provisors, or in the execution of any 
papal bulls. 

On 16 Feb. 1433 the cardinal obtained 
leave to attend the council of Basel. As he 
received license to take with him the large 
sum of 20,000/., it seems probable that he 
desired to make interest for himself in the 
hope that he might at some future time be 
chosen pope. Although he did not take ad- 
vantage of this permission to attend the 
council, he did not abandon his intention of 
doing so, and in the June of the next year 
he presented a series of ' demands ' to the 
king, in which, after asking. for securities 
for his loans, he stated that he was bound 

by certain vows, and that since it would 
be to his jeopardy if the time or end of his 
journey should be known, he desired license 
to go when and whither he pleased and to 
take with him such money as he might 
choose. In answer to this request he was 
told that he might attend the council and 
take with him the sum allowed in the pre- 
vious year. Meanwhile, on the return of 
Bedford in 1433, the cardinal upheld him 
against Gloucester, and, in common with 
i other lords, agreed with the request made by 
the commons that the duke should remain 
in England, and help to carry on tlje govern- 
ment. The change in the administration was 
i followed by a vigorous attempt to introduce 
I economy into the disordered finances of the 
: kingdom, and the cardinal, together with 
some other members of the council, follow- 
\ ing the example set by Bedford, agreed to 
; give up their wages as councillors, provided 
that their attendance was not enforced in 

In 1435 the cardinal was present at the 
famous European congress, held at Arras, 
for the purpose, if possible, of making peace. 
In common with the other ambassadors from 
England, he had power to treat for a mar- 
riage between the king and the eldest or 
other daughter of his adversary of France. 
He joined his colleagues on 19 Aug. Fail- 
ing in their preliminary negotiations with 
I the French, and convinced that the Duke of 
Burgundy was about to desert their alliance, 
the English ambassadors returned on 6 Sept. 
The death of the Duke of Bedford, which 
took place a few days afterwards, had a con- 
siderable effect on the position of the cardi- 
nal. With Bedford the Lancastrian house 
lost almost all that remained of the strength 
of the days of Henry V. From this time the 
house of York began to occupy a prominent 
place, and in doing so it naturally entered 
into a rivalry with the Beauforts, who had 
no other hope than in the fortunes of the 
reigning house. W T hen Bedford was dead, 
the cardinal was the only Englishman ' who 
had any pretension to be called a politician/ 
His policy was now plainly marked out, and 
from this time he began to labour earnestly 
for peace (STFBBS, Qmftit, Hist. iii. c. 18). 
Gloucester, who had of late made his brother 
Bedford the chief object of his opposition, 
I now turned all his strength to thwart the 
! policy of his uncle, even, as it seems, trying 
I to use against him the hostile family interest 
! of the house of York. 

Although by the decision of the council in 
1429 the attendance of the cardinal was not 
required when questions between the king 
and the papacy were in debate, he took part 


4 6 


in the settlement of a dispute which arose dinal and the part taken by Orleans in the 

from an attempt made by the council in 
1434 to put an end to the claim of the pope 
to nominate to English bishoprics. The 
immediate question, which concerned the ap- 
pointment to the see of Worcester, was settled 
by a compromise proposed in a letter from 

negotiations show that Beaufort had by this 
time fully regained his influence in the 
council. In his absence, however, the Duke 
of Gloucester was left without control, and 
the council accordingly sent instructions to 
the ambassadors to refuse the French de- 

the council to Eugenius IV to which the i mands, which were indeed of such a nature 
name of the cardinal is subscribed. The as to make the failure of the negotiations 
jealousy of papal interference which was i certain. On 2 Oct. the cardinal and the 

aroused by this dispute may probably be dis- 
cerned when, in April 1437, the cardinal 
having requested license to go to Rome, the 
council recommended the king not to allow 
him to leave the kingdom, alleging as their 
reasons for this advice their fear lest evil 

ambassadors returned to England. Another 
attempt to arrange a peace was made by the 
cardinal and the Duchess of Burgundy in 
January 1440. Ambassadors were again ap- 
pointed, and the council decided on the re- 
lease of the Duke of Orleans. Against this 

should befall him by the way, and the irn- decision Gloucester made a violent remon- 
portance of his presence at the negotiations strance to the king. He embodied in a 
for peace which were then on foot. Thefol- long document all his causes of complaint 
lowing year they further advised the king against Beaufort. He began with his ac- 
not to allow him to attend the council of ceptance of the cardinal's hat and his re- 

tention of the see of Winchester. He accused 
him of defrauding the crown, of forwarding 
the interests of his family to the hurt of the 
king, alleging divers instances, and among 
them the fact that while Beaufort was chan- 
cellor part of the ransom of James of Scot- 
land was remitted on his marriage with his 
niece. He further declared that he had been 
guilty of extravagance and mismanagement 

Basel, a determination which Sir Harris 
Nicolas considers (Ordinances of the Privy 
Council, v. pref. xxx) to have arisen from 
' the fear of his intriguing with the cardinals 
and other influential ecclesiastics at the 
council for the tiara at the sacrifice of the 
interests of his country.' In this year Beau- 
fort obtained from the king a full pardon for 
all offences f from the beginning of the world 

up to that time.' This pardon evidently had I at the congress of Arras and at the late meet- 
reference to his dealings with securities. I ing of ambassadors at Calais, and that he 
Taken, however, in connection with the re- now intended to destroy the king's realm of 
fusal of his journey, it seems to indicate that France by the release of the Duke of Orleans. 
his influence was shaken. If this was so, j To this manifesto, which is full of bitterness 
it was not long before his importance as a I and mischievous intent, the council returned 
financier fully restored him to power. The j a moderately worded answer. Powerful as 
futile campaign of Gloucester in Flanders, Gloucester was to do evil by slandering those 
and the continued demands for money from who were striving for peace and by setting 
France, having exhausted the treasury, the men's minds against them, he had, in corn- 
cardinal lent the king 10,000 marks, ex- | parison with the cardinal, little real weight 
tended the time of repayment of another sum in the conduct of affairs. His weakness was 
of 14,000 marks, and gave him possession of i manifested in the following year by the trial 
some jewels which had been pledged to him. ! of his wife, Eleanor Cobham, who was ac- 

Each year the hopelessness of the war be- 
came more apparent. In January 1439 the 
cardinal had a conference with the Duchess 
of Burgundy at Calais, and it was agreed 
that ambassadors should be sent thither to 
treat of peace. During the negotiations 
which ensued, the cardinal had full and 

cused of witchcraft before the archbishops 
and the cardinal. 

Although Beaufort was eagerly desirous 
of peace, he never discouraged any efforts 
which were made to prosecute the war with 
vigour. In a debate in the council on 6 Feb. 
1443, when the question was proposed 

secret powers from the king, and in con- I whether an army should be sent to the relief 

,. * -.I ,-t i ^ .L__I_. _.J'j_ i __ TVT . _.3_ - f-i ___.. - ji 

junction with the duchess acted as mediator 
between the ambassadors of the two parties. 
He landed at Calais on 26 June. As he 
was the advocate of peace, and hoped to 
secure it by means of the intervention of the 
captive Duke of Orleans, while, on the other 
hand, Gloucester was set on prosecuting the 
war and on keeping the duke prisoner, the 
discretionary powers entrusted to the car- 

of Normandy or of Guienne, since there 
seemed little hope of sending troops to both, 
the cardinal, after others had spoken, some 
for the one plan and some for the other, de- 
clared that ' him seemeth both to be entended 
were right necessary,' and suggested that the 
treasurer should declare what funds he had 
available for 'the setting of the said armies r 
(Ordinances, v. 224). And when his nephew, 




the Duke of Somerset, was persuaded to take 
the command of the expedition which was 
fitted out in that year, the cardinal promised 
to lend 20,0007. towards its equipment, in- 
sisting 1 , however, at the same time that the 
patent securing the repayment of this sum 
should be drawn out in the exact words he 
chose; 'else he would lend no money.' When, 
therefore, the form was being read before the 
lords of the council, the Duke of Gloucester 
said that such reading was needless, since 
his uncle had passed it, and would have that 
and no other (Ord. v. 280). Bitterly as the 
words were spoken, they were true enough, 
for without the help of the cardinal the 
whole expedition must have come to naught. 
In this year Beaufort obtained another gene- 
ral pardon and release from all fines and 
penalties for anything which he had done. 
In the marriage of the king with Margaret I 
of Anjou, in 1445, the cardinal must have 
believed that he saw the promise of that 
peace for which he had sought so earnestly, 
and it is therefore interesting to find (Ore?, 
v. 323) that the queen's wedding-ring was 
made out of a ring with f a fair ruby ' which 
the cardinal had presented to the king on the 
day of his coronation. In the mysterious 
death of the Duke of Gloucester, which took 
place 23 Feb. 1447, Cardinal Beaufort cer- 
tainly could have had no part. Bitter as 
was the duke's enmity against him, Beaufort 
would never have done a deed which was so 
contrary to the interests of the Lancastrian 
dynasty, and which opened the way for the 
ambitious schemes of the rival house. A 
few weeks later, on 11 April, the great car- 
dinal died. The scene in which Shakespeare 
portrays (Second Part Hen. VI, act iii. 
sc. 3) ' the black despair ' of his death has 
no historical basis. Hall records some words 
of complaint and repentance which, he says, 
Dr. John Baker, the cardinal's chaplain, 
told him that his master uttered on his 
death-bed. In spite, however, of this au- 
thority, there is good reason for doubting 
the truth of the story. A short account of 
the cardinal's last days has been given us by 
an eye-witness (Cont. Cray land}. As he lay 
dying in the Wolvesey palace at Winchester, 
he had many men, monks and clergy and 
laymen, gathered in the great chamber where 
he was, and there he caused the funeral ser- 
vice and the requiem mass to be sung. 
During the last few days of his life he was 
busied with his will, and added the second 
of its two codicils on 9 April. In the even- 
ing before he died the will was read over to 
him before all who were in the chamber, 
and as it was read he made such corrections 
and additions as he thought needful. On 

the morning of the next day he confirmed it 
with an audible voice. Then he took leave 
of all, and so died. He was buried, accord- 
ing to his directions, in his cathedral church 
of Winchester. A large part of his great 
wealth was left for charitable purposes. 
When his executors offered the king 2,0007. 
from the residue of his estate, Henry refused 
it, saying, ' My uncle was very dear to me, 
and did me much kindness while he lived ; 
may the Lord reward him ! Do with his 
goods as ye are bound to do ; I will not have 
them' (BiAKMAtf, De Virtutibus Hen. VI}. 
At Winchester Beaufort finished the re- 
building of the cathedral, and re-founded 
and enlarged the hospital of St. Cross, near 
that city, giving it the name of Nova Domus 
Eleemosynaria Nobilis Paupertatis. Busied 
in the affairs of the world, he lived a secular 
life. In his early years he was the lover of 
Lady Alice Fitzalan, daughter of Richard, 
Earl of Arundel, and by her had a daughter 
named Joan, who married Sir Edward Strad- 
ling, knight, of St. Donat's, in the county 
of Glamorgan. Beaufort was ambitious, 
haughty, and impetuous. Rich and heaping 
up riches, he has continually been charged 
with avarice. He certainly seems to have 
clung unduly to his office as trustee of the 
! family estates of the house of Lancaster, 
I which must have given him command of a 
I considerable sum of money. Trading in 
money, he was not to blame if he took care 
that he should as far as possible be defended 
from loss, and if he loved it too well he at 
least made his country a gainer by his wealth. 
His speeches in parliament are marked by a 
constitutional desire to uphold the crown by 
the advice and support of the estates of the 
realm. He was unwearied in the business 
of the state and farsighted and patriotic in 
his counsels. Family relationships with 
foreign courts, as well as his position as 
cardinal, gave him a place in Europe such 
as was held by no other statesman, and 
made him the fittest representative of his 
country abroad. The events which followed 
his death are the best proofs of the wisdom 
of his policy and of his loyalty both to 
the crown and to the truest interests of 

[Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii.-v. ed. Sir 
H. Nicolas ; Eolls of Parliament, iii. iv.; Eymer's 
Fcedera, ix. x. ; Gesta Henrici V. eel. Williams, 
Eng. Hist. Soc. ; Thomas Otterbourne's Chron. 
ed. Hearne ; Thomas do Elmham's Vita, &c. ed. 
Hearne ; Letters illustrative of the Wars in 
France, ed. Stevenson, Eolls Ser. ; Historical 
Collections of a Citizen of London, ed. G-airdner, 
Camden Soc. ; Walsingham's Historia, John 
Amundesham's Annales, Chron. Monast. Sancti 


4 8 


Albani, ed. Riley, Rolls Ser. ; Hardyng's Chron. ; 
Hall's Chron. ; Cont. Croyland, Gale's Scriptores, 
i. ; Raynaldus, Eccl. Annales ; ^Eneas Sylvius, 
Historia Bohemica ; Andrew of Ratisbon, Hotter, 
Geschichtschreiber der Hussititchen Bewegung, 
ii. ; Duct's Life of H. Ghiehele, Abp. of Cant. 
1699 ; Godwin de Prsesulibus ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
ed. Hardy ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. ; Nichols's 
Royal Wills; Stubbs's Const. Hist. iii. c. 18 ; Ex- 
cerpta Historica, ed. Bentley ; Creighton's His- 
tory of the Papacy during- the Reformation.] 

BEAUFORT, JOHN (1403-1444), first 
DUKE OF SOMERSET, military commander, was 
the son of John Beaufort, eldest son of John 
of Gaunt, by Catherine Swynford, who was 
created Earl of Somerset and died in 1409. 
John the younger succeeded to the earldom 
on the death of his brother Henry in 1419. He 
was early inured to arms, and fought at the 
age of seventeen with Henry V in France. 
In 1421 the Duke of Clarence, the king's 
brother, being sent against the dauphin in 
Anjou, advanced rashly against him with 
his vanguard, and being surprised as he 
crossed a marsh was killed, and Somerset, 
who was with him, was taken prisoner, ' 
Speedily ransomed, the latter continued fight- 
ing in France under Henry VI, his nearness 
to the throne insuring him high command. 
But though made duke in 1443 and captain 
general in Aquitaine and Normandy, the 
Duke of York was preferred to him as regent 
of France. Somerset returned home in dis- 
gust and died the next year by his own 
hand it is said, being unable to brook the 
disgrace of banishment from court which his 
quarrel with the government had brought 
upon him. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Chronicles of Walsing- 
ham and Croyland.] H. A. T. 

was daughter and heiress to John, first duke 
of Somerset, by his wife Margaret, widow of 
:Sir Oliver St. John, and heiress to Sir J. j 
Beauchamp of Bletso. She was only three 
years old at the time of her father's death ; 
but her mother appears to have brought her 
up with unusual care until, in her ninth year, 
she was brought to court, having passed into 
the wardship of the Duke of Suffolk, then in 
the height of his power. He hoped to obtain 
her in marriage for his son, not without 
thought of her possible succession to the 
throne. On the other hand, Henry VI des- 
tined her for his half brother Edmund Tudor, 
Earl of Richmond. A vision inclined her to 
the latter suitor, and she was betrothed at once 
to him, and married in 1455. In the follow- 

ing year the Earl of Richmond died, leaving 
Margaret with an infant son. The breaking 
out of the war of the Roses endangered 
the safety of any related to the throne, and 
' the child-widow retired with the future 
! Henry VII to her brother-in-law's castle of 
I Pembroke. Here she remained after her 
| marriage with Henry Stafford, son of the 
| Lancastrian Duke of Buckingham, and here 
I she was detained in a kind of honourable 
confinement after the triumph of the Yorkists 
in 1461. The revolution of 1470 saw Mar- 
garet back at court ; but the speedy return 
of Edward IV, and his final victory at 
Tewkesbury, by making the young Earl of 
Richmond immediate heir to the Lancastrian 
title, increased his danger, and forced him to 
escape to Brittany. Margaret remained at 
home, and, though keeping up communica- 
tions with her exiled son, wisely effected a re- 
conciliation with the ruling powers, and took 
as her third husband the Lord Stanley, Ed- 
ward's trusted minister, afterwards Earl of 
Derby. The accession of Richard III (1483) 
and the consequent split in the Yorkist party 
raised the hopes of the Lancastrians, and 
Margaret, emerging from her accustomed re- 
tirement, took an active part in planning the 
alliance between her own party and that of 
the Wydviles by the marriage of Henry with 
Elizabeth of York, and in preparing for the 
abortive insurrection of 1484. Richard's 
parliament at once attainted Henry, and de- 
prived Margaret of her title and lands. Fur- 
ther persecution she was spared, for Richard, 
though he did not trust, dared not alienate 
her husband, Lord Stanley, to whom her 
lands were granted for his life, and her per- 
son to be kept 'in some secret place at home, 
without any servants or company, so that 
she might not communicate with her son.' 
Yet Stanley's growing sympathy with her 
cause enabled her to aid in the preparations 
for the rising of 1485, and his final defection 
from Richard's side on Bosworth field secured 
the throne to her son. After this she took 
no part in the active duties of government, 
and seldom appeared at court, except for the 
christening of a goddaughter or the knight- 
ing of a godson ; but the king deferred to 
her opinion, especially in matters of court 
etiquette, and their correspondence shows the 
respect he bore her, and that he never forgot 
that he derived his title through her, who, 
had there then existed a precedent for female 
succession, might herself have mounted the 
throne. Sharing to the full the religious 
spirit and strict orthodoxy of the Lancastrian 
house, a life of devotion and charity best 
suited her after the anxieties of her early life. 
' It would fill a volume,' says Stow, ' to re- 




count her good deeds.' She fell under the 
influence of John Fisher, who left his books 
at Cambridge to become her confessor ; and 
long before her husband's death, in 1504, 
she separated from him and took monastic 
vows. Yet she never retired to any of the 
five religious houses to which she was ad- 
mitted member, but lived for the most part 
at her manor of Woking, in Surrey, which 
had been seized and made a royal palace by 
Edward IV, and was restored, with its new 
building, to the countess when Henry VII 
became king. Following Fisher's advice, she 
instituted that series of foundations which 
have earned her a lasting name at the univer- 
sities as * the Lady Margaret.' Her divinity 
professorships at both Oxford and Cambridge 
date from 1502. Fisher was the first occupant 
of the latter chair, and when Henry VII, 
not without asking his mother's leave, made 
him bishop of Rochester, he was, after an in- 
terval, succeeded by Erasmus. The Cam- 
bridge preachership was endowed in 1503 ; 
but Fisher had still greater plans for the de- 
velopment of the university of which he was 
now chancellor. Margaret's religious bias 
had inclined her to devote the bulk of her 
fortune to an extension of the great monas- 
tery of Westminster. Her spiritual guide, 
strict Romanist as he was, knew that active 
learning, not lazy seclusion, was essential to 
preserve the church against the spirit of the 
Renaissance, and he persuaded her to direct 
her gift to educational purposes. Henry VI's 
uncompleted foundation of God's house at 
Cambridge was enriched by a fair portion of 
Margaret's lands, and opened as Christ's Col- 
lege in 1505. Nor were her benefactions to 
cease here. The careful son's full treasury 
did not require swelling with the mother's 
fortune. An educational corporation should 
be her heir. Her Oxford friends petitioned 
her on their behalf, and St. Frideswide's 
might have been turned into a college by 
Margaret, and not by Wolsey. But Fisher 
again successfully pleaded the cause of his 
own university, and the royal license to re- 
found the corrupt monastic house of St. John's 
as a great and wealthy college was obtained 
in 1508. In the next year both the king and 
the countess died, and Henry VIII, although, 
during the short interval which elapsed be- 
tween the death of his father and that of his 
grandmother, he followed the advice of the 
able councillors whom she had selected, tried 
to divert her estates to his own extravagant 
expenditure. His selfish intention was 
thwarted by Fisher, who proved an able 
champion of his benefactress's will, as he had 
been an eloquent exponent of her virtues in 
his funeral sermon. He obtained a peremp- 
VOL. iv. 

tpry papal bull, which Henry dared not re- 

sist, and the charter of foundation was given 

in 1511, the buildings being completed five 

years later at the then enormous cost of 

5,000/. St. John's College is the Lady Mar- 

garet's greatest monument, and possesses the 

best memorials of her life. Although her 

own contributions to literature are confined 

to translating part of the * Imitatio Christi ' 

and other books of devotion into English from 

j French editions, she was a valuable and early 

| patron to Caxton and Wynkyn de Worde, 

who undertook the composition and printing 

of several books at her special desire and 

command, the latter styling himself in 1509 

j ' Printer unto the most excellent princess 

, my lady the king's grandame.' She was one 

| of the few worthy and high-mindsd members 

; of the aristocracy, in an essentially selfish 

I and cruel age ; and Fisher scarcely exagge- 

: rated her reputation when he declared : ' All 

England for her death had cause of weeping. 

i The poor creatures that were wont to receive 

her alms, to whom she was always piteous 

and merciful : the students of both univer- 

sities, to whom she was a mother; all the 

learned men of England, to whom she was a 

, very patroness; all the virtuous and devout 

persons, to whom she was as a loving sister; 

j all the good religious men and women, whom 

i she so often was wont to visit and comfort ; 

i all good priests and clerks, to whom she was 

a true defender ; all the noble men and 

women, to whom she was a mirror and 

exampler of honour ; all the common people 

of this realm, for whom she was, in their 

causes, a common mediatrix, and took right 

: great displeasure for them ; and generally 

| the whole realm hath cause to complain and 

to mourn her death.' To the list of her bene- 

factions must be added a school and chantry 

I at Wimborne Minster, where her father and 

| mother lay buried beneath the stately monu- 

| ment she erected to their memory, and a sum 

for perpetual masses to her family at West- 


[Halsted's Life of Margaret, Countess of 

Richmond. 1839; Cooper's Memoir of Margaret, 

Countess of Richmond and Derby, edited by 

Rev. J. E. B. Mayor, 1874; Baker's edition of 

| Fisher's Funeral Sermon, re-edited by J. Hy- 

I mers, 1840; Ellis's Original Letters, Series I. 

!'i. 41-8; Lodge's Illustrious Portraits, vol. i.] 

H. A. T. 

^ BEAUFORT, SIR THOMAS (d. 1427), 
DUKE OP EXETER, warrior and chancellor, was 
the third and youngest son of John of Gaunt 
by Catherine Swynford, and was called, like 
his brothers, ' De Beaufort,' after his father's 
castle of that name. With them he was le- 
gitimated by Richard II in 1397 (Rot. Parl 





iii. 343), and from that king he shortly after 
received a grant of Castle Acre (Pat. 22 
Ric. II, p. 1, m. 11). As a half-brother of 
Henry IV he was promoted by him in state 
employment, being made constable of Ludlow 
in 1402, and admiral of the fleet for the 
northern parts in 1403 (Pat. 5 Hen. IV, p. 1, 
m. 20). In the insurrection of 1405 he was 
one of the commanders of the king's forces 
against the northern rebels, and on their sur- 
render took a chief part (Ann. Hen. 408-9) 
in procuring the execution of Scrope and 
Mowbray (8 June 1405). On 9 Feb. 1407 
his legitimation was confirmed by Henry, and 
he had a grant soon after of the forfeited 
Bardolph estates in Norfolk, and was made 
captain of Calais. In 1408-9 he was made 
admiral of the northern and western seas for 
life, and on the anti-clerical reaction of 1409 
he received from Henry the great seal 31 Jan. 

1410, being the only lay chancellor of the 
reign (Claus. 11 Hen. IV, m. 8 dors.). In 
1411 he asked leave to resign, but was refused 
(ib. 12 Hen. IV, m. 9), and he opened and 
adjourned the parliament of 5 Nov.-19 Dec. 

1411. He was allowed to resign 5 Jan. 1412 
(Rot. Parl. iii. 658), and, taking part a few 
months later in the French expedition under 
the Duke of Clarence (T. WALS. ii. 288), was 
created earl of Dorset 5 July 1412. On the ac- 
cession of Henry V (1413) he was made lieu- 
tenant of Aquitaine (Rot. Vase. 1 Hen. V, 
m. 8), and was associated in the embassy to 
France in 1414. Accompanying Henry on 
the invasion of the next year, he was appointed 
captain of Harfleur (T. WALS. ii. 309) on its 
surrender (22 Sept. 1415), and, after com- 
manding the third line at Agincourt (25 Oct. | 
1415), sallied forth with his garrison and | 
ravaged the Caux close up to Rouen (ib. 314). j 
Armagnac early in 1416 besieged him closely 
by land and sea, but having been relieved 
by a fleet under the Duke of Bedford [see 
PLANTAGENET, JoHtf, duke of Bedford] he 
engaged and defeated the French (ib. 315). 
He had been made lieutenant of Normandy 
28 Feb. 1416, and on 18 Nov. he was created 
in parliament duke of Exeter for life (Pat. 4 
Hen. V, m. 11), and also received the garter. 
In the summer of 1417 he went on pilgrimage 
to Bridlington, and, hearing of the Foul Raid 
and the siege of Roxburgh by the Scots, raised 
forces (the king being in Normandy) and re- 
lieved Roxburgh (T. WALS. ii. 325). At 
Henry's summons he passed over to Nor- 
mandy about Trinity (May) 1418, at the 
head of reinforcements 15,000 strong (ib. 
328). He besieged and took Evreux (ib. 
329), but failed to take Ivry. He was now 
(1 July 1418) created by Henry count of 
Harcourt in Normandy (Rot. Norm. 6 

Hen. V). On the approach of Henry to 
Rouen he sent forward the duke to recon- 
noitre and summon the town to surrender 
(20-29 July 1418). On the siege being 
formed he took up his quarters on the north, 
facing the ' Beauvoisine ' gate. The keys of' 
Rouen were given up to Henry 19 Jan. 1419, 
and handed by him to his uncle, the duke, 
whom he made captain of the city, and who- 
took possession of it the next day. He was 
then despatched to reduce the coast towns. 
Montivilliers was surrendered to him 31 Jan. 
(1419), and Fecamp, Dieppe, and Eu rapidly 
followed. In the following April he laid siege- 
to Chateau-Gaillard, which surrendered to 
him after a five months' leaguer 23 Sept. 
(1419). In the spring he was sent to the 
French court to negotiate the treaty of Troyes- 
(21 May 1420), and in the autumn he took 
part in the siege of Melun (T. WALS. ii. 335), 
On Henry's departure he was left with the 
Duke of Clarence, and was made prisoner on 
his defeat at Bauge" (22 March 1421). Re- 
gaining his liberty he was despatched to 
Cosne with the relieving force in the summer 
of 1422 (ib. 343), but, being one of Henry's 
executors, returned to England at his death 
(21 Sept. 1422), and was present at his ob- 
sequies. The chroniclers differ as to the 
king's instructions (see STTTBBS, Const. Hist. 
iii. 92) ; but it seems probable that he en- 
trusted his son to 

Thomas Beauforde his uncle dere and trewe 
Duke of Excester, full of all worthyhode. 

HAEDYNG, p. 387. 

It is certain that the duke was placed on 
the council under Gloucester's protectorate 
(Rot. Parl. iv. 175), and he was also appointed 
justice of North Wales (Pat. 1 Hen. VI, 
p. 3, m. 14). He seems, however (Rot. Franc. 
5 Hen. VI. m. 18), to have returned to the 
French wars before his death, which took place 
at his manor of Greenwich about 1 Jan. 1427 
(Esch. 5 Hen. VI, n. 56) By his will (given 
in Dugdale) he desired to be buried at St. 
Edmund's Bury, where, 350 years later, his 
body was found t as perfect and entire as at 
the time of his death.' He had married Mar- 
garet, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Nevill 
of Hornby, but he left no issue. 
_ [Thomas of Walsingham (Rolls Series) ; Ho- 
! linshed's Chronicle; Stow 's Chronicle; Chronicque 
d'Enguerrand de Monstrelet ; Poem on the Siege 
of Kouen (Archseologia, vols. xxi, xxii) ; Dug- 
dale's Baronage (inaccurate), ii. 125; Bent- 
ley's Excerpta Historica, pp. 152 sq. ; boss's 
Judges of England (1845), ii. 151 ; Puiseux's 
i Siege et Prise de Rouen (1867).] J. H. R. 

BEAUFOY, HENRY (d. 1795), whig 
politician, was the son of a quaker wine 
( merchant in London, who, to provide him 


5 1 


with a liberal education, sent him first 
(1765-7) to the dissenting- academy at Hox- 
ton, and afterwards (1707-70) to the more 
famous Warrington academy, at the head of 
which was Dr. Aikin [see AIKIN, Joutf, D.D.]. 
His education gave him a taste for science, 
and identified him with the politics of liberal 
dissent. He sat in parliament nearly fifteen 
years, being elected for Minehead in 1780, 
for Great Yarmouth in 1784, and again on 
18 June 1790. On 10 March 1786 he was 
placed on the committee for the establish- 
ment of a new dissenting academy, and gave 
100/. towards the institution, which was 
opened as the Hackney College on 29 Sept. 
1787. The dissenters placed in his hands 
the advocacy of their case against the Cor- 
poration and Test Acts, the repeal of which 
he moved on 28 March 1787, and again on 
8 May 1789. Next year Fox took the initia- 
tive, and Beaufoy seconded his motion. He 
held the post of secretary to the board of 
control. He was roughly handled in cross- 
examination by Home Tooke, on his trial 
for high treason (November 1794), and this is 
supposed to have hastened his death, which 
took place on 17 May 1795. He wrote: 
1. 'The Effects of Civilisation on the Real 
Improvement and Happiness of Mankind, in 
answer to Rousseau,' 1768 (this was an aca- 
demical oration at Warrington, published 
by his father). 2. ' Substance of the Speech 
on motion for Repeal of Test and Corpo- 
ration Acts/ 1787, 8vo. 3. 'Substance of 
the Speech to British Society for Extend- 
ing the Fisheries,' 1788, 8vo. 4. 'Plan of 
the Association for Promoting the Discovery 
of the Interior Parts of Africa/ 1788, folio. 
5. ' Speech [18 June] in Committee on Bill 
for Regulating the Conveyance of Negroes 
from Africa to the West Indies ; with addi- 
tional observations/ 1789, 8vo. 6. ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Association for Promoting 
the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa/ 
vol. i., 1790, 8vo (the first report is his). 

[Gent. Mag. May 1795, p. 445 ; W. Turner in 
Monthly Repos. 1814, pp. 268, 290; Norf. Tour, 
1829, p. 263 ; Hackney Coll. Reports.] A. G. 

BEAUFOY, MARK (1764-1827), astro- 
nomer and physicist, was the son of a brewer 
near London, of the quaker persuasion. He 
began experiments on the resistance of water 
to moving bodies before he was fifteen, in the 
coolers of his father's brewhouse, and it was 
mainly by his exertions that the Society for 
the Improvement of Naval Architecture was 
founded in 1791. Under its auspices an im- 
portant series of experiments was conducted 
at the Greenland Dock during the years 1793-8 
by the care, and in part at the cost, of Colonel 

Beaufoy. Many useful results in shipbuilding 
were thus obtained, as well as the first prac- 
tical verification in England of Euler's theo- 
rems on the resistance of fluids. The details 
were printed in 1834, at the expense of Mr. 
Henry Beaufoy (son of the author), in a large 
quarto volume entitled ' Nautical and Hy- 
draulic Experiments, gratuitously distributed 
to public bodies and individuals interested 
in naval architecture. In the laborious cal- 
culations connected with this work, Beaufoy 
was materially assisted, up to the time of 
her unexpected death in 1800, by his gifted 
wife. His magnetic observations, prolonged 
(though not altogether continuously) from 
March 1813 to March 1822, were superior in 
accuracy and extent to any earlier work of 
the kind. They served to determine more 
precisely the laws of the diurnal variation, 
as well as to fix the epoch and amount of 
maximum westerly declination in England. 
This he considered to have occurred in March 
1819, for which month the mean deviation 
of the needle from the true north was 
24 41' 42" W. (Annals of Philosophy, xv. 
338). The data accumulated by Beaufoy en- 
abled Lamont in 1851 to confirm his discovery 
of a decennial period in the amount of diurnal 
variation, by placing a maximum in 1817 
(Poyy. Annal. Ixxxiv. 576). 

Beaufoy removed from Hackney Wick to 
Bushey Heath near Stanmore in Hertford- 
shire towards the close of 1815. It was 
here that the series of observations on the 
eclipses of Jupiter's satellites was made, 
which the Astronomical Society rewarded 
with its silver medal on 11 April 1827. 
They embraced 180 immersions and emer- 
sions, observed 1818-26, and their value 
as Sir John Herschel pointed out in his ad- 
dress (Mem. R. A. Soc. iii. 135) was en- 
hanced by the uniformity imparted to them 
by being the work of one observer, using a 
single telescope (a 5-foot Dollond), and a 
single power (86). They were communicated 
to the society in two papers, printed amongst 
their ' Memoirs ' (ii. 129, iii. 69), and repro- 
duced in the ' Astronomische Nachrichten ' 
(Nos. 19 to 82), and gave to the little ob- 
servatory where they were made a Euro- 
pean reputation. Beaufoy was prevented 
by illness from attending in person to re- 
ceive the medal, and died at Bushey Heath 
on 4 May 1827, aged 63. His instruments, 
consisting of a 4-foot transit, an altitude 
and azimuth circle (both by Gary), and two 
clocks, were, by his desire, presented to the 
Astronomical Society by his son, Lieutenant 
George Beaufoy (Mem. H. A. Soc. iii. 391). 

Beaufoy 's military title dated from 20 Jan. 
1797, when lie became colonel of the Tower 




Hamlets militia. He was admitted to the 
Royal Society in 1815, was a fellow of the 
Liniiean Society, and one of the earliest 
members of the Astronomical Society. He 
was the first Englishman to ascend Mont 
Blanc, having reached the summit on 9 Aug. 
1787, only six days later than Saussure. 
His ' Narrative ' of the adventure was made 
public in 1817 (Ann. Phil. ix. 97). He 
was a constant contributor to the ' Annals 
of Philosophy' from 1813 until 1826. The 
whole of his astronomical, meteorological, 
and magnetic observations appeared in its 
pages, besides miscellaneous communica- 
tions of scientific interest, of which a list, 
to the number of twenty-eight, will be found 
in the Royal Society's ' Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Papers.' 

[Silliman's Am. Jour, xxviii. 340 (1835) ; 
Poggendorff ' s Biog. Lit. Handworterbuch ; Gent. 
Mag. xcvii. (pt. i.) 476.] A. M. C. 

BEAULIEU, LUKE DE (d. 1723), divine, 
a native of France, was educated at the uni- 
versity of Saumur. Obliged to quit his coun- 
try on account of his religion, he sought re- 
fuge in England about 1667, settled here, and 
rapidly became known as an acute and learned 
ecclesiastic. In November 1670 he received 
the vicarage of Upton-cum-Chalvey, Buck- 
inghamshire, having a short time before been 
elected divinity reader in the chapel of St. 
George at Windsor. Beaulieu obtained an act 
of naturalisation in June 1682. A year later 
we find him acting as chaplain to the infamous 
Judge Jeffreys, an office which he continued to 
hold till the revolution brought his patron's 
career to a close. Meanwhile he had become 
a student at Oxford in 1680, ' for the sake of 
the public library,' says Wood, but he does not 
seem to have permanently resided there. As 
a member of Christ Church he took the de- 
gree of B.C. 7 July 1685, and in October the 
same year was presented by Jeffreys to the 
rectory of Whitchurch, near Reading. He 
had resigned his living of Upton in 1681. 
He was installed prebendary of St. Paul's 
17 Jan. 1686-7, and on the following 21 May 
prebendary of Gloucester, promotions which 
he again owed to the lord chancellor. To 
modern readers Beaulieu is chiefly known as 
the author of a remarkably eloquent and 
original manual of devotion, entitled l Clau- 
strum Animse, the Reformed Monastery, or 
the Love of Jesus/ two parts, 12mo, London, 
1677-76, which reached a fourth edition in 
1699. This little work is dedicated, under the 
initials of L. B., to Dr. John Fell, bishop of 
Oxford, who was also dean of Christ Church, 
and to whom the author expresses himself 
under obligations. Beaulieu was afterwards 

I chosen one of the bishop's chaplains. He died 
j 26 May 1723, aged 78, and was buried on the 
I 30th at Whitchurch. His wife Priscilla was 
laid in the same grave 5 Dec. 1728. Their 
son, George de Beaulieu, matriculated at his 
father's college, Christ Church, took his B. A. 
degree in 1708, and entered into orders. He 
was buried with his parents 17 May 1736. 
The late Dr. George Oliver, of Exeter, pos- 
sessed some curious correspondence of Luke 
de Beaulieu with a certain Franciscan monk, 
in reference to devotional manuals and books 
of meditation, which is said to indicate ' the 
yet abiding influence of the Laudian revival 
up to that period.' 

Besides the above-mentioned work and 
several sermons Beaulieu was the acknow- 
ledged author of: 1. ' Take heed of both Ex- 
treams, or plain and useful Cautions against 
Popery and Presbytery, in two parts,' 8vo, 
London, 1675. 2. ' The Holy Inquisition, 
wherein is represented what is the religion 
of the church of Rome, and how they are dealt 
with that dissent from it,' 8vo, London, 1681. 
3. ( A Discourse showing that Protestants are 
on the safer side, notwithstanding the un- 
charitable judgment of their adversaries, and 
that their religion is the surest way to heaven/ 
4to, London, 1687, which has been twice re- 
printed. 4. ' The Infernal Observator, or the 
Quickning Dead/ 8vo, London, 1684, which, 
according to Wood, was originally written in 
French. Beaulieu also translated from the 
Latin Bishop Cosin's t History of Popish 
Transubstantiation/ 8vo, London, 1676. 

[Information from the Rector of Whitchurch ; 
Wood's Athen. Oxon.. ed. Bliss, iv. 668 ; Lips- 
comb's Hist. Buckinghamshire, iv. 573 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ed. Hardy, i. 450, ii. 
443 ; Agnew's Protestant Exiles, 2nd ed. i. 30, 
42, iii. 19 ; Hist. Reg. 1723, Chron. Diary, p. 29 ; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 307, 3rd. ser. vii. 
37-8 ; Introduction by F. Gr. L. to new edit, of 
the Reformed Monastery, 12mo, London (1865) ; 
Jones's Catalogue of Tracts for and against Po- 
pery (Chetham Soc.), pt. i. 237, ii. 382, 523.1 

Gr. Gr. 

draughtsman, aquatint engraver, and land- 
scape painter, was born in Piedmont, but 
naturalised in England. Between the years 
1787 and 1806 he published a great number 
of views in the south of France, in the Alps, 
and in Italy. The short account of him in 
Fiissli's ' Lexicon ' (1806) is the best : ' Pro- 
bably a Piedmontese, and the son of Claudio 
Francesco, he carried the sounding title of 
'Architecte pensionn<3 de S. M. le roi de 
Sardaigne a la suite de S. A. R. le due de 
Gloucester." In 1787 he exhibited a set of 
twelve views in Italy, mostly in the neigh- 




bourhood of Nice 

and in 1788 vet other 

twelve views 
bourhood of 
neva, drawn 

rs (mediocre enough) in the neigh- 
f Chamouny and the lake of Ge- 
and etched by himself. The 

value of these is due to the beautiful colour- 
ing added by Bernard Lory the elder. Soon 
after he betook himself and his landscape 
factory (Prospektfabrik) to London, and 
there associated himself with a certain Thomas 
Gowland as his partner, and Cornelius Apos- 
tool as engraver. In the last ten years of the 
eighteenth century this firm turned out a new 
series of views in Switzerland, France, anc 
Savoy, which are about on a level with their 
precursors, but had not the advantage 01 
Bernard Lory's tasteful brush. It must be 
acknowledged, however, that the clean firm 
lines of Apostool's needle add as much to 
this series as the other lost from the flaccid 
and insecure draughtsmanship of Beaumont. 
A description of these plates and their prices 
(high at times) is found in Meusel's Museum. 
He afterwards took to landscape painting, 
exhibiting in 1806 <A Storm at Sea/ in 
which the waves are said to have been drawn 
with great truth. A list of his works is in 
the new edition of Nagler, 1881, and a rather 
long account of him in the old, 1835. 

[Fiissli's Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexicon, 1806 ; 
Meusel's Museum, xiv. 36-38 ; Meusel's Neue 
Miscel. 476, 477 ; Nagler' s Kiinstler-Lexicon, 
1835 and 1881.] E. K. 

BEAUMONT, BASIL (1669-1703), rear- 
admiral, was the fifth son, amongst the 
twenty-one children, of Sir Henry Beaumont, 
of Stoughton Grange and Cole Orton, a dis- 
tant cousin of the Duke of Buckingham 
(BTJRKE'S Peerage and Baronetage, and GAR- 
DINER'S Hist, of England, ii. 317). Of his 
early service in the navy there is no record : 
it was short and uneventful, and on 28 Oct. 
1688 he was appointed lieutenant of the 
Portsmouth. Six months later, 21 April 
1689, he was appointed captain of the Cen- 
turion, which ship was lost in Plymouth 
Sound in a violent storm on 25 Dec. of the 
same year. Although so young a captain, 
no blame attached to him. He was accord- 
ingly appointed, after some months, to the 
Dreadnought, and early in 1692 was trans- 
ferred to the Rupert, in which ship he took 
part in the battle of Barfleur. He continued 
in the Rupert during the following year; 
and in 1694 commanded the Canterbury in 
the Mediterranean. In 1696 he commanded 
the Mountagu, in the fleet cruising in the 
Channel and oft* Ushant, and was for a short 
time detached as commodore of an inshore 
squadron. He was afterwards transferred, 
at short intervals, to the Neptune, Essex, 

and Duke, whilst in command of the squa- 
dron off Dunkirk, during the remainder of 1 696 
and till the peace. In November 1698 he 
was appointed to the Resolution, and during 
the next year was senior officer at Spithead, 
with a special commission for commanding 
in chief and holding courts-martial (23 Feb. 
1698-9). In the end of August he was or- 
dered to pay the ship off". He commissioned 
her again some months later, and continued 
in her for the next two years, for a great 
part of which time he lay in the Downs, 
commanding as he wrote 'a number ol 
ships of consequence, with no small trouble 
and a good deal of charge,' on which he re- 
ferred it to the lord high admiral, ' if this 
does not require more than barely command- 
ing as the eldest captain ' (9 April 1702). 
His application did not meet with immediate 
success ; in June he was turned over to the 
Tilbury, and continued to command the 
squadron in the Downs, at the Nore, and 
in the North Sea, till, on 1 March 1702-3, 
he was promoted to be a rear-admiral, and 
directed to hoist his flag on board the Mary, 
then fitting out at Woolwich. His rank, 
not his service, was altered. During the 
summer he cruised in the North Sea and off 
Dunkirk, or convoyed the Baltic trade ; on 
the approach of winter he returned to the 
Downs, where he anchored on 19 Oct. He 
was still there on 27 Nov., when the great 
storm which 'o'er pale Britannia passed,' 
hurled the ship on to the Goodwin Sands. 
Every soul on board, the admiral included, 
was lost. The circumstances of his death 
have given to Admiral Beaumont's name a 
wider repute than his career as an officer 
would have otherwise entitled it to ; his ser- 
vice throughout was creditable, without 
being distinguished ; and the only remark- 
able point about it is that, after having held 
mportant commands, he attained flag-rank 
within fifteen years of his entry into the 
service, and when he was not yet thirty-four 
years of age. Two younger brothers, who 
had also entered the navy, had previously 
died ; one, William Villiers, a lieutenant, 
lad died of fever in the W'est Indies, 17 July 
1697; the other, Charles, was lost in the 
blowing up of the Carlisle, 19 Sept. 1700 ; 
and their mother, Lady Beaumont, after the 
death of the rear-admiral, memorialised the 
queen, praying for relief. As Lady Beau- 
mont's second son, George, who, on the death 
>f his elder brother, had succeeded to the title 
ind estates, was unmarried and appointed a 
ord commissioner of the admiralty in 1714, 
the implied statement that the family was 
dependent on Basil is curious. The petition, 
lowever, was successful, and a pension of 




50/. a year was granted to each of the six 

Beaumont's portrait, by Michael Dahl, 
is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich, to 
which it was presented by King George IV ; 
it is that of a comely young man, who 
might have become very stout if he had 

[Official documents in the Public Eecord 
Office.] J. K L. 

judge, was the eldest son of John Beaumont, 
sometime master of the rolls, by his second 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of William Hast- 
ings. His father was removed from the bench 
in 1552 for scandalously abusing his position 
[see BEAUMONT, JOHN]. Of Francis s early 
education nothing is recorded. He appears 
as a fellow-commoner of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, when Elizabeth visited the university. 
There is no entry of his matriculation, nor 
of his having graduated. He studied law in 
the Inner Temple, was called to the bar, and 
practised with success and reputation. He 
represented Aldborough in the parliament of 
1572. In 1581 he was elected autumn reader 
in the Inner Temple. In 1589 he was called 
to the degree of serjeant-at-law (NICHOLS'S 
Leicestershire, iii. 655). He was promoted to 
the bench as a judge of the common pleas 
on 25 Jan. 1592-3. He was never knighted: 
he is described in his will, made the day 
before his death, as l Esquire.' 

He married Anne, daughter of Sir George 
Pierrepoint, knt., of Holme-Pierrepoint, Not- 
tinghamshire, and widow of Thomas Thorold, 
of Marston, Lincolnshire. She predeceased 
him. They had a family of three sons and 
one daughter. The sons were Henry, who 
was knighted in 1603 and died in 1605, 
setat. 24 ; John [see BEAUMONT, SIR JOHN] ; 
Francis, the great dramatist [q. v.]. The 
daughter was Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Sey- 
liard, of Kent. Beaumont died at Grace-Dieu 
on 22 April 1598, and was buried on 12 June 
following, with heraldic attendance, in the 
church of Belton, within which parish Grace- 
Dieu lies. Burton, the historian of Leicester- 
shire, who was three-and-twenty when Beau- 
mont died, calls him a f grave, learned, and 
reverend judge.' 

[Cooper's Athen. Cantab, ii. 246 ; Dyce's Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's Works, i. xix, xxii, Ixxxvii, 
Ixxxxix ; Introduction to Dr. Grrosart's edition 
of the Poems of Sir John Beaumont in Fuller's 
Worthies Library (1869) ; Cal. Chanc.Proc.temp. 
Eliz. i. 61 ; Coke's Beports, ix. 138 ; Foss's Judges 
of England, v. 408, 411, 414, 421, 456 ; Dugdale's 
Orig. Jurid. 166, 186 ; Chron. Ser. 98 ; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, iii. 649, 655, 656, 666*, and pi. 

Ixxvii. ng. 4; Originalia Eliz. p. 3, r. 126; Strype's 
Annals, iii. 92 ; Talbot Papers, GK 472, 505, 529, 
H. 207 ; Willis's Not. Parl. iii. (2) 95.] A. B. G-. 

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS (1584-1616), 
dramatist, was the third son of Francis 
Beaumont, the judge of the common pleas, 
and younger brother of Sir John Beaumont 
[see BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, d. 1598, and BEAU- 
MONT, SIK JOHN, 1583-1627]. He was 
doubtless born at Grace-Dieu, Leicestershire, 
the family seat. The baptismal registers of 
Grace-Dieu and Belton contain, however, no 
Beaumont entries of service to us ; but the 
rite may have been administered in the me- 
tropolis, where was the father's permanent 
residence. Thomas Bancroft (in his Epi- 
grams, 1639, B. i. Ep. 81), expressly connects 
all the well-known members of the family 
with Grace-Dieu in the lines : 

Grace-dieu, that under Charnwood stand'st 

alone . . . 

That lately brought such noble Beaumonts forth, 
Whose brave heroick Muses might aspire 
To match the anthems of the heavenly quire. 

The entry of Francis's matriculation in the 
Oxford university register establishes the 
date of his birth. It runs : Broadgates [after- 
wards Pembroke College], 1596-[7], Feb. 4. 
Francisc. Beaumont Baron, fil. eetat. 12. 
The age is dated by the last birthday, so 
that he must have been born in 1584. 

In the second year of his academic course 
at Oxford his father died (22 April 1598), 
and, with his brothers Henry and John 
[q. v.], he then abruptly left the university 
without taking a degree. Beaumont was 
'entered a member of the Inner Temple, 
3 Nov. 1600 ; ' but no evidence remains that 
he pursued his legal studies. Judging from 
after-events and occupations, he was (it is to 
be suspected) more frequently within the 
' charmed circle ' of the Mermaid than in 
chambers. Very early both his elder brother 
Sir John and himself were bosom friends of 
Drayton and Ben Jonson. The former, in 
his epistle to Reynolds ' Of Poets and Poetry,' 
thus boasts of their friendship : 
Then the two Beaumonts and my Browne arose,. 
My dear companions, whom I freely chose 
My bosom friends ; and in their several ways 
Rightly born poets, and in these last, days 
Men of much note and no less nobler parts, 
Such as have freely told to me their hearts, 
As I have mine to them. 

Francis's earliest known attempt in verse 
was the little address placed by him before 
Sir John Beaumont's ' Metamorphosis of 
Tobacco ' (1602). It already shows the in- 
evitable touch of a master, but is mainly 
interesting for its timorous entrance into 




that realm of poetry whereof its writer was 
destined to be a sovereign. Later in the same 
year (1602) the young poet grew bolder and 
published 'Salmacis and Hermaphroditus.' 
Mr. A. 0. Swinburne (in Encyc. Brit.) has 
described this poem as ' a voluptuous and 
voluminous expansion of the Ovidian legend, 
not on the whole discreditable to a lad of 
.seventeen [eighteen] fresh from the popular 
love poems of Marlowe and Shakespeare, 
which it necessarily exceeds in long-winded 
.and fantastic diffusion of episodes and con- 
ceits.' Early in 1613 he wrote a masque for 
the Inner Temple. 

Beaumont must shortly afterwards have 
come to know Ben Jonson. One priceless 
memorial of their friendship belongs to 1607 
in a commendatory poem prefixed to Jonsou's 
masterpiece, ' The Fox,' acted in 1605. In 
this beautiful encomium Beaumont addresses 
the author as his 'dear friend.' In 1609, 
before Jonson's ' Silent Woman,' and in 1611, 
before his l Catiline,' Beaumont was again 
ready with commendatory verses, though 
unequal to those of the ' Fox.' Some have 
-supposed that Beaumont did more for Jonson 
than these slight things that he helped him 
to prepare the version of his 'Sejanus' acted 
in 1603 (cf. JONSON'S address ' to the readers ' 
in edition of 1605). But more probably Jon- 
son's assistant there was George Chapman. 

There is no record of the circumstances 
under which Beaumont and Fletcher first I 
met. Jonson may have introduced them to ! 
ach other, but nothing certain is known. 
But that their warm and close friendship 
dated from their early youth there can be 
little question. ' There was,' says the 
all-inquiring Aubrey, 'a wonderfull consi- 
mility of phansy between him [Beaumont] 
and Mr. lo. Fletcher, which caused that 
dearnesse of friendship between them. . . . 
They lived together on the Banke side [in 
South wark], not far from the playhouse 
[Globe], both batchelors, lay together, had 
one wench [servant-maid] in the house, 
between them, which they did so admire, 
the same cloaths and cloake, &c. between 
them ' (Letters, ii., part i., p. 236). The lite- ' 
rary partnership, born of this close intimacy, 
was not one of the sordid arrangements 
made between needy playwrights of which 
Henslowe's ' Diary ' gives many examples ; j 
it arose at their own, not at any theatrical | 
manager's prompting. In worldly matters ' 
Beaumont, though a younger son, had on 
the death of his eldest brother Sir Henry, 
in 1605, shared the surplusage of the estate, 
over and above his own direct inheritance, 
along with Sir John. Fletcher latterly at 
least may have had his difficulties, but so 

long as Beaumont lived these could not have 
pressed on him very heavily. 

The numerous conjoint works of Beaumont 
and Fletcher ranged from about 1605-6 to 
1616. The question as to the share taken 
by the two authors will be discussed under 

Beaumont, in his occasional retirements 
from the capital to Grace-Dieu, apparently 
carried Fletcher with him. His verse ' Letter 
to Ben Jonson,' most probably written from 
Leicestershire, leaves the impression that the 
two friends were then together. This letter 
furnishes the best-remembered example of 
Beaumont's non-dramatic verse in the un- 
dying description of the wit-combats between 
Shakespeare and Jonson and their fellows. 
Ben Jonson in reply to these verses paid a 
high tribute to their author. 

It seems to be agreed that Beaumont 
married 'about 1613' (DrCE, i. li). His 
wife was Ursula, daughter and coheiress to 
Henry Isley,of Sundridge in Kent, an ancient 
though then decayed house (HASTED, Kent, 
i. 368-9). Two daughters were their issue, 
Elizabeth and Frances, the latter born after 
her father's death. Elizabeth married 'a, 
Scotch colonel,' and was resident in Scot- 
land in March 1681-2. Frances was living 
at a great age in Leicestershire in 1700, and 
then receiving a pension of 100/. from the 
Duke of Ormond, in whose family she had 
been domesticated as, probably, lady's maid 
(DrcE, i. lii, and authorities). 

The married life was a brief one, for 
Francis Beaumont died on 6 March 1615-16, 
and was, like his elder brother, interred in 
Westminster Abbey. The following is the 
entry in the register : ' 9 March 1615-16. 
Francis Beaumont : at the entrance of St. 
Benedict's Chapel' (CHESTER, Westminster 
Register). He left no will, but his widow 
administered his estate 20 June 1619. Dray- 
ton ascribed the elder brother's death to a too 
' fiery brain ' or overwrought body. Similarly 
Bishop Corbet sang of the younger : 

So dearly hast thou bought thy precious lines ; 
Their praise grew swiftly, as thy life declines. 
Beaumont is dead, by whose sole death appears, 
Wit's a disease consumes men in few years. 

DYCE, i. lii. 

Beaumont's successive ' elegies ' and minor 
poems, written at various times, are in the 
aggregate inexplicably poor and unequal. 
Even with the ' sole daughter ' of a Sidney 
to inspire him, his ' mourning ' verse is me- 
chanical. It is alone as a dramatic poet that 
he lives. Two collections of poems, published 
after his death (1640 and 1653) and bearing 
his name, included miscellaneous waifs and 



strays by all manner of men, and very few 
are to be ascribed to his pen. 

The first collected edition of Beaumont 
and Fletcher's plays appeared in 1647 under 
the title i Comedies and Tragedies written 
by Francis Beavmont and lohn Fletcher, 
Gentlemen. Never printed before, an$ now 
published by the Authours Originall Copies,' 
1647 (folio). Dyce's edition (11 vols. 1843) 
is the latest, and, like all texts edited by 
him, modernised. Beaumont and Fletcher, 
like Ben Jonson, still await a competent 
editor, for with its many merits Dyce's work 
lacks faithfulness and thoroughness of colla- 
tion. Hunter, in his ' Chorus Vatum,' notes 
Oldys's difficulty as to Beaumont's early 
poems, viz. that his name appears in Speght's 
* Chaucer ' (1598) ; but there was another 
earlier writer of the same name. 

[Burton's Leicestershire ; Nichols's Hist, of 
Leicestershire; Collier's Life of Shakespeare (cf. 
with Dyce's Beaumont and Fletcher, xi. 445) ; 
Malone's Shakespeare ; Barley's Introduction to 
the Works of Beaumont and Fletcher; Francis 
Beaumont, a critical study by G. C. Macaulay, 
1883 ; Jonson's Works by Cunningham, 3 A T O!S. ; 
Hallam's Introduction to the Literature of Europe, 
iii. 99 (ed. 1 843) ; Notes of Jonson's Conversa- 
tions with Drummond by Laing ; College of Arms 
MSS. ; Visitations of Leicestershire ; Thompson's 
Leicester; Davies's Scourge of Folly in his com- 
plete Works in Fuller's Worthies Library, 2 vols. 
4to; Hey wood's Hierarchie of the Blessed Angells, 
1635, p. 206.] A. B. G. 

LAND (1753-1827), connoisseur, patron 
of art and landscape painter, was the son 
of Sir George Beaumont, the sixth baronet, 
and Rachel, daughter of Michael Howland. 
of Stonehall, Dunmow, Essex, where he was 
born 6 Nov. 1753. He succeeded to the title 
in 1762, and was educated at Eton and New 
College, Oxford. In 1778 he married Mar- 
garet Willes, daughter of John Willes of As- 
trop, and granddaughter of Lord Chief Jus- 
tice Willes, and in 1782 made with her the 
tour of Italy. From his youth he had shown 
taste for literature and the fine arts, and cul- 
tivated the society of poets and painters, prac- 
tising himself the art of landscape painting. 
In 1790 he entered parliament, and was mem- 
ber for Beeralston till 1796. His social po- 
sition, wealth, and cultivation secured for 
him a distinguished position as a ruler of 
taste, and to these qualifications b^e added 
much personal attraction, being tall and good- 
looking, with polished manners and gentle 
address. In 1800, with the assistance of the 
architect Dance, he began to rebuild Coleor- 
ton Hall, where, according to the dedication 
of Wordsworth to the edition of his poems in 

1815, several of that poet's best pieces were 
composed. It was here also, after Sir George's 
death, that Wordsworth wrote his elegiac 
musings, a tender and eloquent tribute to the 
character and talents of his friend, and his 
noble ' Song at the Feast of Brougham Castle r 
was suggested by one of Beaumont's pictures. 
Sir George knew Dr. Johnson, was the in- 
timate friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and it 
was under his roof that Sir Walter Scott met 
Sir Humphry Davy, Samuel Rogers, and 
Byron, who satirised him in ' The Blues/ 
He encouraged Coleridge, and helped to pro- 
cure his pension. Sir George soon began to 
collect works of art, beginning with drawings 
by the English artists, Wilson, Gilpin, Hearne r 
Girtin, and others. To these he added slowly r 
and with good judgment, a fine but small 
collection of old masters, and of oil pictures 
by contemporary Englishmen. Haydon 
| (whose ' Macbeth ' he purchased) and Jack- 
I son were among the artists whom he specially 
\ befriended, and after John Robert Cozens be- 
I came insane he supported him till he died. 
Sir George was one of the first to detect the 
merits of Wilkie, and Edwin Landseer, and 
Gibson the sculptor. . It was for him that the 
first painted the < Blind Fiddler.' In 1818, 
I when Landseer was a lad of sixteen, he pur- 
chased the now celebrated picture of * Fight- 
ing Dogs,' and when in Rome in 1822 he gave 
Gibson a commission for the group of ' Psyche 
borne by Zephyrs.' It was here at the same 
I time that he purchased the beautiful un- 
| finished bas-relief, by Michael Angelo, of ' The 
i Virgin, the Holy Child, and St. John,' now 
I in the possession of the Royal Academy, to 
i whom it was presented by him. 

Sir George greatly admired the works of 
Wilson and Claude, and it was on these 
1 painters that he formed his own style ; but 
' though his landscapes show signs of poetical 
feeling, they did not rise above mediocrity in 
execution. This fact and his reported say- 
ings that ' a good picture, like a good fiddle, 
should be brown,' and that ' there ought to be 
, one brown tree in every landscape,' have cast 
undeserved ridicule upon his taste, which was 
unusually intelligent and independent for his 
time. This opinion is attested not only by 
the judgment shown in his collection, but by 
i his criticisms both of ancient and modern 
1 pictures. His lifelong devotion to art cul- 
' minated in the success of his endeavours to- 
j wards the formation of a national gallery. 
These were much assisted by his conditional 
offer to present his own collection to the na- 
I tion, and in 1826, or two years after the pur- 
i chase by the state of Mr. Angerstein s pictures 
(the nucleus of the present National Gallery), 
he added sixteen of his own, including four 





Claudes, two fine Rembrandts, Rubens's land- 
scape of 'The Chateau de Stem/ Wilson's 
' Maecenas's Villa ' and ' Niobe,' and Wilkie's 
< Blind Fiddler.' To one of the Claudes, 
now No. 61 in the National Gallery, he was 
so attached that he requested to have it re- 
turned to him for his lifetime. It was this 
picture probably, and not the 'Narcissus' 
(No. 19), as recorded by Cunningham, that 
he used to carry with him whenever he 
changed his residence from Coleorton Hall to 
Grosvenor Square, or vice versa. Sir George 
Beaumont died on 7 Feb. 1827, aged 74. 

[Cunningham's Lives, ed. Heaton ; Red- 
grave's Dictionary; Annals of the Fine Arts; 
Wordsworth's Poems (1813); Byron's Poems; 
Bos well's Life of Johnson ; Lockhart's Lite of 
Scott ; Catalogues of the National Gallery ; 
Burke's Peerage ; Annual Register, 1827.] 

C. M. 

BEAUMONT, JOHN (/. 1550), master 
of the rolls, was great-grandson of Sir Thomas 
Beaumont, of Bachuile, in Normandy, and 
great-great-grandson of John de Beaumont, 
baron, knight of the Garter, who died in 
1396. The barony, however, with which 
this unfortunate judge's family had thus been 
collaterally connected, had already fallen 
into abeyance in his time through the death 
of the seventh baron and second viscount 
without issue in 1507, the viscounty then 
becoming extinct. The sixth baron had 
been distinguished as the first viscount ever 
created in this country. The barony was 
claimed, but unsuccessfully, in 1798 by 
Thomas Stapleton, w T ho traced his descent 
to Joan Beaumont, sister and heir of the 
seventh baron. His grand-nephew, Miles 
Thomas Stapleton, father of the present 
baron, was successful in asserting his claim 
in 1840. The earliest mention of John 
Beaumont appears to be a memorandum in 
the books of the corporation of Leicester, 
under date 1529-30, to the following effect : 
' Agreed to give to John Beaumont, gent., 
6s. Sd. fee to answ r er in such causes as the 
town shall need and require.' In 1534, on 
the abbot of Leicester subscribing to the 
king's spiritual supremacy, a commission 
was appointed to take an ecclesiastical sur- 
vey of the county, and Beaumont was placed 
thereon. In 1537 he was appointed reader at 
the Inner Temple, and in 1543 double reader 
(duplex lector), as a person appointed for 
the second time was then called. In 1547 
he was elected treasurer of that society. His 
name is not to be found in the year books 
of Henry Til's reign, nor in any of the re- 
ports belonging to the reign of Edward VI. 
In 1550 he was appointed recorder of Lei- 

cester, and in the same year master of the 
rolls, in succession to Sir Robert Southwell. 
In this capacity he was commissioned to- 
hear causes for Lord Chancellor Rich, 26 Nov. 
1551, and for Lord Chancellor Goodrich, 
21 Jan. 1552. He had not, however, long- 
sat on the bench before he abused his posi- 
tion for his own advantage in the grossest 
possible manner. He concluded a corrupt 
bargain (known to lawyers as champerty) 
with Lady Anne Powis, who was suing in 
his court to recover possession of land to 
which she claimed to be entitled from Charles 
Brandon, duke of Suffolk, by which Lady 
Anne Powis agreed to sell the benefit of her 
suit, if she should be successful, to the judge 
for a sum of money. The selling of titles by 
persons not having possession of the lands is, 
even as between private individuals, a cor- 
rupt practice by English law, and a statute 
of Henry VIII renders either party to the 
contract liable to forfeit the full value of 
the lands. Beaumont, however, did not stop 
short at champerty. He endeavoured to cor- 
roborate Lady Powis's title by forging the 
signature of the late Duke of Suffolk to a 
deed by which that nobleman purported to 
grant the lands in question to the lady. He 
was also guilty of appropriating to his own 
use funds belonging to the royal revenues 
coming into his hands in his capacity of 
iudge of the court of wards and liveries 
(established by Henry VIII in 1540-41) to 
the amount of 20,871/. 18s. 8d., and of con- 
cealing a felony committed by his servant. 
On 9 February, i.e. when he had been in 
office little more than a year, he was ar- 
rested on these charges and put in prison. 
He subsequently (4 June) admitted their 
truth, but retracted his confession on the 
16th, only again to acknowledge his guilt on 
the 20th. Of that, however, there appears 
to have been no doubt from the first. His 
successor, Sir Robert Bowes, was nominated 
as early as 10 May. Beaumont formally sur- 
rendered his office, and admitted his defalca- 
tions on 28 May, and by the same document 
assigned all his manors, lands, goods and 
chattels, with the issues and profits of the 
same, to the king in satisfaction of his claims. 
On 4 June he acknowledged a fine of his 
lands, which were entailed upon himself and 
his wife, and signed a covenant to surrender 
his goods. By what may have been either a 
curious oversight or an intentional act of 
grace, his wife was not made a party to the 
fine, and by consequence on Beaumont's 
death her estate tail never having been 
barred ' survived ' to her. She entered within 
five years thereafter upon the estate of Grace- 
Dieu in Leicestershire, which Henry, earl of 



Huntingdon, to whom in 1553 it had been 
granted by the king, released to her. By 
this lady (named Elizabeth, and daughter of 
Sir William Hastings, knight; younger son 
of William, Lord Hastings) Beaumont had 
two sons, of whom the elder was Francis 
[see BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, d. 1598]. Of the 
younger, Henry, nothing seems to be known 
except that he was a member of the Inner 
Temple, died at the early age of forty-two, 
and was buried in the Temple Church. The 
family acquired further distinction in a legal 
aspect by a celebrated case decided in Lord 
Coke's time between Barbara, daughter of 
Sir Henry Beaumont, the eldest son of Sir 
Francis, the judge, and John, the second 
son of Sir Francis. Sir Henry had settled 
Orace-Dieu upon his heirs male, with re- 
mainder to his brother John and his heirs 
male. Accordingly on Sir Henry's death, 
John took possession, but Barbara being of 
tender years and ward to the king (James I) 
the question whether she was not entitled 
as tenant in tail under the original* settle- 
ment was raised and elaborately argued with 
the result that a new point in the law of 
settlement was established, viz. that the 
barring of an entail by one of two joint 
tenants in tail, while it is inoperative to put 
an end to the entail, is yet sufficient to pre- 
clude the issue from inheriting. 

[Nicolas's Hist. Peerage of England ; Nichols's 
County of Leicester, i. part ii. 274, 391, 393 ; 
Dugdale's Orig. 164, 170, 178; Dugdale's Chron. 
Series, 89 ; Eot. Pat. 4 Edward VI, p. 6, m. 24 ; 
Hardy's Cat. of Lords Chancellors, 62 ; King 
Edward's Journal in Burneb's Hist. Kef. Church 
Eng. Appendix, under date 1552, 9 Feb., 4, 16, 
and 20 June; Hayward's Life of Edward VI 
in Kennet's Hist. ii. [319].] J. M. K. 

BEAUMONT, SIK JOHN (1583-1627), 
poet, was the second son of Francis Beau- 
mont, judge [see BEAUMONT, FRANCIS]. His 
mother was Anne, daughter to Sir George j 
Pierrepoint, knt., of Holrne-Pierrepoint, Not- j 
tinghamshire, and relict of Thomas Thorold, I 
of Marston, Lincolnshire. He was born (pro- ' 
bably) at the family seat of Grace-Dieu, j 
Leicestershire, in 1582. There are no entries j 
of the baptisms of the Beaumonts at Grace- 
Dieu, the explanation being that the rite 
would most naturally be administered in the 
metropolis, where the judge resided perma- 
nently. According to the funeral-certificates 
in the College of Arms, John Beaumont, ' se- 
cond sonne,' was l at the tyme of the death 
of his father [22 April 1598] of the age of 
fourteen years or thereabouts' (NICHOLS, 
Leicestershire). He proceeded to Oxford in 
1596, and entered as a gentleman commoner 

at Broadgates Hall 4 Feb. 1596-7, when, 
according to Wood, he was ' aged fourteen ' 
(Athen. O.Ton. ed. Bliss, ii. 437, also 434-5). 
Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke College, was 
the principal nursery in Oxford for students 
of the civil and common law. With his 
brothers Henry and Francis, who went with 
him to Oxford, John quitted the university 
without taking a degree on the death of his 
father in 1598. Henry succeeded to his fa- 
ther's estates in Leicestershire ; was knighted 
in 1603, but died in 1605, aged twenty-four 
(DrCE, p. xxi), when John succeeded his 
brother. John, with his brother Henry, 
was admitted student of the Inner Temple 
in November 1547 (List of Students admitted 
to Inner Temple, 1571-1625, pp. 80, 82). 
But it appears that he soon gave up resi- 
dence in all likelihood on coming into pos- 
session on the death of Sir Henry. 

During his college residence, and while in 
London, he must have begun his poetic 
studies. l In his youth,' say Wood and the 
' Biographia Britannica ' and other authori- 
ties, ' he applied himself to the muses with 
good success' (Eiogr. Brit. (1747) i. 621). 
While in his twentieth year (1602) he pub- 
lished anonymously his 'Metamorphosis of 
Tobacco ' a mock-heroic poem ; and prefixed 
to it, among others, were dedicatory lines to 
Michael Drayton and the first printed verses 
of his brother Francis [q. v.]. 

In the same year (1602) appeared Francis 
Beaumont's ' Salmacis and Hermaphroditus,' 
and among the commendatory verses pre- 
fixed is a little poem signed ' I. B.' doubtless 
by his elder brother. 

The Duke of Buckingham was his patron, 
and introduced his poems to the king. A 
cavalier and a royalist, he was made a ba- 
ronet in 1626. But he was a puritan in 

He died, according to Anthony a Wood 
and all the old authorities, ' in the winter- 
time of 1628 ; ' but in the register of burials 
in Westminster Abbey it is stated that he 
was buried 19 April 1627, 'in the broad aisle 
on the south side ' of the Abbey. William 
Coleman, in his appendix to his { La Dance 
Machabre, or Death's Duell,' has some fine 
lines dedicated to his memory. 

He married a lady of the family of Fortes- 
cue, whose brother, George Fortescue, added 
a grateful and graceful poem to the posthu- 
mously published volume of Sir John's poems 
(1629). By her he had four sons John, 
Francis, Gervase, and Thomas. The first, 
who succeeded his father, and lovingly edited 
his poems, fell at the siege of Gloucester in 
the service of the king in 1644. Francis 
sometimes confounded with his uncle be- 




-came a Jesuit. Gervase died in his seventh 

year, and very pathetic is his father's poem to 
his memory. Thomas ultimately came into 
possession of the family property and title. 

Beaumont's son and heir, Sir John, piously 
prepared and published in 1629 his father's 
poems for the first time under the title : 
* Bos worth Field, with a Taste of the Variety 
of other Poems, left by Sir John Beaumont, 
Baronet, deceased : Set forth by his Sonne, 
Sir lohn Beaumont, Baronet : and dedicated 
to the Kings most excellent Maiestie.' ' Bos- 
worth Field ' is written in heroic couplets of 
ten syllables. The preserving fragrance of the 
book must be looked for, not in his secular, 
but in his sacred poems. Very strong reli- 
gious feeling is apparent in many of his 
poems, especially in his ' In Desolation,' ' Of 
the Miserable State of Man,' and ' Of Sinne.' 
The genuineness of his Christianity is well 
attested by the quotations made from his 
works by Dr. George Macdonald, in his ' An- 
tiphon' (pp. 143, 145). Beaumont's 'Act of 
Contrition,' 'Of the Epiphany,' 'Vpon the 
Two Great Feasts of the Annunciation and 
Resurrection,' and other of the 'Sacred 
Poems,' are of a high level for sincerity of 
sentiment and literary quality. 

It is commonly stated, even by Dyce, that 
Sir John Beaumont's poetry belonged solely 
to his youth. The dates and names of various 
of his elegies and other verses disprove this. 
He seems to have written poetry to the close. 
Throughout his life he yearned after a true 
joet's renown, and wrote : 

No earthly gift lasts after death but fame. 

His friend Michael Drayton referred in a 
poem written after his death to his thirst 
after celebrity : 

Thy care for that which was not worth thy 

Brought on too soon thy much-lamented death. 

The work upon which Sir John evidently 
put forth all his resources a poem entitled 
the ' Crown of Thorns : in eight books ' 
has unhappily disappeared. It must have 
been printed, for in his admirable elegy on 
Shakespeare's Earl of Southampton the au- 
thor thus refers to it : 

His onely mem'ry my poore worke adornes : 
He is a father to my crowne of thornes. 
Now since his death how can I ever looke 
Without some teares vpon that orphan booke ? 

Sir Thomas Hawkins also celebrates the 
poem. Sir John seems to have dedicated 
certain hours daily to the gratification of his 
literary tastes. lie tells us something of his 
studies in a letter prefixed to Edmund Bol- 
ton's ' Elements of Armories ' (1610). It is 

entitled ' A Letter to the Author, from the 
learned young gentleman I. B. of Grace-Dieu 
in the County of Leicester, Esquier.' 

Burton, the historian of Leicestershire, 
wrote of Sir John Beaumont : ' A gentleman 
of great learning, gravity, and worthiness ; 
the remembrance of whom I may not here 
omit, for many worthy respects ' (NICHOLS). 
Anthony a Wood remarks : ' The former part 
of his life he had fully employed in poetry, 
and the latter he as happily bestowed on 
more serious and beneficial studies, and had 
not death untimely cut him off in his middle 
age he might have prov'd a patriot, being ac- 
counted at the time of his death a person of 
great knowledge, gravity, and worth' (Athence 
Oxon. ii. 434-5). 

[Dr. Grosart's Introduction to the first col- 
lected edition of Sir John Beaumont's work in 
Fuller's Worthies Library, where all that is 
known of the poet may be found; Hunter's 
MS. Chorus Vatum; Campbell's Specimens; 
Wordsworth's Poems.] A. B. G. 

BEAUMONT, JOHN (A. 1701), colonel, 
was the second son of Sapcote Beaumont, 
Viscount Beaumont of Swords, Leicester- 
shire, and Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Monson of Carleton, Lincolnshire (ped. in 
NICHOLS'S Leicestershire, iii. 744). He at- 
tended Charles II in his exile, and was 
employed at court under James II; but, 
notwithstanding this close connection with 
royalty, he was instrumental in thwarting 
the policy of the king in a matter deemed 
of the highest importance. With, it was 
supposed, an ulterior design of gradually 
leavening the army with Roman catholic 
sentiments, the experiment was attempted 
(10 Sept. 1688) of introducing forty Irish- 
men into the regiment of which the Duke 
of Berwick was colonel, then stationed at 
Portsmouth. Beaumont, who was lieute- 
nant-colonel, resisted the proposal in his own 
name and that of five of the captains. ' We 
beg,' he said, 'that we may be either per- 
mitted to command men of our own nation or 
to lay down our commissions.' At the court- 
martial which followed they were offered 
forgiveness if they would accept the men, 
but they all refused, whereupon they were 
cashiered, the highest punishment a court- 
martial was then competent to inflict. In 
Clarke's ' Life of James II ' (ii. 169) it is 
affirmed that Churchill (afterwards Duke of 
Marlborough) moved that they should be 
put to death, but this is apparently a base- 
less calumny. The resistance of the officers 
was supported by the general sentiment of 
the army, and no further attempts were made 
to introduce Irishmen into the English regi- 



ments. All the portraits of the officers were 
engraved by R. White on one large half-sheet 
in six ovals, joined by as many hands expres- 
sive of their union. The print, which is called 
the ' Portsmouth Captains,' is extremely 
scarce (GRANGER, Biog. Hist., 2nd ed., iv. 300). 
Colonel Beaumont was with the Prince of 
Orange at his first landing. After the coro- 
nation he was made colonel of the regiment 
of which he had previously been lieutenant- 
colonel, and served with it in Ireland, where 
he was present at the battle of the Boyne, in 
Flanders, and in Scotland, holding his com- 
mand till December 1695 (LTITTRELL, Rela- 
tion of State Affairs, iii. 564). He was also 
for some time governor of Dover Castle. In 
1685 he was chosen M.P. for Nottingham, 
and he was returned for Hastings in 1688 
and 1690. In May 1695 he fought a duel 
with Sir William Forrester, ' occasioned by 
some words between them in the parliament 
house, and the latter was disarmed ' (ib. iii. 
468). Beaumont died on 3 July 1701. He 
was twice married : first, to Felicia, daughter 
of Mr. Hatton Fermor of Easton Neston, and 
widow of Sir Charles Compton, and, second, 
to Phillipe, daughter of Sir Nicholas Carew 
of Bedington, Surrey, but by neither had he 
any issue. 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, iii. 738-9, 744 ; 
Luttrell's Eelation of State Affairs (1857); 
Keresby's Memoirs (1875), pp. 402, 403 ; History 
of the Desertion (1689); Burnet's Own Time, 
i. 767 ; Clarke's Life of James II ; Granger's 
Biog. Hist., 2nd ed., iv. 306 ; Macaulay's p]ng- 
land, chaps, ix. and xvi. : Townsend- Wilson's 
James II and the Duke of Berwick (1876), pp. 
78-9.] T. F. H. 

BEAUMONT, JOHN (d. 1731), geologist, 
lived a retired life at Stone-East on, Somerset- 
shire, where he practised as a surgeon. His 
letters to the Royal Society in 1676 and 1683 
on the ' Rock-plants growing in the Lead Mines 
of MendipHills' attracted much attention, and 
their author was advised by Dr. Robert Hooke, 
a distinguished fellow of the society, to write 
the natural history of the county. Beaumont 
gave a specimen in his ' Account of Okey 
[Wookey]-hole and several other subter- 
raneous Grottoes and Caverns,' printed in 
No. 2 of Hooke's ' Philosophical Collections ' 
for 1681, and some three years afterwards pre- 
sented a draft of his design to the society. 
He was elected a fellow in 1685, but soon 
laid his intended history aside that he might 
devote himself to theology and spiritualism. 
He was a man of considerable reading, of 
excessive credulity, and a firm believer in 
supernatural agency. His principal and cer- 
tainly most curious performance, ' An His- 

torical, Physiological, and Theological Trea- 
tise of Spirits, Apparitions, Witchcrafts, and 
other Magical Practices,' 8vo, London, 1705, 
is written in an amusing, gossiping style, 
and abounds with grotesque tales and illus- 
trations from little-known authors. Hi& 
personal experience of spirits, good and bad,, 
was long and varied (pp. 91-4, 393-7) ; but 
he innocently contrives to lessen the eft'ect 
of his narration by adding that in their 
frequent visitations ' all would disswade me 
from drinking too freely.' Of this work a 
German translation by Theodor Arnold ap- 
peared at Halle in 1721. Dr. Fowler, bishop 
of Gloucester, expressed high approval of this 
curious treatise (THORESBY'S Diary, ii. 103, 
124). Beaumont was buried at Stone-Easton 
on 23 March 1730-1. He had married Do- 
rothy, daughter of John Speccott, of Penheale, 
Egloskerry, Cornwall ; and his wife's claim 
to the family estate involved Beaumont in 
a long and disastrous lawsuit. His other 
publications were : 1. ' Considerations on a 
Book entituled the Theory of the Earth, 
publisht by Dr. Burnet,' 4to, London, 1693. 

2. Postscript to above, 4to, London, 1694. 

3. ' The Present State of the Universe,' 4to, 
London, 1694. 4. ( Gleanings of Antiquities/ 
8vo, London, 1724 (the third part of which 
contains additions to the 'Treatise of Spirits'). 

[Gough's British Topography, ii. 189, 223 ; 
Nicolson's Historical Libraries, ed. 1776, pp. 7,. 
17-18 ; Plot's Staffordshire, p. 251 ; MS. Sloane 
4037, ff- 128-32; Ray's Philosophical Letters, 
p. 262 ; Letters of Eminent Literary Men, ed. 
Sir H. Ellis (Camd. Soc.), p. 199; Stone-Easton 
Register ; Law Cases in British Museum.] 

G. G. 

BER (1774-1841), founder of insurance 
offices, usually known as ' Barber Beaumont/ 
was born 22 Dec. 1774, and devoted his early 
life to historic painting, securing medals from 
the Royal Academy and the Society of Arts. 
At the time of the threatened Bonaparte in- 
vasion of England he raised a rifle corps,, 
urged that the people should be armed as- 
sharpshooters, and is said to have trained his 
men so perfectly in rifle practice, that on one- 
occasion he held the target in Hyde Park, 
while his entire corps fired at it from a dis- 
tance of one hundred and fifty yards. In 
1807 he founded the County Fire and the- 
Provident Life offices, still carrying on busi- 
ness in Regent Street, in offices designed by 
himself. He resisted a fraudulent claim made 
upon the fire company in 1824 by Thomas 
Thurtell, and ultimately secured the com- 
mittal of this man and his associates to 
Newgate. The brother, John Thurtell (after- 




wards executed for the murder of Mr. Weare), 
took up the quarrel, and made an attempt to 
murder Beaumont, which failed by a mere 
accident. Beaumont also took an active 
part in the exposure of a fraudulent insurance 
office (the notorious West Middlesex). In 
1825 he fought against the board of stamps, 
which charged his company with defrauding 
the inland revenue, and came oft' victorious, 
notwithstanding that he had been mulct in a 
fine of 500/. Under the pseudonym of ' Phi- 
lanthropes ' he published an essay on ' Life 
Insurance ' in 1814. He established (in 
1806) the Provident Institution and Savings 
Bank in Covent Garden, and in 1816 lie pub- 
lished an essay on 'Provident or Parish 
Banks.' In 1821 he published an ' Essay on 
Criminal Jurisprudence.' Shortly before his 
death he founded the New Philosophical 
Institution in Beaumont Square. He died 
15 May 1841, aged 67. 

[C. Walford's Insurance Cyclopaedia, i. 261-2; 
Morning Chronicle, 20 May 1841; Angelo's Re- 
miniscences, vol. ii.] C. W. 

1699), master of Peterhouse, poet, was de- 
scended from the Leicestershire Beaumonts. 
He was the son of John Beaumont, clothier, 
and of Sarah Clarke, his wife. He was born 
at Hadleigh in Suffolk, on 13 March 1616, 
and was baptised on the 21st of the same 
month. From his earliest years he displayed 
an extraordinary love of learning. He was 
educated at Hadleigh grammar school. He 
proceeded to Cambridge in 1631, and was 
admitted as a pensioner to Peterhouse Col- 
lege on 26 Nov. His university career was 
a brilliant one ; he took his degree of B. A. 
in 1634, became a fellow of his college on 
20 Nov. 1636, the master then being Dr. 
Cosin, afterwards bishop of Durham. Richard 
Crashaw, the poet, had now passed from 
Pembroke to Peterhouse, and in 1638 he and 
Beaumont received their degree of M.A. 
together. He read with great enthusiasm 
during the early years of his fellowship, and 
gained a high reputation for classic acquire- 
ments, although he never became a really 
fine scholar. In 1640 ' he was called out by 
the master of his college, and appointed 
guardian and director of the manners and 
learning of the students of that society.' In 
1644 he was one of the royalist fellows 
ejected from Cambridge, and he retired to 
his old home at Hadleigh, where he sat down 
to write his epic poem of * Psyche.' As this 
is of very great length, extending in its first 
form to twenty cantos, it is surprising to 
learn that its composition occupied Beau- 
mont only eleven months. It was published 

early in 1648. The poem represented the 
soul led by divine grace and her guardian 
angel through the various temptations and 
assaults of life into her eternal felicity ; it 
is written in a six-line heroic stanza, and 
contains, in its abridged form, not less than 
30,000 lines. Beaumont seems to have fared 
particularly well during the Commonwealth. 
From 1643 he held the rectory of Kelshall in 
Hertfordshire, as non-resident, and in 1646 he 
added to this, or exchanged it for, the living 

! of Elm-cum-Emneth in Cambridgeshire. He 

| was appointed in the same year to a canonry 
of Ely. In 1650 he became domestic chap- 
lain to Wren, bishop of Ely, and held various 
other sinecures. The wealthy ward of the 

I bishop, a Miss Brownrigg, fell in love with 

! the rising young churchman, and they were 
married from Ely House in 1650. Beaumont 
and his wife resided for the next ten years 
at the manor-house of the latter, Tatingston 
Place, in the county of Suffolk. During 
this period of retirement he wrote the greater 
number of his minor poems. At the Restora- 
tion Beaumont was not forgotten; he was 

! made D.D. and one of the king's chaplains 
in 1660. Early in 1661 he went down to 
Ely to reside, at the bishop's request, but 
unfortunately Mrs. Beaumont caught the fen 
fever, and died on 31 May 1662. She was 
buried in Ely Cathedral. During his wife's 
fatal illness Beaumont was appointed master 

: of Jesus College, in succession to Pearson, the 

! expounder of the Creed ; and after her funeral 
he proceeded to Cambridge with his six young 
children, only one of whom lived to man- 
hood. He restored Jesus Chapel at his own 

; expense ; but his connection with that col- 
lege was brief. On 24 April 1663 he was 
admitted master of his own college of Peter- 
house. His long-winded controversy with 

| Dr. Henry More, the Platonist, dates from 
1665. In 1674 he was appointed regius 
divinity professor to the university, and de- 
livered a course of lectures on Romans and 

. Colossians, which he forbade his executors 
to publish. In 1689 he was appointed to 

| meet the leaders of nonconformity as one of 
the commissioners of comprehension. He 
continued to enjoy good health to extreme 
old age, and, being in his eighty-fourth year, 
persisted in preaching before the university 
on 5 Nov. 1699. He was, however, very 
much exhausted by this exertion, and was 
attacked a few days after with gout in the 
stomach. In great composure and resigna- 
tion of mind he lingered until the 23rd of 

I the month, when he died. He was buried in 

j the college chapel of Peterhouse. Beaumont 
was an artist of some pretension, and adorned 
the altar of Peterhouse Chapel with scrip- 



ture scenes which have now disappeared. In 
1702 Charles Beaumont, the only surviving 
son, brought out a new edition of his father's 
1 Psyche,' entirely revised, and enlarged by 
the addition of four fresh cantos. 

[The life of Joseph Beaumont was written by 
the Eev. John Gee, M.A., of Peterhouse, who 
affixed it to the collection of Beaumont's miscel- 
laneous poems which he first edited at Cambridge 
in 1749. Further information was published by 
the Rev. Hugh Pigot in his ' History of Hadleigh ' 
in 1860. The complete poems of Beaumont, in 
English and Latin, were first edited, in two 4to 
vols., privately printed, by the Rev. A. B. 
Grosart in 1880, with a memoir, in which some 
important additions are made to the information 
preserved by Gee. Beaumont prefixed a copy of 
Latin verses to the ' Musse Juridicse' of William 
Hawkins in 1634, and published in 1665, at 
Cambridge, ' Some Observations upon the Apologie 
of Dr. Henry More.'] E. G. 

1855), was born at Castle Donington, in Lei- 
cestershire, 19 March 1794. He belonged to 
a family which had lived more than four hun- 
dred years at Longley, a farm on the hillside 
above Holmfirth, in the west riding of York- 
shire. His family was said to be connected j 
with that of Francis Beaumont, the dramatist. 
His father was the Rev. John Beaumont, an 
itinerant preacher among the Wesleyan me- i 
thodists, and his mother was a daughter of | 
Colonel Home of Gibraltar. From them he 
inherited a keen taste for music and the fine 
arts. He was educated at Kingswood school, 
near Bristol, founded by Wesley for training 
the sons of his preachers. While there young 
Beaumont was afflicted with a serious impe- 
diment in his speech, but, by great pains and 
resolution, he so completely mastered it as to 
become a most fluent and impassioned speaker. 
Contrary to the wishes of his maternal rela- 
tives, who wanted him to become a clergy- 
man in the established church, he chose the 
ministry of the Wesleyans, as his father had 
done. After spending a short time in the shop 
of a dispensing chemist in Macclesfield, he 
commenced the itinerancy in 1813, and soon 
became widely known as an eloquent and 
popular preacher. He had all the qualities 
of a true orator. He possessed a sweet and 
powerful voice, a fertile imagination, and 
much literary cultivation. Dr. Beaumont 
was in great request as the preacher of ser- 
mons on special occasions, and vast crowds 
assembled to hear him whenever he appeared 
in the pulpit or on the platform. He pleaded 
effectively for many benevolent objects and 
public institutions outside the limits of his 
own church. He had a deep-rooted antipathy 
to hierarchical assumptions, and in the con- 

troversies which agitated the methodist com- 
munity he always took the liberal side. His 
strong sympathy with the weak and the op- 
pressed occasionally led him into error. Dr. 
Beaumont was of course subject to the law 
of methodism which requires its ministers 
to change their pastoral charge every three 
years. In two instances, however, at the 
urgent request of the people, he was reap- 
pointed, after an interval of years, to Edin- 
burgh and Hull, in each of which he had 
previously laboured. It was during his first 
residence in Edinburgh that he obtained' 
from the university the degree of doctor in 
medicine. He exercised his ministry for six 
years in Liverpool, eight years in London, 
and three years each in Nottingham and 

In the year 1821 he married Miss Susan- 
Morton, daughter of Mr. Morton of Hardshaw 
Hall, near Prescot, Lancashire, and sister of 
the wife of Dr. Morrison, the pioneer of mis- 
sions in China. By this lady, who survived 
him, he had a large family. He was elected 
by the conference of 1846 as a member of the- 
legal hundred. On Sunday morning, 21 Jan. 
1855, he entered the pulpit of Waltham Street 
chapel, Hull, and opened the service by an- 
nouncing the lines 

Thee while the first Archangel sings, 
He hides his face behind his wings ; 

and as the congregation was singing the second 
of these lines he sank down on the spot where- 
he stood, and, without sound or motion, died. 
He was in the sixty-first year of his age. 

He published a few occasional sermons, and 
in 1838 a volume containing { Memoirs of Mrs. 
Mary Tatham, late of Nottingham.' A pos- 
thumous volume of ' Select Sermons ' by him 
was issued in 1859. 

[Life, with portrait, London, 1856; Minutes 
of the Methodist Conferences, vol. xiii., for 1855.] 

W. B. L. 

bishop of Durham, is said to have been of 
royal descent, and related to the kings of 
France, Sicily, and England. Surtees, in his 
* History of Durham,' makes him grandson 
of John de Brienne, king of Jerusalem 
(d. 1237), by Berengaria, daughter of Al- 
phonso IX of Leon, and thus son of Louis 
de Brienne, who married Agnes, Viscountess 
de Beaumont, about 1252 (ANSELME, Hist. 
GeneaL v. 583, 584, vi. 137). Another ac- 
count, however, makes him grandson of 
Charles, king of Sicily (see DTTGDALE, ii. 50 r 
and SURTEES, i. xliv). He was certainly 
akin to Isabella of France and her husband 
Edward II, for both of these call him 
' consanguineus ' (cf. GEAYSTANES, 757, ancK 



RYMER, iii. 581). According to the inscription 
on his tomb Louis de Beaumont was born in 
France. He seems to have come over to 
England in the reign of Edward I, and was 
appointed treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral 
about 1291 (Fasti Eccles. Sarisb. 344). In 
this capacity he seems to have drawn a re- 
buke on his head for neglecting to repair the 
church. About the same time he appears to 
have held the prebend of Auckland (Eegistr. 
Palatin. Dunelm. iii. cxvii). On the death 
of Richard Kellaw, bishop of Durham, in 
1316, the king, the queen, the Earl of Lan- 
caster, and the Earl of Hereford had each 
his own candidate for the vacant office. As 
the day of election came on, the church was 
filled with the above-mentioned nobles and 
their followers, as well as with the retainers 
of Louis de Beaumont and of his brother 
Henry. Threats passed freely to slay the 
elected bishop if the monks should dare to 
choose one of their own number. They, how- 
ever, made choice of an outsider, the prior of 
Finchale, who would have been admitted to 
the office at once had not the queen with bare 
knees besought Edward to favour her kins- 
man Louis. The case was transferred to the 
pope (John XXII), who consented to quash 
the election in consideration of a fine so 
large that we are told it could hardly be paid 
in fourteen years. Next year John XXII 
despatched two cardinals to En gland for the 
sake of making peace between this country 
and Scotland. Louis de Beaumont, who was 
a man given to much ostentation, determined 
to take advantage of this visit and be conse- 
crated in their presence on St. Cuthbert's 
day. As the cardinals were on their road 
to Durham, accompanied by the Beaumont 
brothers, Gilbert de Middleton, warden of 
the Marches, swooped down upon them at 
the head of certain Northumbrian freebooters 
or * savaldores ' (1 Sept. 1317). The cardinals 
were merely stripped of their horses and 
forced to continue their journey on foot, but 
the Beaumonts were carried off to Morpeth 
and Milford respectively, nor were they 
liberated till a large sum of money had been 
paid as their ransom. Before the year was out 
Middleton was hanged, drawn, and quartered 
at London for his share in this offence, in 
the presence of the two cardinals whom he 
had robbed. The consecration of the new 
bishop took place next year, on 26 March 
1318 (AnnaL Paulin. i. 282). From this 
time Louis de Beaumont's life seems to have 
been one of constant bickerings with all 
he came into contact with. He first quar- 
relled with the prior of St. Mary's, who had 
become security for the 3,000/. which the 
merchants had lent for the bishop's ransom, 

and so annoyed him with threats of litiga- 
tion that the prior, who was a peaceable 
man, resigned his office in 1322. William 
de Gisburn, who was elected his successor, 
seems to have been frightened out of ac- 
cepting a post that would bring him into 
constant communication with so sturdy a 
prelate. Next year Louis de Beaumont ap- 
pears as supporting the claims of the arch- 
deacon of Durham against the prior and 
chapter of St. Mary's, and threatening to 
accuse them before the pope of obeying 
neither their bishop nor archdeacon. Indeed, 
throughout his whole episcopacy, he seems 
to have shown a special spite against the 
monks of his own cathedral. A few years 
later (1328) he was embroiled with Arch- 
bishop Melton of York on similar grounds. 
Both claimed the right of visitation in Aller- 
tonshire Louis apparently on behalf of St. 
Mary's chapter, the archbishop on his own. 
i It was to no purpose that the bishop at- 
I tempted to prevent the prior and chapter 
i from coming to terms with the archbishop. 
Their love for their immediate spiritual head 
was hardly sufficient to make them ready at 
i his pleasure to break the arrangement they 
had already come to with the archbishop, 
who accordingly made several attempts to 
' enforce his right of visitation. But no sooner 
! did he appear on the borders of Allertonshire 
j than Louis called together a host of armed 
| men from Northumberland and Tynedale 
reckless soldiers prepared to take away the 
| archbishop's life at a word from their chief. 
The bishop was careless how much he spent, 
whereas the archbishop, though wealthy, was 
parsimonious. Excommunication was fol- 
i lowed by suspension, and these were met on 
the bishop's part by three appeals to the 
legates. Finally the question was settled by 
compromise (1331). At the end of 1332 the 
archdeacon of Northumbria died,and Louis ap- 
pointed his nephew a man who is described 
as being short and deformed to the vacant 
office. A dispute as to visitation rights arose 
! once more, and was again settled by a com- 
I promise to last only for the bishop's life. Of 
the career of Louis de Beaumont outside 
his diocese little is known. When the 
northern barons met at Pomfret under the 
Earl of Lancaster (May 1321), they deemed 
it right to lay their federation oath before the 
clergy of the province, who were summoned 
to meet at Sherburn in Elmet. Louis de 
Beaumont was present on this occasion, and 
it cannot be doubted that a man of his high 
birth and courage had much to do with 
the decision there arrived at to render aid 
against the Scotch invasions, but to hold 
political matters over till the next parlia- 


6 4 


rnent. Louis does not seem to have been a 
very vigorous protector of his palatinate 
against the Scotch, though this was one of 
the pleas on which Edward IT urged the 
pope to appoint him ; and we have a letter 
from that king reproaching the bishop for 
being by no means a ' stone wall ' against 
the enemy. On 24 Sept. 1333 Louis died at 
Brantingham, and was buried two days later 
before the great altar in his cathedral church. 
His character and even his personal appear- 
ance have been minutely sketched by his con- 
temporary, Robert Graystanes, sub-prior of 
St. Mary's and his elected successor. This 
writer describes the bishop as comely-featured 
but limping in each foot, over-lavish in ex- 
penditure, and, by the number of his retainers, 
involved in such huge expenses that it was 
a saying of the time : ' Never was man so 
greedy to get, and yet so rashly improvident 
-of what he had gotten.' Forgetting all that 
he owed to the prior of St. Mary's, he bluntly 
answered his requests by an unvarnished re- 
fusal : * You do nothing for me, and I will do 
nothing for you. Pray for my death, for while 
I live you will get nothing.' Nevertheless 
he was a stern supporter of the rights of his 
see, whether against archbishop, earl, or baron. 
He appealed in parliament for his rights over 
Bernard Castle, Hert, Geyneford, and other 
forfeited manors of the Bruces and Baliols ; 
and Edward II issued a confirmation of his 
claims against the Beauchamps (Warwick), 
Cliffords, and others into whose hands these 
estates had fallen. Towards the very end of 
his life Louis was formulating other claims on 
Norham and Westupsethington (Upsetling- 
ton) against the Scotch, who seem to have then 
secured them. For his unwavering assertion 
-of the rights of his own see his biographer 
gives him great praise, and adds that though j 
chaste he was unlearned. Indeed, of Latin j 
the bishop knew so little that before his con- 
secration he had to take several days' lessons 
before he could read his part of the service ; j 
and even then, when he came to the word J 

* Metropoliticae,' which he could not master, ! 
even with the aid of a little prompting behind, ; 
after a long pause he had to exclaim/ Seit pur 
dite,' ' Let it be taken as said.' The words | 

* in aenigmate ' were a similar stumbling-block, | 
and he could not refrain from whispering to ; 
those standing by, ' By St. Louis, the man 
who wrote that word had no courtesy in him.' | 
Once consecrated he was very masterful in 
his own diocese, and got two bulls from the 
pope, one empowering him to appoint any 
monk he would prior of St. Mary's, and 
another to hold a third part of the priory's 
income while the Scotch wars lasted. He j 
was a great builder, and commenced a spacious | 

hall and kitchen with a chapel attached at 
Middleham. He was buried before the high 
altar in Durham cathedral in a magnificent 
tomb, ' wherein he was most excellently and 
lively pictured as he was accustomed to sing 
or say mass.' This tomb, which Louis had 
prepared in his lifetime, is fully described in 
Davies's ' Durham Cathedral,' and was marked 
by a Latin epitaph (in hexameters) which 
claimed for its occupant the character of ' a 
man of royal birth, lavish, gleeful, and a 
constant enemy to sadness.' 

[Robert de Graystanes ap. Wharton's Anglia 
Sacra, i. 751-61 ; Godwin's Prsesules, ed. Rich- 
ardson, 745-6; Raine's Historical Papers from 
the Northern Registers (Rolls Series), 265-8, &c. ; 
Hardy's Registrum Dunelmense (Ricardi Kel- 
low), ii. 7, iii. &c. ; Annales Paulini, &c., in 
Chronicles and Memorials of Edward I and II, 
vols. i. and ii. ; Rymer, iii. 581, 670, 952, iv. 
297, 405, 491 ; Surtees's History of Durham, i. 
xxxvii-xlv ; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 50 ; Davies's 
Ancient Rites of Durham Cathedral, 24-7 ; 
Jones's Fasti Ecclesise Sarisburiensis.] 

T. A. A. 


count of Meulan, feudal statesman, was 
son of Roger de Beaumont (' de Bellomonte ' 
in the latinized form) and grandson of 
Humfrey de Vielles, who had added to his 
paternal fief of Pont Audemer, by the gift of 
his brother, that of Beaumont, afterwards 
' Beaumont-le-Roger ' (including Vielles), 
from which his descendants took their name. 
Roger de Beaumont had married Adeline, the 
daughter of Waleran, count of Meulan (' de 
Mellente ') in France, and was allied pater- 
nally to the ducal house of Normandy, of 
which he was a trusted counsellor. Being 
advanced in years at the time of the inva- 
sion of England, he remained in Normandy 
at the head of the council, and sent his sons 
with William. Of these, Robert fought at 
Senlac (14 Oct. 1066), though confused 
with his father by Wace (Roman de Rou, 
1. 13462) : 

Rogier Ii Veil, cil de Belmont, 
Assalt Engleis el primier front. 

He distinguished himself early in the day 
by a charge on the right wing, in which he 
was the first to break down the English 
palisade (WiLL. POITOTJ, 134). On William's 
march into the midlands in 1068, he was 
rewarded with large grants in Warwickshire 
(Domesday, 239 b\ and Warwick Castle 
was entrusted to his brother Henry [see 
NEWBTTKGH, HENRY DE]. He then practi- 
cally disappears for more than twenty years. 



He is said to have striven in 1079 to reconcile 
Robert with his father, the Conqueror (OKD. 
VIT.), and shortly afterwards he succeeded, in 
right of his mother, to his uncle, Hugh, count 
of Meulan. On the death of the Conqueror 
(1089) he and his brother espoused the cause 
of Rufus, and were thenceforth high in his 
favour. Presuming on his power, the count 
of Meulan is said to have haughtily de- 
manded from Robert, then duke of Nor- 
mandy, the castellanship of Ivry, which his 
father had consented to exchange for that oi 
Brionne. The duke, resenting the request, 
arrested him, and handed over Brionne to 
Robert de Meules. At the intercession of 
"the count's aged father he was released on 
payment of a heavy fine, and restored to the 
castellanship of Brionne. But he was com- 
pelled to recover the castle by a desperate 
siege (ORD. VIT. viii. 13). His father, 
Roger, not long after entered the abbey oi 
St. Peter of PrSaux (founded by his father 
and himself), and the count, succeeding to 
the family fiefs of Beaumont and Pont Aude- 
mer, was now a powerful vassal in England, 
in Normandy, and in France (ib. viii. 25). 
He and Robert de Belesme, according to 
Mr. Freeman, though ' of secondary import- 
ance in the tale of the conquest and of the 
reign of the first William, became the most 
prominent laymen of the reign of the second ' 
( Will. Ruf.) In the struggle between Robert 
and William Rufus (1096) he sided actively 
in Normandy with the latter (ORD. VIT. ix. 3), 
and on William invading France to recover 
the Vexin (1097) he threw in his lot with his 
English lord, and by admitting him to his 
castle of Meulan opened the way for him to 
Paris (ib. x. 5). He was now the king's 
chief adviser, and when Helias of Maine 
offered to come over to him, dissuaded him 
from accepting the offer (ib. x. 7). He and 
his brother were present at William's death 
(2 Aug. 1100), and they both accompanied 
Henry in his hasty ride to London (ib. x. 
14, 15). The count, adhering strenuously to 
Henry in the general rising which followed 
(ib. x. 18 bis ; W. MALM. v. 394), became 
his ' specially trusted counsellor ' ( Will. Ruf.), 
und persuaded him in the Whitsun gemot of 
1101 to temporise discreetly with his op- 
ponents by promising them all that they 
asked for (ORD. VIT. x. 16, 18). Ivo de 
Grantmesnil, who had been a leading rebel, 
was tried and sentenced the following year 
(1102), and sought the influence of the 
powerful count, ' qui pnecipuus erat inter 
consiliarios regis,' for the mitigation of his 
penalty. The cunning minister agreed to 
intervene, and to advance him the means for 
a pilgrimage, on receiving in pledge his 


Leicestershire fiefs, with the town of Lei- 
cester, all which he eventually refused to 
return (ib. xi. 3). Having thus added to his 
already large possessions, he attained the 
height of wealth and prosperity, and is dis- 
tinctly stated by Orderic (ib.) to have been 
created earl of Leicester ('hide consul in 
Anglia factus '). But of this the Lords' com- 
mittee l found no evidence ' (3rd Report on 
the Dignity of a Peer, p. 133). Nor does he 
appear to have been so styled, though he 
possessed the tertius denarius, and though 
that dignity devolved upon his son. He was 
now (1103) despatched by Henry on a mis- 
sion to Normandy, where from his seat of 
Beaumont he intrigued in Henry's interest 
(ib. xi. 6). On Henry coming over in 1104 
he headed his party among the Norman 
nobles (ib. xi. 10), and was again in close 
attendance on him during his visit of 1105 
(ib. xi. 11), and at the great battle of Tenche- 
brai (28 Sept, 1106), in which he com- 
manded the second line of the king's army 
(ib. xi. 20). He was again in Normandy 
with the king 3 Feb. 1113, persuading him 
to confirm the monks of St. Evreul in their 
possessions (ib. xi. 43). The close of his life, 
according to Henry of Huntingdon, was 
embittered by the infidelity of his wife, but 
the details of the story are obscure. He is 
also said by Henry to have been urged on 
his death-bed to restore the lands he had 
unjustly acquired, but to have characteristic- 
ally replied that he would leave them to his 
sons that they might provide for his salva- 
tion (HEN. HUNT. 240, 306-7; W. MALM. 
v. 407). He died 5 June 1118, and was 
buried with his fathers in the chapter-house 
of Preaux (ORD. VIT. xii. 1). < On the 
whole,' says Mr. Freeman, ' his character 
stands fair ' ( Will. Ruf.) Almost the last 
survivor of the conquest generation, he 
strangely impressed the imagination of his 
contemporaries by his unbroken prosperity 
under successive kings, by his steady advance 
in wealth and power, while those around 
him were being ruined (ORD. VIT. xi. 2), but 
above all by his unerring sagacity. ' A cold 
and crafty statesman .... the Achitophel of 
his time,' he was deemed, says Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon (p. 306), ( sapientissimus omnium 
hinc usque in Jerusalem,' and, according to 
William of Malmesbury, was appealed to ' as 
the Oracle of God ' (v. 407). In the con- 
test with Anselm he took the same line as 
his son in the contest with Becket, interven- 
ing to save him from the vengeance of 
Rufus, and in the council of Rockingham 
^1095) opposing his deposition, yet steadily 
supporting the right of the crown in the 
question of investitures (ib. v. 417). For 




this, indeed, he was excommunicated (An- 
selmi Epist. iv. 99 ; EADMER, Hist. Nov. 82). 
Eadmer (94) complains that he disliked the 
English and prevented their promotion in 
the church. He is said to have introduced, 
after AlexiosComnenos, the fashion of a single 
meal a day in the place of the Saxon pro- 
fuseness. His benefactions to the church 
were small, but at Leicester he rebuilt St. 
Mary's as a foundation for secular canons 
(Won. Ang. vi. 467). The charter by which 
he confirmed to his ' merchants ' of Leicester 
their guild and customs will be found in 
Mr. Thompson's { Essay on Municipal His- 
tory,' but the story of his abolishing trial by 
duel is, though accepted, probably unfounded. 
He had married, late in life (1096-7), Eliza- 
beth (or Ysabel), daughter of Hugh the Great 
of Vermandois (or of Crepy) and niece of 
Philip of France (ORD. VIT. ix. 4). She mar- 
ried, at his death, William de Warrenne, 
having had by him, with five daughters, three 
sons (ORD. VIT. xi. 2), Robert and Waleran 
[see BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE, 1104-1168 ; and 
BEAUMONT, WALERAN DE, 1104-1166], and 
Hugh, ' cognomento Pauper,' who received 
the earldom of Bedford from Stephen (Gest. 
Steph. p. 74). 

[Ordericus Vitalis, lib. viii. ; Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon (Rolls series) ; William of Malmesbury ; 
Monasticon Anglicanum ; Nichols's History of 
Leicester (1797), pp. 22-3 ; Thompson's History 
of Leicester (pp. 27-31), and Essay on Municipal 
History (pp. 38-40) ; Third Report on the 
Dignity of a Peer (p. 133); Planche's The 
Conqueror and his Companions (i. 203-16) ; 
Freeman's Norman Conquest (v. 151, 828), and 
William Rufus.] J. H. R. 

LEICESTER (1104-1168), justiciary of Eng- 
land, was son of the preceding, and a twin 
with his brother Waleran [see BEAUMONT, 
WALERAN DE]. He seems, however, to have 
been deemed the younger, and is spoken of 
as postnatus in the ' Testa de Nevill.' He is 
stated to have been born in 1104 (ORD. VIT. 
xi. 6) when his father was advanced in years, 
a date fatal to the story in the ' Abingdon 
Chronicle ' (ii. 229), that he had been at the 
Benedictine monastery there as a boy, ' regis 
Willelmi tempore' (i.e. ante 1099). At his 
father's death (1118) he succeeded to his 
English fiefs (ORD. VIT. xii. 33), being ap- 
parently considered the younger of the twins, 
and Henry, in gratitude for his father's ser- 
vices, brought him up, with his brother, in 
the royal household, and gave him to wife 
Amicia, daughter of Ralph (de Wader), earl 
of Norfolk, by Emma, daughter of William 
(Fitz-Osbern), earl of Hereford, with the 
fief of Breteuil for her dower (ib.) The 

twins accompanied Henry to Normandy r 
and to his interview with Pope Calixtus at 
Gisors (November 1119), where they are 
said to have astounded the cardinals by their 
learning. They were also present at his- 
death-bed, 1 Dec. 1135 (ib. xiii. 19). In 
the anarchy that followed, war broke out 
between Robert and his hereditary foe, Roger 
de Toesny (ib. xiii. 22), whom he eventually 
captured by his brother's assistance. In 
December 1137 the twins returned to Eng- 
land with Stephen, as his chief advisers, and 
Robert began preparing for his great founda- 
tion, his Norman possessions being overrun 
(ib. xiii. 36) in his absence (1138), till he 
came to terms with Roger de Toesny (ib. 
xiii. 38). In June 1139 he took, with his 
brother, the lead in seizing the bishops of 
Salisbury and Lincoln at Oxford (ib. xiii. 40), 
and on the outbreak of civil war was de- 
spatched with him, by Stephen, to escort 
the empress to Bristol (October 1139), and 
is said (but this is doubtful) to have received 
a grant of Hereford. He secured his in- 
terests with the Angevin party (ib. xiii. 43) 
after Stephen's defeat (2 Feb. 1141), and then 
devoted himself to raising, in the outskirts 
of Leicester, the noble abbey of St. Mary 
de Pre (' de Pratis ') for canons regular of 
the Austin order. Having bestowed on it 
rich endowments, including those of his 
father's foundation, he had it consecrated in 
1143 by the bishop of Lincoln, whom he had 
contrived to reconcile. In 1152 he was still 
in Stephen's confidence, and exerted his in- 
fluence to save his brother (GERVASE, i. 148), 
but on Henry landing in 1153 he supplied 
him freely with means for his struggle (ib. 
i. 152), and attending him, shortly after hi& 
coronation (December 1154) was rewarded 
with his lasting confidence, and with the 
post of chief justiciar, in which capacity 
(' capitalis justicia ') he first appears 13 Jan. 
1155 (Cart. Ant. W.\ and again in 1156 
(Rot. Pip. 2 Hen. II}. He was now in the 
closest attendance on the court, and on the 
queen joining the king in Normandy (De- 
cember 1158) he was left in charge of the 
kingdom, in a vice-regal capacity, till the 
king's return 25 Jan. 1163, Richard de Luci 
[q. v.], when in England, being associated 
with him in the government. He was pre- 
sent at the famous council of Clarendon 
(13-28 Jan. 1164), and his name heads the 
list of lay signatures to the l constitutions ' 
(MS. Cott. Claud. B. fo. 26), to which he is 
said, by his friendly influence, to have pro- 
cured Becket's assent (GERVASE, i. 177). As 
with his father, in the question of investi- 
tures he loyally upheld the claims of the- 
crown, while maintaining to the church andl 


6 7 


Foss's Judges of England (1848), i. 190; Eyton's 
Court and Itinerary of Henry II.] J. H. K. 

churchmen devotion even greater than his 
father's. In the great crisis at the council 
of Northampton (October 1164) he strove, 
with the Earl of- Cornwall, to reconcile the i BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE, EAEL OP 
primate with the king, pleading hard with ' LEICESTER (d. 1190), baronial leader, was 
Becket when they visited him (12 Oct.) at | son f Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester 
his house. The following day they were [<! V 0> wn ? died in 1168. He joined the re- 
commissioned to pronounce to him the sen- hellion against Henry II in favour of Prince 
tence of the court ; but when Leicester, as Henry, which broke out in April 1173 (BEN. 
chief justiciary, commenced his address, he ABB. i. 45), and having obtained permission to 
was at once cut short by the primate, who ^* Normandy, shut himself up in his castle 
rejected his jurisdiction (GEKVASE, i. 185 ; of Breteuil (R. Die.) His English fiefs were 
ROG. Hov. i. 222, 228 ; Materials, ii. 393, ; confiscated in consequence, and an army sent 
&c.) Early the next year (1165) he was a g ai nst his town of Leicester, which was 
again, on the king's departure, left in charge i taken and burnt (28 July), with the exception 
of the kingdom, and, on the Archbishop of | f tae castle, after a siege of three weeks 

*&) Henry II himself marched on Breteuil, 
Aug., and (the earl having fled before him) 
captured and burnt the place on 25-6 Sept. 
The earl is said to have been nresent 

Cologne arriving as an envoy from the em- 
peror, refused to greet him on the ground 
that he was a schismatic (R. Die. i. 318). 
He appears to have accompanied Henry to H?3. 

Normandy in the spring of 1166, but leaving- at Gisors during the fruitless negotiations 

1 " , 1 , 1 . -1 rt V-Y.1 ^ 1 ... 4 ,,-..,.,. 4-"U J ___ 1 * ____ 1 J 1 

him, returned to his post before October, and 
retained it till his death, which took place 
in 1168 (RoG. Hov. i. 269 ; Ann. Wav. ; Chron. 
Mailros.). It is said, in a chronicle of St. 
Mary de Pre (Mon. Any. ut infra), that he 
himself became a canon regular of that 
abbey, and resided there fifteen years, till his 
death, when he was buried on the south side 
of the choir ; but it is obvious that he cannot 
thus have entered the abbey. This earl was 
known as le Bossu (to distinguish him from 
his successors), and also, possibly, as le Goc- 
zen (Mon. Any. 1830, vi. 467). He founded, 
in addition to St. Mary de Pre, the abbey of 

between the two kings, and to have up- 
braided Henry with his grievous losses. But 
this seems incompatible with the fact that 
he landed from Flanders, at Walton, Suf- 
folk, 29 Sept. 1173, at the head of a force of 
Flemings (R. Die.), and having been joined 
by Hugh (Bigod), earl of Norfolk, plundered 
Norwich, and besieged and took the castle 
of Hagenet on 13 Oct. Setting out for 
Leicester, he was intercepted at Fornham, 
near Bury St. Edmunds, by Richard de 
Luci and other supporters of the king 
(17 Oct.), and taken prisoner, with his wife 
(RoG. Hov. ii. 54-5). They were sent over 

Garendon (Ann. Wav. 233), the monastery to Henry (Eot. Pip.} and imprisoned by him 
of Nuneaton, the priory of Lusfield, and the I at JMaise, till his return to England, 8 July 
hospital of Brackley (wrongly attributed by 1174, when he brought them with him (RoG. 
Dugdale to his father), and was a liberal Hov. ii. 61). Meanwhile the earl's castellan 
benefactor to many other houses (see DUG- ^ad broken forth from Leicester, and ravaged 
DALE). His charter confirming to his bur- tne country round, and Henry now (31 July 
gesses of Leicester their merchant-gild and 1 
customs is preserved at Leicester, and printed 
on p. 404 of the Appendix to the eighth re- 
port on Historical MSS., and copies of his 
charters of wood and pasture are printed in 
Mr. Thompson's essay (pp. 42-84). He is 
also said to have remitted the ' gavel-pence ' 
impost, but the story, though accepted by 
Mr. Thompson (p. 60) and Mr. Jeaffreson 
(Appendix to 8th Report, ut supra, pp. 404, 
406-7), is probably false. 

[Ordericus Vitalis, lib. xii.,xiii. ; Roger Hove- 
den (Rolls Series) ; Gervase of Canterbury (ib.) 
R. Diceto (ib.) ; Materials for History of Thomas 
a Becket (ib.) ; Monasticon Anglicanum, ii. 
308 (ed. 1830, vi. 462-69) ; Dugdale's Baronage, 
i. 85-87; Lyttelton's Henry II (1767); Nichols's 
History of Leicester (1795), pp. 24-68, app. viii. 
p. 15; Thompson's History of Leicester (chap, 
vi.), and Essay on Municipal History (1867); 

1174) extorted the surrender of his castles, 
Leicester, Mountsorrel, and Groby (ib. ii. 65). 
The king took his prisoners back with him 
to Normandy on 8 August, but by the treaty 
with Louis on 30 Sept. 1174 the earl's libe- 
ration was provided for (ib.) His castle of 
Leicester was, however, demolished (R. Die. 
i. 404), and it was not till January 1177 that 
in the council of Northampton he was re- 
stored in blood and honours (ib. ii. 118), and 
his castles (except Mountsorrel) returned to 
him. He accompanied the king to Normandy 
in the summer, but is not again heard of till 
the spring of 1183, when, with the earl of 
Gloucester, he was arrested and imprisoned. 
He was, however, in attendance on the king 
at Christmas 1186, when he kept his court 
at Guildford, and on the accession of Richard 
(July 1189) he was completely reinstated 
(ib. iii. 5) and appointed at the coronation, 

F 2 




3 Sept. 1189, to carry one of the swords of 
state (ib, iii. 9). He appears as attesting a 
charter to the monks of Canterbury, 1 Dec. 
1189 (GERVASE, i. 503), but then went on 
pilgrimage to Palestine, and died in Greece, 
on his way back, 1190 (ib. iii. 88). This earl 
was known as Robert (es] Blanchesmains. 
Copies of his charters to his burgesses of 
Leicester will be found on pp. 36 and 44 of 
Mr. Thompson's ' Essay on Municipal His- 
tory.' He married Petronilla (* Parnel '), 
heiress of the house of Grantmesnil, who is 
said to have brought him the honour of 
Hinckley (Leicester), but it is possible that 
he may have inherited it from his grandfather. 
His son and heir Robert (Fitz-Parnel) was 
invested with the earldom of Leicester by 
Richard at Messina, early in 1191 (RoG. Hov.), 
and having distinguished himself in the cru- 
sade and been subsequently captured by the 
king of France in 1193, while defending Rouen 
for Richard, and liberated in 1196, died child- 
less in 1204. Of this Robert's two younger 
brothers, Roger was made bishop of St. 
Andrew's in Scotland, 1189, and William 
(founder of St. Leonard's at Leicester) was 
a leper. The great inheritance of the earls 
of Leicester consequently passed, through his 
two sisters, to the houses of de Montfort and 
de Quenci. 

[Roger Hoveden (Kolls series) ; R. Diceto 
(ib.) ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 87 ; Nichols's His- 
tory of Leicester, pp. 69-90 ; Thompson's His- 
tory of Leicester (chap, vii.) and Essay on Mu- 
nicipal History ; Eyton's Court and Itinerary of 
Henry II.] J. H. E. 

BEAUMONT, ROBERT (d. 1567), di- 
vine, may have belonged either to the 
Whitley Beaumonts of Yorkshire, whose 
arms were depicted on the gates of Trinity 
College after his death, or to the Leicester- 
shire family, so prominent in the sixteenth 
century. Beaumont went to Westminster 
School, and afterwards to Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge ; graduated B.A. in 1543-4, and be- 
came fellow of his college ; in 1550 he 
took the degree of M.A. In the reign of 
Mary he fled with the protestant refugees, 
and resided at Zurich (Troubles at Frank- 
furt, published in Phoenix, ii. 55). In 1556 
he joined the English congregation of Geneva 
(BURN'S Livre des Anglois, 8). Returning 
to England after the death of Mary, he 
was admitted Margaret professor of divinity 
(1559). He proceeded B.D. in 1560, and on 
28 Sept. of that year was presented by the 
Earl of Rutland to the archdeaconry of 
Huntingdon. In 1561 he became master of 
Trinity College, and vacated his professor- 
ship. He commenced D.D. in 1564, and in 

that year disputed a thesis in divinity before 
Queen Elizabeth on her visit to Cambridge. 

He was vice-chancellor of the university 
in 1564-5, and was collated to a canonry of 
Ely on 15 Nov. 1564. In 1566 he was a 
second time made vice-chancellor, and died 
in that office in 1567. (For his preferments 
see LE NEVE'S Fasti, i. 355, ii. 52, iii. 604, 
654, 699). 

Dr. Beaumont is a prominent figure in 
the movement of the Calvinists at Cam- 
bridge against conforming to the ordinances 
of Elizabeth and Parker. Dr. Baker, in his 
preface to Fisher's sermon on Lady Mar- 
garet, mentions Robert Beaumont as ' a 
learned good man, but deeply tinctured.' By 
' deeply tinctured ' Baker has been thought 
to mean that Beaumont was not free from 
Romish doctrine (Alumni Westmonasteri- 
enses, 8) ; but though in his will Beaumont 
confesses that he once was in ' that damnable 
pit of idolatry,' all his public acts and his 
connection with Geneva point towards puri- 
tanism. He subscribed to the articles of 
1562, and, both by signing a request to the 
synod concerning rites and ceremonies, and 
by voting with the minority in convocation 
for the six articles 011 discipline, he sup- 
ported the anti-ritualistic side in the church 
(STEYPE, Ann. i. i. 480, 501, 504, 512). In 
a letter to Parker, 27 Feb. 1564, he disap- 
proves of dramatic representations among 
the students (FULLER'S Cambridge, 266). On 
26 Nov. 1565 Beaumont with Kelk, master 
of Magdalen, Hutton, master of Pembroke, 
Longworth, master of St. John's, and Whit- 
gift, then Margaret professor, wrote to Cecil 
as chancellor of the university for a remission 
in the orders just issued by the queen through 
Parker for enforcing the use of the surplice 
at Cambridge. Cecil was angry and Parker 
contemptuous (STRYPE'S Life of Parker, i. 
386, letter in the appendix) ; thereupon 
Beaumont wrote in his own name a submis- 
sive letter to Cecil, saying that he was careful 
to observe order himself and only wrote on be- 
half of others (Lansdowne MS. 8, art. 54). Dr. 
Beaumont and Sir William Cecil had many 
dealings together on unimportant matters (see 
LEMON'S State Papers, 1547-80). Beaumont 
left a will (dated 1 May 1567), in which he 
bases his salvation on the free adoption of 
God, and desires to be buried without ' the 
jangling of bells or other popish ceremonies.' 
He also bequeathed 50/. to Trinity College. 
[Cooper's Athenae Cantabrigienses, i. 24-5 ; 
Alumni Westmonasterienses, 8 ; Strype's Annals 
of the Keformation, i. i. and ii. ; Life of Parker, 
book i., and General Index to Strype ; Burn's 
Livre des Anglois a Geneve ; Troubles at Frank- 
furt (1575), reprinted in Phoenix, ii. ; Lemon's 


6 9 


Ciilendar of State Papers (1547-80) ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Ecclesise Anglican* ; Cooper's Annals 
of Cambridge, ii.; Bishop Fisher's Sermon for 
Lady Margaret, ed. Hymers, 68 ; Baker MSS. 
iii. 309, xxxii. 427, 430.] A. G-N. 

BEAUMONT, ROBERT (fi. 1639), 
essayist, was a man of a retired life and 
solitary disposition, if his testimony of his 
own character, which he gives in the preface 
to his book, is to be believed. He is chiefly 
remarkable for his i Missives,' which are, in 
plain speech, letters, and seem, from one 
part of Beaumont's epistle to the reader, to 
be his own composition, and from another 
part to be the composition of others. But 
the former intimation has the stronger sup- 
port. It is evident they were written upon 
supposititious occasions. Letters, he says, 
should be like a well-furnished table, where 
every guest may eat of what dish he pleases. 
This reminds us of Bickerstaff's once-popular 
opera, ' Love in a Village : ' 

The world is a well-furnished table, 
Where guests are promiscuously set. 

The essays are fifteen in number, and are 
on the various parts of the body the head, 
eye, nose, ear, tongue, and so forth. They are 
full of trope and figure, frequently with much 
force of application, quaint and sententious. 
The precise title of his work is as follows : 
* Love's Missives to Virtue ; with Essaies, 
Lond. printed by William Godbid, and are 
to be sold at the signe of the Star, in Little 
Britain, 1660.' Small 8vo, pp. 120. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Lowndes's Bibliog. Man. 
i. 138 ; Sir E. Brydges' Eestituta, 3, 278-81.] 

J. M. 

WORTH (1792-1848), politician, was the 
eldest son of Colonel Thomas Richard Beau- 
mont, of Bretton Hall, Yorkshire, and 
Diana, daughter of Sir S. W. Blackett, 
baronet, of Hexham Abbey, and was born 
15 Nov. 1792. He was educated at Eton, 
and in 1809 became a fellow commoner of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1813. In 1818 he suc- 
ceeded his father in the representation of 
Northumberland, but in 1826 he lost the 
election, under circumstances which led to a 
duel on Bamburgh sands with Mr. Lambton, 
afterwards Earl of Durham. After repre- 
senting the borough of Stafford for a short 
time he was in 1830 returned for Northum- 
berland, and from the passing of the Reform 
Bill he continued to represent the southern 
division of the county until 1837. In early 
life he was a member of the Pitt Club, but 
from 1820 an advanced liberal and among 

the most energetic of politicians in the cause 
of reform. Acquiring, on the death of his 
mother in 1831, a large accession of property, 
he took also an active interest in the advance- 
ment of the fine arts, and by his munificent 
generosity won the attachment of many 
friends. He was one of the chief originators 
of the ' Westminster Review,' to which he is 
said to have contributed some articles. Some 
of his verses are contained in the 'Musre 
Etonenses.' He died at Bournemouth 10 Dec. 

[Annual Register, xci. 213 ; Latimer's Local 
Records of Remarkable Events in Northumber- 
land and Durham (1857), p. 254.] T. F. H. 

OF MEULAN (1104-1166), warrior and feudal 
statesman, was the twin brother of Robert, 
earl of Leicester [see BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE, 
1104-1168] and the son of Robert, count of 
Meulan [see BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE, d. 1118]. 
Born in 1104 (ORD. VIT. xi. 2), and brought 
up with his brother, he succeeded at his 
father's death (1118) to his French fief of 
Meulan and his Norman fief of Beaumont (ib. 
xii. 33). In the struggle of 1119 he was faith- 
ful to Henry I (ib. xii. 14), probably because 
too young to rebel ; but the movement in fa- 
vour of William 'Clito' and Anjou (1112) was 
eagerly joined by him (ib. xii. 34). He was 
present at the conspiracy of Croix St. Leu- 
froi, Sept. 1123 (ib.), and threw himself into 
Brionne (ib.) On Henry's approach, he 
withdrew to Beaumont (ib. xii. 36), whilst 
his castles of Brionne and Pont-Audemer 
were besieged and captured (RoG.Hov. i. 180, 
HEN. HUNT. 245, SIM. DURH.) On the 
night of 24 March 1124 he relieved and 
re- victualled his tower of Watte ville, but 
was intercepted two days later by Ranulf 
of Bayeux, near Bourg Thorolde, and taken 
prisoner with thirty of his knights (ORD. 
VIT. xii. 39). Henry extorted from him 
the surrender of Beaumont, his only remain- 
ing castle, and kept him in close confinement 
for some five years (ib.) He was present 
with his brother at Henry's deathbed, 1 Dec. 
1135 (ib. xiii. 19), but warmly espoused the 
cause of Stephen, and received the promise 
of his infant daughter in 1136 (ib. xiii. 22). 
Returning to Normandy after Easter, to 
assist his brother against Roger de Toesny, 
lie captured him after prolonged warfare on 
3 Oct. 1136 (ib. xiii. 27). Joined by Stephen 
the following spring, he hastened back with 
him to England in Dec. 1137, at the rumour 
of rebellion (ib. xiii. 32), but was again des- 
patched by him to Normandy in May 1138, 
to suppress his opponents (ib. xiii. 37). Re- 
turning to England with his brother, before 



the end of the year, they continued to act 
as Stephen's chief advisers, and headed the 
opposition to the bishop of Salisbury and his 
nephews (Gest. Steph.) At the council of 
Oxford (June 1139) matters came to a crisis, 
and, in a riot between the followers of the 
respective parties, the bishops were seized 
by the two earls, and imprisoned, at their 
advice, by Stephen (ORD. VIT. xiii. 40 ; Gest. 
Steph.) This gave ' the signal for the civil 
war ' (STUBBS, Const . Hist. i. 326), in which 
the earl, active on Stephen's side, was re- 
warded by him with a grant of Worcester 
(and, it is said, the earldom) towards the 
close of 1139. At the battle of Lincoln 
(2 Feb. 1141) he was one of Stephen's com- 
manders, but fled at the first onset, and left 
him to his fate (OED. VIT. xiii. 42 ; Gest. 
Steph. ; HEN. HUNT, 270; GEKVASE, i. 116), 
and though he hastened to assure the queen 
that he would be faithful to the captured 
king (&.), he assisted Geoffrey of Anjou to 
besiege Rouen in 1143. In 1145 he went 
on pilgrimage to Jerusalem (Chron. Norm.}, 
having (as * count of Meulan ') entrusted his 
lordship of Worcester to his brother, the earl 
of Leicester, and to the sheriff (App. 5th 
^Report Hist. MSS. p. 301). On his re- 
turn, he adhered to the empress, and held 
Worcester against Stephen in 1150. The 
king took the town, but not the castle (HEN. 
HUNT. 282), which he again attacked in 
1152. He erected two forts to block it up, 
but was treacherously induced to destroy 
them by the count's brother (GERVASE, i. 
148). lie would seem to have subsequently 
withdrawn to Normandy, where he was cap- 
tured by his nephew, Robert de Montfort, 
who imprisoned him at Orbec till he restored 
to him his fief of Montfort (Chron. Norm.} 
He reappears in attendance on the court 
early in 1157, and in May 1160 is one of the 
witnesses to the treaty between Henry II 
and Louis. Henry took his castles into his 
own hands about January 1161, but he is not 
again mentioned. He died in 1166, being 
buried on 9 April. His son, Robert, count 
of Meulan (d. 1181), joined in Prince Henry's 
rebellion against his father, Henry II, in 
1173 (BENED. ABB. i. 45), and was father of 
Robert, count of Meulan, excommunicated 
as a member of John's faction in 1191 (Ros. 

[Orderic Vitalis, lib. xi. xii. ; Gervase of Can- 
terbury and Henry of Huntingdon (Rolls series) ; 
Gesta Stephani (Eng. Hist. Soc.), pp. 47, 49 ; 
Chronica Normannise ; Lyttelton's Henry II 
(1767) vol. i. ; Nichols's History of Leicester 
(1795) pp. 23-4 ; Green's History of Worcester, 
pp. 255-6 ; Eyton's Court and Itinerary of 
Henry II.] J. H. E. 


BEAVER, PHILIP (1766-1813), captain 
in the royal navy, son of the Rev. James 
Beaver, curate of Lewknor in Oxfordshire, 
was born on 28 Feb. 1766. He was little 
more than eleven years old when his father 
died, and his mother, being left poor, was 
glad to accept the offer of Captain Joshua 
Rowley, then commanding the Monarch, to 
take the boy with him to sea. His naval 
service began in October 1777 ; and during 
the following year, as midshipman of the 
Monarch, he witnessed the fight, celebrated 
in song, between the Arethusa and Belle- 
Poule (17 June), and had his small share in 
the notorious action off Ushant (27 July). 
In December he followed Rowley to the 
Suffolk, and went in her to the West Indies. 
He continued with Rowley, by this time rear- 
admiral, in the Suffolk, Conqueror, Terrible, 
and Princess Royal, in the fleet under ad- 
mirals the Hon. John Byron, Hyde Parker, 
and Sir George Rodney, during the eventful 
years 1779-80, and afterwards under Sir Peter 
Parker at Jamaica. At Jamaica young Beaver 
continued during the rest of the war. Oil 
2 June 1783 his patron, Admiral Rowley, 
advanced him to the rank of lieutenant. 
During the next ten years he resided princi- 
pally with his mother at Boulogne, his naval 
service being limited to a few months in 1790 
and in 1791, on the occasions known as the 
Spanish and the Russian armaments. 

In the end of 1791 he associated himself 
with a scheme for colonising the island of 
Bulama on the coast of Africa, near Sierra 
Leone, and left England for that place on 
14 April 1792. The whole affair seems from 
the beginning to have been conducted without 
forethought or knowledge. The would-be 
settlers were, for the most part, idle and 
dissipated. Beaver found himself at sea in 
command of a vessel of 260 tons, with 65 
men, 24 women, and 31 children, mostly 
sea-sick, and all equally useless. When they 
landed, anything like discipline was unat- 
tainable. The party, assembled on shore, 
proved ignorant alike of law, industry, or 
order. The directors lost heart and took an 
early opportunity of returning to England. 
The command devolved on Beaver, and 
during a period of eighteen months he en- 
deavoured, by unceasing toil, to keep a little 
order and to promote a little industry ; but 
the men were quite unfitted for the work 
and manner of life, and the greater number of 
them died. The miserable remnants of the 
party evacuated the island in November 1793, 
and went to Sierra Leone, whence Beaver 
obtained a passage to England, and arrived at 



Plymouth 17 May 1794. War with France 
had meantime been declared, and a proclama- 
tion in the 'Gazette' had ordered all naval 
officers to report themselves to the admiralty. 
Beaver had felt morally bound to stay with the 
colony. t If I disobey their lordships' orders 
in the " Gazette," ' he wrote to the secretary 
of the admiralty, ' I know that I am liable 
to lose my commission ; and if I obey them, 
I never deserved one.' His excuses had been 
favourably received, and within two months 
after his return he was appointed first lieu- 
tenant of the 64-gun ship Stately. 

This ship, commanded by Captain Billy 
Douglas, sailed for the East Indies in March 
1795, but near the Cape of Good Hope fell 
in with Sir George Elphinstone, afterwards 
Lord Keith, and was by him detained to take 
part in the conquest of that settlement. Sub- 
sequently, in the East Indies, the Stately was 
engaged in the reduction of Ceylon, and on 
the homeward voyage again met with Sir 
George Elphinstone off Cape Agulhas. It 
was blowing very hard, and, as she joined 
the admiral, a violent squall rent her sails 
into ribbons and threw the ship on her beam- 
ends. The smart seamanlike manner in 
which she was righted and brought into 
station, with new sails set, caught the ad- 
miral's attention, and a few days later he 
moved Beaver into his own ship. Sir 
George returned to England in the spring 
of 1797, and, as first lieutenant of the flag- 
ship, Beaver should, in ordinary course, have 
been promoted. In this, however, he was 
disappointed ; he was still a lieutenant when, 
in the next year, Lord Keith was appointed 
to the command of the Mediterranean station, 
and went out with his lordship as first lieu- 
tenant of the Foudroyant and afterwards ot 
the Barfleur. The juniors were appointed, as 
it seemed to Beaver, for promotion rather than 
for duty. He was thus driven to bring Lord 
Cochrane, the junior lieutenant, to a court- 
martial for disrespect. Lord Cochrane, though 
admonished to avoid flippancy, was acquitted 
of the charge, which Beaver was told ought 
not to have been pressed. The circumstance 
did not, however, interfere with the admi- 
ral's good will. On 19 June 1799 Beaver 
was made a commander, and a few months 
later was appointed by Lord Keith to the 
flag-ship as acting assistant-captain of the 
fleet. During April and May 1800 Beaver 
was specially employed in command of the 
repeated bombardments of Genoa, and on 
the surrender of Massena was sent home 
with the despatches. Unfortunately for him 
Marengo had been fought before he arrived ; 
it was known in England that Genoa was 
lost again before it was known how it had 

first been won; and Beaver went back to 
Lord Keith without his expected promotion. 
On his way out he was detained for a fort- 
night at Gibraltar, where he took the oppor- 
tunity to get married to a young lady, Miss 
Elliott, to whom he had been for some time 
engaged. Shortly after rejoining the admiral 
he was advanced to post rank, and appointed 
to the command of the flag-ship, in which 
he had an important share in the operations 
on the coast of Egypt (1800-1); but in 
June of this latter year, being weary of the 
monotony of the blockade, he obtained per- 
mission to exchange into the Determinee 
frigate, and in her was sent up to Constanti- 
nople with despatches. The sultan was de- 
sirous of acknowledging this service with a 
large sum of money, which Beaver positively 
declined, though he afterwards consented to 
accept a diamond box for himself and a gold 
box for each of the lieutenants. He also re- 
ceived for his services in Egypt the Turkish 
order of the Crescent. 

On the conclusion of the peace of Amiens 
the Determinee was ordered home, and was 
paid off at Portsmouth on 19 May 1802. 
Beaver now settled down on shore, and was 
placed in charge of the sea fencibles of Essex 
in July 1803. Three years later he was ap- 
pointed to the Acasta, 40-gun frigate, and in 
her proceeded to the West Indies, where he 
remained until after the capture of Mar- 
tinique, in February 1809. He was then sent 
home in charge of convoy and with a large 
number of French prisoners. Some months 
later he was appointed to the Nisus of 38 
guns, a new frigate just launched, and on 
22 June 1810 sailed in her for the East Indies. 
He arrived on the station in time to take a 
very distinguished part, under Vice-admiral 
Albemarle Bertie, in the reduction of Mauri- 
tius (November 1810), and, under Rear-ad- 
miral the Hon. Robert Stopford, in the con- 
quest of Java (August and September 1811). 
After nearly a year spent in the Mozambique 
and on the coast of Madagascar, towards the 
end of 1812 the Nisus received her orders 
for England, and in the latter days of March 
1813 put into Table Bay on her homeward 
voyage. Here Beaver, who had complained 
of a slight indisposition, was seized with a 
violent inflammation of the bowels, and, 
after a few days of the most excruciating 
torment, died on 5 April. 

Beaver was a man of remarkable energy 
and ability, and in the exceptional posts 
which he held, both in the Mediterranean 
and in the East Indies, he performed his 
duty not only effectively, but without awak- 
ening the jealousy of his seniors whom he 
temporarily superseded. So far as his pro- 



fession permitted, he was an almost omni- 
vorous reader of solid books; during one 
cruise he read entirely through the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica.' In command he was 
a strict disciplinarian ; but at a time when 
strictness not unfrequently degenerated into 
cruelty, no charge of tyranny was ever made 
against him : and yet, says his perhaps par- 
tial biographer, ' the pardonable weakness of 
forgiving a little more frequently would, 
perhaps, have brought the commander's cha- 
racter nearer to perfection.' 

By his early death, and the previous bank- 
ruptcy of his agent, his widow, with six 
children, was left but poorly provided for. 
The efforts of his friends in her behalf pro- 
duced no result, and she was eventually 
reduced to accept the situation of matron of 
Greenwich Hospital school as a refuge from 
pecuniary distress. 

[The Life and Services of Captain Philip 
Beaver, late of His Majesty's Ship Nisus, by 
Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N., K.S.F., F.R.S., &c., 
8vo, 1 829 ; Captain Beaver himself published an 
account of his Bulama experiences, under the 
title of African Memoranda, 4to, 1805; he also 
contributed to the papers of the day some letters 
on nautical subjects, a selection of which was re- 
published by Captain Smyth.] J. K. L. 

BEAVOR, EDMOND (d. 1745), captain 
in the royal navy, was made a lieutenant 
on 2 March 1733-4, and whilst serving in 
theWest Indies was promoted by Sir Chaloner 
Ogle to command the Stromboli fireship in 
the summer of 1743, and, in company with 
the Lion, 60 guns, was sent home with a 
convoy of thirty merchant-ships. Very bad 
weather scattered the fleet ; several of the 
convoy were lost, and the Stromboli, dis- 
masted and in an almost sinking condition, 
just managed to get into Kinsale harbour. 
There she was refitted, and arrived in the 
Downs on 21 Dec. Towards the end of the 
next year he was appointed to the Fox frigate, 
and during the spring and summer of 1745 
was employed cruising, with some success, 
against the Dunkirk privateers in the North 
Sea. In September he was in Leith roads, 
engaged in assisting the transport of the 
army, and in stopping, so far as possible, the 
communications of the rebels. On the even- 
ing of the 21st, after the defeat of Sir John 
Cope's army in the morning, the Fox became 
a place of refuge for numbers of the soldiers 
who could not get into the castle, the town 
gates being held by the enemy. Beavor's 
position was not an easy one for a young 
officer ; for he had no instructions, and did 
not know how far his authority extended. 
The rebels were in possession of Leith, and 

would not allow him to communicate with 
the shore, even to get fresh provisions. On 
6 Oct. he wrote that there were 1,200 rebels- 
quartered in Leith ; and though he thought 
that a few shot might dislodge them, he was 
not certain that it would meet with their 
lordships' approval. A few weeks later he 
put to sea on a cruise, and in a violent storm 
the Fox went down with all hands, 14 Nov. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. v. 279 ; Official Letters 
in the Public Record Office.] J. K. L. 

BEAZLEY, SAMUEL (1786-1851), 
architect and playwright, was born in 1786 
in Parliament Street, Westminster, where 
his father carried on the business of an archi- 
tect and surveyor, and died at his residence, 
Tunbridge Castle, Kent, on 12 Oct. 1851. 
When at school at Acton, a boy of twelve 
years old, he wrote a farce and constructed 
the stage upon which he and his comrades 
performed it. As a youth he volunteered for 
service in the Peninsula, and experienced 
many romantic adventures, which he was- 
fond of relating in after-life to his friends. 
As an architect he enjoyed a considerable prac- 
tice, especially in the construction of theatres, 
of which he certainly designed more than any 
other architect of his day. The Lyceum, St. 
James's, City of London, the Strand front of 
the Adelphi, and the colonnade of Drury Lane 
were among those erected by him in London, 
and he prepared drawings for two theatres 
in Dublin, two in Belgium, one in Brazil, 
and two in different parts of India. With- 
out presenting much artistic attraction, his 
theatres possessed the merit of being well 
adapted to their purposes. He designed one 
or two country houses and some new buildings 
for the university of Bonn. His last most 
important works were erected for the South- 
Eastern Railway Company, and include their 
terminus at London Bridge, most of their sta- 
tions on the North Kent line, and the Lord 
Warden Hotel and Pilot House at Dover. 
Like his theatres, they were always well suited 
to their purposes. He was a most prolific 
writer of dramatic pieces, of which upwards 
of one hundred are ascribed to his pen. They 
are chiefly farces and short comedies, showing- 
considerable mechanical dexterity. Among 
the best known are : ' Five Hours at Brighton/ 
the first of the author's plays performed, 'The 
Boarding House,' ' Is he Jealous ? ' an operetta 
in one act composed for Mr. Wrench, and 
first performed at the Theatre Royal English 
Opera House on 2 July 1816, 'Gretna Green/ 
< The Steward,' < Old Customs,' ' The Lottery 
Ticket,' 'My Uncle,' 'Bachelors' Wives/ 
' Hints to Husbands,' ' Fire and Water,' and 




* The Bull's Head.' He also wrote English 
versions of the operas of ' Robert the Devil,' 
'The Queen of Cyprus,' and ' La Sonnambula,' 
which last is said to have been adapted by 
him to the pronunciation of Malibran, by 
being written in morning interviews with 
her at her bedside. He also wrote two novels, 
' The RoueV 1828, and < The Oxonians/ 1830. 
These are cleverly constructed, but to modern 
taste they seem tedious and formal. 

In private life Beazley was a pleasant 
companion, a good and witty causeur, some 
of his bonsmots being remembered and re- 
peated to this day, such as his reply to a 
lady's inquiry w^hy the rooks near her house 
made so much noise, that they had caws 
for conversation. He died suddenly of an 
apoplectic seizure in the sixty-sixth year of 
his age. 

[Builder, 1851 ; Gent. Mag. 1829, 1851.1 

G. W. B. 


LA (1796-1855), geologist, the last of an 
ancient family, was born in a London suburb 
in 1796. Losing his father, a military officer, 
at a very early age, young De la Beche was 
sent to the grammar school at Ottery St. Mary 
in Devonshire, but his mother soon removed 
thence, first to Charmouth and afterwards 
to Lyme Regis, so famous for its liassic fossils, 
in collecting which the young student showed 
the first evidence of his taste for natural his- 
tory. Intending to follow the profession of 
his father, Henry De la Beche entered the 
military school at Great Marlowe in 1810; 
where the artistic powers of sketching, after- 
wards so useful to him in his geological work, 
were sedulously cultivated. But his mili- 
tary career was short. The general peace of 
1815 led De la Beche, in company with Mur- 
chison and many other active and restless 
spirits, to quit the army. 

De la Beche settled in Dorset, where the 
geological structure of the district engaged 
his attention ; but he soon found the need of 
wider culture and information, and when in 
1817, at the age of twenty-one, he became a 
member of the Geological Society of Lon- 
don, it became clear to him that he must 
seek abroad for deeper tuition. For the four 
or five succeeding years the young geologist 
was an ardent student of the natural pheno- 
mena of the Alps, and spending his time 
chiefly in Switzerland and France, he gained 
a sound knowledge of mineralogy and petro- 
graphy. In 1819 De la Beche's observations 
on the temperature and depth of the Lake 
of Geneva were printed in the l Bibliotheque 
Universelle ' (reprinted in the * Edinburgh 
Journal,' 1820), and in the same year his first 

geological paper, ' On the Secondary Forma- 
tions of the Southern Coast of England,' ap- 
peared in the ' Transactions of the Geological 
Society ' (vol. i. 1819). 

In 1824 De la Beche visited his paternal 
estate in Jamaica, and among the fruits of 
j his stay there was the publication (Trans. 
\ Geol. $00.) of a paper in which, for the first 
I time, the rocks of the island were described. 
On his return to England from Jamaica, De 
la Beche's pen was very busy in the prepa- 
ration of other papers on the rocks of the 
south and west of England ; the first distinct 
volume which he issued (in 1829) appears to 
be a translation of a number of geological 
memoirs from the ' Annales des Mines.' The 
list of books which may be said to have been 
written by De la Beche in his private capa- 
city include ' Manual of Geology,' 1831 ; ' Re- 
searches in Theoretical Geology,' 1834 ; and 
the * Geological Observer,' 1853. It is not 
too much to say that the publication of these 
works would alone have placed De la Beche 
in the first rank of geologists. In them he 
exhibits the most varied acquirements, ap- 
plying almost every branch of science to the 
elucidation of geological facts. Notwith- 
standing the rapid advancement of geological 
knowledge, these books will long continue to- 
be well worthy of the earnest study of every 

But the great epoch of De la Beche's. 
life was now approaching. In 1815 William 
Smith the father of English geology had 
published the first geological map of Eng- 
land, in which the position of each of the 
main beds of rock, or formations, is shown 
as they run across our island from south- 
west to north-east. This was necessarily a 
map on a small scale, not sufficiently de- 
tailed, for example, to indicate to any land- 
owner the nature of the rocks composing his 
estate. But a great map of England was 
now in process of construction by the govern- 
ment department, entitled the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, on the scale of one inch to a mile. De 
la Beche's idea was to make this ' ordnance 
map ' the groundwork of a geological survey 
of each county, representing upon it, by dif- 
ferent colours, the exact surface-area occu- 
pied by the different beds of rock, and further 
illustrating the relations of the strata to one 
another by means of horizontal and vertical 
sections. This great task was commenced 
by De la Beche at his own expense in the 
mining district of Devon and Cornwall. But 
the work was so clearly one deserving the 
name of ' national ' that the government of 
the day quickly acceded to De la Beche's re- 
quest for aid. In 1832 he was appointed to 
conduct the proposed geological survey under 




the board of ordnance, a sum of 300/. was 
granted, and in 1835 a house in Craig's Court, 
Charing Cross, was placed at the disposal of 
the new * director of the ordnance geological 
survey.' With the help of six or eight field- 
assistants the work went on rapidly; geo- 
logical maps of Cornwall, Devon, and So- 
merset were soon completed. Specimens of 
rocks, minerals, and fossils poured into Craig's 
Court so rapidly, that, although an adjoining 
house was taken, the premises were soon too 
small to contain the collections, which in- 
cluded all the economically valuable mineral 
substances met with in the course of the sur- 
vey, such as materials for making roads, 
building-stones, useful metals, and all mine- 
rals having any industrial importance. De 
la Beche was now enabled to push forward 
another of his long-cherished ideas, and, with 
the help of Sir Robert Peel, Lord Carlisle, 
and other enlightened statesmen, secured the 
erection of an excellent building, built * very 
much after his own designs,' between Jermyn 
Street and Piccadilly, for a museum of eco- 
nomic or practical geology. 

Previous to the completion of the building, 
which was opened by Prince Albert in 1851, 
several other important steps had been made 
by De la Beche. The geological survey was 
transferred in 1845 from the Ordnance to the 
Office of Woods and Forests ; a mining record 
office was established in 1839 for the reception 
of plans and information about mines, and this 
has since approved itself a most useful institu- 
tion ; moreover, between the years 1840-50, De 
la Beche now 'director general' collected 
round the new institution a band of distin- 
guished scientific men, including Lyon Play- 
fair, Edward Forbes, Robert Hunt, Dr. Percy, 
A. C. Ramsay, and W. W. Smyth. With 
these to aid him, De la Beche ventured to 
complete his scheme by the establishment of 
a ' School of Mines,' the equivalent of the 
famous Ecole des Mines of France. For 
want of suitable room the project could not 
be effectively carried out until the opening 
of the new Jermyn Street Museum in 1851. 

De la Beche was elected president of the 
Geological Society in 1847 ; he received the ! 
honour of knighthood in 1848, and was 
awarded the Wollaston palladium medal by 
the Geological Society in 1855 ; he was also 
the recipient of many honours from abroad. 
Although, during the last three years of his ; 
life he suffered much from paralysis and gene- 
ral debility, he continued to work till only a 
few hours before his death, which occurred 
on 13 April 1855. He was buried at Kensal 
Green Cemetery in London. His bust stands 
in the building of his creation, the Geolo- 
gical Museum in Jermyn Street. 

Murchison, Ramsay, and Geikie have in 
turn occupied the post of director-general of 
the geological survey since the death of De 
la Beche. In his l Life of Edward Forbes ' 
Professor Geikie has described his predecessor 
as l a man who for many a long year, with 
unwearied energy, spent time and toil and 
money in the service of his country and in 
the cause of science. The volumes which he 
wrote, with the survey and museum which 
he founded and fostered, form after all his 
most fitting epitaph as well as his proudest 

In addition to those of De la Beche's 
writings referred to above, we may name : 
1. { Report on the Geology of Cornwall, 
Devon, and West Somerset,' 1839, a bulky 
and valuable volume. 2. l First Report on 
Coals for Steam Navy,' in ' Geological Survey 
Memoirs,' vol. ii., part ii., and in vol. i., 

Sart i., ' On the Formation of the Rocks of 
outh Wales,' 1846. 3. ' Presidential Address 
to Geological Society,' ' Quarterly Journal/ 
vol. iv., 1848. 4. < Inaugural Address,' ' Re- 
cords of School of Mines,' vol. i., part, i., 
1852. In the Royal Society's l Catalogue of 
Scientific Papers ' there appear the titles of 
thirty-seven written by De la Beche alone, 
in addition to three of which he was part 
author only. 

[Quart. Jour. Greol. Soc., vols. xi. xii., President's 
Addresses ; Geikie's Life of Murchison, ii. 177 ; 
Geikie's Life of E. Forbes, p. 376.] W. J. H. 

BECHER, ELIZA, LADY (1791-1872), 
actress, was daughter of an Irish actor 
named O'Neill, of no great reputation, who 
was stage-manager of the Drogheda theatre. 
Her mother before marriage was a Miss 
Featherstone. After a little instruction, 
obtained at a small school in Drogheda, Miss 
O'Neill made, as a child, her first appearance 
on the stage of the Drogheda theatre. Two 
years were subsequently spent in Belfast, 
and Miss O'Neill then proceeded to Dublin, 
where she speedily made a high mark as 
Juliet and Jane Shore, and as Ellen in a ver- 
sion of the ' Lady of the Lake.' An engage- 
ment followed at Covent Garden, at which 
house she appeared 6 Oct. 1814 as Juliet to 
the Romeo of Conway. A success altogether 
beyond the modest expectations of the 
management was reaped; the houses were 
nightly crowded, and the debutante was 
hailed with extravagant enthusiasm as 'a 
younger and better Mrs. Siddons.' For five 
years Miss O'Neill was a reigning favourite, 
commanding acceptance in comedy in such 
parts as Lady Teazle, Mrs. Oakly, Lady 
Townly, and Widow Cheerly, but causing a 
more profound sensation in Juliet, Belvidera, 




Monimia, and other characters belonging to 
tragedy. Stories concerning the influence 
of her acting now not easy to credit 
were freely told. Men are said to have been 
borne fainting from the theatre after witness- 
ing her tragic performances. Through her 
theatrical career an unblemished reputation 
was maintained, and a constantly iterated 
charge of avarice was the worst accusation 
brought against her. On 13 July 1819 she 
made as Mrs. Haller what was announced as 
her last appearance before Christmas. It 
proved to be her last appearance on the stage. 
On 18 Dec. in the same year she married 
Mr. William Wrixon Becher, an Irish mem- 
ber of parliament for Mallow, where he pos- 
sessed considerable estates. By the death of 
an uncle Mr. Becher became subsequently a 
baronet. Lady Becher never returned to the 
stage. She died 29 Oct. 1872. By the best 
judges she is credited with the possession of 
gifts all but the highest. Reynolds, the 
dramatist, alone ventured a word of dis- 
paragement, saying that her acting was ' of 
too boisterous and vehement a nature.' He 
owns that in this opinion he was in a 
minority (Life, ii. 398). Macready, speak- 
ing of her debut, says : ' Her beauty, grace, 
simplicity, and tenderness were the theme of 
every tongue. . . . The noble pathos of Sid- 
dons's transcendent genius no longer served 
as the grand commentary and living exponent 
of Shakespeare's text, but in the native ele- 
gance, the feminine sweetness, the unaffected 
earnestness and gushing passion of Miss 
O'Neill the stage had received a worthy suc- 
cessor to her ' (Reminiscences, ed. Sir F. Pol- 
lock, i. 86). From this estimate of her he 
did not recede. Hazlitt also gave her high, 
if discriminating praise, saying that 'her 
excellence unrivalled by any actress since 
Mrs. Siddons consisted in truth of nature 
and force of passion ' (Dramatic Essays, 
p. 309, ed. 1851). Her beauty appears to 
have been of the classical type, her features 
having a Grecian outline ; her voice was ' deep, 
clear, and mellow ; ' her figure was middle- 
sized, and she had a slight stoop in the 
shoulders, which does not seem to have 
detracted from her grace and dignity. It 
has been maintained that with her the race 
of tragic actresses expired a statement 
in which there is as much truth as is to 
be found in other similarly sweeping asser- 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage; 
Kelly's Keminiscences ; London Magazine; 
Burke's Baronetage ; Era Almanack.] J. K. 

BECHER, HENRY QZ. 1561), transla- 
tor, was vicar of Mayfield, in the jurisdiction 

of South Mailing. He translated into the 
English tongue and adorned with a long pre- 
face against the late Pelagians i.e. Henry 
Hart and others in Kent, Essex, London, and 
other places the two books of ' St. Ambrose 
de Vocatione Gentium.' In the preface are 
many things concerning this heresy which in- 
fested no small number of provinces in Eng- 
land in the times of Henry VIII and Queen 
Mary. The full title of his translation is as 
follows : * Two Books of Saint Ambrose, Bys- 
shoppe of Mytleyne, entituled Of the Voca- 
tion and Calling of all Nations : newly trans- 
lated out of Latin into Englyshe, for the 
edifying and comfort of the single-mynded 
and godly, unlearned in Christes Church, 
agaynst the late stronge secte of the Pelagi- 
ans, the maynteyners of the free v, yll of men, 
and denyers of the grace of God/ London, 
1561, 8vo. 

[MS. Coll. Corp. Chr. Cantabr. Miscell. ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit.-Hibern. p. 82; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.] J. M. 

1848), clergyman and writer on social eco- 
nomy, was born in 1770, and received his 
early education at Westminst er School, which 
he entered at fourteen. In 1788 he was 
elected thence to Oxford, where in 1795 he 
took the degree of M.A. In 1799 he was 
presented to the perpetual curacies of Thur- 
garton and Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire. 
He devoted himself actively to the work of 
local administration, and it was as one of the 
visiting justices for his division of Notting- 
hamshire that he wrote what was printed 
in 1806 as 'A Report concerning the House 
of Correction at Southwell,' in his imme- 
diate neighbourhood. In this he urged that 
prison discipline should be made reformatory 
as well as penal. About 1816 he was made 
chairman of the quarter sessions of the Newark 
division of Nottinghamshire, an office which 
he held for thirty years. In 1801 he had 
been appointed vicar of Rumpton, Notting- 
hamshire, and of Midsomer Norton in 1801. 
He became a friend of Byron when the poet 
was staying at Southwell during his Cam- 
bridge vacations; and at his advice Byron 
suppressed his first privately printed volume. 
In 1818 he became a prebendary of South- 
well, and was vicar-general of that colle- 
giate church, the dean and chapter of which 
presented him in 1830 to the rectory of 
Barnborough, Yorkshire. He took a warm 
interest in everything connected with the 
social condition of the people, and, whether 
he was its founder or not, zealously promoted 
the establishment of a friendly society at 
Southwell. In 1824 he published ' The Con- 



stitution of Friendly Societies upon Legal 
and Scientific Principles exemplified by the 
Rules and Tables of Calculations adopted | 
... for the Government of the Friendly In- I 
stitute at Southwell ' (3rd edition, 1826) ; ! 
followed in 1825 by ' Tables showing the 
single and monthly contributions to be paid, 
the allowances to be granted, and the method 
of calculating, at every period of life, the 
value of assurances effected by members of 
Friendly Societies, together with a system 
of Bookkeeping recommended for the use of 
such institutions.' In 1826 appeared his ' Ob- 
servations upon the Report from the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons on 
the Laws respecting Friendly Societies, ex- 
emplifying and vindicating the principles of 
Life Assurance adopted in calculating the 
Southwell Tables, together with the heads 
of a Bill for improving the constitution and 
management of such institutions.' The 
vindication was of Becher's contention that 
sick allowances could be calculated on a 
scientific basis, and that the Northampton 
tables of mortality afforded the best data for 
life assurance and cognate calculations, both 
of which positions had been contested before 
the committee by Mr. Finlaison, the actuary 
of the national debt. In 1828 Becher pub- 
lished ' The Anti-Pauper System, exemplify- 
ing the positive and practical good realised 
by the relievers and the relieved under the 
frugal, beneficent, and careful administration 
of the poor laws prevailing at Southwell and 
in the neighbouring district,' &c. The erec- 
tion of a workhouse at Southwell, the sub- 
stitution of indoor for outdoor relief, and 
the making the former as repulsive as pos- 
sible to able-bodied paupers, had caused con- 
siderable reduction in the rates at Southwell, 
and the system in operation there had been 
copied with similar results in various parishes 
throughout the country. The select com- 
mittee of the House of Commons on agri- 
culture in its report pointed attention to the 
value of Becher's system, which was also 
favourably mentioned by the ' Quarterly 
Review.' In 1834, during the official in- 
vestigation which resulted in the new poor 
law, Becher issued a second edition of this 
work, with a new introduction. In 1837, 
lie apparently converted, on at least one 
point, Finlaison, his former antagonist, and 
there appeared 'Rules of the Northampton 
Equitable Friendly Institution, and tables 
calculated from actual returns of sickness, 
old age, and death, by the Rev. J. T. 
Becher, M.A., and J. Finlaison, Esq., Ac- 
tuary of the National Debt.' Becher died 
at Hill House, Southwell, on 3 Jan. 1848, 
aged 78. 

[Becher's writings; "Welch's List of the Queen's 
Scholars of St. Peter's College, Westminster (new 
edition, 1852); Gent. Mag. for April 1848.] 

BECK. [See BEK.] 

BECK, CAVE (1623-1706 ?), writer on 
pasigraphy, son of John Beck, baker, of the 
parish of St. John, Clerkenwell, was born in 
London in 1623. He was educated in a 
private school kept in London by Mr. Brath- 
wayte, and on 13 June 1638 was admitted a 
pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
He took the degree of B.A. in 1641, and sub- 
sequently that of M.A., being incorporated 
in the latter at Oxford, 17 Oct. 1643. In 
1655 he was master of the free grammar 
school at Ipswich; in 1657, however, Robert 
Woodside was retained as master, during the 
pleasure of the corporation, in the room of 
Beck, who perhaps resigned that situation 
on being instituted to St. Helen's, or Monk- 
soham, of which he was also rector. In 1662 
he licensed to the perpetual curacy of St. 
Margaret's, Ipswich, and in the same year 
he was presented by the king, by lapse, to 
the rectory of St. Helen's, Ipswich, with St. 
Clement's annexed. We have been unable 
to ascertain the precise date of the death of 
this ingenious scholar. He was certainly 
alive in 1697, and William Ray, who was 
instituted to Monksoham in 1706, was pro- 
bably his immediate successor. 

He wrote an extremely curious and interest- 
ing work entitled ' The Universal Character, 
by which all Nations in the World may under- 
stand one another's Conceptions, Reading out 
of one Common Writing their own Mother 
Tongues. An Invention of General Use, the 
Practise whereof may be Attained in two 
Hours' space, Observing the Grammatical 
Directions. Which Character is so contrived, 
that it may be Spoken as well as Written, 
Lond. 1657, 8vo. The work was also pub- 
lished the same year in the French language. 
It is dedicated to Nathanael and Francis 
Bacon, esquires, 'patronis suis colendissimis.' 
The characters chosen by Beck are the ten 
Arabic numerals, which he proposes to pro- 
nounce aun, too, tray, for orfo,fai, sic, sen, 
at, nin, o. The combinations of these cha- 
racters, intended to express all the radical 
| words in any language, are to be arranged in 
numerical order, from unity to 10,000. which 
number he thinks sufficient to express all 
words in general use ; and to each number is 
to be annexed the word in any language, as 
for example English, of which it is a symbol, 
thus forming a numerical vocabulary. The 
same words are also to be arranged in 
another vocabulary in the alphabetical order 
of the language they belong to ; thus each 




serves for a key to the other. There is also 
a list of about two hundred characters to de- 
note parts of compound words, and the gram- 
matical modifications of words are expressed 
by letters of the alphabet. The words are in 
most instances extended to an unmanageable 
length, and the difficulty of discovering the 
meaning of the numerical group which stands 
for the radical word is increased by the still 
greater difficulty of disconnecting the radical 
from the modifying appendage, and of ana- 
lysing the component parts of the latter. 
As a frontispiece to the book there is an 
engraving by Faithorne, and the figure of 
the European is supposed, with great proba- 
bility, to be the portrait of the author. 

[Addit. MSS. 5863, f. 135, 19166, f. 11 ; Hoi- j 
lingworth's Character of Charles I, p. 27 ; MS. j 
note in Thomas Baker's copy of The Universal 
Character ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 60 ; 
Groves's Pasilogia, 62 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of 
England, 5th edit. iii. 329 ; Gent. Mag. N. S. 
xiv. 365; Wodderspoon's Ipswich, 391, 399.1 

T. C. 

BECK, DAVID (d. 1656), portrait painter, 
was born at Delft. His name is variously 
written B'eec and Beek. The statement of 
Houbraken and the writers who follow him, 
that he was born 25 May 1621, is contradicted 
by the existence of an authenticated picture 
at St. Petersburg, which is dated 1631, and 
made at least doubtful by the fact, which 
Houbraken himself adduces, that he taught 
drawing to the children of Charles I. In this 
country he was Vandyck's pupil, and had so | 
much facility in painting that Charles I is ! 
stated to have said, ' Faith, Beck ! I believe j 
you could paint riding post.' He left Eng- 
land, and worked as a portrait-painter in the 
courts of France and of Denmark. Still later 
he entered the service of the Queen of Swe- 
den, and was sent by her to various courts of 
Europe with a commission to paint portraits 
of the most illustrious persons of Christendom. 
This information we find in Cornelius de Bie's 
' Het gulden Cabinet,' where is also a pane- 
gyrical poem and a fine, as well as very 
handsome, portrait of the painter. He ac- 
companied the queen to Rome, and was elected 
a member of the painters' guild of that city 
in 1653. Returning, he accompanied his 
patroness as far as Paris, and then left her 
upon a plea that he wished to revisit his old 
friends in Holland. He died suddenly at the 
Hague on 20 Dec. 1656. Houbraken describes 
him as l a handsome distinguished man, but 
without genius.' He also asserts that he was 
poisoned by order of the Queen of Sweden, 
who feared he did not intend to keep his pro- 
mise of returning to her; but Houbraken's 
tales are in general debateable. 

Beck's pictures, the number of which should 
be very great if the tales of his celerity have 
any truth, are now rare. There is one in the 
National Gallery of Stockholm, a three- 
quarter portrait of his patroness, the Queen 
of Sweden, which shows him to have been a 
sober follower of Vandyck ; and there is 
another in a private collection in the same 
city. His best work is seen in small portraits, 
as in that already mentioned picture at St. 
Petersburg, in the possession of Peter von 
Semmnow, dated 1631. Even here the influ- 
ence of Vandyck is marked. Beck has little 
claim, to rank among English artists, and the 
printed accounts of him in English are in- 
complete and incorrect. The best account 
is by W. Bode in the latest edition of Nagler. 

[Houbraken's De groote Schonburgh, ii. 83; 
De Bie's Het gulden Cabinet ; Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painters, i. 338 ; Pilkingtoii's Diet, of 
Painters (recounts an extraordinary miracle 
which befell the painter) ; Nagler's Allgemeines 
Kiinstler-Lexikon, ed. 1881.] E. K. 

1846), author of ' Annales Furnesienses,' was 
the son of James Beck, gentleman, and was 
born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne 31 May 1795. 
He was educated at Archbishop Sandys's 
grammar school, Hawkshead, Lancashire, and 
later in life by a private tutor. He never 
adopted any profession. Having, owing to a 
special complaint, become unable to walk 
somewhat early in life, he mitigated the 
tedium of confinement at his residence of 
Esthwaite Lodge, Lancashire, by the compo- 
sition of his l Annales Furnesienses,' pub- 
lished in 1844 in a splendid quarto volume, 
a work not only completely exhaustive on all 
matters bearing on the history of the abbey 
of St. Mary, but of prime importance with 
regard to antiquarian research throughout the 
whole district of Furness. He died 24 April 
1846, and was buried in Hawkshead church- 
yard. A beautiful mural tablet has been 
erected in the church to his memory. 

[Historic Society of Lancas. and dies. Pro- 
ceedings, New Series, v. 154; Kichardson's His- 
tory and Antiquities of Furness, 1880, i. 80; 
private information.] T. F. H. 

BECKE, EDMUND (Jl. 1550), theo- 
logical writer, was ordained deacon by Bishop 
Ridley in 1551 (STKYPE'S Memorials, ii. pt. i. 
313). In 1549 he supervised an edition of 
the Bible, * truly and purely translated into 
English and nowe lately with greate industry 
and diligence recognized.' The volume was 
printed by John Day and William Seres, and 
was preceded by a long dedicatory address 
to 'the most puisant and mighty prince 



Edwarde the Sixt,' signed by his ' most humble 
and obedient subiect Edmund Becke.' An 
autograph copy of the address is among the 
Ashmolean MSS. at Oxford. Becke there 
speaks of the book as 'the frutes of myne 
industry,' but it appears to be merely a re- 
print of T. Matthew's (i.e. John Rogers') 
' Bible/ published in 1537, with trifling va- 
riations in the text and notes. It contains 
Tindal's preface to the New Testament. 
Becke's chief original contribution consists 
of ' a perfect supputation of the yeares and 
tyme from Adam unto Christ, proued by the 
Scriptures after the colleccyon of dyuers 
Authours.' In 1551 Becke published two 
more Bibles, one printed by John Day, 
1 faythfully set forth according to y e coppy of 
Thomas Matthewes translacion [really Ta- 
verner's Bible of 1539] wherevnto are added 
certaine learned prologes and annotacions 
for the better understanding of many hard 
places threwout the whole Byble.' The dedi- 
catory address and the various prologues 
which occur in Becke's earlier edition of the 
Bible are again inserted. The other Bible 
followed the Matthew revision, and was 
printed by N. Hyll. Becke's other works 
included: 1. 'Two Dyalogues wrytten in 
Latin by the famous clerke D. Erasmus of 
Roterodame, one called Polyphemus or the 
Gospeller, the other dysposing of thynges 
and names ; translated into Englyshe by Ed- 
mond Becke. And prynted at Canterbury in 
Saynt Paules paryshe by John Mychell.' 
2. 'A Brefe Confutacion of this most de- 
testable and Anabaptistrial opinion that 
Christ dyd not take hys flesh of the blessed 
Vyrgyn Mary nor any corporal substance of 
her body. For the maintenaunce whereof 
Jhone Bucher, otherwise called Jhon of Kent, 
most obstinately suffered and was burned 
in Smythfyelde, the ii. day of May Anno 
Domini M.D.L.' (London, John Day, 1550, 
4to.) The first tract is described by Becke j 
as ' the fyrste frutes of this my symple 
translacyon,' and as undertaken at the re- 
quest of ' a nere cosyn of myne ' for ( such 
as are not lerned in the Latin tongue.' It 
is undated : its publication at Canterbury j 
suggests some ecclesiastical connection be- 
tween Becke and that town. The second 
tract is a popular rhyming pamphlet, written 
to point the moral of the martyrdom of the 
anabaptist Joan Bocher [q.v.], which is fully 
described by Stow. The tract has been re- 
printed by Mr. J. P. Collier in the second 
volume of his ' Illustrations of Early Eng- 
lish Popular Literature ' (1864). 

[Lewis's History of the English Translation 
of the Bible, prefixed to his edition of Wiclif's 
New Testament (1731), pp. 44, 47; Tanner's 

Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] S. L. L. 

BECKET, THOMAS, archbishop of 
Canterbury. [See THOMAS.] 

BECKET, WILLIAM (1684-1738), sur- 
geon and antiquary, was born at Abingdon, 
Berkshire. In the early years of the eighteenth 
century he was well known in London as a 
surgeon and an enthusiastic antiquary. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
j 11 Dec. 1718, and read three papers on 'The 
I Antiquity of the Venereal Disease ' at its 
l meetings during the same year (Phil. Trans. 
I vi. 368, 467, 492), and one on another sub- 
ject in 1724 (ib. vii. 25). Becket was an 
original member of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, which was virtually established in 
1717, and lived on intimate terms with 
Stukeley, Bowyer, Browne- Willis, and other 
antiquaries. He was for some years surgeon 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, South wark, but 
before 1736 he had retired to Abingdon, 
where he died 25 Nov. 1738. Dr. Stukeley, 
the well-known antiquary, adds in his com- 
mon-place book to his note of the death of 
' my old friend William Becket, surgeon,' that 
his papers were bought 'by the infamous 
Curl,' and purchased of Curll for thirty 
guineas by Dr. Milward (STTJKELEY'S Me- 
moirs, ed. Lukis (Surtees Soc.), i. 97). 

His works are : 1. l New Discoveries re- 
lating to the Cure of Cancers,' 1711 and 1712. 
2. 'An Enquiry into the Antiquity and 
Efficacy of Touching for the King's Evil,, 
with a Collection of Records,' 1722. John 
Anstis the elder gave Becket some assist- 
ance in this work (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, 
ii. 498). 3. ' Practical Surgery, illustrated 
and improved, with remarks on the most 
remarkable Cases, Cures, and Discussions in 
St. Thomas's Hospital,' 1740. 4. 'A Collec- 
tion of Chirurgical Tracts,' 1740. Gough 
in his ' British Topography,' 1780 (i. 519), re- 
marks, on Stukeley's authority, that Becket 
examined the wills in the prerogative office 
referring to Lincolnshire and other counties. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, ii. 88, v. 278 ; Ni- 
chols's Lit. Illustrations,]]. 796 ; Watt's Biblio- 
theca Brit. ; Thomson's Hist, of Royal Society, 
appendix, xxxiv ; Archseologia, i. xxxvi n.~\ 

S. L. L. 

BECKETT, ISAAC (1653-1719), mezzo- 
tint engraver, was born in Kent in 1653, and 
apprenticed to a calico printer in London, but 
happening to visit Lutterel, he became capti- 
vated by a desire of learning the new art of 
engraving in mezzotint. Hearing that one 
John Lloyd was acquainted with the process, 
and being obliged through an intrigue to- 
absent himself from his business, Beckett 




offered his services to him, and entered into 
articles to Avork for him. Before long, how- 
ever, he again fell into trouble, and was as- 
sisted by Lutterel, with whom he became 
associated in the development of the art. He 
is said to have been noted for his gallantries, 
and to have married a woman of fortune, 
which enabled him to set up as the publisher 
of his own prints, and Lutterel did many heads 
for him, being more expeditious and more 
skilful in drawing than Beckett, but they 
were often finished by the latter. His plates 
are all referable to dates between 1681 and 
1688, yet he survived until 1719. Isaac 
Beckett and Robert Williams were the first 
native Englishmen who extensively practised 
engraving in mezzotint, and, in a measure, 
may be considered to have founded the school, 
for the earlier works were executed chiefly by 
engravers of foreign birth. John Smith was 
Beckett's pupil, and appears to have obtained 
possession of many of his plates and to have 
placed his own name on them, not only as 
publisher, but on some even as engraver. 

Beckett executed several scriptural and 
allegorical subjects, as well as a few land- 
scapes, but by far the greater number of his 
plates are portraits, of which Mr. Chaloner 
Smith describes 107. Among the best of 
them may be mentioned full-length portraits 
of Charles II, the Duchess of Portsmouth, 
James II, and Catharine Sedley, countess of 
Dorchester, after Kneller ; and of Lady Wil- 
liams, said by Granger to have been a mistress 
of the Duke of York, after Wissing ; and other 
portraits of Catharine of Braganza, queen of 
Charles II, Barbara Villiers, duchess of Cleve- 
land, and Elizabeth, countess of Chesterfield, 
after Sir Peter Lely ; Mary of Modena, queen 
of James II, after Kneller and Largilliere ; 
Queen Anne, after Wissing ; Prince George 
of Denmark, after Riley and W'issing ; Beau 
Fielding, after Kneller and Wissing ; Henry 
Compton, bishop of London, after Riley; 
Thomas Cartwright, bishop of Chester, after 
Soest; and Sir Peter Lely, Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, and Nicolas de Largilliere and his 
family, after paintings by themselves. The 
most important of Beckett's subject plates are 
' The Virgin and St. Joseph, with the Infant 
Jesus asleep ; ' { Time cutting the Wings of 
Love ; ' ' Cupid and Psyche,' after Turchi ; 
'The Village Surgeon,' after Lingelbach ; and 
' The Dutch School,' after Egbert van Heems- 
kerk. Beckett's own portrait has been en- 
graved by John Smith and others. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. Wor- 
num), 1849, iii. 960-1, with portrait ; J. Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits, 1878-84, i. 
20-54 ; Meyer's Allgemeines Kunstler-Lexikon, 
1872, &c., iii. 272-274.] K. E. G. 

BECKFORD, PETER (1740-1811), 
eminent sportsman and master of foxhounds, 
was the son of Julines Beckford, of Stapleton. 
Dorset, and grandson of Peter Beckford, 
governor and commander-in-chief of Jamaica, 
He was thus cousin to William Beckford, 
the celebrated lord mayor of London. His 
pre-eminence among foxlmnters is due to the 
fact that he was the first English writer to 
describe minutely and accurately the whole 
system of the sport of hunting. This he did 
in a work entitled ' Thoughts upon Hare and 
Fox Hunting ; also an account of the most 
celebrated Dog Kennels in the Kingdom/ 
Sarum, sm. 4to, 1781, 1796, 1820. 'Never,' 
says a writer (Sir Egerton Brydges ?) in the 
' Retrospective Review ' (xiii. 231), l had fox 
or hare the honour of being chased to death 
by so accomplished a hunter ; never was 
huntsman's dinner graced by such urbanity 
and wit. He would bag a. fox in Greek, find 
a hare in Latin, inspect his kennels in Italian, 
and direct the economy of his stables in ex- 
quisite French,' In 1781 Beckford published 
' Essays on Hunting ; containing a philoso- 
phical inquiry into the nature and properties 
of Scent ; on different kinds of Hounds, 
Hares, &c., with an introduction describing 
the method of Hare-hunting among the 
Greeks,' London, 8vo. 

In 1773 he married Louisa, daughter of 
Lord Rivers, and by a special patent, granted 
in 1802, his son William Horace succeeded 
to the barony, and became the third Lord 
Rivers. Peter Beckford sat in parliament, 
as representative of Morpeth, in 1768. 

In 1787, just before the outbreak of the 
French revolution, he travelled in Italy, and 
wrote an entertaining account of his journey, 
which was published some years later under 
the title of ' Familiar Letters from Italy to 
a Friend in England,' 2 vols. 8vo, Salisbury, 
1805. Here he described visits to Voltaire, 
Rousseau, and other celebrities. In Turin, 
he writes, he had met Sterne in 1765, and 
had ' passed hours with that eccentric genius 
that might have been more profitably em- 
ployed, but never more agreeably.' He seasons 
nearly every letter with anecdotes, both grave 
and gay, and makes remarks, political and 
philosophical, that must have astounded the 
country squire of later days. That he was 
an extensive reader of classical and modern 
literature is proved by the tenor of both his 
published works. He died on 18 Feb. 1811, 
and was buried in Stapleton church, where 
the following doggerel was inscribed above 
his grave : 

"We die and are forgotten ; 'tis Heaven's decree : 
Thus the fate of others will be the fate of me. 



[Hutchins's Dorset, iii. ; Retrospective Review, 
iii. 231 ; Watt's Biblioth. Brit. 91w. ; Apperley 
on the Horse ; Beatson's Paii. Register, ii. 172.] 

R. H. 

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (1709-1770), 
alderman and twice lord mayor of London, 
-was born in Jamaica, where he was baptized 
on 19 Dec. 1709. His father, the Hon. 
Peter Beckford, was at the time speaker of 
the assembly in that coiony; his mother, 
Bathshua, being the daughter of Colonel 
Julines Herring, also of Jamaica. The Beck- 
fords were descended from a family long es- 
tablished in Gloucestershire. In that county 
the parish of Beckford still marks the site of 
the ancient manor of the same name, which, 
according to Domesday Book, had been terra 
regis in the time of the Confessor. One 
noted ancestor, Sir William Beckford, was 
among the principal adherents of Richard III. 
As such he loyally followed that monarch to 
the field of Bosworth, where he was probably 
killed. After passing through many vicissi- 
tudes, the family had its fortunes restored 
about the middle of the seventeenth century 
by Peter Beckford, the alderman's great- 
grandfather, who, quitting England in search 
of advancement, settled down in Jamaica, 
and there rose to considerable wealth as a 
planter. His son, Colonel Peter Beckford, 
acquired so much distinction among the 
colonists during the reign of Charles II that 
he was nominated president of the council, 
being eventually, under William III, ap- 
pointed lieuten-ant-governor and commander- 
in-chief of the island. His immense property 
having on his death, 3 April 1710, been in- 

adorned a palatial country residence in Wilt- 
shire. He was advanced to the magis- 
tracy and entered parliament. According to 
Nicoll's quarto ' History of the Ironmongers ' 
(p. 453) he was admitted in 1752 to the free- 
dom and livery of that company. According 
to Noorthouck's quarto ' History of London ' 
(p. 374) he was in that same year on 24 June 
elected alderman- of Billingsgate ward, in 
succession to Thomas Winterbottom, the then 
lord mayor, who had died on 4 June 1752. 
In the following year (1753) Beckford served 
the office of master of the Ironmongers' com- 
pany. In the ensuing spring he was returned 
simultaneously during the course of the gene- 
ral election as M.P. for the city of London 
and as M.P. for Petersfield, the latter on 
19 April, the former 'on 7 May. Deciding, 
almost as a matter of course, that he would 
sit for London, he sent, in munificent evi- 
dence of his goodwill, as a solatium to his 
other constituents, 400. to pave the streets 
of Petersfield. In 1755 he was installed in 
the office of sheriff of the city of London, in 
association with the other sheriff, Ive Whit- 
bread, the lord mayor of that year being 
Sliiigsby Bethell, alderman of Walbrook, 
presumably an ancestor of Lord West- 
bury. On 4 April 1761 Beckford was re- 
elected M.P. for the city of London. Before 
the close of the following year he became 
lord mayor. Though he was in a manner 
entitled by rotation to that office, it was 
known that a strong. party were preparing 
to oppose him. Beckford, on 28 Oct. 
1762, attended the court of aldermen and 
desired leave to resign his gown as alder- 

man. His resolute course in thus acting 
had its due effect. His request was post- 

herited by his eldest son and namesake (the 
alderman's father already mentioned), passed 

on the latter's demise, 23 Sept. 1735, to the poned until the following day, when (29 Oct. 
fourth Peter Beckford of Jamaica. That 1762) he was elected lord mayor, eighteen 
eldest son dying unmarried, however, but votes being given for him and but one for 
little more than a year afterwards, the whole Alderman Bridger, the rival candidate. This 

mayoralty was memorable for its luxurious 
character. Though extremely moderate in 
his own diet, Beckford's public banquets were 
sumptuous description. 1 

inheritance came of right into the possession 
of his younger brother William. 

As a boy of fourteen William Beckford, 
in 1723, had first arrived in England from 
Jamaica. Being sent here expressly to be 

of the most sumptuous description. Four of 
them in particular were long afterwards re- 

educated, he was placed under the care of ferred to by gourmets as probably more elabo- 

the Rev. Robert Freind, then the able head- 
master of Westminster School, by whom he 
was often spoken of afterwards in later life 
as one of the best scholars that the school 
had ever had. At Westminster he secured 
the lasting friendship of Lord Mansfield. 
Entering public life on the death of his 
elder brother as an enormously rich West 
Indian planter, he soon found his onward 
path made clear before him in many direc- 
tions. He expanded his operations as a 
merchant in London. He acquired and 

rate than any since the days of Henry VIII. 
His political sayings and doings during this 
year were remarkable in a different way. John 
Wilkes's name and his were then and long 
afterwards intimately associated. Wilkes 
was at the time a London alderman and M.P. 
for Aylesbury. On 23 April 1763 No. 45 of the 
1 North Briton ' was published, in which the 
king was openly charged with uttering false- 
hood in his royal speech. On the 26th gene- 
ral warrants were issued by Lord Halifax 
for the apprehension of its authors, printers, 




and publishers. On the 30th they were ar- 
rested and committed to the Tower. A week 
later they were (on 6 May), upon their being- 
brought by writ of habeas corpus before 
Chief Justice Pratt, summarily discharged. 
But it was only upon the very morrow of 
the completion of the year of Beckford's 
mayoralty (15 Nov. 1763) that Wilkes's No. 
45 was declared by parliament to be ' a scan- 
dalous and seditious libel,' and was ordered 
as such to be burnt by the common hangman. 
Beckford throughout that agitated twelve- 
month was side by side with Wilkes. Beck- 
ford's, not Wilkes's, was the daring dictum 
then in everybody's mouth that under the 
house of Hanover Englishmen for the first 
.time had been able to be free, and for the 
first time had determined to be free. To 
him, almost as much as to Wilkes, the oppo- 
sition looked for their guidance. 

Seven years afterwards Beckford was re- 
elected (25 March 1768) by the metropoli- 
tan constituency, and before the close of 
the following year he again became lord 
mayor. On 29 Sept. 1769, three persons 
having been returned by the livery of Lon- 
don to the court of aldermen, the nomina- 
tion at once took place, when the show of 
hands was declared by the sheriffs to be in 
favour of two of them. A poll having been 
then demanded by the rejected candidate, 
Beckford, at the close of it on 6 Oct., was 
found to be at its head with 1,967 votes, 
the second candidate numbering 1,911, and 
the third 676. On the following day 
(7 Oct.) the aldermen scratched Beckford 
for sixteen, his opponent being able to se- 
cure no more than six supporters. The 
popular champion resolutely declined the 
proffered honour, pleading as his excuse, 
though he had not yet completed his fifty- 
ninth year, his age and infirmities. This in- 
timation having been conveyed to the livery 
was received by them with signal marks of 
dissatisfaction. On 13 Oct. a great number 
of them waited upon Beckford and induced 
him to reconsider his decision. On 8 Nov. 
he was duly sworn in at the Guildhall. A 
stormy time was before him. Attended by 
the aldermen and common councilmen of 
London, he went from Guildhall to St. 
James's Palace on 14 March 1770, and there 
presented to the king a powerfully worded 
address complaining in the strongest terms 
of a certain false return made at the Middle- 
sex election. In consequence of his majesty's 
.answer to this address being couched in 
words of stern reproof, the agitation was 
intensified. On 23 May 1770 Beckford, ac- 
companied by the aldermen and livery, again 
sought audience of the king, to whom he 


presented another address and remonstrance, 
equally resolute. The sovereign's answer 
was even more curt and emphatic than the 
last, "thereupon, in obedience to a sudden 
impulse, the lord mayor asked permission of 
his majesty to utter a few words in reply. 
I Accepting the momentary silence which en- 
j sued upon this most unexampled request as 
[ indicative of assent, Beckford then delivered 
1 an impromptu speech which has since be- 
come historical, and the words of which have 
for more than a century past been legible in 
j gold letters on the pedestal of his monument 
in Guildhall a speech which when it was 
being uttered made the king's countenance 
flush with anger, while the court surround- 
; ing him listened to it with something like 

A glance at the Earl of Chatham's corre- 
i spondence will demonstrate the absurdity of 
j the pretensions long afterwards put forth by 
Home Tooke, that he himself wrote that 
j speech, and that Beckford never delivered it. 
j Those pretensions were first heard of by the 
public at large more than forty years after 
I Beckford's death, when, in 1813, Stephens, 
I in his ' Memoir of Home Tooke ' (i. 157), 
remarked that Mr. Home (as he was then 
called) lately acknowledged to him that 
it (the speech) was his composition. Gifford, 
three years afterwards, in a truculent foot- 
note to his edition of Ben Jonson (vi. 
481), insisted upon the accuracy of that 
astounding statement. According to Isaac 
Reed, these claims were first put forth 
orally by Tooke in the midst of an in- 
formal club-house gossip. Turning now, 
however, to the f Chatham Correspondence ' 
(iii. 458-9), it will be seen that immediately 
after the delivery of Beckford's impromptu 
address to the king, one of the sheriffs pre- 
sent on the occasion, Mr. Sheriff Townshend, 
wrote to the Earl of Chatham on that very 
day, 23 May 1770, 'My lord, I take the 
liberty of enclosing to your lordship his 
majesty's answer to our petition. The lord 
mayor made a reply to the king which greatly 
disconcerted the court. He (the lord mayor) 
has promised to recollect what he said, and 
I fancy the substance will appear in the 
papers to-morrow.' To this the earl replied 
on that same day, 23 May, ' I greatly rejoice 
to hear that my lord mayor asserted the city 
with weight and spirit, and am full of im- 
patience for the papers to-morrow.' There- 
upon, in the ' Public Advertiser ' of the 
morrow, 24 May 1770, the impromptu speech 
as recollected by the lord mayor duly ap- 
peared, with this sentence appended to it : 
' The humility and serious firmness with 
which the Lord Mayor uttered these words 




filled the whole court with admiration and 
confusion.' And on the following day Sheriff I 
Townshend, again writing to the Earl of 
Chatham under date 25 May 1770 (see Cor- \ 
respondence, iii. 460), said : ' The Lord Mayor's j 
Speech in the " Public Advertiser " of yester- ; 
day is verbatim, the words " and necessary " 
being left out before " revolution," and is | 
ordered to be entered on the journals of the 
Court of Common Council.' Besides being 
entered thus on the records of the city, the 
speech was scattered broadcast over all con- | 
temporary periodicals. Horace Walpole, j 
writing on 24 May 1770 to Sir Horace Mann, i 
referred (see Letters, v. 238-9) to its having 
reduced the king to the alternative of either j 
sitting silent, or tucking up his train, jump- 
ing from the throne, and taking sanctuary in i 
the royal closet. Lord Chatham in return 
for that speech was more affectionate than 
ever to Beckford. It was printed directly 
after its delivery in the l Gentleman's Maga- ! 
zine,' xl. 218-9. Half a year later it i 
was deliberately republished as authentic in ' 
the ' Annual Register ' for 1770, in which ! 
may also be found, at p. Ill, under date 

30 May, an account of the lord mayor, in | 
company with the aldermen, sheriffs, and 
common councilmen, having again gone from 
Guildhall to St. James's with an address on 
the queen's safe delivery, when the lord 
chamberlain came into the ante-chamber 
bearing a paper in his hand from which he 
read these words : ' As your lordship thought 
fit to speak to his majesty after his answer 
to the last remonstrance, I am to. acquaint 
your lordship, as it was unusual, his majesty 
desires that nothing of this kind may happen 
for the future.' Upon the following day, 

31 May 1770, Beckford laid the first stone 
of Newgate. Exactly three weeks afterwards, 
at the age of sixty years and six months, he 
died in London, on 21 June 1770, his fatal 
illness being the result of a chill caught in 
hastening up to town from his estate of 
Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire. He was buried 
at Fonthill on the last day of that month, 
leaving his only child and namesake [see 
BECKFORD, WILLIAM, 1759-1844], then a 
boy of nine, to come into possession, after 
a long minority, of a million of money 
and 100,000/. a year. Lord Mayor Beck- 
ford's wife, the mother of this boy, was 
Maria, daughter of the Hon. George Hamil- 
ton, second surviving son of James, sixth 
earl of Abercorn. The sum of 1,000/. was 
set apart by the city of London on the 
morrow of Beckford's death for the Guild- 
hall monument in his honour, which was 
unveiled on Midsummer day two years after- 
wards. Another adirirable life-size statue 

of Beckford in white marble, formerly at 
Fonthill Abbey, sculptured by More, and th& 
gift of Beckford's son, the author of ' Vathek/ 
to his father's old city company, stands mid- 
way on the staircase of Ironmongers' Hall,, 
in Fenchurch Street. 

[Nicoll's History of the Ironmongers' Com- 
pany, 1866, pp. 453, 467, 491, 590; Orridge's 
Account of the Citizens of London and their 
Rulers, from 1060 to 1867, pp. 203, 244-8; 
Maitland's History of London, continued to 1772 
by the Rev. John Entick, 1775, ii. 35, 47, 52, 72,. 
85, 92, 96-116 ; Britton's Illustrations of Font- 
hill Abbey, 1823, ch. iii. pp. 61-8; Noorthoack's 
History of London, 1783, pp. 417, 462, 468- 
486 ; Redding's Memoirs of William Beckford, 
i. 1-70 ; Thornbury's Old andNew London, i. 407 ; 
Gent. Mag. xl. 215-9, 340-1 ; Annual Register for 
1770, 8vo, pp. Ill, 199-203, 251,252 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st series, ii. 262 ; Craik and Macfar- 
lane's Pictorial History of England, 2nd series, 
iv. 80, 96-8 ; Massey's History of England under 
George III, i. 357, 358 ; Adolphus's History of 
England, i. 437-40 ; Horace Walpole's Letters, 
v.238, 239; Chatham Correspondence, iii. 458-9, 
460 ; Gifford's ed. Ben Jonson, 1816, vi. 481 note ; 
History of Lord North's Administration to the 
Dissolution of the Thirteenth Parliament of Great 
Britain, 1781, part i. 12-15 ; Correspondence of 
Gray and Mason, 1853, p. 439 ; Public Adver- 
tiser, No. 11067, 24 May 1770 ; Stephens's Me- 
moirs of John Home Tooke, 1813, i. 157.1 

C. K. 

historian, passed a great part of his life in 
Jamaica, where he made observations on the 
country and particularly on the condition of 
the negroes. On returning to England he- 
settled at Somerley Hall in Suffolk, and 
died in London on 5 Feb. 1799. 

His Avorks are : 1. ' Remarks on the Situa- 
tion of the Negroes in Jamaica, impartially 
made from a local experience of nearly thir- 
teen years in that island,' 1788. 2. ' A De- 
scriptive Account of the Island of Jamaica, 
with Remarks upon the Cultivation of the 
Sugar Cane throughout the different seasons 
of the year, and chiefly considered in a pictu- 
resque point of view,' 1790. 3. ' History of 
France from the most early records to the 
death of Louis XVI,' 1794. The early part 
is by Beckford, and the more modern by an 
anonymous Englishman who had been some- 
time resident in Paris. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. Ixix. pt. i. ; Monthly Review, 
Ixxix. 69 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

A. G-N. 

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (1759-1844), 
author of i Vathek,' son of William Beckford 
(1709-1770) [q.v.], was born at Fonthill, 
29 Sept. 1759. After the death of his father 



he was educated by a private tutor, the 
Rev. Dr. Lettice. A public school would 
have afforded a more salutary discipline ; 
the tutor, though judicious and attentive, 
could hardly be expected to prevent the 
spoiled heir to enormous wealth from grow- 
ing up wilful, extravagant, and capricious. 
Beckford received musical instruction from 
Mozart, and for his father's sake was par- 
ticularly noticed by Chatham, who pro- 
nounced him ' all air and fire/ and solemnly 
admonished the future author of ' Vathek ' 
against reading the ; Arabian Nights.' His 
precocity and talent for satire were evinced 
by his ' History of Extraordinary Painters,' 
a mystification composed in his seventeenth 
year in ridicule of the biographies in the 
' Vies des Peintres Flamands,' and to indulge 
his humour at the expense of the old house- 
keeper at Fonthill, who is said to have long 
continued to exhibit her master's pictures as 
works of Watersouchy, Og of Basan, and 
other creations of his invention. His mother 
being strongly prejudiced against the univer- 
sities, Beckford, accompanied by his tutor, 
went in 1777 to complete his education at 
Geneva, and there passed a year and a half. 
In 1780 and 1782 he visited the Low Coun- 
tries and Italy. His letters on his travels, 
together with a description of the Grande 
Chartreuse dating from 1778, were published 
anonymously in 1783 under the title of 
* Dreams, Waking Thoughts, and Incidents, 
in a series of letters from various parts of 
Europe.' The work, however, was almost im- 
mediately destroyed, with the exception of 
six copies, one of which at least is still in 
existence, though Mr. Redding seems to 
imply the contrary. He had already, in 
1781* or 1782, written ' Vathek ' in French at 
a single sitting of three days and two nights. 
A.n English version, made by a person whom 
Beckford declared to be unknown to him, 
but who is understood to have been the 
Rev. S. Henley, rector of Rendlesham, was 
published anonymously and surreptitiously 
in 1784. It is sufficiently idiomatic to have 
entirely eclipsed and to have frequently been 
taken for the original, and is accompanied 
by an erudite commentary, whose value is 
somewhat impaired by the annotator's igno- 
rance of Arabic. The original appeared at 
Paris and Lausanne in 1787, the latter edition 
only bearing the author's name. In 1783 he 
translated and published the little Oriental 
tale of ' Al Ravni ; ' in the same year he married 
Lady Margaret Gordon, daughter of the Earl 
of Aboyne, and lived with her in Switzer- 
land until her death in May 1786. Two 
daughters were the fruit of this union. In 
1787 he sought distraction in a visit to Por- 

tugal, where his intimacy with the Marquis 
j de Marialva enabled him to acquaint himself 
j with the affairs of the court and kingdom. His 
; Portuguese letters, not published for nearly 
half a century afterwards, are the most valu- 
able in every point of view that he ever wrote. 
He extended his tour to Spain, and on his 
return spent much time in Paris, witnessing 
the destruction of the Bastille. He was again 
I in Paris in 1791 and 1792, proceeded subse- 
quently to Lausanne, where he bought Gib- 
i bon's library, shutting himself up like a her- 
mit to read it, and in 1794 again visited 
Portugal, where he occupied the retreat at 
Cintra immortalised in Byron's verse, and 
wrote his celebrated account of Alcobaca and 
Batalha. Notwithstanding his incessant ab- 
sences from his country he was successively 
M.P. for Wells and Hindon ; but he had no 
taste for public life, and retired in 1794. 
He was, however, re-elected for Hindon 
in 1806, and sat until 1820. After his 
return from Portugal the connoisseur and 
collector seemed to absorb the author, and 
he published no more except two burlesques 
on the sentimental novels of the period, 
' The Elegant Enthusiast ' and ' Amezia/ 
printed in 1796 and 1797. In the former 
year he settled down at Fonthill GifFard, and 
launched out upon the course of architectural 
and artistic extravagance which, combined 
with his oriental whims and his mysterious 
seclusion, has given him even more celebrity 
than he could acquire by his writings. The 
imaginations of ' Vathek ' seemed to take ac- 
tual substance, and Coleridge might have be- 
held the visions of his Kubla Khan with his 
corporeal eyes. First the old family mansion 
was rebuilt on a grand scale, then it was 
pulled down and a yet more sumptuous edi- 
fice raised on a different site. The grounds, 
magnificently laid out and enclosing ' sunny 
spots of greenery,' were girdled by a lofty wall 
to baffle intruding tourists and trespassing 
sportsmen ; the costly old furniture was reck- 
lessly sold off to make room for new more 
costly still ; a tower three hundred feet high, 
erected by gangs of workmen labouring day 
and night, fell from the injudicious haste of 
construction, and was immediately succeeded 
by another, which, after Fonthill had passed 
from Beckford's hands, also tumbled to the 
ground. Making a hermitage of a palace, 
Beckford sequestered himself with a phy- 
sician, a major-domo, and a French abbe, and 
here, neglectful of his genius, his private af- 
fairs, and his responsibilities as a citizen, spent 
twenty years with few friends or visitors, 
and apparently with no other object in life 
than the collection of books and works of 
art and virtu. This seclusion may have been 

G 2 



partly owing to grave imputations upon ' 
his moral character, which, however, in the j 
absence of any avowed accuser or attempt at j 
proof, it is reasonable as well as charitable to 
regard as rather the consequence of his retire- I 
ment than the cause. The only recorded ex- 
ternal incidents of his existence during this j 
period are the marriages of his two daugh- j 
ters. One became Duchess of Hamilton ; the 
other, who married Colonel Orde without his 
consent, was never forgiven by him. His 
expenditure on Fonthill alone for sixteen 
years is stated by himself at upwards of a 
quarter of a million. At length he could go 
on no longer. Extravagance, inattention to 
his affairs, the depreciation of his West India 
property, and unfortunate lawsuits, compelled 
him in 1822 to dispose of Fonthill and the 
greater part of its contents for 330,000/. to 
Mr. John Farquhar, a person who, reversing 
Beckford's history, had accumulated a vast 
fortune from the humblest beginnings. Beck- 
ford's collections were resold by the new 
owner in the following year, the sale occupy- 
,ing thirty-seven days. The collection was 
not always favourably criticised. ' It is,' 
wrote Hazlitt when the public were ad- 
mitted to view Fonthill, ' a desert of magnifi- 
cence, a glittering waste of laborious idleness, 
a cathedral turned into a toy shop, an immense 
museum of all that is most curious and costly, 
and at the same time most worthless, in the 
productions of art and nature. Mr. Beckford 
has undoubtedly shown himself an industrious 
bijoutier, a prodigious virtuoso, an accom- 
plished patron of unproductive labour, an en- 
thusiastic collector of expensive trifles the 
only proof of taste he has shown in this col- 
lection is his getting rid of it.' But Beck- 
ford always maintained that the Chinese fur- 
niture was smuggled in by the auctioneers, 
and Hazlitt may not have known that the 
library and the choicest pictures had been 
saved from the wreck and removed to Lans- 
downe Terrace, Bath, where, with diminished 
fortune but free from embarrassment, Beck- 
ford applied himself to the creation of a minia- 
ture Fonthill. He continued to collect books, 
pictures, engravings, and beautiful objects in 
general, with as keen a zest as of yore ' all 
agog, all ardour, all intrepidity,' as he wrote 
to an agent shortly before his death. He 
sometimes parted with a picture, but never 
with a book. In 1834 he republished, 
with considerable omissions, the suppressed 
letters of 1783, adding those from Spain and 
Portugal. On 2 May 1844 he died, scarcely 
manifesting a trace of age, and having been 
in vigorous health until within a few days 
of his decease. Eighty thousand pounds yet 
remained of the hundred thousand a year 

and a million in hand with which he had 
commenced life. He was interred by his own 
wish under the tower he had erected on Lans- 
downe Hill, and the grounds with which he 
had surrounded it were given by the Duchess 
of Hamilton to form a public cemetery for the 
city of Bath. His library was sold by auction 
in 1882. A large proportion of the volumes 
contained copious notes in his handwriting, 
more frequently evincing whimsical prejudice 
than discriminating criticism. He left several 
works in manuscript, including three sup- 
pressed episodes of * Vathek ; ' ' Liber Veri- 
tatis,' comments on the alleged genealogies 
of English noble families, probably very can- 
did and caustic ; and l Letters upon the Ac- 
tual State and Leading Characters of several 
of the Courts of Europe, particularly France, 
from the beginning of the Revolution to the 
death of the King.' None of these have been 

Beckford's was, on the whole, a wasted 
life, in so far as neither his genius nor his 
fortune yielded what they would have pro- 
duced to a wiser and a better man. At the 
same time his celebrity as a remarkable per- 
sonage would have endured had he never 
written anything ; and as an author he 
achieved a renown which he probably valued 
more than literary fame of the first order, the 
distinction of being the most brilliant ama- 
teur in English literature. Hardly any other 
man has produced such masterpieces with 
so little effort. ' Vathek ' was written at a 
sitting, and his letters betray no trace of 
unusual pains. These works are master- 
pieces nevertheless. European literature 
has no Oriental fiction which impresses the 
imagination so powerfully and permanently 
as f Vathek.' Portions of the story may be 
tedious or repulsive, but the whole combines 
two things most difficult of alliance the 
fantastic and the sublime. Beckford's letters 
display a corresponding versatility and union 
of seemingly incongruous faculties. He is 
equally objective and subjective; his pictures, 
while brilliantly clear in outline, are yet 
steeped in the rich hues of his own peculiar 
feeling ; he approaches every object from its 
most picturesque side, and the measure of his 
eloquence is the interest with which it has 
actually inspired him. His colouring is 
magical ; he paints nature like Salvator, and 
courts like Watteau. His other works make 
us bitterly regret the curse of wealth and idle- 
ness which converted a true son of the muses 
into an eccentric dilettante. As a literary 
figure Beckford occupies a remarkable po- 
sition, an incarnation of the spirit of the 
eighteenth century writing in the yet un- 
recognised dawn of the nineteenth, flushed 



by emotions which he does not understand, 
and depicting the old courtly order of Europe 
on the eve of its dissolution. His character 
was patrician in everything but its want of 
repose and its insensibility to duty ; too 
charitable to be called selfish, attached from 
caprice to animals, from habit to dependents, 
he was yet an absolute egotist. It never 
seemed to occur to him that his magnificent 
possessions in the West Indies entailed upon 
him the least responsibility. His misan- 
thropy was mainly affectation, and he was 
less independent of the opinion of the world 
than he liked the world to think. Need of 
human sympathy made him exceedingly kind 
to very inferior writers who had praised his 
works ; and the few who gained admission 
to his presence found him a courteous and 
unassuming gentleman. 

[The principal authority for Beckford's life is 
the memoir by Cyrus Bedding, published anony- 
mously in 1859. It is an intolerable piece of 
book-making, being chiefly made up of extracts 
from Beckford's own letters, ard repetitions of 
what the author had previously written in maga- 
zines, but is indispensable in the absence of an 
authorised biography. See also the Gent. Mag., 
Annual Kegister, and Athenaeum for 1844. The 
most remarkable criticisms on Beckford are 
Lockhart's review of his letters in vol. li. of the 
Quarterly, and an article by 0. Tiffany in vol.xc. 
of the North American Review. M. Stephane 
Mallarme has reprinted the original French of 
Vathek (Paris, 1876), and thoroughly investi- 
gated the bibliography of the subject. The cata- 
logues of Beckford's Fonthill collections, and of 
his library, contribute much to the appreciation 
of his tastes and character. The chapter on his 
library in Clarke's Repertorium Bibliographicum 
(1819) is from his own pen. The fullest account 
of Fonthill is that by Britton (1823), which also 
contains genealogical and heraldic particulars 
of the Beckford family.] R. G. 

1731), poet and dramatist, was born, accord- 
ing to the register of Merchant Taylors' 
School, on 25 July 1699 (ROBINSON'S Register, 
ii. 32). His father was a linendraper in Fleet 
Street. Beckingham was educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' School under Dr. Smith, and is 
said to have displayed 'great proficiency in his 
studies,' and given 'the strongest testimonials 
of extraordinary abilities.' Nothing in his 
works justifies these eulogies. Onl8Feb.l718 
' Scipio Africanus,' an historical tragedy in 
the regulation five acts, was produced at the 
theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields. This was 
followed at the same house on 7 Nov. of 
the next year by a second work of a similar 
description, entitled < Henry IV of France.' 
The youth of the author, and the presence of 
a large number of his fellow-students who had 

been permitted to visit the theatre, gave some 
i e"clat to the production of the earlier work. 
j This, however, is but an average specimen of 
academic labour. A chief subject of praise 
in contemporary writers is the manner in 
which the so-called unities are observed by 
its author. The plot is founded on a story 
told by Livy (xxvi. 49-50) and other clas- 
sical writers concerning the restoration of a 
beautiful captive by Scipio Africanus to Al- 
lucius, a Spaniard. A considerable portion 
of the play consists of tedious love scenes, 
which are necessarily fictitious. Quin played 
Scipio. ' Scipio Africanus ' was acted four 
times in all, two performances being, it is 
stated, for the author's benefit. It was printed 
in 12mo in 1718. < Henry IV of France' 
deals with the jealousy of the Prince of 
Conde of his wife, who is in love with the 
king, and ends with the murder of Henry by 
Ravaillac at the instigation of the papal 
nuncio and the priests. This play was also 
given four times, Quin appearing as Henry IV. 
It was printed in 8vo in 1820. In addition to 
these dramas Beckingham wrote a poem on 
the death of Rowe, the dramatist ; a second 
entitled ' Christ's Sufferings, translated from 
the Latin of Rapin,' and dedicated to the 
Archbishop of York ; and other minor poems. 
He died 19 Feb. 1730-31. 

[Jacob's Poetical Register; Baker, Reed, and 
Jones's Biographia Dramatica ; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage.] J. K. 

BECKINGHAM, ELIAS DB (d. 1305 ?), 
judge, was placed on the commission of 
justices for Middlesex in 1274, but imme- 
diately removed. At this time he seems to 
have held the rank of king's serjeant. He 
received the commission of justice of assize 
[for a brief account of the nature and origin 
of which see under BATESFORD, JOHN DE] in 
1276. In 1282-3 he acted as keeper of the 
rolls of the common pleas, and in 1285 was 
appointed one of the justices of that bench. 
In 1289, grave complaints of the maladmini- 
stration of justice and the venality of the 
judges being rife, a searching inquiry was in- 
stituted, and Beckingham was the only one 
of the five justices of the common pleas who 
was not dismissed for corruption. He ap- 
pears to have continued in the discharge of 
his duties until 1305, for he was regularly 
summoned to parliament as a justice between 
1288 and 1305. From the fact that he was 
no longer summoned to parliament after the 
latter date, it may be inferred that he died or 
retired before the date when parliament next 
met. He was interred in the church of Bottis- 
ham, in Cambridgeshire, where a monument 
was dedicated to his memory. 




[Dugdale's Chron. Series, 25, 26, 28, 29; 
Madox's History of the Exch. ii. 7 ; Kot. Parl. 
i. 84; Wikes's Chronicon, ed. Gale, 118-121; 
Holinshed, ii. 491; Parl. Writs, h. (Index); 
Orig. Jurid. 44 ; Lysons's Britannia, ii. part i. 
91.] J. M. R. 

THOMAS (1390 P-1465), bishop of Bath 
and Wells and lord privy seal, was a native 
of the Somersetshire village from which he 
derived his surname. His parentage is un- 
known, and there is no record of the date of 
his birth, but from the dates of his admission, 
first at Winchester (1404) and afterwards at 
New College, Oxford (1406), it is presumed 
to have been about 1390. He was admitted 
a fellow of New College in 1408, and retained 
his fellowship twelve years. He took the 
degree of LL.D. In 1420, when he resigned 
his fellowship, he entered the service of 
Humphrey, duke of Gloucester ; from which 
time, apparently, church preferments began 
to flow in upon him. The rectory of St. 
Leonard's, near Hastings, and the vicarage 
of Sutton Courtney, in Berks, were perhaps 
not among the first. Indeed, there are grounds 
for supposing the former to have been given 
him in 1439. He had become archdeacon of 
Buckinghamshire, it appears, before the death 
of Henry V in 1422, though a later date is 
given in Le Neve ; and in April next year we 
find him collated to the prebend of Bilton in 
York, which he exchanged for that of Warthill 
in the same cathedral four months later. He 
was appointed to a canonry in Wells in 1439, 
and was also master of St. Katherine's Hos- 
pital, near the Tower of London. But early 
in 1423 he was already dean of the Arches, 
in which capacity he assisted at the trial of 
the heretic William Tailor ; and in Nov. 1428 
he was appointed, along with the celebrated 
canonist, William Lyndewood, receiver of the 
subsidy granted by the lower house of con- 
vocation for the expenses of the prosecution 
of William Russell, another suspected heretic. 
He was prolocutor of convocation at least as 
early as 1433, and so continued till May 1438. 
During the session of 1434 he was commis- 
sioned by Archbishop Chichele to draw up, 
along with others, certain comminatory ar- 
ticles to be proclaimed by the clergy in their 
parishes four times a year. Meanwhile he 
had been engaged in several public capacities. 
In February 1432 he had been nominated to 
go on embassy to France with Langdon, 
bishop of Rochester, and Sir Henry Brom- 
flete, to negotiate a peace ; but the envoys do 
not appear to have left till December follow- 
ing, when Sir John Fastolf was substituted 
for Sir Henry Bromflete. It has been erro- 
neously stated that he was also sent to the 

congress at Arras in 1435 ; but it is certain 
that he was a member of the great embassy 
sent to Calais in 1439 to treat with the 
French ambassadors. Of this embassy he 
has left a journal, in which he styles himself 
the king's secretary an office probably con- 
ferred upon him just before, though he appears 
to have acted in that capacity, at least occa- 
sionally, for about two years previously. 
After his return from this embassy he was 
for three or four years in close attendance 
upon the king, and speaks of himself at one 
time as being his reader nearly every day. 

In the spring of 1442 an embassy was sent 
to England by John IV, count of Armagnac, 
who desired to offer one of his daughters in 
marriage to young King Henry VI. They 
were well received, and three officers of the 
royal household, of whom Beckington was 
one, were immediately despatched in return 
to the court of Armagnac fully empowered 
to contract the proposed alliance. Their 
commission bore date 28 May 1442, and on 
5 June they set out from Windsor. An in- 
teresting diary, written by one of Becking- 
ton's suite, describes their progress to the 
west coast, where they took shipping at 
Plymouth, the letters and messages that 
overtook them on the road, the voyage and 
arrival at Bordeaux, where they received 
alarming news of the progress of the enemy 
and the capture of Sir Thomas Rempstone, 
seneschal of Bordeaux. They nevertheless 
continued for some time to prosecute the 
object of their mission ; but the state of the 
country and the severity of the season inter- 
posed such difficulties in the way that they 
thought it best to return in the beginning of 
the following year. Beckington landed again 
at Falmouth on 10 Feb., met the king ten 
days later at Maidenhead, and on the 21st 
arrived in London, where he supped with, 
the lord mayor. Next day he visited Green- 
wich with Humphrey, duke of Gloucester. 
On the 23rd he heard mass at his own hos- 
pital of St. Katherine's, dined with the lord 
| treasurer, and supped again with the lord 
mayor. On Sunday the 26th he rejoined the 
| king at Shene, and resumed his duties as 
j secretary ; soon after which he was appointed 
lord privy seal. 

The chief effect of this embassy and of its 
return was to impress upon the government 
at home the necessity of taking more active 
steps to avert as they succeeded in doing for 
a few years the threatened loss of Guienne. 
The marriage negotiation was a failure. 
Even the artist employed, according to their 
instructions, to take likenesses of the count 
of Armagnac's three daughters, that the king- 
might choose which of them he preferred, was 



unable to do his work : the frost had con- ! 
gealed his colours when he had barely com- 
pleted one portrait, and the envoys saw good I 
reason to return home without waiting for i 
the other two. But the result nowise tended 
to diminish the influence of Beckington, who 
not only, as we have seen, continued to re- 
ceive new marks of the king's favour, but 
had ere this made friends at the court of 
Rome as well ; by whose means, in that same 
year 1443, he was rather too precipitately 
nominated by the pope to the see of Salisbury, 
which it was supposed Bishop Ascough 
would vacate in order to be promoted to the 
see of Canterbury. But, as Ascough de- 
clined to leave Salisbury, John Stafford, 
bishop of Bath and Wells, was elevated to 
the primacy, and Beckington was made bishop 
of Bath in Stafford's room. His agent at 
Home meanwhile had unluckily paid into the 
papal treasury a considerable sum for the 
firstfruits of Salisbury, and Beckington ob- 
tained a letter from the king himself, direct- 
ing him to get it, if possible, charged to the 
account of the see of Bath. How the 
matter was settled does not appear ; but on 
13 Oct. Beckington was consecrated bishop 
of Bath and Wells by William Alnwick, 
bishop of Lincoln. The rite was performed 
in the old collegiate church at Eton, and 
Beckington the same day celebrated mass in 
pontificalibus under a tent within the new 
church, then not half built, and held his 
inaugural banquet within the college build- 
ings. As might be expected in one who was 
so greatly in the confidence of the royal 
founder, he had taken a strong interest in the 
new college from the first, and one of his 
latest acts as archdeacon of Buckingham- 
shire was to exempt the provost from his own 
jurisdiction, placing him directly under the 
bishop of Lincoln as visitor and ordinary. 

As bishop of Bath he had in 1445 a con- 
troversy with Nicholas Frome, abbot of 
Glastonbury, an old man who, tenacious of 
the privileges of his monastery, resented epi- 
scopal visitation, and whom Beckington, with 
unseemly severity, taunted with the infir- 
mities of age. He had a much more pleas- 
ing correspondence with Thomas Chandler, 
who was first warden of Winchester College, 
then warden of New College, Oxford, and 
afterwards chancellor of Wells, who looked 
up to him as a patron. But on the whole it 
may be said that his personal history, after 
he became bishop, is uninteresting. His 
name occurs as trier of petitions in parlia- 
ment from 1444 to 1453, but no particular 
act is recorded of him. On 18 June 1452 he 
obtained an exemption from further attend- 
ance in parliament on account of his age and 

infirmities a privilege which Edward IV 
confirmed to him in 1461. He died at Wells 
on 14 Jan. 1465, and was buried in a fine 
tomb, built by himself in his lifetime, in the 
south aisle of the choir. In our own day, 
during some repairs of the cathedral in 1850, 
this tomb was opened, and the remains of his 
skeleton were inspected. It was that of a 
tall man with a well-formed skull. 

Active as his life was, and interesting also 
in a literary point of view, from his corre- 
spondence with learned men both in England 
and at Rome, Beckington's chief claim upon 
the regard of posterity is the munificence 
with which he adorned with fine buildings 
his cathedral city of Wells. Besides re- 
building the episcopal palace, he supplied the 
town with a public conduit and fountain, and 
erected the close of the vicars choral and 
fifteen tenements in the market place. His 
curious rebus, a flaming beacon (commonly 
spelt bekyn in those days) and a tun or barrel, 
is seen carved in various quarters, not only 
at Wells, but at Winchester and in Lincoln 
College, Oxford. His bequests in his will 
were princely, and show his strong attach- 
ment, not only to the colleges and places of 
education, but to all the different churches 
with which he had been connected. 

[Memoir by Nicolas, prefixed to Journal of an 
Embassy to the Count of Armagnac; Official 
Correspondence of Bekynton, edited by Gr. 
Williams, B.D., in Eolls Series, in the introduc- 
tion to which are some important corrections of 
Nicolas ; Chandler's Life of Waynflete.] 

J. G. 



BECKLEY, WILLIAM (d. 1438), Car- 
melite, was born in Kent, probably in the 
neighbourhood of Sandwich, where he appears 
to have entered the order of the Carmelites 
in early life. While still young he proceeded 
to Cambridge, where the Carmelites had had 
a house since the year 1291. Here he seems 
to have taken his doctor's degree in divinity, 
and to have established a considerable repu- 
tation as a theologian. Bale praises his mo- 
desty of speech, and his firm proceedings 
against evildoers in all the assemblies (' con- 
ventibus ') over \vhich he presided. This in- 
cidental remark would alone prove him to 
have been a man of mark among the English 
Carmelites, even without the next sentence, 
in which we are told that while Beckley was 
engaged in the king's business Thomas Wai- 
den used to protect his interests at Cambridge 
against the complaints of his fellow-doctors 
there. Tanner makes mention of a letter from 
the chancellor and university of Cambridge 




to the provincial chapter of the Carmelites at 
Northampton, referring- to a charge that had 
been brought against Beckley for his absence 
from the university ' anno prime regentiae,' 
for which offence he had been suspended. He 
also notices Walden's reply to this letter. In 
his old age, after having spent many years at 
Cambridge, Beckley seems to have withdrawn 
to his native place, Sandwich, where, accord- 
ing to Bale, he became head of the Carme- 
lite friary, and devoted the remainder of his 
life to study. On his death, which occurred 
in 1438, he was buried in the last-mentioned 
town, and the Latin verses inscribed upon his 
tomb, and probably written by himself, are 
preserved in Weever's ' Funeral Monuments.' 
Dempster has claimed Beckley as a Scotch 
monk, and gives several details of his life, how 
he was exiled from Scotland and took up his 
abode in France, whence he was recalled by 
James III, but apparently preferred to re- 
main in England when once he set foot in 
that country on his return journey. But the 
authorities to whom Dempster appeals, * Gil- 
bert Brown ' (d. 1612), and P. M. Thomas 
Sarracenus, an ex-professor of Bologna, can 
hardly be accepted as sufficient testimony for 
these statements in the face of so much con- 
trary evidence. The tradition of a residence 
in France may, however, contain some degree 
of truth when we consider Bale's plain state- 
ment as to Beckley's being employed in royal 
business, and his subsequent statement that 
Beckley delivered declamations to the nobility 
and chief officers in many parts of England, 
and in Calais also. The chief works assigned 
to this author are similar in their titles to 
those of most medifeval theologians, and con- 
sist of ' Quodlibeta,' ' Quaestiones Ordinarise,' 
' Conciones Varise,' and one which, had it been 
preserved, might perhaps have been of some 
slight interest, entitled l De Fraterculorum 

[Leland, 437; Bale, 579; Pits, 627; Tanner's 
Bibl. .Brit, 84; Bale's Heliades, Barley HSS. 
3838, ii. 85 ; Lambard's Perambulation of Kent, 
106; St. Etienne's Bibliotheca Carmelitnna, i. 
690 ; Weever's Funeral Monuments, 264.] 

T. A. A. 

1823), lieutenant-general, was the son of 
Major-general John Beckwith, who com- 
manded the 20th regiment at the battle of j 
Minden and the brigade of grenadiers and j 
highlanders in the Seven Years' war. On 
20 July 1771 he was appointed to an en- ! 
signcy in the 37th regiment, which embarked ' 
in that year for America, and, with the 10th, 
38th, and 52nd regiments, formed the third 
brigade under Major-general Jones in the 

division commanded by Lieutenant-general 
Earl Percy (Records of the 37th Regiment}. 
He obtained his lieutenancy on 7 July 1775., 
his company on 2 July 1777, and the rank 
of major on 30 Nov. 1781. From 1776 to 
1782 he bore a prominent part in the contest 
between England and her American colo- 
nies, during which he commanded in several 
surprises of the enemy and in storms and 
captures of important places, including those- 
of Elizabeth Town and Brunswick in New 

From 1787 to the end of 1791, during 
which time no British minister was accre- 
dited to the United States, he was entrusted 
with an important and confidential mission. 
On 18 Nov. 1790 he obtained the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, that of colonel on 21 Aug.. 
1795, major-general on 18 June 1798, and of 
lieutenant-general on 30 Oct. 1805. In April 
1797 he was appointed governor of Bermuda, 
and in the following July commandant of 
the troops in that island. In October 1804 
he became governor of St. Vincent, and on 
8 Oct. 1808 governor of Barbadoes, with the 
command of the forces in the Windward and 
Leeward Caribee islands. England being then 
at war with France, he organised an expedi- 
tion for the conquest of the island of Marti- 
nique, and, having been reinforced by the 
7th, 8th, and 23rd regiments under Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir George Prevost, he sailed 
from Carlisle Bay on 28 Jan. 1809, arrived- 
off Martinique on the 29th, landed on the- 
30th, and completed the conquest of the- 
island on 24 July. The French eagles then 
talcen were sent home by him, and were the 
fipet ever seen in England. On 14 April 
1809 the thanks of the House of Commons,, 
and on the 17th those of the House of Lords, 
were voted to Lieutenant-general Beckwith 
for l his able and gallant conduct in effecting 
with such signal rapidity the entire conquest 
of the island of Martinique.' On 1 May he 
was created a knight of the Bath. 

On 22 Jan. 1810, having organised a second, 
expedition, he sailed for Guadeloupe, the last 
possession of the French in that part of the- 
world, landed on the 28th, and on 5 Feb.. 
the conquest of the island was completed. 
Returning to Barbadoes on 29 July 1810, he 
remained there till June 1814, when, after 
nine years' service in the West Indies, he- 
obtained permission to return to England.. 
The last bill presented to him by the legis- 
lature of the island was a vote for a service 
of plate to him. ' This bill, gentlemen,' he- 
said, ' is the only one from which I must 
withhold my consent.' He sailed from Bar- 
badoes on 21 June. After his departure a 
vote of 2,500/. was passed for a service of 


8 9 


plate to him. It bore the following inscrip- 
tion : ' This service of plate was presented to 
General Sir George Beckwith, K.B., late 
Governor of Barbadoes, by the legislature of 
the island, as a sincere mark of the high 
regard and esteem in which he has been and 
will always continue to be held by every 
inhabitant of Barbadoes. A.D. 1814.' 

Sir George Beckwith's military services 
were further recognised by the king confer- 
ring on him armorial distinctions, ' Issuant 
from a mural crown, a dexter arm embowed, 
encircled with a wreath of laurel, the hand 
grasping an eagle, or French standard, the 
stall' broken.' In October 1816 he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the forces in Ire- 
land, which he retained till March 1820, and 
died in his house in Half Moon Street in 
London on 20 March 1823, in the seventieth 
year of his age. 

[Gent. Mag. xciii. part i. 372 ; Schombergh's 
History of Barbadoes, p. 373 ; Annual Register, 
1809, li. 488; Records of the 37th Regiment; 
Army List.] A. S. B. 

1862), a distinguished Peninsular officer and 
in later life the benevolent missionary to 
the Waldenses, was the grandson of Major- 
general John Beckwith, and nephew of the 
generals, Sir George [q. v.] and Sir Thomas 
Sydney Beckwith [q. v.]. His father, like his 
four brothers, had held a commission in the 
army, but had soon resigned it on his mar- 
riage with Miss Haliburton of Halifax in N ova 
Scotia (a sister of Judge Haliburton), and 
had settled in that colony. Charles Beckwith 
was born 2 Oct. 1789, and obtained an en- 
signcy through his uncle's influence in the 
50th regiment in 1803. In 1804 he exchanged 
into the 95th or rifle regiment, of which his 
uncle, Sydney Beckwith, was lieutenant- 
colonel. He became lieutenant in 1805, and 
accompanied his regiment to Hanover, to 
Denmark, where he was present at Kioge, 
and to Portugal. He was with the 95th all 
through the retreat of Sir John Moore to 
Corunna, and became captain in 1808. He 
was engaged with the 2nd battalion of his 
regiment in the Walcheren expedition, and 
afterwards accompanied it to Portugal in the 
winter of 1810, when he found Lord Wel- 
lington's army in the lines of Torres Vedras, 
and his uncle, Sydney Beckwith, in com- 
mand of a brigade. He was present with 
the light division in all the engagements 
which took place with Massena's retiring 
army in the spring of 1811, at Pombal, Re- 
dinha, Condeixa, Foz d Aronce, and Sabugal. 
In 1812, after his uncle had gone to England 
for his health, he was appointed by Brigadier- 

I general Andrew Barnard, who had succeeded 
! him, brigade-major to the 1st brigade of the 
| celebrated light division, and was present 
I in that capacity at the storming of Ciudad 
Rodrigo and Badajoz, and at the battles of 
Salamanca, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, the Ni- 
velle, the Nive, and Orthes. His eminent 
services drew upon him the repeated notice- 
both of Lord Wellington and of General 
Alten, who had succeeded Craufurd in the 
command of the light division, and he was 
appointed deputy assistant quartermaster- 
general to the division. In this higher capa- 
city he was present at the battle of Toulouse,, 
and in 1814, at the conclusion of the war, he 
was made major by brevet. In 1815 he was 
appointed in the same capacity to Picton's 
division in the Netherlands, and was present 
at the battle of Waterloo, where he lost his 
leg, and after which he was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel and made a C.B. The loss' of 
! his leg made it impossible for him to expect 
active employment, and in 1820 he went on 

He had been but twenty-six years old at 
the battle of Waterloo, and was still but a 
young man when he retired, and hardly 
knew to what occupation a one-legged man. 
could turn, when he happened one day in. 
1827, while waiting in the library of Apsley 
House, to look into Dr. Gilly's book on the 
Waldenses. He was so much interested that 
in the same year he paid a visit to the valleys 
of Piedmont. The past history of the people 
and their then condition of squalor and ig- 
norance so worked upon his nature that he 
determined to settle among them, and, taking- 
a house called La Torre, lived among them 
during the last thirty-five years of his life. 
His two main aims were to educate the people 
and to arouse in them once more the old evan- 
gelical faith which had first attracted his 
fancy. To educate them he established no less 
than 120 schools in the district, all of which 
he himself perpetually inspected, and the one- 
legged English general was well known and 
much loved throughout the Italian valleys. 
The greatness of his services was recognised by 
King Charles Albert of Sardinia, who made 
him a knight of the order of St. Maurice 
and St. Lazarus in 1848, and he further 
sealed his life to his work by marrying a 
i Waldensian girl, named Caroline Valle, in 
1850. Nevertheless he kept up his commu- 
nications with England, and frequently cor- 
responded with Dr. Gilly and others inter- 
ested in the Waldenses. An especially 
interesting letter from him to Sir William 
Napier is published in Napier's 'Life,' in 
which he acknowledges the receipt of a copy 
of the l History of the Peninsular War,' and 



then dwells ou the necessity of evangelical 
Christianity to his old comrade of the light 
division. He had been promoted colonel in 
1837, and major-general in 1846, but con- 
tinued to live at La Torre till his death, 
19 July 1862, when his funeral was attended 
by thousands of the peasants, whose lives he 
had made happy and cheerful. Of all the 
officers of the light division none found such 
a strange mode of employing his unexhausted 
energies, and few did such a great and self- 
denying work. 

[For his life consult II Generale Beckwith, 
aua Vita e sue Opere, par J. P. Meille, 1872, 
translated with notes by the Rev. W. Arnot, 
1873, and condensed by A. Meille, 1879 ; Times, 
5 and 14 Aug. 1862; Gent. Mag. for 1862, pt. ii. 
p. 362.] H. M. S. 


(1750-1809), organist, born at Norwich 
25 Dec. 1750, was for many years pupil and 
assistant successively of Dr. Wm. Hayes and 
Dr. Philip Hayes at Magdalen College, Oxford. 
On 16 Jan. 1794 he was appointed organist 
of St. Peter Mancroft's, Norwich. He took 
both the Mus. Bac. and Mus. Doc. degrees at 
Oxford in 1803, and in 1808 succeeded Thomas 
Garland as organist of the Norwich Cathe- 
dral. Beckwith retained both his organist's 
appointments until his death, which occurred 
in consequence of a paralytic stroke on 3 June 
1809. He was buried in St. Peter Mancroft/s. 
Beckwith's compositions are not numerous, 
consisting principally of anthems, organ vo- 
luntaries, a concerto, sonata, c. His most 
important work was a collection of chants 
adapted to the Psalms, and published in 1808, 
which contains an excellent preface on the 
subject of chanting. As an organist he took 
very high rank in his day. Professor Taylor 
said of him : * I have never heard Dr. Beck- 
with's equal upon the organ either in this 
country or in Germany. . . . Neither is this 
my opinion only, but that of every competent 
judge who has heard him ;' and another critic 
described his playing as i brilliancy itself.' 
He had a remarkable power of extemporising, 
and would frequently play four extempore 
-organ fugues at one Sunday's services. There 
is some doubt as to whether Dr. Beckwith 
was christened John Christmas, or whether 
his second name was only a nickname. In 
the works published by him in his lifetime 
he is always described as John Beckwith, 
but in the register of his burial the name is 
stated as ' John Christmas Beckwith, married 
man, an organist of this parish ;' and it is by 
this name that he is generally known. 

[Appendix to Bemrose's Choir Chant Book ; 
Musical Criticism (J. D. Eaton, 1872) ; Registers 

of St. Peter Mancroft ; British Museum Cata- 
logue.] W. B. S. 

BECKWITH, JOSIAH (b. 1734), anti- 
quary, was born at Rothwell, near Leeds, on 
24 Aug. 1734, where his father, Thomas Beck- 
with, practised as an attorney. He was him- 
self brought up to the same profession, and 
settled at Masbrough, near Rotherham. He 
married in August 1763 the eldest daughter 
and only surviving child of George D'Oxon, 
of Woodhead, in Cheshire, by whom he had 
two sons and four daughters, his wife's 
death taking place in 1788 at the early age 
of 49. He seems to have been possessed of 
considerable natural powers, which, together 
with a large share of acquired knowledge, 
rendered him eminently fitted for antiquarian 
pursuits, for which he had a great taste. His 
name is known to the world in connection with 
the enlarged and improved edition of Blount's 
1 Fragmenta Antiquitatis, or Ancient Tenures 
of Land and Jocular Customs of some 
Manors,' which he published in the year 1784, 
the first edition of this work having appeared 
in 1679. Speaking of Beckwith's edition, 
the ' Monthly Review ' (Ixxiii. 459) remarks : 
' Few persons were better qualified for this 
business, and Mr. Beckwith has enriched this 
edition with many valuable improvements. 
He has subjoined many notes and observa- 
tions, which have been communicated by 
some of the most respectable antiquaries of 
the present day.' He left materials for a 
still further enlarged edition, which was pub- 
lished after his death by his son, who had an 
appointment in the mint. 

[Gent. Mag. 1786, Ivi. 265; Lowndes's Biblio- 
grapher's Manual. 1857, i. 221 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 1813, viii. 329- 
330.] T. F. T. D. 


(1772-1831), who with Craufurd shares the 
honour of being one of the finest leaders of 
light troops ever known, was the third son 
of Major-general John Beckwith, who com- 
manded the 20th regiment at Minden, and 
four of whose sons became distinguished gene- 
ral officers. He was appointed lieutenant in 
the 71st regiment in 1791, and at once pro- 
ceeded to join it in India. He found Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Baird in command of the 
regiment, and under him learned both how to 
lead and how to organise a regiment. With 
the 71st he was present at the siege of Se- 
ringapatam in 1792, at the capture of Pondi- 
cherry by Colonel Baird in 1793, and during 
the operations in Ceylon in 1795. He was pro- 
moted captain in 1794, and returned to Eng- 
land with the head-quarters of his regiment 



in 1798. He had established his reputation 
as a good officer in India, vnd when in 1800 
lie volunteered for a company in Manning- 
ham's new rifle corps his services were ac- 
cepted. Colonel Manningham had proposed 
to the Horse Guards to be allowed to raise a 
regiment of light troops to be specially or- 
ganised for outpost duties, after the manner 
-of the French voltigeurs. His offer was ac- 
cepted, and volunteers were called for from 
every regiment. Beckwith had in the 71st 
made the acquaintance of William Stewart, 
the lieutenant-colonel of the new rifle corps, 
.and obtained a captaincy under his friend. 
He soon got his company into such good 
order that it was told off to accompany the 
expedition to Copenhagen in 1801, where its 
adj utant was killed. He was promoted maj or 
in Manningham's rifles, now called the 95th, 
in 1802, and formed one of the officers whom 
Sir John Moore trained at Shorncliffe. He 
became lieutenant-colonel in 1803, and under 
Moore's supervision got his regiment into 
model order. He was admired by his officers 
.and adored by his men, whose health and 
amusement were always his first considera- 
tion. In 1806 he served in Lord Cathcart's 
.abortive expedition to Hanover, and in 1807 
his regiment formed part of the division 
~which, under their future commander, then 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, won the battle of 
Kioge in Denmark, when it was thanked in 
the general's despatch. In July 1808 he ac- 
companied General Acland to Portugal, and 
was present at the battle of Vimeiro. After 
the arrival of Sir John Moore, and on his 
taking the command of the troops in Portu- 
gal, the 95th was brigaded with the 43rd 
and 52nd under the command of General 
Anstruther, and formed part of the reserve 
under General Edward Paget. The con- 
duct of this brigade, and more especially of 
the 95th regiment under Beckwith, has been 
described by Napier; it closed the retreat, 
and was daily engaged with the French, but 
though suffering the most terrible privations 
it never broke line, or in any way relaxed 
its discipline. The regiment particularly dis- 
tinguished itself at Cacabelos, where it faced 
round and with the help of the 10th hussars 
fought successfully the whole advanced 
.guard of the French army. The 95th and 
Beckwith crowned their services at Corunna, 
when they were the last troops to leave the 
city, and managed to take with them 7 French 
officers and 156 men, whom they had made 
prisoners on the previous day. In 1809 the 
"95th was again brigaded with the 43rd and 
52nd, and sent to the Peninsula. Craufurd 
was leading them up to the main army, 
when he heard that a great battle had been 

fought, and that General Wellesley was 
killed. Nothing daunted he pressed forward, 
and after a forced march of twenty-five hours 
reached Talavera on the evening of the battle. 
When Lord Wellington retired from Spain, 
and cantoned his army on the Coa, the light 
brigade was stationed far in front to watch 
the French movements. In their advanced 
position there were frequent conflicts, all de- 
scribed by Napier, in which the 95th and 
Beckwith proved their efficiency. At the 
skirmish of Barba del Puerco and the battle 
of Busaco the light brigade won the especial 
praise of Lord Wellington, and when in 
1811 it was increased by three Portuguese 
regiments to a division, Beckwith received 
the command of one of the brigades. The 
division led the pursuit of Ma^sena, was 
warmly engaged at Pombal, Redinha, and 
Foz d'Aronce, and defeated a whole corps 
d'armee, though with great loss, at Sabugal. 
In this engagement Beckwith particularly 
distinguished himself, was wounded in the 
forehead, and had his horse shot under him. 
The perfect discipline and valour of his 
men were again proved, and the disgraceful 
blunders of Sir W. Erskine, who had tempo- 
rarily succeeded Craufurd, were remedied by 
the men's gallantry. At Fuentes d'Onor 
the light division was not engaged, and 
shortly afterwards Beckwith was obliged to 
return to England from ill-health, and to hand 
over his perfect regiment and brigade to 
Colonel Barnard. He had inspired his men 
with such confidence ' that they would follow 
him through fire and water when the day of 
trial came ' (Cof^Htstory of the Rifle Brigade, 
p. 53). On his health being restored he was 
knighted, in 1812, as proxy for his brother 
George, made a knight of the Tower and Sword 
of Portugal in 1813, and in 1812 appointed 
assistant quartermaster-general in Canada. 
In that capacity he commanded an expedition 
to the coast of the United States, which took 
Littlehampton and Ocrakoke, and had Charles 
Napier under him as brigadier. In 1814 he 
was promoted major-general, and made one 
of the first K.C.B's. He saw no more active 
service, but in 1827 was made colonel com- 
mandant of his old corps, the rifle brigade, 
which he had done so much to organise. In 
1829 he was appointed commander-in-chief 
at Bombay, in 1830 he became lieutenant- 
general, and in January 1831 he died at 
Mahableshwur of fever. The light division 
was the greatest creation of Sir John Moore ; 
its services appear in every page of the his- 
tory of the Peninsular war, and Sydney 
Beckwith was the practical creator of one of 
its most distinguished regiments. ' He was/ 
according to Kincaid, ' one of the ablest out- 



post generals, and few officers knew so well 
how to make the most of a small force/ 

[Cope's History of the Eifle Brigade, 1877 ; 
Surtees, Twenty-five Years in the Eifle Brigade, 
1833 ; Leach's Sketch of the Field Services of 
the Kifle Brigade from its Formation to the 
Battle of Waterloo, 1838 ; Kincaid's Adventures 
in the Eifle Brigade in the Peninsula, France, 
and the Netherlands, 1830; Mrs. Fitzmaurice's 
Eecollections of a Eifleman's Wife at Home and 
Abroad, 1851 ; Costello's Adventures of a Soldier, 
1852.] H. M. S. 

BECON, JOHN, LL.D. (d. 1587), divine, 
a native of Suffolk, received his education 
at St. John's College, Cambridge. He was 
admitted a scholar of that society on the Lady 
Margaret's foundation in 1559, proceeded j 
B.A. in 1560-1, was admitted a fellow ! 
21 March 1561-2, and commenced M.A. | 
1564. Subsequently he became principal | 
lecturer of the college. In July 1571 he was 
elected public orator of the university, and j 
he served the office of proctor for the year | 
1571-2. During his tenure of the latter 
office he headed the opposition of the senate 
to the code of university statutes which had 
passed the great seal in 1570. Much disorder 
was the result, and the heads of colleges ex- 
hibited articles against him and his adherents. 
Ultimately the two archbishops and the 
bishops of London and Ely decided that the 
new statutes should stand, and censured the 
opponents for going from college to college to 
solicit subscriptions against the same. Becon 
resigned the oratorship in 1573. The follow- 
ing year he was installed a canon of Norwich, 
and in 1575 he became chancellor of that 
diocese. He took the degree of LL.D. in 

On 16 Feb. 1579-80 Becon was collated 
to the precentorship of the church of Chi- 
chester, and in 1581 was admitted to a pre- 
bend in the church of Lichfield. In 1582 a 
great contest took place between him and 
William Overton, bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry, about the chancellorship of that 
diocese. The bishop, who had in the first 
instance granted it to Becon only, subse- 
quently granted the office to him and one 
Babington, and to the longer liver of them. 
This occasioned a great disturbance and riot 
in the cathedral. The case came successively 
before the Star-chamber, the privy council, 
and the Archbishop of Canterbury, who re- 
mitted it to four visitors, and they finally 
induced the contending parties to compro- 
mise the matter. Becon was buried at 
St. Giles's, Cripplegate, on 4 Sept. 1587. 

Various documents written try Becon in 
reference to the disputes in which he was 

engaged have been printed, and are enume- 
rated in Cooper's ' Athene Cantabrigienses/ 

[Addit. MS. 5863 f. 47; Baker's Hist, of 
St. John's Coll. Camb., ed. Mayor; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab, ii. 16, 542; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccl. Anglic., ed. Hardy, i. 266, 592, ii. 496, 498,. 
iii. 619 ; Strype's Works.] T. C. 


1594), Irish administrator and author, was. 
a native of Suffolk, and was educated at 
Cambridge. He entered St. John's College 
on 12 Nov. 1567, and proceeded B.A. in 
1571 and M.A. in 1575. Admitted a student 
of Gray's Inn on 19 June 1577, he was called 
to the bar on 27 Jan. 1584-5. He was ap- 
pointed * her majesty's attorney for the pro- 
vince of Munster' on 17 Dec. 1586 at an 
annual salary of little more than 17 /. He- 
was chiefly employed in regulating crown 
grants of land, and two letters on the sub- 
ject, dated in the one case 17 Oct. 1587 from 
Clonmel, and in the other 2 Dec. 1587 from 
Limerick, addressed by him with other com- 
missioners to Walsingham, are at the Record 
Office. Beacon himself received grants of 
land Clandonnell and Clan Derrnott in 
Cork, and of Torcraigh in Waterford, all of 
which he appears to have sublet to other 
Englishmen. In 1591 the post of attorney 
in Munster was conferred on another, but 
Beacon, although no longer in Ireland, is 
described as the owner of land there in a 
visitation of 1611. Beacon was the author 
of an interesting political pamphlet on Ire- 
land. It is entitled : ' Solon his follie ; or a 
politique discourse touching the reformation 
of common weales conquered, declined, or cor- 
rupted,' Oxford, 1594. It is dedicated to* 
Queen Elizabeth, and is in the form of a 
conversation between Solon, Epimenides, and 
Pisistratus as to the policy that Athens- 
should pursue towards Salamina. Old manu- 
script notes in the copies in the Cambridge 
University and British Museum libraries state 
that 'for the better understanding of this 
I allegoricall discourse ... by Salamina must 
be understood Ireland, and by Athens Eng- 
; land.' Beacon urges on the English govern- 
i ment the adoption of strong coercive measures. 
i in order to eradicate Irish national feeling. 

[Cooper's Athen. Cantab, ii. 174; Foster's 

i Eegister of Gray's Inn, p. 52 ; Calendar of 

; Carew MSS. for 1588, 1591, and 1611; Irish 

series of State Papers for 1589 ; Beacon's Solon.} 1 

S. L. L. 

BECON, THOMAS, D.D. (1512-1567),, 
protestant divine, was of Norfolk, as he ex- 
pressly states in the general preface to the? 
folio (1564) of his works. Strype, in his 




<* Life of Craniner,' calls him a Suffolk man, 
but in his later ' Life of Aylmer ' says he 
was of Norfolk. We gather from the age 
inscribed upon his successive portraits which 
accompanied his ' Governance of Virtue,' 
1566, * y'Etatis suee 41, anno Domini 1553,' 
and in the folio and collected edition of his 
works, ' Anno setatis suae 49, 1560,' that he 
must have been born in 1511-12. His mother 
had married again, and a second time become 
a widow at the close of Henry VIII's reign, 
as he himself informs us. 

Of his school education nothing what- 
ever is known ; but before he was sixteen 
he proceeded B.A. (1530) at St. John's 
College, Cambridge. He ultimately gradu- 
ated D.D. During his residence at the uni- 
versity he was a ' diligent hearer ' of Hugh 
Latimer ; and he also names gratefully George 
Stafford, ' reader of divinity.' He quotes a 
saying that had passed into a proverb : ' When 
Master Stafford read and Master Latimer 
preached, then was Cambridge blessed.' 

Becon was not ordained until 1538 (on 
17 Jan. 1564 he speaks of himself as having 
then been twenty-six years in the ministry). 
His first living was the vicarage of Brenzett, 
near Romney in Kent, which still remains a 
small village. He appears to have formed 
fast friendships in the neighbourhood, judg- 
ing by the epistles-dedicatory of his l Early 
Writings.' Probably he was over-studious, 
as his health was extremely infirm. One 
illness he designates ' mine so grievous and 
troublous sickness' (New Year's Gift, pre- 
face). He was also speedily ' troubled ' 
on account of his pronounced opinions and 
sentiments in favour of the Reformation. 
His pseudonym of Theodore Basil did not 
hinder his being ' presented ' in London in 
1541, along with Robert Wisdom, and made 
at ' Paul's cross to recant and to revoke ' his 
doctrine, and ' to burn his books ' (FoxE, Acts 
and Mon. 1684, ii. 450; and STEYPE'S Eccles. 
Mem. 1721, i. 367). Bale informs us that 
Becon's offence was writing against 'their 
images, their chastity, and their satisfactions.' 
He was again compelled to abjure his opinions 
at St. Paul's Cross in 1543. He retired to the 
Peak of Derbyshire, meaning to support him- 
self by pupils. He met with a gentleman 
named Alsop at Alsop-in-the-Dale, who gave 
him much assistance. Finding that his bosom 
friend Robert Wisdom was in Staffordshire, 
Becon joined him, and was entertained with 
him by one John Old, 'a faithful brother,' 
afterwards prebendary of Lichfield. Wisdom 
was called away, and Becon after about a 
year removed to Warwickshire, still with 
Old, who also had removed thither. But the 
most memorable of all events to him at this 

time was daily intercourse with the revered 
Hugh Latimer. Whilst in Leicestershire, 
whither he again removed, and where the 
Marquis of Dorset, and John Aylmer, bishop 
of London, received him hospitably, Becon 
received the unlooked-for tidings of the death 
of his stepfather, and he felt constrained to 
return to his mother now again widowed. 
Throughout he had earned ' daily bread ' in 
a lowly way by his teaching of youths. His 
pen had also been busy during this fugitive 
period. His l Governance of Virtue,' he tells 
us, was written < in the bloody, boisterous, 
burning time, when the reading of the holy 
Bible, the word of our soul's health, was for- 
bidden the poor lay people.' His books were 
all successively ; proclaimed ' as ' heretical ' 
(FoxE, ii. 496). 

With the accession of Edward V^I fortune 
returned. He was { instituted ' 24 March 
1547-8 to the rectory of St. Stephen, Wai- 
brook. He was also made by Craniner 
to whom he was chaplain one of the ' six 
preachers ' in Canterbury cathedral. He was 
further chaplain to the protector, Somerset, 
at Sheen. During the duke's imprisonment 
in 1549, daily prayers were offered for him 
by his household; and when, on 6 Feb. 
1549-50, he was liberated, there was a form 
of thanksgiving which was ' gathered and 
| set forth by Thomas Becon, minister there ' 
j (Bishop KENNETT, Collections, xlvi. No. 12). 
He is likewise stated to have * read ' at Ox- 
ford during this reign (Lupxox, History of 
I Modern Protestant Divines, 1637, p. 331). 

But on 6 July 1553 Edward died. Becon 
was committed to the Tower by an order of 
council, as a ' seditious preacher,' 16 Aug. 
1553. He was in confinement till 22 March 
1553-4. He was also 'ejected' from his 
'living ' as being ' a married priest.' On his 
| release from the Tower he repaired to Stras- 
< burg, and thence addressed an ' Epistle to 
the afflicted people of God which suffer 
persecution for the testimony of Christ's 
gospel.' This epistle was read in the scat- 
tered little gatherings of those who still 
dared to meet together. There was appended 
to it a ' Humble Supplication unto God for 
the restoring of His holy Word unto the 
Church of England.' Spite of the present 
distress he was hopeful of ' deliverance.' 
Whilst abroad he also wrote his ' Display- 
ing of the Popish Mass ' (Basel 1559, Lon- 
don 1637). But as he was thus actively 
occupied his enemies at home were busy. 
A proclamation issued 13 June 1555 against 
heretical books denounced a severe punish- 
ment against any who should (among others) 
' sell, read, or keep ' any of the books of 
' Theodore Basil, otherwise called Thomas 




Becon ' (FoxE, as before, iii. 225-6 ; STKYPE, 
Eccles. Mem. c. xxxii. iii. 250). 

On Elizabeth's accession, Becon returned 
to England. He Avas restored to his London 
benefice, and was also replaced at Canter- 
bury. A. little later he was presented to 
the rectory of Buckland, in Hertfordshire, 
where he was admitted 22 Oct. 1560. He 
was also appointed to Christ Church, New- 
gate Street, and on 10 Aug. 1563 to the 
rectory of St. Dionis Backchurch (KENNETT, 
as before, xlvi. 12). At the outset he had 
scruples as to certain ' regulations ' and { ritu- 
alisms,' but after a time acquiesced. He 
preached at Paul's Cross and elsewhere on 
great occasions, with wide popular accept- 
ance. In 1566 he published his latest work 
his ' Postils/ or lectures on the gospel of 
the day. The preface to this, as well as to 
the folio edition of his works two years 
earlier, is dated from Canterbury. It would 
seem that the later years of his life were 
spent in his prebendal house, and there in 
1567 he probably died (NEWCOUKT, Repert. 
i. 320, 330). 

Of his wife and children little has been 
transmitted. A Theodore and a Christophile 
both died before 1560 ; a second Theodore, 
Basil, and Rachel outlived him. His sur- 
viving son Theodore was of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, B.A., 1576 ; fellow, 1579 ; 
M.A., 1580 ; M.D. 1587. He was a corre- 
spondent of Burghley in 1578 (JBuryhley 
Papers, Lansdowne MSS. xxvii. No. 78). 
A collected edition of his works, including 
many unpublished, appeared in 3 vols. folio 
in 1563-4. In the ' Athense Cantabrigienses ' 
(i. 247-9) will be found a full catalogue of 
the many writings of Becon, to the number 
of forty-seven. The Rev. John Ayre, M.A., 
has edited the works of Becon for the Parker 
Society, and has brought together all that 
has been transmitted. His ' Biographical 
Notice ' before < The Early Works ' (1843), 
with its authorities and references, must be 
the main source of every succeeding bio- 
grapher and historian. The Religious Tract 
Society and others still circulate ' Selections ' 
from his works. 

Woodcuts of Becon are prefixed to his 
' Reliques of Rome ' and to his own collected 
edition of his works. 

[Ayre's Biogr. Notice, as before, in Works, 
three volumes, 8vo, 1843-4 ; Cooper's Ath. 
Cantab, i. 246-50 ; Foxe, as before ; Strype's 
Cranmer, Aylmer, Parker, Grindal ; Churton's 
Life of Nowell, p. 21 ; MS. Chronology, i. 48, 
221 ; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, i. 166-70 
Ayre does not name Brook, but he was largely 
indebted to him throughout, albeit Brook, like 
Dr. Bliss (in Athense Oxon.), confounds another 

I Becon with Thomas Becon ; Le Neve's Fasti, i.. 

I 50 ; Anderson's Annals of the Bible, ii. 154 ; 

j Haweis's Sketches of the Eeformation, 135 ; 

i Maitland's Essays on the Keformation, 107, 108 r 

| 146, 190, 196; Baker's Hist, of St. John's, by- 
Mayor, 366 ; Warton's History of English 
Poetry ; Ellis's Shoreditch ; Machyn's Diary,. 
216, 231, 288 ; an excellent paper on Thomas. 
Becon, by Dr. Alexander, will be found in th& 
(American) Princeton Review, v. 504.] 

A. B. G. 

BEDDOES, THOMAS (1760-1 808), phy- 
sician, was born at Shiffnal in Shropshire, 
13 April 1760. Through the interposition of 
his grandfather, a self-made man of vigorous- 
intellect, he was educated at Bridgnorth 
Grammar School and at Pembroke College, 
Oxford. While at the university he taught 
himself French, Italian, and German, and 
shortly after quitting it translated or anno- 
tated several works of Bergman, Scheele, and 
Spallanzani. He received his medical edu- 
cation in London and Edinburgh, and, after 
taking his M.D. degree at Oxford, was ap- 
pointed in 1788 reader in chemistry, attract- 
ing, he says, the largest class that had been 
assembled in the university since the thir- 
teenth century. He resigned this post in. 
1792, partly on account of his sympathy with 
the French revolution. He had previously, in 
1790, pointed out the merits of the great and 
then forgotten chemist, May ow, the discoverer 
of the true theory of combustion, and had, in 
1792, composed a poem on the conquests of 
Alexander,partly to denounce English aggran- 
disement in India, partly as what now seems a 
highly superfluous demonstration of the possi- 
bility of imitating Darwin's ' Botanic Garden/ 
The poem is in every way a curiosity, having 
been printed by a woman and illustrated with 
woodcuts by a parish clerk. In 1793 he 
produced his treatise on calculus, and his 
moral tale ' Isaac Jenkins,' describing the 
reclamation of a drunken labourer, which 
went through numerous editions. In the 
same year he removed to Clifton, with the 
view of establishing a ' Pneumatic Institute ' 
for the treatment of disease by inhalation. 
Watt constructed his apparatus, Wedgwood 
contributed a thousand pounds, and the insti- 
tute was ultimately established in 1798. It 
failed iii its professed object, but is memor- 
able for having fostered the genius of Davy, 
whom Beddoes had engaged as his assistant, 
and who discovered the properties of nitrous- 
oxide there in 1799. In the same year Davy's 
first work, an essay on heat and light, was- 
given to the world in ' Contributions to 
Physical and Medical Knowledge, princi- 
pally from the West of England,' a collec- 
tion edited by Beddoes, Before this he had 




married Anna, sister of Maria Edgeworth, 
' the best and most amiable woman in the 
world,' says Davy, and had produced several 
medical works and some political pamphlets, 
in the latter assailing Pitt with extreme 
virulence. He had also, in 1795, edited the 
' Elements of Medicine ' of John Brown, the 
founder of the Brunonian system of medicine, ' 
with a memoir, certainly well intended, but j 
unduly depreciatory of Brown's character in j 
some respects. In 1801 he published his 
' Hygeia, popular essays in medicine, rich 
in valuable sanitary precepts and eloquent 
pathological descriptions. In the same year 
Davy left Clifton for London, and the institute 
was virtually given up. Beddoes continued 
to enjoy a considerable practice, but from this 
time he added little to medical literature. 
In 1808 his health failed, and he died on 
24 Dec., 'at the moment,' says Davy, 'when 
his mind was purified for noble affections 
and great works : ' ' literally worn out,' says 
Atkinson, ' by the action and reaction of an 
inquisitive nature, and of restlessness for 
fame.' ' From Beddoes,' wrote Southey on 
hearing of his death, ' I hoped for more good 
to the human race than any other individual.' 
1 1 felt,' wrote Coleridge on the same occasion, 
' that more had been taken out of my life by | 
this than by any former event.' Yet Beddoes ] 
had not succeeded in impressing himself 
powerfully upon the history of science, and 
he is now chiefly remembered as the father 
of the author of ' Death's Jest-Book,' and to 
some extent the discoverer of Davy. He was, 
nevertheless, a remarkable and highly interest- 
ing man; an enthusiast and a philanthropist ; 
vigorous, original, and independent. The 
distinguishing merit of his medical writings 
is their vivid presentation of the phenomena 
of disease. ' They embrace,' says Atkinson, 
' a most extensive surface of queries and 
inquiry ; touching, like a vessel of discovery, 
upon every little topic or island; but yet 
with top-sails set, as if stinted to time.' 
' He was,' says Davy, 'reserved in manner 
and almost dry. Nothing could be a stronger 
contrast to his apparent coldness in discus- 
sion than his wild and active imagination, 
which was as poetical as Darwin's. He had 
talents which would have raised him to the 
pinnacle of philosophical eminence, if they 
had been applied with discretion.' It is ex- 
tremely interesting to compare these traits 
with similar manifestations of character in 
his son. 

[Stock's Memoirs of the Life of Thomas Bed- 
does, 1811 ; John Davy's Memoirs of the Life of 
Sir Humphry Davy, 1839; Fragmentary Remains 
of Sir H. Davy, 1858; Atkinson's Medical Biblio- 
graphy, 1834.] K. G-. 

1849), poet and physiologist, was born at Hod- 
ney Place, Clifton, on 20 July 1803. He was 
the eldest son of Dr. Thomas Beddoes [q. v.], 
the celebrated physician, who died when his 
son was five years old. His mother, Anna, 
was the daughter of Richard Lovell Edge- 
worth, of Edgeworthtown, and the poet was 
therefore the nephew of Maria Edgeworth, 
the novelist. At the death of his father 
T. L. Beddoes was left in the guardianship 
of Davies Giddy, afterwards known as Sir 
Davies Gilbert, P.R.S., who died in 1839, 
He was sent first to Bath Grammar School, 
and on 5 June 1817 entered the Charterhouse. 
During his stay at this school he distinguished 
himself by his mischievous deeds of daring, 
by the originality of his behaviour, and by 
his love of the old Elizabethan dramatists, 
whom he early began to imitate. He wrote 
a novel called ' Cynthio and Bugboo,' and in 
1819 a drama called the ' Bride's Tragedy.' 
The former was never printed ; the latter re- 
mained for some years in his desk. His ear- 
liest verses belong to 1817 ; in July 1819 his 
name first appears as the contributor of a 
sonnet to the ' Morning Post.' Beddoes, on 
leaving Charterhouse, went to Oxford, and 
was entered a commoner at Pembroke on 
1 May 1820. At Oxford he was eccentric 
and rebellious, priding himself on his demo- 
cratic sentiments, which he preserved through 
life. In 1821, while yet a freshman, he pub- 
j lished his first volume, the ' Improvisatore,' 
i a pamphlet of 128 pages, printed in Oxford. 
j Of this jejune production he speedily became 
j so much ashamed that he endeavoured to 
suppress it, and with such a measure of suc- 
cess that very few copies of it are now known 
to exist. In 1822 he published in London 
his boyish play, the ' Bride's Tragedy,' a work 
of extraordinary promise, modelled very 
closely on such Jacobean \vriters as Webster, 
Marston, and Cyril Tourneur. In this drama 
the principal features of Beddoes' later style 
are all clearly to be discerned. The ' Bride's 
Tragedy' enjoyed a success such as rarely 
rewards the ambition of so young a writer ; 
it was favourably noticed by the principal 
reviews, and in particular by Barry Cornwall 
and George Darley, who welcomed the new 
poet with effusion. The former, then thirty- 
five years of age and at the height of his 
reputation, extended to the young Oxonian 
his valuable friendship, and in 1823 Beddoes 
became acquainted with Thomas Forbes Kel- 
sall, a young solicitor, afterwards his bio- 
grapher and posthumous editor. He now 
j planned, and partly wrote, several other 
j dramas ; of one, t Love's Arrow Poisoned,'" 
considerable portions still remain unpub- 


9 6 


lislied ; another, the ' Last Man/ which is 
frequently referred to in Beddoes' correspon- 
dence, has entirely disappeared. He became 
deeply interested in Shelley, and in 1824 be- 
came guarantee, in common with several 
other friends, for the first edition of that 
poet's ' Posthumous Poems.' In an unpub- 
lished letter in 1824 Procter describes Bed- 
does as ' innocently gay, with a gibe always 
on his tongue, a mischievous eye, and locks 
curling like the hyacinth;' and it appears 
that this was by far the brightest and hap- 
piest part of his career, though even at this 
time his excessive shyness made him averse 
to society. His mother's health was now 
breaking up, and in the summer of 1824 he 
was called to Florence, where she was re- 
siding; but she was dead before he could 
reach her. He spent some time in Italy, 
where he became acquainted with W. S. 
Landorand Mrs. helley, and he then brought 
his sisters back to England. These inter- 
ruptions delayed the preparation for his 
bachelor's degree, which he eventually took on 
25 May 1825. During this year he wrote the 
dramatic fragments, the ' Second Brother ' 
and * Torrismond,' which appear in the second 
volume of his works, and he began his great 
poem, ' Death's Jest-Book,' upon the polish- 
ing of which he was engaged for more than 
twenty vears. He planned to publish a 
volume of lyrics, entitled ' Outidana, or Effu- 
sions, Amorous, Pathetic, and Fantastical ; ' 
but he was dissuaded from doing so by his 
unpopularity with a certain clique at Oxford, 
Milman, in particular, denouncing him as 
belonging to ' a villainous school.' He now 
determined to abandon literature, which he 
had thought of taking up as a profession, and 
to give his whole attention to medicine, and 
particularly to anatomy. Accordingly, in 
July 1825, he went to the university of Got- 
tingen, where he remained in residence for 
four years, studying physiology under Blu- 
menbach, surgery under Langenbeck, and 
chemistry under Stromeyer. All this time 
he was slowly completing 'Death's Jest- 
Book,' which was finished, in its first form, 
in February 1829. During these four years 
Beddoes only left Gottingen once, to take his 
M.A. degree at Oxford on 16 April 1828. In 
the winter of 1829 he transferred his resi- 
dence to Wiirzburg, in Bavaria, where he 
continued his medical studies, and in 1832 
obtained the degree of doctor of medicine at 
that university. He had, however, by the 
open expression of democratic opinions, made 
himself obnoxious to the government, and 
before the diploma was actually conferred 
upon him he was obliged to fly out of the 
Bavarian dominions, and to take refuge at 

Strassburg. In 1833 he visited Zurich, and 
was so much pleased with it that, when his 
political intrigues had again made it im- 
possible for him to remain in Germany, he 
settled down at Zurich in June 1835. He 
brought with him a considerable reputation 
as a physiologist, for Blumenbach, in a tes- 
timonial which exists; calls him the best 
pupil he ever had ; and he now assumed his 
degree of M.D. The surgeon Schoelien pro- 
posed him to the university as a professor, 
and he was elected, although the syndic, for 
a political reason, refused to ratify the elec- 
tion. Beddoes, however, continued to reside 
in Zurich for several years, and amassed there 
a scientific library of 600 volumes. He was 
at Zurich on 8 Sept. 1839, when the peasantry 
stormed the town, and deposed the liberal 
government. He observed the riot from a 
window, and witnessed the murder of the 
minister Hegetschweiber, who was one of his 
best friends. Beddoes had taken an acute 
interest in the cause of liberal politics, sup- 
porting it with his purse and his pen, for he 
now wrote German with complete fluency. 
After the defeat and dispersion of his friends, 
Zurich was no longer safe for him. In March 
1840 his life was threatened by the insur- 
gents, and he was helped to fly from the town 
in secret by a former leader of the liberal 
party named Jasper. He proceeded to Ber- 
lin, where, in 1841, he made the acquaintance 
of one of his latest friends, Dr. Frey. From 
this time to the date of his death he was a 
wanderer, still carrying about with him 
everywhere, and altering, his f Death's Jest- 
Book.' In August 1842 he was in England ; 
in 1843 at Baden in Aargau, and again at 
Zurich; from 1844 to 1846 at Baden, Frank- 
fort, and Berlin. In the summer of 1846 
he came once more to England for nearly 
a year ; his friends found him very much 
changed, and most eccentric in manner. He 
complained of neuralgia, and shut himself up 
for six months in his bedroom, reading and 
smoking. In June 1847 he finally quitted 
England, and settled for twelve months at 
Frankfort in the house of an actor named 
Degen, practising a little as a physician. 
Here in the early part of 1848 his blood be- 
came poisoned from the virus of a dead body 
entering a slight wound in his hand. This 
was overcome, but seriously affected his health 
and spirits. His republican friends had de- 
serted him, and he felt disgusted with life. 
The circumstances which attended his death 
were mysterious, and have not been made 
known to the public. The published account 
was founded on a letter from Beddoes to his 
sister, in which he says : ' In July I fell with 
a horse in a precipitous part of the neigh- 




touring hills, and broke my left leg all to 
pieces.' This is the version which he wished 
to circulate, and this may be accepted in si- 
lence. The incident, however, whatever it 
was, occurred not in July, but in May 1848, 
and in the .town of Bale, where he had ar- 
rived the previous night. He was immedi- 
.ately taken to the hospital, where he was 
placed under the charge of his old friend, Dr. 
Frey, and of a Dr. Ecklin. The leg was ob- 
stinate in recovery, and eventually gangrene 
of the foot set in. On 9 Sept. it became ne- 
cessary to amputate the limb below the knee- 
joint; this operation was very successfully 
performed by Dr. Ecklin. Beddoes had not, 
until this latter event, communicated with 
his friends in England, but during October 
and November he wrote to them very cheer- 
fully, declining all offers of help, and chatting 
freely about literature. In December he 
walked out of his room twice, and proposed 
to go to Italy. His recovery was considered 
certain when, on 26 Jan. 1849, Dr. Ecklin 
was called to his bedside, and found him 
insensible. He died at 10 p.m. that night. 
On his bed was found a paper of directions, 
written in pencil with a firm hand, leaving 
his manuscripts to Kelsall, and adding : ' I 
ought to have been among other things a 
good poet.' He was buried in the cemetery 
of the hospital. 

His old friend, Thomas Forbes Kelsall, 
undertook the task committed to him with 
the greatest zeal and piety. His first act was 
to publish the poem of Beddoes' life, the fa- 
mous 'Death's Jest-Book, or the Fool's 
Tragedy,' in 1850. This play attracted in- 
stant attention. It is a story of the thir- 
teenth century, founded on the historical fact 
that a Duke of Munsterberg, in Silesia, was 
stabbed to death by his court fool ; the latter 
personage Beddoes has made the hero of his 
play under the name of Isbrand. This volume 
was so successful that Kelsall followed it in 
1851 by the publication of ' Poems by the 
late Thomas Lovell Beddoes,' including seve- 
ral dramatic fragments mentioned above, and 
introduced by an anonymous memoir of Bed- 
does written by Kelsall. This memoir, which 
is a very accomplished and admirable piece 
of biography, contained a large number of 
interesting letters from Beddoes. In 1838 
Beddoes had translated into German Grain- 
ger's work on the 'Structure of the Spinal 
Cord ; ' but it is supposed that he failed to 
find a publisher for it. He is known to have 
contributed largely to the political literature 
of the day in German prose and verse, but 
anonymously, and these fugitive pieces are 
entirely lost, with the exception of one un- 
important fragment. In person Beddoes was 


like Keats, short and thick-set ; in the last 
! year of his life he allowed his beard to grow, 
; and 'looked like Shakespeare.' His friends 
j in the hospital spoke of his fortitude under 
! suffering, and said that he always showed 
| ' the courage of a soldier.' He died in pos- 
: session of several farms at Shifnall and 

Hopesay, in Shropshire. 

[The above notice of T. L. Beddoes is much 
fuller in detail than any which has yet appeared, 
and corrects the existing memoirs on several 
points. After the publication of his memoir in 

: 1851 Mr. Kelsall continued to add to his notes 
of Beddoes' life, but found no fresh opportunity 
for making them public. He preserved all the 

1 manuscripts referring to the poet, all his poems, 
letters, and details gleaned from other persons, in 
a box, which he bequeathed at his death to Mr. 
Eobert Browning, who has very kindly permitted 
me to be the first to examine it. This box con- 
tains a large number of poetical fragments, es- 
pecially discarded scenes and songs for ' Death's 
Jest-Book,' which have not yet seen the light.] 

E. a. 

BEDDOME, BENJAMIN (1717-1795), 
writer of hymns, was the son of the Rev. 
John Beddome, baptist minister. Benja- 
min was born at Henley-in-Arden, South 
Warwickshire, 23 Jan. 17 17, and received his 
education, first at an independent academy 
in Tenter Alley, Moorfields, London, and 
afterwards at the Baptist College, Bristol. 
He was intended for a surgeon, but felt it his 
duty to become a preacher of the gospel. In 
the year 1740 he entered upon his first and 
only ministerial charge at Bourton-on-the- 
Water, in East Gloucestershire, where he 
continued as pastor of the baptist church 
until his death. Beddome was distinguished 
by the fulness and accuracy of his biblical 
scholarship, but it is as a hymn-writer that 
he is best known. His hymns were com- 
posed to be sung after his sermons, being 
designed to illustrate the truths on which 
he had been preaching. A volume of his 
poetry, under the title ' Hymns adapted to 
Public Worship or Family" Devotion,' com- 
prising 830 pieces, was published in 1818. 
Selections from these are found in most of 
the hymnals now in use. Beddome wrote 
an ' Exposition on the Baptist Catechism,' 
which was published in 1752. Two posthu- 
mous volumes of discourses were also printed 
from his manuscripts, and appeared, the first 
in 1805, the second in 1835. This latter 
contained a memoir of the author. By his 
marriage with Miss Elizabeth Boswell, Bed- 
dome had two sons, Benjamin and Fos- 
kett, who, having prepared themselves for 
the medical profession, died prematurely at 
the ages respectively of 24 and 25 years. 



9 8 


Beddome died at Bourton, the scene of his life- 
long labours, on 3 Sept. 1795, aged 78 years. 
His personal character was marked by great 
urbanity and courtesy. To the sick and the 
poor he was exceedingly generous and cha- 

[Miller's Singers and Songs of the Church, 2nd 
ed. 1869; and Memoir prefixed to Sermons, 
1835.] W. B. L. 

BEDE, or more accurately B^EDA (673- 
735), was born in the district which was the 
next year given for the foundation of the 
monastery of St. Peter's, at Wearmouth, in 
what is now the county of Durham. The 
exact date of his birth has been disputed. 
It depends on the short account which he 
gives of himself at the end of the ' Historia 
Ecclesiastical He brings that work down 
to 731 for the notice of the defeat of the 
Saracens in the following year is probably 
an insertion made later, either by himself or 
by some other hand and he says that he had 
then reached his fifty-ninth year. Mabillon 
(Acta SS. O. B. iii. 505) is therefore pro- 
bably right in fixing his birth in 673. Some, 
however (PAGI, Critic, in Ann. Baron, p. 141, 
followed by Stevenson), place it in 674, and 
others (GEHLE, Disput. Hist. Theol. and 
Mon. Hist. Brit.} in 672. Besides the short 
account which Baedft gives of himself, and 
what we can glean from his writings and 
from incidental notices of him by others, we 
have no trustworthy materials for his life 
until we come to his last hours : for the two 
anonymous biographies of him (If. E. ed. 
Smith, App., and MABILLON, ssec. iii. 501) 
are one of the eleventh and the other of the 
twelfth century. 

Early deprived, as it seems, of his parents, 
Bseda, when seven years old, was placed by 
his relations under the charge of Benedict 
Biscop, the abbot of Wearmouth. Shortly 
before his birth a great ecclesiastical revival 
began in England. The marriage of Oswiu 
of Northumbria to Eanfled led to the triumph 
of the Roman over the Celtic church in the 
north, and Wilfrith, the champion of St. 
Peter, was made bishop. Archbishop Theo- 
dore began to reform the episcopate after 
the Roman model, and in a national synod 
held at Hertford in 673 put an end to 
the unsystematic practices of the Celtic 
church. English bishops were for the future 
to keep to their own dioceses, and not to 
wander about wherever they would, like the 
Celtic missionary bishops. The introduction 
of the Benedictine rule in place of the primi- 
tive monachism of the Celts was a move- 
ment of a like nature. In this work Benedict 
Biscop, the guardian of Bseda, took a leading 

part. When, in 674, he founded St. Peter's 
at W^earmouth, he sent for workmen from 
Gaul, who built his monastery after the 
Roman style. In 682 he founded the other 
home of Bseda, the monastery of St. Paul's 
at Jarrow. Foreign artificers filled the win- 
dows of his two great houses with glass. 
The pictured forms of saints and the scenes 
of sacred history adorned the walls of his 
churches. Above all, he provided his monks 
with a noble collection of books, which he 

j deemed necessary for their instruction ( Vit. 
Abb. 11). He fetched John, the archcantor 

; of St. Peter's, from Rome, who taught them, 
and indeed all who came to learn, the ritual 

| of the Roman church. And by his constant 

I journeys abroad, Benedict brought his houses 
into the closest connection with the ecclesi- 
astical life of the continent. At the same 

] time there is evidence that there was no 
narrow spirit in the brotherhood which he 
formed, and that its relations with the Celtic 
church were not unfriendly (If. E. v. c. 21). 
Such, then, were the influences which were 
brought to bear on the youth of Bseda. 
They had a marked effect on his character 
and work. 

When Ceolfrith was appointed to preside 
over the new foundation at Jarrow, Bseda 
seems to have gone with him. He can 
scarcely be said to have changed his home ; 
for the two monasteries were in truth one, so 
close was the connection between them, and 
after the death of Benedict, Ceolfrith ruled 
over both alike (Vit. Abb. 15). We may 
venture to appropriate to the boyhood of 
Beeda- a story told by one of his contempo- 
raries (Hist. Abb. Gyrv. auct. anon. 14). A 
pestilence so thinned the brotherhood at 
Jarrow, that there was not one monk left 
who could read or answer the responses save 
Ceolfrith and a little boy whom he had 
brought up. So the abbot was forced to 
order that the services should be sung with- 
out responses, save at matins and vespers. 
For one week this went on, until the abbot 
could ho longer bear the dreariness of it. 
After that he and the child laboured day 
by day through the whole services, singing 
each in his turn alone, until others learned 
to take their part. 

In his nineteenth year Bneda was ordained 
deacon. The early age at which he was 
allowed to receive ordination implies that he 
was distinguished by holiness and ability. 
He entered the priesthood at the canonical 
age of thirty. In both cases he was pre- 
sented by his abbot, Ceolfrith, and received 
his orders from the hands of Bishop John of 
Beverley (H. E. v. c. 24). A tradition that 
Breda visited Rome was current in the time 




of William of Malmesbury, and is mentioned 
by him ( Gest. Reg. i. 57). Malmesbury gives 
aletter of Pope Sergius to Ceolfrith, telling 
him that he had need of a learned man to 
help him in certain matters of ecclesiastical 
law, and asking him to send Breda to him 
* Dei famulum Bedam venerabilis tui monas- 
terii presbyterum.' Now, as Sergius died in 
701, Breda could not have been a priest at ! 

the time of this invitation. The letter of 

Sergius, however, exists in a manuscript 
(Cotton, Tib. A. xv. 50-52) which is two cen- 
turies earlier than the time of Malmesbury. 
This manuscript, in place of ' Bedam,' has 
< X ' = nomen, signifying that a name was to be 
supplied, and the word ' presbyterum ' is also 
left out in it. Both are interlined by a later j 
hand. It is, however, possible that Breda 
may have been specially invited to Rome; 
for 'Malmesbury may have copied from a still 
earlier manuscript, and the omission of his 
name in the Cotton MS. may have been 
through carelessness. As this manuscript j 
stands (without ' presbyterum '), it seems as i 
if some word was left out, and ' presbyterum ' I 
may have been written in the original papal 
letter, through ignorance of the fact that 
Breda had not at that time entered priest's 
orders. Sergius, when in need of advice, 
may well have asked for Breda. He would 
scarcely have asked Ceolfrith for one of his 
monks without naming any one in particular. 
Nor would it be wonderful that the pope 
should have heard of the learning of the 
young Northumbrian monk ; for the visits of 
Benedict to Rome had drawn his monasteries 
into close connection with the papal see, and 
the letter, whichever way we read it, illus- 
trates the high position which the houses of 
Wearmouth and Jarrow already held in 
Christendom. Some of Breda's fellow-monks 
were sent by Ceolfrith to Rome in 701, and 
came back with a papal privilege for their 
house. Breda did not go with them ( Vit. 
Abb. 15 ; De Temporum rations, 47). The 
various legends which relate to his supposed 
visit to Rome may therefore be passed over. 
The story which takes him to Cambridge no 
longer demands refutation, though it once 
formed the subject of much bygone anti- 
quarianism (T. Caii Vindicice, p. 321, &c. ed. 
IL'sirne, 1719). 

With the exception of a few visits to 
friends, Breda spent all his life at Jarrow from 
the time when he moved thither as a child. 
He studied the Scriptures with all his might, 
and while he was diligent in observing the 
discipline of his order, and in taking part in 
the daily services of the church, he loved 
to be always learning, teaching, or writing 
(H. E. v. 24). His character and opinions 

are to be gathered chiefly from his books, 
He was a man of gentle and cultivated feel- 
ings, full of kindly sympathies, and with a 
singular freshness of mind, which gave life 
and beauty to his stories. The chapter on 
the conversion of Northumbria, the tale of 
how poetic inspiration came to Credmon, and 
of how he died, and the whole 'Life of 
Cuthberht ' are but instances of his exquisite 
power of story-telling. With this power 
was combined a love of truth and fairness. 
His condemnation of the cruel and foolish 
war made by Ecgfrith, the benefactor of his 
house, against the Irish Scots (H. E. iv. 26), 
and his ungrudging record of the good deeds 
of Wilfrith (H. E. iv. 13, v. 19), are strik- 
ing proofs of his freedom from prejudice. 
Brought, as he was from his earliest years, 
under the influences alike of lona and Rome 
and Gaul and Canterbury, he had broad ec- 
clesiastical sympathies. While he con- 
demned and wrote against the Celtic customs 
concerning the date of Easter and the form 
of the tonsure, he dwelt much on the holi- 
ness of Aidan (H. E. iii. 5, 15-17), and he 
wrote the ' Life of Cuthberht ' both in prose 
and verse. His love for the monastic pro- 
fession led him to regard with evident admi- 
ration the powerful position held by the 
abbot of lona (If. E. iii. 4), and the universal 
monachism of the church of Lindisfarne 
( Vit. S. Cuth. 16), though, as a zealous fol- 
lower of the Benedictine order, which had 
found its way from the great houses of the 
continent to the new foundations of North- 
umbria, he disapproved the laxity of the 
Celtic rule. Filled with the desire of seeing 
an increase in the episcopate, he contem- 
plated the possibility of providing for new 
bishops out of the possessions of those reli- 
gious houses which were unfaithful to their 
profession, a plan which would have tended 
to purify the monasteries by reducing their 
means of luxury, and to exalt their power 
by closely connecting them with the episco- 
pate (Ep. ad Ecc/b. 10-12). With views so 
far-reaching and catholic, Breda could have 
had little sympathy with the eager and nar- 
row-minded Wilfrith. The circumstances of 
his life made Wilfrith look on Cuthberht and on 
John of Beverley as intruders (Hist, of York, 
RAINE, xxxiv). To Breda they were saints, 
and he records with evident disapproval how 
Eata and Cuthberht and their fellows were 
driven out of Ripon to make room for Wil- 
frith ( Vit. S. Cuth. 8). 

The names of several of the friends of 
Breda are well known. Most of his works 
are dedicated to them, and some were written 
at their request. Among them wereNothelm, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, and an 

H 2 




ecclesiastic named Albinus. Both these 
helped Baeda in his ' Historia Ecclesiastica,' 
and Albinus more than any one urged him 
to undertake the work. Ecgberht, archbishop 
of York, and Acca and Frithhere, bishops of 
Hexham and Sherborne, were also his friends. 
To Acca he dedicated most of his theological 
works. From this bishop, who was also one 
of the most faithful friends of Wilfrith (Ei>- 
DITTS, 56, 64), Baeda probably obtained the 
full information which he had about Wil- 
frith's good deeds. Even Baeda had some 
enemies who seem to have been jealous of 
his literary pre-eminence. At a feast held 
by Wilfrith, bishop of York (d. 732), he was 
accused by some of the guests of having ex- 
pressed heretical opinions in his ' De Tempo- 
ribus liber minor.' The scandalous accusation 
was heard unrebuked by the bishop, and was 
probably circulated by one of his household. 
Baeda replied to it by a letter to a friend 
(Ep. ad Pleffwinum), which was written with 
the expressed intention that it should be 
shown to Wilfrith. In it he speaks plainly 
of the unseemly revelry of the episcopal feast, 
and this reference (cf. Carmen de Pontif. 
Eccl. Ebor. 1. 1232) shows that the bishop 
in question was the second of that name and 
not the more famous Wilfrith. 

Baeda loved to meditate and make notes 
on the Scriptures. Simeon of Durham (d. 
1130) records (Hist, de Dunelm. Eccl. 
c. 14) that there used to be shown a stone 
hut (mansiuncula), where, secure from all in- 
terruption, he was wont to meditate and 
work. In the time of Leland (Collect, iv. 
p. 42, ed. 1720), the three monks of Jarrow, 
all who were then left of that once famous 
congregation, showed what is described as his 
oratory. The little boy who worked so hard 
with his abbot to keep up the antiphonal 
chant when all the burden of the singing 
lay on them alone, rejoiced all his life to take 
part in the services of the monastery church. 
Alcuin, writing after Baeda's death to the 
monks of Wearmouth, tells them (Ale. Ep. 
16, ed. Migne), that he loved to say, ' I know 
that angels visit the congregation of the 
brethren at the canonical hours, and what if 
they should not find me among the brethren ? 
Would they not say, " Where is Basda ? Why 
comes he not with his brethren to the 
prayers appointed ? " ' The attainments of 
Baeda prove that he must have been a dili- 
gent student. He has recorded the name of 
another of his teachers besides the abbot 
Ceolfrith. Trumberht, he tells us, used to 
instruct him in the Scriptures. He had 
been a pupil of Ceadda, and used to tell his 
scholar much about his old master (H. E. 
iv. 3). From him doubtless Baeda learned 

to reverence the holy men of the Celtic 
church. John of Beverley is also said by 
Folcard ( Vit. S. Johan. c. 2) to have been 
his teacher. It may have been so, but, as 
Folcard lived in the middle of the eleventh 
century, he must not be regarded as an 
authority on this matter. It is not unlikely 
that Baeda received help from some of the 
disciples of Theodore and Hadrian, of whom 
he speaks with admiration (H. E. iv. 2), and 
he must certainly have come under the in- 
struction of John the archcantor ( Vit. Abb. 
6 ; see STEVENSON'S Introd. p. ix). Besides 
knowing Latin he understood Greek and 
had some acquaintance with Hebrew. He -/ 
quotes Homer, Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, Ho- 
race, Terence, and many other writers of less 
classical fame (WEIGHT, Biog. Lit. i. 39-41). 
He was familiar with patristic literature, 
and was a diligent translator and compiler of 
extracts from that great storehouse. Like 
most of his countrymen at that age, he was ^ 
a singer. His mind was well stored with 
the songs of his native land, and he had 
what was then in England the not uncom- 
mon gift of improvisation. Besides his powers 
as an historian and a biographer, he knew all 
the learning of his time, its grammar, rhetoric, 
mathematics, and physical science. All his 
talents were employed in the cause of his 
church and in the instruction of others. 
He was a diligent teacher, and found many 
scholars among the six hundred monks who 
in his days thronged the sister houses of St. 
Peter and St. Paul ( Vit. Abb. 17). Some of 
these pupils, like Nothelm who has been al- 
ready mentioned, Husetberht and Outhberht, 
two successive abbots of Wearmouth, and 
Constantine, became the friends of after years, 
and were among those to whom Baeda dedi- 
cated his works. 

A sentence in the ' Ep. ad Wicredum de 
Paschae Celebratione,' which speaks of 776 
as the current year, gave rise to the belief that 
Baeda lived at least to that date. Mabillon 
has however pointed out that the sentence is 
an interpolation by another hand (PAGi, 
Critic. Baron, xii. 401 ; MABILLON, Analect. 
i. 398). The day of his death is known to 
have been the Feast of the Ascension, 26 May 
735, by a letter written by one of his pupils 
named Outhberht to Cuthwine, his fellow 
scholar (STEVENSON, Introd. xiv ; SIMEON of 
Durham, p. 8 ; S. BoNiFACii Op. ep. 113, ed. 
Giles). Baeda, Cuthberht says, suffered from 
a tightness of breath which grew rapidly 
worse during the month of April. Up to 
26 May, however, he continued his lectures, 
and through the many sleepless hours of night 
was still cheerful, sometimes giving thanks 
to God, sometimes chanting words of Holy 




Scripture, or lines of English verse, which 
bade men remember how ' Before he need 
go forth, none can be too wise in thinking, 
Low before his soul shall go, what good or ill 
deeds he hath done, how after death his doom 
shall be ; ' or again he sang the antiphons, 
hoping to console the hearts of his scholars, 
but when he came to the words ' Leave us 
not orphans,' he wept much, and they wept 
with him. And so the days wore on, and 
in spite of his sickness he worked hard that 
he might finish his translation into English 
of the Gospel of St. John, for he knew that 
it would be of use to the church, and also 
of some extracts from Bishop Isidore, for 
1 1 do not want my boys,' he said, * to read 
what is false, or to have to work at this 
without profit when I am dead.' On the 
day of his death, when the rest had gone 
to the procession held on the festival, his 
scribe was left alone with him. ' Dearest 
master,' he said, ' there is one chapter want- 
ing, and it is hard for thee to question thy- 
self.' * No, it is easy,' he said ; * take thy pen 
and write quickly.' He spent the day in 
giving his little treasures of spice and in- 
cense to the priests of the house, in asking 
their prayers, and in bidding them farewell. 
The evening came, and his young scribe said, 
* There is yet one more sentence, dear mas- 
ter, to write out.' He answered, l Write 
quickly.' After a while the boy said, ' Now 
it is finished.' 'Well,' he said, 'thou hast 
spoken truly "It is finished."' Then he 
bade his friends place him where he could 
look on the spot on which he was wont to 
kneel in prayer. And lying thus upon the 
pavement of his cell, he chanted the ' Gloria 
Patri,' and as he uttered the words ' the Holy 
Ghost ' he breathed his last, and ' so he passed 
to the kingdom in heaven.' 

Baeda was buried at Jarrow. Men recog- 
nised the greatness of the loss which had 
come upon them. Winfrith (St. Boniface) 
wrote to Cuthberht to beg him to send him 
one of the works of Baeda, 'that wise 
searcher of Scripture who of late shone in 
your house of God like a candle in the 
church ' (BoN. Epp. 37, 52, ed. Giles). Be- 
fore the end of the eighth century, Alcuin 
used his name to excite the Northumbrian 
monks to study diligently and betimes, and 
bade them remember 'what praise Baeda 
had of men, and how far more glorious a 
reward from God' (MABILLON, Analect. ii. 
310). In his poem on the bishops and other 
ecclesiastics of the church of York, he reckons 
over the various powers of the departed master, 
and speaks of a miracle worked by his relics 
(Carmen de Pontif. fyc. Eccl. Ebor. 1. 1300- 
1317). In the course of the next century the 

epithet ' Venerable ' began to be generally 
added to his name. Each year, on the day of 
his death, men used to come and watch and 
pray in the church at Jarrow. A certain 
priest of Durham named Alfred, who lived in 
the first half of the eleventh century, and who 
seems to have spent his life in stealing the 
bones and other relics of departed saints in 
order to attract the gifts of the faithful to 
his own church, violated the grave of Baeda. 
He carried off the bones to Durham, and 
placed them in the coffin in which St. Cuth- 
berht lay. There they were found at the 
translation of St. Cuthberht in 1104. Bishop 
Hugh de Puiset (1153-1195) laid them in 
a casket of gold and silver in the glorious 
galilee which he added to his church. In / 
1541 the casket of Bishop Hugli fell a prey 
to sacrilegious greed, and the remains of the 
great English scholar were dispersed (SiM. 
DUNELM. iii. 7 ; GEHLE, Disput. 33 et seq. ; 
As late as the middle of the eighteenth 
century ' Bede's well ' at Monkton, near 
Jarrow, 'was in repute as a bath for the 
recovery of infirm or diseased children' 
(SuETEES, Hist, of Durham, ii. 80). Accord- 
ing to the list which Baeda appended to his 
' Historia Ecclesiastica/ the books which he 
had written by the year 731, when that work 
was brought to an end, were : 1. On the first 
part of the Book of Genesis, four books. 
2. On the Tabernacle, its Vessels, &c. three 
books. 3. On the first part of Samuel to 
the death of Saul, three books. 4. An Alle- 
gorical Exposition on the Building of the 
Temple, two books. 5. On Thirty Questions 
concerning the Book of the Kings. 6. On 
the Proverbs of Solomon, three books. 7. On 
the Song of Solomon, seven books. 8. Ex- 
tracts from St. Jerome on the divisions of 
chapters in Isaiah, Daniel, the twelve Pro- 
phets, and part of Jeremiah. 9. On Ezra and 
Nehemiah, three books. 10. On Habakkuk, 
one book. 11. An Allegorical Exposition of 
the Book of Tobit, one book. 12. Chapters 
for readings in the Pentateuch, Joshua, and 
Judges. 13. On the Books of Kings and 
Chronicles. 14. On the Book of Job. 
15. On the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the 
Song of Solomon. 16. On Isaiah, Ezra, and 
Nehemiah. 17. On Mark, four books. 18. On 
Luke, six books. 19. Two books of ' Homilies 
on the Gospel.' 20. Extracts from St. Au- 
gustine on the Apostle (Paul). 21. On the 
Acts, two books. 22. A Book on each of the 
General Epistles. 23. On the Apocalypse, 
three books. 24. Chapters for readings in the 
New Testament except the Gospels. 25. A 
book of Letters, in which are : ' Of the Six 
Ages,' ' Of the Eesting Places of Israel,' ' Of 
the Words of Is. xxiv. 22,' ' Of Bissextile/ 




1 Of Anutolius on the Equinox.' 26. On the 
Histories of the Saints, on the Life and 
Passion of St. Felix. 27. A more correct 
translation from the Greek of the ' Life and 
Passion of St. Anastasius.' 28. The life of 
St. Outhberht in verse, the same in prose. 
29. The History of the Abbots, Benedict, 
Ceolfrith, and Husetberht. 30. The ' Ec- 
clesiastical History of our island and people,' 
five books. 31. A Marcyrology. 32. A 
book of Hymns. 33. A book of Epigrams. 
34. Two books on the ' Nature of Things ' 
and on ' Chronology.' 35. A larger book on 
Chronology. 36. On Orthography. 37. On 
the Art of Metre, and appended to it a little 
book on the Figures and modes of speech in 
Holy Scripture. 

To this list must be added as undoubtedly 
genuine the letters to Albinus and Ecgberht 
and the ' Retractationes ' which were written 
later than 731, the book on the Holy Places 
written before that year, but left out by 
Bseda probably through forgetful ness, and a 
1 Pcenitentiale.' 

Of the works enumerated by Bseda no ge- 
nuine copies exist of 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 
27, 33. The extracts from Isidore, and the 
translation of the Gospel of St. John which 
employed his dying hours, have also not been 
preserved. And it is exceedingly doubtful 
whether the Hymns (32) attributed to him 
should, for the most part at least, be held 
authentic. Some scientific and other trea- 
tises, such as the ' De Septem Miraculis 
Mundi' and the 'De Computo seu Indigita- 
tione,' have been wrongly considered to be 
his work, and a little poem entitled i Cucu- 
lus ' (GOLDAST, Ovidii Erotica, Frankf. 1610), 
is perhaps also spurious. 

It is probable that the educational works, 
e.g. 'De Sanctis Locis ' and 'De Natura 
Rerum,' were the earliest of Baeda's writings. 
The ' De Temporibus ' (liber minor) ends at 
702. It was written five years before the 
' Epistola ad Plegwinum sive de sex aetati- 
bus/ and if, as seems almost certain, the 
bishop mentioned in that letter was the 
second Wilfrith, the dates of both of these 
works must be considerably later than has 
been supposed. As the ' Commentary on 
Samuel ' (3) is dedicated to Ceolfrith, it must 
have been written before his death in 716, 
while the 'Historia Abbatum ' (29) was 
written after that event. The ' De Tempo- 
ribus ' (liber major) (35) ends with the ninth 
year of Leo the Isaurian, viz. 724, or, ac- 
cording to the author's chronology, 729, and 
may be considered to have been finished at 
that date. From a letter of Acca prefixed 
to the ' Commentary on Luke ' (18) it is 
evident that that work was written after the 

* Commentary on the Acts ' (21). The ' His- 
toria Ecclesiastica ' (30), as before mentioned, 
was finished in 731. In the same or in the 
next year was written the ' Epistola ad Al- 
binum.' The ' Liber Retractationum ' also 
came after the ' Historia,' As the * Epistola 
ad Ecgberhturn ' was written on his acces- 
sion to the see of York in 734, it may be con- 
sidered the latest extant work of Baeda. 

Collective editions of the writings of Bseda 
have been published at Paris in 6 vols. fol. 
1544-5, reprinted in 1554; (these editions 
are extremely rare, and of the earlier one, only 
a portion is in the British Museum) ; at Basle 
in 8 vols. fol. by F. Hervagius, 1563 ; at 
Cologne in 1612, a reprint of the Basle edi- 
tion, but not so fine a work, reprinted at 
Cologne in 1688 ; at London in 12 vols. 8vo, 
by F. A. Giles, LL.D., 1843-4; and in the 
' Patrologiae Cursus Completus ' (xc.-xcv.) of 
J. P. Migne, Paris, 1844. Of the various 
editions of the several works those only will 
be mentioned which appear noteworthy. A 
list, which is probably complete, up to 1842, 
will be found in Wright's l Biog. Brit. Lit.' 
i. 283-288. 

The commentaries on the Old Testament 
are for the most part in the folio editions, 
and in the more complete collection of Dr. 
Giles. They were also published in Paris 
by Gering and Rembolt, 1499 ' a very rare 
book ' (WEIGHT). Many of them are dedi- 
cated to Acca, They are filled with alle- 
gorical interpretations. Even the book of 
Tobit is made to contain teachings about 
Christ and the sacraments. For the most 
part these works appear to be compiled from 
the Fathers. Bseda says in his book on 
Genesis (1) that, as the works of Basil, Am- 
brose, and Augustine are too expensive and 
too deep for most people, he ' has culled, as from 
the pleasant meadows of far flowering Para- 
dise, what may supply the need of the weak. 
This work was appended to Usher's ' Historia 
Dogmatum,' 1689, and was edited, with some 
other writings of Breda, by Wharton (4to, 
London), in 1693. The ' Thirty Questions 011 
Kings ' (5) were propounded by Nothelm, and 
the treatise was written for him. Short com- 
ments of a more practical character than 
those in most of Bseda's works are appended 
to the ' Proverbs ' (6), though even here al- 
legorical interpretation is not deserted. It 
wholly prevails in the last part of the com- 
mentary. This part is printed separately in 
the folio editions, under the title of ' Mulier 
Fortis ; ' but is really the exposition of c. 
xxxi. 10-31. The first book of the ' Exposi- 
tion of the Canticles ' (7) was written against 
the errors of Julian, Bishop of Celano. The 
'Commentary on Habakkuk' (10) is not in 




the folio editions, and was first published by 
Martene in his * Thesaurus Novus,' Paris, 
1717. It is dedicated to an abbess. 

The commentaries on the New Testa- 
ment were printed at Paris in 1521. They 
are also in the folios, and in Dr. Giles's edi- 
tions. In his dedicatory letter to Acca at- 
tached to his commentary on * Mark/ Baeda 
says that he has placed on the margin the 
names of the fathers from whose works his 
comments are extracted, and he begs that 
transcribers will not neglect to copy these 
entries. This request has not been obeyed. 
A book purporting to be his, ' In Apostolum 
qutBCimque in opusculis S. Augustini,' &c. 
(20), was published by G. Boussard, Paris, 
1499, but has been shown by Baronius to be 
spurious. A preface to the ( Seven General 
Epistles ' (22) exists in one, and that the 
earliest, manuscript only. This manuscript 
was discovered by Wharton in the library of 
Caius College, Cambridge. The reason of its 
omission in later manuscripts cannot be mis- 
taken, for it argues that the first place in 
the apostolic company belongs to St. James 
and not to St. Peter. An illustration of the 
large-mindedness of Baeda is afforded by his 
book on the l Apocalypse ' (23), where, he 
says, he has followed Tychonius the Dona- 
tist, whose interpretations, where they are 
not affected by the errors of his sect, he 
praises highly. He adheres to his allegorical 
method of exposition in his New Testament 
commentaries, and even applies it to the 
Acts of the Apostles (21). The <Retracta- 
tiones ' are corrections of the commentary on 
the Acts. In this work Baeda says that he 
made a careful collation of the Greek codex. 
The Homilies on the Gospels (in folio edi- 
tions, and with eleven before unedited by 
Martene, 1717) were for a long time held to 
be doubtful. By the discovery of an early 
manuscript at Boulogne, Dr. Giles has proved 
the authenticity .of fifty-nine Homilies of 
Baeda, which he has published in his collec- 
tive edition. The teaching about the name 
Peter in Horn. 27 is in accord with that of 
the preface to the General Epistles. These 
discourses certainly present a high view of 
the sacrament of the Lord's supper (Horns. 
4 and 37), but at the same time do not con- 
tain the doctrine afterwards propounded by 
Radbert. The opinions of Baeda on this ques- 
tion were represented in different lights in 
tlir once celebrated discussion between Rev. 
Dr. Lingard and Rev. II. Soames. A curious 
nple of the allegorical method of inter- 
pretation is to be found in Horn. 18, where 
tin; six water-pots of Cana are explained as 
)\ pcs of the six ages of the w^orld. 

The 'Life of St. Felix of Nola' (26), a 

prose version of the poem of Paulinus, was 
published in Bolland, ' Acta SS.' i. January 
1643, and by Smith in 1722. The metrical 
' Life of St. Cuthberht ' (28), written in Latin 
hexameters, is a proof of the learning of Baeda 
rather than of any poetic feeling. It is in- 
cluded in the t Antiquae Lectiones ' of Cani- 
sius, v. In the preface to the prose ( Life ' 
Baeda says that he derived his information 
from those who were best acquainted with 
the truth. He certainly used very largely the 
anonymous l Life ' printed in ' Acta SS.' Mart, 
iii. and by Stevenson. He frequently, he 
tells us, submitted his sheets to the priest 
Herefrith and others, who had long known 
Cuthberht, and made such alterations as they 
| suggested. At length the work was sent to 
Lindisfarne, where for two days it was care- 
fully examined by the elder monks, who ap- 
proved it and gave Baeda some fresh informa- 
tion. When he had made these additions, he 
dedicated the book to the abbot Eadfrith and 
the congregation of Lindisfarne, and handed 
it over to the transcribers. In this preface 
Baeda refers to the insertion of his name in 
white in the book of Lindisfarne. This placed 
him amongst those benefactors who were en- 
titled to be remembered in the prayers of that 
house. Both the Lives of St. Cuthberht are 
in ' Acta SS. O. S. B.' ssec. ii., Paris, 1669 ; 
in the ' Historical Works ' by Smith ; and in 
the ' Opera Hist. Minora ' of Stevenson (Eng. 
Hist. Soc.), 1838. The 'Lives of the Abbots' 
(29) is founded on another anonymous work. 
It has been printed by Ware, Dublin, 1664 ; 
by Wharton, London, 1693: by Smith and 
by Stevenson. The ( Martyrologium ' (31), as 
published in the folio editions and Antwerp, 
1564, was shown by Henschen to be largely 
spurious. His discovery of an early manu- 
script in the library of Queen Christina led 
to a satisfactory sifting of the work, and in 
the edition of Smith the entries of Baeda are 
distinguished from those by other hands. 
The work generally known as the l De Sex 
^Etatibus' is really a part of the 'De Tempo- 
rum ratione ' (35)" It was printed with ' De 
Natura Rerum' at Venice, 1505, at Basle, 
1529, and by Smith. The last part, or Sexta 
^Etas, containing extracts from Eutropius, 
Orosius, and Gildas, concerning Britain, is 
printed alone in ' Mon. Hist. Brit.' and by 
Stevenson. The chronicle of the earlier ages 
is chiefly taken from Eusebius (M. If. B. 
p. 70). The ' Poenitentiale ' was printed in 
an imperfect form by Martene and Durand, in 
collect io vii., from a manuscript at Andain; 
and correctly by W r asserschleben, in ' Bus- 
sordnungen der abendlaiidischen Kirche/ 
from a Vienna manuscript : and in Haddan 
and Stubbs's ' Councils and Ecclesiastical 




Documents/ iii. 326 ; the ' Liber de Remediis 
Peccatorum,' printed at Venice, 1584, and in 
the collective editions, is a compilation (HAD- 

Mr. Stevenson in his Introduction has 
given an exhaustive account of the sources 
from which the ' Historia Ecclesiastica ' (30) 
is derived. Up to the coming of St. Augus- 
tine in 596 the work is compiled from former 
writers, e.g. Eutropius and Gildas, from j 
legends and popular traditions, and from the | 
' Life of St. Germanus ' by Constantius of | 
Lyons. From 596 Bseda used both written 
documents and oral intelligence. His ex- j 
tracts from books now become few. Among 
these books Stevenson reckons (Introd. xxiv) 
the ' Life of Gregory the Great ' by Paul the 
Deacon. As, however, Paul was born 720- 
725 (WAITZ, Prcef. Paul. Diac.\ it is probable 
that he and Bseda went to some common 
source. Paul certainly had the 'Historia 
Ecclesiastica ' at hand when he was writing 
his ' History of the Lombards.' Bseda made 
considerable use of local records. Albinus 
and Nothelm seem to have furnished him 
with materials for the history of the king- 
dom of Kent, of the archbishops of Canter- 
bury, of the diocese of Rochester, and of East 
Anglia. From Bishop Daniel he derived his 
knowledge of the history of the West and 
South Saxons, and from the monks of Lsestin- 
gaeu of the work of Cedd and Ceadda. Bishop 
Cyneberht gave him a few materials con- 
cerning his diocese of Lindesey. His ac- 
count of Northumbrian history is naturally 
full, and in some parts, e.g. the history of 
Eadwine, records details which show that he 
must have used important local annals. The 
official documents contained in the ' Historia 
Ecclesiastica' consist of copies made from 
the papal registers for Bseda by Nothelm 
{Ann. Baron, xii. 364) and of the proceed- 
ings of English councils. Baeda constantly 
refers to oral communications. He is parti- 
cular in recording the name and description 
of any one from whom he received informa- 
tion. He evidently weighed the credibility 
of his informants, and distinguished between 
the value of the reports of eye-witnesses and 
of those who only repeated what they had 
heard. The earliest edition of ' Historia Ec- 
clesiastica' is a folio, without pagination, 
catch-words, date, place, or name of printer. 
It has been assigned to H. Eggesteyn, Stras- 
burg, cir. 1473 (EBEKT). Two other editions 
were put out before the end of the century, 
at Strasburg in 1483 and at Spires in 1490. 
Next come the Strasburg edition of 1500, 
and the Hagenau edition by J. Rynman, 1506 
(M. If. B. 71). All these' are in small folio, 
double columns, and Gothic letters, and are 

mainly reprints of the first edition. The 
' Historia Ecclesiastica ' was again printed at 
Antwerp by Gravius in 1550. Although 
this is to a large extent a reprint of the 1500 
edition, it supplies the hitherto unprinted 
conclusion of v. 24, and is a fine and scarce 
book. It was reprinted at Louvain, 1566; 
at Heidelberg, 1587, by Cornmeline, who- 
corrected several errors by collating a good 
manuscript ; at Cologne, 1601 ; and in the 
Basle and Cologne collective editions. The 
first edition brought out in England was by 
A. Whelo, Cambridge, 1644, together with 
the Anglo-Saxon version attributed to King- 
JElfred. A critical edition was produced 
by P. F. Chifflet, S.J., Paris, 1681. In 1722 
all former editions were superseded by that 
of Canon J. Smith, printed at Cambridge, 
chiefly founded on the manuscript of Bishop 
More in the Cambridge Library. It contains- 
the Anglo-Saxon version and other historical 
works, and is a very noble volume. Another 
edition of the historical works was brought 
out by J. Stevenson in 2 vols. 8vo, for the- 
Eng. Hist. Soc., London, 1838, with an ex- 
cellent introduction. The 'Historia Eccle- 
siastica ' has also been edited by B. Hussey,. 
Oxford, 1846, by G. H. Moberly, Oxford, 
1869, and lib. iii. and iv. by Mayor and 
Lumby, Pitt Press, 1879. The 'Ep. ad 
Ecgberhtum 'contains interesting information, 
as to the condition of the English church at 
the time, together with the plan of Beeda for 
the improvement of its discipline. It has> 
been edited by Ware, Dublin, 1664 ; Whar- 
ton, London, 1693 ; Smith and Stevenson. 

The treatise ' De Natura Rerum ' (34) con- 
tains such physical science as was then 
known. It collects the wisdom of the an- 
cient world on this subject, and has the 
special merit of referring phenomena to natu- 
ral causes. It was published together with 
the two works on chronology at Basle, 1529. 
'Liber de Orthographia ' (36) was printed 
in the ' Gramm. Lat. Auct. Ant.,' Han. 1605. 
The 'De Arte Metrica'(37) contains a large 1 
number of quotations, not only from the 
better known, but from obscure Latin poets, 
and has many references to Greek examples. 
It was printed by Putsch in ' Vet. Gramm./ 
Paris, 1616, and is contained in ' Gramm. 
Lat.' of H. Keil, Leip. 1857. The short 
treatises 'De Schematibus et Tropis' (37) 
were published at Milan by Ant. Zarotus, 
1473, with two other grammatical works. 
This book is without signatures, catch-words, 
or pagination, and is very scarce (EBEKT)* 
It has also been published at Venice, 1522 ; 
at Basle, 1527, &c. It is included in the 
'Rhetores Lat. Min.' of C. Halm, Leip., 
1863. Breda took his ' Libellus de situ 



Hierusalem sive de Locis Sanctis ' from the 
work of Adaninan. He has not included this 
epitome in his index, but refers to it (Hist. 
JEccL v. 17) at the close of his extract from 
the book of Adamnan. It was printed by 
Mabillon in l Acta SS.' iii. 1. Eleven hymns 
attributed to Beeda (32) were printed by Cas- 
sander, Paris, 1556; one of these, 'De Die 
Judicii/ is in Simeon of Durham's ' De 
Gestis Regum.' Four others have been added 
by Giles in his ' Opera omnia.' Of the Let- 
ters (25) besides the 'Ep. ad Ecgberhtum' are 
preserved the l Ep. ad Albinuin'in Mabillon, 
Analect. i. in Smith and in Stevenson ; the 
' Ep. ad Plegwinum de Sex JEtatibus/ on the 
occasion of the accusation made at the feast 
of Wilfrith, was edited by Ware, Dublin, 
1664, and Wharton, London, 1693 ; the ' Ep. 
ad Wicredum ' is in the folio editions ; the 
' Ep. ad Accam de Mansionibus/ &c., and 
' Ad Accam de eo quod ait Esaias/ &c., were 
first printed by Dr. Giles in his * Opera 
omnia/ 1843, and the l Ep. de Bissexto ' in 
the l Anecdota/ edited by Giles for the Cax- 
ton Soc., 1844. 

The Anglo-Saxon version of the ' Historia 
Ecclesiastica ' attributed to Alfred has been 
noticed. An Anglo-Saxon version of the 
* De Die Judicii ' was published under the 
title Be Domes Daega ' by the E. Eng. Text. 
Soc., 1876. Translations of the 'Historia 
Ecclesiastica ' into English have been made 
by T. Stapleton, Antwerp, 1565; by F. Ste- 
vens, London, 1723 ; by W. Hurst, London, 
1814; by F. A. Giles, London, 1840; and 
by L. Gidley, Oxford, 1870. 

[Bsedae Hist. EccL et Opera Historica, Ste- 
venson ; other works in Opera Omnia, ed. Giles ; 
Gehle's Disputatio Hist.-Theol. de Bsedse vita, 
&c. ; Wright's Biog. Lit. ; Ebert's Bibliog. Diet. ; 
and authorities quoted in text.] W. H. 

BEDEL, HENRY (ft. 1571), divine, was 
a native of Oxfordshire. One Henry Bedel 
took the degree of B.A. at Corpus Christi 
CoUege, Oxford, on 13 Feb. 1555-6, and 
M.A 1506 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 
146, 172). Wood is not certain, but it 
seems probable from the dates, that this 
graduate was identical with the preacher 
of the same name. Bedel was collated to 
the rectorship of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, 
on 4 Oct. 1561, and preferred to the vicar- 

of Christ Church he preached * a sermon ex- 
horting to pity of the poor, which treatise 
may well be called the mouth of the poor.' 
It was delivered on 15 Nov. 1571 and pub- 
lished in 1573. Waterland praises it as 
* learned and elaborate.' This is his only 

extant work, although Wood says that he 
was the author of other sermons. 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca; Oxford Univ. Eegister ; 
I Watt's Bibl. Brit.] A. G-N. 

BEDELL, WILLIAM (1571-1642), 
bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, second son 
of John Bedell and Elizabeth Aliston or 
Elliston, his wife, was born at Black Notley, 
a village in the county of Essex, on or about 
Christmas day, 1571 (see Life, ed. T. W. 
JONES, p. 91). His paternal ancestors were 
yeomen of long standing in the county, and 
originally of the same stock, it has been 
alleged, as the Bedells of Writtle. His 
grandfather and father were both men of 
strong religious convictions, the former being 
also noted for his sternness as a disciplinarian. 
The story is told, that when his son John (the 
father of the bishop), on being first sent to 
school, ran away to his home, he placed him 
behind him on horseback, with his face to 
the horse's tail, and thus conveyed him back 
to his master. Mr. Denman of Braintree, 
under whom both William and his elder 
brother John were educated, was known as 
' very able and excellent in his faculty/ but 
was also in the habit of treating his pupils 
with the harshness that disgraces the educa- 
tion of those days ; and a blow which he in- 
flicted on William was the occasion of a deaf- 
ness which became permanent. William's 
maternal relatives were puritans, or at least 
puritanically inclined ; and when little more 
than twelve years of age he was sent to the 
newly founded puritan college of Emmanuel 
at Cambridge, where his name appears as pen- 
sioner, admitted 1 Nov. 1584. On 12 March 
following he was elected a scholar, being the 
nineteenth on the list from the foundation. 
In 1588 he graduated B.A. and in 1592 M.A. 
His entry at an age three or four years below 
the average in those days probably rendered 
it difficult for him at first to keep pace with 
his fellow-students in a society noted for its 
studious habits, but in due course his natural 
ability began to manifest itself, and in 1593 
he was elected a fellow of his college, being 
fourteenth on the list from the foundation, 
including the first three fellows nominated 
by the founder, Sir Walter Mildmay. On 
10 Jan. 1597 he was ordained priest, and in 
1599 proceeded B.D. The college had been 
expressly designed by Sir Walter as a place- 
of education for the ministry, and Bedell 
began to look forward to engaging in paro- 
chial work. His first college duties as a, 
fellow had been well calculated to qualify 
him for such a sphere of labour, he having 
been selected to be the catechist of the 
students in the fundamental doctrines of the 




Christian faith. It was in the performance 
of this office that not a few eminent divines 
such as Lancelot Andrewes at Pembroke, 
William Perkins at Christ's, and John Preston 
at Queens' achieved their first reputation. 
Bedell was himself a pupil of Perkins, the 
eminent theologian and tutor of Christ's Col- 
lege, and on the latter's death in 1602 was the 
purchaser of his library. Besides his attain- 
ments in divinity, Bedell was already known 
as a good classical scholar, and also as ac- 
quainted with Syriac, Arabic, and Hebrew. 
His aptitude as a linguist, and possibly his 
skill in discerning the structure of a language, 
led his Italian friends in Venice to request him 
to compile an English grammar for their use. 
In 1602 Bedell, having received his license 
to preach, was appointed to succeed Mr. 
George Estey at the church of St. Mary's, at 
Bury St. Edmund's in Suffolk. He at once 
attracted large audiences, and the neigh- 
bouring country families were often to be 
seen among his congregation. In 1607 he 
was invited to fill the place of chaplain to 
Sir Henry Wotton, the British ambassador 
to the Venetian republic. That famous state 
had recently been attracting to itself the 
notice of all Europe by its courageous oppo- 
sition to the encroachments of the papal see 
and by a generally liberal policy. In his re- 
sentment at its conduct, pope Paul V had 
placed the whole community under an inter- 
dict (April 1606). The signory, in retalia- 
tion, expelled the Jesuits and certain other 
religious bodies who had ventured to give 
effect to the papal decree. The cause of the 
republic was ably maintained by the eminent 
scholar and philosopher, Friar Sarpi, better 
known as Father Paul, who carried on a 
notable controversy with the defenders of 
the Ultramontane policy, Baronius and Bel- 
larmine. Bedell did not arrive in Venice 
until some time after the interdict had been 
revoked (21 April 1607), but he found the 
popular mind still deeply agitated by the 
whole question of papal allegiance, and in 
conjunction with Sir Henry Wotton he 
cherished the belief that circumstances 
augured hopefully for bringing about a Ke- 
formation in Italy. Their views were shared 
by some eminent protestants elsewhere, 
among whom were Du Plessis, Mornay, and 
Diodati, of Geneva, the author of the pro- 
testant translation of the Bible into Italian. 
Father Paul, although by no means generally 
accessible to visitors, took both Sir Henry 
Wotton and Bedell into his fullest confi- 
dence, and the intimacy thus formed exer- 
cised a marked influence on the latter, who 
always afterwards was wont to refer to his 
intercourse with the great scholar as an in- 

valuable mental experience, and as serving 
materially to enrich his knowledge both of 
controversial divinity and of polite learning. 
It was shortly after this acquaintance had 
i been formed that the attempt to assassinate 
| Father Paul was made. Bedell, writing a 
few days after the event to his friend, Dr. 
I Samuel Ward, subsequently master of Sidney 
I College, Cambridge, says : 'I hope this acci- 
I dent will awake him a little more and put 
; some more spirit into him, which is his only 
want ' (Life, p. 104). After a stay in Italy 
extending over some three years and a half, 
during which time he had added consider- 
ably to his knowledge of Hebrew by his in- 
tercourse with some learned Jews, Bedell 
returned to England and to Bury. He was 
accompanied by Dr. Despotine, a Venetian 
convert to protestantism, who settled as a 
medical practitioner in Bury, and to the 
promotion of whose interests, as a stranger in 
a foreign land, Bedell devoted himself with 
characteristic generosity and unselfishness. 
At Bury he continued to reside for upwards 
of four years, and his ministrations were 
highly valued. But his voice was weak and 
the church large, and he consequently found 
a difficulty in making himself audible to the 
congregation. This circumstance determined 
him to accept (1616) the presentation to the 
rectory of Horningsheath (a neighbouring 
parish) offered him by the patron, Sir Thomas 
Jermyn, one of his congregation. On pro- 
ceeding to take possession he, however, 
found himself confronted by a difficulty 
which seemed likely at one time to prove 
insuperable. This arose out of the exorbi- 
tant, though customary, fees exacted by the 
officers of the bishop of the diocese, Dr. 
John Jegon, the payment of which Bedell 
regarded as involving a question of principle, 
as equivalent to an act of simony. Even- 
tually the bishop (who as a former master 
of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, was 
probably well informed with respect to 
Bedell's merits) effectually removed the lat- 
ter's scruples by directing that the instru- 
ments of institution and induction should 
be sent to him, and that the amount of the 
fees to be paid should be left to his discre- 
tion. Of Bedell's mode of life at Hornings- 
heath and his exemplary conduct in his 
various relations to his family, his parish- 
ioners, and the neighbouring clergy, an in- 
teresting account will be found in the l Life ' 
by his son a sketch which also gives an 
insight into the duties and habits of a country 
clergyman in those days. About a year after 
his return from Venice to Bury, Bedell had 
married (29 Jan. 1611) Mrs. LeahMawe, the 
widow of a former recorder of that town, by 




whom, at the time of her second marriage, 
she had five children living. 

On the summoning of parliament in 1623 
Bedell was selected, much against his will, 
as one of the two representatives of the clergy 
of the diocese of Norwich in convocation. 
In 1627 he was appointed, on the joint re- 
commendation of Abbot, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, 
to the provostship of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Their testimony in his favour was warmly 
seconded by Sir Henry Wotton, who, how- 
ever, in his letter to King Charles, declares 
that Bedell is best recommended ' by the 
general fame of his learning, his life, and 
Christian temper, and those religious labours 
himself hath dedicated to your majestie ' 
this reference being to ' The Copies of Cer- 
taine Letters which have passed between 
Spaine and England in mattre of Religion/ 
which Bedell had dedicated to Charles, then 
prince of Wales, in 1624. He was admitted 
provost, with the general consent of the fel- 
lows, on 16 Aug. 1627. During his short tenure 
of his new office Bedell approved himself an 
able administrator. He revised the statutes 
of Trinity College, and, while introducing 
not a few alterations, scrupulously abstained 
from anything that tended to his own pecu- 
niary advantage or to that of the fellows. 
Like the founder of his own college at Cam- 
bridge, Sir Walter Mildmay, he opposed on 
principle the continued residence of fellows 
when the long curriculum of their theolo- 
gical studies had been completed ; and he 
accordingly put in force a like proviso to that 
contained in the statute ' De Mora Sociorum ' 
in the code of Emmanuel (see MTJLLINGER, 
Hist, of Univ. of Cambridge, ii. 315), requir- 
ing that ' every fellow should study divinity, 
and after seven years' stay should go out into 
some employ in the church ' (Life, ed. JONES, 
p. 27). He required also that those who 
were Irishmen by birth should cultivate their 
native language, in order that they might be- 
come better qualified to labour among the 
people. His interchange of opinions with 
Father Paul and other divines in Italy had 
rendered him inclined to insist as little as 
possible on the differences with respect to 
doctrine between catholic and protestant. 
These sentiments at one time seemed likely 
to involve him in some trouble with the ex- 
treme protestant party in the college, espe- 
cially with Dr. Joshua Hoyle, the divinity 
professor; but his tact and conciliatory 
temper disarmed their opposition. 

After about two years' tenure of his pro- 
vostship Bedell appears as entering upon the 
final stage of his career by his acceptance of 
the united bishoprics of Kilmore (co. Cavan) 

and Ardagh (co. Longford), to which he 
I was consecrated on 13 Sept. 1629. He found 
both his dioceses in a very unsatisfactory con- 
dition, the revenues plundered, the * planta- 
tions ' raw, and the churches in a ruinous 
state : whilst the catholic clergy held aloof 
, from his neighbourly advances and showed 
j no disposition to co-operate for the general 
good. On the other hand, as we find from 
a letter written by him to Laud (I April 
1630), he viewed with grave disapprobation 
the extortion practised by the ecclesiastical 
courts on the poor catholics, 'which,' he says, 
' in very truth, my lord, I cannot excuse and 
do seek to reform.' In February 1633 he re- 
signed the see of Ardagh, owing to his ex- 
pressed objection against pluralities and his 
opinion th|t it would be better administered 
by a separate bishop. Domestic bereave- 
ment at this time fell heavily upon him. 
In 1635 his second son, John, died ; and two 
years after, his step-daughter, Leah, in little 
more than a month after her marriage to the 
Rev. Alexander Clogie, and then his wife 
(26 March 1638), who was buried in the 
cathedral churchyard at Kilmore. 

A lawsuit in which he became involved, 
owing to his conscientious objections to the 
re-appointment of his chancellor, Dr. Alane 
| Cook, brought fresh trouble, and was re- 
| garded as of considerable importance from 
| the fact that it was likely to furnish a pre- 
! cedent with respect to the rights of the civil 
lawyers generally in connection with the ec- 
clesiastical courts. Cook, whose appointment 
rested solely on the choice of Bedell's pre- 
decessor, had approved himself a mercenary 
and unscrupulous official, and the bishop 
resolved that, if possible, another should be 
; appointed to the post. The case was pro- 
i tracted over several years, and though he lost 
! his suit, with costs against him, he preserved 
| his conscience. No feature in the maladmi- 
nistration of the ecclesiastical courts appears 
to have arrested his attention more forcibly 
than the frequent employment of writs of 
i excommunication against the poor catholics, 
and the cruel oppression carried on under 
! the pretexts thus afforded. i The corrup- 
tions of the jurisdiction ecclesiastical/ he 
| writes to Dr. Despotine, ' are such, as not 
only not law, but not so much as equity 
! is kept.' Against pluralities and non-resi- 
dence he strove with unceasing effort ; while 
in appointing new incumbents he invariably 
preferred those who already possessed some 
j knowledge of the Irish language. On Went- 
worth's first arrival as lord deputy, he ordered 
1 an increase of the army in Ireland. Against 
the heavy contributions levied for this, me- 
morials to the king were got up in various 




parts of the country, among others in Ulster. 
The bishop, having been prevailed on to sign 
one of these petitions, drew upon himself the 
displeasure of Wentworth. To-vards the end 
of Strafford's government, the bishop again 
incurred the disapproval of the authorities 
by a manifestation of sympathy with Adair, 
bishop of Killaloe, who was brought before 
the high commission court for expressions in 
favour of the covenanting party in Scot- 
land, and in consequence deprived of his 
see. Undaunted by these and other signs of 
unpopularity, Bedell continued to employ his 
best efforts for the good of the people. The 
churches were repaired and made available \ 
for public worship, and the translation of the j 
Scriptures into Irish completed by the addi- i 
tion of the Old Testament, whi<ji was car- 
ried on under his supervision. 

On the outbreak of the rebellion of 1641, 
Bedell's mansion was respected by the insur- ! 
gents, so that he was able to give shelter and 
food to the homeless English who fled to him 
in their distress. On one occasion he inter- 
posed to protect them from violence. At the 
same time he steadily refused to desert his 
diocese, personally accepting the offer of a 
convoy to Dublin. This generosity of con- 
duct afforded the Irish a pretext for seizing 
first his cattle and then his household goods 
and library, and finally conveying him and 
his sons prisoners to Loughoughter Castle. 
Here the governor, Owen O'Reilly, who 
had formerly been one of his tenantry, did 
his best to alleviate the hardships of his po- 
sition. His friends in the meantime managed 
to procure his release, when, his own house 
being now occupied by the popish bishop, he 
accepted the hospitality of the Rev. Dennis 
Sheridan, whom he had himself presented to 
the living of Killasser. Dennis Sheridan's 
house at Drumlor, however, was crowded 
with destitute English, and this, combined 
with insufficient and unwholesome diet, led 
to the outbreak of fever, by which Bedell was 
in turn attacked and carried off on 7 Feb. 
1642. It was during his last days here that, 
through the assistance of Sheridan, he suc- 
ceeded in rescuing from his library at Kil- 
more a manuscript Hebrew Bible which he 
had brought with him from Venice, and which 
is now preserved in the library of Emmanuel 
College, and also the manuscript of the Irish 
translation of the Old Testament. This Sheri- 
dan was the head of the clan, but had been 
brought up as a protestant, and, being able 
to speak Irish, had been ordained by Bedell 
to the ministry. Richard Brinsley Sheridan 
was of the same clan, and his grandfather 
William, at one time the friend of Swift, was 
indebted for his university education to the 

eldest son of the Rev. Dennis Sheridan, and 
godson of Bishop Bedell, who many years 
subsequently became bishop of Kilmore. 

[Marshall's Genealogist's Guide, p. 37. It was- 
the Rev. Alexander Clogie who supplied Bishop 
Burnet with the materials for his Life of Bedell, 
published in 1685. Clogie, a native of Scotland, 
had been admitted to holy orders by Bishop Be- 
dell, and received from him the vicarage of Cavan. 
A manuscript Life of Bedell by Clogie, of which 
there are copies in the Bodleian and in the Har- 
leian MSS., was edited by W. "Walter Wilkins in 
1862. Archbishop Bancroft, who had obtained 
possession of another manuscript, The True- 
Relation of the Life and Death of Bishop Bedell 
(now in Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian, vol. 
cclxxviii., bound up with the preceding), ap- 
pears to have contemplated publishing it, together 
with Bedell's Collected Works, but probably con- 
sidered himself forestalled by Burnet's labours.. 
This last-named Life, however, which is by the 
elder son, William Bedell (see Life, ed. Jones, 
pp. viii-ix), is the most trustworthy source of 
information, and has been admirably edited for 
the Camden Society (1872) by Thomas Wharton 
Jones, F.R.S., a representative of the bishop's- 
maternal family of Elliston. It has also been 
published, without notes (1871), by Professor- 
John E. B. Mayor.] J. B. M. 

RENCE (Jt. 1372-1410), supporter of Wy- 
clift'e, appears first, in 1372, as a scholar of 
Stapeldon Hall (now Exeter College), of 
which foundation he became fellow and 
ultimately rector, holding the latter office 
from 1379 to 1380. In 1382 he is men- 
tioned as one of the principal advocates of 
Wycliffe's doctrines at Oxford. In June of 
that year he was suspended from preaching, 
in company with the other leaders of the 
party, by Archbishop Courtney, under cir- 
cumstances which are noticed under ASTOIS" 
(JOHN). A mandate was also issued against 
him in the same year by Bishop Branting- 
ham, of Exeter, to whom complaints had 
been made of his activity as a preacher of 
false doctrine in Cornwall (BoASE, xiv, s</.). 
Bedeman appears, however, to have held a 
less conspicuous position than his associates 
at Oxford, and was the first of them to make 
his peace with the church, being restored to- 
public functions by a mandate of 18 Oct. 
1382. After this he was made rector of 
Lifton, in Devonshire, and held this benefice 
as late as 11 June 1410, when ho was li- 
censed to preach in Latin or English. Foxe 
therefore is mistaken in reckoning him, on 
the authority of ' ancient writers,' among 
those who ' suffered most cruel death,' or else 
1 did forsake the realm,' on account of their 
attachment to Wycliffe's teaching (Acts and 
Monuments, iii. 96, ed. Townsend). 




The name ' Bedeman ' occurs more than 
once as ' Bedenam ' or i Bedmond ' (BoASE, 
194) ; in the older editions of Foxe it is 
given as ' Redman.' Other documents style 
Mm ' Stevine ' (' Stevyn ' or * Stephen '), the ! 
fuller description being ' Laurentius Stephyn, 
alias diet. Bedeman ' (WiLKiNS, iii. 168). 

[Boase's Eegister of Exeter College (Oxford, 
1879); Fasciculi Zizaniorum, pp. 273-5, 309-11, 
-ed. Shirley, Rolls Series ; Wilkins's Concil. Magn. 
Brit. iii. 157-65, 168 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. 
of the Univ. of Oxford, i. 509 sq., ed. G-utch.] 

K. L. P. 

(Jl. 1380), theologian, was born at Bury, in 
Suffolk, from which place he derived his 
surname. Bale, whose account seems to 
have been followed both by Pamphilus and 
Pits, tells us that he embraced the mo- 
nastic life very early by entering the Au- 
gustinian foundation at Clare, in Suffolk, 
sixteen miles south of Bury St. Edmunds, as 
the bent of his whole mind was towards 
letters. For the sake of increasing his faci- 
lities for study, we are told that he visited 
the most renowned resorts of the learned in 
England, a phrase which Tanner translates 
more definitely into several years' residence 
at Oxford and Cambridge. He then passed 
on to the Sorbonne divinity schools at Paris, 
where, according to Pits, after long studies 
and almost daily exercises in the schools, he 
took his doctor's degree. On his return to 
England he was appointed provincial of his 
whole order for this country, and Pits enume- 
rates his many qualifications for this office 
his uprightness of life and prudence in 
business. Bale praises his keen intellect and 
his readiness in public preaching (' decla- 
mandas e suggesto conciones '), but qualifies 
his admiration by adding that this was done 
in papist fashion. The chief works of this 
writer, as enumerated by the last-mentioned 
biographer, are : ' Lectures on the Sentences 
of Peter Lombard,' certain ' Qusestiones Theo- 
logiae,' 'Sermones de Beata Virgine,' and 
' Sermones per Annum.' Bandellus, accord- 
ing to Bale, quotes him as an authority for 
maintaining that the Virgin Mary was con- 
ceived in original sin. Bale and Pits state 
that John Bederic flourished about 1380; 
but Pamphilus gives an account of his life 
under the year 1373. 

[Bale, 481 ; Pamphili Chronica Ordinis Frat. 
Eremit. S. August. 61 ; Pits, 526 ; Tanner.] 

T. A. A, 



BEDFORD, DUKE OP (d. 1435). [See 



BEDFORD, ARTHUR (1668-1745), 
miscellaneous writer, was born at Tiddenham 
in Gloucestershire 8 Sept. 1668. At the age 
of sixteen he proceeded to Brasenose College, 
Oxford, graduated B.A. in February 1687-8, 
M.A. in July 1691, and was ordained in 
1688. After acting as curate to Dr. Read of 
St. Nicholas Church, Bristol, he was pre- 
sented by the corporation of that town to 
the Temple Church in 1692 (in Barretts 
' History of Bristol ' 1672 is an obvious error 
for 1692). He remained there for eight 
years, and was presented by Joseph Langton 
to the private living of Newton St. Loe in 
Somerset (Preface to Scripture Ckron.ip-p. 1,2). 
Here Bedford spent twenty-four years, was 
made chaplain to Wriothesly, Duke of Bed- 
ford, and occupied himself with many im- 
portant questions. He joined Collier and 
the other pamphleteers in their crusade 
against the stage, and issued a series of 
tracts, of which one became notorious, viz., 
' A Serious Remonstrance in behalf of the 
Christian Religion against the Horrid Blas- 
phemies and Impieties which are still used 
in the English Playhouses' (1719). This 
curious work cites a number of scripture 
texts travestied, and 7,000 immoral senti- 
ments collected from the English dramatists, 
especially those of the last four years. The 
great variety of the quotations shows that 
the author had carefully studied the drama- 
tists he condemned. Bedford also gave his 
attention to church music ; his aim was to 
promote a purer and simpler style of reli- 
gious music. He published 'The Temple 
Musick ' (Bristol, 1706), < The Great Abuses 
of Music' (1711), and 'The Excellency of 
Divine Music' (1733). Soon after removing 
to Newton he projected a work on chronology, 
on a suggestion in the preface to Archbishop 
Ussher's * Annals' that astronomy might sim- 
plify ancient chronology, but he suppressed 
his papers for the time on hearing that Sir 
Isaac Newton promised a work on the same 
subject. In 1724 he was appointed chaplain 
to the hospital of the Haberdashers' Company 
at Hoxton, and he resumed the subject of 
chronology by publishing in 1728 ' Animad- 
versions on Sir I. Newton's book entitled 
"The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 
amended," ' and again in 1741 ' Scripture 
Chronology demonstrated by Astronomical 
Considerations.' These theories were fully 
discussed in the ' Republick of Letters ' (ii., 
iii., vi.). Bedford's views were afterwards 
superseded by the work of Hales. 

In 1730 Bedford returned to the attack 




against the stage by preaching a sermon at 
St. Botolph's, Aldgate, against the newly 
erected playhouse in Goodman's Fields, which 
was very lucrative to Odell the proprietor, 
and was associated with the fame of Garrick. 
Whatever the effect of the sermon, the theatre 
was demolished in 1746 (GoiJGH, Brit. To- 
pography, i. 688). Throughout his career 
Bedford published numerous sermons on doc- 
trinal questions, and wae appointed late in 
life chaplain to Frederick, Prince of Wales. 
He was also an oriental scholar. He assisted 
in preparing the Arabic psalter and New 
Testament for the poor Christians in Asia 
(letter relative to this work from Bedford tc 
Sir Hans Sloane, preserved in the Sloane 
MS. No. 4037). Another production of his 
versatile mind is the 'Horse Mathematicae 
Vacuse, a treatise on Golden and Ecliptic 
Numbers' (1743), written as a pastime during 
an attack of sciatica ; the manuscript of this 
work was preserved in Sion College Library. 
He met his death from making observations 
on the comet of the year (13 Aug. 1745), and 
was buried in the ground behind the hospital 
at Hoxton, where he had resided for twenty- 
one years (ASKE'S Burial Register}. 

[G-ent. Mag. xv. 502; Barrett's History of 
Bristol ; Republick of Letters, ii., iii., vi. ; Ellis's 
Shoreditch; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Brit.Mus. Cat.; 
Eawl. MSS. (Bodleian Library).] A. G-N. 

BEDFORD, HILKIAH (1663-1724), a 
nonjuring divine, was born in Hosier Lane, 
near West Smithfield, where his father was 
a mathematical instrument maker. The 
family originally came from Sibsey, near Bos- 
ton, in Lincolnshire, whence Hilkiah's grand- 
father, a quaker, removed to London and set- 
tled there as a stationer in the early part of 
the seventeenth century. He was educated 
at Bradley in Suffolk, and in 1679 proceeded 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
was elected as the first scholar on the founda- 
tion of his maternal grandfather, William 
Plat. In due time he was elected fellow of 
St. John's, and having received holy orders 
was instituted to the rectory of Wittering. 
At the revolution he refused to take the oaths, 
and was consequently ejected from his pre- 
ferment. Like many other nonjurors he had 
recourse to tuition, and kept a boarding house 
at Westminster for the scholars of Westmin- 
ster school. The venture was successful, and 
he made a considerable fortune by it. He 
became chaplain to Dr. Ken, the deprived 
bishop of Bath and Wells, and also employed 
himself busily in the field of literature. He 
wrote a translation of ' An Answer to Fon- 
tenelle's History of Oracles,' edited Peter 
Barwick's * Vita Joannis Barwick/ and made 

an excellent translation of the same work, en- 
riching it with many valuable notes on the 
lives and characters of the various persons 
mentioned therein. He also published in 1710 
a * Vindication of the Church of England,' and 
also an ' Essay on the Thirty-nine Articles ; ' 
but, oddly enough, the book which made Hil- 
kiah Bedford's name most famous and brought 
him into most trouble was one which he did 
not "write. In 1713 a folio volume was pub- 
lished anonymously, entitled l The Hereditary 
Eight of the Crown of England asserted,' in 
an answer to Mr. Higden, who had been a 
nonjuror, but recanted, and defended his re- 
cantation in a work entitled l A View of the 
English Constitution.' Bedford was sus- 
pected of having written the 'Hereditary 
Right,' and having been tried, according to 
one authority, at the court of King's Bench, 
according to another at the Guildhall, was 
found guilty f of writing, printing, and pub- 
lishing it. He was fined 1,000 marks and 
imprisoned for three years, and after the ex- 
piration of the period was to find sureties for 
his good behaviour during life. He was also 
condemned to appear before the court with 
a paper on his hat confessing the crime ; but 
this part of the sentence was remitted in con- 
sideration of his being a clergyman. It is 
said that the real author was George Harbin, 
also a nonjuror, the chaplain of Lord Wey- 
mouth, and friend of Bishop Ken. In fact, 
according to one authority, Harbin himself 
avowed the authorship. It is also said that 
Hilkiah Bedford knew who was the true au- 
thor, but generously preferred to suffer un- 
justly rather than betray his friend. The 
most curious part of the story is that Lord 
Weymouth, who knew nothing of the true 
state of the case, actually sent Harbin to 
Bedford with 100/. to relieve him under his 
sufferings. Hilkiah Bedford became a bishop 
among the nonjurors ; he left a son Thomas 
(d. 1773) [q. v.'] 

[Bedford's Works ; Lathbury's History of the 
Nonjurors; Nichols's Literarv Anecdotes, i. 167- 
170.] J. H. 0. 

BEDFORD, JOHN (1810-1879), Wes- 
leyan, son of John and Elizabeth Bedford, was 
a native of Yorkshire, having been born in 
Wakefield, 27 July 1810. His father died 
when he was about five years old. John was 
educated in Wakefield. He studied during 
several years in a solicitor's office, but, resolv- 
ing to become a minister of the Wesleyan me- 
thodists, he was appointed by the conference 
in 1 831 to Glasgow. There he laboured hard 
to free the chapels from the heavy debts with 
which they were encumbered, and by which 
their growth and development were effectu- 




ally hindered. In an essay 011 l The Con- 
stitution and Discipline of British Methodism ' 
he showed his mastery of the principles of 
church government. Although Bedford's 
ministry was afterwards mainly exercised 
in Manchester and adjacent towns, he also 
laboured with conspicuous success for a period 
of three years in each of the towns, Birming- 
ham, West Bromwich, and Derby. 

In 1860 Bedford was appointed by the 
conference secretary to the general chapel 
committee, and thenceforward lived in Man- 
chester. His orderly habits were of immense 
service in administering the chapel affairs of 
the connection. He would tolerate nothing 
loose or irregular, and spared no pains to 
place the trust property of the methodist 
church on a secure basis. At the same time 
he kept abreast of the thought and theology 
of the day. His sermons were logical and 
impressive, and he especially excelled as a 

At the conference of 1858 he was elected 
into the legal hundred to take the place 
vacated by the death of Dr. Bunting. From 
that time to the end of his life Bedford was 
one of the foremost men in his own de- 
nomination, and his breadth of sympathy 
enabled him to exert a powerful influence 
upon the religious world in general. After 
being one of the secretaries of the conference 
for several years, he was in 1867 unanimously 
elected to the presidency of that assembly. 
A partial failure of health in 1872 led him 
to retire from the more onerous duties of 
his secretaryship, but he continued to give 
valuable counsel on chapel affairs and in 
other departments till his death. He died 
at Chorlton-cum-Hardy, near Manchester, 
20 Nov. 1879, aged 69. 

He published some occasional sermons and 
speeches, and also a controversial correspond- 
ence with the Rev. William SutclifFe on the 
doctrine and system of the Wesleyan metho- 
dists, which he very ably defended. 

He married Miss Maria Gledhill of Brig- 
house, in 1835, who, with two sons, survived 

[Minutes of the Methodist Conference, espe- 
cially for the year 1880 ; Dr. Osborne's Outlines 
of Wesleyan Bibiography.] W. B. L. 

BEDFORD, PAUL (1792 P-1871), come- 
dian, states, in his gossiping book of ' Recol- 
lections and Wanderings/ that he was born 
in Bath, and entered upon the stage through 
the customary portal of amateur theatricals. 
His first appearance was made at Swansea. 
After playing at Southampton, Portsmouth, 
and other towns in the south of England, he 
obtained an engagement in Bath. The first 

printed mention of him in connection with 
this city which can be traced is 19 May 1819,. 
when for his benefit he played Don Guzman 
in ' Giovanni in London.' At this period he 
had probably been a member of the company 
four or five years. A reference to his playing 
with Kean in * Richard III ' which appears in 
his ' Recollections,' points to the spring of 
1815 as the time of his first appearance. He 
then proceeded to Dublin as one of a com- 
pany engaged by Henry Harris of Covent 
Garden to play in the new theatre in that 
city. Among the company was Miss Green, 
an actress of little reputation, who subse- 
quently made her first appearance in London 
with Bedford as Mrs. Bedford. The period 
of the Dublin migration appears to have been 
1820. Two successive tours in Scotland 
with Madame Catalani followed, without 
breaking the Dublin engagement, which only 
ended when Bedford accepted an offer from 
Sir Henry Bishop for Drury Lane. Bedford's 
first appearance at this theatre took place as 
Hawthorn in 'Love in a Village,' 2 Nov. 
1824, Mrs. Bedford, late Miss Green, playing 
Rosetta. The occasion was also signalised 
by the first appearance of Terry, who took 
the character of Justice Woodcock. On the 
10th of the same month Bedford played 
Bernhard. head ranger of the forest, in Soane's 
version of ' Der Freischutz/ the fifth and the 
most successful adaptation of Weber's great 
opera which that year had achieved. Soon 
afterwards he was promoted to Caspar in 
the same opera. Through successive manage- 
ments of Elliston, Price, Polhill and Lee, 
and lastly Bunn, Bedford kept a position 
chiefly due to his vocal capacity. In 1883 he 
joined, still as a singer, the company at Covent 
Garden under Macready, appearing in ' Fra 
Diavolo,' ' Gustavus III,' and other operas. 
With his engagement at the Adelphi, then 
(1838) under the management of Yates, the 
later and better known phase of Bedford's 
popularity commenced. Blueskin, in ( Jack 
Sheppard,' 1839, added to a reputation which 
attained its climax in Jack Gong in the 'Green 
Bushes,' 1845, and the Kinchin Cove in the 
' Flowers of the Forest,' 1847. During many 
years he played second low-comedy parts at 
the Adelphi, with Edward Wright first, and 
after his death with Mr. Toole. Memories of 
his portly figure, and his deep and portentous 
voice uttering his favourite sentence, 1 1 be- 
lieve you, my boy/ are still current. Bed- 
ford was a sound and trustworthy actor of 
the rollicking sort. His figure and his voice 
formed a conspicuous portion of his stock 
in art. Recalling his singing in Adelphi 
farces, in a whole series of which he appeared, 
one is apt to forget that he obtained reputa- 




tion in Lablaches great character of Don 
Pasquale. A farewell benefit was given him 
at the Queen's Theatre, 18 May 1868, when he 
played for the last time the Kinchin Cove in a 
selection from ' Flowers of the Forest.' He 
had then been above fifty years on the stage. 
He died of a dropsical complication about 
10 P.M. Wednesday, 11 Jan. 1871, at Lindsey 
Place, Chelsea, and was buried in Norwood 

[G-enest's Account of the English Stage ; Recol- 
lections and Wanderings of Paul Bedford, 1864 ; 
Era newspaper, 15 Jan. 1871; The Drama, vols. 
iii. and vii.] J. K. 

BEDFORD, THOMAS (Jl. 1650), theo- 
logian, was prominent in religious contro- 
versy between 1620 and 1650, but little is 
known of his personal history. He was edu- 
cated at Queens' College, Cambridge, took 
degrees in arts, and afterwards proceeded 
B.D. In a letter to Baxter (1650) he says 
that l he sat at the feet of Bishop Davenant,' 
who was Margaret professor of divinity from 
1609 to 1621, and master of Queens' from 
1614 to 1621. Davenant's successor in the 
professorship was Dr. Samuel Ward, and 
from these two divines Bedford affirms that 
his own theology was mainly derived. A 
Latin letter from Davenant to Ward on 
baptismal regeneration was copied by Bed- 
ford, and afterwards published by him, at 
Usshers suggestion, as a preface to Jiis 
thesis for the degree of B.D. held before Dr. 

In the above-mentioned letter to Baxter 
Bedford explains that he was convinced of 
' the efficacy of the sacrament to the elect ' 
by reading a book of Dr. Burges. This letter 
was written because Baxter had appended 
to his 'Plain Scripture Proof of Infants' 
Church Membership ' a refutation of what 
he considered Bedford's erroneous view of 
baptism, and Bedford's object was to show 
that their tenets were fundamentally the 
same. This Baxter admitted in a reply called 
* A friendly Accommodation with Mr. Bed- 
ford' (1656). 

In 1647 Bedford published an examination 
of antinomianism, the substance of which 
was taken from lectures he had given in the 
chapel of St. Antholine's parish, London. He 
received the rectorship of St. Martin Out- 
wich in the city of London some short time 
before 1649, for in that year he dedicated his 
' Sacramental Instructions ' to the congrega- 
tion as his i first-fruits ' to them ; and Thomas 
Pierce, the former rector, had been seques- 
trated a little before (WALKER, Sufferings 
of the Clergy). How long Bedford continued 
as rector is not certain, but Matthew Smal- 

wood was appointed previously to the Resto- 
ration (v. NEWCOURT, Rep. i. 420). 

The only political sentiment Bedford shows 
is when, in his l Examination of the Com- 
passionate Samaritan,' he urges the right 
and duty of the civil power to punish for 
heretical opinions. His theological writings 
are marked by a temperance alien to his 
time, and show an extensive reading, especi- 
ally in the fathers of the church and in the 
continental theology of his time. 

His works are : I. l The Sinne unto Death,' 
1621. 2. ' A Treatise of the Sacrament/ 
1638. 3. f Examination of some of the Chief 
Points of Antinomianism,' and appended to 
it ' An Examination of a Pamphlet entitled 
" The Compassionate Samaritan," ' 1647. 

4. ' Some Sacramental Instructions,' 1649. 

5. ' Vindiciss Gratise Sacramentalis,' 1650. 

[Davenant's Baptismal Eegeneration, preface 
to Eng. trans. ; Baxter's Works ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] . A. G-N. 

BEDFORD, THOMAS (d. 1773), non- 
juror and church historian, was the second 
son of Hilkiah Bedford [q. v.], the non- 
juror. He was educated at Westminster 
School, and proceeded to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, as sizar to Dr. Jenkin the master, 
matriculating in December 1730. In conse- 
quence of nonjuring principles he did not take 
a degree, nor did he enter the established 
church. He was admitted into orders by 
the nonjurors, and became chaplain in the 
family of Sir John Cotton, with whom he 
afterwards resided at Angers. His next 
home was in the county of Durham, where 
his sister was married to George Smith, son 
of Dr. John Smith, the learned editor of 
Bede. Here Bedford prepared an edition of 
Symeon of Durham's 'De Exordio atque 
Procursu Dunhelmensis Ecclesiae libellus,' 
from what he supposed to be an original or 
contemporary manuscript in the cathedral 
library ; from the same manuscript he added 
'a continuation to the year 1154, and an 
account of the hard usage Bishop William 
received from Rufus,' and he prefaced the 
work with a dissertation by Thomas Rudd 
(GoTJGH, Brit. Topography, i. 329). This 
book was published by subscription in 1732. 

From Durham Bedford went to live in 
Derbyshire, at Compton, near Ashbourne, and 
officiated as minister to the nonjurors in 
the neighbourhood. He wrote an historical 
catechism in 1742. The first edition was 
taken from the Abbe Fleury's ' Cate"chisme 
Historique,' but the second was so much 
altered that he omitted the abba's name 
from the title-page. Bedford was a friend 
of Ellis Farneworth, the translator, and is 



.-said (NICHOLS, Anecdotes, ii. 392) to have 
translated for him Fleury's ' Short History 
of the Israelites/ published in Farneworth's 
name, in order to raise a few pounds for his 
friend when in pecuniary distress. Bedford 
lived at Compton till his death in February 

[Nichols's Anecdotes; i. 169, ii. 392, vii. 698 ; 
Gough's British Topography (under Durham) ; 
Cole's Athense ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] A. G-N. 

BEDFORD, WILLIAM (1764 P-1827), 
admiral, was made a lieutenant in the navy 
on 12 Sept. 1781. Of his earlier appoint- 
ments there is no published record ; but he 
served during the Russian armament of 1791 as 
a lieutenant of the Edgar. He was afterwards 
in the Formidable, and in May 1794 was 
first-lieutenant of the Queen, carrying the 
flag of Rear-admiral Gardner. In the par- 
tial action of 29 May the captain of the 
Queen was severely wounded. Bedford 
liad thus the honour of commanding the 
Queen on 1 June, and for his service on 
that memorable day was, on the captain's 
death some weeks afterwards, posted into 
the vacancy (15 Aug. 1794). He continued 
in the Queen with Sir Alan Gardner, and 
was present in Lord Bridport's action off 
Lorient on 23 June 1795. Afterwards he 
moved with Sir Alan to the Royal Sovereign, 
and continued with him till he struck his 
flag in August 1800. Bedford was then 
appointed to the Leyden, of 68 guns, in the 
North Sea, and was present at the attack on 
the invasion flotilla, 15 Aug. 1801, on which 
occasion he offered to serve as a volunteer 
under the junior officer in command of the 
boats. The offer, however, was declined by 
Lord Nelson (Nelson Despatches, iv. 467). 
In 1803 he was captain of the Thunderer, 
74 guns, and in 1805, in the Hibernia, flag- 
ship of his old chief, now. Lord Gardner, 
commanding the blockade of Brest. After- 
wards, in 1809, he was flag-captain in the 
Caledonia with Lord Gambier, in the expedi- 
tion to Basque Roads, from which, though he 
escaped blameless, it was impossible to de- 
rive any credit. He attained flag-rank on 
12 Aug. 1812, and served in the North 
Sea under Sir William Young as captain of 
the fleet. He had no further service, though 
on 19 July 1821 he was promoted to the rank 
of vice-admiral. He died in October 1827. 

In 1808 Bedford married Susan, one of 
the nine daughters of Captain Robert Fan- 
shawe, commissioner of the navy at Ports- 
mouth, and was thus a brother-in-law of 
Sir Thomas Byam Martin, comptroller of 
the navy, and of Admiral Sir Robert Stop- 


[Marshall's Eoyal Nav. Biog. ii. (vol. i.), 574 ; 
Gent. Mag. xcvii. ii. 465.] J. K. L. 

BEDINGFELD, THOMAS (1760-1789), 
poet, second son of Edward Bedingfeld, Esq., 
of York, and Mary, daughter of Sir John 
Swinburne, of Capheaton, Northumberland, 
was born at York on 18 Feb. 1760, and edu- 
cated at the university of Liege. In 1780 
he was placed in the office of Mr. John 
Davidson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with a 
view to the study of conveyancing. There he 
became acquainted with George Pickering and 
James Ellis, who, together with Mr. David- 
son's sons, formed a literary fraternity not 
very common in a lawyer's office. In 1784 
Bedingfeld removed to Lincoln's Inn, and 
continued his legal studies under Matthew 
Duane, the eminent conveyancer, and his 
nephew, Mr. Bray. In 1787 he commenced 
practice as a chamber counsel being, as a 
catholic, incapable of being called to the 
bar and he was rising rapidly in his pro- 
fession when his career was terminated by 
his death, which occurred in London on 
5 Nov. 1789. In person he is said to have 
resembled his celebrated contemporary, Wil- 
liam Pitt, so much as sometimes to have 
been mistaken for him by the London popu- 

His poems were surreptitiously published 

in London' Poems by T. B g d, 

Esq., of the Inner Temple/ 1800. After- 
wards they were collected lay James Ellis, 
one of his youthful associates, and published 
under the title of l Poetry, Fugitive and 
Original; by the late Thomas Bedingfeld, 
Esq., and Mr. George Pickering. With notes 
and some additional pieces by a Friend/ 
Newcastle, 1815, 8vo. Dedicated to Sir 
Walter Scott. The most laboured of his 
poems is ' The Triumph of Beauty/ addressed 
to the Duchess of Devonshire on her success- 
ful canvass for Charles James Fox in 1784 ; 
but his best-known piece is the ' Instructions 
to a Porter/ which has appeared in several 

[Memoir by James Ellis, 1815; Eichardson's 
Local Historian's Table Book, Historical Divi- 
sion, ii. 327, iii. 331 ; Gent. Mag. lix. 1058, 
1127 ; European Mag. xvi. 392.] T. C. 

HENRY (1509 P-1583), of Oxborough, in 
Norfolk, supporter of Queen Mary, was born 
about 1509. He was the son of Sir Edmund 
Benifield, likewise of Oxborough, who was 
knighted by Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, 
on the fall of Montdidier in 1523 (HOLINSHED, 
ii. 830), and was later appointed steward, or 
rather gaoler, of Lady Katharine of Arragon 




during the last years of her life, when living 
in retirement at Kimbolton. In this capacity 
he seems to have treated her with something 
of the harshness used by his son towards 
Lady Elizabeth. Sir Henry succeeded to 
the estates of his father in the year ] 553. He 
was one of the very earliest to acknowledge 
Mary as queen on the death of Edward VI, 
and is said to have rallied round her with 
140 fully armed men. In reward for his 
services on this occasion he was made a 
privy councillor, and his name appears at 
the head of several orders in council for the 
year 1553 (BurgTiley Papers, vol. i.) He is 
also said to have received a pension of 100A 
a year, and to have been enfeoffed in part of 
the forfeited estates of Sir Thomas Wyatt 
(BLOMEFIELD, History of Norfolk, 178). 

In March 1554 the Princess Elizabeth was 
committed to the Tower on a charge of com- 

Elicity in Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion. On 
May the constable of the Tower was re- 
placed by Sir Henry Bedingfield, with a 
special guard of 100 soldiers, in blue liveries ; 
and, according to Foxe, Elizabeth was in 
constant fear of murder at the hands of her 
new gaolers. But in this she did her keeper 
wrong, who was merely taking the steps 
necessary for carrying out his orders to 
conduct her to Woodstock. The journey 
was commenced under Bedingfield's charge 
on 19 May, on which day ' with a company 
of rakehells ' she was conveyed by water to 
Richmond, and thence to Woodstock. Sir 
Henry Bedingfield's conduct is said by both 
Foxe and Holinshed to have been extremely 
harsh, not only on the way but also during 
the full year during which she was under 
his care. He is even charged with the im- 
pertinence of himself sitting down after a 
long journey to have his boots pulled off" in 
a chair of state that had been specially pre- 
pared for his royal prisoner. But at least 
he may be allowed the credit of his own 
apology, ' that if the case were hers he would 
as willingly serve her grace as now he did 
the queen's [Mary] majesty.' For he was a 
careful guardian of Elizabeth's life, and, 
according to Foxe (viii. 678), it was only 
owing to the strict injunctions left behind 
him against the admittance of any one 
even with the queen's orders to Eliza- 
beth's presence during his absence, that she 
was not made away with by Gardiner's 
creature Bassett. Sir Henry was released 
from his charge in June 1555. During the 
years 1553, 1554, and 1557, he sat in parlia- 
ment as one of the knights of the shire for 
Norfolk, but was not returned after Eliza- 
beth's accession. In 1553-4 his name appears 
as one of two commissioners appointed to 

receive the payments in compoundment of 
knighthood throughout England (Herald" 
and Genealogist, v. 18, 19). On Elizabeth's 
accession, according to Foxe, Sir Henry Bed- 
ingfield once more made his appearance at 
court, with apologies for his previous con- 
duct ; and the common story runs that the- 
queen contented herself with discouraging 
his attendance there, and ' with a nipping 
word : ' ' If we have any prisoner whom we 
would have sharply and straitly kept, we 
will send for you ! ' (FoXE, vi. 554). She 
even appears to have visited, or at least to- 
have purposed to visit him at Oxborough in 
one of her royal progresses (1578). 

For the rest of his life Sir Henry Beding- 
field seems to have lived quietly as a country- 
gentleman. His name occurs every now and' 
then in the State papers, as one of the dis- 
affected and an adherent of the old religion ; 
as, for example, in vol. Ix. (357) where the 
justices of Suffolk write to Cecil that bonds 
have been taken from Sir Henry Bedingfield 
for his good behaviour and appearance before- 
the privy council, in company with several 
others who would not subscribe to the Act 
of Uniformity (Dec. 1569). In 1578 he was 
excused appearance before the same body on 
account of sickness ; and, later, in 1581, one- 
Thomas Scot writes to Leicester that ' being" 
a preacher, a Christian, and an Englishman, 
he thinks it right to disclose that the papists 
are favoured by Sir Henry Bedingfield r 
(State Papers, cxl. 12). 

Sir Henry Bedingfield died in the year 
1583, shortly after the death of his wife, 
being, apparently, still an adherent of the 
old religion. He was buried at Oxborough, 
where a fine monument was erected com- 
memorating his virtues. In his later years 
the family of which he was the head seems 
to have been gradually making its peace with 
the government ; for his second son Thomas 
[q. v.] was one of Elizabeth's pensioners, and 
his great-grandson, who succeeded to the 
estates in 1590 while still an infant, was 
certainly described as a ( schismatic,' that is 
a protestant, by his Jesuit cousin Edward in 
1614. He had probably been educated in 
the new religion, to which faith the elder 
descendants of Sir Henry Bedingfield seem 
henceforth to have adhered, while the younger- 
branch, the Bedingfields of Redlington, con- 
tinued for more than a century to furnish 
members to the Society of Jesus. 

[Foxe ; Strickland, under Katharine of Arra- 
gon, Mary, and Elizabeth ; Blomefield's History 
of Norfolk ; Haynes's Burghley State Papers ; 
Sir Harris Nicolas's Proceedings of Privy Coun- 
cil, vii. 344 ; Bethel's Baronetage, ii. 196, &c. ; 
Fronde's History of England ; Foley's Records- 



of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 
v. 571. &c. ; and aiithorities cited above]. 

T. A. A. 

1687), chief justice of the common pleas for 
nine months in James II's reign, was fourth 
son of John Bedingfield, of Halesworth, in 
Suffolk, and a nephew of Sir Thomas Beding- 
field [q. v.]. Sir Henry's mother was Joyce, 
daughter and coheiress of Edmund Morgan 
of Lambeth, and he was born about 1633. 
The family mansion at Halesworth is de- 
scribed by Suckling (ii. 335) as being, in 
spite of modern alterations, ' still indicative 
of former consequence.' He became a student 
of Lincoln's Inn, of which his father was a 
bencher, in May 1650,- was called to the bar 
just seven years later ; received the coif in 
1683, and was shortly after knighted and 
made king's serjeant. In 1684 he was elected 
sub-steward of Great Yarmouth. From Roger 
North we learn almost all that is known of his 
character and professional reputation. That 
writer tells us how the proposal to appoint him 
to a seat on the bench was seized by Lord 
Jeffreys as an opportunity of thwarting and 
humiliating Lord Keeper Guilford. l There 
was one Serjeant Bedingfield, a grave but 
rather heavy lawyer, but a good churchman, 
and loyal by principle. His lordship (Guil- 
ford) had cast his eye upon him, and intended 
to nominate him to the king for supplying a 
place in one of the benches then vacant, but 
thought fit first to speak with him. Being 
sent for he came, and was told what was 
designed for him. He was exceeding grate- 
ful in acknowledgments of so great a favour 
and honour done him by his lordship in 
thinking of him without his seeking, and 
said he should ever own his preferment as 
long as he lived to his lordship, and to no 
other person whatever. All which was well. 
This serjeant had a brother, a woollen draper 
in London (afterwards lord mayor), who was 
a creature and companion of the Lord Jef- 
freys. That chief, understanding some way j 
that his friend's brother was to be a judge j 
by the lord keeper's means, sent for the j 
draper, and told him plainly that if his j 
brother would not take the judge's place, as 
of his provision and interest, and not my 
lord keeper's, or if he so much as went to 
the lord keeper on such an account, he would 
oppose him, and he should not be a judge at 
all. After this the poor serjeant, against his j 
desire, was forced to conform ; his spirits were 
not formed for the heroicks.' He was not, ! 
in fact, appointed until February 1686, after 
Lord Guilford's death. In April of the same 
year he was further promoted, upon Jeffreys's 
recommendation, to the chief-judgeship of 

his court, in the room of Sir Thomas Jones. 
As the latter was, according to Bramston, 
removed, with three other judges, on account 
of his l opinion as to the dispensing power 
with the test,' we must infer that Sir Henry 
raised no objection to that exercise of the 
royal prerogative. During the nine months 
that he presided in the common pleas he 
does not seem to have left any mark on the 
legal or general history of his time. He died 
suddenly, < in a fitt of apoplexie,' on Sunday, 
6 Feb. 1687, while in the act of receiving 
the sacrament in Lincoln's Inn chapel. A. 
mural monument, erected by his widow, in 
Halesworth church, enumerates his virtues, 
and informs us that his wife bore him two 
daughters. They both died unmarried. He 
had several brothers, one of whom, Sir 
Robert, was lord mayor of London in 1707. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges of England ; 
North's Life of Lord Guilford, 246 ; Suckling's 
Suffolk, ii. 337, 342 ; Bramston's Autobiography, 
221, 223, 268.] a. V. B. 


gentleman pensioner to Queen ' Elizabeth, 
was son of Sir Henry Bedingfield (d. 1583) 
[q. v.]. He published in 1 573 'Cardanus Com- 
forte translated into English and published 
by comaundment of the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Oxenford,' 4to, black letter. There is a de- 
dication to the Earl of Oxford, dated 1 Jan. 
1571-2, which is followed by a letter to the 
translator, and a copy of verses to the reader, 
both written by the Earl of Oxford ; and to 
these succeed addresses to the reader in 
prose and verse by Thomas Churchyard. In 
1584 Bedingfield published ' The Art of 
Riding, conteining diverse necessarie in- 
structions, demonstrations, helps and cor- 
rections apperteining to Horsemanship . . . 
by Claudio Corte, brieflie reduced into cer- 
teine English discourses,' 4to ; and this was 
followed in 1595 by ' The Florentine His- 
torie written in the Italian tongue by Nic- 
colo Macchiavelli, citizen and secretarie of 
Florence, and translated into English by 
T. B., Esq.,' folio. Bedingfield died in 1613 
(Sxow's Survey of London, ed. 1720, ii. 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica ; 
Works.] A. H. B. 

1661), was one of the justices of the common 
pleas appointed by the two houses of par- 
liament in 1648. The Bedingfields are men- 
tioned by Camden (i. 371) as * a famous and 
ancient family.' They claim to have come 
in with William of Normandy, from whom 
they received lands in Suffolk and else- 

i 2 




where. The judge's father, Thomas, be- 
longed to a younger branch of this family, 
and lived at Darsham Hall, in Suffolk, 
which he had purchased. Philip, the eldest 
son, succeeded to Darsham, but sold it to 
his younger brother, the subject of this 
article. The date of his birth is uncertain, 
but in 1608 he was admitted a student at 
Gray's Inn, was called to the bar in 1615, 
and appointed Lent reader in 1636. He was 
knighted by the king on his appointment as 
attorney-general of the duchy of Lancaster. 
In 1642, the House of Lords paid him a 
higher though less welcome compliment in 
assigning to him the delicate and important 
task of defending Sir Edward Herbert, the 
attorney-general, impeached by the commons 
for his share in the attempt to arrest the 
five members. In obedience to the lords, 
Bedingfield, Gardiner, and others appeared 
as counsel on the first day of the trial ; but 
Mr. Serjeant Wylde, the manager of the im- 
peachment, objected to counsel being allowed 
in a case of privilege. These objections 
were overruled by the lords, and next day 
Sir Edward's counsel were peremptorily 
ordered ( to begin with assisting him in his 
defence, upon their perils.' Either from a 
wholesome fear of the commons' vengeance, 
or from want of sympathy with their client's 
cause, counsel endeavoured to excuse them- 
selves on the plea of not having come pre- 
pared, the question being one of privilege. 
Being a second time commanded to plead, 
* Sir Thomas Bedingfield, one of the counsel, 
answered that he desired some time to pre- 
pare for it, not being now provided.' Gar- 
diner gave a similar reply ; whereupon the 
lords, having deliberated in private, ordered 
the two counsel to be committed to the 
Tower for contempt of the house in refusing 
to plead (State Trials, iv. 127). Clarendon 
(v. 47) says that counsel l positively refused 
to meddle further in the business or to make 
any defence for the attorney,' in consequence 
of the threat of the commons that ' whoever 
presumed to be of counsel with a person 
accused by the commons of England should 
be taught better to know his duty, and 
should have cause to repent it.' But, from 
the subsequent attitude of the two houses 
towards Sir Thomas, it seems unlikely that 
mere cowardice could have been the full ex- 
planation of his refusal. Had this been his 
character, the one house would not have so 
persistently voted for his promotion,nor would 
the other have as persistently vetoed it. Thus, 
in the years 1646-7, we find him three times 
proposed by the commons as one of the com- 
missioners of the great seal, and each time 
rejected by the lords (WHITELOCKE, 224, 

234, 240). However, in October 1648, the 
commons voted that Sir Thomas Bedingfield 
and others should be called to the degree of 
serjeant-at-law, and that he should also be 

| made a justice of the common pleas. To 
this the lords assented, and he was sworn 

! in a month later. This position he held only 
for about two months, for he was one of the 

j six judges who, after the king's execution, 

I ' were not satisfied to hold ' under the new 
commissions from the parliament, and he 
accordingly retired from the bench. How 
he spent the eleven years of the interregnum 

! is not recorded, but on the restoration of 
the monarchy Sir Thomas Bedingfield was 
among the first batch of serjeants-at-law 
appointed by Charles II. He died in less 
than a year after this appointment, 24 March 

j 1661, and was buried in Darsham church. 

I Darsham Hall remained for some time in his 

I family, but passed to the Rons family before 
the end of the century. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges of England ; 
Whitelocke's Memorials, 224, 234, 240, 342, 348, 
356,378; Suckling's Suffolk, ii. 222; State Trials, 
iv. 127.] G-. V. B. 

BEDLOE, WILLIAM (1650-1680), 
dishonest adventurer and ' evidence ' in the 
Popish plot, was born on 20 April 1650, 
at midday, at Chepstow. We must receive 
with doubt whatever he reported of his family, 
his boastfulness and unveracity being noto- 
rious ; but he ' always kept a diary of his most 
remarkable adventures for the space of ten 
years together, which was the duration of the 
scene in which he acted most of his cheats.' 
He was believed to be of very low extraction, 
but, according to his own account, his grand- 
fatUer, on the paternal side, was Major George 
Bedloe, a younger son in an old Irish family, 
said to have been a valiant soldier and skilful 
versifier, leaving manuscripts behind him. 
Having crossed to England in 1633, George 
Bedloe married a merchant's widow in Lon- 
| don, by whom he had one son, Isaac, and two 
| daughters. He and his wife died in 1641, 
| leaving property to Isaac Bedloe, who became 
i a soldier in the civil wars, and received nine 
I wounds. He was said to be jocose and skilled 
| in music. He went to Ragland, then go- 
I verned by the Marquis of Worcester. After 
the surrender he fell ill of fever at Chepstow, 
and disguised his name as Beddoe. On St. 
David's Day, 1 March 1649, he married a 
young lady belonging to that place. By her 
he had three sons, William, the eldest, Charles, 
and James ; also two daughters, Alice and 
Mary. Charles was shipwrecked and drowned 
| in tlie Baltic. William was ' destined for a 
j drier death on shore.' Alice is reported to have 




married Lord Duncannon's eldest son, and to 
have died of a surfeit from sweetmeats. Mary 
remained unmarried, living with her mother at 
Chepstow. But after twelve years of widow- 
hood Mrs. Beddoe, alias Bedloe, took another 
husband, one Taynton, who had trailed a pike 
at Chepstow Castle under Thomas Nanfan. 
He was an ingenious contriver of clocks and 
watches, but made his living chiefly as a cob- 
bler. William Bedloe worked with him at 
this trade, and it is here that we are on safe 
ground. If we suppose the reported genea- 
logy to be true, it merely proves that William 
Bedloewasthe most disreputable of his family. 
If it were false, his forefathers could scarcely 
have surpassedhim in wickedness. He claimed 
for himself the attainment of proficiency in 
Latin, heraldry, and mathematics. David 
Lewis, the Jesuit, who was afterwards exe- 
cuted at Monmouth, took notice of the boy 
when he was twelve years old, and taught him 
much, with intent of converting him. When 
aged twenty, in 1670, he travelled to Lon- 
don with one hundred pounds in his pocket, 
and lived near two Jesuits, Father Harman 
and Father Johnson. They dined at Locket's 
ordinary, and w r ere said to adjourn to Mother 
Cresswell's. Bedloe certainly lived a sharping 
life in London before he went to Dunkirk, 
where he was recommended by the lady ab- 
bess to Sir John Warner, who sent him to 
Father Harcourt, the Jesuit, afterwards exe- 
cuted on the evidence of Gates. By his own 
account, William Bedloe went to Rome, 
Flanders, Spain, &c., carrying letters ; but 
opened them and made forged copies, which 
he delivered, retaining the originals. He 
bore an alias of Captain Williams, under 
which he cheated the Prince of Orange, and 
from him, by fraud, obtained a captain's com- 
mission. But this captaincy was as apocry- 
phal as the ' invisible degree ' of doctor won 
by Titus Gates at Salamanca. Five years of 
varied service, intrigues, frauds, and broils, 
prepared him, with occasional employment by 
the Jesuits, for emerging into notice as a be- 
trayer and forsworn spy. He declared that 
Titus Gates had anticipated and outstripped 
him in making revelations of the popish plot. 
At the beginning of August 1678, he confessed 
that he l had once been an ill man, but desired 
to be so no more.' He wrote from Bristol, 
offering to make startling declarations. The 
Earl of Danby gave little credit to him ; and 
in revenge for this, Bedloe asserted that a 
bribe was offered to him by Danby, who pro- 
mised that he should be supported in what- 
ever country he chose to retire into, if he 
would suppress his threatened revelations. 
The commons accepted his account of the 
murder of Sir E. B. Godfrey, and gave him 

500/. The extant portrait of Bedloe, prefixed 
to his ' Narrative ' of the fire of London having 
been caused by the papists, shows a villain- 
ous countenance, harsh and forbidding, full 
of malice and revenge. With beetle brows, 
hard mouth, and savage eyes, w r e see the man, 
unscrupulous, unrelenting, as he in later life 
became. Dressed in finery beyond his sta- 
| tion, his arrogance is as self-evident as his 
malice. He declared that Counsellor Reading 
! had tried to tamper with him for suppression 
of his testimony, and Reading was condemned 
to a year's imprisonment, with exposure for 
an hour in the pillory, and to pay a fine of 
1,000/. Bedloe made many accusations and 
found willing associates. The king's chemist, 
Dr. James, deposed that one Dr. Smith, a 
papist, tried to make him poison Bedloe with 
a pill on 20 March 1679. By this time he was 
almost as popular as Gates. He received ten 
' pounds weekly allowance from the royal funds, 
and lived at the rate of two thousand a year. 
Rich dupes were plentiful. The citizens 
I feasted him. His folio pamphlets, with cop- 
perplate portrait prefixed, had a large sale. 
He attributed the most extensive plots and 
execrable crimes, falsely, to the Romanists. 
I He now married the elder of two sisters, re- 
' puted co-heirs of six hundred pounds per 
annum, and Richard Duke wrote a clever 
buffooning poem on the marriage as an ' Epi- 
thalamium.' It was popular as a broadside, 
and is preserved in the Roxburghe collection 
(iii. 835), reprinted in ' Roxburghe Ballads ' 
(iv. 165). It begins, ' Goddess of Rhime, that 
didst inspire the Captain with Poetic fire.' 
{ This poem was issued at Christmas 1679. The 
lady's name was Anna Purifoy, daughter of 
j an Irishman, Colonel Purifoy. After Bedloe's 
marriage he did not remain long in London, 
where he had printed and published a folio 
tragedy in 1679, entitled ' The Excommuni- 
cated Prince, or the False Relique : a Tra- 
gedy, as it was acted by his Majesty's Servants, 
being the Popish Plot in a Play. By Captain 
William Bedloe.' It is believed to have been 
written by Thomas Walter, an Oxford scholar 
of Jesus College. The sub-title was added to 
gain a sale, and it was dedicated to George 
Villiers, second duke of Buckingham. The 
hero is Teimurazez, prince of Georgia, who is 
excommunicated by the pope. Bedloe had 
travelled on the continent as courier to Lord 
Belasyse, against whom he afterwards swore 
acts of high treason ; but he pretended to have 
been a soldier, though he never saw a battle. 
He went to Bristol with his wife, and lived 
on Stonie Hill for half a year. Then he was 
recalled to London in the middle of July 
1680. He was now, with Gates, experiencing 
the fickleness of fortune and the waning of 




popularity. Sir George Jeffreys, on the bench, 
told him sharp truths, and he felt his power 
deserting him. He retreated back to Bristol, 
where he had left his wife Anna, v/ho, in her 
illness, summoned him, at beginning of Au- 
gust. He fell ill after his hurried journey, 
having l broken his gall ' by violent riding. He 
was said to be past cure. At the commence- 
ment of the assizes on 16 Aug., Sir Francis 
North, chief justice of the common pleas, at- 
tended Bedloe, and took his dying deposition. 
There had been a promise of fresh revelations, 
but none of importance were forthcoming. He 
reiterated old statements as really true, his ! 
wife being beside him. James Bedloe made ' 
immediate application for money from King 
Charles, through North, next day. This ap- j 
plication, ' that his sickness was very change- 
able, and that money was required for his 
subsistence,' explains the persistence of the 
family in the accusation of the Jesuits. Wil- 
liam's death took place on Friday, 20 Aug. 
1680. Richard Duke, who had written <a 
panegyrick upon Gates,' beginning ' Of all the 
grain our nation yields,' again came forward 
with a fresh lampoon, unsigned, beginning, 
Sad fate ! our valiant Captain Bedloe, 
In earth's cold bed lies with his head low. 
The body lay exposed, as if in state, at 
Merchant Taylors' Hall, Bristol, on Sunday, 
and was in the evening buried within the 
mayor's chapel, called the ' Gaunts.' Thomas 
Palmer preached a funeral sermon on Romans 
xiv. 12, 13. Many dreary poems and livelier 
pasquinades appeared on the occasion, several 
of which are reprinted in the Ballad Society's 
twenty-first publication, 1881. 

To enter fully into particulars of Bedloe's 
numerous allegations and sworn depositions 
would occupy too much space. His chief work 
is l A Narrative and Impartial Discovery of 
the Horrid Popish Plot, carried on for the 
Burning and Destroying the Cities of London 
and Westminster, with their suburbs, &c. ; 
setting forth several Consults, Orders, and 
Resolutions of the Jesuits concerning the 
same. By Captain William Bedloe, lately 
engaged in that horrid design, and one of the 
Popish Committee for carrying on such fires, 
1679.' Next in importance, for his history, 
is l The Examination of Captain William Bed- 
low (sic), Deceased, relating to the Popish 
Plot, taken in his last sickness by Sir Francis 
North ; together with the Narrative of Sir 
Francis North at the Council Board, 1680, 
appointed by the commons to be printed.' It 
need scarcely be added that every part of this 
wretched man s evidence is tainted and un- 
trustworthy. His bitter spite against Scroggs 
and Jeffreys, when they no longer accepted 
his testimony, showed that his charges against 

the Romanists proceeded as muchfrom hatred 
as from greed. He and his brother James 
had been accustomed to cheat in company, 
exchanging the post of master and man in 
turn. When, in the summer of 1677, he ar- 
rived at Ghent, he there took the name of 
Lord Newport. When he passed into Spain 
he bore the name of Lord Gerard at Bilbao ; 
thence he went to Valladolid, Santiago to 
Corunna, and embarked for England. After 
his death a book was published, called ' Truth 
made Manifest, or the Dead Man's Testimony 
to the Living ; being a composition of the 
last sayings of Captain William Bedlow.' 
This gave Thomas Palmer's sermon. Among 
the poems not already mentioned are these : 
In Luttrell Collection, i. 9, t An Elegy upon 
the Unfortunate Death of Captain William 
Bedloe, who departed this life on Friday, 
20 Aug. 1680.' It begins, 'How fickle is 
the state of all mankind,' and eulogises him 
as ' blest with a kind wife ; ' ending with the 
declaration that ' Had he liv'd longer he had 
more made known.' In Luttrell Collection, 
i. 112, is 'England's Obligation to Captain 
William Bedlowe, the grand Discoverer of 
this most Horrid Plot ; ' printed by Thomas 
Dawks, 1679. It is meant to be serious, be- 
ginning ' The World is all on fire in Jesus' 
name, By quick nosed Jesuites who hunt for 
2fame,' and ends with an acrostic on ' William 
Bedlowe.' An l Elegie on the Death of Cap- 
tain William Bedloe ' begins : 

Could Bedlow fall so softly to his tomb, 
Without a comet to foretell his doom ? 

But the shortest and severest epitaph is this, 
from an early manuscript : 

The Lord is pleas'd when man does cease to sin ; 
The divil is pleas'd when he a soul do's win ; 
The world is pleas'd when ev'ry rascal dies : 
So all are pleas'd, for here Will Bedlow lies. 

[Life and Death of Captain William Bedloe, 
1681; folio pamphlets on the Popish Plot; 
Roxburghe Coll. of Ballads ; Luttrell Coll. of 
Broadsides, Elegies, and Poems ; The Righteous 
Evidence witnessing the Truth, being an account 
of the sickness and death-bed expressions of Mr. 
William Bedlow, &c., with his two last prayers, 
London, 1680 ; Defence of the Innocency of the 
English Jesuites relating to the crimes unjustly 
charged on them by E. C. in his Narrative, 1680 ; 
Granger's Biog. Hist. England, iv. 202, 203 (a 
very slight account) ; Reed's Biog. Dramatica.] 

J. W. E. 

BEDWELL, THOMAS (d. 1595), mathe- 
matician and military engineer, matriculated 
as a sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
November 1562. He became a scholar in 
the same year ; in 1566-7 he took the degree 
of B.A. ; he was subsequently elected fellow ; 



and in 1570 commenced M.A. He was ap- 
pointed to the office of keeper of the ordnance 
stores in the Tower. He is said to have 
been the first to project 'the bringing of the 
waters of the Lea from Ware to London. 
In conjunction with Frederico Genebelli he 
was employed as a military engineer in 
.strengthening the works at Tilbury and 
Gravesend at the time of the Spanish Ar 
mada. He died in April 1595. 

Thomas Bedwell was uncle of William 
Bedwell [q. v.], the Arabic scholar, who 
.speaks of him as l our English Tycho.' The 
two are sometimes confounded, chiefly, it 
would appear, on account of an ambiguity 
on the title-page of the first of two works 
published by the nephew in explanation of 
a 'ruler' or mesolabium architectonicum 
which the uncle had devised to facilitate 
carpenters' calculations (see the Macclesfield 
'Collection of Corresp. of Scient. Men, Oxford, 
1841, p. 1 seq.). 

[Cooper's Atheuse Cantabrigienses, ii. 539 ; 
.De Morgan's Arithmetical Books, p. 35 ; Notes 
.and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 29, 74.] T. W-R. 

BEDWELL, WILLIAM (d. 1632), ne- 
phew of Thomas Bedwell [q. v.], and father of 
Arabic studies in England, was born in 1561 
or 1562, for his tombstone in the chancel of 
Tottenham church makes him aged 70 at his 
death on 5 May 1632. The place of his birth 
.seems to be indicated by the words ' Hasling- 
burgensis A. Saxo ' on the title-page of his 
Arabic edition of the epistles of St. John. He 
was educated at Cambridge, where, according 
to the university registers, he was A.B. in 
1584-5, and A.M. in 1588. He became 
.scholar of Trinity in May 1584, but was 
never fellow of his college. In 1601 he be- 
came rector of St. Ethelburgh's, Bishopsgate 
Street. He was selected in 1604 as one 
of the Westminster company of translators 
of the Bible (the statement often repeated 
that he was with Sir H. Wotton at Venice 
is due to a mistake of Lilly (Life, edition of 
1715, p. 23), who confused him with W. 
Bedell, bishop of Kilmore). The president 
of that company was Dr. Lancelot Andre wes, 
and by him Bedwell was presented in Octo- 
ber 1607 to the vicarage of Tottenham High 
Cross. Andrewes, as we learn from Ca- 
saubon (Ep. 821), continued to encourage 
Bedwell's studies after his promotion to the 
.see of Ely. These studies embraced all the 
oriental languages, but were especially 
directed to Arabic, which, from the paucity 
of helps and texts, was then very little known 
in northern Europe. The nature of Bedwell's 
interest in so difficult a study is explained 
in the preface to the epistles of John already 

mentioned, where he lays stress alike on the 
practical importance of a tongue which was 
the only language of religion and the chief 
language of diplomacy and business from 
the Fortunate Islands to the China Seas, 
and on the value for letters and science of 
a literature so rich in theological, medical, 
and mathematical works, and in translations 
of ancient authors. He also expresses just 
views of the use of Arabic in the elucida- 
tion of Hebrew words, as exemplified in the 
writings of the mediaeval Rabbins. His re- 
putation as an Arabist had extended to the 
continent before 1603 (CASATJB. Ep. 344) j 
Erpenius, when he visited England about 
1608, found particular satisfaction in making 
the acquaintance of Bedwell, and Casaubon 
was his correspondent, and watched with 
impatient interest the progress of an Arabic 
lexicon which he had commenced to com- 
pile before 1610 (Ep. 663: < Bedwellus Lexi- 
con urget suum. virum bonum doctum 
et simplicem ! '), and, indeed, apparently be- 
fore Erpenius's visit to England (Ep. 662). 
In 1612 Bedwell went over to Ley den to see 
Scaliger's Arabic collections with a letter 
from Casaubon (Ep. 821) to Heinsius, and 
during this visit he published there the 
epistles of John in Arabic and Latin. The 
preface is dated from the Hague, 28 Sept. 
1612, N.S. In 1615 there appeared at Lon- 
don, under the title 'Mohammedisimpostura,' 
Bedwell's translation of a polemical dialogue 
which had been printed anonymously in 
Arabic (s. I. et .) some years before, together 
with the ' Arabian Trudgman ' and an 'Index' 
of the Suras of the Koran, which Bedwell 
bad studied in manuscripts. The 'Trudg- 
man ' is an explanation of Arabic words used 
by Western writers about the East, and 
bears evidence of very wide reading in all 
works of this sort from the Byzantines down- 

Bedwell had also occupied himself with 
mathematics ever since he was at Cambridge, 
and in 1612 put out a little table, ' Trigoni- 
um Architectonicum,' for the use of car- 
penters. This was followed in 1614 by a 
treatise on geometrical numbers, which is 
nominally an enlarged translation of Lazarus 
Schonerus's ' De Numeris Geometricis,' but 
in reality is altogether rewritten, with the 
practical object of explaining the use of the 
' trigonicum,' or i carpenter's square,' and the 
'ruler,' or mechanical contrivance for car- 
penters' computations, which had been in- 
vented by his uncle. This ' ruler,' or meso- 
labium architectonicum, had great value in 
Bedwell's eyes, and in the preface to his book 
of 1614 he expresses an intention to publish 
something further on it. This he did in the 




* Mesolabium Architect onicum,' 1631 (repr. 
1639). Bedwell also translated Salignac's 
' Arithmetic,' and his enlarged version of 
Ranms's ' Way to Geometry ' was posthu- 
mously published in 1636. From this book 
it appears that he was a personal friend of 
John Greaves and H. Briggs. After his j 
death, * his library being sold into Little 
Britain/ Lilly, the astrologer, tells us, 'I 
bought amongs them my choicest books of 
astronomy.' Amidst these studies he found 
time to publish in 1631 ' A Survey of Tot- 
tenham,' in which the well-known burlesque 
poem, the 'Turnament of Tottenham,' was 
first published from a manuscript now in the 
university library at Cambridge. Bedwell died 
in 1732. He left to his university his manu- 
script lexicon, together with a fount of Arabic 
type to print it (GEO. KICHTEE, Ep. Sel. 485). 
This was never done, but by a grace of 25 June 
1658 it was lent to E. Castell and R. Clark. 
Castell used the manuscript largely in his 
great ' Lexicon Heptaglotton,' and in this w r ay 
Bedwell has a lasting place in the history of 
Arabic scholarship. His most famous personal 
disciple was Edward Pocock, for Erpenius 
can hardly be called Bedwell's pupil, but 
rather, as Castell puts it (Prcef. Lex.}, his 
partner in opening Arabic literature. Bed- 
well's manuscript lexicon consists of seven 
volumes folio, with two small quartos con- 
taining his final revision of the initials K and 
2 . It includes Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, and 
Arabic words, and in the original draught is 
entirely gathered from the author's own 
reading. For the Arabic, which is much the 
most important feature in the work, he uses the 
Koran (in manuscript), the Arabic versions of 
the Bible (some of which had been printed), 
and .the publications of the Italian press 
notablyAvicenna andNasir-ed-DinV Euclid.' 
The connection between Arabic and mathe- 
matics w r as then very close ; astronomers 
especially looked to the Arabs for valuable 
aid, as appears in Twells's * Life of Pocock, 
and probably enough it was through mathe- 
matics and astrology (for he quotes Haly) 
that Bedwell was first led to Arabic studies. 
After the seven folios were written out, Bed- 
well must have got a copy of the great native 
lexicon, the * Kamus,' extracts from which 
are written all over the margin and incorpo- 
rated in the revised volumes. 

[Isaacson's Life of Andrewes ; Casaubon's 
Epistolse (passim) ; Twells's Life of Pocock ; 
Vossius's Funeral Oration on Erpenius; Prefaces 
and other notices in Bedwell's works; Newcourt's 
Eepertorium, i. 346, 755.] W. E, S. 

BEDYLL, THOMAS (d. 1537), clerk of 
the privy council, was educated at New Col- 

lege, Oxford, and took the degree of B.C.L. 
on 5 Nov. 1508. In 1520 he was acting as 
secretary to AVilliam Warham, archbishop 
of Canterbury, whom he served in that 
capacity till the archbishop's death in Au- 
gust 1532. Within a month afterwards 
the king (Henry VIII) took him into his- 
service as one of the royal chaplains, and 
on 14 Oct. he signs a letter to the king as 
clerk of the council, a post to which he had 
quite recently been appointed. His former 
master, the archbishop, speaks of his i ap- 
proved fidelity and virtue,' and he soon 
was equally high in the favour of Cromwell 
and Cranmer, whose views on ecclesiastical 
polity he thoroughly adopted. His first, 
public employments were in connection with 
Henry's divorce from Katharine of Arragon. 
After being sent to Oxford to obtain opinions- 
from the university in the king's favour, he 
accompanied Cranmer to Dunstable as one 
of the counsel on the king's side, when the 
archbishop pronounced the final sentence of 
nullity of marriage. Several letters from 
him are extant recording the course of the 
trial and the pronunciation of the sentence, 
in the drawing up of which he had some 
share. In the next two years (1534 and 1.535} 
he was engaged in endeavouring to obtain 
the oaths of the inmates of several religious- 
houses to the royal supremacy ; in conduct- 
ing as one of the king's council the exami- 
nation of Bishop Fisher and of Sir Thomas- 
More, when tried for treason for refusing the- 
oath ; and in assessing the values of ecclesi- 
astical benefices in England. When the 
smaller monasteries were suppressed by act 
of parliament in 1536, Bedyll visited many of 
them in the neighbourhood of London to ob- 
tain the surrenders of the houses ; and about 
the same time presided over a commission 
appointed to examine papal bulls and briefs 
conferring privileges on churches and dig- 
nities in England, with a view to their con- 
firmation or abolition (Pat, 28 Hen. VIII. 
p. 1, m. 8). The 'book' that was circulated 
throughout England as a basis for sermons, 
on the futility of the pope's claims to au- 
thority in England, was revised and corrected 
by him. He has left no literary remains, but 
many of his letters are extant in the Public 
Record Office and among the CottonianMSS. 
in the British Museum. He died in the 
beginning of September 1537, his death 
being mentioned in a letter from Richard 
Cromwell to his uncle on 5 Sept. 

The following is a list of his ecclesiasti- 
cal benefices: Rectory of Halton, Bucks r 
24 Aug. 1512 ; chapels of Bockyngfold and 
Newstede, Cant. dioc. 1 March 1514; Sand- 
hurst, Kent, 1516; East Peckham, Kent,, 




29 Dec. 1517 ; prebend of South Searle, 
Line., 13 Nov. 1518; Booking rectory, 
Essex, 1522; rectory of St. Dionis Back- 
church, London, 12 March 1527 ; prebend 
of Milton Ecclesia, Line., 1 Dec. 1529 ; Had- 
ley church, in deanery of Booking, 15 May 
1531 ; Wrotham church, Kent, 12 April 
1532; archdeaconry of Cleveland, June- 
Aug. 1533 ; archdeaconry of London, 5 Aug. 
1533 to 19 Dec. 1534; prebend of Mapes- 
bury, London, 17 Dec. to 22 Dec. 1534 ; rectory 
of Allhallows-the-Great, 30 Dec. 1534 ; arch- 
deaconry of Cornwall, 2 March 1535 ; pre- 
bend of Masham, York, 1536; prebend of 
Lytton, Wells; rectory of Bishopsbourne, 
Kent ; prebend of Appledram and Hamp- 
stead, Chichester. The dates of institution 
to these last are not known, but Bedyll 
held them in 1535. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. i. 25; Newcourt's Ke- 
pertorium ; Le Neve's Fasti Eeclesise Anglicanse; 
Erasmi Ep. xv. 7, xix. 46 ; Calendar of State 
Papers of Henry VIII, vols. iv.-vii. ; Strype's 
Eccl. Mem. i. 299. ii. 213; Memorials of Cran- 
mer, 87 ; Wright's Suppression of the Monas- 
teries; Valor Ecclesiasticus. vols. iii. and iv. ; 
Cott. MSS., Otho, c. x., Cleop. E. iv. vi., Brit. 
Mus.] C. T. M. 

BEE, ST. [See BEGHA.] 

ARD (Jt. 1553-1574), author, was admitted 
to the rectory of St. Mary Hill, London, 
31 May 1560, and was deprived of the living 
in 1574. He was the author of : 1 . ' A Godly 
Psalm of Mary Queen/ with psalm tunes in 
four parts, 1553. 2. ' Alphabetum primum 
Beeardi,' a poem of fifty-six short lines printed 
as a broadside, without date, by William Cop- 
land. 3. An untitled piece of verse of forty- 
four lines, signed by Beeard, beginning ' M. 
Harry Whobals man to M. Camel greetes,' 
printed on a sheet without place, printer's 
name, or date. A copy of the first is in Trinity 
College Library, Cambridge, and copies of the 
last two are in the library of the Society of 
Antiquaries. In Strype's i Annals,' iv. 512- 
516, the dedication to Queen Elizabeth of a 
manuscript work by Richard Beard 'concern- 
ing the doctrine of justification' is printed at 

[Newcourt's Kepertorium, i. 451 ; Hazlitt's 
Handbook to Literature, p. 34 ; Ritson's Biblio- 
graphia Poetica, 129 ; Lemon's Catal. of Broad- 
sides, 10-11.] S. L. L. 

BEECHAM, JOHN, D.D. (1787-1856), 
was born at Barnoldby-le-Beck, near Great 
Grimsby, Lincolnshire, in 1787. His father 
died at Waltham while he was a child. He 
was educated privately under a clergyman, 

the incumbent of the neighbouring parish of 
Irby. His friends desired him to become a 
clergyman in the established church. Young 
Beecham, however, preferred to join the me- 
thodists. After a short period of preparation 
he became, in 1815, an itinerant preacher in 
the Wesleyan community, and soon reached 
a position of influence. He showed a thorough 
mastery of the principles of Wesleyan me- 
thodism in his ' Essay on the Constitution of 
Wesleyan Methodism,' and in his writings 
and speeches on the work of missions. He 
was appointed in 1831 to the office of general 
secretary of the W T esleyan Missionary Society, 
and displayed great ability in administering 
its affairs at the mission house, in counselling 
its agents all over the world, and in advo- 
cating its claims. In 1850 he was elected to 
the presidency of the Wesleyan conference, 
and fulfilled the duties of that onerous posi- 
tion in a time of great anxiety and trouble 
with dignity and grace. Dr. Beecham's later 
years were largely occupied in the formation 
of new methodist conferences in North Ame- 
rica and in Australia. His wife died in 
1853. Their family consisted of one son 
and two daughters. He died in London 
22 April 1856, aged 68. 

The following are his principal literary 
works : 1. ' An Essay on the Constitution of 
Wesleyan Methodism,' 3rd edition, London, 
1851. 2. ' Ashantee and the Gold Coast ; a 
Sketch of the History of those Countries/ 
London, 1841. 3. ' Colonisation,' London, 

[Minutes of the Methodist Conferences, voL 
xiii. ; Memoir in Wesleyan Methodist Magazine 
for 1856 ; Osborn's Bibliography.] W. B. L. 


(1796-1856), rear-admiral and geographer, 
son of Sir William Beechey, R.A. [q.v.], was 
born on 17 Feb. 1796, and entered the navy in 
July 1806 under the direct patronage of Lord 
St. Vincent, and afterwards of Sir Sidney 
Smith. During the years of his early service 
in the Channel, on the coast of Portugal and 
on the East India station, the naval war 
had almost burnt itself out ; and the only 
occasion in which he was actually engaged 
with the enemy was when, as midshipman of 
the Astrsea under Captain Schomberg, he 
was present at the capture of the Clorinde 
and Nereide on the coast of Madagascar, 
20-25 May 1811. In 1814 he was appointed 
to the Tonnant, of 80 guns, which carried 
the flag of Sir Alexander Cochrane, the com- 
mander-in-chief in North America, and had 
a part in the boat operation, 8 Jan. 1815, on 
the Lower Mississippi. For this service he 
was promoted to be lieutenant on 10 March 




following, but remained on the North Ame- 
rican station till after the peace. On 14 Jan. 
1818 he was appointed to the Trent, hired 
brig, commanded by Lieutenant (afterwards 
Sir John) Franklin, and had an interesting 
share in the Arctic expedition of that year, 
of which he afterwards published an account 
under the title ' Voyage of Discovery towards 
the North Pole, performed in his Majesty's 
ships Dorothea and Trent, under the command 
of Captain David Buchan ' (8vo, 1843). In 
the next year, 1819, he served again in the 
Arctic, on board the Hecla, under Lieuten- 
ant William Edward Parry during that re- 
markable voyage, the account of which wa& ' 
afterwards written by Mr. Parry himself i 
(4to, 1821). In January 1821 Beechey was 
appointed to the Adventure sloop, under 
Captain William Henry Smyth, and during ! 
the next two years was employed on the i 
survey of the north coast of Africa, some j 
account of which he afterwards published (in | 
conjunction with his brother, Henry William 
Beechey), under the title ' Proceedings of the 
Expedition to explore the Northern Coast of 
Africa from Tripoli Eastward, in 1821-2' 
(4to, 1828). On 25 Jan. 1822 he had been 
promoted to the rank of commander, and in 
January 1825 he was appointed to command 
the Blossom, which was engaged for the next 
four years in the Pacific, and in endeavouring 
to co-operate, by Behring's Straits, with the 
polar expeditions from the eastward. His 
narrative of this voyage was published by 
authority of the admiralty in 1831 (2 vols, 
8vo). On his return from this expedition he 
married (December 1828) Charlotte, daughter 
of Lieutenant-colonel Stapleton, of Thorpe 
Lee, and having been, whilst still in the 
Pacific, advanced to the rank of captain 
(8 May 1827), he now remained for some 
years on shore. In September 1835 he was 
appointed to the Sulphur, for the survey of 
part of the coast of South America ; but his 
health failing, he was compelled to come 
home in the autumn of 1836. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed to the survey of 
the coast of Ireland, and, in different steam- 
vessels, continued on that duty for the next 
ten years (1837-47). From this time he 
lived chiefly in London, engaged in scientific 
work, and occasionally contributing papers 
to the Royal and other societies, of which he 
was a fellow. In 1855 he was elected presi- 
dent of the Royal Geographical Society, an 
office which he still held at his death, on 
29 Nov. 1856. 

Besides the works already named, he was 
the author of two Reports of Observations 
on the Tides in the Irish Sea and English 
Channel (Phil. Trans. 1848, pp. 105-16, 

1851, pp. 703-18), of the Presidential Ad- 
dress to the Royal Geographical Society 1856, 
and of some minor papers. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 
1857, i. 108.] J. K. L. 

BEECHEY, GEORGE D. (Jl. 1817- 
1855), portrait painter, was a son of Sir 
William Beechey, R. A. [q.v.], whose profes- 
sion and style he followed. He exhibited first 
at the Royal Academy in 1817, and con- 
tinued to do so through several subsequent 
years, having many sitters so long as his 
father's influence lasted; but about 1830 the 
rapid decline in the number of his commis- 
sions induced him to leave England and 
proceed to Calcutta, whence he sent to the 
Royal Academy in 1832 a portrait of 'Hinda,' 
an Indian lady whom he married. He after- 
wards went to Lucknow, where he attained 
great celebrity and became court painter and 
controller of the household to the king of 
Oudh. He is believed to have been living 
in India in 1855, and to have died before the 
mutiny of 1857. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878; 
Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, 
ed. Graves, 1884.] E. E. G. 


1870 ?), painter and explorer, was a son of r 
Sir William Beechey, R. A. [q. v.], and fol- 
lowed his father's profession. He sent a marine 
subject to the Royal Academy in 1829, and 
another in 1838 to the British Institution 
(GKAVES'S Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880, p. 18). 
Some time before 1816 he had become secre- 
tary to Mr. Salt, the British consul-general in 
Egypt, and at the latter's request accompanied 
Belzoni in that and the following year beyond 
the second cataract, for the purpose of study- 
ing and making designs of the fine monuments 
existing at Thebes. In the laborious exca- 
vation of the temple of Ipsambul, Beechey 
took his share ; he also copied the paintings 
in the king's tombs in the valley of Biban-el- 
Muluk, which had lately been opened by 
Belzoni. In common with his employer, Mr. 
Salt, Beechey had much to endure from Bel- 
zoni's suspicious and jealous nature (Life and 
Correspondence of Henry Salt, ed. Halls, 
vol. ii.) About 1820 he returned to Eng- 
land, and the next year was appointed by Earl 
Bathurst, on the part of the colonial office, to 
examine and report on the antiquities of the 
Cyrenaica, his brother, Captain Beechey, 
having been detached to survey the coast-line 
from Tripoli to Derna. The results of this 
expedition, which occupied the greater part 
of the years 1821 and 1822, were chronicled 
in a journal kept by the brothers, to which 




the pencil of Henry Beechey lent additional 
interest by numerous charming drawings, il- 
lustrative of the art and natural peculiarities 
of the classic region they were exploring, 
many of which were unfortunately left out 
when the narrative came to be published in 
1828 (Gent. Mag. 3rd ser. ii. 109). Of the 
remainder of Beechey's life we have failed to 
recover any particulars. He had seen much 
vicissitude, and in 1855 emigrated to New 
.Zealand, where he is believed by his relatives 
to have died in or about 1870. He left a 
family. Besides his share in the above-men- 
tioned work Beechey wrote a painstaking 
memoir of Sir Joshua Reynolds, prefixed to 
the edition of the latter's l Literary Works,' 
published in 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1835, and 
.afterwards reprinted in Bohn's l Standard 
Library ' edition, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1852. 
Beechey became a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries in 1825. 

[Family information.] G. G. 

1839), painter, was born at Burford, in Ox- 
fordshire, 12 Dec. 1753. He is stated by 
Dayes to have begun life as a house-painter. 
From other accounts it would appear that he 
was articled to a solicitor at Stowe, in Glou- 
cestershire, and was afterwards transferred to 
-a lawyer in London. In London he made 
the acquaintance of some art students, who 
led him to get his articles cancelled, and he 
became in 1772 a student of the Royal 
Academy. In 1775 he exhibited some por- 
traits, and from that time he practised in 
London with tolerable success. In 178]. 
however, he removed to Norwich. He stayed 
there some four or five years, painting subject 
pieces (' in the manner ' of Hogarth) and por- 
traits. Returning to London he settled in 
Lower Brook Street, and got both work and 
fame. In 1793 he was elected A.R.A., and 
painted the same year a portrait of Queen 
Charlotte, which procured him the appoint- 
ment of portrait painter to her majesty. A 
large equestrian group of George III, with 
the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York, 
reviewing the 10th hussars and 3rd dragoons, 
gained great celebrity. It was painted in 
1793. This work, now hanging at Hampton 
Court, is considered his best. l Although a 
clever and somewhat showy group of por- 
traits, it has little of real nature, and is full 
of painters' artifices.' In 1793 he was knighted 
and elected a full member of the Royal 

He was for a long while a fashionable por- 
trait painter ; but the great reputation of 
Lawrence had outshone his own some years 
before he finally retired. * His colouring,' ac- 

cording to Redgrave, ' was pleasing. He 
excelled in his females and children ; but his 
males wanted power. His draperies were 
poor and ill-cast, and he showed no ability 
to overcome the graceless stiffness which then 
prevailed in dress. Yet he possessed much 
merit, and his portraits have maintained a 
respectable second rank.' In 1836 he sold his 
collection of works of art and retired to 
Hampstead. 'He was twice married, and 
had a large and highly accomplished family.' 
His wife, Lady Beechey, was an artist who 
painted miniatures with ability. His sons, 
Frederick William, George D., and Henry 
William, are separately noticed. In the 
print room of the British Museum are two 
of Sir William Beechey's drawings land- 
scape studies, sketched freely 'vith a pen. 
Amongst his most distinguished sitters (be- 
sides royal personages) were the Marquis 
CornwaUis, Earl St. Vincent, John Kemble, 
David Wilkie, and Joseph Nollekens. Outside 
the region of portraiture one of Sir William 
Beechey's most important pictures (as well 
as his own favourite) was the ' Infant Her- 
cules/ The painter afterwards, with happy 
versatility, copied the same picture, and made 
it do duty as ' John the Baptist.' Sir Wil- 
liam Beechey died on 28 Jan. 1839 at the 
age of eighty-six. 

[Gent. Mag. April 1839 ; Dayes's Works, 1807 ; 
Pilkington's Diet, of Painters ; Redgrave's Dic- 
tionary of Artists of the English School ; Red- 
graves' Century of Painters, 1866.] E. R. 

BEECHING, JAMES (1788-1858), in- 
ventor of ' self-righting lifeboats, was born 
at Bexhill, near Hastings, in 1788, and there 
served an apprenticeship to boat-building. 
Some little time after his apprenticeship had 
expired he went over to Flushing, and while 
there, in 1819, built the famous smuggling 
cutter known as the ' Big Jane.' On leaving 
Flushing he settled at Great Yarmouth, where 
he introduced the handsome build of fishing- 
vessel now used at that port. In 1851 attempts 
were made, under the auspices of the late 
Prince Consort, to revive the activity of the 
Royal National Institution for the Preserva- 
tion of Life from Shipwreck, the affairs of 
which were at a very low ebb. A prize of 100/. 
for the best model of a lifeboat, and another 
100/. towards defraying the cost of building, 
were offered by the president of the insti- 
tution, the Duke of Northumberland. Out 
of 280 models sent in from all parts of the 
world, many of which were displayed at the 
exhibition of 1851, that on a ' self-righting ' 
principle, invented and exhibited by James 
Beeching, was awarded the prize, and with a 
few slight modifications suggested by Mr. 




Peake, master shipwright of Woolwich dock- 
yard, one of the judges, has served as the 
model for the magnificent fleet of lifeboats 
now possessed by the Royal National Life- 
boat Institution (EncycL Brit. 9th ed. xiv. 
572). So confident was Beeching of the 
merits of his invention, that he built a boat 
on the same model before the prize was 
awarded, which boat became the property of 
the trustees of Ramsgate Harbour, and was 
instrumental in saving several hundreds of 
lives on the Goodwin Sands (GILMOKE). 
Beeching died on 7 June 1858. 

[Information supplied by Mr. Beeching's 
family; Exhibition Eeports, 1851, i. 332; Gil- 
more's Storm-Warriors, London, 1878 ; Reports 
Royal Nat. Lifeboat Inst.] H. M. C. 

BEEDOME, THOMAS (d. 1641 ?) poet, is 
the author of a scarce little volume of verses, 
posthumously published in 1641 under the 
title of ' Poems Divine and Humane/ 12mo. 
The collection was edited by Henry Glap- 
thorne, the dramatist and poet, who prefixed 
a short prose address ' to the reader/ which 
is followed by commendatory verses of Ed. 
May, Henry Glapthorne (in English and 
Latin), W. C[hamberlaine ?], Em. D. (two 
copies), H. S., H. P., R. W., J. S., Tho. 
Nabbes, and Fran. Beedome (the author's 
brother). The chief poem in the collection 
is entitled ' The Jealous Lover, or the Con- 
stant Maid ; ' it is a juvenile performance (in 
six-line stanzas), showing some smoothness of 
versification. Songs, epistles, epigrams, ele- 
gies, and devotional poems follow. Two epi- 
grams are addressed ' to Sir Henry Wotten, 
Knight/ another is in praise of Wither. 
There are also epigrams ' to his deare friend 
William Harrington/ ' to the heroicall Cap- 
taine Thomas James' (two), and Ho the 
memory of his honoured friend, Master John 
Donne, an Eversary.' The author appears to 
have died at an early age, and of his life no- 
thing is known. His poems have very little 
value ; but the poetaster Henry Bold seems 
to have thought well of them, for the first 
fifty pages of his ' Wit a Sporting/ 1657, are 
taken verbatim from Beedome's book. A copy 
of commendatory verses by Beedome is pre- 
fixed to Farley's ' Light's Morall Emblems,' 

[Poems Divine and Humane, 1641 ; Corser's 
Collectanea Anglo -Poetica, ii. 246-50, 311.1 

A. H. B. 

f\_ BEEKE, HENRY, D.D. (1751-1837), 
-' dean of Bristol, a writer on subjects con- 
nected with finance, was the son of the Rev. 
Christopher Beeke, and was born at Kings- 
teignton, Devonshire, 6 Jan. 1751. He was 
elected a scholar of Corpus Christ! College, 

Oxford, 5 May 1769, and proceeded B.A. r 
1773; M.A., 1776; B.D., 1785; and D.D., 
1800. He was also fellow of Oriel (1775) ;. 
junior proctor (1784), and professor of modern 
history (1801). He obtained in succession the 
; vicarage of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford (1782),. 
! rectory of Ufton Norcot, Berkshire (1780),. 
deanery of Bristol (1814), and vicarage of 
j Weare (1819). He died at Torquay 9 March 
| 1837. His chief work is entitled ' Observa- 
, tions on the Produce of the Income Tax, and 
on its Proportion to the whole Income of Great 
Britain (London, 1799 ; new and enlarged 
edition, 1 800) . This was written to prove that 
whilst the lately imposed income-tax might 
not produce as much as was expected, this was- 
not because the resources of the country had 
been overrated. f On the contrary, I have 
been uniformly persuaded that we are more 
powerful, have resources more permanent, a 
population more numerous, and an income 
more considerable than the most enlarged 
computations which have been hitherto pub- 
lished.' The real reason was that ' the- 
part of the national income which is made 
liable to the present tax bears a far less pro- 
portion to the whole of it than has been con- 
jectured.' He affirms the tax itself to be- 
' founded on moral equity and political wis- 
dom.' Of this work J. R. M'Culloch declares 
that it affords f the best example of the suc- 
cessful application of statistical reasoning to 
finance that had then appeared.' It gives an 
interesting and valuable account of the eco- 
nomic condition of Great Britain at the begin- 
ning of the century. 

Dr. Beeke had a wide reputation as a 
financial authority, and Mr. Vansittart, after- 
wards Lord Bexley, when chancellor of the 
exchequer (1812-1823), frequently consulted 
him on questions connected with the duties 
of his office. He was a keen observer of the- 
politics of the time, and from an unpublished 
letter, written to Sir Lewis Palk in August 
1805, and discussing the condition and pro- 
spects of political parties, he seems to have 
known much of what was passing behind the 
scenes. It is also said that Pitt 'was indebted 
! to him for the original suggestion of the in- 
' come-tax/ but, according to Lord Stanhope, 
' the scheme of a general tax on all kinds of 
income (proposed by Pitt in 1798) was by no 
means a new one. It had several times been 
suggested to the minister by speculative- 
financiers and writers of pamphlets ' (STAN- 
HOPE'S Life of Pitt, ii. 306, London, 1879). 
Thus Dr. Beeke s suggestion, if actually 
offered, can only have been one of several to 
the same effect. 

Dr. Beeke's other works were unimportant .. 
They were : ' Sermon for Exeter Hospital * 




(Oxford, 1790) ; ' Letter to a County Mem- 
ber on the means of securing a safe and 
honourable Peace ' (London, 1798) ; and { Ob- 
servations on the Roman Roads in Great 

[dent. Mag. new series, vol. vii. ; Farley's 
Bristol Journal (Bristol, 18 March 1837); Eger- 
ton MS. 2, f. 193; Addit MSS. 31229 to 31232; 
M'Culloch's Literature of Political Economy, 
London, 1845).] F. W-T. 

BEESLEY, ALFRED (1800-1847), to- 
pographer, was apprenticed to a watchmaker 
at Deddington, Oxfordshire, but only served 
a portion of his time, and subsequently de- 
voted himself to literary and scientific pur- 
suits. He died on 10 April 1847, and was 
buried in Banbury churchyard. He pub- 
lished a collection of poems, and ' The His- 
tory of Banbury, including copious historical 
and antiquarian notices,' Lond. 1841, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xv. 65, xxviii. 99.] 

T. C. 


1591), catholic missioner, was born at a place 
called the Mount, in Goosnargh parish, in 
Lancashire. He was an alumnus of Douay 
College while it was located at Rheims. Or- 
dained priest in 1587 he was sent upon the 
English mission in 1588. Falling into the 
hands of the persecutors he was so frequently 
tortured by the notorious Topcliffe that he 
was reduced to a mere skeleton. He steadily 
refused, however, to divulge anything that 
might have brought others into danger. He 
was condemned on account of his priestly 
character, and for remaining in England con- 
trary to the statute of the 27th Elizabeth, and 
was executed in Fleet Street, London, on 
2 July 1591. Another priest, Monford Scot, 
suffered at the same time and place. 

[Diaries of Douay College; Challoner's Mis- 
sionary Priests (1741), i. 259 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. ii. 90.] T. C. 

1702), lieutenant-governor of Jamaica, was 
born at Tichfield, Hampshire, being second 
son of William Beeston of Posbrook, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Arthur Bromfield. 
His elder brother, Henry, was master of 
Winchester School and warden of New Col- 
lege, Oxford. Beeston went to Jamaica in 
1660. In 1664 he was elected, as member 
for Port Royal, to the first house of assembly: 
he was sent to prison by the speaker for 
contempt of his authority, was brought before 
the governor and council, reprimanded and 
released (Addit. MS. 12430, fol. 30). Beeston 
tells us (ib.) that when this assembly, which 

had been ' marked by parties, great heate, and 
ill-humours/ adjourned, 'to make amends 
for their jangling, and to cement the rents 
that had been made, it was determined to 
treat the governor and council to a dinner, 
and a splendid dinner was provided, with 
wine and music, and what else might make 
it great. This held well till the plenty of 
wine made the old wounds appear, for then 
all went together by the ears, and in the 
unlucky conflict honest Captain Rutter, a 
worthy gentleman of the assembly, was 
killed by Major Joy, who was of the coun- 
cil, and had always been his friend, but the 
drink and other men's quarrels made them 
fall out.' In December of this year Beeston 
was made a judge of the court of common 
pleas, Jamaica (Cal. State Papers}. In 1665 
the governor, Sir Thomas Modyford, sent 
him to negotiate with a force of privateers 
who were threatening St. Spiritus, Cuba. 
In 1668 Sir Thomas Lynch (who had suc- 
ceeded Sir Thomas Modyford as governor) 
sent ' Major Beeston with a fleet to carry 
articles of peace with the Spaniards to Car- 
tagena, and to bring away the English pri- 
soners ; ' and on his return to Jamaica gave 
him the command of a frigate (Addit. MS. 
12430, fol. 33). The following year he sailed 
to Cuba and Hispaniola ' to look after pirates 
and privateers,' and to Havanna ' to fetch 
away the prisoners.' On 10 July 1672 he 
convoyed a fleet of merchantmen to Eng- 
land (ib.}. In 1675 Beeston and Sir Henry 
Morgan (of buccaneering celebrity) were 
appointed commissioners of the admiralty 
(ib. fol. 33). In 1677 and the two follow- 
ing years 'Lieutenant-Colonel Beeston,' as 
speaker of the house of assembly, zealously 
promoted the opposition to the efforts of the 
governor, the Earl of Carlisle, to assimilate 
the government of Jamaica to that then 
existing in Ireland, and to obtain an act 
settling a perpetual revenue upon the crown. 
The governor dissolved the assembly, and 
ordered Colonel Long (late chief justice) and 
Colonel Beeston to England to answer for 
their contumacy. On their arrival they 
| brought counter charges against his lord- 
ship. He was superseded in the government, 
and ' his majesty, after hearing Colonel Long 
and Colonel Beeston, not only returned to 
their island its former government and all 
privileges they had hitherto enjoyed, but en- 
larged them ' (Lola's Hist, of Jamaica, i. 16). 
Beeston does not appear to have returned 
to Jamaica until 1693, having at the close 
of the previous year been knighted at Ken- 
sington and appointed lieutenant-governor 
of the island. He found it still suffering 
from the effects of the fearful earthquake of 




7 June 1692, followed by an epidemic fever, 

and in October Beeston writes to Lord : 

4 By the mortality which yet continues I have 
lost all my family but rny wife and one child, 
and have not one servant lei ? t to attend me 
but my cook, so it is very uneasy being here.' 
He goes on to beg that if his appointment 
is not to be permanent he may be as soon 
as possible recalled (Add. MS. 28878, fol. 
135). In 1694 Beeston, as commander-in- 
chief, successfully resisted a very formidable 
invasion of Jamaica by the French. ' A 
Narrative by Sir William Beeston on the 
Descent on Jamaica by the French,' and i A 
Letter from the Council in England in an- 
swer to his narrative/ conveying her majesty's 
thanks, are to be found in manuscript in the 
library of the British Museum (Addit. MS. 
12430, fols. 3 and 21). In 1699 Beeston, at 
the instigation of the home government, 
helped to complete the ruin of the Scotch 
colony at Darien by a proclamation forbidding 
the inhabitants of Jamaica to trade with them 
or afford them any assistance (BKIDGE'S 
Annals of Jamaica, i. 327). His position as 
head of the executive was a more than usually 
difficult one. During his previous residence 
he had been a leader of the colonists in their 
struggle for self-government, now he was 
the recognised upholder of royal prerogative. 
Yet for some time he contrived to secure for 
himself a greater share of popularity than had 
been the lot of any of his immediate predeces- 
sors, and he dissolved the assembly of 1700 
in tolerable harmony with all its members 
(ib. p. 328). 

The succeeding house called upon him i to 
account for the large sums of unowned money 
and treasure ' found amidst the ruins of the 
earthquake, and for an account of the dis- 
bursement of 4,OOOZ. royal bounty to the 
sufferers by the French invasion. Beeston 
would not comply with their demand, and 
the house, refusing to proceed with any other 
business, was dissolved. On 21 Jan. 1702 
Beeston was superseded in the government, 
and in the first assembly of his successor, 
General Selwyn, an address was voted pray- 
ing that Sir W. Beeston might not be per- 
. mitted to quit the island without accounting 
for the moneys he had appropriated. Selwyn 
died before it could be presented, but it was 
received by the new governor, Colonel Beck- 
ford, grandfather of the lord mayor of Lon- 
don (BUEKE'S Landed Gentry), who said 
that he did not consider Beeston responsible 
to the house of assembly, but to the king. 
Nevertheless as an act of grace he submitted 
to them an explanation which Beeston had 
made to himself of the application of the 
money (Proceeds. H. of Assembly MS. 12425), 

Avhich must have satisfied them, as they ap- 
pear to have taken no further notice of the 
matter, and Beeston sailed for England on 
25 April (Addit. MS. 12424, Becstoris Jour- 
nal}. In the ' Transactions of the Royal 
Society ' for 1696 there is ' an abstract from 
a letter of Sir W. Beeston to Mr. C. Bernard, 
containing some observations about the baro- 
meter, and of a hot bath in Jamaica' (iv. 79, 
abridged edition), and in the library of the 
British Museum there is a daily journal in 
the handwriting of Sir William Beeston of" 
seven voyages made by him from 10 Dec. 
1671 to 28 June 1702 (Addit. MS. 12424). 
Sir William Beeston's daughter, Jane, mar- 
ried, first, Sir Thomas Modyford, bart., and, 
secondly, Charles Long, to whom she was 
second wife (ib.} 

[Authorities given in the text.] P. B. A. 

BEGA (8th cent. ?) was a saint whose his- 
tory is wrapped in much obscurity, and has 
been much mixed up with that of others . A c- 
cording to Butler (6 Sept.) she was an Irish 
virgin (7th cent.) who lived as an anchoret,, 
and founded a nunnery in Copeland. Leland 
( Coll. iii. 36) follows another version, accord- 
ing to which, after founding her monastery 
in Cumberland, she passed into Northumbria 
and founded another north of the Wear ; 
after which her history seems to become con- 
fused with that of St. Heiu and St. Begu. 
In the Aberdeen breviary there is a lesson 
for a Saint Bega, with whom she may per- 
haps be identified. This St. Bega is described 
as an anchoret who lived in an island called 
Cumbria in the ocean sea, where she was 
sometimes visited by St. Maura. She was 
buried in her island, and was especially 
venerated at Dunbar. 

[Authorities cited above.] ~W. R. W. S. 

BEGBIE, JAMES (1798-1869), physi- 
cian, was born in 1798 and educated at the- 
high school and university of Edinburgh, 
where he took the degree of M.D. in 1821. 
He became F.R.C.S. Edin. 1822. He was 
the pupil, and afterwards for some years the 
assistant, of Abercrombie, whose instructions 
and example had great influence on his cha- 
racter and professional life. After many 
years' successful general practice, Begbie be- 
came in 1847 fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh, and devoted him- 
self to consulting practice, in which he ob- 
tained great reputation and popularity. For 
several years he was physician in ordinary 
to the queen for Scotland. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 26 1869. 

Begbie's writings consisted of a series of 
medical essays and memoirs, collected into a 




volume as ' Contributions to Practical Medi- 
cine/ 8vo, Edinburgh, 1862. They show 
considerable originality and practical ability. 
The most important is an ' Essay on Anaemia,' 
giving an account of the remarkable disease 
Exophthalmic Goitre (also called Basedow's 
and Graves's disease), of which Begbie was 
an independent investigator and one of the 
earliest. James Warburton Begbie [q. v.] 
was his son. 

[Edinburgh Medical Journal, October 1869, 
xv. 380 ; Lancet, 1869, ii. 356.] J. F. P. 

-1876), physician, was born on 19 Nov. 1826, 
and was the second son of Dr. James Begbie 
[q. v.]. He was educated at the Edin- 
burgh Academy, and in 1843 became a 
medical student in the university of Edin- 
burgh. Of his teachers there, Alison appears 
to have influenced him most. In 1847 he 
proceeded M.D. with a dissertation l On some 
of the Pathological Conditions of the Urine,' 
which received special commendation. He 
afterwards studied in Paris, paying special 
attention to diseases of the skin, under Caze- 
nave and Devergie. About 1852 he settled 
in Edinburgh as a family practitioner, and 
was made fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians there. In 1852 he married Miss 
Anna Maria Reid, by whom he had three 
sons and four daughters. In 1854 he was 
appointed physician to the (temporary) cho- 
lera hospital in Edinburgh, and in 1855 phy- 
sician to the Royal Infirmary, a post which 
he held for the statutable period of ten years. 
During the same time he gave clinical lec- 
tures in the Infirmary, and lectured on the 
practice of physic at the Extra Academical 
School, where he gave also a short annual 
course of lectures on the history of medicine. 

After 1865 Begbie ceased to teach or hold 
hospital appointments, though busily occu- 
pied in his profession ; and in 1869, on the 
death of his father, he limited himself to 
consulting practice. For the remainder of 
his life he was the most popular and highly 
esteemed physician in Scotland. The inces- 
sant calls made upon him for consultations 
in the country, involving wearying railway 
journeys, taxed his strength very severely, 
and doubtless contributed to the breakdown 
of his health. In 1875, at the meeting of 
the British Medical Association in Edin- 
burgh, he was entrusted with the delivery of 
the address on medicine, and at the same 
time his own university paid him the com- 
pliment of conferring upon him the honorary 
degree of LL.D. Immediately after this 
event he was compelled to give up work 
through an affection of the heart, which 

closed his life on 25 Feb. 1876. Begbie was 
well fitted, physically, morally, and intel- 
lectually, for the work of his profession, and 
was, in the highest sense of the word, re- 
markably successful, not only in relieving 
the bodily ills of his patients, but in winning 
their confidence and affection. These quali- 
ties gained him deservedly a very high repu- 
tation in Scotland. 

His writings are characteristic of an able 
but extremely busy man. They are chiefly 
accounts of cases with copious comments^ 
discussing in almost every instance the views 
and discoveries of others, without any im- 
portant original contribution of his own. At 
the same time these memoirs are very tho- 
roughly done, containing numerous literary 
references, and not wanting in useful prac- 
tical hints. Begbie's only separate book was 
f A Handy Book of Medical Information and 
Advice, by a Physician,' published anony- 
mously in 1860, of which a second edition 
appeared in 1872. He wrote thirteen articles 
in Reynolds's l System of Medicine,' of which 
perhaps the most important were on ' Local 
Paralysis from Nerve Disease,' ' Dysentery/ 
' Fatty Liver,' ' Cancer of the Liver,' &c. 
The best of his other papers, published in 
various medical journals, were reprinted by 
the New Sydenham Society as ' Selections 
from the Works of the late J. Warburton 
Begbie, edited [with a memoir] by Dr. Dyce 
Duckworth,' London, 1882. 

[Memoir by Dr. Duckworth (in Begbie's 
Works) ; Edinburgh Medical Journal, April 
1876, xxi. 950 ; British Medical Journal, 1876, 
i. 311, 337.] J. F. P. 

BEGG, JAMES, D.D. (1808-1883), Free 
church minister, was born in the manse of 
New Monkland, Lanarkshire, where his 
father was minister, on 31 Oct. 1808. He 
studied at the parish school, then entered 
the university of Glasgow, where he took 
his degree of M.A. After passing through 
the theological curriculum, he was licensed 
as a preacher in June 1829, and after a short 
assistantship at North Leith, was ordained to 
the ministry at Maxwelltown, Dumfries, 
18 May 1830. After a very brief incumbency 
there he was called to be colleague to Dr. 
Jones in Lady Glenorchy's chapel, Edin- 
burgh, and in 1831 went from Edinburgh to 
Paisley as minister of the Middle parish 
church. In 1835 he was called to Liberton, 
in the vicinity of Edinburgh, where he re- 
mained till the Disruption in 1843. Leaving 
Liberton for Newington, the neighbouring- 
suburb of Edinburgh, he spent the last forty 
years of his life as minister of Newington 
Free Church, and was discharging the duties. 




of that office when attacked by his last ill- 
ness. The degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Lafayette College, Pennsylvania, in 

Begg's father, and a circle of friends with 
whom he was connected, were very ardent 
supporters of the evangelical or popular side 
in the church, in opposition to that commonly 
known as ' the moderate.' They were vehe- 
ment opponents of the policy which Principal 
Robertson, Dr. Blair, and others had carried 
out so triumphantly about the end of last 
century. The rights of the people in the 
election of ministers were strongly main- 
tained by them, and the whole traditions of 
the evangelical school in Scotland from the 
days of Knox, through reformers, covenanters, 
and martyrs, were cherished with singular 
reverence. As soon as James Begg secured 
a position in the church, his voice was raised 
in favour of the measures of the evangelical 
party. The ' voluntary ' movement awakened 
his eager hostility, while he cordially sup- 
ported Dr. Chalmers, both in his establish- 
ment and church extension movements. 
When the collision occurred between the 
ecclesiastical and civil courts in Scotland, 
Begg strongly supported the church, going to 
Strathbogie, and preaching there in spite of 
an interdict from the court of session. As 
the conflict grew desperate, Begg counselled 
its continuance. He ultimately withdrew 
from connection with the state, with his 470 
brethren, in 1843. 

Besides labouring to advance the cause and 
principles of the Free church, Begg took a 
keen and practical interest in the cause of 
protestantism. He deemed it of supreme 
importance to watch and expose the eiforts of 
the church of Rome, and in 1850, when the 
attempt was made to form a Roman catholic 
hierarchy in England, he vehemently attacked 
the papacy in speeches, sermons, pamphlets, 
periodicals, and handbooks, some of which 
had a wide circulation. 

Begg was also a keen advocate for the 
maintenance of the old Scottish Sabbath. 
For popular education, too, he worked hard. 
In social questions he took a lively interest, 
und especially in endeavours to improve the 
houses of working men. But his influence 
was chiefly shown in his later years in 
resisting the proposal for union between the 
Free and the United Presbyterian churches. 
Begg clung to the idea that terms between 
the Free church and the state might one day 
be made, and he would enter into no union 
that virtually abandoned that hope. Though 
he was supported only by a minority, its in- 
fluence was poAverful enough to prevent the 
union. As it was in the Highland portion 

of the Free church that the chief opposition 
to union lay, Begg became more and more 
identified with that section. With them he 
opposed the use of hymns in public wor- 
ship : he denounced instrumental music in 
churches ; he withstood all proposals to make 
subscription easier to the office-bearers of the 
church ; while the assertion of his opponents, 
that he stood in the way of all progress, was 
rather hailed by him as a compliment than 
otherwise, for he delighted to proclaim that, 
however other men might change, as for him, 
he stood precisely where he stood in 1843. 

Begg possessed many of the qualities of a 
leader of the people. He had a fine command- 
ing presence, a splendid voice and elocution, 
and a style of popular eloquence which even 
his foes could not but admire. He was always 
self-controlled and ready, usually radiant 
and happy in his tone and manner, and he 
seemed to know instinctively how to arrest 
his audience and cany them along with 
him. Yet it was observed that Begg had 
little control over the deeper feelings of men, 
and that he seldom tried to move them. 
Powerful though he was, it was but a frag- 
ment of his church whose adherence to his 
views he was able to secure. On most of 
the church questions with which he specially 
identified himself he was in a minority. 

Begg was moderator of the general as- 
sembly of the Free church in 1865. In the 
winter of 1844-5 he was sent by his church 
to Canada on public duty, and while on a 
visit to the United States, he had the honour 
of preaching before Congress. He under- 
took a long journey in 1874, and saw some- 
thing of India, New Zealand, Australia, and 
Ceylon. On his return a sum of 4,600/. was 
presented to him by his friends, in token of 
their esteem for him personally and regard 
for his public services. 

Begg was twice married, and left a nume- 
rous family. Usually he enjoyed excellent 
health ; his last illness was congestion of the 
lungs, accompanied by heart disorder. He 
died at Edinburgh, after two or three days' 
illness, 29 Sept, 1883. 

[Memoirs of James Begg, D.D., by Professor 
Thomas Smith, D.D. ; books and pamphlets by 
Dr. Begg; Scott's Fasti, i. 117 ; obituary notices 
in Edinburgh papers 1 Oct. 1883.] W. GK B. 

BEGHA, also called BEG, BEGGA, and 
BEGAGH (d. 660?), saint, was an Irish 
virgin of royal birth. To avoid being given 
in marriage against her will, she fled to 
Scotland, where she received the veil at the 
hands of Aidan, and afterwards became the 
first abbess of nuns in England in the reign 
of king Oswald. Her chief foundation, 




however (drc. 656), was in the kingdom of 
Strathclyde, at the spot on the sea-coast 
which, under the designation of St. Bees, 
still preserves the memory of her name. A 
priory was afterwards founded here by Wil- 
liam de Meschines, lord of Copeland temp. 
Henry I. In her old age Begha resigned 
her abbacy in Oswald's kingdom into the 
hands of St. Hilda, under whose rule she 
lived till her death, the year of which cannot 
be fixed, but her festival was kept on 31 Oct. 

[Bolland. Acta SS. Sept., ii. 694; Faber'sLife 
of St. Bega, 1844 ; Montalembert's Monks of the 
West, iv. 58-9, v. 248-52 ; Forbes's Cal. of 
Scotch Saints ; Tomlinson's Vita S. Begse in 
Carlisle Hist. Tracts.] W. E. W. S. 

AYFARA (1640-1689), dramatist and no- 
velist, was baptised at Wye on 10 July 1640. 
She was the daughter of John Johnson, a 
barber, and of Amy, his wife. A relative 
whom she called her father was nominated 
by Lord Willoughby to the post of lieu- 
tenant-general of Surinam, which was then 
an English possession. He went out to the 
West Indies with his whole family when 
Aphra was still a child. The father died 
on the outward voyage, but the family settled 
in the best house in the colony, a charming 
residence called St. John's Hill, of which 
the poetess has given a probably overcharged 
picture, painted from memory, in her novel 
of ' Oroonoko.' She became acquainted, as 
she grew up, with the romantic chieftain 
whose name has just been mentioned, and 
with Imoinda his wife. A great deal of non- 
sense was long afterwards talked in London 
about this friendship, in which the scandal- 
mongers would fain see a love-affair between 
Aphra and Oroonoko. The latter, to say 
the truth, is a slightly fabulous personage, 
although the poetess says that ' he was used 
to call me his "Great Mistress," and my 
wishes would go a great way with him.' 
England resigned Surinam to the Dutch, and 
Aphra returned to her native country about 
1658. She presently married a city merchant 
named Behn, a gentleman of Dutch extrac- 
tion. It appears that through her marriage 
she gained an entrance to the court, and that 
she amused Charles II with her sallies and 
her eloquent descriptions. Her married life, 
during which she seems to have been wealthy, 
was brief. Before 1666 she was a widow. 
When the Dutch war broke out, Charles II 
thought her a proper person to be entrusted 
with secret state business, and she was sent 
over to Antwerp by the government as a spy. 
During this stay in the Low Countries she 
was pestered with attentions from suitors, 


of whom she has left a very lively account. 
One of these, in a moment of indiscretion, 
gave her notice of Cornelius de Witt's inten- 
tion to send a Dutch fleet up the Thames. 
Accordingly she communicated the news to 
London, but her intelligence was ridiculed. 
She was doomed to adventure in all that she 
undertook, for having promised to marry a 
Dutchman named Van der Aalbert, the two 
lovers separated to meet again in London. 
But Van der Aalbert was taken with a fever 
in Amsterdam and died, while Aphra Behn, 
having set sail from Dunkirk, was wrecked 
in sight of land, and narrowly escaped drown- 
ing. She returned to London, and, as her 
biographer puts it, she dedicated the re- 
mainder of her life to pleasure and poetry. 

The fact is that Aphra Behn from this time 
forth became a professional writer, the first 
female writer who had lived by her pen in 
England, and that her assiduity surpassed 
that of any of the men, her contemporaries, 
except Dryden. Her works are extremely 
numerous. The truth seems to be that she 
had been left unprovided for at the death 
of her husband, and that the court basely 
failed to reward her for her services in Hol- 
land. She was driven to her pen, and she 
attempted to write in a style that should be 
mistaken for that of a man. Her earliest 
attempt was taken from a novel of La Cal- 
prenede, a tragedy of ' The Young King/ in 
verse. She did not find a manager or even 
a publisher who would take it, and she put 
it away. She gradually, however, made 
friends among the playwrights of the day, and 
particularly with Edward Ravenscroft, with 
whom there is reason to believe that her 
relations were very close. He wrote many 
of her early epilogues for her. In 1671 she 
produced at the Duke's Theatre the tragi- 
comedy of the ' Forc'd Marriage/ in which 
Otway, a boy from college, unsuccessfully 
appeared on the stage for the first and only 
time in the part of the king. Still in 1671, 
she brought out and printed a coarse comedy, 
called l The Amourous Prince.' It would 
appear that she had been for some time 
knocking in vain at the doors of the theatres ; 
it does not seem to be known what induced 
the management of the Duke's to bring out 

comedy. Her tragedy 
fadmento of Marlowe's 'Lust's Dominion/ 
was acted at the Duke's Theatre late in the 
year 1676, and published in 1 677. This play 
contains the beautiful song, ' Love in fan- 
tastic triumph sat.' In 1677 she enjoyed a 
series of dramatic successes. She brought out 
the ' Rover,' an anonymous comedy. This play 

5 management 01 tne uuKe s TO ormg out 
o plays by a new writer within one year. 
1673 she published the l Dutch Lover/ a 
nedv. Her tragedy of l Abdelazar/ a ri- 




took the fancy of the town, was patronised 
by the Duke of York, and, being supposed 
to be written by a man, gave rise to great 
curiosity. She immediately followed it up 
with the ' Debauchee,' 1677, also anonymous, 
the worst and least original of her plays, and 
with the * Town Fop, also 1677, in which j 
she makes extraordinary efforts, first, to write | 
as uncleanly as any of her male rivals, and, j 
secondly, to revive the peculiar manner of 
Ben Jonson, which had quite gone out of 
fashion. Mrs. Behn never scrupled to borrow, 
and she took the plot of her next play, ' Sir 
Patient Fancy,' 1678, from Moliere's ' Ma- 
lade Imaginaire.' She was blamed for this, 
and for the startling indelicacy of her dia- 
logue, and she tartly responds in an extremely 
amusing preface to the first edition of this 
play. Engaged in a great variety of other 
literary work, she was silent on the stage 
until 1681, when she brought out a second 
part of the < Rover/ with her name attached 
to the title-page. The next one or two years 
were years of great prosperity to Aphra Behn. 
Her comedies produced and printed in 1682, 
the ' Roundheads ' and the * City Heiress,' 
were very well received by packed tory au- 
diences ; Otway \vrote a prologue to the latter ; 
the former was rapturously dedicated to the 
Duke of Grafton. The l False Count,' 1682, 
was her next comedy. Aphra Behn was en- | 
couraged in 1683 to publish her mild little 
first poem, the ' Young King.' After this she 
appealed to the stage but once more during j 
her life with the 'Lucky Chance/ a comedy, and 
the ' Emperor of the Moon/ a farce, in 1687 ; 
both of these pieces were failures. In 1684 
she had collected her ' Poems/ the longest of 
which is a laborious amorous allegory en- 
titled ' A Voyage to the Isle of Love.' In 
1688 she published 'A Discovery of New 
Worlds/ from the French of Fontenelle, with 
a curious l Essay on Translation/ by herself, 
prefixed to the version. Her laborious life, 
however, was now approaching its close. In 
a beautiful copy of elegiac verses which she 
contributed to a volume of poems in memory 
of "Waller in 1688, she speaks of long in- 
disposition and ' toils of sickness ' which have 
brought her almost as near to the tomb as 
Waller is. She died, in fact, in consequence 
of want of skill in her physician, on 16 April 
1689, and was buried in Poet's Corner, West- 
minster Abbey, where her name may still be 
seen inscribed on a slab of black marble. 
Her tragi-comedy of the ' Widow Ranter ' 
was brought out in 1690 by ' one G. J., her 
friend/ and finally in 1696 another of her 
posthumous plays, the f Younger Brother/ 
was published by Gildon, with a short me- 
moir prefixed. 

Aphra Behn was a graceful, comely woman, 
with brown hair and bright eyes, and was 
painted so in an existing portrait of her by 
John Ripley. She is said to have intro- 
duced milk punch into England. She de- 
serves our sympathy as a warm-hearted, 
gifted, and industrious woman, who was 
forced by circumstance and temperament to 
win her livelihood in a profession where 
scandalous writing was at that time obliga- 
tory. It is impossible, with what we know 
regarding her life, to defend her manners 
as correct or her attitude to the world as 
delicate. But we may be sure that a 
woman so witty, so active, and so versatile, 
was not degraded, though she might be la- 
mentably unconventional. She was the George 
Sand of the Restoration, the 'chere maitre' to 
such men as Dryden, Otway, and Southerne, 
who all honoured her with their friendship. 
Her genius and vivacity were undoubted ; 
her plays are very coarse, but very lively and 
humorous, while she possessed an indispu- 
table touch of lyric genius. Her prose works 
are decidedly less meritorious than her dramas 
and the best of her poems. 

Mrs. Behn published a great number of 
ephemeral pamphlets, besides her once famous 
novels. Works of hers which have not 
been hitherto named are : 1. ( The Adven- 
tures of the Black Lady/ a novel, 1684. 
2. ' La Montre, or the Lover's Watch/ a 
sketch of a lover's customary way of spending 
the twenty-four hours, in prose, 1686. 3. ' Ly- 
cidus/ a novel, 1688. 4. < The Lucky Mis- 
take/ a novel, 1689. 5. ' Poetical Remains/ 
edited by Charles Gildon, 1698. Aphra 
Behn published a great number of occasional 
odes in separate pamphlet form, among which 
may be mentioned ' A Pindarick on the Death 
of Charles II,' 1685, and ' A Congratulatory 
Poem to her most Sacred Majesty [Mary of 
Modena]/ 1688. She joined other eminent 
hands in publishing a version of ' Ovid's 
Heroical Epistles ' in 1683. Her plays were 
collected in 1702, her * Histories and Novels ' 
in 1698, the latter including, besides what 
have been mentioned above, ' Oroonoko, or 
the Royal Slave/ which inspired Southerne's 
well-known tragedy ; ' The Fair Jilt/ a story, 
the scene of which is laid in Antwerp, and 
recounts experiences in the life of the writer ; 
1 The Nun ; ' ' Agnes de Castro ; ' and ' The 
Court of the King of Bantam.' The works 
of Aphra Behn passed through many editions 
in the eighteenth century, the eighth appear- 
ing in 1735, and one of her plays, 'The 
Rover,' long continued to hold the stage in 
a modified form. 

[The birthplace of Mrs. Behn is here given 
for the first time. The writer was led to believe, 



from a note in the handwriting of Lady Win- 
chilsea in a volume which he possesses, that Mrs. 
Behn was born, not at Canterbury, as has hither- 
to been stated, but at Wye, in Kent. On appli- 
cation to the vicar of Wye, it appeared that the 
register contains the baptism of Ayfara, the 
daughter, and Peter, the son, of John and Amy 
Johnson, 10 July 1640. Lady Winchilsea states 
that her father was a barber. The only other 
authority for her life is that by an anonymous 
female hand prefixed to the first collected edition 
of her novels. For other information reference 
has been made to original editions of her writ- 
ings, which are now unusually rare. Some par- 
ticulars about her were preserved in the manu- 
script notes of Oldys the antiquary.] E. Gr. 


(d. 1837), sculptor, was the younger brother 
of William Behnes, the sculptor. Both 
brothers were determined in their choice of 
a profession by the same circumstance [see 
BEHNES, WILLIAM]. Henry, being a much 
inferior artist, was honourably anxious to 
prevent confusion in the public mind, and 
took the name of Burlowe. The irregularities 
of William Behnes are considered to have 
added a strong incentive to this act of repu- 
diation. Henry exhibited at the Academy 
in 1831-2-3. He afterwards went to Rome, 
and was much employed as a bust modeller. 
He died of cholera in that city in August 
1837. According to an account in the f Art 
Journal ' he was a person ' of sterling cha- 
racter and generous impulses, who sacrificed 
his life in devotion to those of his friends 
who had been seized with cholera.' Though 
' every way superior to his brother as a man,' 
he was, says the same writer, ' his inferior . 
as an artist ' . . . { the difference in the in- 
stant apprehension of form and manipulative 
power in the two brothers was very remark- 
able. The composition of the one was hard, 
piecemeal, and disjointed, while the model- 
ling of the other was rapid, certain, soft, and 
accurate.' Against this critique may be set 
the remark of Redgrave : l He was original 
in his art and of much promise.' 

[Art Journal, 1 March 1864 ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists of Eng. School.] E. R. 

BEHNES, WILLIAM (d. 1864), sculptor, 
the date of whose birth is unknown, was the 
son of a Hanoverian piano manufacturer, who 
married an English wife and settled in Lon- 
don. William Behnes, the eldest of three 
sons, learned the mystery of piano-making. 
His taste, however, was all for drawing. The 
family being for a time settled in Dublin, he 
there entered a public drawing-school, and 
distinguished himself by the accuracy and 
finish of his studies. Returning to London 

he continued to make pianos, yet still pur- 
sued his art as best he might. At this early 
date he is said to have drawn portraits very 
beautifully upon vellum. Fortune deter- 
mined him towards sculpture. He gained, 
with his brother Henry, some ( casual in- 
struction in modelling' from a Frenchman 
who was their fellow-lodger, and in 1819 we 
find him exhibiting portraits as well in clay 
as in oil colour. At this time he was a stu- 
dent of the Royal Academy, i and in practice 
of a highly remunerative kind as a portrait 
draughtsman.' He now took finally to sculp- 
ture, removed to No. 31 Newman Street, and 
was soon fully employed. Between 1820 and 
1840 his reputation was at its highest, and 
he executed some important public works. 
High in repute, and excellent indeed in his 
art, he yet regretted that he had not made 
painting his profession rather than sculpture. 
Probably he was justified in this regret. The 
drawings from his hand are of the highest ex- 
cellence. One specimen only is preserved in 
the British Museum, a delicate and highly 
finished portrait in chalk of Thomas Frognall 
Dibdin, the bibliographer ; but this is such a 
drawing as gives at one glance a very high 
idea of the artist. * I should like,' he said, 
1 to paint a picture before I die.' Diligent in 
early life, he was not found equal to the trial 
of prosperity. He fell, as commissions mul- 
tiplied, into unsatisfactory habits. He ne- 
glected his pupils and did scant justice to his 
sitters, and forced his respectable brother 
(known now to art as Henry Burlowe) to 
change his name. The confusion of the names 
of the two brothers in the public mind is also 
given as a reason for this act of repudiation by 
the younger Behnes. A valuable biographical 
and critical account of Behnes is preserved in 
the memoirs of the sculptor, Henry Weekes, 
who was pupil successively to him and to 
Chantrey. Behnes excelled in the modelling 
of children, and, whenever he attempted it, of 
female heads, and generally in portrait busts. 
From 1822 and onwards his exhibited works 
were of the portrait class. The bust of Clark- 
son by him is described as especially fine, as 
well as those of Lord Lyndhurst, D'Israeli, 
Macready, and others. There is a certain 
large simplicity, and a character of essential 
truthfulness which contrasts most favourably 
both with the vapidity of the older heroic 
i portrait sculpture and with the niggling ve- 
| racity of that English school of painter- 
sculptors who followed the fashion of France. 
Weekes inclines, a little doubtfully, to rank 
Behnes above Chantrey in point of true genius 
for art. But Chantrey was a careful as well 
as a talented man, and rose easily high in his 
profession. ' By the time that Behnes had 

K L 




come to the same point he was tossing about 
in a sea of trouble. . . . The vivid impulses 
which served him in his busts hardly helped 
him in works that required longer and more 
mature consideration. His statues, with 
the exception of two, Dr. Babington in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, and Sir William Follett in 
Westminster Abbey, are bad. . . .His talent, 
however, still shone forth by fits and starts 
in lesser efforts his beautiful statuette of 
Lady Godiva, for instance though they were 
but the momentary flashes that indicated the 
expiring flame.' In 1861 Behnes was bank- 
rupt, and at an unknown age he died, picked 
up from the street, in Middlesex Hospital, 
3 Jan. 1864. 

[Art Journal, 1864 ; "Weekes's Lectures on Art ; 
Eedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the English 
School.] E. K. 

BEIGHTON, HENRY (d. 1743), an 
eminent surveyor and engineer, came from 
a family of yeomen which had been long 
settled at Chilvers Coton in Warwickshire. 
He himself resided at Griff, a hamlet in the 
same parish, where he assisted a small in- 
come of about 100/. a year by surveying, in 
which, for elegance, accuracy, and expedi- 
tion, he is said to have had but few equals. 
Beighton is now best remembered as the 
illustrator of Dr. Thomas's edition of Dug- 
dale's 'Warwickshire/ the maps in which 
are taken from an actual survey made by him 
during a period of four years, from 1725 to 
1729. Among other drawings published by 
him may be mentioned a small view of the 
south-east side of Fairford Church, Glouces- 
cestershire, 1715, a north prospect of St. 
Michael's Church, Coventry, about 1721, and 
in the same year a view of the beautiful cross 
at Coventry, built after the model of that at 
Abingdon in 1544. Besides these he made, 
in 1716, a large finished drawing of Kenil- 
worth Castle, with manuscript references, 
from a fresco occupying the whole side of a 
room at Newnham Paddox, a seat of the Earl 
of Denbigh. This was copied at the expense 
of John Ludford, Esq., of Ansley Hall, but 
was not engraved. 

About 1720 Beighton had issued pro- 
posals for publishing a map of Warwickshire, 
( on two sheets of large paper, about forty- 
three inches deep and thirty broad,' at the 
moderate price of five shillings in sheets, but 
he met with so little encouragement that 
the design was not carried into effect during 
his lifetime. The map was ultimately pub- 
lished by subscription, about 1750, in two 
sheets, with the several emendations left 
by the author, as also the same map reduced 
to a single sheet. Both editions are now 

of rare occurrence. Beighton's map is laid 
down by English measured miles, reduced to- 
horizontal, by his own hand. He measured 
both with the chain and compass, and set 
down the medium scale. In 1713 Beighton 
succeeded John Tipper, of Coventry, in the 
editorship of the ' Ladies' Diary,' which he 
conducted with much success until his death. 
In his prefaces to that ingenious compilation, 
' peculiarly adapted for the Use and Diver- 
sion of the Fair Sex,' he speaks of his gallant 
endeavours to introduce his readers to the 
study of the mathematical sciences. In 1718 
he erected a steam-engine at Newcastle with 
an improved valve (THURSTON'S Hist, of the 
Steam Engine (1878), 61-3, where is a figure 
of Beighton's engine). In November 1720 
he became a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and was a valued contributor to the 'Phi- 
losophical Transactions.' His * Description 
of the Water Works at London Bridge r 
(Phil. Trans, xxxvii. 5-12) is a favourable 
specimen of his skill in mechanics. He also 
assisted his friend, Dr. Desaguliers, in the 
second volume of his ' Course of Experimen- 
tal Philosophy.' A few of Beighton's scien- 
tific manuscripts and note-books are preserved 
in the British Museum. Dying in October 
1743, aged 57, he was buried on the llth at 
Chilvers Coton, where a small mural tablet 
mentions his death but not his merits. 

[Pennant's Journey from Chester to London 
(1782), p. 184 ; Camden's Britannia, ed. (rough, 
ii. 347 ; Colvile's "Worthies of Warwickshire,, 
pp. 29-30, appendix, p. 869; (rough's British 
Topography, i. 377, 733, ii. 300, 303, 305; 
vol. xv. pt. ii. of Beauties of England and Wales ; 
Dugdale's "Warwickshire, ed. 1765, with manu- 
script notes by W. Hamper, in Brit. Mus. ; 
Thoresby's Diary, ii. 293 ; Letters of Eminent 
Literary Men, ed. Sir H. Ellis (Camd. Soc.), 
p. 304 ; Ayscough's Cat. of MSS. in Brit. Mus.] 

G-. a 

BEIGHTON, THOMAS (1790-1844), 
missionary, was born at Ednaston, Derby- 
shire, on 25 Dec. 1790. He was educated by 
the liberality of a Unitarian minister, but 
adopted evangelical principles, and was sent 
by the London Missionary Society as a mis- 
sionary to Malacca. In 1819 he was stationed 
at Penang. Besides teaching in schools and' 
holding religious services, he set up a printing- 
press, from which he issued works in the 
Malay language. He translated into Malay 
and issued from his press parts of the ' Pil- 
grim's Progress,' Baxter's ' Saints' Rest/ and 
the Anglican liturgy. On a rumour that the 
mission was to be removed, a petition against 
his removal, signed by fifty-six native mer- 
chants and others, was sent in. He died at 
Penang on 14 April 1844. 

Beilby i 

[Information from J. T. Beighton, Esq.; Evan- 
gelical Magazine, March and April 1845; Sunday 
at Home, December 1881,] 

BEILBY, EALPH (1744-1817), en- 
graver, was the son of William Beilby, a 
jeweller and goldsmith at Durham, who, 
being unsuccessful in business there, removed 
to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Ralph became a 
silversmith, jeweller, and seal-engraver under 
his father, and acquired several useful arts 
and accomplishments. To the engraving of 
arms and letters on seals and silver plate he 
added engraving on copper, as there were at 
that time no engravers in the north of Eng- 
land. He executed heraldic engravings with 
extraordinary facility, and his plate of 
* Thornton's Monument,' in Brand's * History 
of Newcastle,' shows that he possessed con- 
siderable skill in engraving on copper. The 
celebrated Thomas Bewick was apprenticed 
to him in 1767, and ten years afterwards be- 
came his partner. This partnership was 
dissolved in 1797, and the business then de- 
volved on Bewick alone. Beilby was dis- 
tinguished for his literary and scientific pur- 
suits, and was also a good musician. He 
was one of the earliest and most zealous 
promoters of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society of Newcastle. Beilby engraved the 
beautiful frontispiece to Gay's ' Fables ' (New- 
castle, 1779), and he was engaged with 
Bewick in executing the engravings for 
Osterwald's edition of the Bible (Newcastle, 
1806). He wrote the descriptive part of the 
'* History of Quadrupeds,' illustrated bv 
Bewick"(1790 ; 8th ed. 1824), and of the firs"t 
volume of the ' History of British Birds,' 
also illustrated by Bewick (1797; 8th ed. 
1847). Beilby died at Newcastle on 4 Jan. | 
1817, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. 

[Cat. of Works illustrated by T. and J. Bewick, 
2, 4, 5, 10, 13, 14, 18, 22, 23, 24, 31, 34 ; Sykes's 
Local Records (1833), ii. 380, Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

BEILBY, WILLIAM, M.D. (1783-1849), ! 

a philanthropic physician of Edinburgh, was ! 
born at Sheffield, 13 April 1783. In 1807 j 
he entered into a partnership in the linen trade j 
with some relatives in Dublin, but in 1813 j 
he removed to Edinburgh to study medicine, i 
After taking the degree of M.D. in 1816, he ! 
settled in Edinburgh to practise midwifery. ; 
He soon obtained a high reputation in his i 
profession, and was appointed physician ac- ; 
coucheur to the New Town Dispensary. He 
took a prominent interest in benevolent and 
ivljgious matters, including the schemes of 
the Evangelical Alliance, and was the first 

? resident of the Medical Missionary Society, i 
Ie died on 30 May 1849. 

53 Bek 

[Selection from the Papers of the late Dr. 
William Beilby, F.R.C.P.E., with a memorial 
sketch, by J. A. James, Birmingham, 1850.1 

T. F. H. 

cent.), a Dominican writer, according to 
Anthony a Wood, spent his early years at 
Oxford, and was, towards the middle of his 
life, made provincial of his order for Eng- 
land. The apparent date assigned for his 
appointment to this office in Altamura's 
' Bibliotheca Ordinis Praedicatorum ' is 1480 ; 
but he does not appear to have continued to 
hold it till the time of his death. According 
to Possevinus he was still living in 1498. 
Those of Beith's writings whose titles have 
been preserved include commentaries on the 
' Sentences ' of Peter Lombard, a treatise ' De 
Unitate formarum,' and certain 'Lecturge 
Scholasticae.' According to Wood, Beith was 
a most successful provincial of his order, and 
achieved a great renown amongst the learned 
men of Henry VII's reign. 

[Pits, 684; Quetifs Scriptores Ord. Prsedic. 
i. 892; Wood's Athense Oxonienses (ed. Bliss, 
1813). 6; Ambrosius de Altamura (ed. 1677), 
203, 521.] T. A. A. 

BEK is the name of a family in Lincoln- 
shire, from which sprang several men of emi- 
nence in the thirteenth century. The Beks 
were descended from one Walter Bek, called 
in the ' Great Survey ' Walter Flandrensis, 
who came over with William the Conqueror, 
and received from him the lordship of Eresby 
in Lincolnshire, ( et multa alia maneria.' 
From his three sons, I. Henry, II. Walter, 
and III. John, sprang three great Lincoln- 
shire families : I. Bek of Eresby, II. Bek of 
Luceby, III. Bek of Botheby. With the last 
of these we have no concern. 

I. From Henry Bek, lord of Eresby, was 
descended, about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, Walter Bek, who had three sons : 
(1) JOHN, lord of Eresby, from whose daugh- 
ter the Lords Willoughby de Eresby claimed 
their descent, as they obtained from her 
their barony ; (2) THOMAS (d. 1293), who be- 
came bishop of St. David's in 1280 [see below]. 
(3) ANTONY, the third son (d. 1310), who be- 
came bishop of Durham in 1283 [see below]. 

II. From Bek of Luceby sprang another 
Walter, who was constable of the castle of Lin- 
coln at the time when his kinsmen Thomas I 
and Antony I were respectively bishops of 
St. David's and Durham, and died 25 Aug. 
1291. He had three sons: (1) JOHN, born 
18 Aug. 1278 ; (2 ) ANTONY II, born 5 Aug. 
1279 : (3) THOMAS II, born 22 Feb. 1282. 

The three sons were all under age at the 
date of their father's death, and probably 



became wards of their kinsman Antony I, 
the great bishop of Durham. (1) Of JOHN 
there is nothing that need be said. (2) AN- 
TONY II was bishop of Norwich from 30 March 
1337 till his death, 19 Dec. 1343 [see below]. 
(3) THOMAS II was consecrated bishop 7 July 
1342, and died on 2 Feb. 1346-7 [see below]. 

[The chief authority for the Beks is the MS. 
Harl. 3720, which is of the fourteenth century, 
and appears to have been drawn up as a family 
chronicle some time in the xeign of Edward III. 
There are notices of the various members of the 
family in the Eolls of Parliament, the Chronicles, 
and other publications issued by the Master of 
the Eolls. The identity of name is likely to 
cause confusion.] A. J. 

BEK, ANTONY I (d. 1310), bishop of 
Durham, was the son of Walter, baron of 
Eresby, in Lincolnshire. As a young man 
he attracted the notice of Edward I, and 
was nominated by him bishop of Durham in 
1283. He was already well provided with 
ecclesiastical preferments ; for he held five 
benefices in the province of Canterbury, and 
was archdeacon of Durham. At the time of 
his nomination to the see the monks of Durham 
were at variance with the archbishop of York 
about his rights of visitation. They knew 
that the archbishop would not accept any one 
unless he were supported by the king, and they 
accordingly elected the king's nominee with- 
out opposition on 9 July 1283. Bek was 
consecrated at York on 9 Jan. 1284-5, and 
immediately after his consecration the arch- 
bishop, John Rom anus, ordered him to ex- 
communicate the rebellious monks. Bek re- 
fused, saying, ' Yesterday I was consecrated 
their bishop : shall I excommunicate them 
to-day ? ' At Bek's enthronement the claims 
of the archbishop of York led to another 
dispute. The official of York contested the 
right of the prior of Durham to instal, and 
Bek, in the interests of peace, set them both 
aside, and was installed by his brother 
Thomas, bishop of St. David's. 

Antony Bek was a prelate of the secular 
and political type. He was one of the most 
magnificent lords in England, and outdid 
his peers in profuse expenditure. His or- 
dinary retinue consisted of a hundred and forty 
knights, and he treated barons and earls with 
haughty superiority. Besides the revenues 
of his bishopric he had a large private for- 
tune ; and though he spent money profusely 
he died rich. He delighted in displaying his 
wealth. Once in London he paid forty shillings 
for as many herrings, because he heard that 
no one else would buy them. At another 
time, hearing that a piece of cloth was spoken 
of as 'too dear even for the Bishop of 

Durham,' he bought it, and had it cut up for 
horse-cloths. Yet he was an extremely tem- 
perate man, and cared nothing for pleasure. 
He was famed for his chastity, and it was 
said that he never even looked a woman in 
the face. At the translation of the relics of 
St. William of York he was the only prelate 
who felt himself pure enough to touch the 
saint's bones. He was a man of restless 
activity, who needed little sleep. He used 
to say that he could not understand how a 
man could turn in his bed, or seek a second 
slumber. He spent his time in riding, with 
a splendid retinue, from manor to manor, and 
was a mighty hunter, delighting in horses r 
hawks, and hounds. 

Such a man was sure to find political em- 
ployment, and Edward I used him for his 
negotiations with Scotland. In 1290 he was- 
one of the royal commissioners at Brigham 
to arrange the marriage of the king's son 
Edward with Margaret, the infant queen of 
Scotland. When this was agreed to, Bek 
was made lieutenant for Margaret and her 
husband ; but this office soon came to an end 
by Margaret's death (RYMEK, Fcedera, ii. 
487-91). Next year Bek accompanied Ed- 
ward I to Norham, and, on account of his- 
eloquence, was one of those appointed to- 
address the Scottish estates. Throughout 
the proceedings which led to the recognition 
of Baliol as king of Scotland, Antony Bek 
was one of the chief advisers of Edward I. 
In 1294 he was sent as ambassador to Adolf 
of Nassau, to arrange an alliance with Ger- 
many against France. In 1296 Bek joined 
Edward I in his expedition against Scotland. 
He led one thousand foot and five hundred 
horse, and before him was carried the sacred 
banner of St. Cuthbert. Baliol was helpless; 
before Edward's army, and Bek was deputed 
to receive Baliol's submission in the castle of 
Brechin. When the war of Scottish indepen- 
dence broke out, Bek again joined Edward I 
in his second expedition to Scotland in 1298. 
His first exploit was the siege of the castle 
of Dirleton, which he had gTeat difficulty in 
taking. In the battle of Falkirk Bek com- 
manded the second division of the English 
forces, and, when he came near the foe, ordered 
his cavalry to await reinforcements before' 
charging. ' To thy mass, bishop,' cried a rough 
knight, ' and teach not such as us how to fight 
the foe.' He spurred on, was followed by the 
rest, and routed the enemy. 

Soon after his return from this campaign 
Antony Bek seems to have lost the king's 
favour, and was involved in ecclesiastical 
disputes which lasted for the remainder of 
his lifetime. In 1300 he proposed to hold a 
visitation of the convent of Durham, where 




some of the monks were dissatisfied with, 
their prior, Richard de Hoton. Prior Richard 
declined to admit the bishop as visitor unless 
he came unattended. He feared to admit the 
bishop's retinue, which would practically en- 
able him to enforce his decisions. Hereon 
Bek suspended the prior, and on his continued 
contumacy deposed and excommunicated 
him. The quarrel led to breaches of the 
peace, and at last the king interposed as 
mediator. He decided that the prior was to 
continue in office, and the bishop was to visit 
the convent accompanied by a few chaplains. 
He declared that he would go against that 
party which opposed his decision. The haughty 
bishop would not give way. He refused to 
withdraw his deposition of Prior Richard, 
and called on the monks to make a new 
election. When they demurred, he appointed 
Henry de Luceby, prior of Lindisfarne, to the 
office. To set up his nominee he called the 
men of Tynedale and Weardale to besiege 
the abbey, which was reduced by hunger. 
Then he seized Prior Richard and put him in 
prison, whence Richard managed to escape, 
and carried his grievances before the king 
and parliament, which was assembled at 
Lincoln. There were many who joined in 
his complaints of the bishop's arrogance. 
The barons of the palatinate were not sorry 
to see Bek called to account. The men of 
the bishopric complained that they had been 
compelled to serve in the Scottish war con- 
trary to their ' haliwere,' or obligation to 
fight only in defence of the patrimony of St. 
Cuthbert. Edward was irritated by Arch- 
bishop Winchelsey's adhesion to the papal 
policy, and was inclined to look with dis- 
favour on clerical pretensions. He asked Bek 
if he had stood with him in 1297 against 
the earl marshal and the Earl of Hereford. 
Bek answered that he had been on their side 
because he thought they sought the honour 
of the king and his realm. From that time 
forward Edward I was Bek's enemy. 

The decision of parliament was in favour 
of the dispossessed prior, and he went off to 
Rome with letters from the king in his 
favour. Pope Boniface VIII reinstated him 
in his office, and summoned Bek to answer 
for his doings. Bek paid no heed to the papal 
summons, and Boniface VIII threatened him 
with deprivation. On this Bek set out for 
Rome, without asking the king's permission, 
in 1302, for which breach of decorum Ed- 
ward I seized the temporalities of his see, and 
administered them by his own officials. At 
Rome Bek displayed his usual magnificence 
to the amazement of the people. 'Who is 
this ? ' asked a citizen as he saw the bishop's 
retinue sweep by. * A foe to money ' was the 

answer. Bek won over the cardinals by his 
splendid presents. One admired his horses, 
whereon Bek sent him two of the best, that 
he might choose which he preferred. The 
cardinal kept both. 'He has not failed to 
choose the best/ said Bek. Bek showed that 
he was no respecter of persons. He gave 
the benediction when a cardinal was present. 
He amused himself by playing with his 
falcons even during his interviews with the 
pope. Boniface VIII admired a temper so like 
his own, and dismissed the prior's complaints 
against Bek. On his journey Bek was in 
danger through a tumult which arose in a 
North-Italian city between his servants and 
the citizens. The mob stormed the house in 
which he was, and rushed into his room, ex- 
claiming ' Yield, yield ! ' l You don't say to 
whom I am to yield,' said the bishop ; t cer- 
tainly to none of you.' His dauntless bear- 
ing soon quelled the disturbance. 

When Bek returned to England he made 
submission to the king, and recovered the 
possessions of his see. But he could not en- 
dure to be defeated by Prior Richard, and on 
the death of Boniface VIII again accused 
him to Benedict XI, who died before he had 
time to decide the case. Still Bek renewed 
his complaints to Clement V, who deprived 
Prior Richard of his office, and conferred on 
Bek a mark of his special favour by creating 
him patriarch of Jerusalem in 1305. How- 
ever, Prior Richard, nothing dismayed, took 
another journey to the papal court, and, 
furnished with a thousand marks, succeeded 
in obtaining a reversal of the sentence. It 
did him little service ; for he died before he 
could set out homewards, and his possessions 
were taken by the pope's treasury. Bek was 
now delivered from this troublesome quarrel ; 
but Edward I would not leave him in peace. 
On the ground that he had obtained instru- 
ments from Rome injurious to the rights of 
the crown, the king deprived him of the 
liberties of Barnard Castle and Hartlepool, 
which had been conferred on him after the 
forfeitures of Baliol and Bruce. The acces- 
sion of Edward II saw Bek again restored 
to royal favour. In 1307 the young king 
granted him the sovereignty of the Isle of 
Man. Thenceforth Bek was at liberty to 
wreak his vengeance upon the friends of the 
refractory prior. In 1308 he visited the 
convent of Durham, and suspended for ten 
years those monks who had taken part against 
him. His injured pride led him to commit a 
dishonourable action, which had far-reaching 
effects on the history of the north of England. 
William de Vesci, lord of the barony of Aln- 
wick, died in 1297 without lawful issue, and 
left his castle and barony of Alnwick to 




Bek, in trust for an illegitimate son until he 
came of age. Stung by some disrespectful 
words of the lad, which were reported to 
him, Bek broke his trust, and sold the barony 
of Alnwick to Henry Percy in 1309, thereby 
increasing the importance of the Percy house 
which afterwards became so powerful. Bek 
4ied at Eltham on 3 March 1310-11, and 
was buried in the cathedral of Durham. He 
was the first to whom this honour had been 
granted : though, out of reverence to St. Cuth- 
bert, his body was not permitted to enter by 
the door, but through an opening made in 
the wall. 

Bek was a man of great liberality, and 

rt much money on building. He made ! 
churches of Chester-le-Street and Lan- j 
Chester into collegiate churches, and endowed ! 
a dean and seven prebends at each. He | 
founded the priory of Alvingham in Lin- j 
colnshire, and built the castle of Somerton, I 
near Lincoln. He converted the manor- 
house of Auckland into a castle. He built j 
the castle of Eltham, and gave it to the : 
queen, while he similarly gave Somerton to 
the king. In all points he is one of the 
most characteristic figures of his time. 

[The chief authority for Bek's life is Robert 
de Graystanes, De Statu Ecclesise Dunelmensis, 
published in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, and more 
accurately edited by Raine for the Surtees 
Society, 1839. Besides this are scattered men- 
tions in Walsingham's and Hemingford's chro- 
nicles, and in the documents in Rymer's Foedera 
and Prynne's Brevia Parliamentaria, vol. iii. 
Much about his quarrel with John Romanus, arch- 
bishop of York, is in the Rolls of Parliament. 
Of modern writers the fullest account is given by 
Hutchinson, History of Durham, i. 228-58; also 
by Low, Diocesan History of Durham.] 

M. C. 

BEK, ANTONY II (1279-1343), bishop 
of Norwich, was born on 5 Aug. 1279, and 
was the second of the three sons of Walter 
Bek of Luceby, constable of Lincoln Castle, 
who died leaving his sons minors on 25 Aug. 
1291. He was educated at Oxford, and, 
like his younger brother, Thomas [q. v.], 
afterwards bishop of Lincoln, took holy 
orders, and from his influential connec- 
tions both in church and state he speedily 
obtained lucrative preferment. During the 
episcopate of Bishop John of Dalderby he 
was appointed to the prebendal stall of 
Ketton in the cathedral of Lincoln, which 
he exchanged in 1313 for that of Thorn- 
gate, which he again resigned on his re- 
ceiving the chancellorship of the cathedral, 
together with the stall of North Kelsev, on 
4 Sept. 1316 (LE NEVE, Fasti, ii. 92," 157, 
196, 222). While chancellor he exchanged 

the residence formerly attached to his office 
to the north-west of the minster, for one on 
the east side of the close, to which he made 
large additions, and in which the chancellors 
still reside. On the death of Bishop Dal- 
derby, the dean, Henry of Mansfield, who had 
been the first choice of the chapter, declining 
the office, he was chosen to fill the vacant 
see ' per viam scrutinii,' 3 Feb. 1320. The 
royal assent to his election was given on 
20 Feb. The pope, however, John XXI (or 
XXII), asserted that he had already ' pro- 
vided' for the see, and annulled the election, 
appointing Henry of Burghersh (LE NEVE, 
ii. 13). In 1329 he became dean of Lincoln 
(ib. 32). His arbitrary temper soon involved 
him in disputes with his chapter. The dean 
appealed to the pope, and, without waiting 
for the royal license, resorted to Avignon 
to urge the matter in person. He here in- 
gratiated himself with the pope, who made 
him his chaplain, and a clerk of the Roman 
curia. At the beginning of 1335 he was sum- 
moned by Edward III, then at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne,tomeet him at Nottingham on the ensu- 
ing mid-Lent Sunday to treat of divers difficult 
and urgent matters, setting aside all other 
engagements (Harl.MS. 3720, p. 10). On the 
death of BishopAyreminne of Norwich(1336), 
he again repaired to Avignon, and secured 
the vacant see, to which he was consecrated 
| on 30 March 1337, when he had nearly com- 
pleted his seventy-second year, being forced 
i upon an unwilling church ( reluctantibus 
| monachis ' by a papal bull. On the death of 
Bishop Ayreminne, the monks of Norwich 
j had elected one of their own body, Thomas 
of Hemenhall, but the election was set aside 
by Benedict XI, as Bek's own election had 
been previously quashed by John XXI on the 
same ground, viz. a previous appointment by 
1 provision.' Hemenhall's personal remon- 
strance to the pope himself at Avignon was 
to no purpose, as far as the see of Norwich 
was concerned. He was, however, induced 
to resign all claim to the see, and in reward 
for his compliance was appointed by the pope 
to the bishopric of Worcester, vacant by the 
promotion of Simon Mont acute to Ely (RY- 
MER, Foedera, ii. ii. 957, 1060 ; LE NEVE, ii. 
464). The remonstrances of Edward III 
proved equally fruitless with those of the 
bishop-elect and of his electors, the statute 
of l provisions ' proving no sufficient barrier 
against papal usurpation. Bek's episcopate 
lasted little more than seven years, nearly 
the whole of which were spent in lawsuits 
and quarrels, in which his aggressive dis- 
position, arbitrary temper, and aristocratic 
haughtiness involved him. He commenced 
his episcopate by suing his predecessor's exe- 



cutors for dilapidation and waste of the 
property of the see, for which he recovered 
very large damages. He stoutly resisted the 
metropolitical visitation of his diocese by 
Archbishop Stratford, and stirred up the 
citizens of Norwich to make common cause 
with him. On the king's interposition 011 the 
primate's behalf, 29 Nov. 1342, the citizens 
yielded, but the old man continued obsti- 
nate, and appealed against the archbishop to 
the pope. He made himself detested by the 
monks of his cathedral by his determined at- 
tempt to introduce a stricter system of disci- 
pline, and to reduce the convent to greater 
subordination to the bishop, ' suffering them 
to do nothing in their house but what he 
liked, plucking down and preferring amongst 
them whom he listed, dealing so rigorously 
with them that it got him the hatred of all 
men, which proved his destruction ' (BLOME- 
TIELD, Hist, of Norfolk, ii. 359). His death, 
which took place at his manor of Hevering- 
ham on 19 Dec. 1343, was popularly attri- 
buted to poison administered to him by his 
servants at the instigation of his monks. 
Such suspicions were very common in the 
middle ages, and there seems to be no ground 
for the charge besides vulgar report. The 
death of an old man of seventy-nine requires 
no such explanation. With all his faults of 
temper and character, Bek is described as 'a 
man of learning and principle, and fearless 
and inflexible when standing up for what he 
believed to be right ' (JESSOPP, Diocesan His- 
tory of Norwich, 115). He appears to have 
patronised learning, 'his best preferment 
being bestowed on graduates of the univer- 
sities ' (ib.) He seldom left his diocese 
during his episcopate, but its duration was 
too short and his own years much too ad- 
vanced, to allow of his doing much to bring 
about the reforms his predecessor's scandalous 
negligence rendered necessary. 

[Godwin, De Prsesulibus, ii. 14 ; Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, i. 414; Blomefield's Hist, of Nor- 
folk, ii. 358-9 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 13, 92, 464 ; 
Harl. MS. 3720.] E. V. 

BEK, THOMAS I (d. 1293), bishop of St. 
David's, was the second son of Walter Bek, 
baron of Eresby, Lincolnshire, and the elder 
brother of Antony Bek I [q. v.], the bishop of 
Durham and patriarch of Jerusalem. Thomas 
Bek, like his brothers, rose high in the royal 
favour, and filled several important offices of 
state. In 1269 he became chancellor of the 
university of Oxford (LE NEVE, Fasti (ed. 
Hardy), iii. 464; SMITH, Annals of Univer- 
sity College, p. 12); in 1274 he was keeper 
of the wardrobe to Edward I (RYMER, Feed. 

i. 519) ; on 29 Sept. 1278 he was one of the 
lords of parliament present at Westminster 
when Alexander III of Scotland did homage 
I (ib. p. 563); in 1279 he became lord treasurer 
! (Pat. 1 Edw. I, m. 7) ; and in the same year 
was entrusted with the keeping of the great 
seal during Edward's absence in France 
| (RYMEE, Feed, i. 575). His ecclesiastical 
: preferments were also many and lucrative. 
i He held the rectories of Silkstone, Yorkshire, 
i and Wainfleet All Saints, Lincolnshire. In 
| 1275 he was archdeacon of Dorset (Pat. 3 
; Edw. /), and attended on Edward I and 
i Queen Eleanor, 19 April 1278, on their 
i visit to Glastonbury to inspect the relics 
I of King Arthur (YARDLEY, Menev. Sacr.} 
\ He was archdeacon of Berkshire in 1280 
I (PRYNNE, Collect, torn. iii. p. 108). On 
j 20 Jan. 1280 he was presented by the king 
I to the prebend of Castor in the cathedral 
| of Lincoln (LE NEVE, Fasti, ii. 125 ; Pat. 
j 8 Edw. I, m. 23). The next year, Sunday, 
6 Oct. 1280, Bek was consecrated bishop of 
St. David's in Lincoln Minster, by Arch- 
bishop Peckham, assisted by six other bishops, 
including the Archbishop of Rages, orEdessa. 
The same day the body of St. Hugh of Ava- 
lon was translated to the new shrine pre- 
pared for it in the recently erected ' Angel 
Choir ' in the presence of Edward I and his 
queen and their children, his brother Ed- 
mund of Lancaster and his wife the queen 
of Navarre, Archbishop Peckham and other 
prelates, and 230 knights, with other nobles. 
The whole cost of this magnificent ceremonial 
and the accompanying festivities was defrayed 
by the newly consecrated bishop (GiRALD. 
CAMB. vii. 219, 220, Rolls Series). He sang 
his first mass in the diocese at Strata Florida, 
on 1 or 2 Feb. 1281, and was enthroned at 
St. David's (on St. David's day) 1 March of 
that year (HADDAN and STTJBBS, i. 528). In 
1282, when Edward was inarching against 
Llewellyn and his brother David, the bishop 
of St. David's was one of the bishops and 
abbots ordered on 20 May to have his contin- 
gent ready to join the king's forces (RYMER, 
Feed. i. 607). In 1283 he certified his having 
received letters from Pope Martin IV allow- 
ing the marriage of Rhys ap Mereduc and Auda 
of Hastings, though within the prohibited de- 
grees (ib. p. 635). When in 1284 Archbishop 
Peckham made a metropolitical visitation 
of the Welsh diocese, Bek, as a last ex- 
piring protest on behalf of the ancient inde- 
pendence of the Welsh church, made an in- 
effectual remonstrance against the jurisdiction 
of Canterbury. The protest was completely dis- 
regarded, excommunication being threatened 
if the opposition were perse vered in. The visi- 
tation was held, and injunctions for the diocese 




were drawn up by the archbishop (HADDAN 
and STTJBBS, i. 571-9 ; WHARTON, Angl. Sacr. 
ii. 651; WILKINS, Concilia, ii. 106). The 
same year, on Sunday, 26 Nov., Edward I 
and his queen visited St. David's ' peregrina- 
tionis causa,' and we may safely conclude 
were the guests of the bishop {Angl. Sacr. ii. 
651). When at the close of the same year 
his brother Antony was appointed to the 
see of Durham, a dispute occurring between 
the prior and the official of York as to the 
right of instalment, that ' masterful prelate ' 
settled the matter by calling in his brother 
of St. David's to perform the office (ib. i. 747). 
In 1287 Bek completed the imperfect capi- 
tular body of St. David's, which had consisted 
only of a bishop and dean in one person and 
a precentor, by the addition of a chancellor 
and treasurer, together with a sub-dean and 
a sub-chanter (JoNEsand FREEMAN, pp. 301, 
322). To extend the advantages of a re- 
sident body of clergy to the more neglected 
parts of his wide-spread diocese, he in 1283 
founded the collegiate church of Llangadoc 
{Angl. Sacr. ii. 651), which was very 
speedily removed to Abergwili, and in 
1287 another at Llandewi-Brefi (LELAND, 
Collectan. i. 323), and a hospital at Llaw- 
haden, and obtained two weekly markets 
from the king for his cathedral city ( JONES 
and FREEMAN, pp. 300-2). We learn from 
a survey of Sherwood Forest that Bek had 
a hermitage at Eastwait 011 Mansfield Moor, 
Nottinghamshire, to which he was in the 
habit of retiring for meditation. According 
to Bartholomew Cotton (de Rege Edwardo I, 
p. '177, Rolls Series), Bek was one of the 
many men of high rank who in 1290 were 
induced by the impassioned preaching of 
Archbishop Peckham to take the cross and 
set out for the Holy Land ' sine spe remeandi ' 
(Annal. Monast. (Osney), iv. 336). If he 
actually left England, which is not quite 
certain, he returned in safety and died on 
12 May 1293, and was succeeded by Bishop 
David Marty n. 

[Harl. MS. 3720 ; Jones and Freeman's His- 
tory of St. David's, pp. 298-302; Le Neve's 
Fasti (ed. Hardy) ; Jones's Fasti Eccl. Sarisb. 
pp. 138, 147; Haddan and Stubbs's Councils 
and Eccl. Doc. i. 528, 552-7 ; Wharton's Angl. 
Sacra; Annal. Menev. ii. 651 ; Bymer's Fcedera, 
vol. i. pt. ii. ; Wilkins's Concilia, ii. 106.] 


BEK, THOMAS II (1282-1347), bishop 
of Lincoln, born on 22 Feb. 1282, was the 
youngest of the three sons of Walter Bek 
of Luceby, constable of Lincoln Castle [see 
BEK, family of], a kinsman of the bishops of 
Durham and St. David's. His father died on 

25 Aug. 1291, when Thomas was nine years 
old, and he and his brothers, John and An- 
tony [q. v.] (afterwards bishop of Norwich), 
probably became wards of Anthony, bishop of 
Durham. Devoting himself to the clerical 
profession, he attained considerable distinc- 
tion, being styled ' clericusnobilis et excellens ' 
by Walsingham (p. 150). He became doctor 
of canon law, and in 1335 received the pre- 
bendal stall of Clifton in the cathedral of 
Lincoln (LE NEVE, Fasti (Hardy), ii. 132). 
On the death of Bishop Burghersh in De- 
cember 1340 he succeeded to the bishopric 
of Lincoln, being, it would seem, then at the 
papal court at Avignon. Though the royal 
assent was given to his election on 1 March 
1341, his consecration was delayed by the 
pope till the next year (MuRiMUTH, 115, 
apud RAINE, Fasti Ebor. p. 439, note m), 
when it took place at Avignon on Sunday, 
7 July 1342, at the same time with Arch- 
bishop Zouche of York. He obtained letters 
of protection to come to England from Rome, 
and the temporalities of the see were restored 
to him on 17 Sept. (Pat. 16 Edw. Ill, p. 3, 
m. 20). His episcopate lasted only five years* 
He died on 2 Feb. 1346-7, and in his will r 
which is extant, he desired to be buried on 
the north side of the steps leading from the 
chapter-house to the choir. 

[Le Neve's Fasti (ed. Hardy), ii. 14; Godwin,. 
De Prasul. i. 295 ; Harl. MS. 3720.] E.V. 

1'874), Abyssinian explorer, was born at Step- 
ney, Middlesex, 10 Oct. 1800. He came of 
an ancient Kentish family, which, in the 
twelfth century, gave its name to Bekes- 
bourne ; and there Beke himself resided for 
some years. His father was a prominent 
citizen of London. Beke was educated at a^ 
private school in Hackney, and in 1820 he 
entered upon a business career. His com- 
mercial pursuits called him from London 
to Genoa and Naples. Upon his return from 
the latter place he determined to abandon, 
commerce, and entered himself at Lincoln's. 
Inn, where he studied law. While pursu- 
ing the legal profession, he published several 
papers in the l Imperial Magazine ' and other 
periodicals concerning biblical and archaeolo- 
gical research. His first work of importance, 
entitled ' Origines Biblicse, or Researches in 
Primeval History,' was published in 1834. 
His object was to establish the theory of the- 
fundamental tripartite division of the lan- 
guages of mankind, from which have arisen 
all existing languages and dialects. Dean 
Milman described the work as ' the first at- 
tempt to reconstruct history on the principles 
of the young science of geology ;' and for this. 




literary effort the university of Tubingen con- 
ferred upon the author the degree of doctor 
of philosophy. 

In 1834 and 1835 Dr. Beke published 
a considerable number of papers upon the 
writings attributed to Manetho, upon Egypt, 
Midian, the Red Sea of Scripture, and other 
collateral subjects, and in the latter year he 
was elected a fellow of the Society of An- ! 
tiquaries. In consideration of these Eastern | 
researches Beke was successively elected a j 
fellow of the Statistical and Syro-Egyptian 
Societies of London, of the Oriental Society 
of Germany, of the Royal Geographical So- 
cieties of London and of Paris, and of the 
Asiatic Society. From July 1837 till May 
1838 Beke was British acting consul at 
Leipzig. In 1840 he made his first journey 
into Abyssinia, with a view not only to the 
opening up of commercial relations with that 
state and adjoining countries, but also to the 
abolition of the slave trade and the discovery 
of the sources of the Nile. 'His journey 
resulted in his first making known the true 
physical structure of Abyssinia and of 
eastern Africa generally, showing that the 
principal mountain system of Africa ex- 
tends north to south on the eastern side of 
that continent, and that the Mountains of 
the Moon of Ptolemy are merely a portion 
of the meridional range. Dr. Beke was the 
first to ascertain the remarkable depression 
of the Salt Lake, Assal. He fixed, by astro- 
nomical observations, the latitude of more 
than seventy stations, and mapped upwards 
of 70,000 square miles of country. He visited j 
and mapped the watershed between the Nile I 
and the Hawash, along a line of fifty miles j 
northward of Ankober, and he discovered j 
the existence of the river Gojeb. He con- 
structed a very valuable map of Gojam and 
Damot, and determined approximately the 
course of the Abai.' In this expedition 
Beke also collected vocabularies of fourteen 
languages and dialects spoken in Abyssinia. 
In recognition of his discoveries he received 
the gold medals of the Royal Geographical 
Societies of London and Paris. 

After his return from Abyssinia in 1843, 
Beke resumed his commercial pursuits in 
London, devoting the whole of his leisure, 
however, to the study of the questions 
which deeply interested him. From 1844 j 
to 1848 many papers connected with Abys- j 
sinian exploration appeared from his pen. 
In the latter year he prepared a bill, which > 
became law, authorising British consuls to 
solemnise marriages in foreign countries. 
During the same year he set on foot an ex- 
ploring expedition for the discovery of the 
sources of the Nile, the expedition to pene- 

trate for the first time inland, from the coast 
of Ptolemy 'sBarbaricus Sinus, opposite Zanzi- 
bar, and to descend the river to Egypt. The 
Prince Consort and other distinguished per- 
sons gave their countenance to the expedi- 
tion, and Dr. Bialloblotzky was appointed to 
command it ; but unfortunately the leader 
was compelled to abandon the undertaking 
when it was only partially completed. It is 
stated that Captain Speke became aware of 
Beke's plan in 1848; and later explorers 
have proved the soundness of his theories by 
discovering that Lake Nyanza is within the 
basin of the Nile. 

In 1849 Beke was appointed secretary 
to the National Association for the Protec- 
tion of Industry and Capital throughout the 
British Empire, and on the dissolution of 
that society in 1853 he was formally thanked 
through the Duke of Richmond for his ser- 
vices to the cause of protection. M. Antoine 
d'Abbadie, a French traveller, having pub- 
lished an account of his alleged journey into 
Kaffa for the purpose of exploring the sources 
of the Nile, Beke issued a critical examination 
of his claims, severely criticising his 'pre- 
tended journey.' The Geographical Society 
of Paris having awarded to M. d'Abbadie its 
annual prize for the most important discovery 
in geography, on the ground of his travels, 
a warm controversy arose. The charges made 
by Beke, and M. d'Abbadie's defence, were 
brought before the society, and after con- 
siderable discussion the society decided that 
no action should be taken, and simply passed 
to the order of the day. This decision being 
unsatisfactory to Beke, he returned the gold 
medal which had been awarded him in 1846 
for his travels in Abyssinia, and withdrew 
altogether from the society. 

In 1852 Beke edited for the Hakluyt 
Society Gerrit de Veer's ' True Description 
of Three Voyages by the North-east, towards 
Cathay and China.' Notes were added to 
the work, which had also an historical in- 
troduction relating chiefly to the earlier voy- 
ages to Novaya Zemlya. The ensuing year 
he addressed the Foreign Office and the 
Board of Trade upon the subject of politics 
and commerce in Abyssinia and other parts 
of Eastern Africa. Beke had married a grand- 
niece of Sir J. W. Herschel, but this lady 
dying in 1853, in 1856 he married secondly 
Miss Emily Alston, a Mauritius lady, the 
daughter of Mr. William Alston of Leicester, 
a claimant of the baronetcy of Alston. He 
had three years before become a partner in 
a Mauritius mercantile house, and in 1856 
he despatched a sailing vessel to the port of 
Massowah for the purpose of endeavouring to 
open up commercial relations with Abyssinia. 




The attempt proved a failure, however, and 
entailed on Beke considerable pecuniary loss. 
But Beke was so convinced of the feasibility 
of establishing commercial relations with 
Abyssinia, that he applied, though unsuc- 
cessfully, to the Foreign Office for the ap- 
pointment of British consul at Massowah, 
with the object of developing his scheme. 

In 1860 Beke published < The Sources of 
the Nile ; being a General Survey of the 
Basin of that River and of its Head 
Streams. With the History of Nilotic 
Discovery.' The work was based upon the 
author's essay ' On the Nile and its Tribu- 
taries, and various subsequent papers. But 
much new information was added. The 
-author showed how the truth of his previous 
contentions respecting the interior of Africa 
had been established by Captain Burton and 
other travellers ; and that the ' dark conti- 
nent' possessed fertile and genial regions, 
large rivers and lakes, and an immense popu- 
lation, which, if not civilised, was yet to a 
large extent endowed with kindly manners, 
humane dispositions, and industrious habits. 
The writer therefore pressed upon the serious 
consideration of the British merchant, as well 
as the Christian missionary and philanthro- 
pist, the necessity for opening up the conti- 
nent of Africa and civilising its inhabitants. 

Dr. and Mrs. Beke travelled in Syria and 
Palestine in 1861-62, l for the purpose of 
exploring and identifying the Harran, or 
Charran of Scripture, and other localities 
mentioned in the book of Genesis, in accord- 
ance with the opinions expressed in Dr. 
Beke's " Origines Biblicte " in 1834. They 
also travelled in Egypt, in order to see and 
induce the merchants of Egypt to form a 
company for carrying out Dr. Beke's plans for 
opening up commercial relations with cen- 
tral Africa, and for promoting the growth of 
cotton in upper Egypt and the Soudan.' On 
their return, the travellers were publicly 
awarded the thanks of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, and several papers were the 
result of this visit to the East. Beke also 
entered into controversy with Bishop Colenso 
on the subject of the exodus of the Israelites 
and the position of Mount Sinai. 

In 1864 great indignation was caused in 
England by the news that Captain Cameron 
and a number of other British subjects and 
missionaries had been imprisoned by the 
King of Abyssinia for pretended insults. 
Beke at once undertook a journey to Abyssinia 
for the purpose of urging on King Theodore 
the necessity of releasing the British consul 
and his fellow-prisoners. Beke obtained the 
temporary liberation of the prisoners, but the 
subsequent conduct of the king, in again im- 

prisoning and ill-treating the captives, led 
to the Abyssinian war, which resulted in 
the complete defeat, and the death, of King 
Theodore. During the Abyssinian difficulty 
Beke furnished maps, materials, and other in- 
formation to the British government, and to 
the army, by which many of the dangers of 
the expedition were averted, and in all pro- 
bability many lives saved. Beke received 
a grant of 500/. from the secretary of state 
for India, but his family and friends re- 
garded this remuneration as very inadequate 
for public services extending over a period 
of thirty or forty years, and culminating in 
his aid and advice in connection with the 
Abyssinian campaign. In June 1868 Pro- 
fessor E. W. Brayley, F.R.S., drew up a 
memorandum of the public services of Beke 
in respect of the Abyssinian expedition. 
I Two years later the queen granted Beke a 
civil-list pension of 100/. per annum in con- 
sideration of his geographical researches, and 
especially of the value of his explorations in 

Amongst other questions of oriental in- 

' terest studied by Dr. Beke, that of the true 

location of Mount Sinai had always a special 

i fascination for him. In December 1873 he 

I left England for Egypt, accompanied by 

i several scientific friends, for the purpose of 

investigating this question in person. The 

| Khedive of Egypt placed a steamer at his 

disposal, and the exploring party performed 

j a tour round the alleged Mount Sinai, and 

j made valuable discoveries along the coast of 

j the gulf of Akaba. They occupied them- 

j selves with the sites connected with the 

passage of the Red Sea by the Israelites, and 

afterwards proceeded into the interior, and 

discovered ' Mount Sinai in Arabia/ called 

by the natives Mount Barghir. In March 

1874, Beke arrived in England, and though 

apparently in good health, considering his 

advanced age, died suddenly on 31 July 

ensuirig. He was buried at Bekesbourne on 

5 Aug. 

After his death his widow issued his most 
important work, entitled l Discoveries of 
Sinai in Arabia, and of Midian,' which was 
accompanied by geological, botanical, and 
conchological reports, plans, maps, and en- 
gravings. It was claimed for him that by 
this work he had paved the way for others 
to arrive at a final settlement of the whole of 
the important questions connected with the 
exodus of the Israelites. But the questions 
raised in his latest volume led to much con- 
troversy, his opinions being by some vehe- 
mently opposed. 

In addition to the works mentioned in the 
course of this biography, Dr. Beke was the 




author of : 1. ' The British Captives in Abys- 
sinia/ published in 1865. 2. ' King Theodore 
and Mr. Rassam/ 1869. 3. 'The Idol in 
Horeb/ 1871. 4. 'Jesus the Messiah/ 1872. 

5. 'Discovery of the true Mount Sinai.' 

6. 'Mount Sinai a Volcano '(1873) ; and many 
other sketches, pamphlets, and papers. 

[Beke's various works ; Summary of Beke's 
published works, by his Widow, 1876 ; Annual 
Eegister for 1874; Transactions of the Royal 
Geographical Society ; An Enquiry into M. A. 
d'Abbadie's Journey to Kaffa, 1850 ; The Idol in 
Horeb, 1871 ; Letters on the Commerce of Abys- 
sinia, 1852; Reports of the British Association, 
1847 ; The Sources of the Nile, 1860 ; Views in 
Ethnography (new ed.), 1863 ; Men of the Time, 
8th ed.] G. B. S. 

BEKINSAU, JOHN (1496P-1559), scho- 
lar and divine, was born at Broadchalke, in 
Wiltshire, about 1496. His father, John 
Bekinsau, of Hartley Wespell, Hampshire, 
is supposed to have belonged to the Lanca- 
shire family of Becconsall (TANNER) ; but 
Hoare (Hist, of Wilts, iv. 153) argues that 
there was a family of the name native in 

Bekinsau was educated at Winchester 
School, and proceeded to New College, Oxford; 
he was made fellow of that society in 1520, 
and took the degree of M.A. in 1526. At 
Oxford he was, according to Wood, esteemed 
' an admirable Grecian ; ' and on proceeding 
to Paris he read the Greek lecture in the 
university, probably soon after 1530, the year 
in which Francis I founded the royal pro- 
fessorships and revived the study of Greek 
at Paris. Having returned to England, Be- 
kinsau married, and so vacated his fellow- 
ship, in 1538. 

His only extant work is a treatise 'De 
supremo et absolute Regis imperio ' (London, 
1546), republished in Goldast's ' Monarchia ' 
in 1611; this work is dedicated to Henry VIII, 
' the head of the church immediately after 
Christ/ and affirms the full supremacy of the 
king against that of the pope. The argu- 
ment proceeds mainly by quotations from the 
fathers, of whom Chrysostom seems the fa- 
vourite. He was a friend of John Leland, 
who addresses a poem to a forthcoming work 
of Bekinsau, and refers to the learning and 
Parisian studies of its author (LELAND, En- 
comia, p. 9). Bale gives a bad account of 
Bekinsau, alleging that his work on the su- 
premacy was only written for the sake of 
lucre. The same biographer adds that he 
returned to the Roman church in 1554, ' like 
a dog to his vomit.' On the accession of 
Elizabeth, Bekinsau retired to Sherburne, 
a village in Hampshire, where he died, and 
was buried on 20 Dec. 1559. 

[Wood's Athenae, i. 129 ; Tanner's Bibliotheca ; 
Bale ; Hoare's Wiltshire.] A. G-N. 

Bath and Wells. [See BECKINGTON.] 


, 1552), civilian, sometimes called BELLOWS 
and BELLOWSESSE, was a younger son of 
Thomas Belasyse, Esq., of Henknowle, co. 
Durham. He proceeded bachelor of the civil 

I law in the university of Cambridge in 1520, 
and was afterwards created LL.D., but it is 
supposed that he took that degree in a foreign 

| university. In 1528 he was admitted an ad- 

I vocate. On 4 May 1533 he obtained the 
rectory of Whickham, co. Durham, being col- 
lated to it by Bishop Tunstal, who on 7 June 
following ordained him priest. In the same 
year he was presented to the vicarage of St. 
Oswald in the city of Durham. In 1539 he 
became vicar of Brancepeth in the same 
county, and about this time he resigned 
Whickham. His name is subscribed to the 
decree of convocation, 9 July 1540, declaring 
the marriage of Henry VIII with Anne of 
Cleves to have been invalid. Later in the 
same year he obtained a prebend in the col- 
legiate church of Auckland and a canonry at 
Westminster. Bonner, bishop of London, 
collated him to the archdeaconry of Col- 
chester on 27 April 1543 (NEWCOIJET, Reper- 
torium, i. 91), and it is said that on the same 
day he obtained a prebend in the church of 
Ripon. He held also the mastership of the 
hospital of St. Edmund in Gateshead, and 
had a prebend in the collegiate church of 
Chester-le-Street. In January 1543-4 he 
was installed in the prebend of Heydour- 
cum- Walton in the church of Lincoln. In 
1544 he was appointed a master in chancery, 
and on 17 Oct. in that year he was commis- 
sioned with the master of the rolls, John 
Tregonwell, and John Oliver, also masters 
in chancery, to hear causes in the absence 
of Lord Wriothesley, the lord chancellor. 
(RYMER, Fcedera, ed. 1713, xv. 58). 

Dr. Belasyse became master of Sherburne 
Hospital, co. Durham, in or about 1545, in 
which year Henry VIII granted to him, Wil- 
liam Belasyse, and Margaret Simpson, the 
site of the priory of Newburgh in the county 
of York, with the demesne, lands, and other 
hereditaments ; also certain manors in West- 
moreland which had pertained to the dis- 
solved monastery of Biland in Yorkshire. In 
1546 he was holding the prebend of Tim- 
berscomb in the church of Wells, and three 
years later he was installed prebendary of 
Knaresborough-cum-Bickhill in the church 
of York. In January 1551-2 his name was 
inserted in a commission by which certain 




judges and civilians were authorised to assist 
Bishop Goodrich of Ely, the lord keeper, in 
hearing matters of chancery (STRYPE, Me- 
morials, ii. 296, 488, fol.). It is said that he 
was one of the council of thu north under 
Edward VI (Id. ii. 458, fol.), but the accu- 
racy of this statement has been questioned. 
On 7 June 1552 he had a grant from the 
crown of a canonry in the church of Carlisle 
( Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1 547-80, 

LiO), though he does not appear to have 
n admitted to it, and his death occurred 
in the following month. Having largely 
profited by the spoliation of the monasteries, 
he bestowed the valuable estates thus ob- 
tained at Newburgh and elsewhere on his 
nephew, Sir William Belasyse, whose grand- 
son was ennobled with the title of Faucon- 
berg by Charles I. 

[Foss's Judges of England, v. 91, 279, 341 ; 
Surtees's Durham, i. 130, 131, 140, ii. 241, iii. 
367, iv. (2) 82 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 181, 
ii. 156, 342, iii. 197, 352; Cal. of State Papers 
(Dom. 1547-80), 23 ; Strype's Memorials (fol.), 
ii. 531 ; Original Letters relative to the English 
Reformation, ed. Eobinson, 289 n ; Coote's Civi- 
lians, 25 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 543.] 

T. C. 

(1614-1689), was the second son of Thomas, 
first Lord Fauconberg. The first Lord Fau- 
oiiberg (miscalled Henry by Fuller in his 
* Worthies of Yorkshire ') was the eldest son 
of Sir Henry Belasyse, first baronet, and was 
by Charles I created in 1627 Baron Faucon- 
berg of Yarm, and in 1642 Viscount Faucon- 
berg of Henknowle. He died in 1652. His 
eldest son, Henry, who died before him, 
took some part in the proceedings in the 
Long parliament at the time of the arrest 
of the five members (GLOVER, Visitation 
of Yorkshire; Notebook of Sir J. North- 
cote). His second son was born about 1614. 
On the breaking out of the civil war he 
joined the king at Oxford, and was by him 
at that place, on 22 Jan. 1644-5, created 
Baron Belasyse of Worlaby, Lincolnshire. 
At his own charge he raised six regiments 
of horse and foot, was placed in command 
of a ' tertia/ and was present at the battles 
of Edgehill, Brentford, and Newbury, at the 
sieges of Reading, Bristol, and Newark, and 
finally at the battle of Naseby. He was also 
appointed, at different times in the course of 
the war, lieutenant-general of the king's 
forces in the counties of York, Nottingham, 
Lincoln, Derby, and Rutland, and governor 
of York and Newark. After the restoration 
he was made lord-lieutenant of the East 
Riding and governor of Hull, and captain of 
the guard of gentlemen pensioners. This 

office he resigned in consequence of a private 
quarrel ; he was then made governor of 
Tangier. Being unable to take the oath of 
conformity, he subsequently resigned that 
post also. That his reputation stood high as 
a soldier is proved by the fact that in the false 
information of Titus Gates he, being a catholi c, 
was designated as the leader of the catholic 
army which Oates pretended was in course of 
formation. In consequence of this information 
he was in 1678, together with other catholic 
lords, viz. Arundell of Wardour [see ARUN- 
DELL, HENRY], Powis, Stafford, and Petre, 
committed to the Tower and impeached of 
high crimes and offences, but never brought 
to trial. The imprisonment of the catholic 
lords lasted till February 1683-4, when they 
were admitted to bail. Lord Belasyse stood 
high in the favour of James II, and was in 
1687 made first lord commissioner of the 
treasury, an appointment which, on account 
of his religion, gave great offence. He died 
in 1689. 

His eldest son, Sir Henry Belasyse, K.B., 
the husband of Susan Armine [see under 
ARMINE, SIR WILLIAM], died before his 
father, and Lord Belasyse was succeeded in 
the title by his grandson Henry, son of Sir 
Henry. On the death of the second Lord 
Belasyse in 1692 the title became extinct. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Fuller's Worthies, York- 
shire, p. 220 (fol.) ; Foster's Visitations of York- 
shire, 1584-1612, and Pedigrees of the County 
Families of Yorkshire; Money's Battles of New- 
bury, where is given a copy of the monumental 
brass in St. Giles' in the Fields, the church where 
Lord Belasyse was buried; Klopp's Fall des 
Hauses Stuart.] ' C. F. K. 

BERG (1627-1700), son of Henry Belasyse, r ;*'] 
and grandson of Thomas, first Viscount **fL e l( J 
Fauconberg, succeeded his grandfather in * 
the viscounty of Fauconberg in 1652. Un- l/6i/ ' 
like his father and grandfather, he passed 
over to the side of the parliament, and sub- 
sequently became a strong adherent of Crom- 
well, whose third daughter, Mary, he married 
in 1667. He again became a royalist at the 
restoration, and was appointed a member of 
the privy council of Charles II, captain of the 
guard (in which office he succeeded his uncle), 
and ambassador in Italy. He was one of the 
noblemen who joined in inviting William 
to England, and was by that king raised 
in 1689 to the rank of earl. He died in 

[Forster's County Families of Yorkshire ; Col- 
lins's Peerage.] C. F. K. 

BELCHER, SiREDWARD (1799-1877), 
admiral, son of Andrew Belcher of Halifax, 



Nova Scotia [see BERESFORD, SIR JOHN Poo], 
and grandson of William Belcher, governor 
of the same colony, entered the navy in 1812, 
and, after serving in several ships in the 
Channel and on the Newfoundland station, 
was in 1816 a midshipman of the Superb, 
with Captain Ekins, at the bombardment of 
Algiers. He was made lieutenant on 21 July 
1818, and after continuous, though unimpor- 
tant service, was in 1825 appointed as assistant 
.surveyor to the Blossom, then about to sail 
for the Pacific Ocean and Behring Straits [see 
age of discovery which lasted over more than 
three years. He was made commander 
16 March 1829, and from May 1830 to Sep- 
tember 1833 commanded the JEtna, employed 
on the survey of parts of the west and north 
coasts of Africa, and through the winter of 
1832 in the Douro, for the protection of 
British interests during the struggle between 
the parties of Doms Pedro and Miguel. The 
results of the ^Etna's work were afterwards 
embodied in the admiralty charts and sailing 
directions for the rivers Douro and Gambia. 
On paying off the JEtna, Belcher was em- 
ployed for some time on the home survey, 
principally in the Irish Sea, and in November 
1836 was appointed to the Sulphur, survey- 
ing ship, then on the west coast of South 
America, from which Captain Beechey had 
been obliged to invalid. During the next 
three years the Sulphur was busily employed 
on the west coast of both North and South 
America, and in the end of 1839 received 
orders to return to England by the western 
Toute. After visiting several of the island 
groups in the South Pacific, and making such 
observations as time permitted, Belcher ar- 
rived at Singapore in October 1840, where he 
was ordered back to China, on account of the 
war which had broken out, and during the 
following year he was actively engaged, 
more especially in operations in the Canton 
Eiver. The Sulphur finally arrived in Eng- 
land in July 1842, after a commission of 
nearly seven years. Belcher had already 
been advanced to post rank, 6 May 1841, and 
been decorated with a C.B. ; he now (January 
1843) received the honour of knighthood, and 
in the course of the same year published his 
l Narrative of a Voyage round the World per- 
formed in H.M.S. Sulphur during the years 
1836-42 ' (2 vols. 8vo). In November 1842 
he was appointed to the Samarang for the 
survey of the coast of China, which the re- 
cent war and treaty had opened to our com- 
merce. More pressing necessities, however, 
changed her field of work to Borneo, the 
Philippine Islands, and Formosa, and on these 
and neighbouring coasts Belcher was em- 

ployed for nearly five years, returning to Eng- 
land on the last day of 1847. In 1848 he 
published ' Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. 
Samarang ' (2 vols. 8vo), and in 1852 was 
appointed to the command of an expedition 
to the Arctic in search of Sir John Franklin. 
The appointment was an unfortunate one ; for 
Belcher, though an able and experienced sur- 
veyor, had neither the temper nor the tact 
necessary for a commanding officer under cir- 
cumstances of peculiar difficulty. Perhaps no 
officer of equal ability has ever succeeded in 
inspiring so much personal dislike, and the cus- 
tomary exercise of his authority did not make 
Arctic service less trying. Nor did any happy 
success make amends for much discomfort 
and annoyance ; and his expedition is distin- 
guished from all other Arctic expeditions as 
the one in which the commanding officer 
showed an undue haste to abandon his ships 
when in difficulties, and in which one of the 
ships so abandoned rescued herself from the ice, 
and was picked up floating freely in the open 
Atlantic. Belcher has himself told the story 
in a work published in 1855 with the some- 
what extravagant title of ' The Last of the 
Arctic Voyages ' (2 vols. 8vo), with which 
may be compared the description of the aban- 
donment of the Resolute given by the late 
Admiral Sherard Osborn in his ' Discovery of a 
North-west Passage ' (4th ed. 1865), pp. 262-6. 
Belcher was never employed again, although 
in due course of seniority he attained his flag 
11 Feb. 1861, became vice-admiral 2 April 
1866, and admiral 20 Oct. 1872. He was 
also honoured with a K.C.B. 13 March 1867. 
He passed the remaining years of his life in 
literary and scientific amusements, and died 
18 March 1877. Besides the works already 
noted, he published in 1835 ' A Treatise on 
Nautical Surveying/ long a standard work on 
the subject, though now obsolete ; in 1856, 
' Horatio Howard Brenton, a Naval Novel ' 
(3 vols. 8vo), and an exceedingly stupid one ; 
and in 1867 edited Sir W. H. Smyth's 
1 Sailors' Word Book,' 8vo. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biog. Diet. ; Journal of the 
Roy. Greog. Soc. (1877), xlvii. p. cxxxvi ; Add. 
MS. 28509, f. 126.] J. K. L. 

BELCHIAM, THOMAS (1508-1537), a 
Franciscan friar of v the convent at Greenwich, 
was imprisoned, with others of his brethren, 
for refusing to take the oath of the royal supre- 
macy, and declaring the king (Henry VIII) 
to be a heretic. He wrote a sermon on the 
text, ' Behold, they that wear soft clothing are 
in kings' houses' (Matt. xi. 8), in which he 
lashed the vices of the court and the avarice 
and inconstancy of the clergy. At the in- 
tercession of Thomas Wriothesley (after- 




wards lord chancellor and earl of South- 
ampton), some of the friars were released, 
but Belchiam was excepted. He died in New- 
gate of starvation on 3 Aug. 1537. A copy 
of his sermon, which was found in the prison 
after his death, was brought to Henry VIII, 
who was at first affected by it, but afterwards 
had it burnt. Another copy was preserved 
by the friars, and Thomas Bourchier, writing 
in 1583, expresses a hope that it may be pub- 
lished, which, as far as we know, was never 

[Bourchier's HistoriaEcclesiastica de Martyrio 
Fratrum Ordinis Minorum ; Sanders's Historia 
Schismatis Anglicani, p. 127; "Wadding's An- 
nales Minorum, xvi. 418 ; Scriptores Minorum ; 
Collectanea Anglo-Minoritica, pt. i. 240 ; An- 
gelus a S. Francisco (N. Mason), Certamen Sera- 
phicum Provincise Anglise.] C. T. M. 

DAWBRIDGE-COURT (1580P-1621), dra- 
matist, the son of William Belchier, Esq., 
of Gillesborough, in Northamptonshire, was 
admitted, in company with his brother John, 
a fellow-commoner of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 2 March 1597. He after- 
wards removed to Christ Church, where, on 
9 Feb. 1600, he took the degree of B.A. 
A few years later he settled in the Low 
Countries, and in 1617, when he was residing 
in Utrecht, he translated from the Dutch 
but it cannot now be traced from what ori- 
ginal a piece which he published in London 
in 1618, 'Hans Beer Pot, his Invisible 
Comedy of See me and See me not,' which 
was stated to have been ' acted in the Low 
Countries by an honest company of Health 
Drinkers/ This play was anonymous, and 
.was attributed to Thomas Nash by Phillips 
and Winstanley. The author admits that it 
is neither tragedy nor comedy, but a plain 
conference of three persons, divided into 
three acts. Belchier was the author of 
various other poems and translations, but 
none of them appear to have been printed. 
He presented to Corpus Christi College a 
silver cup with the family arms upon it, 
' Paly of 6 or, and gul, a chief vaire.' He 
died at Utrecht in 1621. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 158; Masters's 
History of Corpus Christi College (1753), p. 230.] 

E. G. 

BELCHIER, JOHN (1706-1785), sur- 
geon, was born at Kingston, Surrey, and 
educated at Eton. On leaving school he 
was apprenticed to Cheselden, head surgeon 
at St. Thomas's Hospital. By perseverance 
Belchier became eminent in his profession, 
and in 1736 he was appointed surgeon to 

G-uy's Hospital. In 1732 he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society, and his name 
appears on the list of the council from 1769 
to 1772. He contributed some papers to 
the society's * Philosophical Transactions/ 
On Belchier's retirement from the office of 
surgeon of Guy's Hospital he was elected 
one of its governors, and also a governor of 
St. Thomas's Hospital. He had an exagge- 
rated reverence for the name of Guy, saying 
' that no other man would have sacri- 
ficed 150,000/. for the benefit of his fellow- 
creatures.' In the ' Gentleman's Magazine * 
for 1743 is the following story : ' One Stephen 
Wright, who, as a patient, came to Mr. Bel- 
chier, a surgeon, in Sun Court, being alone 
with him in the room clapt a pistol to his 
breast, demanding his money. Mr. Belchier 
offered him two guineas, which he refused ; 
but, accepting of six guineas and a gold 
watch, as he was putting them in his pocket 
Mr. Belchier took the opportunity to seize 
upon him, and, after a struggle, secured him/ 
Belchier died suddenly in Sun Court, Thread- 
needle Street, and was buried in the founder's 
vault in the chapel attached to Guy's Hos- 

[Philosophical Transactions of the London- 
Royal Society, abridged ; Gent. Mag. 1785.] 

P. B. A. 

BELER, ROGER DE (d. 1326), judge, 
was son of William Beler, and grandson of 
Roger Beler, sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1256. 
His mother's name was Amicia. That the 
family was settled in Leicestershire we know 
from a license obtained by the judge in 1316 
to grant a lay fee in Kirkby-by-Melton, on 
the Wrethek in that county, to the warden 
and chaplains of St. Peter, on condition of 
their performing religious services for the 
benefit of the souls of himself and his wife 
Alicia, his father and mother, and ancestry 
generally. In the civil dissensions of the 
period, in which Piers Gaveston lost his life, 
Beler was of the Earl of Lancaster's party, 
and in October 1318 was included in the 
amnesty then granted to the earl and his 
adherents. Shortly afterwards he received a 
grant of land in Leicestershire as the reward 
of undefined ' laudable services ' rendered by 
him to the king. In the same year the offices 
of bailiff and steward of Stapleford, in Leices- 
tershire, of which apparently he was already 
tenant, were entailed upon him. In this year 
he was one of a commission for the trial of 
sheriffs and other officers accused of extortion 
in the counties of Buckingham, Bedford, and 
Northampton. In 1 322 he was created baron of 
the exchequer in the room of John de Foxle, 
and placed on a special commission to try 




-certain ' malefactors and disturbers of the , 
peace' who had forcibly broken into and j 
pillaged certain manors belonging to Hugh | 
le Despenser (amongst whom were Ralph j 
and Roger la Zousch), and upon another coin- 
mission for the same purpose in the following ' 
year. In 1324 he sat on a commission for | 
the trial of persons charged with complicity in j 
a riot at Rochester. On 29 Jan. 1325-6, while j 
on his way from Kirkby to Leicester, he was j 
murdered in a valley near Reresby by one ; 
Eustace de Folville and his brother. A com- 
mission for the trial of the murderers issued 
next month, Roger la Zousch of Lubesthorp 
and Robert Helewell being indicted as acces- 
sories. They fled from the kingdom, and their 
goods were confiscated. One Eudo or Ivo la 
Zousch was ' appealed of the murder by Alicia, 
and, being also threatened with death by Hugh 
le Despenser, made his escape to France, and 
died in Paris at Martinmas. Process of out- 
lawry issued against him unlawfully after his 
death, for the removal of which his son Wil- 
liam petitioned parliament next year (1327). 
Alicia survived her husband by nearly twenty 
years, dying in 1344. The judge left an heir 
named Roger, who, being an infant, became 
a ward of the crown. Alicia was placed in 
possession of the estates in Leicestershire 
during his minority. The judge was buried 
at Kirkby in the church of St. Peter, where 
a monument in alabaster, representing him 
as a knight in complete armour, was extant 
at the date of publication of Nichols's ' His- 
tory of Leicestershire ' (1795), though the lines 
of the drapery were with difficulty traceable. 

[Dugdale's Monast. vi. 511 ; Madox's Exch. ii. 
140 ; Tanner's Not. Monast. 245 ; Abbrev. Kot. 
Grig. i. 230, ii. 6, 171 ; Parl. Writs, ii. 522, 
1647; Kot. Parl. ii. 432 ; Nichols's Leicest. i. pt. 
ii. 225. ii. pt. i. 230; Foss's Judges of England.] 

J. M. E. 



BELET, MICHAEL (ft. 1182), judge, 
was sheriff of Worcestershire 1176-81 and 
again in 1184, of Wiltshire 1180-82, of Lei- 
cestershire and Warwickshire in conjunction 
with Ralph Glanvill 1185-87, and alone 
1189-90. He appears as a justice itinerant for 
Warwickshire and Leicestershire in 1177, in 
the following year for Lincolnshire, and in 
1179, on the redistribution of circuits which 
then took place, he was assigned for the 
eastern circuit. 

On several occasions between the latter 
years of Henry II's reign and the third of 
John, 1201-2, we find him acting as tallager 
in various counties. He is classed as a baron 
in the record of a fine levied before him in 


the exchequer in 1183, and in 1189-90 we 
find him acting with the barons in assessing 
imposts in the midland counties. He was 
lord of the manor of Shene in Surrey, and of 
that of Wroxton in Oxfordshire. He married 
Emma, daughter and coheir of John de 
Keynes, by whom he had several sons, of 
whom the eldest was named Hervey after his 
grandfather, and the second Michael [q. v.]. 
The last fine recorded by Dugdale as having 
been levied before him is dated 1199. Pro- 
bably he died early in the thirteenth century. 
On his death his estates passed to his eldest 
son, Hervey, who, however, dying in 1207-8 
without issue, was succeeded by his brother 
Michael, who paid a fine of 100/. upon the 

[Hoveden, ed. Stubbs, ii. 191 ; Madox's Exch., 
i. 82, 113, 130, 556, 705,736; Fuller's Worthies, 
137, 159, 178 ; Rot. Cancell., 3 John, 238 ; Fines 
(Hunter) Pref. xxi-xxiii ; Pipe Roll 1 Eic. I, 35, 
69, 103, 116, 160, 236 ; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 5 ; 
Manning and Bray's Surrey, i. 406.] J. M. E. 

BELET, MICHAEL (Jl. 1238), judge, 
second son of Michael Belet, the judge of 
Henry II's reign, is commonly styled Magister 
Michael Belet on account of his profession of 
civilian and canonist. He was presented in 
1200-1 by the king to the living of Hincles- 
ham in the diocese of Norwich. In the roll 
De Oblatis for 1201 occurs the curious me- 
morandum, of which the following is a trans- 
lation : ' Master Michael Belet offers the 
lord the king, on behalf of his sister, 40 marks 
for the hand of Robert de Candos, which 
is in the gift of the lord the king. And 
Geoffrey Fitz Peter is authorised to accept 
the aforesaid fine of 40 marks, provided it be 
for the profit of the king so to do, because if 
that be so, it is granted to him because he is 
in the service of the king.' In 1203-4 he 
was presented by the king to the living of 
Setburgham (now Serbergham, near Hesket 
Newmarket) in the diocese of Carlisle. At 
a subsequent period, the precise date of which 
cannot be fixed, he incurred the ' ill will ' 
(malevolentia) of the king, who caused him 
to be ejected from his manor of Shene in 
Surrey, which he held upon the tenure of ( ser- 
geanty of butlery ' to the king, and only re- 
instated him (in 1213) upon payment of a 
fine of 500 marks. He was not at the same 
time restored to the office of royal butler, of 
which he had also been deprived. On the 
whole, however, Belet seems to have been a 
faithful servant of the king, and in 1216 he 
received the lands of one Wischard Ledet, 
who is described as being ( with the king's 
enemies.' In 1223 he was appointed receiver 
of the rents of the see of Coventry, and in 




1225 auditor of the accounts of the justices 
to whom the collection of the quinzime was 
assigned, and himself assigned to collect it 
in Northamptonshire. This is probably the 
reason why Dugdale includes him among the 
barons. He is mentioned by Matthew Paris 
in 1236 as playing his part with due solem- 
nity as royal butler on the occasion of the | 
banquet in honour of the marriage of the king ' 
with Eleanor of Provence. Some few years 
previously, probably in 1230, he founded at 
"Wroxton a priory for canons regular of the 
order of St. Augustine, endowing it with the 
manors of Wroxton andBalescote. The grant 
was confirmed by a charter of Henry III. 
The priory or abbey, as it came to be called, 
continued in existence till the dissolution of ; 
religious houses in Henry VIII's reign. The 
property afterwards came into the family of 
the earls of Downe. The present tenant, the 
Baroness North, is a descendant of the lord 
keeper Guilford, who married a sister of the 
last earl of Downe. A few fragments of the 
original building are preserved in the exist- 
ing structure, which was erected between 
1600 and 1618 by the earl of Downe of that 

[Rot. Chart. 75, 134; Kot. Glaus, i. 286; 
Testa de Nevill, 226a; Madox's Exch. i. 462, 
474, ii. 291 ; Rot. de Obi. et Fin. (Hardy), 180 ; 
Matthew Paris, ed. Luard, iii. 338 ; Manning 
and Bray's Surrey, i. 406 ; Tanner's Not. Monast., 
Oxfordshire; Skel ton's En graved Illustrations of 
Oxfordshire, Bloxham Hundred; Burke's Visi- 
tation of Seats and Arms, ii. 189.] J. M. R. 

BELETH, JOHN (/. 1182 ?), the author of 
the often-printed ' Rationale divinorum offi- 
ciorum,' is somewhat hesitatingly claimed as 
an Englishman by Pits. According to Tan- 
ner, however, his cognomen was Anglicus. 
He is said by Henricus Gandavensis (d. 1293) 
to have been rector of a theological school at 
Paris. Albericus Trium Fontiuni (fl. 1241) 
describes him under the year 1182 as nourish- 
ing in the church of Amiens (Chron. Alberici 
apud LEIBNITZ, ii. 363). Posse vinus, appa- 
rently quoting from Essengrenius, has as- 
signed him a very different date 1328 
which has been adopted by Pits, and, according 
to Oudin, by some later writers. The latest 
author quoted by Beleth seems to be Rupert 
Tuitiensis, who died in the year 1135 (see 
Rationale, c. 123). The chapter in the l Ra- 
tionale ' on the feast of the Invention of St. 
Stephen, instituted in the fifteenth century 
(MIGNE), is evidently a late insertion. Be- 
sides the ( Rationale/ two other works have 
been attributed to Beleth a collection of 
sermons, and a treatise entitled 'Gemma 
Animse.' The ' Rationale ' seems to have 
been printed several times during the course 

of the sixteenth century, and at various 
places. In later years it has been issued in 
Migne's ' Patrologiae Cursus,' vol. ccii. Many 
manuscripts of this work used to exist in 
England. Pits mentions two in the private- 
libraries of Baron de Lumley and Walter 
Cope. Tanner adds two others, to be found 
respectively in the Royal Library at West- 
minster (now in the British Museum), and 
in the Bodleian at Oxford. 

[Pits, 869 ; Possevimis, Apparatus Sacer, i. 
825; Fabricius, Biblioth. Lat. iv. 56; Oudin 
De Scriptor. Ecclesiast. ii. 1589; Du Boulay's 
Historia Univers. Parisiens. ii. 749 ; Tanner, and 
authorities cited above ; a list of the various edi- 
tions of the Rationale is given by Fabricius.] 

T. A. A. 


BELFORD, WILLIAM (1709-1780), 
artillery officer, was born in 1709, and entered 
the royal regiment of artillery on its forma- 
tion as a cadet on 1 Feb. 1726. The regiment 
of artillery was not yet of much importance 
as a component part of the army, for Marl- 
borough had always employed Danish, Dutch,, 
and German adventurers as gunners, and had 
not laid much importance upon securing 
English artillerymen. King George I, Lord 
Stanhope, and Sir Robert Walpole all saw the 
importance of this branch of the service, and 
Albert Borgard [q.v.] was allowed to raise the 
royal regiment of artillery in 1726. Young 
Belford soon showed his aptitude for learning 
all that was then to be learned of the science 
of artillery, and was promoted fireworker in 
1729, second lieutenant in 1737, first lieu- 
tenant in 1740, and captain-lieutenant or 
adjutant in 1741. In that year he served in 
the expedition to Carthagena, and gave such 
satisfaction that he was promoted captain in 
1742. He then served in the campaigns in 
Flanders in 1742-45, and was present at the 
battle of Dettingen, and was promoted a 
major in the army by brevet in 1745. He 
next commanded the small force of artillery 
attached to the Duke of Cumberland's army 
at Culloden, and t by his spirit and boldness 
checked the vigour of the clans, and gave the 
victory/ for which signal service he was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel in the army by 
brevet. He then commanded the artillery 
in Flanders in 1747-8 and at the battle of 
Fontenoy, and was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel in his regiment in 1749, and succeeded 
Albert Borgard, the founder of the regiment, 
as colonel commandant at Woolwich in 1751. 
He held this important post till he was pro- 
moted major-general in January 1758. He 
had then to surrender the command -of the- 



Bel f rage 

regiment, but received the command of the 
Woolwich district, with the important charge 
of the Warren, as the arsenal was then called. 
He was promoted, in due course, lieutenant- 
general in 1760, and general in 1777. On 
the outbreak of the Gordon riots, says the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' the rioters meant 
to burn the Warren. * But General Belford 
had made such dispositions that 40,000 men 
could not have forced the arsenal. This im- 
portant service, and the despatching trains of 
artillery to the different camps, kept him on 
horseback day and night. Such extraordinary 
fatigue, such unremitting application, burst a 
blood-vessel, and brought on a fever, which 
carried him off in a few days ' ( Gentleman's 
Magazine, vol. 1., 1780, p. 347). General Bel- 
ford died at the Warren, Woolwich, on 1 July 
1780, and was succeeded in his command by 
his eldest son, who was also an officer in the 
artillery. Belford seems to have been a very 
competent officer, and to have greatly contri- 
buted to the high position since taken by the 
royal regiment; he contributed a curious little 
pamphlet, l Colonel Belford's March of the 
Artillery,' to Miiller's ' Treatise on the War 
in Flanders,' published in 1757, and he was 
the first officer to introduce the fife into the 
English army by bringing over a Hanoverian 
fifer, named Johann Ulrich, in 1748, who 
taught the fifers of the royal artillery. 

[Gent. Mag. 1780; Kane's List of Officers of 
the Royal Kegiment of Artillery, 2nd ed. 1869, 
p. 166 note.] H. M. S. 

BELFOUR, HUGO JOHN (1802-1827), 
author of poems signed ST. JOHN DORSET, 
was born in or near London in 1802. He 
was the eldest child of Edward Belfour, of 
the Navy Office, by his wife Catherine, 
daughter of John Greenwell, of the India 
House (Gent. Mag. May 1801). Before the 
completion of his nineteenth year, Belfour 
produced ' The Vampire, a Tragedy in five 
acts, by St. John Dorset,' 8vo, London, 1st 
and 2nd editions, 1821. The scene is laid 
in Egypt. The second edition was inscribed 
' To W. C. Macready, Esq.,' to whom the work 
had been submitted in manuscript. Belfour 
also wrote l Montezuma, a Tragedy in five 
acts, and other Poems, by St. John Dorset/ 
8vo, London, 1822. In May 1826 he was 
ordained, and ( appointed to a curacy in 
Jamaica, with the best prospects of prefer- 
ment ' (Gent. Mag?). He died in Jamaica in 
September 1827. 

[The Vampire, a tragedy, 1821 ; Gent. Mag. 
May 1801, January 1816, September 1818, and 
December 1827; Halkett and Laing's Dictionary 
of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature 
of Great Britain, Edinburgh, 1882.1 

A. H. G. 

BELFOUR, JOHN (1768-1842), was an 
orientalist and miscellaneous writer, of whom 
little is recorded, except that he was a member 
of the Royal Society of Literature, and that 
he died in the City Road, London, in 1842, 
at the age of seventy-four. His works are : 
1. ' Literary Fables imitated from the Spanish 
of Yriarte,' London, 1806, 8vo. 2. < Spanish 
Heroism, or the Battle of Roncesvalles ; a me- 
trical romance,' London, 1809, 8vo, 3. ' Music ; 
a didactic poem from the Spanish of Yriarte/ 
London, 1811, 8vo. 4. ' Odes in honour of 
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent; with 
other poems/ 1812 ; only twenty-five copies 
printed. 5. ' The Psalms of David, according 
to the Coptic version, accompanied by a literal 
translation into English, and by the version 
of the Latin Vulgate, with copious notes, in 
which the variations from the original text 
are noticed, the corruptions in the Egyptian 
text pointed out, and its numerous affinities 
with the Hebrew for the first time deter- 
mined/ 1831 : manuscript in British Museum, 
1110 E. 31. 6. ; Remarks on certain Alpha- 
bets in use among the Jews of Morocco/ 1836. 
In the ' Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Literature of the United Kingdom/ iii. 136- 
142, with plates. Belfour also revised, cor- 
rected, and augmented the fifth edition of 
Ray's < English Proverbs/ London, 1813, 8vo. 

[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors (1816), 19 ; 
Gent. Mag. N. S. xviii. 213 ; Watts's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

1835), divine of the Secession church, was 
son of the Rev. John Belfrage, minister of 
the first Associate congregation in Falkirk, 
Stirlingshire, who was of a Kinross-shire 
family. The father was born at Colliston on 
2 Feb. 1736, soon after the Secession. He 
had been called to Falkirk in 1758 ; married 
Jean Whyte, daughter of John Whyte, a corn 
merchant, who belonged to the congregation, 
and had by her five sons and seven daughters. 
Henry was the fourth son, and was born at 
the manse in Falkirk on 24 March 1774. 
From the first he was destined by his parents 
to be a minister of the Gospel. He ' ran away ' 
to school, while between four and five, along 
with his elder brother Andrew. At six he 
read Latin grammatically. He had the ad- 
vantage of a good teacher at the grammar 
school in James Meek. At ten he used to 
preach, and was commonly spoken of as 
' the young or wee minister.' In his thir- 
teenth year he proceeded to the university 
of Edinburgh, in 1786 (November), with his 
elder brother Andrew. He at once took a 
high place in his Latin and Greek classes, and 
read Latin, Greek, and Hebrew as readily as 





English. He entered the Theological Hall 
of his church at Selkirk (under George Law- 
son) in the autumn of 1789, i.e. in his fifteenth 
year. His attendance was only required there 
for about eight weeks in the summer, and 
Belfrage managed, therefore, to carry on his 
studies in the winter at the university till 
his nineteenth year. On 16 May 1793 he 
appeared for examination before his presby- 
tery, and received license on 1 July. His 
father's congregation at once invited him to 
be colleague with his father on 31 Aug. 1793. 
He was also invited to congregations in 
Saltcoats and Lochwinnoch. The synod, or 
supreme ecclesiastical court, assigned him to 
Falkirk, in accordance with his own wish. 
He was ordained on 18 June 1794. The 
congregation was a large and influential one, 
its first minister having been Henry, son of 
Ralph Erskine, one of the fathers of the Se- 
cession. He devoted himself energetically 
to his pulpit and pastoral work ; he was the 
main founder in 1812 of a charity school or 
ragged school which still exists, and of a 
Sunday school. 

Belfrage began in 1814 a series of religious 
publications. A first series of ' Sacramental 
Addresses' appeared in 1812, and a second in 
1821 ; and ' Practical Discourses intended to 
promote the Happiness and Improvement of 
the Young' in 1817 (2nd ed. 1827). Other 
of Belfrage's works were : * Sketches of Life 
and Character from Scripture and from Ob- 
servation ' (1822) ; ' Monitor to Families, or 
Discourses on some of the Duties and Scenes 
of Domestic Life ' (1823) ; < A Guide to the 
Lord's Table' (1823); 'Discourses to the 
Aged' (1826) ; < "Counsels for the Sanctuary 
and for Civil Life ' (1829) ; < Memoirs of 
Dr. Waugh,' with Dr. Hay (1830) ; < A Por- 
trait of John the Baptist ' (1830) ; ' Practi- 
cal Exposition of the Assembly's Shorter 
Catechism ' (1822, and 2 vols. 1834) ; ' Select 
Essays ' (1833) . He left behind him various 
manuscripts ready for the press. His ' Ex- 
position of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism' 
is still in use in Scotland and our colonies 
and in the United States. 

Belfrage married, in September 1828, Mar- 
garet Gardiner, youngest daughter of Richard 
Gardiner, comptroller of the Customs, Edin- 
burgh. In 1824 the university of St. An- 
drews conferred upon him the honorary de- 
gree of D.D., the more exceptional at that 
time, as it was obtained through a clergyman 
of the Established Church (Sir Henry Mon- 
crieff-Wellwood, Bart.). He died 16 Sept. 
1835. In 1837 was published 'Life and 
Correspondence of the Rev. Henry Belfrage, 
D.D., by the Rev. John McKerrow and Rev. 
John Macfarlane, with an Appendix on his 

Works ' (8vo) an authority on Scottish 
ecclesiastical history and our main source for 
this notice. 

[McKerrow and Macfarlane's Life of Belfrage ; 
McKerrow's History of Secession Church ; Lives 
of the Erskines, George Lawson, and other Se- 
cession divines ; local inquiries.] A. B. G. 



RIE (1808-1866), writer on law, was the 
son of John Bell, a manufacturer of Paisley, 
and was born there 4 Dec. 1809. He studied 
at Paisley grammar school and at the uni- 
versity of Glasgow. In 1835 he was ad- 
mitted a member of the Society of Writers 
to the Signet, and in 1856 was appointed 
professor of conveyancing in the university 
of Edinburgh. In this chair he distinguished 
himself by the thoroughness and clearness of 
his expositions of the law of conveyancing, 
and by the mastery which he showed over 
some of the more difficult departments, 
ignorance of which had been a fruitful source 
of litigation. Bell died 19 Jan. 1866, and at 
his own suggestion his lectures were after- 
wards published. They still form the standard 
treatise on the subject, a third edition having 
been issued. According to the ' Journal of 
Jurisprudence ' (August 1867), the book ' is 
by far the most trustworthy and useful guide 
in the ordinary business of the lawyer's office 
which has yet been produced.' 'In these 
volumes,' said the ' Glasgow Herald ' (4 May 
1867), ' the student will find Scottish con- 
veyancing treated with singular clearness 
and fulness, or rather exhaustive ness, and 
those in practice will find information suf- 
ficient to guide them, and to guide them in 
safety, along the thorniest and most perplex- 
ing paths of every department of the art.' 

During the greater part of his professional 
life Bell was a partner in the firm of Dun- 
das & Wilson, C.S., and was engaged mostly 
in dealing with matters of conveyancing, for 
which the large business of that firm fur- 
nished unequalled opportunities. Combining 
much research and thoughtful study with 
the practical administration of conveyancing, 
he came to be regarded as facile princeps in 
the department. Personally, he was of quiet 
retiring habits and sincerely religious tem- 
perament. In a minute entered on his death 
in the records of the Society of Writers to 
the Signet, he was spoken of as one * who by 
his talents, assiduity, and great practical 
knowledge was well qualified to discharge 
the important duties devolved upon him [as 




a professor], and \vlio was deservedly esteemed 
by all to whom he was personally known.' 

[Journal of Jurisprudence ; Glasgow Herald ; 
Records of Society of Writers to the Signet; 
Edinburgh newspapers, 20 Jan. 1866 ; notes 
furnished to the writer by Professor Bell's son, 
John M. Bell, Esq., W.S., Edinburgh.] 

W. G. B. 

BELL, ANDREW (1726-1809), engraver, 
was born in 1726, and began his professional 
career in the humble employment of en- 
graving letters, names, and crests on plates 
and dog-collars. Though a very indifferent 
engraver, he rose to be the first in his line in 
Edinburgh. He engraved all the plates to 
illustrate his friend Smellie's translation of 
Buffon, which appeared in 1782. His success 
in life, however, is to be attributed rather 
to the result of a fortunate speculation than 
to his powers as an engraver. This was the 
publication of the f Encyclopaedia Britannica/ 
of which he was originally the half-proprietor, 
and to which he furnished the plates. The 
first edition of this book (the ninth edition 
of which is now in course of publication) 
was completed in 1771, and consisted only 
of 3 vols. quarto. The plan was Smellie's, 
and all the principal articles were written 
or compiled by him. On the death of Colin 
McFarquhar, an Edinburgh printer, in 1793, 
Bell became sole proprietor of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia.' By the sale of the third edition, 
which was completed in 1797 in 18 vols., 
and consisted of 10,000 copies, the sum of 
42,000/. was realised. Though Bell did not 
enjoy a liberal education in his youth, yet 
by means of extensive reading and constant 
intercourse with men of letters he became 
remarkable for the extent of his informa- 
tion. In his personal appearance he was 
noticeable for his smallness of stature, the 
immense size of his nose, and the deformities 
of his legs. He bore these personal peculiari- 
ties, however, with philosophic equanimity, 
and they constantly formed the subject of 
his own jokes. He died at his house in 
Lauriston Lane, at the age of eighty-three, on 
10 May 1809, leaving two daughters and a 
handsome fortune, which was mostly derived 
from the profits of the ' Encyclopaedia.' A 
sketch of him, with his friend Smellie, by 
John Kay, the miniature painter of Edin- 
burgh, will be found in vol. i. of ' The Ori- 
ginal Portraits/ No. 86. 

[Kay's Original Portraits and Caricature Etch- 
ings (1877), i. 13, 210 ; Kerr's Memoirs of the 
Life of William Smellie (1811); Encyclopaedia 
Britannica (8th edit. 1860), pp. v-xxix.l 

G. F. K. B. 

BELL, ANDREW (1753-1832), founder 
of the Madras system of education, was the 

second son of a barber in St. Andrews, and 
I was born there on 27 March 1753. His 
father was a man of some education and of 
great mechanical ingenuity, and a good chess 
player. From his mother, the descendant of 
a Dutchman who came over with William 
III, Bell inherited a hasty temper and a 
good deal of eccentricity. She died by her 
own hand. His school-life began when he 
was not more than four years old ; and no 
doubt a great part of the energy with which 
he afterwards took up the subject of educa- 
tion was due to a recollection of the cruel 
discipline to which he had himself been sub- 
jected. In 1769 he entered St. Andrews 
University, holding a family bursary, and 
partly supporting himself by private teach- 
ing. He distinguished himself chiefly in 
mathematics and natural philosophy, subjects 
to which he was attracted by the influence of 
one of the professors, Dr. Wilkie, the author 
of ' The Epigoniad.' Little is known of his 
college days. In 1774 he went to Virginia, 
where he seems to have lived as tutor in a 
planter's family, besides doing a little busi- 
ness in tobacco on his own account. Return- 
ing home in 1781, and bringing his two pupils 
with him, he continued for several years to 
direct their education at St. Andrews. He 
then took orders in the church of England, 
and for a short time officiated in the Episcopal 
Chapel of Leith. In 1787 he sailed for 
India, after receiving from his university the 
complimentary degree of D.D. Within less 
than two years he succeeded, by dint of per- 
sistent asking, in getting appointed to no 
less than eight army chaplainships, all of 
which he held simultaneously. The salaries 
were considerable ; but the duties were so 
light as to leave him practically free for 
other work. His intention was to settle in 
Calcutta, and as a first step he delivered some 
scientific lectures, which attracted a good 
deal of attention ; but he was soon diverted 
from everything else to the subject which 
filled his mind for the rest of his life. In 
1789 he accepted the post of superintendent 
of the Madras Male Orphan Asylum, an in- 
stitution founded in that year by the East 
India Company for the education of the sons 
of military men. Perhaps the most marked 
feature in Bell's character was his love of 
money ; but for once he declined to take any 
salary out of the limited funds of the charity. 
The work presented peculiar difficulties ; for 
the teachers were ill-paid and inefficient, and 
the half-caste children little amenable to 
moral influences ; so that for some time the 
school made slow progress. It occurred to 
him that the work of teaching the alphabet 
might be done by the pupils themselves, and. 




choosing a clever boy of eight placed him in 
charge of the lowest class to teach by writing 
on sand. The experiment succeeded, and 
its success opened out to Dr. Bell the value 
of the system of mutual instruction. From 
the alphabet he extended it to other sub- 
jects. Soon almost every boy was alter- 
nately a master and a scholar ; and so far as 
possible even the arrangements of the school 
were carried out by the boys. Increased 
rapidity of acquisition and a healthier moral 
tone convinced him that he had discovered a 
new method of education. ' I think,' he said, 
* I have made a great progress in a very diffi- 
cult attempt, and almost wrought a complete 
change in the morals and character of a 
generation of boys/ (For details of his 
labours in the Madras school see, besides his 
.own account, vol. i. of his Life by Southey ; 
see also Miss Edgeworth's Lame Jervas.") 

His health breaking down, Bell determined 
to give up his work for a time, and sailed for 
England in 1796. Though he had gone out 
nine years before with only 128/. 10s., he 
had prospered so greatly and invested so 
judiciously that on his return he was pos- 
sessed of more than 25,000/. Soon after 
arriving in England he abandoned his inten- 
tion of returning to India, and received 
from the East India Company a pension of 
200/. a year. Before leaving India he had 
drawn up a final report for the directors of 
the school, in which he summed up its his- 
tory and gave an account of his method of 
education. In order, as he said, to fix the au- 
thenticity of his system and to establish its 
originality, he published this report in 1797, 
together with some other documents relating 
to the school, under the title, ' An Experi- 
ment in Education made at the Male Asylum 
of Madras ; suggesting a system by which a 
school or family may teach itself under the 
superintendence of the master or parent.' 
Of this pamphlet his other works, which 
appeared at intervals during the rest of his 
life, are but wearisome expansions. In 
1798 the new system was introduced into 
the protestant charity school of St. Bo- 
tolph's, Aldgate, and next year into tie 
industrial schools at Kendal. Bell himself 
pushed it in several places ; but it had made 
comparatively little way before a young 
quaker, Joseph Lancaster, published in 1803 
a pamphlet describing a plan of education 
which he had followed in his own school in 
the Borough Road, London, in which the 
employment of monitors formed a principal 
part. He had read Bell's report, and in his 
pamphlet acknowledges that he had derived 
many useful hints from it, though he had 
already thought out, independently, a scheme 

of mutual instruction. And Bell, in 1804, 
admitted that his rival had displayed much 
originality in applying and amending the 
system. The tone of both soon changed. 
Influenced by Mrs. Trimmer, who pointed out 
that the church of England would suffer by 
the success of Lancaster, who, she said, had 
been building on Bell's foundation, he began 
to speak ungenerously of Lancaster's work. 
Lancaster retaliated by proclaiming himself 
the inventor of the system. Their friends 
took up this quarrel of ' Bel and the Dragon,' 
as it was called in a caricature of the time, 
the church party taking Bell's side, and Lan- 
caster receiving the support of those who 
wished to make education religious but not 
sectarian. In form the question at issue was 
which of the two had been the originator of 
the common system, but in substance it was 
whether the church should thenceforth con- 
trol the education of the people ; and con- 
sequently no settlement was possible. To 
show the manner in which the controversy 
was carried on, it will suffice to quote what 
Southey thought of Lancaster : l The good 
which he has done,' he says, ' is very great, 
but it is pretty much in the way that the 
devil has been the cause of Redemption* 
(Letters, ii. 255. See article in favour of 
Lancaster, JEdin. Rev. November 1810 ; and 
article by Southey in favour of Bell, Quar. 
Rev. October 1811, afterwards published 
under the title, ' Origin, Nature, and Object 
of the New System of Education '). At the 
first cry of the church in danger, Bell had 
taken up in earnest the work of education. 
He was rector of Swanage, in Dorset, a 
living which he had obtained in 1801 ; but 
he left his parish pretty much to itself, while 
he gave his assistance in organising schools 
on the new system. His work lay chiefly 
among the elementary schools ; but in some 
cases, as in Christ's Hospital, the mutual 
method was adopted with apparently satis- 
factory results in teaching the rudiments of 
the classical languages a new field which 
henceforth engrossed much of his attention 
(see his Ludus Liter arius}. The establish- 
ment of technical schools was also within 
his plan, and he was not deterred by the 
favourite objection that the training of tailors 
and shoemakers would injure trade (Life by 
SOUTHEY, ii. 202). Not satisfied with mere 
isolated efforts, he advocated a scheme of 
national education (Sketch of a National 
Institution, 1808), which, as he conceived it, 
could be carried out most speedily and eco- 
nomically by means of the existing organisa- 
tion of the church, the schools to be under 
the direction of the parochial clergy. But 
people were not ready for such a step. la 



1807, indeed, Mr. Whitbread's Education 
Bill had passed the House of Commons, but 
evidently on tlie faith that the lords would 
throw it out (Life, of Romilly, ii. 67). On the 
one hand the dissenters were too powerful to 
suffer education to pass into the hands of the 
church, and on the other the opinion was 
still widespread was held even by Bell him- 
self that the poor should not be educated 
overmuch (see the passage, together with his 
later explanation of it, in Elements of Tui- 
tion, pt. ii. 416). Despairing of state help, 
the church party in 1811 formed the 'National 
Society for Promoting the Education of the 
Poor in the Principles of the Established 
Church throughout England and Wales/ 
which in 1817 was incorporated by royal 
charter, and which is still a flourishing insti- 
tution. Bell was appointed superintendent, 
with the fullest powers to carry out the 
Madras system, and having already in 1809 
exchanged his living at Swanage for the 
mastership of Sherburn Hospital, in Durham, 
which did not require residence, he was able 
to devote his whole time to the work. Hence- 
forth his life was identified with the history 
of the society. Its progress was rapid, and 
within Bell's lifetime the number of its schools 
exceeded 12,000. The bulk of the work of 
organisation fell on Bell's shoulders, and he 
laboured indefatigably, finding teachers, 
training them at the central school in London, 
constantly moving about through England 
and Wales, visiting Ireland, and trying, 
though with little success, to plant the sys- 
tem in Scotland. In 1816 he made a journey 
abroad to spread his ideas, and met Pestalozzi, 
whom he describes as 'a man of genius, 
benevolence, and enthusiasm ; ' but the British 
and Foreign School Society (which had de- 
veloped out of the Royal Lancasterian In- 
stitution) had been beforehand, and though 
his methods were adopted in several places, 
he never exercised much direct influence on 
the continent. When Horace Mann made 
his educational tour in 1843, he found a few 
monitorial schools in France, and some mere 
vestiges of the plan in the ' poor schools ' of 
Prussia. 'But nothing of it remains,' he 
Bays, ' in Holland, or in many of the Ger- 
man states. It has been abolished in these 
countries by a universal public opinion' 
(H. MANN'S Tour, ed. Hodgson, p. 44). 

Though he never made any serious change 
in the Madras system, Bell was ever on the 
outlook for ways of improving it in detail, 
laying special stress on the necessity of doing 
away with corporal punishment, and on the 
importance of teaching reading and writing 
simultaneously, on a plan which was known 
as ILTO. The name, made up of the simplest 

letters of the alphabet, was intended to con- 
vey the further idea that all instruction should 
proceed from the easy to the difficult. (For 
a summary of the general plan adopted in 
the National Society's schools see BARTLEY'S 
Schools for the People, p. 50.) Towards the 
schoolmasters under him he played the part 
of a despot, sternly repressing every attempt 
to deviate from his own methods, and en- 
forcing obedience by threats of diminishing 
their salaries ; and his perpetual interference, 
together with his harsh and overbearing 
manner, made him, says his secretary, ' almost 
universally dreaded and disliked.' His ideal, 
in short, was to turn elementary schools into 
instructing machines, whose automatic action 
the teacher should not disturb. He inspired 
others with his enthusiasm. Wordsworth 
and Coleridge encouraged him ; Southey had 
the most extravagant belief in him; and 
every year saw the number of his schools in- 
creasing. His services in the cause of educa- 
tion were certainly great; but the actual 
results achieved were less valuable than he 
or his friends supposed. After Bell's death 
the schools of the society were examined by 
government inspectors. ' The teachers, it was 
found, were inefficient and ignorant ; the use 
of monitors required that the instruction 
should be almost entirely by rote, and on its 
moral side the system led to evil, encouraging 
favouritism and petty forms of corruption ; 
and l the schools were generally in a deplor- 
able state in every part of England.' (See 
Report of the Education Commission, 1861, 
p. 98, and Essays by the Central Society of 
Education, vol. i.) Bell exaggerated both 
the novelty and the value of his system. 
(For cases in which it had been applied before 
his time, and particularly for the work of the 
Chevalier Paulet, see American Journal of 
Education, June 1861, and LA BORDE'S Plan 
d 'Education, chap. i.). It greatly diminished 
the cost of teaching, and led up to the later 
pupil-teacher system, which dates from 1846 ; 
it was capable of being usefully applied to 
certain parts of school-work ; and it fostered 
the habit of self-help and the feeling of re- 
sponsibility. But as a complete system of 
education it failed. Bell ignored the power- 
ful influence which the full-grown mind can 
exert upon children ; and, following out a 
good idea in a pedantic manner, he may be 
said to have as much retarded education in 
one way as he forwarded it in others. (The 
monitorial system is discussed in most books 
on teaching : e.g. in CURRIE'S Common School 
Education, p. 157 ; see also DONALDSON'S 
Lectures, p. 60, STOW'S Training System of 
Education, p. 313, Essays on Education by the 
Central Society, i. 339, Dr. POTTER'S The 



School and the Schoolmaster, p. 222, HORACE 
MANN'S Tour, Hodgson's ed. p. 44. Dr. 
Hodgson mentions, as containing a fair com- 
parative estimate of the system, Beneke's 
Erziehungs- und Unterrichtslehre!) 

In 1800 Bell married a Miss Agnes Barclay, 
daughter of a Scotch doctor ; but the mar- 
riage proved unhappy, and ended in a separa- 
tion. De Quincey, in his ( Essay on Coleridge,' 
gives an account of the persecution to which 
Bell was subjected by his wife ; but one can 
well believe that the husband, a vain, im- 
perious man, with a tendency to miserliness, 
was more than half to blame. In recognition 
of his public services he was elected a member 
of several learned societies, including the 
Asiatic Society and the Koyal Society of 
Edinburgh ; he received the degree of LL.D. 
from his own university ; in 1818 he was 
rewarded with a stall in Hereford Cathedral ; 
and in the following year he was made a 
prebendary of Westminster. During his last 
years he was much troubled about the dis- 
posal of his money. He resolved to devote 
it to the support of institutions which should 
carry out his educational theories ; but he 
seemed to have great difficulty in fixing upon 
the objects of his bounty. In 1831, deciding 
finally in favour of his own country, he 
transferred 120,000/. to trustees, half of it to 
go to St. Andrews, the other half to be divided 
equally between Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leith, 
Aberdeen, Inverness, and the Koyal Naval 
School in London. In 1831 was established 
under his direction, in Edinburgh, the 'Bell 
Lecture on Education,' out of which have 
since grown the chairs of education, founded 
by the Bell trustees and aided by a govern- 
ment grant, in Edinburgh and St. Andrews 
universities. His writings were to him an 
object of as much care as was his money. 
His desire was that they should be collected 
and edited by Southey and Wordsworth; 
but this was never done. An abridged edi- 
tion was published by Bishop Russell of 

Bell died at Cheltenham, where he had 
resided for some years, on 27 Jan. 1832, and 
was buried with great ceremony in West- 
minster Abbey. 

His writings include : 1. ' An Experiment 
in Education/ &c. 1797 ; 2nd ed., with an 
exposition of his system, 1805 ; 3rd ed., 'An 
Analysis of the Experiment in Education,' 
&c. 1807 ; 4th ed., with an account of the 
application of the system to English schools, 
1808. 2. A sermon on the Education of 
the Poor, 1807. 3. < A Sketch of a National 
Institution for Training up the Children of 
the Poor in the Principles of our Holy Reli- 
gion and in Habits of Useful Industry,' 1808. 

4. National Education,' 1812. 5. ' Ele- 
ments of Tuition,' in three parts. Part I. 
a reprint of the ' Experiment,' 1813 ; part II., 
The English School ; or the History, 
Analysis, and Application of the Madras 
System of Education to English Schools,* 
from the fourth edition of the ' Experiment/ 
1814 ; part in., ' Ludus Literarius : the 
Classical and Grammar School ; or an Expo- 
sition of an Experiment in Education made 
at Madras in the years 1789-96, with a view 
to its Introduction into Schools for the 
Higher Orders of Children, and with par- 
ticular suggestions for its application to a 
Grammar School/ 1815. 6. ' Instructions- 
for Conducting Schools through the Agency 
of the Scholars themselves, . . . com- 
piled chiefly from " Elements of Tuition ; " ' 
described as ' sixth edition, enlarged ' (i.e. of 
the ' Experiment '), 1817. 7. ' The Vindica- 
tion of Children/ 1819. 8. ' Letters to the 
Right Hon. Sir John Sinclair, Bart., on the 
Infant School Society at Edinburgh, the 
Scholastic Institutions of Scotland, &c., r 
1829. In the advertisement of this pam- 
phlet are mentioned also a 'Manual of Public- 
and Private Education/ 1823, abbreviated 
1827, and an account of his continental 

[Southey's Life of Bell, 3 vols. Only the- 
first volume was written by Southey ; the work 
was finished by his son, Cuthbert Southey. 
About a third of each volume is made up of cor- 
respondence. It is the most tedious of biogra- 
phies, filled with utterly valueless details. A 
short life, containing everything of importance, 
has been written by Prof. Meiklejohn under the 
title ' An Old Educational Eeformer.' Southey's- 
Life and Corresp. ; Leitch's Practical Educa- 
tionists ; Ann. Biog. and Obit. vol. xvii. ; Biog.. 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation, i. 271; Dunn's Sketches; American 
Journal of Education, June 1861 ; Bartley's- 
Schools for the People ; Colquhoun's New and 
Appropriate System of Education for the Labour- 
ing People, 1806; New Stat. Ace. of Scotland, 
Fifeshire ; Bell's own writings, which are devoted 
to his life and work.] Gr. P. M. 

BELL, ARCHIBALD (1755-1854), mis- 
cellaneous writer, was born in 1755. Ad- 
mitted a member of the faculty of advocates, 
Edinburgh, in 1795, he became sheriff-depute 

of Ayrshire. He died at Edinburgh 6 Oct. 
1854. He was the author of : 1. ' An Inquiry 
into the Policy and Practice of the Prohi- 
bition of the Use of Grain in the Distilleries, f 
1808, second edition, 1810. 2. < The Cabinet, 
a series of Essays, Moral and Literary r 
(anon.), 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1 835. 3. < Count 
Clermont, a Tragedy ; Cains Toranius, a Tra- 
gedy, with other Poems/ 1841. 4. ( Melo- 




dies of Scotland/ 1849 ; the last being an at- 
tempt to supply words for the old nationa 
airs of such a correct and conventional type 
as not to offend the susceptibilities of th 
most fastidious. The verses are generally 
tasteful and spirited, but in no case have they 
been successful in supplanting those associ- 
ated with the old melodies. 

[Library Catalogue of the Faculty of Advo- 
cates, Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

BELL, BEAUPRE (1704-1745), anti- 
quary, was descended from the ancient family 
of Beaupre", long resident in Upwell and 
Outwell, Norfolk, a co-heiress of whom 
married Robert Bell [see BELL, ROBERT, 
d. 1577], an ancestor. His father, Beaupre 
Bell, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Oldfield, of Spalding, wasted the patri- 
mony through improvident habits and violent 
passions. The vicissitudes of his career may 
be realised from an advertisement in the 
' London Gazette/ No. 7613, May 1737, from 
Lord Harrington, the secretary of state, set- 
ting out that the life of Beaupre Bell had 
been threatened, his servant shot, and his 
house beset several times, and promising 
free pardon for any one who revealed his 
accomplices; as a further inducement Mr. 
Bell added a reward of fifty pounds. The 
son was educated at Westminster School 
and at Trinity College, Cambridge, taking 
the degree of B.A. in 1725, M.A. in 1729. 
He devoted himself to the study of antiqui- 
ties, taking especial pleasure in ancient coins, 
and, by the possession of property worth, 
even in its reduced state, as much as 
1,500. a year, was enabled to gratify his 
tastes to the utmost. He issued proposals 
for a work on the coins of the Roman em- 
perors ; but though the book was in a forward 
state long before his death, it was never pub- 
lished. Beaupre" Bell was an active member 
of the Spalding Society, and several papers 
which he communicated to it are mentioned 
in the 'Reliquiae Galeanse' (Sibl. Topog.Britt. 
lii.), pp. 57-66. The same volume also con- 
tains several letters to and from him (pp. 147- 
490). Four of his letters on the ' Horologia of 
the Antient s ' are printed in the ' Archseologia/ 
vi. 133-43 ; two are in Nichols's ' Lit. Illus- 
trations/ iii. 572, 582 ; and several others may 
be found in the 'Stukeley Memoirs' (Surtees 
Soc.) He assisted Blomefield in his history 
of Norfolk, and Thomas Hearne in many of 
his antiquarian works, and C. N. Cole's edi- 
tion of Dugdale's 'Imbanking' (1772) was 
corrected from a copy formerly in his pos- 
session. Bell died of consumption on his 
road to Bath in August 1745, when the 
estate passed to his youngest sister, but he 

left his personal property of books, medals, 
and manuscripts to his college at Cambridge. 
His remains are said to have been laid in the 
family burying-place in St. Mary's chapel, 
Outwell church, but there is no entry of the 
burial in the parish register, nor is there any 
mention of his name among the members of 
his family commemorated in the inscriptions 
on the family tomb in the chapel. 

[Blomefield's Norfolk, vii. 459-60 (1807); 
Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, v. 278-82 ; Bibl. Topog. 
Britt. iii. p. xii ; Carthew's Launditch, iii. 431- 
2 ; Stukeley Memoirs (Surtees Soc.). i. 88, 97, 
275-94, 372, 427, 46 1-5, ii. 22-4, 280-2, 321-2.] 

W. P. C. 

BELL, BENJAMIN (1749-1806), sur- 
geon, son of George Bell, descended from 
landed proprietors of long standing in Dum- 
friesshire, was born at Dumfries April 1749. 
After education at Dumfries grammar school 
he was early apprenticed to Mr. James Hill, 
surgeon, of Dumfries ; but at seventeen he 
was sent to the Edinburgh medical school, 
where the Monros, Black, and John Gregory 
were among his teachers. After being house- 
surgeon to the Royal Infirmary for about two 
years, he travelled on the continent, and 
especially studied at Paris. In August 1772 
he was appointed surgeon to the Royal In- 
firmary, Edinburgh, which office he held for 
twenty-nine years. He married Grizel, 
daughter of Robert Hamilton, D.D., about 
1775, and soon afterwards, owing to a severe 
accident, settled on a farm three miles south 
of Edinburgh, retiring from practice for a 
couple of years. In 1778 he became surgeon 
to Watson's Hospital. His first professional 
work, on the ' Theory and Management of 
Ulcers ' (1779), attracted considerable atten- 
tion, was translated into French and Ger- 
man, and reached a seventh edition in 1801. 
His most important work, 'A System of 
Surgery/ appeared in six volumes, 1782-7 ; it 
likewise reached a seventh edition in 1801, 
and was translated into French and German. 
It was a valuable work in its day, though 
now out of date. Bell is much to be com- 
mended for his advocacy of saving skin in 
every operation, a practice till then much 
neglected. Another of his works, ' On Hy- 
drocele/ was published at Edinburgh in 
1794. He gained a large practice, being 
a skilful and dexterous operator, and accu- 
mulated money, being distinguished for his 
calculating business habits. He also engaged 
considerably in agriculture, and wrote a num- 
ber of essays on agriculture between 1783 
and 1802, which were collected in a volume 
n 1802. They opposed corn laws and pro- 
gnosticated great improvements in modes of 




communication. Adam Smith commended 
them. Bell died at Newington House, Edin- 
burgh, 5 April 1806. 

His son, George Bell (1777-1832), suc- 
ceeded to his father's appointments, and was 
known as a first-rate operator. His grand- 
son, Benjamin Bell (d. 1883), son of Joseph 
Bell, surgeon, followed the same profession, 
and published a memoir of his grandfather 
in 1868. He also edited memoirs of Robert 
Paul, banker (Edinburgh, 1872), and Lieu- 
tenant John Irving, of H.M.S. Terror (Edin- 
burgh, 1881). 

[Life, Character, and Writings of Benjamin 
Bell, by his grandson, Benjamin Bell, Edin. 
1868.] Gr. T. B. 

BELL, SIR CHARLES (1774-1842), dis- 
coverer of the distinct functions of the 
nerves, was the youngest of six children of 
William Bell, a clergyman of the episcopal 
church of Scotland. His mother was daughter 
of another episcopal clergyman. The family 
had produced many useful and prominent men 
for three centuries, and had been seated 
during that time in and near Glasgow. Charles 
was born at Edinburgh in November 1774, 
and received his chief literary education 
from his mother. Two others of her children 
became known in the world John as an 
anatomist and surgeon, George Joseph as 
professor of Scots law in Edinburgh Univer- 
sity. Charles had a passion for drawing; 
and when he went to the university of Edin- 
burgh as a student, he soon became known 
for his artistic power. He had inherited it 
from his mother, and she from her grand- 
father, White, primus of Scotland. While 
still a student, in 1798, Bell published < A 
System of Dissections,' illustrated by his 
own drawings. In 1799 he was elected a fel- 
low of the College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 
and as a fellow became one of the surgical 
attendants of the Edinburgh Infirmary. In 
1802 he published a series of engravings of the 
brain and nervous system, in connection with 
John Bell's course of lectures. In 1804 he 
wrote the account of the nervous system and 
special senses in the ; Anatomy of the Human 
Body ' by John and Charles Bell. Edinburgh 
did not then offer to him sufficient prospect 
of professional advancement, and after con- 
sultation with his brother George he left 
Scotland for London, where he arrived 
28 Nov. 1804. He was already known by 
his published works, and he had written, but 
not published, his ' Anatomy of Expression.' 
He called upon Dr. Matthew Baillie, the 
morbid anatomist, on Wilson the anatomist, 
on Abernethy and Astley Cooper, the prin- 
cipal surgeons of the time, and on other 

prominent members of his profession. Sir 
Joseph Banks received him kindly, and the 
chief physicians and surgeons asked him to 
dinner ; but for a time he was uncertain 
whether he could find a place in the world of 
London, and longed to return to Edinburgh, 
and to the society of his beloved brother 
George, to whom at this time and throughout 
his life he wrote often and at length. West, 
then president of the Royal Academy, ad- 
vised the publishers to accept Bell's ' Anatomy 
of Expression,' and it appeared in 1806. It 
was widely read, and has since passed through 
several editions. The book is interesting, 
because it explains the mechanism of familiar 
movements of expression, and criticises well- 
known works of art, and it is written in a 
pleasant intelligible style, and illustrated by 
striking drawings, but the scientific treatment 
of the subject is not very deep. It received 
all the attention which the first book on a 
subject deserves : Flaxman and Fuseli both 
enjoyed it ; the queen read it for two hours ; 
and the Nabob of Arcot had a copy in red 
morocco and satin. Bell now lectured to 
artists, and took medical pupils into his 
house, and, amid hard professional work and 
great anxiety about money, found time to 
make full use of all the intellectual advan- 
tages of London : heard Fox speak, saw Mrs. 
Siddons act, witnessed Melville's impeach- 
ment, went to Vauxhall with Mr. and Mrs. 
Abernethy, enjoyed operas, and read much 
good literature Dryden, Spenser, Virgil, 
Madame de Sevigne". The first step in Bell's 
discoveries in the nervous system was made 
in 1807, and is recorded in a letter to his 
brother George, dated 26 Nov. 1807. He 
says : ' I have done a more interesting nova 
anatomia cerebri humani than it is possible 
to conceive. I lectured it yesterday. I pro- 
secuted it last night till one o'clock, and I 
am sure it will be well received.' In 1811 he 
published ' A New Idea of the Anatomy of 
the Brain, submitted for the observations of 
his Friends, by Charles Bell, F.R.S.E.' This 
essay is not dated, but if the letters of Bell 
did not establish its exact date, this could 
be fixed by a copy in the British Museum, 
bearing Bell's known address in 1811, and 
presented by him, with a written inscription, 
to Sir Joseph Banks. The work contains an 
exact statement of the prevailing doctrine as 
to nerves, of Bell's discovery, and of the ex- 
periment which established that discovery. 
Bell says (p. 4) : ' The prevailing doctrine 
of the anatomical schools is that the whole 
brain is a common sensorium : that the ex- 
tremities of the nerves are organised, so that 
each is fitted to receive a peculiar impression, 
or that they are distinguished from each. 




other only by delicacy of structure and by a 
corresponding delicacy of sensation. It is 
imagined that impressions thus diifering in 
kind are carried along the nerves to the 
sensorium and presented to the mind, and 
that the mind, by the same nerves which re- 
ceive sensation, sends out the mandate of 
the will to the moving parts of the body/ 
His own conclusions were, ' that the nerves 
are not single nerves possessing various 
powers, but bundles of different nerves, 
distinct in office ; ' and * that the nerves of 
sense, the nerves of motion, and the vital 
nerves, are distinct throughout their whole 
course.' These conclusions were established 
by the fact that, i on laying bare the roots ot 
the spinal nerves, I found that I could cut 
across the posterior fasciculus of nerves 
which took its origin from the posterior 
portion of the spinal marrow without con- 
vulsing the muscles of the back, but that, on 
touching the anterior fasciculus with the 
point of the knife, the muscles of the back 
were immediately convulsed.' ' I now saw, 
he adds, * the meaning of the double con- 
nection of the nerves with the spinal mar- 
row.' His apprehension of the meaning of 
this observation was at first obscured by a 
recollection of the old doctrine that all nerves 
were sensitive, and for a time he spoke of 
two great classes of nerves distinguishable in 
function, the one sensible, the other insen- 
sible (letter dated 6 Dec. 1814). But he 
had established beyond doubt the existence 
of sensory and of motor nerves. Majendie 
(Journal de Physioloyie, Paris, 1822, ii. 371) 
claims to have first shown this experimentally 
in 1821, but he is refuted by the printed 
record of Bell's experiment in 1811, as is ad- 
mitted by Beclard in his most recent account 
of the controversy (ib., Paris, 1884, p. 405), 
where, speaking of Bell's discovery, Beclard 
says : ' II n'est pas douteux qu'il a resolu, le 
premier, cette question par la voie exp6ri- 
mentale.' It was not till 1826 that Bell's 
discovery was complete in its modern form. 
He thus explains it (letter, 9 Jan. 1826) : 
' It shows that two nerves are necessary to 
a muscle, one to excite action, the other to 
convey the sense of that action, and that the 
impression runs only in one direction, e.g. 
the nerve that carries the will outward can 
receive no impression from without ; the 
nerve that conveys inward a sense of the 
condition of the muscle cannot convey out- 
ward ; that there must be a circle established 
betwixt the brain and a muscle.' His in- 
vestigations were completed from 1821 to 
1829, in a series of papers read before the 
Royal Society, and were published, with 
some slight alterations, in a separate volume j 

j in 1830, entitled < The Nervous System of 
I the Human Body.' Before his time nothing 
i was known of the functions of the nerves, 
| and the reason of the relation between 
hemiplegia or paralysis of one vertical half 
of the body and injury of the brain was ex- 
plained through groundless hypotheses. A 
' few vague expressions in earlier writers have 
been quoted as showing that something was 
known ; but whatever the words, the inter- 
I pretation of them was never given till after 
Bell's discovery had made the whole subject 
| clear. Bell himself states, with perfect 
fairness, in his republication, all the details 
known before the time of his discoveries 
(Nervous System, pp. vii, viii). ' Dr. Alex- 
ander Monro discovered that the ganglions 
of the spinal nerves were formed on the 
posterior roots, and that the anterior roots 
passed the ganglion. Santorini and Wrisberg 
observed the two roots of the fifth pair of 
nerves. Prochaska and Soemmering noticed 
the resemblance between the spinal nerves 
and the fifth pair, and they said, "Why 
should the fifth nerve of the brain, after the 
manner of the nerves of the spine, have an 
anterior root passing by the ganglion and 
entering the third division of the nerve ? " ' 
Bell's great discovery, thus gradually com- 
pleted, was that there are two kinds of nerves, 
sensory and motor; that the spinal nerves 
have filaments of both kinds, but that their 
anterior roots or origins from the spinal cord 
are always motor, their posterior roots sen- 
sory. He further (Phil. Trans. 28 May 1829) 
demonstrated that the fifth cranial nerve is a 
motor as well as a sensory nerve, and that 
while the fifth supplies the face with sensory 
branches, the motor nerve of the facial 
muscles is the portio dura of the seventh 
nerve. From this discovery of its true func- 
tion, the portio dura is often spoken of by 
anatomists as Bell's nerve. His discoveries 
as to the fifth and seventh nerves were sug- 
gested by their anatomical relations, con- 
firmed by observation of the results follow- 
ing accidental injuries in man, and completely 
established by experiments on animals. 
These experiments were a cause of delay ; 
for in a letter dated 1 July 1822 (Letters of 
Sir C. Sell, p. 275) he says : ' I should be 
writing a third paper on the nerves, but I 
cannot proceed without making some experi- 
ments, which are so unpleasant to make that 
I defer them. You may think me silly, but 
I cannot perfectly convince myself that I 
am authorised in nature or religion to do 
these cruelties.' Bell's discoveries were the 
greatest which had been made in physiology 
since Harvey had demonstrated the circula- 
tion of the blood, and Bell was only express- 




ing a just idea of their importance when he 
wrote of them in a letter to his brother (No- 
vember 1821 ) that they ' will hereafter put j 
me beside Harvey.' Their importance was 
not perceived by all who heard of them, but j 
they were not controverted as fiercely as 
Harvey's had been, and scientific men at : 
once gave their author all the honour he had 
justly won. Brougham was at that time j 
dashing like a comet among the constella- ' 
tions of science and literature, as well as ! 
through those of politics, and he was a warm : 
friend of Bell. It was by his advice that ' 
the compliment of knighthood was paid to i 
the discoverer of the functions of the nerves, 
to his great contemporary Herschel, and to | 
some lesser men of science. Bell had already j 
(1829) received the medal of the Koyal So- ; 
ciety for discoveries in science. The London j 
University had been founded under the i 
auspices of Brougham ; and Bell, with i 
Brougham's friend Horner, was persuaded to 
take office in the new institution. The dif- 
fering views of its originators prevented the 
new university from flourishing. In the 
midst of trivial controversies learning was 

stifled, aa 


dwindled into an examining board. Bell | 
and Horner resigned in disgust. In 1832 i 
Bell wrote a paper in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' on the organs of voice, and in 
1833 a Bridgewater treatise on the mechanism 
of the hand, illustrated by drawings of his 
own. In 1836, with Lord Brougham, he 
wrote annotations of Paley's ' Natural Theo- 
logy.' He had besides written several books 
on surgery : in 1807 a ' System of Compara- 
tive Surgery;' in 1816, 1817, 1818, quarterly 
reports of cases in surgery ; in 1820, ' Letters 
on Diseases of the Urethra ; ' in 1821, ' Illus- 
trations of Great Operations ; ' in 1824, ' Ob- 
servations on Injuries of the Spine and of 
the Thigh Bone,' and somewhat later a 
small popular work, * a familiar treatise on 
the five senses.' Besides all this labour he 
lectured at his house, at the Middlesex Hos- 
pital (1812-36), in the school of Great 
Windmill Street (Prospectus, Lancet, ix. 27), 
at the College of Surgeons, and on several 
occasions elsewhere. He went in 1809 to 
Haslar Hospital to help to treat the wounded 
of Corunna, and in 1815 to Brussels to treat 
the wounded of Waterloo. When he went 
round his wards in the Middlesex Hospital, his 
method was to examine a patient with mi- 
nute care and in silence before the students. 
Then he would retire a little way from the 
bed, and would give his opinion of the nature 
of the case, and of what the treatment ought 
to be, adding with particular emphasis his 

expectation as to the final result (communi- 
cation from Kev. WHITWELL ELWIN.) Like 
many great medical teachers of his day, he 
was abused in the numbers of the ' Lancet ' 
(vol. v.) for reasons now difficult to dis- 
cover, and not worth tracing out in detail. 
Bell was never completely at home in the 
medical world of London. In spite of his 
unceasing labours, perhaps partly in conse- 
quence of them, his practice did not increase 
in proportion to his merits, and when in 1836 
he was offered the chair of surgery in the 
university of Edinburgh, he was glad to re- 
turn to his early home. He there published 
in 1838 ' Institutes of Surgery,' and in 1841 
some ' Practical Essays.' These, like all his 
surgical works, are worth reading as the pro- 
ductions of close observation and consider- 
able experience ; but they are not of the 
same consequence as his physiological writ- 
ings. The time he spent in the wards and at 
the bedside of patients was not lost to science, 
for the observations there made helped him 
to his great discoveries ; but as an operating 
and consulting surgeon he does not stand 
higher than many of his contemporaries. A 
sensation of failing health was probably the 
chief reason for his retirement to Edinburgh. 
He still worked, but less strenuously, and in 
1840 enjoyed a tour in Italy. A little more than 
a year later he was, as he said (letter, 24 April 
1842), 'chained in activity 'by terrible attacks 
of angina pectoris, and in one of these he died 
on the morning of 28 April 1842. He was 
staying at Hallow Park, near Worcester, and 
was buried in the churchyard of the parish. 
In Hallow church there is a tablet to hi 
memory, with an English inscription by 
Lord Jeffrey. 

The anxieties of life and the necessary 
abstraction of scientific musing made Bell at 
times seem grave : but his friends all agree 
in Lord Cockburn's statement about him : 
1 If ever I knew a generally and practically 
happy man, it was Sir Charles Bell.' l He 
had,' says one of his friends, ' too profound 
a faith in the Providence who governed 
the world to be otherwise than deeply 
thankful for his lot.' The style of his scien- 
tific papers is sometimes involved, nor are 
happy turns of expression frequent in his 
popular works. His letters are his best com- 
positions. He had a thorough enjoyment of 
literature and of music, and the intervals of 
his scientific work were always employed. 
Fishing was one of his favourite recreations. 
He kept White's 'Natural History of Selborne ' 
on his table, and loved the sights and sounds 
of the country. He had married (3 June 1811) 
Marion, second daughter of Charles Shaw, 
Esq., of Ayr, and their marriage was one o 




perfect happiness. His wife's health was at 
first precarious, but she became strong, and 
lived to be more than eighty. In 1870 she 
published 'Letters of Sir Charles Bell/ a 
book which gives from his own letters an in- 
teresting picture of the character and daily 
life of her husband, of his unremitting la- 
bours, of his frequent disappointments, many 
difficulties and glorious triumphs. The ad- 
mirable preface was written off at the pub- 
lisher's desk by a friend of Sir Charles Bell, 
the Kev. Whitwell Elwin, who happened 
to come in at the moment when Lady Bell 
was expressing to Mr. Murray her inability 
to compose the introduction which he thought 
necessary for the completeness of the book. 
The frontispiece is a portrait of Bell from a I 
painting by Anthony Stewart. 

[Letters of Sir Charles Bell, London, 1870; 
Bell's Works.] N. M. 

BELL, FRANCIS (1590-1643), Francis- 
can friar, was the son of William Bell of 
Temple Broughton, in the parish of Hanbury 
near Worcester, by his marriage with Doro- 
thy Daniel of Acton Place, near Long Melford 
in Suffolk. He was born at Temple Brough- 
ton on 13 Aug. 1590, and in baptism received 
the Christian name of Arthur, though on en- 
tering the religious life he assumed the name 
of Francis. At the age of twenty-four he en- 
tered the college of the English Jesuits at St. 
Omer, and after remaining there a year he was 
sent to the English college of St. Alban the 
Martyr in Valladolid, where he was ordained 
priest. Not long afterwards, on 9 Aug. 1618, 
lie took the habit of St. Francis in the con- 
vent of Segovia, and on 8 Sept. 1619 he was 
admitted to his solemn vows and profession. 
Father John Gennings, who was engaged in 
the restoration of the English Franciscan 
province, sent to Spain for Bell, and placed 
him in the English convent newly erected at 
Douay. Subsequently he was appointed con- ; 
fessor, first to the Poor Clares at Gravelines, 
and afterwards to the nuns of the third order 
of St. Francis, then residing at Brussels. At j 
the first general chapter of the restored Fran- 
ciscan province of England, which was held 
(December 1630) in their convent of St. 
Elizabeth at Brussels, Father Bell was offi- 
cially declared guardian or superior of St. 
Bonaventure's convent at Douay, with the 
charge of teaching Hebrew. Before, how- 
ever, he had gone through the usual term of 
his guardianship, he was summoned to Brus- 
sels by Father Joseph Bergaigne, the com- 
missary-general of the order, and for the re- 
storing of the province of Scotland was 
appointed its first provincial, and sent in that 
capacity to the general chapter then held in 

Spain. On his return he was sent on the 
mission to England, where he arrived on 
8 Sept. 1634. Here he laboured with great 
zeal for nine years, but at last, on 6 Nov. 
1643, he was apprehended at Stevenage in 
Hertfordshire by a party of soldiers belonging 
to the parliament army, on suspicion of being 
a spy. The documents found in his posses- 
sion revealed his true character, and he was 
sent under a strong guard to London, where 
he was examined by three commissioners de- 
puted by the parliament for that purpose, who 
committed him to Newgate. Just before this 
his brethren had chosen him, for the second 
time, guardian of their convent at Douay. 
He was brought to trial on 7 Dec., found 

fuilty, and executed at Tvburn on 11 Dec. 

As a linguist he was distinguished among 
his brethren, for he was skilled in Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, and Flemish. 
There is a fine portrait of him in Mason's 
'Certamen Seraphicum Provinciae Angliee pro 
Sancta Dei Ecclesia,' printed at Douay in 

He was the author of : 1. 'A brief Instruc- 
tion how we ought to hear Mass/ Brussels, 
1624 ; a translation from the Spanish of An- 
dres de Soto, and dedicated to Anne, countess 
of Argyle. 2. < The Rule of the Third Order 
of St. Francis.' 3. < The Historie, Life, and 
Miracles, Extasies and Revelations of the 
blessed virgin, sister loane, of the Crosse, of 
the third Order of our holy Father, S. Francis. 
Composed by the Reuerend Father, brother 
Anthonie of Aca, Diffinitor of the Prouince 
of the Conception, and Chroinckler of the 
Order aforsaid. And translated out of Spanish 
into English by a Father of the same Order. 
At S. Omers, for lohn Heigham, with Ap- 
probation, Anno 1625.' 8vo. This extremely 
rare translation of Father Antonio Daa's, 
' Historia de la Virgen Santa Juana [ Vasquez] 
de la Cruz ' has an epistle dedicatory, signed 
1 Brother Francis Bell/ and addressed to Sis- 
ters Margaret Radcliffe and Elizabeth Rad- 
cliffe, of the second order of St. Francis, com- 
monly called Poor Clares. 

[Mason's Certamen Seraphicum, 127-57; Chal- 
loner's Missionary Priests (1741), ii. 256-98; 
Dodd's Church Hist, iii. 102; J. Stevens s Hist, 
of Antient Abbeys, i. 107; Granger's Biog. Hist, 
of England, 2nd ed. ii. 206; Oliver's Hist, of 
the Catholic Religion in Cornwall, 543 ; Cat, of 
Printed Books in Brit, Mus.] T. C. 

BELL, SIB GEORGE (1794-1877), ge- 
neral, son of George Bell, of Belle Vue, on 
Lough Erin, . Fermanagh, by Catherine, 
daughter of Bominick Nugent, M.P., was 
born at Belle Vue, 17 March 1794, and whilst 
yet at school in Dublin was gazetted an ensign 




in the 34th foot, 11 March 1811. Sent to 
Portugal, he carried the colours of his regi- 
ment for the first time in the action of Ar- 
royo-de-Molinos ; was present at the second 
and final siege of Badajoz, and in the majority 
of the celebrated actions which intervened 
between that time and the battle of Toulouse. 
On being gazetted to the 45th regiment in 1825 
he proceeded to India, and was present in Ava 
during the first Burmese war. Bell became a 
captain in 1828, and in 1836 was in Canada, 
where he was actively employed during the 
rebellion of 1837-8. He commanded the fort 
and garrison of Couteau-du-Lac, an important 
position on the river St. Lawrence, and re- 
ceived the thanks of the commander of the 
forces and his brevet-majority, 29 March 
1839, for his exertions in recovering the guns 
of the fort, which had been sunk in the river, 
unspiking and mounting them in position, 
when it had been reported to be impossible 
to do so. The guns were 24-pounders, six- 
teen of which, with 4,000 round shot, he 
recovered from the deep in the middle of a 
Canadian winter. On becoming lieutenant- 
colonel of the 1st foot, known as the Royal ! 
regiment, 5 Dec. 1843, he next served in 
Gibraltar, Nova Scotia, the West Indies, the 
Mediterranean, and Turkey, after which he 
landed with the allied armies in the Crimea, 
and was present at the battles of the Alma 
and Inkerman, and in the siege of Sebastopol, 
where he was wounded and honourably men- 
tioned in a despatch from Lord Raglan, who 
appointed him to the command of a brigade. 
On his return to England he was made a 
C.B., 5 July 1855, and took up his residence 
at Liverpool as inspecting field officer until | 
1859, when he became a major-general in 
the army. He was in the Royal regiment 
for the long period of thirty years. From this 
time onwards he never obtained any further 
employment, the reason being, as he fully 
believed, a letter which he wrote to the 
'Times,' 12 Dec. 1854, complaining of the de- 
ficiencies of the commissariat in the siege of 
Sebastopol, and soliciting help from the people 
of England. On 23 Oct. 1863 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 104th foot ; he became 
colonel of the 32nd foot 2 Feb. 1867, and 
colonel of the 1st foot 3 Aug. 1868. His 
work, in two volumes, entitled 'Rough Notes 
by an Old Soldier during fifty years' service,' 
a gossiping and amusing account of his life 
and services, was published early in 1867. 
He was created a K.C.B. 13 March 1867 ; 
a lieutenant-general 28 Jan. 1868 ; and a 
general 8 March 1873. His death took place 
at 156 Westbourne Terrace, London, 10 July 
1877. He had been twice married, the first 
time to Alicia, daughter and heiress of James 

Scott, of Ecclesjohn and Commiston, N.B.,, 
and secondly, in 1820, to Margaret Addison,. 
a daughter of Thomas Dougal, of Scotland, 

[Dod's Peerage and Baronetage : Army Lists, 
&c.] GK C. B. 

BELL, GEORGE JOSEPH (1770-1843), 

advocate, brother of Sir Charles Bell [q. v.], the 
celebrated anatomist,born at Fountain Bridge, 
near Edinburgh, 26 March 1770, was educated 
chiefly at home, and very largely by himself, 
his mother being left by her husband's death 
(1779) in very straitened circumstances. 
He does not appear to have had any regular 
academical training at the university of Edin- 
burgh, though he attended some courses of 
lectures there. He was admitted advocate 
in 1791. In 1805 he married Barbara, eldest 
daughter of Charles Shaw, Esq., of Ayr, by 
whom he had several children. Having for 
some years previously devoted himself to the 
systematic study of the Scottish mercantile 
law, then in a very imperfect condition, he 
published in 1804 a work in two volumes, 
4to, entitled ' A Treatise on the Laws of 
Bankruptcy in Scotland,' and in 1810 a 
second enlarged and improved edition of the 
same work, under the title ' Commentaries 
on the Laws of Scotland and on the Prin- 
ciples of Mercantile Jurisprudence considered 
in relation to Bankruptcy, Compositions of 
Creditors, and Imprisonment for Debt.' A 
third edition followed in 1816, and a fourth 
in 1821. This work, which dealt with the 
whole extent of the mercantile law of Scot- 
land, and was the only scientific treatise 
which did, early obtained a deservedly high 
reputation, and brought its author a con- 
siderable accession of practice. It took rank 
with the classic ' Institutes ' of Lord Stair, and 
was treated by the judges with a respect 
which in this country is never paid to any 
living jurist, and to but very few amongst 
the dead. In 1822 he was elected professor 
of Scots law in the university of Edinburgh, 
the motion, seconded by Sir Walter Scott, 
being carried unanimously. Bell was not 
altogether new to professorial duties, having 
held for two years (1816-18) the post of 
professor of conveyancing to the Society of 
Writers to the Signet, devoting the income 
to the support of the widow and children of 
the late professor, his brother Robert (the 
eldest of the family), who were left but ill pro- 
vided for. In 1823 he was placed on a com- 
mission appointed, pursuant to an act of the 
same year, to ' inquire into the forms of pro- 
cess in the courts of law and the course of 
appeals from the Court of Session to the 
House of Lords,' in which capacity he very 




ably discharged the important duty of draw- i 
ing up the report upon which was founded | 
the bill which passed into law in 1825 as the 
Scottish Judicature Act, a measure largely 
superseded by later reforms, and was con- 
sulted by the committee of the House of 
Lords, which had charge of the framing 
of the measure, upon many points of detail. 
In 1826 he published a fifth edition of his 
1 Commentaries.' In 1832 he succeeded David 
Hume, nephew of the philosopher, as one of 
the four principal clerks of session. In 1833 
he was nominated chairman of the royal 
commission then appointed to inquire into 
and draft proposals for the amendment of 
the Scotch law, from which resulted the 
Scotch Bankruptcy Act of 1839 (2 & 3 Viet. 
c. 41) which continued to regulate bank- 
ruptcy proceedings in Scotland until 1856, 
when it was superseded by the act now in 
force. In 1841 he was attacked by a severe 
inflammation of the eye. Though the son of 
an episcopalian clergyman, he belonged to 
the whig party. He was of a genial disposi- 
tion and courteous manners, and appears to 
have had a larger culture than is common 
amongst lawyers. Throughout life he was 
on terms of close intimacy with Jeffrey. A 
fine portrait of him by Raeburn hangs in the 
Parliament House, Edinburgh. His great 
work, the ' Commentaries/ has fully sus- 
tained the reputation which it acquired during j 
its author's life. A sixth edition with notes j 
was published in 1858 by his brother-in-law, j 
Patrick Shaw, Esq., advocate, and a seventh, 
also with notes, in 1870, by John M'Laren, 
Esq., advocate. In a very recent case re- ! 
ported in the law reports (appeal cases) for ! 
1882 (The Eoyal Bank of Scotland v. The | 
Commercial Bank of Scotland), the judges I 
of the Court of Session having to choose ' 
between the authority of Lord Eldon and 
that of Bell upon a difficult question of bank- 
ruptcy administration, and having preferred 
to follow the latter, the House of Lords de- 
clined to overrule them. 

Bell also published : 1. 'An Examination 
of the Objections stated against the Bill for 
better regulating the Forms of Process in 
the Courts of Scotland,' 1825. 2. 'Prin- 
ciples of the Law of Scotland, for the use 
of Students in the University of Edinburgh/ 
1829, a professorial manual originating in 
outlines of his lectures issued to his stu- 
dents, of which a second edition appeared 
in the following year, a third in 1833, and j 
a fourth in 1836. 3. ' Illustrations from 
adjudged Cases of the Principles of the Law 
of Scotland/ 1836 (second edition, 1838), | 
in three volumes, 8vo, being a commentary 
upon the preceding work. 4. In 1840, ' Com- 

mentaries on the recent Statutes relative to 
Diligence or Execution against moveable 
Estate, Imprisonment, Cessio Bonorum, and 
Sequestration in Mercantile Bankruptcy.' 
This book, a thin quarto, was not so much 
an independent work as a supplement to th^. 
' Commentaries on the Laws of Scotland.' A 
short treatise, ' Inquiries into the Contract 
of Sale of Goods and Merchandise/ revised 
and partly printed before his death, was pub- 
lished the following year. 

[Letters of Sir C. "Bell ; Edinburgh Review, 
April 1872 ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Grant's 
Story of the Univ. of Edinburgh, ii. 374.1 

J. M. B. 

BELL, HENRY (1767-1830), the builder 
of the Comet steamship, and therefore the 
introducer of practical steam navigation in 
England, was born at Torphichen Mill, near 
Linlithgow. His father, Patrick Bell, was 
a millwright, and, according to an account 
given by himself, his relations both on the 
father's and mother's side were engaged in 
mechanical businesses. He was first intended 
to be a mason, but, at the age of sixteen, he 
was apprenticed to the millwright's trade. 
After serving under several engineers he 
went to London, and spent some time under 
Rennie. It appears to have been while he 
was with Shaw and Hart, shipbuilders of 
Borrowstounness, in 1786, that he conceived 
the idea of applying steam to navigation, an 
idea that was at that time filling the minds 
of many inventors and engineers. In 1790 
he settled in Glasgow, and in the following 
year he entered into partnership with a Mr. 
Paterson, forming the firm of Bell & Pater- 
son, builders. In 1798 he is said to have 
turned his attention specially to the steam- 
boat, and in 1800 he began experimenting 
with an engine placed in a small vessel. An 
application the same year to the admiralty 
was unsuccessful, as was a second appeal in 
1803, though on the latter occasion Lord 
Nelson is stated to have spoken strongly in 
favour of the scheme. There is evidence 
to show that Fulton, who started a steamer 
on the Hudson in 1807, had obtained his 
ideas from Bell in the previous year, and 
that therefore Bell has a fair claim to be 
considered, not the inventor of the steam- 
boat Papin (1707), Jouffroy (1776), Miller 
of Dalswinton (1787), and many others 
(some, indeed, only on paper) anticipated 
him but the first to realise practically the 
proposals then in the minds of many for 
applying the steam-engine to the propulsion 
of vessels. He certainly was the originator 
of steam navigation in Europe, and in Ame- 
rica he was only preceded by Fulton, who, 




if the above statement is correct, was his 

In January 1812 the Comet, a thirty-ton 
boat, built by Wood & Co., of Glasgow, 
and driven by an engine of three-horse power 
made by Bell, commenced to ply from Glas- 
gow to Greenock; she continued running 
till 1820, when she was wrecked. Many 
erroneous statements have been made about 
this vessel. She was by far from being the 
first vessel moved by steam, but she was the 
first practical steamship which regularly 
worked on any European river. 

Though Bell's claims were generally ac- 
knowledged, he reaped but little reward. The 
river Clyde trustees gave him a pension of 
50/., afterwards increased to 100/. ; Mr. Can- 
ning gave him 200/. : and a subscription was 
got up for him at Glasgow and elsewhere 
near the close of his life. 

Besides his efforts in the cause of steam 
navigation he was interested in several other 
engineering enterprises, and is credited with 
the invention of an important improvement 
in the process of calico printing, the 'dis- 
charging machine.' He died at Helensburgh 
in 1830, and was buried in the churchyard 
of Row parish, two miles from Helensburgh. 

[There is a life of Bell by Edward Morris 
(Glasgow, 1844), but the information it gives is 
meagre. An account of him also appears in 
Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen.] 

H. T. W. 


1874), sheriff, was the eldest son of James | 
Bell, advocate. He was born in Glasgow ' 
8 Nov. 1803, and received the rudiments of 
his education in the High School of that city. 
On the family removing to Edinburgh, he 
passed through the regular university course 
there, and, while beginning to study law, ex- 
hibited his love of letters in a series of pre- 
cocious criticisms in the columns of the ' Ob- i 
server.' Those on the actors and acting of I 
the day, under the signature 'Acer,' at- 
tracted the attention of some of the leaders 
in the then brilliant literary society of the 
place, and are said to have had some influ- 
ence in raising the tone of the stage an in- 
stitution in which he continued to the last to 
take a keen interest. A privately printed 
volume of poems (1824) testifies to his scholar- 
ship, early command of verse, and his share 
in the Byronic enthusiasm for the Greeks. 
In 1827 Bell was present and spoke at the 
famous dinner of the Edinburgh Theatri- 
cal Fund, at which Sir Walter Scott pub- 
licly acknowledged the authorship of the 
' Waverley Novels.' In 1828 he started and 
conducted the ' Edinburgh Literary Journal,' 

which numbered among its contributors 
Thomas Aird, L. E. L., Mrs. Hemans, Thomas 
Campbell, Christopher North, the Ettrick 
Shepherd, Delta (Moir), Allan Cunningham, 
G. P. R. James, Sheridan Knowles, and others 
of scarce inferior note. The youthful editor 
maintained for the publication a position of 
steadily increasing influence ; but at the ex- 
piration of three years it passed into other 
hands, and was ultimately merged in the 
' Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle.' Some of the 
most salient of his own contributions were 
afterwards collected by Bell, and republished 
in two volumes : ' Summer and Winter 
Hours' (1831), containing the most widely 
known of his poems, the panoramic scenes 
from the life of Mary Stuart, so familiar to 
elocution; and < My Old Portfolio' (1832). 
Three of the prose pieces in the latter collec- 
tion deserve special mention : ' The Marvel- 
lous History of Mynheer von Wodenblock/ 
which, as afterwards popularised in the dog- 
gerel song, ' The Cork Leg,' has travelled over 
England and through Germany ; ' The Dead 
Daughter ' and i The Living Mummy,' from 
which Edgar Poe seems to have taken the 
hint of two of his most famous fantasies. 
Meanwhile, at the request of the publisher 
Constable, he had (1830), in compiling his 
elaborate defence of the Queen of Scots, en- 
tered the lists as champion of the cause which 
he espoused through life with an almost re- 
ligious zeal. The book was at the time a swift 
success. The first edition being exhausted, a 
second was called for within the year ; it was 
translated into French and pirated in Ame- 
rica. In 1831 Bell married Miss Stewart, only 
daughter of Captain Stewart of Sheerglass, 
Glengarry, by whom he had six children. In 
the following year he passed as advocate, and 
henceforth devoted himself mainly to his legal 
pursuits ; but advancement in the ranks of a 
profession then adorned by the competing 
talents of Jeffrey, Clark, Cockburn, Hope, 
Macneil, Rutherfurd, Maitland, Ivory, Ro- 
bertson, Inglis, and Moncreiff, was, even if 
sure, necessarily slow, and the cares of an in- 
creasing family induced him to accept an ap- 
pointment as one of the substitutes of the 
sheriff of Lanarkshire, whose attention had 
been attracted to the young counsel by his 
appearance (1838) at the cotton spinner's 
trial. Bell entered upon this office in 1839, 
and for twenty-eight years discharged his 
duties, yearly increasing in extent and re- 
sponsibility, with a conscientiousness, judg- 
ment, and tact, which exceeded expectation 
and arrested cavil. When, in 1852, it was 
believed that Sheriff Alison was to become 
a lord of session, the Glasgow faculty of 
law memorialised the lord advocate to pro- 




mote Mr. Bell to the expected vacancy, and 
on Sir Archibald's death in 1867 he was made 
sheriff principal, with the unanimous approval 
of the profession. During thirty-four years' 
tenure of the two posts he found an arena well 
calculated to call forth his varied powers; 
his mental energy and physical strength en- 
abled him to overtake the increasing work of j 
the great commercial city, his discrimination 
and accuracy made his judgments generally 
final, and he came to be regarded as the best 
mercantile lawyer of his day in Scotland. A 
distinguished contemporary has said of him 
that ' he realised the ideal of what a judge 
ought to be.' Another writes as follows : , 
'-' The older members of the legal profession | 
hold the opinion that Sheriff Glassford Bell 
was the best judge that ever sat in the sheriff 

court of Glasgow Approaching every case 

without a shade of bias, he listened so quietly 
to the arguments on either side that it was 
only when his decisions, always remarkable 
for their clearness, were made that it was seen 
liow carefully he had weighed the matters at 
issue ; it was a common custom of procura- 
tors to agree beforehand to accept his ruling 
and carry the case no further. Early in his j 
career he had to grapple with new and dim- 
cult questions under the Poor Law and Bank- 
ruptcy Acts, in relation to which many of his 
judgments have become leading cases. His 
popularity was increased by the absence of 
self-assertion, somewhat rare on the bench, 
the reticence on all irrelevant matters, and 
the invariable courtesy to witnesses, which 
were leading features of all his procedure. 
He always kept abreast of his work, and may 
be said to have died in harness.' 

Outside his court, from which, till his last 
illness, he was never absent for a day, Mr. 
Bell took a lively interest in every matter 
affecting the welfare of Glasgow, advocating 
the interests of the city and promoting its in- 
stitutions with an oratory at once genial and 
forcible, to the uniform success of which his 
-commanding presence and impressive voice 
doubtless contributed ; but the matter of his 
speeches was always valuable, and several of 
his addresses, as that to the Juridical Society 
1850, and as president of the Athenaeum 1851, 
have stood the test of publication. He was 
a constant patron of the fine arts, and while 
in Edinburgh, where he was one of the origi- 
nators of the Royal Scotch Academy, had 
given a course of lectures on their history ; 
those on Michael Angelo and Raphael, sub- 
sequently delivered before the Philosophical 
Institution and the Glasgow Architectural 
Society, attracted considerable attention. The 
only other prose work of those years of a thou- 
sand interlocutors was the long and able in- 

YOL. iv. 

troduction to Bell and Bains's edition of 
1 Shakespeare,' published in 1865. During this 
period his few relaxations were angling, chess 
in which game he was the champion of the 
west of Scotland and occasional trips to the 
continent, memories of which he has preserved 
in his volume, 1866, entitled ' Romances and 
Minor Poems,' which showed that all that 
weight of law had not stifled the author's 
imagination. The best verses in this volume 
are, if somewhat less elastic than those of his 
youth, more mature and searching. They are 
the reflex of a mind that has seen more of life 
and become perplexed by mysteries, for which 
its former easy solutions have proved inade- 
quate. Mr. Bell's first wife died in 1847 ; in 
1872 he married Miss Sandeman, who sur- 
vives him. Towards the close ol 1873 a disease 
in the hand, which had for some time caused 
only trifling inconvenience, assumed so grave 
an aspect that an operation became impera- 
tive. This for a time appeared to have been 
successful, but early in the next year unfavour- 
able- symptoms set in, and he died on 7 Jan. 
1874. The respect of his fellow-citizens was 
attested by the fact of his being the first ex- 
ample of the century interred in the nave 
of St. Mungo's Cathedral. Through life a 
staunch tory, Glassford Bell had better claim 
to the title of liberal than many of those who 
assume it, for he was generous almost to a 
fault, and took account of men by what they 
were rather than by what they professed to 
believe. He will be remembered in Scotland 
as the genial friend of Wilson, Hogg, and 
Lockhart, the worthy associate of the great 
legal race of which Jeffrey, Cockburn, Aytoun, 
and Burton were but slightly more distin- 
guished representatives. He has been called 
1 the last of the literary sheriffs.' 

[Journal of Jurisprudence, February 1874 ; 
Glasgow Herald, 8 Jan. 1874; personal know- 
ledge and information from Mr. Bell's family.] 

J. N. 

BELL, HENRY NUGENT (1792-1822), 

genealogist, was the eldest son of George 
ell, Esq., of Belleview, county Fermanagh 
(Inner Temple Admission Register}. He fol- 
lowed the profession of a legal antiquary, and, 
in order to obtain a recognised status, en- 
tered himself at the Inner Temple, 17 Nov. 
1818. In the same year he acquired con- 
siderable distinction by his successful advo- 
cacy of the claim of Mr. Hans Francis 
Hastings to the long-dormant earldom of 
Huntingdon ; the estates, however, with the 
exception, it is said, of a mill in Yorkshire, 
had passed away from the title, and were 
legally invested in the Earl of Moira's family. 
Bell published a detailed account of the pro- 




ceedings in ' The Huntingdon Peerage,' 4to, 
London, 1820, pp. 413, and the narrative of 
his various adventures, which are given at 
length, displays a suspicious luxuriance of 
imagination not altogether in keeping with 
what professed to be a grave genealogical 
treatise. To the unsold copies a new title- 
page was affixed in 1821, with a genealogi- 
cal table and additional portraits (Low^DES, 
Bibliographer 's Manual, ed. Bohn, i. 149). 
Bell was also employed by Mr. J. L. Craw- 
furd to further his claim to the titles and 
estates of Crawfurd and Lindsay, and, if we 
may credit the common report, received no 
less a sum than 5,036/. for prosecuting the 
suit. He was cut off before he could bring 
the matter to a decisive issue, and dying in- 
solvent, the unfortunate claimant's money 
was in a great measure lost (The Crawfurd 
Peerage, by an Antiquary, chap. iv. ; DOBIE, 
Examination of the Claim of J. L. Crawfurd, 
p. 15). According to Lady Anne Hamilton 
(Secret History of the Court of England, i. 
324, ii. 108), Bell, with other minions, was 
delegated by Lord Sidmouth in 1819 to in- 
cite the starving people of Manchester against 
the ministry if that were needed and by 
their means the meeting of 16 Aug. was con- 
voked which led to the massacre of Peterloo. 
The circumstances attending his death as 
narrated in the journals of the day were 
somewhat tragic. An action to recover a 
sum of money advanced to him by an en- 
graver named Cooke was tried on 18 Oct. 
1822, and a verdict passed against him ; on 
the same evening he died. His younger 
brother was Sir George Bell, K.C.B. [q. v.] 

[Gent. Mag. vol. xc. pt. ii. p. 521, vol. xci. 
pt. i. p. 44, vol. xcii. pt. ii. p. 474 ; Notes and 
Queries. 5th ser. xii. 69, 234, 278, 475, 6th ser. 
i. 66 ; Annual Reg. (1877), p. 153.] G. G. 

BELL, JACOB (1810-1859), founder of 
the Pharmaceutical Society, and patron of art, 
was born in London on 5 March 1810. His 
father, a prominent member of the Society of 
Friends, first established the pharmaceutical 
business which, in the hands of the son, ac- 
quired a world-wide fame. At the age of 
twelve Bell was sent to a Friends' school at 
Darlington to be educated. He exhibited a 
decided faculty for composition both in prose 
and verse, and at the age of sixteen gained the 
prize in a competition for the best original essay 
on war. In conjunction with a schoolfellow, 
he also founded a manuscript journal devoted 
to literature and the events of his school 
life. His education completed, he entered 
his father's business in Oxford Street, Lon- 
don, but at the same time diligently attended 
the lectures on chemistry at the Royal Insti- 

tution, and those on the practice of physic 
at King's College. He also devoted his lei- 
sure to the study of practical chemistry, and 
converted his bedroom into a laboratory, 
fitting it with a furnace and other apparatus. 
His tastes appear to have been of a varied 
character, for at one time he gave much at- 
tention to comparative anatomy, at another 
to outdoor sports, while, in a third instance, 
he studied art under H. P. Briggs, R.A. His; 
faculty for art was considerable, especially 
upon the grotesque and humorous side. 
His taste for the works of eminent painters 
was very early developed, and before he was 
five-and-twenty he had formed the nucleus 
of a collection which afterwards became 
famous. He also strongly interested himself 
in the question of copyright as affecting 
artists, and gave valuable advice and assist- 
ance in this direction. 

In 1840 Bell visited the continent, having 
| as his travelling companion Sir Edwin Land- 
seer, whose health was then in an unsatis- 
I factory condition. The friends travelled 
1 through Belgium and up the Rhine to Switzer- 
| land, but at Geneva Bell himself was taken 
{ ill with a very severe attack of quinsy. The 
! seizure caused him to be detained at Geneva 
for six weeks, and it laid the foundation of 
j an affection of the larynx, from which he 
suffered much in after years. Returning to* 
London by way of Paris, he witnessed in 
the latter city the solemnities which cele- 
brated the arrival of the remains of the first 

Bell was a vigilant guardian of the rights 
of his fellow-traders, and it was chiefly owing" 
to his efforts that in the year 1841 Mr. 
Hawes was compelled to withdraw a mea- 
sure which he had submitted to Parliament 
for the purpose of ' amending the laws rela- 
ting to the medical profession in Great 
Britain and Ireland.' This measure, if car- 
ried, would have pressed heavily upon the 
chemists and druggists throughout the king- 
dom. At this time Bell conceived a scheme 
for a society which should act as an effec- 
tual safeguard for the protection of the in- 
terests of the trade, and at the same time 
assist in raising it to the status which it 
already occupied in other countries. Accord- 
ingly, at a public meeting held 15 April 1841, 
the formation of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Great Britain was resolved upon. Bell 
subsequently issued a pamphlet showing the 
necessity for such a society. Great diffi- 
culties were encountered in the formation of 
the society, but they were all surmounted 
by Bell's tact and ability. In the forma- 
tion of provincial branches of the society 
he also took a deep interest ; and for the 




advancement of the cause of true pharmacy 
he established the well-known periodical, 
the 'Pharmaceutical Journal.' The pub- 
lication of this work he superintended for 
eighteen years. The conduct of the journal 
was with him a labour of love, for it resulted 
in no pecuniary advantage during its first 
fifteen years of existence, notwithstanding its 
acknowledged usefulness. To thenewjournal 
Bell was also a constant contributor him- 
self until his death. His efforts in connection 
with an improved pharmacy led to his being 
elected an honorary member of various 
foreign scientific societies, and a Fellow of 
the Chemical, Linnean, and Zoological So- 
cieties of London, and of the Society of 

In 1843 the Pharmaceutical Society was 
incorporated by royal charter, and the same 
year Bell published his 'Historical Sketch 
of the Progress of Pharmacy in Great Bri- 
tain.' The author dealt with the practice of 
pharmacy from the time of its partial sepa- 
ration from the practice of medicine until 
the establishment of the Pharmaceutical 
Society. It was found that an act of parlia- 
ment was required for restricting the prac- 
tice of pharmacy to persons duly qualified, 
and in 1845 Bell drew up an account of 
desirable provisions, including the registra- 
tion of all persons carrying on business as 
chemists and druggists ; the introduction of 
a system of education and examination ; 
the protection of the public against the pro- 
ceedings of ignorant persons ; the separa- 
tion of the trade in medicines from the 
practice of physic and surgery as far as prac- 
ticable ; the recognition of the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society as the governing body in all 
questions relating to pharmacy. For several 
years the question of pharmaceutical legisla- 
tion was much discussed, and numerous 
petitions on the subject were presented to 
parliament ; but as no practical issue was 
arrived at, Bell decided to seek a seat in 
parliament for the purpose of advocating 
the necessary measures. In 1850, accord- 
ingly, he contested the borough of St. Albans 
in the liberal interest, and was returned, 
although the unscrupulous means used by 
his agents led to the ultimate disfranchise- 
ment of the borough. Bell, however, was 
absolved from blame, except in regard to 
the laxity he displayed in placing himself 
unreservedly in the hands of his parliamen- 
tary agents. In June 1851 Bell brought 
forward in parliament a bill to regulate the 
qualifications of pharmaceutical chemists, and 
for other purposes in connection with the 
practice of pharmacy. The measure passed 
its second reading, but could not be further 

proceeded with. In the following session 
the bill was reintroduced, and after con- 
siderable discussion it was referred to a se- 
lect committee. The act, as it eventually 
became law, only very partially fulfilled the 
intentions of its framer. 

At the general election of 1852 Bell 
offered himself for the representation of 
Great Mario w, but was unsuccessful. Two 
years later, on the death of Lord Dudley 
Stuart, he contested the borough of Maryle- 
bone with Lord Ebrington, but was again 
unsuccessful. He was subsequently solicited 
to offer himself again for Marylebone, but 
ill-health compelled him to decline the invi- 
tation. During the last winter of his life, 
while suffering from a painful affection of the 
larynx, as well as from great debility and 
emaciation, he still took an active part in pro- 
fessional matters, and also devoted himself to 
philanthropic causes. He died from exhaus- 
tion 12 June 1859. It is stated that Bell 
spent a fortune in founding and advancing 
the Pharmaceutical Society, but he felt him- 
self repaid by the knowledge that his efforts 
had raised enormously the educational stan- 
dard of his order. On the day of his funeral 
nearly the whole body of chemists through- 
out the country closed their places of busi- 

Bell's chief works were : 1. ' Observations 
addressed to the Chemists and Druggists of 
Great Britain,' 1841. 2. 'Historical Sketch 
of the Progress of Pharmacy in Great Britain,' 
1843. 3. ' Chemical and Pharmaceutical 
Processes and Products,' 1852. 

With regard to his patronage of art, the 
gallery of pictures at his house in Langham 
Place testified to its extent and catholicity. 
The finest part of his collection he bequeathed 
to the nation, including six of the best works 
of Sir Edwin Landseer, and well-known 
examples of O'Neil, Sidney Cooper, Charles 
Landseer, E. M. Ward, W. P. Frith, Rosa 
Bonheur, &c. 

[Annual Kegister, 1859 ; Pharmacexitical Jour- 
nal and Transactions, 1842, &c. ; Bell's works."} 

G. B. S. 

BELL, JAMES (1524-1584), catholic 
priest, born at Warrington in Lancashire, in 
1524, was educated at Oxford, where he was 
ordained priest in Queen Mary's reign. For 
some time he refused to conform to the alte- 
rations in religion made by Queen Elizabeth ; 
but afterwards, adopting the tenets of the 
Reformation, he exercised the functions of a 
minister of the church of England for twenty 
years, and was beneficed in several parts of 
the kingdom. In 1581 he applied to a lady 
to solicit her good offices to procure for him 

M 2 




a small readership, of which her husband was 
the patron. This lady, being a catholic, up- 
braided him with his cowardice, and exhorted 
him to lead a life in accordance with his sa- 
cred profession. Moved by her words he 
sought reconciliation with the catholic church, 
and laboured zealously as a priest for two 
years among the poorer class of catholics. In 
January 1583-4 he was apprehended by a pur- 
suivant, and was brought to trial at the Lent 
assizes at Lancaster. He behaved with great 
courage, and on being convicted said to the 
judge : ' I beg your lordship would add to the 
sentence that my lips and the tops of my fin- 
gers may be cut off for having sworn and sub- 
scribed to the articles of heretics, contrary 
both to my conscience and to God's truth.' 
He was executed at Lancaster on 20 April 
1584. John Finch, a layman, suffered at the 
same time and place for being reconciled to 
the catholic church, and denying the queen's 
spiritual supremacy. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 132 ; Dodd's 
Church Hist. ii. 102 ; Concertatio Eccl. Catho- 
licse in Anglia, ed. Bridgewater (1594), ii. 160- 
164; Challoner's Missionary Priests (1741), i. 
160; Gibson's Lydiate Hall, Introd. xxxiv.] 

T. C. 

BELL, JAMES (/. 1551-1596), reformer, 
was a native of the diocese of Bath, Somerset- 
shire, and was admitted a fellow of Corpus 
Christ! College, Oxford, probably in 1547. 
He graduated B.A. in 1551, and on 30 May 
1556 was nominated a fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, when he was appointed rhetoric lecturer. 
The doubts expressed by Wood as to whether 
these details do not apply to James Bell, a 
Roman catholic priest executed in 1584 [q.v.], 
are set at rest by Bliss in a life of Bell added 
to the ' Athenae.' Bell in the Michaelmas 
term of 1556 gave up his fellowship, and be- 
came a zealous partisan of the Reformation. In 
1564 he wrote and dedicated to Queen Eliza- 
beth 'An Account of Csecilia, Princess of 
Sweden, travelling into England,' which 
exists only in a manuscript preserved in the 
British Museum (MS. Royal, 17j From the 
character of his description it is probable 
that he accompanied the princess to England. 
The other works of Bell are translations from 
the Latin as follows : 1. ( Sermon preached 
at the christening of a certain Jew at Lon- 
don,' by John Foxe, 1573. 2. 'Sermon of 
the Evangelical Olive,' by John Foxe, 1578. 
3. ' Treatise touching the Libertie of a Chris- 
tian Man,' by Luther, 1579. 4. l The Pope 
Confuted the Holy and Apostolical Church 
Confuting the Pope the First Action,' by 
John Foxe, 1580. 5. ' Answer Apologetical 
to Hierome Osorius, his Slanderous Invec- 
tives,' byHaddon and Foxe, 1581. On 13Feb. 

1595 Bell was presented to the prebend of 
Holcombe in the church of Wells, and on 
11 Oct. 1596 to that of Combe in the same 
church. The date and place of his death 
are unknown. 

[Wood's Athense (Bliss), i. 651-2; Fasti, i. 
132, 137 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 94.] T. F. H. 

BELL, JAMES (1769-1833), geographi- 
cal author, was born in Jedburgh in 1769. 
At the age of eight he went to Glasgow, 
where his father, the Rev. Thomas Bell [see 
BELL, THOMAS, 1733-1802], was appointed, 
in 1777, minister of Dovehill Chapel. During 
childhood and youth James suffered much 
from feeble health and sickness, and gave but 
little promise of either much bodily or mental 
vigour ; but he managed to acquire a liberal 
education. As he grew up his constitution be- 
came stronger, and he evinced a remarkable 
propensity for desultory reading. His first em- 
ployment was that of a weaver, to which busi- 
ness he served an apprenticeship. In 1790 he 
commenced trade on his own account, as a 
manufacturer of cotton goods, with a fair 
prospect of success, but, finding himself hin- 
dered by the mercantile depression of 1793, 
he gave up his business, and for some years 
worked as a warper in the warehouses of 
manufacturers. As his tastes and the un- 
common simplicity of his character rendered 
him unfit to win his way in business pursuits, 
his father at length settled upon him a small 
annuity which enabled him to revert to those 
studies and researches to which his natural 
inclination led him in early life. About 1806 
he quitted warping to earn a livelihood as 
tutor in Greek and Latin to advanced students 
attending the university. At the same time 
he, with untiring zeal, studied history, theo- 
logy, and especially geography. To this 
science, around which the whole of his sympa- 
thies were gathered, he devoted the labour of 
his life. His first literary effort was made about 
1815, when he contributed some chapters to 
the ' Glasgow Geography,' a popular work of 
the period, published by Khull, Blackie, & 
Co., now scarce. In 1824 he wrote 'An 
Examination of the various Opinions that 
have been held respecting the Sources of the 
Ganges and the Correctness of the Lama's Map 
of Thibet.' It was published as Article 2 in 
1 Critical Researches in Philology and Geo- 
graphy,' an anonymous volume in 8vo, now 
known to be the joint work of James Bell 
and a gifted young student in philology, one 
John Bell, a namesake but not a relative. 
The high encomiums that this article eli- 
cited from some of the leading periodicals of 
the day served at once to establish the repu- 
tation of James Bell as a writer upon geo- 




graphy. He was forthwith entrusted with 
the serious task of preparing and editing 
an unabridged edition of Rollin's 'Ancient 
History/ Glasgow, 1828, 3 vols. 8vo. The 
original notes, geographical, topographical, 
historical, and critical, with the life of the 
author by Bell, serve to this day to place 
this edition at the head of all that have yet 
appeared in English. Bell's fame as a 
geographical author reached its climax in 
his 'System of Geography, Popular and 
Scientific,' Glasgow, 1830, 6 vols. 8vo. It 
may be fairly urged that it opened a new 
era in the study of geography in our lan- 
guage ; but it is doubtful if it has commanded 
the attention of the geographical student 
south of the Tweed as much as it even now 
deserves. By his contemporaries Bell was i 
held to be * certainly one of the first critical 
geographers of this country.' In its method 
it never yet has been, and probably never 
will be, entirely superseded. The chapters on 
the history of geography contained in the ' 
third volume of Rollin and in the sixth j 
volume of his ( System of Geography ' have 
apparently served for models for all subse- 
quent attempts of the kind during the last 

His latest, but posthumous, work/ A Com- 
prehensive Gazetteer of England and Wales,' 
Glasgow 1836, 4 vols. 8vo, although now 
almost obsolete, was, in its day, an exceed- 
ingly useful book of reference, a model of 
conciseness, and still valuable for its intro- 
duction drawn up under twelve sections ; one 
of these, on the cartography of England and 
Wales,compiled mainly from Gough's * British I 
Topography/ is a feature peculiar to the ga- I 
zetteer which has never been imitated by any j 
subsequent one. 

In forming a correct estimate of Bell and 
his literary work it is necessary to note that 
although he was an accomplished classical 
scholar, as his notes to Rollin show, he was 
not always an exact one, being more intent 
upon elucidating the ideas of his author than 
upon niceties of language. Finally, the 
greater portion of his work was done under 
the disadvantages of ill-health, the want of 
powerful friends, and an exceedingly limited 
apparatus of books ; the last disadvantage his 
extraordinary memory enabled him to par- 
tially overcome. His religious sentiments 
were thoroughly Calvinistic, tempered with a 
feeling of wide tolerance for the religious 
convictions of others, while few could wield 
the weapons of theological controversy with 
greater vigour and effect. Owing to in- 
creasing attacks of asthma to which he had 
always been subject, he was obliged to leave 
Glasgow about ten or twelve years before his 

death and retire into the country. The 
place selected for the scene of his labours 
was a humble cottage at Campsie, twelve 
miles north of Glasgow. He died in this 
secluded but beautiful spot 3 May 1833, and 
was there buried, at the age of sixty-four. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, i. 282 ; Chambers's 
Biogr. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, ed. Thomson, 
1868, i. 119; Dublin University Mag. i. 687; 
Edin. Journal of Natural and Geographical 
Science, ii. 103, 193; Eoy. Geog. Soc. Journal, 
ix. Ivii.] C. H. C. 

BELL, JOHN, LL.D. (d. 1556), bishop 
of Worcester, was a native of Worcester- 
shire, and was educated at Balliol College, 
Oxford, and at Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of LL.B. in 1504. He probably at- 
tended Sylvester Gygles, bishop of Wor- 
cester, to Rome, when sent by Henry VIII 
to the Lateran Council, for Sylvester in his 
letters thence mentions him as in communi- 
cation with the pope, and as the best man 
to fill the vacancy of master of the English 
Hospital. He speaks of him as 'Master 
Bell, now dean of the arches ' (State Papers 
Henry VIII, ii. 849, 928). In 1518 he was 
made by Sylvester vicar-general and chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Worcester, offices 
which he continued to hold under two of 
his successors (THOMAS, Survey of Worcester 
Cathedral, p. 205). Bell was rector of Sub- 
Edge, Gloucestershire, warden of the colle- 
giate church of Stratford-upon-Avon, master 
of the hospital of St. Walstan's, archdeacon 
of Gloucester, and prebendary of Lichfield, 
St. Paul's, Lincoln, and Southwell cathedrals. 
' At length his abilities being made known 
to Henry VIII, he was made one of his 
chaplains, sent by him to foreign princes on 
state affairs, and at his return was one of 
his counsellors ' (z'6.) While abroad he was 
made LL.D. of some foreign university, in 
which degree he was incorporated at Oxford 
in 1531 (WooD, Fasti, pt. i. col. 88). In 
1526 Bell as ' official of Worcester' appears 
frequently as a member of the court ap- 
pointed by Wolsey for the trial of heretics 
(State Papers Henry VIII, iv. 885-6). 
During the next three years he seems to 
have been in almost constant attendance 
upon the king, employed by him in divers 
ways in furthering his divorce from Katha- 
rine. He appeared as the king's proxy in 
1527. In 1528 he was consulted by the king 
and by Wolsey on the pope's dispensation, 
and on the commission to Wolsey and Cam- 
peggio to decide the validity of his union 
with Katharine. In 1529, when the cause 
came before the legates in Blackfriars Hall, 
Bell appeared on several occasions as one of 




the king's counsel, and also in the same 
capacity at Dunstable before Archbishop 
Cranmer and the Bishop of Lincoln ( on the 
morrow after Ascension day, 1032, when 
Cranmer gave final sentence that the pope 
could not license such marriages ' as that of 
Henry and Katharine. During this period 
Bell showed great courage in preventing 
the appointment of Elinor Carey, sister of 
Mary Boleyn's husband, as abbess of Wilton, 
by reporting her (as Wolsey's commissary 
for the diocese of Salisbury) to have been 
guilty of ' gross incontinency,' at a time, too, 
when the king was contemplating his ap- 
pointment to the archdeaconry of Oxford. 
Two years before the sentence of divorce 
was pronounced by Cranmer, Henry sent 
Bell, together with the Bishop of Lincoln 
and Foxe, to Oxford, to obtain an opinion con- 
demning marriage with a deceased brother's 
wife. Oxford hung back in spite of threats 
and promises. Eventually the commissioners 
only succeeded by the exclusion of the junior 
members of convocation from any voice in 
the matter. The excitement was so great 
that it was thought necessary to hold a secret 
conclave by night to affix the university seal. 
Bell was in 1529 one of a commission, in- 
cluding Sir John More, to assist the arch- 
bishop in preparing a royal proclamation 
against Tyndal's translation of the Scrip- 
tures and a number of heretical books, and to 
present it in St. Edward's chapel to be signed 
there by Henry in person (COLLIER, Eccl. 
Hist iv. 145). In 1532 he took part in the 
proceedings of the 'convocation which de- 
cided that the king's marriage was contrary 
to divine law, and consequently that the 
pope's dispensation was ultra vires, and which 
drew up 'the articles about religion,' of 
which the original may be seen, with John 
Bell's name attached, in the Cotton Library. 
In 1537 he was one of ' the composers ' of 
the ' Bishop's Book,' and one of the learned 
divines who, in the course of its preparation, 
were called upon to define the true meaning 
of various church ordinances. In this year, 
too, he was present at the baptism of Ed- 
ward VI at Hampton Court. On 11 Aug. 
Bell was promoted to the see of Worcester. 
As bishop he was a member of the committee 
of the convocation of 1540 who pronounced 
the marriage of Henry and Anne of Cleves 
illegal, and was also one of six bishops ap- 
pointed by the king ' to examine what cere- 
monies should be retained in the church, and 
what was the true use of them.' In the fol- 
lowing year he promised his support to Cran- 
mer, when he brought forward in the House 
of Lords * an act for the advancement of 
true religion and the abolishment of the 

contrary,' but when he saw the angry excite- 
ment of the popish opposition ' he fell away 
from him 7 (STKYPE, Cranmer, p. 141). In 
the convocation of 1542, when the bishops 
undertook the work of a revised translation 
of the New Testament, the first and second 
epistles to the Thessalonians were assigned 
to Bell. On 17 Nov. 1543 Bell resigned his 
bishopric. Burnet, after speculating as to 
his motive, decides to ' leave it in the dark.' 
Nichols (Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 109) says he 
was ' deprived,' but the form of his resigna- 
tion may be seen in Rymer's 'Fcedera' 
(xv. 10), by which it would appear to have 
been quite voluntary. Bell retired to Clerk- 
enwell, then a fashionable suburb. Of his 
life there we only learn from his will that 
he was 'priest of Clerkenwell parish.' He 
died on 2 Aug. 1556, and was buried with 
episcopal honours on the south side of the 
east end of the chancel of St. James's 
Church, where Bishop Burnet was also after- 
wards buried. The monumental brass from 
his tomb, engraved by Malcolm in his ' Lon- 
dinium Redivivum,' was in 1866 in the pos- 
session of Mr. J. G. Nichols (NICHOLS, 
Herald and Genealogist, iii. 444). He gave 
by his will 21. to the poor of Clerkenwell, 
51. to Stratford-upon-Avon, and some legacies 
to Jesus chantry in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
desiring that ' his soul might be prayed for.' 
He was also a benefactor to Balliol College, 
Oxford, and to Cambridge, but especially to 
the former, where he provided for the main- 
tenance of two scholars born in the diocese 
of Worcester. Coote says of Bishop Bell 
{English Civilians) : i He died with the cha- 
racter of an eloquent preacher and advocate, 
a learned divine, and a man of integrity and 

[Godwin, De Prsesulibus Anglise, Camb. 
1743 ; Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, Singer's ed. ; 
Chambers's Biog. Illustrations of Worcester- 
shire ; Thomas's Henry VIII, 1774; Burnet's Hist, 
of the Reformation ; Strype's Eccl. Memorials 
and Life of Cranmer ; Thomas's Survey of Wor- 
cester Cathedral ; Calendar of State Papers, 
Henry VIII, vols. ii., iii., iv., v., vi., and vii.] 

P. B. A. 

BELL, JOHN (1691-1780), traveller, 
son of Patrick Bell of Antermony, was born 
on the paternal estate in 1691. No details of 
his education are extant, but it is stated 
that, after obtaining the degree of doctor 
of medicine, he determined to visit foreign 
countries. He obtained recommendatory 
letters to Dr. Areskine, chief physician and 
privy counsellor to the Czar Peter I, and 
embarked at London in the month of July 
1714. An embassy was then preparing from 
the czar to the sophy of Persia. On Dr. 




Areskine's recommendation Bell was engaged j 
in the service of the Russian emperor. He I 
left St. Petersburg on 15 July 1715, and pro- 
ceeded to Moscow, from thence to Cazan, and i 
down the Wolga to Ostracan. The embassy j 
then sailed down the Caspian Sea to Derbent, j 
.and journeyed by Mongan, Tauris, and Saba j 
to Ispahan, where they arrived on 14 March j 
1717. They left that city on 1 Sept., and re- 
turned to St. Petersburg on 30 Dec. 1718, 
.after having travelled across the country from 
iSaratoff. On his arrival in the capital Bell 
found that Dr. Areskine had died about six 
weeks before ; but he had now secured the 
friendship of the ambassador, and upon hear- | 
ing that an embassy to China was preparing i 
he easily obtained an appointment in it j 
through his influence. The account of his ' 
journey to Cazan, and through Siberia to 
China, is by far the most complete and inte- ' 
resting part of his travels. His description of 
the manners, customs, and superstitions of 
the inhabitants, and of the Delay-lama and 
the Chinese wall, deserve particularly to be 
noticed. They arrived at Pekin, ' after a te- 
dious journey of exactly sixteen months.' 
.Bell has left a very full account of occur- 
rences during his residence in the capital of 
China. .The embassy left that city on '2 March 
1721, and arrived at Moscow on 5 Jan. 1722. 
Bell next accompa.iied an expedition into 
Persia as far as Derbent, returning thence in 
December 1722. Soon afterwards he revisited 
his native country, and returned to St. Pe- 
tersburg in 1734. In 1737 he was sent to 
'Constantinople by th( Russian chancellor, 
-and Mr. Rondean, the British minister at the 
Russian court. It was his last effort in Rus- 
sian diplomacy. He alterwards abandoned 
the public service, and seems to have settled 
at Constantinople as a merchant. About 
1746 he married Mary Peters, a Russian lady, 
and returned to Scotland, where he spent the 
latter part of his life on his estate, enjoying 
the society of his friends. After a long life 
.spent in active beneficence and philanthropic 
exertions he died at Antermony on 1 July 
1780, at the advanced age of eighty-nine. 
His only work is ' Travels from St. Peters- 
burg in Russia to various parts, of Asia,' 1763, 
in two vols. quarto, printed by Robert and 
Andrew Foulis of Glasgow, whose beautiful 
fount of type enhances the value of the book. 
The 'Quarterly Review' (1817, pp. 464-5) 
says that Bell wished to obtain literary help 
in writing his book, and applied to Robertson, 
who could not help him, but advised him to 
take ' Gulliver's Travels ' for his model. The 
.advice was accepted with the best results. 
Besides the Glasgow edition of 1763 the 
* Travels ' were published in Dublin 1764, in 

Edinburgh 1788 and 1806, and they are re- 
printed in the seventh volume of Pinkerton's 
'Collection of Voyages and Travels.' The 
'Gentleman's Magazine' of 1763 (p. 392) 
contains a long extract from the ' Travels/ 
describing in a graphic manner the recep- 
tion of the Russian embassy by the Shah of 
Persia. A French translation of the whole 
work appeared in Paris, 1766, 3 vols. 12mo. 

[Bell's Travels; Quarterly Review; Cham- 
bers's Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen.] E. H. 

BELL, JOHN (1747-1798), artillerist, 
was the eldest son of a hatter at Carlisle, 
where he was born on 1 March 1747. His 
father ruined himself in attempts to discover 
the longitude. In 1765 Bell joined the ar- 
tillery. He served at Gibraltar and after- 
wards in England. He was at Southsea in 
1782, and was an eye-witness of the founder- 
ing of the Royal George. He invented a 
plan for destroying the wreck, which was the 
same as one carried out by Colonel Pasley 
in 1839. He also invented the ' sunproof' 
for testing the soundness of guns, long in 
use in the royal arsenal ; a ' gyn,' called by 
his name, and a petard, of which there is a 
model in the Woolwich laboratory ; a crane 
for descending mines ; and a harpoon for 
taking whales (for the last two of which he 
received premiums from, the Society of Arts) ; 
and an apparatus for rescuing shipwrecked 
mariners, said to be identical with that after- 
wards devised by Captain Manby. For this he 
received a premium from the Society of Arts 
of fifty guineas, and in 1815 the House of 
Commons voted 500/. to his daughter (Mrs. 
Whitfield) in recognition of the same inven- 
tion. In 1793 the Duke of Richmond gave him 
a commission as second-lieutenant in the artil- 
lery, and in 1794 he was promoted to a first- 
lieutenancy. He was employed in a secret 
expedition for the destruction of the Dutch 
fleet in the Texel, which was abandoned. 
He died of apoplexy at Queenborough on 
1 June 1798, whilst engaged in fitting out 

[United Service Journal, April 1840 ; Society 
of Arts' Transactions (1807), vol. xxv., where 
there is an engraving of his apparatus for wrecks.] 

BELL, JOHN (1763-1820), surgeon, was 
born in Edinburgh 12 May 1763, being the 
second son of the Rev. William Bell, and elder 
brother of Sir Charles Bell. He was educated 
at the High School of Edinburgh, and early 
showed a liking for medical studies. He 
became a pupil of Mr. Alexander Wood, an 
eminent surgeon in Edinburgh, and, after 
attending the lectures and practice of Black, 
Cullen, and the second Monro, became a fellow 


1 68 


of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, 
in 1786. In 1790 he established himself as 
a lecturer on anatomy and surgery in Edin- 
burgh in a lecture-theatre built for him in 
Surgeon's Square, where he carried on dis- 
sections, and formed a museum. He vigo- 
rously attacked the stereotyped methods of | 
Monro and Benjamin Bell, and naturally met 
with strong opposition in this extra-university 
enterprise ; but his ability and zeal as a : 
teacher brought him popularity and success. | 
Among his pupils was his brother Charles, who j 
for some years assisted him. His extended ! 
work on the ' Anatomy of the Human Body,' j 
to which Charles largely contributed, went 
through numerous editions, and was trans- 
lated into German. A rapid improvement in 
the surgery of the arteries followed the publi- 
cation of the volume of the 'Anatomy' in 
which they were described. His ' Engravings j 
of the Bones, Muscles, and Joints ' appeared | 
in 1794. His ' Discourses on the Nature and | 
Cure of Wounds ' (1793-5) were remarkable 
for their clear expositions of the then re- 
cently introduced practice of aiming at the I 
early union of wounds after operations, of 
the 'importance of the free anastomosis of 
arteries in dealing with injuries to the main 
trunks of the arteries, and other novel modes i 
of treatment founded on rational views of j 
anatomy and physiology. For twenty years | 
he was the leading operating surgeon in Edin- 
burgh. Unfortunately for his health and re- j 
putation, Bell entered into the lengthy and | 
bitter controversy set on foot by Dr. James | 
Gregory, professor of medicine in the uni- } 
versity of Edinburgh, about the arrangements 
for the attendance of surgeons at the Royal 
Infirmary, writing an ' Answer for the Junior 
Members of the Royal College of Surgeons 
of Edinburgh to the Memorial of Dr. J. Gre- ' 
gory,' 1800. One result was the limitation ! 
of the number of surgeons to six, and the ! 
exclusion of Bell and many others, in 1800 ; 
and although Dr. Gregory was subsequently 
severely censured by the College of Phy- 
sicians for violations of truth, Bell unwisely 
spent much time and feeling in the com- 
position of his ' Letters on Professional Cha- 
racter and Manners,' addressed to Dr. Gregory, 
extending to 636 pages (1810). After his 
exclusion from the infirmary Bell published 
(1801-8) the ' Principles of Surgery,' in three I 
quarto volumes, in the second edition of j 
which (1826) Sir Charles Bell speaks of the | 
admirable capacity he had for teaching, as j 
well as the correctness and importance of the j 
principles which he taught. In 1805 Bell 
married Rosina, daughter of a retired physi- 
cian, Dr. Congleton; but he never seems 
fully to have recovered from his exclusion 

from the infirmary, and although his private 
practice was extensive, this did not make up 
to him for the lack of a public position.. 
Early in 1816 he was thrown from his horse, 
and in 1817 his health was still so impaired 
that he went on a foreign tour, and spent 
the last three years of his life in Italy, where 
he found means of gratifying those artistic 
tastes which he ha<J shown in the illustra- 
tions to many of his own and his brother's 
works. He diligently made notes on paint- 
ings, statuary, architecture, and life, and these 
were embodied in the ' Observations on 
Italy,' edited by his friend Bishop Sandford.. 
of Edinburgh, and published in 1825, and 
again, with additional chapters on Naples, in 
1835. This work abounds in fine descrip- 
tions and just criticisms, based on anatomical 
knowledge. His widow remarks in the pre- 
face : ' With warm affections and sanguine 
temper, he looked forward with the hope 
that his labours and reputation would one 
day assuredly bring independence ; and mean- 
while, he would readily give his last guinea f 
his time and his care, to any who required 
them. Judging of others by himself, he was 
too confiding in friendship, and too careless 
in matters of business ; consequently, from 
the one he was exposed to disappointment,, 
and from the other involved in difficulties 
and embarrassments which tinged the colour 
of his whole life.' He died of dropsy, at 
Rome, 15 April 1820. Dr. Lankester says of 
him in the i Imperial Dictionary : ' ' He was 
impetuous and energetic, and in his contro- 
versial writings almost violent. He had no 
sympathy with conservatism, and was in- 
dignant with those who had not made the- 
same advances with himself. He was one 
of those men who, without apparently 
achieving great success, leave behind them 
an abiding impression, and stamp their cha- 
racter in the institutions and thought of the 
age in which they live.' In person he was- 
below the middle height, of good figure, 
active-looking, and dressed with excellent 
taste. Keen and penetrating eyes gave effec- 
tiveness to his regular features, so that his- 
expression was of a most highly intellectual 

[Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen, ed. Thomson,. 
1858 ; Letters of Sir C. Bell.] G. T. B. 

BELL, JOHN (1745-1831), publisher, has 
been called by Charles Knight ' the mis- 
chievous spirit, the very Puck of booksellers/ 
John Bell had defied the power of a combi- 
nation of some forty publishing firms, who 
called themselves ' the trade,' and issued 
books on the joint-stock principle, in order 
to secure a monopoly of the best publications. 




In 1777 these gentlemen met at the Chapter 
Coffee-house, Paternoster Row, and resolved 
to bring out a collection of the works of Eng- 
lish poets, afterwards known as ( Johnson's 
Poets,' of wliich the first edition appeared in 
1779, and the second in 1790. 

Bell, who was agent for the brothers Mar- 

Kendal, Westmoreland, 23 Oct. 1764, and 
was educated at the grammar school at 
Beetham in the same county and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. There he graduated in 
1786, was first Smith's prizeman and senior 
wrangler, and was subsequently elected to a 
fellowship at his college, and entered at the 

tin, owners of the Apollo Press in Edinburgh, ! Middle Temple 10 Nov. 1787, and at Gray's 
brought out, in London 1782, their edition ' Inn 8 Nov. 1790, having taken his M.A. 
of the ' British Poets,' the early volumes of ! degree in the preceding year. After reading 
which, issued in 1777, had stimulated the i for some time in the chambers of Samuel 
London trade to their undertaking of 1779. I (afterwards Sir Samuel) Ilomilly, he began 
Bell's work was in one hundred and nine to 'practise below the bar,' i.e. as a special 
volumes, 18mo, and bore the general title of < pleader, in 1790, and was called to the bar in 
'Bell's edition : The Poets of Great Britain j 1792. He devoted himself to the equity 
complete from Chaucer to Churchill.' Each ! branch of the profession, and gradually ac- 
volume was illustrated by a frontispiece, an j quired an extensive practice in the court of 
engraved title or a portrait after the designs j Chancery. He did not, however, attain the 

rank of king's counsel until 1816, though 
long before that date he had gained a repu- 
tation as a lawyer second to that of none of 
his contemporaries. Lord Eldon is said, in 
conversation with the prince regent, to have 
described Bell as the best lawyer then at 
the equity bar, although he could ' neither 
read, write, walk, nor talk.' Bell was lame, 
spoke with a broad Westmoreland accent, 
the effect of which was heightened by a con- 
firmed and distressing stammer, and wrote a 
hand never more than barely legible. He was 
accustomed to say that he wrote three hands, 
one which he himself could read, one which 
his clerk could read, and one which neither he 
nor his clerk could read. Nevertheless, his 
penetrating intelligence and thorough know- 
ledge of law secured for him a large and 
lucrative practice. Between 1816 and 1819 
his name occurs with extraordinary frequency 
in the reports, but thenceforward is very 
rarely found there ; and he does not seem to 
have been engaged in any case of great im- 
portance after 1820, some years before he 
retired from professional life. He gave evi- 
dence before the commission which was ap- 
pointed in 1824 to inquire into and report 
upon the procedure of the' court of Chancery, 
but his lifelong familiarity with the business 
of this court appears to have had the effect 
of rendering him almost as obstinately averse 

by which the multitude is taught to feel an to change as the lord chancellor (Eldon). 
interest in the best literature by means of j Though conservative as a lawyer, in politics 
prints and illustrations executed by good ar- I Bell was a whig. In person he was short, 
tists. He died at Fulham in 1831, in the i stout, and round-shouldered. In 1830 he 
eighty-sixth year of his age. published a pamphlet entitled ' Thoughts on 

[Timperley's Dictionary of Printers, p. 916; ! * h , e Proposed Alterations in the Court of 
Knight's Shadows of the Old Booksellers, p. 250, i hancei j' ft? f hl . 8 h T? e m Bedford 
266, 276; Leigh Hunt's Autobiography, i. 276.1 Square 6 Fe *>- 1836 > leaving his wife Jane, 

K. H. ! daughter of Henry Grove, and an only son, 
I Matthew Bell, now of Bourne Park, Kent, 

BELL, JOHN (1764-1836), barrister-at- surviving him. Lord Langdale, who had 
law, only son of Matthew Bell, was born at j been his pupil, was one of his executors. 

of Stodhardt, Mortimer, and other artists of 
the day. Martin and Bell were debarred by 
an exclusive copyright from inserting in their 
collection Young, Mallet, Akenside, and Gray, 
which appeared in the London trade edition, 
together with Dorset, Stepney, Walsh, Duke, 
and Sprat, rhymesters whom Bell had cast 
aside. The attractiveness of this pocket 
edition nevertheless was indubitable, and Mr. 
Bell's enterprise and good taste were generally 
acknowledged. He published a similar edition 
of ' Shakespeare ' and ' The British Theatre.' 
He is distinguished among printers as being 
the first to discard the long f (s) from his 
fount of type. - He was one of the original 
proprietors of the < Fashionable World,' of 
the ' Oracle/ and of the ' Morning Post ' 
(1772). He established a Sunday newspaper, 
' Bell's Weekly Messenger,' much esteemed 
for its country politics and accounts of coun- 
try markets. ' La Belle Assemblee,' an il- 
lustrated monthly publication, was another 

)tion of 
He had no 

acquirements, perhaps not even gTammar ; but 
his taste in putting- forth a publication, and 
getting the best artists to adorn it, was new 
in those times, and may be admired in any. 

T>11 . _ __ . jl ,1 , 1 - 

of his successful projects. In Leigh I 
' Autobiography (i. 276) is a descript 
Bell's appearance, ending thus : ' TT 

Bell was, in fact, the pioneer in that kind 
of publication so much in vogue in later days, j 




He was buried at Milton, near Canterbury, 
where he had an estate. His fortune was 
considerable. He married late in life, his 
son being under age at his decease. His 
widow died in 1866. 

[Foster's Coll. Gen. Eeg. Gray's Inn ; Gent. 
Mag. (1836), 670; Meri vale's Eeports; Swans- 
ton's Eeports ; Wilson's Chancery Eeports ; 
Jacob and Walker's Eeports, ii. 9 ; Jacob's 
Eeports, 633 ; Oh. Cora. Eeport, App. A. 1 ; 
Times, 7 Oct. 1826; Hardy's Memoir of Lord 
Langdale, i. 238-43.] J. M. E. 

BELL, SIB JOHN (1782-1876), general, 
was born at Bonytoun, Fifeshire, 1 Jan. 
1782, being the son of David Bell of 
that place. It was not until 1805 that he 
abandoned the more lucrative prospects of 
mercantile life open to him by family con- 
nections, and followed the bent of his own 
inclination by accepting a commission as an 
ensign in the 52nd foot on 15 Aug. in that 
year. He was ordered to join his regiment in 
Sicily in 1806. Throughout the Peninsular 
war he was actively engaged in the majority 
of the more celebrated actions, and was 
wounded at the battle of Vimeiro by a shot 
through the shoulder. He was appointed 
permanent assistant quartermaster-general 
during the later years of the war. He re- 
ceived the gold cross for the battles of the 
Pyrenees, Nivelle, Orthes, and Toulouse, and 
the silver war medal with six clasps for some 
other battles and sieges. He was employed 
for the last time in active service abroad 
against Louisiana, December 1814 to January 
1815. From 1828 to 1841 he was chief 
secretary to the government at the Cape of 
Good Hope, and from 1848 to 1854 lieute- 
nant-governor of Guernsey. The colonelcy 
of the 95th foot was awarded to him in 1850, 
which he exchanged for that of the 4th foot 
three years afterwards. He was nominated 
a C.B. as far back as 4 June 1815, and for 
his many services he was made a K.C.B. 
6 April 1852, and 'a G.C.B. 18 May 1860. 
Immediately afterwards he became a general, 
and before his death he was the senior gene- 
ral in the army. He died at 55 Cadogan 
Place, London, 20 Nov. 1876, and was buried 
in Kensal Green Cemetery. He married, 
14 June 1821, Catharine, the elder daughter 
of James Harris, the first earl of Malmes- 
bury. She was born at St. Petersburg, 
29 "May 1780, and was named after her 
godmother, the Empress Catharine. She 
died in Upper Hyde Park Street, London, 
21 Dec. 1855. 

[Illustrated London News, Ixix. 541 (1876), 
with portrait; Men of the Time, 1875; Army 
Lists, &c.] G. C. B. 

BELL, JOHN GRAY (1823-1866), book- 
seller, was the son of Thomas Bell, d. 1860 
[q. v.], house agent and surveyor of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. He was born at Newcastle 
21 Sept, 1823, and married, in 1847, Dorothy 
Taylor of North Shields. In 1848 he went to 
London, and began business as a bookseller. 
He removed to Manchester in 1854, where he 
successfully followed his trade during the re- 
mainder of his life. He died there 21 Feb. 
1866, aged 43. Bell was an earnest student 
of antiquarian literature, collected topogra- 
phical books and prints, and issued many 
interesting trade catalogues. In 1850 he 
commenced the publication of a valuable 
series of < Tracts on the Topography, His- 
tory, Dialects, &c., of the Counties of Great 
Britain,' of which about sixteen came out, in- 
cluding original glossaries of Essex, Glouces- 
tershire, Dorset, Cumberland, Berkshire. In 
1851 he published ' A Descriptive and Criti- 
cal Catalogue of Works, illustrated by Thomas 
and John Bell.' This was compiled by him- 
self. Another of his works was a genealogy 
of the Bell and other families, printed for 
private circulation in 1855, and entitled ' A 
Genealogical Account of the Descendants of 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster,' &c. 

[Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 511, vii. 78; 
Bell's Descendants of John of Gaunt, 1855.] 

C. W. S. 

1862), an advocate of the Scottish bar, and 
sheriff of Kincardine, was born at Paisley in 
1804. He was educated at the grammar 
school of that town and at the university of 
Glasgow. He was called to the Edinburgh 
bar in 1825, and from 1830 to 1846 assisted, 
with conspicuous ability, in conducting the 
court of session reports. In 1847 he was ap- 
pointed an advocate-depute, and in 1851 
sheriff of Kincardine. In 1861 he published 
a ' Treatise on the Law of Arbitration in Scot- 
land,' a comprehensive and perspicuous expo- 
sition of this branch of Scotch law, and the 
standard work on the subject. He died from 
the effects of an accident 16 Oct. 1862. In 
1863 a poem, ' The Martyr of Liberty,' which 
he had written shortly after his call to the 
bar, was published in accordance with direc- 
tions left by himself. 

[Catalogue of the Library of the Faculty of 
Advocates, Edinburgh ; Scotsman, 23 Oct. 1862.] 

T. F. H. 


1865), architect, second son of James Bell, 
advocate, was born in Glasgow and educated 
at Edinburgh University. The best account 
of him is preserved in a volume of poems 




printed privately and posthumously in 1865. 
He showed, we there learn, an early fond- 
ness for art, and in the study of it spent the 
greater part of 1829 and 1830 in Rome. Re- 
turning, he decided to become an architect. 
He served his articles and remained for some 
j'ears afterwards in the office of Messrs. 
Rickman & Hutchison of Birmingham. Mr. 
Rickman is well known as a prime mover in 
the English Gothic revival ; Bell was his fa- 
vourite pupil, and became his intimate friend. 
As a result of this education and com- 
panionship, Bell acquired a remarkable know- 
ledge of Gothic architecture. He was a correct 
and elegant draughtsman. Thirty of the en- 
gravings in Le Keux's ' Memorials of Cam- 
bridge ' are from his drawings. His ' Dryburgh 
Abbey,' engraved by William Miller, is no 
less remarkable. For about twenty-seven 
years he practised as an architect in Edin- 
burgh. l His larger works were not nume- 
rous, but they are of great merit and evince 
refined taste. The country houses he erected 
were always justly admired. The extensive 
range of premises in Glasgow, known by the 
name of Victoria Buildings, which he de- 
-signed for Mr. Archibald Orr Ewing .... 
exhibit a very pure specimen of Scotch 
Gothic, finely adapted to commercial pur- 
poses, and form one of the most imposing 
elevations in the city.' Bell was a member 
of the Institute of Scottish Architects. In 
1839 he was appointed secretary to the Royal 
Association for the Promotion of the Fine 
Arts in Scotland. He was nominated for 
the office by the late Professor Wilson, and 
retained it until his death. In the printed 
reports of that society will be found graceful 
and sufficient tributes to the abilities and the 
jzeal of its secretary. He was one of the 
leading witnesses examined by the select 
committee appointed to inquire into the sub- 
ject of art unions. He was secretary also to 
the committee concerned with the direction 
of the Edinburgh Wellington Testimonial. 
Bell had not only ' a learned knowledge of 
art in all its departments, but was himself 
-a cultivated artist. . . . His water-colour I 
drawings are of a high order of excellence ! 
and are finished with the greatest delicacy.' I 
His poems were printed only for private cir- j 
culation, ' in the belief that they possessed 
much originality and beauty.' He died, in 
his fifty-sixth year, on 28 Feb. 1865. 

[Bell's Poems, printed 'in memoriam ' and not 
for publication, 1865 ; Proceedings of the Royal 
Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts 
in Scotland; Scotsman, 2 March 1865.] E. R. 

BELL, LADY MARIA (d. 1825), amateur 
painter, the daughter of an architect named 

Hamilton, was the pupil of her brother, Wil- 
liam Hamilton, R.A., and received some in- 
struction from Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose 
pictures she copied with much skill. She 
copied likewise the works of Rubens at Carl- 
ton House, among which was a ' Holy 
Family,' which was highly commended. Be- 
tween the years 1809 and 1824 she exhibited 
at the Royal Academy and elsewhere several 
figure-subjects and portraits, among the latter 
being in 1816 those of Sir Matthew Wood, 
Bart., lord mayor of London, and of her hus- 
band. She also practised modelling, and ex- 
hibited two busts at the Royal Academy in 
1819. She married Sir Thomas Bell, sheriff 
of London, who was knighted in 1816, and 
died in 1824, and whose portrait was engraved 
by William Dickinson after a painting by her. 
Lady Bell died in Dean Street, Soho, on 
9 March 1825. Her own portrait has been 
engraved by Edward Scriven from a miniature 
by W. S. Lethbridge. 

[Gent. Mag. 1825, i. 570; Redgrave's Dic- 
tionary of Artists, 1878.] R. E. G. 

BELL, PATRICK (1799-1869), one of 
the first inventors of the reaping machine, was 
born at Mid-Leoch, a farm of which his 
father, George Bell, was tenant, in the 
parish of Auchterhouse, a few miles north- 
west of Dundee, in April 1799. When he 
was a young man studying for the ministry 
at the university of St. Andrews, he turned 
his attention to the construction of a machine 
which might lessen the labour of harvesting. 
This was in 1827, and in the following year 
a machine which he had made was tried on 
a farm in Perthshire belonging to his brother, 
Mr. George Bell. For a long time Dr. Bell 
was considered to be the original inventor of 
the machine, though claims were also put for- 
ward on behalf of McCormick in America . It 
has, however, been ascertained, with tolerable 
certainty, that John Common, of Denwick, was 
the first to produce a machine having the es- 
sential principles of the modern reaper. This 
was done in 1812, as is proved by an entry 
in the minutes of a committee of the Society 
of Arts in that year. There is also evidence to 
show that Common s machine was really the 
original of that brought out by McCormick, 
and shown in the Great Exhibition of 1851. 
It should be added that there were before 
this many experimental reaping machines ; 
but those of Common and Bell seem to have 
been the only two which were in any way 
successful. Dr. Bell never took out a patent 
for his machine, but it was worked regularly 
from the time of its first construction until 
about 1868, when it was purchased for the 
museum of the Patent Office, where it now 




remains. A full account of the invention 
was given by Dr. Bell at the meeting of the 
British Association at Dundee in 1867 ; but 
unfortunately only a very brief report of the 
paper appears in the reports of the associa- 
tion. Dr. Bell was ordained in 1843, and 
became minister of the parish of Carmylie, 
Arbroath, which cure he held till the time of 
his death. As a recognition of his services 
to agriculture he was presented by the High- 
land Society with 1,000/. and a piece of plate, 
subscribed for by the farmers of Scotland and 
others. He also had conferred on him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. by the university 
of St. Andrews. 

[A fair account of Dr. Bell is given in Nichols's 
Register and Magazine of Biography, 1 869, p. 473. 
It includes some particulars about the origin of 
the invention, evidently taken from the British 
Association paper. A short obituary notice ap- 
peared in Engineering for 30 April 1869. This 
seems to contain nothing beyond what is given 
in Nichols. For a description of his and other 
early reaping machines see Woodcroft's Appendix 
to Specifications of Patents for Heaping Machines, 
1852 (published by the Patent Office). For an 
account of Common's machine see Soc. of Arts 
Journal, xxvi. 369, 419, 479, xxxi. 324.1 

H. T. W. 

BELL, ROBERT (d. 1577), judge, was of 
a Norfolk family, and was educated at Cam- 
bridge. He is mentioned as reader at the 
Middle Temple in the autunin of 1565 (DuG- 
DALE, Oriff. 217). In 1558-9 he was of 
counsel for the patentees of the lands of 
the bishopric of Winchester on a bill in 
parliament which touched their interest. His 
career was at first political. From 1562, when 
he was first returned for Lynn Regis, until 
his death he sat in parliament. In October 
1566, being a member of a committee to pe- 
tition the queen as to her marriage, he com- 
mented boldly on the unsatisfactory answer 
returned. A dissolution ensuing, in the next 
parliament, in April 1571, he was named 
among those assigned to confer with the lords 
spiritual on the reformation of abuses in 
religion. Having pressed, during a subsidy 
debate, for a reform of abuses connected with 
licenses to four courtiers, he was sent for by 
the council, and ' so hardly dealt with, that 
it daunted all the house in such sort that for 
several days there was not one that durst 
deal in any matter of importance.' He is 
found, however, speaking later on upon a 
usury bill and on parliamentary reform and 
non-resident burgesses. A new parliament 
being summoned in 1572, he was elected 
speaker on 10 May, and still held that office 
at the close of the parliament when, on 8 Feb. 
1576, it fell to him to move the queen on the 

subject of her marriage, and to offer a subsidy.. 
The queen, by the lord keeper, returned a con- 
ditional assent, and parliament was prorogued 
on 14 May. 

During this time Bell had pursued his pro- 
fession, as the occasional mention of his name 
in Dyer's and Plowden's reports testifies. On 
11 Feb. 1562-3 he had been appointed coun- 
sel for the town of Great Yarmouth for life 
at an annual fee of 40*., and in August 1570 
he was of counsel for the crown on the trial 
at Norwich assizes of persons charged with a 
treasonable rising on behalf of the Duke of 
Norfolk. In 1573 (20 Oct.) his name occurs, 
in a commission of oyer and terminer for the 
county of Norfolk. On the death of Sir 
Edward Saunders, chief baron of the ex- 
chequer, Bell succeeded him 24 Jan. 1577, 
having a short time previously been knighted 
and raised to the degree of serjeant-at-law 
(DuGDALE, Chron. Ser. 95, citing MS. Ash- 
mol.) No parliament assembling for nearly^ 
four years, a successor was not for that time 
appointed to the speakership. He sat on the 
bench, however, but a few months ; for at 
the Oxford summer assizes in the same year, 
when presiding at the trial of Rowland 
Jenckes, ' a scurvy foul-mouthed bookseller/ 
for a slander on the queen, Bell, along with 
Mr. Serjeant Barham, the high sheriff, many 
knight sand gentlemen, most of the grand jury r 
and above three hundred more, was taken sick 
from the stench of the prisoners, and died in 
a few days. On the same occasion, having 
been nominated 23 April 1577, he was a 
member of a commission for a special visita- 
tion of the University of Oxford, along with 
the bishops of London and Rochester, Sir 
Christopher Wray, lord chief justice, and 
four others {State Papers, Domestic, Eliza- 
beth, p. 543). His successor as chief baron 
was Sir John Jeffreys, appointed 12 Oct.. 
1577. Camden describes Sir Robert Bell as 
' a sage and grave man, and famous for his- 
knowledge in the law.' He was thrice- 
married : to Mary, daughter of Mr. Anthony 
Chester ; to Elizabeth, widow of Edmund 
Anderson, a son of Sir Edmund Anderson,, 
lord chief justice of the common pleas ; and 
(15 Oct. 1559) to Dorothy, daughter and co- 
heiress of Edward Beaupre, who brought him 
the manor of Beaupre in Upwell and Outwell,. 
Norfolk, and, surviving him, married Sir John 
Peyton of Doddington in Kent, lieutenant 
of the Tower, and governor of Jersey under 
James I. He had several children : Dorothy, 
who married Sir H. Hobart, chief justice of 
the common pleas ; Mary, who married Sir 
Nicholas L'Estrange of Hunstanton in Nor- 
folk ; Frances, who was second wife to Sir 
Anthony Dering of Surenden in Kent ; and 




one son, Edmund, who married Ann, daugh- 
ter of Sir Peter Osborn. His descendants 
long resided in Norfolk. There are portraits 
of him in the possession of the Misses Bell 
of North Runcton, and of the Rev. H. Creed, 
of Mellis ; the latter has been engraved by 
W. C. Edwards. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Dugdale's Ori- 
gines Juridiciales ; Blomefield's Norfolk, iv. 182 ; 
Wotton's Baronetage, i. 375, ii. 17, Hi. pt. 2, 427 ; 
Parl. History, i. 715, 735, 757, 779, 794 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Domestic, Eliz., p. 443 ; Wood's 
Annals, ii. 188 ; Manning's Speakers, 242 ; 
Eymer, xv. 725, 773 ; Manship's Yarmouth, ii. 
:358 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab., i. 365, 565.1 

J. A. H. 

BELL, ROBERT (1800-1 867), journalist 
and miscellaneous writer, was the son of an 
Irish magistrate, and born at Cork on 16 Jan. 
1800. He was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he originated the Dublin His- 
torical Society to supply the place of the old 
Historical Society which had been suppressed. 
He is said to have obtained early in life a 
government appointment in Dublin, and to 
have edited for a time the ' Patriot,' a govern- 
ment organ. He is also described as one of 
the founders of and contributors to the ( Dub- 
lin Inquisitor,' and as the author of two 
dramatic pieces, ' Double Disguises ' and 
* Comic Lectures.' In 1828 he settled in Lon- 
don either before or after publishing a pam- 
phlet on catholic emancipation. About this 
time he was appointed editor of the ' Atlas,' 
then one of the largest of London weekly 
journals, and he conducted it creditably and 
successfully for many years. In 1829, at a 
time when press prosecutions were rife, he 
was indicted for a libel on Lord Lyndhurst, 
a paragraph in the l Atlas' having stated 
that either he or his wife had trafficked in 
the ecclesiastical patronage vested in the lord 
chancellor. The indictment would have been 
withdrawn if Bell had consented to give up 
the name of his authority, but he refused. 
He defended himself in a manly and in- 
genious speech, and was complimented both 
by the judge, Lord Tenterden, and by the 
attorney-general, on the tact and talent dis- 
played in it. The verdict of the jury found 
him guilty of publishing a libel, but virtually 
acquitted him of any malicious intention, 
and recommended him to the merciful con- 
sideration of the court. The attorney-general 
expressed great satisfaction with the verdict, 
and Bell seems to have escaped punishment 
(Greville Memoirs (1875), i. 258). 

To Lardner's ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia,' the 
publication of which began in 1830, Bell con- 
tributed the < History of Russia ' (3 vols.), 

the ' Lives of the English Poets ' (2 vols.), 
and the concluding volumes both of Southey's 
' Lives of the British Admirals,' and of the 
continuation, in which he had been preceded 
by Wallace, of Sir James Mackintosh's ' His- 
tory of England.' Meanwhile he assisted 
Bulwer, afterwards the first Lord Lytton, and 
Dr. Lardner in establishing the { Monthly 
Chronicle ' (1838-41), and ultimately became 
its editor. He also edited l The Story-teller,' 
1843, and in 1849 the concluding volumes of 
the ' Correspondence of the Fairfax Family/ 
In 1846 had appeared his popularly written 
' Life of Canning ; ' in 1849 he published an 
agreeable record of one of his holiday tours 
on the continent, ' Wayside Pictures through 
France, Belgium, and Holland ' (second edi- 
tion, with the addition of a "Trip up the 
Rhine,' 1858). Of his three five-act come- 
dies, i Marriage ' was published in 1842, 
1 Mothers and Daughters in 1843 (second edi- 
tion, with explanatory preface giving an ac- 
count of its abrupt withdrawal from the 
stage, 1845), and ' Temper,' 1847. Bell also 
wrote two three-volume novels, ' Hearts and 
Altars,' 1852, and the < Ladder of Gold,' 1856. 
But the literary enterprise, left unfortunately 
uncompleted, by which Bell will be chiefly 
remembered, is his annotated edition of the 
English poets, 24 vols. 1854-7. The origi- 
nality of the work lay in its numerous and 
useful annotations, but the texts contained in 
it were the result of sedulous revision, and a 
careful memoir was prefixed to the works of 
each poet. The earliest poet in the series 
was Chaucer, and the latest Cowper, but, 
apart from Bell's announced intention to 
make it only a selection, there are great gaps 
in it. Noticeable among the ' occasional ' 
volumes is the unique selection of ' Songs 
from the Dramatists,' beginning with Udall 
and ending with Sheridan. 

During his later years Bell edited with 
assiduity the ' Home News,' a monthly jour- 
nal circulating among English residents in 
India and the East. His last productions 
were selections from the poets, to accompany 
pictorial illustrations, ' Golden Leaves from 
the Works of the Poets and Painters,' 1863, 
and 'Art and Song,' 1867, the year of his 
death. He also wrote ( Outlines of China,' 
and contributed to the ' New Spirit of the 
Age,' edited by R. H. Home. Latterly he 
became interested in spiritualism, and among 
his contributions to periodicals was a paper 
on table-rapping in the ' Cornhill Magazine.' 
A very prominent and active member of the 
committee of the Literary Fund, Bell was 
personally most helpful to struggling and 
unsuccessful men of letters, and his death 
on 12 April 1867 was much and widely 




regretted. In accordance with his request 
he was buried near the grave of his friend, 
W. M. Thackeray, in Kensal Green Cemetery. 
[Notices in Home News for May 1867, in En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica, ninth edition, and in 
Chambers's Cyclopaedia ; Atlas for 27 Dec. 1829 ; 
Catalogue of the British Museum Library.] 

F. E. 


1872), line-engraver, was born at Edinburgh 
in 1806. At an early age he was articled to 
John Beugo, the friend of Burns, and Avhile 
in his studio he also attended the classes at 
the Trustees' Academy, then under the direc- 
tion of Sir William Allan. After leaving 
Beugo he engraved a series of Scottish 
views and a considerable number of vignette 
portraits, the best known of which are those 
of Professor Wilson and Dr. Brunton ; but 
the works which brought him more promi- 
nently into notice were ' The Rush Plaiters,' 
after Sir George Harvey, and the plates 
which he engraved for the Royal Scottish 
Association, among which were l The Widow ' 
and ' Roger and Jenny,' after Sir William 
Allan ; ' The Expected Penny,' after A. 
Eraser ; ' The Quarrel Scene in The Dowie 
Dens o' Yarrow,' after Sir J. Noel Paton ; 
and ' Baillie McWhirter at Breakfast,' after 
J. Eckford Lauder. The largest and most 
important plate he ever undertook was ' The 
Battle of Preston Pans,' after Sir William 
Allan, upon which he was engaged at in- 
tervals for some years, and which he had 
only just completed at the time of his decease. 
Several of his best plates appeared in the 
' Art Journal ' between the years 1850 and 
1872. They included ' The Duet,' after Etty ; 
'The Philosopher,' after H. Wyatt ; ' The 
Bagpiper,' after Sir David Wilkie ; and 
' The Young Brother,' after Mulready, from 
the pictures in the Vernon Gallery ; ' Teasing 
the Pet/ after that by Mieris in the Royal 
Collection ; ' Sancho Panza,' after that by C. R. 
Leslie in the Sheepshanks Collection; ' Words 
of Comfort,' after Thomas Faed ; ' Renewal of 
the Lease refused,' after Erskine Nicol; and 
'Within a Mile of Edinbro' Town,' after John 
Faed. He died in Edinburgh on 5 Sept. 1872. 
His son, Mr. Robert P. Bell, A.R.S.A., is a 
well-known Scottish painter of figure subjects. 
[Art Journal, 1872, p. 284.] E. E. G-. 

BELL, THOMAS (1733-1802), divine, 
was born at Moffat on 24 Dec. 1733, and 
there attended the parish school. He was 
sent to the university of Edinburgh while 
still a mere youth. He completed his secu- 
lar course and continued his theological 
at his university. But instead of seeking 
license from the national church he applied 

to the ' Presbytery of Relief,' recently founded 
by Thomas Gillespie. He was licensed in 
1767, and in that year was settled as 
minister of the Relief congregation at Jed- 
burgh as successor to the son of Thomas 
Boston, of Ettrick. He remained in Jedburgh 
for ten years, having made for himself a 
wide local reputation. In 1777 he was trans- 
lated to a large congregation of the Relief 
church in Glasgow. 

He found sufficient leisure to learn Dutch. 
The Dutch divines were then held in high re- 
pute in Scotland for their evangelical ' sound- 
ness in the faith.' The fruits of his new ac- 
quisition were seen in various faithful and 
readable translations from the Dutch. In 
1780 he published 'The Standard of the 
Spirit lifted up against the Enemy com- 
ing in like a Flood.' In 1785 appeared his 
erudite and powerful treatise, ' A Proof of 
| the True and Eternal Godhead of the Lord 
! Jesus Christ.' The Dutch original of Al- 
linga on the 'Satisfaction of Christ' (1790) 
is improved in his translation. He likewise- 
translated from the Latin ' The Controversies 
agitated in Great Britain under the Unhappy 
Names of Antinomians and Neonomians.' 
This was posthumously published, as well a& 
, 'A View of the Covenants of Works and 
Grace,' and 'Sermons on various Important 
Subjects' (1814). He was father of James 
! Bell, the geographical writer [q. v.] He died 
at Glasgow on 15 Oct. 1802. 

[Struthers's History of Eelief Church and 
Annals of Glasgow ; Memorials of Eelief Church, 
Jedburgh; Church Eecords at Jedburgh and 
Glasgow.] A. B. G. 

BELL, THOMAS (1785-1860), anti- 
quary, was the son of Richard Bell, of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, and was born at that town 
16 Dec. 1785. For many years he followed 
the business of land valuer and surveyor. 
He was a diligent antiquary and the collector 
of an extensive library, which was dispersed 
at Newcastle after his death. Though he 
left no published writings, his library was en- 
riched by his manuscript genealogical and 
antiquarian compilations, and he assisted 
most of the local topographical writers of his 
day in their undertakings. The Rev. John 
Hodgson was much aided by him in the ' His- 
tory of Northumberland.' He was a promoter 
of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical 
Society, and one of the founders of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Newcastle, and continued 
to take an active interest in both societies as 
long as he lived. He died in his native town 
30 April 1860, aged 74. 

[Gent. Mag. August 1860, p. 196; Sale Cata- 
logue of the Bell Library, 1860 ; J, G. Bell's De- 
scendants of John of Gaunt, 1855.] C. W. S. 




BELL, THOMAS (1792-1880), dental 
surgeon and zoologist, was born at Poole, 
Dorsetshire, 11 Oct. 1792, being the only son 
of Thomas Bell, surgeon. In 1813 he entered 
as a student at Guy's and St. Thomas's hos- 
pitals, London, and became a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons in 1815, and a 
fellow in 1844. In 1817 he was appointed 
dental surgeon to Guy's, a post he held till 
1861. He was for a long period the only ca- 
pable surgeon who applied scientific surgery 
to diseases of the teeth ; but his work on the 
teeth (1829) was largely a compilation from 
Hunter, Blake, and Fox. He was early at- 
tracted to natural history, especially zoology, 
and for some years he lectured on comparative 
anatomy at Guy's. In 1 836 he was appointed 
professor of zoology at King's College, Lon- 
don, but in this capacity he made no mark. 
The first edition of his ' History of British 
Quadrupeds' (1837), being written in an 
easy and attractive style, became popular ; 
but it was not without serious defects. It 
was followed in 1839 by the ' History of Bri- 
tish Reptiles/ and in 1853 by the ' History 
of British Stalk-eyed Crustacea.' A second 
edition of the ' British Quadrupeds ' appeared 
in 1874, revised and partly rewritten by the 
author, assisted in regard to cheiroptera and 
insect ivora by Mr. R. F. Tomes, and in regard 
to seals and whales by Mr. E. R. Alston, 
whose additions are standard contributions. 
The matter relating to our domestic quadru- 
peds is omitted from the second edition. 
Bell was elected F.R.S. in 1828, was one of 
the originators of the scientific meetings of 
the Zoological Society, and for eleven years | 
one of its vice-presidents. His excellent ad- | 
ministrative qualities found full scope as one I 
of the secretaries of the Royal Society from 
1848 to 1853, and as president of the Linnean 
Society from 1853to 1861. Under his guidance 
the latter society greatly advanced in prospe- 
rity ; and to him is especially due its location 
in Burlington House, to which the govern- 
ment was originally strongly opposed. He was 
president of the Ray Society from its founda- 
tion in 1843 till 1859. At the age of nearly 
seventy he retired from practice to the 
"Wakes at Selborne, Hampshire, which he had 
purchased from Gilbert White's grandnieces. 
Here he collected relics and memorials of 
White, receiving with delight White's ad- 
mirers who visited Selborne. Thus, enjoying 
robust health almost to the last, he spent a 
happy and prolonged old age, and in 1877 pro- 
duced his classic edition of the ' Natural His- 
tory of Selborne.' It contains a memoir of 
White, written in his most pleasing style. 
Bell's manners were most attractive, gaining 
the confidence of young and old of all classes. 

His remarkable memory, stored with very 
varied information, remained intact almost 
to the close of his life, 13 March 1880. As 
a naturalist he was more at home in his 
study than in the field, and he made few 
original contributions of special value to 
zoology. As a writer, his chief merit is that 
of agreeable compilation. 

Besides the works already mentioned, Bell 
published l Monograph of Testudinata/ parts 
1-8, 1832-6, folio, not completed; Presi- 
dential Addresses to Linnean Society, 1853- 
1861 ; ' Paleeontographical Society Mono- 
graph on Fossil Malacostracous Crustacea/ 
two parts, 1857, 1862; ' On Chelonia of 
London Clay/ in * Fossil Reptilia of London 
Clay/ by Professors Owen and Bell, 1849 ; 
1 Catalogue of Crustacea in British Museum/ 
part i. 1855 ; account of Crustacea in Bel- 
cher's ' Last of the Arctic Voyages/ vol. ii. 

[Athenamm (1880), i. 379; Academy (1880), 
i. 215; Lancet (1880), i. 507 ; Nature, xxi. 473, 
499 ; information from Mr. Salter, F.E.S.] 

GK T. B. 

BELL, WILLIAM (fl. 1599), lawyer, 
was born in Hampshire, and educated at 
Warwick and Balliol College, Oxford, where 
he was elected to a fellowship, which, how- 
ever, being a Roman catholic, he was unable 
to hold. Subsequently he turned his atten- 
tion to the law, studying at Clement's Inn 
for two years. He then appears to have re- 
turned to his native county, where he came 
to hold the office of clerk of the peace. He 
is said to have died at Temple Broughton 
(perhaps the same as the place now known as 
Broughton) in that county. His son, a 
Franciscan of the order of friars minor and 
warden of the college of St. Bonaventura at 
Douay, published in 1632 an octavo volume 
containing his father's will, a statement of 
his theological opinions, and his pedigree. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib.] J. M. E, 

BELL, WILLIAM, D.D. (1625-1683), 
archdeacon of St. Albans, was born at Lon- 
don, in the parish of St. Dunstan-in-the-West, 
on 4 Feb. 1625. He was educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' School, and elected a scholar 
of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1643. He 
graduated B.A. in July 1647, and obtained 
a fellowship in his college, of which he was 
subsequently a benefactor. Ejected from this 
post by the visitors appointed by parliament, 
he appears to have visited the Continent in 
1649, and to have obtained a benefice in Nor- 
folk in 1655, for which he was disqualified by 
the tryers. On the Restoration he was made 
chaplain to Sir John Robinson, lieutenant of 




the Tower, and in the following year was ad- 
mitted to the degree of B.D. In 1662 he was 
Esented by his college to the living of St. 
ulchre's, London, which he seems to have 
sd in a way that secured the respect and 
affection of his parishioners. Three years 
later, Dr. Henchman, bishop of London, made 
him prebendary of Reculversland in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. In 1667 he was made chaplain 
to the king, and in 1671 archdeacon of St. 
Albans. To these preferments was also added 
a lectureship at the Temple. He died 19 July 
1683, aged 58, and was buried in St. Sepul- 
chre's Church. 

He published the following sermons : 
1. 'City Security/ 1660. 2. ' Joshua's Reso- 
lution to serve God,' 1672. 3. ' Sermon at 
the Funeral of Mr. Anthony Hinton,' 1679. 
There is an * Elegy on the Death of the re- 
verend, learned, and pious William Bell, 
D.D.' amongst the Luttrell collection of 
broadsides, in which he is pronounced f a 
mighty loyalist and truth's defendant.' 

[Wood's Athense (Bliss), iv. 94, and Fasti, ii. 
103, 254, 302 ; Kennett's Register and Chronicle, 
Ecclesiastical and Civil, 1728, p. 796 ; Newcourt's 
Eepertorium Eccles. Paroch. 1708, i. 96, 205, 
534; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, 1854, ii. 431 ; 
Stowe's Survey, ed. Strype, 1720, iii. 243 ; Acker- 
man's Hist, of Univ. of Oxford, 1814. ii. 128.] 

A. R. B. 

BELL, WILLIAM (1740 P-1804 ?), por- 
trait painter, was born at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne about the year 1740. He came to 
London about 1768 and entered as a student 
the schools of the Royal Academy, which 
had just then been founded, and in 1771 he 
carried off the gold medal for his picture of 
' Venus entreating Vulcan to forge arms for 
her son JEneas.' Being patronised by Lord 
Delaval, he painted several full-length por- 
traits of members of that nobleman's family, 
and in 1775 he exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy two views of Seaton Delaval, his lord- 
ship's seat. Still he did not make any further 
progress, but returned to Newcastle, where 
he maintained himself by portrait painting 
until his death, which took place about 1804. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.] 

R. E. G. 

BELL, WILLIAM, D.D. (1731-1816), 
divine, was educated at Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of B.A. 
in 1753 with considerable distinction, being 
the eighth wrangler of his year. In 1755 he 
gained one of the members' prizes, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1756, in which year he ob- 
tained one of Lord Townshend's prizes by a 
dissertation on the causes of the populous- 
ness of nations, and the effect of populous- 

ness on trade. The dissertation was trans- 
lated into German in 1762, under the title of 
' Quellen und Folgen einer starken Bevbl- 
kerung,' and was replied to by ' A Vindica- 
tion of Commerce and the Arts,' proving 
them the source of the greatness, power, 
riches, and populousness of a state, wherein 
1 Mr. Bell's calumnies on trade are answered, 
his arguments refuted, his system exploded, 
and the principal causes of populosity as- 
signed,' by I B , M.D., 1758. A 

fancy that he had detected an argument of 
the divine origin of Christianity in the evan- 
gelic writings, in a circumstance hitherto 
overlooked or slightly mentioned, produced in 
1761 Bell's ' Enquiry into the Divine Mission/ 
After remaining for some time at Magda- 
len, he became domestic chaplain and secre- 
1 tary to the Princess Amelia, daughter of 
I George III, with whom he became domes- 
j ticated at Gunnersbury House. By her in- 
! terest he obtained a prebend of Westminster 
j in 1765, and in 1767 he proceeded S.T.P. 
per literas regias. In 1776 he was presented 
by the dean and chapter of Westminster to 
the vicarage of St. Bridget's, London, but 
i vacated it in 1780. It was in this year that 
| he dedicated to the princess an elaborate 
essay upon the sacrament. Dr. Lewis Bagot, 
dean of Christ Church, controverted Bell's 
argument in his Warburtonian lectures in an 
excellent note, pp. 210-13, and published in 
1781 a letter addressed to the author on the 
subject. Bell's opinions on this question 
[ agreed with those of Hoadly and John Taylor 
! of Norwich. A second edition of Bell's tract 
appeared, and he continued the discussion in 
another tract published in 1790. Bell also 
published his ' Attempt to ascertain the Na- 
ture of the Communion,' including only the 
main argument, in the simple form of ques- 
tion and answer. After quitting St. Bridget's, 
Bell was presented to the rectory of Christ 
Church, London, which he resigned in 1799. 
He also enjoyed the treasurer's valuable stall 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, and administered 
the office with becoming disinterestedness. 
He, in fact, rendered himself conspicuous 
through life for acts of discerning liberality. 
In 1787 Bell published a curious tract, 
entitled 'Declaration de nies derniers Senti- 
mens sur les diff^rens Dogmes de la Religion/ 
by Pierre Franpois le Courayer, D.D., the 
courageous, learned, and intelligent champion 
of English ordinations to a French public 
bent upon questioning their validity. The 
manuscript of this work had been given by 
Dr. Courayer himself to the Princess Amelia, 
with a request that it might not be published 
till after his death. It proved, says Bell, 
that its author was firmly convinced that 




the doctrine of the Roman religion, in nearly 
all wherein it differs from the protestant, is 
contrary to truth and the word of God. 
This manuscript, together with the 'Traite 
ou 1'on expose ce que 1'Ecriture nous apprend 
de la Divinite de Jesus-Christ,' also by Dr. 
Courayer, were bequeathed to Bell by the | 
princess. Soon after the ' Declaration ' was 
published a translation of the ' Trait6 ' ap- j 
peared, with an account of Dr. Courayer 
prefixed. The writer of this anonymous 
work was the Rev. Dr. John Calder, and with 
it Bell was not concerned. A strong dislike 
to being the editor of a controversial work 
such as the 'Trait6 ou 1'on expose,' &c., in 
which the doctrine concluded upon is very 
widely different from that adopted by the 
church of England, was the cause, according 
to his own written confession, of Bell's not 
publishing this work immediately. Till 1810 
he therefore withheld it from the world, when 
he published it, thinking it might be ' a 
highly blameable presumption ' to suppress it 
longer. In the same year Bell, with great 
munificence, transferred 15,200/. 3 per cent, 
consols to the university of Cambridge, in 
trust to found eight new scholarships for the 
sons or the orphans of clergymen of the 
church of England, whose circumstances were 
such as not to enable them to bear the whole 
expense of sending their sons to the univer- 
sity. The particulars of the benefaction will 
be found in the 'Gentleman's Magazine,' 
Ixxx., ii. 490. It was especially provided 
that no scholar was ever to be elected from 
King's College or Trinity Hall. These pro- 
visions have been subsequently altered. Bell, 
in the course of his life, held several parochial 
benefices besides those already mentioned, 
but long before his death he had resigned all 
such preferment. He died at his prebendal 
"house in Little Dean's Yard, Westminster, 
on 29 Sept., aged 85. Of Bell's posthumous 
works the sermons have been highly praised. 
Lowndes says, as a compendium of Christian 
ethics they deserve a place among the best 
writers of our language. Bishop Watson 
recommends them as 'of excellent instruc- 

The full titles of Bell's works, in the order 
of their publication, are : 1. 'A Dissertation 
on " What Causes principally contribute to 
render a Nation Populous, and what Effect 
has the Populousness of a Nation on its 
Trade," ' Cambridge, 1756. 2. ' An Enquiry 
into the Divine Missions of John the Baptist 
tind Jesus Christ, so far as they can be proved 
from the circumstances of their births and 
their connection with each other,' London, 
1761. 3. A second edition to which are 
prefixed ' Arguments in proof of the Authen- 


ticity of the Narratives of the Births of John 
and Jesus contained in the two first chapters 
of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke/ 
1810. 4. ' A Defence of Revelation in general 
and the Gospel in particular ; in answer to 
the objections advanced in a late book en- 
titled " The Morality of the New Testament, 
digested under various heads," &c., and sub- 
scribed, a Rational Christian,' 1765. 5. ' A 
Sermon preached in Lambeth Chapel at the 
consecration of Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Ro- 
chester,' 1774. 6. 'An Attempt to ascer- 
tain and illustrate the Authority, Nature, 
and Design of the Institution of Christ, com- 
monly called the Communion and the Lord's 
Supper,' 1780 ; a second edition, 1781. 7. 'An 
Enquiry whether any Doctrine relating to 
the Nature and Effects of the Lord's Supper 
can be justly founded on the Discourse of 
our Lord recorded in the sixth chapter of 
the Gospel of St. John,' 1790. This is a sup- 
plement to the preceding ' Attempt,' &c. 

[G-ent. Mag. Ixxxvi. pt. ii. 371 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Lowndes's Bib. Man. i. 150 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.] J. M. 




BELLAMY, DANIEL, the elder (b. 
1687), miscellaneous writer, son of Daniel 
Bellamy, scrivener of the city of London, 
was born in the parish of St. Martin's, Iron- 
monger's Lane, on 25 Dec. 1687. He en- 
tered Merchant Taylors' School on 12 March 
1702, and matriculated as a commoner of 
St. John's College, Oxford, on 4 March 1706. 
In consequence of a reverse of fortune he 
was forced to leave Oxford without taking a 
degree in 1709, and became a conveyancer's 
clerk. He was the author of : 1. 'A Trans- 
lation of the " Muscipula." ' 2. ' Thoughts on 
the Trinity, translated from the French of 
Lord Morny duPlessis-Marly,' 1721. 3. ' Love 
Triumphant, or Rival Goddesses ; a Pastoral 
Drama for Schools.' 4. Various dramatic 
pieces and moral essays, published together 
as the 'Young Lady's Miscellany,' 1723. 

5. 'The Generous Mahometan;' a novel. 

6. ' Moral Tales adapted from Fenelon,' 1729. 

7. A Latin edition of the Fables of Phse- 
drus, 1734. 8. ' The Christian Schoolmaster,' 
1736. He also began a translation of Picart's 
' Ceremonies.' In some other works he was 
associated with his son Daniel [q. v.] 

[Eobinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' 
School, ii. 7 ; Baker's Biographia Dramatica, i. 
i. 31 ; Kawlinson MSS., Bodleian Library.] 





BELLAMY, DANIEL, the younger (d. 
1788), divine and miscellaneous writer, was 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he took the degree of M.A. 'per literas 
regias' in 1759. His first work was the 
'Christian Schoolmaster/ 1737, 16mo. He 
joined with his father (of the same name) in 
publishing a collection of ' Miscellanies in 
Prose and Verse;' the first volume appeared 
in 1739, and the second in 1740. This collec- 
tion contained some dramatic pieces, written 
to be performed by school-girls at breaking- 
up-time. In ' Biographia Dramatica ' these 
little chamber dramas are warmly praised. 
The other works of the younger Bellamy are : 
1. ' Discourses on the Truth of the Christian 
Keligion/ 1744. 2. ' A Paraphrase on Job,' 

1748, 4to. 3. 'On Benevolence, a sermon 
(on Ps. cxii.), with a summary of the life and 
character of Dean Colet, preached before the 
gentlemen educated at St. Paul's School,' 
1756, 4to. 4. ' The British Remembrancer, 
or Chronicles of the King of England,' 1757 ? 
12mo. 5. 'Ode to her Royal Highness the 
Princess Dowager of Wales,' 1768? 4to. 
6. 'The Family Preacher,' 1776, 8vo, dis- 
courses for every Sunday throughout the year, 
Avritten in conjunction with .Tames Carring- 
ton, William Webster, and others. Bellamy 
was minister of Kew and Petersham, and in 
1749 was presented to the vicarage of St. 
Stephen's, near St. Albans. He died 15 Feb. 

[Gent. Mag. Iviii. 272 ; Baker's Biographia 
Dramatica, i. i. 31 ; Watt ; Grraduati Canta- 
brigienses ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Cooke's Preacher's 
Assistant, ii. 34; European Magazine, xiii. 144; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 507.] A. H. B. 

1788), actress, was born, according to her 
'Apology,' at Fingal, in Ireland, on St. 
George's day (23 April 1733). For this year 
she afterwards substituted 1731, supplying a 
copy of a certificate of birth. The year 1727, 
given without comment by Chetwood in 

1749, is more probable. The name George 
Anne was given by mistake for Georgiana. 
Her mother, whose maiden name was Seal, 
was a quakeress, the daughter of a rich far- 
mer at Maidstone. She eloped from a 
boarding-school with Lord Tyrawley, ambas- 
sador at Lisbon. She there married Captain 
Bellamy, the master of a trading vessel. The 
birth very shortly after of George Anne Bel- 
lamy led to the immediate disappearance of 
Captain Bellamy. Lord Tyrawley acknow- 
ledged the paternity of the infant. He 
sent her, when five years old, to Boulogne, 
where she was placed in a convent until she 
was eleven, when she returned to England, 

and lived for some time with a peruke-maker 
in St. James's Street, formerly in the service 
of Lord Tyrawley. After the return of her 
father she saw under his charge a good deal 
of company, and was introduced to Lord 
Chesterfield and to Pope. Her father, on 
going as ambassador to Russia, made her an 
allowance, which she forfeited by going to 
live with her mother. She became acquainted 
with Mrs. Woffington, Sheridan (the actor), 
and Garrick. She even took part with 
Garrick in a private performance- of ' The Dis- 
tressed Mother,' in which she played Andro- 
mache. A rehearsal of an amateur perform- 
ance of ' Othello ' led to an engagement with 
Rich, the manager of Covent Garden. Rich 
introduced her to Quin, then the virtual 
director of the house. Rich insisted, in spite 
of Quin's opposition, that she should play 
Monimia in ' The Orphan.' Her appearance 
took place on 22 Nov. 1744. At the re- 
hearsals Quin, who was to play Chamont, 
did not appear. Through the first three acts 
she could scarcely proceed, but in the fourth 
act she obtained a success. Quin lifted her 
in his arms from the ground, called her ' a 
divine creature,' and proclaimed himself 
henceforward her supporter and friend. This 
was not, in fact, her first appearance. Her 
name appears in the bill for Covent Garden 
for 27 March 1742, quoted by Genest, as 
acting Miss Prue in ' Love for Love.' Mrs. Bel- 
lamy was patronised by aristocratic society, 
and rose rapidly in her profession. An ab- 
duction by Lord Byron led to a severe illness, 
after which she took refuge with some quaker 
relatives in Essex. Her private adventures 
cannot be followed. In 1745-6 she was in 
Dublin. Sheridan, who had the management 
of the Smock Alley and Aungier Street 
theatres, brought her out at the latter house 
on 11 Nov. 1744, according to Hitchcock, but 
the year must be 1745, as Monimia. Desde- 
mona and other characters followed. Mrs. 
O'Hara,her father's sister, introduced her into 
society. She became in consequence so much 
the rage, that an attempt of Garrick to prevent 
her appearance as Constance in ' King John ' 
was the means of causing him much public 
mortification. On 22 Oct. 1748 she reap- 
peared at Covent Garden as Belvidera in 
' Venice Preserved.' Here she remained play- 
ing, generally in tragic characters, but occa- 
sionally appearing in comedy, until 1750, 
when (28 Sept.), with Garrick, by whom she 
was specially engaged, she appeared as Juliet 
in the famous combat with Barry and Mrs. 
Gibber at the rival house. Her success in 
this character was conspicuous. Her private 
character was, however, suffering. Her re- 
conciliation to her father, her relations with 




Mr., afterwards Sir George Metham, with. 
Mr. Calcraft, to whom she was believed to 
be married, at a subsequent date with West 
Digges, an actor, who married her, having 
another wife living, and finally with "Wood- 
ward, the actor, like the record of her gam- 
bling and extravagance, may be read in her 
'Apology' and elsewhere. During many 
years she appeared at various theatres : 
Covent Garden, 1753-9, Smock Alley, Dub- 
lin, 1760-1, Covent Garden, 1761-2. In 1764 
she went to Scotland, and reappeared at 
Covent Garden in 1764-70. With increas- 
ing age her attraction naturally diminished, 
and mental decay seems to have followed. 
In 1785 appeared in five volumes, to which a 
sixth was subsequently added, her ' Apology,' 
the materials for which, supplied by herself, 
are supposed to have been arranged and 
transcribed by Alexander Bicknell, author of 
a l Life of Alexander the Great ' [q. v.] A 
benefit was arranged for her at Drury Lane on 
24 May 1785. Mrs. Bellamy took no part in 
the performance of the piece (' Braganza '), 
but mumbled a few words to the audience 
in prose. She died 16 Feb. 1788. So far as 
can be judged, her position was below the 
greatest actresses of her day. Her beauty and 
social reputation stood her, however, in good 
stead. She was small in stature, fair, with 
blue eyes, and was, according to O'Keefe, 
very beautiful. During her early life she was 
thrown into intimacy with Fox and many 
characters of highest mark. Her later years 
were burdened with suffering and debt. She 
describes herself on her reappearance in Dub- 
lin, when still little more than thirty, as 
1 a little dirty creature bent nearly double, 
enfeebled by fatigue, her countenance tinged 
with jaundice, and in every respect the re- 
verse of a person who could make the least 
pretension to beauty/ A portion of her cor- 
respondence is preserved by Tate Wilkinson 
and others. It consists almost exclusively 
of applications for money, which was no 
sooner obtained than it was wasted. One or 
two letters lent by Mr. Stone, of Walditch, 
Bridport, are now before us, written from 
Berwick Street, Soho. They are wholly con- 
cerned with her pecuniary troubles. In one 
she acknowledges the receipt of two guineas, 
and says she needs twenty-five guineas again 
to pay her debts. In a second she bids her 
correspondent not to call, as she is going to 
an officer's (sheriff's) house on her way to the 
King's Bench, which was indeed a familiar 
bourne. Her career has furnished a familiar 
theme for writers on the stage. Dr. Doran 
is especially eloquent over the sadness of her 
life ; she was, in fact, less neglected than she 
assumes herself to have been, and in 1785 

she speaks of herself as having every pro- 
spect of being comfortably situated for life 
(Apology, vi. 111-12). 

[An Apology for the Life of G-eorge Anne 
Bellamy, late of Covent Garden Theatre, written 
by herself, 6 vols. 1785 ; Memoirs of George 
Anne Bellamy, by a Gentleman of Covent Gar- 
den Theatre, 1785; Genest's Account of the 
English Stage ; Thespian Dictionary ; Hitch- 
cock's Irish Stage; Jackson's History of the 
Scottish Stage; Tate Wilkinson's Memoirs of 
his own life, 4 vols. 1790, and Wandering Paten- 
tee, 4 vols. 1795; Chetwood's General History 
of the Stage, 1749.] J. K. 

BELLAMY, RICHARD (1743 P-1813), 
Mus. Bac., one of the chief bass singers of his 
day, was appointed a gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal 28 March 1771, and a lay vicar of 
Westminster Abbey 1 Jan. 1773. Bellamy 
married Miss Elizabeth Ludford, daughter of 
a Mr. Thomas Ludford, who died in 1776, 
leaving considerable property to his grand- 
children. In 1777 Richard Bellamy became 
a vicar choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, and 
from 1793 to 1800 he was also almoner and 
master of the choristers. In 1784 he was one 
of the principal basses at the Handel com- 
memoration in Westminster Abbey. He gave 
up all his appointments in 1801, and died 
about the end of August 1813. Bellamy pub- 
lished a few sonatas, a collection of glees, and 
a Te Deum with orchestral accompaniment. 

[Appendix to Bemrose's Chant Book (1882) ; 
Grove's Dictionary, i. 211 a; Chester's Eegisters 
of Westminster Abbey, p. 421 ; Burney's Ac- 
count of the Handel Commemoration (1785).] 

W. B. S. 

BELLAMY, THOMAS (1745-1800), 
miscellaneous writer, was born at Kingston- 
on-Thames in 1745. Having served his ap- 

nticeship to a hosier in Newgate Street, 
egan business on his own account. Very 
early he showed a taste for verse-writing, 
some of the pieces in his ' Miscellanies ' being 
dated 1763. After carrying on business with 
success for twenty years he became tired of 
serving at the counter. So, relinquishing the 
hosiery trade, he served as clerk in a book- 
seller's in Paternoster Row. ' But Bellamy/ 
says his biographer, t was not calculated for 
a subordinate position.' A disagreement arose 
between him and his employer, and Bellamy 
had to seek a livelihood elsewhere. In 1787 
he started the ' General Magazine and Im- 
partial Review,' which lived for some months. 
Another venture was l Bellamy's Picturesque 
Magazine and Literary Museum,' which con- 
tained engraved portraits of living persons, 
with some account of their lives ; but the 
public gave little support to this undertaking. 

N 2 




In 1794 lie collected into two volumes the 
moral tales which he had written for the 
1 General Magazine/ adding some verses, un- 
published tales, and a life of Parsons, the 
comedian. These ' Miscellanies in Prose and 
Verse' were dedicated to Charles Dibdin, 
with whom the author afterwards quarrelled. 
Later he projected the * Monthly Mirror,' 
which was chiefly concerned with the stage. 
When this periodical had run its race, he 
established a circulating library. On the 
death of his mother he became possessed of 
some property, which enabled him to retire 
from business and devote himself to literary 
pursuits. But he did not long enjoy his lei- 
sure ; seized with a sharp and sudden illness 
he died, after four days' suffering, on 29 Aug. 

In addition to the works already mentioned 
he wrote : 1. ' The Benevolent Planters/ a 
dramatic piece performed at the Haymarket in 
1789, and printed in the same year. 2. ' Sa- 
daski, or the Wandering Penitent/ 2 vols., 
12mo, 1798. 3. ' Lessons from Life, or Home 
Scenes.' 4. 'The Beggar Boy/ a novel in 
three volumes, published posthumously in 
1801, to which is prefixed a biographical me- 
moir of the author by Mrs. Villa-Real Gooch. 

[Mrs. Villa-Eeal Grooch's Memoir, prefixed to 
the Beggar Boy; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; British 
Museum Catalogue.] A. H. B. 


(1770-1843), son of Richard Bellamy [q. v.], 
was born in St. John's parish, Westminster, in 
1770. He learned singing and music from his 
father and Dr. Cooke, and (when his voice 
had broken) from Tasca. In 1784 he sang 
amongst the trebles at the Handel commemo- 
ration in Westminster Abbey, and in 1791 
he sang in the so-called oratorios at Drury 
Lane. In 1794 he went to Ireland, as it is 
generally stated, to manage a nobleman's es- 
tate, but it is more probable that his visitwas 
connected with the Irish property which had 
been bequeathed him by his maternal grand- 
father in 1776 (CHESTER'S Westminster Re- 
gisters, p. 421). In 1797 he was in Dublin, 
where he acted as stage manager at the thea- 
tre ; but in 1800 he bought shares in the 
Manchester, Chester, Shrewsbury, and Lich- 
field theatres. Three years later he sold his 
interest in these undertakings, and became 
sole proprietor of the Belfast, Londonderry, 
and Newry theatres. This speculation turn- 
ing out a failure, he returned to London, 
where he obtained an engagement to sing at 
Covent Garden for five years. In 1812 he 
was engaged for a similar period at Drury 
Lane. On the expiration of this engagement 
he started an academy of music on the Loge- 


system ; but this does not appear to have 
successful, as in 1819 he obtained the 
appointment of master of the choir of the 
Spanish chapel. Two years later he succeeded 
Bartleman as principal bass singer at the 
Ancient concerts. Bellamy died 3 Jan. 1843. 
[The Georgian Era, iv. 537; Grove's Diction- 
ary, i. 211 a; Burney's Account of the Handel 
Commemoration (1785); Musical Examiner for 
7 Jan. 1843.] W. B. S. 


BELLASIS, EDWARD (1800-1873), 
serjeant-at-law, only son of the Rev. George 
Bellasis, D.D., of Queen's College, Oxford, 
rector of Yattendon and vicar of Basilden and 
Ashampstead, Berkshire, by his second wife, 
Leah Cooper, only surviving child and heir 
of Emery Viall, of Walsingham, Norfolk, was 
born 14 Oct. 1800, in his father's vicarage at 
Basilden. From 1580 his family were well 
known as of Long Marton, Westmoreland ; 
while from 1763, when his uncle General 
John Bellasis, commander of the forces at 
Bombay, first went to India, several members 
of it won distinction in the military and 
civil service of the company. Conspicuous 
among these were the two half brothers of 
Serjeant Bellasis, General Joseph Harvey 
Bellasis, who, in 1799, was killed while storm- 
ing a fort at Sondah in Bundelcund, and 
Colonel George Bridges Bellasis, who, in the 
same year, received a medal for gallantry at 
the battle of Seringapatam. 

Bellasis was a student at Christ's Hospital 
from the Easter of 1808 to the October of 
1815. He was entered as a student at the 
Inner Temple on 8 Nov. 1818, and was called 
to the bar 2 July 1824. For several years he 
practised in the court of chancery and in the 
county palatine of Lancaster. In 1836 he was 
engaged to watch over the interests of his 
friend Mr. Wood, of Hanger Hill, when Brunei 
first projected the Great Western Railway. 
He became thenceforth, as a barrister, ex- 
clusively employed in parliamentary business 
until his formal retirement in 1866 from 
professional practice. Briefs and retainers 
soon began to pour in upon him. The cases of 
grave importance in which he was engaged 
before the committees of the Lords and Com- 
mons reached at last a grand total of 342. 
He was employed in many of the great railway 
and navigation bills. His sagacity influenced 
the reconstruction of the laws regulating the 
salmon fisheries, and the acts directing the 
supply of water to Manchester, Liverpool, 
Edinburgh, Bristol, Sheffield, Glasgow, and 
London. He was employed in 1838 in the 
Salford and Shaftesbury election petitions. 
On 10 July 1844 he became serjeant-at-law. 




Prom 1853 to 1856 Bellasis, in conjunction 
with, his fast friend, James Robert Hope- 
Scott, Q.C., was the confidential adviser of 
the young Earl of Shrewsbury, and undertook 
the superintendence of a great landed estate 
bringing in nearly 50,000/. a year. The earl 
died on 10 Aug. 1856. In 1857 the memo- 
rable litigation arose for the possession of the 
Shrewsbury property, the contention lying 
between Earl Talbot, claiming it as heir, and 
the Duke of Norfolk, to whose younger son, 
Lord Edmund Howard, it had been devised 
by the recently deceased Earl of Shrewsbury. 
For ten years Bellasis and Hope-Scott had 
its entire control. Lord Talbot's claim to the 
title before the committee of privileges, though 
decided in his favour in the very first year of 
the action, did not necessarily involve the 
recovery by him of the Shrewsbury estates. 
Hence, in 1858, there came on in the court of 
common pleas an action of ejectment by the 
newly installed Earl of Shrewsbury for the 
recovery of Alton Towers. Again the decision 
was in the earl's favour, and the trustees ap- 
pealed against it without success in the ex- 
chequer chamber. At length, in 1867, judg- 
ment was finally given by Lord Chancellor 
Chelmsford and the Lords Justices Cairns and 
Turner, as to certain entailed portions of the 
Shrewsbury estate. This was the one success 
achieved by the trustees. 

In 1863 Bellasis became steward of the Duke 
of Norfolk's manors in Norfolk and Suffolk. On 
the death of Sir Charles Young, Garter king- 
at-arms, in 1 869, he was appointed, together 
with Lord Howard of Glossop and Sir Wil- 
liam Alexander, Bart., a commissioner of 
the earl marshal to examine and report upon 
the working of the College of Arms. As the 
result of the great mass of evidence taken 
down by the commissioners, an elaborate 
report was issued by them suggesting certain 
important reforms, revisions, and alterations 
in the general working and organisation of 
the Heralds' College. 

From 1833 to 1845 Serjeant Bellasis 
watched with intense interest the course of 
the tractarian movement. He made several 
visits to Oxford, and became intimate with Mr. 
(afterwards Cardinal) Newman, Dr. Pusey, 
and Dr. Ward, as well as with Canon Oakeley 
and Archdeacon Manning, afterwards car- 
dinal archbishop of Westminster. Cardinal 
Newman, on 21 Feb. 1870, dedicated to him, 
in terms of strong affection, the ' Essay in Aid 
of a Grammar of Assent.' Early in 1850 Bel- 
lasis published two anonymous pamphlets : 
'The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council 
and the Petition for a Church Tribunal in lieu 
of it : a Letter by an Anglican Layman,' 8vo, 
pp. 16 ; and ' Convocations and Synods, are 

they the Remedies for Existing Evils ? a 
Second Letter by an Anglican Layman,' 8vo, 
pp. 16. 

Bellasis took part in the animated discussion 
produced by the bull of Pius IX in 1850. He 
wrote ' A Remonstrance with the Clergy of 
Westminster, from a Westminster Magis- 
trate,' 8vo, pp. 22. And in 1851 he published 
anonymously a remonstrance with the pro- 
testant episcopate, under the title of 'The 
Anglican Bishops versus the Catholic Hierar- 
chy ; a Demurrer to further Proceedings,' 8vo, 
pp. 16. It soon became known that it was 
by Bellasis, who, on 28 Sept. 1850, acting 
upon the advice of Cardinal Wiseman, had 
been received by Father Brownbill, of the 
Society of Jesus, into the Roman catholic 
communion. While yet an Anglican, he had, 
in 1847, written four letters on the question 
of Bishop Barlow's consecration, which, a few 
years afterwards, were published in a news- 
paper. A reprint of them, authorised by Bel- 
lasis, appeared in 1872 under the title, 'An- 
glican Orders, by an Anglican, since become 
a Catholic,' 8vo, pp. 15. Bellasis also issued 
anonymously early in 1850 ' [Twelve] Pre- 
liminary Dialogues between two Protestants 
approaching the Catholic Church, being the 
substance of real conversations/ 1861, 8vo, 
pp. 66. The interlocutors, Philotheus and 
Eugenia, were Bellasis and his wife. A thir- 
teenth dialogue was posthumously published 
in 1874, with the author's name on its title- 
page : ' Philotheus and Eugenia, a Dialogue 
on the Jesuits, by the late Mr. Serjeant Bel- 
lasis,' small 8vo, pp. 16. Besides these frag- 
mentary writings, Bellasis left among his 
papers a curiously interesting autobiography, 
still in manuscript, as well as a number of 
elegantly turned metrical effusions. 

Having been for some time in rather deli- 
cate health, Bellasis left England in November 
1872 for his winter residence in the South 
of France, at Hyeres, in Provence. There, 
two months afterwards, on 24 Jan. 1873, he 
died in the seventy-third year of his age. 
Cardinal Newman wrote : l He was one of the 
best men I ever knew. There was a great 
deal in common in him and Mr. Hope-Scott. 
This similarity is what made them such great 
friends they were so honest and so true/ 
It was remarked of him by one who knew 
him intimately : ' His great charity was per- 
haps what most distinguished him, so that 
it was a family saying that he would find a 
good side to a bad shilling.' 

Bellasis was a magistrate of both Middlesex 
and Westminster. He represented, at the time 
of his death, the only remaining branch of the 
old Roman catholic family of Durham, to 
which formerly appertained the earldom of 




Fauconberg [see under BELASYSE, JOHN]. 
Bellasis was twice married, first on 17 Sept. 
1829, to Frances, only surviving child and 
heir of William Lycett, of Stafford, who died 
without leaving issue on 27 Dec. 1832 ; and 
.secondly, on 21 Oct. 1835, to Eliza Jane, only 
daughter of William Garnett, of Quernmore 
Park and Bleasdale Tower, Lancashire, high 
.sheriff in 1843, by whom he left ten children. 
Both the eldest of his four sons, Richard 
Oarnett, and the youngest of them, Henry 
Lewis, are priests, his second son, Edward, 
TDeing Lancaster herald, and the third son, 
William, a merchant. Of his six daughters 
three became nuns, one married Mr. Lewin 
Bowring, formerly of the Indian Civil Service, 
a son of Sir John Bowring, while another be- 
came the wife of Dr. Charlton, M.D. and 
D.C.L., of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

[G-arside's In Memoriam notice in the Tablet, 
1 Feb. 1873, p. 138; Law Times, 1 March 1873, 
p. 334; Serjeant Bellasis's Manuscript Auto- 
biography.] C. K. 


1553), was, according to Fuller, the French 
tutor of Edward VI. The prince appears to 
have commenced his studies under this in- 
structor in his seventh year (1534). Belle- 
man seems, however, to have been retained 
in the royal service till the close of Edward's 
reign, for there is still extant in the British 
Museum a manuscript translation into French 
of the second Prayer-book of Edward VI, 
written by Belleman, with a dedicatory 
epistle to his former pupil. This preface is 
dated 18 April 1553 from the royal palace 
of Sheen. In the same collection of manu- 
scripts there is also to be found a translation 
of Basil the Great's letter to St. Gregory on 
the solitary life. This work Belleman, in a 
somewhat curious preface, dedicates to the 
Lady Elizabeth, with the assurance that it 
is rendered from the original Greek. This 
introductory letter contains a rather sharp 
attack on the phonetic principle of French 
orthography then coming into vogue, though 
its author seems perfectly willing to adopt a 
well-considered reformed method of spelling; 
and indeed he pronounces his intention of 
writing a treatise on the subject. There does 
not seem to be any means of ascertaining 
the date of this translation, but it is probably 
earlier than the French version of the Prayer- 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 94 ; ' Fuller's Church 
History, edit. 1655, p. 422 ; MSS. Biblioth. Keg. 
in British Museum, 20 A, xiv. and 16 E 1.] 

T. A. A. 

BELLiSME, ROBERT OF (ft. 1098), 
EARL OP SHREWSBURY, sometimes called 

TALVAS,was the eldest son of Roger, lord of 
Montgomery in Normandy, of Arundel and 
Chichester, earl of Shrewsbury, and founder 
and lord of Montgomery in Wales, and of 
Mabel, daughter and heiress of William Tal- 
vas, lord of Belleme, S6ez, Alencon, and many 
other castles in Normandy and Maine. He 
was knighted by the Conqueror before the 
walls of Fresnay in 1073. In the revolt of 
Robert, the king's eldest son, in 1077, he and 
many other young Norman nobles upheld his 
cause against the king. After the battle of 
Gerberoi, Roger of Shrewsbury and the other 
lords who had sons or relations among the 
rebels begged the king to pardon them. 
William at length agreed to do so, and re- 
ceived Robert of Belleme and the rest of the 
rebel party in peace. On the death of his 
mother, the Countess Mabel, who was slain 
in 1082, Robert succeeded to the wide estates 
she inherited from her father. As long as 
the Conqueror lived he and other Norman 
lords were compelled to receive garrisons from 
him into their castles. This disabled them 
from disturbing the peace of the duchy. 
Robert in 1087 was on his way to visit the 
king, and had gone as far as Brionne when 
he heard of the Conqueror's death. He at 
once turned back, and turned the ducal 
garrisons out of his castles. He forced as 
many of his neighbours as were weaker than 
he was to receive garrisons from him, and if 
any refused to do so he destroyed their castles 
(ORDERIC, Eccles. Hist., 664 B). When, in 
1088, Robert of Normandy heard that the 
larger part of the barons in England had 
rebelled against Rufus, and that his uncle, 
Bishop Odo, was holding Rochester on his be- 
half against the king, he sent over Robert and 
Eustace of Boulogne to reinforce the rebels. 
Robert joined in the defence of Rochester. 
When the castle fell, he and his companions 
were allowed to come forth with their horses 
and arms. They were, however, exposed to 
the jeers of the English who composed the 
greater part of the king's host, and whose 
loyalty had given him the victory (ib. 669 A). 
The surrender of Rochester probably took 
place in May 1088. In the course of the 
summer Robert and William II were fully 
reconciled. During the visit of Henry, the 
king's brother, to England, Robert made 
alliance with him, and returned with him to 
Normandy in the autumn. Duke Robert 
thought their friendship boded him no good. 
Accordingly he sent an armed force to the 
coast, and had both Robert and Henry taken 
prisoners as soon as they landed. Robert he 
sent to be kept by Bishop Odo, at Neuilly. 
When the Earl of Shrewsbury heard of his 
son's imprisonment, he came over to Nor- 




mandy and garrisoned his castles against the 
duke. The fortresses and towns held by 
Shrewsbury and his son were many and 
strong, and some were of special importance, 
because they were situated on the borders of 
Normandy. Bishop Odo urged the duke, now 
that he had Robert in prison, to drive the 
"whole of the accursed race of Talvas out of 
his duchy. He dwelt on the strength of the 
house, and the evil its members would bring 
upon him. For a while the duke obeyed his 
counsel ; he made war on Robert's castles, 
and forced Saint Cenery, Alencon, and Bel- 
leme to surrender. Then he disbanded his 
army, made peace with Belleme's father, Earl 
Roger of Shrewsbury, and let Belleme out 
of prison. As long as Duke Robert held 
his duchy he had cause to repent his weak- 
ness. Tall and strong, a daring soldier, ever 
coveting the lands of others, and ever striv- 
ing to make them his own, a false, restless, and 
cruel man, Belleme was mighty to do evil. 
From his mother he inherited not merely the 
savage and greedy temper for which she was 
famed, but a remarkable readiness of speech. 
He was noted too for his skill as a military 
engineer. Unlike his father, and, indeed, his 
countrymen generally, he had no religious 
feelings. But that which most impressed 
men about him was his extraordinary cruelty. 
If the stories of his evil deeds rested only on 
the authority of Orderic, it would be neces- 
sary to remember that he was the hereditary 
foe of the house of Geroy, to whom the chro- 
nicler's monastery of St. Evroul was deeply 
indebted. But Orderic's account receives the 
strongest confirmation in the record of the 
horror with which Robert's memory was re- 
garded by the next generation. Greedy of 
gain as he was, he would refuse to allow his 
captives to be ransomed that he might have 
the pleasure of torturing them (ib. 707 D). 
He is said by Henry of Huntingdon, a writer 
of the time of Henry II, to have impaled both 
men and women (De Mundi Contemptu, ap. 
WHARTON, Anylia Sacra, ii. 698). William 
of Malmesbury says that once when he held 
a little boy, his own godson, as a hostage, 
he tore out his eyes with his own nails, 
because the child's father did something 
that displeased him (Gesta Regum, v. 398). 
The * Wonders of Robert of Belleme ' became 
a common saying (De Mundi Contemptu, 
p. 699). In Maine ' his abiding works are 
pointed to as the works of Robert the Devil,' 
a surname that has been transferred from 
him to the father of the Conqueror (FREE- 
JIAN, William Rufus, i. 181-3). William II, 
for the love he bore Earl Roger of Shrewsbury 
and his countess, Mabel, showed favour to 
their son, in spite of the part he took in the 

1 against him in England, and procured hi 
vife Agnes, the daughter and heiress 


to wile Agnes, the daughter and heiress of 
Guy, count of Ponthieu, who bore him a son, 
named William Talvas after his great grand- 
father. Robert treated her cruelly, and long 
kept her a prisoner in his castle of Belleme, 
until she escaped by the help of a chamber- 
Lain, and fled for refuge to the Countess Adela 
of Chartres. 

After Robert was set free he made war 
upon his neighbours, on Hugh of Novant, 
Geoffrey, count of Perche, and others, maim- 
ing and blinding his captives, and bringing 
many to poverty. Jealous at hearing that Gil- 
bert of L'Aigle had received Exmes from the 
duke, he besieged the castle in January 1090, 
hoping to take the place by surprise. Gil- 
bert, however, made a stout resistance, and 
at the end of four days was reinforced by one 
of his house. A long siege would have given 
Robert's enemies time to gather, and he gave 
up the attempt. A full record of his wars 
in Normandy will be found in Orderic's ' Ec- 
clesiastica Historia.' If he found that the 
lord he designed to plunder was able to with- 
stand his first attack, he wasted no time in a 
siege, and turned aside to seek some easier 
prey. This method of warfare explains the 
passage in which Orderic speaks of his fre- 
quent failures (ORDERIC, 708 A). When the 
citizens of Rouen revolted against the duke, 
and were about to deliver their city to Rufus 
in the autumn of 1090, Robert joined Henry 
of Coutances (Henry I) in putting down the 
rebellion. The duke wished to pardon the 
citizens, but Belleme and William of Breteuil 
robbed many of their goods, and carried 
many off to their dungeons. Early in the 
next year Robert was in turn helped by the 
duke in his private wars. The burghers who 
dwelt round Robert's castles suffered much 
evil from their lord. One of his towns, 
Domfront, dared to rebel against him. The 
citizens chose Henry of Coutances as their 
lord, and he successfully defended them 
against Robert's attacks. In the summer of 
1094 Robert harried the lands of Robert, son 
of Geroy, the owner of Saint Cenery. Robert 
of Geroy, or rather his ally Henry, was the 
aggressor on this occasion. Robert found 
Saint Cenery undefended; he burnt the 
castle and carried off his enemy's little son. 
The child died shortly afterwards, and the 
friends of the house of Geroy believed that 
he was poisoned by his captor's orders (ib. 
707 A). In 1094 Earl Roger of Shrewsbury 
died. His English earldom and estates 
passed, according to custom, to his second 
son, Hugh, and Robert took all his possessions 
in Normandy. While the inheritance of his 
father was his by right, it was held that he 




dealt hardly with his brothers in making no 
provision for them (ib. 808 D) probably out 
of the estates of their mother. When Rufus 
made his abortive invasion of France in 1097, i 
he secured Normandy, which the duke had j 
handed over to him the year before, by em- 
ploying Robert to fortify Gisors. In this i 
expedition Robert acted as captain of the i 
king's forces. Early in the next year he en- 
gaged in war with Helias of Maine, and 
invited the king to come over and help him. 
Rufus did little worthy of notice, and soon 
left his ally to carry on the war alone. 
Robert strengthened the castles he held in 
Maine and built new ones ; he oppressed the 
people and violated the lands of the church. 
Indignant at the wrongs done him, Helias, 
though with an inferior force, met him in 
the open field at Saones, and, calling on God 
and St. Julian, beat off the invaders. In 
spite of this check Robert carried on the w&r. 
A fearful story is told of his starving three 
hundred prisoners to death during the season 
of Lent. After another victorious engage- 
ment Helias was taken prisoner by Robert's 
men and delivered to Rufus. The war was 
now again taken up by the king, and Robert 
went on ravaging the land until the submis- 
sion of Le Mans to Rufus (ib. 768, 772; 
William Rufus, ii. 213-41). 

On the death of his brother Hugh, earl of 
Shrewsbury, in 1098, Robert claimed to suc- 
ceed to his earldom and estates in England. 
Before Rufus allowed him to do so he made 
him pay 3,000/. as a relief, the exact sum in 
which his brother had been fined less than 
two years before. Robert was now earl of 
Shrewsbury, lord of Arundel and Chichester, 
and of many other estates in England, and of 
Montgomery and the lands conquered inWales 
by his father and brother, the Earls Roger and 
Hugh. Before long he succeeded, after another 
payment to the king, to the estates of Roger 
of "Bully, lord of Tickhill and Ely the. He 
was now by far the most powerful lord that 
owed homage to the English king. The earl at 
once began to strengthen himself in his newly 
acquired lands. Leaving his father's castle 
at Quatford, he took up his abode at Bridge- 
north, and raised fortifications there, of which 
the remains are still to be seen. His castle 
at Bridgenorth completed the group of fort- 
resses that defended Shrewsbury, the capital 
of his earldom, by commanding the valley of 
the Severn. Against the Welsh he raised a 
stronghold at Careghova, in Denbigh (FLOE. 
WIG. ii. 49 ; William Rvfus, ii. 147-64). On 
his Welsh lands he bred horses from stallions 
imported from Spain, and in the reign of 
Henry II, Powys was still famous for his 
breed (GiEAiDus CAMBEENSIS, Itin. Cambria, 

op. vi. 143). In 1099 Earl Robert was again 
at war with Helias, who was trying to re- 
conquer Maine from William. The story that 
in this war he ordered villeins to be thrown 
into the ditch of Mayet to fill it up (WACE r 
15038) is, Mr. Freeman observes/ a bit of local 
Cenomannian romance ' ( W. Rvfus, ii. 292). 
Robert was in Normandy in 1100 when he 
heard of the death of William II. He hast- 
ened to England, did homage to Henry, and 
received from him the confirmation of his 
honours and estates. Nevertheless, on the 
return of Duke Robert in the next year, he 
and his brothers Arnulf and Roger began to 
conspire together in Normandy against the 
king. To reward him and to secure his help r 
\ the duke granted him the patronage of the 
bishopric of Sez, the castle of Argentan 
I and the forest of Goufflers. When the duke 
I then landed in England, Belleme must have 
' been foremost among the discontented nobles 
j who upheld his claims (FiOE. WIG. ii. 49 j 
EADMEE, Hist. Nov. p. 430). His power 
was still further increased in 1101, when, 
by the death of his father-in-law, he suc- 
ceeded to the county of Ponthieu, the inherit- 
ance of his son. By the acquisition of this 
fief he became a member of a higher political 
rank than he had hitherto reached ; he was 
' entitled to deal with princes as one of their 
own order ' ( W. Rufus, ii. 423), while the 
geographical position of his new territory 
made his alliance of peculiar value to the 
rulers of England, France, and Normandy. 
Henry knew that he was unfaithful to him ; 
spies were set to watch him, and all his 
evil deeds were reported and written down. 
In 1102 he was summoned to appear in the 
king's Easter court, there to answer forty- 
five charges brought against him. He set 
out for Winchester, taking men with him to 
be his compurgators. On his way he changed 
his mind and turned back to his own castles. 
When the king found that he did not come, 
he declared that if he failed to appear he 
would be outlawed. Again he caused the 
earl to be summoned, and this time Robert 
flatly refused to obey. He made alliances- 
with the Welsh and Irish. Henry persuaded 
Duke Robert to attack his Norman posses- 
sions. The duke's attack was easily beaten 
off, and only brought fresh desolation on the 
land. In England Henry called out the force 
of the kingdom, and laid siege to Arundel. 
Robert, who was busy in Shropshire, urging 
on the still unfinished w r orks of fortification, 
could give no help to his men in Arundel, 
and allowed them to surrender the place to 
the king. As a condition of their surrender 
they obtained a promise from Henry that 
their lord should be allowed to leave the 




kingdom in safety (WiLL. MALM. ii. 396). 
The fall of Arundel cut Robert off from his 
possessions and allies on the continent. Henry 
next sent Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, against 
Tickhill, which was also surrendered, and 
lastly, in the autumn, led his army against the 
earl's strong places in Shropshire. Robert 
took up his quarters in Shrewsbury, and the 
king laid siege to Bridgenorth which he had 
entrusted to three of his captains. During 
the siege the nobles in the royal host held a 
set meeting with the king, and pressed him 
to make peace with the earl. This meeting 
took place in the open field. Three thousand 
troops posted on a hill hard by guessed the 
subject of the debate, and shouted to the king 
not to spare the traitor, for they would stand 
by him. Henry knew that the men of Ro- 
bert's own order were not to be trusted. He 
continued the siege and succeeded in draw- 
ing away the earl's Welsh allies from him. 
Robert sent his brother Arnulf to hasten the 
coming of succour from Ireland, and lastly 
appealed for help to Magnus of Norway, who 
was now for the second time in Man (Brut y 
Tywysogion, p. 73, 1100; LAING, Sturleson's 
Heimskrinffla, iii. 143 ; W. Eufus, ii. 618). 
No help came to him, and his captains in 
Bridgenorth and the people of the town, 
much to the anger of his mercenaries, in- 
sisted on the surrender of the place. Henry 
then advanced on Shrewsbury at the head 
of an overwhelming force, the armed host 
of England which came at the king's bid- 
ding to help him against the worst of the 
Norman oppressors. Robert was forced to 
surrender ; he and his brothers left England 
with their arms and horses, and he swore that 
he would return no more. The gladness of 
the people was loudly expressed. * Rejoice, 
King Henry/ we are told they said, and the 
words doubtless preserved a fragment of some 
popular song, ' and give thanks to the Lord 
God ; for thou wast first a free king on the 
day that thou overcamest Robert of Belleme, 
and dravest him from the borders of thy 
kingdom ' (OEDEEIC, 808 B). 

When Robert returned to Normandy after 
the loss of his English earldom and estates, 
all his enemies banded together against him. 
Indignant, as it seems, at Robert's refusal to 
give him any share of his estates, his brother 
Arnulf surrendered one of his towns to the 
duke, and other towns revolted from him. 
After some savage warfare he showed that 
he was still more than a match for the in- 
active duke, who gave him back all his pos- 
sessions. Among these was the advowson of 
the bishopric of Seez. This led to a quarrel 
between him and Bishop Serlo, who ex- 

>mmunicated him and his adherents, and 

| laid his lands under an interdict. Robert 

i revenged himself on the monks and clergy of 
the diocese, and the bishop was forced to flee 
(OEDEEIC, 678 A, 707 D, tells this under 1089 
and 1094. FEEEMAN refers to the circumstance, 
W. Rvfus, i. 184, 242, apparently accepting 
1094. Unless there were two excommunica- 
tions, the date must be about 1103). Robert 
laid his case before Ivo, bishop of Chartres, 
in 1103, who wrote to him saying that even 
if his brother bishop had done him wrong 
he could do nothing to help him (Epp. Ivonis 
Carnot. 75 ; Eecueil, xii. 122). Ralph, the 
abbot of S6ez, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury, was also forced to flee to Eng- 
land to escape his tyranny (WiLL. MALM. 
Gesta Pontif. i. 127). The restoration of 

I Robert's lands threw the duchy into disorder, 

1 and when Henry made his expedition into 
Normandy in 1105 he charged the duke with 

i breach of faith in the matter. At Christ- 
mas in that year Robert of Belleme visited 

| England, probably as the ambassador of the 
duke, and in the hope of making his own 
peace, but he was sent away without any re- 

\ conciliation with the king (A.-S. Chron. 

\ 1105). The peace between the king and the 
duke was grievous to him. He joined Wil- 

| liam of Mortain in attacking the king's party 

I in the duchy, and persuaded the duke to act 
with them. He led a division of the duke's 
army at Tinchebrai, 28 Sept. 1106, and saved 
himself by flight. After striving in vain to 
persuade Helias to join him in an attempt to 
gain the duke's freedom, he prevailed on him 
to make his peace with the king. Henry 
allowed him to keep Argentan and the lands 
of his capital demesne in Normandy, but 
this partial reconciliation did not extend to 
England. As far as his kingdom was con- 
cerned, Henry, after he had once rid England 
of his presence, never gave him a chance of 
disturbing its peace again. The character of 
the new reign in Normandy was declared by 
the destruction of all the castles Robert had 
raised without license. Robert joined Helias 
of St. Saen in upholding the cause of Wil- 
liam Clito, and when Fulk of Anjou went to 
war with Henry, he openly declared against 
the king. He appears to have gone to the 
court of Lewis of France and to have been 
sent by him as his ambassador to Henry in 
November 1112. In spite of his privileged 
character Henry seized him and had him 
tried before his court. He imprisoned him 
for a little while at Cherbourg, and the next 
year sent him to Warehani. There he kept 
him so close a prisoner that the day of his 
death was not known (OEDEEIC, 841 A, 858 D ; 
WILL. MALM. v. 626; De Mundi Contemptu y 




[Ordericus Vitalis, Ecclesiastica Historia, ap. 
Duchesne, Historise Normannorum Scriptores ; 
William of Malmesbury, Gresta Eegum, vol. ii. 
(Eng. Hist. Soc.), Gresta Pontificum (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Florence of Worcester, vol. ii. (Eng. Hist. Soc.) ; 
A.-S. Chronicle; Eadmer's Hist. Nov. (Migne); 
Henry of Huntingdon, ap. Wharton, Anglia 
Sacra, ii. 694 ; Laing's Heimskringla ; Wace's 
Roman de Rou ; Brut y Tywysogion (Rolls Ser.); 
Freeman's Norman Conquest iv., William Rufus 
i. and ii.] W. H. 

BELLENDEN, ADAM (d. 1639 ?), bishop 
of Dunblane and Aberdeen, was second son of 
Sir John Bellenden [q. v.] of Auchinoul, lord 
justice clerk, and brother of Sir Lewis Bellen- 
den [q. v.], also lord justice clerk. He studied 
at the university of Edinburgh, took the de- 
gree of M.A. there on 1 Aug. 1590, and con- 
tinued in residence for some time after. He 
was on ( the Exercise ; ' obtained a ' testimo- 
nial ' on 12 June 1593, was ordained 19 July 
following ; was a member of the general as- 
sembly of the kirk of Scotland in 1602, and 
was one of the brethren ' who met at Linlith- 
gow 10 Jan. 1606 in conference with the im- 
prisoned members previous to their trial for 
declining the authority of the sovereign in 
causes spiritual.' At a later convention in 
the same place on the following 10 Dec. he 
proposed a protestation that it should not be 
held as a general assembly. In 1608 he was 
minister of the parish of Falkirk (Stirling- 
shire). He attended the convention at Falk- 
land in 1609, and was ' suspended ' 16 Nov. 
1614. He was released ; the sentence was 
taken off 18 Jan. 1614-15, and on 22 Feb. he 
was enjoined ' to wait more diligently on his 
flock in preparing them for the communion.' 
He ' demitted ' his parish of Falkirk and his 
status as a clergyman of the presbyterian 
church of Scotland in July 1616. He was 
thereupon appointed to the bishopric of Dun- 
blane (1616), although he had hitherto been 
violently opposed to episcopacy, and was one 
of the forty-two presbyterian ministers who 
signed a protest to parliament against its in- 
troduction (1 July 1606). He was conse- 
quently censured for accepting this prefer- 
ment. In 1621 he still appears as bishop of 
Dunblane. He was succeeded there by Wed- 
derburn in 1636, having been in 1635 trans- 
lated to the bishopric of Aberdeen. In 1638 
he was, in common with all the Scottish 
bishops, deprived of his see on the abolition 
of episcopacy in Scotland by the Glasgow 
assembly. He is believed to have retreated 
to England, and to have died there in 1638-9. 
[Scott's Fasti, i. 186, 353 ; Keith's Catalogue 
(1824), 132 ; Douglas's Peerage, ii. ; Melvill's 
Autob. ; Presby. Stirling and Synod Reg. ; Boke 
of the Kirke ; Row, Calderwood's Hist. i. ; 

Forbes's Records ; Select Biogr. (Wodrow So- 
ciety), i. ; Edin. Grrad. ; Sir Alexander Grant's 
Story of first 300 years of Edinburgh University, 
1884; researches at Falkirk.] A. B. G-. 

BALLENTYNE, JOHN (fl. 1533-1587), 
poet, is generally supposed to have been a 
native of Haddington or of Berwick, and to 
have been born in the last decade of the 
fifteenth century. He matriculated as a stu- 
dent at the university of St. Andrews in 1508, 
as 'of the Lothian nation.' He proceeded from 
Scotland to Paris, and took the degree of 
D.D. at the Sorbonne. He was again in 
Scotland during the minority of James V. 
He brought over with him Hector Boece's 
' Historia Scotorum ' (Paris,1527), and, having 
gained access to the court of the young 
monarch, was admitted into high favour. He 
was appointed by the king to translate into 
the Scottish vernacular Boece's great work. 
This he did, and was engaged upon it from 
1530 to 1531-2. His translation was de- 
livered to the king in 1533, and appeared in 
1536, and remains an interesting example of 
the Edinburgh press of the period. On the 
title-page of Boece, Bellenden is designated 
thus: 'Translaitit laitly be Maister Johne 
Bellenden, archdene of Murray, channon of 
Ros ' (Moray and Ross). From various in- 
cidental expressions the folio must have been 
semi-privately printed for the king and nobles 
and special friends. The translation is a close 
yet original rendering. To it Bellenden added 
two poems of his own, one entitled 'The 
Proheme to the Cosmographe,' and the other 
'The Proheme of the History.' He also 
wrote for it in prose an ' Epistil direckit be 
the Translatoure to the Kingis Grace.' Some 
enemies apparently caused Bellenden to be 
dismissed from the royal service. He tells 
us in the first l Proheme ' 

How that I was in seruice with the kyng 

Put to his grace in zeris tenderest 

Clerk of his comptis. 

But he adds 

Quhil hie inuy me from his seruice kest 

Be thaym that had the court in gouerning, 
As bird bot plumes heryit of the nest. 

His office at court as ' clerk of his comptis ' 
included undoubtedly the superintendence 
of his sovereign s education. 

Contemporaneous with, or perhaps im- 
mediately following upon, the translation of 
Boece, Bellenden was similarly commanded 
by the king to translate Livy. In the trea- 
surer's accounts we have these entries ( 1533 
July 26. Item to Maister John Ballentyne, 
in part payment of the translation of Titius 
Livius, 8/. ; ' ' 1533, August 24. To Maister 




John Ballentyne, in part payment of the 
secund buke of Titius Livius, 8/.;' '1533, 
Nouember 30. To Maister John Ballentyne 
be the kinges precept for his laubores done in 
translating of Li vie, 20/.' This was the first j 
version of a Roman classic executed in Britain. 
The l Livy ' was first published in 1822 by 
Maitland, Lord Dundrennan, uniform with 
his excellent reproduction of the ' Boece/ 
from the manuscript in the Advocates' Li- 
brary, Edinburgh. 

Bellenden has been supposed to have entered 
the service of Archibald, earl of Angus, because 
one of both his names was the earl's secretary 
in 1528 ; but according to Hume (History \ 
of the Houses of Douglas and Angus, p. 258) j 
this was Sir John Bellenden, afterwards a ; 
distinguished lawyer and judge. The royal 
treasurer's accounts show that Bellenden re- 
ceived at various times considerable amounts. 
He was appointed archdeacon of Moray 
during the vacancy of the see, and about the 
same time canon of Ross. He also received 
the forfeited property of two clergymen con- 
victed of treason. But in the succeeding 
reign, being an adherent to Roman Catholi- 
cism, he opposed the reformation and fled 
beyond seas. Some accounts state that he 
died at Rome in 1550, but Lord Dundrennan 
alleges that he was certainly still alive in 

[Bellenden's Works ; Irving's Scottish Poets ; 
Sibbald's Chronicle; Carmichael's Collection of 
Scottish Poems ; Eannatyne MS. has poems by 
Bellenden, recently given in the Hunterian Society 
reproduction of the entire MS.] A. B. Gr. 

BELLENDEN, SIB JOHN, of Auchnoul, 
or Auchinoul (d. 1577), Scottish lawyer, was 
the elder son of Thomas Bellenden of Auchi- 
noul, who, in January 1541, was one of the 
two Scottish commissioners for the negotia- 
tion of an extradition treaty for the reciprocal 
surrender of fugitives between England and 
Scotland; had the office of justice clerk in 
1540 ; and held it until his death in 1546. Sir 
John succeeded his father in his office 25 June 
1547 ; appears as an ordinary lord for the first 
time, 4 July following (BKUNTON and HATG'S 
Historical Account), and occurs for the first ' 
time in the ' Books of Sederunt,' 13 Nov. 1554, j 
with the title of Auchinoul (LoKD HAILES, | 
Catalogue of the Lords of Session). He was ' 
employed by Mary of Lorraine, queen regent, j 
as a mediator between her and the lords of ; 
the congregation; but he soon joined the re- j 
formers. Under the queen regent he was 
likewise employed as one of the two Scottish 
commissioners appointed to meet two others 
on the part of England with a view ' to ce- 
ment the two nations in a firm and lasting 

bond of peace' (KEITH'S T/Vsfory, p. 69). Soon 
after the arrival of Mary Queen of Scots at 
Edinburgh, 19 Aug. 1561, he was sworn a 
member of the privy council, which was 
constituted on 6 Sept. following ; and in 
December of the same year was appointed one 
of the commissioners for the adjustment or 
' modification ' of the stipends of the reformed 
clergy. Two years afterwards he was one of 
the two Scottish commissioners who con- 
cluded with four representatives of England 
a ' border treaty/ or ' convention of peace for 
the borders of both nations,' which was exe- 
cuted at Carlisle on 11 Sept. and at Dum- 
fries on 23 Sept. 1563. He was implicated 
in the assassination of Rizzio, and fled from 
Edinburgh on 18 March 1566 on the arrival 
of Mary and Darnley with an army, but was 
shortly afterwards restored to favour. He was 
deputed in 1567 to carry the queen's command 
for the proclamation of the banns of marriage 
between her and Bothwell to Mr. John Craig, 
at that time the colleague of John Knox in the 
parish church of Edinburgh, and had l long 
reasoning ' with the kirk, with the result that 
he substantially removed their objection to the 
royal mandate (KEITH, History, pp. 586 and 
587). He joined, however, the confederation 
of nobles against Mary and Bothwell, and 
was continued in his office by them when 
they imprisoned the queen and took the 
government into their own hands. He was 
also a member of the privy council of the 
regent Murray, by whom he was confirmed 
in the possession of the lands of Woodhouse- 
lee, which had been obtained from Hamilton 
of Bothwellhaugh on condition of his pro- 
curing for Hamilton pardon for some crime 
of his commission a transaction which in- 
directly led to the assassination of Murray. 
In his capacity of ' clerk of justiciarie ' he was 
one of the ' nobilitie, spiritualitie, and com- 
missionaris of Burrowis,' who l conveint for 
coronation ' of James VI at Stirling, 29 July 
1567, after the ceremonious performance of 
which the justice-clerk, in the name of the 
estates of the kingdom, ' and also Johne Knox, 
minister, and Robert Campbell of Kinzean- 
cleuch, askit actis, instrumentis, and docu- 
mentis' (KEITH, pp. 435, 439). In February 
1572-3 Bellenden was employed in framing 
the pacification of Perth, by which all the 
queen's party, with one or two exceptions, 
submitted themselves ' to the king's obedi- 
ence/ and by one of the conditions of which 
Lord Boyd, the commendator of Newbattle, 
and the justice-clerk, were to be sole judges 
in any actions for the restitution of goods to 
persons on the south side of the Forth who had 
been deprived of the same * be vertew of thir 
trublis ' (Historic of King James the Sext, 




pp. 129, 132). In March 1573-4 Bellenden was , 
one of the four commissioners appointed by the | 
regent Morton to debate with a committee of I 
divines appointed by the kirk the question 
' whether the supreme magistrate should not j 
be head of the church as well as of the com- ! 
monwealth.' They conferred for the space of 
twelve or thirteen days, when the regent, 
finding no appearance of obtaining his object, 
' dissolved the meeting till a new appointment ' 
(HuME, Houses of Douglas and Angus, p. 334). 
Bellenden died before 20 April 1577, when 
Thomas Bellenden of Newtyle was appointed 
a lord of session in his place, described as 
vacated by his death (HAILES, Catalogue). 
He was twice married ; the first time to 
Barbara, daughter of Sir Hugh Kennedy of 
Girvanmains, by whom he had two sons, 
Lewis [q. v.] and Adam [q. v.], and the second 
time to Janet Seton, said to be of the family 
of Touch, by whom he left three daughters. 
[Lord Hailes's Catalogue of the Lords of Ses- 
sion, Edinburgh, 1794; Bnmton and Haig's 
Senators of the College of Justice, 1832; Keith's 
History of Church and State in Scotland, 1734; 
Historic of the Reformation of the Church of 
Scotland, 1644; Hume's History of the Houses 
of Douglas and Angus, 1644; Historie and Life 
of King James the Sext, 1825 ; Douglas's Peerage 
of Scotland, 1813.] A. H. G. 

ATTCHINOUL (1553 P-1591), Scottish law- 
yer, was the eldest of the five children of Sir 
John Bellenden of Auchinoul, justice-clerk 
[q. v.], whom he succeeded in that office in 
1578. In 1579 he was appointed a member 
of the privy council (Acts of the Parliaments 
of Scotland, iii. 150), and was one of the 
most violent members of the first of the 
Gowrie conspiracies, popularly known as the 
Raid of Ruthven, 23 Aug. 1582. He was 
promoted, as Lord Auchinoul, to an ordinary 
place on the bench on 1 July (BRTTNTON and 
HAIG, pp. 15, 195) or 17 July (HAILES and 
DOUGLAS) 1584, in succession to Sir Richard 
Maitlandof Lethington. Bellenden combined 
with secretary Sir John Maitland and the 
master of Gray to form a faction about the 
king against the Earl of Arran, the chancel- 
lor, in 1585; bore a principal part in Arran's 
downfall, and helped to secure the return of j 
the banished lords, Angus and others, who j 
were Arran's chief enemies. Affecting to be 
opposed to Angus and his friends, Bellenden 
was nominated by the Scottish government 
ambassador to England, to demand their ex- 
pulsion from the English court, whence they