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VOL. V. 




.^ VL 1 . . 





A. J. A. . 

T. A. A. . . 

J. A 

W. E. A. A. 
G. F. E. B. 

R. B 

G. T. B. 
A. S. B-L. . 
W. G-. B. . . 
G-. C. B. 
H. B-R. . . , 

H. B 

R. H. B. . , 
A. R. B. . , 
A. H. B. . 
H. M. C. . . 
A. M. C. . , 

T. C 

C. H. C. . . 
W. P. C. . , 
M. C. . . . . 

A. D 

R. K. D. . . 
T. F. T. D., 
J. W. E. . 

F. E. . . . 
L. F. . . . 
C. H. F. . 
F. J. F. . 
J. G. . . . 
R. CK . . . 
J. W.-G. . 
J. T. G. 


W, E. A. AXON. 









Miss A. M. CLERKE. 










Louis FAG AN. 

A. G-T. . 
G. G. . . 
A. G. . . 
E. G. . . 
A. H. G. 
R. E. G. 
A. B. G. 
N. G. . . 

A. E. H. 
J. A. H. 
R. H. . . 
T. F. H. 
W. H-H. 
J. H. . '. 
R. H-T. . 
W. H. . . 

B. D. J. 
A. J. . . 

C. K. . . 
J. K. . . 
J. K. L. 
S. L. L. 
G. P. M. 
M. M. . 
W. D. M. 
C. T. M. 
J. M. . . 
A. M. . . 
C. M. . . 
N. M. . . , 
J. H. 0. 
J. F. P. , 
R. L. P. 
S. L.-P. . 
E. R. . 




. A. H. GRANT. 

. R. E. GRAVES. 











. B. D. JACKSON.* 





. S. L. LEE. 


, . THE REV. W. D. MACRAY, F.S.A. 






. J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

. R. L. POOLE. 




List of Writers. 

J. M. E. . . J. M. RIGG. 

C. J. R. . . THE REV. C. J. ROBINSON. 

J. H. R. . . J. H. ROUND. 


E. S. S. . . E. S. SHUCKBURGH. 
B. C. S. . . . B. C. SKOTTOWE. 




C. W. S. . . C. W. BUTTON. 


J. H. T. . . J. H. THORPE. 


W. H. T. . . W. H. TREGELLAS. 



F. W-T. . . . FRANCIS WATT. 

H. T. W. . . H. TRUEMAN WOOD. 







1851), colonial secretary in Van Diemen's 
Land, and a writer on economic and scientific 
subjects, was the son of the Rev. James 
Bicheno, a dissenting minister and school- 
master at Newbury, Berkshire, who died 
9 April 1831, and was the author of ' Friendly 
Address to the Jews ' (1787) ; ' Signs of the 
Times ' (1 792-4) ; < A Word in Season ' (1795) ; 
and other politico-theological works. James 
Ebenezer was born in 1785. He spent the 
first part of his life at Newbury, and there 
wrote i An Inquiry into the Nature of Be- 
nevolence, chiefly with a view to elucidate 
the Principles of the Poor Laws ' (London, 
1817 ; republished in an extended form, 
and under the title of ' An Inquiry into the 
Poor Laws/ London, 1824). This was an 
attack on the system of poor-law admini- 
stration then prevailing in England. The 
relief afforded by it, he said, ' multiplied in- 
stead of mitigating distress.' He gave an 
historical sketch of poor-law legislation, and 
argued in favour of a gradual change to a 
method of dealing with pauperism such as is 
now in force. He married a Miss Lloyd in 
1821, but lost his wife within a year. He 
was called to the bar by the Middle Temple 
17 May 1822. 

Whilst still a student he published a work 
on the ' Philosophy of Criminal Jurispru- 
dence ' (London, 1819), in which, after point- 
ing out that to defend society and improve 
the wretched are ' the only proper ends of 
punishment which reason and virtue sanction/ 
he urged that the penalties of the then cri- 
minal code were too severe. He proposed 
that the punishment of death should be re- 
stricted to a few cases, that whipping should 
be abolished, and that we should not ' burden 
the colonies with the refuse of our prisons.' 

Although Bicheno, after his call to the bar, 

VOL, v. 

joined the Oxford circuit, he did not engage 
seriously in the practice of his profession, but 
devoted himself to economic and scientific 
studies. He could the more easily do this, 
as his father was a man of some property, and 
he was his only surviving son and heir. He 
was a member of the chief English learned 
societies, and in 1824 he was appointed 
secretary to the Linnean Society. He con- 
tributed to their Transactions as well as to 
those of other societies, and assisted in the 
publication of several works, of which Jardine 
and Selby's ' Illustrations of Ornithology ' 
(Edinburgh, 1830 ?) may be mentioned. 

Bicheno engaged for some time in mining 
speculations in Wales, and the better to ma- 
nage them he resided at Tymaen, near Pyle, 
in Glamorganshire, and here he filled several 
local offices. He was obliged finally to with- 
draw, with some loss, from this undertaking. 
In 1829 he made, in company with Mr. Fre- 
derick Page, a deputy-lieutenant of Berkshire 
and bencher of the Middle Temple, a very 
extensive tour through Ireland. This re- 
sulted in the publication of ' Ireland and 
its Economy ' (London, 1830), in which he 
records his impressions of 'this land of strange 
anomalies/ as he calls it. The work is valu- 
able as a fair account of the state of Ireland 
at the time. 

In 1833 a commission, under the chairman- 
ship of Archbishop Whately, was appointed to 
investigate the condition of the poor in Ire- 
land. Bicheno was afterwards nominated a 
member, and he signed its second and third 
reports. To the last of these, presented in 
1836, he appended some remarks of his 
own, in which he discussed the social condi- 
tion of Ireland at considerable length. In 
his opinion, after all that could be done for 
that country, ' her real improvement must 
spring from herself, her own inhabitants, and 




her own indigenous institutions, irrespective 
of legislation and of English interference/ 

In September 1842 he was appointed colo- 
nial secretary in Van Diemen's Land, and 
shortly after proceeded to that country, where j 
he fulfilled the duties of his office to the satis- 
faction alike of the colonists and of the home 
government. He was one of the founders, i 
a vice-president, and member of council of ; 
the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land, 
and a contributor to its papers. He died at 
Hobart Town, after a short illness, 25 Feb. i 

Bicheno's scientific writings took usually [ 
the form of papers contributed to the publi- 
cations of the various learned bodies with 
which he was connected. He was elected 
fellow of the Linnean Society 7 April 1812, 
and was secretary from 1825 to 1832. His 
herbarium is in the public museum at Swan- | 
sea. His papers were : ' Observations on the j 
Orchis militaris of Linnaeus' (Linn. Soc. 
Trans, xii., 1818) ; ' Observations on the Lin- 
nean Genus Juncus ' (Linn. Soc. Trans, xii., 
1818) ; < On Systems and Methods in Natural j 
History ' (Linn. Soc. Trans, xv., 1827 ; ' Philo- 
sophical Mag.' iii., 1828) ; < On the Plant in- , 
tended by the Shamrock of Ireland ' (Royal \ 
Inst. Journ. i., 1831) ; ' On the Potato in : 
connexion with Distress in Ireland ' (Van 
Diemen's Land Royal Soc. Papers, i., 1851) ; 
and (to the same volume) ' On a Specimen 
of Pristis cirrhatus.' 

[G-ent. Mag. vol. xxxvi., new series ; Annual Re- 
gister for 1851 ; Nicholls's History of the Irish 
Poor Law (London, 1856) ; Report of the Royal | 
Society of Van Diemen's Land for 1851 (Hobart 
Town, 1852).] F. W-T. 

1789), antiquary, was born at Leicester j 
17 July 1728, where he was appointed under- j 
master of the Lower Free Grammar School j 
30 Jan. 1749-50. He took orders in December | 
1770, being successively curate at most of J 
the churches at Leicester, and also at Great 
"Wigston and Ayleston, two villages in the 
neighbourhood. He died suddenly at his 
lodgings in Leicester on 26 Jan. 1789. He 
possessed good classical attainments, and had 
a wide knowledge of antiquarian and histori- 
cal subjects, being a frequent contributor to 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine.' From a corre- 
spondence published in that periodical after 
his death it appears that he was in straitened 
circumstances throughout the greater part of 
his career, receiving a salary of only 19/. 16s. 
for his services at the Leicester grammar 
school. At fifty-eight years of age he speaks 
of himself as ' a poor curate, unsupported by 
private property.' Among his antiquarian re- 

searches may be noticed several valuable com- 
munications, which Mr. Nichols embodied in 
his ' History of Leicester.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1789, lix. 181,203-5; Bibliotheca 
Topographica Britannica, 1790, viii. 1371.] 

T. F. T. D. 

dramatic writer, was born in Ireland about 
1735. At the age of eleven he was ap- 
pointed one of the pages to Lord Chester- 
field, then lord-lieutenant of Ireland. His 
earliest production was ' Leucothoe,' a tragic 
opera, printed in 1756, but never acted. In 
1762 his comic opera, ( Love in a Village,' 
was acted with great applause at Covent 
Garden. For the plot the author was in- 
debted to Charles Johnson's l Village Opera,' 
Wycherley's ' Gentleman Dancing-Master,' 
and Marivaux's ' Jeu de 1' Amour et du Hazard.' 
The piece was printed in 1763, and has been 
included in Bell's * British Theatre ' and other 
collections. In 1765 was published the 
1 Maid of the Mill,' founded on Richardson's 
'* Pamela.' It met with much success, and 
as an after-piece continued to be acted with 
applause for many years. Between 1760 
and 1771 BickerstaiFe produced a score of 
pieces for the stage. Mrs. Inchbald con- 
sidered him second only to Gay as a farce 
writer. His songs are written with some 
gusto, and the dialogue is often sparkling. 
While he was engaged in writing for the 
stage, Bickerstaffe enjoyed the society of the 
most famous men of his time. On 16 Oct. 
1769, as recorded by Boswell, he was one of 
a company that dined in Boswell's rooms in 
Old Bond Street. The others were Dr. 
Johnson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Goldsmith, 
Garrick, and Murphy. From an honourable 
position he afterwards sank into the deepest 
ignominy. He had been an officer in the 
marines, but was dismissed from the service 
under discreditable circumstances. In 1772, 
being suspected of a capital crime, he fled 
abroad. For a time he was living at St. 
Malo under an assumed name ; and from 
that place he wrote in French a piteous 
letter to Garrick, dated 24 June 1772, in 
which he says : * Ayant perdu mes amis, mes 
esp6rances, tomb6, exile et livre au desespoir 
comme je suis, la vie est un fardeau presque 
insupportable; j'etois loin de soupconner 
que la derniere ibis que j'entrais dans votre 
librairie, serait la derniere fois quej'yentrerais 
de ma vie, et que je ne reverrais plus le 
maitre.' The letter is endorsed by Garrick, 
'From that poor wretch Bickerstaffe. I 
could not answer it.' In 1805 the author of 
the ' Thespian Dictionary ' speaks of Bicker- 
staffe as then living abroad ; and in 1812, if 



the statement of Stephen Jones in the ' Bio- 
graphia Dramatica ' is to be trusted, he was 
still dragging out his life (after forty years' 
exile), ' poor and despised of all orders of 
people.' What became of him afterwards is ! 
unknown. In 1812 he was an old man of j 
seventy-seven years. Shortly after his flight j 
in 1772 the malignant Dr. Kenrick published ' 
anonymously a venomous satire, ' Love in | 
the Suds, a Town Eclogue ; being the lamen- I 
tation of Roscius for the loss of his Nyky/ 
fol., in which he did not scruple to -make the 
grossest charges against Garrick. Doubtless ! 
Garrick had rejected some play offered by 
Kenrick, and the latter avenged himself by 
penning his abominable libel. A full account 
of Bickerstaffe's dramatic productions is given j 
in 'Biographia Dramatica,' 1812. A copy, 
preserved in the British Museum, of a tract j 
entitled ' The Life and Strange Unparallel'd 
and Unheard-of Voyages and Adventures of j 
Ambrose Gwinet. . . . Written by Himself,' 
8vo, 1770, has the following manuscript note 
by a former owner : ' Dr. Percy told me that 
he had heard that this pamphlet was a mere 
fiction, written by Mr. Bickerstaffe, the dra- 
matic poet.' 

[Thespian Dictionary, 1805 ; Biographia Dra- 
matica, ed. Stephen Jones, 1812; Private Cor- 
respondence of David Garrick, 1831, i. 266-7, 
273-5, 277, 417-18 ; Preface to the Maid of the 
Mill, invol.viii. of Bell's British Theatre, 1797.] 

A. H. B. 

1850), evangelical divine, was the fourth son 
of Henry Bickersteth, surgeon, of Kirkby 
Lonsdale, Westmoreland, author of * Medical 
Hints for the Use of Clergymen ' (London, 
1829), and Elizabeth, daughter of John Batty. 
His third eldest brother was Henry, Lord 
Langdale [see BICKEKSTETH, HENKY], master 
of the rolls. After a few years at Kirkby 
Lonsdale grammar school he received at the 
age of fourteen an appointment in the General 
Post Office, and left his father's house to live 
in London. In 1803 he joined the Blooms- 
bury Volunteer Association. Becomingweary 
of the monotonous nature of his employment 
and the slender prospect of advancement, he j 
engaged himself in 1806 to work in a solicitor s 
office, after his regular work for the day was 
done. His employer, Mr. Bleasdale, was struck 
by his industry, and the next year took him j 
as an articled clerk on advantageous terms. [ 
In 1805 he was under strong religious impres- 
sions. He laid down exact rules for his con- | 
duct, and kept a weekly diary in which he I 
noted any failure in his observance of them. 
These impressions increased in strength, and 
in 1808 his correspondence was almost wholly 

on spiritual matters, and his diary was filled 
with religious meditations. At the same time 
he was diligent at the office, working from 

9 a.m. till 9 p.m., and doing, his employer said, 
' the work of three or four clerks.' With this 
work, however, he now combined an active 
part in the administration of the Widows' 
Friend and the Spitalfields Benevolent So- 
cieties. In 1812 he left Mr. Bleasdale's 
office, married Sarah, the daughter of Thomas 
Bignold, and entered into partnership with 
his brother-in-law, a solicitor at Norwich. 
During his residence at Norwich he took 
an active part in religious matters. At 
this time also he wrote his ' Help to Study- 
ing the Scriptures,' which passed through 
twenty-one editions. In 1815 he gave up 
the practice of law, was ordained deacon 

10 Dec., and as he engaged himself to go out 
to Africa at once in the service of the Church 
Missionary Society, he received priest's orders 
21 Dec. The object of his mission was to 
inspect and report on the work of the society 
in Africa, and on certain disputes between the 
missionaries. Leaving Portsmouth 24 Jan. 
1816, he arrived at Sierra Leone on 7 March. 
He returned home by Barbadoes, and arrived 
in England 17 Aug. An account of his work 
in Africa will be found in the Church Mis- 
sionary Society's sixteenth annual report. 
Immediately on his return he was engaged 
as one of the society's secretaries. During 
the next fourteen years he constantly travelled 
from place to place as a Church Missionary 
Society's ' deputation,' and on the few Sun- 
days when he was at home acted as assistant 
minister of Wheler Episcopal Chapel, Spital- 
fields. Up to 1820 he lived in the Church 
Missionary Society's house in Salisbury 
Square, and in that year moved to another 
house belonging to the society in Barnsbury 
Park, Islington. In spite of his constant jour- 
neys he wrote several religious books which 
had a large sale. In 1827 he was sent to Basel 
to inspect the working of the missionary insti- 
tution there which was in connection with the 
English Church Missionary Society. Find- 
ing that his constant absence from home 
hindered him from paying sufficient atten- 
tion to his family, to the congregation of 
Wheler Chapel, and even to his committee 
work, he pressed the society not to give him 
more than six Sundays' travelling in the year. 
His request was refused ; he therefore gladly 
accepted the rectory of Watton, Hertford- 
shire, offered him by Mr. Abel Smith, and 
moved thither in November 1830. 

Although Bickersteth resigned his secre- 
taryship on accepting the living of Watton, 
he continued all through his life to travel 
for the Church Missionary Society. He also 



frequently acted as ' a deputation ' for the 
Society for the Conversion of the Jews, and 
for other religious associations. In 1832 he I 
was much engaged in editing the ' Christian's i 
Family Library,' a series of republications of } 
various theological works. He was a strong ] 
protestant and ' Millenarian.' He opposed j 
the action of the Bible Society in admitting j 
Unitarian ministers to a share in its manage- i 
ment. While, however, he upheld the Trini- i 
tarian Bible Society which was established 
at this crisis, he did not separate himself 
from the older association. About this time 
Bickersteth compiled his ' Christian Psalm- . 
ody,' a collection of over 700 hymns, to which ! 
he subsequently added about 200 more. This 
collection met with great popularity, and in ! 
about seven years after its first appearance j 
reached its fifty-ninth edition. It long con- ; 
tinued the most popular hymn-book of the j 
evangelical party, and forms the basis of a | 
collection compiled by Bickersteth's son, the 
Rev. E. H. Bickersteth, entitled the 'Hymnal 
Companion to the Book of Common Prayer.' i 
In order to counteract the tendency of the i 
' Tracts for the Times,' Bickersteth, in 1836, | 
edited the ' Testimony of the Reformers/ j 
In the introduction to this work, afterwards ' 
republished in a separate form under the title 
of the ' Progress of Popery,' he made some \ 
strictures on the character of the publications j 
of the Society for the Propagation of Christian ! 
Knowledge, which led some of the evangelical 
party to withdraw their support from the 
society, and caused considerable discussion in 
the religious world. With the same object 
he took part in 1840 in the formation of the 
Parker Society for republishing the works 
of the English reformers. An attack of pa- 
ralysis in the next year incapacitated him 
for some months. He was active in promot- 
ing the ' Protest against Tractarianism ' of 
1843, and in forwarding the formation of the ! 
Evangelical Alliance. In October 1845 he 
took a prominent part in the meeting held at 
Liverpool to settle the basis of the Alliance, 
and the next year answered the attack made 
on the meeting by the ' Christian Observer.' 
A severe accident befell him in February 
1846. While on his way to an Alliance 
meeting, he was thrown out of his carriage 
and run over, the cart which passed over 
him, oddly enough, being engaged in hauling 
materials for the erection of a Roman catholic i 
church. For a while his life was despaired | 
of, and for two months he was unable to leave i 
his room. The Maynooth grant strongly ex- 
cited his indignation, and in 1847 he inte- 
rested himself in the 'Special Appeal for 
Ireland' which the next year led to the 
establishment of the Irish Church Missions 

Society. He took part in the foundation of 
this society, and visited Ireland in order to 
promote it. Early in 1850 Bickersteth again 
suffered from paralysis, and died on 28 Feb. 
He left one son, Rev. E. H. Bickersteth, at 
present (1885) vicar of Christ Church, Hamp- 
stead (the author of ' Yesterday, To-day, and 
Forever,' a poem, and other works), and five 
daughters, of whom the eldest married Rev. 
T. R. Birks [q. v.], the author, among other 
books, of the life of his father-in-law. Bicker- 
steth's works are numerous. A collective 
edition of the more important of them was 
published (London, 1853) in 16 vols. 8vo, 
including ' A Scripture Help,' 21st edition ; 
'A Treatise on Prayer,' 18th edition; 'A 
Treatise on the Lord's Supper,' 13th edition ; 
' The Christian Hearer/ 5th edition ; ' The 
Christian Student,' 2 vols., 5th edition; 'The 
Chief Concerns of Man/ a volume of sermons - r 
1 A Guide to the Prophecies, embodying Prac- 
tical Remarks 011 Prophecy/ also published 
separately, 8th edition; 'Christian Truth/ 
4th edition ; ' On Baptism/ 3rd edition ; ' Re- 
storation of the Jews/ 3rd edition ; ' Family 
Prayers/ 18th thousand ; ' The Promised 
Glory of the Church/ 3rd edition ; ' Divine 
Warning/ 5th edition; ' Family Expositions, 1 " 
2nd edition ; ' Signs of the Times in the 
East/ 2nd edition. To these must be added 
the 'Christian Psalmody/ 1833 ; a 'Harmony 
of the Gospels/ 1833; 'Domestic Portraiture/ 
1833; 'The Testimony of the Reformers/ 
including the ' Progress of Popery/ also pub- 
lished separately, 1836 ; ' Letters on Christian 
Union/ 1845 ; ' Destruction of Babylon/ &c., 
1848 ; ' Defence of Baptismal Services/ 1850 ; 
together with much editorial work, prefaces, 
and introductions, as well as a large number 
of small publications, sermons, tracts, &c. 

[Birks's Memoir of Rev. E. Bickersteth, 2 vols. 
8vo; Memoir by Sir C. E. Eardley, Bart., 16mo, 
reprinted from Evangelical Christendom ; Record 
newspaper, 1845-50; Christian Observer, 1846 T 


DALE (1783-1851), master of the rolls, was 
born at Kirkby Lonsdale on 18 June 1783, 
and was the third son of Henry Bicker- 
steth, and brother of Edward Bickersteth 
[q. v.] After receiving an education at the 
grammar school of his native place, he was; 
apprenticed to his father in 1797, and in 
the following year was sent up to London 
further to qualify himself for the medical 
profession under the guidance of his mater- 
nal uncle, Dr. Robert Batty [q. v.] By the 
advice of this uncle, in Octdbe'r 1801, he went 
to Edinburgh to pursue his medical studies, 
and in the following year was called home- 



to take his father's practice in his temporary 
absence. Disliking the idea of settling down 
in the country as a general practitioner, 
young Bickersteth determined to become a 
London physician. With a view to obtaining 
.a medical degree, on 22 June 1802 his name ! 
was entered in the books of Caius College, 
Cambridge, and, on 27 Oct. in the same year, 
he was elected a scholar on the Hewitt 
foundation. Owing to his intense applica- 
tion to work, his health broke down after his 
first term. A change of scene being deemed 
necessary to insure his recovery, he obtained, 
through Dr. Batty, the post of medical at- 
tendant to Edward, fifth earl of Oxford, who 
was then on a tour in Italy. After his return 
from the continent he continued with the 
Earl of Oxford until 1805, when he returned 
to Cambridge. At this time he had a great 
wish to enter the army, but gave it up in 
deference to his parents' disapproval. 

After three years of indefatigable industry 
he became the senior wrangler, and senior ' 
Smith's mathematical prizeman of his year 
(1808), Miles Bland, the mathematical writer, ' 
Blomfield, bishop of London, and Adam j 
Sedgwick, the geologist, being amongst his : 
most distinguished competitors. Having j 
taken his degree, he was immediately elected | 
-a fellow of his college, and thereupon made 
up his mind to enter the profession of the | 
law. On 8 April 1808 he was admitted to 
the Inner Temple as a student, and, in the 
beginning of 1810, became a pupil of John 
Bell [q. v.], an eminent chancery counsel. 
He was called to the bar on 22 Nov. 1811, 
and in the same year took his degree of M.A. 

At first his professional progress was so 
slow that he seems to have doubted whether 
he ought to have occasioned his father any 
further expense by continuing at the bar. 
In 1819 he was offered a seat in parliament, 
through the Hon. Douglas Kinnaird, but this 
he refused, and he never sat in the House of 
Commons. His business and reputation so 
much advanced, however, that, in August 
1824, he was examined before the commission 
appointed to inquire into the procedure of 
the court of chancery. His examination 
lasted four days, and the evidence which he 
gave showed the thorough grasp which he 
had of the subject, and the necessity of the 
reforms which he advocated. In May 1827 
he was appointed a king's counsel, and thence- 
forth confined his practice wholly to the 
court of Sir John Leach, master of the rolls, 
where he shared the lead of the court with 
Mr. Pemberton Leigh for many years. He 
was called to the bench of his inn on 22 June 
1827. In 1831 he declined the newly created 
office of chief judge in bankruptcy, in Febru- i 

ary 1834 that of baron of the exchequer, and 
in September of the same year the post of soli- 
citor-general. On 16 Jan. 1836 he was sworn 
a member of the privy council, and on the 
19th of that month was appointed master of 
the rolls in the place of Pepys, who had been 
made lord chancellor. By letters patent, 
dated 23 Jan. 1836, he was created Baron 
Langdale of Langdale in the county of 
"Westmoreland. It was not without a con- 
siderable struggle that he consented to take 
a peerage, and at length only withdrew his 
objections on the conditions that he might 
have entire political independence and be 
allowed to devote himself to law reform. 
During the fifteen years that he held the 
post of master of the rolls his judicial cha- 
racter stood deservedly high. Eminently 
patient in listening to argument, and pains- 
taking in getting hold of the whole facts of 
the case, he has rarely been surpassed on the 
bench in impartiality, sound reasoning, or 
clearness of language. The appeals against 
his decisions were few and rarely successful. 
The reports of his more important judgments 
in the rolls court will be found in Beavan, 
vols. i. to xiii. The earliest of his decisions is 
the case of ' Tullett v. Armstrong,' so familiar 
to lawyers as a leading case on the law of 
married women's property, a subject about 
which he was always especially vigilant. By 
far the best known of his judgments, however, 
is that which he drew up and delivered in 
* Gorham v. the Bishop of Exeter/ which came 
before the judicial committee of the privy 
council on appeal from the dean of arches. 
As keeper of the rolls he gained the name of 
the ' father of record reform.' It was through 
his unremitting perseverance that the go- 
vernment at last consented to provide an 
adequate repository for the national records. 
In the House of Lords he abstained from 
party controversy as being inconsistent with 
his judicial office, and devoted his time there 
to the prosecution of legal reforms. He con- 
ducted the act for the amendment of wills 
through the house, and was the principal 
author of the acts for abolishing the six 
clerks' office and for amending the law in 
relation to attorneys and solicitors. His 
speech on the second reading of the bill for 
the better administration of justice in the 
High Court of Chancery, which he delivered 
on 13 June 1836, was published as a pam- 
phlet. His labours, however, as a reformer 
of the court of chancery fell far short of his 
intentions, for his time was fully occupied by 
his judicial and other numerous duties. He 
also gave unremitting attention to his duties 
as trustee of the British Museum and as head 
of the registration and conveyancing commis- 



sion which was issued 18 Feb. 1847. During 
the illness of Lord Cottenham in 1850 he 
undertook the duties of speaker of the House 
of Lords. Under the strain of this incessant 
labour his health gave way, and, in May 1850, 
when he was offered the post of lord chan- 
cellor by Lord John Russell, he felt obliged 
to decline it. He, however, consented to 
act as the head of a commission until a lord 
chancellor was appointed and the seal was 
delivered to him, Sir Lancelot Shadwell, the 
vice-chancellor of England, and Baron Rolfe, 
on 19 June 1850. This additional work over- 
taxed his failing health, and on 28 March 
1851 he resigned the office of master of the 
rolls. Three weeks afterwards, on 18 April, 
he died at Tunbridge AVells, whither he had 
been ordered by the doctors, and on the 24th 
was buried in the Temple Church, close to the 
last resting-place of Sir William Follett. 

He was a man of most admirable character, 
both in private and public life, of high prin- 
ciple, great integrity, and of wonderful in- 
dustry. In politics he was throughout his 
life devoted to the cause of liberal opinions, 
and in his early life was the friend of Sir 
Francis Burdett and Jeremy Bentham, a 
circumstance which somewhat retarded his 
career at the bar. He married Lady Jane 
Elizabeth Harley, the eldest daughter of his 
friend and patron the Earl of Oxford, on 
17 Aug. 1835, and by her had an only 
daughter, Jane Frances, who married Alex- 
ander, Count Teleki, and died on 3 May 
1870. In default of male issue the barony 
became extinct on Lord Langdale's death. 
His wife survived him, and upon the death 
of her brother Alfred, the sixth and last earl 
of Oxford, resumed her maiden name as the 
heiress of the Oxford family. She died on 
1 Sept. 1872. 

[Hardy's Memoirs of Lord Langdale (1852); 
Foss's Judges (1864), ix. 136-46 ; Annual Ee- 
gister, 1851, appendix, pp. 280-1; Gent. Mag. 
1851, xxxv. N.S. 661-3; Law Magazine, xlv. 
O.S. 283-93 ; Law Eeview, xiv. 434-6 ; Legal 
Observer, xlii. 436-7 ; Law Times, xvii. 59, 60 ; 
Campbell's Lord Chancellors, viii. passim ; Edin- 
burgh Review, Ixxxv. 476-90 ; Quarterly Eeview, 
xci. 461-503.] G. F. E. B. 

bishop of Ripon, the fourth son of the Rev. 
John Bickersteth, rector of Sapcote, Leices- 
tershire, and Henrietta, daughter of Mr. G. 
Lang, was born at Acton, Suffolk. His father 
was brother of Edward Bickersteth [q. v.l 
After some medical training, he entered 
Queens' College, Cambridge, and graduated 
as a junior optime in 1841. He was ordained 
the same year to the curacy of Sapcote, where 
he remained until 1843. The next year he 

was appointed curate of St. Giles's, Reading, 
and the year after of Holy Trinity, Clapham. 
In 1845 he was appointed to the incumbency 
of St. John's, Clapham, which he held for six 
years. During this period he attained conside- 
rable popularity as an evangelical preacher. 
In 1846 he married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Mr. J. Garde of Cork. On the death of his 
uncle, the Rev. Edward Bickersteth of Wat- 
ton [q. v.], in 1850, he took up his work as 
an hon. secretary of the Irish Church Mis- 
sions. He left Clapham for the living of St. 
Giles's-in-the-Fields, where he had a large 
congregation. In 1854 he was appointed 
canon residentiary and treasurer of the cathe- 
dral church of Salisbury. On the translation 
of Bishop Longley to the see of Durham in 
1856 Bickersteth succeeded to the bishopric 
of Ripon, and was consecrated 18 June 1857. 
The bishop was a liberal in politics. He occa- 
sionally took part in the debates in the House 
of Lords. He opposed the disestablishment 
of the Irish church, and on 17 June 1869 
spoke with considerable ability against the 
bill. He strongly advocated the legalisa- 
tion of marriage with a deceased wife's sis- 
ter. As long as his health allowed he was 
active in the discharge of his official duties. 
During his episcopate he consecrated 155 
churches. The restoration of his cathedral 
church was begun in June 1862, and carried 
out at the cost of 40,0007. He preached con- 
stantly in different parts of his diocese, some- 
times as often as three times in a single Sun- 
day. Although he was not a total abstainer, 
he was zealous in promoting temperance. He 
was regarded as one of the leaders of the 
evangelical school, and was strongly opposed 
to the introduction of any ceremonies or doc- 
trines not strictly in accord with the opinions 
of his party. At the same time his long epi- 
scopate seems to have been free from all ac- 
tions at law on matters of ritual. During the 
last two years of his life he was disabled by 
sickness from active work, and some news- 
paper attacks were made on him for not re- 
signing his see. As, however, eminent phy- 
sicians assured him that he might hope to be 
restored to health, he did not see fit to resign. 
He died at his palace at Ripon 15 April 1884, 
leaving four sons and one daughter. Bishop 
Bickersteth published his speech on the Irish 
Church Disestablishment Bill, London, 1869, 
and several charges, sermons, lectures, tracts, 
and prefaces to books. 

[Record, 18 April 1884; Leeds Mercury, 
16 April 1884; Guardian, May 1883; private 
information.] W. H. 

1792), vice-admiral, son of a captain in the 



4th dragoon guards, entered the navy in 1739, 
on the outbreak of the war with Spain. In 
the following year he was appointed to the 
Suffolk, of 70 guns, with Captain Davers, 
and sailed in her to the West Indies, to form 
part of the expedition against Cartagena in 
the spring of 1741. After more than two 
years in the Suffolk he was for a few months 
in the Stirling Castle in the Mediterranean; 
he was then appointed to the Channel station, 
with Sir Charles Hardy or Sir John Norris, in 
the St. George, Duke, and Victory. Fortu- 
nately for himself [see BALCHEN, Sir JOHN], 
he was early in 1744 appointed from the Vic- 
tory to the Cornwall, of 80 guns, bearing the 
flag of his old captain, now Vice-admiral 
Davers, who was going out as commander- 
in-chief to the West Indies. Admiral Davers 
promoted him to a lieutenancy on 8 Feb. 
1745-6, and he continued on the same 
station, in the Worcester, till the peace of 
1748. In 1759 he commanded the ^Etna 
fireship in the Mediterranean with Boscawen, 
by whom he was advanced to post rank on 
21 Aug. after the destruction of M. de la 
Clue's squadron at Lagos. He was then ap- 
pointed to the Glasgow frigate in the West 
Indies, and in 1761 to the Lively in the 
Channel. In 1767 he commanded the Re- 
nown in the West Indies ; on the dispute about 
the Falkland Islands in 1770 he was ap- 
pointed to the Marlborough, which he com- 
manded for three years, and at the naval re- 
view, June 1773, steered the king's barge and 
received the honour of knighthood. For the 
next four years he commanded the Augusta 
yacht, and, when war with France was immi- 
nent in the spring of 1778, was appointed to 
the Terrible, of 74 guns, which he commanded 
in the battle of Ushant, 27 July. During the 
shameful summer of 1779, while the com- 
bined fleets of France and Spain swept the 
Channel, the Terrible was one of the fleet at 
Spit head under Sir Charles Hardy. In 1780 
Bickerton commanded the Fortitude, of 74 
guns, still in the Channel, under Admirals 
Geary and Darby, and assisted in the second 
relief of Gibraltar, April 1781. He was 
shortly afterwards appointed to the Gibraltar, 
80, as commodore of the first class ; and with 
six other ships of the line and two frigates 
under his orders, he sailed for the East Indies 
on 6 Feb. 1782. The squadron did not j 
arrive on the station till the beginning of the 
following year, with many men sick of 
scurvy. They were, however, able to take 
part in the indecisive action oft' Cuddalore, 
20 June 1783. Sir Richard returned to Eng- 
land in 1784, and in 1786 was appointed 
commander-in-chief at the Leeward Islands, 
with his broad pennant on board the Jupiter, 

from which he was superseded on his promo- 
tion to flag rank 24 Sept 1787. During the 
Spanish armament of 1790 he held a command 
in the fleet under Lord Howe, and hoisted 
his flag in the Impregnable, of 90 guns. He 
became a vice-admiral on 21 September, and 
the dispute with Spain being happily arranged, 
he was appointed port-admiral at Plymouth, 
with his flag in the St. George. He was 
still holding that office when he died, of an 
apoplectic fit, 25 Feb. 1792. 

He was created a baronet 29 May 1778, 
on the occasion of the king's visit to Ports- 
mouth. At the time of his death he was 
member of parliament for Rochester. He 
married, in 1758, Mary Anne, daughter of 
Thomas Hussey, Esq., of Wrexham, and had 
issue two sons and two daughters. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 349 ; Beatson's 
Naval and Military Memoirs (under date) ; 
Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies.] 

J. K. L. 

SEY (1759-1832), admiral, son of Vice-admi- 
ral Sir Richard Bickerton [q. v.], entered the 
navy in December 1771, on board the Marl- 
borough, then commanded by his father. In 
the Marlborough, and afterwards in the Au- 
gusta yacht, he continued with his father till 
1774, when he was appointed to the Med- 
way,of 60 guns, flagship in the Mediterranean. 
Two years later he was transferred to the En- 
terprise frigate, and afterwards to the Invin- 
cible with Captain Hyde Parker. On 16 Dec. 
1777 he was made lieutenant in the Prince 
George, commanded by Captain Middleton, 
afterwards Lord Barham. He followed Mid- 
dleton to the Jupiter, of 50 guns, where he 
remained as first lieutenant with Captain Rey- 
nolds, who afterwards succeeded to the com- 
mand. On 20 Oct. 1778 the Jupiter, in com- 
pany with the Medea frigate, fell in with the 
French 64-gun ship Triton on the coast of 
Portugal. A brisk action followed (BEATSON, 
Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, iv. 441), in which 
both ships suffered severely ; and though no 
particular advantage was gained on either 
side, the odds against the Jupiter were con- 
sidered so great as to render her equal en- 
gagement equivalent to a victory. Her 
first lieutenant was accordingly promoted 
20 March 1779, and appointed to the command 
of the Swallow sloop. After nearly two 
years' service in the Channel the Swallow 
was sent out to join Sir George Rodney in 
the West Indies ; and on 8 Feb. 1781 Bicker- 
ton was posted into the Gibraltar. In the 
action between Hood and De Grasse off 
Martinique, 29 April 1781, he commanded 
the Invincible, and was soon afterwards sent 




home in command of the Amazon frigate. 
From 1787 to 1790 he commanded the Sibylle 
frigate in the West Indies. By the death of i 
his father in 1792 he succeeded to the baro- 
netcy, and in 1793 commissioned the Ruby, 
64, for service in the Channel. Towards the 
end of 1794 he was transferred to the Ramil- 
lies, in which he went to the West Indies 
and Newfoundland, returning in the end of 
1795 to form part of the North Sea fleet, in 
1796, under Admiral Duncan, and of the 
Channel fleet in 1797 under Lord Bridport. 
In 1798 he commanded the Terrible, still in | 
the Channel fleet, and attained the rank of j 
rear-admiral 14 Feb. 1799. In the autumn | 
of the same year he hoisted his flag at Ports- 
mouth as assistant to the port-admiral ; in 
May 1800 he was sent out to the Mediterra- 
nean, and, with his flag on board the Swift- 
sure, had the immediate command of the 
blockade of Cadiz until joined by Lord Keith 
in October. During the following year, with ' 
his flag in the Kent, he was employed on the 
coast of Egypt, conducting the blockade in 
the absence of the commander-in-chief, and 
afterwards superintending the embarkation 
of the French army. For his services at this 
time he was rewarded by the sultan with 
the order of the Crescent, \vith the insignia 
of which he was ceremoniously invested by 
the capitan pasha 8 Oct. 1801. During the 
short peace he remained in the Mediterranean 
as commander-in-chief, and, on the renewal 
of the war, as second in command under 
Lord Nelson, with whom he served, during 
1804 and the early months of 1805, in the 
blockade of Toulon. In May, when Nelson 
sailed for the West Indies, Bickerton, with 
his flag in the Royal Sovereign, was left in 
command (Nelson Despatches, vi. 421), but 
was soon afterwards called home to take 
office at the admiralty, where he continued 
till 1812, when he was appointed commander- 
in-chief at Portsmouth. His active service 
ended shortly after the grand review in 1814, 
at which he commanded in the second post 
under the Duke of Clarence. He attained 
the rank of vice-admiral 9 Nov. 1805, of ad- 
miral 31 July 1810, was made K.C.B. 2 Jan. 
1815, lieutenant-general of marines 5 Jan. 
1818, and succeeded William IV as general 
of marines in June 1830. In 1823 he assumed, 
by royal permission, the name of Hussey 
before that of Bickerton. He married, in 
1788, Anne, daughter of Dr. James Athill, 
of Antigua, but had no children, and on his 
death, 9 Feb. 1832, the baronetcy became 

[Marshall's Eoy. Nav. Biog. i. 125; Ealfe's 
Naval Biog. ii. 277 ; Gent. Mag. cii. i. 175.1 

J. K. L. 

BICKHAM, GEORGE, the elder (d. 
1769), writing-master and engraver, was born 
about the end of the seventeenth century. 
He was the most celebrated penman of his 
time, and published in 1743 a folio volume 
entitled ' The Universal Penman . . . ex- 
emplified in all the useful and ornamental 
branches of modern Penmanship, &c. ; the 
whole embellished with 200 beautiful decora- 
tions for the amusement of the curious.' He 
also practised engraving, but his productions 
in this department had little merit. He 
engraved Rubens's ' Peace and War ' and 
* Golden and Silver Ages ; ' ' Philosophy,' a 
large plate from his own design ; a few por- 
traits, including those of Sir Isaac Newton, 
Bishop Blackall, Stephen Duck the poet, and 
George Shelly, John Clark, and Robert More, 
writing-masters ; the plates to ' British Mo- 
narchy, or a new ChorogTaphical Description 
of all the Dominions subject to the King of 
Great Britain,' 1748; and those to 'The 
Beauties of Stow,' 1753. Bickham was a 
member of "the Free Society of Artists, and 
exhibited with them from 1761 to 1765. His 
stock-in-trade, plates, &c., were sold by auc- 
tion in May 1767, and he died at Richmond 
in 1769. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (Wornum), 
p. 969 ; Strutt's Biog. Diet, of Engravers (1785) ; 
Brian's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers 
(ed. Graves), 1885 ; Redgrave's Dictionary of 
Artists (1878); MS. notes in British Museum.] 

L. R 

BICKHAM, GEORGE, the younger (d. 
1758), engraver, son of George Bickham (d. 
1769), [q. v.], was one of the earliest political 
caricaturists, and executed many of the hu- 
morous designs published by Messrs. Bowles. 
He engraved ' A View and Representation 
of the Battle of Zenta, fought 11 Sept. 1696,' 
and ' The Description of the Loss of his 
Majesty's Ship the Northumberland, taken 
by the French, 8 May 1744 ; ' also many 
head-pieces for songs, portraits of himself 
and his father, and that of Serjeant Thomas 
Barnardiston [q. v.] The younger Bickham 
was the author of ' An Introductive Essay 
on Drawing, with the Nature and Beauty of 
Light and Shadows,' &c., 1747. He died in 

[Strutt's Biog. Diet, of Engravers (1785); 
Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists (1878); MS. 
notes in British Museum.] L. F. 

BICKLEY, THOMAS,D.D. (1518-1596), 
bishop of Chichester, was born at Stow, in 
Buckinghamshire, and began his education 
as a chorister in the free school of Magdalen 
College, Oxford. He afterwards became 
demy, and in 1541 was elected a fellow of the 



college. He acquired considerable reputa- 
tion as a reformer and preacher of reformed 
doctrine, and soon after the accession of Ed- 
ward VI was appointed one of the king's 
chaplains at Windsor. It is hard, however, 
to believe a story told by Fuller ( Worthies, 
j). 131), that, to show his contempt for the 
doctrine of transubstantiation, he on one oc- 
casion broke the Host in pieces in the col- 
lege chapel at evening prayers and trampled 
it under his feet. Anyhow, he was too 
notable a man to stay with safety in the 
country during the reign of Mary, and ac- 
cordingly he retired to France, where he 
spent most of his time in study at Paris and 
Orleans. Returning to England after the 
accession of Elizabeth, he enjoyed rapid pro- 
motion, being made, within ten years, chaplain 
to Archbishop Parker, rector of Biddenden 
in Kent, of Sutton Waldron in Dorsetshire, 
archdeacon of Stafford, chancellor in Lich- 
field Cathedral, and warden of Merton Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

He was made bishop of Chichester in 1585, 
consecrated at Lambeth on 30 Jan., and 
enthroned by proxy on 3 March. He was 
diligent in discharging the duties of his 
office, and was much respected and beloved 
in the diocese. Some of the returns to 
articles of inquiry made at his visitations 
have been preserved amongst the episcopal 
records, and supply curious information re- 
specting the condition of the church at that 
time. The altars had, as a rule, been moved 
out from the east end, and complaints are \ 
numerous that ' the floor was not paved 
where the altar had stode.' The walls of all ; 
churches were required to be ' whyted and 
beautyfied with sentences from Holy Scrip- 
ture.' A quarterly sermon from the parish 
parson was considered a sufficient allowance ; 
but even this was not always regularly given, | 
and in some parishes it is stated that there j 
had not been any sermon for a year or more. 
Bishop Bickley died in 1596, and was buried | 
in the cathedral on 26 May, when 'his body 
was accompanied to the earthe with dyverse 
woorshipfull persons' (note in Heralds' Office; 
KENNETT). He bequeathed 40/. to Magda- 
len College, to be expended on ceiling and 
paving the school, and 100/. to Merton for 
the purchase of land, the revenue of which 
was bestowed annually on one of the fellows 
who preached a sermon to the university on 
May day in the college chapel. 

A tablet to Bickley 's memory is attached 
to the north wall of the lady chapel in 
Chichester Cathedral. The inscription (in 
Latin) states that he administered his diocese 
* piously and religiously, with sobriety and 
sincerity, the highest justice and singular 

prudence.' The tablet is surmounted by a 
small kneeling effigy of the bishop, * which 
shows him,' says Wood, Ho have been a 
comely and handsome man.' If so, ideas of 
manly beauty must have changed very much 
since Wood's time. 

[Fuller's Worthies, p. 131 ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ii. 839 ; Bickley's Eegister in Chichester 
Cathedral ; Lansd. MSS. 982, f. 238.1 

W. R. W. S. 

author, was an industrious litterateur of the 
last quarter of the eighteenth century, whose 
writings received their due meed of ridicule 
or faint praise in the ' Monthly Review,' and 
are now forgotten. He died 22 Aug. 1796 in 
St. Thomas's Hospital, London. 

He published the following books and 
pamphlets: 1. ' History of Edward Prince of 
Wales, commonly termed the Black Prince,' 
8vo, 1777. 2. ' Life of Alfred the Great, King 
of the Anglo-Saxons,' 8vo, 1777. 3. ' The 
Putrid Soul, a Poetical Epistle to Joseph 
Priestley, LL.D.,' 4to, 1780. 4. < The Patriot 
King, or Alfred and Elvida, an Historical 
Tragedy,' 8vo, 1788. 5. < History of Lady 
Anne Neville.' 6. ( Isabella, or the Rewards 
of Good Nature.' 7. * The Benevolent Man, 
a Novel.' 8. * Prince Arthur, an Allegorical 
Romance.' 9. * Doncaster Races, or the His- 
tory of Miss Maitland, a True Tale, in a series 
of letters,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1790. 10. < A His- 
tory of England and the British Empire,' 
12mo, 1791. 11. < The Grammatical Wreath, 
or a Complete System of English Grammar,' 
12mo, 1790. 12. ' Instances of the Mutabi- 
lity of Fortune, selected from Ancient and 
Modern History,' 8vo, 1792. 13. ' Philoso- 
phical Disquisitions on the Christian Religion, 
addressed to Soame Jenyns, Esq., and Dr. 
Kenrick.' It is stated on the title-page of 
No. 9 that Bicknell edited Captain J. Car- 
ver's < Travels through the Interior Parts of 
North America,' 8vo, 1778, and Mrs. George 
Anne Bellamy's 'Apology for her Life,' 6 vols. 
12mo, 1785. 

[Monthly Review, vols. Ivii. Iviii. Ixiii. Ixxviii., 
New Series, ii. iv. v. ix. ; Gent. Mag. ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] C. W. S. 

BICKNELL, ELHANAN (1788-1861), 
patron of art, was born 21 Dec. 1788, in 
Blackman Street, London, being the son of 
William Bicknell, serge manufacturer there, 
and of Elizabeth Bicknell, previously a Miss 
Randall, of Sevenoaks, Kent. Elhanan Bick- 
nell's father had been partly educated at 
Wesley's school at Kingswood, Bristol, and 
always entertained John Wesley in Black- 
man Street when he came to preach at Snow's 




Fields. Another divine among the most 
cherished friends of Elhanan's parents at this 
time, after whom he was named, was Elhanan 
Winchester, author of Universal Restora- 
tion ' ( Christian Reformer, xviii. 56) . William 
Bicknell bought the copyright of this work 
in the year of his son Elhanan s birth, and 
on finding that his bargain was profitable, 
he generously surrendered it to the author 
in 1789, with a characteristic letter (ibid.} 
Elhanan Bicknell was educated by his father, 
who, having established a school at Ponder's 
End in 1789, when Elhanan was an infant, 
removed it to Tooting Common in 1804 ; 
and there, among Elhanan's schoolfellows, 
was Thomas Wilde, afterwards Lord Chan- 
cellor Truro. In 1808 Elhanan was sent 
to Cause, near Shrewsbury, to learn farm^- 
ing ; but at the end of a year this project 
was abandoned. He returned to London and 
joined a firm at Newington Butts, engaged 
in the sperm whale fishery, into which, for 
over half a century, he threw all his active 
energies and financial aptitude. About 1835 
he foresaw how the repeal of the navigation 
laws, then in agitation, would injure his indi- 
vidual trade, yet he magnanimously supported 
the movement, together with the abolition 
of all protection ; and when the inevitable 
crippling of his undertakings and his income 
came, he cheerfully accepted it. In 1838, 
having occupied his residence at Herne Hill, 
Surrey, since 1819, Bicknell commenced 
there his magnificent collection of pictures, 
all of the modern British school. In the 
course of twelve years, 1838-50, he be- 
came the possessor of masterpieces of Gains- 
borough, Turner, Roberts, Landseer, Stan- 
field, Webster, Collins, Etty, Callcott, &c. 
(WAAGEtf, Treasures of Art, ii. 359 ; Art 
Journal, 1862, p. 45) ; and, in default of 
a gallery, these splendid works, with many 
pieces of sculpture, such as Baily's ' Eve,' en- 
riched all the principal apartments of his 
house, and were always hospitably open to 
the inspection of art connoisseurs. Bicknell, 
moreover, became acquainted with artists 
themselves, as well as with their works ; he 
was munificent in his payments, and gene- 
rously entertained them. Bicknell had bought 
many of Turner's best works before Mr. Rus- 
kin's ad vocacy had made their beauties knoAvn. 
He had a strong desire to leave his collec- 
tion to the nation ; but for family reasons 
his pictures, which numbered 122 at his 
death, were eventually sold at Christie's 
auction rooms, realising a sum little short 
of 80,000/. (Times, 27 April 1863). The 
Marquis of Hertford bought about one-third 
for his own gallery. 

In politics and in theology Elhanan Bick- 

nell was an ardent and advanced liberal. 
He supported unitarianism consistently and 
warmly, was a principal contributor to the 
building of the Unitarian chapel at Brixton, 
and gave 1,000/. to the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association (Inquirer, 7 Dec. 1861, 
p. 895). His remarkable business powers, 
which were recognised on all sides, led to 
his being invited to become a partner in the 
great firm of Maudslay, the eminent engineer, 
but this offer was declined. In 1859 his 
health began to fail, and he retired from 
business. He passed the rest of his time at 
Herne Hill, where he died 27 Nov. 1861, aged 
72 (Inquirer, 30 Nov. 1861). He was buried 
at Norwood. 

In 1829 Bicknell married Lucinda Browne, 
a sister of Hablot Knight Browne (' Phiz '). 
He left a large family by this and a previous 
marriage, and several of his sons (one of whom 
married the only child of David Roberts, 
R.A.), in succeeding to his fortune, have 
made names for themselves in the various 
departments of art patronage, travel, and re- 
form, in which he himself took such constant 

[Waagen's Treasures of Art in Great Britain, 
i. 36, ii. 349 ; Christian Eeformer. xviii. 55 
et seq. ; Inquirer, 1861, p. 895; Art Journal, 
1862, p. 45 ; Athenaeum, 7 Dec. 1861 ; Times, 
27 April 1863 ; private information.] J. H. 

BICKNELL, HERMAN (1830-1875), 
author, orientalist, and traveller, third son of 
Elhanan Bicknell [q. v.], born at Herne Hill 
2 April 1830, received his education at Paris, 
Hanover, University College, and St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital. After taking his degree at 
the College of Surgeons in 1854, and passing 
the military medical examination, he joined 
the 59th regiment at Hong Kong in 1855 as 
assistant surgeon, whence he was transferred, 
in 1856, to the 81st regiment at Mianmir, 
Lahore. Whilst serving four years in India, 
throughout the period of the great mutiny, 
he assiduously studied oriental dialects, at 
intervals exploring portions of Java, Thibet, 
and the Himalayas. On returning to Eng- 
land, by the Indus and Palestine, he ex- 
changed into the 84th regiment, and was soon 
placed on the staff at Aldershot, but speedily 
resigned his commission, that he might devote 
himself entirely to travel and languages. 
From this period he undertook many journeys 
of various duration and difficulty, extending 
from the Arctic regions to the Andes of Ecua- 
dor, and from America to the far East, more 
especially with the object of improving him- 
self in ethnology, botany, and general science. 
In 1862 he started from London in the as- 
sumed character of an English Mohammedan 



gentleman, and, without holding intercourse 
with Europeans, proceeded to Cairo, where he 
lived for a considerable period in the native 
quarter of the city. By this time so inti- 
mately acquainted had he become with the 
habits and manners of Islam, that in the 
spring of the same year he boldly joined the 
annual pilgrimage to the shrine of Moham- 
med at Mecca, and successfully accomplished 
a dangerous exploit which no. other English- 
man had achieved without disguise of person 
or of nationality. In 1868 he passed by Aleppo 
and the Euphrates to Shiraz, w r here he resided 
some months in 1869, employed in making him- 
self thoroughly acquainted with the scenes 
and life of Persia, in order to carry out more 
efficiently the great work of his life, a metri- 
cal and literal translation of the chief poems 
of Hafiz, which, during fifteen, years, had been 
under revision. But on 14 March 1875, before 
the manuscripts had received their final cor- 
rections, his life was abruptly terminated by 
disease, induced or hastened by the wear of 
constant change of climate, exposure in moun- 
tain exploration, and by an accident in an at- 
tempt to ascend the Matterhorn. He died 
in London, and was buried at Ramsgate. As 
a traveller he had great powers of endurance, 
he was a fair draughtsman, and as a linguist 
of unsurpassed ability ; his varied accomplish- 
ments being also united with the happiest 
power of lucidly explaining the most abstruse 
theories of metaphysics and etymology, which 
his extensive reading had mastered. Besides 
the translation of Hafiz (posthumously issued) 
he published a few pamphlets. 

[Bicknell's Hafiz of Shiraz, 4to, 1875 ; Times, 
25 Aug. 1862; reviews in periodical literature, 
December 1875 to September 1876; private in- 
formation.] A. S. B-L. 

BICKNELL, M (1695 P-1723), actress, 
was sister of Mrs. Younger, an actress, who 
survived her some years. Mrs. Younger in- 
formed Mrs. Saunders, a well-known actress 
who had for some years quitted the stage, 
that her father and mother, James and Mar- 
garet Younger, were born in Scotland ; that 
the former rode in the third troop of the 
Guards, and served several years in Flanders 
under King "William, and that the latter was 
a Keith, ' nearly related to the late earl 
marshall.' The letter giving these facts is 
written from Watford to the author of the 
' History of the English Stage,' obviously in 
response to a request for information, and is 
dated 22 June 1736. It does not appear 
whether the name of Bicknell, which is 
frequently written Bignell, was taken for 
the purpose of distinguishing the bearer from 
her sister, or whether it is that of a husband. 

On 7 Nov. 1706 we first hear of Mrs. Bick- 
nell playing, at the Haymarket, ' Edging, a 
Chambermaid,' in * The Careless Husband' of 
Gibber, her associates including Wilks, Gibber, 
Mrs. Oldfield, and Mrs. Barry. Subsequent 
years saw her appear as Miss Prue in Con- 
greve's ' Love for Love/ Miss Hoyden in the 
' Relapse ' of Vanbrugh, Melantha (the great 
role of Mrs. Mountfort) in i Marriage a la 
Mode,' and other characters of which sauci- 
ness and coquetry are the chief features. 
Her name appears to a petition signed by 
Barton Booth and other actors of Drury 
Lane Theatre, presented apparently about 
1710 to Queen Anne, complaining of the re- 
strictions upon the performances of the peti- 
tioners imposed by the lord chamberlain. 
She remained at Drury Lane from 1708 to 
1721, on 14 Feb. of which year she ' created r 
the character of Lady Wrangle in Gibber's 
comedy, the ' Refusal.' Her last recorded ap- 
pearance was on 2 April 1723. The ' Daily 
Journal' of 25 May following announces her 
death from consumption. Steele had a high 
opinion of her. In the < Tatler ' for5 May 1709 
he calls her pretty Mrs. Bignell, and in that for 
16 April previous he says that in the l Country 
Wife ' she ' did her part very happily, and had 
a certain grace in her rusticity, which gave 
us hopes of seeing her a very skilful player, 
and in some parts supply our loss of Mrs. 
Verbruggen.' In the ' Spectator ' for Mon- 
day, 5 May 1712, he talks of her ' agreeable 
girlish person,' and her ' capacity of imita- 
tion,' and in the ' Guardian ' for 8 May 1713 
he calls her his friend, and gives a singularly 
pleasant picture of her winning ways. Her 
signature to the petition mentioned above is 
M. Bicknell, suggesting that her name might 
be Margaret, like her mother. 

[Genest's English Stage ; History of the Eng- 
lish Stage (Curll), 1741 ; Davies's Dramatic 
Miscellanies; Chalmers's British Essayists, vols. 
i., xi., 16.] J. K. 

ANDER (d. 1349), archbishop of Dublin, was 
prebendary of Maynooth and treasurer of Ire- 
land, when in 1310 he was elected to the arch- 
bishopric by the two cathedral chapters of 
Dublin on the resignation of Ferings. His 
election, however, was set aside by Edward II 
in favour of Lech. On the death of Lech in 
1313 Walter Thombury was elected, but died 
before consecration ; and on 29 Jan. 1314 
Bicknor received a letter from the king to 
Clement V asking that his election might 
be confirmed, and stating that he was well 
spoken of by Richard de Burgh, earl of 
Ulster, and other nobles of Ireland (Fcedera, 
ii. 468). Being employed on the king's 




business, he was for some time unable to j 
go to Rome ; nor was it until 22 July 
1317 that he was consecrated by Nicolas of 
Prato, cardinal of Ostium. The next year 
he was made lord justice of Ireland, and, ' 
After receiving this appointment, visited 
Dublin and was enthroned. He received a 
summons to the English parliament, though 
by what right does not appear (First Report 
on the Peerage, 276) ; and on 24 Sept. of l 
the same year joined the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and the Bishop of Winchester 
in publishing the excommunication of Robert l 
Bruce in a consistorial court held at St. 
Paul's (Ann. Paul. 283). That he had \ 
some care for the welfare of his province is 
evident from his foundation of a college in 
St. Patrick's church in 1320. This founda- j 
tion was confirmed by John XXII, but the 
scheme fell through for lack of students | 
(WAKE ; D' ALTON). About the same time 
he made the church of Inisboyne a prebend 
of St. Patrick's. In 1323 he was sent on an 
embassy to France, in company with Ed- 
mund, earl of Kent, the king's brother. 
Their mission was unsuccessful (Ypodigma 
Neustrice, 258). Again the next year he 
went with the earl to negotiate peace with 
France, and to treat for the marriage of the 
Prince of Wales with a daughter of the 
King of Aragon (Fcedera, iii. 45 ; Ann. 
Paul. 307). On his return the king accused 
him of causing the surrender of La Rozelle 
in Aquitaine. It was probably during his 
stay in France that he was persuaded to 
join the plan that was formed there for the 
overthrow of the Despensers, for in May 
1325 the king wrote to Pope John setting 
forth his causes of complaint against him, 
declaring that he was an enemy of his 
minister, the younger Despenser, and that 
he had wasted the revenues of Ireland, and 
praying the pope to remove him (by trans- 
lation) from the kingdom (Fcedera, iii. 152). 
When Queen Isabella returned to England 
in 1326, Bicknor joined her party, and united 
with other prelates and barons in declaring 
the Prince of Wales guardian of the king- 
dom in an assembly held at Bristol in 
October. In January he took the oath 
administered in the Guildhall to maintain 
the cause of the queen. The next year the 
see of Dublin was in the king's hands, the 
revenues being seized probably in order to 
insure a settlement of the accounts of Bick- 
nor's financial administration. In 1330 the 
archbishop was appointed papal collector. 
About this time he sheltered certain persons 
who were prosecuted as heretics by Richard, 
bishop of Ossory. The bishop complained 
to the king ; but Edward, instead of taking 

his part, kept him in exile for nine years. 
During his absence, the archbishop, in 1335, 
held a visitation in Ossory, and seized the 
revenues of the see, until the pope suspended 
his metropolitical power over the diocese. 
On 13 July 1338 he was present at the 
consecration of Richard Brintworth to the 
see of London. He is said to have preached 
a sermon in Christ Church, Dublin, against 
the swarms of beggars who infested the 
city, which stirred up the mayor to take 
measures to put down the evil. He built 
the bishop's house at Taulaght. In 1348 he 
presided at a synod held at Dublin, in which 
several important decrees were made con- 
cerning ecclesiastical discipline and govern- 
ment. During the last years of his life he 
was engaged in a dispute with Ralph, arch- 
bishop of Armagh, concerning the right to 
the primacy of Ireland. He died in 1349. 

[D' Alton's Archbishops of Dublin ; Sir James 
Ware's Antiquities of Ireland ; Bymer's Fcedera, 
ed. 1704; Annales Paulini ap. Materials for 
the Hist, of Edw. I and Edw. H, ed. Stubbs 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Stubbs's Constitutional History, ii. 
360.] W. H. 

1878), the rapid calculator and engineer, was 
born at Moreton Hampstead, a village on the 
borders of Dartmoor, where his father was a 
stonemason. As a child he showed a most 
extraordinary power of mental calculation, a 
power in which he was equalled by few and 
perhaps surpassed by none who have ever 
lived. He was about six years of age when 
he first commenced the study of figures, by 
learning to count up to ten. His instructor 
was an elder brother, and the instruction 
ceased when he could count up to one 
hundred. The gradual steps by which he 
acquired his powers of calculation, and the 
system on which he worked, are fully given 
in a paper read by him in 1856 before 
the Institution of Civil Engineers. In this 
paper, without disclaiming for himself special 
powers, he went so far as to assert that 
mental arithmetic could be taught as easily 
as ordinary arithmetic, and that its practice 
required no extraordinary powers of memory. 
From the account he gave it appeared that 
his own powers were only limited by the 
power of registering the various steps of a 
calculation as he proceeded, but that this 
ability of registration was carried to a point 
very far beyond the limits of an ordinary 
mind. It may probably be assumed without 
much question that he possessed in a great 
degree the faculty of ' visualising ' numbers, 
first recognised by Mr. Francis Galton, and 
that this faculty gave him his wonderful 



command over figures. His son and his 
grandchildren possess this visualising power, 
and they also inherit considerable calculating | 
abilities. A study of Bidder's system, partly I 
natural and partly elaborated, cannot fail to j 
be of value to all who wish to improve their | 
calculating powers; but the power with 
which he used it will not readily be rivalled. 
The lad's peculiar talents, evinced by the 
rapidity with which he answered arithmetical 
questions requiring the performance of intri- j 
cate calculations, soon drew public attention 
to him, and his father found it more profitable 
to carry him about the country and exhibit 
him as the ' calculating phenomenon ' than to 
leave him at school. Fortunately for him his 
powers attracted the attention of several emv- 
iient men, by whom he was placed at school, 
first at Camberwell, and afterwards at Edin- 
burgh. His education was completed at the 
university of Edinburgh, where, in 1822, he . 
obtained the prize given for the study of the 
higher mathematics by the magistrates of ; 
Edinburgh. It is pleasant to note that many ! 
years afterwards, in 1846, Bidder founded a } 
bursary or scholarship for poor students of ', 
401. a year, which he named the ' Jardine j 
Bursary/ in joint recognition of the univer- 
sity where he had obtained his education, and 
of the eminent man by whose influence he had 
been sent thither. After a brief employment 
in the Ordnance Survey and a still briefer trial 
of a clerkship in the office of a life assurance 
company, he took regularly to engineering. 
He was employed on several works of more 
or less importance, and became associated 
with Robert Stephenson in 1834m the London 
and Birmingham railway. A year or so later 
this brought him into parliamentary work, 
and here he soon found full scope for his mar- 
vellous powers of calculation. He could work 
out on the instant, and in his head, calcula- 
tions which would take most men a conside- 
rable time and require the use of paper and 
pencil. He was never disconcerted, and he 
was always minutely accurate. So great did 
his reputation soon become that on one oc- 
casion an opposing counsel asked that he 
should not be allowed to remain in the com- 
mittee-room, on the ground that ' nature had 
endowed him with qualities that did not 
place his opponents on a fair footing/ Nu- 
merous stories are still extant, attesting the 
skill with which he would detect a flaw in 
some elaborate set of calculations, thereby up- 
setting an opponent's case, or would support 
his own conclusions by an argument based 
on mathematical data, possibly only then put 
before him. Probably nowhere else could he 
have found so suitable a field for the exercise 
of his peculiar talents as in a parliamentary 

committee-room, nor is it easy to conceive 
a man better adapted to this special sort of 

But, besides his parliamentary practice, 
Bidder was also much employed in the actual 
practice of his profession, and as engineer 
constructed numerous railways and other 
works at home and abroad. The Victoria 
Docks (London) are considered one of his 
chief constructive works, and, after railway 
matters, hydraulic engineering principally en- 
gaged his attention. But he was more or less 
interested in a large proportion of the subjects 
coming within the wide range of engineering 
science. He was the originator of the railway 
swing bridge, the first of which was designed 
and erected by him at Reedham on the Nor- 
wich and Lowestoft Railway ; he was one of 
the founders of the Electric Telegraph Com- 
pany (the first company formed to provide 
telegraphic communication), and he was as- 
sociated, either as adviser or constructor, in 
many of the great engineering works carried 
out during the time covered by his professional 
career. He died at Dartmouth on 20 Sept. 
1878, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Stoke Fleming, an adjacent village. 

[A very full life is given in the Proc. Inst. 
C.E. Ivii. 294 ; other interesting details will be 
found in the paper on Mental Calculation, ibid. 
xv. 251.] H. T. W. 

BIDDLE, JOHN (1615-1662), unita- 
rian, was son of a tailor of Wotton-under- 
! Edge, Gloucestershire, where he was baptised 
on 14 Jan. 1615. He early showed himself 
. a youth of great promise. He was fortunate 
enough to come under the notice of George, 
j eighth Lord Berkeley, who allowed him, 
I with other scholars, an annual exhibition of 
ten pounds, though he was not yet ten 
years old. ' He was educated/ says Wood, 
' in grammar-learning in the free school, by 
John Rugg and John Turner, successive 
| teachers.' Under the latter he ' outran his 
! instructors, and became tutor to himself/ 
! While still a schoolboy he ' english'd ' 
' Virgil's Bucolics and the two first Satyrs of 
Juvenal/ These were printed in 1634, and 
dedicated to ' John Smith, Esq., of Nibley/ 
Gloucestershire, and the 'Mecsenas of the 
Wottonian muses/ He likewise 'compos'd 
and recited before a full auditory/ in the begin- 
| ning of 1634, ' an elaborate oration in Latin 
I for the funeral of an honourable school- 
i fellow/ He was a dutiful son to his mother 
i who was left a widow in straitened circum- 
I stances at this period. 

He proceeded in 1634 to Oxford, and was 
| entered a student of Magdalen Hall. ' And 
j for a time/ says Anthony a Wood, ' if I 



mistake not, was put under the tuition of 
John Oxenbridge, a person noted to be of 
no good principles.' In his college, an early 
biographer informs us, 'he did so philosophize, 
as it might be observed, he was determined 
more by reason than authority : however, 
in divine things he did not much dissent 
from the common doctrine, as may be col- 
lected from a little tract he wrote against 

On 23 June 1638 he passed B.A., and then 
became an eminent tutor in his college. On 
20 May 1641 he proceeded M.A. Before this 
date he had been ' invited to take upon him 
the care of teaching the school wherein he had 
been educated \Athence Oxon.) Soon after the 
magistrates of Gloucester, ' upon ample recom- 
mendations from the principal persons in the j 
university,' chose him ' master of the free school 
in the parish of St. Mary le Crypt in that j 
city.' He accepted this appointment, and i 
* he was much esteemed for his diligence in j 
his profession, serenity of manners, and sane- | 
tity of life/ < At length,' says Wood, < the 
nation being brought into confusion by the 
restless presbyterians, the said city garrison'd ; 
for the use of the parliament, and every one j 
vented his or their opinions as they pleased, 
he began to be free of his discourses of what j 
he studied there at leisure hours concerning I 
the Trinity, from the Holy Scriptures, having j 
not then, as he pretended, convers'd with i 
Socinian books. . . . But the presbyterian 
party, then prevalent, having notice of these | 
matters, and knowing well what mischief he 
might do among his disciples, the magistrate 
summon'd him to appear before him ; and 
after several interrogatories, a form of con- j 
fession under three heads was proposed to 
him. to make, which he accordingly did 
2 May 1644, but not altogether in the words j 
proposed. Which matter giving them no 
satisfaction, he made another confession in ! 
the same month, more evident than the j 
former, to avoid the danger of imprisonment 
which was to follow if he did deny it/ 

The matter seemed to have blown over, and I 
Biddle quietly pursued his study in Holy | 
Scripture. His manuscript which ultimately 
he meant to print and publish containing a 
statement of his religious opinions, was trea- 
cherously obtained by a supposed friend. 
The parliamentary commissioners were then 
sitting in Gloucester, and were put in posses- 
sion of his manuscript on 2 Dec. 1645. The j 
commissioners read his ' Arguments,'and forth- 
with committed their author to the common 
gaol till opportunity should offer of bringing 
his case before the House of Commons. A 
local gentleman interposing on his behalf, and 
becoming bail for him, he was allowed out 

' on condition of his appearing before parlia- 
ment when required, to answer any charges 
which might be brought against him/ 

In June 1646 Archbishop Ussher, passing- 
through Gloucester on his way to London, 
held a conference with the bailed prisoner of 
state, but could not convince him of his errors. 
The great prelate ' spoke to and used him 
with all fairness and pity, as well as strength 
of argument/ and it must be added with 
all respect ; ' for the truth is/ observes An- 
thony a Wood, ' except his opinions there 
was little or nothing blameworthy in him/ 

About six months after he had been libe- 
rated on bail, he was cited to Westminster 
to make his defence. The parliament ap- 
p^ointed a committee to examine him. He 
admitted that he did not believe in the 
Divinity of the Holy Ghost, and expressed 
his readiness to discuss the subject with 
any theologian whom they might appoint. 
There was delay, and Biddle desired Sir 
Henry Vane of the committee to see that his 
cause might be heard or he be set at liberty. 
Vane proposed this on the floor of the house, 
and otherwise showed a friendliness to Biddle 
which did not improve his prospects. Biddle 
therefore boldly published < Twelve Questions 
or Arguments drawn out of Scripture, where- 
in the commonly received Opinion touching 
the Deity of the Holy Spirit is clearly and 
fully refuted/ 1647. Prefixed is a letter to 
Vane, and at the end ' An Exposition of five 
principal Passages of the Scripture alledged 
by the Adversaries to prove the Deity of the 
Holy Ghost/ Called to the bar of the house, 
he owned the book, and was remanded to 
prison, and on 6 Sept. 1647 the * Twelve 
Arguments ' was ordered to be burnt by the 
hangman as being blasphemous. 

The ' Twelve Arguments ' attracted great 
attention, and was reprinted in the same year. 
It was answered by Matthew Poole in his 
1 Plea for the Godhead of the Holy Ghost/ 
subsequently enlarged. The letter to Vane 
is able and dignified. Nicholas Estwick, 
B.D., and others, exposed mistakes of fact in 
the book, but Biddle, who read all, would 
not admit that he was confuted. 

On 2 May 1648 an ordinance was passed 
that inflicted the penalty of death upon those 
who denied the doctrine of the Trinity. 
None the less Biddle published in the same 
year his < Confession of Faith touching the 
Holy Trinity according to Scripture/ and in 
quick succession 'The Testimonies of Ire- 
naeus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Novatianus, 
Theophilus, Origen (who lived in the first 
two centuries after Christ was born or there- 
abouts), as also of Arnobius, Lactantius, &c,, 
concerning that One God and the Persons ot 



the Trinity, with observations on the same. 
Upon the publication of the * Testimonies ' 
the assembly of divines sitting at Westminster 
made their appeal to the parliament that he 
might suffer death. The divines had given 
him up as hopelessly unconvertible. Dr. Peter 
Gunning, indeed, visited him still, but with 
no success. But parliament did not confirm 
the divines' appeal. He never was brought to j 
trial, and at length personal friends united, : 
and one of their number once more procured j 
his liberation l by becoming surety for his 
appearance whenever he might be called 
upon.' He went down with a friend to \ 
Staffordshire, and not only became his chap- | 
lain, but also a preacher in a church there. 
Tidings of these things having been conveyed 
to the lord president Bradshaw, Biddle was 
once more apprehended and closely confined. 
Almost contemporaneously his Staffordshire 
benefactor died, and left him a small legacy. 
This was ' soon devoured by the payment of 
prison fees,' and he was left in utter indi- 
gence. His chief support, it is pathetically 
recorded, consisted of ' a draught of milk from 
the cow every morning and evening.' 

Relief came unexpectedly. A learned man, 
who knew his competency, recommended him 
as a corrector of the press to Roger Daniel, 
printer, who was about to publish an edition 
of the Septuagint. This and other like lite- 
rary employment enabled him, while it lasted, 
to procure a comfortable subsistence. Thomas 
Firmin dared to deliver also at this time 
to Cromwell a petition for his release from 
Newgate. Bishop Kennet thus reports the 
Protector's answer : * You curl-pate boy, do 
you think I'll show any favour to a man who 
denies his Saviour, and disturbs the govern- 
ment P ' (Register and Chronicle, p. 761). 

On 10 Feb. 1652, by the will of Oliver, 
the parliament passed a general act of ob- 
livion. This restored Biddle and many others 
to their full liberty. The first use which 
he made of his recovered freedom was l to 
meet each Lord's day those friends whom 
he had gained in London, and expound the 
Scriptures to them.' He is also alleged to 
have translated and published at home and 
in Holland a number of Socinian books. It 
is very uncertain which were really trans- 
lated by him. He further organised a con- 
venticle, and conducted public worship. 

In 1654 he again laid himself open to 
legal penalties. He published now 'A Two- 
fold Catechism, the one simply called A 
Scripture Catechism, the other A Brief 
Scripture Catechism for Children.' Com- 
plaint was made of these catechisms in parlia- 
ment. Early in December 1654 the author 
was placed at the bar of parliament and 

asked whether he wrote the books. He 
replied by asking whether it seemed reason- 
able that one brought before a judgment-seat 
as a criminal should accuse himself. After 
debate and resolutions, he was on 13 Dec. 
' committed a close prisoner to the Gatehouse 
and forbidden the use of pen, ink, and paper, 
or the access of any visitant ; and all the 
copies of his books which could be found were 
ordered to be burnt.' 

This resolution was earned out on the 
following day, and a bill afterwards ordered 
to be brought in for punishing him. But after 
about six months' imprisonment he obtained 
his liberty at the court of the Upper or King's 
Bench, 28 May 1655. He was only out a month 
when he was entangled in a disputation with 
one John Griffin, pastor of a baptist church. 
Griffin was illiterate, and could not possibly 
have held his own against Biddle. But instead 
of mere disputation the law was invoked, an 
information was lodged against Biddle, and 
he was apprehended, and put first into the 
Poultry Compter and then into Newgate. 
At the next sessions he was indicted a't the 
Old Bailey under the obsolete and abrogated 
ordinance called the 'Draconick ordinance,' 
which had been passed on 2 May 1648, but had 
never acquired the force of law. At first the 
aid of counsel was denied him, but after a 
time, on putting in a bill of exceptions, his 
request was complied with, and the trial 
was fixed for the next day. But Cromwell 
interposed his authority and put a stop to 
the proceedings. A miserable tangle ensued. 
The upshot of the whole was that, as the 
lesser of two evils, he was ' banished to the 
Scilly Islands 5 Oct. 1655, to remain in 
close custody in the castle of St. Mary's 
during his life.' On the day previous (4 Oct.) 
there came out ' Two Letters of Mr. John 
Biddle, late Prisoner in Newgate, but now 
hurried away to some remote Island. One 
to the Lord Protector, the other to the Lord 
President LaAvrence, 1655.' He expressly 
separates himself from Socinus as to the per- 
sonality of the Holy Spirit. 

The Protector allowed him 100 crowns 
per annum. He remained in prison until 
1658. In the interval many means were 
taken to obtain his release. "Calamy inter- 
ceded. Baptist ministers interceded. He 
himself wrote with pathos and power. At 
length, through the intercession of manv 
friends, he was conveyed from St. Marys 
Castle by habeas corpus to the Upper Bench 
at Westminster, and, no accuser appearing, 
he was discharged by Lord Chief Justice 

Hereupon with alacrity he re-founded a 
1 society on congregational principles, and 




, it is believed, the lord chief 
was a prudent step, though he 

resumed his long suspended classes among 
his friends.' Thus he continued until Crom- 
well's death on 3 Sept. following. Before 
the parliament summoned by Richard Crom- 
well met, he was advised to retire into the 
country by 
justice. It 

was reluctant to assent. A committee was 
appointed by the house to examine into the 
state of religion, and one of its first acts was 
to institute an inquiry into his liberation. 
The matter subsided. He ventured back to 
London. But on 1 June 1662 he was seized in 
his lodging ' with a few of his friends who 
were assembled for divine worship, and 
carried before a justice of the peace, Sir 
Eichard Brown.' They were ' all sent to prison 
without bail.' The trial lingered. At last 
he was brought in guilty and fined ' one 
hundred pounds, and to lie in prison till 
paid ; and each of his hearers in the sum of 
twenty pounds.' In less than five weeks 
after the sentence, the closeness of his im- 
prisonment and the foulness of the air brought 
on a disease which terminated fatally. Sir 
Richard Brown refused any mitigation of the 
prison rules in his favour ; but the sheriff', 
whose name was Meynell, granted permission 
for him to be removed ' into a situation more 
favourable to his recovery.' The indulgence 
came too late. In less than two days he 
died l between the hours of five and six on 
the morning of 22 Sept. 1662, in the forty- 
seventh year of his age.' 

[Johannis Biddelii (Angli) Acad. Oxon. quon- 
dam A. M. celeb. Vita, 1682 ; Short Account of 
the Life of John Biddle, M.A., 1691 ; Wood's Ath. 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 593-603 ; Biog.Brit.; Toul- 
min's Review of the Life. Character, and Writ- 
ings, 1791 ; Edwards's Gangrsena, iii. 87 ; White- 
locke's Mem. pp. 270-1, 500, 591 ; Kushworth, 
vi. 259, 261 ; Crosby's Hist, of Baptists, i. 206- 
16; Life of Thomas Firmin, 1698, p. 10; 
Wallace's Anti-Trinitarian Biography ; Biddle's 
Works.] A. B. G. 

1878), captain and author, born at Portsea on 
5 Nov. 1807, was the son of Thomas Biddle- 
combe of Sheerness Dockyard, who died on 
12 Sept. 1844. He was educated at a school 
kept by Dr. Neave at Portsea, and joined the 
ship Ocean of Whitby as a midshipman in 
1823. After some years he left the mercan- 
tile marine, and, passing as a second master in 
the royal navy in May 1828, was soon after 
employed in surveying in the JEtna and the 
Blonde until 1833. He was in active service 
in various ships from this date until 1854, 
being specially noted for the great skill which 
he displayed in conducting naval surveys in 

many parts of the world. Whilst in the Ac- 
| tseon, in 1836, he surveyed a group of islands 
! discovered by her in the Pacific. When at- 
tached to the Talbot, 1838-42, he surveyed 
numerous anchorages on the Ionian station, 
! in the Archipelago, and up the Dardanelles 
i and Bosphorus ; examined the south shore of 
the Black Sea as far as Trebizond, as well as 
the port of Varna, and prepared a survey, 
published by the admiralty, of the bays and 
banks of Acre. He also displayed much skill 
and perseverance in surveying the Sherki 
shoals, where he discovered many unknown 
patches. A plan which he proposed for a 
' hauling-up slip ' was approved of by the au- 
thorities, and money was voted for its con- 
struction. For his survey of Port Royal 
and Kingston he received the thanks of the 
common council of Kingston, and on 20 Aug. 
1843, on the occurrence of a destructive fire- 
in that town, the services rendered by Biddle- 
combe at imminent risk to himself obtained 
for him a letter of acknowledgment from the 
merchants and other inhabitants. Few officers 
saw more active service. As master of the 
Baltic fleet, 14 March 1854, he reconnoitered 
the southern parts of the Aland islands, 
Hango Bay, Baro Sund, and the anchorage 
of Sweaborg, preparatory to taking the fleet 
to those places. He conducted the allied 
fleets to Cronstadt, and taking charge in Led 
Sund of the Prince steamer, with upwards 
of 2,000 French troops on board, he carried 
that ship to Bomarsund, and was afterwards 
present at the fall of that fortress. He was 
employed as assistant master attendant at 
Keyham Yard, Devonport, 1855-64, and from 
the latter date to January 1868 as master 
attendant of Woolwich Yard. He was made 
a C.B. 13 March 1867, but the highest rank 
he obtained in the navy was that of staff 
captain, 1 July in the same year. He was 
knighted by the queen at Windsor, 26 June 
1873, and received a Greenwich Hospital 
pension soon afterwards. His death took 
place at Lewisham, 22 July 1878. He had 
been twice married, first in 1842 to Emma 
Louisa, third daughter of Thomas Kent, who 
died 13 Aug. 1865, and secondly, in the fol- 
lowing year, to Emma Sarah, daughter of 
William Middleton, who died 6 May 1878, 

~\ Af\ * 

aged 49. 

Sir George Biddlecombe published the fol- 
lowing works : 1. * A Treatise on the Art of 
Rigging,' 1848. 2. ' Remarks on the English 
Channel,' 1850; sixth edition, 1863. 3. 'Naval 
Tactics and Trials of Sailing,' 1850. 4. < Steam 
Fleet Tactics,' 1857. This list does not in- 
clude the accounts of the surveys made by 
him in various parts of the world, and which 
were published by order of the admiralty. 



[The Autobiography of Sir George Buldle- j 
combe (1878) ; O'Byrne's Naval Biographical 
Dictionary (1861 edition), pp. 80-2.] 

G. C. B. 


TON (1809-1878), general, born 29 July : 
1809, was the second son of Robert Bid- ' 
dulph, Esq., of Ledbury; his mother was 
Charlotte, the daughter of Richard Myddle- 
ton, Esq., M.P., of Chirk Castle, of the old 
Welsh family of Myddleton of Gwaynenog. 
He became a cornet in the 1st life guards 
7 Oct. 1826, lieutenant 23 Feb. 1829, captain 
16 May 1834, and brevet-major 9 Nov. 1846. 
( )n 31 Oct. 1851 he was major in the 7th light 
dragoons, and lieutenant-colonel unattached. 
He had been gazetted 16 July 1851 as master 
of her majesty's household, for which office 
he had been selected by Baron Stockmar 
(MARTIN, Life of the Prince Consort, ii. 
382-3). On 16 July 1854 he was appointed 
an extra equerry to her majesty, and became 
colonel 28 Nov. 1854. Colonel Biddulph mar- 
ried, 16 Feb. 1857, Mary Frederica, only 
daughter of Mr. Frederick Charles "W. Sey- , 
mour, who was at one time maid of honour, 
and afterwards honorary bedchamber woman 
to the queen. He was created, 27 March 1863, 
a knight commander of the order of the Bath 
for his civil services, and was appointed, 
3 March 1866, one of the joint keepers of her \ 
majesty's privy purse, in succession to the ! 
Hon. Sir C. B. Phipps, and in conjunction 
with General the Hon. Charles Grey. On 
Grey's appointment to be private secretary 
to her majesty, 30 April 1867, Sir Thomas Bid- 
dulph became sole keeper of the privy purse. 
He became major-general 31 May 1865, and 
lieutenant-general 29 Dec. 1873, and he was 
gazetted, 1 Oct. 1877, to the brevet rank of 
general, as one of a large number of officers 
who obtained promotion under the provisions 
of article 137 of the royal warrant of 13 Aug. 
1877. Later in the same year he was sworn 
a member of the privy council. The official 
duties of Sir Thomas Biddulph involved a 
very close attendance upon the queen. He 
died at Abergeldie Mains, near Balmoral, 
after a short illness, during which he was 
daily visited by her majesty, 28 Sept. 1878, 
and was buried at Clewer. Sir Theodore 
Martin says of Sir Thomas Biddulph that ' he 
was the last survivor of the three very able 
men Sir Charles Phipps and General Grey 
being the other two who had been inti- 
mately associated with the prince from their 
position as leading members of her majesty's 
household,' and who always served the queen 
with generous devotion {Life of the Prince 
Consort, iv. 12). 
VOL. v. 

[Aberdeen Free Press, 30 Sept. 1878 ; Times, 
30 Sept. and 3 and 8 Oct. 1878; Army List; 
London Gazette; Illustrated London News, 
5 Oct. 1878; Martin's Life of the Prince Consort, 
1875-80; Queen Victoria's More Leaves from the 
Journal of a Life in the Highlands, 1884.] 

A. H. G. 


(1763-1838), evangelical divine, was the 
only son of the Rev. Thomas Biddulph by 
his first wife, -Martha, daughter and coheir 
of Rev. John Tregenna, rector of Mawgan 
in Cornwall. He was born at Claines, 
Worcestershire, 5 July 1763, but his father 
became in 1770 the vicar of Padstow in 
Cornwall, and the younger Biddulph was 
educated at the grammar school of Truro in 
that county. In his eighteenth year he ma- 
triculated at Queen's College, Oxford (23 Nov. 
1780), and took his degree of B.A. and M.A. 
in 1784 and 1787 respectively. He was or- 
dained deacon by Bishop Ross of Exeter, 
26 Sept. 1785, being licensed to the curacy 
of Padstow, and preaching his first sermon 
in its church, and after holding many cura- 
cies became the incumbent of Bengeworth 
near Evesham in 1793. Though he retained 
this small benefice for ten years, he resided 
for the greater part of his time at Bristol, " 
and it was as the incumbent from 1799 to 
1838 of St. James's, Bristol, that his reputa- 
tion as a preacher and a parish priest was 
acquired. His doctrines were at first un- 
popular among the citizens of Bristol, but in 
the course of years his services were rewarded 
by the respect and affection of his fellow- 
townsmen. He died at St. James's Square, 
Bristol, 19 May 1838, and was buried 29 May. 
His wife, Rachel, daughter of Zachariah 
Shrapnel, whom he married at Bradford, 
Wiltshire, 19 Feb. 1789, died at St. James's 
Square, Bristol, 10 Aug. 1828. Portraits 
by Opie of the Rev. Thomas Tregenna Bid- 
dulph and of his father and mother are in the 
possession of Mr. W. P. Punchard of Taun- 
ton. The catalogue of the writings of Mr. 
Biddulph occupies more than six pages of the 
'' Bibliotheca Cornubiensis.' All his works 
were of a theological character, and were 
written in support of evangelical doctrines. 
On their behalf he engaged in controversy 
with the Rev. John Hey, the Rev. Richard 
Warner, and the Rev. Richard (afterwards 
bishop) Mant. A periodical called at first 
1 Zion's Trumpet,' but afterwards known for 
many years under the title of ' The Christian 
Guardian,' was established by him in 1798. 

[Gent. Mag. x. 331-34 (1838); Bibl. Cornub. 
i. and iii. ; May's Evesham, 148 ; Rogers's Opie, 
74-5- Christian Guardian, 1838, pp. 257-63.] 

W. P. C. 




BIDGOOD, JOHN, M.D. (1624-1690), the 
son of Humphrey Bidgood, an apothecary of 
Exeter, was born in that city 13 March 1623-4. 
His father was poisoned in 1641 by his ser- 
: vant, Peter Moore, a crime for which the 
offender was tried at the Exeter assizes, and 
executed on * the Magdalen gibbet belonging 
to the city,' his dying confession being printed 
and preserved in the British Museum. The 
son was sent to Exeter College about 1640, 
and admitted a Petreian fellow 1 July 1642. 
On 1 Feb. 1647-8 he became a bachelor 
of physic at Oxford, but in the following 
June was ejected from his fellowship by the 
parliamentarian visitors. After this loss of 
nis income he withdrew to Padua, then a 
noted school of medicine, and became M.D. 
. of that university. With this diploma he re- 
turned to England, and, after a few years' 
practice at Chard, settled in his native city, 
where he remained until his death. On the 
restoration in 1660, Bidgood resumed his fel- 
lowship, and in the same year (20 Sept. 1660) 
was incorporated M.D. at Oxford. Two years 
later he resigned his fellowship, possibly be- 
cause a kinsman, who had matriculated in 
1661, was then qualified to hold it. His skill 
in medicine was shown by his admission, in 
December 1664, to the College of Physicians 
in London as honorary fellow an honour 
which he acknowledged by the gift of 100/. 
towards the erection of their new college in 
Warwick Lane and by his subsequent elec- 
tion in 1686 as an ordinary fellow. Some 
years before his death he retired to his coun- 
try house of Rockbeare. near Exeter, but he 
died in the Close, Exeter, 13 Jan. 1690-1, 
and was buried in the lady chapel in the 
cathedral. A flat stone, with an English in- 
scription, in the pavement indicated the place 
of his burial, and a marble monument with a 
Latin inscription to his memory was fixed in 
the wall of the same chapel by his nephew 
and heir. An extensive practice brought 
Dr. Bidgood a large fortune, but his good 
qualities were marred by a morose disposition 
and by a satirical vein of humour. He left 
the sum of 600J. to St. John's Hospital at 

[Prince's Worthies; Munk's College of Phy- 
sicians (ed. 1878), i. 348 ; Boase's Exeter Coll. 
67, 212, 229 ; Davidson's Bibliotheca Devon. 138 ; 
Izacke's Exeter (ed. 1731), p. 189; Eegister of 
Visitors of Oxford Univ. (Gamden Soc. 1881), pp. 
13,60,93,138.] W. P. C. 

BIDLAKE, JOHN (1755-1814), divine 
and poet, was the son of a jeweller at Ply- 
mouth, and was born in that town in 1755. 
His education was begun at the grammar 
school of that town, and he proceeded thence 

to Christ Church, Oxford, being entered on 
its books as a servitor 10 March 1774, where 
he took his degree of B.A. in: 1778, and those 
of M.A. and D.D. in 1808. He was for many 
years master of the Plymouth grammar 
school, and minister of the chapel of ease at 
Stonehouse. Neither of these posts brought 
much gain to their holder, nor were his pe- 
cuniary troubles lightened by his obtaining 
the offices of chaplain to the prince regent 
and the Duke of Clarence. He was appointed 
Bampton lecturer in 1811, but during the de- 
livery of the third discourse he was attacked 
with cerebral affection, which terminated in 
blindness. In consequence of this crushing 
misfortune he was forced to resign his curacy 
at Stonehouse, and as he was totally without 
the means of support, an appeal to the chari- 
table was made on his behalf in June 1813. 
On 17 Feb. in the following year he died at 

Bidlake's works were very numerous, both 
in divinity and poetry. He published sepa- 
. rately at least seven sermons, in addition to 
| three volumes of collected discourses on 
' various subjects (1795, 1799, and 1808). 
! His earliest poem was an anonymous l Elegy 
written on the author's revisiting the place 
of his former residence' (1788). It was 
followed by < The Sea ' (1796), < The Country 
Parson' (1797), 'Summer's Eve' (1800), 
i ' Virginia or the Fall of the Decemvirs, a 
tragedy' (1800), < Youth' (1802), and < The 
Year ' (1813). Three volumes of his poeti- 
cal works were issued in 1794, 1804, and 

1814 respectively. In 1799 he composed 
a moral tale entitled 'Eugenic, or the 
Precepts of Prudentius,' and in 1808 he is- 
sued an ' Introduction to the Study of Geo- 
graphy.' His Bampton lectures were entitled 
* The Truth and Consistency of Divine Reve- 
lation ' (1811). Three numbers of a periodi- 
cal called ' The Selector ' were published by 
him at Plymouth in 1809, but with the third 
number it expired. Bidlake was a man of 
varied talents and considerable acquirements, 
but his poetry was imitative, and the interest 
of his theological works was ephemeral. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit,; Gent. Mag. 1813, pt. i. 
560, 1814, pt. i. 410; Worth's Plymouth (2nded.) 
p. 322 ; Worth's Three Towns Bibliotheca (Trans. 
Plymouth Instit. vol. iv.] W. P. C. 

1853), botanist and traveller, was born in 

1815 at Exeter, his father being a well- 
known citizen of that place. At an early age 
he went out to New South Wales, and entered 
into business as a merchant at Sydney. In 
February 1839 he started upon an exploring 
expedition in New Zealand. From Tawranga 


he made his way into hitherto unknown 
regions. So savage were the native tribes 
,at that period that, shortly before the travel- : 
ler's arrival at Tawranga, a band from Koturoa 
had seized a number of people and cooked 
them absolutely in sight of the inhabitants 
of the surrounding villages. Bidwill ex- 
plored the shores of Lake Taupo ; amongst j 
other discoveries made, he found in the vici- j 
nity of Koturoa a species of eugenia, identi- 
fied as the Earina mucronata. In the moun- 
tains of the Arrohaw he met with the 
gigantic tree fern, the Mummuke. He next 
investigated the great plain of the Thames 
or Wai ho. 

Bidwill fell a victim to the spirit of inves- 
tigation. While engaged in marking out a 
new road he was accidentally separated from 
his party, and lost himself, without his com- 
pass, in the bush. He struggled to extricate ' 
himself, remaining on one occasion eight 
days without food. In cutting his way with 
.a pocket-hook through the scrub, he brought 
on internal inflammation, of which he even- 
tually died. Bidwill was an ardent botanist. 
He contributed to the ' Gardener's Chronicle ' | 
many interesting papers upon horticultural 
subjects, but more especially on hybridising, 
in which he was an adept. f To him,' says 
Professor Lindley, ' we owe the discovery of | 
the famous Bunya-Bunya tree, subsequently j 
named after him Araucaria Bidwilli, and of j 
the Nymphcea giyantea, that Australian rival ' 
of the Victoria. By his friends, of whom he 
had more than most men, his loss will be 
found to be irreparable, and the colony in 
which he died could ill afford to lose him.' 
Bidwill, who died at Tinana, Maryborough, 
in March 1853, was commissioner of crown 
lands and chairman of the bench of magis- 
trates for the district of Wide Bay, New 
South Wales. 

[Bidwill's Rambles in New Zealand, 1841 ; 
'Gardener's Chronicle, March 1853 ; Gent. Mag. 
1853.] G. B. S. 

1850), miniature painter, was born at East 
>Quantoxhead, near Bridgwater, Somerset, 
in 1784. Her parents were apparently of 
very humble station. She was born without 
-arms, hands, or legs (Handbill in British Mu- 
seum, 1881 a 2, where her name is printed 
Benin). Her height never exceeded thirty- 
seven inches ; but by indomitable perseverance 
she contrived, by means of her mouth, to use 
the pen, the pencil, and paint-brush, and even 
the scissors and needle. Her first instructor 
was a Mr. Dukes (Gent. Mag. xxxiv. new 
series, 668), to whom she bound herself, and 
with whom she stayed sixteen years. In 

1812 she was carried round the country to 
exhibit her powers and ingenuity, and was 
at Swaffham in October, the race week 
(Sandbilf). A commodious booth was hired 
there for her : the pit seats were Is., the 
gallery seats Qd. Miss Biffin wrote her auto- 
graph for her visitors, drew landscapes before 
them, and painted miniatures (the charge for 
which, on ivory, was three guineas) ; and 
her ' conductor^' probably Mr. Dukes, pro- 
mised to give a thousand guineas if she were 
not found to produce all he described. It is 
complained that Miss Biffin received only 51. 
per annum from Mr. Dukes (Gent. Mag.} 
The Earl of Morton, becoming acquainted 
with Miss Biffin's talents, had further in- 
struction given to her in painting by Mr. 
Craig, then popular for his portraits and 
'Keepsake' illustrations (REDGRAVE, Dic- 
tionary of Artists). The poor little artist was 
patronised by the royal family, and she ma- 
naged to support herself by her art, receiving 
a medal from the Society of Artists in 1821. 
She finally retired to Liverpool. There age 
overtook her, exertions of her extraordinary 
kind grew very painful, and she fell into 
poverty, which was only lightened by the 
benevolence of Mr. Richard Rathbone, who 
organised a subscription for her benefit. She 
died 2 Oct. 1850, aged sixty-six years. 

[Chambers's Book of Days, vol. ii. p. 404 ; 
Redgrave's Diet of Artists of British School ; 
Handbill to the Nobility, Ladies, and Gentle- 
men, No. 1881 a 2, Brit. Mus. ; Gent. Mag. vol. 
xxxiv. new series, 1850, p. 668.] J. H. 


BIGG, JOHN STANYAN (1828-1865), 
poet and journalist, was born at Ulverston 
14 July 1828. He was educated at the old 
Town Bank School in that town, and at an 
early age began to exhibit strong literary 
predilections. It is said that the ' Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments ' first fired him with 
imaginative ardour. He would recite the 
oriental stories to his companions, and as 
the latter recompensed him for so doing, 
young Bigg was able to indulge the love of 
books, and became possessed of the works of 
the best English poets. At thirteen he was 
sent by his father to a boarding school in 
Warwickshire. On his return to his native 
town, he assisted his father in the conduct of 
his business. Soon afterwards the family re- 
moved to the beautiful vicinity of Penny 
Bridge. His poetical enthusiasm was here 
stirred into action, and he penned many 
attractive lyrics. 

Returning to Ulverston, he published in 
1848 his first work, ' The Sea King,' a metri- 

c 2 




cal romance in six cantos, with very copious 
historical and illustrative notes. The ro- 
mance arose out of a study of Sharon Tur- 
ner's 'History of the Anglo-Saxons.' In 
conception it has something in common with 
Fouq ue's l Undine/ though Bigg states that 
book to have been unknown to him at the time 
of the composition of his own work. The 
* Sea King ' interested several men of letters, 
including Lord Lytton and James Mont- 
gomery. Bigg was now appointed editor 
of the ' Ulverston Advertiser/ a post which 
he occupied for several years. He subse- 
quently went to Ireland, and edited for some 
years the ' Downshire Protestant/ the pro- 
prietor of which was Mr. W. Johnston, of 
Ballykilbeg House, the author of ' Night- 
shade/ and other works. At Downpatrick 
Bigg married Miss R. A. H. Pridham. In 

1859 the Burns centenary was celebrated, 
and his ode competing for the Crystal Palace 
prize was selected by the three judges as 
one of the six best. 

Previous to his Irish experiences, Bigg 
had written his most important poem, t Night 
and the Soul.' It appeared in 1854. Bigg 
belonged to that class of poets which acquired 
the name of the l Spasmodic School/ a school 
severely travestied by Professor Ay toun in his 
spasmodic tragedy of l Firmilian.' 

In 1860 Bigg left Ireland and returned to 
Ulverston, where he became both editor and 
proprietor of the f Advertiser/ which position 
he continued to occupy until his death. In ! 

1860 he also published a novel in one volume, : 
entitled ' Alfred Staunton/ which met with a 
favourable reception. In 1862 appeared his 
last work, ( Shifting Scenes, and other Poems.' 
In the course of his brief career Bigg was 
a contributor to the ' Critic/ { Literary Ga- 
zette/ ' London Quarterly Review/ l Eclectic 
Review/ 'Church of England Review/ 'Scot- 
tish Quarterly Review/ ' Dublin University 
Magazine/ and ' Hogg's Instructor.' In all 
the private relations of life he was most 
estimable, and his premature death was 
widely lamented. He died 19 May 1865, in 
his thirty-seventh year. 

[Works of Bigg; Gent. Mag. 1865; Gilfillan's 
Literary Portraits ; Athenfeum, 1854 and 1862 ; 
Ulverston Advertiser, 25 May 1865.] a. B. S. 

1828), painter, was a pupil of Edward Penny, 
R.A., and by choice of his subjects at least a 
faithful follower of his master. In 1778 he 
entered the Academy schools. Bigg de- 
lighted in depicting florid children. The 
first of many engaging works of this class 
was exhibited in 1778, 'Schoolboys giving 
Charity to a Blind Man.' It was followed 

a year later by one similar, ' A Lady and 
her Children relieving a Distressed Cot- 
tager.' Besides these his ' Palemon and 
Lavinia/ the ' Shipwrecked Sailor Boy/ and 
' Youths relieving a Blind Man ' were highly 
popular works, and were all engraved. Two- 
good pictures from his easel are preserved in 
the Cottonian Museum at Plymouth. He 
had not the naive rusticity of Wheatley, nor 
the rough and ready naturalism of Morland, 
though by choice of subjects and general man- 
ner of treatment he would rightly be classed 
with those painters. He was highly popular 
in his day, and the best engravers were em- 
ployed upon his work. In 1787 he became 
A.R.A., and was elected academician in 1814. 
He sat to C. R. Leslie for the knight in ' Sir 
Roger de Coverley.' The younger painter 
spoke eloquently of his fine presence and ge- 
nial nature. He died in Great Russell Street 
on 6 Feb. 1828. 

[G-ent. Mag. vol. xcviii. pt. i. p. 376 ; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists of the Eng. School.] 

E. R. 

BIGLAND, JOHN (1750-1832), school- 
master and author, was born of poor parents 
at Skirlaugh, or Skirlaw, in Holderness in 
Yorkshire, and died, at the age of eighty- 
two, at Aldbrough (PouLSON, History of Hoi' 
derness, ii. 19) or, according to other authori- 
ties, at Finningley near Doncaster. He began 
life as a village schoolmaster. At the age- 
of fifty (1803) he published his first work, 
' Reflections on the Resurrection and Ascen- 
sion of Christ/ occasioned, as he tells us him- 
self, by his religious scepticism. Having 
removed his own doubts, he ventured to 
place the reasons for his convictions in print. 
His work was a success, and the encourage- 
ment he received in consequence determined 
him to follow a literary career. He soon 
developed into a professional author, and pub- 
lished in rapid succession a series of popular 
books, chiefly connected with geography and 
history. Towards the end of his life he re- 
sided at Finningley, and used to spend a 
portion of his time in his garden rearing 
flowers and vegetables. His long scholastic 
life has given to the majority of his books a 
distinctly practical turn. 

He was the author of sundry articles in 
the magazines ; of a continuation to April 
1808 of Lord Lyttletons 'History of Eng- 
land in a Series of Letters from a Nobleman 
to his Son ; ' and of an addition of the whole 
period of the third George to Dr. Goldsmith's 
' History of England.' His other works are : 
1. ' Reflections on the Resurrection and As- 
cension of Christ/ 1803. 2. ' Letters on the 
Study and Use of Ancient and Modern His- 




tory,' 1804. 3. 'Letters on the Modern 
History and Political Aspect of Europe/ 
1804. 4. ' Essays on Various Subjects/ 2 
vols. 1805. 5. ' Letters on Natural History/ 
1806. 6. 'A Geographical and Historical 
View of the World, exhibiting a complete 
Delineation of the Natural and Artificial Fea- 
tures of each Country/ &c., 5 vols. 1810. 
7. 'A History of Spain from the Earliest 
Period to the close of the year 1809 ' (trans- 
lated and continued by Le Comte Mathieu 
Dumas to the epoch of the Restoration, 1814), 
2 vols. 1810. 8. A Sketch of the History 
of Europe from the year 1783 to the Present 
Time/ in a later edition continued to 1814 
{translated, and augmented in the military 
part, and continued to 1819 by J. MacCarthy, 
Paris, 1819), 2 vols. 1811. 9. /The Philo- 
sophical AVanderers, or the History of the 
Roman Tribune and the Priestess of Minerva, 
exhibiting the vicissitudes that diversify the 
fortunes of nations and individuals/ 1811. 

10. 'Yorkshire/ being the 16th volume of 
the * Beauties of England and Wales,' 1812. 

11. ' A History of England from the Earliest 
Period to the Close of the War, 1814,' 2 vols. 

1815. 12. l A System of Geography for the 
Use of Schools and Private Students/ 1816. 
13. ' An Historical Display of the Effects of 
Physical and Moral Causes on the Character 
and Circumstances of Nations, including a 
Comparison of the Ancients and Moderns in 
regard to their Intellectual and Social State/ 

1816. 14. ' Letters on English History for 
the Use of Schools/ 1817. 15. 'Letters on 
French History for the Use of Schools/ 
1818. 16. ' A Compendious History of the 
Jews/ 1820. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Rhodes's Yorkshire Rce- 
nery ; Gent. Mag. 1832; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Poul- 
son's History of Holderness, ii. 19; Annual Bio- 
graphy.] J. M. 

BIGLAND, RALPH (1711-1784), Gar- 
ter king-of-arms, was born at Kendal in 
Westmoreland in 1711, his father being 
Richard Bigland, the descendant of an old 
family originally from Bigland in Lancashire. 
He was appointed head of the College of Arms 
in 1780, after passing through all the minor 
offices. He had been elected Bluemantle in 
1757, Somerset and registrar 17(53, Norroy 
Idng-of-arms May 1773, Clarenceux August 
1774 ; but he enjoyed his elevation as Garter 
Idng-of-arms only a few years, dying 27 March 
1784 at the age of seventy-three", in St. James's 
Street , Bedford Row. He married at Frocester, 
13 June 1737, Ann, daughter of John Wil- 
kins of that town, by whom he had one son, 
born on 3 April 1738 /and who died at the early 
age of twenty-two on 1 Dec. 1738. Bigland 

afterwards married Ann, daughter of Robert 
Weir ; this marriage also being of short du- 
ration, for she died 5 April 17<K>, leaving no 
issue. The collections which he had made 
during his lifetime for a history of Glouces- 
tershire were intended to have been arranged 
and presented by him to the public. After his 
death they were partly published by his son, 
Richard Bigland of Frocester, Gloucester- 
shire, under the title of ' Historical, Monu- 
mental, and Genealogical Collections relative 
to the County of Gloucester' (fol. 1791-2)^ 1 - 
Among some of his other literary labours may 
be mentioned his 'Account of the Parish of 
Fairford, co. Gloucester, with a description 
of the celebrated windows and monuments.' 
In 1764 he also published a small work en- 
titled l Observations on Marriages, Baptisms, 
and Burials, as preserved in Parochial Regis- 
ters/ in which he pointed out the necessity of 
these documents being accurately kept '"for 
the benefit of society.' An interesting cor- 
respondence between him and Mr. G. Allan 
on various subjects was published in Nichols's 
' Literary Anecdotes.' 

[Noble's History of the College of Arms, 1804, 
417-18; Lowndes's Bibliographers' Manual, 1864, 
i. 203 ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 1814, viii. 
713-18 ; Gent. Mag. 1788, Iviii. 344 ; 1791, Ixi. 
345, 725 ; 1793, Ixiii. 655.] T. F. T. D. 

BIGNELL, HENRY (1611-1660?), di-#/ 
vine, the son of Foulk Bignell of Souldern, * c< 
Oxfordshire, was born in the parish of St. ^ 3< 
Mary, Oxford, in July 1611. In 1629 he 
became a servitor of Brasenose College, and 
subsequently entered at St. Mary's IlalL 
After taking the degree of B.A. he was or- 
dAined and set up as a schoolmaster. In 
1645 he was made rector of St. Peter-le- 
Bayly, Oxford, but was ejected from his 
benefice for scandalous conduct. Shortly 
before the Restoration he went out to the 
W T est Indies, where he seems to have died. 
According to Wood he published, in 1640, a 
book ' for the education of youth in know- 
ledge/ called ' The Son's Portion/ and was 
the author of some other ' trivial things not 
worth mentioning.' 

[Wood's Athense, iii. 406, and Fasti, i. 465.1 

A. R. B. 

M .] 


(1508-1537), rebel, of Settrington and Mul- 
grave Castle in Yorkshire, was descended from 
John, brother and heir of Roger Bigod, sixth 
earl of Norfolk. His grandfather, Sir Ralph 
Bigod, died in 1515, leaving Francis, then 
aged seven, his heir (Inq. p.m. 7 Hen. VIII, 




Nos. 139, 144) ; for his father, John Bigod, 
had fallen in the Scotch wars. He had 
livery of lands by patent, 21 Dec. 1529 
(Pat. 21 Hen. VIII, p. i., m. 28), and was 
soon afterwards knighted. He spent some 
time at Oxford, but took no degree, though 
his letters show that he was a scholar. In 
1527 and the following years he was in the 
service of Cardinal Wolsey, and under Crom- 
well, Wolsey's successor in the favour of 
Henry VIII, was engaged in advancing in 
Yorkshire the king's reforms in church mat- 
ters. Nevertheless in 1536 we find him 
implicated (though unwillingly) in the Pil- 
grimage for Grace, an insurrection produced 
by these reforms. In January 1537 he 
headed an unsuccessful rising at Beverley, 
and for this was hanged at Tyburn on 2 June 
1537. By his wife Katharine, daughter of 
William, Lord Conyers, he left a son, Ralph, 
who was restored in blood by act of parlia- 
ment, 3 Edward VI, but died without issue, 
and a daughter, Dorothy, through whom the 
estates passed to the family of KadclyiFe. 
Rastell (the chronicler) in a letter to Crom- 
well, 17 Aug. [1534] (Cal. of State Papers 
Hen. FZZJ, vol. vii. no. 1070), calls Bigod wise 
and well learned ; and Bale describes him as 
' homo naturalium splendore nobilis ac doctus 
et evangelicse veritatis amator.' His letters 
to Cromwell, many of which are preserved 
in the Public Record Office, show him to 
have been deeply in debt, He wrote a trea- 
tise on ' Impropriations,' against the impro- 
priation of parsonages by the monasteries 
(London, by Tho. Godfray cum privileyio re- 
ffali, small 8vo). It appears to have been 
written after the birth of Elizabeth aud 
before Anne Boleyn's disgrace, i.e. betwe&n 
September 1533 and April 1536. Copies are 
in the British Museum and in Lambeth li- 
brary, and the preface is reprinted at the 
end of Sir Henry Spelman's ' Larger work of 
Tithes ' (1647 edition). Bigod also translated 
some Latin works, and, during the insurrec- 
tion, wrote against the royal supremacy. 

[Calendar of State Papers, Henry VIII, vols. 
iv. and onwards; Tanner's Bibliotheca ; Bale; 
Fuller's Worthies, ii. 209 ; Wood's Athen. Oxon. 
i. 101 ; Wriothesley's Chronicle, i. 64; Blome- 
field's Norfolk, v. 228.] E. H. B. 

(d. 1176 or 1177), was the second son of 
Roger Bigod, the founder of the house in Eng- 
land after the Conquest. The origin of the 
name is quite uncertain. The French called 
the Normans ' bigoz e draschiers ' (Pom. de 
Ron, iii. 4780) in contempt. The second word 
is said to mean beer-drinkers ; the other has j 
been explained as a nickname derived from i 

the oath ' bi got ' commonly used by the early 
Normans. But whether the family name 
Bigod had any connection with this term 
or not, it is evident that in England in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries it was 
punned upon in words of profane swearing 
(WRIGHT'S Political Songs, pp. 67, 68 j HEM- 
IITGBTJRGH'S Chronicle, ii. 121). 

The first person who, bearing the name of 
Bigod or Bigot, appears in history is Robert 
le Bigod, a poor knight, who gained the 
favour of William, duke of Normandy, by 
discovering to him the intended treachery of 
William, count of Mortain. This Robert 
may have been the father of Roger, and one or 
the other, or both, may have been present at 
the battle of Hastings. In the ' Roman de 
Rou,' iii. 8571-82, the ancestor of Hugh Bigod 
(perhaps the above Robert) is named as 
holding lands at Malitot, Loges, and Chanon 
in Normandy, and as serving the duke in his 
household as one of his seneschals. He was 
small of body, but brave and bold, and as- 
saulted the English gallantly. Roger Bigod 
is not traced in English records before 1079, 
but by this time he may have been endowed 
with the forfeited estates of Ralph de Guader, 
earl of Norfolk, whose downfall took place 
in 1074. In Domesday he appears as hold- 
ing six lordships in Essex, and 117 in Suffolk. 
From Henry I he received the gift of Fram- 
lingham, which became the principal strong- 
hold of him and his descendants. He like- 
wise held the office of king's dapifer, or 
steward, under William Rufus and Henry I. 
He died in 1107, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, William, who, however (26 Nov. 
1120), was drowned in the wreck of the 
White Ship. Roger's second son, Hugh, thus 
entered into possession of the estates. 

At the time of his father's death, whom 
he survived some seventy years, Hugh must 
have been quite a young child. Little, is 
heard of him at first, no doubt on account of 
his youth, but he appears as king's dapifer in. 
1123, and before that date he was constable 
of Norwich Castle and governor of the city 
down to 1122, when it obtained a charter 
from the crown. Passing the best years of 
his manhood in the distractions of the civil 
wars of Stephen and Matilda, when men's 
oaths of fealty sat lightly on their con- 
sciences, he appears to have surpassed his 
fellows in acts of desertion and treachery, 
and to have been never more in his element 
than when in rebellion. His first prominent 
action in history was on the death of Henry I 
in 1135, when he is said to have hastened to 
England, and to have sworn to Archbishop 
William Corbois that the dying king, on 
some quarrel with his daughter Matilda, had 

Bigod s 

disinherited her, and named Stephen of Blois 
his successor. Stephen's prompt arrival in 
England settled the matter, and the waver- 
ing prelate placed the crown on his head. 
Hugh's reward was the earldom of Norfolk. 
The new king's energy at first kept his fol- 
lowers together, but before Whitsuntide in 
the next year Stephen was stricken with 
sickness, a lethargy fastened on him, and the 
report of his death was quickly spread abroad/ 
A rising of the turbulent barons necessarily j 
followed, and Bigod was the first to take up j 
arms. He seized and held Norwich ; but j 
Stephen, quickly recovering, laid siege to the j 
city, and Hugh was compelled to surrender. I 
Acting with unusual clemency, Stephen | 
spared the traitor, who for a short time re- ! 
mained faithful. But in 1140 he is said to 
have declared for the empress, and to have j 
stood a siege in his castle of Bungay ; yet I 
in the next year he is in the ranks of 
Stephen's army which fought the disastrous 
battle of Lincoln. In the few years which j 
followed, while the war dragged on, and 
Stephen's time was fully occupied in subdu- 
ing the so-called adherents of the empress, 
who were really fighting for their own hand, 
the Earl of Norfolk probably remained within ! 
his own domains, consolidating his power, | 
and fortifying his castles, although in 1143-4 j 
he is reported to have been concerned in the j 
rising of Geoffrey de Mandeville. The quar- 
rel between the king and Archbishop Theo- 
bald in 1148 gave the next occasion for 
Hugh to come forward ; he this time sided 
with the archbishop, and received him in 
his castle of Framlingham, but joined with 
others in effecting a reconciliation. Five 
years later, in 1153, when Henry of Anjou j 
landed to assert his claim to the throne, Bi- 
god threw in his lot with the rising power, | 
and held out in Ipswich against Stephen's ' 
forces, while Henry, on the other side, laid 
siege to Stamford. Both places fell, but in ' 
the critical state of his fortunes Stephen was , 
in no position to punish the rebel. Nego- 
tiations were also going on between the two 
parties, and Hugh again escaped. 

On Henry's accession in December 1154, 
Bigod at once received a confirmation of his 
earldom and stewardship by charter issued 
apparently in January of the next year. The 
first years of the new reign were spent in 
restoring order to the shattered kingdom, 
and in breaking the power of the independent 
barons. It was scarcely to be expected that 
Hugh should rest quiet. He showed signs 
of resistance, but was at once put down. In 
1 157 Henry marched into the eastern coun- 
ties and received the earl's submission. After 
this Hugh appears but little in the chronicles 

5 Bigod 

for some time ; only in 1169 he is named 
among those who had been excommunicated 
by Becket. This, however, was in conse- 
quence of his retention of lands belonging to 
the monastery of Pentney in Norfolk. In 
1173 the revolt of the young crowned prince 
Henry against his father, and the league of 
the English barons with the kings of France 
and Scotland in his favour, gave the Earl of 
Norfolk another opportunity for rebellion. 
He at once became a moving spirit in the' 
cause, eager to revive the feudal power 
which Henry had curtailed. The honour of 
Eye and the custody of Norwich Castle were 
promised by the young prince as his reward. 
But the king's energy and good fortune were 
equal to the occasion. While he held in 
check his rebel vassals in France, the loyal 
barons in England defeated his enemies here.' 
Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester (d. 
1190) fq. v.], landing at Walton, in Suffolk, 
on 29 Sept. 1173, had marched to Framling- 
ham and joined forces with Hugh. Together 
they besieged and took, 13 Oct., the castle of 
Ha genet in Suffolk, held by Randal de Broc 
for the crown. But Leicester, setting out 
from Framlingham, was defeated and taken 
prisoner at Fornham St. Genevieve, near 
Bury, by the justiciar, Richard de Lucy, and 
other barons, who then turned their arms 
against Earl Hugh. Not strong enough to 
fight, he opened negotiations with his as- 
sailants, and, it is said, bought them off, at 
the same time securing for the Flemings in 
his service a safe passage home. In the next 
year, however, he was again in the field, with 
the aid of the troops of Philip of Flanders, 
and laid siege to Norwich, which he took by 
assault and burned. But Henry returned to 
England in the summer, and straightway 
marched into the eastern counties ; and when 
Hugh heard that the king had already de- 
stroyed his castle of Walton, and was ap- 
proachingFramlingham, he hastened to make 
his submission at Laleham on 25 July, sur- 
! rendering his castles, which were afterwards 
; dismantled, and paying a fine. After these 
! events Hugh Bigod ceases to appear in his- 
1 tory. His death is briefly recorded under 
the year 1177, and is generally mentioned as 
i occurring in the Holy Land, whither he had 
accompanied Philip of Flanders on a pil- 
grimage. It is to be observed, however, 
that on 1 March of that year his son Roger 
appealed to the king on a dispute with his 
i stepmother, Hugh being then dead, and that 
' the date of his death is fixed ' ante caput 
! jejunii,' i.e. before 9 March. If, then, he 
I died in Palestine, his death must have taken 
i place in the preceding year, 1176, to allow 
time for the arrival of the news in England. 



Henry took advantage of Roger's appeal to 
seize upon the late earl's treasure. Besides 
the vast estates which he inherited, Hugh 
Bigod was in receipt of the third penny 
levied in the county of Norfolk. He was 
twice married, his first wife being Juliana, 
sister of Alberic de Vere, earl of Oxford, by j 
whom he had a son, Roger, d. 1221 [q. v. J, j 
his successor ; and his second, Gundreda, 
who after his death was married to Roger 
de Glaiiville. 

[Chronicles of Henry of Huntingdon, Rog. de | 
Hoveden, Had. de Diceto, Benedict of Peter- j 
borough, Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Series, j 
passim) ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 132 ; Blom- 
tield's Hist, of Norfolk, iii. 24 seq. ; Stubbs's j 
Constitutional History and Early PJantagenets ; 
Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II ; Additional MS. 
31939 (Eyton's Pedigrees), f. 129.] E. M. T. 

BIGOD, HUGH (d. 1266), the justiciar, i 
was the younger son of Hugh Bigod, third ! 
earl of Norfolk. Nothing is known of his ' 
early life. In 39 Henry III he was made 
chief ranger of Farndale Forest, Yorkshire, 
in consideration of a payment of 500 marks, ; 
and in the next year became governor of the ! 
castle of Pickering. In 1257 he accompanied 
Henry in his expedition into Wales. In 1258, 
on the formation of the government under 
the Provisions of Oxford, of which his brother, 
Roger, d. 1270 [q. v.], earl of Norfolk and mar- 
shal of England, was a member, Bigod was 
named chief justiciar, and in that capacity had 
the custody of the Tower of London. He was 
likewise made governor of Dover Castle, but 
resigned that place in 1261. He must at this 
period have been very wealthy, for he paid 
3,000/. for the wardship of William de Kime, 
of Lincolnshire. His character as a judge has 
been placed high by Matthew Paris : t legum 
terrae peritum, qui officium justiciaries strenue 
peragens nullatenus permittat jus regni va- 
cillare.' In 1259-60 he went with two of 
the principal judges on a circuit to adminis- 
ter justice throughout the kingdom. Soon 
after he became governor of Scarborough, and 
about the end of 1260 he resigned his office 
of justiciar, probably from dissatisfaction 
with the conduct of the barons. He after- 
wards, in 1263, joined the royal party, and 
was present on the king's side at the "battle 
of Lewes on 14 May 1264, but fled from the 
field. He was afterwards reappointed to the 
government of Pickering Castle. He died 
about November 1266, leaving a son, Roger, 
who became in 1270 the fifth earl of Norfolk 
[q. v.] Bigod was twice married : first to 
Joanna, daughter of Robert Burnet : and 
secondly to Joanna, daughter of Nicholas de 
Stuteville and widow of Hugh Wake. 

[Chronicles of Matthew Paris and Gervase of 
Canterbury (Rolls Ser.) ; Dugdale's Baronage-, i. 
135 ; Foss's Judges of England, ii. 239 ; Stubbs's 
Constitutional History.] E. M. T. 

BIGOD, ROGER (d. 1221), second EARL 
OF NORFOLK, was son of Hugh, first earl [q. v. ] 
On the death of his father in 1176, he and his 
stepmother, Gundreda, appealed to the king- 
on a dispute touching the inheritance, the 
countess pressing the claims of her own son. 
Henry thereupon seized the treasures of Earl 
Hugh into his own hands, and it seems that 
during the remainder of this reign Roger had 
small power, even if his succession was al- 
lowed. His position, however, was not en- 
tirely overlooked. He appears as a witness 
to Henry's award between the kings of 
Navarre and Castile on 16 March 1177, and 
in 1186 he did his feudal service as steward 
in the court held at Guildford. 

On Richard's succession to the throne, 
3 Sept. 1189, Bigod was taken into favour. 
By charter of 27 Nov. the new king con- 
firmed him in all his honours, in the earldom 
of Norfolk, and in the stewardship of the 
royal household, as freely as Roger, his 
grandfather, and Hugh, his father, had held 
it. He was next appointed one of the ambas- 
sadors to Philip of France to arrange for the 
crusade, and during Richard's absence from 
England on that expedition he supported 
the king's authority against the designs of 
Prince John. On the pacification of the 

guarrel between the prince and the chancel- 
)r, William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, oil 
28 July 1191, Bigod was put into possession 
of the castle of Hereford, one of the strong- 
holds surrendered by John, and was one of 
the chancellor's sureties in the agreement. 
In April 1193 he was summoned with cer- 
tain other barons and prelates to attend the 
chancellor into Germany, where negotiations 
were being carried on to effect Richard's re- 
lease from captivity ; and in 1194, after the 
surrender of Nottingham to the king, he was 
present in that city at the great council held 
on 30 March. At Richard's re-coronation, 
17 April, he assisted in bearing the canopy. 
In July or August of the same year he ap- 
pears as one of the commissioners sent to 
York to settle a quarrel between the arch- 
bishop and the canons. 

After Richard's return home, Bigod's name 
is found on the records as a justiciar, fines 
being levied before him in the fifth year of 
that king's reign, and from the seventh on- 
wards. He also appears as a justice itinerant 
in Norfolk. After Richard's death, Bigod suc- 
ceeded in gaining John's favour, and in the 
first years of his reign continued to act as a 
judge. In October 1200 he was one of the 



envoys sent to summon William of Scotland 
to do homage at Lincoln, and was a witness 
.at the ceremony on '22 Nov. following ; but 
at a later period he appears to have fallen 
into disgrace, and was imprisoned in 1213. 
In the course of the same year, however, he j 
was released and apparently restored to fa- 
vour, as he accompanied the king to Poitou 
in February 1214, and about the same time 
compounded by a fine of 2,000 marks for the 
service of 120 knights and all arrears of 
scutages. Next year he joined the confede- 
rate barons in the movement which resulted 
in the grant of Magna Charta on 15 June 
1215, and was one of the twenty-five execu- 
tors, or trustees, of its provisions. He was 
consequently included in the sentence of ex- 
communication which Innocent III soon 
afterwards declared against the king's oppo- 
nents, and his lands were cruelly harried by 
John's troops in their incursions into the 
eastern counties. 

After the accession of Henry III, Bigod 
returned to his allegiance, and his hereditary 
right to the stewardship of the royal house- 
hold was finally recognised at the council of 
Oxford on 1 May 1221. But before the fol- 
lowing August he died. He was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Hugh, as third earl, who, i 
liowever, survived him only four years. 

[Chronicles of K. de Hoveden, Boned, of Peter- 
borough, and Matthew Paris (Kolls Ser.); Dug- 
dale's Baronage, i. 132; Foss's Judges of England, 
ii. 40 ; Stubbs's Constitutional History ; Eyton's 
Itinerary of Henry II.] E. M. T. 

(d. 1270), marshal of England, was grandson 
of Roger, second earl [q. v.], and son of Hugh, 
third earl, by his wife Matilda, daughter of 
William Marshal, earl of Pembroke. Being 
A minor at the time of his father's death, 
early in 1225, his wardship was granted to 
William de Longespee, earl of Salisbury, but 
was transferred to Alexander, king of Scot- 
land, on the marriage of Roger with Isabella, 
the king's sister. In 1233, when he probably 
came of age, he was knighted by Henry III 
at Gloucester, and in the same year received 
livery of the castle of Framlingham. He was 
head of the commission of justices itinerant 
into Essex and Hertfordshire, issued 1 Aug. 
1234. In 1237 he greatly distinguished him- 
.self by his prowess at the tournament at 
Blythe, Nottinghamshire, in which the rival 
barons of the north and south had a serious 
encounter. A serious illness, as late as 1257, 
was attributed to the exertions he went 
through on that occasion. He took part in 
Henry's costly expedition to France in 1242, 

and displayed great bravery in the skirmish 
at Saintes, 22 July ; but soon after he and 
other nobles asked leave to retire and re- 
turned to England. In the parliament or 
assembly of the magnates in 1244 Roger 
Bigod was appointed one of the twelve re- 
presentatives of the two estates present, lay 
and clerical, to obtain measures of reform 
from the king in return for a money grant, 
and in the next year he was one of the envoys 
sent to the council of Lyons to protest against 
papal exactions. Redress was refused, and 
the embassy retired, threatening and pro- 
testing ; and in the parliament which met on 
18 March 1246, Bigod took part in drawing 
up a list of grievances and addressing a letter 
of remonstrance to the pope. 

In 1246 also Roger Bigod was invested 
with the office of earl marshal in right of 
his mother, eldest daughter of William, earl 
of Pembroke, on whom it devolved on failure 
of the male line. Matthew Paris, the chroni- 
cler, has narrated two anecdotes of Roger 
which illustrate his resolute character. In 
1249, when the Count of Guines was passing 
through England, Roger ordered his arrest, 
in retaliation for a road tax which he had 
been forced to pay when traversing the count's 
territories on his embassy to Lyons. And 
in 1255, when, by speaking in favour of 
Robert de Ros who was in disgrace, he in- 
curred the king's anger, he openly defied 
Henry, and did not hesitate to give him the 
lie when the latter called him traitor. 

In 1253 Roger was present at the solemn 
confirmation of the charters, when sentence 
of excommunication was formally passed 
against all who violated them. He was with 
the king in France in the same year ; but in 
January 1254 was sent to England to obtain 
money from parliament. Soon after he with 
othe/nobles retired in disgust from the army 
in Gascony. In 1257 he was member of an 
abortive embassy to France to demand certain 
rights. The next year he played an important 
part in the reforms introduced under the title 
of the Provisions of Oxford, being one of 
the twelve chosen to represent the barons, 
and subsequently being also a member of the 
council formed to advise the king. In 1258 
he was one of the ambassadors to attend the 
conference at Cambray between the repre- 
! sentatives of England, France, and Germany. 
The dissensions which sprang up among the 
! barons in the course of 1 259 eventually sent 
; Roger Bigod, together with others, over to 
the king's side in opposition to Simon de 
Montfort. It is in reference to the events of 
this period that he is invoked in the political 
poem preserved by liishanger (WRIGHT'S 
Polit. Sonys, 121):" 



O tu comes le Bigot, pactum serva sanum ; 

Cum sis miles strenuus, nunc exerce manum. 
But the award of the French king, who was 
appealed to to arbitrate, and who now set 
aside the Provisions of Oxford, probably 
ranged Bigod again on the popular side. 
After the decisive battle of Lewes he is found 
holding the castle of Oxford for De Mont- 
fort's party, and he was one of the five earls 
who were summoned to the parliament of 
1265. Nothing further is known of him to 
the time of his death in 1270. He was buried 
at Thetford, and, dying without issue, was 
succeeded in his honours by his nephew 
Roger [q. v.l He had put away his wife 
Isabella of Scotland on the pretext of con- 
sanguinity, but took her again in 1253. 

[Matthew Paris (Rolls Ser.) ; Dugdale's Ba- 
ronage, i. 133 ; Foss's Judges of England, ii. 241 ; 
Htubbs's Constitutional History.] E. M. T. 

(1245-1306), marshal of England, was born in 
1245, and was the son of Hugh Bigod [q. v.], 
the justiciar, and nephew of Roger, fourth 
earl [q. v.], whom he succeeded in 1270. The 
period of his life as a baron being nearly 
synchronous with the reign of Edward I, his 
career is closely identified with the constitu- 
tional struggle with the crown in which the 
baronage played so large a part. He was 
present in the Welsh campaign of 1282, and 
had the custody of the castles of Bristol and 
Nottingham, which, however, he afterwards 
surrendered. In 1288 he was found prepar- 
ing to levy private war, but was repressed 
by Edmund of Cornwall, regent during the 
king's absence in Gascony. Edward's reforms 
had alarmed the barons, who foresaw the 
curtailment of their power under a strong 
and well-ordered government. In 1289 the 
spirit of opposition was manifested in the 
refusal of a subsidy. Then the wars with 
France, Wales, and Scotland, which are the 
principal events in the history of 1294-6, 
forced Edward to resort to measures of 
arbitrary taxation ; and when, on 24 Feb. 
1297, he summoned the baronage to meet at 
Salisbury with the view of making an effort 
for the invasion of France, the barons re- 
belled. Roger Bigod and Humphrey Bohun, 
earl of Hereford, were at the head of the 
opposition. When Edward called upon them 
to serve in Gascony while he took command 
in Flanders, they refused to go, on the plea 
that their tenure obliged them only to serve 
beyond seas in company with the king. 
Turning to Bigod Edward tried persuasion. 
' With you, king,' Bigod answered, l I will 
gladly go ; as belongs to me by hereditary- 
right, I will go in the front of the host before 

your face.' ,' But without me,' Edward urged, 
1 you will go with the rest.' ' Without you, 
king/ was the answer, ' I am not bound 
to go, and go I will not.' Edward lost. his 
temper, ' By God, earl, you shall either go or 
hang.' 'By God/ said Roger, <O king, I 
will neither go nor hang ' (HEMINGBTJKGH'S 
Chronicle, ii. 121 ; STUBBS'S Const. Hist. ii. 
144). The council broke up, and Bigod and 
Bohun were joined by more than thirty of 
the great vassals and assembled a force, but 
were content with preventing the. levy of 
money or seizure of wool and other com- 
modities on their own domains. In answer 
to a general levy of the military strength 
of the kingdom, on 7 July, the two earls re- 
fused to serve their offices of marshal and 
constable, and were therefore deprived. The 
barons then drew up a list of grievances, in 
which they were joined by Archbishop Win-, 
chelsey, the clergy having also been taxed 
with undue severity. Edward, however, 
managed to effect a reconciliation with the 
archbishop, and promised to confirm the 
charters on condition of receiving a grant. 
The archbishop undertook to consult the 
clergy, and the king persuaded the chief men 
of the commons who had attended the mili- 
tary levy to grant him an aid. But the two 
earls still kept aloof. Finally, however, they 
presented their list of grievances. But Ed- 
ward was now at the end of his patience. 
On 20 Aug. he laid a tax on the clergy, and 
two days after embarked for Flanders, leaving 
Prince Edward regent during his absence. 
The earls did not fail to use their opportunity. 
They protested against the exactions on wool, 
and "prevented the collection of an aid until 
the charters should be confirmed. In these 
proceedings they were supported by the 
citizens of London. An assembly of the mag- 
nates and knights of the shires was sum- 
moned early in October. Bigod and Bohun 
appeared in arms and with an armed force, 
and the charters, with additional articles 
whereby the king was to renounce the right 
of taxation without national consent, were 
submitted to the regent for confirmation. By 
the advice of his counsellors the prince 
yielded, and the charters were confirmed 
on 10 Oct. Early in the following month 
this confirmation was ratified by Edward at 

The king returned to England in March 
1298, and, having concluded a peace with 
France, proceeded in the summer to the in- 
vasion of Scotland. As the price of their 
attendance the earls demanded a confirmation 
of the charters by the king in person. The 
question of the limits and jurisdiction of the 
forests was the principal cause of contention. 


and Edward hesitated long. At last, at the 
parliament of Lincoln, the charters were fully 
confirmed, 14 Feb. 1301. 

Throughout these events Roger Bigod had 
been a prominent figure ; but no sooner had 
the object of the struggle been attained than 
his power appears to have collapsed. Hum- 
phrey Bohun had died in 1298, and the loss 
of his support to Bigod no doubt made it 
easier for the king to deal summarily with j 
the survivor. In 1301 the Earl of Norfolk i 
made the king his heir, and gave up the j 
marshal's rod ; and on 12 April 1302 he sur- j 
rendered his lands and title, receiving them 
back in tail on 12 July following. Seeking 
for a cause for this surrender, the chronicler 
Hemingburgh has ascribed it, not satisfac- 
torily, to a quarrel between Roger and his j 
brother John. Roger Bigod died on 11 Dec. 
1 806, without issue, and, in consequence of his 
.surrender, his dignities vested in the crown. 
He married twice : first, Alina, daughter and 
coheir of Philip Basset, chief justiciar of 
England in 1261, and widow of Hugh le De- 
spencer, chief justiciar of the barons ; and, 
secondly, Alice, daughter of John II d'Avesne, j 
count of Hainault. 

[Chronicles of Rishanger and Hemingburgh ; 
Dugdale's Baronage, i. 135; Foss's Judges of 
England, ii. 221 ; Anselme's Histoire Grenealo- 
gique, ii. 783 ; Stubbs's Constitutional History 
and Early Plantagenets.] E. M. T. 

1881), geologist, born at Nottingham 14 Aug. 
1792, was the son of Dr. John Bigsby. He 
studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he 
took the degree of M.D. in 1814, and pub- 
lished a ( Disputatio de vi arsenic! vitiosa.' 
Soon afterwards he joined the army as a 
medical officer, and served at the Cape in 
1817. In the following year he was sent to 
Canada, where he chiefly developed his inte- 
rest in geology. In 1819 he was commissioned 
to report on the geology of Upper Canada. 
In 1822 he became British secretary and 
medical officer of the Canadian boundary 
commission. Five years later he returned to 
England, and practised medicine at Newark, 
Nottinghamshire. There he remained until 
1846, when he permanently settled in Lon- 
don. He was elected a fellow of the Geolo- 
gical Society in 1823, and of the Royal Society 
in 1869. In 1874 the former society presented 
him with the Murchison medal. In 1877 he 
presented to the Geological Society a sum of 
money to provide for a gold medal to be called 
after him, and to be awarded biennially to 
students of American geology under forty- 
five years of age. He died at Gloucester 
Place, London, 10 Feb. 1881. 

r Bigsby 

Bigsby was the author of: 1. ' A Lecture 
on Mendicity,' Worksop, 1836. 2. ' Seaside 
Manual of Invalids and Bathers,' 1841. 
3. * The Shoe and Canoe,' 1850 ; a narrative 
of travel in Canada. 4. ' Thesaurus Silu- 
ricus : the flora and fauna of the Silurian pe- 
riod, with addenda from recent acquisitions ; r 
a very laborious compilation, published with 
the aid of a Royal Society grant in 1868. 
5. 'Thesaurus Devonico-Carboniferus: the 
flora and fauna of the Devonian and Carbo- 
niferous periods,' 1878. Bigsby had nearly 
completed a 'Permian Thesaurus' at the time 
of his death. The Royal Society's ' Cata- 
logue of Scientific Papers ' (1800-73) gives 
the names of twenty-seven by Bigsby, almost 
all treating of American geology. His ear- 
liest paper, 'Remarks on the Environs of 
Carthage Bridge, near the mouth of the Ge- 
nesee River,' appeared in Silliman's 'American 
Journal ' for 1820. His later papers were con- 
tributed to the l Geological Society's Trans- 
actions,' to the ' Philosophical Magazine,' and 
to the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural 

[Memoir by Mr. Robert Etheridge, F.R.S., 
in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 
xxxvii. 41 ; Cat. of Scientific Papers, vols. i. vii. ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

BIGSBY, ROBERT, LLD. (1806-1873), 

of thirty-one years. ' He had the honour/ 
according to his son, ' to be a frequent guest 
of the illustrious Washington while visiting 
America in 1787.' His son was born at 
Nottingham in 1806, and was educated at 
Repton school. Disappointed in the legal 
prospects to which he had been brought up, 
he turned his attention to the study of an- 
tiquities, and began to collect materials for 
a history of Repton. He was then residing 1 
at Wilfrid Cottage, Ashby-de-la-Zouche, 
having left Repton, where he had stayed for 
eleven years. The greater part of his life was 
spent in the accumulation and reproduction 
of archseologic material. He died 27 Sept. 
1873 at 4 Beaufort Terrace, Peckham Rye, 
aged 67. 

Bigsby distinguished himself as a virtuoso 
or collector of curiosities, ' relics and memo- 
rials,' as he calls them, of ' illustrious cha- 
racters.' Amongst his most cherished pos- 
sessions was Drake's astrolabe. This astro- 
labe, constructed for Captain (afterwards Sir 
Francis) Drake, prior to his first expedition 
to the West Indies in 1570, and subse- 
quently preserved in a cabinet of antiques 
belonging to the Stanhope family, was pre- 


sented in 1783 by Philip, earl of Chesterfield, 
on quitting England as ambassador to the 
court of Spain, to Bigsby's uncle, Rev. 
Thomas Bigsby, A.M., of Stanton Manor, 
Derbyshire, who had, in the preceding year, 
married the Hon. Frances Stanhope, widow, 
the earl's stepmother. In 1812 Thomas 
Bigsby gave it to Bigsby's father, who left it 
to his son. In 1831 Bigsby presented it to 
William IV, who, in his turn gave it to 
Greenwich Hospital. Other relics of a like 
interesting character were bestowed by Bigsby \ 
on the British Museum. Some, however, he ! 
retained in his own possession, and of these ; 
was Sir F. Drake's tobacco-box, constructed, 
he tells us, of the horn of a ' foreign animal,' 
and bearing the celebrated navigator's arms i 
and name. He also kept a chain to which 
Drake suspended his compass and other j 
nautical instruments. This chain, about 
twenty feet long, was worn by Drake round 
his neck in the manner of a cordon, passed, 
however, thrice round the body. A fine 
original portrait of William Burton [q. v.], the 
antiquary, aet. 29 (the brother of the author 
of the ' Anatomy '), painted in 1604, was pre- 
sented in 1837 by Bigsby to the Society of 

Bigsby describes himself in his works as J 
LL.D., F.S.A., F.R.S., and as member of a | 
great number of foreign societies. The full 
titles of his books in the order of their 
publication are : 1. * The Triumph of Drake, i 
or the Dawn of England's Naval Power, a 
Poem,' London, 1839. 2. ' Miscellaneous i 
Poems and Essays,' London, 1842. 3. ' Vi- \ 
sions of the Times of Old, or the Antiqua- j 
rian Enthusiast,' 3 vols., London, 1848. | 
4. ' Boldon Delaval, a Love Story;' also ' My 
Cousin's Story; The Man on the Grey j 
Horse ; ' Derby and London, 1850. 7. ' Dr. j 
Bigsby and the Evangelicals, a Vindication ! 
of Boldon Delaval,' 12mo, Derby, 1850. 8. 'A j 
Supplement to the Rev. Jos. Jones's Appen- j 
dix to the Vindication of Boldon Delaval,' I 
12mo, Derby, 1850. 9. ' Old Places revisited, 
or the Antiquarian Enthusiast,' 3 vols., Lon- 
don, 1851. 10. ' Scraps from my Note-Book, 
or Gleanings of Curious Facts connected with 

the Family History (sic) of D shire;' 

Part I. (1) ' The Lucky Lackey ; ' (2) ' A Tale 
of a Cask ; ' (3) ' The Dilemma, London, 
1853. 11. 'Ombo, a Dramatic Romance in 
twelve acts, with an historical introduction 
and notes,' London and Derby, 1853. 12. 'His- 
torical and Topographical Description of Rep- 
ton, in the County of Derby, comprising an 
incidental view of objects of note in its vi- 
cinity, with seventy illustrations on copper, 
stone, and wood,' London and Derby, 1854. 
13. ' Remarks on the Expediency of founding 

J Bill 

a National Institution in honour of Litera- 
ture.' 14. ' Irminsula, or the Great Pillar, a 
mythological research,' 1864. 15. 'A Tribute 
to the Memory of Scanderbeg the Great,' 
1866. 16. ' National Honours and their No- 
blest Claimants.' London, 1867. 17. 'Me- 
moir of the Orders of St. John of Jerusalem 
from the Capitulation of Malta till 1798,' 
1869. He edited the ' History and Antiqui- 
ties of the Parish Church of St. Matthew, 
Morley, in the County of Derby, by the late 
Rev. Samuel Fox, M.A., rector, with seven- 
teen illustrations from original drawings by 
George Bailey,' London and Derby, 1872. He 
also contributed largely to various magazines 
and reviews. 

[Times, 2 Oct. 1 873 ; Men of the Time, 8th ed. ; 
New Quarterly Review, July 1853 ; Brit, Mus. 
Catal.; the Freemason, 18 Oct. 1873.] J. M. 

BILFRITH (f. 750), anchorite of Lin- 
disfarne, is referred to by Simeon of Durham 
as skilled in goldsmith's work, and as having, 
on that account, been employed by ^Ethel- 
wold, bishop of Lindisfarne (724-40), to 
adorn with gold and gems the famous manu- 
script of the Gospels known as the 'Durham 
Book,' now in the Cottonian Library (Nero 
D. iv.) The entry made in the manuscript 
itself by the glossator Aldred in the tenth 
century, and recording the names of those 
who worked in its production, mentions Bil- 
frith the anchorite as the one who * wrought 
in smith's work the ornaments that are on 
the outside, and adorned it with gold and 
gems,' &c. Bilfrith's name also appears 
among the * nomina anchoritarum ' in the 
'Liber Vitse' of the church of Durham 
(Cotton MS. Domitian A. vii.) His bones 
were removed to Durham, together with those 
of other saints, in the eleventh century. 

[Simeon of Durham's Hist. Dunelm. Eccl., ed. 
Arnold (Rolls Series), vol. i. 1882, pp. 68, 88; 
Liber Vita? Dunelm. (Snrtees Soc.), 1841, p. 6, 
col. 2 ; Skeat, Gospel ace. to St. John in A.-Saxon 
and Northumbrian versions, 1878, p. viii ; Cat. 
of Anct. MSS. in the Br. Museum, pt. ii. 1884, 
pp. 16, 82.] E. M. T. 

BILL, ROBERT (1754-1827), an inge- 
nious mechanician and inventor, was de- 
scended from an old Staffordshire family, the 
Bills of Farley Hall, and was born in 1754. 
His father and uncle had married coheiresses, 
Dorothy and Mary, the daughters of Hall 
Walton, a near relative of Izaak Walton, from 
whom they inherited the freehold estate of 
Stanhope in Staffordshire. Bill was designed 
for the army, and therefore did not enter 
the university; but instead of following 
the military profession he occupied himself 
with literary pursuits and experiments in 



natural science. His ingenuity was first j 
manifested in the invention of minor im- 
provements in the details of domestic con- 
struction : he built his garden-walls on a 
plan fitted to increase the capability of the 
walls for retaining heat ; he devised a new , 
method of warming hothouses by means of ; 
iron cylinders ; and introduced an ingenious 
contrivance for the heating of dwelling- 
houses. In a pamphlet ' On the Danger of a 
Paper Currency,' printed for private circula- 
tion in 1795, he incidentally and somewhat 
irrelevantly recommended the use of iron 
tanks for preserving water on shipboard, a 
plan which was afterwards followed with 
great benefit in the navy. On the intro- < 
auction of gas for lighting houses and streets 
he joined one of the London companies, to j 
whom he gave the advantage of his chemi- : 
cal and mechanical knowledge in erecting 
the apparatus and regulating its use ; but 
he afterwards retired from the concern on 
account of some disagreement among the 
proprietors. He expended much time and 
money in promoting the introduction of 
Massey's logs for measuring a ship's way at 
sea, printing and circulating on this subject 
in 1806 f A. short Account of Massey's Patent 
Log and Sounding Machine, with the opinions 
of certain captains in the navy, merchant 
service, and pilots who have made practical 
use or experimental trials with them.' He 
also exerted himself to promote the adop- 
tion of elastic springs in pianofortes, so as to 
keep them in tune for an indefinite time. In 
1820 he took out a patent for making ship's 
masts of iron, but on trial they were not 
considered sufficiently strong, a defect he 
attributed to the fact that his instructions 
were not properly carried out. In his later 
years he was engaged in experiments for 
rendering inferior timber such as elm, ash, 
beech, and poplar harder and more durable 
than any other species of wood. He ob- 
tained permission from government to carry 
his experiment into practical effect in the 
construction of a ship at Deptford dockyard, 
but did not live to witness the result. He 
died on 23 Sept. 1827. By his marriage to 
Sarah Perks, the daughter of a solicitor, he 
left three daughters. 

[Gent. Mag. xcvii. pt. ii. 466-8 ; Burke's His- 
tory of the Landed Gentry, i. 128.] T. F. H. 

BILL, WILLIAM (d. 1561), dean of 
Westminster, son of John Bill of Ashwell, 
Hertfordshire, and brother of Thomas Bill, 
M.I)., of the same place, and of St. Bartho- 
lomew's, London, physician to Henry VIII 
and Edward VI, was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 

in 1532-3, was elected fellow 7 Nov. 1535, 
took the degree of M. A. in 1536, that of B.D. 
in 1544, and that of D.I), in 1547, having 
(10 March 1546-7) been admitted master of 
the college. While an undergraduate he was 
a pupil of both Cheke and Smith, from whom 
he learned a more accurate mode of pro- 
nouncing Greek than that which was then in 
vogue. Strype {Life of Cheke, p. 8) says 
that it was only through the influence of 
Cheke and Parker, then (1535) one of the 
queen's chaplains, that Bill was able to raise 
sufficient funds to qualify himself for election 
to a fellowship by discharging his debts to 
the college. By an act passed in the year pre- 
ceding Bill's election (26 Hen. VIII, cap. 3) the 
first year's income of a fellowship was payable 
to the crown as ' first-fruits ; ' but (s. 23) in 
the case of fellowships of the annual value of 
not more than eight marks not until the fourth 
year from election, security being given in the 
meantime. Bill's fellowship was only of the 
annual value of five marks, and John Bill of 
Ashwell, presumably his father, gave security 
for the payment of the first-fruits. Probably 
the amount was never paid, as an act (27 
Hen. VIII, cap. 42) exempting the universities 
from the tax, which appears to have been re- 
trospective, was passed in 1535-6. As fellow 
of St. John's, Bill was a contemporary of As- 
cham, in whose letters he is sometimes men- 
tioned. At the date of his election to the 
mastership he held the Linacre lectureship 
in physic, which he retained for two years 
after. One of his first acts after his election 
was to give away two of the college leases, 
one to Cheke in consideration of his services 
to the college, the other to one Thomas Bill, 
doubtless his brother the physician, as a pure 
gratuity. In 1548-9, a year marked by the 
visit of a royal commission, he held the office 
of vice-chancellor. In November 1551 he re- 
| signed the mastership of St. John's to be 
j elected master of Trinity, and in the follow- 
j ing December he was appointed one of the 
j king's itinerary chaplains, whose duty it was 
! l to preach sound doctrine in all the remotest 
j parts of the kingdom for the instruction of 
the ignorant in right religion to God and obe- 
I dience to the king.' For this service he seems 
to have received 40/. per annum. Next year 
(2 Oct.) he was placed on the committee to 
| which the articles of religion were referred 
i for consideration. Soon after her accession 
Queen Mary thought fit to deprive Bill of the 
i mastership of Trinity. Her commands ap- 
pear to have been executed in a rather brutal 
fashion, the master being forcibly removed 
from his stall in the chapel by two of the 
fellows, Boys and Gray. It is curious that 
we find him mentioned as chief almoner 



under date 1 Jan. 1553-4. It seems ! 
he held that office under Edward VI, but it 
is -urprising that Mary should not have dis- | 
missed him immediately upon her accession, j 
Probably she did so shortly afterwards, for i 
he spent the greater part of her brief reign 
in retirement at Sandy, in Bedfordshire, of '. 
which one of his kinsmen, Burgoyne, was 
rector. On 20 Nov. 1558, the Sunday after 
the proclamation of Elizabeth as queen, he 
preached at St. Paul's Cross, striving to allay i 
the popular excitement which was manifesting . 
itself in brutal outrages upon the catholics. | 
The same year he was appointed to assist j 
Parker in revising the liturgy of Edward VI, ! 
.and was reinstated in the office of chief al- 
moner and in the mastership of Trinity. In 
Lent of the following year he preached before 
the queen, and (20 June) was appointed, with 
Sir W. Cecil, Parker, and others, visitor of 
Eton College and of the university of Cam- 
bridge, and on 5 July following was appointed 
provost of Eton College, having been elected 
fellow on 20 June. On 20 Sept. of the same 
year he instituted himself to the prebend of 
Milton Ecclesia, in the county of Oxford and 
church of Lincoln, the advowson of which 
had been devised to him by his brother 
Thomas, who died in 1551-2. He again 
preached before the queen on 6 March 1559- 
00, and in the same year was placed on a 
commission, of which Parker and the bishop 
of London were also members, for the revision 
of the prayer-book. On 30 June he was in- 
stalled dean of Westminster. On his appoint- 
ment he framed a set of statutes for the regu- 
lation of the collegiate church, which were 
adopted by his successor, Gabriel Goodman. 
In this year one of the hostages given by the 
cots for the due fulfilment of their part of 
the treaty of Berwick (April 1560), Archi- 
bald, son of Lord Ruthven, was placed under 
his care. The boy was still with him at his 
death, which took place 15 July of the fol- 
lowing year. He was buried on the 20th in 
the chapel of St. Benedict in Westminster 
Abbey, to which, as also to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, he was a donor by his will. Five 
couplets of Latin elegiac verse of no particular 
merit are still legible beneath his effigy in the 
-abbey, and may also be read by the curious 
in Cooper's 'Athense Cantabrigienses ' (i. 210), 
-where also will be found an abstract of his will. 

[Cussans's Hertfordshire, Hd. of Odsey, i. 28, 
30; Neale and Brayley's Westminster, "i. 109, 
116 ; Dart's Westm. i. 101 ; Keepe's Westm. 53, 
226 ; Strype's Cheke (8vo), 18 ; Strype's Smith, 
cap. ii. ad fin., cap. vii. ad init. ; Strype's Grindal 
(fol.), 7, 24, 39 ; Strype's Cranmer (fol.), 273, 
301 ; Strype's Parker (fol.), i. 43, 79 ; Strype's 
Whitgift, App. bk. i. No. vii.; Strype's Mem. 

(fol.), ii. pt. i. 297, pt. ii. 523, 529 ; Strype's 
Ann. (fol.), i. pt. i. 167, 199, 270, ii. pt. ii. 490, 
App. bk. ii. No. x. iv., Suppl. No. ix. ; Rymer's 
Fcedera (2nd ed.), xv. 494, 590 ; Machyn's 
Diary (Camd. Soc.), 264 ; Harwood's Alumni 
Eton. 9, 59 ; Ascham's Epist. 75, 87, 203, 311 ; 
Welch's Alumni Westmon. (1852), 4; 3IS. 
Baker, xx. 151 ; T. Baker's Hist, of St. John's 
(Mayor), 127, 129, 146; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. (1547-80), 56; Scotland, i. 138; Burnet's 
Reform. (Pocock), ii. 294, 600, ii. 59, 502; 
Froude, vii. 18.] J. M. R. 

BILLING, ARCHIBALD (1791-1881), 
physician and writer on art, was the son 
of Theodore Billing of Cromlyn, in the 
county of Dublin, and was born there on 
10 Jan. 1791. He entered Trinity College, 

' Dublin, in 1807, graduated A.B. 1811, M.B. 
1814, M.D. 1818, and was incorporated M.D. 
at Oxford on his Dublin degree on 22 Oct. 
1818. He says himself that he spent seven 
years in clinical study at Irish, British, and 
continental hospitals before he sought a fee, 
but about 1815 must have settled in Lon- 
don, was admitted candidate (member) of 
the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1818, 
and fellow on 22 Dec. 1819. He was cen- 

! sor of the college in 1823, and councillor 
1852-5. Billing was long connected with 
the London Hospital, to which foundation, 
after having been engaged in teaching there 
since 1817, he was elected physician on 2 July 
1822. In 1823 he began a course of clinical 
lectures, the first course of that kind, com- 

i bined with regular bedside teaching, given 
in London. He ceased to lecture in 1836, 
and resigned the post of physician on 4 June 

; 1845. On the foundation of the university 
of London in 1836, Billing was invited to 
become a member of the senate, and occu- 
pied an influential position on that body for 
many years. He was also for a considerable 
time examiner in medicine. He was fellow 
of the Royal Society, and an active member 
of many other scientific and medical societies. 
After a long and distinguished professional 
career, he retired from practice many years 
before his death, which occurred on 2 Sept. 
1881 at his house in Park Lane. 

Billing was a physician of high general 
culture, and possessed of many accomplish- 
ments not professional. His acute and logi- 
cal intellect served him well in embodying 
his large experience in a well-known manual, 
' The First Principles of Medicine/ which, 
in its first issue in 1831 hardly more than a 
pamphlet, grew to a bulky text-book. It 
was at one time very popular, and ran to six 
editions, though now almost forgotten. He 
gave special attention to diseases of the 
chest, and was among the earliest medical 



teachers in London to make auscultation, as 
introduced by Laennec, a part of regular in- 
struction. His original views respecting the 
cause of the sounds of the heart, which have 
only. partially been accepted, were first put 
forth in 1832. He restated them in the 
> London Medical Gazette ' (1840, xxvi. 64), 
and also in his ' Practical Observations 011 
Diseases of the Lungs and Heart,' a work 
much less successful than the ' Principles of 
Medicine.' In all Billing's writings his 
avowed aim was to base medicine on patho- 
logy ; their most striking feature is clearness 
of thought, and a striving after logical accu- 
racy which sometimes appears overstrained. 
Beginning as an innovator, he came in the 
end to be conservative, and was much op- 
posed to what he regarded as the teachings 
of the German school.' He took great in- 
terest in art, was himself a fair amateur 
artist, and a keen connoisseur in engraved 
gems, coins, and similar objects. On this 
subject he published an elaborate text-book, 
illustrated with photographs, which has 
reached a second edition. Billing was a man 
of great physical as well as mental activity, 
and was perhaps the last London physician 
who occasionally visited his patients on 
horseback. No portrait of him appears to 
have been published, except a very poor 
woodcut in the ' Medical Circular,' 1852. 

He wrote (all published at London in 8vo): 
1. 'First Principles of Medicine,' 1st ed. 
1831 ; 6th ed. 1868. 2. < On the Treatment 
of Asiatic Cholera,' 1st ed. 1848. 3. ' Prac- 
tical Observations on Diseases of the Lungs 
and Heart,' 1852. 4. ' The Science of Gems, 
Jewels, Coins, and Medals, Ancient and 
Modern,' 1867. Also ' Clinical Lectures,' 
published in the ' Lancet,' 1831, and several 
papers, &c., in the medical journals. 

[Medical Circular, 1852, i. 243; Medical 
Times and Gazette, 1881, ii. 373 ; Proceedings 
Royal Med. and Chirurg. Soc. 1882, ix. 129; 
Medical Directory, 1881 ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
1878, iii. 203 ; Calendar of London Hospital.] 

J. F. P. 

BILLING, SIB THOMAS (d. 1481 ?), 
chief justice, is said by Fuller ( Worthies, ii. 
166) to have been a native of Northampton- 
shire, where two villages near Northampton 
bear his name, and to have afterwards lived in 
state at Ash well in that county. Lord Camp- 
bell (Lives of the Chief Justices, i. 145) says 
he was an attorney's clerk ; but this seems 
doubtful. He was, at any rate, a member of 
Gray's Inn. Writing to one Ledam, Billing 
says : ' I would ye should do well, because 
ye 'are a fellow of Gray's Inn, where I was 
fellow ' (Paston Letters, i. 43, 53), and, ac- 

cording to a Gray's Inn manuscript, he was 
a reader there. His social position was suffi- 
cient to enable him to be on terms of intimacv 
with the families of Paston and of Lord Grey 
de Ruthin. In 1448 he was member of par- 
liament for London, and was recorder in 1451. 
Along with seven others he received the coif 
as serjeant-at-law 2 Jan. 1453-4, and in the 
Hilary term of that year is first mentioned as 
arguing at the bar. "Thenceforward his name 
is frequent in the reports. Lord-chancellor 
j Waynflete appointed him king's Serjeant 
I 21 April 1458, and Lord Campbell, citing 
I an otherwise unknown pamphlet of Billing 
in favour of the Lancastrian cause, says that 
with the attorney-general and solicitor-gene- 
ral he argued the cause of King Henry VI 
at the bar of the House of Lords. The entry 
in the Parliamentary Rolls, however (v. 376), 
indicates that the judges and king's Serjeants 
excused themselves from giving an opinion in 
the matter. About the same time Billing 
appears to have been knighted, and on the ac- 
! cession of Edward IV his patent of king's 
Serjeant was renewed, and in the first parlia- 
ment of this reign he was named, along with 
Serjeants Lyttelton and Laken, a referee in 
a cause between the Bishop of Winchester 
and some of his tenants. He is said by Lord 
Campbell to have exerted himself actively 
against King Henry, Queen Margaret, and the 
Lancastrians, and to have helped to frame the 
act of attainder of Sir John Fortescue, chief 
i justice of the king's bench, for being engaged 
in the battle of Towton, and to have advised 
the grant of a pardon, on condition that the 
opinions of the treatise * De Laudibus ' should 
be retracted (see Eot. Parl vi. 2629). At 
any rate, in 1464 (9 Aug.), Billing was added 
| to the three judges of the king's bench, but 
I by the king's writ only : and the question be- 
ing thereupon raised, it was decided that a 
i commission in addition to the writ was re- 
quired for the appointment of a justice of as- 
size. Baker in his l Chronology,' and Hale 
! in his * Pleas of the Crown,' says that on the 
: trial of Walter Walker for treason in 1460, for 
| having said to his son, ' Tom, if thou behavest 
thyself well, I will make thee heir to the 
Crown ' i.e. of the Crown Inn, of which he 
was landlord Billing ruled a conviction, and 
Lord Campbell accepts the story. But it 
would seem from the report of the judgment 
of Chief-justice Bromley in the trial of Sir 
Nicholas Throckmorton, 17 April 1554, that 
I the judge at that trial was John Markham 
[q.v.], afterwards chief justice next before 
Billing, and that he directed an acquittal 
1 (see STOW, 415; FABYAN, 633). 

Billing succeeded Markham as chief justice 
| of the king's bench 23 Jan. 1468-9 (DuGDALE 



and Foss, arts. ' Billing 1 ' and ' Markham ') , hav- 
ing precedence over Yelverton and Bingham, 
justices of the king's bench ; and this office 
he retained in spite of political changes. For 
when Henry VI for a few months regained 
the throne new patents were at once issued, 
9 Oct. 1470; and when Edward IV overthrew 
him, 17 June 1471 (DUGDALE, wrongly, 1472, 
and so CAMPBELL), he, along with almost 
all the other judges, was confirmed in his seat. 
It is suggested that he may have owed this 
less to his legal talents than to the support 
of the Earl of Warwick. In 1477 (not as 
Campbell, 1470 ; see HUME, iii. 261) Billing 
tried Burdet of Arrow, in Warwickshire, a 
dependent of the Duke of Clarence, for trea- 
son, committed in 1474, in saying of a stag, 
' I wish that the buck, horns and all, were in 
the king's belly,' for which he was executed 
(1 State Trials, 275). Billing is also said to 
have been concerned in the trial of the Duke 
of Clarence himself (Hot. Parl vi. 193). He 
continued to sit in court until 5 May 1481 
(1482, CAMPBELL), when he died and was 
buried in Bittlesden Abbey. His tombstone 
is now in Wappenham Church, Northamp- 
tonshire. His successor was Sir JohnHussey 
or Husee. He was twice married, first to 
Katerina, who died 8 March 1479, second to 
Mary, daughter and heir of Robert Wesenham 
of Conington in Huntingdonshire, who had 
previously been married to Thomas Lang, and 
then to William Cotton of Redware, Stafford- 
shire. She died in 1499, and was buried in 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, which she and 
Sir Thomas Billing had rebuilt. By his first 
wife he had issue four daughters and five sons, 
one of whom, Thomas, his heir, died in 1500 
without male issue, and was buried with his 
father and mother. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Campbell's Lives 
of the Lord Chief Justices ; Dugclale's Origines 
Juridiciales ; Coke's Institutes, preface; Graird- 
ner's Paston Letters, i. 302 ; Close Roll, 13 
Edw. IV, m. 5.1 J. A. H. 

RICHARD (fi. 1350), a schoolman, whose 
name appears on the rolls of Merton College, 
Oxford, between 1344 and 1356 (TANNEK, 
Bibl Brit. p. 100), is mentioned by Wood 
(Antiquities of Oxford, i. 447 seqq.) as having 
been concerned in a riot arising about an 
election to the chancellorship of the univer- 
sity in 1349. Tanner states that he became 
a priest of Sion, but as that religious house 
was not founded until 1414 we must suppose 
that he has confounded two different persons. 
Billingham's works, all of a theological and 
scholastic character, are enumerated by Bale, 
'Script. Brit. Cat.'vi. 8. Among the nume- 

rous ways in which the name is spelled, the 
only one that calls for special notice is Gil- 
lingham, and this is easily accounted for as 
a paliBOgraphical blunder. 

[Authorities cited above.] R. L. P. 

BILLINGS, JOSEPH (.1758 ?), explorer, 
j captain in the Russian navy, in 1776 entered 
on board the Discovery, one of the two shipa 
| that sailed under the command of Captain 
Gook on his last fatal voyage. He was rated 
as A.B., and in September 1779, after Cook's 
death, was transferred with the same rating' 
to the Resolution. He is described in the 
pay-book of the Resolution as a native of 
Turnham Green, and at that time aged twenty- 
one. Some time after the return of the ex- 
pedition to England Billings being at St. 
Petersburg, whither he had probably gone 
as mate of a merchant ship, was induced to 
enter into the Russian navy with the rank 
of lieutenant ; and when, in 1784, the empress 
determined to send out an expedition to ex- 
plore the extreme north-eastern parts of 
Asia, Billings, known by repute as the ' com- 
panion ' of Cook, was judged a fitting man 
to command it. He was definitely appointed 
in August 1785, the objects of the expedition, 
as laid down in his instructions, being ' the 
exact determination of the latitude and lon- 
gitude of the mouth of the river Kovima, 
and the situation of the great promontory of 
the Tchukchees as far as the East Cape ; the 
forming an exact chart of the islands in the 
Eastern Ocean extending to the coast of 
America ; and, in short, the bringing to per- 
fection the knowledge of the seas lying be- 
tween the continent of Siberia and the oppo- 
site coast of America.' He received at the 
same time the rank of captain-lieutenant, 
and was instructed, on arriving at certain 
definite points, to take the further rank of 
captain of the second class and captain of the 
first class. Early in September an officer, 
with a competent staff, was sent on to 
Ochotsk to make arrangements for construct- 
ing two ships ; and the expedition, in several 
detachments, proceeded to Irkutsk, where it 
assembled in February 1786. 

A very full account of the expedition was 
published by the secretary, Mr. Sauer. In 
the course of nine years it carried out the 
objects prescribed for it with such exact- 
ness as was then attainable. Of Billings 
personally we have no information beyond 
what is contained in Mr. Sauer's book. Mr. 
Sauer did not love his captain, and im- 
plies that he was greedy, selfish, ignorant, 
and tyrannical, but makes no definite charge. 
We can only say that Billings successfully 
commanded the expedition during the whole 




time, and that by it were made many large 
additions to our knowledge of the geography 
of those inclement regions. Of his further 
life, or the date and manner of his death, we 
know nothing. 

[An Account of a Geographical and Astrono- 
mical Expedition to the Northern Parts of 
Eussia . . . performed ... by Commodore 
Joseph Billings in the years 1785-1794, narrated 
from the original papers by Martin Sauer, Secre- 
tary to the Expedition, 1802, 4to; Beloe's Sexa- 
genarian, ii. 10.] J. K. L. 


(1813-1874), architect and author, was born 
in London in 1813, and became, at the age 
of thirteen, a pupil of John Britton, the emi- 
nent topographical draughtsman. During the 
seven years of his articles Billings imbibed 
a taste for similar pursuits, which he after- 
wards exemplified in a series of beautiful 
works, published at brief intervals for the 
space of fifteen years. In 1837 he was em- 
ployed in illustrating, for Mr. George God- 
win, a ' History and Description of St. Paul's 
Cathedral,' and two years later, with Frede- 
rick Mackenzie, the ' Churches of London,' 
in two volumes, of which the plates were 
chiefly engraved by John le Keux. He also 
assisted Sir Jeffery Wyatville on drawings 
of Windsor Castle, and prepared numerous 
views of the ruins of the old Houses of Par- 
liament after the disastrous fire. 

Among the works he undertook on his own 
account may be mentioned ' Illustrations of 
the Temple Church, London,' 1838 ; l Gothic 
Panelling in Brancepeth Church, Durham,' 
1841 ; ' Kettering Church, Northampton- 
shire,' 1843. Still greater efforts were the 
important works on Carlisle and Durham 
Cathedrals, published in 1840 and 1843, as 
also an excellent work of the Britton school, 
called ' Illustrations of the Architectural 
Antiquities of the County of Durham,' 
which appeared in 1846. But his greatest 
achievement in this style, and the one with 
which his name is chiefly associated, was the 
' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of 
Scotland,' 4 vols. 1845-52, a noble collection 
of 240 illustrations, with ample explanatory 
letterpress. His other works deal almost ex- | 
clusively with the technicalities of his art, j 
and are : ' An Attempt to define the Geo- ! 
metric Proportions of Gothic Architecture, 
as illustrated by the Cathedrals of Carlisle 
and Worcester,' 1840 ; ' Illustrations of Geo- 

Powerof Form applied to Geometric Tracery,' 

VOL. v. 

After giving up authorship, Billings de- 
voted himself entirely to his practice, which 
soon grew very considerable. He was em- 
ployed upon the restoration of the chapel of 
Edinburgh Castle (a government commis- 
sion), the Douglas Room in Stirling Castle, 
Gosford House, Haddingtonshire, for the 
Earl of Wemyss ; the restoration of Han- 
bury Hall, Worcestershire ; Crosby-upon- 
Eden Church, Cumberland ; Kemble House, 
Wiltshire ; and additions to Castle Wemyss, 
Renfrewshire, for Mr. John Burns, upon 
which he was engaged at the time of his 
death, having built the castle itself many 
years before. After 1865 Billings lived at 
Putney, where he purchased an old English 
residence, the Moulinere, which had once 
been occupied by the famous Duchess of 
Marlborough. He died there 14 Nov. 1874. 

\ During the latter years of his life, at intervals 

S of leisure, he had again occupied himself 
upon one of his old and favourite themes a 
view from the dome of the interior of St. 

i Paul's Cathedral. In this drawing his en- 
deavour was to modify the rendering of out- 
lying portions according to strict rules, so as 

I to bring them within the range of possible 
and undistorted vision. The drawing, which 
is on a very large scale, and was unfortu- 
nately left unfinished, has been lately (1884) 
deposited in the library of the dean and 

: chapter. 

[Information from Mr. J. Drayton Wyatt ; 
Builder for 1874, xxxii. 982, 1035.] G. G. 


lord mayor of London, and first translator of 
Euclid into English, was the son of Roger 
Billingsley of Canterbury. He was admitted 
a Lad v Margaret scholar of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in 1551. He is said to have also 
studied for several years at Oxford, although 
he never took a degree at either university. 
At Oxford he developed, according to Wood, 
a taste for mathematics under the tuition of 
'an eminent mathematician called Whyte- 
head/ at one time ' a fryar of the order of St. 
Augustine.' Billingsley was afterwards ap- 
prenticed to a London haberdasher, and ra- 
pidly became a wealthy merchant. He was 
chosen sheriff of London in 1584, and alder- 
man of Tower ward on 16 Nov. 1585. He 
removed to Candlewick ward in 1592, and on 
31 Dec. 1596 was elected lord mayor on the 
death, during his year of office, of Sir Thomas 
Skinner. He was apparently knighted during 
1597. In 1594 he had been appointed presi- 
dent of St. Thomas's Hospital, and was from 
1589 one of the queen's four ' customers/ or 
farmers of the customs, at the port of London. 
He sat as member for London in the parlia- 





ment that met on 19 March 1603-4. He died i Queen Anne in 1613 at his house at Listen, 
92 Nov 1606, and was buried in the church Gloucestershire, which his father had pur- 

- 1 ' ' * 1598 ~ 

of St. Catharine Coleman. To the poor of 
that parish he bequeathed 200J. In 1591 he 
had already founded three scholarships at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, for poor stu- 
dents, and had given to the college for their 
maintenance two messuages and tenements 
in Tower Street and in Mark Lane, Allhal- 
lows Barking (BAKER, St. John's College, 
ed. Mayor, i. 434). 

Billingsley published in 1570 the first 
translation of Euclid's ' Elements of Geome- 
try ' that had appeared in English. His ori- 

chased in 1598 (NICHOLS, Progresses of 
James I, i. 192, ii. 647, 666). 

[Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 442; Wood's 
Athen. Oxon., ed. Bliss, i. 762 ; Chalmers's Biog. 
Diet, : Cal. Dom. State Papers from 1 590 to 1 606.1 

S. L. L. 

(1625-1684), divine, was born at Chatham, 
Kent, on 14 Sept. 1625. Wood says 'he 
Avas educated mostly in St. John's College, 
Cambridge, but, coming with the rout to 

ginal was the Latin version attributed to Cam- Oxon to obtain preferment on the visita- 
panus, which had been first printed in 1482, tion made by the parliament in 1648, he was 
and again in 1509. A lengthy essay on ma- fortunate to be supplied with a Kentish 
thematical science from the pen of Dr. John j fellowship of Corpus Christi College, Oxford 
Dee prefaced the volume, and De Morgan has (as having been born in that county).' In 
suggested that Dee, and not Billingsley, was I i <Q v, Q c. < i- n * n . Q i-a. ' "R A Q v,^ -wia^norl 
the actual author of the translation. Dee, 

incorporate ' B. A., and ordained 
on 26 Sept. of that year in the church of St. 

however, in his autobiographical tracts, dis- Andrew Undershaft, London, 
tinctly states that, besides the introduction, While in residence at Oxford he used to act 
he only contributed ' divers and many Anno- j as an evangelist in the neighbourhood, preach- 
tations and Inventions Mathematicall added t ing with uncommon force. ' At length ' 
in sundry places of the foresaid English j (Calamy and Palmer tell us) ' he had a call 

into one of the remote and dark corners of the 

letters from Billingsley to Lord Burghley 
matters connected with the London custoi 

Euclide after the tenth booke of the same ' 
(Miscellanies of Chetham Soc. i. 73). Wood 
asserts that Whytehead, Billingsley's Oxford 
tutor, who lived during his old age in Bil- 
lingsley's house, bequeathed to his old pupil 
a valuable collection of manuscripts, which 
Billingsley utilised in his ' Elements of Geo- 
metric.' In his prefatory address Billingsley 
makes no mention of assistance, but pro- 
mises to translate, if his first effort is well 
received, ' other good authors both pertaining 
to religion (as partly I have already done), 
and also pertaining to Mathematicall Artes.' 
But this promise was never fulfilled. Two 



are among the Lansdowne MSS. (62 No. 19, 
67 No. 88), and several documents at the 
Record Office dealing with his official duties 
between 1590 and the date of his death bear 
his signature. One of these papers, dated 
11 Nov. 1604, consists of observations on the 
danger of decay in shipping, and in the ex- 
portation of English cloth (Cal. State Papers, 
1603-10, p. 166). Billingsley was a member 
of the Society of Antiquaries founded by 
Archbishop Parker in 1572 (Archceologia, 
i. 20). 

1 Billingsley was twice married, (1) in 1572 
to Elizabeth Boorne, who died in 1577, aged 
-35, and (2) to Bridget, second daughter of 
Sir Christopher Draper, who was lord mayor 
in 1566. By his first wife he had a large 
family. His eldest son, Henry, was knighted 
by James I on 28 June 1603, and entertained 

kingdom to preach the gospel.' This he did 
1 very assiduously, viz. at Addinghamin Cum- 
berland.' He instituted catechising, and 
joined a county association for revival of the 
scriptural discipline of particular churches.' 
Thence he removed to Chesterfield in Derby- 
shire, which Anthony a Wood thought to 
be his first charge. He had many disputa- 
tions with the disciples of George Fox. He 
published ' Strong Comforts for Weak Chris- 
tians, with due Cautions against Presumption. 
Being the substance of several lectures lately 
preached at Chest erfield in Derbyshire, 1656 ; ' 
' The grand Quaker prov'd a gross Liar ; or a 
Short Reply to a little Pamphlet entitled 
A Dispute between James Naylor and the 
Parish Teacher of Chesterfield by a Chal- 
lenge against him,' &c., printed with 'Strong 
Comforts.' George Fox himself replied to 
Billingsley in 'The great Mystery of the 
great Whore unfolded, and Anti-Christ's 
Kingdom revealed with Destruction,' 1659. 
As his reputation grew, he 'had great 
temptations from (increased) secular advan- 
tages and the importunity of friends to have 
quitted' Chesterfield; but 'he would not 
yield to a thought of lea ving that people, who 
were dear to him as his own soul, and it was 
in his heart to live and die with them.' He 
was one of the two thousand deprived in 
1662. He continued to labour among his 
parishioners in private, as he found oppor- 
tunity. He was silenced by the act of 
1664 against conventicles. He retired to 




Mansfield, which ' was to him and several 
others a little Zoar.' He went once a fort- 
night to Chesterfield, preached twice on each 
visit, ' and often expounded and catechised/ 
.and visited the sick. Having to travel fre- 
'quently at night, his health was greatly 
weakened. Though he was an avowed non- 
conformist, he lived ' in hearty love and con- 
cord with the worthy minister of the parish' at 
Mansfield, who, with reference to Billingsley, 
said that he ' counted it no schism to endeavour 
to help his people in their way to heaven.' 

At the Restoration he was a zealous royalist. 
Bishop Hacket earnestly entreated him to 
conform, but in vain. ' He knew not,' were 
his words, ' how to mollify oaths by forced 
interpretations, or stretch his conscience to 
'Comply with human will, in cases wherein 
if he should happen to be in the wrong (as 
he strongly suspected he should be in this) 
he knew human power could not defend 
him.' He died 30 May 1684. < Out of his 
great modesty' (PALMER'S Nonconf. Mem. 
i. 401) ' he left an express order in his will 
that there was to be no sermon preached 
at his funeral; but a suitable consolatory 
discourse was addressed to the family on the 
Lord's day folio wing by [Matthew] Sylvester' 
,on Romans xii. 12. Posthumously appeared 
* The Believer's Daily Exercise, or the Scrip- 
ture Precept of being in the Fear of the 
Lord examined and urged in Four Sermons,' 
1690. He had two sons who became well 
known as nonconformist ministers at Hull 
and London [see BILLINGSLEY, JOHN, jun.] 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, iv. 611-2 ; Palmer's 
Nonconf. Mem. i. 400-2 ; Calamy's Account ; 
.Billingsley's own writings.] A. B. Gr. 

BILLINGSLEY, JOHN, the younger 
.(1657-1722), nonconformist divine, son of 
John Billingsley [q. v.], was born at Chester- 
field, Derbyshire, in 1657. First trained by his 
father, he proceeded to the university of Cam- 
bridge, being entered of Trinity College. 
Wilson (History of Dissenting Churches, 
i. 77) says : ' When neither his inclination 
.nor circumstances allowed his longer continu- 
ance at the university, he was placed under 
the care of the famous Mr. Edward Baynes, 
of Lincoln.' On leaving Lincoln he com- 
pleted his theological and classical prepara- 
tions under his father, and under an uncle 
Whitlock of Nottingham. He was after- 
wards duly ordained. 

He first preached at Chesterfield. On the 
-death of his father for whose monument 
he composed an elegant and pathetic Latin 
inscription (given by Calamy) he appears to 
.have served with the celebrated Rev. Edward 
Prime, of Sheffield. For seven years he was 

settled at Selston with l a plain but serious 
auditory.' From this he removed to Kingston- 
upon-Hull, where he ministered for about ten 
years. About 1706 he was chosen colleague 
of Dr. William Harris at Crutched Friars, and 
accepting the call was thus placed practically 
in the foremost place among protestant dis- 
senters. He was associated with Dr. Harris 
for fifteen years. ' I ever esteemed him,' 
i says Dr. Harris, l a great blessing to the con- 
j gregation, and I believe he was thought so 
[ by every one in it. We lived together through 
that course of time in a most perfect uninter- 
| rupted friendship and endearment ; his labours 
i and his memory will be always precious in 
! my account.' 

Besides his work at Crutched Friars, he 
I spent Sunday evening during the winter ' in 
I a catechetical exercise to a numerous con- 
i gregation at Old Jewry.' His text-book was 
I ' The Larger and Shorter Catechisms ' of the 
: assembly of divines. He also went over the 
main points in the popish controversy. 

When the unhappy controversy concern- 
ing the Trinity agitated England at the 
commencement of the eighteenth century, 
the protestant dissenters convened a synod 
at Salters' Hall in 1719. They split upon 
the rock of subscription. Billingsley sided 
with those who opposed subscription. This 
was the more honourable to him, as per- 
sonally he was rigidly orthodox. He declined 
to approve of subscription on the broad prin- 
ciple of opposition to all tests in matters of 
religion. He died 22 May 1722, in his sixty- 
fifth year, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 
He does not appear to have published any- 
thing. A son John, originally a dissenting 
minister at Dover, married a sister of Sir 
Philip Yorke, afterwards Lord-chancellor 
Hardwicke, conformed and accepted a good 
living in the national church with a prebend 
in Bristol Cathedral. It is to his honour 
that, notwithstanding his conformity, he re- 
mained 'moderate, and maintained friendly 
intercourse with the dissenters to the last.' 

[Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting Churches, i. 77- 
82 ; Palmer's Nonconf. Mem. i. 402 ; Harris's 
Funeral Sermon for Billingsley ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
and authorities on his father.] A. B. Gf. 

1637), writing-master, was born in 1591, as 
an inscription round his portrait, prefixed to 
his ' Pens Excellencie,' shows ; but where he 
was born, or of whom, there is no evidence. 
He was residing in London, in Bush Lane, 
near London Stone, on 22 Dec. 1618, when 
he dedicated his first dainty little work, The 
Pens Excellencie, or the Secretarys Delight,' 
to Prince Charles. He would appear to have 




been the prince's writing master from a sen- 
tence in his dedication : ' This humble worke 
. . . first devoted to y r highness gratious 
regard and now . . . putt forth into the 
world,' and from another sentence in the 
preface, ' This little booke hath found gracious 
acceptation at the hands of him to whom it 
was first privately intended.' Copies set out 
in the book itself give ample testimony to 
Billingsley's skill. His portrait proves him 
to have been of good appearance, and repre- 
sents him in huge pleated ruff and ornamented 
doublet. In 1623, there was another issue 
of the l Pens Excellencie, both issues being 
notable as early productions of the rolling- 
press (MASSBY, Origin of Letters, part ii. 
p. 24). In 1637, Billingsley published 'A 
Coppie Booke, containing Varieties of Ex- 
amples of all the most curious Hands written.' 
This was printed and sold at the Globe and 
Compasses, at the west end of St. Paul's, 
towards Ludgate. It pronounces itself to 
be the second edition. In its few pages of 
directions it refers to a previous work, ' The 
Pens Transcendency,' ' wherein are directions 
for every particular letter.' On the back of 
the last page there is a list of works (includ- 
ing ' The Pens Transcendency ') ' The Pens 
Celerity,' 'The Pens Triumph,' 'The Pens 
Paradise,' and 'The Pens Facility 'all of 
which were probably Billingsley's, and pub- 
lished between 1618 and 1637. An edition of 
' The Pens Excellencie ' seems to have been 
issued in 1641, 4to (WATT, Bibl. Brit.} No 
later fact concerning Billingsley is to be found. 
Billingsley, like his immediate predecessor 
in his art, Peter Bales [q. v.], throws very in- 
teresting light on penmen and penmanship. 
1 Let not your breast lie on the desk you write 
on, nor your nose on the paper, but sit in as 
majestical a posture as you can,' he says (A 
Coppie Book, 1637). He speaks also ( The Pens 
Excellencie, 1618) of London, ' this famous 
citie,' swarming with ' lame pen-men,' with 'a 
worlde of squirting teachers . . . botchers,' 
whose ' worke is such weake stuffe as he 
would rather imagine it to bee the scratching 
of a hen than the worke of a profest pen- 
man,' who yet ' clap bills upon every post . . . 
and make curriculer progresse over all places 
in this kingdom,' with ' audatious brags and 
lying promises . . . professing to teach any 
one a sufficient hand in a month, and some 
of them doe say in a fortnight.' The num- 
ber of hands set out by Billingsley with 
examples was six, with some additional 
subdivisions. The six were the Secretary, 
' the usuall hand of England ' (yet getting 
its name from secret, he said) ; the Bastard 
Secretary, or Text : the Roman ; the Italian, 
' meere botching and detestable ; ' the Court 

(because used in the courts of King s Bench 
and Common Pleas) ; and the Chancery. 
The Roman hand, Billingsley said, was the 
hand ' usually taught to women, because they 
are phantasticall and humorsome.' He dis- 
agreed with those that ' affirme writing to 
be altogether unnecessarie for women,' and 
was of opinion that ' no woman surviving her 
husband, and who hath an estate left her,, 
ought to be without the use thereof.' 

[Billingsley's own Works ; Massey's Origin- 
and Progress of Letters, part ii. p. 24 ; Watt's- 
Bibl. Brit.] J. H. 

1709), poet and divine, was a native of Fa- 
versham, Kent. He was probably son of 
Nicholas Billingsley, one of the masters of 
Faversham School and rector of Belshanger 
from 23 Nov. 1644 till 4 July 1651. The 
parish register of Faversham has, under bap- 
tisms, the entry, '1633, 1 November, Nicholas, 
son of Nicholas and Letitia Billingsley.' It 
has been stated that in 1658, when he pro- 
ceeded B.D. [?B.A.], he was in his sixteenth 
year ; but this is a mistake caused by a mis- 
interpretation of certain allusions in his 
poems. In his epistle before his 'Infancy 
of the World ' to Francis Rous of Eton,, 
he writes : ' It is now [1656] six years coin- 
pleat since I was through your favour re- 
moved from my late reverend father's side 
and placed in that famous and flourish- 
ing school of Eaton ; from whence, after 
some continuance there, having not the hap- 
pinesse (nor was I alone) to be transplanted 
elsewhere in a college of the same founda- 
tion, whatever want of learning or somewhat 
else, of much (what if I say more ?) looked 
upon by many now-a-days, or both, were im- 
pediments, I shall not now stand to deter- 
mine ; ' and then he adds that his poetry 
was ' as good as the third lustrum of his age 
was then able to produce.' This epistle is 
dated from Canterbury, 29 Dec. 1656. But 
the mentioning of ' third lustrum ' implies 
not that in 1656 he was about fifteen, but 
that he was so when the poetry first pub- 
lished in 1656 was composed or produced. 
Similarly one John Swan, among the pre- 
fixed commendatory poems, addresses him 'in 
his fifteenth year.' 

In his ' Brachy-Martyrology ' the young 
author styles himself of 'Merton College, 
Oxford.' But his academic attendances must 
have been interrupted by sickness, for he 
tells us that he composed ' Brachy-Martyro- 
logy ' at his father's house when ' dispensed 
from college by illness.' The second part of" 
' Brachy-Martyrology ' is dated from Wick 
ham-Brook, 5 June 1657. 




He was deprived of the living of Weobley 
in Herefordshire on the passing of the Act of 
Uniformity in 1662. He was then married 
to a daughter of Richard Hawes of Lantmar- 
tine (Herefordshire), who was ejected, and 
took up his residence with his son-in-law at 
Abergavenny. There Billingsley kept school 
until, ; by the good offices of Sir Edward 
Haiiey, he was settled at Blakeney in the 
parish of Awre in Gloucestershire.' The 
maintenance of this small living (50/. per 
.annum) depended upon an impropriation, 
which, '' by the generosity of a gentleman, had 
been annexed to a chapel of ease' in the vil- 
lage. He was simultaneously offered the 
vicarage, but the principle and conscience 
which had made him give up Weobley con- 
.strained him to decline it. While Dr. Nichol- 
son (d. 1670-1) was bishop (of Gloucester) 
.and a Mr. Jordan, a moderate and pious man, 
was vicar of the parish, he was left in peace. 
But the vicar died in 1668, and two suc- 
cessive high-church vicars did all in their 
power to molest and ruin him. After the 
death of Bishop Pritchet in 1680-1, the 
succeeding bishop (Frampton) and the chan- 
cellor (Parsons) were his bitter opponents. 
The chancellor after hearing Billingsley 
preach a visitation-sermon, in which he re- 
proved the vices of the clergy, so far forgot him- 
.self as in the open street to pluck the preacher 
by the hair, with these words : ' Sirrah, you are 
.a rogue, and I'll bind you to your good be- 
haviour.' After this disreputable incident Bil- 
lingsley had many suspensions and pains and 
penalties for ' want of that conformity to 
which his place did not oblige him.' He com- 
plied so far as ' to read more or less of the Com- 
mon Prayer, and to wear the surplice, after the 
bishop had given it under his hand that it 
was not required to be worn upon the ac- 
count of any supposed holiness in the gar- 
ment, but only for decency and comeliness.' 
Afterwards Frampton's chancellor satisfied 
Ms own long-nursed wrath by again suspend- 
ing Billingsley. On this, in the anonymous 
4 Life of Frampton,' published for the first 
time so recently as 1876 (edited by T. Simp- 
son Evans, M.A., pp. 174-7), the truculent 
writer denounces Billingsley (though he knew 
so little of him as to misname him Ben- 
jamin) as ' always of an anti-monarchical arid 
rebellious temper, and if against the king no 
wonder against the bishop ' (p. 174). When, 
however, Dr. Fowler succeeded as bishop, 
he blamed the chancellor and took steps to 
induce Billingsley to return, and kept the 
place open for a whole year. But, worn out 
by his many persecutions and sufferings, Bil- 
lingsley respectfully declined to reconsider 
Qiis decision finally to leave Awre. Thence- 

forward he exercised his ministry among the 
nonconformists in different places in Glou- 
cestershire. He at length became very feeble, 
and died at Bristol in December 1709. 

Anthony u Wood ignored his ministerial 
offices, whilst both Calamy and Palmer kne\v 
nothing of his poems. Richard Baxter had 
in his possession a manuscript of his entitled 
* Theological Reflections on God's admirable 
Master-piece,' and he wrote on the fly-leaf 
as follows : < The poetry of this book lleave 
to the judgment and relish of the reader ; 
the philosophical and theological matter, as 
far as I had leisure to peruse it, is such as is 
agreeable to the authors that are most com- 
monly esteemed.' Billingsley, in his ' Treasury 
of Divine Raptures,' dubs himself ' a pri- 
vate chaplain to the muse.' His books are : 
1 . ' Brachy-Martyrologia ; or a Breviary of all 
| the greatest Persecutions which have befallen 
the Saints and People of God from the Crea- 
tion to our Present Times : Paraphras'd by 
Nicholas Billingsley of Mert. Coll. Oxon.,. ? 
1657. 2. ' Koo-/io/3pe(ta, or the Infancy of the 
World ; with an Appendix of God's Resting, 
Eden's Garden, Man's Happiness before, 
Misery after, his Fall. W T hereunto is added, 
the Praise of Nothing: Divine Ejaculations; 
the Four Ages of the World ; the Birth of 
Christ ; also a Century of Historical Applica- 
tions ; with a Taste of Poetical Fictions. 
Written some years since by N. B., then of 
Eaton School, and now published at the re- 
quest of his Friends,' 1658. 3. ' Thesauro- 
Phulakion, a Treasury of Divine Raptures, 
consisting of Serious Observations, Pious 
Ejaculations, Select Epigrams, alphabetically 
rank'd and fill'd by a Private Chaplain to the 
illustrious and renowned Lady Urania, the 
Divine and Heavenly Muse,' 1667. Various 
sub-title-pages are introduced an$ many 
dedications. He left two sons : Richard, who 
died minister of Whit church, Hampshire, 
father of the Rev. Samuel Billingsley (PAL- 
MER'S Nonconf. Mem. i. 402), and Nicholas, 
minister of Ashwick, Somersetshire (ib. ii. 

[Wood's Fasti (Bliss), ii. 213; Calamy and 
Palmer, ii. 297-8. 477 ; Hunter's MS. Chorus 
Vatum in Brit. Mus. ; Life of Eobert Frampton, 
Bishop of Gloucester, deprived as a non-jurist 
(an interesting but partisan book, 1876.) ; local 
researches by Mr. Charles Smith, Faversham, 
Kent,] A. B. G. 

1818), the greatest singer England has ever 
produced, was probably born about 1768 in 
Litchfield Street, Soho. She was the daugh- 
ter (according to the author of the scurrilous 
' Memoirs ' published in 1792, the illegitimate 
daughter) of Carl Weichsel, a native of Frei- 



berg, in Saxony, principal oboist at the King's 
Theatre. Her mother, an English vocalist of 
some distinction, was a pupil of John Chris- 
tian Bach, and sang at Vauxhall with success 
between 1765 and 1775. Elizabeth Weichsel 
received her earliest musical instruction, in 
company with her brother Charles (who after- 
wards was known as a violinist) from her 
father, under whom she studied the pianoforte 
with such assiduity that on 10 March 1774 she 
played at a concert at the Haymarket for her 
mother's benefit. In addition to her father's ! 
instruction she studied under Schroeter, I 
and before she was twelve years old pub- I 
lished two sets of pianoforte sonatas. She | 
now began to turn her attention to the cul- 
tivation of her voice, and at the early age of 
fourteen appeared at a public concert in Ox- 
ford. On 13 Oct. 1783 she was secretly married 
(under the assumed name of ' Elizabeth Wier- j 
man ') at Lambeth Church to James Billing- 
ton, a double-bass player in the Drury Lane 
orchestra, from whom she had had lessons in | 
singing. Immediately after their marriage 
the Billingtons went to Dublin, where she 
made her first appearance on the stage in the 
part of Eurydice. After singing at Water- 
ford and other towns in Ireland she returned j 
to London in 1786, and was offered an en- 
gagement at Covent Garden for three nights j 
only, but she insisted on being engaged for 
twelve nights, at a salary of 12Z. a week. | 
On these terms she was announced to appear 
on 14 Feb. 1786, but the renown she had 
already won in Dublin had preceded her, and 
' by command of their majesties ' she ap- 
peared on the 13th as Rosetta in Arne's 
* Love in a Village.' Her performance seems 
to have struck the public by its originality, 
and her success was enormous. At the end 
of the twelve nights she was engaged for 
the rest of the season at a salary of 1,000/. 
A contemporary account of her at this period 
says that her voice was of great sweetness, 
compass, and power, and that she possessed 
' a great deal of genuine beauty and very 
unaffected and charming manners ; ' but the 
secret of her great success was the unremit- 
ting zeal with which she studied her art. 
Her brother-in-law, Thomas Billington [q.v.], 
says that she had originally 'a very in- 
different voice and manner,' which she com- 
pletely changed by the industry with which, 
throughout her public career, she pursued 
her studies. At the end of her first season 
she went to Paris, and had lessons from the 
veteran Sacchini, whose last pupil she was, 
and at different periods of her career she 
also studied with Morelli, Paer, and Himmel. 
She returned to London for the season of 
1786-7, and continued to sing there, at 

Covent Garden, the Concerts of Ancient Mu- 
sic, the so-called Oratorios, and the Handel 
Commemorations, until the end of 1793. 
Shield wrote his operas of ' Marian ' and ' The 
Prophet ' for her, and in 1789 she appeared as 
Yarico in Dr. Arnold's long-popular compila- 
tion, 'Inkle and Yarico.' Others of her fa- 
vourite parts were Mandane (in 'Artaxerxes '), 
and the heroines in * Polly,' the ' Duenna,' the 
' Castle of Andalusia/ ' Corali/ ' Clara/ the 
' Flitch of Bacon/ &c. 

Mrs. Billington was not happy in her mar- 
riage, and even before she had appeared on the 
London stage rumour had been busy Avith her 
fair fame. In 1792 there appeared an anony- 
mous publication, which professed to con- 
tain her private correspondence with her 
mother. This work was of so disgraceful 
and scurrilous a description that Mrs. Bil- 
lington was forced to take legal proceedings 
against the publishers. An answer to the 
' Memoirs ' appeared in due course ; but it 
seems probable that the scandal induced: 
Mrs. Billington to abandon her profession 
and retire to the Continent. Accompanied 
by her brother and her husband, she left 
England early in 1794, and travelled by way 
of Germany to Italy. At Naples she was 
induced by Sir William Hamilton, the Eng- 
lish ambassador, to sing in private before the 
royal family. This led to her singing at the- 
San Carlo, where she appeared in a new 
1 opera, ( Inez di Castro/ written expressly for 
| her by Bianchi, on 30 May 1794. Her sing- 
j ing created an extraordinary impression, but 
] her triumph was cut short by the sudden 
death of her husband, which took place the- 
| day after her first appearance, as he was pre- 
paring to accompany his wife to the theatre,. 
i after dining with the Bishop of Winchester. 
Her enemies did not hesitate to accuse Mrs. 
' Billington of causing her husband's death ; 
but frail as she undoubtedly was, there was 
no reason to lay such a crime to her charge. 
She stayed at Naples sixteen months, and 
then sang at Florence, Leghorn, Milan,. 
Venice, and Trieste. In 1797, when singing 
at Venice, she was prostrated with a severe 
illness for six weeks. On her recovery the 
opera house was illuminated for three nights. 
At Milan she was received with much favour 
by the Empress Josephine, and here she met 
a young Frenchman, M. Felissent, to whom 
she was married in 1799. After her second 
marriage she went to live at St. Artien, an 
estate she had bought between Venice and 
Treviso ; but her life was rendered so insup- 
portable by the ill-treatment she received from 
her husband that in 1801 she left him and 
returned to England. Felissent, who, it was 
said, had been publicly flogged as an impostor 




at Milan, followed her to London, but lie was \ ments in good taste and judicious, but that 
arrested and expelled the country as an alien, j she lacked feeling, and was no actress. Miss 
Mrs. Billington's return to London caused i Seward writes of her : ( She has too much 
a great stir in the musical world, and the i sense to gambol like Mara in the sacred 
managers both of Covent Garden (Harris) and ' songs;' but George III, who was no mean 
Drury Lane (Sheridan) were eager to secure judge by suggesting in a written memo- 
her services. After some negotiation it was random (Egerton MS. 2159), that Lord Car- 
arranged that she should appear alternately marthen ' if he can get her to sing pathetick 
at both houses, the terms she was to receive 
being 3,000 guineas for the season, together 

with a benefit guaranteed to amount to 

500/., and 500/. to her brother for leading 

the orchestra on the nights she appeared. 

Her reappearance took place at Covent 

Garden on 3 Oct. 1801, in Arne's ' Artaxerxes,' 

in which she sang the part of Mandane, | fingers,' and quite late in life she played a 

Incledon singing that of Arbaces. During in public with J. B. Cramer. In person 

songs, and not to over-grace them, will be 
doing an essential service to the court ' seems 
to imply that she had the great fault of the 
singers of that day, viz. the excessive and in- 
discriminate use of vocal embellishments. She 
was all through her life a finished pianist. 
Salomon used to say that ' she sang with her 

a duet 

1801 she made from 10,000/. to 15,000/., and at ! Billington was very handsome, though in- 
one time her fortune is said to have amounted ' clined to stoutness. Her portrait was painted 

to 65,000/. In 1802 Mrs. Billington appeared ; by Sir Joshua Reynolds as Saint Cecilia, and 

has been engraved by James Ward, Pastorini, 
and Cardon. The exhibition of old masters 
at Burlington House in 1885 contained a 
small portrait by Reynolds, said to be of Mrs. 

Billington in her youth, a statement which is 
probably inaccurate. Two miniatures of her 

in Italian opera at the King's Theatre, on the 
occasion of the farewell of Banti, when both 
these great artists sang in Nasolini's * Merope.' 
A similar performance took place on 3 June 
of the same year, when she was induced to 
sing a duet with Mara, at the farewell con- 
cert of her great rival. From this time until ; were painted, one by Daniel, and there are en- 
her retirement in 1811 she continued to sing gravings of her by T. Burke after De Koster, 
in Italian opera. Winter wrote his l Ca- as Mandane by Heath after Stothard, by 
lypso ' (1803) expressly for her, and in 1806 Bartolozzi after Cosway, by Dunkarton after 
she distinguished herself by producing, for Downman, and by Assen. A portrait of 
her benefit, ' La Clemenza di Tito,' the first Clara in the ' Duenna,' painted and engraved 
opera by Mozart performed in this country, by J. R. Smith in 1797, probably represents 
During 1809-10 she suffered much from ill- Mrs. Billington. 

health, and at length she retired from the pro- j [Genfc> Mag< lxiv> 671 > ] XX n i ii. 69 ; Georgian 
fession, her last appearance being announced . Era (1832), iv. 291 ; Egerton MRS. 2159, if. 57, 

at her brother's benefit concert on 3 May 1811. 
She appeared, however, once more at White- 

Earl of Mount, Edgcumbe's Musical Re- 
miniscences (2nd ed. 1827), vi. ; Busby's Con- 

hall Chapel in 1814, at a concert in aid of the cert Room Anecdotes, i. 151, 212, 217, ii. 4; 

sufferers by the German war. After her re- Eaton's Musical Criticism (1872), 172 ; Seward's 

tirement she lived in princely style at a villa Letters (1811), i. 153 ; Harmonicon for 1830, 93 ; 

at Fulham, where she was rejoined in 1817 by Public Characters (1802-3), 394 ; H. Bromley's 

M.Felissent, who induced her to return with Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 431; Memoirs of 

him to St. Artien in the following year. Here Mrs. Bilhngton (1792); An Answer to the Me 

i T T ^~ i -i m n . Tnoirs of Mrs Kimnfrton (17921! (rrovft s Diet 

she died on 25 Aug. 1818, owing, it is some- 
times said, to the effects of a blow she received 
from her worthless husband. Her child by 
her first husband had died in infancy ; but it 
was believed that an adopted child, whom she 
had placed in a convent at Brussels, was her 
own daughter. 

Contemporary opinions as to the merits of 
Mrs. Billington as a singer differ to a singular 
degree. It was always her misfortune to be 

moirs of Mrs. Billington (1792) ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music, i. 242a; Cat. of Library of Sacred 
Harmonic Society; Musical "World, viii. 109; 
Parke's Musical Memoirs (1830); Fetis's Bio- 
graphie des Musiciens, ii. 195 ; Thos. Billington's 
at. George and the Dragon ; Quarterly Musical 
Magazine, i. 175; Registers of Lambeth; Thes- 
pian Dictionary (1805).] W. B. S. 

BILLINGTON, THOMAS (d. 1832), a 

__ _, j native of Exeter, was a well-known harpsi- 

forced into a position of rivalry with some j chord and singing master towards the close 
other great artist, and thus partisanship often of the eighteenth century. On 6 April 1777 
guided the judgments of her critics. As to he was elected a member of the Royal Society 
the perfect finish of her singing all are ! of Musicians. His brother James (the hus- 
agreed. The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe says , band of Mrs. Billington [q. v.]) was elected 
that her voice was sweet and flexible, her ; a member of the same society on 6 Jan. 1782. 
execution neat and precise, her embellish- ( A third brother, Horace, was an artist, and 



died at Glasshouse Street on 17 Nov. 1812. 
Billington was an industrious composer and 
compiler. His most remarkable productions 
are his settings of poems like Gray's * Elegy, 
Pope's ' Eloisa,' and parts of Young's ' Night 
Thoughts' to heterogeneous collections of 
his own and other composers' music. In one ; 
of these curious compilations he arranged 
Handel's Dead March in ' Saul ' as a four- 
part glee, while Jomelli's ' Chaconne ' figures 
as a song. Besides these works, Billington 
published several sets of instrumental trios, 
quartetts, and sonatas ; and canzonets and 
ballads for one and more voices. During the 
greater part, of his life he lived at 24 Char- 
lotte Street, but towards 1825 he removed to 
Sunbury, Middlesex. He died at Tunis in 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Kecords of Royal Society of 
Musicians; Gent. Mag. Ixxxii. pt. ii. 501, cii. 
382.] W. B. S. 

1884), dialect writer, was born at the Yew 
Trees, Samlesbury, near Blackburn and was 
one of the three sons of a contractor for road- 
making. The father died when the boy was 
between seven and eight years of age, and 
in consequence he had little or no schooling, 
but as soon as possible entered upon factory 
life as a 'doffer.' In 1839 the family re- 
moved to Blackburn, and Billington passed 
through various stages of employment in the 
cotton mills, from ' doffer ' to weaver and 
* taper.' He was also for some time a publi- 
can. His intimate knowledge of the ways 
of thought and speech of Lancashire work- 
ing people was turned to account in the 
period of the Lancashire cotton famine, when 
his homelv rhymes were circulated in thou- 
sands of broadsides. Of the ballad of * Th' 
Shurat Weyvur' 14,000 copies were sold in 
that time of distress. Another popular rhyme, 
' Th' Tay and Rum Ditty,' usually attributed 
to him, was written by l Adam Chester,' the 
pseudonym of Charles Rothwell. The most 
important of his sketches, in prose and verse, 
have been collected in two works, 'Sheen 
and Shade,' which appeared in 1861, and 
t Lancashire Poems with other Sketches,' pub- 
lished in 1883, some copies of which have a 
photographic portrait. High literary merit 
cannot be claimed for Billington, but he is a 
faithful painter of the life of the district, and 
a certain philological value attaches to his 
representation of the East Lancashire dia- 
. lect. He was twice married, and died on 
.1 Jan. 1884. 

[Sutton's List of Lancashire Authors ; Biblio- 
. graphical List published by the English Dialect 
Society; private information.] W. E. A. A. 

1531), martyr, was a member of a Norfolk 
family which took its name from the villages 
of the same designation in that county. Local 
historians (BLOMEFIELD'S Norfolk, iii. 199, 
ix. 461) assert that he was born either at 
East Bilney or Norwich ; but these state- 
ments seem to rest on probability rather than 
definite evidence. The date of his ordination 
as priest makes it impossible for him to have 
been bom before 1495, and as both his parents 
were alive at his death, it is improbable that 
he was born much earlier. When still very 
young he went to Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 
His ardent religious temperament drew him 
from legal studies towards an active clerical 
life. In the summer of 1519 he was ordained 
priest by Bishop West, at Ely, on the title of 
the Priory of St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield 
(MS. Cole, xxvi. 151, from West's Register ; 
MS. Add. 5827). The absence of any refer- 
ence to his status in Bishop West's Register 
proves that he did not take his degree of 
LL.B. or become a fellow of his college until 
some subsequent time. 

The earlier period of Bilney's manhood seems 
to have been passed in a series of spiritual 
struggles analogous to those of Luther. He 
sought for relief in those mechanical theories 
of ' good works ' which the reigning scholas- 
ticism inculcated. But fastings and watch- 
ings, penances and masses were powerless to 
relieve the sense of sin that weighed so 
heavily on his sensitive temperament. At 
last the fame of the great scholar's Latinity 
attracted Bilney to the edition of the New 
Testament which Erasmus had published in 
1516. That Erasmus's Latin, rather than 
the Greek text, should have allured Bilney, 
suggests that he, whose early studies had 
been in the civil and canon laws, had little 
or no knowledge of the latter language. 
Like Luther, Bilney found in the teaching 
of St. Paul what he had so long sought for 
in vain in the arid tenets of the schoolmen. 
i Immediately I felt,' he exclaims, * a mar- 
vellous comfort and quietness, insomuch as 
my bruised bones leapt for joy.' Hencefor- 
ward the scriptures were his chief study. A 
bible which once belonged to Bilney is still 
preserved in the library of Corpus College, 
Cambridge. Its frequent annotations and 
interlineations show how diligent he had 
been in its study. The doctrines of justifi- 
cation by faith, of the nothingness of human 
efforts without Christ, of the vanity of a 
merely external religion of rites and cere- 
monies, became for Bilney, as for so many 
others of his generation, the starting points 
of a new and. brighter existence. Other young 
Cambridge men were groping on the same 



path, and these earliest English protestants | 
formed a sort of society, of which Bilney ! 
became one of the leaders. Barnes and Lam- 
bert ascribed their conversion to his influ- 
ence. Matthew Parker, who, in 1521, had 
come up from Norwich to Corpus College, soon \ 
acquired an enthusiastic affection for one who 
was perhaps his fellow-toAviisman. In 1524 , 
Hugh Latimer, then as ardent a conservative i 
as he afterwards became a strenuous reformer, ! 
read for his B.D. thesis a violent philippic 
against Melanchthon. Bilney, who had per- , 
haps studied Lutheran books in secret, and j 
who had been present at the recital of the | 
dissertation, visited Latimer the next day, 
and reasoned with him with such convincing 
subtlety that Latimer ended by completely 
accepting his position. From that day began 
a lifelong friendship between Bilney and 
Latimer. Henceforth they were constantly 
in each other's society, and in their daily 
walks on ' Heretic's Hill,' as the people calle*d 
their favourite place of exercise, Bilney 
quite won over his new friend. ' By his 
confession,' said Latimer, ' I learned more 
than in twenty years before.' Their position 
had this in common, that with a burning 
ze&l for righteousness and spiritual religion 
their unspeculative intellects were never 
seriously troubled with mere doctrinal and 
theological difficulties. To the last Bilney 
remained orthodox, after mediaeval standards 
on the power of the pope, the sacrifice of the 
mass, the doctrine of transubstantiatiori and 
the powers of the church. Foxe is quite 
pitiful on his blindness and grossness on these 
points. Bilney remained where Luther started, 
and died too early to be influenced, like Lati- 
mer, by external changes of a later date. 

The little band of Cambridge reformers 
were zealous in preaching and in works of cha- 
rity, however opposed they were to the formal 

* good works ' of the schoolmen. Bilney and 
Latimer constantly visited together the foul 
lazar-house and equally foul prison of Cam- 
bridge. On one occasion they discovered 
a woman in- gaol who had been unjustlx 
sentenced to death for child-murder, ana 
Latimer's influence with the king procured ( 
her pardon. This must have been at the 
very end of Bilney's career. 

Though a zealous opponent of the cere- 
monial fastings of the church, Bilney set in 
his own life a rare example of abstinence and 
self-denial. He allowed himself little sleep. 
He generally contented himself with one 
meal a day, and distributed the rest of his 
commons to the prisoners and the poor. 

* He could abide,' says Foxe, ' neither sing- 
ing nor swearing.' The < dainty singing ' of 
the greater churches was to him mere ' mock- 

ing against God ; ' and whenever Thirlby, the 
future bishop, who had rooms beneath him, 
played upon his recorder, Bilney ' would resort 
straight to his prayer.' Latimer is always en- 
thusiastic upon the simplicity, the unworld- 
liness, and the transparent honesty of ' little 
Bilney,' as he affectionately calls him. He 
was 'meek and charitable, a simple good soul 
not fit for this world.' 

In the propagation of his teaching, Bilney 
gave his small and spare frame no rest. Cam- 
bridge and London were not enough for him. 
The election of Stephen Gardiner to the 
mastership of Trinity Hall in 1 525 may have 
made his college a less pleasant place of abode 
to him. On 23 July 1525 he obtained from 
Bishop West a license to preach throughout 
the whole diocese of Ely (Cole MS. as above, 
xxvi. 116). He also preached frequently in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, but his admission into 
so many churches almost proves that his 
general teaching seemed orthodox in cha- 
racter. But his denunciations of saint and 
relic worship, and of pilgrimages to Wal- 
singham and Canterbury, his rejection of 
the mediation of saints, and of many other 
cherished portions of the popular religion, 
drew the attention of Wolsey to his case, who, 
as legate a latere, then exercised a jurisdic- 
tion that transcended both the diocesan and 
metropolitical authorities. Wolsey had been 
accused of remissness in dealing with heresy. 
He began to take a severer line. About 
1526 he seems to have had Bilney before him 
and to have dismissed him on taking an oath 
that he did not hold, and would not dissemi- 
nate, the doctrines of Luther (FoxE, iv. 622). 
But next year (1527) Bilney, in conjunction 
with his Cambridge friend Arthur, fell into 
more serious trouble. About Whitsuntide 
he preached a series of sermons in and near 
London. At St .Magnus's, near London Bridge, 
he exclaimed: 'Pray you only to God, and to 
noo saynts, rehersing the Litany, and when 
he came to Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis, he 
said Stay there.' He also said that ' Chris- 
ten men ought to worship God only and not 
Saynts.' At Willesden, in Middlesex, he 
taught the same doctrines in the same Whit- 
sun week, and declared that but for the ido- 
latry of the Christians the Jews would long- 
ago have been converted to the Christian faith. 
At Newington, in Surrey, which was also in 
the diocese of London, he again denounced 
prayer to saints. A sermon at Christ Church, 
Ipswich, on 28 May, and a disputation in 
that town with Friar Brasiard against image 
worship, together with a previous ' most 
ghostly sermon' on 7 March, had excited 
general suspicion. Tunstal, who had ob- 
tained evidence of his Ipswich proceedings 

Bilney 4 

(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. iv. I 
pt. 2, No. 4396, Denham's confession), caused 
Bilney and Arthur to be arrested. They were j 
confined in the Tower, where the society of ! 
a fellow-sufferer for his religion somewhat j 
consoled Bilney. On 27 Nov. 1527 Wolsey, ! 
after solemn mass and sermon in the abbey, ! 
held a great court in the chapter house at > 
Westminster. The Archbishop of Canterbury, 
yielding precedence to the legate a later e, the 
bishops of London, Norwich, and several other 
bishops, with a large number of theologians 
and jurists, were present. Bilney and Arthur 
were brought before them. Bilney was asked 
by the cardinal whether he had not, con- j 
trary to his oath, again taught the doctrines 
of Luther. He replied l not wittingly,' and j 
willingly swore to answer plainly the articles \ 
brought against him. In the afternoon wit- 
nesses were heard. Next day (28 Nov.) the 
court met at the house of Richard Nix, 
bishop of Norwich, who, with the bishops of 
London, Ely, and Rochester, heard the case 
as the legate's deputies. On 2 Dec. another 
meeting was held at the same place, and 
elaborate articles and interrogatories were 
laid before the two prisoners. In his answers 
Bilney, while assenting altogether to the 
majority of the articles, while admitting 
that Luther was ' a wicked and detestable 
heretic,' and accepting power of the pope, 
expressed a desire that at least some part 
of the scriptures should be in the vulgar 
tongue, and that pardons should be restrained, 
and, by his qualified and elaborate answers 
to other points, seemed not to be fully in 
agreement with his interrogators. Accord- 
ingly, when on 4 Dec. the court met again 
in the chapter house of Westminster, Tun- 
stal, who had now taken the chief place in it, 
exhorted Bilney to recant and abjure. He 
replied, 'Fiat justitia et judicium in nomine 
Domini.' Then the bishop solemnly declared 
him convicted of heresy, but deferred sen- 
tence to the next day. Tunstal seems to have 
acted with much moderation and forbearance 
to Bilney, if, indeed, the very unsubstantial 
character of his heresies did not almost re- 
quire his acquittal. On 5 Dec. Bilney was 
again brought up, and again refused to re- 
cant. Tunstal exhorted him to retire again 
and consult with his friends ; but in the after- 
noon Bilney returned with a request that his 
witnesses might be heard, and said that if 
they could prove that he was guilty he would 
willingly yield himself. But the bishops 
resolved that it was irregular for him to 
renew the trial, and again pressed his abjura- 
tion. He refused point-blank, though peti- 
tioning again for more time. After some 
reluctance Tunstal gave him two days more, 

i Bilney 

which he employed in consulting with his 
friends Farmer and Dancaster. On Saturday, 
7 Dec., the court met finally, and in answer 
to the stereotyped request to abjure, Bilney 
said that by Dancaster's advice he was re- 
solved to abjure, and trusted they would deal 
lightly with him. He then formally read 
and subscribed his abjuration, and the bishop, 
after absolving him, imposed as penance that 
he should the next day (Sunday) go before 
the procession at St. Paul's bareheaded with 
a faggot on his shoulder, that he should 
stand before the preacher at Paul's Cross all 
sermon time, and that he should remain in 
a prison appointed by the cardinal as long as 
the latter thought fit. 

Bilney seems to have been kept in the Tower 
for more than a year. In 1529 he was re- 
leased, and went back to Cambridge. Per- 
haps the influence of Latimer, which had 
been actively used to help him all through 
the proceedings, may have led to his release. 
But freedom brought no relief to Bilney. 
His sensitive temperament and scrupulous 
conscience were tormented with remorse for 
his apostasy. His friends did their best to 
console him, but to no purpose. 

' The comfortable places of scripture,' says 
Latimer, l to bring them unto him, it was as 
though a man should run him through the 
heart with a sword, for he thought the whole 
scriptures sounded to his condemnation/ 
Into such despondency did he fall, that his 
friends were afraid to leave him day or night. 
He endured this life of misery for more than 
two years. At last he resolved to go out 
again and preach the truth which he had 
denied. Late one night he took leave of 
his friends in Trinity Hall, and said 'that he 
would go to Jerusalem/ Forthwith he set 
out for Norfolk. At first he taught privately, 
but growing bolder he preached publicly in the 
fields, for, his license to preach having been 
withdrawn, the churches were no longer open 
to him. Ultimately he went to Norwich, 
where he gave ' the anchoress of Norwich y 
u copy of Tyndale's Testament. Soon after 
he was apprehended by the officers of the 

Convocation was now assembled in Lon- 
don, and on 3 March it drew up articles 
against Bilney, Latimer, and Crome. Court 
| favour made it easier for the latter two to 
I escape, but Bilney 's case as a relapsed heretic 
! was now desperate. He seems to have taken 
up a bolder line in the last short period of 
j field preaching in Norfolk, and even Latimer 
. disavowed any sympathy with hirn if he were 
a heretic (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII r 
v. 607). Arraigned before Dr. Pellis, chan- 
[ cellor of the. bishop, Bilney was degraded 




from his orders, and handed over to the se- 
cular arm for execution. With great cheer- 
fulness and fortitude he prepared for his end. 
He wrote a letter of farewell, that still sur- 
vives (NASMITH, Cat. MSS. in C. C. C. Cam- 
bridge, p. 355), to his father and mother, and 
drew up two discourses (printed in TOWNS- 
EXD'S Foxe, vol. iv. ap. v. ) that are almost 
wholly devotional in their character. He 
was constantly assailed by the arguments and 
entreaties of the chiefs of the four orders of 
friars who had houses in Norwich ; and Dr. 
Pellis also pressed him to recant. Bilney's 
gentle and simple soul could hardly be un- 
moved by these efforts. Differing so little 
as he did from the church, it was doubtless a 
great consolation to him to hear mass, to con- 
fess, to receive the eucharist and absolution. 
The clergy and the Norwich townsmen were 
glad to see him so penitent. On the morn- 
ing of his execution (19 Aug. 1531) he heard 
mass in the chapel of the Guildhall where he 
was imprisoned, and was exhorted to make 
a thorough recantation before the people 
at his execution. He was led through the 
Bishopsgate into a low valley called the Lol- 
lard's Pit under St. Leonard's Hill, which 
was thronged with the crowd assembled to 
witness his martyrdom. He spoke to the 
crowd, admitted his error in preaching against 
fasting, exculpated the anchoress and even 
the friars, but exhorted the people to believe 
in the church and eulogised chastity. Dr. 
Pellis then produced a bill, saying, ' Thomas, 
here is a bill ; ye know it well enough.' 'Ye 
say truly, Mr. Doctor/ answered Bilnev/ 
He then read the bill, but apparently either 
to himself or in an inaudible voice, so/that 
none knew what the tenor of the document 
was (Appendices to FOXE ; Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, vol. v. No. 372-3, but cf. 522 
and 560. Foxe's account seems the less trust- 

The flames were then lighted, and Bilney 
soon perished. A controversy as to the pre- ! 
cise nature of his last utterances sprang up ! 
between Read the mayor and an alderman 
Curatt, and their contradictory depositions j 
still remain. Sir Thomas More, relying upon 
Curatt, asserted in the preface to his pamphlet \ 
against Tyndale that Bilney recanted all his ! 
heresies. This the protestants denied. Foxe j 
argues with much violence against More, but 
More had seen the depositions of which Foxe 
was ignorant, and Foxe's main argument 
is the denial of Matthew Parker, who was 
present at his old teacher's execution. The 
truth seems to be that Bilney was so little 
of a heretic, that a mere statement of his ; 
views would have borne the appearance of a ; 
recantation to those who, like More, regarded , 

him as a thorough Lutheran. Had Bilney's 
over-scrupulous conscience allowed him to 
stay quietly at Cambridge a year or two more, 
he would have found all and more than he 
contended for accepted by the very men who 
hounded him on to death. The execution of 
a man so gentle and harmless as Bilney was 
peculiarly disgraceful to the government, 
even if, as most people then admitted, it was 
right to burn heretics and sacramentaries. 

[Our main authority for Bilney's life is Foxe's 
Acts and Monuments, vol. iv. in Townsend's edi- 
tion, which also gives valuable appendices of docu- 
ments and state papers, all of which, with the 
other documents bearing on the subject, are sum- 
marised in Letters and Papers of the Reign of 
Henry VIII, vol. v., edited by Mr. Gairdner; 
Foxe's account can be verified and checked by 
comparison with the extracts from the register 
of Tunstal, MS. Baker xxi., and by Cole's tran- 
scripts from the register of West, MS. Cole xxvi. ; 
Latimer's Sermons ; Blomefield's Norfolk ; Tan- 
ner's Bibliographia Britannica; an excellent 
modern summary is in Cooper's Athenae Canta- 
brigienses, i. 42, a longer one in Dean Hook's 
Ecclesiastical Biography.] T. F. T. 

BILSON, THOMAS (1546-7-1616), 
bishop of Winchester, was eldest son of 
Herman Bilson, grandson of Arnold Bilson, 
whose wife is said to have been a daughter of 
the Duke of Bavaria, ' natural or legitimate/ 
says Anthony a Wood, ' I know not.' He was 
by6rn in the city of Winchester in 1546-7, and 
^ent to the school there . Thence he proceeded 
/to Oxford and entered New College, where he 
passed B.A., 10 Oct. 1566 ; M.A., 25 April 
1570 ; B.D., 24 June 1579 ; and D.D., 24 Jan. 
1 580-1 . He became ' a most noted preacher ' on 
taking holy orders, in l these parts and else- 
where,' says Wood. He is also stated by some 
(adds the Athena)iQ have been a schoolmaster. 
He was installed a prebendary of Winchester 
on 12 Jan. 1576, and warden of the college 
there. He was consecrated bishop of Wor- 
cester on 13 June- 1596, and translated to 
Winchester on 13 May 1597. 'He was/ 
continues Anthony a Wood, 'as reverend 
and learned a prelate as England ever afforded, 
a deep and profound scholar, exactly read in 
ecclesiastical authors and with Dr. Richard 
Field of Oxon (as Whitaker of Cambridge) 
a principal maintainer of the church of Eng- 
land, while Jo. Rainolds and Thomas Sparke 
were upholders of puritanism and noncon- 
formity. ... In his younger years he was in- 
finitely studious and industrious in poetry, 
philosophy, and physics,' and also in eccle- 
siastical divinity. To the last, 'his geny 
chiefly inciting him, he became,' says the 
same authority, ' so complete in it, so well 
skill'd in languages, so read in the fathers 




and schoolmen, so judicious in making use 
of his readings, that at length he was found 
to be no longer a soldier but a commander- 
in-chief of the spiritual warfare, especially 
when he became a bishop and carried prela- 
ture in his very aspect.' His ' True Dif- 
ference between Christian Subjection and 
Unchristian Rebellion, where the Princes 
lawful power to command and bear the 
sword are defended against the Pope's cen- 
sure and Jesuits' sophisms in their Apology 
and Defence of English Catholics; also a 
Demonstration that the Things reformed in 
the Church of England by the Laws of the 
Realm are truly Catholic against the Catho- 
lic Rhemish Testament ' (Oxford, 1585), is a 
powerful answer to Dr. William Allen's ( De- 
fence of English Catholics/ but otherwise 
shows want of judgment. Elizabeth had 
given him the task in view of her intended 
aid to protestant Holland; and, as was 
swiftly perceived by nonconformists, Bilson 
(in Wood's words) ' gave strange liberty 
in many cases, especially concerning religion, 
for subjects to cast off their obedience.' His- 
torically, it is unquestionable that whilst 
this ( True Difference ' served the queen's pre- 
sent purpose, it contributed more than any 
other to the humiliation, ruin, and death of 
Charles I. The weapons forged to beat back 
the king 'of Spain were used against the 

His ' Perpetual Government of Christ his 
Church ' (1593), and his ' Effect of certain 
Sermons concerning the Full Redemption of 
Mankind by the Death and Blood of Christ 
Jesus ' (1599), are superfluously learned and 
unattractive. His magnum opus was also 
assigned him by Elizabeth, who commanded 
him to answer Henry Jacob. It is entitled 
< Survey of Christ's Sufferings and Descent 
into Hell,' and is, like Bilson's other works, 
halting in its logic and commonplace in its 
proofs. ' At length,' concludes Wood, ' after 
he had gone through many employments and 
had lived in continual drudgery as 'twere, 
for the public good, he surrendered up his 
pious soul, 18 June 1616,' and on the same 
date he was interred in Westminster Abbey. 
Curiously enough, John Dunbar (a Scottish 
poet) furnishes the only contemporary praise 
of him in an epigram Avhich the Oxford his- 
torian deigns to allow might have been in- 
scribed for his epitaph. It runs thus : 
Ad Thomam Bilsonum, episcopum Vintoniensem. 
Castaliclum commune decus, dignissime prsesul 

Bilsone seternis commemorande moclis : 
Quam valide adversus Christi inperterritus hostes 

Bella geras, libri sunt monumenta tui. 
His Hydne ficlei quotquot capita alta resurgunt, 

Tu novus Alcides tot resecare soles. 

I Anthony u Wood possessed various manu- 

I scripts of his Orationes, Carmina Yaria, 

j c., c. Besides 'occasional' sermons, there is 

among the Lambeth MSS. Bilson's l Letter on 

the Election of Warden of Winchester and 

New College ' (943, f. 149). There is also a 

j ' Letter to the Lord Treasurer soliciting his 

I Interest for the Bishoprick of Worcester ' in 

1 Strype's 'Annals of the Reformation,' iv. 227, 

and there are letters of Bishop Bilson at 

Hatfield. Letters of administration were 

! granted to his relict Anne on 25 June 1616. 

j The baptism of a grandson on 5 Dec. 1616 is 

entered in Westminster Abbey Registers. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 169-71 ; 
Chester's Westminster Abbey Reg. 113; Bodleian 
Wood MSS.; Lambeth MSS.; Hatfield MSS.; 
Bilson's books.] A. B. G. 

BINCKES, WILLIAM (d. 1712), dean of 

Lichfield, was educated at St. John's College, 
| Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1674, 
i was elected to a fellowship at Peterhouse, and 
I took the degree of M.A. in 1678. He was 
I instituted to the prebend of Nassington, in 
| the church of Lincoln, 2 May 1683, and to 
I that of Basset Parva, in the church of Lich- 
! field, 15 July 1697. In 1699 he took the 
I degree of D.D. .On 30 Jan. 1701, being then 
proctor of the diocese of Lichfield, he preached 
before the lower house of convocation a ser- 
mon on the martyrdom of Charles I, in which 
he drew a parallel between it and the cruci- 
fixion of Jesus Christ, maintaining that having 
; regard to the superior dignity of a king of 
England in actual possession of his crown as 
; compared with one who was merely an un- 
crowned king of the Jews, and moreover dis- 
I claimed temporal sovereignty, the execution at 
| Whitehall was an act of greater enormity than 
was committed at Calvary. The sermon having 
been printed was brought to the notice of the 
House of Lords, and a suggestion was made 
that it should be publicly burned. The peers, 
however, contented themselves with resolving 
that it contained * several expressions that 
give just scandal and offence to all Christian 
people.' In 1703 he was installed dean of 
Lichfield (19 June). In 1705 he Avas ap- 
pointed prolocutor to convocation. He died 
19 June 1712, and was buried at Learning-ton, 
of which place he had been vicar. Dean 
Binckes built the existing deanery at Lich- 
field. He published his sermons between 
1702 and 1710. 

[Grad. Cantab.; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 
564, 600, ii. 193 ; Allibone'sDict. of British and 
American Authors ; Parl. Hist. vi. 22, 23 ; Har- 
wood's Lichfield, 186; Shaw's Staffordshire i 
289.] J. M. R. 




BINDLEY, CHARLES, better known 
as HARRY HIEOVER (1795-1859), sporting- 
writer, was born in 1795. His favourite 
topics were limiting and stable management. 
His first work of any importance was * Stable 
Talk and Table Talk, or Spectacles for Young 
Sportsmen,' '2 vols. 8vo, the first published 
in 1845 and the second in 1846. His auto- 
graph was prefixed to the book under a life- 
like portrait of him which formed its frontis- 
piece. A rollicking ' Hunting Song,' and ' The 
Doctor, a true Tale,' comically rhymed, helped 
to enliven his animated prose. His second 
venture was ' The Pocket and the Stud, or 
Practical Hints for the Management of the 
Stable,' 1848, 16mo, pp. 215, the frontispiece 
being here again a portrait of Harry Hieover 
' on his favourite horse Harlequin.' His next 
book was ' The Stud for Practical Purposes 
and Practical Men,' 1849, 16mo, pp. 205. 
Two admirable illustrations in the volume, 
each engraved 'from a painting by the author,' 
represented respectively a well-shaped road- 
ster, 'A pretty good sort for most pur- 
poses,' and a wicked-looking, unsightly hack, 
' Rayther a bad sort for any purpose.' Another 
book from the same hand, similarly illus- 
trated, was ' Practical Horsemanship,' 1850, 
16mo, pp. 213, the engravings, again from 
paintings by the author, portraying the one 
k Going like workmen,' and the other ' Going 
like muffs.' In the same year (1850) Harry 
Hieover brought out another book called 
'The Hunting Field,' 16mo, pp. 221, with 
pictures of ' The Right Sort ' and ' The Wrong 
Sort.' In 1852 Harry Hieover produced a 
new edition, carefully revised and corrected 
by him, of Delabere Elaine's e Encyclopaedia 
of Rural Sports, or complete account, His- 
torical, Practical, and Descriptive, of Hunt- 
ing, Shooting-, Fishing. Racing, &c.,' 8vo, 
pp. 1246. His next works were: 'Bipeds 
and Quadrupeds,' 1853, 16mo, pp. 174 ; 
' Sporting Facts and Sporting Fancies/ 1853, 
8vo, pp. 452 ; l The World : How to square 
it,' 1854, 8vo, pp. 290; and 'Hints to Horse- 
men: Shewing how to make Money by 
Horses,' 1856, 8vo, pp. 214. Harry Hieover 
had long been writing in several of the most 
important of the sporting periodicals. Essays 
from the ' Field ' on such subjects as ' Bridles,' 
'Martingals/ 'Buck-jumpers,' 'Kicking in 
Harness/ c., were in 1857 reprinted under 
the title of ' Precept and Practice/ 8vo, pp. 
267. Another collection from the ' Sport- 
ing Magazine' upon 'Red Coats and Silk 
Jackets/ ' Nobs and Snobs/ ' Hints on 
Coachmanship/ 'Imperturbable Jack/ and 
' Dare-devils,' appeared in 1857, entitled 
' The Sportsman's Friend in a Frost/ 8vo, 
pp. 416. In 1858 appeared 'The Sporting 

World/ 8vo, pp. 261, and in 1859 'Things 
worth knowing about Horses/ 8vo, pp. 266. 
His health had been seriously declining, and 
in November 1858, in hopes of improving it r 
he left London for Brighton, where he be- 
came the guest of his friend, Sir Thomas 
Barrett-Lennard, Bart., and died in his friend's 
house on 10 Feb. 1859, aged 63. In the 
number for that very month of the ' Sporting 
Review 'and the 'Sportsman' appeared his 
last contribution to the magazine, ' Riding 
to Hounds, by Harry Hieover.' He was a 
I sporting writer of the old school, and seemed 
to write under the same exhilaration of spirits 
as he might have felt when going across 

[Times, 15 Feb. 1859 ; Field. 19 Feb. 1859. p. 
! 137; Era, 20 Feb. 1859, p. 3; Sporting Re- 
! view, March 1859, xli. 155.] C. K. 

BINDLEY, JAMES (1737-1818), book 

i collect or, second son of John Bindley, distiller, 

I of St. John Street, Smithfield, was born in 

! London on 16 Jan. 1737. He was educated 

at the Charterhouse under Dr. Crusius, and 

then proceeded to Peterhouse, Cambridge r 

where he was elected to a fellowship (B.A. 

! 1759, M.A. 1762). In 1765 he succeeded his 

1 elder brother John as one of the commission- 

! ers of the stamp duties, and in that capacity 

| he served the public for upwards of fifty-three 

years. He was the senior commissioner from 

1781 until his death, which occurred at his 

house in Somerset Place on 11 Sept. 1818. 

A fine monument to his memory was erected 

in the church of St. Mary-le-Strand. At the 

time of his decease he was the ' father ' of the 

Society of Antiquaries, having been elected a. 

| fellow in 1765. Bindley devoted his leisure 

to literary pursuits, and formed a valuable 

! collection of rare books, engravings, and 

medals, which were sold by auction after his 

| death. He read every proof-sheet of Nichols's 

j ' Literary Anecdotes/ which are dedicated to 

I him, and of the subsequent ' Illustrations of 

I the Literary History of the Eighteenth Cen- 

j tury/ frequently suggesting useful emenda- 

! tions or adding explanatory notes. A similar 

; service he rendered nearly at the close of his 

! life to his friend Mr. Bray, in the publication 

! of Evelyn's ' Diary.' The only work he him- 

i self published was ' A Collection of the Sta- 

I tutes now in force relating to the Stamp 

! Duties/ London, 1775, 4to. His portrait is 

i prefixed to the fourth volume of Nichols's 

I ' Illustrations ' (1822), and that volume is 

dedicated to his memory. 

[Evans's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, 
12842 ; Gent. Mag. Lxxxviii. (ii.) 280, 293, 631, 
Ixxxix. (i.) 579 ; New Monthly Mag. x. 374 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ; Nichols's Illustrations of 


4 6 


Literature ; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 27 ; 
Marvin's Legal Bibliography, 119; Cat. of 
Printed Books in Brit.Mus. ; Addit. MSS. 15951 
if. 3, 5, 12 ; 20081 ff. 19, 26 ; 22,308 ff. 11, 31; 
27952 f. 115; Cat. of Dawson Turner's Manu- 
script Library, 52, 53, 382.] T. C. 

BINDON, FRANCIS (d. 1765), painter 
.and architect, was born of a respectable 
family of Limerick, towards the close of the 
seventeenth century. He travelled on the 
continent, and acquired reputation in Ireland 
both as an architect and a painter. Bindon 
was more than once employed by the Duke 
of Dorset, lord lieutenant of Ireland, in 1734 
to paint his portrait, and entries of the pay- 
ments made to him appear in an unpublished 
account-book of that viceroy. In 1735 Bindon 
painted a portrait of Swift, who sat for it at [ 
the request of Lord Howth. This picture is \ 
of full length, and in it Wood, the patentee for j 
the noted halfpence, is represented as writhing 
in agony at the feet of the dean. In 1738 
Bindon painted for the chapter of St. Patrick's j 
Cathedral, Dublin, another full-length por- , 
trait of Swift, The chapter paid 36/. 16s. for ; 
this picture, which is preserved at the Deanery 
House, St. Patrick's, Dublin. A contempo- j 
fary mezzotinto of large size was published j 
of it, and it was also engraved by Edward I 
Scriven in 1818. In connection with this | 
portrait an epistle, in Latin verse, was ad- j 
dressed to Bindon by William Dunkin, A.M., 
4 Epistola ad Franciscum Bindonum.' Of this | 
An English poetical version was published in 
1740, ' An Epistle to Mr. Bindon, occasioned > 
by his painting a picture of the Rev. Dr. 
Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's/ From Swift's 
correspondence it appears that Bindon also I 
painted a portrait of him for Mr. Nugent, sub- j 
:sequently Lord Clare. In a letter from Bath, | 
in 1740, Nugent writes to Mrs. Whiteway : | 
* I must beg that you will let Mr. Bindon j 
know I would have the picture no more j 
than a head, upon a three-quarter cloth, to | 
match one which I now have of Mr. Pope.' 
A bust-portrait of Swift, ascribed to Bindon, 
and formerly in the possession of the Rev. 
Edward Berwick, editor of the ' Rawdon I 
Papers,' 1819, is now in the National Gal- 
lery, Dublin. Bindon executed a full-length j 
portrait of Richard Baldwin [q. v.], pro- j 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. Among 
the portraits by Bindon, of which con- 
temporary engravings appeared, were those 
of the following- : Hugh Boulter, primate of 
Ireland, 1742 ; Charles Cobbe, archbishop of 
Dublin, 1746 ; General Richard St. George, ! 
1755 ; Henry Singleton, chief justice, Ire- 
land ; and Hercules L. Rowley. Bindon's 
chief architectural works were three mansions j 
one erected in the county of Wicklow for 

the Earl of Milltown, and two in Kilkenny for 
Lord Bessborough and Sir William Fownes 
respectively. Bindon was granted an annual 
pension of 100/. on the Irish establishment 
in 1750, about which time he retired from 
his profession, owing to age and failure of 
sight. He died on 2 June 1765, ' suddenly, 
as he was taking the air in his chariot,' In 
Sir Walter Scott's edition of Swift's works 
Bindon's Christian name is erroneously given 
as Samuel. 

[MSS. of Lionel Cranfield, Duke of Dorset ; 
Establishments Ireland 1750, MS. ; Dublin 
Journal, 1765 ; Mason's History of St. Patrick's, 
Dublin, 1820; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.l 

J. T. J G. 

BINGHA.M, GEORGE (1715-1800), di- 
vine and antiquary, the sixth son of Richard 
Bingham, and Philadelphia, daughter and 
heir of John Potinger, by Philadelphia, 
daughter of Sir John Ernie, knight, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, was born on 7 Nov. 
1715 at Melcombe, Dorsetshire, where the 
family had resided for several centuries. 
He was brought up under the care of his 
maternal grandfather, Mr. Potinger. At 
twelve years of age he was sent to West- 
minster School, and in 1732 he was elected 
from the foundation to a scholarship at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, but entered as a com- 
moner at Christ Church, Oxford. After 
taking his B.A. degree he was elected a fel- 
low of All Souls, and there graduated M.A. 
in 1739 and B.D. in 1748. At All Souls he 
formed lasting friendships with Sir William 
Blackstone and Dr. Benjamin Buckler, whom 
he assisted in drawing up the ' Stemmata 
Chicheliana.' In 1745-6, during the rebel- 
lion, he served the office of proctor in the 
university, and acted with great spirit. On 
the death of the Rev. Christopher Pitt, the 
translator of the ' JEneid,' Bingham was in- 
stituted, on 23 May 1748, to the rectory of 
Pimperne, Dorsetshire. He resigned his fel- 
lowship on his marriage ; but his wife, by 
whom he had a daughter and two sons, 
died in 1756 at the age of thirty-five. He 
had just been presented by Sir Gerard Napier 
to the living of More Critchell (1755), to 
which that of Long Critchell was annexed 
in 1774. He was elected proctor for the 
diocese of Salisbury in the convocations of 
1761, 1768, 1774, and 1780. His eldest son, 
the senior scholar at Winchester, was acci- 
dentally drowned while bathing in the river 
Itchin in 1768. In 1781 Bishop Bagot offered 
him the Warburtonian lecture, but he de- 
clined to preach it, because he held that the 
church of Rome, though corrupt, was not 
chargeable, as Warburton meant to prove, 




with apostasy. He died at Pimperne on 
11. Oct. 1800, aged 85, and was buried in the 
chancel of the church, where a marble monu- 
ment, with a long inscription in Latin, was 
erected to his memory. 

Bingham enjoyed a considerable reputa- 
tion for great abilities and profound learning ; 
he was a good Hebrew scholar and an eminent 
divine. The only works he published in his 
lifetime are : 1. An anonymous essay on the 
Millennium, entitled <Ta ^tAia en;,' 1772. 
2. 'A Vindication of the Doctrine and Liturgy 
of the Church of England, occasioned by the 
Apology of the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, 
M.A., on resigning the vicarage of Catterick, 
Yorkshire,' Oxford, 1774, 8vo. This was 
dedicated to Dr. Newton, bishop of Bristol, 
who made favourable mention of it in a 
charge to the clergy of his diocese in 1776. 
Both these works were reprinted in a col- 
lection of his l Dissertations, Essays, and Ser- 
mons ' (2 vols., London, 1804), edited, with a 
biographical memoir, by his son, Peregrine 
Bingham the elder [q. v.], rector of Ed- 
mondsham, Dorsetshire. The collection also 
includes: 3. * Dissertationes Apocalypticae,' in 
three parts. 4. 'Paul at Athens,' an essay. 
5. ' Commentary on Solomon's Song.' 6. Four 

Bingham was an able archaeologist and 
rendered valuable assistance to the Rev. 
John Hutchins in the compilation of the 
' History of Dorsetshire.' His ' Biographical 
Anecdotes ' of Hutchins are printed in the 
* Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica/ No. 
xxxiv., 2nd ed. London, 1813, 4to. 

[Memoir by Rev. Peregrine Bingham ; Gent. 
Mag. Ixxiii. 1017-20, Ixxiv. 117-120, 1041, 
Ixxv. 423, 445, xcvi. (ii.) 91, 92; Hutchins's 
Dorsetshire, 2nd edit. i. liii, 177, ii. 492, iii. 107, 
19, iv. 200-202; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
(1852), 291, 297, 304, 306 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

T. C. 


-(1777-1833), major-general and colonel-com- 
mandant of 2nd battalion rifle brigade, was 
the son of Richard Bingham, colonel of the 
Dorset militia, by his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of J. Ridout, and was born 
on 21 July 1777. He entered the army 
in June 1793 as ensign in the 69th foot, 
serving with it in Corsica and with one of 
the detachments embarked as marines under 
Admiral Hotham, in the Gulf of Genoa. 
Promoted to a company in the 81st foot in 
1796, he served with that regiment at the 
Cape, and took part in the Kaffir war of 1800 
on the Sundays River. In 1801 he became 
major in the 82nd foot, and was with it in 
Minorca until that island was finally restored 

to Spain at the peace of Amiens. In 1805 he 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the newly 
raised 2nd battalion 53rd foot in Ireland, and, 
proceeding with it to Portugal four years 
later, fought at its head throughout its dis- 
tinguished Peninsular career, beginning with 
the expulsion of the French from Oporto in 
1809, and ending with the close of the Burgos 
retreat in 1812. The battalion being then 
reduced to a skeleton, and having no home 
battalion to relieve or reinforce it (the 1st 
battalion was in India), was sent home, but 
four companies were left in Portugal, and 
these, with four companies of 2nd Queen's 
similarly circumstanced, were formed into a 
provisional battalion which, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Bingham, performed gallant 
service in the subsequent campaigns in Spain 
and the south of France, including the vic- 
tories at Vittoria, in the Pyrenees, and on the 
Nivelle. When it was decided to consign the 
Emperor Napoleon to St. Helena, Colonel 
(now Sir George) Bingham was senior officer 
of the troops sent thither, and continued to 
serve in the island with the rank of brigadier- 
general, as second in command under Sir 
Hudson Lowe, until 1819, when he returned 
home on promotion. Some unpublished 
letters and memoranda of Bingham relating 
to St. Helena are among the British Museum 
Additional MSS. Sir George was afterwards 
on the Irish staff, and commanded the Cork 
district from 1827 to 1832, a most distracted 
period, when the discord fomented by the ca- 
tholic emancipation debates was aggravated 
i by agrarian crime, famine, and latterly by 
| pestilence. In Ireland, as at St. Helena, Sir 
I George Bingham's fine tact and kindliness of 
i disposition appear to have won general esteem. 
He is described as having been a thorough 
gentleman as well as a brilliant soldier. He 
died in London on 3 Jan. 1833. 

[Hutchins's Hist, of Dorset (ed. 1815, iv. 203) ; 
Cannon's Hist. Eecord 53rd (Shropshire) Regt. 
of Foot; Gent. Mag. ciii. (i.) 274; Ann. Biog. 
! vol. xviii.] H. M. C. 

BINGHAM, JOHN (1607-1689), divine, 
was born at Derby, and as he was in his 
eighty-second year when he died in 1689, his 
birth-date must have been in 1606-7. He was 
educated at Repton school. Later he proceeded 
to Cambridge, and was entered of St. John's 
College. He ran the usual academical course, 
and left in his twenty-fourth year (1631-2) for 
London, * for the cure of a foot which was 
hurt when he was a child.' After two years 
under the surgeons he was compelled to 
have his leg amputated. The pain caused by 
his injured foot had turned his hair white at 
twenty-six. He acted as domestic chaplain in 


4 8 


one of the county families. About 1640 he 
was chosen as what was called middle-master 
of the free school at Derby, and afterwards 
head-master. The school soon won under 
him more than a provincial fame. He had 
some scruples as to subscription,'but the Earl 
of Devonshire having presented him to the 
vicarage of Marston-upon-Dove (Derbyshire), 
he was prevailed upon to accept it. He con- 
tinued in his cure until his ejection in 1662. 
Having an intimacy of long standing with 
Sheldon, archbishop of Canterbury, that pre- 
late condescended to write to him with 
his own hand to persuade him to conform, 
telling him l that he lay so near his heart 
that he would help him to any preferment 
he desired.' The vicar acknowledged the 
personal kindness shown, but reminded the 
archbishop t that they two had not been 
such strangers but that his grace might 
very well know his sentiments on the sub- 
ject,' and added l that he would not offer 
violence to his conscience for the best pre- 
ferment in the world.' 

Upon the passing of the Five Mile Act 
( 1665) Bingham retired to Bradley Hall. For 
three years he was occupied in teaching sons 
of the gentry who boarded with him. After- 
wards he lived for seven years at Brailsford. 
Here he met with much trouble. He was 
excommunicated by the church incumbent, 
though every one knew that the ejected vicar 
was a man of great moderation. He and his 
family used to attend their parish church 
every Lord's-day morning, but he was wont 
of an afternoon to preach at his own house, 
but only to the number allowed by the act. 
Upon the Indulgence he preached at Holling- 
ton, in rotation with other ejected ministers. 
The excommunication of Bingham made a 
great sensation in Brailsford parish, and there- 
fore to avoid further uproar he removed, with 
all his household, to Upper Thurneston in the 
parish of Sutton. 

Bingham was well acquainted not only 
with Latin and Greek, but with Hebrew, 
Syriac, and Arabic. He helped Walton with 
his great polyglot Bible. He was himself a 
subscriber to it, and by a wide correspondence 
rallied others around the illustrious scholar. 
When he was about seventy he broke an 
arm by a fall from his horse. The next year 
he was taken with a quartan ague, which 
afflicted him seven years. He had an im- 
pression 'borne in upon him that, old and 
frail as he was, he should live to see a very 
great change.' He lived to welcome Wil- 
liam and Mary, whose coming to the throne 
he regarded as the fulfilment of his impres- 
sion. He died 3 Feb. 1689. His funeral ser- 
mon was preached by Crompton from Psalm 

xii. 1. He was interred at Upper Thurneston. 
He appears to have published nothing. 

[Calamy's Account ; Palmer's Nonconf. Mem. 
i. 415-17 ; Simpson's Hist, of Derby and Derby- 
shire ; local researches show that so late as 1768 
descendants occupied influential positions in 
Derby.] A. B. G. 

BINGHAM, JOSEPH (1668-1723), 
author of the ' Origines Ecclesiasticse,' or 
' Antiquities of the Christian Church,' was 
born at Wakefield in September 1768, and edu- 
cated in his native town until 1684, when he 
went to University College, Oxford. Even in 
his undergraduate days he devoted himself to 
the studies which afterwards made his name 
famous. He took his B. A. degree in 1688, and 
was elected fellow of University in 1689. In 
1691 he was made a college tutor, and in that 
capacity developed the talents and directed 
the tastes of a fellow-townsman, John Potter, 
who had followed him from Wakefield to 
University, and afterwards became arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and author of the well- 
known works oh ' Church Government ' and 
the 'Antiquities of Greece.' In 1695, when 
the Trinitarian controversy was at its height, 
Bingham preached a perfectly orthodox ser- 
mon on the subject at St. Mary's, in which 
he gave a most accurate sketch of the opi- 
nions of the early fathers on the terms { per- 
son' and 'substance.' The Hebdomadal Board, 
however, charged him with having ' asserted 
doctrines false, impious, and heretical, con- 
trary and dissonant to those of the catholic 
church.' This severe censure was followed 
by other charges in the public press, ac- 
cusing him of Arianism, Tritheism, and the- 
heresy of Valentinus Gentilis. The result 
was that he was obliged to resign his fellow- 
ship and withdraw from the university. The 
blunder does not appear to have been re- 
corded in the books of the university, but 
the sad fact remains that Oxford drove from 
her walls one of her most distinguished sons, 
on charges of which he was perfectly inno- 
cent. Bingham was not left quite destitute ; 
as soon as he resigned his fellowship he was 
presented by the well-known Dr. Radcliffe, 
without any solicitation, to the living of 
Headbourn- Worthy. It was worth only 100/. 
a year, but it had the advantage of being 
close to Winchester, where Bingham could 
make use of the excellent cathedral library 
founded by Bishop Morley. Soon after his 
appointment to Worthy, Bingham was in- 
vited to preach a visitation sermon in Win- 
chester Cathedral, and he chose the same 
subjects and expressed the same sentiments 
which had given such deep offence at Ox- 
ford. The sermon gave so much satisfaction. 




that he was invited to preach again on a 
similar occasion in the following year, when 
he brought to a conclusion what he wished 
to say further on the subject of the Trinity. 
All the three sermons may be found in his 
published works, and every competent per- 
son must admit that they are not only a most 
orthodox, but also a most valuable contribu- 
tion to the literature of this mysterious sub- 
ject. In 170:2 Bingham married Dorothy, 
daughter of the Rev. R. Pocock, rector of 
Elmore, and by her became the father of ten 
children. In 1708 the first volume of the 
1 Antiquities ' was published, the tenth and 
last in 1722, the year before his death, and a 
large proportion of these fourteen years was 
occupied in the composition of this great 
work. In 1712 he was collated by the Bishop 
of Winchester to the living of Havant, near 
Portsmouth. As Havant was a better living 
than Worthy, and his writings began to bring 
him in a little money, he was for a time less 
straitened by poverty than he had hitherto 
been. But he foolishly embarked his money 
in the South Sea Bubble, and in 1720 the 
bubble burst. His constitution, which was 
naturally weak, was still, further enfeebled 
by his sedentary habits, and after a long 
struggle with delicate health, anxiety, and 
poverty, he died 17 Aug. 1723, and was buried 
in his old parish of Headbourn-Worthy. 

In one respect, at any rate, Bingham was 
fortunate, viz. in hitting upon a subject which 
wanted dealing with, and for dealing with 
which he was admirably adapted. ' He was 
the first,' says a German writer, 'that pub- 
lished a complete archaeology [of the Chris- 
tian church] and one worthy of the name.' 
And, we may add, he will probably be the 
last. What he did he did so thoroughly and 
exhaustively, that he would be a bold man 
who should attempt again to go over ground 
so completely traversed. His object is thus 
stated by himself : l The design which I have 
formed to myself is to give such a methodical 
account of the antiquities of the Christian 
church as others have done of the Greek and 
Roman and Jewish antiquities, by reducing 
the ancient customs, usages, and practices of 
the church under certain proper heads, where- 
by the reader may take a view at once of any 
particular usage or custom of Christians for four 
or five centuries.' Not a name, not an office, 
not a usage, not a law is omitted, or, indeed, 
left without the very fullest explanation. In 
ten substantial volumes, in which not a word 
is wasted, he completely exhausts his great 
subject, treating it with consummate learn- 
ing and admirable impartiality. He is too 
full of matter to trouble himself much about 
style, but he writes naturally, and with a 

VOL. V. 

quiet, scholarly simplicity which is very at- 
tractive. The work was one not only for the 
church of England, but for every Christian 
community; it was very fitting, therefore, 
that it should be translated into Latin ; the 
universal language is the most suitable ve- 
| hicle for a work which is of universal interest. 
The ' Antiquities ' is, of course, the one 
j imperishable monument which Bingham has 
raised for himself ; but his lesser works, 
though now forgotten, are written in the 
same exhaustive fashion. The largest of these 
| is entitled 'The French Church's Apology 
for the Church of England,' which * contains 
I a modest vindication of the doctrine, worship, 
government, and discipline of our church 
I from the chief objections of dissenters, and 
I returns answer to them upon the principles 
I of the reformed church of France.' The work 
! was a very seasonable one, being written at 
I a time when this country was flooded with 
French refugees, who were thought likely to 
! swell the ranks of nonconformists. Bingham 
appeals to the refugees as well as to the Eng- 
lish dissenters, urging them that, 'as they 
regarded the venerable authority of their own 
national synods, and of the avowed prin- 
ciples of that church, into which they were 
baptised, they should vigorously maintain and 
assert the cause of the church of England 
against all that set up distinct communions, 
&c.' He takes point by point, and works out 
each with extraordinary ingenuity and accu- 
racy; but the subject "is now quite out of 
date. Another of his lesser works is a ' Scho- 
lastical History of the Practice of the Church 
in reference to Administration of Baptism by 
Laymen.' This was at first intended to be 
only a single chapter in the ' Antiquities, 
but the subject grew upon his hands (partly 
through the fact of a Mr. Lawrence taking 
up an opposite view, which Bingham felt 
bound to controvert), and he published it as 
a separate treatise. He contends that in ex- 
traordinary cases baptism by a layman in 
full communion with the church is valid, 
and he brings his inexhaustible store of 
learning to bear upon the case. Two long 
letters on 'Absolution/ addressed to the 
Bishop of Winchester, which are a sort of 
appendix to the treatise on lay baptism, and 
which finally dispose of Mr. Lawrence, and 
an excellent discourse ' On the Mercy of God,' 
intended for the use of persons troubled in 
mind, complete the list of this great writer's 
works. Though the list is not a long one, 
Bingham's literary industry must have been 
enormous ; the ' Antiquities ' alone is suffi- 
cient to prove this. The work bears on the 
face of it traces of many years' reading, be- 
fore the writing began at all, and the labour 



must have been all the more severe because 
lie was sadly cramped for books in spite of 
his proximity to Bishop Morleys library. 
His family preserved a copy of Pearson 
' On the Creed,' in which were eight pages 
neatly transcribed in his own hand, because 
he could not afford the few shillings requi- 
site to purchase a new copy in the place of 
his own mutilated one. But never was lite- 
rary industry less thrown away. Bingham 
has not only written an invaluable work, 
but he has secured for the English church 
the glory of supplying a serious deficiency in 
ecclesiastical literature. Even Komanists 
have been forced to confess that the * Anti- 
quities ' is a most important addition to theo- 
logical libraries, and the fact that it was 
translated into Latin by a German protestant 
(Professor Grischovius or Grischow) shows 
how highly it was appreciated by the reformed 
churches abroad. Bingham,'s reward was pos- 
thumous. His eldest son, Richard, was pre- 
sented to the living of Havant in recognition 
of his father's merits, and the Bishop of Lon- 
don (Dr. Robert Lowth) bestowed a living on 
his grandson, saying: 'I venerate the memory 
of your grandfather. He was not rewarded as 
he ought to have been. I therefore give you 
this living as a small recompense of his great 
and inestimable merits.' His biographer tells 
us that * his disposition was of the purest and 
mildest cast, and was never ruffled by the 
common accidents and occurrences of life.' He 
had every kind of wisdom but worldly wisdom. 
All pecuniary matters were managed by his 
wife, who, we are sorry to learn, was left de- 
pendent upon charity, for she died in 1755 
in Bishop Warner's College for Clergymen's 
Widows at Bromley. The only occupation 
which diverted him from his studies was 
the care of his parish, to which he attended 
conscientiously. Within a short time of his 
death he was busy collecting materials for a 
new work, and revising the l Antiquities/ for 
a new edition. His second son, Joseph, was 
. educated at the Charterhouse and Corpus 
College, Oxford. He was a scholar of great 
promise, and died of over-work at the age 
of 22. 

The order of Bingham's works as published 
in his lifetime appears to have been as fol- 
lows : 1. ' Three Sermons on the Trinity,' 
1695-7. 2. * The French Church's Apology,' 
&c., 1706. 3. The < Origines Ecclesiastic^,' 
published volume by volume at intervals be- 
tween 1708 and 1722. 4. < The Scholastical 
History of Lay Baptism,' &c., part i. in 1712, 
part ii. 1714, virtually concluded by the 
' Dissertation upon the 8th Canon of the 
Council of Nice ' (1710 ?). 5. The ' Discourse 
concerning the Mercy of God,' &c. ; about 1720. 

The first collective edition of his works was 
published in 2 vols. folio in 1726. The misfor- 
tunes which haunted Bingham during his life 
pursued him after death. This edition was not 
so perfect as it easily might have been made ; 
for, in her poverty, * Mrs. Bingham was in- 
duced to sell the copyright of her late hus- 
band's writings to the booksellers, who im- 
mediately republished the whole of his works 
without making any alteration whatever ; 
and though the eldest son undertook the 
office of correcting the press, he did not in- 
sert any of the manuscript additions which 
his father had prepared ; he was then so 
young that he probably had not the oppor- 
tunity of examining his father's books and 
papers sufficiently to discover that any such 
preparations for a new edition had been 
made ' (Memoir^). Bingham also died just 
too soon to see the commencement of a work 
for which he had long been anxious. In 
1724 appeared the first volume of the ' Ori- 
gines,' published in Latin by J. H. Grischow 
at Halle. The other volumes followed in due 
l course, and the whole appeared under the fol- 
io wing title : f Josephi Binghami Origines, sive 
Antiquitates Ecclesiasticae. Ex Lingua An- 
glicana in Latinam vertit J. H. Grischovius. 
Accedit Prsefatio J. F. Buddsei. 10 torn. 4to. 
Halae, 1724-1729.' Another edition of the 
same is dated ' Halae Magdeburgicae, 1751- 
1781.' The best edition of Bingham's full 
| works, including the sermons on the Trinity, 
| &c., was published by Bingham's lineal de- 
scendant in 9 vols. 8vo, 1821-9, with a short 
de- j but interesting memoir prefixed to vol. i. by 
I Bingham's great-grandson, Richard Bingham 
the elder [q. v.] Another edition of the above, 
with the quotations at length in the original 
languages, was published by the Rev. J. R. 
Pitman, 1838-40. And another edition of 
the same was published by the Clarendon 
Press, Oxford, in 10 vols., in 1855. A reprint 
of the 'Antiquities,' 2 vols. imp. 8vo, was- 
j issued by Bohn in 1845 and 1852. As early 
as 1722 'a summary of Christian antiqui- 
ties, abridged from Bingham's Antiquities,' 
entitled l Ecclesiae Primitives Notitia,' was 
published in 2 vols. 8vo by A. Blackamore. 

[Article in Biog. Brit. .communicated by his son 
Richard; Life in Works (1829), by his great- 
grandson, -who was also author of the life in 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet.] J. H. 0. 

LUCAN (d. 1814), amateur painter a lady 
who, according to Horace Walpole, ' arrived 
at copying the most exquisite works of Isaac 
and Peter Oliver, Hoskins, and Cooper, with 
a genius that almost depreciates those masters 
when we consider that they spent their lives 



in attaining perfection ; and who, soaring 1 | 
above their modest timidity, has transferred j 
the vigour of Raphael to her copies in water j 
colours ' was the daughter and coheir of ! 
James Smyth. In 17(50 she married Sir ; 
Charles Bingham, bart. (1735-1799), created j 
(1776) Baron Lucan of Castlebar, county ! 
Mayo, and in 1795 Earl of Lucan. There 
are frequent allusions to her in Walpole's 
letters, and in the memoirs of Mrs. Delany. ! 
' Mrs. Delany used to admire and wonder at '' 
her talent for painting, and yet her want of 
eye for drawing, as she would often totally 
mistake the distance between one feature 
and another (till i was pointed out to her) 
and yet imitate colouring and finish to per- j 
fection.' Horace Walpole becomes some- | 
what silly upon the subject of her perfec- '. 
tions, and is laughed at therefore by Peter 
Pindar. In one place he writes : l Lady 
Bingham is, I assure you, another miracle ; ' j 
in another : ' They are so amazed and charmed 
at Paris with Lady Bingham's miniatures, 
that the Duke of Orleans has given her a 
room at the Palais Royal to copy which of 
his pictures she pleases.' She seems, indeed, 
to have been a clever amateur, but of little 
originality, and not careful, as the above- 
quoted criticism would show, to be exact in 
her drawing. She spent much time upon 
a great work, the embellishment of Shake- 
speare's historical plays. Of this monumental 
labour an account is preserved in Dibdin's 
* yEdes Althorpianae ' (i. 200) : l During six- 
teen years this accomplished lady pursued I 
the pleasurable toil of illustration, having 
commenced in her fiftieth and finished in her 
sixty-sixth year. Whatever of taste, beauty, 
and judgment in decoration, by means of 
portraits, landscapes, houses and tombs, 
flowers, birds, insects, heraldic ornaments and 
devices, could dress our immortal bard in a 
yet more fascinating form, has been accom- 
plished by a noble hand which undertook a 
Herculean task, and with a truth, delicacy, 
and finish of execution which have been very 
rarely imitated.' The work was completed 
in five volumes. The binding was by Herring, 
and was considered his best work. The colo- 
phon of the last volume has a portrait of 
Lady Lucan, with attendant virtues, drawn 
by her daughter, Lady Lavinia Spencer. This 
work is preserved in the library of Althorp. 
She died on 27 Feb. 1814, leaving five 
children : Lavinia, who married the second 
Earl Spencer in 1781 ; Eleanor Margaret, 
married Thomas Lindsay, Esq. ; Louisa and 
Anne, both died unmarried; and Richard, 
second Earl Lucan, an only son and heir. 

[Walpole's Letters, v., Gen. Index ; Anecdotes 
of Painting, i., Introduction, pp. xviii, xix ; Au- 

tobiography and Letters of Mrs. Delany, v., 
Gen. Index, vol. vi. ; Lodge's Genealogy of the 
Peerage, 1859 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of 
English School; Gent. Mag.lxxxiv (i.) 301,lxxxv. 
(i.) 280 ; Foster's Peerage, s.v. 'Lucan.'] E. R. 

(1754-182(3), biographer and poet, was son of 
George Bingham, B.D., rector of Pimperne, 
Dorsetshire [q. v.] He was educated at New 
College, Oxford (B.C.L. 1780); became rector 
of Edmondsham, Dorset, in 1782, and of Ber- 
wick St. John, Wiltshire, in 1817. At one 
time he was chaplain of H.M.S. Agincourt. 
He died on 28 May 1826, aged 72. 

He wrote Memoirs of his father, prefixed 
to 'Dissertations, Essays, and Sermons, by 
the late George Bingham, B.D.,' 2 vols., 
1804. These Memoirs, which are abridged 
in Hutchins's 'Dorset,' new edit. iv. 201, 
gave rise to a controversy between the author 
and the rector of Critchill (Gent. Mag. 
Ixxv. 445). Bingham also wrote * The Pains 
of Memory, a poem, in two books,' London, 
1811, 12mo, 2nd edit., with vignettes, 1812. 

[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors (18 16), 27; Cat. 
of Oxford Graduates (1851), 59; Gent. Mag. 
xcv. (ii.) 91 ; Burke's Diet, of the Landed Gentry 
(1868), 100.] T. C. 

BINGHAM, PEREGRINE, the younger 
(1788-1864), legal writer, was the eldest son 
of Peregrine Bingham the elder [q. v.], by 
Amy, daughter of William Bowles. He was 
educated at Winchester School and Magdalen 
College, Oxford (B.A. 1810), was called to 
the bar at the Middle Temple in 1818, and 
Avas for many years a legal reporter. He also 
took great interest in literature, and was one 
of the principal contributors to the ' West- 
minster Review,' which was established in 
1824. John Stuart Mill in describing the 
appearance of the first number says : ' The 
literary and artistic department had rested 
chiefly on Mr. Bingham, a barrister (subse- 
quently a police magistrate), who had been 
for some years a frequenter of Bentham, 
was a friend of both the Austins, and had 
adopted with great ardour Bentham's philo- 
sophical opinions. Partly from accident there 
were in the first number as many as five 
articles by Bingham, and we were extremely 
pleased with them.' He edited Bentham's 
* Book of Fallacies.' 

Bingham became one of the police magis- 
trates at Great Marlborough Street, and re- 
signed that appointment about four years be- 
fore his death, which occurred on 2 Nov. 1864. 
His works are : 1. ' The Law and Practice 
of Judgments and Executions, including ex- 
tents at the suit of the Crown,' London, 1815, 
8vo. 2. ' The Law of Infancy and Coverture, 

E 2 



London, 181G, 8vo, first American edition, 
Exeter, U.S., 1824, 8vo. 3. 'A Digest of 
the Law of Landlord and Tenant,' London, 
1820, 8vo. 4. ' A System of Shorthand, on 
the principle of the Association of Ideas,' 
London, 1821, 8vo; a stenographic system 
of no practical value. 5. ' Reports of Cases 
argued and determined in the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas and other Courts,' from Easter 
term 1819, to Michaelmas term 1840, 19 vols., 
London, 1821-40, 8vo. The first three volumes 
of these reports were compiled jointly with 
W. J. Broderip. 

[Law Times, 5 Nov. 1864, p. 6; Addit. MS. 
29539, f. 126; Burke's Diet, of the Landed 
Gentry (1868), 100; Gent. Mag. ccxvii. 806; 
Mill's Autobiography, 95, 114; Cat. of Oxford 
Graduates (1851), 59 ; Wallace's Reporters, 330 ; 
Clarke's Bibl. Legum, 258, 301 ; Marvin's Legal 
Bibliography, 109.] T. C. 

RICHARD (1528-1599), governor of Con- 
naught, was the third son of Richard Bing- 
ham, of Melconibe-Bingham, Dorsetshire, by 
his wife Alice, daughter of Thomas Coker. 
Born in 1528, he was trained as a soldier 
from youth, and apparently took part in the 
Protector Somerset's expedition to Scotland 
in 1547. He was one of the Englishmen 
serving with the Spaniards against the French 
at the battle of St. Quentin in 1557, and in 
October 1558, just before the death of Queen 
Mary, was engaged in a naval expedition 
against the ' Out-isles ' of Scotland. In the 
early years of Elizabeth's reign he fought 
with the Spaniards and Venetians, under 
Don John of Austria, against the Turks, and 
seems to have token part in the conquest of 
Cyprus and the battle of Lepanto (7 Oct. 
1572). In 1573 and the following year 
Bingham was in the Low Countries, com- 
municating to Burghley the details of the 
struggle with Spain. In 1576 he accom- 
panied Sir Edward Horsey on an abortive 
mission to Don John of Austria to effect a 
peace between Spain and the States-General 
of Holland. On 17 March 1577-8 Elizabeth 
granted Bingham an annuity of fifty marks in 
recognition of his military and diplomatic 
services, and later in 1578 he fought with 
exceptional valour as a volunteer under the 
Dutch flag against the Spaniards. In 1579 
he was sent to Ireland to aid in the repres- 
sion of the Desmond insurrection. In Sep- 
tember 1580 he was captain of the Swiftsure 
in the expedition sent under the command of 
Admiral "Winter to dislodge the Spaniards 
and Italians from Smerwick, where they had 
landed to support the Irish rebels, and Bing- 
ham took part in the massacre of the invaders 

which followed the attack upon them by sea 
and laud. A full account of the action, sent 
by Bingham to Walsingham, is now in the 
Public Record Office. On 30 Sept. 1583 a 
commission was issued to Bingham to ap- 
prehend pirates in the narrow seas, and the 
queen directed Burghley to instruct Bing- 
ham to seize Dutch ships for debts due to 
her, under colour of looking for pirates. 

In the following year (1584) Bingham 
was appointed governor of Connaught, and 
knighted at Dublin Castle by Lord-deputy 
! Perrot on 12 July. He was from the first re- 
j solved to make the Irish conform to English 
customs, but he administered the province in 
the early days of his government with suffi- 
| cient fairness to satisfy most of his subjects 
| as well as the home government. But during 
j the Connaught rebellion of 1586 Bingham 
knew no mercy. At Galway early in 1586 he 
! presided at the assizes, when seventy persons 
were condemned to death for disloyalty. In 
| the same year he laid siege to Cluain-Dub- 
I hain or Cloonoon, in Clare, the strongest 
! castle in Ireland, and had the owner, a re- 
puted rebel (Mahon O'Briain) shot, and the 
garrison put to the sword. Later in 1586 the 
Bourkes of Mayo broke into open revolt, and 
Bingham reduced their castle of Lough Mask 
and hanged its occupants. He confiscated 
the greater part of the Bourkes' property, and 
defeated in August, with terrible slaughter, 
by the river Moy, a party of 3,000 High- 
landers who had come over to the aid of the 
rebels. Sir John Perrot, the lord-deputy, 
visited Connaught after the suppression of 
the rebellion and was dissatisfied with Bing- 
ham's rigorous action. For the ten following 
years Perrot and Bingham were repeatedly in 
personal conflict, and appeal was frequently 
made to Walsingham to settle the various 
matters in dispute between them. Bingham 
was perpetually complaining to Walsingham 
of the smallness of his salary, and asserted 
that most of the expenses of government were 
defrayed out of his own purse. The lord- 
: deputy represented that Bingham was in re- 
ceipt of an official income of 1,941/. 12s. 4d.; 
\ but Bingham, in a detailed examination of 
| his sources of revenue, showed that he never 
I received more than 505/. a year. In 1587 
Bingham was temporarily recalled from Ire- 
land to take part in the war in the Nether- 
lands, and Lord Willoughby, who highly 
respected Bingham, was anxious that he 
should take the command of the army at the 
close of 1587, when Leicester was ordered 
home (LADY G. BERTIE'S Account of Bertie, 
; 132, 138, 143). In 1588 Bingham was fre- 
I quently in consultation with Burghley and 
I the other ministers as to the defence of the 




country against the Spaniards. But before 
the close of 1588 he had resumed his post 
in Connaught, and in September he issued 
orders that all Spanish refugees landing on 
the coast of his province should be brought to 
Galway and there put to death. He after- 
wards claimed to have thus rid his country j 
of 1,000 of the enemy. In 1590-1 Bingham > 
was engaged in repressing the revolt of Sir 
Bryan O'Rourke, of Leitrim, who was 
captured, sent to England, and hanged at , 
Tyburn on 28 Oct. 1591. Bingham's account j 
of his proceedings against Rourke is printed 
in the < Egerton Papers ' (Camden Soc., 
pp. 144-57). In the following year Perrot 
formally complained to the queen of Bing- 
ham's habitual severity and insubordination, 
and in September 1596 Bingham, fearful that 
his adversaries would do him serious injury, 
hurriedly came to England to appeal (as he 
said) for justice. He left Ireland without 
leave, and on arriving in London was sent 
to the Fleet prison. On 2 Oct. 1596 he ad- 
dressed a piteous letter to Burghley, praying 
for release. This petition was apparently 
granted soon afterwards, but Bingham was 
suspended from his office. The outbreak of 
O'Neill's rebellion in 1598 induced the au- 
thorities to reinstate him. His knowledge of 
Irish affairs was judged to be without parallel 
in England, and when the Cecils first sug- 
gested that Essex should command the expe- 
dition against the Irish rebels Bacon strongly 
urged Essex to take Bingham's advice (SPED- 
DISTG'S Bacon, ii. 95-6). In September 1598 
Bingham left England with five thousand 
men to assume the office of marshal of Ire- 
land, vacated by the death in battle at Black- 
water of Sir Henry Bagnall. But Bingham 
had scarcely entered on his new duties when 
he died at Dublin on 19 Jan. 1598-9. 

A cenotaph was erected to 'his memory in 
the south aisle of the choir of AVestminster j 
Abbey by Sir John Bingley, at one time j 
Bingham's servant. On it was inscribed a I 
highly laudatory account of his military 
achievements. 'Sir Henry Docwra, after- 
wards commander of the forces in Ireland, \ 
drew up a * relation ' of Bingham's early ser- 
vices in Connaught, which was published for 
the first time by the Celtic Society in 1849. 
The manuscript is in the library of Trinity \ 
College, Dublin. Bingham was described by j 
Sir Nicholas Lestrange as * a man eminent 
hoth for spiritt and martiall knowledge, but 
of a very small stature ' (THOM'S Anecdotes 
and Traditions (Camden Society), p. 18). 

Sir Richard was aided in his Irish admi- 
nistration by two younger brothers, George 
and John. Both were assistant commis- 
sioners in Connaught. John distinguished 

himself in the battle with the Highlanders 
by the Moy, and was granted by his brother 
Edmund Burke's castle of Castlebarry, near 
Castlebar. George \vas for many years sheriff 
of Sligo, took a leading part in' the massacre 
of the Spaniards in 1588, and was killed by 
Ulrick O Bourke in 1595. Bingham's memory 
was long execrated by the native Irish, but 
Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir Henry 
Wallop always held him in high esteem. 
Sir Richard married Sarah, daughter of 
John Heigham, of Gifford's Hall, Wickham- 
brook, Suffolk (by banns), 11 Jan. 1587-8. 
Lady Bingham survived her husband, and 
married after his death Edward W aide- 
grave, of Lawford, Essex. She died at Law- 
ford, and w r as buried in the church there 
9 Sept. 1034, aged 69. Sir Richard left 
no male issue, and he w r as succeeded in his 
Dorsetshire estates by Henry, the eldest son 
of his brother George, who had been killed 
in 1595. Henry was created a Nova .Scotian 
baronet in 1634. Sir John Bingham, the 
fifth in descent from George, was governor 
of county Mayo, and contributed to William 
Ill's success in Ireland by deserting from 
James II at the battle of Aughrim (1691). 
He married a grand-niece of Patrick Sarsfield, 
earl of Lucan, and died in 1749. His second 
son Charles was created baron Lucan of Cas- 
tlebar 24 July 1776, and earl of Lucan 6 Oct. 
1795 [see BINGHAM, MARGARET]. 

[Froude's History, x. xi. xii. ; Chamberlain's 
Letters, temp. Eliz. (Camel. Soc.), pp. 14, 18, 34 ; 
Spedding's Bacon, ii. 95-6, 100; Hutchins's 
Dorset, iv. 203 ; Cal. State Papers (Irish series), 
1509-73, 1574-85, 1586-8; Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. iii. 156; Celtic Soc. Miscellany (1849), 
ed. O'Donovan, 187-229 ; O'Flaherty's Corogra- 
phical Description of Ireland, ed. Hardiman 
(1846), p. 394; Annals of the Four Masters, ed. 
Donovan, vol. vi. ; Cal. State Papers (Dom.), 
1581-90, 1591-4, 1595-7. Several of Bingham's 
letters to Burghley and to Sir Robert Cecil are 
at Hatfield.] S. L. L. 

BINGHAM, RICHARD, the elder (1765- 
1858), divine, was born 1 April 1765. He 
was son of the Rev. Isaac Moody Bingham, 
rector of Birchanger and Runwell, Essex, and 
great-grandson of Joseph Bingham, author of 
the ' Origines Ecclesiasticse.' He was edu- 
cated successively at Winchester, where he 
was on the foundation, and at New College, 
Oxford, where he took the degrees respec- 
tively of B.A. 19 Oct. 1787 and B.C.L. 
18 July 1801 (Oaford Graduates). He was 
married at Bristol to Lydia Mary Anne, 
eldest daughter of Rear-admiral Sir Charles 
Douglas, bart., 10 Nov. 1788, at which time 
he was a fellow of his college and in holy 
orders (Gent. Mag. November 1788). In 




1790, or more probably in 1788 or 1789 
(Preface to Proceedings, &c. 8vo, London, 
1814, p. vi, and Proceedings, &c., p. 174 &c.), 
he was appointed to the perpetual curacy of 
Trinity Church, Gosport ; in 1796 he became 
vicar of Great Hale, near Sleaford, Lincoln- 
shire, and was appointed, 22 July 1807, in 
succession to his father, to the prebendal 
stall of Bargham in Chichester Cathedral. 
In 1813, being then a magistrate for Hamp- 
shire of twelve years' standing, he was con- 
victed at the Winchester summer assizes of 
having illegally obtained a license for a 
public-house, when no such public-house was 
in existence, and of having stated, in the con- 
veyance of such house, a false consideration 
of the same, with intent to defraud the 
revenue by evading an additional stamp duty 
of IOL (Annual Register, 1813). On 10 Nov. 
1813 a motion was made in the King's Bench 
for a new trial on behalf of the defendant. 
He was brought up for judgment on the 26th 
of the same month, and in spite of many affi- 
davits to his character was sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment in the county gaol at | 
Winchester. In an appeal to public opinion 
dated 23 Dec. 1813, Bingham asserted his 
innocence with the most vehement depreca- 
tions. The appeal is embodied in the Preface 
to l Proceedings in a Trial, The King, on the 
Prosecution of James Cooper, against the 
Rev. Richard Bingham, and on a Motion for 
a new Trial, and on the Defendant's being 
brought up for Judgment. Taken in short- 
hand by Mr. Gurney. With explanatory 
Preface and Notes and an Appendix,' 8vo, 
London, 1814. In 1829 Mr. Bingham pub- 
lished, by subscription, the third edition of 
the ' Origines Ecclesiastics ' of his ancestor. 
He reprinted all the contents of the old 
octavo and folio editions, introducing into 
the notes some further references from the 
author's manuscript annotations in a private 
copy of his own book, and adding for the 
first time an impression of the author's three 
' Trinity Sermons,' besides prefixing a * Life 
of the Author, by his Great-grandson.' The 
bankruptcy of the printer while the work 
was passing through the press caused much 
delay in its distribution (Prolegomena, &c. i. 
p. x). Bingham died at his residence of New- 
house on the beach at Gosport, on Sunday, 
18 July 1858, and was buried on Tuesday, 
the 27th of the same month, in the vaults of 
Trinity Church, in the presence of a very 
large number of his friends and parishioners. 
[Gradual! Cantabrigienses, 4to, Cambridge, 
1787 ; Gent. Mag. March 1807, April 1847, and 
September 1858 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Proceedings, 
&c. London, 1814; Annual Register, 1813: 
Origines Ecclesiastics, London. 1829; Miss 

Bingham's Short Poems, Bolton, 1848 ; Hamp- 
shire Telegraph, 24 and 31 July 1858.] 

BINGHAM, RICHARD, the younger 
(1798-1872), divine, was the eldest son of 
Richard Bingham the elder [q. v.] He was 
born in 1798, and was educated at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, where he became B.A. 1821, 
M.A. 1827. He was ordained deacon in 1821, 
and priest in 1822, and became curate to his 
father in his incumbency of Holy Trinity 
Church, Gosport. Here he remained for over 
twenty-two years. He married, 4 May 1824 r 
' Frances Campbell, daughter of the late J. 
Barton, Esq., of Mount Pleasant, Jamaica ' 
( Gent. May. June 1824), and took pupils. He 
published by subscription two small volumes 
of sermons in 1826 and 1827, and in 1829 
< The Warning Voice, or an awakening Ques- 
tion for all British Protestants in general, 
and Members of the Church of England in 
particular, at the present Juncture/ He 
seceded from the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, on account of its readiness to co- 
operate with Socinians, in 1831, and soon 
after published an account of the circum- 
stances. He issued by subscription a volume 
of ' Sermons' in 1835, and in 1843 l Imma- 
nuel, or God with us, a Series of Lectures on 
the Divinity and Humanity of our Lord,' 8vo 
, London, 1843. The preface mentions his 
desire to bring out a new edition of his an- 
cestor's book. Twelve years afterwards Bing- 
ham produced, at the expense of the delegates 
of the Oxford University Press, the standard 
edition of ' The Works of the Rev. Joseph 
I Bingham, M.A.,' 10 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1855. 
j In 1844 he was presented by the trustees to 
the perpetual curacy of Christ Church, Har- 
wood, Bolton-le-Moors, during his incum- 
bency of which he lost (28 Feb. 1847) his 
eldest daughter, aged 21, and his youngest 
j son. Miss Bingham had early published 
! ' Hubert, or the Orphans of St. Madelaine, a 
I Legend of the persecuted Vaudois/ London, 
1845, and at the time of her death left a 
I considerable number of pieces, which were 
published by her father in 1848 as 'Short 
i Poems, religious and sentimental/ and passed 
; through two editions. Bingham became in 
; 1853 curate at St. Mary's, Marylebone, the 
\ rector of which was John Hampden Gurney 7 
; to whom he afterwards dedicated a volume 
of ' Sermons ' in 1858. In 1856 he be- 
came vicar of Queenborough in the isle of 
Sheppey. He vacated this preferment in 
1870, and took up his residence at Sutton, 
' Surrey, where he died on Monday, 22 Jan. 
i 1872, at the age of seventy-four. Bingham 
i was a fervid advocate of liturgical revision, 
and a member of the council of the Praver 




Book Revision Society. In 1860 he pub- 
lished ' Liturgia Recusa, or Suggestions for 
revising and reconstructing the daily and 
occasional Services of the United Church of 
England and Ireland.' He supplemented 
this volume by an elaborate model of a 
liturgy, which he dedicated to Lord Ebury, 
' Liturgire Recusre Exemplar. The Prayer 
Book as it might be, or Formularies old, re- 
vised, and new, suggesting a reconstructed 
and amplified Liturgy,' 1863. Bingham also , 
published ; The Gospel according to Isaiah, I 
in a Course of Lectures/ &c. in 1870 ; and | 
' Hymnologia Christiana Latina, or a Century j 
of Psalms and Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 
by various Authors, from Luther to Heber j 
and Keble, translated into Latin Verse, either | 
metrical or accentuated Rhyme,' 1871. 

[Catalogue of all the Graduates in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, Oxford, 1857; Gent. Mag. 
June, 1824; Crockford's Clerical Directory, : 
1360-1872 ; Clergy List, 1841-1872 ; Guardian, j 
31 Jan. 1872; and various prefaces and intro- j 
ductions.] A. H. G. 

BERT, 1676-1731.] 

BINGLEY, WILLIAM (1774-1823), ; 
miscellaneous writer, was born at Doncas- 
ter in 1774, and left an orphan at a very 
early age. His friends designed him for 
the law, but his own inclinations were for 
the church. In 1795 he was entered at 
St. Peter's College, Cambridge, and took the 
degree of B.A. in 1799, and of M.A. in 1803. 
Whilst an undergraduate he travelled in 
Wales, and 'A Tour round North Wales' 
was the subject of his first publication. For 
many years after his ordination he served 
the curacy of Christ Church in Hampshire, 
but in 1816 he was the minister of the pro- 
prietary chapel in London known as Fitzroy 
Chapel, Charlotte Street, and he was engaged 
in its ministry at the time of his death. He 
died in Charlotte Street, 11 March t !823. 
and was buried in a vault under the middle 
aisle of Bloomsbury Church. His life was 
devoid of incident ; his days were passed in 
compilation. He was a prolific writer, and 
several of his works enjoyed great popu- 
larity. His ' Tour round North Wales/ the 
result of his college vacation of 1798, was 
published in 1800 in two volumes. He 
visited the same district in 1801, and in 1804 
issued 'North Wales . . . delineated from 
two excursions.' A second edition appeared 
in 1814, and a third, with corrections and 
additions by his son, W. R. Bingley, in 1839. 
As a companion to these works there ap- 
peared a volume entitled ' Sixty of the most 
admired Welsh Airs, collected by W. Bing- 

ley,' arranged for the pianoforte by W. Rus- 
sell, junior, in 1803, and again in 1810. One 
of the most popular of his compilations 
was ' Animal Biography ' (1802), which was 
written with the object of creating a taste 
for natural history. The sixth edition ap- 
peared in 1824, and the work was translated 
into several European languages. A cognate 
volume from his pen, ' Memoirs of British 
Quadrupeds,' appeared in 1809. Mr. Bingley 
was a learned botanist and a fellow of the 
Linnean Society. His ' Practical Introduc- 
tion to Botany ' was published in 1817, and 
republished after the author's death in 1827. 
In 1814 he drew up a volume on ' Animated 
Nature,' and two years later he compiled a 
work 011 ' Useful Knowledge, an account of 
the various~"productions"of nature, mineral , 
vegetable, and animal.' The last of these 
volumes was frequently reissued, the seventh 
edition appearing so recently as 1852. One 
set of his works was composed of ' biographi- 
cal conversatiqns ' on eminent characters. In 
this manner he narrated the lives of British 
characters,' ' eminent Toyagers,^ celebrated 
travellers/laid t Roman cnaracters7"Another 
consisted of condensed accounts ^from modern 
writers' of the various continents of the world : 
Africa, South America, North America, 
South Europe, North Europe, and Asia were 
consecutively described by him, the six 
volumes appearing separately between_18J^ 
and 1 822, and "being reproduced with a gene- 
raT title-page of ; Modern Travels.' His 
dictionary of { Musical Biography' appeared 
anonymously in 1814 ; it was reissued with 
his name on the title-page, but without any 
other alteration, in 1834. Whilst at Christ 
Church he published (1805), from the origi- 
nals in the possession of a Wiltshire lady, 
three volumes of ' Correspondence between 
Frances, Countess of Hereford, and the Coun- 
tess of Pomfret, 1738-41.' Most of the copies 
of the second edition were destroyed by fire, 
but a few were saved. He was long engaged 
on a history of Hampshire, and in 1817, 
when the manuscripts amounted to 6,000 
pages, explained in an address to his subscri- 
bers the causes which retarded and finally 
prevented its completion. Thirty copies of 
a small portion of it, however, entitled ' The 
Topographical Account of the Hundred of 
Bosmere,' were printed for private circula- 
tion. In addition to these works, Bingley 
was the author of a sermon, the f Economy 
of a Christian Life ' (1822), and a handbook 
to the Leverian museum. 

[Gent, Mag. 1823 ; Biog. Dictionary of 1816 ; 
Memoir prefixed to his 'Roman Characters' 
(1824).] W. P. C. 




1335), chronicler, a monk of the priory of 
Binham, Norfolk, one of the cells belonging 
to the abbey of St. Albans, upheld his prior, 
William Somerton, in resisting the unjust 
exactions of Hugh, abbot of St. Albans 
(1308-1326). The cause of the Binham 
monks was taken up by the gentry of the 
neighbourhood, and Sir Robert Walkefare, 
the patron of the cell, prevailed on Thomas, 
earl of Lancaster, to uphold them. Embol- 
dened by this support, the prior and his 
monks refused to admit the visitation of the 
abbot, and the gentlemen of their party gar- 
risoned the priory against him. The abbot, 
however, appealed to the king, Edward II, 
who ordered the prior's supporters to return 
to their homes. Simon and the other rebel- 
lious monks were brought to St. Albans 
and imprisoned. After a while they were 
released and admitted into the brotherhood, 
but as a mark of disgrace were sentenced to 
walk in fetters in all processipns of the con- 
vent. Simon lived to become an influential 
member of the house, for in the time of Abbot 
Michael (1335-13-49) he was chosen by the 
chapter as one of the three receivers or trea- 
surers of the collections made for the sup- 
port of scholars and needy brethren. In a 
notice of the historians of St. Albans, he is 
said to have written after Henry Blankfrount 
or Blaneforde [q.v.], and before Richard 
Savage. The works of Binham and Savage 
are lost, or at least are unidentified. It has, 
however, been suggested that Binham may 
have written some of the fragments pub- 
lished in the Rolls edition of the * Chronicle 
of Rishanger.' 

[Gesta Abbatum Mon. S. Albani, ii. 131, 305, 
Kolls ser. ; Job. Amundesham Ann. Introd. Ixvi, 
303, Eolls ser. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 144."] 

W. H. 


(fl. 1370), theologian, was a native of Bin- 
ham in Norfolk, where there was a Benedic- 
tine priory dependent on the abbey of St. 
Albans. Doubtless through this connection 
he entered the monastic profession at the 
abbey, and became ultimately prior of Wal- 
lingford, which was also a cell belonging to 
St. Albans. He had been a student at Ox- 
ford, of which university he is described as 
doctor of divinity, and had there come into 
close intimacy with John Wycliffe. Binham, 
however, remained true to the traditions of 
the church, and after a while separated him- 
self from his friend, with whom at length he 
engaged in controversy, and proved, as the 
catholic Leland confesses, no match for his 
antagonist. His only recorded work was 

Avritten on this occasion, ' Contra Positiones 
Wiclevi.' It is not known to be extant, but 
Wyclif 's reply (' Contra Willelmum Vynham 
monachum S. Albani Determinatio ') is pre- 
served in a Paris manuscript, Lat. 3184, if. 
49-52 (SHIKLEY, Catal. of the original Works 
of Wyclif, p. 20). The last notice of Bin- 
ham's life occurs in 1396, when he, as prior 
of Wallingford, was detained by illness from 
attending the election of an abbot of St. 
Albans on 9 Oct. (Gesta Abbatum Monasterii 
S. Albani, iii. 426, ed. H. T. Riley, 1869). 

[Leland's Comm. de Script. Brit, dcxxviii. 
p. 381; Bale's Script. Brit. Cat. vi. 5, p. 456; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 101.] R. L. P. 



(1812-1881), geologist, was born at Morton 
in Nottinghamshire in 1812. Little is known 
of his early education ; he appears, however, 
to have acquired strong scientific tastes, 
which continually betrayed themselves during 
his apprenticeship to a' solicitor. He became 
a resident in Manchester in 1836 ; his legal 
knowledge and strong common sense soon 
gained for him many clients, and his practice 
as a lawyer was favourably established in that 
city. The interesting coal-field of Lancashire 
soon claimed his attention, and he directed 
most of his leisure to the study of the 
geological phenomena of the district around 
Manchester. Similar tastes soon drew to- 
gether a circle of students, many of whom 
had been trained in experimental science by 
John Dalton, and others in mechanical and 
physical research by William Fairbairn. Out 
of these, principally by Binney's influence, a 
small select band was formed, and in October 
1838 they founded the Manchester Geological 
Society, Lord Francis Egerton being the first 
president, and J. F. Bateman and Binney the 
first honorary secretaries. 

The second article in the i Transactions ' of 
this society, after the president's address, 
was a l Sketch of the Geology of Manchester 
and its Vicinity,' illustrated by coloured 
sections, contributed by Binney. The first 
volume of the ' Transactions' affords evidence 
of his industry, four papers connected with 
the geology of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
coal-field having been contributed by him. 
Binney was president of the Manchester 
Geological Society in 1857-9, and again in 
1865-7. In 1853 he was elected a member 
of the Geological Society of London, and in 
1856 a fellow of the Royal Society. 

In 1858 Binney communicated to the local 
geological society a paper ' On Sigillaria and 

Binney 57 


its Roots/ which was his first contribution 
towards the solution of a problem of con- 
siderable interest, .connected with the forma- 
tion of our coal-beds. It had already been 
noticed by Sir William Logan that every 
seam of coal rests on a bed of rock usually 
known as ( seat-stone and 'underclay;' that 
this was devoid of stratification, and fre- 
quently full of filaments, running in all direc- 
tions, having a root-like appearance. These 
vegetable fibres were called l stigmaria.' 
Binney discovered, in a railway cutting near 
St. Helen's in Lancashire, a number of trunks 
of trees standing erect as they grew, with the 
roots still attached to them, these being the 
so-called * stigmaria.' M. Ad. Brongniart 
was disposed to regard these plants as gigan- 
tic tree ferns, but Dr. (now Sir J. D.) Hooker 
believed that those Sigillaria, as they were 
named, were cryptogamous, though more 
highly developed than any flowering plants 
now living. In May 1861 another paper bear- 
ing the above title was communicated by the 
author to the Manchester Geological Society, 
and we find in the sixth volume of the 
' Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 
of London ' a memoir by him entitled ' Re- 
marks on Sigillaria and some Spores found 
imbedded in the inside of its roots.' Thus 
Binney completed the proof that all coal 
seams rest on old soils which are constituted 
entirely of vegetable matter; this was the 
seat-stone of a seam of coal. The roots 
(Stigmaria) show that those soils supported 
a luxuriant vegetation (Sigillaria), which, 
growing rapidly in vast swamps, under a 
moist atmosphere of high temperature, formed 
by decomposition the fossil fuel, to which we 
owe the extent of our manufacturing indus- 

At this time Binney was actively engaged 
in investigating the fossil shells of the lower 
coal measures. In April 1860 he read a 
paper on the results of his inquiry, asserting 
that two groups of the mollusca were occa- 
sionally found together in the same coal-bed ; | 
but some geologists venture to differ from ! 
one whom they call ' a keen-eyed observer,' | 
expressing their belief that the specimens, j 
thought to be obtained from the same bed, i 
were derived from two closely adjoining : 

Binney studied with much diligence the 
coal measure, Calamites, which he was led | 
to consider as divisible into two perfectly ; 
distinct but outwardly similar types ; one 
of these, Calamodendron, being a gvmno- i 
spermous exogen, allied to our fir trees, while 
the true calamite is regarded as equiseta- 
ceous. In 1866 he read a paper * On the .' 
Upper Coal Measures of England and Scot- i 

land,' and in 1871 one, being a ' Descrip- 
tion and Specimens of Bituminous Shale 
from New South Wales.' These are imme- 
! diately due to his connection with Mr. James 
I Young, whose name is associated with the 
paraffin industry of Scotland. Binney's geo- 
i logical experience helped Mr. Young to the 
! discovery of the Torbane Hill mineral, or 
| Boghead cannel, a bituminous shale from 
| which have resulted the enormous paraffin 
| works at Bathgate. Between the years 1839 
and 1872, Binney contributed thirty-three 
papers to the Manchester Geological Society, 
and some others to the Geological Society of 
London. He was also a zealous supporter of 
the Philosophical Society of Manchester, and 
rendered important aid to the Geological 
Survey of the United Kingdom, by furnishing 
the surveyors with the results of his long ex- 
perience over the coal-fields of Lancashire 
and Cheshire. 

On 25 October 1881 Binney presided at the 
council meeting of the Manchester Geological 
Society for the last time. He died in Man- 
chester on 19 Dec. in the same year, especially 
regretted by his associates, who found that 
in him they had lost the man who possessed 
the most exact knowledge of the coal-fields 
of Lancashire and Cheshire, and of the geology 
| of the whole district. 

[Transactions of the Geological Society of Man- 
chester ; Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society of London ; Ormerod's Classified Index of 
Transactions, &c. ; Coal, its History and Use, 
edited by Professor Thorpe ; Ly ell's Principles of 
G eology ; personal knowledge.] R. H-T. 

BINNEY, THOMAS, D.D.,LL.D. (1798- 
1874), a distinguished nonconformist divine, 
was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the year 
1798. After a period of tuition in an ordi- 
nary day school, he was apprenticed for seven 
years to a bookseller. In giving an account 
of his early life Binney stated that his 
hours with the Newcastle bookseller were for 
two years from seven in the morning until 
eight in the evening, and for five years from 
seven to seven. He was, however, sometimes 
engaged from six a.m. until ten p.m. Not- 
withstanding this pressure he found opportu- 
nities, especially from his fourteenth to his 
twentieth year/ for considerable reading and 
much original composition. The elements of 
Latin and Greek he acquired by studying on 
two evenings in the week with a presbyterian 
clergyman. The elder Binney. who was of 
Scotch extraction, was an elder of the jpres- 
byterian congregation in the Wall Knoll, 
and the son took an active part in connection 
\vith a religious and intellectual institution 
attached to this church. It is not known. 

Binney i 

how he came to sever himself from the pres- 
byterians and to connect himself with the 
congregationalists. He was recommended, 
however, to the theological seminary at Wy- 
mondley, Hertfordshire, an institution which 
was afterwards merged in New College, a 
well-known training establishment for con- 
gregational ministers. He remained here for 
three years, and while tradition states that 
he was not a very severe student, it appears 
that he excited no ordinary expectations. 

After leaving college Binney was for 
about twelve months minister of the New 
Meeting, Bedford, of which John Howard 
was one of the founders. In August 1824 he 
accepted the pastorate of St. James's Street 
Chapel, Newport, Isle of Wight. Here he 
became acquainted with Samuel Wilberforce. 
Binney's first work, a ' Memoir of Stephen 
Morrell,' was published during his residence 
at Newport. He also prepared for the press 
a volume of sermons on ' The Practical Power 
of Faith.' In 1829 he removed to London, 
to take charge of the church assembling at 
Weigh House. In a short time he acquired 
a high reputation as a pulpit orator. 

Binney was a strong controversialist, and 
he attacked the church of England with 
much vehemence. A furious paper war took 
place over a phrase which occurred in an ad- 
dress delivered by him at the laying of the 
foundation-stone of the new Weigh House 
Chapel on 16 Oct. 1833. He was affirmed 
to have said that ' the church of England 
damned more souls than she saved.' Several 
bishops, a great number of the clergy, and 
the entire religious press mingled in the fierce 
discussion which ensued. The actual words 
used by Binney were these : * It is with 
me a matter of deep serious religious convic- 
tion that the established church is a great 
national evil ; that it is an obstacle to the 
progress of truth and godliness in the land ; 
that it destroys more souls than it saves ; 
and therefore its end is devoutly to be wished 
by every lover of God and man. Right or 
wrong, this is my belief.' Binney was a 
voluminous writer on polemical subjects. 
He published a number of letters under the 
signature of ' Fiat Justitia,' which quickly 
went through six editions, and in 1834 he 
published ' The Ultimate Object of the Evan- 
gelical Dissenters,' a sermon preached in the 
Weigh House Chapel on the occasion of pe- 
titions to parliament for the removal of dis- 
senters' grievances. In the following year 
he replied, by a discourse entitled ' Dissent 
not Schism,' to a charge by the Bishop of 
London which had been pronounced intole- 
rant in many quarters. In 1841 a Mr. Wil- 
liam Baines was imprisoned in Leicester Gaol 

5 Binney 

for non-payment of church rates, and Bin- 
ney, under the pseudonym, of ' A. Balance, 
Esq., of the Middle Temple,' wrote a severe 
pamphlet dealing with the case and entitled 
' Leicester Gaol.' In 1850 he wrote a series 
of papers on the ' Aspects of Baptismal Rege- 
neration as taught in the Established Church,' 
suggested by the famous Gorham case. In 
1853 he published a work for young men en- 
titled 'Is it possible to make the Best of 
both Worlds ? ' The question was answered 
warmly in the negative by several writers, 
but its original propounder defended his pro- 
positions with considerable dialectical skill. 
This work was Binney's most successful 
venture as an author. For the first twelve 
months after its publication it sold at the 
rate of one hundred copies per day. 

In 1857 Binney visited Australia. The 
Bishop of Adelaide having addressed to him 
a letter on the relations of the episcopal 
church in the colonies to nonconforming 
churches, and the possibility of an inter- 
change of ministerial services, a correspon- 
dence followed. A memorial was addressed 
to the bishop by a number of episcopalian 
laymen, including the governor of the colony 
and the ministers of the state, requesting 
that Binney should be invited to preach in 
the cathedral. In the end, however, the 
bishop decided that he was not at liberty to 
comply with the request. The visitor then 
delivered an address from the presidential 
chair of the Tasmanian Congregational Union 
on ' The Church of the Future/ an address 
which was afterwards incorporated in a 
volume entitled ' Lights and Shadows of 
Australian Life,' published in 1862. The 
year just named being the year of the bicen- 
tenary commemoration of the ejection of 
the two thousand clergymen, Binney, who 
had some time before returned to England, 
preached and published two sermons entitled 
' Farewell Sunday ' and ' St. Bartholomew's 
Day.' In 1863 he published a pamphlet with 
the title ' Breakers on both Sides : Thoughts 
on Creeds, Subscriptions, Trust Deeds, &c., 
in relation to Protestantism and Dissent.' 
The rapid spread of the ritualistic movement 
in the church of England also led him to 
write and publish in 1867 a volume entitled 
' Micah, the Priest Maker,' an enlargement 
of a course of lectures delivered at the Weigh 
House Chapel. Binney edited and pub- 
lished an American work on liturgies by the 
Rev. Charles' W. Baird, D.D., of New York, 
being ' Historical Sketches of the Liturgical 
Forms of the Reformed Churches.' The editor 
prefixed an introduction and added an ap- 
pendix on the question, 'Are Dissenters to 
have a Liturgy ? ' expressing a conviction 




that something more was demanded in non- 
conformist services than had yet been wit- 
nessed. He was himself one of the first 
ministers to introduce into nonconformist 
churches the chanting of the rhythmical 
psalms of the Old Testament according to 
the authorised version, and he gave a great 
impetus to the movement for improved ser- 
vices, which afterwards spread through the 
nonconformist churches. 

For many years before he died Binney 
was regarded as the Nestor of the denomina- 
tion to which he belonged, and his influence 
spread to the other side of the Atlantic and 
also to the colonies. In 1852 he received the 
degree of LL.D. from the university of Aber- 
deen, and an American university subse- 
quently conferred upon him the degree of 
D.D. He was twice elected chairman of the 
Congregational Union of England and Wales, 
and he preached a great number of special 
sermons before that body. In 1869 he re- 
tired from the pastorate at Weigh House 
Chapel after a ministry of forty years in that 
place. He subsequently undertook some pro- 
fessorial duties in connection with New Col- 
lege, and occasionally preached in London 
pulpits, his last sermon being delivered in 
Westminster Chapel in November 1873. 
The closing months of his life saw him 
afflicted by a depressing and insidious disease. 
Dr. Allon states that he fell into a condition 
of great despondency, but it was a failure of 
the body rather than of the mind. Before 
the end the cloud lifted, and he died on 
24 Feb. 1874. Dean Stanley was amongst 
the divines who took part in the funeral ser- 
vice at Abney Park Cemetery. 

Binney was a voluminous writer of verse, 
chiefly of a religious character. His poetry, 
however, was distinguished rather for its 
devotional element than for any imagina- 
tive qualities. One of his hymns, * Eternal 
Light ! Eternal Light ! ' is widely known. 

[Sermons preached in the King's "Weigh House 
Chapel, London, 1829-69, by T. Binney, LL.D., 
1st and 2nd series, edited, with a Biographical 
and Critical Sketch, by Henry Allon, D.D. ; 
Thomas Binney, a Memorial, by the Eev. J. 
Stoughton, D.D. ; Thomas Binney, his Mind, 
Life, and Opinions, by the Eev. E. Paxton Hood ; 
Annual Register, 1874, and the journals of the 
time ; the works of Dr. Binney.] G. B. S. 


BINNING, HUGH (1627-1653), Scotch 
divine, was son of John Binning of Dalvenan, 
Ayrshire, by Margaret M'Kell, daughter of 
Matthew M'Kell (or M'Kail), the parish 
clergyman of Both-well, Lanarkshire, and 

sister to Hugh M'Kail, one of the ministers 
of Edinburgh, and uncle to one of the youth- 
[ ful martyrs of Scotland Hugh M'Kail, who 
j was hanged at Edinburgh on 22 Dec. 1666, 
for his alleged participation in the rising 
at Pentland. Binning was born at Dalvenan 
in 1627. His father had a considerable in- 
herited landed estate, and Hugh was given 
a liberal education. He easily outstripped 
his schoolfellows of twice and thrice his years, 
and in his thirteenth and fourteenth years his 
i gravity and piety were recognised with a kind 
| of awe by all. Before his fourteenth year he 
I proceeded to the university of Glasgow, en- 
I tering himself for philosophy. The profes- 
sors were startled by his premature learning 
! and philosophical capacity. He took his de- 
gree of M.A. 'with much applause.' He 
I then commenced the study of divinity, ' with 
; a view to serve God in the holy ministry.' 
James Dalrymple (afterwards Lord Stair), 
who had been his professor of philosophy, 
having resigned in 1647, Binning was induced 
to become a candidate for the chair. All 
members of the universities in the kingdom 
who had ' a mind to the profession of philoso- 
phy ' were invited to * sist ' themselves before 
the Senatusand 'compete for the preferment.' 
The principal of the university (Dr. Strang) 
had his candidate, and strenuous efforts were 
put forth to carry him, mainly on the ground 
that the candidate was a 'citizen's son,' 
and subsidiarily ' of competent learning,' and 
of ' more years.' An extempore disputation 
, between the two candidates was suggested ; 
l thereupon Binning's rival withdrew, and left 
, him to be unanimously elected before he was 
I nineteen years of age. He delivered at once 
a brilliant course of lectures, and tried to 
j rescue philosophy in Scotland from the ' bar- 
| barous terms and unintelligible jargon of the 
i schoolmen.' He held the post with increas- 
| ing influence for about three years. At the 
I same time he pursued his theological studies, 
! and having obtained license as a minister of 
the Gospel, he received a call to the parish 
of Govan near Glasgow on 25 Oct. 1649. 
On 8 Jan. following he was ordained at Govan, 
and resigned his professorship in the follow- 
ing year. Soon after he married Mary (some- 
times erroneously given as Barbara), daughter 
of the Rev. James Simpson, parish minister 
of Airth (Stirlingshire), who has been wrongly 
described as an Irish minister. He still car- 
ried on his philosophical and other studies, 
but was duly attentive to his sermons and 
pastoral duties. Wherever he was announced 
as a preacher, vast crowds assembled. When in 
1651 the unhappy division took place in the 
church into resolutioners and protesters, he 
sided with the latter. He then wrote and 



published his ' Treatise on Christian Love' as 
an Eirenicon. He played a prominent part 
in the historical dispute before Cromwell at 
Glasgow (April 1651) between the indepen- | 
dents and presbyterians. His learning, theo- 
logical knowledge, and eloquent fervour bore 
down all opposition. The Protector was 
astonished, and, finding his party (of the in- j 
dependents) nonplussed, is said to have asked J 
the name ' of that learned and bold young 
man,' and, when told it was Mr. Hugh Bin- j 
ning, to have replied, ' He hath bound well | 
indeed, but' (putting his hand on his sword) i 
1 this will loose all again.' Subsequently he 
still more publicly vindicated the church's j 
rights as against the invasion of the state, 
from Deuteronomy xxxii. 45. He died of 
consumption in September 1653, when only in 
his twenty-seventh year. Patrick Gillespie 
no common judge pronounced him'philo- 
logus, philosophus, et theologus eximius.' 
James Durham said < There was 110 speaking 
after Mr. Binning.' The following are his 
chief books : 1. ' The common Principles of 
the Christian Religion clearly proved and 
singularly improved, or a Practical Cate- 
chism wherein some of the most concerning 
Foundations of our Faith are solidly laid 
down, and that Doctrine which is accord- 
ing to Godliness is sweetly yet pungently 
pressed home and most satisfyingly handled,' 
Glasgow, 1659. 2. ' The Sinner's Sanctuary, 
being xl. Sermons upon the Eighth Chapter 
of Romans from the first verse to the six- 
teenth,' Edinburgh, 1670. 3. 'Fellowship 
with God, being xxviii. Sermons on the First 
Epistle of John c. i. and ii. vv. 1, 2, 3,' Edin- 
burgh, 1671. 4. 'Heart Humiliation, or 
Miscellany Sermons, preached upon choice 
Texts at several Solemn Occasions,' Edin- 
burgh, 1671. 5. ' An Useful Case of Con- 
science . . . 1693.' 6. ' A Treatise of Chris- 
tian Love on John xiii. 35,' 1651, but only 
1743 ed. (Glasgow) now known. 7. * Several 
Sermons upon the most important Subjects 
of Practical Religion,' Glasgow, 1760. The 
best collective edition of the works is that by 
Dr. Leishman, a successor at Govan, in one 
large volume (imperial 8vo), 3rd ed. 1851. 
Various of these books were translated into 

Binning's widow was afterwards married 
to the Rev. James Gordon, presbyterian 
minister of Comber, co. Down, Ireland. She 
died at Paisley in 1694. Binning's only son 
John inherited the family estate of Dalvenan 
on the death of his grandfather ; but having 
been engaged in the affair of Bothwell 
Bridge in 1679, he was attainted and his pro- 
perty forfeited. But in 1690 forfeiture and 
fines and attainder were rescinded by parlia- 

ment, with little advantage nevertheless to 
him, through the roguery of one Mackenzie, 
who claimed to have advanced money on the 
estate far beyond its value. There are pa- 
thetic glimpses of the younger Binning in the 
' proceedings ' of the assembly of the church 
of Scotland in 1704, when he sued for the as- 
sembly's approval of an edition of his father's 
works. The assembly recommended ' every 
minister within the kingdom to take a 
double of the same book, or to subscribe for 
the same.' The last application he made for 
procuring aid was in 1717. 

[Scott's Fasti, ii. 67-8 ; Minutes Univ. Glasg. ; 
Wodrow's Analecta; Reid's Presbyterianism of 
Ireland, i. ; Edin. Christian Instructor, xxii.; 
Acts of Assembly; New Statistical Account, vi. ; 
Chalmers's Biogi-. Diet. ; Scots Worthies, i. 205- 
10, ed. Macgavin, 1837.] A. B. G. 

BINNS, JOHN (1772-1860), journalist 
and politician, was the son of an ironmonger 
in Dublin, and was born on 22 Dec. 1772. 
In his second year he lost his father, who 
left behind him a considerable property. 
After receiving a good education, first at a 
common school, and afterwards at a classi- 
cal academy, he was in 1786 apprenticed to 
a soapboiler. At the request of his elder 
brother, who inherited the estate of his 
father, he accompanied him in 1794 to Lon- 
don, where for some months he acted as his 
assistant in the plumbing business. Shortly 
after his arrival in London he became a 
member of the London Corresponding Com- 
pany, which was afterwards an influential 
political association. In 1797 he hired a 
large room in the Strand for political debates, 
a charge of one shilling being made for ad- 
mission. On account of his connection with 
the schemes of the United Irishmen, the 
grand jury of the county of Warwick found 
! a true bill against him, but after trial he was 
1 acquitted. On 21 Feb. 1798 he left London 
for France, but was arrested at Margate, and 
after an examination by the privy council he 
was committed to the Tower. At Maidstone 
he was tried, along with Arthur O'Connor, 
i for high treason, but acquitted. Shortly 
afterwards he was arrested and confined in 
! Clerkenwell Prison, whence he was trans- 
ferred to Gloucester, where he remained till 
i March 1801. In July following he embarked 
j for America. Proceeding to Northumber- 
land, Pennsylvania, he in March 1802 began 
| there a newspaper, 'The Republican Argus,' 
! by which he acquired great influence among 
; the republican party, not only in Northum- 
berland but in the neighbouring counties. 
In March 1807 he removed to Philadelphia 
( to edit the ' Democratic Press,' which soon 




became the leading paper in the state. In 
December 1822 he was chosen alderman of 
the city of Philadelphia, an office which he 
held till 1844. He died at Philadelphia on 
16 June 1860. 

[Recollections of John Binns Twenty-nine 
years in Europe and Fifty-three in the United 
States written by himself, Philadelphia, 1854.1 

T. F. H. 

BINYON, EDWARD (1830 P-1876), 
landscape painter, born about the year 1830, 
was a member of the Society of Friends. He 
painted both in oil and in water-colours, and 
his works show much power of colouring ; 
one of them, ' The Bay of Mentone,' has fre- 
quently been reproduced. He contributed 
from 1857 to 1876 to the exhibitions of the 
Dudley Gallery and the Royal Academy, 
among the pictures which he sent to the 
latter being, in 1859, < The Arch of Titus ; ' 
in 1860 < Capri ; ' in 1873 ' Marina di Lacco, 
Ischia ; ' in 1875 ' Coral Boat at dawn, Bay 
of Naples ; ' and in 1876 ' Hidden Fires, Ve- 
suvius from Capodimonte.' He lived many 
years in the island of Capri, where he died 
in 1876, from the effects of bathing while 

[Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and En- 
gravers, eel. Graves, 1884 ; Royal Academy Ex- 
hibition Catalogues, 1859-76.] R. E. G. 

CESCO (1572-1644), historian and romance 
writer, was born in 1572 at Lesina, an 
island in the Gulf of Venice off Dalmatia. 
Entering the service of the Venetian republic, 
he was appointed secretary to Senator So- 
ranzo, the Venetian ambassador at Paris ; but 
he soon afterwards returned to Venice, and 
at the suggestion of Sir Henry Wotton, the 
English ambassador there, came to England 
to seek his fortunes. Arriving in 1609 (Cat. 
Dom. State Papers, 1629-31, p. 347), with 
an introduction to James I, he was at first 
employed in negotiating with the Duke of 
Savoy marriages between his children and 
Prince Henry and Princess Elizabeth, but 
the scheme never reached maturity. He was 
settled in London in the latter half of 1612, 
when Prince Henry's death ended ' all hope 
of a Savoyan match,' and was well received 
by the king, who granted him a pension. 
Fifteen interesting Italian letters, written 
between 9 Oct. 1612 and 24 Nov. 1613, by 
Biondi in London to Carleton, who was then 
the English ambassador at Venice, are extant 
among the i State Papers.' ' In one of them, 
dated 28 Oct. 1613, Biondi promises to follow 
Carleton's advice, and remain permanently in 
London j and in the latest of them he an- 

nounces his intention of going to Paris with Sir 
Henry Wotton, should Wotton be appointed 
to the English legation there. He had been 
in early life converted to the protestant 
faith ; but Archbishop Abbot informed Carle- 
ton (30 Nov. 1613) that, although he knew 
nothing to Biondi's disadvantage, he was as 
suspicious of him as of all ' Italian conver- 
, titos.' In 1615 Biondi proceeded to the 
! general Calvinist assembly held at Grenoble 
as James I's representative, and he assured 
the assembly of the English king's protection 
and favour (MARSOLLIER, Histoire de Henri, 
due de Bouillon, 1719, livre vii. p. 27). On 
6 Sept. 1622 Biondi was knighted by James I 
' at Windsor, and married about the same time 
; Mary, the sister of the king's physician, Sir 
Theodore Mayerne, 'a very great lump or 
great piece of flesh,' as Chamberlain describes 
I her (NICHOLS, Progresses, iii. 777 ; Cal. Dom. 
\ State Papers, 1619-23, p. 495). Soon after- 
| wards Biondi became a gentleman of the 
i king's privy chamber. On 22 Feb. 1625-0 
he resigned two small pensions which he had 
previously held, and received in behalf of 
himself and his wife, during their lives, a 
| new pension of 200/. On 13 June 1628 an 
exemption from all taxation was granted 
I him. On 25 Sept. 1630 he sent to Carleton, 
j who had now become Viscount Dorchester and 
secretary of state, a statement of his affairs, 
and desired it to be laid before the king. 
After giving an account of his early life, and of 
the loss which he had sustained in the death, 
in 1628, of his patron, William Cavendish, 
earl of Devonshire, he complained that his 
pension had been rarely paid, and prayed for 
its increase by 100/. and its regular payment. 
The justices of the peace for Middlesex re- 
ported (11 May 1636) that Biondi, with 
other l persons of quality' residing in Clerken- 
well, had refused to contribute 'to the relief 
of the infected' of the district.. There is 
extant at the Record Office a certificate of 
payment of Biondi's pension on 7 May 1638. 
Two years later he left England for the house 
of his brother-in-law, Mayerne, at Aubonne, 
near Lausanne, Switzerland. He died there 
in 1644, and the epitaph on his tomb in the 
neighbouring church was legible in 1737. An 
admirable portrait of Biondi is given in ' Le 
Glorie de gli Incogniti,' p. 240, This book, 
published at Venice in 1647, is an account 
of deceased members of the Venetian ' Ac- 
cademia de' Signori Incogniti/ to which 
Biondi belonged. 

Biondi was the author of three tedious 
chivalric romances, which tell a continuous 
story, and of a work on English history. 
They were all written in Italian, but became 
very popular in this country in English 



translations. They are entitled : 1. * L'Ero- 
mena divisa in sei libri,' published at Venice 
in 1624, and again in 1628. It was trans- 
lated into English as ' Eromena, or Love 
and Revenge ' (fol., 1631), by James Hay- 
ward, and dedicated to the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Lennox. A German translation 
appeared in parts at Nuremberg between 
1656 and 1659, and was republished in 1667. 
2. ' La Donzella desterrada,' published at 
Venice in 1627 and at Bologna in 1637, and 
dedicated to the Duke of Savoy. The dedi- 
cation is dated from London, 4 July 1626, 
and in it Biondi mentions a former promise 
to undertake for the duke a translation of 
Sidney's l Arcadia.' James Hayward trans- 
lated the book into English, under the title of 
' Donzella desterrada, or the Banish'd Virgin' 
(fol.), in 1635. 3. 'II Coralbo; segue la 
Donzella desterrada' (Venice, 1635). It was 
translated into English by A. G. in 1655, with 
a dedication to the (second) Earl of Strafford. 
The translator states that Coralbo was re- 
garded by Biondi as the most perfect of his 
romances. 4. * L' istoria delle guerre civili 
d'Inghilterra tra le due case di Lancastre e 
di lore,' published in three quarto volumes 
at Venice between 1637 and 1644, with a 
dedication to Charles I. It was translated 
into English, apparently while still in manu- 
script, by Henry Gary, earl of Monmouth, 
and published in two volumes in London in 
1641, under the title of ' An History of the 
Civil Warres of England between the two 
Houses of Lancaster and Yorke.' It is a 
laborious but useless compilation. 

[Le Gloriede gli Incogniti (1647), pp. 241-3; 
Niceron's Memoires pour servir, xxxvii. 3914; 
Cal. Dom. Slate Papers for 1612, 1613, 1622, 
1624, 1626, 1628, 1630, 1636, 1638; Granger's 
Biographical History, ii. 36 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

S. L. L. 

BIRCH, JAMES (ft. 1759-1795), here- 
siarch, was born in Wales, but the date is un- 
known. He became a watch-motion maker 
in London, living in Brewer's Yard, Golden 
Lane, Old Street Road, afterwards in Little 
Moorfields. He was converted to the Mug- 
gletonians, his name first appearing in their 
records 1 July 1759 ; that of Mrs. Birch is 
mentioned 22 July 1759. He wrote in 1771 
a rhythmical account of his conversion 
('Travels from the sixth to the ninth 
hour'), fifteen stanzas of eight lines each, 
dated 5 Dec. (unprinted). In 1772 he 
rejected two points of Muggletonian ortho- 
doxy : viz. the doctrine that believers have 
present assurance of salvation (this, Birch 
thought, was often withheld till death) ; and 
the doctrine that God exercises no immediate 

oversight in human affairs, and affords 110 
| present inspiration (on these points Birch 
j reverted to the original views of John Reeve, 
the founder, along with Lodowicke Mug- 
gleton, of the sect). So far he only led a 
' party within the Muggletonian body, which 
has always been liable to eruptions of Reevite 
heresy. But in 1778 Birch began to claim 
personal inspiration ; this lost him ten fol- 
lowers, headed by Martha, wife of Henry 
Collier. The Collierites were regarded by Mug- 
gletonians as mistaken friends ; the Birch- 
ites were known as the Anti-church. Birch 
was maintained in independence by his fol- 
lowers, his right-hand man being William 
Matthews, of Bristol. In 1786 there were 
some thirty Birchites in London, and a 
larger number in Pembrokeshire. In 1809 
they are alluded to in a * divine song ' by 
James Frost as ' anti-followers ; ' at this time 
and subsequently they had a place of meet- 
ing in the Barbican. Whether Birch him- 
self was living in 1809 is not known ; the 
last occurrence of his name in the Muggle- 
tonian archives is in 1795 ; two of his Lon- 
don followers were surviving in 1871 in old 
age. Birch published, about the end of last 
century, ' The Book of Cherubical Reason, 
with its Law and Nature ; or of the Law and 
Priesthood of Reason,' &c. ; and ' The Book 
upon the Gospel and Regeneration,' <&c. They 
bear no date, but were sold by T. Herald, 
60 Portpool Lane, Gray's Inn Lane. Very 
incoherent, they are scarcely intelligible even 
to the initiated in the small controversies 
from which they sprang. One of Birch's 
opinions is curious : * Not one of the seed of 
Faith dies in childhood' (Cher. Reas. p. 46). 

[MS. Records of the Muggletonian Church ; 
Birch's Works (Brit. Mus. 1114 i. 3, 1 and 2); 
paper Ancient and Mod. Muggletonians, Trans. 
Liverpool Lit. and Phil. Soc. 1870.] A. G-. 

BIRCH, JOHN (1616-1691), presby- 
terian colonel during the civil war, belonged 
to a younger branch of the Birches of Birch, 
and was the eldest son of Samuel Birch of 
Ardwick, Lancashire, by Mary, daughter of 
Ralph Smith of Doblane House, Lancashire 
(DFGDALE'S Visit, of Lancas. 1664 in Chet. 
Soc. Pub. Ixxxiv. (1872), p. 34). He was 
born 7 April 1616, not 1626, the date now in- 
scribed on his tombstone (WooD, ed. Bliss, 
Life, cxviii). It was the general custom of 
his political opponents to refer to him as of 
ignoble origin, and the coarseness of his 
manners gave a colour of probability to the 
insinuation. - In f A more exact and neces- 
sary Catalogue of Pensioners than is yet ex- 
tant' (SOMEKS'S Tracts, vii. p. 60), he appears 
as ' J. B., once a carrier, now a colonel ; ' and 



Burnet states that when a member of parlia- \ 
ment he ' retained still, even to affectation, ; 
the clownishness of liis manner.' He also 
quotes a speech 'of Birch, in which he admits 
that he had l been a carrier once.' Similar 
insinuations of the lowness of his origin occur 
in the traditions as to how he joined the army. 
According to the Barrett MSS. in the library 
of the Chetharn Society, quoted in note by j 
Thomas Heywood to Newcome's ' Diary ' ' 
(p. 203), being of great stature,' he ' enlisted ! 
as a private trooper in the parliamentary , 
army, which being known of Colonel Birch 
of Birch to be his namesake and countryman, 
was by him favoured and preferred in the ; 
army from post to post.' According to i 
another account, while driving his packhorses j 
along the road, he so resolutely resisted the 
attempt of some parliamentary soldiers under 
Cromwell to rob him, that he attracted the ! 
notice of that commander, who offered him { 
a commission in his troop (TowNSEND, Hist. 
of Leominster, p. 109). The pedigree above 
quoted sufficiently refutes the tradition of his 
ignoble birth, and his letters prove incontes- 
tably that he had received more than a j 
' clownish education.' That both of the above 
statements in regard to his early connection 
with the army are totally groundless, is also 
evident from his ' Military Memoir,' in which 
he makes his first appearance as captain of 
volunteers at the siege of Bristol. Either 
previously or subsequently he may have acted 
as ' a carrier,' and ' driven packhorses/ but 
when he joined the army he had a large 
business as a merchant in Bristol, and, accord- 
ing to the * Visitation of Lancashire ' above 
quoted, had married Alice, daughter of 
Thomas Deane, and widow of Thomas Selfe 
of Bristol, grocer. It is, however, not an im- 
probable conjecture that Birch came into the 
possession of his business by marrying the 
widow of his master, whose goods' he may 
previously have been in the habit of deliver- 
ing to the customers. In any case, he 
inherited a combination of talents certain to 
bring him into prominence in troublous times 
such as those in which he lived : great per- 
sonal strength, remarkable coolness in the 
most perplexing surroundings, an inborn 
capacity for military command, a rugged elo- 
quence which rendered him one of the most 
formidable orators of his time, and a keen 
business instinct which let slip no oppor- 
tunity of advancing his personal interests. 
After the surrender of Bristol to the royalists 
Birch went to London and levied there a 
regiment, with which he served as colonel 
under Sir William Waller in his campaigns 
in the west. In the assault of Arundel he 
was so severely wounded as to be left for 

dead ; but the cold stopped the haemorrhage, 
and thus accidentally saved his life. After 
obtaining medical assistance in London, he 
returned to his command, and was present at 
the battle of Alresford, the blockade of Ox- 
ford, and the prolonged skirmish at Cropredy 
Bridge. Waller's troops having deserted him 
in the subsequent aimless march towards 
London, Birch obtained the command of a 
Kentish regiment of newly levied troops, with 
which he assisted at the defence of Plymouth. 
The institution of the New Model was a 
serious blow to his hopes, for his presbyterian 
principles were even dearer to him than his 
own advancement. On its institution he was 
ordered to join the army of Fairfax and Crom- 
well near Bridgewater, and was entrusted 
with the care of Bath. It was in a great 
degree owing to his representations that in 
September 1645 it was decided to storm Bris- 
tol, and he assisted in its assault with a con- 
siderable command of horse and foot, receiving 
special commendation in the report of Crom- 
well to the parliament (CARLYLE, Cromwell, 
letter xxxi.) Notwithstanding this, he re- 
mained only a colonel of volunteers with the 
joint care of Bath and Bristol, a position with 
so few advantages to compensate for its diffi- 
culties that he contemplated resigning his 
commission, when, goingto London in Novem- 
ber 1645 to inform the committee of safety of 
his intention, he received a new commission 
along with Colonel Morgan, governor of 
Gloucester, to ' distress the city of Hereford.' 
Only a few months previously the city had suc- 
cessfully withstood the assaults of the Scotch 
army under Leven ; but Birch, after obtaining 
secret information of the strength, disposition, 
and habits of the garrison, succeeded in de- 
vising a clever stratagem which enabled him 
to enter the gates before a proper alarm could 
be raised. Such a remarkable stroke of for- 
tune was received with general rejoicing in 
London, and formed the turning-point in 
Birch's career. He received the special thanks 
of parliament, who voted 6,000/. for the pay- 
ment of his men, was appointed governor of 
Hereford, and shortly afterwards was chosen 
member for Leominster. With the capture 
of Goodrich castle in 1646, his career as a 
soldier of the parliament practically closes. 
Throughout it, it is not difficult to trace the 
predominance of his schemes as a man of 
business. It was possibly to secure compen- 
sation for the loss of his property in Bristol 
that he first became a captain of volunteers. 
When forced to suspend his business as a 
merchant, he lent his money to the parlia- 
ment at the high interest of 8 per cent., and his 
governorship of Hereford supplied him with 
admirable opportunities for speculating in 


6 4 


church lands, of which he took full advan- 
tage, purchasing Whitbourne, a county resi- 
dence attached to the see of Hereford, for 
l,348/.,and afterwards the palace of Hereford 
and various bishop's manors for 2,476/. (Me- 
moir, 154-5). These purchases were of course 
nullified at the Restoration, and Richard 
Baxter mentions that Birch sought to per- 
suade him to take the bishopric of Hereford 
' because he thought to make a better bargain 
with me than with another ' (KENNET, Re- 
gister, 303). At the same time Birch made 
his worldly interests entirely subservient to 
his presbyterian principles. According to his 
own statement in the debate of 10 Feb. 1672- 
73, he suffered, on account of his opposition 
to the extreme measures of the Cromwellian 
party, as many as twenty- one imprisonments. 
When Charles II appeared in England as the 
champion of presbyterianism, Birch's wari- 
ness did not prevent him from being seen 
riding with Charles in Worcester the day be- 
fore the battle. This was remembered against 
him when fears arose in 1654 of a rising in 
Hereford, and he suffered an imprisonment 
in Hereford gaol from March of that year to 
November 1655 (TiiuRLOE, iv. 237). He was 
returned to the parliament which met in 
March 1656, but was excluded, and, along 
with eighty others, signed a protest (TiiUK- 
LOE, v. 453). He took a prominent part in 
the restoration of Charles II, being chosen in 
February 1659-60 a member of the new coun- 
cil of state, of which General Monk was the 
head (KENXET, Register, 66). Notwith- 
standing his dubious political action, he had 
held during the later years of the protector- 
ship an important situation in the excise, and 
at the Restoration he was made auditor. 
That under the new regime his business in- 
stincts were still unimpaired is further shown 
by the entries in the State Papers ( Calendar, 
Domestic Series (1664-5), pp. 361 and 383) re- 
garding his rental, along with James Hamil- 
ton, ranger of Hyde Park, of 55 acres of land at 
the north-west corner of the park, at an annual 
rental of 5s., to be planted with apple-trees for 
cider, one half of the apples being for the use 
of the king's household. In February 1660-61 
he acted as commissioner for disbanding 'the ; 
general's regiment of foot,' and in March fol- ; 
lowing as commissioner for disbanding the 
navy (KENNET, 389). In the convention par- 
liament he sat for Leominster, from 1671 to ! 
1678 for Penrhyn, and during the remainder of 
his life for Weobly, the property of Weobly 
and also that of Garnstone having been pur- 
chased by him. in 1661. His practical busi- 
ness talents and his acquaintance with mili- 
tary affairs enabled him in the debates to ! 
make use of his oratorical gifts with remark- 

! able effect. His plan for the rebuilding of 
\ London after the great fire indicated great 
! practical shrewdness, and, had it been fol- 
lowed both then and thereafter up to the pre- 
; sent time, the question of housing the poor 
Avould have been completely solved. He pro- 
i posed that the whole land should be sold to 
trustees, and resold again by them with 
; preference to the old owner, l which,' as Pepys 
, justly remarks, ' would certainly have caused 
the city to be built where these trustees 
pleased' (PEPYS, Diary, iii. 412). Burnetsays 
of Birch : < He was the roughest and boldest 
speaker in the house, and talked in the lan- 
guage and phrases of a carrier, but with a 
beauty and eloquence that was always ac- 
ceptable. I heard Coventry say he was the 
best speaker to carry a popular assembly be- 
fore him that he had ever known.' He died 
10 May 1691, and was buried at Weobly, 
where a monument was erected to his memory, 
the inscription of which was defaced by the 
Bishop of Hereford. In the new inscription 
the year of his birth is wrongly given as 1626 
instead of 1616. 

[Memoir by Heywood in edition of Newcome's 
Diary. Chetham Soc. Pub. xviii. 203-206 ; Mili- 
tary Memoir of Colonel John Birch, written by 
Koe, his secretary, Camden Soc. Pub. 1873 ; 
Townsend's Hist, of Leominster, 109-11 ; Pepys, 
Diary ; Burnet's Hist, of Own Time ; Whiteloeke's 
Memorials ; .Rennet's Register ; Thurloe's State 
Papers.] T. F. H. 

BIRCH, JOHN (1745 P-1815), surgeon, 
was born in 1745 or 1746, but where cannot 
now be traced. He served some years as a 
surgeon in the army, and afterwards settled 
in London. He was elected on 12 May 1784 
surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital, and held 
office till his death on 3 Feb. 1815. He was 
also surgeon extraordinary to the prince re- 
gent. Birch was a surgeon of much repute 
in his day, both in hospital and private prac- 
tice, but was chiefly known for his enthusi- 
astic advocacy of electricity as a remedial 
agent, and for his equally ardent opposition 
to the introduction of vaccination. He served 
the cause of medical electricity by founding 
an electrical department at St. Thomas's 
Hospital, and carrying it on with much 
energy. For more than twenty-one years, 
he says, he performed the manipulations 
himself, since he found it difficult to induce 
the students to take much interest in the 
subject. The kind of electricity employed 
was exclusively the frictional, which is now 
known to be of little use, the therapeutical 
value of galvanism being not at that time 
understood. Nevertheless his writings on 
the subject, which were widely circulated 
both in this country and abroad, must have 



done much in keeping alive professional in- 
terest in investigations which have turned 
out to be remarkably fruitful in practical 

Birch published several pamphlets in op- ; 
position to the practice of vaccination, and j 
in favour of inoculation, for the small-pox. I 
He also gave evidence before a committee of j 
the House of Commons in the same sense. | 
His objections have no longer much scien- | 
tific interest, but the point of view from j 
which he regarded the subject is probably j 
fairly represented in his monumental epi- : 
taph, as follows : ' The practice of cow- 
poxing, which first became general in his 
day, undaunted by the overwhelming influ- 
ence of power and prejudice, and by the ; 
voice of nations, he uniformly and until ! 
death perseveringly opposed, conscientiously 
believing it to be a public infatuation, fraught 
with peril of the most mischievous conse- j 
quences to mankind.' Birch was buried in ! 
the church in Rood Lane, Fenchurch Street, j 
where a monument was erected to his me- ! 
mory by his sister Penelope Birch. The j 
epitaph, from which some of the dates given ! 
above are quoted, is printed in a posthu- 
mous edition of his tracts on vaccination. 
His portrait, painted by T. Phillips and en- 
graved by J. Lewis, is rather commonly met 

He wrote : 1. ' Considerations on the Effi- 
cacy of Electricity in removing Female j 
Obstructions,' London, 1779, 8vo : 4th edi- ! 
tion 1798 (translated into German). 2. 'A 
Letter on Medical Electricity,' published in 
George Adams's { Essay on Electricity,' Lon- 
don, 1798, 4to (4th edition) ; also separately, 
1792, 8vo. 3. ' An Essay on the Medical 
Applications of Electricity^' 1802, 8vo (trans- 
lated into German, Italian, and Russian). 
4. ( Pharmacopoeia Chirurgica in usum noso- 
comii Londinensis S. Thomse,' London, 1803. 
12mo. 5. t A Letter occasioned by the many 
failures of the Cow-pox,' addressed to W. R. 
Rogers. Published in the latter writer's 
' Examination of Evidence relative to Cow- 
pox delivered to the Committee of the House 
of Commons by two of the Surgeons of St. 
Thomas's Hospital,' 2nd edition, 1805. 6. 'Se- 
rious Reasons for objecting to the Practice of 
Vaccination. In answer to the Report of j 
the Jennerian Society,' 1806, 8vo. 7. ' Copy 
of an Answer to the Queries of the London 
College of Surgeons and of a Letter to the 
College of Physicians respecting the Cow-pox,' 
1807, 8vo. The last two were reprinted by 
Penelope Birch, with the title ' An Appeal 
to the Public on the Hazard and Peril of 
"V accination, otherwise Cow-pox,' 1817, 8vo. 
8. ' The Fatal Effects of Cow-pox Protection,' 

TOL. v. 

1808, 12mo (anonymous, but ascribed to 
Birch in the ' Diet, of Living Authors,' 1816). 
9. < A Report of the True State of the Ex- 
periment of Cow-pox/ 1810 (on the same 

[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors (1816) ; Calli- 
sen's Meclicinisches Schriftsteller-Lexikon (Co- 
penhagen, 1830-45), i. 264, and Appendix; Ar- 
chives of St. Thomas's Hospital ; Birch's Works.! 

J. F. P. 

BIRCH, JONATHAN (1783-1847), 
translator of * Faust,' was born in Holborn,. 
London, on 4 July 1783. When a lad he had 
a strong desire to become a sculptor, but in 
October 1798 he was apprenticed to an uncle 
in the city. In 1803 he entered the house 
of John Argelander, a timber-merchant at 
Memel, where he remained until Argelander's 
death, in 1812, much of his time being em- 
ployed in travelling in Russia, Sweden, and 
Denmark. In 1807 the three eldest sons of 
Frederick William III of Prussia took refuge 
with Argelander for eighteen months, and 
became warmly attached to Birch, in whose 
company they took delight. 

In 1812 Birch returned to England and 
turned to literary pursuits. In 1823 he 
married Miss Esther Brooke, of Lancaster, 
who bore him five children, of whom only two 
survived, a boy and a girl. His son, Charles 
Bell Birch, A.R.A., became a sculptor. 

After many minor essays in literature he 
published t Fifty-one Original Fables, with 
Morals and Ethical Index. Embellished 
with eighty-five original designs by Robert 
Cruickshank ; also a translation of Plutarch's 
" Banquet of the Seven Sages," revised for 
this work,' London, 1833, 8vo. The preface 
is signed ' Job Crithannah,' an anagram of 
the author's name. The Crown Prince of 
Prussia accepted a copy, and renewed the 
friendship formed at Memel. Birch next 
produced ' Divine Emblems ; embellished 
with etchings on copper [by Robert Cruick- 
shank], after the fashion of Master Francis 
Quarles. Designed and written by Johann 
Albricht, A.M.' (another anagram of Jona- 
than Birch), London, 1838, 8vo ; Dublin, 
1839, 8vo. On sending the crown prince a 
copy he received in return a gold medal, of 
which only thirty were struck, and given by 
the prince to his particular friends. He 
now undertook a complete translation of 
Goethe's ' Faust,' being the first to attempt 
the two parts. The first was published in 
1839, and dedicated to the crown prince, 
who, on coming to the throne in 1840 as 
Frederick William IV, sent him the ' great 
gold medal of homage.' In 1841 Birch was 
elected ' foreign honorary member of the 




Literary Society of Berlin,' the only other : 
Englishman thus honoured being Thomas ; 
Oarlyle. The second part of * Faust ' was j 
published in 1843, and dedicated to the King i 
of Prussia. Birch also translated, from the i 
German of Bishop Eylert, two works upon ! 
Frederick William III. In 1846 the King j 
of Prussia offered him a choice of apartments 
in three of his palaces. He chose Bellevue, 
near Berlin, mainly for the sake of his son's 
artistic studies. At the end of 1846 he settled 
in Prussia, and completed his last work, a 
translation of the ' Nibelungen Lied,' Berlin, 
1 848, 8vo. He was greatly aided by Professor 
Carl Lachmaiin, whose text he mainly fol- 
lowed, and by the brothers Grimm. While 
his work was still in the press he was taken 
ill, and died at Bellevue on 8 Sept. 1847. 
[Private information.] T. C. 

BIRCH, PETER, D.D. (1652 P-1710), 
divine, was son of Thomas Birch of the an- 
cient family of that name settled at Birch 
in Lancashire. He was educated in presby- 
terian principles. In 1670 he and his brother 
Andrew went to Oxford, where they lived 
as sojourners in the house of an apothecary, 
became students in the public library, and 
had a tutor to instruct them in philosophical 
learning, 'but yet did not wear gowns.' 
After a time Peter left Oxford and entered 
the university of Cambridge, though no entry 
of his matriculation can be discovered. Sub- 
sequently he returned to Oxford, and, having 
declared" his conformity to the established 
church, Dr. John Fell procured certain let- 
ters from the chancellor of the university in 
his behalf. These were read in the convo- 
cation held on 6 May 1672, with a request 
that Birch might be allowed to take the de- 
gree of B.A. after he had performed his 
-exercise and to compute his time from his 
matriculation at Cambridge. On the 12th 
of the same month he w r as matriculated as a 
member of Christ Church, and being soon 
after admitted B.A. (1673-4) he was made 
one of the chaplains or petty canons of that 
house by Dr. Fell. He graduated M.A. in 
1674, B.D. in 1683, and D.D. in 1688. For 
a time he was curate of St. Thomas's parish, 
Oxford, then rector of St. Ebbe's church and 
, lecturer at Carfax, and subsequently, being 
recommended to the service of James, duke 
of Ormond, he was appointed by that noble- 
man one of his chaplains. He became chap- 
lain to the House of Commons and a pre- 
bendary of Westminster in 1689. King 
William III, just before one of his visits to 
Holland, gave the rectory of St. James's, 
Westminster, to Dr. Thomas Tenison, and 
after the advancement of that divine to the 


see of Lincoln, the Bishop of London, pre- 
tending that he had a title to the rectory, 
conferred it on Dr. Birch, 11 July 1692. 
The queen, being satisfied that the presenta- 
tion belonged to the crown, granted the 
living to Dr. William Wake. These con- 
flicting claims led to litigation between Birch 
and Wake in the court of king's. bench, and 
eventually the House of Lords decided the 
case on appeal, 12 Jan. 1694-5, in favour of 
the latter. Shortly afterwards, on 19 March 
1694-5, Birch was presented by the dean 
and chapter of Westminster to the vicarage 
of St. Bride's, Fleet Street. Abel Boyer, 
referring to the dispute about the rectory, 
states what was probably the real reason of 
Birch being ousted from it. He says Birch 
'was a great stickler for the High-church 
party; and 'tis remarkable, that in King 
William's reign, and on the Prince's birth- 
day, he preach'd a sermon in St. James's 
Church, of which he was then rector, on this 
text, "Sufficient to each day is the evil 
thereof;" which having given great offence 
to the court, he was removed from that 
church, and afterwards chosen vicar of St. 
Bride's ' (History of Queen Anne, 1711, 421). 
In September 1697 l Dr. Birch was married 
to the lady Millington, a widdow, worth 
20,0007. ' (LuTTKELL, Relation of State Af- 
fairs, iv. 284). He died on 2 July 1710. 
His will, dated on 27 June in that year, is 
printed in the Rev. John Booker's ' History 
of the Ancient Chapel of Birch.' By his 
wife Sybil, youngest daughter and coheir of 
Humphrey Wyrley of Hampstead in Stafford- 
shire, he had issue two sons, Humphrey Birch 
and John Wyrley Birch. 

He published: 1. 'A Sermon before the 
House of Commons, 5 Nov.,' London, 1689, 
4to. 2. ' A Sermon preached before the 
honourable House of Commons at St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, 30 Jan. 1694,' London, 
1694, 4to. Some of the members took offence 
at some passages in this discourse, which 
elicited two replies, entitled respectively ' A 
Birchen Rod for Dr. Birch ; or, some Ani- 
madversions upon his Sermon. . . . In a Letter 
to Sir T[homas] D[yke] and Mr. H[unger- 
ford],' London, 1694, 4to, and < A New- Year's 
Gift for Dr. Birch ; or, a Mirror discovering 
the different opinions of some Doctors in re- 
lation to the present Government,' London, 
1696, 4to. 3. ' A Funeral Sermon preach'd 
on the decease of Grace Lady Gethin, wife 
of Sir Richard Gethin, Baronet, on the 28 day 
of March 1700, at West minster- Abby. And 
for perpetuating her memory a sermon is to 
be preach'd in Westminster- Abby, yearly, on 
Ash Wednesday for ever,' London, 1700, 4to. 
Reprinted in ' Reliquiae Gethinians6.' 



[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 659; Wood's 
Fasti, ii. 334, 344, 387, 404 ; Compleat History 
of Europe for 1710, Remarkables, p. 34; Le 
Neve's Mormmenta Anglicana (1700-15), 209; 
Luttrell's Eelation of State Affairs, ii. 45, 520, 
iii. 426, 451, iv. 284, v. 251, 298, 627; Mal- 
colm's Londinium Eedivivura, i. 161, 358; Atter- 
bury's Epistolary Correspondence, i. 211 ; New- 
court's Kepertoriura, i. 317, 661, 922 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 658; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
iii. 362 ; Booker's Hist, of the Ancient Chapel of 
Birch (Chetham Soc.), 100-104.] T. C. 

WELL (1803-1875), general, came of a 
well-known Anglo-Indian family, and was 
the son of Richard Comyns Birch, of the Ben- 
gal civil service, and afterwards of Writtle, 
Essex, who was a grandson of John Zepha- 
niah Holwell, of the Bengal civil service, 
author of the famous account of his sufferings 
in the Black Hole of Calcutta. Birch was 
born in 1803, and received a commission as 
an ensign in the Bengal infantry in 1821. 
His numerous circle of relations in India 
insured his rapid promotion and almost 
continuous service on the staff, and after 
acting as deputy-judge advocate-general at 
Meerut, and as assistant secretary in the mili- 
tary department at Calcutta, he was appointed 
judge-advocate-general to the forces in Bengal 
in 1 841 . In the same capacity he accompanied 
the army in the first Sikh war (1845-6), was 
mentioned in despatches, and was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel for his services. In the 
second Sikh war (1849) he was appointed to 
the temporary command of a brigade after the 
battle of Chillianwallah. He distinguished 
himself at the battle of Goojerat, and was 
made a C.B. in 1849, and continued to serve 
as brigadier-general in Sir Colin Campbell's 
campaign in the Kohat pass in 1850. He 
then reverted to his appointment at head- 
quarters, and in 1852 received the still more 
important post of secretary to the Indian 
government in the military department. He 
was promoted colonel in 1854, major-general 
in 1858, and still held the secretaryship when 
the Indian mutiny broke out in 1857. His 
services at this time were most valuable, 
though he never left Calcutta, for his thorough 
knowledge of the routine duties of his office 
.and his long official experience enabled him 
to give valuable advice to Lord Canning, the 
governor-general, and to Sir Colin Campbell 
when he arrived to take up the command in 
chief. These services were recognised by 
liis being made aK.C.B. in 1860, and in 1861 
he left India, In the following year he was 
promoted lieutenant-general and retired on 
full pay, and on 25 Feb. 1875 he died at 
Yenice, aged 72. 

[Hart's Army List; Times, 10 March 1875; 
East India Register and Army List.] H. M. S. 

BIRCH, SAMUEL (1757-1841), drama- 
tist and pastrycook, was born in London 
8 Nov. 1757. He was the son of Lucas 
Birch, who carried on the business of a pas- 
trycook and confectioner at 15 Cornhill. This 
; shop, though the upper portion of the house 
I had been rebuilt, still (1885) retains its old- 
fashioned front, and is probably the oldest 
shop of the kind in the city. The business 
was established in the reign of George I 
i by a Mr. Horton, the immediate predecessor 
I of Lucas Birch. Samuel was educated at 
a private school kept by Mr. Crawford at 
Newington Butts, and upon leaving school 
I was apprenticed to his father. P]arly in life, 
! in 1778, he married the daughter of Dr. John 
| Fordyce, by whom he had a family of thirteen 
I children. He was elected one of the common 
j council on 21 Dec. 1781, and in 1789 became 
i deputy of the Cornhill ward. In May 1807 
| he was elected alderman of the Candlewick 
| ward in the place of Alderman Hankey. 
When young he devoted much of his leisure 
time to the cultivation of his mental powers 
and the improvement of his literary taste ; 
he was a frequent attendant of a debating 
| society which met in one of the large rooms 
formerly belonging to the King's Arms Tavern, 
Cornhill, and there, in the winter of 1778, 
he made his first essay in public speaking. 
In politics he was a strenuous supporter of 
Pitt's administration, though he vigorously 
opposed the repeal of the Test and Corpora- 
tion Acts. He became a frequent speaker at 
the common council meetings. When he first 
proposed the formation of volunteer regiments 
at the outbreak of the French revolution, not 
a single common councilman supported him. 
Subsequently, when the measure was adopted, 
he became the lieutenant-colonel commandant 
of the 1st regiment of Loyal London volun- 
teers. The speech which he delivered in the 
j Guildhall on 5 March 1805 against the Ro- 
man catholic petition was severely criticised 
in an article entitled 'Deputy Birch and others 
on the Catholic Claims,' which appeared in 
the ' Edinburgh Review' (x. 124-36). It 
was, however, highly commended by the king, 
and the freedom of the city of Dublin was 
i twice voted him at the midsummer quarter 
assembly of the corporation of that city on 
! 19 July 1805 and 18 July 1806, for his advo- 
| cacy of the protest ant ascendency in Ireland. 
j In 1811 he was appointed one of the sheriffs 
| of London, and on 9 Nov. 1814 Birch entered 
i on his duties as lord mayor. Tory though 
! he was, he opposed the Corn Bill of 1815, and 
i presided at a meeting of the livery in com- 
j mon hall on 23 Feb. 1815, when he made a 





vigorous attack upon the intended prohibition 
of the free importation of foreign corn. The 
course he took on this occasion is commemo- 
rated by a medal struck in his honour, on the 
obverse side of which is the bust of the lord 
mayor, and on the reverse a representation of 
a wheatsheaf, with the legend, { Free Impor- 
tation, Peace and Plenty.' During his mayor- i 
alty the marble statue of George III by 
Chantrey, the inscription on which was writ- 
ten by Birch, was placed in the council 
chamber of Guildhall. Almost his last act 
as lord mayor was to lay the foundation-stone 
of the London Institution in Finsbury Circus 
(then called the Amphitheatre, Moorfields) 
on 4 Nov. 1815. In 1836 Birch, who had for j 
many years carried on his father's old business | 
in Cornhill, disposed of it to Messrs. Ring & | 
Brymer, the present proprietors. He retired j 
from the court of aldermen in 1840, and died 
at his house, 107 Guildford Street, London, 
on 10 Dec. 1841, aged 84. Birch was a man 
of considerable literary attainments, and 
wrote a number of poems and musical dramas, 
of which the t Adopted Child ' was by far the 
most successful. His plays were frequently 
produced at Drury Lane, Covent Garden, 
and Haymarket theatres. His varied ac- 
tivity was the subject of a clever skit, in which 
a French visitor to London meeting with 
' Birch the pastrycook ' in such different ca- 
pacities as Guildhall-orator, militia-colonel, 
poet, &c., returned to France, believing him 
to be the emperor of London ! His portrait, 
presented by his granddaughter in 1877, hangs 
in the Guildhall library. 

He published the following works : 1. 'The 
Abbey of Ambresbury,' in two parts, 1788-9, 
4to (a poem). 2. ' Consilia, or Thoughts on 
several Subjects,' 1785, 12mo. 3. 'The 
Adopted Child,' 1795, 8vo (a musical drama, 
first produced at Drury Lane 1 May 1795 ; 
music by Thomas Attwood). 4. ' The Smug- 
glers/ 1796, 8vo (a musical drama, first pro- 
duced at Drury Lane 13 April 1796 ; music by 
Thomas Attwood [q. v.]). 5. ' Speech in the 
Common Council against the Roman Catholic 
Petition,' 8yo, 1805. 6. ' Speech in the Com- 
mon Council on the Admission of Papists to 
hold Commissions in the Army,' March 1807. 
He also wrote the following dramatic pieces, 
which were never published : 7. ' The Man- 
ners/ 1793 (a musical entertainment, first 
produced at the opera house in the Hay- 
market 10 May 1793). 8. 'The Packet Boat, 
or a Peep behind the Veil,' 1794 (a masque, 
first produced at Covent Garden 13 May 
1794 ; music by Thomas Attwood). 9. ' Fast 
Asleep, 1797 (a musical entertainment, pro- 
duced at Drury Lane 28 Oct. 1795, and never 
acted again). 10. 'Albert and Adelaide, or 

the Victim of Romance,' 1798 (a romance first 
produced at Covent Garden 11 Dec. 1798). 

[Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 1812, i. 41-3 ; 
Chambers's Book of Days, 1869, p. 64 ; Thorn- 
bury 's Old and New London, 1st ed. i. 412-3, ii. 
172 ; Era, 15 Jan. 1881, p. 7 ; Annual Register, 
1841, appendix, p. 238.] G. F. R. B. 

BIRCH, THOMAS, D.D. (1705-1766;, 
historian and biographer, was born of quaker 
parents in St. George's Court, Clerkenwell,. 
on 23 Nov. 1705. His father, Joseph Birch, 
was a coffee-mill maker. The son received 
the rudiments of a good education, and when 
he left school spent his spare time in study. 
He was baptised, 15 Dec. 1730, at St. James's r 
Clerkenwell, having been bred as a quaker 
(Register of St. James's, Harleian Soc. ii. 191). 
He is believed to have assisted a clergyman 
called Cox in his parochial duty, and he is 
known to have married, in the summer of 
1728, Cox's daughter Hannah. His wife's- 
strength had been undermined by a decline, 
but her death was caused by a puerperal 
fever between 31 July and 3 Aug. 1729. A 
copy of verses which the widowed husband 
wrote on her coffin on the latter day is printed 
in the ' Miscellaneous Works of Mrs. Rowe/ 
ii. 133-7, and in the 'Biographica Britannica.' 
Birch was ordained deacon in the church of 
England on 17 Jan. 1730, and priest on 21 Dec. 
1731. Being a diligent student of English 
history and a firm supporter of the whig 
doctrines in church and state, he basked in 
the patronage of the Hardwicke family, and 
passed from one ecclesiastical preferment to- 
another. The small rectory of lilting in 
Essex was conferred upon him 20 May 1732, 
and the sinecure rectory of Llandewi-Velfrey 
in Pembroke in May 1743. In January 1744 
he was nominated to the rectory of Sidding- 
ton, near Cirencester, but he probably never 
took possession of its emoluments, as on 
24 Feb. in the same year he was instituted 
to the rectory of St. Michael, Wood Street, 
London. Two years later he became the- 
rector of St. Margaret Pattens, London, and 
on 25 Feb. 1761 he was appointed to the 
rectory of Depden in Suffolk. The last two> 
livings he retained until his death. Birch 
never received the benefit of a university 
education, but in 1753 he was created D.D. 
of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, and of 
Lambeth. He was elected F.R.S. 20 Feb. 
1735, and F.S.A. 11 Dec. 1735. From 1752 
to 1765 he discharged the duties of secretary 
to the Royal Society. Whilst riding in the 
Hampstead Road he fell from his horse, it is 
believed in an apoplectic fit, and died on 
9 Jan. 1766. He was buried in the chancel 
of the church of St. Margaret Pattens. 


6 9 


Horace "Walpole, in a letter to his anti- 
quarian friend Cole, makes merry over the 
insertion of a life of Dr. Birch in the edition 
of the ' Biographica Britannica ' which was 
edited by Kippis, and styles the doctor ' a 
worthy good-natured soul, full of industry 
and activity, and running about like a young 
setting-dog in quest of anything new or old, 
and with no parts, taste, or judgment.' In 
another letter the newswriter of Strawbeny 
Hill asks the question, ( Who would give a 
rush for Dr. Birch's correspondence ? ' Wai- 
pole's censure, though exaggerated, rests on 
a basis of truth, but the fact remains that, 
in spite of their wearisome minuteness of 
detail and their dulness of style, the works 
of Dr. Birch are indispensable to the literary 
or historical student. His principal books 
were: 1. 'Life of the Right Honourable 
Robert Boyle,' 1744. 2. 'An Inquiry into 
the Share which King Charles I had in the 
Transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan, after- 
wards Marquis of Worcester, for bringing 
over a body of Irish Rebels to assist that 
King,' 1747 and 1756, an anonymous treatise 
written in reply to Carte's account of the 
same transaction, and answered by Mr. John 
Boswell of Taunton, in ' The Case of the 
Royal Martyr considered with candour, 1758.' 
5. Lives and characters written to accom- 
pany i Heads of Illustrious Persons of Great 
Britain, engraven by Houbraken and Vertue,' 
1747-52, and reprinted in 1756 and 1813. 
4. ' Historical View of Negotiations between 
the Courts of England, France, and Brussels, 
1592-1617,' 1749. 5. 'Life of Archbishop 
Tillotson,' 1752 and 1753, a whig memoir 
which provoked a thrice-issued pamphlet from 
the opposite camp of 'Remarks upon the 
Life of Dr. John Tillotson, compiled by 
Thomas Birch.' 6. ' Memoirs of reign of 
Queen Elizabeth from 1581 till her death 
[chiefly from the papers of Anthony Bacon],' 
1754, 2 vols. 7. 'History of Royal Society 
of London,' 1756-7, 4 vols. 8. 'A Collection 
of Yearly Bills of Mortality from 1657 to 1758,' 
1759, an anonymous publication. 9. ' Life of 
Henry, Prince of Wales,' 1760. 10. 'Let- 
ters between Colonel Robert Hammond and 
the Committee at Derby House relating to 
Charles I while confined in Carisbrooke Castle/ 
1764, also anonymous. 11. 'Account of Life 
of John Ward, LL.D., Professor of Rhetoric 
in Gresham College,' which was published in 
1766, after its author's death. These works, 
important and numerous as they are, by no 
means exhausted Dr. Birch's contributions to 
literature. He assisted, in common with the 
other members of the literary circle which 
was formed around the Hardwicke family, 
in composing the ' Athenian Letters ... of 

an agent of the King of Persia residing at 
Athens during the Peloponnesian War ; he 
edited the ' State Papers of John Thurloe ' 
| in seven folio volumes, and corrected Murdin's 
! ' State Papers of Queen Elizabeth,' 1759. 
When Dr. Maty was carrying on the ' Journal 
Britannique,' he obtained the aid of Dr. Birch, 
and when Cave Avas editing the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' he sought the assistance of Birch 
both in the general articles and in the par- 
liamentary debates. Most of the English 
' lives in the ' General Dictionary, Historical 
| and Critical,' which appeared in ten folio 
| volumes (1734-41), were written by him, and 
j his communications in the ' Philosophical 
I Transactions ' were numerous and valuable. 
I His biographies Avere held in such high esti- 
i mation that his memoirs of Chillingworth, 
j Mrs. Cockburn, Cudworth, Du Fresnoy, 
i Greaves, Rev. James Hervey, Milton, and 
| Raleigh were prefixed to editions of their 
works, which appeared between 1742 and 
1753, and his critical aid was sought for the 
superintendence of an edition of the works 
and letters of Bacon and of Spenser's ' Fairy 
Queen.' He bequeathed his books and manu- 
i scripts to the British Museum, together with 
a sum of about 500Z. for increasing the stipend 
of the three assistant librarians. The manu- 
scripts are numbered 4101 to 4478 in the 
' Additional MSS.,' and are described in the 
catalogue of the Rev. Samuel Ayscough 
(1782). They relate chiefly to English his- 
tory and biography. Among them were a 
series of letters transcribed from the originals 
at his expense and in course of arrangement 
for publication at his death. These were 
published in 1849 in four volumes, under the 
title of ' The Court and Times of James the 
First ' and ' The Court and Times of Charles 
the First.' Numerous letters between Dr. 
Birch and the principal men of his age are 
printed in Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes ' 
and ' Literary Illustrations,' the < Biblio- 
theca Topographica Britannica,' iii. 398-4 16, 
and in Boswell's 'Johnson.' Dr. Johnson 
acknowledged that Dr. Birch ' had more anec- 
dotes than any man,' and is reported to have 
said that ' Tom Birch is as brisk as a bee in 
conversation, but no sooner does he take a 
pen in his hand than it becomes a torpedo 
to him and numbs all his faculties.' The 
justice of this condemnation of his writings 
is apparent to every one who consults them. 
The high estimation of his good qualities 
which was held by the tory and high-church 
Johnson in social life is confirmed by those 
who agreed with the political and religious 
opinions of Dr. Birch. 

[Kippis's'Biog. Brit.; Boswell's Johnson (ed. 
1848), pp. 48, 351 ; Ayscough's Catalogue, pp. 



v-vi; Weld's Koy. Soc. ii. 561 ; Thomson's Roy. 
Soc. p. 14, and App. p. xl ; Edwards's Brit. Mus. 
ii. 415 ; Walpole's Letters, i. 384, vii. 326 ; viii. 
260; Pink's Clerkenwell, 269-71 ; Morunt's Essex, 
ii. 565 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 585-637, ii. 507, 
iii. 258, v. 40-3, 53, 282-90; Lit. Illust. ir. 241 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1766, pp. 43, 47.] W. P. C. 

Irish presbyterian minister, was ordained 
minister of Saintfield, co. Down, on 21 May 
1776. In 1794 he preached a sermon before 
the synod of Ulster, in which he specified 
1848 as the date of the fall of the papacy. 
He was much opposed to the doctrines and 
ways of the seceders, and in 1796 published 
a pamphlet in which he tells how, by taking 
the bull by the horns, he kept them out of 
Saintfield. In 1798 he was mixed up with 
the insurrection, and, having 1 been tried by 
court martial at Lisburn on 18 and 20 June, 
was permitted to emigrate to America, where 
he died on 12 April 1808. He published : 
1. 'The Obligation upon Christians, and espe- 
cially Ministers, to be Exemplary in their 
Lives ; particularly at this important period 
when the prophecies are seemingly about to 
be fulfilled,' &c., Belfast, 1794 (synodical 
sermon, Matt. v. 16). 2. 'Physicians lan- 
guishing under Disease. An Address to the 
Seceding or Associate Synod of Ireland upon 
certain tenets and practices/ &c., Belfast,1796. 

[Belfast News-Letter, June 1798 ; Witherow's 
Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presbyterianism in Ire- 
land, 2nd series, 1880.] A. G. 

BIRCH, WILLIAM (d. 1794?), enamel 
painter and engraver, was born in Warwick 
about 1760, and practised in London. In 
1781 and the following year he exhibited 
enamels at the Royal Academy, and in 1785 
received a medal from the Society of Arts 
for the excellence of his work in this kind, 
and the improvements which he had intro- 
duced into it. He was a fairly good engraver, 
as is shown by his one published work, 
' Delices de la Grande Bretagne,' which con- 
tains views of some of the principal seats and 
chief places of interest in England. There 
is one charming etching by Birch, ' The 
Porcupine Inn Yard, Rushmore Hill, etched 
upon the spot.' This little work is quiet, 
natural, balanced, and thoroughly pictu- 
resque. Unhappily we have not much more 
of this quality. In 1794 he went to America. 
He settled in Philadelphia, and painted a 
portrait of Washington. On the title of his 
work above referred to he describes himself as 
' enamel painter, Hampstead Heath.' The 
date of his death is uncertain. 

[Birch's Delices de la Grande Bretagne, 1791 ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878.] E. R. 

BIRCHENSHA, JOHN (ft. 1664-1672), 
musician, was probably a member of the- 
Burchinshaw, Burchinsha, Byrchinshaw, or 
By rchinsha family, the senior branch of which 
were settled at Llansannan in Denbighshire, 
and the junior branch (in which the name 
John was of frequent occurrence) at Ryw, 
Dymeirchion, Flintshire, in the first half of 
i the seventeenth century. Very little is known 
I concerning him. In his early life he resided 
! at Dublin in the family of the Earl of Kil- 
I dare, but he left Ireland at the time of the 
j rebellion, and after the Restoration lived in 
\ London, where he taught the viol. Haw- 
i kins adds that he was remarkable for his 
I ' genteel behaviour and person.' In 1664 he 
! published a translation of the { Templum 
Musicum ' of Johannes Henricus Alstedius,. 
on the title-page of which work he designated 
himself as ' Philomath.' He occupied him- 
! self largely with the study of the mathema- 
I tical basis of music, his theories as to which 
i seem to have attracted some attention at that 
j time. Bircheiisha's notion, according to a 
| letter from John Baynard to Dr. Holder,. 
! dated 20 March 1693-4 (Sloane MS. 1388, f. 
167 #), was ' That all musical whole-notes are 
equall ; and no difference of half-notes from 
one another, and that the diversitie of keyes 
| is no more than the musical pitch higher or 
j lower, or will pass for that without any great 
i inconvenience.' A manuscript volume of frag- 
mentary calculations, made in all probability 
largely by Birchensha in 1666-6, is preserved 
in the British Museum (Add. MS. 4388) r 
where may also be seen a copy of the pro- 
spectus, or 'Animadversion' as he called it, 
which he issued in 1672 requesting subscrip- 
tions to the amount of 500/. in order to en- 
able him to publish the results of his inves- 
tigations under the title of ' Syntagma 
Musicse.' This work was to be published 
before 24 March 1674, and in it Birchensha 
promised that he would teach how to make 
' airy tunes of all sorts ' by rule, and how to- 
compose in two parts ' exquisitely and with 
all the elegancies of music' within two 
months. The book was apparently never 
published, as no copies of it are known to 
exist. Birchensha's proposals are alluded to 
in a play of Shadwell's (quoted in HAWKINS'S 
Hist, of Music (1853), ii. 725), where it is 
said that he claimed to be able to ' teach men 
to compose that are deaf, dumb, and blind.' 
This seems to allude to some intended work,, 
the manuscript title-page for which (in the 
British Museum manuscript quoted above) 
runs as follows : ' Surdus Melopseus, or the 
Deafe Composer of Tunes to 4 voices, Cantus ? 
Altus, Tenor, Bassus. By helpe whereof a 
t deafe man may easily compose good melo- 



dies. Gathered by observation.' In 1672 ! 
Birchensha published Thomas Salmon's * Es- 
say to the Advancement of Musick/for which ! 
he wrote a preface. He also printed a single 
sheet of < Rules for Composing in Parts.' Of 
his music almost the only specimens extant 
are preserved in the Music School Collec- 
tion, Oxford, where are some vocal pieces by | 
him for treble and bass, with lute accom- i 
paniment, and twelve manuscript voluntaries 
in the Christ Church collection. John Evelyn 
in 1667 (Aug. 3) heard Birchensha play. He 
mentions him as ' that rare artist who in- 
vented a mathematical way of composure 
very extraordinary, true as to the exact rules 
of art, but without much harmonie ' (Diary, 
ed. Bray, p. 297). The date of his death is 
unknown, but one John Birchenshaw, who 
may possibly have been the subject of this 
notice, was buried in the cloisters of West- 
minster Abbey 14 May 1681. * 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music (1853), ii. 716, 725 ; 
Burney's Hist, of Music, iii. 472 ; Heraldic Visi- 
tations of Wales (ed. Meyrick, 1846), 300, 347 ; 
Add. MSS. 4388, 4910; Cat. Music School Col- 
lection ; Chester's Registers of Westminster Ab- 
bey ; information from the Rev. J. H. Mee.l 

W. B. S. 

historical writer, probably derived his name 
from a village in the isle of Thanet. He 
became a monk of Christ Church, Canter- 
bury, in 1382, though it is said that he was 
closely connected with that house before. For 
some time he held the offices of treasurer and 
warden of the manors of the monastery. The 
year of his death is not recorded. He wrote 
t Vitse Archiepiscoporum Cant./ edited by 
Wharton in his ' Anglia Sacra,' and, accord- 
ing to his editor's belief, another and longer 
book on the 'Lives of the Archbishops,' which 
has not been preserved. In the same codex 
with the manuscript of the ' Vitse ' Wharton 
found three other histories, viz. ' De Regibus 
Anglorum,' ' De Pontificibus Romanis,' and 
* Be Imperatoribus Romanis,' which he also 
assigns to Birchington. 

[Wharton's Anglia Sacra, Pref. i.] W. H. 


BIRCKBEK, SIMON (1584-1656), di- 
vine, was born at Hornby in Westmoreland. 
At the age of sixteen he became a student 
of Queen's College, Oxford, where he was 
1 successively a poor serving child, tabarder, 
or poor child, and at length fellow, being 
then master of arts.' He proceeded B.A. in 
1604, and B.D. in 1616. Entering holy 

orders about 1607, he became noted as a 
preacher and disputant, as well as for his ex- 
tensive knowledge of the fathers and school- 
men. In 1616 he was admitted to the reading 
of the sentences, and the year after was made 
vicar of the church of Gilling in Yorkshire, 
and also of the chapel of Forcet, near Rich- 
mond, in the same county. He received these 
preferments l by the favour of his kinsman, 
Humphrey Wharton.' During the troubles- 
of the civil war he * submitted to the men in 
power,' and therefore l kept his benefice with- 
out fear of sequestration.' His most im- 
portant work is entitled * The Protestant's 
Evidence, showing that for 1,500 years after 
Christ divers Guides of God's Church have 
in sundry Points of Religion taught as the 
Church of England now doth,' London, 1634. 
The book is thrown into the form of a dia- 
logue between a papist and a protestant, and 
was valued by Selden. A friend having for- 
warded to Birckbek a copy of his book covered 
with marginal glosses, which the annotator 
entitled 'An Antidote necessary for the 
reader thereof,' an elaborate ' Answer to the 
Antidotist ' was appended to a second edi- 
tion of the 'Evidence' in 1657. The 1657 
edition, with this appendix, was published 
again in 1849 in the supplement to Gibson's 
1 Preservative from Popery,' by the Reforma- 
tion Society, the Rev. John Gumming being 
the editor. Birckbek also wrote a ' Treatise 
of the Last Four Things' (death, judgment,, 
hell, and heaven), London, 1655. He died 
14 Sept. 1656, and was buried in Forcet 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 421, and 
Fasti, i. 302, 366 ; B. M. Catalogue.] R. B. 

BIRD, CHARLES SMITH (1795-1862), 
theological writer, has written his own bio- 
graphy. He traces his descent from John Bird 
[q.v.], the first protestant bishop of Chester 
and prior of the Carmelite monks in the reign 
of Henry VIII. The father of Charles Smith 
Bird was a West Indian merchant, who was 
taken prisoner in one of his voyages during" 
the war of American independence. He was 
of a highly religious character, objecting, for 
instance, to his children reading Shakespeare. 
He died in 1814. Charles Smith was the last 
but one of six children, born in Union Street, 
Liverpool, 28 May 1795. After attending 
several private schools, he was articled to a 
firm of conveyancing solicitors at Liverpool 
in 1812. His leisure time w^as spent at the 
Athenaeum reading-room in the study of 
theology. He returned to school at Dr. 
Davies's, of Macclesfield, in 1815, and thence 
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he 'chose no companion unless there was 



Christianity in him.' He became a scholar 
of Trinity in 1818, was third wrangler in 
1820, and elected a fellow of his college. 
He was then ordained and became curate of 
Burghfield, six miles from Reading. He took 
;a house at Culverlands, near Burghfield, in 
1823. He added to his income by taking 
pupils, a practice he continued for twenty 
years. One of them was Lord Macaulay. 
On 24 June of this year he was married to 
Margaret Wrangham, of Bowdon, Cheshire. 
He now frequently sent contributions to the 
* Christian Observer,' edited by Mr. Cunning- 
ham. It was against the Irish educational 
measures that he wrote his ' Call to the Pro- 
testants of England,' now inserted among his 
poems. In 1839 Bird edited a monthly perio- 
dical called the ' Reading Church Guardian,' 
in the interests of protestant truth. The 
publication languished for a year and then 
died. In 1840 Bird became a sort of Sunday 
curate to a Mr. Briscoe at Sulhamstead. 
Having given up his house at Burghfield, he 
was glad to accept the curacy of Fawley, 
some three miles from Henley-on-Thames. 
In 1843 he secured the vicarage of Gains- 
borough, to which was attached a prebendal 
stall of Lincoln. In this old-fashioned 
market town Bell passed many happy years. 
His course of life was regular" and tranquil. 
Occasionally he lectured at the Gainsborough 
Literary and Mechanics' Institute on natural 
history, English literature, and other sub- 
jects of interest. In the summer of 1844 
e went to Scotland, and in the next year 
preached before Cambridge university four 
sermons on the parable of the sower. About 
this time the proposal for the admission of 
Jews into parliament aroused Bird's indigna- 
tion. His ' Call to Britain to remember the 
Fate of Jerusalem,' one of his longer poems, 
may be read with interest. In 1849 the 
cholera ravaged Gainsborough. Bird assidu- 
ously and bravely administered to the wants 
of the sufferers. His conduct was marked 
by exemplary devotion to the wants of his 
parishioners, to his own great and abiding 
honour. In 1852 Bird suffered himself a 
severe illness. In 1859 he was appointed 
chancellor of the cathedral of Lincoln, and 
left Gainsborough. He died at the Chancery, 
aged 67. The grateful people of Gainsbo- 
rough decorated their church with a painted 
window in his memory. He was buried in 
the country churchyard of Riseholme. 

Bird was an ardent entomologist, and had 
managed to satisfy himself that insects were 
almost, if not entirely, destitute of feeling ; yet 
he would not allow any to be killed by his 
children until he was convinced of their rarity. 
He became a fellow of the Linnean Society 


in 1828. There is an excellent article of his 
in the ' Entomological Magazine ' for August 

| 1833, and the Liverpool feather-horned Tinea, 
or Lepidocera Birdella, was honoured by 

| Curtis with his name. As a proof of his 
conscientiousness we read in his ' Diary ' that 

1 when young he embezzled 6d., and spent it 
in pegtops and lollipops. His modesty pre- 

j vented him from forming many acquaintances. 

I Among his friends were Sir Claudius S. 

i Hunter, bart., of Mortimer, Berkshire, Rev. 

! G. Hutton, rector of Gate-Burton, Alfred 
Ollivant, D.D., regius professor of divinity at 
Cambridge, and the Rev. J. Jones, of Repton. 
Besides sermons he published: 1. 'For 
Ever, and other Devotional Poems,' 1833. 
2. ' The Oxford Tract System considered with 
reference to the principle of Reserve in 
Preaching,' 1838. 3. ' Transubstantiation 
tried by Scripture and Reason, addressed to 
the Protestant inhabitants of Reading, in con- 
sequence of the attempts recently made to 
introduce Romanism amongst them,' 1839. 
4. ' A Plea for the Reformed Church, or Obser- 
vations on a plain and most important declara- 
tion of theTractarians in the " British Critic " 
for July,' 1841. 5. ' The Baptismal Privileges, 
the Baptismal Vow, and the Means of Grace, 
as they are set forth in the Church Catechism, 
considered in six Lent Lectures preached at 
Sulhamstead, Berks,' 1841; 2nd ed. 1843. 
6. ' A Defence of the Principles of the Eng- 
lish Reformation from the Attacks of the 
Tractarians ; or a Second Plea for the Re- 
formed Church,' 1843. 7. 'The Parable of 
the Sower, four Sermons preached before the 
University of Cambridge in May 1845.' 
8. 'The Dangers attending an immediate 
Revival of Convocation detailed in a letter 
to the Rev. G. Hutton, rector of Gate-Burton,' 
1852. 9. 'The Sacramental and Priestly 
System examined ; or Strictures on Arch- 
deacon Wilberforce's Works on the Incarna- 
tion and Eucharist,' 1854. 10. ' The Eve of 
the Crucifixion/ 1858. 

[Gent. Mag. (1862), ii. 786 ; Brit. Mus. Catal. ; 
Bird's Sketches, &c.] J. M. 

BIRD, EDWARD (1772-1819), sub- 
ject painter, was born at Wolverhampton, 
12 April 1772, and educated himself. His 
father bound him apprentice to a maker of 
tea-trays in Birmingham. He is said to have 
embellished these articles with taste and skill, 
so that at the end of his apprenticeship he 
had very alluring offers from the 'trade.' 
Bird rejected all such offers, and went, with- 
out any definite prospect, to Bristol. He 
busied himself with painting, and there con- 
ducted a drawing school. In 1807 he sent 
some pictures to an exhibition at Bath, and 




was fortunate in finding purchasers for them. 
1 The Interior of a Volunteer's Cottage ' was 
the subject of one ; some * Clowns dancing 
in an Alehouse ' that of another. In 1809 he 
sent to the Royal Academy a picture called 
* Good News/ which at once made known his 
name, and established it. This was followed 
by other successful works ' Choristers re- 
hearsing,' and the ' Will.' In 1812 he was 
made an associate of the Academy. Both in 
his early development and late departures, 
the history of Bird, as an artist, is curiously 
like that of Wilkie, and, although the genius 
of the latter was incomparably greater, Bird 
had yet talent enough to suggest to some in- 
terested people that he might be made to 
rival the too popular Scotchman. Of this 
little intrigue got up against "Wilkie, in which 
Bird, it should be said, was innocent of play- 
ing a part, an interesting account is preserved 
in Haydon's ' Journals ' (i. 142, 1st ed. 1853). 
After his election to the honours of the Aca- 
demy, and under some delusion as to the 
quality of his genius, Bird turned his at- 
tention to religious and historical subjects. 
He painted successively the ' Surrender of 
Calais,' the ' Death of Eli,' and the ' Field of 
Chevy Chase.' The last of these is esteemed 
his greatest work. It was bought by the Mar- 
quis of Stafford for three hundred guineas ; 
the original sketch for the same was sold to 
Sir Walter Scott. That this was indeed a 
powerful picture can be best understood by 
those acquainted with the fact that it moved 
Allan Cunningham to tears. The Marquis 
of Stafford also bought the ' Death of Eli ' for 
five hundred guineas. The British Institu- 
tion awarded the painter its premium of three 
hundred guineas in respect of this picture. In 
1815 he was elected a full member of the 
Royal Academy. In the following three years 
he exhibited the ' Crucifixion,' * Christ led to 
be crucified,' the 'Death of Sapphira,' and 
the 'Burning of Bishops Ridley andLattimer.' 
The < Chevy Chase procured for him the 
appointment of court painter to Queen Char- 
lotte. His last historical work was the ' Em- 
barcation of the French King. ' For the com- 
pletion of this painting many contemporary 
portraits were required, and, according to 
Cunningham's account, the painter's health 
was broken by the scant courtesy he received 
in his efforts to get them. The death of a son 
and daughterincreasedhis trouble. His spirits 
forsook him, and he died. He was buried in 
the cloisters of Bristol Cathedral November 

He was properly a genre painter, only occa- 
sionally and partially successful in other de- 
partments of art. Upon such paintings as 
the * Good News,' the ' Country Auction,' the 

' Gipsy Boy,' and others of this class, his re- 
putation depends. ' He showed great skill in 
the conception of his higher class pictures, 
! but he had not the power suited to their com- 
pletion, and his colouring was crude and 

[Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxix. pt. ii. ; Life of B. R. 
! Haydon, 1853; Cunningham's Lives of British 
' Painters ; Pilkington's Dictionary of Artists ; 
I Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of Eng. School ; Cata- 
1 logue of Works of Ed. Bird exhibited the year 
after his death at Bristol; Brit. Mns. Gen. Cat. 

\ sub cap. ' Bird.'] E. R. 


BIRD, FRANCIS (1667-1731), sculptor, 
was born in Piccadilly. He was sent when 
eleven years old to Brussels, and there studied 
(WALPOLE) under one Cozins, a sculptor 
who had been in England. From Flanders 
he found his way, on foot it is said, to Rome, 
and worked under Le Gros. At nineteen, 
I * scarce remembering his own language,' he 
! came home, and studied under Gibbons and 
Gibber. Redgrave gives 1716 as the date of 
his return, which seems, however, to be a 
i mistake. After another short journey to 
Rome, performed also on foot, he succeeded to 
! Gibber's practice and set up for himself. The 
! work which raised his reputation, and which 
i alone maintains it now, was the statue of 
Dr. Busby for Westminster Abbey. Though 
not in itself superexcellent, it is yet a marvel 
of art if we compare it only with other 
works by the same hand. Bird secured the 
favour of Christopher Wren, and was largely 
employed upon the decoration of St. Paul's. 
He executed the group for the pediment of 
the west end, ' The Conversion of St. Paul,' 
of which Horace Walpole remarks : ' Any 
statuary was good enough for an ornament 
at that height, and a great statuary had been 
too good.' The same observation applies to 
the five figures of apostles which maybe dimly 
descried upon the roof of either transept. 
For the statue of Queen Anne which con- 
fronts Ludgate Hill Bird received 1,130/. A 
public statue in London needs to be very bad 
to attract to its demerits any special atten- 
tion. The fact, therefore, that our public 
took peculiar delight in mutilating this 
group may be attributed rather to the ad- 
vantage of its position than to its undoubted 
meanness as a piece of art. It was re- 
moved in 1885, and is to be replaced. His 
monument of Sir ClowdisleySho veil in West- 
minster Abbey is one of the worst works in 
the world. It was to this that Pope ap- 
plied the epithet ' the bathos of sculpture.' 
His work, Nagler says, is barbarous in style 
and devoid of any charm. He was, however, 
for a long period at the head of his profession 




in England, and produced a vast number of ! elected assistant physician to Guy's, and 
statues. Many of these may be seen by the i joint lecturer on materia medica in the medi- 

TTTT i All TT _ 1 * J * 1 _ T 1 T T Q/4 ^7 !-,/-. -rrrrt r rtln rf~*O fm 4vM + Vtk 

curious in Westminster Abbey. 

He died in j cal school. In 1847 he was chosen for the 
triennial appointment of lecturer on materia 
medica at the College of Physicians, and 

[Gent. Mag. vol. i. ; Walpole's Anecdotes of ] S ' ^J --<-<=< 

tinting, ii. 636: Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of \ gave some important lectures on the thera- 

Painting, ii. 636 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of 
the Eng. School ; Nagler's Allgemeines Kiinstler- 
Lexikon.] E. K. 

BIRD, GOLDING (1814-1854), physi- 
cian, was born on 9 Dec. 1814 at Downham, 
Norfolk. He was educated at a private 
school, where he occupied himself out of 
school hours with the study of chemistry 
and botany, and even undertook to give lec- 

peutical uses of electricity, and the influ- 
ence of researches in organic chemistry on 
therapeutics. While thus occupied in medi- 
cal practice and teaching, Bird was keenly 
interested in the natural sciences, and pub- 
lished one or two short papers on natural 
history subjects. He belonged to the Lin- 
nean and Geological, and was a fellow of 
the Royal Society. He was also a corre- 

tures on those subjects to his schoolfellows, spending member of several learned societies 
These proceedings, however, met with the on the continent. 

disapproval of his schoolmaster, and led to | There can be little doubt that Bird did too 
his being taken away from the school. In j much. His foible was perhaps ambition, 
December 1829 he was apprenticed to Wil- | which led him to overstrain his powers in 
liam Pretty, an apothecary, of Burton Cres- ; the twofold effort to obtain a large practice, 
cent, London, and remained his pupil till and also to make a name in science. An 
October 1833. In 1832 he entered as a stu- ! attack of rheumatism in early life had per- 
dent at Guy's Hospital, where his industry ; manently damaged the heart ; and the weak- 
and scientific knowledge attracted the notice ness thus induced, combined with overwork, 
of his teachers, especially of Dr. Addison | caused a breakdown of his health in 1849. 
and Sir Astley Cooper, the latter of whom j Two years later a still more serious warning 
availed himself of his pupil's assistance in j compelled him to take rest. He resigned his 
the chemical section of his work on diseases ; appointments at Guy's Hospital on 4 Aug. 

of the breast. He was also occupied in 
giving private tuition to some of his fellow- 
students. When barely twenty-one he went 
up for examination at Apothecaries' Hall ; 
but the court of examiners, in consideration 

1853, and in June 1854 retired to Tunbridge 
Wells, where he died on 27 Oct. of the same 
year. He married in 1842, and left a widow 
with five children, one of whom, Mr. Cuth- 
bertH. Golding Bird, is now (1885) a lecturer 

of the reputation he had already attained, on physiology and assistant-surgeon at his 
declined to examine him, and gave him at ; father's hospital. 

once the license to practise, with the * honours i Bird was a remarkable instance of intel- 
of the court,' on 21 Jan. 1836. i lectual precocity. He was very successful 

Bird started in general practice in London, ! in practice, and there are few instances of a 
but, not meeting with much encouragement, i London physician having earned as large an 
resolved to begin anew as a physician. He | income as he did so early in life. But he 
accordingly took the degree of M.D. at j was more especially known for his researches 
St. Andrews on 24 April 1838, as was then I in scientific medicine, which, though not 
possible without residence, and on 18 April placing him in the first rank of investiga- 
1840 that of M.A. He became licentiate of tors, still show considerable originality. He 
the College of Physicians of London on carried on the work of Prout in applying 
30 Sept. 1840, and was elected a fellow on | chemistry to medical practice, and in study- 
9 July 1845. In 1836 he was appointed lee- ing morbid conditions of the urine. Although 
turer on natural philosophy at Guy's Hos- ! some of the novelties on which he laid great 
pital, and in this capacity delivered the lee- ! stress, especially ' oxaluria,' have not turned 
tures which were the basis of his book on out to be so important as he believed, the- 
that subject. He afterwards lectured also work on ' Urinary Deposits,' in its five edi- 
on medical botany and on urinary patho- tions from 1844 to 1857, had great influence 
logy. His course on the latter subject ap- on the development of medical chemistry in 
peared in the l London Medical Gazette ' in England. Bird's * Elements of Natural Phi- 
1843 as a series of papers, which were twice losophy ' was for many years a very popular 
translated into German, and were ultimately text-book, especially with medical students, 
incorporated in the author's well-known work for whom its attractive style, and its compara- 
on urinary deposits. About the same time he tive freedom from mathematical reasonings, 
became physician to the Finsbury Dispensary, alike fitted it ; although, indeed, the writer's 
After seven years' hard work he was in 1843 i want of rigorous mathematical training con- 




stituted, from a scientific point of view, its 
weakness. It was strengthened on the ma- 
thematical side, and otherwise enlarged, by 
Mr. Charles Brooke, under whose editorship 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth editions appeared. 
Bird's shorter papers exhibit considerable 
originality and inventive capacity. One of 
them (London Medical Gazette,lIDec. 1840) 
contains the description of a flexible stetho- 
scope, an invention revived of late years. 
In another (1839) he suggests a method of 
printing figures of natural objects by sun- 
light on paper impregnated with the salt 
ferridcyanide of potassium, which anticipates 
some of the modern photographic processes. 
In private life Bird was a man of amiable 
disposition and winning manners. His earnest 
piety led him to take a deep interest in the 
religious welfare of medical students, and 
hence to become one of the founders of the 
' London Christian Medical Association.' He 
wrote : 1. l Urinary Deposits, their Diagnosis, 
Pathology, and Therapeutical Indications,' 
1st ed. 12mo, London, 1844 ; 5th ed., edited 
by Dr. E. L. Birkett, 1857. 2. ' The Ele- 
ments of Natural Philosophy,' 1st ed. 12mo, 
London, 1839, edited by Charles Brooke; 
4th ed. 1854, also 5th ed. 1860, 6th ed. 1867, 
American edition, Philadelphia, 1848 (from 
the 3rd ed. London). 3. ' Lectures on Elec- 
tricity and Galvanism in their Physiological 

; The Chemical Nature of Mucous and Puru- 
lent Secretions,' ser. i. iii. 35 ; ' Report on 
Electricity as a Remedial Agent,' ser. I. vi. 
84 ; ' Report on Diseases of Children treated 
in Guy's Hospital,' 1843-4, ser. n. iii. 108 ; 
and others. 5. 'Lectures on Oxaluria,' 'Lon- 
don Medical Gazette/ July 1842, xxx. 637 ; 

6. ' The Influence of Researches in Organic 
Chemistry upon Therapeutics' (being lec- 
tures at Royal Coll. Physicians), 'London 
Medical Gazette,' 1848, vols. xli. and xlii. 

7. 'The Medico-Chemical History of Milk,' 
' London Medical Gazette,' March 1840 (and 
in Sir Astley Cooper's work on the 'Anatomy 
of the Breast,' 4to, 1840) ; besides very 
numerous lectures and papers in medical 
journals, some of which are incorporated in 
the separately published works. 

[Biographical notice by his brother, Dr. Frede- 
ric Bird, reprinted from Association Medical 
Journal, 5 Jan. 1855; Balfours Biographical 
.Sketch, Edinburgh, 1855 ; Lancet, 11 Nov. 1854 ; 
Medical Times and Gazette, 11 Nov. 1854; manu- 
script communications from family.] J. F. P. 

~~BIRD, JAMES (1788-1839), poetical 
writer and dramatist, was the son of Samuel 

Bird, a farmer of Earl's Stonham, Suffolk,, 
where he was born on 10 Nov. 1788. After 
receiving a scanty education he was appren- 
ticed to a miller, and at the same time began 
to study by himself literature and the drama. 
The fame of John Kemble, the actor, reached 
his native village, and as a youth he made a 
romantic journey to London to witness his 
performance, returning on foot and penniless. 
About 1814 he was in a position to hire two 
windmills at Yoxford, but after five years of 
j ill success in his trade he abandoned it, and 
opened early in 1820 a stationer's shop in 
i the same place, which maintained him until 
j his death in 1839. 

Before Bird was sixteen years old he had 
written poetry, and later he contributed some 
of his early poems to the ' Suffolk Chronicle,' 
whose editor, Thomas Harral, became his- 
most intimate friend. In 1819 he published 
his first long poem, ' The Vale of Slaughden, y 
a story of the invasion of East Anglia by the 
Danes. First issued by subscription, its suc- 
cess induced a London publisher, three months- 
after its appearance, to undertake an edition 
for the public. In 1820 Dr. Nathan Drake 
in his '"Winter Nights' (ii. 184-244) re- 
viewed it at length, and claimed for Bird 
the same rank in literature as that attained 
by Robert Bloomfield. Bird's second ven- 
ture was a mock-heroic poem entitled ' The 
White Hats' (1819), in which he humor- 
ously attacked the radical reformers. His sub- 
sequent narratives in verse were : 1. ' Machin r 
or the Discovery of Madeira,' 1821. 2. 'Poeti- 
cal Memoirs : the Exile, a tale in verse,' 1823 r 
and second edition 1824 ; the first part of' 
this volume is a spirited imitation of Byron's 
'Don Juan.' 3. 'Dunwich, a Tale of the 
Splendid City, in four cantos,' 1828. 4. 'Fram- 
lingham, a Narrative of the Castle,' 1831, 
5. ' The Emigrant's Tale and Miscellaneous 
Poems,' 1833 (cf. the review in Gent. Mag. 
ciii. pt. ii. p. 152, and Bird's good-humoured 
reply, p. 229). 6. ' Francis Abbott, the Re- 
cluse of Niagara [founded on Captain Alex- 
ander's ' Transatlantic Sketches, ii. 147-55] : 
Metropolitan Sketches/ 1837. Bird alsa 
wrote two dramas, the one entitled ' Cosmo, 
Duke of Florence, a Tragedy,' published in 
1822, and the other ' The Smuggler's Daughter, 
a Drama,' published in 1836. The first, it is 
stated, was performed several times at small 
London theatres, but the managers of the 
chief playhouses refused to examine it. The 
second was successfully produced at Sadler's 
Wells in October 1835. Bird edited ' A Short 
Account of Leiston Abbey ' in 1823. Most 
of his verse indicates an intimate acquaint- 
ance with Dryden and Pope, and the influ- 
ence of Byron and Campbell. But Bird has 




.an habitual command of forcible yet melo- 
dious language. Late in life he began with 
much success the study of Greek. 

His portrait was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1829. He was the father of 
.sixteen children, of whom a son George be- 
came a surgeon of London and married a 
daughter of the poetical writer Edwin Ather- 
stone [q. v.] After Bird's death, his friend 
Thomas Harral, in 1840, published with a 
memoir selections from his poems. 

[Davy's MS. Suffolk Collections, in Addit. MS. 
19118 ff. 289 et seq. ; Harral's Selections with 
Memoir; Gent. Mag., new series, ii. 550; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] S. L. L. 

BIRD, JOHN, D.D. (d. 1558), bishop of 
'Chester, is said by Wood to have been pro- 
bably descended from the ancient Cheshire 
family of his name. He became a Carme- 
lite friar, and appears to have studied in the 
houses of that order in both the universities 
of England. He proceeded B.D. at Oxford 
in 1510, and commenced D.D. there in 1513. 
Bishop Godwin states that he was D.D. at 
^Cambridge, but this may be doubted. * In 
1516 he was, at a general chapter held at 
Lynn, elected the provincial of his order. 
He governed for the usual period of three 
years, when he was succeeded by Robert 
Lesbury, who held the office till 1522, when 
Dr. Bird was again elected thereto at a 
general chapter held at York. When the 
papal power began to decline in this country, 
he became a strenuous supporter of, and 
preacher for, the king's supremacy. His 
character was that of a temporiser, and he 
was engaged in state intrigues. He was one 
of the divines sent in 1531 to confer and 
argue with Thomas Bilney, the reformer, 
in prison; and in 1535 he, with Bishop 
Fox, the royal almoner, and Thomas Bedyl 
[q. v.], a clerk of the council, were sent by 
Henry VIII to his divorced queen, Katharine 
of Arragon, to endeavour to persuade her to 
forbear the name of queen, ( which never- 
theless she would not do' (STRYPE, Eccle- 
siastical Memorials, i. 61). 

On 24 June 1537 he was consecrated at 
Lambeth suffragan to the bishop of Llandaff, 
with the title of bishop of Penrith. In the 
beginning of the year 1539 we find him and 
Wotton on an embassy in Germany; and 
Cromwell, writing to him in or about April, 
desired him to get ' the picture of the lady,' 
meaning Anne of Cleves, whom the king 
was induced to marry on seeing her portrait. 
In July of the same year he was elected 
bishop of Bangor. He was present at the 
convocation of 1540, and subscribed the de- 
cree in favour of the divorce from Anne of 

Cleves, though he had probably been to a 
great extent instrumental in bringing about 
her marriage. By letters patent, dated Wai- 
den, 4 Aug. 1541, he was translated to the 
newly created bishopric of Chester, being 
also then, or soon afterwards, invested with 
archidiaconal powers over the whole dio- 
cese. An account by him of the sale and 
appropriation of church ornaments, plate, 
and jewels within his diocese is preserved in 
the Public Record Office (State Papers, Dom. 
Edward VI, vol. iii. art. 4). On 16 March 
1553-4, when Queen Mary had succeeded to 
the throne, he was deprived of his bishopric 
by a royal commission on account of his 
being married (STETPE, Ecclesiastical Me- 
morials, iii. 99). At this time he owed the 
crown 1,087/. 18*. Ofd. A < Foxian MS./ 
quoted by Strype, states that he at once re- 
pudiated his wife, whom he had, as he alleged, 
married against his will, and ' for bearing with 
the time ; ' and in fact he showed such signs 
of repentance, that soon afterwards Bonner, 
bishop of London, appointed him his suffra- 
gan, and on 6 Nov. 1554 presented him to 
the vicarage of Great Dunmow in Essex. 
The manuscript just cited says : ' This Dr. 
Byrd was well stricken in years, having but 
one eye ; and though he, to flatter with the 
time, had renounced his wife, being made of 
a young Protestant an old Catholic ; yet as 
Catholick as he was, such devotion he bare 
to his man's wife that he had them both 
dwelling with him in his own vicarage, she 
being both young, fair, and newly married, 
that either the voice of the parish lied or 
else he loved hr more than enough.' He 
died in an obscure condition about the close 
of 1558, and was buried in Chester Cathedral 
according to Wood, but at Dunmow accord- 
ing to Le Neve. Bale, in his ' Exposition 
on the Revelations,' makes him one of the 
ten horns. 

His works, none of which appear to have 
been printed, are : 1. i De fide justificante.' 

2. l Contra missam papist icam ex doctoribus.' 

3. l Homelise eruditse per annum.' 4. ' Lec- 
tures on St. Paul.' 5. ' Contra transubstan- 
tiationem.' 6. ' Epicedium in quendam Ed- 
munduin Berye obdormientem in Calisia.' 
7. ' Conciones corain Henrico VIII contra 
papse suprematum.' 

[Godwin, De Praesulibus Anglise, ed. Richard- 
son, 776 ; Bale's Scriptorum Brytannie Cat. 
(1559), 724; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
i. 238, ii. 773; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 102; New- 
court's Repertorium Ecclesiasticum, ii. 225 ; 
Strype's Eccl. Memorials, ii. 466, 486, iii. 99, 
138, 139,206: Strype's Grindal, 308; Strype's 
Cranmer, 61, 62, 63, 309, 362, App. 257 ; Brad- 
ford's Writings, ed. Townsend, ii. 1 ; Grindal's 




Eemains, introd. i. ; Lo Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic, 
ed. Hardy ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 190, 551 ; 
Calendars of State Papers ; Machyn's Diary, 58, 
78, 341 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, i. 75, 126, 145.] 

T. C. 

BIRD, JOHN (1709-1776), mathematical 
instrument maker, was a native of the county 
of Durham, and by trade a cloth-weaver. 
Finding himself one day in a clockmaker's 
shop, he was struck with the irregularity of 
the divisions on a dial-plate, thought out a 
plan for improving them, and for some time 
engraved dial-plates for recreation. On the 
strength of a certain reputation thus gained he 
came to London about 1740, and was engaged 
by Sisson to cut the divisions on his instru- 
ments. Countenanced and instructed by 
Graham, he perfected his methods, and by 
1 745 was carrying on business independently. 
His well-known premises were situated in 
the Strand. 

As the mechanical coadjutor of Bradley, 
he acquired European fame. An instru- 
mental refit for the Royal Observatory was 
sanctioned towards the close of 1748. In 
February 1749 Bird received an order for a 
brass quadrant of 8-feet radius, which in June 
1750 was ready for use. The construction of 
this instrument, by rendering possible the con- 
summate accuracy of Bradley's observations, 
marked an epoch in practical astronomy. It 
was built with the utmost solidity, weighing 
about 8 cwt., and bore a double arc, one 
with ninety, the other with ninety-six divi- 
sions, accurately cut by Graham's method of 
( continual bisections.' Its price of 300/. 
was compensated by sixty-two years of valu- 
able service, and although replaced in 1812 
(by which time it had become eccentric with 
use) by Troughton's circle, it is still reve- 
rently preserved at Greenwich. A half-size 
model was, by order of the commissioners of 
longitude, prepared by Bird in 1767, and de- 
posited in the British Museum. 

No sooner was the Greenwich quadrant 
completed than a duplicate was ordered for 
the observatory of St. Petersburg, another 
reached Cadiz, and a fourth^ was used by 
D' Agelet and Lalande at the Ecole Militaire. 
With a similar instrument of 3-feet radius, 
Tobias Mayer made his lunar observations at 
Gottingen. Indeed, most of the chief con- 
tinental observatories still possess a Bird's 
quadrant, valuable even now as affording a 
measure of the probable errors of earlier ob- 
servations(MAEDLER, Gesch. d.Himmelskunde, 
i. 455). Of their necessarily imperfect kind, 
these instruments could scarcely be surpassed. 

Bird further supplied Bradley, about 1750, 
with a new transit instrument, as well as 
with a 40-inch movable quadrant, and put 

a fresh set of divisions, in 1753, upon the- 
great mural arc constructed by Graham for 
Halley. The extraordinary value attached 
to his work is evinced by the fact that a sum 
of 500/. was paid to him by the commis- 
sioners of longitude, on the conditions that 
he should during seven years instruct an ap- 
prentice in his methods, and deliver in writ- 
ing, upon oath, a full and unreserved account 
of them. Such was the origin of the two- 
treatises entitled respectively 'The Method 
of dividing Astronomical Instruments,' Lon- 
don, 1767, and ' The Method of constructing 
Mural Quadrants exemplified by a Descrip- 
tion of the Brass Mural Quadrant in the 
Royal Observatory at Greenwich,' London, 
1768, both published by order of the com- 
missioners, and furnished each with a preface 
by the astronomer-royal (Maskelyne), setting 
forth the singular circumstances under which 
they had been composed. They were bound 
together, so as to form one work, were re- 
issued in 1785, and supplemented by W. Lud- 
lam's ' Introduction and Notes on Mr. Bird's 
Method of dividing Astronomical Instru- 
ments,' solemnly vouched for as accurate by 
Bird in June 1773, and published at the ex- 
pense of Alexander Aubert [q. v.] in 1786. 

The standard yards of 1758 and 1760, 
destroyed in the conflagration of the houses 
of parliament, 16 Oct. 1834, were both con- 
structed by Bird (see BAILY, Mem. R. A. Soc. 
ix. 80-1). He observed the transit of Venus r 
6 June 1761, at Greenwich with Bliss and 
Green, and the annular eclipse of 1 April 
1765, using on both occasions reflectors made 
by himself (Phil. Trans, lii. 175-6, liv. 142). 
He died, 31 March 1776, aged 67. 

[Ludlam's Preface to Introduction and Notes 
on Mr. Bird's Method ; Bradley's Miscellaneous 
Works, passim ; Poggendorff : s Biog.-Lit. Hand- 
worterbuch ; MS. Addit, 5728 ; Gent. Mag. xlvi. 
192 ; Bromley's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, 
p. 398.] A. M. C. 

BIRD, RICHARD, D.D. (d. 1609), canon 
of Canterbury, matriculated at Cambridge 
as a sizar of Trinity College in February 
1564-5, was elected a scholar of that house 
in 1568, and took the degree of B.D. in 
1568-9. He was subsequently elected a fel- 
low, and in 1572 he commenced M.A. It 
appears probable that in 1576 he was serving- 
a cure at, or in the neighbourhood of, Saffron 
Walden in Essex, where a new sect of dis- 
senters, calling themselves 'pure brethren/ 
had arisen. ' A sort of libertines they were/ 
who considered that they were not bound to 
the observance of the moral law of the ten 
commandments, which they held to be bind- 
ing only upon Jews ; and we are told that 



* one Bird ' wrote to Dr. Whitgift soliciting 
his advice as to the best mode of answering 
certain questions which the sectaries had 
propounded (SxRYPE, Annals of the Refor- 
mation, ii. 451). Bird proceeded B.D. at 
Cambridge in 1580. Subsequently he tra- 
velled as tutor with William Cecil, eldest 
son of Sir Thomas Cecil, eldest son of Lord 
Burghley. In France Cecil embraced the j 
Roman catholic faith, and this led to Bird j 
being subjected to harsh treatment by Sir j 
Edward Stafford, the English ambassador j 
at Paris. Bird protested that he had been j 

* robbed of the sowle of that young gentle- 
man by wicked and treacherous men ' (MS. 
Lansd. 46, f. 18). 

On 21 March 1588-9 he was collated to 
the archdeaconry of Cleveland, and on 29 Sept. 
1590 he became a canon of Canterbury. He 
resigned his archdeaconry in or before April 
1001, was created D.D. in 1608, and, dying 
in June 1609, was buried in Canterbury 
Cathedral on the 19th of that month. 

He is the author of: 1. ' Latin verses on 
"Whitaker's translation of Jewel against Har- 
ding,' 1578. 2. ' Appeal to Lord Burghley 
against the cruel treatment of Sir Edward 
Stafford, ambassador in France ' (MS. Lansd. 
46, art. 9). 3. i A communication dialogue 
wise to be learned of the ignorant,' London, 
1595, 8vo. This seems to have been com- 
monly known as ' Bird's Catechism.' 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 102 ; Strype's Annals of 
the Eeformation, i. 207, ii. 433, 451, iii. 189; 
Strype's Life of Whitgift, 75 ; Cooper's Athenae 
Cantab, ii. 521 ; MS. Baker, xxxiii. 282 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, 1305 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccl. Anglic, i. 58, iii. 148 ; Hasted's Kent, 
xii. 98.] T. C. 

1853), a Bengal civil servant, arrived in India 
on 9 Nov. 1808, and, commencing his service 
-as an assistant to the registrar of the court of 
Sadr Diwani Adalat, the company's chief court 
of appeal at Calcutta, was subsequently em- 
ployed in the provinces in various judicial 
posts, from which in 1829 he was transferred 
to the appointment of commissioner of reve- 
nue and circuit for the Gorakhpur division. 
In the discharge of his duties as a judicial 
officer Bird acquired a remarkable insight 
into the landed tenures of the country and 
the effect upon them of the laws then in force, 
which ' referred to a state of things wholly 
distinct from that which existed among the 
people' (Fourth Report from, the Select Com- 
mittee on Indian Territories, 1853 Minutes 
of Evidence, p. 29). Upon his appointment 
as a revenue commissioner, the soundness and 
clearness of his views and his remarkable ad- 
ministrative capacity speedily stamped him as 

the ablest revenue officer in Bengal; and when 
it was determined in 1833 to revise the set- 
tlement of the land revenue of the north- 
western provinces, the governor-general fixed 
upon Bird as the fittest man in the service to 
undertake that task. In the previous year 
he had been appointed a member of the board 
of revenue, then newly constituted at Alla- 
habad. Retaining his seat as a member of 
the board, he took sole charge of the settle- 
ment operations, which he brought to a com- 
pletion at the close of 1841. The result was 
recorded in a report which he laid before go- 
vernment early in the following year, and in 
which he explained that the work had not 
been confined to f such an accurate ascertain- 
ment of the resources of the land as would 
insure to government its full share of the 
rents or produce ; ' but that it ' included the 
decision and demarcation of boundaries, the 
defining and recording the separate possession, 
rights, privileges, and liabilities of the mem- 
bers of those communities who hold their land 
in several ty ; the framing a record of the 
several interests of those who hold their land 
in common ; the providing a system of self- 
government for the communities ; the rules 
framed with their own consent according to 
the principles of the constitution of the dif- 
ferent tenures ; the preparation of the record 
of the fields and of the rights of cultivators 
possessing rights ; and the reform of the vil- 
lage accounts and completion of a plan of 
record by their own established accountants, 
and according to their own method, by refer- 
ence to which the above points of possession 
and right might, under the various changes 
to which property is subject, continue to be 
ascertained.' A corresponding system of ac- 
counts for the offices of the tahsildars, or 
native collectors, and for those of the collec- 
tors of districts, was also framed. The set- 
tlement was the most complete that had yet 
been made in India. It embraced an area of 
seventy-two thousand square miles, and a 
population of twenty-three millions. It is 
especially remarkable from the fact that it 
was designed and carried out by an officer 
whose duties during the greater part of his 
service had been judicial. Bird retired from 
the service in 1842, and spent the remainder of 
his life in England, where he became an ac- 
tive member of the committee of the Church 
Missionary Society, travelling on deputation 
and attending meetings in various parts of 
the country on behalf of the society. A few 
months before his death, which occurred at 
Torquay on 22 Aug. 1853, he gave evidence 
before the committee of the House of Com- 
mons on the renewal of the East India Com- 
pany's charter. 




[General Register of the Honourable East 
India Company's Civil Servants on the Bengal 
Establishment from 1790 to 1842, by the Hon. 
H. T. Prinsep, India Office ; Marshman's History 
of India (1867), iii. 47, 48 ; Bird's Report on j 
the Settlement of the North-West Provinces, I 
1859 ; Fourth Report from the Select Committee j 
of the House of Commons on Indian Territories, j 
1853 ; Minutes of Evidence ; private letters.] 

A. J. A. 

BIRD, SAMUEL ( /. 1600), divine, j 
was a native of Essex, and matriculated j 
as a pensioner of Queens' College, Cam- | 
bridge, in June 1566. He proceeded B.A. 
1569-70, and commenced M.A. 1573. In 
November 1573 he was elected a fellow 
of Corpus Christ! College, being admitted 
30 April 1574. He vacated his fellowship in 
or before 1576. He must also have been fel- 
low of Benet College, as his earliest title-page 
shows : ' A friendlie Communication or Dia- 
logue between Paule and Demas, wherein 
is disputed how we are to vse the pleasures 
of this life. By Samuel Byrd, M.A., and fel- 
low not long since of Benet Colledge,' 1580. 

It is further known that Bird was minister 
of St. Peter's, Ipswich, which was at the time 
a, perpetual curacy, very poorly endowed. 
Unfortunately the church-books at present 
extant date back only to 1667, whilst a list 
of the incumbents from the year 1604 com- 
mences with his successor. His perpetual 
curacy he must have filled for a quarter of a 
century say 1580 to 1604. He vacated the 
living in 1604. It must have been by ces- 
sion or resignation, as in 1604 he was ad- 
mitted a student at the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, and on 8 May 1605 was incorporated 
M.A. in that university. Nothing is known 
of him at a later date. 

In Bacon's MSS. belonging to the corpo- 
ration of Ipswich, which date 16 July 1595 
(38 Elizabeth), is the following entry : 

' Exhibition of a poore scholler. Petition 
for exhibition for Mr. Bird's sonne at Cam- 
bridge. It's ordered the gift of Mr. Barney 
shall be considered and what money is laid 
out, and thereuppon order shall farther be 
made.' Then, on 14 Aug. (same year) : ' It 
was ordered by the Great Court that 4 li. 
shall be given yearly to Samuel Bird, sonne 
of Mr. Bird, minister of St. Peter's, at Cam- 
bridge, to his maintenance in learning till 
20 li. be laid out.' 

Besides 'A Friendlie Communication,' pub- 
lished in 1580, Bird issued ' The Principles 
of the True Christian Religion briefly selected 
out of many good books. By S. B.' 1590 ; 
* The Lectvres of Samvel Bird of Ipswidge 
vpon the 8 and 9 chapters of the Second 
Epistle to the Corinthians,' 1598 ; ' The Lec- 

tvres of Samvel Bird of Ipswidge vpon the 
11 chapter of the Epistle unto the He- 
brewes, and upon the 38 Psalme,' 1598 (an 
edition of 1594 is also recorded). The ' He- 
brewes ' is dedicated to M. Edward Bacon 
of Shrubland Hall. Finally Bird published 
' Lectvres ... on the Seventh Chapter of 
the 2nd Epistle to the Corinthians,' 1598. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses, ii. 429-30; 
Cole MSS. (B. Museum), B. 128; Hunter's MS. 
Chorus Vatum in Brit. Mus. ; Herbert's Ames, 
1011, 1357, 1426; Lowncles (Bohn); Masters's 
History of C. C. C. C. (Lamb), 326 ; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 307 ; communications from 
Rev. Alexander Jeffrey, Ipswich.] A. B. G. 

BIRD, WILLIAM, musician. [See 


(1775-1837), president-general of the Bene- 
dictines in England, was born at Liverpool 
27 June 1775. His father, a well-to-do grocer, 
sent him at an early age to the Dominican Col- 
lege of Bornhem in Flanders. He entered him- 
self among the Benedictines at Lamspringe 
in Hanover in October 1795. He was there 
admitted to his solemn profession 6 Nov. 1796. 
On 30 May 1801 he was ordained priest at 
Hildesheim in Westphalia. During September 
1802 he was appointed prefect of the students 
at Lamspringe, where Peter Baines [q. v.], 
afterwards bishop, was one of his pupils. On 
the suppression of the abbey of Lamspringe 
by the Prussians, 3 Jan. 1803, Father Birdsall 
had to return hurriedly to England. After 
remaining for a while at St. Lawrence's Col- 
lege, Ampleforth, he was sent on the mission 
in the south, or, as it was still called, the 
Canterbury province of the Benedictine order 
in this country. On 30 May 1806 he arrived 
at Bath, whither he had been despatched to 
assist the incumbent of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, where the Benedictines had long been 
established. In October 1 809 he left, in order 
to establish a new mission at Cheltenham, 
and on 3 June 1810 opened the first catholic 
chapel known there since the Reformation. 
A French refugee, the Abbe Alexandre Caesar, 
who had been saying mass on Sundays and 
holy days in the back room of a low public 
house, died in his eightieth year on 24 Sept. 
1811. Many obstacles to the foundation of 
the mission were overcome by the untiring 
i zeal of Father Birdsall. He remained in ac- 
tive charge of the mission for twenty-five 
years altogether. Twenty years after his 
arrival in Cheltenham he established a new 
mission at Broadway, in Worcestershire. On 
15 May 1828 he began there the new chapel 
of St. Saviour's Retreat. That mission in 



its completed form was publicly inaugurated 
in 1830, as an appendage to its founder's prin- 
cipal enterprise at Cheltenham. Four years 
afterwards, however, when he had at length 
succeeded in establishing at Broadway, in 
due collegiate organisation, something like his | 
old community of Lamspringe, he withdrew 
altogether from Cheltenham in 1834, settling 
down thenceforth permanently in. his new j 
home, which he loved to call by its old Roman 
name of Vialta, in Worcestershire, and resided < 
there till his death on 2 Aug. 1837, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. 

Meanwhile he had been steadily advanced 
in his order as a Benedictine. In 1814 he 
was appointed one of the definitors of the 
southern province in England, and in 1822 
was elected the provincial of Canterbury. 
Re-elected provincial of Canterbury in 1826, 
Father Birdsall was promoted in the same 
year to the highest office of all within his 
reach in this country, that, namely, of presi- 
dent-general of the English congregation of 
the order of St. Benedict. It proved an anx- 
ious and painful pre-eminence. It brought 
him into direct conflict with Bishop Baines, 
the vicar apostolic of the western district in 
England, whom he regarded from the outset 
as endeavouring to extend beyond due limits 
his episcopal jurisdiction to the prejudice of 
the exemptions enjoyed by the religious orders. 
The holy see eventually decided the dispute 
in favour of the Benedictines. Father Bird- 
sall also saved from extinction the thenceforth 
flourishing Benedictine college of Ampleforth 
in Yorkshire. 

Father Birdsall was made cathedral prior 
of Winchester in 1826, and in 1830 abbot of 
Westminster. His multifarious employments 
prevented his giving much attention to lite- 
rary pursuits. Besides an unpublished ac- 
count of Lamspringe, found among his papers 
after his death, the only work he is known 
to have produced was ' Christian Reflections 
for Every Day in the Year,' 1822, translated 
from the ' Pensees Chretiennes,' &c., published 
anonymously at Paris in 1718, and attributed 
to the Sieur de Saint e-Beuve. Father Birdsall's 
mother wit rendered him a delightful as well 
as a powerful controversialist. He was one 
of the most valued correspondents of William 
Cobbett (between 29 Nov. 1824 and 9 July 
1827) when the latter was writing his his- 
tory of the Protestant Reformation. Father 
Birdsall occasionally in his catechetical in- 
structions enforced his argument by humorous 
illustrations. * We catholics are said to be 
idolaters of images,' he once remarked, adding, 
as he pointed to two carved angels that 
flanked the altar-steps of the chapel at Chel- 
tenham : ' Now I gave 4/. 16s. for those two 

statues, and if anybody will send me a five- 
pound note for the pair I'll let him have them 
with pleasure. That's how I worship them ! ' 

On 6 Nov. 1877 the homely old chapel built 
up by Father Birdsall at Cheltenham was re- 
placed by the handsome Gothic church of St. 
Gregory ; while on 7 Oct. 1850 the last mis- 
sion established by him at Broadway was 
given up by the outgoing Benedictines to the 
Passionists from Woodchester. The tablet 
erected in his honour at Cheltenham has been 
removed in the transformation of the chapel, 
and is no longer discoverable ; while the in- 
scription on his tomb at Broadway can only 
be here and there deciphered. 

[Dr. Oliver's Collections illustrating the His- 
tory of the Catholic Religion in the Counties of 
Cornwall, &c., 1857, 8vo, pp. 119, 120, and 242; 
Snow's Necrology of the English Congregation of 
the Order of St. Benedict from 1600 to 1883, 
8vo, p. 148.] C. K. 

BIRINUS, SAIXT (d. 650), bishop of Dor- 
chester, was a Benedictine monk of Rome, who r 
receiving a mission from Pope Honorius to 
visit Britain, landed in Wessex in 634, having 
first received episcopal consecration at the 
hands of Asterius, bishop of Genoa. Preach- 
ing the gospel to the heathen people he suc- 
ceeded in converting them to Christianity, 
and in 635 baptised Cynegils, king of Wes- 
sex, Oswald, king of Northumbria, standing 
sponsor. Then was founded the see of Dor- 
chester, Birinus being the first bishop settled 
at Dorcic or Dorchester, Oxfordshire, a city 
conferred upon him by the two kings. ' After 
many churches had been built and conse- 
crated and many peoples called to the Lord 
by his pious labour ' (BJEDJE, IT. E. iii. 7), 
Birinus died and was buried at Dorchester 
in the year 650, his body being afterwards 
removed to Winchester, and subsequently 
enshrined by Bishop ^Ethelwold (963-84). 
The influence obtained by Birinus, not only 
; in Wessex but also in the neighbouring king- 
i dorn of Mercia, is indicated by the references 
made in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to the 
! baptism by him of different princes. 

[Hacldan and Stubbs. Councils, vol. iii. 1871, 

I p. 90 (quoting Bseda and the A.-Saxon Chronicle) ; 

Rudborne's Hist. Major Winton. in Wharton's 

' Anglia Sacra, pt. i. 1691, p. 190: Kennett's 

i Parochial Antiquities. Oxford, 1818, i. 36 sqq. ; 

see also, for Birinus's Life as a Saint, Hardy's 

Catalogue of Materials for English History 

(Rolls Series), vol. i. 1862, p. 236.] E. M. T. 

1841), the founder of mechanics' institutions, 
Avas the son of William Birkbeck, a banker 
and merchant of Settle. Yorkshire, where he 
was born 10 Jan. 1776. He studied medi- 




cine at Edinburgh and London, taking his 
degree of M.D. in 1799 at the university of the 
former city. Among his friends and fellow- 
students at Edinburgh were Brougham and 
Jeffrey. Soon afterwards, when only twenty- 
three years old, he succeeded Dr. Garnett as 
professor of natural philosophy at the Ander- 
sonian University (now Anderson's College), 
Glasgow, and while holding that post he 
commenced his efforts at popular education. 
Having had his attention drawn to the diffi- 
culties in the way of intelligent artisans who 
were anxious to acquire information on scien- 
tific matters, he established in 1800 courses of 
lectures to which Avorking men were admitted 
at a low fee. These lectures were for long a 
successful department of the university, but 
eventually the ' mechanics' class ' became in 
1823 the ' Glasgow Mechanics' Institution,' 
apparently the first genuine institution of the 
sort. In 1804 he left Glasgow for London, 
and here he established himself as a physician, 
first in Finsbury Square, then in Cateaton 
Street, and afterwards in Old Broad Street. 
For some years he seems to have devoted him- 
self entirely to the practice of his profession, in 
which he attained a considerable reputation, 
but the foundation of the Glasgow Institution 
above mentioned led to his once more taking 
up the cause of popular education. On the 
suggestion being made in the ' Mechanics' 
Magazine ' that a similar institution should 
be provided for London, Dr. Birkbeck at once 
assumed the lead in the movement. He lent 
3,700/. for the building of a lecture-room, 
and, having been elected president, delivered 
the opening address 20 Feb. 1824. It was 
thus that the London Mechanics' Institution 
was founded, which many years afterwards, 
in honour of its first president, was called the 
* Birkbeck Institution.' In the enterprise he 
was associated with Lord Brougham, both of 
them being amongst the first trustees. For 
some time the new enterprise had but a 
fluctuating success ; it was, however, assisted 
by the capital as well as the influence of its 
founder, and neither the ridicule of its 
enemies nor the quarrels of its promoters 
sufficed to prevent its eventual establishment. 
Dr. Birkbeck took an active interest in the 
fortunes of the institution till his death, 
1 Dec. 1841. The institution is now (1885) 
one of the most successful organisations of , 
its class in existence. These foundations in j 
Glasgow and London were soon imitated [ 
throughout the country, and thus was esta- 
blished an organisation which prepared the 
way for the existing system of popular scien- 
tific instruction, as it is carried out by the 
Science and Art Department. 

Dr. Birkbeck also took his share in other 

VOL. V. 

popular educational movements besides the 
one in which he was principally interested. 
He was a founder and one of the first council 
of University College, London (1827) ; he 
took a prominent part in the agitation for 
the repeal of the tax on newspapers (1835-6); 
and he many years before any change was 
effected endeavoured (in 1827) to promote 
a reform in the patent laws. He was a fre- 
quent lecturer, not only at his own institu- 
tion, but at the London Institution and else- 
where, and was always ready to do his best 
to promote whatever he thought a useful 
application of science to practical purposes. 
[J. a. Godarcl's Life of Dr. Birkbeck, 1884.] 

H. T. W. 

SIB JOHN (1616-1679), author of the ' Mer- 
curius Aulicus ' and satirical poems, is said by 
Anthony a Wood to have been son of Ran- 
dall Birkenhead, of Northwich in Cheshire, 
saddler, and born there (Athence Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 1203), and T. W. Barlow (Ches. 
Biogr. 1852, pp. 20-1) says, 'he was born 
on the edge of Rudheath,' which is near 
Northwich, and partly in Davenham parish 
and partly in the chapelry of Witton, parish of 
Great Budworth. In accordance with this, 
the Witton register contains a number of 
entries of children of Randall Berchenhead 
(so spelled) from 1580 to 1631, with his own 
death, being then ' parish clarke/ in 1633 ; 
among these, under 24 March 1615-6, is 
'Johes. fil. Randulphi Birchenhead.' Un- 
luckily experts have pronounced this entry to 
be a comparatively modern forgery, but it 
gives nevertheless the correct date. Ormerod 
(under ' Northwich ') states that Birkenhead 
1 descended possibly from the antient family 
of that name in this county (who first held 
property here in 1508), but of low immediate 
origin, being the son of a saddler.' 

At the free grammar school of the town 
in the churchyard of Witton, John Birken- 
head doubtless received his early education 
from the worthy schoolmaster, Thomas Far- 
mer. In the beginning of 1 632, aged 1 7 (which 
harmonises with the forged date in the Wit- 
ton register), Wood informs us, he pro- 
ceeded to Oxford, being entered at Oriel 
College as servitor, and under the tuition of 
Humphrey Lloyd, afterwards bishop of Ban- 
gor. He remained ' till B. A/ (Athence Oxon.} 
He was introduced to Laud and appointed 
his amanuensis, and Laud, l taking a liking to 
him for his ingenuity, did by his diploma make 
him M. A.' in 1639. Nor was this all, for by 
his letters commendatory thereupon he was 
elected probation-fellow of All Souls College 
in 1640.' During the civil war, while the 



king and court were at Oxford, Birkenhead 
was a leading spirit. The thick-coming 
events of the time compelled almost daily 
publication of news. The parliament had 
their l Mercurius Britannicus ' and others, j 
The royalists were in need of ajournaltillBir- 
kenhead devised, and was appointed to write, ! 
the ' Mercurii Aulici ' (Athence Oxon.} The j 

* Mercurius Aulicus ' communicated ' the in- | 
telligence and affairs of the court ' at Ox- ! 
ford ' to the rest of the kingdom.' No. 1 is ! 
dated January 1642. It went on without \ 
break till 1645, and occasionally after, 'weekly 
in one sheet ' (a small quarto). The ' Mer- [ 
curius Aulicus ' has not received that critical j 
attention which it deserves. When it is ; 
remembered that, with very occasional help 
later by Dr. Peter Heylin and others, the , 
burden of carrying on the ' Mercurius Auli- ! 
cus ' fell on Birkenhead, it must be recognised I 
that he proved himself by this achievement ' 
^ilone a man of intellectual capacity and wit. I 
The ' Mercurius Aulicus ' now extremely J 
rare complete has never been reprinted or 
edited. Its literary quality gives it a far 
superior interest to that attaching to the 

4 Mercurius Britannicus.' 

The t Mercurius Aulicus ' having proved 

* very pleasing to the loyal party, his ma- ' 
jesty recommended him [Birkenhead] to the 

electors that they would chuse him for 
moral philosophy reader ' (Athence Oxon.") \ 
His duties were discharged l with little profit,' ; 
says Wood ambiguously. 

The year 1648 found him in exile with the | 
prince (afterwards Charles II). We have 
a glimpse of both in a letter from Birkenhead 
to John Raymond, worked into the preface 
of Raymond's ( Itinerary contayning a Voyage 
made through Italy in the Years 1646 and 
1647 ' (1648). The letter is dated 'Amiens, 
11 July 1648,' and is a characteristic speci- 
men of his style. 

After the ' parliamentary visitors ' finally 
deprived him of his posts and fellowship, he 
appears to have gone and come between 
France, Holland, and England. Ultimately, 
according to Wood, having suffered several 
imprisonments, he lived at Oxford 'by his wits 
in helping young gentlemen out at dead lifts 
in making poems, songs, and epistles to their 
respective mistresses, as also in translating 
and writing several little things and other 
petite employments.' Of his own 'petite 
things ' we have in 1647 (though not pub- 
lished till 1662-3), 'The Assembly Man, 
or the Character of an Assembly Man ;' in 
1648, 'News from Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, or Oxford Manchester'd ; ' in 1649, 
4 Paul's Churchyard, Libri Theologici, Poli- 
tici, Historic!,' enlarged in 1653 as follows : 

' Two Centvries of Paul's Churchyard. Una 
cum Indice Expurgatorio in Bibliothecam 
Parliament!, sive Librorum, qui prostant 
venales in vico vulgo vocato Little-Brittain. 
Done into English for the Benefit of the 
Assembly of Divines, and the two Univer- 
sities;' in 1659, 'The Four-legg'd Quaker, 
a Ballad to the Tune of the Dog and Elder's 
Maid.' There were also 'A Poem on his 
staying in London after the Act of the 
Banishment for Cavaliers,' and ' The Jolt ' 
on Cromwell's famous overturn of the coach. 
There is much drollery in these productions, 
and his language is always nervous and effec- 

The Restoration brought Birkenhead to 
the winning side. On 22 Aug. 1649, at 
St. Germains, he received a grant of arms, 
and probably his knighthood (Harleian MS. 
1144, f. 82 b~). On 6 April 1661, on the king's 
letters he was created D.C.L. by Oxford, and 
as such was one of the eminent civilians con- 
sulted by the convocation on the question 
' whether bishops ought to be present in capi- 
tal cases,' and with the rest on 2 Feb. 1661-2 
said ' Yes.' He was returned M.P. for Wil- 
ton, was made a member of the Royal So- 
ciety, and was appointed one of the masters of 
requests. But he failed to win the respect of 
even so ultra a royalist partisan as Anthony a 
Wood, who says of him : ' A certain anony- 
mous (" A Seasonable Argument to persuade 
. . . for a New Parliament, 1677 ") says he 
was a poor ale-keeper's son, and that he got 
by lying and buffoonery at court 3,000/. . . . 
The truth is, had he not been given too 
much to bantering, which is now taken 
up by vain and idle people, he might have 
passed for a good wit. And had he also ex- 
| pressed himself grateful and respectful to 
those that had been his benefactors in the 
i time of his necessity, which he did not, but 
i rather slighted them (shewing thereby the 
baseness of his spirit), he might have passed 
i for a friend and a loving companion.' 

Except the 'Assembly-Man ' delayed from 
1647 he gave to the press nothing of any 
extent after the Restoration. He has verses in 
the Beaumont and Fletcher folio (1675), and 
Latin lines under Fletcher's portrait. Pro- 
bably the ' Miscellanies ' of ' Wit and Loyal tv ' 
received contributions from him, but they re- 
main unidentified. He died at Whitehall 
4 Dec. 1679, 'leaving behind him a choice 
collection of pamphlets, which came into the 
hands of his executors, Sir Richard Mason 
and Sir Muddford Bramston ' (Ath. Oxon.} 
He does not appear to have married. 

[Wood's Athenge, iii. 1203; Hunter's MS. 
Chorus Vatum in Brit. Mus. ; letters from Mr. 
John Weston, The Heysoms, Hartford, North- 



wich; Birkenheacl's Works ; the nuncupative will I 
of Kandall Birkenhead (in Probate Registry at | 
Chester) leaves all his goods to his wife Margaret, j 
not mentioning his occupation or children.] 

BIRKENSHAW, JOHN, musician, j 

(A. 1614), archpriest, was a native of the 
county of Durham. He entered the English 
college at Douay in 1575, and was ordained 
priest C April 1577. In January 1578 he set 
out from Rheims, accompanied by the Rev. 
Richard Haddock and four students, and pro- 
ceeded to the English college at Rome, which 
liad just been founded by Dr. Allen under the 
auspices of Pope Gregory XIII. Returning 
to Rheims in 1580 he was sent in the same 
year to labour on the English mission, and 
we are told that he was < well esteemed by 
all parties upon account of his peaceable and 
reconciling temper.' In 1583 he took relics 
of the Jesuit Father Campion to Rheims. Dr. 
Allen, notifying this circumstance to Father j 
Alfonso Agazzari, says: 'Nobis egregiampar- 
tern cutis, variis aromatibiis ad durabilitatem I 
conditam, Campiani nostri detulit ibidem P. 
Georgius ' (Records of the English Catholics, 
ii. 202). On 22 Jan. 1607-8 Pope Paul V nomi- 
nated him archpriest of England, from which 
office Dr. George Blackwell [q. v.] had been 
deposed in consequence of his acceptance of 
the oath of allegiance devised by the govern- ; 
ment of King James I. The new archpriest 
was admonished to dissuade catholics from 
taking the oath and frequenting the protestant 
worship (State Papers, Domestic, James I, 
vol. xxxi.) Birkhead retained the dignity till 
his death in 1614. From his deathbed he ad- 
dressed farewell letters (5 April 1614) to his 
clergy and to the superior of the Jesuits. At 
different times he assumed the names of Hall, 
Lambton, and Salvin. He was succeeded as 
.archpriest by the Rev. William Harrison. 
The catholic church historian of England 
states that < Mr. Birket was a person of sin- 
gular merit, studious of the reputation of the 
clergy, yet not inclinable to lessen that of 
others, as it appears from several original let- 
ters I have read between him and Father Par- 
sons ; wherein some controversies are handled 
between the Jesuits and clergy, which he 
toucheth with all tenderness and circumspec- 
tion that things of that kind require, and with 
a due regard to the pretensions and passions 
of parties.' 

[Dodd's Church Hist. (1737) ii. 377, 483-99; 
-also Tierney's edit. iv. 77, App. 157, 159, 161, 
v. 8, 12, 13-30, 48, 60, App. 27, 57, 58, 103, 106, 

117, 141, 158, 159, 160-4; Berington's Memoirs 
of Panzani ; Morris's Troubles of our Catholic 
Forefathers, 2nd series, 53, 57, 408 ; Calendar of 
State Papers, Dom. James I, 397, 455 ; Bartoli's 
Istoria della Compagnia di Giesu, L'Inghilterra, 
294 ; Diaries of th> English College, Douay ; 
Ullathorne's Hist, of the Restoration of the Cath. 
Hierarchy, 9 ; Letters and Memorials of Cardinal 
Allen; Butler's Hist, Memoirs (1822), ii. 266.] 

T. C. 

BIRKHEAD, HENRY (1617?-! 69(5) 
Latin poet, was born in the parish of St. 
Gregory, near St. Paul's Cathedral. Aubrey 
(Tanner MS. 24, f. 159) states that he was 
bora in 1617, i at the Paul's Head, which his 
father kept/ but Wood fixes the date of his 
birth four years earlier. Having been edu- 
cated in grammar learning by the most famous 
schoolmaster of that time, Thomas Farnabif, 
he became a commoner of Trinity College, 
Oxford, in Midsummer term 1633, and was 
admitted scholar on 28 May 1635. Induced 
by the persuasions of a Jesuit, he shortly 
afterwards entered the college of St. Omer. 
But he soon abandoned Romanism, and in 
1638, by the influence of Archbishop Laud, 
was elected fellow of All Souls, being then 
bachelor of arts, ; and esteemed a good philo- 
logist,' After taking his master's degree 
(5 June 1641), he devoted himself to the 
study of law. In May 1643 he submitted to 
the authority of the visitors appointed by 
parliament. " In 1653 he was allowed by the 
delegates of the university to propose a dis- 
pensation in convocation for taking the degree 
of doctor of physic by accumulation, provided 
that he should perform the necessary exer- 
cises ; but it is uncertain whether he took 
the degree. He resigned his fellowship in 
1657, and at the Restoration became registrar 
of the diocese of Norwich, an office which he 
continued to hold until 1681. He also had 
a chamber in the Middle Temple, where he 
frequently resided. In 1645 he issued at 
Oxford a quarto volume of ' Poemata,' printed 
for private circulation. In 1656 appeared 
1 Poematia in Elegiaca, lambica, Polymetra 
Antitechnemata et Metaphrases membratim 
quadripertita,' Oxonii, 8vo. He joined with 
Henry Stubbe, of Christ Church, in publish- 
ing another volume of Latin verse in the 
same year, < Otium Literatum siye Miscel- 
lanea qugedam Poemata ab H. Birchead et 
H. Stubbe edita,' Oxon., 16mo. A second 
edition of this little volume appeared in 1658. 
Birkhead also edited, with a preface, some 
philological works of Henry Jacob in 1652 ; 
and wrote several Latin elegies, 'scatteredly 
printed in various books, under the covert 
letters sometimes of H. G.,' to persons who 
had suffered for their devotion to Charles I. 


8 4 


An unpublished allegorical play by Birkhead, 
' The Female Rebellion,' is preserved among 
the Tanner MSS. (40(3) ; it has little merit. 
In 1643 there was published at Oxford a 
collection of ' Verses on the death of the 
right valiant Sir Bevill Grenvill, knight. 
Who was slaine by the rebells, on Lans- 
downe-hill neare Bath, July 5, 1643,' 4to. 
Birkhead was one of the contributors to this 
collection, which included elegies by Jasper 
Mayne, William Cartwright, Dudley Digges, 
and others. Forty-one years afterwards, in 
1684, the collection was reprinted, and Henry 
Birkhead, the only survivor with one excep- 
tion of the thirteen contributors, addressed a 
long 'Epistle Dedicatory' to the Earl of 
Bath, son of Sir Bevill Grenvill. Wood 
vaguely says that after the Restoration he 
' lived ... in a retired and scholastical con- 
dition,' adding that he ( was always accounted 
an excellent Latin poet, a good Grecian, and 
well vers'd in all human learning.' He died 
on Michaelmas Eve, 1696, and was buried at 
St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. The 
professorship of poetry at Oxford was founded 
in 1708 from funds bequeathed by Birkhead. 

[Tanner MS. 24, f. 159; Wood's Afhense 
Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, iv. 573-4 ; Wood's Hist, 
and Antiquities of the University of Oxford, ed. 
Gutch, ii. 434 ; Martin's Archives of All Souls, 
381 ; Burrows's Eegister of the Visitors of the 
University of Oxford, 1647-58 (Camden Society), 
pp. 43, 117 ; Hazlitt's Handbook ; Corser's Col- 
lectanea Anglo-Poetica, ii. 285-8.] A. H. B. 

1883), theologian and controversialist, was 
born on 28 Sept. 1810 at Staveley in Derby- 
shire. His father was a tenant farmer under 
the Duke of Devonshire. The family being 
nonconformists, young Birks was educated 
first at Chesterfield and then at the Dissent- 
ing College at Mill Hill. Funds were pro- 
vided to send him to Cambridge. He won 
a sizarship and a scholarship at Trinity, and 
in his third year gained the chief English 
declamation prize. As the holder of this 
prize he delivered the customary oration in 
the college hall. The subject chosen was 
1 Mathematical and Moral Certainty/ and, in 
a letter to Dr. Chalmers, Dr. Whewell spoke 
very highly of this oration. In January 1834 
Birks came out as second wrangler and second 
Smith's prizeman. 

Having joined the church of England on 
leaving the university, Birks settled at Wat- 
ton as tutor and then curate to the Rev. Ed- 
ward Bickersteth [q. v.] During his stay there 
he devoted much time to the study of the 
prophetic scriptures, and took the affirmative 
side in the warm controversy which arose on 

the subject of the premillennial theory of th& 
Lord's return. In 1843-4 Birks won the 
Seatonian prize for the best English poem 
at Trinity. Some years before he had been 
elected a fellow of his college. He ardently 
engaged in many religious controversies, and 
one of these, on the future of the lost, led ta 
the severance of private friendships and reli- 
gious connections. In his views on this sub- 
ject he was equally opposed to the univer- 
salists and the annihilationists. In the year 
1844 Birks married Miss Bickersteth, the 
daughter of his friend, and accepted the- 
living of Kelshall in Hertfordshire. 

In 1850 Birks published his edition of 
Paley's ' Horse Paulinae/ with notes and a 
supplementary treatise entitled ' Horse Apo- 
stolicae.' Two years later the work was fol- 
lowed by ' Horee Evangelicse/ and in 1853 
appeared his ( Modern Rationalism ' and ( The 
Inspiration of the Scriptures.' In 1856 Birks 
lost his wife, and the severity of the afflic- 
tion caused the suspension of his literary 
labours for several years. 

The year 1861, however, witnessed the 
publication of another of his more important 
works, ' The Bible and Modern Thought,' at 
the request of the committee of the Religious 
Tract Society. The author subsequently en- 
larged his work by a series of notes on the 
evidential school of theology, the limits of 
religious thought, the Bible and ancient 
Egypt, the human element in Scripture, and 
Genesis and geology. 

Birks left Kelshall in 1864, and in 1866' 
accepted the important charge of Trinity 
Church, Cambridge. In the latter year he 
married a second time. By his first marriage 
he had eight children, one of whom, his 
eldest son, also attained distinction, succeed- 
ing him as a fellow of Trinity. At the time 
of the disestablishment of the Irish church 
Birks came forward with a lengthy treatise 
on ' Church and State/ which was an elabo- 
ration of a treatise written thirty years be- 
fore, and now republished as bearing upon 
the ecclesiastical change proposed by Mr. 
Gladstone and carried into effect by parlia- 
ment. Birks was installed honorary canon of 
Ely Cathedral in 1871, and in 1872, on the 
death of the Rev. Frederick Denison Maurice, 
he was elected professor of moral philosophy 
at Cambridge. This appointment led to a 
stormy controversy. It was regarded as a 
retrograde step by the large body of liberal 
thinkers who sympathised with the views of 
Mr. Maurice. While pastor at Cambridge, 
Birks laboured assiduously in giving reli- 
gious instruction to the undergraduates, to 
older members of the university, and also to 
the residents in the town. In the year of 



his appointment he published his ' Scripture 
Doctrine of Creation ' and ' The Philosophy 
of Human Responsibility.' His inaugural 
lecture as professor of moral philosophy was 
on * The Present Importance of Moral Sci- 

In 1873 appeared his ' First Principles of 
Moral Science/ being a course of lectures 
delivered during his professorship. This 
work was followed in 1874 by ' Modern 
Utilitarianism/ in which the systems of 
Paley, Bentham, and Mill were examined 
and compared. In 1876 Birks delivered the 
annual address to the Victoria Institute, his 
subject being l The Uncertainties of Modern 
Physical Science.' Birks published in 1876 
his work on ' Modern Physical Fatalism and 
the Doctrine of Evolution.' It contained 
the substance of a course of lectures devoted 
to the examination of the philosophy un- 
folded in Mr. Herbert Spencer's ( First Prin- 
ciples.' Birks held the views expressed by 
Mr. Spencer { to be radically unsound, full 
of logical inconsistency and contradiction, 
.and flatly opposed to the fundamental doc- 
trines of Christianity and even the very ex- 
istence of moral science.' To the strictures 
upon his ' First Principles ' Mr. Spencer re- 
plied at length, and this led to the re-publi- 
cation, in 1882, of Birks's treatise, with an 
introduction by Dr. Pritchard, F.R.S., Sa- 
vilian professor of astronomy at Oxford, in 
which Mr. Spencer's rejoinder was dealt with, 
and the original arguments of Birks illustrated 
and further explained. 

Birks resigned the vicarage of Trinity in 
1877, and in the same year published a 
volume on ' Manuscript Evidence in the 
Text of the New Testament/ being an en- 
deavour to bring ' mathematical reasoning 
to bear on the probable value of the manu- 
scripts of different ages, with a general in- 
ference in favour of the high value of the 
cursive manuscripts as a class.' In the same 
year Birks issued his * Supernatural Revela- 
tion/ being an answer to a work on ' Super- 
natural Religion/ which had given rise to 
much criticism. Birks's treatise was repub- 
lished at a later period by Professor Pritchard, 
with a reply to objections that had been 
urged against it. 

Early in 1875 Birks suffered from a para- 
lytic seizure, and this was followed by a 
.second stroke in 1877. He still took a deep 
interest in questions of the day, and was 
able to dictate various works, pamphlets, 
.and letters bearing upon these questions. 
In April 1880, while residing in the New 
Forest, he was stricken for a third time, 
and fatally, with paralysis. He was con- 
veyed home to Cambridge, where he lin- 

gered for three years, being incapacitated 
for intellectual effort. He died on 19 July 

Birks was for twenty-one years honorary 
i secretary to the Evangelical Alliance. He 
| was an examiner for the theological exami- 
| nation at Cambridge in 1867 and 1868, and 
I was a member of the board of theological 
I studies. He took an active part in all uni- 
; versity affairs during his connection with 
| Cambridge, was appointed to preach the 
| Ramsden sermon in 1867, and was frequently 
! a select preacher before the university. In 
I addition to the works named in the course 
! of this article, Birks was the author of a 
j considerable number of treatises on prophecy 
i and other subjects connected with the older 
j revelation, as well as of a l Memoir of the 
' Rev. Edward Bickersteth.' 

[The works of Professor Birks ; Record, 27 July 
1 1883 ; Men of the Time (llth edition) ; Times, 
23 July 1883; Guardian, 25 July 1883.1 

G. B. S. 

BIRMINGHAM, JOHN (1816-1884), 
astronomer, was a country gentleman residing 
at Millbrook, near Tuam, Ireland, whose 
I attention was directed to astronomy by his 
' discovery of a remarkable new star in Corona 
I Borealis on 12 May 1866 (Month. Ato.,xxvi. 
310). In 1872, at the suggestion of the Rev. 
T. W. Webb, he undertook a revision of 
Schjellerup's i Catalogue of Red Stars/ and 
extended the scope of his task so as to in- 
I elude Schmidt's list from the ' Astronomische 
1 Nachrichten' (No. 1902), some ninety ruddy 
stars found by Webb and himself, with 
| others pointed out by the late C. E. Burton 
| in all, 658 such objects reobserved with a 
I 4^-inch refractor, and a magnifying power of 
53. The spectra of several, as described by 
! Secchi, D'Arrest, and others, were added. 
I This valuable work was presented to the 
Royal Irish Academy on 26 June 1876, and 
published in their * Transactions ' (xxvi. 249, 
1879). Its merit was acknowledged by the 
bestowal of the Cunningham medal early in 
1884. Birmingham was engaged in revising 
and extending it at the time of his death, 
which occurred at Millbrook, from an attack 
of jaundice, on 7 Sept. 1884. He was unmar- 
ried, a pious catholic, liberal, kindly, and 
unassuming. He possessed considerable lin- 
guistic accomplishments, had travelled in 
most parts of Europe, and was in correspon- 
dence with several foreign astronomers, 
notably with Father Secchi of Rome. He 
held for some time the post of inspector 
under the board of works. 

On 22 May 1881 he discovered a deep red 
star in Cygnus, which proved strikingly vari- 




able, and became known by his name. The 
particulars of his observations on the meteor- 
showers of 12-13 Dec. 1866, and 27 Nov. 1872, 
on the transit of Venus of 6 Dec. 1882, on 
sun-spots and variables, were published in 
' Monthly Notices/ t Astronornische Nach- 
richten/ and ' Nature.' He communicated to 
the British Association in 1857 a paper on 
* The Drift of West Galway and the Eastern 
Parts of Mayo ' (Report, ii. 64), published in 
cxtenso in the ' Journal of the Geological 
Society of Dublin ' (viii. 28, 111). The same 
volume contains (p. 26) his remarks on the 
1 Junction of the Limestone, Sandstone, and 
Granite at Oughterard, co. Galway.' His 
only separate publication was a small poeti- 
cal work of a controversial character entitled 
' Anglicania, or England's Mission to the 
Celt ' (London, 1863). 

[Athenaeum, 20 Sept. 1884 ; Tuam News, 
12 Sept. 1884; R. Soc. Cat. Scientific Papers, 
i. 388, vii. 178.] A. M. C. 

BIRNIE, ALEXANDER (1826-1862), 
poet and journalist, was born in the north of 
Scotland, it is believed in Morayshire. The 
place and exact date of his birth are un- 
known ; but he has himself left it on record 
that he was born in 1826. His life was 
erratic. At an early age he came to Eng- 
land, and was at one time a baptist minister 
in Preston. He was in that town when it 
passed through its great labour strikes, and 
he wrote letters to the local journals on the 
events of the day. In 1860 he arrived in 
Falkirk, foot sore and penniless, having walked 
all the way from Lancashire. He obtained 
some employment, but, being dismissed from 
it, entered the Carron works, Falkirk, as a 
painter. He appears to have struck all with 
whom he came in contact by his brilliant 
powers. Birnie was ultimately dismissed 
from the Carron works for intemperance. 
While in Carron he began his journalistic 
notes under the signature of f Cock of the 
Steeple.' He was ultimately taken upon the 
regular staff of the f Falkirk Advertiser ; ' but 
several weeks before that journal ceased pub- 
lication, he began the 'Falkirk Liberal/ 
which was published at one halfpenny per 
copy, and printed in Stirling. Although this 
journal was the recognised organ of the 
feuars of Falkirk, it speedily began to be 
apparent that it could not succeed. The 
printers lost by the speculation, and Birnie, 
' sorrowing and penitent for his sins, went 
to his death, crushed in spirit that he could 
only raise 3/. 10*. to pay an account of 27/.' 
It is stated that his party promised to sup- 
port him, but failed to do so. 

Birnie's death was melancholy. One morn- 

ing in March 1862, he was found in a straw 
stack near Stobhill brick works, Morpeth r 
where he had been concealed without food 
or drink for a fortnight. His statement to> 
this effect was corroborated by a diary which 
he had carefully kept for some weeks. He 
j was removed to the workhouse hospital ;. 
mortification of both feet set in, and he suc- 
cumbed at the age of thirty-six years. It 
1 appears that Birnie made his way to Edin- 
: burgh, hoping to meet with employment 
there. In one of the dens of that city he was 
robbed of the whole of his little stock of 
money, and resolved to commit suicide. He 
obtained a large quantity of laudanum, which 
he swallowed ; but his stomach being unable 
to retain the quantity of poison, which was 
far too large, his life was saved. He now 
started on foot for Newcastle, and made daily 
entries in a little journal which has been 
printed. Reaching Morpeth late in the even- 
ing, he spent his last penny on a roll. Mis- 
taking his road, fatigue overpowered him, 
and he crept into a stack, with the intention 
of sleeping or starving to death, as the last 
entry in his diary testified. He requested 
in it that some kind hand might make a se- 
lection of his articles and speeches in this 
and in another diary at Chester-le-Street, 
as well as from the ' Chester-le-Street Libe- 
ral/ and ' Falkirk Advertiser and Liberal/ and 
publish them on behalf of his widow and 
family. A subscription was raised on behalf 
of Mrs. Birnie and her children, but it does 
not appear that the request for a collection 
from the deceased's writings was carried out. 

[Gent, Mag. 1862 ; Falkirk Herald. March 
1862; Newcastle Chronicle, March 1862; and 
other journals of the time.] Gr. B. S. 

BIRNIE, SIB RICHARD (1760 P-1832), 
police magistrate of Bow Street, London, 
was a native of Banff, Scotland, and was 
born about 1760. After serving his ap- 
prenticeship to a saddler he came to London, 
where he obtained a situation in the house of 
j Macintosh & Co. in the Haymarket, sad- 
i dlers and harness-makers to the royal family. 
i Having on one occasion been accidentally 
j called upon to attend on the Prince of Wales, 
: he did his work so satisfactorily that the 
prince on similar occasions was accustomed 
to ask that the 'young Scotchman' might 
be sent to him. The patronage of the 
prince secured his advancement with the 
firm, and he was made foreman and eventu- 
ally a partner in the establishment. Through 
his marriage with the daughter of a wealthy 
baker he also obtained a considerable fortune, 
including a cottage with adjoining land at 
Acton, Middlesex. After his marriage he 



rented a house in St. Martin's parish, and 

office except that of watchman and beadle. 
In 1805 he was appointed churchwarden 
and, along with his colleague and the vicar, ; 
he established a number of almshouses for 
decayed parishioners in Pratt Street, Camden 
Town. He also gave proof of his public . 
spirit by enrolling himself in the Royal West- 
minster Volunteers, in which he became a i 
captain. At the special request of the Duke 
of Northumberland he was placed in the | 
commission of the peace, and from this time \ 
he began to frequent the Bow Street police ; 
court, in order to obtain a practical acquaint- ! 
ance with magisterial duties. In the absence 
of the stipendiary magistrates he sometimes 
presided on the bench, and with such effi- 
ciency that he was at length appointed police j 
magistrate at Union Hall, from which he \ 
was a few years afterwards promoted to the j 
Bow Street office. In February 1820 he j 
headed the police officers in the apprehension 
of the Cato-street conspirators. He took the j 
responsibility, in the absence of the soldiers, j 
who failed, as they had been ordered, to turn ! 
out at a moment's notice, of proceeding at 
once to attempt the capture of the band, be- 
fore they were fully prepared and armed. 
In this dangerous enterprise he, according 
to a contemporary account, ' exposed himself 
everywhere, encouraging officers to do their 
duty, while the balls were whizzing about 
his head.' At the funeral of Queen Caroline 
in August 1821 he displayed similar decision 
and presence of mind in a like critical emer- 
gency, and when Sir Robert Baker, the chief 
magistrate, refused to read the riot act, took 
upon himself the responsibility of reading it. 
Shortly afterwards Baker resigned, and he 
was appointed to succeed him, the honour of 
knighthood being also conferred on him in Sep- 
tember following. During his term of office 
he was held in high respect by the ministers 
in power, who were accustomed to consult 
him on all matters of importance relating to 
the metropolis. He also retained throughout 
life the special favour of George IV. He 
died on 29 April 1832. 

[Gent. Mag. cii. pt. i. pp. 470-1 ; Ann. Reg. 
Ixxiv. 198-9.] T. F. H. 

BIRNIE, WILLIAM(1563-1619),Scotch 
divine, was only son of a fabulously ancient 
house, William Birnie of ' that ilk.' He was 
born at Edinburgh in 1563, entered student in 
St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, 3 Dec. 
1584, proceeded in his degree of M.A. in 1588, 
became a ship-master merchant, but sustain- 

ing heavy losses at sea returned to his studies, 
and attended divinity three years in Leyden. 
He is found in exercise at Edinburgh 25 Jan. 
1596, and w r as presented to the vicarage of 
Lanark by James VI on 28 Dec. 1597. There 
had been internecine feuds in the parish for a 
number of years. ]Jut Birnie, a man of com- 
manding presence, was able to wield a sword, 
and thus is said to have gradually reconciled 

rrties. He was constituted by the king, 
Aug. 1603, master and economus of the 
hospital and almshouse of St. Leonard's, and 
appointed dean of the Chapel Royal 20 Sept. 
1612. Earlier he had shown sympathy with 
the brethren confined in Blackness Castle 
previous to their trial in 1606 at Linlithgow. 
He appears as a member of the general as- 
sembly of the kirk of Scotland in 1602, 1608, 
1610. He was nominated * constant mode- 
rator of the presbytery ' by the assembly of 
1606, and the presbytery were l charged by 
the privy council 17 Jan. thereafter, to serve 
him as such within twenty-four hours after 
notice, under pain of rebellion.' He was 
also named on the court of high commission 
15 Feb. 1610, and presented to the deanery 
of the Chapel Royal of Stirling, which was 
1 to be hereafter callit the Chapel Royal of 
Scotland,' 20 Sept. 1612. The acceptance of 
the f constant moderatorship ' showed episco- 
pal leanings. In 1612 he was transferred 
from Lanark to Ayr, to l parsonages prima 
and secundo, and vicarages of the same, and 
to the parsonage and vicarage of Alloway ' 
the scene of the Tarn o' Shanter of Burns 
on 16 June 1614. He was a member again 
of the high commission 21 Dec. 1615, and one 
of the commissioners for the suppression of 
popery agreed to by the assembly in 1616. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John Lindsay,, 
parson of Carstairs. Their issue were three 
sons and two daughters. He died on 19 Jan. 
1619 in the fifty-sixth year of his age and 
twenty-second of his ministry. A kind of 
doggerel epitaph runs : 

He waited on his charge with care and pains 
At Air on little hopes, and smaller gains. 

For generations stories were told of him 
all over the southern shires of Scotland. One 
represents him as so agile that he could make 
the salmon's leap ' by stretching himself on 
the grass, leaping to his feet, and again 
throwing them over his head.' He was the 
author of a prose book entitled l The Blame 
ofKirk-bvriall, tending to perswade Cemete- 
riall Civilitie. First preached, then penned, 
and now at last propyned to the Lord's inheri- 
tance in the Presbyterie of Lanark by M. 
William Birnie, the Lord his minister in that 
ilk, as a pledge of his zeale and care of that 




reformation. Edinburgh, printed by Robert 
Charteris, printer to the king's most excellent 
maiestie, 1606 ' (4to). This was reprinted in 
1833, in one hundred copies, by W. B. D. 
Turnbull. Birnie here deprecates interment 
within the church. There is considerable 
learning in the book, but its lack of arrange- 
ment and an absurdly alliterative style make 
it wearisome reading. 

[Scott's Fasti, ii. 86-7, 306 ; Eeid's History 
of Presbyterianism in Ireland, i. ; Blair's Auto- 
biography ; Stevenson's Hist, of Church of Scot- 
land ; Calderwood's History ; Boke of the Kirke, 
318; Orig. Letters; Melvill's Autob.; Nisbet's 
Heraldry, ii. ; Anderson's Scottish Nation, for 
ancestry and descendants.] A. B. (r. 


BIRREL, ROBERT (Ji. 1567-1605), dia- 
rist, was a burgess of Edinburgh. His 
' Diary, containing Divers passages of Staite, 
and Uthers Memorable Accidents. From the 
1532 yeir of our Redemption, till ye Begin- 
ning of the yeir 1605,' was published in 1798 
in * Fragments of Scottish History,' edited by 
Sir John Graham Dalyell. Extracts from the 
* Diary ' were also published in 1820. There 
is not much minuteness in the record of events 
till about 1567, when Birrel probably began 
to keep a note of them. There is no evidence 
in the ' Diary ' regarding the political or re- 
ligious views of the writer, facts being simply 
recorded as they happened, without comment 
or any apparent bias of opinion. There is 
some evidence that the work was intended 
for publication, the writer having apparently 
taken some trouble to collect his facts. A con- 
siderable part of it was incorporated by Sir 
James Balfour in his ' Annals.' The original 
manuscript is in the Advocates' Library. 

[Diary as above.] T. F. H. 


(1635-1695), divine, son of the Rev. John 
Bisbie, of Tipton, Staffordshire, who was 
ejected from a prebend in Lichfield Cathedral 
about 1644, and of Margaret, daughter of 
Anthony Hoo, of Bradely Hall in the same 
county, was born 5 June 1635. He was 
elected student of Christ Church, Oxford, from 
Westminster School, in 1654, proceeded B. A. 
1657 and M.A. 1660, and accumulated his 
degrees in divinity on 7 June 1668. At the 
Restoration he was presented to the rectory 
of Long Melford, Sudbury, Suffolk. He was 
then, says Anthony a Wood, l esteemed an 
excellent preacher and a zealous person for 
the church of England.' He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Wall, of Radwater 
Grange, Essex, in 1672. He published a 
number of occasional sermons, entitled ' The 

Modern Pharisees,' 1673; * Prosecution no 
Persecution, or the Difference between Suf- 
fering for Disobedience and Faction and 
Suffering for Righteousness and Christ's 
sake,' 1682; 'Mischiefs of Anarchy,' 1682; 
' Korah and his Company proved to be the 
Seminary and Seed-plot of Sedition and Re- 
bellion,' 1684 ; i The Bishop visiting,' 1686. 
On the accession of William and Mary he re- 
fused to take the oath of allegiance, and as 
a nonjuror was deprived of his rectory of 
Melford in February 1690. His publications 
consist nearly wholly of violent invectives 
against the nonconformists. He died 14 May 
1695, and was buried at Long Melford. 

[Wood's Athense (Bliss), iv. 640; Walker's 
Sufferings ; Rawlinson MSS., Bodleian Library ; 
Fuller's Worthies; Welch's Scholars of West- 
minster (1852), 142-3.] A. B. G. 

BISCHOFF, JAMES (1776-1845), author 
of works on the wool trade, was of a German 
family which settled in Leeds in 1718. He 
was born at Leeds about 1776,and was brought 
up there. His early mercantile pursuits were 
connected with the wool and woollen trades, 
and he took a lively interest in all measures 
likely to affect them. Being convinced that 
the restrictive laws relating to wool were bad, 
he used his utmost endeavours to bring about 
a change. He published some letters on the 
subject in 1816 in the 'Leeds Mercury' and 
the 'Farmer's Journal.' In 1819 he was ap- 
pointed one of the deputies from the manu- 
facturing districts to promote a repeal of the 
Wool Act, and wrote a pamphlet entitled 
'Reasons for the Immediate Repeal of the 
Tax on Foreign Wool' (1819, 8vo, pp. 47). 
In the following year he published ' Obser- 
i vations on the Report of the Earl of Sheffield 
to the Meeting at Lewes Wool Fair, July 20, 
1820.' In 1825 Huskisson, then president 
of the board of trade, invited the counsel of 
Bischoff with regard to some proposed altera- 
tions in commercial policy, particularly a re- 
duction of the duty on foreign manufactured 
goods. Bischoff gave his opinion strongly 
in the direction of freedom of trade, and the 
reasons he advanced had great weight with 
the minister in the proposals which he subse- 
quently made in parliament. He was examined 
in 1828 before the privy council on the subject 
of the wool trade, and in the same year pub- 
lished ' The Wool Question considered: being 
an Examination of the Report of the Select 
Committee of the House of Lords appointed 
to take into consideration the State of the 
British Wool Trade, and an Answer to Earl 
Stanhope's Letter to the Owners and Occu- 
j piers of Sheep Farms' (8vo, pp. 112). In 
| 1832 he issued a ' Sketch of the History of 


8 9 


Van Dieman's Land,' 8vo, and in 1836 an 
essay' on ' Marine Insurances, their Impor- 
tance, their Rise, Progress, and Decline, and 
their Claim to Freedom from Taxation/ 8vo, 
pp. 34. BischoiFs most important work has 
the following title : ' A comprehensive His- 
tory of the Woollen and Worsted Manufac- 
tures, and the Natural and Commercial His- 
tory of Sheep, from the Earliest Records to 
the Present Period ' (Leeds, 1842,2 vols. 8vo). 
His last publication was a pamphlet on 
' Foreign Tariffs ; their Injurious Effects on 
British Manufactures, especially the Woollen 
Manufacture ; with proposed remedies. Being 
chiefly a series of Articles inserted in the 
" Leeds Mercury" from October 1842 to 
February 1843 ' (1843, 8vo, pp. 69). 

Bischoff, who married in 1802 Peggy, 
daughter of Mr. David Stansfeld of Leeds, 
carried on business as a merchant and in- 
surance broker for many years in London, 
and died at his residence, Highbury Terrace, 
on 8 Feb. 1845, in his seventieth year. 

Mount Bischoff, in the north-west corner 
of Tasmania, is said to derive its name from 
James Bischoff. 

[Gent. Mag., April 1845, p. 443; Preface to 
Bischoff's Hist, of the Woollen and Worsted 
Manufactures ; Stansfeld pedigree in Foster's 
Yorkshire Pedigrees.] C. W. S. 

BISCOE, JOHN (rf.1679), puritan divine, 
was born at High Wycombe, Buckingham- 
shire, and educated at New Inn Hall, Oxford. 
In'Athense Oxonienses' (ed. Bliss, iii. 1198) 
Wood states that he was born in 1646, 
which is probably a literal error for 1606. 
From the ' Fasti ' we learn that he took his 
bachelor's degree on 1 Feb. 1626-7. He left 
the university about two years afterwards, 
and became a preacher at Abingdon. Hav- 
ing joined the puritan party he was ap- 
pointed minister of St. Thomas's, South- 
wark. He served as assistant to the com- 
missioners of Surrey appointed to eject 
' scandalous and insufficient ministers.' At 
the Restoration, being ejected from his living, 
he preached in conventicles. He died at 
High Wycombe, where he was buried on 
9 June 1679. Biscoe is the author of: 
1. ' Glorious Mystery of God's Mercy, or a 
Precious Cordial for Fainting Souls/ 1647, 
8vo. 2. 'The Grand Trial of True Conversion, 
or Sanctifying Grace appearing and acting 
first and chiefly in the Thoughts,' 8vo, 1655. 
S. ' Mystery of Free Grace in the Gospel, 
and Mystery of the Gospel in the Law,' n.d. 

[Wood's Athense Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, iii. 
1198; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 426 ; Calamy's 
Nonconformist's Memorial, ed. Palmer, i. 135.1 

A. H. B. 

BISCOE, RICHARD (d. 1748), divine, 
was educated at an academy kept by Dr. 
Benion at Shrewsbury, and on 19 Dec.^1716 
was made a dissenting minister at a meeting- 
house in the Old Jewry. In 1727 he con- 
formed and was made rector of St. Martin 
Outwich, in the city of London. He also 
held the living of Northwald, near Epping, 
and was a minor canon of St. Paul's and 
a chaplain to George II. He died in May 
1748. He delivered the Boyle lectures in 
1736, 1737, and 1738, and in 1742 published 
in two volumes the substance of his prelec- 
tions under the title ' History of the Acts of the 
Holy Apostles confirmed from other authors ; 
and considered as full evidence of the truth 
of Christianity, with a prefatory discourse 011 
the nature of that evidence.' The work is 
highly eulogised by Dr. Doddridge as showing 
* in the most convincing manner how incon- 
testably the Acts of the Apostles demonstrate 
the truth of Christianity.' It was reprinted 
in 1829 and 1840. A German translation 
w^as published at Magdeburg in 1751. He 
was also the author of ' Remarks on a Book 
lately published entitled " A Plain Account 
of the Nature and End of the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper," ' 1735. 

[London Magazine, xvii . ( 1 ? 48) 284 ; Protestant 
Dissenters' Magazine, vi. 306-7 ; Chalmers's 
Biog. Diet. v. 298 ; British Museum Catalogue.] 

BISHOP, ANN (1814-1884), vocalist, was 
the daughter of a drawing-master named 
Riviere, and was born in London in 1 814. As a 
child she showed talent for the pianoforte, and 
studied under Moscheles. On 12 June 1824 
she was elected a student at the Royal Aca- 
demy of Music, where she soon distinguished 
herself by her singing. On leaving the aca- 
demy she became (in 1831) the second wife of 
Sir Henry Rowley Bishop, the composer, and 
in the same year appeared at the Philharmonic 
Concerts as a singer. Her reputation quickly 
increased, and for the next few years she took 
a prominent place at Vauxhall, the so-called 
1 Oratorios,' and the country festivals. At 
first Mrs. Bishop devoted herself to clas- 
sical music, but she was induced to turn her 
attention to the Italian school by Bochsa, the 
harp-player, with whom she went on a pro- 
vincial tour in the spring of 1839. On their 
return to London she sang at a benefit con- 
cert given by Bochsa, at which she achieved 
great success, although Grisi, Persiani, and 
Viardot were among the performers. A few 
days later she left her husband and eloped 
with Bochsa to the continent. From Sep- 
tember 1839 to May 1843 she visited the 
principal towns of Europe, and sang at no 
less than 260 concerts. Among other places 

Bishop < 

she visited St. Petersburg, Novgorod, Odessa, 
and Kasan, in which latter town she is said 
to have sung in the Tartar language. From 
1843 to 1846 she sang in Italy with great 
success ; at the San Carlo at Naples she ap- 

Cred in twenty operas, her engagement 
ing for twenty-seven months. In 1846 
she returned to England, together with 
Bochsa, and sang at several concerts. In 
1847 Mrs. Bishop went to America, where 
she sanjy in the United States, Mexico, and 
California. In 1855 she went to Australia, 
where Bochsa died, and Mrs. Bishop re- 
turned to England by way of South America 
and New York, where she married a Mr. 
Schulz. She sang at the Crystal Palace in 

1858, and, after a farewell concert on 17 Aug. 

1859, returned to America, and sang with 
great success throughout Canada, the United 
States, Mexico, and at Havana. In 1865 
she left New York and went to California, 
whence she sailed for the Sandwich Islands. 
In February 1866 the ship in which she 
was sailing from Honolulu to China was 
wrecked on a coral reef, and Mrs. Bishop 
lost all her music, jewels, and wardrobe. 
After forty days' privation the shipwrecked 
crew reached the Ladrone Islands, whence 
the indefatigable singer went to Manilla, and 
after singing there and in China arrived in 
India in 1867. In May 1868 she was once 
more in Australia, and after visiting London 
she went to New York, where the remainder 
of her life was spent. She died of apoplexy in 
March 1884. Mrs., or Madame Anna Bishop, 
as she was generally called, possessed a high 
soprano voice, and was a brilliant but some- 
what unsympathetic singer. She was a mem- 
ber of many foreign musical societies, and her 
popularity in the United States was great. 

[Times, 24 March 1884 ; Moore's Encyclopaedia 
of Music ; Cazalet's History of the Eoyal Aca- 
demy of Music, p. 138 ; Men of the Time (10th 
ed.); Musical World, xii. 11, 179, 235; Add. 
MS. 29261.] W.B. S. 

BISHOP, GEORGE (1785-1861), astro- 
nomer, was born at Leicester 21 Aug. 1785. 
At the age of eighteen he entered a British 
wine-making business in London, to which 
he afterwards, as its proprietor, gave such 
extension that the excise returns were said 
to exhibit half of all home-made wines as 
of his manufacture. His scientific career 
may be said to date from his admission to the 
Royal Astronomical Society in 1830. The 
amount and stability of his fortune by that 
time permitted the indulgence of tastes 
hitherto in abeyance. He took lessons in 
algebra from Professor De Morgan, with a 
view to reading the t Mecanique Celeste,' and 

>. Bishop 

acquired, when near fifty, sufficient mathe- 
matical knowledge to enable him to compre- 
hend the scope of its methods. In 1836 he 
realised a long-cherished desire by erecting 
an observatory near his residence at South. 
Villa, Regent's Park. No expense was spared 
in its equipment, and the excellence of the 
equatorial furnished by Dollond (aperture,, 
seven inches) confirmed his resolve that some 
higher purpose than mere amusement should 
be served by the establishment. ' I am de- 
termined,' he said when choosing its site, 
' that this observatory shall do something/ 
He attained his aim by securing the best 
observers. The Rev. William Dawes con- 
| ducted his noted investigations of double 
j stars at South Villa 1839-44 ; Mr. John 
I Russell Hind began his memorable career 
| there in October of the latter year. From 
| the time that Hencke's detection of Astnea, 
8 Dec. 1845, showed a prospect of success in 
I the search for new planets, the resources of 
Bishop's observatory were turned in that di- 
rection, and with conspicuous results. Be- 
tween 1847 and 1854 Mr. Hind discovered 
ten small planets, and Mr. Marth one, making 
i a total of eleven dating from South Villa. 
' The ecliptic charts undertaken by Mr. Hind 
| for the purpose of facilitating the search were 
' continued, after his appointment in 1853 as 
! superintendent of the ' Nautical Almanac,' by 
Pogson, Vogel, Marth, and Talmage succes- 
sively, under his supervision. They embraced 
all stars down to the eleventh magnitude in- 
clusive, and extended over a zone of three 
degrees on each side of the ecliptic. Seven- 
teen of the twenty-four hours were engraved 
when the observatory was broken up on the 
death of its owner. 

A testimonial was awarded to Bishop by 
the Astronomical Society, 14 Jan. 1848, 'for 
the foundation of an observatory leading to- 
various astronomical discoveries,' and pre- 
sented, with a warmly commendatory ad- 
dress, by Sir John Herschel, 11 Feb. (Month. 
Not. R. A. Soc. viii. 105). He acted as se- 
cretary to the society 1833-9, as treasurer 
1840-57, and was chosen president in two 
successive years, 1857 and 1858, although the 
state of his health rendered him unable to 
i take the chair. After a long period of bodilv 
prostration, his mind remaining, however, un- 
clouded, he died 14 June 1861, in his seventy- 
sixth year. His character, both social and 
! commercial, was of the highest, and his dis- 
\ criminating patronage of science raised him to- 
the front rank of amateurs. He was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society 9 June 1848 r 
i was also a fellow of the Society of Arts, 
and sat for some years on the council of Uni- 
versity College. He published in 1852, in one 


9 1 

quarto volume, * Astronomical Observations 
taken at the Observatory, South Villa, Re- 
gent's Park, during the years 1839-51,' in- 
cluding a catalogue of double stars observed | 
by Dawes and Hind, with valuable t historical j 
and descriptive notes ' by the latter, observa- 
tions of new planets and comets, and of the 
temporary star discovered by Hind in Ophiu- 
chus 27 April 1848, besides a description of 
the observatory, &c. After Bishop's death 
the instruments and dome were removed to ; 
the residence of George Bishop, jun., at . 
Twickenham, where the same system of work j 
was pursued. 

[Month. Not. E. A. Soc. xxii. 104 ; L'Astro- 
nomie Pratique, Andre et Rayet, i. 95 ; Ann. Reg. 
ciii. 402.] A. M. C. 


(1786-1855), musical composer, was the; 
son of a London merchant whose family j 
came from Shropshire, and was born in Great ! 
Portland Street on 18 Nov. 1786. He seems 
to have received all his instruction in music 
from Francesco Bianchi, an Italian who came 
to England in 1793, where he lived for the ! 
rest of his life, enjoying a great reputation, ! 
not only as a composer, but also as a teacher 
and theoretical musician. Bishop's earliest ! 
compositions are a set of twelve glees and 
several Italian songs, in all of which the in- 
fluence of his master an influence w r hich 
remained with him throughout his life is ! 
plainly discernible. In 1804 his first operatic | 
work/- Angelina,' was played at the Theatre ; 
Royal, Margate. He soon after began to j 
write ballet music for the King's Theatre | 
and Drury Lane. At the former house the | 
success of his l Tamerlan et Bajazet ' (1806) i 
led to his permanent engagement, and he 
began at once to write the immense mass of 
compilations, arrangements, and incidental 
music which for thirty years he continued to 
produce. In this manner he was more or 
less concerned in ' Armide et Renaud ' (15 May 
1806), 'Narcisse et les Graces ' (June 1806), 
and ' Love in a Tub ' (November 1806). At 
Drury Lane he wrote or arranged music for 
1 ( 'aractacus,' a pantomime-ballet (22 April 
1808), < The Wife of Two Husbands ' (9 May 
1808), 'The Mysterious Bride ' (1 June 1808), 
' The Siege of St. Quentin ' (10 Nov. 1808), 
besides contributing some new music to * The 
Cabinet.' Other works of this period are ' The 
Corsair, or the Italian Nuptials,' described as 
a ' pantomimical drama,' and ' The Travellers 
at Spa,' an entertainment of Mrs. Mountain's, 
for which Bishop wrote music. At the begin- 
ning of 1809 his first important opera, * The 
Circassian Bride,' was accepted at Drury 
Lane, and was brought out with great suc- 


cess on 23 Feb., but on the following night 
the theatre was burnt down, and the score 
of the opera, which Bishop subsequently re- 
wrote from memory, perished in the flames. 
On 15 June of the same year his ballet, 
1 Mora's Love,' was performed at the Kings 
Theatre in the Haymarket, which was fol- 
lowed at the same house by ' The Vintagers ' 
on 1 Aug. After the burning of Drury Lane 
the company of that house moved to the Ly- 
ceum Theatre, and here Bishop produced, on 
13 March 1810, ' The Maniac, or Swiss Ban- 
ditti/ which was acted twenty-six times. He 
was next engaged for three years as composer 
and director of the music at Covent Garden 
Theatre, where the first work upon which he 
was employed was the music to ' The Knight 
of Snowdoun,' a musical drama, founded on 
Sir Walter Scott's ' Lady of the Lake,' which 
was produced on 5 Feb. 1811, and was acted 
twenty-three times. This was followed in 
rapid succession by 'The Virgin of Sun' 
(31 Jan. 1812), ' The ^Ethiop ' (6 Oct. 1812), 
new music for ' The Lord of the Manor ' 
(22 Oct. 1812), 'The Renegade' (2 Dec. 
1812), ' Haroun al Raschid,' a new version 
of ' The yEthiop,' produced on 11 Jan. 1813, 
and withdrawn after one performance, new 
music to ' Poor Vulcan ' (8 Feb. 1813), ' The 
Brazen Bust ' (29 May 1813), and ' Harry le 
Roy,' an 'heroic pastoral burletta' (2 July 
1813). On the expiration of his first engage- 
ment at Covent Garden he was re-engaged for 
five years, during which his most noteworthy 
production was the music to the melodrama 
' The Miller and his Men,' which was per- 
formed for the first time on 21 Oct. 1813, 
but received additions in 1814. In 1813, on 
the foundation of the Philharmonic Society, 
Bishop was one of the original members, but 
none of his compositions were performed by 
the new society until some years later. In- 
deed the whole of his energies at this time 
must have been devoted to his duties at 
Covent Garden, where he continued to pro- 
duce in rapid succession a series of original 
compositions and compilations, which, though 
often of the slightest quality, must have 
kept him too fully occupied to devote him- 
self seriously to the cultivation of his un- 
doubted talent. ' The Miller and his Men r 
was followed on 15 Dec. 1813 by 'For Eng- 
land Ho ! ' and this (in collaboration with 
Davy, Reeve, and others) by ' The Farmer's 
Wife ' (1 Feb. 1814), ' The Wandering Boys r 
(24 Feb. 1814), ' Hanover,' a cantata written 
for Braham and performed at the oratorios 
at Covent Garden in March 1814, 'Sadak 
and Kalastrade ' (11 April 1814), fresh music 
to ' Lionel and Clarissa ' (3 May 1814), < The 
Grand Alliance,' announced as ' an allegorical 


festival ' (13 June 1814), ' Aurora ' and ' Doc- 
tor Sangrado,' both ballets (September 1814), 
a compressed version of Arne's ' Artaxerxes,' 
with recitatives by Bishop, and ' The Forest 
of Bondy ' (both" on 30 Sept. 1814), addi- 
tional music in 'The Maid of the Mill' 
(18 Oct. 1814), a compilation from Boi'el- 
dieu's 'John of Paris' (12 Nov. 1814), 
* Brother and Sister,' in collaboration with 
Reeve (1 Feb. 1815), 'The Noble Outlaw' 
(7 April 1815), ' Telemachus ' (7 June 1815), 
4 The Magpie or the Maid ' (15 Sept. 1815), 
4 John du Bart' (25 Oct. 1815), additions to 
'Cymon' (20 Nov. 1815), ' Comus ' (same 
year), and ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' 
(17 Jan. 1816), ' Guy Mannering,' a collabo- 
ration with Attwood. Whittaker, and others, 
Bishop's best work in it being the famous 

flee 'The Chough and Crow' (12 March 
816), ' Who wants a Wife ' (16 April 1816), 
a version of 'Kreutzer's ' Lodoiska ' (15 Oct. 
1816), 'The Slave' (12 Nov. 1816), ' Royal 
Nuptials' (November 1816), 'The Humour- 
ous Lieutenant ' (18 Jan. 1817), ' The Heir 
of Vironi ' (27 Feb. 1817), ' The Apostate ' 
(13 May 1817), ' The Libertine,' a very free 
adaptation of Mozart's ' Don Juan ' (20 May 
1817), ' The Duke of Savoy ' (29 Sept, 1817), 
and ' The Father and his Children ' (25 Oct. 
1817). In 1816 and 1817, in addition to his 
post at Covent Garden, Bishop was director 
of the music at the King's Theatre in the 
Haymarket, where he wrote music for ' Exit 
by Mistake,' a comedy ballet (22 July 1816), 
and ' Teasing made Easy ' (30 July 1817). 
But Covent Garden remained the chief scene 
of his labours, and here during the next few 
years he wrote or adapted music for the fol- 
lowing plays and operas : ' The Illustrious 
Traveller' (3 Feb. 1818), ' Fazio ; (5 Feb. 
1818), ' Zuma,' in collaboration with Braham 
(21 Feb. 1818), additions to 'The Devil's 
Bridge ' (11 April 1818), ' X Y Z ' (13 June 
1818), ' The Burgomaster of Saardam ' 
(23 Sept. 1818), ' The Barber of Seville,' a 
version of Rossini's opera (13 Oct. 1818), 
4 The Marriage of Figaro,' a free adaptation 
from Mozart (6 March 1819), 'Fortunatus 
and his Sons ' (12 April 1819), ' The Heart 
of Midlothian ' (17 April 1819), 'A Roland 
for an Oliver' (29 April 1819), 'Swedish 
Patriotism' (19 May 1819), 'The' Gnome 
King ' (6 Oct. 1819), ' The Comedy of Errors ' 
(11 Dec. 1819), 'The Antiquary' (25 Jan. 
1820), 'Henri Quatre' (22 April 1820), 
4 Montoni ' (3 May 1820), ' Bothwell Brigg ' 
(22 May 1820), 'Twelfth Night' (8 Nov. 
1820), 'Don John.' (20 Feb. 1821), music to 
4 Henry IV,' part ii. (25 June 1821), ' Two 
Gentlemen of Verona' (29 Nov. 1821),' Mont- 
rose' (14 Feb. 1822), 'The Law of Java,' 


which contains the well-known 'Mynheer 
van Dunck ' (11 May 1822), ' Maid Marian ' 
(3 Dec. 1822), 'The Vision of the Sun' 
(31 March 1823), ' Clari ' (8 May 1823), in 
which Bishop introduced or composed (for 
the origin of the tune is a matter of dispute) 
the ever-popular ' Home, sweet Home,' ' The 
Beacon of Liberty ' (8 Oct. 1823), ' Cortez ' 
(5 Nov. 1823), 'The Vespers of Palermo' 
(12 Dec. 1823), 'Native Land' (10 Feb. 
1824), ' Charles II ' (9 May 1824), and i As 
you like it' (10 Dec. 1824). With the 
last-named work Bishop's long connection 
with Covent Garden terminated. In 1819 
he had entered into partnership with the 

I management of the theatre in conducting 
the so-called ' oratorios,' concerts of the most 
I heterogeneous description, which were given 
at the opera-houses during Lent, and in 1820 
Bishop became the sole manager of these 
curious entertainments. His management, 
however, ceased after one season. In the 
autumn of the same year he went to Dublin, 
where he was received with great honour, 
the freedom of the city being unanimously 
voted and bestowed upon him (2 Aug. 1820). 
In 1825 Bishop was engaged by Elliston at 
Drury Lane, where he produced on 19 Jan. 
1825*' The Fall of Algiers.' This was fol- 
lowed by versions of Auber's ' Masaniello ' 
(17 Feb. 1825), and Rossini's ' Guillaume 
Tell' (11 May 1825). In the same year he 
brought out a revised version of his early 
work, 'Angelina/ and wrote (in collabora- 
tion with Cooke and Horn) music to ' Faustus ' 
(16 May) and the ' Coronation of Charles X ' 
(5 July). The year 1826 was memorable in 
the annals of music in England for the pro- 
duction of Weber's ' Oberon ' at Covent Gar- 
den, under the composer's own direction. 
By way of a counter-attraction, the manage- 
ment of Drury Lane commissioned Bishop 
to write a grand opera on the subject of 
' Aladdin.' He took more than usual pains 
over this work, the composition of which oc- 
cupied him for at least a year, but the book 
was even worse than that of ' Oberon,' and 
the music, though written with much care, 
was found to be inferior to Bishop's best 
compositions, probably because, by attempt- 
ing to meet Weber on his own ground, he 
had only succeeded in producing a weak imi- 
tation of the style of the German master. 
1 Aladdin,' which Avas produced on 29 April 
1826, shortly after Weber's opera, was fol- 
lowed by several unimportant works, 'The 
i Knights of the Cross ' (29 May 1826), ' Eng- 
! lishmen in India' (27 Jan. 1827), 'Edward 
! the Black Prince ' (28 Jan. 1828), and ' Don 
i Pedro' (10 Feb. 1828). Bishop's permanent 
[connection with Drury Lane ceased about 




this time, and his remaining writings for the J 
stage were produced as follows : ' The Ren- 
contre ' (Haymarket, 12 July 1828), ' Yelva ' 
(Covent Garden, 5 Feb. 1829), ' Home, sweet 
Home' (Covent Garden, 19 March 1829), 
' The Night before the Wedding,' a version j 
of Boieldieu's ' Les Deux Nuits ' (Covent j 
Garden, 17 Nov. 1829). 'Ninetta' (Covent I 
Garden, 4 Feb. 1830), ' Hofer ' (Drury Lane, | 
1 May 1830), ' Under the Oak ' (Vauxhall, ! 
25 June 1830), 'Adelaide, or the Royal i 
William' (Vauxhall, 23 July 1830), 'the i 
Romance of a Day' (1831), 'The Tyrolese 
Peasant' (Drury Lane, May 1832), 'The 
Election' (Drury Lane, 1832), which was ; 
composed by Carter, but scored by Bishop, j 
' The Magic Fan ' (Vauxhall, 18 June 1832), i 
'The Sedan Chair' (Vauxhall, 1832), 'The ! 
Bottle of Champagne' (Vauxhall, 1832), and j 
' The Demon,' a version of Meyerbeer's ' Ro- 
bert le Diable,' in which he collaborated with ; 
T. Cooke and R. Hughes (Drury Lane, 1832). j 
He also wrote music for ' Hamlet ' at Drury j 
Lane (1830), for Stanfield's diorama at the 
same theatre (1830), and for ' Kenil worth ' : 
' The Captain and the Colonel ' (1835), and 
' The Doom Kiss ' (1836). The long list of 
Bishop's writings for the stage is closed by ; 
' Rural Felicity ' (Haymarket, 9 June 1839), 
additions to 'The Beggars' Opera' (Covent 
Garden, 1839), music to 'Love's Labour's 
Lost' (1839), and the masque of 'The Fortu- 
nate Isles,' written to celebrate the marriage 
of Queen Victoria, and produced at Covent 
Garden under Madame Vestris's management 
on 12 Feb. 1840. 

In 1830 Bishop left Drury Lane and was 
appointed musical director of Vauxhall Gar- j 
dens, which post he occupied for three years, j 
In 1832 he was commissioned by the Phil- 
harmonic Society to write a work for their 
concerts, in fulfilment of which he composed j 
a sacred cantata, ' The Seventh Day,' which | 
was performed in the following year, with- j 
out, however, achieving any great success. 
Two years later (1836) another cantata of 
Bishop's, ' The Departure from Paradise,' was 
sung at the same concerts by Malibran. Other 
cantatas composed by him are ' Waterloo ' 
(performed at Vauxhall in 1826), and a set- 
ting of Burns's ' Jolly Beggars.' In 1838, ac- 
cording to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1838, 
i. 539), he was appointed composer to her 
majesty ; but this statement is proved to be 
inaccurate by the absence of any record of his 
appointment in the official documents of the 
lord steward's and lord chamberlain's offices, 
as well as by the fact that in 1847 he was 
desirous of obtaining the post on its becom- 
ing vacant. In the following year he received 

the degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford. He was for 
some time professor of harmony and composi- 
tion at the Royal Academy of Music, and in 
November 1841 was elected to the Reid profes- 
sorship at Edinburgh, which appointment he 
continued to hold until December 1843, when 
he was succeeded by Henry Hugo Pierson. 
From 1840 to 1848 he conducted the Antient 
Concerts, and in 1842 he was knighted by 
the queen, this being the first occasion on 
which a musician had been so honoured. In 
1848 he succeeded Dr. Crotch as professor of 
music at Oxford, where in 1853 he received 
the degree of Mus. Doc., his exercise being 
an ode performed on the installation of the 
Earl of Derby as chancellor of the university. 
Between 1819 and 1826 Bishop had been 
occupied at various times with arranging 
different ' Melodies of Various Nations ' and 
' National Melodies ' to English words, and 
in 1851 he began a similar undertaking, his 
collaborator in this case being Dr. Charles 
Mackay. Of these arrangements, which are 
extremely free and much altered from the 
originals, Bishop wrote that he was more 
proud than of any musical composition that 
he had ever produced. He also edited 
Handel's ' Messiah ' and many other works. 
Though at one time Bishop must have been 
in receipt of a considerable income, he was 
extravagant in his habits and made no pro- 
vision for his old age, in which he was 
harassed by pecuniary difficulties. In a let- 
ter (Egerton, 2159) written in 1840 he says: 
'I have worked hard, and during many a 
long year, for fame ! and have had many 
difficulties to encounter in obtaining that 
portion of it which I am proud to know I 
possess. I have been a slavish servant to 
the public; and too often, when I have 
turned each way their weathercock taste 
pointed, they have turned round on me and 
upbraided me for not remaining where I was I 
. . . Had the public remained truly and loyally 
English, I would have remained so too ! But 
I had my bread to get, and was obliged to 
watch their caprices, and give them an exotic 
fragrance if I could not give them the plant, 
when I found they were tired of, and neg- 
lecting the native production.' In writing 
these words Bishop doubtless had in mind 
the failure of his ' Aladdin,' but the reason- 
why in his later years he suffered from neg- 
lect was perhaps not so much the fault of the 
public as he thought. Possessed of a won- 
derful wealth of melody and great facility in 
composition, during the best years of his life 
he frittered away his talents on compositions 
which were not strong enough to survive be- 
yond the season which saw their production ; 
and worse than this, he not only wrote down, 




to the level of the taste of the day, but in 
his adaptations from the works of great 
foreign musicians he altered and defaced 
them so as to bring them to a level with his 
own weak productions. If, as he complained, 
he suffered from the public taste veering 
round to the music of continental composers, 
it was in some sort a revenge brought about 
by the whirligig of time, for from no one did 
the works of the great masters receive worse 
treatment than they met with at the hands 
of Bishop himself. Amongst the manuscript 
scores in his handwriting which are preserved 
in the Liverpool Free Library there is a volume 
entirely consisting of l additional accompani- 
ments ' (mostly for brass and percussion in- 
struments), and alterations which he made 
in works by Beethoven, Mozart, Cherubini, 
Rossini, and many others, a volume which 
must ever remain a disgrace to the man who 
wrote it, and a record of the low state of 
musical opinion that could have allowed 
such barbarisms to be perpetrated without 
a protest. With regard to his original com- 
positions, there is no doubt that his style 
was very much based upon that of his 
master Bianchi, as an examination of the 
somewhat rare compositions of the latter will 
show. But, though Bishop's music is in this 
respect less original than is usually supposed, 
he was possessed of a singularly fertile vein 
of melody, in which the national character 
can be perpetually recognised, although the 
dress in which it is presented is rather Italian 
than English. In this respect Bishop may 
be regarded as the successor of Arne, who in 
the latter part of his career came under the 
influence of the Italian school in which Bishop 
received his early training. In his glees 
Bishop was without a rival, and it is pro- 
bable that it is on this form of composition 
that his future fame will rest ; for his songs, 
with the exception of a very few, are even 
now but seldom heard, and it is safe to pre- 
dict that the entire operas in which all his best 
glees and songs originally appeared will never 
bear revival. 

Bishop was twice married. His first wife 
was a Miss Lyon, who came out as a singer 
at Drury Lane in ' Love in a Village ' on 
10 Oct. 1807, and to whom he was married 
soon after the production of ' The Circassian 
Bride/ in which opera and l The Maniac ' she 
sang small parts. By her he had two sons 
and a daughter. By his second wife [see 
BISHOP, ANN] he had two daughters and a 

During the greater part of his life he lived 
at 4 Albion Place and 13 Cambridge Street, 
Hyde Park. In his latter years he suffered 
much from cancer, and eventually died from 

| the effects of an operation he underwent for 
that disease. His death took place at his 
house in Cambridge Street on Monday eve- 
ning, 30 April 1855. He was buried on the 
Saturday following at the Marylebone Ceme- 
tery, Finchley Road, where a monument was 
! erected to his memory by public subscription. 
I The manuscript scores of most of Bishop's 
I operas are preserved in the libraries of the 
j British Museum, the Royal College of Music, 
and the Free Library of Liverpool. There 
I are two portraits of him in the National 
| Portrait Gallery, both by unknown painters. 
There are engravings of him (1) drawn by 
Wageman, engraved by Woolnoth, and 
! published on 1 June 1820 ; (2) engraved by 
S. W. Reynolds from a painting by J. Foster, 
published in July 1822; and (3) engraved by 
B. Holl and published 1 April 1828. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 245 ; Dictionary 
of Musicians, i. (1827); Add. MSS. 19569, 
29905 ; Musical World, xxxiii. 282 ; Musical 
Times for April 1885 ; Athenaeum, 5 May 1855 ; 
Fitzball's Memoirs, i. 152, 196, ii. 276 ; Parke's 
Memoirs, ii. 36; Gent. Mag. 1838, i. 539; manu- 
script scores in the Royal College of Music and 
Liverpool Free Library; Genest's Hist, of the 
Stage, viii. and ix. ; information from Messrs. 
G. Scharf, H. Wakeford, Doyne C. Bell, and 
A. D. Coleridge.] W. B. S. 

BISHOP, JOHN (1665-1737), musical 
composer, was born in 1665, and (according 
to Hawkins) educated under Daniel Rosein- 
grave, but, as the latter was organist of Win- 
chester Cathedral from June 1682 to June 
1692, and Bishop only came to Winchester 
in 1695, this is probably an error. Between 
Michaelmas and Christmas 1687 he became a 
lay clerk of King's College, Cambridge, where 
in the following year he was appointed to 
teach the choristers. In 1695 he was ap- 
pointed organist of Winchester College, on 
the resignation of Jeremiah Clarke, but he 
continued to receive his stipend at Cambridge 
until the Easter term of 1 696. In November 
1696 he was elected a lay-vicar of Winchester 
Cathedral in the place of Thomas Corfe, and 
on 30 June 1729 he succeeded Vaughan 
Richardson as organist and master of the 
choristers of the same cathedral. Bishop's 
rival for this post was James Kent, who Avass 
esteemed a better player, but the * age and 
amiable disposition ' of the former, coupled 
with the sympathy felt for some family mis- 
fortune he had suffered, induced the dean and 
chapter to give him the appointment, Bishop 
remained at Winchester until his death, which 
took place 19 Dec. 1737. He was buried on 
the Avest side of the college cloister, where his 
epitaph styles him ' Vir singular! probit ate, in- 
tegerrima vita, moribus innocuis, musicaeque 




scientise bene peritus.' Bishop published some 
collections of psalm tunes and anthems, copies 
of which are now but rarely met with. Manu- 
script compositions by him are preserved in the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 17841 , and Harl. 
MS. 7341), and in the libraries of the Royal 
College of Music (1649), and of Christ Church, 
Oxford. In the latter collection is a complete 
copy of his i Morning and Evening Service ' 
in I), the Te Deum from which is to be found 
in other collections. Dr. Philip Hayes's ' Har- 
monia Wiccamica' (1780) also contains some 
Latin compositions by Bishop for the use of 
Winchester College. All his extant works 
are interesting as showing the manner in 
which the disregard of proper emphasis and 
the introduction of meaningless embellish- 
ments gradually corrupted the style of the 
school of which Purcell was the greatest orna- 
ment, and led to the inanities of writers like 
Kent. Hawkins, who has been followed by 
other biographers, says that Bishop was at 
one time organist of Salisbury, but this is in- 
accurate. The organists of Salisbury (and 
the dates of their appointments) during 
Bishop's life were as follows : Michael Wise 
(1668), Peter Isaacke (1687), Daniel Rosein- 
grave (1692), Anthony Walkley (1700), and 
Edward Thompson (1718). 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music (ed. 1853), p. 767 ; 
Hayes's Harmonia Wiccamica (1780) ; Records of 
King's Coll. Cambridge (communicated by the 
Rev. A. Austen Leigh) ; Chapter Registers of 
Salisbury (communicated by the Rev. S. M. 
Lakin) ; Chapter Registers of Winchester ; in- 
formation from the Rev. J. H. Mee ; Catalogues 
of the British Museum and Royal College of 
Music.] W. B. S. 

BISHOP, JOHN (1797-1873), surgeon, 
was the fourth son of Mr. Samuel Bishop, 
of Pimperne, Dorsetshire. He was born on 
15 Sept. 1797, and he received his education 
at the grammar school at Childe Okeford in 
Dorsetshire, where he remained for several 
years. Bishop was originally intended for 
the legal profession, but this intention was 
never carried out, and for many years he led 
the life of a country gentleman. When about 
twenty-five years of age Bishop was induced 
by his cousin, Mr. John Tucker of Bridport, 
to enter the medical profession. After a short 
preliminary practice, under the direction of 
his relative, at Bridport, he came to London 
and entered at St. George's Hospital under 
Sir Everard Home. While studying in this 
hospital Bishop attended the lectures of Sir 
Charles Bell, of Mr. Guthrie, and Dr. George 
Pearson, and he was a regular attendant at 
the chemical courses which were delivered at 
the Royal Institution. In 1824 he obtained 

the diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
and entered regularly into his profession. He 
soon acquired a reputation as a careful and 
skilful observer. This secured for him the 
offices of senior surgeon to the Islington 
Dispensary, and surgeon to the Northern and 
St. Pancras dispensaries, and to the Drapers' 
Benevolent Institution. In 1844 Bishop 
contributed a paper to the 'Philosophical 
Transactions ' of the Royal Society, on the 
' Physiology of the Human Voice.' He was 
shortly afterwards elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society, and a corresponding member 
of the medical societies of Berlin and Ma- 
drid. The Royal Academy of Science of 
Paris awarded him two, prizes for memoirs 
1 On the Human and Comparative Anatomy 
and Physiology of Voice.' He was the au- 
thor of a work l On Distortions of the Hu- 
man Body,' another l On Impediments of 
Speech,' and one ' On Hearing and Speaking 
Instruments.' These works were remarkable 
for the careful examinations which the author 
had made on the subjects under investigation, 
and for the mathematical demonstration given 
of each theory advanced by him. Bishop con- 
tributed several articles to Todd's { Cyclopae- 
dia,' and many papers of more or less impor- 
tance to the medical literature of the day. 
Bishop was a man of varied attainments ; he 
was conversant with continental as well as 
English literature, and to within a few months 
of his death he was deeply interested in the 
progress of science. On 29 Sept. 1873 he died 
at Strange way s-Marshale, Dorsetshire, within 
a few miles of his birthplace. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Societj^ xxi. 5 
(1873); Catalogue of Scientific Papers, vol. i. 
(1877).] R. H-T. 

BISHOP, SAMUEL (1731-1795), poet, 
was born in St. John Street, London, on 
21 Sept. 1731, but his father, George Bishop, 
came from Dorset, and his mother from 
Sussex. He was entered at Merchant Taylors' 
School in June 1743, and soon became known 
among his fellow scholars for aptitude and 
knowledge. In June 1750 he was elected to 
St. John's College, Oxford, and became a 
scholar of that institution on 25 June, his 
matriculation entry at the university being 
' 1750, June 28, St. John's, Samuel Bishop, 
18, Georgii, Londini, pleb. fil.' Three years 
later (June 1753) he was elected a fellow of 
his college, and in the following April took 
his degree of B.A. Not long afterwards he 
was ordained to the curacy of Headley in 
Surrey, and resided either in that village or 
at Oxford until 1758, when he took his M.A. 
degree. On 26 July 1758 Bishop was ap- 
pointed third under-master of his old school, 


9 6 


rose to the second under-mastership 11 Feb. 
1772, became the first under-master 12 Aug. 
1778, and the head-master 22 Jan. 1783. His 
preferments in the church were two, the first 
being the rectory of Ditton in Kent, and the 
second the rectory of St. Martin Outwich 
in London, 1 March 1789. He had married 
in 1763, at St. Austin's, Watling Street, 
Mary, daughter of Joseph Palmer, of Old 
Mailing, near Lewes, and at her husband's 
death, on 17 Nov. 1795, she survived him 
with one daughter. Bishop was buried in 
St. Martin Outwich. Bishop published 
during his lifetime an anonymous 'Ode to 
the Earl of Lincoln on the Duke of New- 
castle's retirement' J 762, an effusion said to 
have been prompted by the connection of his 
future wife's family with the duke ; numerous 
essays and poems, signed S. and P. in a 
division of the 'Publick Ledger' for 1763 
and 1764 ; a Latin translation of an ode of 
Sir Charles Hanbury Williams to Stephen 
Poyntz ; a volume entitled ' Ferige Poeticse, 
sive Carmina Anglicana . . . Latine reddita/ 
1766 ; and a sermon on the anniversary of 
Mr. Henry Raine's charity, 1 May 1783. 
After his death the Rev. Thomas Clare col- 
lected and printed a volume of 'Sermons 
chiefly upon Practical Subjects, by the Rev. 
Samuel Bishop, A.M./ 1798, and two volumes 
of the ' Poetical Works of the Rev. Samuel 
Bishop, A.M./ 1796, with a life of the author. 
A second edition was issued in 1800, a third 
in 1802, and the poems were embodied in 
Ezekiel Sanford's 'Works of British Poets/ 
vol. xxxvii., a collection printed at Phila- 
delphia. The smaller poems are very grace- 
ful and pleasing; those to his wife on the 
recurring anniversaries of their wedding-day, 
and to their daughter on her various birth- 
days, breathy the purest affection. Southey 
said of Bishop that * no other poet crowds 
so many syllables into a verse. . . . His 

domestic poems breathe a Dutch spirit by 

which I mean a very amiable and happy 
feeling of domestic duties and enjoyments.' 
Bishop's widow subsequently married the 
Rev. Thomas Clare, who became the vicar of 
St. Bride's, Fleet Street. 

[Gent. Mag. 1795, pt. ii. 972, 994, 1052 ; Life j 
by Clare ; Southey's Commonplace Book. iv. I 
308-9 ; Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' ! 
School, i. p. xv ; Wilson's Merchant Taylors' 
School, 450, 510-20, 1098, 1130. 1137, 1178; 
Malcolm's Loncl. Redivivum, iv. 407.1 

W. P. C. 

BISHOP, WILLIAM, D.D. (1554-1624), 
bishop of Chalcedon, the son of John Bishop, 
who died in 1601 at the age of ninety-two, 
was born of a ' genteel family ' at Brailes in 

Warwickshire in or about 1554. l Though 
always a catholic ' (DoDD, Church Hist. ii. 
361), he was sent to the university of Oxford 
in the seventeenth year of his age, ' in 1570, 
or thereabouts ;' and Wood conjectures that 
he studied either in Gloucester Hall or 
Lincoln College, which societies were then 
governed by men who were catholics at heart. 
It has indeed been surmised, with some ap- 
pearance of probability, that he was the Wil- 
liam Bishop who matriculated at Cambridge, 
as a member of Trinity College, on 2 Dec. 
1572, and who took the degree of B.A. in 
| that university in 1585 (MS. Addit. 5863 
f. 156 #), but the biography in Pits's work, 
' De illustribus Anglise Scriptoribus ' (1619), 
the preface to which was written by Bishop 
himself, must be taken as conclusive evidence 
that he studied at Oxford. After remaining 
j there three or four years he settled his pater- 
nal estate, which was considerable, upon his 
younger brother, and went over to the Eng- 
j lish college at Rheims, where he began his- 
| theological studies, which he subsequently 
j pursued at Rome. He then returned to> 
Rheims, was ordained priest at Loan in May 
1583, and was sent to the English mission, 
t but being arrested on his landing, he was- 
j taken before secretary Walsingham and was 
imprisoned in the Marshalsea with other 
priests. Towards the close of the year 1584 
i he was released, and proceeded to Paris, where 
! he studied with great application for several 
i years, and was made a licentiate of divinity. 
He returned to England upon the mission, 
15 May 1591 . After labouring here for about 
two years he returned to Paris to complete 
the degree of D.D., and then came back to 

When a dispute arose between George 
Blackwell [q.v.], the archpriest, and a num- 
ber of his clergy, who appealed against him for 
maladministration and exceeding his commis- 
sion, Bishop and John Charnock were sent to< 
Rome by their brethren to remonstrate against 
him. On their arrival they were both taken 
into custody by order of Cardinal Cajetan, the 
protector of the English nation, who had been 
informed that they were turbulent persons 
and the head of a factious party. They were 
confined in the English college under the 
inspection of Father Robert Parsons, the 
j esuit. After a t ime they regained their liberty 
and returned to England. [For the result of 
the dispute see BLACKWELL, GEOKGE.] The 
catholics were greatly alarmed in King 
James's reign by the new oath of allegiance, 
and Bishop had his share in those troubles ; 
he was committed prisoner to the Gatehouse, 
although he and twelve other priests had 
given ample satisfaction as to all parts of 




civil allegiance in a declaration published by 
them in the last year of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. He was examined on 4 May 1611, 
when he said he was opposed to the Jesuits, 
but declined to take the oath of allegiance, 
as Blackwell and others had done, because he 
wished to uphold the credit of the secular 
priests at Rome, and to get the English col- 
lege there out of the hands of the Jesuits 
(State Papers, James I, Dom. vol. Ixiii.) On 
being again set at liberty he went to Paris 
and joined the small community of contro- 
versial writers which had been formed in 
Arras College. 

Ever since the death of Thomas Goldwell, 
bishop of St. Asaph, in 1585, when, accord- 
ing to the view taken by Roman catholics, 
the ancient hierarchy came to an end, the 
holy see had been frequently importuned to 
appoint a bishop for England. Some obstacle 
always intervened, but at length, after three 
archpriests had been appointed in succession 
to govern the secular clergy, the holy see ac- 
ceded to the wishes of the English catholics, 
and nominated Bishop as vicar-apostolic and 
bishop elect of Chalcedon in February 1622-3. 
In the following month a bull issued for his 
consecration, and it was followed almost im- 
mediately by a brief, conferring on him epi- 
scopal jurisdiction over the catholics of Eng- 
land and Scotland. ' When thou shalt be 
arrived in those kingdoms/ says the brief, 
' we give thee license, at the good will of our- 
selves and our successors in the holy see, 
freely and lawfully to enjoy and use all and 
each of those faculties committed by our pre- 
decessors to the archpriests, as also such as 
ordinaries enjoy and exercise in their cities 
and dioceses.' Thus Bishop had ordinary 
jurisdiction over the catholics of England and 
Scotland, but it was revocable at the pleasure 
of the pope, so that in the language of cu- 
rialists he was vicar-apostolic with ordinary 
jurisdiction. In exercise of his power he 
instituted a dean and a chapter as a standing 
council for his own assistance, with power, 
during the vacancy of the see, to exercise 
episcopal ordinary jurisdiction, professing at 
the same time that ' what defect might be 
in his own power he would supplicate his 
holiness to make good from the plenitude of 
his own.' The appointment of this chapter 
occasioned many warm debates between the 
secular and the regular clergy. Bishop was 
consecrated at Paris on 4 June 1623, and he 
landed at Dover on 31 July. The summer 
he spent in administering the sacrament of 
confirmation to the catholics in and near 
London. He passed most of the winter in 
retirement, intending to visit the more re- 
mote parts of the kingdom in the spring, 

YOL. V. 

but falling sick at the residence of Sir Basil 
Brook, at Bishop's-court near London, he 
died on 13 April 1624. Wood is mistaken in 
supposing that Bishop was in his latter days 
a member of the order of St. Benedict. 

His works are : 1. ( Reformation of a Ca- 
tholic deformed by Will. Perkins,' 2 parts, 
1604-7, 4to. 2. ' A Reproofe of M. Doct, 
1 Abbot's Defence of the Catholike Deformed 
by M.W. Perkins. Wherein his sundry abuses 
of Gods sacred word, and most manifold 
mangling, misaplying, and falsifying the 
auncient Fathers sentences, be so plainely 
discouered, euen to the eye of euery indif- 
ferent reader, that whosouer hath any due 
care of his owne saluation, can neuer here- 
| after giue him more credit, in matter of faith 
| and religion,' 2 parts, Loud. 1608, 4to. 3. 'Dis- 
proof of Dr. R. Abbots counter-proof against 
i Dr. Bishops reproof of the defence of Mr. 
Perkins' reform. Cath./ Paris 1614, 4to, 
i part i. 4. ' Defence of the King's honour 
i and his title to the Kingdom of England.' 
5. Several pieces concerning the archpriest's 
| jurisdiction. 6. Preface to John Pits's book, 
j <De illustribus Angliae Scriptoribus,' Paris, 
1619. 7. ' An Account of the Faction and 
Disturbances in the Castle of Wisbech, oc- 
casioned by Father Weston, a Jesuit/ MS. 

In the second part of Thomas Scot's * Vox 
Populi, or Newes from Spayne ' (1624), there 
is a curious picture of Bishop presiding at 
a meeting of the ' lesuits and prists : as they 
vse to sitt at Counsell in England to further 
y e Catholicke Cause.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 356, 862 ; 
Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 361, iii. 58, and Tierney's 
edit. iv. 137, App. 269 et seq. v. 92, App. 246 ; 
Husenbeth's Notices of English Colleges, 18; 
Douay Diaries ; Berington's Memoirs of Pan- 
zani ; Ullathorne's Hist, of the Restoration of 
the Catholic Hierarchy, 12 ; Flanagan's Hist, of 
the Church in England, ii. 290, 306-308 ; Pits, 
De illustr. Angl. Script. 810 ; Weldon's Chrono- 
logical Notes, 129, 130, 193; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 28, Dom. Addend. 
1580-1625, p. 296, 312, 411, 412, 414; MS. 
Burney 368, f. 100, 1006; Butler's Hist. Me- 
moirs, ii. 269 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England 
(1824), ii. 77; Fuller's Worthies, ed. Nichols, 
i. 417.] T. C. 

BISLEY, GEORGE (d. 1591), catholic 

missioner. [See BEESLEY.] 

1303), a native of the county of Stirling, 
became rector of Kinghorn, in the diocese of 
St. Andrews. When in 1300 and 1301 a dis- 
cussion arose between the pope Boniface VIII, 
King Edward of England, and the Scottish 
government, with regard to the independence 



9 8 


of Scotland, Bisset was appointed one of the 
commissioners to the pope to represent the 
claims of Scotland. These commissioners were 
provided with ' instructions ' on which to base 
their arguments, and from these instructions 
Bisset composed 'Progressus contra figmenta 
regis Angliae.' Both are printed in the ' Sco- 
tichronicon.' It is in the ' Progressus ' that 
we have the first mention of the coronation- 
stone of Scotland, which Bisset states Scot a, 
daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, brought ! 
to Scotland with her. W. F. Skene is of 
opinion that ' we owe the legend entirely to ' 
the patriotic ingenuity of Baldred Bisset.' 
Another writing of Bisset is also printed in 
the ' Scotichronicon : ' i Lamentatio pro rege 
S. Davidis.' He is also said to have written 
'Contra Ecclesiam Anglicanam,' 'Pro Pri- I 
vilegiis Ecclesiae Scoticanae,' and 'Defensio ! 
Ecclesiae Catholicse.' 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 102 ; Skene's Chroni- | 
cles of the Picts and Scots (1867), pp. Ixi, Ixx, ! 
271-84 ; Skene's Coronation Stone (1869), pp. 19- i 
21 ; Skene's edition of Johannis deFordun Chro- ( 
nica in Historians of Scotland, i. pp. xxxv, 332, \ 
ii. 325, 394.] T. F. H. 

of St. David's and of Hereford, was a native 
of Oldbury in Gloucestershire * a sacerdotum 
stemmate per quinque successiones deducto ' 
and received his education at Winchester 
School, whence he was sent to New College, 
Oxford, where he obtained a fellowship (B. A. 
1690, M.A. 1693, B.D. and D.D. 1705). On 
13 Feb. 1705-6 he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society. He was consecrated bishop 
of St. David's 19 Nov. 1710, and was trans- 
lated to the see of Hereford 16 Feb. 1712-3. 
He died at Westminster 6 Sept. 1721, in the 
fifty-fifth year of his age, and was buried in 
his cathedral between two pillars above the 
episcopal throne, under a very sumptuous 
monument of fine marble. Dr. Bisse was | 
' a person most universally lamented, being ' 
of great sanctity and sweetness of manners ; 
of clear honour, integrity, and steadiness in 
all times to the constitution in church and 
state : of excellent parts, judgment, and 
penetration, in most kinds of learning, and of 
equal discernment and temper in business ; 
a great benefactor to his cathedral church, 
and especially to his palace, which last he 
in a manner rebuilt ' (BoYER, Political State 
of Great JBritain, xxii. 329). Noble states 
that Bisse was more indebted to his fine 
person than his fine preaching for prefer- 
ment, and refers to a report that the Duchess 
Dowager of Northumberland gave him her 
hand because she had by mistake received 
the pressure of his lips in the dark in a 

kiss intended for her waiting gentlewoman 
( Continuation of Granger, ii. 100). In reality 
Bisse married in 1706 Bridget, third daughter 
of Thomas Osborne,duke of Leeds, and widow 
of Charles Fitz-Charles, earl of Plymouth 
(LuTTRELL, Relation of State Affairs, vi. 76). 
The bishop published several of his sermons. 
One was preached before the House of Com- 
mons 15 March 1709-10, being the day ap- 
pointed for a general fast, and another was 
delivered before the House of Peers 29 May 
1711, being the day of public thanksgiving 
to Almighty God for having put an end to 
the great rebellion. There is a portrait of 
him engraved by Vertue from a painting 
by Thomas Hill. Another portrait of him 
will be found in the Oxford Almanac for 

[Godwin, De Prsesulibus (Richardson), 498 ; 
Browne Willis's Survey of the Cathedrals, ii. 530- 
532 ; Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Soc. Append, 
p. xxxt ; Addit. MSS. 6693, p. 163, 22136, f. 8 ; 
Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Historical Re- 
gister (1721), Chronological Diary, 36 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. i. 120, 703, vi. 225, viii. 391 ; Lut- 
trell's Relation of State Affairs, vi. 76, 548, 558, 
643; Manby's Hist, of St. David's, 167; Jones 
and Freeman's Hist, of St. David's, 334 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 53. 54 ; Cat. of Oxford 
Graduates (1851), 62 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
i. 304, 473 ; Cooke's Contin. of Duncumb's Here- 
fordshire, iii. 223, 224; Britton's Cathedral 
Church of Hereford, 33, 61, 71.] ;T. C. 

BISSE, THOMAS, D.D. (d. 1731), divine, 
was a younger brother of Dr. Philip Bisse, 
bishop of Hereford. He was educated at 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1695, M.A. in 1698, B.D. in 
1708, and D.D. in 1712. In 1715 he was 
chosen preacher at the Rolls Chapel, London, 
and in the following year, on the deprivation 
of John Harvey, M.A., a nonjuror, he was 
collated to the chancellorship of Hereford on 
the presentation of his brother the bishop. 
He was made prebendary of Colwall in the 
church of Hereford in 1731, and he also held 
the rectories of Cradley and Weston in Here- 
fordshire. His death "occurred on 22 April 
1731. He was a frequent and an eloquent 
preacher, and several of his occasional ser- 
mons were published. Those of most per- 
manent reputation are: 1. <The Beauty of 
Holiness in the Common Prayer, as set forth 
in four sermons preached at the Rolls Chapel,' 
London, 1716, 8vo. 2. ' A Rationale on Ca- 
thedral Worship or Choir-Service,' 1720 ; this 
and the preceding work have been frequently 
reprinted. A new edition of them in one 
volume appeared at Cambridge in 1842. 
3. 'Decency and Order in Public Worship 
recommended, in three discourses preached 




in the cathedral church of Hereford/ 1723. 
4. ' A Course of Sermons on the Lord's 
Prayer, preach'd at the Rolls' [Oxford? 1740], 
8vo ; edited from the author's manuscripts 
by his relative Thomas Bisse, M.A., chaplain 
of All Souls College, Oxford. He was also 
the author of ' Microscopium,' a Latin poem, 
printed in l Musarum Anglican arum Ana- 
lecta' (London, 1721), i. 200-79. 

There is a portrait of him, engraved by 
Vertue from a painting by T. Hill. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 120, 130, 139, 186, 
193, 236, 328, 385, 392 ; Noble's Continuation of 
Granger, iii. 100; Gent. Mag. i. 1J4 ; Cat. of 
Oxford Graduates (1851), 62 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
(Hardy), i. 493, 499.] T. C. 

BISSET, CHARLES, M.D. (1717-1791), i 
physician and military engineer, was son ! 
of a lawyer of that name of some local repute 
for his attainments in Latin and in Scots law, 
and was born at Glenalbert, near Dunkeld, 
Perthshire, in 1717. He studied medicine 
at Edinburgh, and in 1740 was appointed 
second surgeon of the military hospital, | 
Jamaica, lie afterwards served on board 
Admiral Vernon's fleet, by some accounts as 
a naval surgeon, and by others as surgeon of 
one of the marine regiments subsequently j 
disbanded. After spending five years in the ! 
West Indies and America he returned home 
in ill-health in 1745. In May 1746 he ob- j 
tained an ensigncy in the 42nd Highlanders, 
then commanded by Lord John Murray, with l 
which corps he served in the unsuccessful j 
descent on the French coast near L'Orient ' 
in September the same year. After wintering j 
with his regiment at Limerick, he accom- 
panied it to the Low Countries, where it was 
first engaged at Sandberg, near Hulst, in 
Dutch Flanders, in April 1747. A military : 
sketch of this affair, and another of the de- 
fences of Bergen-op-Zoom, drawn by him, 
having been submitted by Lord John Murray 
to the Duke of Cumberland, Bisset was 
ordered to the latter fortress to prepare re- ; 
ports of the progress of the siege. For his | 
brave and skilful performance of this duty ; 
he was recommended by the Duke of Cum- j 
berland for the post of engineer-extraordinary j 
in the brigade of engineers attached to the 
army, in which capacity he served with credit 
during the remainder of the war. At the 
peace of 1748 the engineer brigade was ! 
broken up, and Bisset was placed on half- 
pay as a lieutenant of the reduced additional 
companies of Lord John Murray's High- ' 
landers, under which heading his name ap- ! 
peared in the annual army lists up to his ! 
death. After travelling in France he pub- 
lished his ; Theory and Construction of For- 

tifications,' with plans, 4to (London, 1751). 
! He subsequently reverted to the medical 
profession, and went into practice at the 
village of Skelton, near Cleveland, York- 
shire, where he continued during the rest 
of his life. When war threatened in 1755, 
he published his ' Treatise on Scurvy, with 
remarks on Scorbutic Ulcers,' 8vo (dedicated 
I to the lords of the admiralty) ; and in 1762 
he brought out < An Essay on the Medical 
Constitution of Great Britain, to which is 
added Observations on the Weather and the 
Diseases which appeared during the period 
from 1st January 1758 to the summer solstice 
of 1760. Together with an account of the 
Throat Distemper and Miliary Fever which 
were epidemic in 1760 ' (London, 8vo). This 
work, to which was also appended a paper 
on the properties of bearsfoot (hellebore) 
as a vermifuge, was translated into German 
by J. G. Moeller (Breslau, 1779). In 1766 
the university of St. Andrews conferred on 
Bisset the degree of doctor of medicine, and 
the same year he published * Medical Essays 
and Observations' (Newcastle-on-Tyrie, 8vo), 
of which a German translation by Moeller 
was published in 1781, and an Italian one 
about 1790. Bisset wrote several minor 
works on medical subjects, and is stated to 
have likewise published a small treatise on 
naval tactics and some political essays. A 
manuscript treatise by him on ' Permanent 
and Temporary Fortifications and the Attack 
and Defence of Temporary Defensive Works,' 
which is dedicated to George, prince of 
Wales, and dated 1778, is preserved in the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 19695). Bisset 
presented to the Leeds Infirmary a manu- 
script of observations for his ' Medical Con- 
stitution of Great Britain,' extending over 
700 pages, all traces of which are now lost 
(information supplied by Leeds Philosophical 
Society). A copy of Cullen's ' First Lines 
of Practice of Physic,' with numerous manu- 
script notes by him, is preserved in the 
library of the London Medical Society. An 
interesting medical correspondence between 
Drs. Bisset and Lettsom is published in 
Pettigrew's ' Memoirs and Correspondence 
of Dr. Lettsom.' Bisset, who is described 
as thin in person and of weakly habit, had 
a very extensive country practice in which 
he amassed an ample fortune. He died at 
Knayton, near Thirsk, on 14 June 1791, in 
his seventy-fifth year. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixi. i. p. 598, ii. p. 965 (par- 
ticulars stated to be taken from memoranda 
in possession of Mrs. Bisset 1 ; Cannon's Hist. 
Record 42nd Highlanders ; Watts's Cat. Printed 
Books; Rose's Biog. Diet. vol. iv. ; Brit. Mtis. 
Cat.] H. M. C. 

H 2 




BISSET, JAMES (1762 P-1832), artist, he pleased ; and by paying for the engraving- 
publisher, and writer of verse, was born in it has enabled the author to lay a magnificent 
the city of Perth about 1762. He received work before the public for only five shillings, 
his early education at a dame's school, where which otherwise would cost nearly fifty.' A 
the fee for him and his sister together was a second edition of the Directory appeared in 
penny a week, with ' a peat for firing every 1808, with several additional plates, but 
Monday morning during winter.' His love without ' The Poetic Survey.' In 1804 he 
of art and literature received its first impulse published ' Critical Essays on the Dramatic 
from the perusal of several copies of the Essays of the Young Roscius.' In 1813 he 
* Gentleman's Magazine ' and some old books removed to Leamington, where he had opened 
with prints, the whole being purchased in a museum, newsroom, and picture gallery in 
early childhood at an old bookstall for a the preceding year. A ' Picturesque Guide 
dollar given him by General Elliot, then on to Leamington,' enlivened by stray scraps 
a visit to Perth. From his ninth year he ! of verse, was published by him in 1814 ; 
began regularly to take in the magazine by ' Variorum, or Momentary and Miscellaneous 

the help of pocket-money supplied by an in- 
dulgent uncle. At the age of fifteen he 
became an artist's apprentice at Birmingham. 
In the ' Birmingham Directory ' of 1785 his 
name appears as miniature painter, New- 
market, and in that of 1797 as fancy painter, 

Effusions,' 1823 ; and ' Comic Strictures on 
Birmingham's Fine Arts and Conversaziones, 
by an Old Townsman/ 1829. His verses 
also appeared occasionally in the 'Gentle- 
man's Magazine.' He boasted that he had 
sold over 100,000 of his different works, and 

New Street. In the latter premises he esta- that many had reached the fifteenth andsix- 
blished a museum and shop for the sale of i teenth editions. He died on 17 Aug. 1832, 

curiosities. He was also a coiner of medals, 
and was permitted to use the designation 
' medallist to his majesty.' On the title-page 
of one of his books he advertises medallions 
of their majesties and of several leading 
statesmen, and a medal commemorating the 
death and victory of Nelson. He had great 
facility in composing amusing and grandilo- 
quent verses on the topics of the day so as 
to hit the popular fancy, and, while he ob- 
tained a considerable profit from their sale, 

and was buried at Leamington, where a 
monument was erected by his friends to his 
memory. By his enterprise and public spirit 
he secured himself an honourable place in 
the annals both of Birmingham and Leaming- 
ton. Widely known from his superficial ec- 
centricities, lie won general esteem by his ami- 
ability and good humour, while his social gifts 
rendered him highly popular among his own 
friends. In Birmingham he belonged to the 
Minerva Club, consisting of twelve members, 

they served to attract customers to his ' mu- nicknamed ' The Apostles.' whose meetings 
seum ' and to advertise his medals. Among j at the Leicester Arms to discuss political 
his earlier volumes of verse were 'The Orphan j subjects may be regarded as the small begin- 
Boy,' ' Flights of Fancy,' ' Theatrum Oceani,' j nings of the political gatherings for which 
' Songs of Peace,' 1802, and * The Patriotic Birmingham is now so famous. A picture 
Clarion, or Britain's Call to Glory, original j of the members was painted by Eckstein, a 
Songs written on the threatened Invasion,' | Prussian artist, to which Bisset, as the oldest 
1803. The last was dedicated by permission j surviving member, fell heir. Bisset's collec- 
to the Duke of York, and the presentation j tion of pictures, which included several 
copy to George III with Bisset's inscription j celebrated paintings, as well as some pieces 
is in the British Museum. The work, how- | by himself, were sold by auction after his 
ever, by which he will be longest remembered, 
and one quite unique in its kind, is his 'Poetic 
Survey round Birmingham, with a Brief 
Description of the different Curiosities and 
Manufactures of the place, accompanied with 
a magnificent Directory, with the names and 
professions, &c. superbly engraved in em- 
blematic plates,' 1800. From the preface we 

learn that the charge for engraving single ad- Adamson, his wife. He was born 20 April 
dresses in a general plate in the Directory was | 1795 in the parish of Udny in Aberdeenshire, 
ten shillings and sixpence, and for half a plate where his father was parish schoolmaster and 
ten guineas, and that various designs were head master of a private academy and board- 


[Gent. Mag. cii. pt. ii. pp. 648-50; Langford's 
Century of Birmingham Life, ii. 118-22 ; Dent's- 
Old and New Birmingham, pp. 212-13, 289-92.] 

T. F. H. 

BISSET, JAMES, D.D. (1795-1872), 
scholar, was son of George Bisset and Mary 

inserted at one and two guineas each. ' Thus,' 
it is added with amusing naivete, ' every gen- 
tleman had an opportunity of having his ad- 
dress inserted in the work at whatever price 

ing-school. James was the second son of 
a numerous family, one of whom became 
vicar of Pontefract, another incumbent of 
Upholland in Wigan, and a third attainect 




the rank of colonel in the East India Com- 
pany's service. He was well trained by his 
father, and then proceeded to Marischal 
College and University, Aberdeen. At the 
early age of seventeen, in consequence of the 
death of his father, he was obliged to as- 
sume all the responsibilities of school teach- ! 
ing, and of educating his younger brothers 
and sisters. Like his father he developed 
remarkable teaching ability, and his private 
school became celebrated. Many of the local 
gentry were educated by him, and not a few 
of his pupils became men of mark, among 
them being Sir James Outram and Canon \ 
Robertson, the ecclesiastical historian. He ' 
was aided by very able assistants ; Dr. James 
Melvin, afterwards rector of Aberdeen Gram- 
mar School, and Dr. Adam Thorn, sometime 
recorder of Hudson's Bay Company, were both j 
members of his staff. He qualified himself 
for the ministry of the church of Scotland, 
studying divinity at Aberdeen and Edinburgh. 
In 1826 he became minister of the small parish 
of Bourtrie, Aberdeenshire. The duties of his 
limited parochial charge left him leisure to 
continue his philological studies, as well ! 
as to educate his children. He was twice 
married : (1 ) in 1829 to Mary Bannerman, 
eldest daughter of Rev. Robert Sessel of In- 
verurie ; (2) in 1840 to Elizabeth Sinclair, 
daughter of Rev. William Smith of Bowes, i 
He had issue by both. In 1851 the degree ; 
of D.D. was conferred upon him by the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen. 

Bisset became an ardent politician on | 
what was designated the ' constitutional j 
side/ and ecclesiastically was a prominent i 
figure in the prolonged conflict within and j 
without the church courts which terminated ' 
in the founding of the free church of Scot- 
land. Bisset did not support the secession 
headed by Chalmers and Candlish and Guth- 
rie. In 1862 he was chosen moderator of the 
general assembly of the church of Scotland, j 
His repute as a scholar was unsustained by i 
any publication of permanent value. He I 
died on 8 Sept. 1872. 

[Obituary notices ; letters from son and son-in- j 
law and other members of the family.] A. B. Gr. 

BISSET, SIB JOHN (1777-1854), com- | 
inissary-general, served in the commissariat 
at home from 1795 to 1800, in Germany from 
May 1800 to June 1802, at home from 1802 
to 1806, in South America in 1806-7, and at 
the Scheldt in 1809. He was appointed com- 
missary-general in Spain in 1811, and had 
charge of the commissariat of the Duke of 
Wellington's army at one of the most impor- 
tant periods of the Peninsular war, before 
and after the battle of Salamanca. Bisset, 

who was made a knight-bachelor and knight- 
commander of the Guelphic order in 1830, 
was the author of a small work entitled 
'Memoranda regarding the Duties of the 
Commissariat on Field Service abroad' 
(London, 1846). He was made K.C.B. in 
1850. He died at Perth, N.B., on 3 April 

[War Office Kecords; Eeport Select Comm. on 
Army and Ordnance Expenditure (Commissariat), 
1850 ; Perth Advertiser, April 1854.] 

H. M. C. 


(d. 1508), professor of canon law in the uni- 
versity of Bologna, Italy, was a native of 
the county of Fife, and a descendant by a 
previous marriage of Sir Thomas Bisset, who 
after his marriage with the Countess Isabel, 
daughter and heiress of Duncan MacDuff, 
earl of Fife, received a charter from David II 
granting him the earldom, but left no issue 
by her. After completing his studies in 
grammar and philosophy at the university of 
St. Andrews, Bisset attended the classes of 
law at the university of Paris. Proceeding 
to Italy he received the degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Bologna, where he after- 
wards became professor of civil law. Tanner 
(Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, 102), on 
the authority of Dempster (Historia JEccle- 
siastica Gentis Scotorum, ii. 95), states that 
he flourished in 1401, a palpable error. He 
assigns to him, also on the authority of 
Dempster, ' De Irregularitate liber unus,' and 
'Lectiones Seriales liber unus,' and to a 
Petrus Bizarrus, who flourished in 1565, 
' Orationes aliquot et poemata.' This Petrus 
Bizarrus he conjectures to have been possibly 
identical with Pietro Bizari [q.v.], called also 
Petrus Perusinus, but in reality Bizarrus here 
is a misspelt form of jBissartus, and Peter 
Bisset, the author of ' De Irregularitate,' is 
identical with the author of ' Orationes aliquot 
et Poemata.' Both works were included in 
the volume entitled ' Patricii Bissarti Opera 
omnia, viz. Poemata, Orationes, Lectiones 
Seriales, et Liber de Irregularitate,' published 
at Venice in 1565. Bisset died in the latter 
part of 1568. 

[Dempster's HistoriaEcclesiastica Gentis Sco- 
torum, ii. 95; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 102; Mac- 
kenzie's Lives of Scottish Writers, iii. 99, 101 ; 
Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, i. 
129 Notes and Queries, 5th series, vi. 389-90.] 

T. F. H. 

BISSET, ROBERT, LL.D. (1759-1805), 
biographer and historian, born in 1759, was 
master of an academy in Sloane Street, 
Chelsea. He published, in 1796, a ' Sketch 




of Democracy/ 8vo, the aim of which was 
to show, by a surrey of the democratic states 
of ancient times, that democracy is a vicious 
form of government. His next work was a 
* Life of Edmund Burke, comprehending an 
impartial account of his Literary and Poeti- 
cal Efforts, and a Sketch of the Conduct and 
Character of his most eminent. Associates, 
Coadjutors, and Opponents,' 1798, 8vo. In 
1800 he published a novel, entitled ' Douglas, 
or the Highlander,' 4 vols. 12mo. Another 
novel, entitled ' Modern Literature,' 3 vols, 
12ino, appeared in 1804 ; and in the same year 
he published his ' History of George III to 
the Termination of the* late War/ in six 
volumes, 8vo. He died in 1805, and his 
death is said to have been caused by ' chagrin 
under embarrassed circumstances.' An edi- 
tion of the ' Spectator/ in eight volumes, was 
edited by Bisset in 1796. Two anonymous 
tracts in the librarv of the British Museum, 
(1) ' A Defence of the Slave Trade/ 1804, 
8vo, (2) ' Essays on the Negro Slave Trade/ 
8vo (1805 ?), are attributed, in manuscript 
notes on the title-pages, to Bisset. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxr. 494 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit] 

A. H. B. 

BISSET, WILLIAM (d. 1747), clergy- 
man and pamphleteer, was a native of 
Middlesex. His father was, he says, a 
royalist, but was not rewarded for his de- 
votion to the crown. After passing some 
years as a scholar of Westminster, he went in 
1687 to Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he took his B.A. degree in 1690. Having 
taken orders, he was for some time in 
charge of the parish of Iver. While there 
he married a wife who brought him some 
money. On this he set up a coach, which 
gave his enemies occasion to make many 
sneers at his foolish ostentation in the 
pamphlet war he afterwards engaged in. 
He defended himself by declaring that he 
bought this < leathern conveniency ' in order 
to enable himself to fulfil an engagement to 
preach three times a week in a neighbouring 
parish. During this period of his life he 
appears to have been industrious in his 
clerical work. He became rector of Whiston 
in 1697. Having been elected elder brother 
of St. Catherine's Collegiate Church in 1699, 
he resided much in London, leaving his wife 
and children at Whiston. As a low church- 
man and a whig he was much offended at Dr. 
SacheverelPs sermon at St. Paul's on 5 Nov. 
1709, and at once preached and published a 
reply to it. He followed up this attack by 
a pamphlet entitled ' The Modern Fanatick/ 
which appeared in 1710. This pamphlet 
called forth many replies, and among them 

one by Dr. W. King. A second part of t The 
Modern Fanatick ' appeared in Feb. 1711, and 
a third in May 1714. Cole, in his manuscript 
' Athense Cantabrigienses/ says that he was 
1 almost a madman : ' the character of the 
pamphlets put forth by both sides in this 
controversy is little proof of the sanity of 
any of the parties concerned in it. Bisset 
was the champion of an unpopular cause. 
He fought with courage, and bad as his 
weapons were, they were of much the same 
kind as those used against him. There is 
no reason to doubt the truth of his assertion 
that he was constantly mobbed and insulted, 
especially by Sacheverell's * female prose- 
lytes.' He also declares that his life was 
attempted three times. He deserves credit 
for having raised an indignant protest 
against the cruel floggings then often in- 
flicted on soldiers. A revolting and probably 
exaggerated account of the flogging of a man 
and his wife is given in the collective edition 
of the i Fanatick ' tracts. He was made chap- 
lain to Queen Caroline. He died 7 Nov. 
1747 ( Gent. Mag.} He published : 1. ' Verses 
on the Revolution/ 1689, in poems of Cam- 
bridge scholars. 2. ' Plain English, a Sermon 
i for the Reformation of Manners/ 8vo, 1704 r 
which reached a sixth edition. 3. l More 
Plain English, two more Sermons for/ &c., 
1704. 4. ' Remarks on Dr. Sacheverell's 
Sermon at St. Paul's/ 4to, 1709. 5. < Fair 
Warning, or a Taste of French Government 
at Home/ 1710. 6. < The Modern Fanatick, 
with a Large and True Account of the Life, 

Actions, Endowments, &c., of Dr. S l, r 

8vo, 1710. 7. ' The Modern Fanatick, pt. ii., 
containing what is Necessary to clear all 
Matters of Fact, &c., with a Postscript/ 
1711. 8. 'The Modern Fanatick, pt, iii., 
being a further Account of the famous 
Doctor and his Brother of like renown, with 
a Postscript/ 1714. In the collective edition 
of these pamphlets part i. is stated to be the 
eleventh edition : it is a reprint, witn the 
correction of a few typographical errors, 
from the first edition ; it was reprinted as a 
twelfth edition in 1715. 9. ' A Funeral Ser- 
mon on Mrs. Catesby/ 1727. 10. 'Verses 
composed for the Birthday of Queen Caro- 
line/ fol., 1728. 

[The Modern Fanatick, 1710-14 ; Vindication 
of the Rev. Dr. H. S. from the False, &c. ; 
Cole's Athense, B. 145 ; Addit. MSS. ; Welch's- 
Alumni Westmon. 209 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
i. 32.] W. H. 

BISSET, WILLIAM, D.D. (1758-1834), 
Irish bishop, was a member of the ancient 
family of Bisset of Lessendrum, Drumblade, 




near Huntly, in Aberdeenshire. His father | 
was the Rev. Alexander Bisset, D.D., chan- 
cellor of Armagh, who died in 1782. Wil- 
liam Bisset. who was born 27 Oct. 1758, was, 
like his father, educated at Westminster, 
where he was admitted a king's scholar in 
1771, and at Christ Church, Oxford, to which ; 
he was elected a scholar in 1775, and where I 
he took his degree of B.A. 4 Nov. 1779, ! 
and proceeded M.A. 7 Feb. 1782 (Cat. Oxford \ 
Graduates}. He was presented in 1784 to 
the rectory of Dunbin, in the county of Louth, 
which he resigned upon his collation, 31 Jan. 
1791, to the prebend of Loughgall ; or Leval- 
leaglish, in the cathedral church of Armagh. 
In 1794 he became rector of Clonmore, and 
in 1804 was collated, 29 Sept., to the arch- 
deaconry of Ross, in what had been, since 
1583, the united episcopate of Cork, Cloyne, 
and Ross. In 1807 he resigned his prebendal 
stall of Loughgall in order to become rector 
of Donoghmore, and was appointed, 1812, to 
the rectory of Loughgilly. All his prefer- 
ments, with the exception of the archdeaconry 
of Ross, were within the diocese of Armagh. 
A few years afterwards he was appointed to 
the chancellorship of Armagh, to which he 
was collated on 23 August 1817, thus suc- 
ceeding his father after an interval of twenty- 
five years. As his final preferment, Bisset 
was promoted by the Marquis of Wellesley, 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1821-1828, to the 
bishopric of Raphoe. His patent was dated 
5 June 1822. He administered the affairs of 
the diocese with general approval. On the 
death of Dr. Magee, archbishop of Dublin, 
19 Aug. 1831, Bisset was pressed to be- 
come his successor, but he declined on the 
ground of increasing infirmities. He built 
several churches in his diocese, and expended 
a considerable sum of money on the improve- 
ment of the palace at Raphoe ; and when the 
parliamentary grant was withdrawn from the j 
Association for discountenancing Vice, his | 
lordship supplied the loss. Bisset died 
5 Sept. 1834, whilst on a visit to his nephew 
at Lessendrum. His clergy erected to his 
memory a monument in the cathedral, with 
an inscription by W. Archer Butler. At his 
death the see of Raphoe became annexed to ! 
that of Derry. The authorship of a l Life of \ 
Edmund Burke,' London, 1798, was errone- j 
ously claimed for him, the real author being | 
Robert Bisset, LL.D. [q. v.] 

[Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, Edinburgh, 
1798 ; New Statistical Account of Scotland, 
vol. xii. Edinburgh, 1844; Cotton's Fasti Eccle- 
sise Hibernicse ; Cork Evening Herald, quoted in 
the Record, 15 Sept. 1834 ; Dublin Evening Mail, 
quoted in the St. James's Chronicle, 16 Sept. 
1834.] A. H. G. 

BIX, ANGEL (d. 1695), Franciscan friar, 
after filling the office of confessor to the Poor 
Clares at Aire, and to the community at 
Princenhoft', Bruges, was sent to England, and 
became chaplain to the Spanish ambassador 
in London in the reign of James II. He died 
early in 1695 whilst guardian of his order at 
York. Bix preached ' A Sermon on the Pas- 
sion of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 
Preach'd before her majesty the queen-dow- 
ager in her chapel at Somerset House, upon 
Good Friday, 13 April 1688 ; ' published by 
royal authority, London, 1688, 4to, and re- 
printed in * A Select Collection of Catholick 
Sermons,' 2 vols., London, 1741. - 

[Dodd's Church Hist. In. 491; Oliver's Hist, 
of the Catholic Religion in Cornwall, 545 ; Oat. 
of the Grenville Library ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man., 
ed. Bohn, 2243.] T. C. 

BIZARI, PIETRO (1530 P-1586 ?), an 
Italian historian and poet, long resident in 
England, was born at Sassoferrato in Umbria, 
or, according to some writers, at Perugia, 
whence he is sometimes called PETRTJS PE- 
RUSINUS. When young he went to Venice, 
but having adopted the reformed faith he 
left that city for England. He describes 
himself as l an exile from Italy, his native 
country, by reason of his confession of the 
doctrine of the gospel' (Original Letters 
relative to the English Reformation, ed. Ro- 
binson [Parker Soc.], 339). He was patro- 
nised by the Earl of Bedford, and on 4 July 
1549 was admitted a fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, by the royal commis- 
sioners for the visitation of the university, 
being incorporated there in the same degree 
which he had taken ' in partibus transmarinis ' 
(BAKER, Hist, of St. Johns College, ed. Mayor, 
i. 285 n). It does not appear how he dis- 
posed of himself during the reign of Queen 
Mary. If he left England he returned in 
the reign of Elizabeth, for in 1567 Bishop 
Jewel, at the instance of Archbishop Parker, 
gave him the prebend of Alton Pancras in 
the church of Sarum, worth 20/. a year 
(STRYPE, Life ofAbp. Parker, 255 fol.) Fail- 
ing in his expectations of receiving church 
preferment in this country, he obtained, in 
1570, a license from secretary Cecil to go 
abroad, partly for the purpose of printing his 
own works, and partly to collect news of 
foreign affairs for the English government. 
He passed some time at Genoa, though at 
what precise period it is difficult to deter- 
mine, for he appears to have led a very mi- 
gratory life on the continent, and the various 
statements which have been made respecting 
his place of abode cannot be easily reconciled 
with one another. Passing to Germany he. 




obtained, through the influence of the cele- 
brated Hubert Languet, some employment 
from the elector of Saxony. On 20 Oct. 
1573 he addressed from Augsburg a letter 
in Italian to Lord Burghley, containing seve- 
ral items of intelligence, chiefly relating to 
affairs at Rome (MS. Cotton. Titus B. ii. f. 386). 
Writing to Sir Philip Sidney from Vienna 
on 19 Nov. 1573, Hubert Languet says : ' I 
send you an epistle of Pietro Bizarro of 
Perugia, that you may have before your eyes 
his surpassing eloquence and make it your 
model. You will now perceive how un- 
wisely you English acted in not appreciating 
all this excellence and not treating it with 
the respect it deserves. You judged your- 
selves unworthy of immortality, which he 
surely would have bestowed on you by his 
eloquence if you had known how to use the 
fortunate opportunity of earning the good 
will of such a man ' ( Correspondence of Sid- 
ney and Languet, 2). Soon after this Bizari 
went to Antwerp, where he formed an inti- 
macy with the scholars who frequented the 
house of Christopher Plantin (MS. Sloan. 
2764, f. 44). A letter of Justus Lipsius in- 
forms us that in 1581 Bizari, on passing 
through Leyden, left with him the manu- 
script of a 'Universal History' in eight 
volumes, with a request that he would seek 
for a publisher who would undertake to 
bring it out at his own expense (BuRMANN", 
Sylloge Epistolamm, i. 258, 259). Bizari 
was at Antwerp in December 1583. On 
23 Nov. 1586 he addressed a Latin letter 
from the Hague to Lord Burghley, wherein 
he gives a detailed and interesting account 
of his literary labours, and alludes to certain 
verses which he had lately printed (STRYPE, 
Annals, iii. 448, fol.) Neither the place 
nor the time of his death appears to be re- 

His works are : 1. ' Yaria Opuscula,' 
Venice (Aldus), 1565, 8vo. Dedicated to 
Queen Elizabeth. This work is divided into 
two parts. The first comprises declamations 
in the manner of the ancient rhetoricians 
' De optimo principe,' ' De bello et pace,' 
' Pro philosophia et eloquentia,' ' .'Emilii ac- 
cusatio et defensio,' ' Pro L. Virginio contra 
Ap. Claudium.' The second part consists 
of poems, several of which are reprinted in 
Gherus's < Delitiae 200 Italorum Poetarum,' 
236, and in ' Carmina illust. Poetarum Ita- 
licorum,' ii. 250. Wiffen, in his memoirs 
of the house of Russell, has given English 
metrical versions of two short poems ad-- 
dressed to members of that family. 2. ' His- 
toria della guerra fatta in Ungheria dall' 
inuittissimo Imperatore de' Christiani, contra 
quello de' Turchi : con la Narratione di tutte 

I quelle cose che sono auuenute in Europa, 
I dall' anno 1564, insino all' anno 1568,' Lyons, 
1568, 8vo, and, with a slightly different title, 
\ 1569. A Latin translation by the author 
himself was printed under the title of ' Pan- 
i nonicum Bellum, sub Maximiliano II Rom. 
et Solymano Turcarum Imperatoribus ges- 
tum : cumque Arcis Sigethi expugnatione, 
iam pridem magna cura et studio descriptum. 
I Vna cum Epitome illarum rerum quae in 
' Europa insigniores gestse sunt : et praesertim 
de Belgaruin motibus, ab anno LXIIII us- 
! que ad LXXIII,' Basle, 1573, 8vo. The first 
treatise in this volume is included by Jacques 
' Bongars in his ' Rerum Hungaricarum Scrip- 
: tores varii,' Frankfort, 1600, and by Matthew 
Bell in his reprint, Vienna, 1746. 3. ' Cyprium 
j Bellum inter Venetos et Selymum, Turcarum 
i imperatorem, gestum,' Basle, 1573, 8vo. A 
I French translation appeared with this title : 
* Histoire de la Guerre qui s'est passee entre 
les Venitiens et la saincte Ligue centre les 
i Turcs, pour 1'Isle de Cypre, es anii6es 1570, 
I 1571, & 1572, mise en Francoys par F. de 
Belleforest,' Paris, 1573, 8vo. 4. ' Seiiatus 
! Populiq. Geneuensis Rerum domi, forisque, 
I gestarum Histories atque Annales : cum lu- 
I culenta variarum rerum cognitione dignissi- 
marum, quse diversis temporibus, & potissi- 
mum hac nostra ternpestate contigerunt, 
enarratione,' Antwerp, 1579, fol. Graevius 
has printed two pieces from this work in the 
first volume of his 'Thesaurus Antiquitat. 
Italicar.' 5. ' Rerum Persicarum historia, 
initia gentis, resque gestas ad hsec usque 
tempora complectens : accedunt varia opus- 
cula diversorum scriptorum ad historiam 
Persicam recentiorem spectantia,' Antwerp, 
1583, fol.; Frankfort, 1601, fol. The Frank- 
fort edition contains some opuscula not to 
be found in the other. 6. Universal His- 
tory. MS. in 8 vols. 7. ' De Principe trac- 
tatus ; ad reginam Elizabethan!,' Royal 
MS. in Brit. Mus. 12 A, 48. This differs 
slightly from the printed treatise ' De op- 
timo principe ' in the l Varia Opuscula.' The 
dedication of the manuscript is dated 5 Dec. 
1561. Bizari also brought out a new edition 
of ' La Santa Comedia ' of Mario Cardoini, 
Venice, 1566, 8vo. 

[Lamb's Cambridge Documents, 119; Saxius, 
Onomasticon Literarium, iii. 413, 414; Murdin's 

i State Papers, 287 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 595 ; 

I MS. Addit, 5864, f. 38 ; MS. Lansd. 50, art. 14 ; 

1 Fabricius's Conspectus Thesauri Literarii Italiae, 
82 ; Jacobillo's Bibliotheca Umbrise, i. 221 
Biog. Universelle, Iviii. 315; Casley's Cat. of 
MSS. in the King's Library, 198 ; David Clement's 
Bibl. Curieuse, iv. 262-5 ; Bradford's Writings, 
ed. Townsend (Parker Soc.), ii. p. xxi, 352, 353 ; 
Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 8 ; Correspondence 


I0 5 


of Sir P. Sidney and Languet, ed. Pears, 2, 46 ; 
Index to Strype's Works ; Thomas's Hist. Notes, 
i. 395.] T. C. 

1870), antiquary, was born in London 25 May 
1793. He was" educated at Eton and Christ 
Church, Oxford, where, after taking a first 
class in classics, he graduated B.A. in 1813, 
and M.A. in 1815. He was elected a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries in 1850 ; was 
treasurer of the Camden Society for many 
years, and member of many other learned 
societies. Blaauw resided at Newick, near 
Lewes, Sussex, and under his guidance the 
Sussex Archaeological Society was founded 
in 1846. He was the editor of the society's 
collections till 1856, when the eighth volume 
was issued, and was its honorary secretary 
until 1867. He died 26 April 1870. 

Blaauw's chief work was a history of the 
"barons' war of Henry Ill's reign, which was 
first published in 1844. It is a very care- 
ful production, is especially valuable in its 
topographical details, and forms the chief 
modern authority on its subject. Its author 
was engaged at the time of his death in pre- 
paring a revised edition, and this was issued 
under Mr. C. H. Pearson's editorship in 1871. 
Between 1846 and 1861 Blaauw contributed 
nearly thirty papers on Sussex archaeology to 
the ' Sussex Archaeological Collections.' He 
communicated a paper on Queen Matilda and 
her daughter to the * Archaeologia' (xxxii. 108) 
in 1846, and he exhibited many archaeologi- 
cal treasures at meetings of the Society of 
Antiquaries and of the Archaeological Insti- 
tute in London. A portrait of Blaauw is 
prefixed to vol. xxii. of the * Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections.' 

[Sussex Archaeological Collections, xxii. 9-11 ; 
index to the first twenty-five volumes of the 
Sussex Archaeological Collections, where a full 
list of Blaauw's papers may be found.] 

S. L. L. 

BERT (d. 1508), archbishop of Glasgow, 
was the son of Sir Robert Blacader, of Tulli- 
allan, by Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress 
of Sir James Edmestone, of Edmestone. He 
is first mentioned as a prebendary of Glas- 

?ow and rector of Cardross. On 23 June 
480 he sat among the lords of council as 
bishop elect of Aberdeen. He was trans- 
lated to the see of Glasgow previously to 
February 1484. The see was erected into 
an archbishopric 9 Jan. 1492. On account 
of this a bitter rivalry ensued between him 
and the archbishop of St. Andrews, and the 
estates had to intervene to silence their quar- 
rels. Archbishop Blacader was frequently 

employed in the public transactions with the 
English, especially in 1505. Along with the 
Earl of Bothwell and Andrew Foreman, prior 
of Pittenweem, he negotiated a marriage be- 
tween King James IV and Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Henry VII. In 1494 the arch- 
bishop sent up thirty persons from the district 
of Kyle, in Ayrshire, who had been convicted 
of the Lollard heresy by the ecclesiastical ju- 
dicatories, for punishment by the civil power ; 
but nothing further was done in the matter. 
He died 8 July 1508 (Regist. Episcop. Glasg. 
ii. 616). According to Knox ( Works, i. 12) 
and Bishop Lesley (Hist. ed. 1830, p. 78), the 
latter of whom gives the date of his death as 
26 July, he died in the Holy Land, during a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem. David Laing, in 
' Proceedings of the Scottish Society of An- 
tiquaries,' ii. 222, quotes extracts from the 
contemporary diary of the Venetian, Maria 
Sanuto, describing the reception by the doge 
of Venice of the * rich Scottish bishop,' who 
arrived there in May 1508 on his way to Je- 
rusalem. This diary also states that the vessel 
from Jaffa, in Palestine, returned to Venice 
in November 1508, and that the ' rich bishop ' 
was one of the twenty-seven pilgrims who 
died on the voyage. 

[Keith's Scottish Bishops, ed. 1824, pp. 
254-5 ; Gordon's Eccles. Chron. of Scotland, ii. 
512-4; Knox's Works, ed. Laing, i. 7, 10, 12, vi. 
663-4.] T. F. H. 

BLACATER, ADAM (fi. 1319), was de- 
scended from a family of good position in 
Scotland, and after studying at several uni- 
versities on the continent became successively 
professor of philosophy at Cracow in Poland, 
professor of the same subject at Bologna, and 
rector of one of the colleges of the university 
of Paris. He wrote ' Dissertatio pro Alex- 
andro M. contra T. Livii locum ex decade i. 
lib. ix.,' which was published at Lyons. 

[Dempster's Hist. Eccles. Scot. Gent. (1627), 
124 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 102 ; Mackenzie's 
Scottish Writers, i. 420-2.] 

BLACK, ADAM (1784-1874), politician 
and publisher, was the son of a builder in 
Edinburgh, and was born 20 Feb. 1784 in 
Charles Street, a few doors from the birth- 
place of Lord Jeffrey. He was educated at 
the High School of Edinburgh, and during 
one session attended the Greek class at the 
university. After serving an apprenticeship 
of five years to a bookseller in Edinburgh, he 
went to London, where he was for two years 
assistant in the house of Lackington, Allen, 
& Co., the < Temple of the Muses,' Finsbury. 
In 1808 he returned to Edinburgh, where, 
after carrying on a bookselling business for 


1 06 


some years in his own name, he took his ne- j 
phew into partnership, and established the i 
house of Adam and Charles Black. On the 
failure of Archibald Constable & Co. in 1827 
the firm acquired the copyright of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica,' the seventh and eighth j 
editions of this important work being under- ; 
taken while he was head of the firm. In 1851 j 
they purchased from the representatives of ! 
Mr." Cadell, for 27,000/., the copyright of Sir 
Walter Scott's "VVaverley novels and other 
works, which they immediately began to I 
issue in editions suited to all classes of the j 
community with remarkable success. 

Very soon after he settled in Edinburgh ! 
he began, at considerable risk to his business j 
prospects, to take a prominent part in burgh 1 
and general politics as a liberal politician. | 
As a member of the Merchant Company, of i 
which he was elected master in 1831, his | 
energetic advocacy of a thoroughgoing mea- | 
sure of burgh reform was of great assistance 
in hastening the downfall of close corpora- 
tions, and in regard to the Corporations and 
Test Acts his procedure was equally uncom- 
promising. Having become a member of the 
first town council of Edinburgh after the 
passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, he was 
chosen treasurer of the city at the time of its 
liquidation, and materially assisted in ar- 
ranging its affairs. He was twice elected 
lord provost, and on account of his successful 
administration of the affairs of the city at this 
critical period, 1843-8, received the offer of 
knighthood, which he declined. In all pro- 
minent public schemes connected with the 
city he took an active interest, and on the 
foundation of the well-known Philosophical 
Institution in 1845 was elected its first presi- 
dent. He was instrumental in introducing 
Macaulay to the electors of Edinburgh, and, 
when the latter was elevated to the peerage 
in 1856, succeeded him as member for the 
city, which he continued to represent till 
1865. His practical shrewdness and straight- 
forward honesty secured him the special con- 
fidence of the leaders of the liberal party in 
parliament, by whom he was much consulted 
in matters relating to Scotland. He died in 
Edinburgh, in his ninetieth year, 24 Jan. 1874. 
By his wife, the sister of William Tait, of 
' Tait's Magazine,' he left issue, and he was 
succeeded by his sons in the business of A. & C. 
Black. In recognition of his services to Edin- 
burgh a bronze statue was in 1877 erected to 
his memory in East Prince's Street Gardens. 

[Scotsman, 26 Jan. 1874; Men of the Time, 
8th ed. ; Crombie's Modern Athenians, ed. Scott 
Douglas (1882), pp. 179-83; Trevelyan's Life of 
Lord Macaulay ; Nicolson's Memoirs of Adam 
Black (1885).] T. F. H. 

1864), Scottish theologian, was born in 
Aberdeen in 1789, where his father, John 
Black, owned a few fields and carried on the 
business of a gardener. He was educated at 
t&<e grammar school and Marischal College, 
arid after studying medicine devoted himself 
to preparation for the ministry. His abili- 
ties and application to study were so remark- 
able that, when a vacancy occurred in the 
chair of divinity in King's College, Aber- 
deen, he offered himself as a candidate, and 
went through the examinations prescribed 
to the applicants. His fellow-candidates 
were the late Dr. Mearns, then minister of 
Tarves, who was successful, and the late Dr. 
Love, of Glasgow. Young Black, though 
unsuccessful, attracted the attention of the 
Earl of Aberdeen, who on the promotion of 
Dr. Mearns to the chair presented him to the 
parish of Tarves, and there Black was or- 
dained in 1818. From Tarves Black was 
transferred to Aberdeen in 1832 as professor 
of divinity in Marischal College. His great 
powers as a linguist and his very large and 
particular acquaintance with rabbinical lite- 
rature caused him to be selected in 1839 by a 
committee of the general assembly, along 
with the Rev. Dr. Keith, St. Cyrus, Rev. 
R. M. McCheyne, Dundee, and Rev. A. A. 
Bonar, Collace, to go to the East to make 
inquiries as to the expediency of beginning 
a mission to the Jews. After a good many 
difficulties and trials Black and his brethren 
returned to Scotland, and an interesting 
report of their mission was presented to the 
general assembly. At the disruption in 
1843, joining the Free church, he gave up his 
chair at Aberdeen and removed to Edin- 
burgh, where he was connected with the 
New College. Referring to the linguistic 
powers of Black and his colleague, Dr. John 
Duncan (Colloquia Peripateticcf), Dr. Guthrie 
used to say that ' they could speak their way 
to the wall of China ; ' yet no corresponding 
products of their learning were given to the 
public. Black published a ' Letter on the 
Exegetical Study of the Scriptures to the 
Moderator of the General Assembly of the 
Free Church.' He also contributed a dis- 
course to the volume on the ' Inauguration 
of the New College.' He died at Edinburgh 
in January 1864. 

[Keport of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews 
in 1839, by Rev. A. A. Bonar ; Scott's Fasti ; 
letter to the writer from Mr. Alexander Black, 
son of the subject of this notice.] W. Gr. B. 

BLACK, JAMES (1788 P-1867), physi- 
cian, was born in Scotland about 1788. He 
was admitted a licentiate of the Edinburgh 




College of Surgeons in 1808, and then en- 
tered the royal navy. At the end of the war 
he retired on half-pay and began practice at 
Newton Stewart, but shortly afterwards re- 
moved to Bolton, where he resided until 
1839. From that date to 1848 he practised 
at Manchester, and again at Bolton until 
1856. He eventually removed to Edinburgh, 
where he died on 30 April 1867, aged 79. 
Dr. Black was an M.D. of Glasgow, 1820 ; 
a licentiate of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, 1823 ; and F.R.C.P., 1860. He was 
for some time physician to the Bolton In- 
firmary and Dispensary, and to the Man- 
chester Union Hospital ; president of the 
British Medical Association, 1842 ; and of 
the Manchester Geological Society. His cqn- 
tributions to medical literature include : 
1. 'An Inquiry into the Capillary Circula- 
tion of the Blood and the intimate Nature 
of Inflammation,' London, 1825, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Comparative View of the more intimate 
Nature of Fever,' London, 1826, 8vo. 3. 'A 
Manual of the Bowels and the Treatment of 
their principal Disorders/ London, 1840, 
12mo. 4. ' Retrospective Address in Medi- 
cine,' 1842. 5. 'Observations and Instruc- 
tions on Cold and Warm Bathing/ Man- 
chester, 1846, 8vo. Dr. Black published 
several papers on geological subjects, and 
communicated to the Literary and Philo- 
4 sophical Society of Manchester ' Some Re- 
marks on the Seteia and Belisama of Ptolemy, 
and on the Roman Garrison of Mancunium ' 
(2nd edition, Edinburgh, 1856, 8vo). In 1837 
he published a paper of 100 pages in the 
' Transactions of the Provincial Medical and 
Surgical Association/ entitled ' A Medico- 
Topographical, Geological, and Statistical 
Sketch of Bolton and its Neighbourhood.' 
On the establishment of a free library in 
Bolton, Dr. Black was chosen as a member 
of the committee, and he published ' A few 
"Words in aid of Literature and Science, on 
the occasion of opening the Public Library, 
Bolton/ 1853. 

[Munk's Roll of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, 1878, iii. 277 ; Brit. Med. Journal, 25 May 

1867, p. 623 ; Whittle's Bolton-le-Moors, p. 372; 
Royal Society's Cat. of Scientific Papers, 1867, 
i. 401 ; Proceedings of the Geological Society, 

1868, p. xxxviii]. C. W. S. 

BLACK, JOHN (1783-1855), journalist, 
editor of the * Morning Chronicle/ was 
born in a poor cottage on the farm called 
Burnhouses, four miles north of Dunse in 
Berwickshire. His father, Ebenezer Black, 
had been a pedlar in Perthshire, of the stamp 
of Wordsworth's hero in the ' Excursion.' 
In the decline of life he accepted employ- 

ment at Burnhouses, and married Janet Gray, 
another worker on the farm. Four years 
afterwards Janet was left a widow with one 
daughter and a son, John, and before the 
latter had reached his twelfth year mother 
and sister died. The orphan was sheltered 
and fed by his mother's brother, John Gray, a 
labourer on the same farm, who sent him to 
the parish school at Dunse, four miles off. 
Black gained at Dunse a knowledge of Eng- 
lish, Latin, and Greek. He became the friend 
of James Gray, scholar, poet, and missionary, 
of Adam Dickenson, of James Cleghorn, of 
Jock M'Crie, brother of the biographer of 
Knox, and others. At the age of thirteen 
Black was articled by his uncle to Mr. Turn- 
bull, a writer of Dunse, with whom he re- 
mained four years. During this time he read 
all the books of the subscription library in 
the town, and formed a very creditable collec- 
tion of his own. He accepted a well-paid 
clerkship in the branch bank of the British 
Linen Company, but was obliged to leave 
the town on account of a practical joke 
played upon one of the ' respectabilities.' 

Black found a situation in Edinburgh in 
the office of Mr. Selkrig, an accountant, who, 
in addition to an adequate salary, allowed 
his clerk time to attend classes at the uni- 
versity. His official duties were strictly 

| performed, his attendance in the lecture- 

rooms never failed, and he undertook any 
remunerative work that offered, notably some 
translations from the German for Sir David 

1 Brewster's ' Edinburgh Cyclopaedia.' He met 
with an intellectual companion in William 

! Mudford, the son of a London shopkeeper. 
'Cobbett's Political Register' was then a 
popular serial, and there Black and Mudford 
engaged in another ' battle of the books/ 
the former defending ancient classical study, 
the latter insisting on the acquisition of 
modern learning as better. *' Doctor Black, 
the feel-osopher/ seemed to be at a rather 
later time Cobbett's favourite aversion. 

In Edinburgh Black is reported to have 
delivered a dozen challenges before he was 
thirty years old. His schoolfellow James Gray 
was now classical master at Edinburgh High 
School, and exercised a moderating influence 
upon him. In 1809 he was in the way of 
making a happy marriage with a lady from 
Carlisle, but the engagement was broken off 
by him because he was disappointed of an 
expected increase of income. The failure of 
this engagement seems to have had a de- 
moralising effect upon Black. He fell into 
the coarse indulgences of low dissipation, 
quarrelled with his employer, from whom 
he was receiving a salary of 150/. a year, 
and distressed his best friends. His friend 




Mudford was then in London and editor of a 
1 Universal Magazine/ to which Black con- 
tributed articles on the Italian drama and 
on German literature in 1807-8-9. 

By Mudford's persuasion he left Edinburgh 
for London in 1810. Dr. C. Mackay gives 
as a doubtful statement of Black himself, 
that he walked with a few pence in his pocket 
all the way from Berwickshire to London, 
subsisting on the hospitality of farmers. He 
carried a letter of introduction to Mr. Cromek, 
engraver and publisher, who received him at 
once into his friendly home. Three months 
after his arrival in London he was engaged 
as a reporter by James Perry, an Aberdonian, 
who, with another Scotsman named Gray, had 
in 1789 become proprietors of the i Morning 
Chronicle.' Besides reporting Black had to 
translate the foreign correspondence. As 
a reporter he was considered to be very 
rapid, but Mr. Proby, the manager of the 
paper, used to say that Black's principal 
merit consisted in the celerity with which 
he made his way from the House of Commons 
to the Strand. He was already, in 1810, 
engaged in translating into English ' Hum- 
boldt's Political Essay on New Spain,' which 
was published in four volumes (1811-12). 
In 1813 Black completed the translation of 
a quarto volume of * Travels in Norway and 
Lapland, by Leopold von Buch,' and, in 
1814, * Berzelius on a System of Mineralogy.' 
In 1814 he translated ' Schlegel's Lectures 
on Dramatic Literature,' and the ' Memoirs 
of Goldoni.' 

At the house of one of his London friends 
Black was introduced, in the autumn of 
1812, to his friend's mistress, who was not 
averse to a marriage which her old lover 
seemed anxious to promote. Black fell into 
the snare, and five days later, in the month 
of December 1812, they were married. The 
union was a most unhappy one. His wife 
made no pretence of love for him. In the 
space of two months she had involved him 
in debt, sold some of his furniture, and 
clandestinely renewed acquaintance with her 
former lover. Black bore patiently with her 
whims. Before the beginning of March 1813 
she left him altogether, and Black knew how 
much she and their common friend had be- 
fooled him. He challenged the betrayer. 
But the spell was not broken. His wife had 
only to write him a penitent letter to obtain 
from him the money supplies she demanded. 
In 1814, however, he sought a divorce. An 
arrangement was made that the wife should 
go to Scotland and be domiciled there long 
enough to sue for a divorce on her petition. 
The project, however, failed, the proof of 
domicile of both parties not being deemed 

adequate by the court. Black, in full ex- 
pectation of a divorce, had offered marriage 
to an old friend, who became his housekeeper 
and bore the name of Mrs. Black. The 
undivorced wife did not fail to extract money 
from her husband. This pertinacious perse- 
cution went on for many years. 

This episode in Black's career explains the 
disorganisation of his official labours which 
led to a quarrel with Mr. Perry. Due ex- 
planation being given the breach was healed. 
' In 1817 Mr. Perry's health was giving way, 
I and the functions of editor gradually devolved 
i on Black. 

The ' Morning Chronicle ' was the most 
uncompromising of all the opposition papers, 
andBlack maintained its position, being much 
assisted by the counsels of Mr. James Mill. 
I At one time there was scarcely a day that 
I they did not walk together from the India 
; House giving and receiving political inspira- 
: tion. John Stuart Mill wrote of Black : 
. l He played a really important part in the 
I progress of English opinion for a number of 
years which was not properly recognised. I 
have always considered Black as the first 
, journalist who carried criticism and the spirit 
of reform into the details of English insti- 
tutions. Those who are not old enough to 
remember those times can hardly believe 
what the state of public discussion then was. 
People now and then attacked the constitu- 
tion and the boroughmongers, but no one 
thought of censuring the law or the courts 
of justice, and to say a word against the 
unpaid magistracy was a sort of blasphemy. 
Black was the writer who carried the war- 
| fare into these subjects, and by doing so he 
, broke the spell. Very early in his editorship 
! he fought a great battle for the freedom of 
! reporting preliminary investigations in the 
| police courts. He carried his point, and the 
1 victory was permanent. Another subject on 
which his writings were of the greatest 
[ service was the freedom of the press on 
I matters of religion. All these subjects were 
! Black's own' (Private Letter, 1869). At 
the outset of his editorial career he attracted 
! much public attention by his determined 
j condemnation of the authorities in their con- 
duct at Manchester in the affair long known 
i as the Peterloo massacre (16 Aug. 1819). 
I In the matter of the queen's trial the 
t Chronicle' leaned to the unpopular side, 
j deeming her majesty guilty, and the circula- 
I tion of the paper was greatly diminished. 

In 1821 Mr. Perry died, and his executors 
sold for 42,OOOZ. the newspaper which thirty 
years before had been bought for 150/. Black 
retained his post of editor, but the new pro- 
prietor, Mr. Clement, owner also of the * Ob- 




server ' and of ( Bell's Life/ had not the ; 
public spirit of his predecessor, and the paper 
began to decline in a commercial sense. In ! 
1834 it was again sold for the sum of 16,5007. ' 
to Sir John East hope and two partners. The 
' Times ' had distanced the ' Chronicle,' when, j 
by a sudden change in its politics in 1835, < 
it caused numbers of its whig subscribers 
to abandon it and support the ( Chronicle.' ; 
Black was so elated by this turn of fortune : 
that he exclaimed, ' Now our readers will 
follow me anywhere I like to lead them ! ' j 

In 1835 Black fought a duel with John 
Arthur Roebuck. The latter had published 
a pamphlet in which cowardice was attri- 
buted to the editor of the ' Chronicle.' A 
meeting took place at which the principals 
fired twice, and the seconds nearly engaged 
in mortal combat. 

When Lord Melbourne returned to office 
(8 April 1835) he found a useful ally and a 
congenial companion in Black. A story is 
told of the prime minister having vowed he 
would make Black a bishop on an occasion 
when he was foiled of his intention to confer 
that dignity on Sydney Smith. Black sup- 
ported the ministry with all his powers, and 
wrote some specially vigorous articles against 
Sir Robert Peel in 1839. Melbourne during his ' 
next administration professed a desire to serve 
Black, who declined the offer on the ground 
that he l lived happily on his income.' ' Then 
by - - I envy you,' said the peer, * and 
you're the only man I ever did.' With Lord 
Palmerston he did not get on quite so well. 
He once vexed the soul of the busy foreign 
secretary by launching out into half an hour's 
dissertation on the ethnological peculiarities 
of the yellow-haired races of Finland, when 
the business of the interview was simply to 
know what the government meant to do 
at a certain crisis in foreign affairs. Lord 
Brougham was very intimate with 'Dear 
Doctor,' as he styled Black, a title derisively 
applied by Cobbett, and not agreeable to 
Black's ears. It was Black's great pleasure 
to encourage the budding talents of the young 
writers around him, and among others that 
of Charles Dickens, who began his literary 
career as a reporter for the ' Chronicle.' Lat- 
terly there was thought to be a decline of 
energy in the management of the paper, and 
Black, in 1843, received an intimation that 
his resignation would be accepted. Black, 
who was now sixty years old, had saved no 
money, and had to part with his beloved 
books, some 30,000 volumes. Friends and 
admirers rallied round him, and a sum, to 
which the proprietors of the ' Chronicle ' con- 
tributed, was raised sufficient to buy him an 
annuity of 150/. His old friend Mr. Walter 

Coulson placed a comfortable cottage at Snod- 
land, near Maidstone, at his disposal, and 
there Black passed the remaining twelve 
years of his life in the study of his favourite 
Greek, chiefly the Septuagint version of the 
Scriptures, and in the assiduous practice of 
gardening. Black's Newfoundland dogs, Cato 
and Plutus, were as well known as himself. 
One of them rescued from the Thames a boy 
who subsequently attained a seat on the 
judicial bench. Mr. James Grant describes 
Black in his latter years as having ' the blunt 
and bluff appearance of a thickset farmer 
. . . never seen in the streets without being 
accompanied by a large mastiff (? Newfound- 
land), and a robust stick in his hand.' He 
died 15 June 1855. 

[Hunt's Fourth Estate ; Mackay's Forty Years' 
Recollections ; Grant's Newspaper Press ; Black's 
Private Papers.] R. H. 

BLACK, JOSEPH, M.D. (1728-1799), 
an eminent chemist, was born in 1728 at 
Bordeaux, where his father, John Black, 
carried on the business of a wine-merchant. 
John Black was a native of Belfast, but of 
Scottish extraction, and married a daughter 
of Robert Gordon, of the Gordons of Hill- 
head in Aberdeenshire, like himself engaged 
in the Bordeaux wine trade, by whom he 
had eight sons and five daughters. The 
worth of his sterling character and well- 
informed mind obtained for him the friend- 
ship of Montesquieu. At the age of twelve 
Joseph Black was placed at a grammar school 
in Belfast, and in 1746 proceeded thence to 
the university of Glasgow. There he chose 
medicine as his profession, and became en- 
amoured of chemistry through the teachings 
of William Cullen, the first in Great Britain 
to raise the science to its true dignity. Cullen 
noted Black's aptitude, promoted him from 
the class-room to the laboratory, and im- 
parted to him, as his assistant, his own 
singular dexterity in experiment. 

When Black went to Edinburgh to com- 
plete his medical education in 1750 or 1751, 
he found an active controversy in progress 
as to the mode of action of the lithontriptic 
medicines then recently introduced into the 
pharmacopoeia. He took up the subject, and 
finding himself, in 1752, on the brink of an 
important discovery, he postponed taking his 
degree until its proofs were assured. There 
is, perhaps, no other instance of a graduation 
thesis so weighted with significant novelty 
as Black's ' De humore acido a cibis orto, et 
Magnesia alba,' presented to the faculty 
11 June 1754. Developed and perfected, it 
was read before the Medical Society of Edin- 
burgh 5 June 1755, published in the second 




volume of 'Essays and Observations' (1756), 
with the title * Experiments upon Magnesia 
alba. Quicklime, and some other Alkaline 
Substances/ and subsequently twice reprinted 
(1777 and 1782). 

As a model for philosophical investigation 
this essay was, by Brougham and Robison, 
placed second only to the ' Optics ' of Newton. 
Its importance in chemical history is two- 
fold. By setting an example of the success- 
ful use of the balance, it laid the foundation 
of quantitative analysis ; and by the distinc- 
tion of qualities conveyed in it between 
* fixed ' and common air, it opened the door 
to pneumatic chemistry. Up to that time 
the causticity of alkalis after exposure to 
strong heat had been universally attributed 
to an acrid principle derived from fire. Black 
showed that they lost instead of gained in 
weight by calcination ; and that what they 
lost was a kind of ' air ' previously ' fixed ' in 
them, and neutralising, by its acid qualities, 
their native causticity. The effervescence of 
' mild ' and non-effervescence of ( caustic ' 
alkalis when dissolved in acids were alleged 
in countenance of the new theory, which, 
nevertheless, encountered a vigorous, though 
futile, opposition in Germany. It was pointed 
out in the same remarkable treatise that 
magnesia, until then generally held to be a 
variety of lime, formed, with the same acids, 
wholly different salts, and was consequently 
to be regarded as a distinct substance. 

Black was fully aware of the vast ness of 
the field of research thrown wide by the dis- 
covery (or rather individualisation) of fixed 
air, named by Lavoisier in 1784 ' carbonic 
acid' (Mem. de TAcad. 1781, p. 455). In 
1757 he ascertained its effects upon animals, 
and its production by respiration, fermenta- 
tion, and the burning of charcoal (Lectures, 
ii. 87-8). He also inferred its invariable pre- 
sence, in small quantities, in the atmosphere. 
Here, however, he stopped, leaving the path 
which he had struck out to be pursued by 
Cavendish, Priestley, and Lavoisier. 

On the removal of Culien to Edinburgh, 
Black was appointed in 1756 to replace him 
in the chair of anatomy and chemistry in the 
university of Glasgow ; but dissatisfied with 
his qualifications for the former post, he ex- 
changed duties with the professor of medicine, 
and lectured during the ensuing ten years 
with much care and success on the institutes 
of medicine. He was at the same time in 
large practice as a physician, and devoted the 
most anxious care to the welfare of his 
^patients. Nevertheless he found time to 
complete the second achievement in science 
with which his name remains associated. 
'This is the discovery of what is termed 'latent 

heat.' In 1756 he began to meditate on the 
perplexing slowness with which ice melts, and 
water is dissipated in boiling. He divined the 
cause in 1757, and ascertained it in 1761. A 
large quantity of heat, he found, is consumed 
in bringing about these changes in the state 
of aggregation, and is thus rendered insen- 
sible to the thermometer. The cause of this 
disappearance, according to modern theory, 
is the employment of the absorbed heat in 
l doing work that is, conferring ' potential 
; energy ' on material particles ; in Black's 
; view it was the formation of a quasi-chemi- 
| cal combination between those particles and 
i the subtle fluid of heat. But this erroneous 
| conception in no way detracted from the im- 
I portance of his discovery. The decisive ex- 
I periment of obtaining from water during 
I congelation an amount of heat equal to that 
expended or rendered ' latent ' in its liquefac- 
I tion was performed in December 1761. This 
| quantity he measured at rather more than 
[ would have sufficed to raise the temperature 
| of the same weight of water 140 Fahrenheit 
i (accurately 143). He, however, considerably 
underestimated the latent heat of steam, 
fixing it, with his pupil Irvine's assistance, 
9 Oct. 1764, at 750 (later at 810) instead of 
967. The results of this brilliant investi- 
gation not only formed the basis of modern 
thermal science, but gave the first impulse 
to Watt's improvements in the steam-engine, 
and thereby to modern industrial develop- 
ments. Black read an account of his suc- 
cessful experiments before a literary society 
in Glasgow, '23 April 1762, and from 1761 
downwards carefully taught the doctrine of 
latent heat in his lectures, dwelling with 
sedate eloquence on the beneficent effects of 
the arrangement in checking and regulating 
the processes of nature. But he published 
nothing on the subject, and was thus scarcely 
entitled to complain if his ideas were appro- 
priated with little or no acknowledgment. 
To the same society he detailed, 28 March 
1760, a series of experiments instituted with 
the object of testing the validity of thermo- 
metrical indications. He originated, more- 
over, the theory of * specific heat,' or of the 
various thermal ' capacities ' of different 
bodies, but committed it to Irvine to workout. 
Still treading in his master's footsteps, 
Black became, on Cullen's advancement to 
a higher post in 1766, professor of medicine 
and chemistry in the university of Edinburgh. 
His career thenceforward was exclusively that 
of a teacher. Restricting his medical practice 
to a narrow circle of friends, and abandoning 
all thought of original research, he concen- 
trated his powers upon the effective discharge 
of his official duties. His success was con- 




spicuous. During above thirty years he in- 
culcated the elements of chemistry upon en- 
thusiastic and continually growing audiences. 
1 It could not be otherwise/ Robison wrote 
in 1803. * His personal appearance and i 
manner were those of a gentleman, and pecu- 
liarly pleasing. His voice in lecturing was 
low/ but fine ; and his articulation so dis- 
tinct that he was perfectly well heard by an 
audience consisting of several hundreds. His 
discourse was so plain and perspicuous, his | 
illustrations by experiment so apposite, that j 
his sentiments on any subject never could i 
be mistaken, even by the most illiterate ; and 
his instructions were so clear of all hypo- i 
thesis or conjecture, that the hearer rested 
on his conclusions with a confidence scarcely 
exceeded in matters of his own experience ' ! 
(BLACK'S Lectures, preface, Ixii). His lectures 
had thus a powerful effect in popularising 
chemistry ; and attendance upon them even i 
came to be a fashionable amusement. 

Black was a prominent member of the ! 
intellectual society by which Edinburgh was 
then distinguished. Amongst his intimates 
were his relative and colleague Adam Per- j 
guson, Hume, Hutton, A. Carlyle, Dugald 
Stewart, and John Robison. Adam Smith, 
with whom he knit a close friendship at 
Glasgow, used to say that * no man had less 
nonsense in his head than Dr. Black.' He 
was one of James Watt's earliest patrons, 
and kept up a constant correspondence with 
him. Though grave and reserved, Black was 
gentle and sincere, and it is recorded of him 
that he never lost a friend. He was at the 
same time gifted with a keen judgment of 
character, and with the power of expressing 
that judgment in an ' indelible phrase.' In 
person he is described as ' rather above the 
middle size ; he was of a slender make ; his 
countenance was placid, and exceedingly 
engaging ' (THOMSON). As he advanced in 
years, Robison tells us, he preserved a pleas- 
ing air of inward contentment. Graceful 
and unaffected in manner, ' he was of most 
easy approach, affable, and readily entered 
into conversation, whether serious or trivial.' 
Nor did he disdain elegant accomplishments. 
In his youth he both sang and played taste- 
fully upon the flute. He had talent for 
painting, and ' figure of every kind excited 
his attention . . . even a retort or a crucible 
was to his eye an example of beauty or de- 
formity.' But love of propriety, the same 
authority informs us, was his leading senti- 
ment. Indeed, his mind was so nicely balanced 
as to be deficient in motive power. He had 
all the faculties of invention, but lacked 
fervour to keep them at work. Hence the 
slackness with which he pursued discoveries 

which his genius, as it were, compelled him 
to make. 

A perhaps more prevailing reason for his 
inaction was the weakness of his constitution. 
The least undue strain, whether physical or 
mental, produced spitting of blood, and it 
was only by the most watchful precautions 
that he maintained unbroken, though feeble, 
health. From 1793, however, it visibly de- 
clined, and he led, more and more completely, 
the life of a valetudinarian. In 1795 Charles 
Hope Avas appointed his coadjutor in his pro- 
fessorship ; in 1797 he lectured for the last 
time. The end came 6 Dec. 1799 (Dr. G. 
WILSON, in Proc. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, ii. 
238), just in the way he had often desired. 
* Being at table,' Ferguson relates, ' with his 
usual fare, some bread, a few prunes, and a 
measured quantity of milk diluted with water, 
and having the cup in his hand when the last 
stroke of the pulse was to be given, he ap- 
peared to have set it down on his knees, 
which were joined together, and in the action 
expired without spilling a drop, as if an ex- 
periment had been purposely made to evince 
the facility with which he departed.' The 
provisions of his will curiously illustrated 
the just but cold precision of his modes of 
thought. He divided his property, without 
specification of its amount, into 10,000 por- 
tions, ' parcelled to a numerous list of rela- 
tives, in shares, in numbers or fractions of 
shares, according to the degree in which they 
were proper objects of his care or solicitude.' 
He was never married, but lived on the best 
! terms with his family. His morals were 
irreproachable, his habits abstemious, his 
frugality was free from parsimony. Indif- 
ferent to fame, he disliked the publicity of 
authorship, and never could be induced to 
vindicate claims which his friends held to be, 
in many quarters, encroached upon. He 
enjoyed, nevertheless, a unique reputation. 
Fourcroy called him ' the Nestor of the che- 
mistry of the eighteenth century ' (HoEFER, 
Hist, de la Chimie, ii. 353) ; Lavoisier ac- 
knowledged himself his disciple. Black, on 
! his side, while professing the highest admira- 
| tion for Lavoisier's genius, and admitting his 
i discoveries, intensely disliked what he re- 
garded as his premature generalisations. 'Che- 
mistry,' he observed, 'is not yet a science. 
We are very far from the knowledge of first 
principles. We should avoid everything that 
has the pretensions of a full system ' (Lectures, 
note xxvi.) This philosophic caution was 
eminently characteristic. 

Amongst other honours Black was elected 
member of the Paris and St. Petersburg Aca- 
demies of Sciences, of the Society of Medi- 
cine of Paris, as well as of the Royal Society 




of Edinburgh, and of the Koyal College of 
Physicians. He was, besides, first physician 
to his majesty for Scotland. It is worth 
notice that he made, in 1767, the first attempt 
to inflate a balloon with hydrogen (Ed. En- 
cycl. iii. (pt. ii.) 553). His lectures were 
published by Robison in 1803 from notes 
found after his death, eked out by those of 
his hearers, in two quarto volumes, entitled 
' Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry, 
delivered in the University of Edinburgh.' 
A German translation by Crell appeared at 
Hamburg in 1804-5, and again in 1818, in 
four vols. 8vo. Black communicated to the 
Royal Society of London a paper * On the 
supposed Effect of Boiling upon Water in 
disposing it to freeze more readily, ascertained 
by Experiment' (Phil. Trans. Ixv. 124), and 
to that of Edinburgh ' An Analysis of the | 
Waters of some Hot Springs in Iceland ' j 
(Trans. JR. Spc. Ed. iii. 95). Two letters by 
him on chemical subjects were published, one 
by Lavoisier in the ' Annales de Chimie,' the 
other by Crell in his ' Collections ' for 1783. 

[Ferguson, Trans. E. Soc. Ed. v. 101 (Hist, of 
Soc.) ; Kobison's Pref. to Black's Lectures ; 
Thomas Thomson, M.D., Brewster's Ed. Encycl. 
iii. (pt. ii.), 548 ; Sir A. Grant's University of 
Edinburgh, ii. 395 ; Bibl. Britannique, xxviii. 
133, 324 (1805); Phil. Mag. x. 157 (1801); 
Ann. Phil. iii. 324 ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, 383.] A. M. C. 

BLACK, PATRICK, M.D. (1813-1879), 
physician, was son of Colonel Patrick Black, 
of the Bengal cavalry, and like his father 
was called after his ancestor, Sir Patrick 
Dun, president of the Irish College of Phy- 
sicians in 1681. He was born at Aberdeen 
in 1813, was sent to Eton in 1828, matri- 
culated at Christ Church in 1831, and gra- 
duated M.D. at Oxford in 1836. In 1842 he 
was elected assistant physician to St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, in 1851 warden of its 
college, in 1860 physician to the hospital, 
and somewhat later lecturer on medicine in 
the school. Black was a tall and handsome 
man, and the trust which his open counte- 
nance encouraged was never disappointed. 
He was a careful observer, a just reasoner, 
well read in medicine, a scholar who enjoyed 
literature, a physician who, as one of his 
patients remarked, hastened no one into the 
grave, yet he never attained a large prac- 
tice. That he was a man of considerable pro- 
perty perhaps stood in his way, but another 
reason was that he had so little belief in 
treatment that both students and patients 
perceived that he regarded his own prescrip- 
tion as a ceremonial observance rather than 
as a practical measure. He even questioned 

the value of quinine as a remedy for ague. 
In 1855 Black wrote a short treatise : ' Chlo- 
! roform ; how shall we ensure safety in its 
I administration ? ' In 1867 he revised the 
1 Latin part of the l Nomenclature of Diseases ' 
j for the College of Physicians, of which he 
j was a fellow and three times censor. In 1876 
j he published a popular lecture on ' Respira- 
tion,' a pamphlet on ( Scurvy,' and an l Essay 
I on the tTse of the Spleen.' His sceptical 
j turn of mind is noticeable in all : he doubts 
j whether chloroform ever causes death except 
by simple suffocation, doubts whether lime 
| juice prevents scurvy, and doubts whether 
the spleen does anything but regulate the 
current of the blood. His scepticism was an 
infirmity which prevented his accumulated 
observation from yielding its proper fruit, 
but it did not affect his personal relations 
with mankind. He was sound in his judg- 
ment of character, firm in his friendship, and 
universal in his kindness. He died on 12 Oct. 
1879. His colleague, Dr. Reginald Southey, 
wrote his memoir in the St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Reports, vol. xv., and his former 
house physician, Dr. R. Bridges, published in 
1876 a Latin poem dedicated to Dr. Black, 
and describing in Ovidian verse his personal 
appearance, character, and manner of teach- 

[Southey's Memoir ; personal knowledge.] 


BLACK, ROBERT, D.D. (1752-1817), 
Irish presbyterian minister, was born in 
1752, the eldest son of Valentine Black, a 
farmer at Mullabrack, co. Armagh. In 1770 
he entered the class of ethics under Dr. 
Thomas Reid at Glasgow. He was licensed 
by the Armagh presbytery, declined in 1776 
a call to Keady, co. Armagh, and in the 
following year, on the death of Alexander 
Colville, M.D., the non-subscribing minister 
of Dromore, co. Down, he accepted the call 
of this congregation, which returned to the 
jurisdiction of the general synod of Ulster. 
Black was ordained at Dromore by the 
Armagh presbytery on 18 June 1777. On 
15 Feb. 1782 he attended the convention of 
Irish volunteers at Dungannon as Captain 
Robert Black, and seconded the resolution 
adopted in favour of catholic emancipation. 
Like other ministers of that date, he some- 
times preached in regimentals, and with 
drumhead for book-rest. He attended also 
the second great Dungannon convention on 
8 Sept. 1783, when his eloquence attracted 
the attention of Frederick Augustus, earl of 
Bristol and bishop of Derry, and of Robert 
Moore of Molenan near Derry. Hence his 
call to First Derry, where he was installed 



by the Deny presbytery on 7 Jan. 1784 as i 
colleague to David Young. On '2 Dec. 1788 j 
lie was elected synod agent for the reyium ! 
donum, in succession to James Laing. He 
delivered an applauded oration at the cen- 
tenary commemoration (7 Dec. 1788) of the 
closing of the gates of Derry. As agent for 
the royal bounty, he exerted himself to se- 
cure its augmentation ; in 1792, by help of 
the Earl of Charlemont, Henry Grattan, and 
Colonel Stewart of Killymoon, the Irish par- ; 
liament passed a favourable resolution, and ' 
500J. a year was added to the grant, thus in- 
creasing the dividend from about 10/. to 321. 
(Irish currency). In gratitude for his ser- 
vices the synod in 1793 presented Black with 
a piece of plate. The seditious tendencies 
now beginning to appear in the volunteer 
movement excited his alarm, and he delivered 
a solemn warning against them in a speech 
at a meeting of the parishioners of Temple- 
more held in Derry Cathedral on 14 Jan. 
1793 (see abstract in Belfast News-Letter, \ 
25 Jan. 1793). He never, however, receded j 
from the positions he had taken in favour of j 
parliamentary reform and catholic ernanci- , 
pation. In the rebellion of 1798 he was j 
strongly on the side of constituted authority, j 
and had great influence as the friend and j 
correspondent of Castlereagh. One form in j 
which this influence was exercised was a j 
further increase of the reyium donum, which , 
from 1804 was distributed in three classes 
(100/., 75/., and 50/.), the agent being hence- 
forth appointed not by the synod but by the 
government. Black held this office till his 
death, and did not scruple to use the power 
it gave him. Opponents called him ' the un- 
mitred bishop ' and ' chief consul of the 
general synod.' In 1800 or 1801 the degree 
of D.D. was sent him by an American col- 
lege. As a speaker he had no equal in his 
day. In theology he was strongly suspected 
of heresy, a view which is countenanced by 
the fact that in 1804 he endeavoured to se- 
cure as his colleague William Porter, whose 
Arianism was openly known. His local 
prestige was impaired by the circumstances 
of Castlereagh's defeat at the county Down 
election of 1805, but his influence at Dublin 
Castle was equally strong with all ministries. 
In 1809 the synod publicly thanked him for 
his exertions in procuring the act of parlia- 
ment incorporating the widows' fund. In 
1813 his controversy with William Steele 
Dickson, D.D. [q. v.], one of the chief victims 
of the rebellion of 1798, was ended by a 
synodical resolution declaring that words in 
a previous resolution (1799), complained of 
by Dickson, had been 'inaccurately used;' 
but Black's influence was still powerful 
VOL. T. 

enough to cause the expulsion of an elder 
who, in the course of debate, had laid charges 
against him in connection with the bounty. 
Black was a strong opponent of the esta- 
blishment of the Belfast Academical Insti- 
tution (opened 1814) j at the synod of 1815, 
in Black's absence from ill-health, a resolution 
was passed in its favour ; in the same year 
government made the institution an annual 
grant of 1,500/. Next year the grant was 
withdrawn on political grounds, but Black 
vainly endeavoured, in two successive years, 
to procure the rescinding of the synod's reso- 
lution. His defeat was softened by a not 
very successful public dinner, given by his 
admirers in Belfast. Black was a man whose 
ambition could not brook repulses ; his tem- 
perament alternated between geniality and 
gloom. Loss of leadership unhinged his 
spirit. He threw himself over the railing of 
Derry Bridge, and was drowned in the Foyle, 
on the evening of 4 Dec. 1817. His body 
appears to have been filched from its grave. 
There is a curious caricature engraving of 
Black in ' The Patriotic Miscellany,' 1805, a 
collection of squibs relating to the Down 
election of that year. It represents him as 
a short corpulent man, with a large head and 
strong profile. He had married his cousin, 
Margaret Black (who died in April 1824), 
and left three sons and two daughters. He 
published: 1. ' A Catechism.' 2. 'Substance 
of Two Speeches delivered at the Meeting of 
Synod in 1812, with an Abstract of the Pro- 
ceedings relative to the Eev. Dr. Dickson,' 
Dublin, 1812. 

[Glasgow Matriculation Book; Keid's Hist. 
Presb. Church in Ireland, 1853, vol. iii. ; Withe- 
row's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presbyterianism in 
Ireland, 2nd series, 1880; Porter's Irish Presb. 
Biog. Sketches, 1883; Min. of Gen. Synod, 1824.] 

A. G. 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1749-1829), phy- 
sician, was born in Ireland; studied medicine 
(according to MUNK, Coll. Phys. iii. 367) at 
Leyden, and took his degree as M.D. there 
20 March 1772 with an inaugural disserta- 
tion l De diagnosi, prognosi, et causis mortis 
in febribus.' He received the license of the 
College of Physicians 2 April 1787, and 
afterwards practised in London, residing in 
Piccadilly. He appears to have retired from 
practice before his death, which occurred at 
Hammersmith in December 1829. 

Black did not attain any remarkable emi- 
nence in his profession, but wrote some 
books which are not without value as illus- 
trating the application of the statistical 
method to medicine. He was one of the 
first writers, at least in England, who 





showed that statistics, which had been pre- 
viously employed chiefly in political and 
commercial matters, might he of great ser- 
vice to the progress of medicine. 

Being invited to deliver the ' annual ora- 
tion' before the Medical Society of London, he 
expanded this lecture into an octavo volume, 
entitled ' A Comparative View of the Mor- 
tality of the Human Species at all Ages, and 
of Diseases and Casualties, with Charts and 
Tables,' published in 1788. Before half the 
first edition was sold he cancelled the re- 
mainder and brought out a second and cor- 
rected edition, as ' An Arithmetical and 
Medical Analysis of the Diseases and Mor- 
tality of the Human Species/ 8vo, London, 
1789. In this his design was to exhibit 
births, mortality, diseases, and casualties as 
being subject to arithmetical proof, to con- 
struct in fact a * medical arithmetic/ a 
phrase evidently suggested by the ' Political 
Arithmetic' of Sir W. Petty. Although 
the efforts of Black have long been eclipsed 
by the brilliant results of Louis, Quetelet, 
and others in the same field, they had con- 
siderable importance in their day. The l Dis- 
sertation on Insanity ' is an expansion of a 
chapter in this book, and was based on ob- 
servations furnished by an official of Bethle- 
hem Hospital. His ' Sketch of the History 
of Medicine ' is a slight work, but was trans- 
lated into French by Coray. 

He wrote : 1. ' A Historical Sketch of 
Medicine and Surgery from their Origin to 
the Present Time, with a Chronological Chart 
of Medical and Surgical Authors/ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1782. In French, Paris, an vi. (1798). 
2. 'A Dissertation on Insanity, illustrated 
with tables from between two and three 
thousand cases in Bedlam/ 8vo, London, 
1810; second edition 1811. 3. 'Observa- 
tions, Medical and Political, on the Small- 
pox, the Advantages and Disadvantages of 
General Inoculation, and on the Mortality of 
Mankind at every age/ 8vo, London, 1781. 
4. 'Reasons for preventing the French, under 
the mask of Liberty, from trampling on 
Europe/ 8 vo, 1792. 5. ' Observations on Mili- 
tary and Political Affairs by General Monk/ 
new edition, 8vo, 1796 (the last on authority 
of Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816). His 
portrait, engraved by Stanier, was published 
by Sewell, 1790. 

[Hunk's Coll. Physicians, ii. 367 ; Biog. Diet. 
of Living Authors (1816).] J. E. P. 

1872), antiquary, was the eldest son of John 
Black of Kintore, in Aberdeenshire, and 
was born 7 May 1808. From his mother, 
who came of a good family (the Langleys), 

possessing estates in Oxfordshire and Buck- 

; inghamshire, he imbibed his love of religion, 

and also his thirst for antiquarian knowledge. 

l He was educated at a private school, and at 

seventeen years of age became himself a 

tutor among families residing at Tulse Hill 

and neighbourhood. 

As a reader at the British Museum he 
; became acquainted with many literary men, 
through whose influence he obtained a situa- 
tion in the Public Record Office, attaining at 
last to the position of assistant keeper. It 
I was during the time he filled this post that 
j he corrected the errors in Rymer's ' Foedera/ 
He was a prolific writer, especially on anti- 
quarian subjects. He prepared an edition of 
the British part of the f Itinerary of Anto- 
ninus ' (never issued), and contributed to 
Samuel Bentley's ' Excerpta Historical He 
catalogued the manuscripts of the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford, the Arundel MSS. in the 
library of the College of Arms, and Colfe's 
library at Lewisham, and left behind him a 
monograph on the Roman mile, which still 
awaits editing and publication. 

At the time of his death he was in nomi- 
nation for, and would have been elected on, 
the council of the Society of Antiquaries. 
He was one of the earliest members of the 
British Archaeological Society, the Surrey, 
London and Middlesex, and Wiltshire 
Archaeological Societies, and the founder of 
the Chronological Institute of London, Pales- 
tine Archaeological Association, and Anglo- 
biblical Institute, besides being a member of 
the Camden Society. 

His religious views were somewhat pecu- 
liar. He was the pastor of a small sect 
called the Seventh Day Baptists, whose 
chapel is in Mill Yard, Leman Street, White- 
chapel, and maintained that Saturday was 
the Sabbath. Black died 12 April 1872. 
As a conscientious and painstaking antiquary,, 
he has had few equals in the present century. 

[Private information.] J. A. 

1696), covenanter, was second son of the 
elder John Blackadder [q. v.], brother of Dr. 
William Blackadder [q. v.], physician to Wil- 
liam III, and of Lieutenant-colonel John 
Blackadder [q. v.] He was born about 1659. 
He was bred to the mercantile profession in 
Stirling, and in November 1674, while still an 
apprentice, he was, along with several others, 
apprehended, because he had not subscribed 
the 'Black Bond' of history, and for attending 
conventicles. The entire household remained 
steadfast to their father. His eldest brother 
(Dr. Blackadder) presented a petition to the 
privy council, and obtained his temporary re- 



lease. He was at least twice subsequently im- I 
prisoned, once in Fife, and once in Blackness 
Castle. In the latter his and Welsh's dun- | 
geons are still shown. His seizure and im- j 
prisonment in Blackness was for having been ! 
present at his father's preaching near Bor- 
rowstownness(Linlithgowshire), on which oc- 
casion no fewer than twenty-six children were \ 
baptised. Compelled by persecution to be an 
exile, Blackadder is found next in Sweden. 
He was a merchant in Sweden for nine years. 
Having married a Swedish lady, whom he 
had converted from Lutheranism to presbyte- j 
rian Calvinism, they were obliged to fly the ! 
country. The penalty at the time for a | 
Swede who changed to Catholicism or Cal- ! 
vinism was death. About the close of 1684 | 
he was settled in Edinburgh. Twelve years 
later his name is found in the Darien Papers 
(Bannatyne Club, 1849) among the sub- 
scribers to the Darien Company ' 26 March 
1696. Adam Blackader, merchant in Edin- 
burgh, as factor for his brother, Captain John 
Blackader, in Flanders, 100/.' He wrote a 
narrative of his father's sufferings, worked 
into Dr. Crichton's full ' Life/ which he sub- 
mitted to Wodrow. He is also known to 
have written a number of political tractates 
on the state of parties and the Darien scheme. 
The date of his death is not discoverable. 

[Authorities cited under BLACKADDER, JOHN ; 
Anderson's Scottish Nation; Wodrow MSS. ; 
Howie's Scots Worthies ; Dodd's Scottish Cove- 
nanters: Gilfillan's Scottish Covenanters.] 

A. B. G. 

(1615-1686), Scotch divine, was son of John 
Blackadder, of the families of Blackadder 
of Blairhall and Tulliealan, whose ancestry 
were famous in border story, and joined 
in the wars of the Roses. He was born in 
December 1615, but where is not known. 
According to Scott (Fasti, i. 604), he was 
born in 1623. He studied at Glasgow under 
Principal Strang, his uncle. He was early 
distinguished for his scholarship Oriental, 
Latin, and Greek. He took his degree of M. A. 
in 1650. Having received license he was una- 
nimously called to the parish of Troqueer in 
1652, ' one of the kirks of Galloway within 
the presbytery of Dumfries,' and was or- 
dained 7 June 1653. The condition of his 
parish and of the county was deplorable. 
Bastardy and profanity were everywhere. 
The Bible was practically unknown. Black- 
adder worked hard to* correct these evils. 
Upon the ' intrusion ' of episcopacy on pres- 
byterian Scotland in 1662, the minister of 
Troqueer was 'extruded' from his church 
and temporarily imprisoned at Edinburgh. 

He afterwards retired with wife and family 
to Caitloch, Corsack Wood, and other places. 
But holding his clerical orders to be inde- 
feasible and the enforcement of episcopacy a 
violation of the Act of Union, as well as the 
imposition of a non-scriptural form of church 
government, he preached eloquently to for- 
bidden conventicles among the mountains and 
in the moors and glens and caves. War- 
rants were again and again issued against 
him, but he contrived to escape imprison- 
ment, and with Welsh, Peden, Cargill, and 
other covenanters, continued to preach. 

In 1666, 1674, 1677, the records of the 
privy^ council show that letters for his appre- 
hension were issued. On one particular oc- 
casion, when he delivered a sermon at Kinkell, 
the people crowded to hear him, notwith- 
standing the absolute commands, with threats, 
of Archbishop Sharp. When the irate pre- 
late a renegade presbyterian ordered the 
provost to march out the militia to disperse 
the congregation, he was told it was impos- 
sible, l as the militia had gone there as wor- 
shippers.' In 1674 Blackadder was outlawed, 
and a heavy reward offered for his body. He 
fled to Rotterdam in 1678, and there aided 
in * healing differences ' between the presby- 
terian ministers, Fleming and M'Ward. He 
was again in Edinburgh in June 1679. On 
5 April 1681 he was ' made prisoner in his 
house at ^Edinburgh,' and after a form of 
examination was sent to the Bass Rock. 
After four years of rigid imprisonment his 
health finally gave way. The privy council, 
in hot haste, gave permission to him to leave, 
on condition of confining himself to Edin- 
burgh. But it was too late, and he died on 
the Bass in January 1686. 

Blackadder succeeded to, but never assumed, 
a baronetcy which had been conferred on a 
member of an elder branch of his family in 
1626. He married, in 1646, Janet Haining, 
daughter of Homer Haining of Dumfries. 
She died 9 Nov. 1688. Their issue were five 
sons (of whom Adam, John, and William are 
separately noticed) and two daughters. 

[Scott's Fasti, i. 604; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation; Min. Glasg. Univ. Ill; Edin. Guild 
and Reg. (Bass) ; Wodrow and Kirkton's Hist. ; 
Analecta ; Edin. Christian Instructor, xxiii. ; 
New Statistical Ace. ii. iv. viii. &c. ; Crichton's 
Memoirs, 2nd ed. 1826, full and valuable ; Two 
Sermons on Isaiah liii. 11, in Howie of Loch- 
goin's Faithful Coiitendings, 1780, pp. 72-104 ; 
Bishop Burnet's Life.] A. B. G. 

BLACKADDER, JOHN the younger 
(1664-1729), lieutenant-colonel of the Came- 
ronian regiment, was the fifth son of John 
Blackadder the elder [q. v.], and was bom 





in the parish of Glencairn, Dumfriesshire, 
14 Sept. 1664. Notwithstanding the persecu- 
tions to which the father was subject, the son, 
after receiving from him the rudiments of 
classical learning, attended the courses of hu- 
manity and philosophy in the university of 
Edinburgh. Accustomed from infancy to 
frequent conventicles and communions, he ac- 
quired at an early period strong Calvinistic 
convictions and strict and stern views of con- 
duct and duty. When the regiment raised by 
the covenanting Cameronians (now the 26th 
of the line) was embodied by the Earl of Angus 
in 1689, he volunteered into it as a cadet at the 
pay of sixpence a day. Probably through his 
intimacy with the commander, Colonel Cle- 
land, who was an old college acquaintance, 
he was in a few months promoted lieutenant. 
The regiment, by the remarkable stand it 
made against the Highlanders at Dunkeld, 
did service of the highest importance in quell- 
ing the rebellion. After the reduction of the 
Highlands he embarked with the regiment 
for Flanders, and took part in the principal 
sieges and battles in the campaigns of the 
Prince of Orange until the peace of Ryswick in 
1697. On the resumption of the war in 1702, 
Blackadder, who had previously obtained 
his captain's commission, served with his old 
regiment in the campaigns of Marlborough. 
In December 1705 he was promoted major,and 
in October 1709 raised to the command of the 
regiment. Shortly before the peace of Utrecht 
he sold his commission, and taking up his 
residence at Edinburgh, and afterwards at 
Stirling, he occupied much of his attention 
with ecclesiastical affairs, becoming a member 
of the Society for Propagating Christianity, 
and also of the general assembly of the 
church of Scotland. Upon the news of a 
rising in the north in 1715 in behalf of the 
Pretender, he was appointed colonel of the 
regiment raised by the city of Glasgow, which 
he posted at the bridge of Stirling to guard 
against an attack of the highlanders, who, 
however, were defeated at the battle of She- 
riffmuir. In consideration of his services 
during the rebellion he was, in March 1717, 
appointed deputy governor of Stirling Castle. 
He died 31 Aug. 1729, and was buried in the 
West church of Stirling, where a marble 
tablet was erected to his memory. 

[Life and Diary of Lieut.-col. J. Blackader. ed. 
Crichton, 1824.] T. F. H. 

(1647-1704), physician to William III, the 
eldest son of the elder John Blackadder 
[q. v.], was born in 1647. He was sent to 
the university of Edinburgh in 1665, and he 
graduated in medicine at Leyden in 1680. 

Having in Holland made the acquaintance of 
some of the principal political refugees of 
England, he was frequently employed by them 
in important negotiations. He accompanied 
the Earl of Argyle in his expedition to Scot- 
land in 1685, and having, along with Spence, 
the earl's secretary, put ashore at Orkney to 
obtain information regarding the sentiments 
of the people, he was apprehended and sent 
for examination to Edinburgh. After landing 
at Leith he succeeded by signs in communi- 
cating to his sister, who had joined the crowd, 
the necessity of burning some papers amongst 
the luggage forwarded to his lodgings. A 
search therefore revealed nothing of a com- 
promising character : but he was retained 
in prison for more than a year until, through 
a clever device of his brother, he obtained 
writing materials, and sent a letter to Fagel, 
the pensioner of Holland, who represented 
the case to the British envoy in such a 
way that King James ordered his liberation. 
Thereupon he went to Holland, whence, in 
1688, he was sent to Edinburgh to carry on 
secret negotiations on behalf of the Prince of 
Orange. Having imprudently ventured into 
the castle, he was seized by order of the go- 
vernor and committed for trial ; but on the 
news of the landing of the Prince of Orange 
he was set at liberty. After the revolution 
he was, in reward of his services, appointed 
physician to King William. He died about 

[Crichton's Memoirs of Rev. John Blackadder, 
2nd ed. pp.295-301, and Life and Diary of Lieut.- 
col. J. Blackader, pp. 28-31; "Wodrow's History 
of the Church of Scotland, ed. Burns, iv. 231, 
285, 313.] T. F. H. 

a chieftain of the Scottish border, received 
his surname and estate from James II in 
1452 for his success in repelling the English 
marauders on the Scottish frontier. By his 
prowess he earned for himself the title of the 
( chieftain of the south.' He and his seven 
sons who accompanied him on his expeditions 
were also named, from the darkness of their 
complexions, the ' Black band of the Black- 
aders.' When the kingdom was placed in a 
posture of defence against Edward IV, the 
Blackaders raised a force of two hundred and 
seventeen men, and also planted their castle 
with artillery, and left in it a strong garrison. 
During the wars of York and Lancaster 
Cuthbert and his sons took service in Eng- 
land, and fought under the banner of the red 
rose. In the fatal battle of Bosworth, 22 Aug. 
1485, he and three of his sons were slain. 

[Crichton's Memoirs of the Eev. John Black- 
adder (2nd ed. 1826), pp.. 2-4.]. T. F. H. 





BLACKALL, JOHN, M.D. (1771-1860), 
physician, sixth son of the Rev. Theophilus 
Blackall, a prebendary of Exeter cathedral, 
by his wife Elizabeth Ley, and grandson 
of Bishop Offspring Blackall [q. v.], was 
born in St. Paul's Street, Exeter, 24 Dec. 
1771. He was educated at the Exeter gram- 
mar school, whence he proceeded to Balliol 
College, Oxford, as a member of which he 
graduated BA. 1793, M.A. 1796, M.B. 1797, 
and M.D. 2 March 1801. Immediately after 
taking his first degree he applied himself to 
the study of medicine at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, and it was in its wards, while 
working as the clinical clerk of Dr. John 
Latham, that he made the observations on 
albuminuria which were afterwards stated and 
enlarged in his treatise on dropsies. In 1797 
he settled in his native city, and on 1 June in ' 
that year was chosen physician to the Devon 
and Exeter Hospital. At this period, how- i 
ever, the medical practice of Exeter was j 
engrossed by Dr. Hugh Downman, Dr. Bar- 
tholomew Parr, and Dr. George Daniell, and 
in 1801 Dr. Blackall resigned his appointment 
at Exeter, and settled at Totness, where he ; 
became the physician of the district. His i 
reputation increased, and in 1807 he returned j 
to Exeter, where he was a second time elected j 
physician to the Devon and Exeter Hospital, i 
and in 1812 was appointed physician to St. j 
Thomas's Lunatic Asylum. In 1813 he : 
published his well-known and admirable i 
1 Observations on the Nature and Cure of j 
Dropsies,' London, 8vo, of which there are I 
four editions, and which entitles its author to | 
a position among medical discoverers. Dropsy | 
is the morbid effusion of the serum of the i 
blood into the cavities of the body and into j 
the meshes of its tissues. It had been ob- j 
served from the beginning of medicine, but | 
up to the time of Lower (1669) nothing was 
known of its morbid anatomy. He made 
the first step, which was the demonstration 
that dropsy of a limb always follows direct 
obstruction of its veins. Blackall's discovery 
came next, and was that dropsy is often as- 
sociated with the presence of albumen in the 
urine. His treatise states clearly the relation 
between albuminuria and dropsy, and shows 
that he suspected that the kidneys were dis- 
eased in these cases. The further discovery 
of Bright (1836) of the constant relation be- 
tween renal disease and albuminuria is based 
upon the observations first made by Blackall. 
Blackall also published (1813) some ob- 
servations on angina pectoris, a disease then 
much discussed, owing to Heberden's writings 
upon it. Blackall was admitted a candi- 

date of the College of Physicians, 22 Dec. 
1814, and a fellow, 22 Dec. 1815. His pro- 
gress from this period was rapid and unin- 
terrupted, and for a long series of years he 
had a great practice in the west of England. 
He was famed for his skill in diagnosis, and it 
was based upon a thorough method of clinical 
examination. He used no complicated re- 
medies, was patient in waiting for results, and 
was justly confident in the conclusions to 
which he had attained with so much care. 

Dr. Blackall retained his strength and fa- 
culties to an advanced age, and he did not 
relinquish private practice till he was eighty. 
He died at Southernhay, Exeter, 10 Jan. 
1860, and was followed to the grave in the 
burial-ground of Holy Trinity Church by a 
large body of relations and friends and the 
Avhole of the medical profession resident 
within the city. 

[British Medical Journal (Memoir by Thomas 
Shapter, M.D.), 1860, pp. 75-6 ; Munk's Boll of 
College of Physicians (1878), iii. 138-41.] 

GK C. B. 

SPRING (1654-1716), bishop of Exeter, did 
not come into public notice until he was a 
middle-aged man, and of his early years little 
is known. He was born in London, and in 
due time became a member of St. Catherine's 
Hall, Cambridge, where, it may be presumed, 
he lived a strictly religious life, for he is men- 
tioned as one of the intimate college friends of 
the saintly James Bonnell [q. v.], who chose 
none but the godly for his companions. In 
1690 he became rector of South Okenden or 
Ockenden in Essex, and in 1694 rector of St. 
Mary Aldermary in London ; with this latter 
preferment he also held successively two lec- 
tureships in the city. He was next made 
chaplain to King William III, although he 
was so strongly suspected of inclining to the 
exiled dynasty that he was charged in a 
pamphlet of 1705 with having continued a 
nonjuror for two years after the revolution. 
A sermon preached before the House of Com- 
mons on 30 Jan. 1699 first brought him into 
notice as a controversialist. The sermon is 
really a very moderate one, in comparison 
with many which were wont to be preached 
on such occasions, but in it the preacher 
made a passing reference it only takes up 
about a twentieth part of the sermon to 
John Toland, against whom everybody was 
then preaching. In 1698 Toland in his ' Life 
of Milton ' disputed the royal authorship of 
the ' Icon Basilike,' and took occasion, more 
suo, to insinuate that, as people were mis- 
taken on this point, so they might be about 
the authenticity of many of the early writings 




about Christianity. Blackball not unnaturally 
supposed tbat Toland referred to tbe New ( 
Testament, and binted to the House of Com- 
mons tbat their pious designs to suppress | 
vice and immorality would not be of much , 
effect if the foundations of all revealed religion 
were thus openly struck at. Toland replied 
in his well-known i Amyntor,' declaring that , 
he had not referred to the holy scriptures at \ 
all. Blackball rejoined, and the controversy 
brought him into such notice that the next 
year (1700) he was chosen Boyle lecturer. , 
The subject he chose was ( The Sufficiency of , 
a standing Revelation,' and the seven ser- 
mons, preached at St. Paul's, which formed 
the lecture, may be found in bis published 
works. On 8 March 1704, the anniversary 
of Queen Anne's accession, Blackball preached 
at St. Dunstaii's, and on the same occasion in 
1708 at St. James's, before the queen, ser- 
mons which called forth the wrath of the 
whigs. In 1709 Benjamin Hoadly attacked 
him, and a long and rather warm contro- 
versy ensued. Pamphlet after pamphlet 
poured forth from the press. Among the 
supporters of Blackball one is supposed to 
have been the famous Charles Leslie, and the 
pamphlet with the curious title ' The best 
answer ever was made, and to which no 
answer ever will be made (not to be behind 
Mr. Hoadly in assurance), &c.,' bears strong 
internal evidence of having been written by 
Leslie. Among the supporters of Hoadly 
were the wits of the ' Tatler.' Blackball 
had by this time become a bishop. In January 
1707-8 Queen Anne, on the recommendation 
of her spiritual director, Archbishop Sharp, 
conferred upon him the see of Exeter, to the 
great annoyance of the low-church party. 
Burnet, while admitting that Blackball was 
' a man of value and worth,' strongly repro- 
bates the appointment because ' his notions 
were all on the other side,' and declares that 
'he [Blackball] seemed to condemn the 
Revolution and all that had been done pur- 
suant to it ' (Own Times, book vii.) Black- 
hall also, as we learn from Le Neve (Fasti 
Ecclesice Anglicance, vol. i.), held with his 
bishopric the archdeaconry of Exeter until 
his death. Little is known of Blackhall's 
management of his diocese, except that he 
took a deep interest in the newly formed 
scheme of charity schools, and endeavoured 
to rouse his clergy into activity on their be- 
half. But he had a great reputation in his 
day both as a preacher and a writer. His 
friend and editor, Sir William Dawes, tells 
us in the posthumous edition of Blackhall's 
sermons that he had ' universally acquired 
the reputation of being one of the best 
preachers of his time,' and the published ser- 

mons bear out this reputation. They are 
105 in number, no less than eighty-seven of 
them being an exposition of the sermon on 
the Mount. These eighty-seven, in especial, 
are remarkably clear and exhaustive ; they 
are written in the homely style which be- 
came fashionable soon after the Restoration. 
Unlike the sermons of an earlier date, they 
contain no quotations from foreign languages, 
no fine words, no similes or metaphors, but 
they thoroughly grapple with the difficulties, 
never diverge from tbe subject in hand, and 
are full of weighty matter. We are not sur- 
prised to learn that 'vast numbers both of 
clergy and laity flocked to hear them/ and 
that he was importuned by many friends to 
print them. He intended to do so, but a 
long sickness, which terminated in his death 
(29 Nov. 1716). prevented him from carrying 
out his intention, so the task was left for his 
friend and brother prelate, Sir William Dawes, 
who executed it with fidelity and judgment. 
The drawback to the series (not to the indi- 
| vidual sermons, for each would take not more 
i than half an hour in. delivery) is its inordi- 
! nate length. It fills no less than 939 folio 
pages, and this, perhaps, is the reason why it 
i has not been accepted as a standard exposi- 
tion of the sermon on the Mount. Many of 
the other sermons have been published sepa- 
rately. Writing from a literary point of view, 
; Felton, in his 'Classics,' describes Blackball 
I as 'an excellent writer,' and De la Roche, 
in his l Memoirs of Literature,' calls him ' one 
| of those English divines who, when they un- 
j dertake to treat a subject, dive into the bottom 
j of it and exhaust the matter.' As to his per- 
j sonal character, his friend Sir W. Dawes thus 
! describes it, in language which evidently 
| came from the heart : ' I, who had the happi- 
| ness of a long and intimate friendship with 
| him, do sincerely declare that in my whole 
! conversation I never met with a more per- 
fect pattern of a true Christian life in all its 
I parts than in him.' He showed such ' primi- 
j tive simplicity and integrity, such constant 
evenness of mind, such unaffected and yet 
| most ardent piety towards God.' His son 
i Theophilus (d. 1737) was the father of Samuel 
| Blackall [q. v.], and his grandson, also Theo- 
| philus (d. 1781), was father of John Blackall 

! [q- v.] 

[Authorities indicated in the text.] J. H. 0. 

BLACKALL, SAMUEL (d. 1792), di- 
vine, was the son of the Rev. Theophilus 
Blackall, chancellor of the diocese of Ex- 
eter, and a grandson of Dr. Offspring Black- 
all, bishop of Exeter. He received his edu- 
cation at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
of which he became a fellow and mathe- 


TI 9 


matical tutor (B. A. 1760, M. A. 1763, B.D. a scholar and divine. To keep himself inde- 
1770). Cole, in his manuscript ' Athenae pendent, he became corrector of the press to 
Cantabrigienses,' says : ' This gent, in 1771, Mr. Bowyer, printer, and was, indeed, one 
on Mr. Hubbard, a fellow of his college, and of the most accurate of any that ever took 
one to whom he had great obligations, pre- upon him that laborious employ ' (NICHOLS, 
paring a Grace, or voting for it, contrary to Literary Anecdotes, i. 252). He was power- 
the inclination and disposition of this person, fully recommended to f King James III ' by 
publicly hissed him in the Senate House, j Lord Winchelsea and other nobles of his 
which was a method so unusual and thought j faction, and was consecrated bishop of the 
so indecent, that even he himself was, or pre- nonjurors 11 June 1725 (BLUNT, Theological 
tended to be, ashamed of it, and made excuses Dictionary, 1872) by the nonjuring prelates, 

Spinckes, Gandy, and Doughty, with the last 

about it. On the petitioners against the 
Liturgy and Thirty-nine Articles applying to 
parliament for relief, he was a busy and active 
petitioner and . . . wrote a spirited pamphlet 

two of whom he took part in the consecra- 
tion of Richard Rawlinson, 25 March 1728, 
and subsequently with Gandy and Rawlin- 

son in the consecration of George Smith. 
Blackbourne belonged to that section of the 
nonjurors which, in respect to the ' usages/ 

against Dr. Hallifax's three sermons. He is 

a little black man, of no humane aspect, and 

carries his malignancy in his forehead : he is 

lame of one leg by some accident, and a great adhered to the practice of the English church 

rower on the water ; a lively and ingenious as it stood at the time of the separation, and 

man, plays well on the harpsichord, sings | who were known as ' nonusagers,' in contra- 

"\VOll sin/1 rlvQTirc on/'l o+nliac iir\i- amice TTft H 1 s1".m P^",i ATI T,n T.nfi ^noonrovc* ' TrrTi^ -nriol-*/-!/-! -f^. 

well, and draws and etches not amiss, 
is son to a dignitary of Exeter, and probably 
a degenerate grandson to a quondam bishop 
of that see. I think the Grace Mr. Hubbard 
opposed was that brought in by Mr. Jebb to 
abolish subscription in the university.' Black- 
all is mentioned in a silly poem called ' Pot 
Fair' (1780). On 12 July 1786 he was ad- 
mitted to the valuable rectory of Lough- 
borough in Leicestershire on the presentation 
of his college. He died there on 8 May 1792, 
and a monument to his memory was placed in 
the parish church of Sidmouth, Devonshire. 
Besides publishing some detached sermons he 
took part in the ' confessional controversy ' 
by addressing l A Letter to Dr. Hallifax upon 
the subject of his three discourses preached 
before the University of Cambridge, occa- 
sioned by an attempt to abolish subscription 
to the Thirty-nine Articles,' 1772. 

[Addit. MS. 5864, f. 65 ; Cantabrigienses Gra- 
duati (1787), 40 ; Gent. Mas;, xxvii. 531 ; xlii. 
265, 446, 516, 572, xliii. 69, 1. 225, Ixii. (i.) 483; 
Dyer's Hist, of the Univ. of Cambridge, ii. 390 ; 
Lond. Mag. 1757, p. 563 ; Lysons's Devonshire, 
447 ; Nichols's Leicestershire, iii. pt. ii. 900.] 

T. C. 

BLACKBOURNE, JOHN (1683-1741), 
nonjuror, was born in 1683, and educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
became B.A. in 1700, and M.A. in 1705. 
His refusal to recognise the revolutionary 
settlement excluded him from clerical prefer- 
ment. According to Dr. Bowes, who ' waited 
on him often in Little Britain, where he lived 
almost lost to the world and hid amongst 
old books,' Blackbourne 'lived a very ex- 
emplary, good life, and studied hard, en- 
deavouring to be useful to mankind, both as 

distinction to the ' usagers,' who wished to 
introduce chiefly into their eucharistic li- 
turgy certain catholic practices. The two 
parties remained separate, each consecrating 
several bishops, from the year 1718 to 1733, 
when a reconciliation took place on the 
basis of a general adoption of the catholic 
< usages:' but Blackbourne still refused, 
though almost alone, to relinquish the use 
of the communion office of the Anglican 
church. Blackbourne published an edition 
of Johan Bale's 'Brefe Chronycle concern- 
ynge the Examinacyon and Death of the 
Blessed Martyr of Christ, Syr Johan Olde- 
castell the Lorde Cobham. To which is 
added an Appendix of original Instruments/ 
8vo, London, 1729 ; and an edition of ' The 
Works of the Lord Bacon. Francisci Baconi, 
Baronis de Verulamio, Vicecomitis Sancti 
Albani, Magni Anglise Cancellarii, Opera 
omnia, quatuor Voluminibus comprehensa ; 
hactenus edita, ad autographorum maxime 
fidem, emendantur ; nonnulla etiam ex MSS. 
Codicibus deprompta, mine primum prodeunt/ 
fol. London, 1730. He is also credited with 
editing the 'Castrations to Holinshed's Chro- 
nicle,' 1728, fol. Blackbourne died 17 Nov. 
1741, and his library was sold by auction in 
February 1742. He was buried^in Islington 
churchyard. His widow, Philadelphia, after 
having contracted a second marriage with 
Richard Heybourne, a citizen of London, 
died 10 Jan. 1750, at the age of 70, and was 
buried by the side of her first husband. 

[Graduati Cantab. 1787; Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes ; Lathbury's History of the Nonjurors, 
London, 1845; Blunt's Dictionary of Theology, 
London, 2nd ed. 1872; Lee's Glossary of Litur- 
gical and Ecclesiastical Terms, London, 1877.1 

A. H. G. 




BLACKBURN, WILLIAM (1750-1790), 
surveyor and architect, was born in South- 
\vark. His father was a tradesman of St. 
John's parish, and his mother a native of 
Spain. His limited education was derived 

ment, useful labour, and moral reform, pro- 
posed premiums for the best plans for such 
buildings ; and the highest premium of one 
hundred guineas was unanimously awarded 
to Blackburn in March 1782. In due course 

from a common school, and at a proper age ' he was appointed to the office of architect 
he was placed under a surveyor one, how- and surveyor of the proposed buildings. But 
ever, of so little note that few advantages after the plan of a penitentiary for male 
could be obtained in the knowledge of his j offenders had been arranged, and a great part 
profession. But his intelligence and persever- j of the work contracted for, the attention of 
ance soon overcame these early drawbacks, public men was diverted from this important 
and he managed to make the acquaintance of i social scheme, and the designs of government 
men of reputation, several of whom belonged were not carried into execution. Popular 
to the Royal Academy. Encouraged and feeling had become so strongly stimulated in 

assisted by them, he became a student in that 
institution, and worked so industriously that 
in 1773 he was presented with the medal 
for the best drawing of the interior of St. 
Stephen's church .Walbrook/ the chef d'ceuvre 
of Sir Christopher Wren,' as Pennant has 
justly called it ; and on receiving the prize, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, the president, highly 
eulogised his abilities and prognosticated his 
future success. 

Soon after entering into business on his own 
account in Southwark, his reputation steadily 
increased, until at length his name was 
brought into public notice by the following 
circumstance. An act of parliament had 
passed in 1779 declaring that 'if any offenders 
convicted of crimes for which transportation 
had been usually inflicted were ordered to 
solitary confinement, accompanied by well 
regulated labour and religious instruction, it 
might be the means, under Providence, not 

favour of the erection of prisons in confor- 
mity to his plans, that many gaols and other 
structures throughout the country were built 
under Blackburn's inspection. But before 
he had reached his fortieth year, he died sud- 
denly at Preston, in Lancashire, on 28 Oct. 
1790, while on a journey to Scotland, taken 
at the instance of the Duke of Buccleuch 
and the lord provost of Glasgow, with a view 
to erect a new gaol in that city. His body 
was removed to London, and interred in the- 
Bunhill Fields burial-ground. 

During Blackburn's short career his labour 
had been very extensive. The gaol of New- 
gate in Dublin was indebted to him for many 
of its improvements : the plan of anew prison 
for Limerick w r as his design, and, shortly 
before his death, negotiations had commenced 
for the erection of a penitentiary house for 
Ireland ; he constructed the tank in Cornhill 
and the prison at Oxford. His abilities were 

only of deterring others from the commis- employed also in preparing designs of churches,, 
sion of the like crimes, but also of reforming,' j houses, villas ; and of three elegant designs for 
&c. &c. By this act his majesty was autho- a new church at Hackney, one had been se- 
rised to appoint three supervisors of the build- lected for early execution, when his untimely 
ings to be erected, who were to fix upon any j death set aside the undertaking. It was at one- 
common, heath, or waste in Middlesex, Essex, \ time intended to have engraved and published 
Kent, or Surrey, on which should be built ' a series of his principal drawings, which dis- 
two plain strong edifices, to be called ' Peni- ! played great taste and a thorough mastery of 
tentiary Houses,' one for six hundred males [ his favourite study of architecture, but we^ 
the other for three hundred females. In the cannot find, that this project was ever carried 

same year three supervisors were appointed : 
John Howard (who had been strongly soli- 
cited by Sir William Blackstone, a great friend 


Blackburn belonged to the presbyterian 

denomination, and was intimate with the 

of the scheme), John Fothergill, M.D. (a most prominent members of that persuasion 
friend of Howard's), and George Whatley, both in town and country. The most agree- 
treasurer of the Foundling Hospital. This 
commission, however, was soon dissolved, for 
Dr. Fothergill died in 1780, and Mr. Howard, 
not being able to coalesce with his remaining 
colleague, resigned shortly afterwards. In 
1781 a new commission was formed, consist- 
ing of Sir Gilbert Elliot, bart., Sir Charles 
Bunbury, bart., and Thomas Bowdler. These 

gentlemen being desirous that the penitentiary i youth was very corpulent. A widow, Lydia, 
houses should be constructed in the manner daughter of Joshua Hobson, a well-known 
most conducive to the ends of solitary co n fine builder of Southwark, whom he had married 

able association connected with his memory 
is his intimate friendship with John Howard,, 
whose benevolent designs he endeavoured to. 
promote. Howard used to say that Black- 
burn was the only man who was capable of 
delineating to his mind upon paper his ideas, 
of what a prison ought to be. In person he 
was of middle stature, and from his early; 




in 1783, and four young children survived 

[Gent. Mag. xlix. 567, lv. 325, lx. 1053; 
Aikin's Life of Howard.] J. W.-G-. 

BLACKBURNE, ANNA (d. 1794), 

botanist, daughter of John Blackburne [q.y.] 
of Orford, was accomplished in natural his- 
tory, and formed a large and varied collection. 
She was a friend and constant correspondent 
of Linnseus. She died at Fail-field, near 
Warring-ton, in 1794. 

[Gent, Mag. Ixiv. 180-1 G - T - B - 

1787), divine, was born at Richmond, York- 
shire, on 9 June 1705. He was educated at 
Kendal, Hawkshead, and Sedbergh, and was 
admitted (May 1722) at Catherine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, where he seems to have already shown 
his liberal principles. ' Young man,' said a 
worthy old lay gentleman to him, ' let the first 
book thou readest at Cambridge be Locke upon 
government.' Blackburne thoroughly assimi- 
lated Locke's politics and theology, and, 
though the only qualified candidate, was re- 
fused a fellowship in consequence. He was 
ordained deacon 17 March 1728, and became 
' conduct ' of his college. He left it on being 
refused a fellowship, and lived with an uncle 
in Yorkshire till 1739, when he was ordained 
priest to take the rectory of Richmond in 
Yorkshire, which had been promised to him 
on the first vacancy. He resided there till 
his death. In 1744 he married a widow, 
Hannah, formerly Hotham, who had (in 
1737) married Joshua Elsworth. He was 
collated to the archdeaconry of Cleveland in 
July 1750, and in August 1750 to the prebend 
of Bilton, by Archbishop Hutton of York ; 
but his principles prevented any further pre- 
ferment, and he early made up his mind never 
again to subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles. 
In 1749 John Jones, vicar of Alconbury, 
published his ( Free and Candid Disquisitions 
relating to the Church of England,' which 
made some noise at the time, by proposing 
modifications of the church services and 
ritual with a view to meeting difficulties of 
the latitudinarian party. Blackburne had 
read the book in manuscript, but denied that 
he had any share in the composition. Its 
phraseology was too ' milky ' for his taste. 
He defended it in an apology (1750). In 
1752 he published anonymously an attack 
upon Bishop Butler's well-known charge 
(1751), called 'A Serious Inquiry into the 
Use and Importance of External Religion,' and 
accusing Butler of deficient protestantism. 
This was first printed with his name in 1767 
in the ' Pillars of Priestcraft and Orthodoxy 

shaken,' a collection by R. Baron. He sup- 
ported the semi-materialist theory of the ' sleep 
of the soul' of his college friend Bishop Law, 
in a tract called 'No Proof in the Scriptures 
of an Intermediate State,' &c., 1755 ; and in 
1758 he argued against the casuistry whicli 
j would permit subscription to the articles to 
j be made with considerable latitude of niean- 
I ing, in l Remarks on the Rev. Dr. Powell's 
j Sermon in Defence of Subscriptions.' This 
j controversy led to his best known work. He 
had reconciled himself with some difficulty 
to the subscriptions necessary for his later 
preferments, but his doubts had increased 
when the prospect of a further appointment 
led to a fresh consideration. He then studied 
the history of the tests imposed by protestant 
churches, and his studies resulted in the 
composition of l The Confessional, or a full 
and free inquiry into the right, utility, and 
success of establishing confessions of faith 
and doctrine in protestant churches.' The 
manuscript remained unpublished for some 
years, when the one confidential friend who 
had seen it mentioned it to the republican 
Thomas Hollis, through whom Millar, the 
well-known bookseller, was introduced to 
! the author, and published the book anony- 
mously in May 1766 ; a second edition ap- 
peared in June 1767. The l Confessional ' 
argues, as a corollary from Chillingworth's 
; principle 'The Bible is the religion of 
protestants ' that a profession of belief in 
the scriptures as the word of God, and a 
i promise to teach the people from the scrip- 
| tures, should be the sole pledges demanded 
from protestant pastors. This is supported 
by historical considerations, and the device 
of lax interpretation of the articles is de- 
nounced as a casuistical artifice of Laud's 
in defence of Arminianism. A lively con- 
, troversy arose. A list of the pamphlets is 
given in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' xlu 
405, xlii. 263, and in a ' Short View of the 
Controversy ' (by Dr. Disney), 1773. A third 
edition of the ' Confessional ' appeared in 
1770. In 1772 a meeting was held at the- 
Feathers Tavern, and a petition signed by 
200 persons for giving effect to Blackburne's 
i proposal. It was rejected by 217 to 71 after 
a speech in condemnation by Burke, pub- 
lished in his Works. 

Theophilus Lindsey, who married a step- 
daughter of Blackburne's, and Dr. Disney, 
; who married his eldest daughter, joined in 
this agitation, and both of them afterwards left 
the church of England to become Unitarians. 
Blackburne was naturally supposed to sym- 
pathise with their views. On Disney's se- 
cession he drew up a paper called 'An Answer 
to the Question, Why are you not a Socinian ? * 




He declares his belief in the divinity of | 
Christ, though he confesses to certain doubts ! 
and guards his assertions. He had qualified , 
for his preferment by subscribing tests to j 
which he would not again submit, but we j 
are told that his preferments produced only 
150/. a year, and that he declined an offer to i 
succeed S. Chandler at the Old Jewry at a 
salary of 400/. 

He had made some preparations for a life j 
of Luther, but abandoned his plan in order 
to write the memoirs of his friend Thomas 
Hollis [see HOLLIS, THOMAS]. These ap- 
peared in 1780. In 1787 he performed his 
thirty-eighth visitation in Cleveland, and 
died, 7 Aug. 1787, a few weeks later. He 
left a widow (died 20 Aug. 1799) and four 
children: Jane, married to Dr. Disney; 
Francis, vicar of Brignal ; Sarah, married to 
the Rev. John Hall, vicar of Chew Magna ; 
and William, a physician in London. A son, 
Thomas, a physician, died, aged thirty-three, 
in 1782. His ' Works, Theological and Mis- 
cellaneous, including some pieces not before 
printed,' with a memoir, were published by 
his son Francis in 1804, in seven volumes. 
The ' Confessional ' occupies the fifth volume. 
The third volume contains ' A Historical View 
of the Controversy concerning an Interme- 
diate State,' of which the first edition appeared 
in 1765, and the second, much enlarged, in 

1772. It brought him into collision with 
Bishop Warburton. His ' Remarks on Dr. 
Warburton's Account of the Sentiments of 
the Jews concerning the Soul' is said to 
be his masterpiece. The fourth volume of 
the Works contains his charges, as arch- 
deacon, in 1765, 1766, 1767, 1769, 1771, and 

1773. They show that he was not prepared to 
extend full toleration to catholics. The other 
volumes contain miscellaneous pamphlets. 

[Life by himself and his son, prefixed to 
Works.] * L. S. 

1867), lord chancellor of Ireland, was born 
at Great Footstown, county Meath, on 11 Nov. 
1782. In 1792 he was sent to school at the 
village of Dunshaughlin, where he remained 
a year and a half. At this time the effects 
of the French revolution were severely felt 
in some parts of Ireland. A conspiracy was 
discovered for an attack upon the house at 
Footstown, and the family removed to the 
village of Kells, and ultimately to Dublin. 
After some time spent in the school of the 
Rev. William White in the Irish capital, 
Blackburne entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
in July 1798, where he acquired numerous 

Blackburne kept the usual terms at King's 
Inn, Dublin, and subsequently proceeded to 
Lincoln's Inn, London. He was called to 
the bar in 1805, and went the home circuit. 
In the course of four years he was able to 
clear off the charges upon the paternal pro- 
perty to which he had succeeded. In 1809 
he married the daughter of Mr. William 
Martley of Ballyfallon, by whom he had 
fourteen children. Five only of these sur- 
vived him. The condition of Ireland in 1822 
was very turbulent, and it was necessary to 
renew the Insurrection Act. Blackburne, 
now called within the bar, administered the 
act in the county and city of Limerick for 
two years, and he effectually restored order 
in the district. In 1824 Blackburne was ex- 
amined on the state of Ireland before com- 
mittees of both houses of parliament. Two 
years later he was appointed Serjeant. Al- 
though Blackburne's political opinions were 
distinctly conservative, on the accession of 
Earl Grey to power in 1830 he became 
attorney-general for Ireland, and speedily 
achieved a legal victory over Daniel O'Con- 
nell, who had threatened to teach him law. 
A conspiracy was formed in 1831 for the 
purpose of resisting the payment of tithe, 
and riots and murders took place in several 
of the disturbed districts. The government 
failed to obtain convictions against the agi- 
tators, in spite of the evidence accumulated 
by Blackburne. After the anti-tithe meet- 
ings in Ireland were suppressed, the condition 
of the country grew more alarming. A new 
coercion act was considered to be necessary 
and passed in March 1833. 

Blackburne was called upon to draw up 
a report to the lord-lieutenant on the con- 
dition of the country at about the same time. 
His activity was very distasteful to O'Con- 
nell and his followers, who fiercely attacked 
him in a series of letters to Lord Duncannon, 
the home secretary. On the recall of Lord 
Melbourne to power in 1834, Blackburne re- 
signed. Post after post on the bench became 
vacant during the premiership of Lord Mel- 
bourne, but Blackburne was overlooked. It 
is said that Lord Melbourne was not a free 
agent in this matter, being bound to O'Con- 
nell and his followers, who were bitterly hos- 
tile to Blackburne. 

In 1841 Sir Robert Peel again appointed 
Blackburne attorney-general for Ireland. 
Upon the death of Sir Michael O'Loghlen in 
1842 he became master of the rolls in Ireland. 
Soon afterwards he assisted the lord-chan- 
cellor in preparing a code of general orders 
for the court of chancery. In January 1846 
Blackburne was appointed chief justice of the 
queen's bench. He presided with conspicuous 




ability at the assizes during the critical period 
of 18-47-8. He delivered the charge in the 
prosecution of Smith O'Brien and his confede- j 
rates, who were convicted of high treason. 
Referring to this charge, Lord Brougham 
said : ' I never in the course of my experience 
read a more able and satisfactory argument 
in every respect than that of Chief-justice j 
Blackburne' (House of Lords' Cases, ii. 496). j 
Blackburne also delivered an important i 
charge to the grand jury at Monaghan in | 
1851, in connection with the outbreak of j 

When Lord Derby came into office in ' 
February 1852, Blackburne was made chan- 
cellor of Ireland, but he resigned the post 
on the formation of a coalition government 
under Lord Aberdeen in December of the ! 
same year. 

In 1852, at the wish of the government, ! 
Blackburne became one of the commissioners 
of national education, but he retired from it j 
in the following year along with Archbishop 
"Whately and Lord Greene. In 1854 Black- 
burne, when examined at great length before | 
a committee of the House of Lords as to the \ 
circumstances which led to his retirement, j 
stated that he joined the board under the i 
conviction that it would afford a large amount 
of religious, combined with secular, instruc- j 
tion, but that a substantial part of the reli- j 
gious instruction had been subtracted from i 
the course (Report of the Select Committee \ 
of the House of Lords, $c.) 

In 1856 Blackburne was appointed by 
Lord Palmerston lord justice of appeal in j 
Ireland. Two years later he was invited by j 
Lord Derby again to become lord chancellor, 
but he declined on account of his advanced 
age and failing health. On the accession 
to power of Lord Derby in 1866 he consented, 
however, to accept the appointment, but being 
warmly attacked he was ultimately induced 
to resign. In May 1867 Blackburne declined 
Lord Derby's offer of a baronetcy. He died 
on 17 Sept. 1867, in' the eighty-fifth year of 
his age. Blackburne was for some years 
vice-chancellor of Dublin University. 

In private character Blackburne was gene- 
rous and urbane. As a lawyer he possessed 
extraordinary power of mental concentration, 
wide experience, and profound acquaintance 
with every branch of law and equity. He 
had a dignified and courteous manner, a style 
nervous, terse, and perspicuous, a distinct and 
melodious voice, and a fluent delivery. His 
mind was clear to the last. 
- [Life of the Eight Hon. Francis Blackburne, 
late Lord Chancellor of Ireland, by his son Ed- 
ward Blackburne, Q.C., 1874 ; Annual Register, 
1867.] G. B. S. 

BLACKBURNE, JOHN (1090-1786), 
botanist, of Orford, near Warrington, main- 
tained an extensive garden, including very 
many exotic species. A catalogue was pub- 
lished by his gardener, Adam Neal, at War- 
rington, in 1779. 

[Gent. Mag. Ivii. 204.] G. T. B. 

1743), archbishop of York, was the son of 
Richard Blackburne of London, whom the 
archbishop claimed to have been connected 
with the Blackburnes of Marricke Abbey, and 
after being educated at "Westminster School 
matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 
20 Oct. 1676, aged 17. At the close of 1681, 
shortly after his ordination, he went to the 
West Indies, the sum of 20/. appearing in the 
record of ' Moneys paid for Secret Services ' 
(Camden Soc. 1851) to have been paid ' to 
Launcelott Blackburne, clerk, bounty for his 
transportation to Ant ego.' On 28 Jan. 1683 he 
proceeded M. A., and having attached himself 
to Bishop Trelawny on his appointment to 
the see of Exeter, received considerable pre- 
ferment in that diocese. He became a pre- 
bendary in June 1691 and sub-dean in January 

1695. Among the correspondence of John 
Ellis in the British Museum, * Additional 
MSS.' 28880-88, occur several letters from 
Blackburne, and among them (28880, f. 169) 
is one requesting the influence of Ellis on 
behalf of his appointment to the duchy rec- 
tory of Calstock in Cornwall (29 May 1696). 
This preferment Blackburne obtained, and 
during his tenure of it he built the old rectory 
house. A letter from Blackburne to Bishop 
Trelawny, describing the evidence given in 
a trial at Exeter for witchcraft in September 

1696, was printed in l Notes and Queries,' 
1st series, xi. 498-9 (1855), and reprinted in 
the < Western Antiquary,' iii. 226-7 (1884). 
Rumours injurious to his reputation were 
freely circulated during his lifetime, and in 
1702 they forced him to resign his sub-deanery. 
In July 1704, however, he was reinstated, 
and from that time his rise was rapid. He 
became the dean of Exeter on 3 Nov. 1705, 
archdeacon of Cornwall in January 1715, 
and bishop of Exeter in January 1717. This 
preferment he retained until 1724, and it is 
stated that he desired to hold it in commendam 
with the deanery of St. Paul's, but that he 
was prevailed upon to accept the archbishopric 
of York, a piece of preferment which, ac- 
cording to scandal, was bestowed upon him 
for having united George I in marriage with 
his mistress, the Duchess of Munster. ^ Two 
ballads, printed in 1736, represented him as 
contending with Hoadly and Gibson for the 
primacy of Canterbury, but that prize was 




missed by all three. Blackburne's rise in the I 
church was originally due to the patronage of j 
Bishop Trelawny, but it was probably accele- ' 
rated through his marriage, at the Savoy 
Chapel, 2 Sept. 1684, with Catherine, j 
daughter of William Talbot, of Stourton | 
Castle, Staffordshire, and widow of Walter 
Littleton of Lichfield. From her brother, ! 
William Talbot, bishop of Durham, father of , 
lord-chancellor Talbot, is descended the pre- ! 
sent Earl of Shrewsbury, and her issue by i 
her first husband was a direct ancestor of 
Lord Teynham. She was older than the 
archbishop, and predeceased him. He died 
at a time of extreme cold, 23 March 1743, 
and was buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
on 1 April. 

Archbishop Blackburne was gay and witty. 
His enemies repeated the story that he acted 
as chaplain on board one of the ships engaged 
in buccaneering, and that he shared the booty, 
the joke running that one of the buccaneers 
on his arrival in England asked what had 
become of his old chum Blackburne, and was 
answered that he was archbishop of York, j 
The freeness of his manners is shown by two j 
anecdotes: (1) That on a visitation at St. 
Mary's, Nottingham, he ordered pipes and 
tobacco and some liquor to be brought into 
the vestry 'for his refreshment after the 
fatigue of confirmation ; ' whereupon the vicar, 
Mr. Disney, remonstrated with the archbishop 
for his conduct, and, with the remark that the 
vestry should not be turned into a smoking- 
room, forbad their introduction. (2) That he 
applauded the conduct of Queen Caroline in not 
objecting to the king's new mistress. It was 
at one time insinuated that Francis Black- 
burne, the archdeacon [q. v.], was a natural 
son of the archbishop, but this was a slander. 
Horace Walpole more than once asserted that 
Bishop Hayter of Norwich, was an illegiti- 
mate son of the archbishop, but this assertion 
is refuted in the ' Quarterly Review/ xxvii. 
186. One of Walpole's sentences combines 
all the reckless charges which were repeated 
by the prelate's slanderers : ' The jolly old 
archbishop of York, who had all the manners 
of a man of quality, though he had been a 
buccaneer and was a clergyman ; but he re- 
tained nothing of his first profession except 
his seraglio.' The popular opinion concerning 
the character of Blackburne's life may be 
gathered from a poem entitled ' Priestcraft 
and Lust, or Lancelot to his Ladies, an 
Epistle from the Shades/ 1743, fo. Hayter 
was one of Blackburne's executors, and with 
two Talbots was residuary legatee to the 
estate. In a charge to the clergy of the arch- 
deaconry of York (1732) he pays a warm 
tribute to the archbishop, styling him 'my 

indulgent benefactor.' Archbishop Black- 
burne was the author of a sermon in Latin 
to convocation, three sermons before Queen 
Anne, and one before the House of Commons. 
When Queen Caroline inquired whether 
Butler, the author of the 'Analogy/ was not 
dead, a ready remark of the witty prelate 
'No, madam, he is not dead, but buried/ an 
allusion to his retirement at Stanhope led 
to Butler's appointment as clerk of the closet, 
and to the queen's recommendation of him 
to Archbishop Potter when she was on her 
deathbed. A fine engraving of the archbishop 
by Vertue, from a painting by Zeernan, is 
dated 'Aged 68, 10 Dec. 1726.' 

[Walpole's Last Ten Years of George II (1822), 
i. 75; Letters, i. 235, 250; Atterbiiry's Cor- 
respondence,!. 253; Bliss's Wood, iv. 661 ; Raw- 
linson MSS. 4to, i. 299, Bodleian Library; Noble's 
Continuation of Granger, iii. 68-9 ; Granger's 
Letters, 199; Polwhele's Devon, i. 313; Life of 
F. Blackburne, i. p. viii (1805); Notes and 
Queries, ,4th ser. ix. 226, 289, 396; Oliver's 
Bishops of Exeter, 161, 273, 277, 296 ; Bartlett's 
Life of Bp. Butler, 38 ; Welch's Westminster 
Scholars, 178-9; Sir C. Hanbury Williams's 
Works (1822), ii. 133-5.] W. P. C. 


(b. 1652), physician, was born in London 
in 1652, and was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he took his degree of 
B. A. in 1669. ' He was entered on the physic 
line at Leyden, 23 May 1676, being then 
twenty-four years of age, and he graduated 
doctor of medicine in that university ' 
(MuNx's Roll, i. 451), where his thesis was 
published as ' Disputatio medica inauguralis 
de Sanguificatione/ &c., 8vo, Lugduni Bata- 
vorum, 1676. About the year 1681 Dr. Black- 
burne co-operated with John Aubrey, who 
says that he was ' one of the College of 
Physicians, and practiseth yearly at Tun- 
bridge Wells/ to bring into public repute 
for their curative properties the chalybeate 
springs discovered by Aubrey in 1666 at 
Seend, near Devizes, and which Dr. Black- 
burne declared ' to be of the nature and virtue 
of those at Tunbridge, and altogether as 
good;' but 'it was about 1688 before they be- 
came to be frequented ' (BRiTTOtf , Memoir of 
Aubrey, p. 17). Blackburne was admitted an 
honorary fellow of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians of London, 25 June 1685, and, being 
created a fellow of the college by the charter of 
King James II, was admitted as such at the 
extraordinary comitia of 12 April 1687, and 
was censor in 1688. The time of his death 
is unknown. Dr. Blackburne had a great re- 
gard and admiration for Thomas Hobbes of 
Malmesbury, and it is probable that he 
wrote the short Latin memoir sometimes re- 


I2 5 


ferred to Hobbes himself, entitled 'Thorme 
Hobbes Angli Malmesburiensis Philosophi 
Vita.' This short ' Life ' of the philosopher ! 
lias also been attributed to Ralph Bathurst, 
dean of Bath. Dr. Blackburne certainly ' 
wrote a Latin supplement to the short 'Life,' ; 
entitled f Vitee Hobbianre Auctarium,' the 
first sentence of which supplies the chief 
evidence of his authorship of the ' Life.' Both 
these works would seem to have been derived 
from a larger and fuller f Life ' in manuscript 
written in English by John Aubrey, and 
used with the knowledge and consent of the 
latter, and possibly with the assistance of 
Hobbes himself. The 'Vita,' the 'Aucta- 
rium,' and the autobiographic Latin verses, 
1 Thornae Hobbes Malmesburiensis Vita Car- 
mine expressa, Authore Seipso,' were issued 
together in a volume inscribed to William, 
earl of Devonshire, and bearing on its title- 
page the mystifying imprint ' Carolopoli : 
Apud Eleutherium Anglicum, sub signo 
Veritatis, MDCLXXXI.' The penultimate 
page gives the place of production. 'Londini : 
Apud Guil. Cooke, ad Insigne Viridis Dra- 
conis juxta portam vulgo dictam Temple 
Bar.' -These productions form the basis of 
the ' Life ' prefixed to the first collection of 
' The Moral and Political Works of Thomas 
Hobbes of Malmesbury,' &c., fol. London, 

[Graduati Cantab. 1787 ; Britton's Memoir of 
John Aubrey, 1845; Munk's Roll of the College 
of Physicians.] A. H. G-. 


(1764-1839), major-general, an Indian officer, 
entered the Madras army as a cadet of in- 
fantry in 1782, and in 1784 served with the 
force employed under Colonel Fullarton in 
the reduction of the Poligars in Madura and 
Tinnevelly. He subsequently served in the 
campaign which ended in the defeat of 
Tippoo Sultan in 1792. His proficiency as a 
linguist led to his being employed in 1787 as 
Mahratta interpreter at Tanjore, on the occa- 
sion of an inquiry into the right of succes- 
sion to the Tanjore Raj, and he afterwards 
held for some years the post of Mahratta 
interpreter under the British resident at 
Tanjore. In 1801, having then attained to 
the military rank of captain, he was appointed 
resident at the Tanjore court, and held that 
office until he left India in 1823. 

Very shortly after his appointment as resi- 
dent, Blackburne was called upon to take 
the field at the head of his escort and of the 
raja's troops, to repel two invasions of the 
province by insurgents from the adjoining 
districts. This duty was successfully per- 
formed, and the neighbouring province of 

Ramnad was recovered. In 1804 Black- 
burne, having brought to light extensive 
frauds and oppression on the part of the 
native officials in Tanjore, the civil administra- 
tion of which was under officers independent 
of the resident, was employed by the Madras 
government to remodel the administration 
both in Tanjore and in the native state of 
Pudukota. He was twice sent on special 
missions to Travancore. His political services 
elicited the high approval of Lord Wellesley, 
and also of successive governors of Madras. 
On his retirement from the residency of 
Tanjore, Sir Thomas Munro recorded a minute 
testifying to the value of Blackburne's ser- 
vices and influence in Tanjore. Blackburne, 
being then a major-general, received the 
honour of knighthood in 1838, and died 
16 Oct. in the following year. 

[Records of the Madras Government ; East 
India Military Calendar, containing the services 
of the general and field officers of the Indian 
army, 1824 ; Gent. Mag. 1840, p. 92.] A. J. A. 

BLACKER, GEORGE (1791-1871), an- 
tiquary, elder son of James Blacker, a Dublin 
magistrate, was born in 1791, was elected a 
scholar of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1809, 
and proceeded B.A. in 1811 and M.A. in 
1858. He was for several years curate of 
St. Andrew's, Dublin, chaplain of the city 
corporation, and rector of Taghadoe. In 
1840 he became vicar of Maynooth and a 
prebendary in St. Patrick's Cathedral. He 
died at Maynooth on 23 May 1871, and was 
buried in the Leinster mausoleum, by the 
parish church. Blacker wrote (for private 
circulation) : 1. ' Castle of Maynooth,' 1853; 
2nd edition 1860. 2. ' Castle of Kilkea,' 
1860. 3. A Record of Maynooth Church,' 

[Irish Ecclesiastical Gazette (June 1871), xiii. 
731; Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. ii. 168; 
information from Rev. B. H. Blacker.] 

1826), lieutenant-colonel, historian of the 
Mahratta war of 1817-18-19, obtained his 
commission in the Madras cavalry in 1798, 
and served as a cornet in the Mysore cam- 
paign of 1799, with a troop of cavalry of the 
Nizam's contingent. A year later he was em- 

gloyed in Wainad as aide-de-camp to Colonel 
tevenson, and subsequently served with his 
regiment in the southern provinces of the 
Madras presidency under Colonel Agnew, by 
whom he was thanked in despatches for hav- 
ing surprised a party of the enemy, and for a 
successful charge with the troop of cavalry 
under his command. The remainder of his 
military service was in the quartermaster- 




general's department, to the head of which 
h was raised in. 1810. In 1815 he served 
with the army of reserve under Lieutenant- 
general Sir Thomas Hislop, and in 1817 
under the same commander with the army 
of the Deccan at the battle of Mahidpur, and 
the other operations in the Deccari. His 
services at Mahidpur and the reconnaissances 
made by him before the battle were specially 
brought to the notice of the governor-general. 

Lieutenant-colonel Blacker was subse- 
quently appointed surveyor-general of India, 
and on returning to Europe in 1821 was 
thanked in general orders by the commander- 
in-chief of the Madras army for his ( eminent 
and scientific services as quartermaster-ge- 
neral of the army of Fort St. George during 
a period of ten years.' He died at Calcutta 
in 1826. 

He was appointed a companion of the 
Bath in 1818. 

[Blacker's Memoir of the Operations of the 
British Army in India during the MahrattaWar 
of 1817-18-19, London, 1821 ; India Office Ee- 
cords.] A. J. A. 

1648), puritan, was born in 1574 at Worling- | 
ton, Suffolk. He was the second son of Thomas I 
Blackerby, a man of ' good estate and quality.' j 
Of their nine sons Richard was by his parents i 
designed from his birth for the ministry. After j 
attending school at St. Edmundsbury, in his | 
fifteenth year he was entered of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he continued nine 
years, and was renowned for his Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew scholarship. Perkins was the 
great preacher of Cambridge at the time, and 
Blackerby came under his spell. From the uni- 
versity where he proceeded B.A. and M.A. 
he went as chaplain to Sir Thomas Jermin of 
Rushbrook in Suffolk, father of the Earl of St. 
Albans. Leaving Rushbrook he ' removed to 
the house of the renowned and pious knight 
Sir Edward Lewknor, of Denham in Suffolk.' 
Here he married Sarah, eldest daughter of the 
Rev. Timothy Prick, alias Oldman, 'which 
alias Oldman was assumed by the family in 
the days of Queen Mary, the father of the 
said Timothy being forced then to abscond 
and to change his name, being prescribed for 
the protestant religion.' He resided with 
his father-in-law at Denham for two years. 
Thence he was called to Feltwell in Norfolk, 
' where he continued without institution or 
induction for some time ; but then, by reason 
of his nonconformity, he was forced to re- 
move and hired a house at Ashen (Ashdon) | 
in Essex.' He here received as boarders for 
their classical and theological education a 
select number of young men, many of whom 

became subsequently eminent clergy of the 
church of England. Dr. Bernard, the bio- 
grapher of L'ssher, was one, and Samuel 
Fairclough another. Blackerby never saw 
his way to take orders in the established 
church. But he was constantly preaching 
! wherever opportunity was afforded, although, 
i being unable to subscribe conscientiously, he 
could take no benefice. There are many ex- 
tant testimonies to his power as a preacher. 
Daniel Rogers of Wethersfield ' told another 
i divine that he could never come into the 
! presence of Mr. Blackerby without some kind 
of trembling upon him, because of the divine 
majesty and holiness which seemed to shine 
in him.' It is much to be lamented that three 
diaries which he kept in Latin, Greek, and 
English respectively were lost in a fire. 

In his fifty-fifth year his son-in-law, Chris- 
topher Burrell, having been presented to the 
! rectory of Great Wrating (Suffolk), Black- 
erby went with him. Afterwards he was 
called to a congregation at Great Thurlow, 
where he died in 1648, in his seventy-fourth 
year. Another of his daughters was mar- 
ried to Rev. Samuel Fairclough. Blackerby 
printed nothing. 

[Clark's Lives ; Brook's Puritans, iii. 96-100 ; 
local researches.] A. B. Gr. 

BLACKET, JOSEPH (1786-1810), poet, 
was born, according to his own testimony, at 
an obscure village called Tunstill, in the 
north of Yorkshire, two miles from Catte- 
rick, and about five from Richmond. His 
father was a day labourer, and had for many 
years been employed in the service of Sir 
John Lawson, bart., whose goodness and 
humanity to the neighbouring poor rendered 
him, according to Blacket's account, uni- 
versally beloved. Joseph was the youngest 
but one not the youngest, as is commonly 
stated of a dozen children. Up to the age 
of eleven he received an elementary educa- 
tion ; in 1797 his brother, a ladies' shoe- 
maker in London, offered him work as his 
apprentice, with provision for seven years. 
He reached the metropolis by wagon in ten 
days. Young Blacket was addicted to books, 
and before he was fifteen had read Josephus, 
Eusebius's 'Ecclesiastical History,' Foxe's 
' Martyrs,' and a number of other religious 
works. A visit to the theatre to see Kemble 
play Richard III turned his attention to 
Shakespeare. He married in 1804, and in 
1807 his wife died of consumption. He 
suffered much from poverty, but sought con- 
solation in composing poetry, and especially 
in attempting dramatic verse. 

Blacket's first patron was his printer, Wil- 
liam Marchant, who set up his poetry for 




nothing, and introduced him to his second 
patron, Mr. Pratt. * In the autumn of 1808,' 
says this gentleman, ' I received a variety of 
manuscripts, with a request that I should 
read and give my opinion of them.' Mr. 
Pratt was at once' struck by Joseph's genius. 
He drew a detailed parallel between Blacket 
and Bloomfield, whose muse had been che- 
rished by Capel Lofft. Mr. Pratt took Blacket 
under his protection, and introduced him to 
the public with pride as a literary rarity. 
Meanwhile, however, Blacket was not inat- 
tentive to his trade, but ill-health compelled 
him to relinquish it. Friends enabled him 
to take a sea voyage. He embarked, and 
arrived at the house of his brother-in-law, 
John Dixon, gamekeeper of Sir Ralph Mil- 
banke, at Seaham, Sunderland, in August 
1809. Milbanke, his wife and daughter, in- 
terested themselves in him. He is satirically 
noticed in Byron's ' English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers.' The Duchess of Leeds troubled 
herself to obtain subscriptions towards ' Spe- 
cimens ' of his poetry. But he died on 23 
Aug., and was buried in Seaham churchyard. 
A plain monument bears the concluding lines 
of his own poem, ' Reflections at Midnight,' 
written in 1802, when he was but sixteen. 

The ' Dying Horse,' in blank verse, is sup- 
posed to best exhibit Blacket's power of 
moral declamation. Of his dramatic skill 
'The Earl of Devon, or the Patriots,' a 
tragedy in five acts, is quoted as a leading 
and conspicuous example. Mr. Pratt col- 
lected and published his l Remains ' with a 
memoir. As, however, he knew him little 
more than eighteen months, he has fallen 
back upon the poet's letters to his brother, 
mother, &c., in writing his life. The letters 
are arranged in seven distinct series. Thus 
Joseph Blacket becomes his own biographer. 
He corresponded with the author of the 
'Farmer's Boy.' 

The full titles of his works are : 1. ' Speci- 
mens of the Poetry of Joseph Blacket,' Lon- 
don, 1809 (a private edition for limited cir- 
culation). 2. 'The Remains of Joseph 
Blacket, consisting of Poems, Dramatic 
Sketches, and the "Times," an ode, and a 
Memoir of his Life, by Mr. Pratt,' 2 vols. 
London, 1811. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxx. ii. 544 ; Monthly Review 
(1811), Ixvi. 392, (1809) lix. 100; Pratt's Re- 
mains, &c. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

J. M. 

catholic missioner, is believed to have been 
a native of the diocese of Aberdeen. He 
entered the Scotch college at Rome in 1626, 
was ordained priest, and returned to Scot- 

land in 1630, but encountered so much op- 
position from the Jesuits that he withdrew 
to Paris, where he became confessor to Lady 
Isabella Hay, eldest daughter of Francis, 
Earl of Errol. In 1637 he returned to Scot- 
land, where he performed the duties of a 
missionary in the shires of Aberdeen and 
Banff, acting at the same time as chaplain to 
the Countess of Aboyne at Aboyne castle. 
After her death he returned to France in 
1643, with the view of inducing the Mar- 
chioness of Huntly to withdraw from Scot- 
land her young granddaughter, the only child 
of the Countess of Aboyne, and bring her to 
France to be educated. Having failed in 
this purpose he applied to the queen of France 
to use her influence in accomplishing his 
object, in which he was ultimately success- 
ful. He wrote his autobiography in Paris 
in 1666 or 1667, but how long the author 
survived the composition of it is unknown. 
It contains accounts of his relations with 
Lady Isabella Hay, with the' Countess of 
Aboyne, and with her daughter. The title 
is ' A breiffe Narration of the Services done 
to three noble Ladyes, by Gilbert Blakal, 
Preist of the Scots Mission in France, in the 
Low Countries, and in Scotland. Dedicated 
to Madame de Gourdon, one of the forsaid 
three, and now Dame d'Attour to Madame.' 
This work is a valuable addition to the history 
of the eventful times in which Blackball lived. 
It was edited by Mr. John Stuart from the 
original manuscript in the possession of Bishop 
Kyle, and printed at Aberdeen for the Spald- 
ing Club in 1844, 4to. 

[Stuart's preface to the Breiffe Narration; 
Gordon's Roman Catholic Mission in Scotland, 
introd. v. 523.] T. C. 


BLACKLOCK, THOMAS (1721-1791), 
poet, was born at Annan, Dumfriesshire, in 
1721. His parents were natives of Cumber- 
land, poor but well educated. His father 
was a bricklayer. When six months old he 
lost his sight by an attack of smallpox. His 
misfortune and his gentle disposition won 
much sympathy. His friends read poetry 
to him, especially Spenser, Milton, Prior, 
Addison, Pope, and A. Ramsay. He acquired 
a little Latin, and at the age of twelve at- 
tempted to write poetry himself. His father 
was killed by an accident when the son was 
nineteen. Meanwhile his manuscripts were 
handed about and gained some attention. 
Dr. Stevenson, an eminent physician at Edin- 
burgh, brought him to that city in 1741, and 
supported him entirely at the grammar school 
for four years. Upon the rebellion of 1745 




he retired to Dumfries, and lived with a Mr. 
McMurdo, who had married his sister; he 
afterwards returned to Edinburgh to study 
at the university. In 1746 he had published 
an octavo volume of poems. A second edition 
of these was published in the winter of 
1753-4. Blacklock had meanwhile become 
known to David Hume, who exerted himself 
to serve the young man by circulating his 
poems and recommending their author for 
tutorships or similar employments. In De- ' 
cember 1754 Hume, who had been appointed ! 
librarian in 1752 by the Faculty of Advocates j 
at a salary of 40., had a dispute as to the ' 
management of the library. He was un- 
willing to give up his right to use the books, 
and therefore showed his indignation by 
giving to Blacklock a ' bond of annuity ' for ' 
the salary, whilst retaining the office. Hume 
resigned the office two years afterwards ] 
(BURTON'S Hume, i. 393, ii. 18). Meanwhile ' 
he had written a long and interesting account ! 
of Blacklock to Joseph Spence, the friend of 
Pope (printed in BURTON, i. 388, and SPENCE'S j 
Anecdotes, 448). Blacklock, we learn from 
this, had been patronised by Stevenson and | 
Provost Alexander ; he had learnt Latin ! 
and Greek, and would have been made pro- 
fessor of Greek at Aberdeen but for a timidity 
which disqualified him for managing boys. 
He had made 100 guineas by the last edition 
of his poems ; he had a bursary of 61. a year ; 
and Hume with some friends had allowed him 
12 guineas a year for five years. Thirty pounds 
a year, added Hume, would make this ( man 
of fine genius ' easy and happy. Spence had 
already seen Blacklock's poems, Hume having 
sent some copies to Dodsley for distribution 
among men of taste, and had undertaken to 
bring out an edition by subscription. An 
4 Account of the Life, Character, and Poems of 
Mr. Blacklock, Student of Philosophy in the 
University of Edinburgh/ written by Spence, 
appeared in 1754, and was prefixed to an edi- 
tion of the poems in 1756. All reference to 
Hume is avoided in the account ; and Spence 
insisted upon the omission of a complimentary 
mention of Hume in an ode on 'Refinements 
in Metaphysical Philosophy.' Blacklock re- 
sisted, but Hume, accidentally hearing of the 
controversy, authorised Spence to make the 
omission (BURTON, i. 436). 'That foolish 
fellow, Spence,' said Johnson to Boswell 
(5 Aug. 1763), 'has laboured to explain 
philosophically ' how Blacklock achieved an 
impossibility, viz. to describe visible objects 
without sight. The explanation, indeed, is 
easy, for Blacklock's poems are mere echoes 
of the poetical language of his time, and 
show little more than a facility for stringing 
together rhymes. He would, we are told, 

dictate thirty or forty verses as fast as they 
could be written down. Whilst doing so he 
acquired a trick of nervous vibration of his 
body which became habitual. 

By Hume's advice Blacklock abandoned a 
project of lecturing on oratory, and studied 
divinity. He was licensed as a preacher in 
1759. In 1762 he married Miss Sara John- 
ston, daughter of a surgeon in Dumfries, and 
about the same time was presented by the 
crown, on the application of Lord Selkirk, 
to the ministry of Kirkcudbright. The pa- 
rishioners objected to him on account of his 
blindness, and Blacklock, whose nervous 
timidity was much tried by the controversy, 
retired after two years' legal dispute, receiv- 
ing a small annuity from the parish. He re- 
turned to Edinburgh in 1764, and took pupils 
to board in his house. Amongst them was 
Joseph, eldest son of Hume's elder brother, 
John Hume of Nine wells (BURTON, ii. 399). 
For some unexplained reason Blacklock be- 
came alienated from Hume, who at this time 
was still trying to help him. In 1770 he 
published in the l Edinburgh Courant ' a brief 
analysis of Beattie's ' Essay on Truth,' di- 
rected against Hume's principles (FORBES'S 
Beattie, i. 173, 218). He continued to take 
pupils till growing infirmity caused his re- 
tirement in 1787. 

In 1767 the university and Marischal Col- 
lege of Aberdeen conferred upon him the 
degree of D.D. at the suggestion of Beattie, 
who had exchanged complimentary verses 
with him, and who became his friend and 
correspondent. He wrote a letter (4 Sept. 
1786) to Burns upon the first appearance of 
the poems. Burns says that this letter in- 
duced him to give up his intended emigration 
and to go to Edinburgh, where Blacklock 
received him kindly and introduced him to 
many friends. Some complimentary poems 
afterwards passed between the two. He died 
7 July 1791, after a week's illness. He seems 
to have been very amiable, playful, and kindly 
to the young, though subject to nervous de- 
pression. A curious story is told by Anderson 
(British Poets, vol. xi.) of his joining a party 
in a state of somnambulism. He was fond 
of music and carried a flageolet in his pocket, 
the use of which he said had been suggested 
to him in a dream. A ' Pastoral Song,' set 
to music by him, appeared in 1774. 

Besides the above works he published: 
1. Paraclesis, or Consolations deduced from 
Natural and Revealed Religion; two dis- 
sertations, the first (erroneously) supposed to 
have been composed by Cicero, now rendered 
into English, the last originally written by 
Dr. Blacklock,' 1767. 2. Translation from 
the French of Armand of two discourses on 




the Spirit and Evidences of Christianity, with 
a dedication from his own pen, 1768. 3. ' The 
Graham, an heroic ballad in four cantos/ 
1774. This poem, intended to promote har- 
mony between Scotch and English, was 
thought unworthy of a place in his works. 
He wrote an article on blindness for the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica, and perhaps one 
on poetry. A conversation with Johnson is 
given in the 'Tour to the Hebrides,' and a 
letter of Blacklock's to Boswell in regard to 
it is given in an appendix to later editions. 
He also wrote, in 1756, an l Essay towards 
Universal Etymology/ in verse ; and in 1773 
a satire called 'A Panegyric upon Great 
Britain.' An edition of his poems was pub- 
lished in 1793, \vith a life by Henry Mac- 
kenzie, the 'man of feeling.' He left a trans- 
lation (never published) of the Abbe Haiiy's 
work on the education of the blind., 

[Lives by Spenee ( 1 756) and Anderson ; Forbes's 
Life of Beattie ; Burton's Life of Hume ; Kerr's 
Memoirs of W. Smellie (1811), ii. 14-30.] 

L. S. 


(1815 P-1858), landscape painter, was born 
at Curnwhitton, near Carlisle, about 1815, 
and as a youth was apprenticed to a book- 
seller of Carlisle. He had always been re- 
markable for his love of drawing, and so 
strong did this predilection become that he 
determined to adopt art as a profession, and 
accordingly proceeded to London, where he 
at once began to exercise his talent. In the 
year 1836 he sent his first pictures to the 
Royal Academy and continued to exhibit 
there, as well as at the British Institution and 
Society of British Artists, until 1855, in which 
year he contributed to the Royal Academy 
exhibition four pictures : l Hermitage Castle/ 
1 The Border Keep/ ' Elter Water, and the 
Langdale Pikes/ and ' Belted Will's Tower, 
Naworth Castle.' He resided principally in 
London for about fifteen years, when de- 
clining health compelled him to return to 
his native county, where he continued to 
follow his profession until within a year or 
two of his decease, when the malady with 
which he was afflicted obliged him to relin- 
quish its pursuit. He died at Dumfries on 
12 March 1858, at the age of 42, and was 
buried at Cumwhitton. His works are prin- 
cipally views of the landscape scenery of the 
north of England, and their chief character- 
istics are picturesqueness and truthfulness. 
Lonely border towers, deeply embosomed in 
waving foliage, and bathing in the light of a 
golden sunset ; remote and almost inacces- 
sible tarns, surrounded by rough mountains, 
upon whose sides the shadows of the light 
VOL. v. 

clouds danced merrily ; brawling brooks with 
overhanging rocks and waving trees were 
the scenes which he admired and loved to 

[Carlisle Journal, 19 March 1858 ; Royal 
Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1836-55; Art 
Journal, 1858, p. 157 ; Athenaeum, 1858, p. 439 } 

E. E. G. ' 


physician and voluminous writer in verse 
and prose, son of Robert Blackmore, an at- 
torney-at-law, was born at Corsham, in Wilt- 
shire, and educated at Westminster School. 
He entered St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 
1668, took his B. A. degree on 4 April 1674, and 
proceeded M. A. on 3 June 1676. His neces- 
sities compelled him to temporarily adopt 
the profession of schoolmaster. With this, 
fact his enemies frequently taunted him in 
later years. 

By nature form'd, by want a pedant made, 
Blackmore at first set up the whipping trade. 
Next quack commenced ; then fierce with pride 

he swore 
That toothache, gripes, and corns should be no 

more ; 

In vain his drugs as well as birch he tried, 
His boys grew blockheads and his patients died. 

After abandoning school work Blackmore 
spent some time abroad, visited France, Ger- 
many, and the Low Countries, and took the 
degree of M.D. at Padua. On his return to 
England he was admitted fellow of the Royal 
College of Physicians, under the charter of 
James II, at the Comitia Majora Extraordi- 
naria of 12 April 1687, became censor of the 
college in 1716, and was named an elect on 
22 Aug. 1716, which oflice he resigned on 
22 Oct. 1722. In 1695 he published < Prince 
Arthur, an Heroick Poem in X books,' fol., 
which reached a second edition in 1696, and 
a third in 1714 ; an enlarged edition, in 
twelve books, appeared in 1697. The writer 
tells us that his work was written in such 
scant moments of leisure as his professional 
duties afforded, ' and for the greatest part in 
coffee-houses, or in passing up and down the 
streets.' Shortly after its appearance the 
poem, if so it must be called, was attacked 
by John Dennis in a criticism which Dr. 
Johnson pronounced to be ' more tedious and 
disgusting than the work which he con- 
demns.' Far from resenting the attack, 
Blackmore took occasion in a later work to 
praise Dennis as ( equal to Boileau in poetry, 
and superior to him in literary abilities/ 
When Dr. Johnson wrote his ' Life of Black- 




more/ the poem was completely forgotten ; 
but at the time of its publication ' Prince 
Arthur' found an admirer in no less dis- 
tinguished a person than John Locke. In 
1697 Blackmore was appointed physician in 
ordinary to William III, and received the 
honour of knighthood. On the latter cir- 
cumstance Pope has some lines in the ' Imi- 
tations of Horace' (Epistles, ii. 1) 

The Hero William and the Martyr Charles, 
One knighted Blackmore and one pension'd 

Quarles ; 
Which made old Ben and surly Dennis swear, 

* No Lord's anointed, but a Kussian Bear.' 

Blackmore was strongly attached to the 
principles of the Revolution, and may per- 
haps have owed his advancement to some 
political services rendered to King William. 
He was afterwards one of the physicians 
to Queen Anne. In 1699 he published 
a, ' Short History of the Last Parliament,' 
fol., which was followed in 1700 by a 

* Satyr against Wit.' The publication of the 

* Satyr,' in which the wits of the time were 
attacked on the score of grossness and irre- 
ligion, raised up a swarm of enemies against 
the writer. Sir Richard had for some time 
past been residing in Cheapside ; his friends 
belonged chiefly to the City, and he had little 
acquaintance with men of letters. Imme- 
diately after the publication of the ' Satyr ' 
there appeared a collection of satirical ' Com- 
mendatory Verses on the Author of the two 
Arthurs and the Satyr against Wit. By some 
of his particular friends,' fol. The verses 
were by various hands, but the chief contri- 
butor was Tom Brown. Blackmore lost no 
time in replying with ' Discommendatory 
Verses on those which are truly commenda- 
tory on the Author of the two Arthurs, &c.,' 
fol. Dryden, who had previously castigated 
Blackmore in the preface to his l Fables,' 
assailed him very vigorously in the Prologue 
to the 'Pilgrim' (1700). Garth attacked 
him in the ' Dispensary ' (iv. 172, &c.), bid- 
ding him ( learn to rise in sense and sink in 
sound.' Sedley, Steele, and others had their 
fling. But ridicule was powerless to check 
Blackmore's literary aspirations. In 1700 he 
was before the public with a book of ( Para- 
phrases on Job,' &c., fol. But when he launched 
another epic in 1705, l Eliza, an Epic Poem in 
X books,' fol., the portentous folio was received 
in absolute silence by an indifferent public. 
* I do not remember,' says Dr. Johnson, f that 
by any author, serious or comical, I have 
found " Eliza " either praised or blamed.' 
,In 1711 appeared the * Nature of Man ; a 
poem in three books,' 8vo, and in 1712 
'* Creation ; a philosophical Poem demonstrat- 

ing the Existence and Providence of God,' 
8vo. The last-named work, which to modern 
readers presents few attractions, was warmly 
praised by Addison in the ' Spectator ' (No. 
339). Dr. Johnson prophesied that this 
poem alone, ' if he had written nothing else, 
would have transmitted him to posterity as 
one of the first favourites of the English 
Muse.' Even the splenetic John Dennis was 
excited to admiration. In beauty of versifi- 
cation, according to this critic, the long-de- 
funct ' Creation ' equalled the l De Rerum 
Natura ' of Lucretius, while in solidity and 
strength of reasoning the august Roman was 
far excelled by Sir Richard. A volume of 
' Essays on several Subjects,' 8vo, appeared 
in 1716, a second edition (in two vols. 8vo) 
following in 1717. One of the essays con- 
tained an allusion to a ' godless author ' who 
had burlesqued a psalm. The charge was 
understood to refer to Pope, who afterwards 
avenged himself by including his critic in 
the 'Dunciad' (ii. 259-68). In No. 45 of 
the ' Freeholder,' Addison says, ' I have lately 
read with much pleasure the essays upon 
several subjects published by Sir Richard 
Blackmore,' on which statement Swift, 
( Works by Scott, ed. 2, xii. 140) makes the 
remark, ' I admire to see such praises from 
this author to so insipid a scoundrel, whom 
I know he despised.' After publishing in 
1716 a volume of * Poems on several Sub- 
jects,' 8vo, the indefatigable writer turned his 
attention to controversial divinity, and in 
1721 was ready with ' Just Prejudices against 
the Arian Hypothesis,' 8vo (2nd edition 
1725), which was immediately followed by 
( Modern Arians unmasked/ 1721, 8vo. 
Having thrown off in the same year a l New 
Version of the Psalms of David,' 8vo, he 
lost no time in issuing ' Redemption, a Di- 
vine Poem in VI books,' 1722. Never was 
a man afflicted with a scribendi caco'ethes 
more incurable. No sooner was he delivered 
of * Redemption' than he was at work on 
' Alfred, an Epic Poem in XII books,' which 
was published in 1723, fol. In the same 
year appeared ' History of the Conspiracy 
against the Person and Government of King 
William the Third in the year 1695,' 8vo. 
During the next few years he employed his 
leisure in writing medical treatises, but in 
1728 he reverted to divine studies, and pub- 
lished 'Natural Theology, or Moral Duties 
considered apart from Positive,' 8vo. This 
was the last work published in his lifetime. 
He died on 9 Oct. 1729, and was buried at 
Boxted, Essex, whither he had retired in 
1722. There is a monument in the church 
at Boxted bearing an inscription to the 
memory of his wife, Dame Mary Blackmore, 



and of himself. To the very last he continued 
writing, and left at his death ' The Accom- 
plished Preacher ; or an Essay on Divine Elo- 
quence/ which was edited in 1731, Svo, by 
the Rev. John White, of Nayland, in Essex, 
who had administered to him on his deathbed 
the last spiritual consolation. It remains to \ 
mention Blackniore's medical treatises. These \ 
are: 1. 'Discourse on the Plague/ 1720, 
Svo. 2. 'Treatise on the Small Pox/ 1723, 
Svo. 3. ' Treatise on Consumptions/ &c. | 

1724, Svo. 4. ' Treatise on the Spleen/ &c. 

1725, Svo. 5. ' Critical Dissertation on the | 
Spleen/ 1 725, Svo. 6. ' Discourses on the I 
Gout, Rheumatism, and King's Evil/ 1726, j 
Svo. 7. ' Dissertations on a Dropsy/ &c. j 
1727, Svo. A portrait of Sir Richard Black- 
more by Colsterman hangs in the hall of the 
Royal College of Physicians. It was pre- 
sented to the college in 1863 by Richard 
Almack, Esq. Swift gives a ludicrous rhym- 
ing list of Blackniore's writings in a copy of j 
verses ' to be placed under the picture of Eng- 
land's Arch-Poet/ &c. 

[Hunk's College of Physicians, i. 467-9 ; John- 
son's Lives of the Poets ; Scott's Dryden, i. 417- 
22, viii. 442-5; Scott's Swift, ed. 2. xii. 140, 
xiii. 374-5 ; Wood's Fasti, ed Bliss, ii. 380.] 

A. H. B. 

1780?), mezzotint engraver, was born in 
London about 1740, and from the dates upon 
his prints, which range from 1769 to 1771, 
lie appears to have practised his art for a 
very limited period of time. There are by 
him several well-drawn and brilliantly exe- 
cuted plates, which include portraits after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds of Samuel Foote, the actor, 
Mrs. Cholmondeley, Mrs. Anne James, as a 
Madonna, and, as a youth, Henry William I 
Bunbury, the caricaturist, who afterwards 
married Miss Catharine Horneck, the ' Little 
'Comedy ' of Goldsmith. Among his other! 
plates are ' Sigismonda/ after Cosway ; a 
4 Dutch Lady/ after Frans Hals ; a ' Man in 
u Cloak/ after Van Dyck ; and ' Innocence ; ' 
as well as subjects after Molenaer and other 
painters. He died about 1780. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 1878; Smith's British Mezzotinto 
Portraits, 1878-83, i. 61-3.] R. E. G. 

BLACKMORE, WILLIAM (d. 1684), j 
ejected minister, came of an Essex family, 
and was the second son of William Black- | 
more of London, a member of the Fish- 
mongers' Company, whose elder son, Sir John 
Blackmore, knight, was in the confidence of 
Cromwell, and became governor of St. Helena 
after the Restoration. William was a mem- 

ber of Lincoln College, Oxford, and graduated 
M.A. there, although he is not mentioned 
by Wood. Having been ordained deacon 
he was appointed in December 1645 to the 
rectory of Pentloe, Essex, sequestered from 
Edward Alston. On 1 Sept. 1646 his re- 
signation of Pentloe was accepted by the 
committee for plundered ministers, and lit' 
removed to London, and became curate to 
Thomas Coleman ('Rabbi 'Coleman, who died 
March 1647) at St. Peter's, Cornhill. He 
was ordained presbyter by the Fourth Lon- 
don Classis on 20 April 1647, but did not 
take the covenant, and was duly presented 
to the rectory of St. Peter's by the corpora- 
tion of London on 13 May 1656, after tin- 
death in 1655 of William Fairfax, D.D., se- 
questered in August 1643. On 1 Dec. 1646 
the London presbyterians published a de- 
fence of their system, 'Jus Divinum Regi- 
minis Ecclesiastici/ &c., of which Blackmore 
wrote the part relating to ordination. Hether- 
ington (Hist. West. Assemb. p. 288) describes 
the book as 'the most complete and able 
defence of presbyterian church government 
that has yet appeared.' In 1648 Blackmore 
was one of the scribes to the London pro- 
vincial assembly. He signed (probably on 
20 Jan. 1649) the presbyterian remonstrance 
to Cromwell on the meditated death of the 
king. He was one of the thirteen clergy 
arrested on a charge of complicity in Chris- 
topher Love's plot in 1651 ; being liberated 
through the influence of his brother Sir John, 
he rendered great assistance to Love during 
his trial. In 1662 Blackmore seceded with 
the nonconformists, and retired into Essex, 
where he lived on his ample means and 
gathered a small flock. In April 1672 lie 
was licensed as 'a presbyterian teacher in 
his own house ' in Hornchurch, near Rom- 
ford. He died at Hare Street, a hamlet 
within a mile of Romford, in 1684, and was 
buried at Romford on 18 July. He married 

(1) on 1 May 1660 Mary Chewning, from 
Leeds, Kent, who died in November 1678, and 

(2) before 1681, Sarah Luttrell, who survived 
him. His only son, CHEWNING BLACKMOKE, 
born on 1 Jan. 1663, was educated for the minis- 
try at the Rev. John Woodhouse's academy, 
Sheriff-Hales, near Shifnall, Salop, settled at 
Worcester in 1 688 as assistant to Thomas Bad- 
land (ejected in 1663 from Willenhall, Staf- 
fordshire, and died 1689), and remained there 
till his death on 2 Aug. 1737. He married 
in 1694 Abigail (died in April 1734), daughter 
of Edward Higgins, and left two sons : 
(1) Francis, presbyterian minister ut Evesham 
(1728-30), Coventry (1730-42), and Wor- 
cester (1743-61), and (2) Edward Chewning. 
presbvterian minister at Stoke, near Malvern. 

K 2 




[Minutes of Fourth London Classis (now in 
Dr. Williams's Library) ; Blackmore Papers, 
Christian Reformer, 1851, p. 413, 1852, pp. 
1, 218; cf. 1852, p. 609, 1858, pp. 529, 532; 
Calamy's Contin. i. 43 ; Sibree's Indep. in War- 
wickshire, 1855, pp. 44, 46 ; Davids' Ann. of 
Noncon. in Essex, 1863, pp. 443, 599.] A. Gr. 

BLACKNER, JOHN (1770-1816), 
author of a history of Nottingham, was born 
at Ilkeston, Derbyshire, about 1770. After 
serving an apprenticeship to a stocking-maker 
in his native place, he migrated to Nottingham. 
He did not receive even the rudiments of edu- 
cation, but being possessed of strong natural 
abilities, a facility for making rhymes, and a 
readiness of speech, he became a great favour- 
ite with his associates. His ardent radical 
sympathies afterwards brought him into pro- 
minence as a leader of a section of local poli- 
ticians, and he acquired such literary ability 
and reputation as to obtain in 1812 the edi- 
torship of the radical daily paper ' The States- 
man,' published in London. Through failure 
of health he held this post only a short time. 
Soon afterwards he took the editorship of the 
' Nottingham Review.' He published several 
pamphlets, including one in 1805 on the 
i Utility of Commerce,' and in 1815 he issued 
his ' History of Nottingham ' (4to, pp. 459), 
a Avork which displays much industry and 
research, though later writers complain of its 
bombast and party spleen. He was the land- 
lord for some years of the Rancliffe Arms, 
Sussex Street, Nottingham, and died there 
on 22 Dec. 1816, in his forty-seventh year. 

[Bailey's Annals of Nottinghamshire, 1853-5, 
iv. 285; Wylie's Old and New Nottingham, 
1853, p. 232 ; Orange's Hist, and Antiq. of Not- 
tingham, 1848, ii. 939.] C. W. S. 

apothecary, was a native of Scotland, and 
for nearly forty years carried on his business 
at Bromley, Kent, where he died 29 May 
1772. In "October 1763 he contributed a 
letter to the ' Scots Magazine,' in which he 
exposed the secret of Dr. Chittick's cure for 
gravel. This letter was expanded into a 
volume, and published in 1766 under the 
title, ' A Disquisition on Medicines which 
dissolve the Stone ; in which Dr. Chittick's 
Secret is considered and discovered.' A second 
edition, enlarged and improved, appeared in 

[Gent. Mag. xlii. 295 ; Scots Mig. xxxiv. 278 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. i. 118.] 

BLACKSTONE, JOHN (d. 1753), bota- 
nist, was a London apothecary. He published 
' Fasciculus Plantarum circa Harefield (Mid- 
dlesex) sponte nascentium/ London, 1737 ; 

' PlanUe rariores Angliae,' London, 1737 ; 
' Specimen Botanicum quo Plantarum plu- 
rium rariorum Anglue indigenarum loci na- 
turales illustrantur,' London, 1746, to which 
a number of other botanists contributed. In 
it several species were added to the British 
flora. The author intended to publish a 
second volume of the ' Specimen/ for which 
he had collected materials, but he died in 
1753 before its completion. 

[Pulteney's Sketches of the Progress of Botany,, 
ii. 270, London, 1790.] G. T. B. 

LIAM (d. 1675), one of the earliest episcopal 
clergymen resident in New England as dis- 
tinguished from the puritan founders of New 
England, must, according to the records" of 
Massachusetts, have arrived in the colony 
between 1620 and 1630. In the ' Literary- 
Diary ' of President Stiles he is called ' an 
episcopal clergyman ' his name being vari- 
antly spelled Blackstone, Blackston, and 
Blaxton. He was found by the Massachusetts 
Bay colony, on their arrival in 1630, settled 
on the peninsula of Shawmut, where the- 
city of Boston now stands. He had had a 
pleasant cottage built and a garden planted. 
Difficulties beset him with the new-comers. 
As a consequence he sold his property and 
removed to the more tolerant colony of Roger 
Williams in 1631, observing that 'he had 
left England to escape the power of the lord 
bishops, but he found himself in the hands 
of the Lord's brethren.' According to Stiles's 
' Diary ' he ' removed to Blaxton river, and 
I settled six miles north of Providence.' Else-- 
| where in the same diary we learn that he was 
| ' a great student with a large library/ that 
he 'rode a bull for want of a horse/ and' 
'preached occasionally/ and that his home 
and library were burnt in King Philip's war. 
He married, 4 July 1659, widow Sarah 
Stephenson, who died in June 1673. Black- 
stone died 26 May 1675. 'He was buried/' 
says the ' Massachusetts Historical Collec- 
tions ' (2nd series, x. 710), ' in classic ground, 
on Study Hill, where it is said a white stone 
marks his grave.' President Stiles visited 
his grave in 1771, and left a careful map of 
the whole region, marking the homes of Black- 
stone, Roger Williams, and Samuel Gorton, 
the patriarchs of New England (local) his- 
tory. The high ground on which his secondt 
I New England home was built about six 
| miles from Providence still bears the name 
of ' Study Hill/ because it was on this hill 
that Blackstone pursued his studies which 
gave him a wide reputation. The Blackstone 
river (formerly Pawtucket) and the Black- 
stone canal also preserve his name. 



L>r. Samuel Hopkins speaks of Blackstone 
AS ' a man of learning/ and doubtfully adds : 
' He seems to have been of the puritan per- 
suasion, and to have left his country for his 
nonconformity.' He tells us also that ' he 
used to come to Providence and preach, and 
to encourage his hearers gave them the first 
.apples they ever saw ' his orchard having 
been as celebrated as his library. Lechford, 
who wrote in 1641, thus mentions him : 
* One Mr. Blackstone, a minister sent from 
Boston, having lived there nine or ten years, 
because he would not join the church : he 
lives with Mr. [Roger] Williams, but is far 
from his opinions/ 

[Massachusetts Historical Collections, iv. 202, 
x. 710; Johnson's Wonder-working Providence, 
where is to be found a notice of one who sym- 
pathised with Blackstone: 'Mr. Samuel Maverick, 
living on Noddle's Island in Boston Harbour . . . 
a,n enemy to the reformation in hand, being strong 
for the lordly prelatical power ; ' Holmes's An- 
nals, i. 377 ; Savage's Winthrop, i. 44 ; Everett's 
Address, Second Century, 29 ; Sprague's Annals 
of the American Pulpit, v. 1-3.] A. B. Gr. 

1780), legal writer and judge, was born in 
Cheapside, London, on 10 July 1723. He was 
the posthumous son of Charles Blackstone, 
who is described as ' a silkman, and citizen and 
bowyer of London,' and who came of a Wilt- 
shire family. His mother, a daughter of Love- 
lace Bigg of Chilton Foliot in Wiltshire, died 
before he was twelve years of age, leaving him 
to the care of his brother, a London surgeon. 
Through being thus early left an orphan, he 
was saved, it has been reasonably suggested, 
from passing through life as a prosperous 
tradesman. He had already gone to Charter- 
house School, and after his mother's death 
was, on the nomination of Sir Robert Wai- 
pole, admitted on the foundation. When he 
left for Oxford in 1738, he was head of the 
school ; and perhaps from the fact that he 
gained a gold medal for some verses on 
Milton, we may gather that his mind had 
already received its strong literary bent. At 
Pembroke College, whicli he entered at the 
age of fifteen, his studies were chiefly in 
classical learning. Among his contemporaries 
was Shenstone the poet ; and doubtless at this 
time were written most of the ' originals and 
translations ' which he is said to have after- 
wards collected in an unpublished volume. 
Prom the pieces which can still be traced to 
him, and which are full of the strained and 
.stilted mannerisms of the period, we can 
judge that nothing has been lost to English 
literature by Blackstone's seeking in poetiy 
only a relaxation. In 1741 he entered him- 

self at the Middle Temple, solemnly marking 
the change in his life by a poem entitled 
' The Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse,' wherein 
English law is figured, in the spirit of his 
1 Commentaries,' as a complex yet harmonious 
whole. The poem has been often reprinted, 
i e.g. in Dodsley, vol. in., Southey's ' Speci- 
mens of English Poetry,' Irving Browne's 
i ' Law and Lawyers in Literature.' Of his 
: legal studies we know nothing except from a 
! letter written by him in 1745 (see Law Stud. 
Mag. ii. 279), in which he describes himself 
| as following the plan sketched out by C. J. 
; Reeve (see Coll. Jurid. i. 79), and as having 
| already finished one book of Littleton with- 
out experiencing much difficulty. ' In my 
apprehension,' he says, again anticipating the 
' Commentaries,' ' the learning out of use is 
as necessary to a beginner as that of every 
day's practice.' The vow of exclusive at- 
tachment to law was not rigorously kept. 
Before completing his twentieth year he had 
written a treatise on the ' Elements of Archi- 
tecture,' which has never been published, but 
which was highly spoken of by those to 
whom it was shown. He became a careful 
student of Shakespeare; Malone tells us that 
' the notes which he gave me on Shakespeare 
show him to have been a man of excellent 
taste and accuracy, and a good critick ' 
(PRIOR, Life of Malone, 431. The notes are 
initialed l E' in Malone's supplement). 
Even verse was not abandoned, though he 
had to write in secret. His friends particu- 
larly admired a poem written by him in 
1751 on the death of Frederick, prince of 
Wales ; but it has now little interest except 
to collectors of literary parallels, who will 
compare with ' the cock's shrill clarion ' of 
Gray's ' Elegy ' (published in the same year) 

The bird of day 
'Gan morn's approach with clarion shrill declare. 

It appeared under the name of Blackstone's 
brother-in-law, Clitherow, and is, reprinted 
in 'Gent, Mag.' li. 335. This interest in 
literature never left him. Thus in his last 
years, when he sat on the bench, we find 
him carefully discussing, as if it were an im- 
portant legal case, the quarrel between Pope 
and Addison, and criticising by the light of 
Pope's letters the account of the quarrel given 
in Ruff head's < Life.' 

He had already been elected a fellow of 
All Souls (1744) and had taken the degree 
of B.C.L. (1745), when, after the usual period 
of probation, then five years, he was called 
to the bar in 1740. For a long time he 
made little way, ' not being/ it is said, 
'happy in a graceful delivery or a flow of 
elocution (both of which he much wanted), 




nor having- any powerful friends or con- 
nections to recommend him.' Perhaps his 
lack of friends is exaggerated, for only three 
years after his call he succeeded one of his 
uncles as recorder of Wallingford. Still his 
practice must have been small. He attended 
the courts assiduously, but in the notes which 
he took of important cases his own name 
occurs only twice in the period from 1746 
to 1760. He was busy, however, at Oxford. 
He assisted in bringing to completion the 
Codrington Library, and as bursar of his 
college and steward of its manors, he had an 
opportunity of exercising his almost exces- 
sive love of order and regularity, ' applying 
his legal mind/ says Professor Burrows, ' to 
the examination of all the documents bearing 
on the college property, re-arranging its ar- 
chives, and leaving ... a characteristic re- 
cord of the labour he had bestowed on its 
accounts in a special manuscript book for the 
benefit of his successors ' ( Worthies of All 
Souls, p. 400 ; CHALMERS, i. 179). With the 
same earnestness he entered into the question 
of founder's kin, which then agitated the col- 
lege. Claims had been made J3y remote col- 
lateral descendants to the privileges which 
Archbishop Chichele declared in favour of his 
kin. The college held that some bounds should 
be put to the meaning of kindred, but their i 
decisions in particular cases were uniformly ! 
overruled by the visitors. Blackstone defended ! 
the college in a tract on * Collateral Consan- j 
guinity ' (1750, reprinted in ' Law Tracts '), 
arguing that if there were no collateral limit j 
all men would be founder's kin, and con- j 
eluding in favour of the limit of the canon j 
law, namely the seventh degree. It was < 
probably due in great part to the assistance ; 
which he thus gave that in his lifetime a ; 
regulation was made limiting the number of > 
privileged fellows. He found fresh work in \ 
un attempt to reform the administration of j 
the Clarendon Press. On being appointed a j 
delegate in 1755 he saw the Press * languish- : 
ing in a lazy obscurity,' and set himself to ; 
discover the cause. He studied the charters, 
statutes, and registers relating to it, and i 

* had repeated conferences,*' he says, ' with 
the most eminent masters, in London and 
other places, with regard to the mechanical 
part of printing.' His recommendations, i 
many of which were earned into effect, he 
set out in a letter to Dr. Randolph, the j 
vice-chancellor, which still retains some in- 
terest from its details as to the cost of | 
printing. Blackstone himself gave an ex- 
ample of admirable printing in his edition of 

* Magna Charta,' published by the Clarendon 
Press in 1758, under the direction of Dr. 
Prince (THOMSON, Magna Charta). 

He had meanwhile been led to the chief 
work of his life. Murray, the solicitor- 
general (afterwards Lord Mansfield), had 
recommended him to the Duke of Newcastle 
for the professorship of civil law at Oxford, 
which fell vacant in 1752; but owing, it is 
said, to his want of readiness to promise that 
he would give the duke his political support 
at the university, he was passed over (see an 
account of his interview with the duke in 
HOLLIDAY'S Life of Mansfield, i. 88). The 
disappointment was great, but Murray, who 
seems even then to have understood where 
Blackst one's strength lay, advised him to go 
to Oxford and read lectures on English law. 
As it turned out, he could not have had 
better advice. Not only were his lectures 
received with great favour, but they sug- 
gested to Mr. Viner the idea of founding a 
chair of English law (HOLLIDAY, p. 89). 
Mr. Viner, who had himself done useful 
work in compiling his l Abridgment of Law 
and Equity,' bequeathed a sum of 12,000/. 
for the purpose ; and so clear w r ere his direc- 
tions that in 1758, only two years after his 
death, his scheme was carried to completion, 
and Blackstone, as the first professor, began 
his lectures (see an account of Yiner's bene- 
faction in BLACKSTONE'S Commentaries, i. 28rc). 
Among his hearers at one time was Bentham, 
who claims to have even then detected the 
fallacies that were to appear in the i Com- 
mentaries,' and who describes him as 'a 
formal, precise, and affected lecturer just 
what you would expect from the character 
of his writings ; cold, reserved, and wary 
exhibiting a frigid pride ' (BowRiNG, Bent- 
ham, x. 45). The subject was a novel one 
in an English university ; and Blackstone's 
lectures, which showed the skill of the man 
of letters quite as much as the learning of 
the lawyer, attracted considerable attention, 
and quickly led to a bettering of his own 
prospects. He took up law r once more, and 
for several years lived a twofold life : in 
London, practising at Westminster, and sit- 
ting in parliament as member for the rotten 
borough of Hindon in Wiltshire (1761) ; and 
at Oxford, holding not only his professorship, 
but also the principalship of New Inn Hall,, 
to which he was appointed in 1761. From 
this time onward his name occurs frequently 
in his own reports of cases ; and, seeing that 
in 1761 he was offered and that he declined 
the chief justiceship of the Common Pleas in 
Ireland, and that two years later he was 
made solicitor-general to the queen, he must 
have rapidly risen to a high place in his pro- 
fession. Through his published w r orks, too, 
he was becoming known as a careful student 
of legal history. He had been counsel in the 




case of the Oxfordshire election in 1754, 
when one of the questions raised was whether 
tenants holding by copy of court roll ac- 
cording to the custom of the manor, though ; 
not at the will of the lord, were freeholders | 
qualified to vote in elections for knights of j 
the shire. The case exciting great interest, | 
Blackstone elaborately discussed the ques- I 
tion in his ' Considerations on Copyholders,' | 
tracing the history of the tenures in dispute, ! 
and arguing that they could not confer the I 
freehold vote. The matter was settled by 
the passing of the act 31 Geo. II, cap. 14, 
which declared all tenants holding by copy 
of court roll incapable of voting. Apart 
from its own value, Blackstone 's tract shows 
that he had made a far more careful study 
of the history of English tenures than his 
' Commentaries ' would lead one to imagine. 
But here, as elsewhere, he accepted too 
readily the conclusions of previous writers, 
never questioning, for instance, the theory, 
afterwards repeated in a balder form in the 
* Commentaries,' and still almost universally 
received as true, that copyholders were ori- 
ginally villeins in a state of bondage, who 
after the Conquest, by the ' good-nature and 
benevolence ' of their lords, had been per- 
mitted to hold their lands without interrup- 
tion till finally they got fixity of tenure ac- 
cording to the custom of the manor. (Black- 
stone is not to blame for originating the 
theory ; see COKE'S Compleat Copyholder, 
sect, xxxii. ; BACON'S Use of the Law ; 
WRIGHT'S Tenures, 3rd ed. p. 220; GIL- 
BERT'S Tenures, p. 155. A great part of the 
passage in the ' Commentaries,' in fact, is in 
Wright's words) . In 1 759 Blackstone brought 
out his first important work, an edition of 
the Great Charter and the Charter of the 
Forest. It contains the Articles of the 
Barons, the issues of the Great Charter in 
1215, 1216, and 1217, with several charters 
of confirmation, the Charter of the Forest, 
and the Statute of Marlebridge. In a long 
introduction he traces the history of the 
charter up to the 29 Edw. I, and gives an 
account of the various manuscripts known 
to him, most of which he had himself ex- 
amined (see in the Introd. to Statutes of the 
Realm the results of later research compared 
with Blackstone's work). 

Some imperfect reports of his lectures 
having been circulated, and some having 
' fallen,' as he says, ' into mercenary hands, 
and become the object of clandestine sale,' | 
Blackstone determined to prepare them for I 
publication in the form of a general sur- 
vey of English law. The manuscript notes | 
of his lectures, in his own handwriting, j 
are in the library of the Incorporated Law 

Society. They are in four volumes, written 
with great neatness, and with scarcely a 
single erasure. He produced the first volume 
of the ' Commentaries ' in 1765, and the other 
three volumes at intervals during the next 
four years. The work begins with his first 
Yinerian lecture on the study of the law, an 
elegant plea, once much admired, 'that a 
competent knowledge of the laws of that 
society in which we live is the proper accom- 
plishment of every gentleman and scholar r 
(cf. the preface to WOOD'S Institutes). He 
goes on, by way of introduction, to discuss 
the nature of laws in general (in a chapter 
which, says Sir H. Maine, ' may almost be 
said to have made Bentham and Austin into 
jurists by virtue of sheer repulsion '), the 
sources of English law, the countries subject 
to that law, and the legal divisions of Eng- 
land. In the exposition of the law he fol- 
lows the arrangement of which he had pub- 
lished the outline on beginning his lectures 
(Analysis of the Law, 1754), and which in 
substance he adopted from Hale's ' Analysis 
of the Civil part of the Law.' He treats 
first of the rights commanded or recognised 
by the law, and secondly of the wrongs 
which it prohibits ; rights again he divides, 
accepting Hale's unfortunate translation from 
Roman law, into rights of persons and rights 
of things (or property), and wrongs into 
private wrongs, or civil injuries, and public 
wrongs, or ' crimes and misdemeanors.' To 
each of these four divisions is allotted a 
volume (see a table representing in detail 
* the arrangement which seems to have been 
intended by Sir William Blackstone ' in 
AUSTIN, ii. 1018). The work closes with a 
chapter on the rise, progress, and gradual 
improvements of the laws of England, which 
is interesting as having suggested to Reeves- 
the utility of a history of English law filled 
up with some minuteness upon the outline 
there drawn. The work thus covers the field 
of law, and though its critics have remarked 
some disproportion in its parts, such subjects 
as public law, equity, ecclesiastical law, and 
the constitution and jurisdiction of the courts- 
receiving less than their due attention, yet 
there is a singular completeness in the 

Few books have been more successful than 
the ' Commentaries.' From his lectures, and 
from the sale of the work, he is said to- 
have made altogether about 14,000/. (PRIOR, 
Malone, p. 431 ; in BOHMER'S Litteratur de 
Criminal-Rechts the sum is said to have 
been 16,0007.) Eight editions appeared in 
the author's lifetime, and the ninth edition 
was ready for publication. For sixty years 
after his death editions continued to follow 




one another almost as quickly ; editors were ; 
found in men like Burn, Christian, Coleridge, j 
and Chitty, who felt that they were render- : 
ing a service to their profession in annotat- ; 
ing Blackstone with minute and almost tender 
care ; and laymen turned to him to find for 
the first time English law made readable. 
So great have been the growth and the changes 
of law during the last century that to keep 
the work up to date by means of footnotes 
is now an almost hopeless task. The attempt 
is not abandoned in America (see Cooley's 
edition, 1884), but Blackstone's text has 
not been reprinted in England since the 
edition of 1844. As an institutional treatise, 
however, it still stands alone. When anno- 
tation grew too cumbersome, less reverent 
editors came who laid hands 011 the text itself, 
.and by mechanically inserting corrections and 
additions adapted it to modern use. In most 
cases, from a strange desire for uniformity, 
they have even removed from the lecture on 
the study of the law the form of oral address 
and all the references which it contains to 
the circumstances of its delivery, and have 
given it thus maimed as aformal introductory 
chapter ; while Blackstone's worn-out theories 
on the origin and nature of law and govern- 
ment have been considered to need only 
abridgment and not revision. The best known 
of the adaptations, in point of arrangement 
and otherwise composed with a freer hand 
than the rest (the poor laws, for example, 
being no longer treated under the head of 
overseers of the poor), is Stephen's 'New 
Commentaries on the Laws of England,' first 
published in 1841. It reached a ninth edition 
in 1883, and is now the recognised text-book 
by which solicitors are introduced to law. 
It is still to Blackstone, in some form or other, 
that English law students turn who seek a 
general view of the subject. The ' Commen- 
taries has had a yet higher legal fame, having 
almost, but not quite, reached the distinction 
accorded to those treatises which, as Black- 
stone himself says, ' are cited as authority . . . 
and do not entirely depend on the strength 
of their quotations from older authors.' (But 
see Lord Redesdale's protest against the 
citing of the ' Commentaries ' as an authority, 
1 Sch. and Lef. 327.) His name is constantly 
heard in our courts, and to this day judges 
fortify their decisions by quoting his state- 
ment of the law. ' If he has fallen into some 
minute mistakes in matter of detail,' said 
Lord Campbell, in the famous case of the 
Queen v. Mills, ' I believe that upon a great 
question like this, as to the constitution of 
marriage, there is no authority to be more 
relied upon ' (10 CL and Fin. 767). How 
wide his influence has been may be judged on 

the one side from the fact that throughout 
Digby's ( History of the Law of Real Pro- 
perty ' his work is referred to ' as at once the 
most available and the most trustworthy 
authority on the law of the eighteenth cen- 
tury,' and on the other side from the publi- 
cation in 1822 of Sir J. E. Eardley-Wilmot's 
Abridgment, ' intended for the use of young 
persons, and comprised in a series of letters 
from a father to his daughter,' and from the 
existence of a ' Comic Blackstone/ His re- 
putation is not confined to England. (See 
translations in bibliography.) It was made, 
indeed, matter of reproach to French jurists 
that they incessantly cited Blackstone as a 
great authority, rating him even higher than 
did his own countrymen ; and it is still to the 
' Commentaries ' that most continental writers 
refer on points of English law. Nowhere has 
his work been more widely read than in 
America. 1 1 hear,' said Burke, in 1775, 
' that they have sold nearly as many of Black- 
stone's Commentaries in America as in Eng- 
land.' It has been edited and abridged in 
America nearly as often as in England ; it 
suggested to Chancellor Kent the idea of 
writing his ' Commentaries on American 
Law :' and there, as here, it has shaped the 
course of legal education. 

Yet while edition after edition was ap- 
pearing the work had many hard things said 
about it. There were some who looked with 
apprehension on an attempt to make smooth 
the path of the student of law. President 
Jeiferson is reported to have doubted the pro- 
priety of citing in America English autho- 
rities after the period of emigration, and still 
more after the declaration of independence, 
and to have said that the consequence of ex- 
cluding them would be ' to uncanonise Black- 
stone, whose book, although the most eloquent 
and best digested of our law catalogue, has 
been perverted more than all others to the 
degeneracy of legal science. A student finds 
there a smattering of everything, and his 
indolence easily persuades him that if he 
understands that book he is master of the 
whole body of the law ' (TuCKEK, Life of 
Jefferson, ii. 361. See a similar opinion in 
RITSO'S Introduction to the Science of Law). 
Blackstone sustained more vigorous attacks 
at home. In 1769, when the publication of 
the first edition was completed, Dr. Priestley 
wrote what Blackstone called ( a very angTy 
pamphlet ' on some passages in the ' Com- 
mentaries ' relating to dissenters. Black- 
stone replied in a conciliatory tone, admit- 
ting that the passages needed some revision 
in point of expression, but confessing to no 
material change of opinion: and Priestley 
wrote a second letter of explanation, in which, 




as one of his friends said, ' there is rather too ; 
much submission for the honour of having 
"been noticed ' (RuTT, Memoirs of Priestley, 
i. 73). The same part of the work was sub- 
jected to a more careful examination in cer- 
tain letters on the Toleration Act, addressed \ 
to Blackstone by Dr. Furneaux, who not only 
condemned its illiberal spirit, but found grave 
fault with it as an incomplete statement of 
the law. These criticisms were so far suc- 
cessful that in subsequent editions the ob- 
noxious passages were considerably modified ; 
the doubt, for example, being no longer ex- ! 
pressed whether, as compared with those of | 
the papists, ' the spirit, the doctrines, and the ' 
practice of the sectaries are better calculated ' 
to make men good subjects.' A few years 
later (1776) came Bentham's famous ' Frag- 
ment on Government/ directed against the 
digression on the legislative power of govern- | 
ment which occurs (pp. 47-50) in Black- | 
stone's chapter on the nature of laws in 
general, where he states his quaint proof of 
the perfection of the British constitution. 
Bentham did not notice, nor did Blackstone 
acknowledge, that much of this chapter comes 
from Burlamaqui, the very words being some- 
times reproduced. Even the digression ? which 
to Bentham seemed to be made without any 
reason, occurs in Burlamaqui with the same 
context (Droit de la Nature, part i. ch. 8. 
Evidently Blackstone had before him Nu- 
gent's translation published in 1748). In 
the preface to the tract Bentham summed up 
his opinion of the ' Commentaries' as a whole, 
and while frankly recognising Blackstone's 
merits, ' who, first of all institutional writers, 
has taught jurisprudence to speak the lan- 
guage of the scholar and the gentleman,' 
urged that the work is thoroughly vitiated 
by its tone of intolerance and of blind ad- 
miration. We have only Bentham's own 
account of the way in which Blackstone re- 
ceived the criticism ; when asked if he would 
answer it, he said, 'No, not even if it had 
been better written.' (For Bent ham's opinion 
of Blackstone see also the very strongly 
worded remarks extracted from his common- 
place book in BOWRING'S Bentham, x. 141.) 
The judgment of Austin was not less severe. 
To him Blackstone's arrangement is a slavish 
and blundering copy of Hale's ; in the whole 
work ( ; the far too celebrated Commentaries' 
he calls it) there is not a single particle of 
original or discriminating thought ; its flattery 
of English institutions is ' a paltry but effec- 
tual artifice' which has made it popular; 
and its style, for which other critics have 
only one voice of admiration, is ' a style which 
is fitted to tickle the ear, though it never or 
xarely satisfies a severe and masculine taste ' 

(i. 71). There should be mentioned one other 
critic, long ago forgotten, Sedgwick, the editor 
of Gilbert's ' Law of Evidence,' who, with 
strong dissent, yet in a spirit of great fair- 
ness and with minute care, discusses Black- 
stone's first volume, chapter by chapter 
(Remarks Critical and Miscellaneous on the 
Commentaries of Sir W. Blackstone, 1800 ; 
2nd ed. 1808). A weak reply to Sedgwick 
was made by W. H. Rowe in a f Vindication 
of Blackstone's Commentaries ' (1806). 

The criticisms of Bentham and of Austin 
had weight enough to bring Blackstone into 
undue discredit. To read the ' Commentaries ' 
ceased to be considered an essential part of 
the liberal education of gentlemen and 
scholars, and it grew the fashion to speak 
lightly of the work. There seems now to be 
the beginning of a more just appreciation. 
Most of the specific charges against Black- 
stone were indeed well founded. His was 
not a mind of much analytical power, nor in 
any high sense was he an original thinker. 
His philosophy of law was but a confused 
mingling of the theories of Puffendorf, Locke, 
and Montesquieu ; and its importance now 
consists only in its having created, by repul- 
sion, the later English school of jurispru- 
dence. Of the spirit of intellectual inde- 
pendence he had very little. Partly by nature, 
partly through his political sympathies, partly 
also, it must be remembered, from a truly 
worthy admiration of a great system of law 
and government, he was conservative almost 
to rigidity. In a characteristic passage he 
declared that the legal restraints to which 
Englishmen were subject in his day were 
' so gentle and moderate . . . that no man 
of sense or probity would wish to see them 
slackened ' (i. 144) ; and, with not less bold- 
ness, speaking of the time of Charles II, and 
drawing a distinction bet ween the theoretical 
perfection of law and its practical working, 
he said that * by the law, as it then stood, 
. . . the people had as large a portion of 
real liberty as is consistent with a state of 
society ' (iv. 439 ; see AM os's The English Con- 
stitution in the Reign of Charles II, which is 
a detailed examination of this opinion ; it is 
discussed also in Fox's History, in ROSE'S 
Observations, and in HEYWOOD'S Vindication ; 
and see also how Blackstone himself explains 
his habit of defending legal anomalies, i. 172). 
The extent of his learning, moreover, has 
been often exaggerated. He never knew the 
civil law otherwise than superficially, and 
frequently states it inaccurately ; and even 
in English law his work is not more remark- 
able for original research than for the sin- 
gular skill which it shows in making a happy 
use of the labours of previous text-writers. 




As Lord Ellenborough suggested, he made 
himself a learned lawyer by writing the 
' Commentaries' (see the discussion on Black- 
stone's merits in 23 Parl. Hist. 1078). But 
within his own sphere of exposition his merits 
are very great. ' It requires, perhaps,' says 
Coleridge, in the preface to his edition of the 
' Commentaries,' ' the study necessarily im- 
posed upon an editor to understand fully the 
whole extent of praise to which the author 
is entitled ; his materials should be seen in 
their crude and scattered state ; the contro- 
versies examined, of which the sum only is 
shortly given ; what he has rejected, what he 
has forborne to say should be Known ; before 
his learning, judgment, taste, and, above all, 
his total want of self-display can be justly 
appreciated.' To this just eulogy one need 
only add that Blackstone had formed the true 
conception of an institutional work, which 
not merely should state the principles of ex- 
isting law, but by means of ' the learning out 
of use ' should explain their growth. And so 
well did he carry out his plan that in the 
' Commentaries ' there is still to be found the 
best general history of English law, needing 
comparatively little correction, and told with 
admirable clearness and spirit. To his style 
Austin did less than justice. It lacks variety 
and restraint ; but, except amid the loose 
generalities of the introductory chapters, it is 
never obscure, and at its best it rises to con- 
siderable dignity. Fox thought it ' the very 
best among our modern writers, always easy 
and intelligible ; far more correct than Hume, 
and less studied and made up than Robert- 
son ' (TROTTER, Memoirs ; see also Fox's 
speech on Lord Ellenborough's admission to 
the cabinet). 

In 1766 Blackstone, with a growing prac- 
tice and failing health, resigned both his 
professorship and his principalship. He still 
continued to sit in the House of Commons, 
being returned for the new parliament of 
1 768 as member for Westbury, in Wiltshire. 
But beyond a slight connection with Dr. Mus- 
grave's report on the peace of 1763 (16 Parl. 
Hist. 763), his political career was marked by 
only a single incident. In the exciting de- 
bates on Wilkes he played an unfortunate part. 
On the motion to declare Luttrell elected, 
Blackstone gave it as his opinion that Wilkes 
was by common law disqualified from sitting 
in the house. Grenville retorted by quoting 
from the ' Commentaries ' (i. 162) the causes 
of disqualification, none of which applied to 
Wilkes. ' It is well known,' says Philo- 
Junius, describing the scene, ' that there was 
n pause of some minutes in the house, from 
a general expectation that the doctor would 
say something in his own defence; but it- 

seems his faculties were too much over- 
powered to think of those subtleties and re- 
finements which have since occurred to him.' 
The matter gave rise to a prolonged paper 
controversy, in which Sir W. Meredith, 
Blackstone, Jimius, Dr. Johnson, and others 
took part. Blackstone, who argued that the 
expulsion of a member creates in him an in- 
capacity of being re-elected, had certainly 
the worst of the controversy, maintaining 
without great dignity an indefensible posi- 
tion (see MAY'S Parliamentary Practice, p. 63). 
Without allowing himself to have been in 
the wrong, he took pains in his next edition 
to state the causes of disqualification so as to 
include such a case as that of Wilkes (i. 162-3 ; 
the last sentence of the paragraph does not 
occur in the first edition). Hence came the 
toast at opposition banquets : ' The first edi- 
tion of Dr. Blackstone*s " Commentaries on 
the Laws of England"' (MAHON, Hist. v. 

After this experience, Blackstone was no 
doubt glad to retire from parliament. He 
was invited to be solicitor-general, but he de- 
clined the office, as hopes of ajudgeship were 
at the same time held out to him. In Fe- 
bruary 1770 he was made a justice of the 
Common Pleas, but he immediately exchanged 
places with Mr. Justice Yates, and for a few 
months sat with Lord Mansfield in the court 
of King's Bench. On Yates's death in the 
same year he returned to the Common Pleas. 
He acquired the reputation of being a pains- 
taking judge, and nothing more. Although 
he had now unquestionably made himself a 
learned lawyer, his excessive caution and a 
scrupulous adherence to formalities stood 
sadly in his Avay. What Malone tells us of 
him is in keeping with his general character:. 
'There were more new trials granted in 
causes which came before him on circuit than 
were granted on the decisions of any other 
"-} who sat at Westminster in his time. 

'he reason was that, being extremely diffi- 
dent of his opinion, he never supported it 
with much warmth or pertinacity in the 
court above if a new trial was moved for * 
(PRIOR, Malone, p. 432 ; see the chief case& 
in which he took part in his own reports, 
vol. ii., also in Burrow's and in Wilson's re- 
ports. His most famous judgment is that 
delivered in Perrin v. Blake, in which he dis- 
cussed the reason, the antiquity, and the extent 
of the rule in Shelley's case. He took part 
also in the leading case of Scott v. Shepherd, 
where he differed from the rest of the court 
in holding that the action was not maintain- 
able ; and in the case of Crosby, the lord 
mayor, reported also in 8 St. Tr. 31, and 19 
St. Tr. 1137). In his later years he sue- 




ceeded in procuring an increase in the salaries 
of judges; and he devoted much of his time 
to advocating a reform in the system of 
criminal punishment. He strongly supported 
the penitentiary system, and it was mainly 
owing to him and Eden (Lord Auckland) 
that the act 19 George III c. 74 was passed. 

He died 14 Feh. 1780, and was buried in 
the parish church of Wallingford, where he 
had spent much of the latter part of his life. 
He had married in 1761 Sarah Clitherow, 
and of his nine children one followed so far 
in his footsteps as to become a fellow of All 
Souls, principal of New Inn Hall, Vinerian 
professor, and assessor in the vice-chancellor's 
court. Henry Blackstone, the law reporter, 
was his nephew. 

In personal character he ever showed that 
almost oppressive spirit of orderliness which 
kept him busy at Oxford, and which exhibited 
itself throughout his life in habits of scrupu- 
lous punctuality. He was both languid and 
hot-tempered. So languid was he, it is said, 
that in writing the ' Commentaries ' he re- 
quired a bottle of port before him, being 
' invigorated and supported in the fatigue of 
his great work by a temperate use of it ' (Cuo- 
KEK, Boswell, iv. 465) ; and Lord Stowell, 
who is the authority for the story, also said 
that Blackstone was the only man he had 
ever known who acknowledged and lamented 
his bad temper. Physically as well as men- 
tally he was lethargic ; he grew stout, and 
came more and more to dislike all forms of 
exercise, and he seems really to have died 
from the want of it. 

His statue by Bacon, representing him with 
his right hand on the ' Commentaries,' and 
with Magna Charta in his left, stands in the 
Codrington Library. His works are: 1.' Essay 
on Collateral Consanguinity,' 1750 (reprinted 
in 'LaAv Tracts'). See the other side of the 
question put in ' An Argument in favour of 
Collateral Consanguinity ' in Wynne's * Law 
Tracts.' "2. 'Analysis of the Laws of England,' 
1 754 ; 6th ed. 1771 ; 3rd, 4th, and 5th editions 
contain the discourse on the study of the law 
(reprinted in ' Law Tracts '). 3. * Letter to 
the llev. Dr. Randolph, Vice-Chancellor of 

the study of 
6. 'The Great Charter and Charter of the 
Forest, with other authentic instruments, to 
which is prefixed an introductory discourse, 
containing the history of the Charters,' 1759 
(reprinted in ' Law Tracts '). 7. * A treatise 
on the law of descents in fee-simple,' 1759. 
* ' Reflections on the opinions of Messrs. 


Pratt, Morton, and Wilbraham, relating to 
Lord Leitchfield's disqualifications,' 1759. 

9. ' A case for the opinion of counsel on the 
' right of the university to make new statutes/ 
1759. (For these two pamphlets see life by 
Clitherow; they are not mentioned elsewhere.) 
| 10. ' Tracts, chiefly relating to the antiqui- 
ties and laws of England,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1762 
; (tracts on collateral consanguinity, copy- 
! holders, laws of descent, and a reprint of his 
i Great Charter) ; 3rd ed. 1771, 1 vol. 4to (same 
i tracts, except that on laws of descent ; in 
: addition his * Analysis ' and the letter to 
I Dr. Randolph) ; German translation, 1779. 
11. 'Commentaries on the Laws of England/ 
j 4 vols. Editions: 1st, 1765-9, 4to; 2nd, 1768, 
I 4to (see LOWNDES); 3rd, 1768, 4to (the 2nd and 
i 3rd seem to be editions of only vols. i. and ii.) ; 
4th, 1770, 4to ; 5th, 1773 ; 6th, 1774, 4to 
(Dublin edition, 1775, 12mo) ; 7th, 1775 (this 
edition and all the subsequent ones are 8vo) ; 
8th, 1778 ; 9th (by Burn), 1783 ; 10th and 
llth (Burn and Williams), 1787, 1791 : 12th, 
13th, 14th, and 1 5th (Christian), 1793-5, 1800, 
1803, 1809 (the 12th edition was published 
in numbers, with portraits of sages of the 
law, which were inserted by the bookseller 
without the editor's sanction) ; ' a new edi- 
tion ' (Archbold), 1811 ; another edition not 
numbered (J. Williams), 1822 ; 16th (Cole- 
ridge), 1825; 'a new edition' (Chitty), 1826; 
17th (' enlarged and continued by the editor 
of " Warton ? s History of English Poetry,'" 
Price. 1830) ; 18th (Lee, Hovenden, and 
Ryland), 1829; 19th (Hovenden and Ry- 
land), 1836; 20th (adapted by Stewart), 
1837-41 ; 21st (Hargrave, Sweet, Couch, and 
Welsby), 1844 ; 22nd (adapted by Stewart), 
1844-9; 23rd (adapted by Stewart), 1854. 
Other adaptations : (by Stephen, ' partly 
founded on Blackstone ') 1st ed. 1848-9 ; 9th 
ed. 1883 ; (by Kerr) 1st ed. 1857, 4th ed. 
1876 : (by Broom and Hadley) 1869. The 
abridgments and volumes of selections are 
numerous. Among them are Curry's, 1796 
and 1809 ; Gifford's, 1821 ; Bayly's, 1840 ; 
Warren's, 1855 and 1856. Also < The Comic 
Blackstone,' by G. A. a Beckett, 1867. The 
American editions nearly equal in number 
the English. The first edition is the Phila- 
delphia reprint of 1771-2 ; the last and test 
are Sharswood's, 2 vols. 1878, and Cooley's, 
2 vols. 1884. There are also American 
adaptations, including an edition of Broom 
and Hadley, by Wait (1875), and abridg- 
ments, the last being Ewell's (1883). Trans- 
lations (French) : From the 4th ed. by 
I). G . . . (de Gomicourt), 6 vols. 1774-6, a 
translation ' qui n'est ni exacte ni francaise * 
(CAMUS, Biblioth. des livres de draft) ', it 
omits the notes and references. From the 
15th ed. by N. M. Chompre, 6 vols. 1822. 
' Coinmentaires sur le code criminel,' by the 




Abbe Coyer, 2 vols. 1776, is & free transla- 
tion of Blackstone's 4th volume. Other 
translations of parts of the same volume ap- 
peared at the end of the century (see QUE- 
KARD'S La France Litter air e). (German) : 
A translation of Giffard's abridgment by ; 
H. F. C. von Colditz, with preface by Falck, ! 
2 vols. 1822-3. (Italian) : The first 2 vols. | 
of ' Classici Criminalist! ' (1813) contain 
Blackstone's 4th vol. (Russian) : Cathe- j 
rine II is said to have caused a Russian trans- j 
lation to be made (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ii. 
553), but it is mentioned in no catalogue of I 
foreign law-books. (See bibliographies of MAE- \ 
VIN, SOULE, LOWNDES, BRUNEI, &c. and Cat . of 
Brit. Mus.) 12. < A Reply to Dr. Priestley's | 
Remarks on the fourth volume of the " Com- ! 
mentaries on the Laws of England." By the j 
author of the Commentaries,' 1769 (reprinted 
in a volume called ' An interesting Appendix 
to Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries, 
Ac.,' Philadelphia, 1773, another edition of | 
which appeared in 1774 with the further title 
of the ' Palladium of Conscience.' Besides 
Blackstone's reply, it contains Priestley's j 
and Furneaux's letters, and f The case of the 
late election, &c.') 13. The Wilkes Case. 
4 An answer to the question stated,' 1769 ; 
published anonymously in answer to l The 
question stated, a pamphlet attributed to I 
Sir W. Meredith. To a new edition Black- 
stone added i A Postscript to Junius ' (see : 
JUNIUS'S letters of 29 July and 8 Aug. 1769). j 
' The case of the late election of the County j 
of Middlesex considered on the principles of j 
the constitution and the authorities of law,' 
probably by Blackstone (reprinted in ' The 
Interesting Appendix, &c.'). *A speech with- 
out-doors upon the subject of a vote given 
on the 9th day of May, 1769 ; ' it appeared in 
the ' Public Advertiser' of 28 July 1769 ('see 
letter of PniLO-JuNirs of 1 Aug. 1769). ! 
14. i Reports of cases determined in the seve- j 
ral courts of Westminster Hall from 1746 to 
1779/ 2 vols. fol. 1781 ; Dublin edition, | 
2 vols. 8vo, 1781 ; with notes by Elsley, 
2 vols. 8vo, 1828. His reports have never 
been held in high esteem (see WALLACE'S 
Reporters, but see the testimony of Best, ; 
C. J., to their accuracy, 1 Moore and Payne, 
553). 15. ' A memoir in answer to the late 
Dean of Exeter, now Bishop of Carlisle ;' I 
read before Society of Antiquaries in 1762. 
When Blackstone was preparing his edition 
of the Great Charter, Dean Lyttelton lent j 
him an ancient parchment roll containing the I 
Great Charter and Charter of the Forest of 
9 Henry III. Blackstone considered it a 
copy, and now, in answer to a communica- 
tion made by the dean to the society, he 
gives his reasons in detail (in GUTCH'S Col- 

lect. Cur. ii. 357, and in Bioy. Hist, of Black- 
stone). 16. 'A letter from Sir William 
Blackstone Knt., to the Hon. Daines Bar- 
rington, describing an antique seal, &c. ; ' 
read before Society of Antiquaries in 1775. 
He discusses the seals directed by 1 Ed- 
ward VI, cap. ii. to be used by persons having 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and the circum- 
stances of their disuse (in Archceol. iii. 414, 
and in Bioy. Hist, of BLACKSTONE). 17. ' Ac- 
count of the Quarrel between Pope and Addi- 
son' (in Bioy. Brit. 2nd ed. i. 56 n.). 18. < An 
Argument in the Exchequer Chamber on 
giving judgment in the case of Perrin and 
another v. Blake' (in HARGKAVE'S Law 
Tracts, p. 487). 

[Life by Clitherow, prefixed to reports ; The 
Biographical History of Sir W. Blackstone, 
&c., by a gentleman of Lincoln's Inn (Dr. Dou- 
glns), 1782 a rambling expansion of Clitherow's 
Life ; Life in Law. Mag. vol. xv., reprinted 
in Welsby's Judges; article by Marquardsen in 
Bluntschli-Brater's Staats-Wo'rterbuch ; Glas- 
son's Hist, du Droit et des Instit. de 1'Angle- 
terre ; Burrow's Worthies of All Souls ; Prior's 
Malone; Chalmers's Oxford; Junius.] 

G. P. M. 

1730), classical scholar, was born at Black- 
wall, a hamlet for many generations the seat 
of his family in the parish of Kirk Ireton, 
and the hundred of Wirksworth, Derbyshire, 
in 1674, educated at Derby grammar school, 
admitted sizar at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, on 30 Sept. 1690, took the degree of 
B.A. in 1694, and that of M.A. in 1698, and 
was shortly afterwards appointed headmaster 
of the Derby School, and lecturer of All 
Saints' Church, Derby. 

In 1706 he distinguished himself in his 
first literary venture by the publication of 
'Oeoyvidos IVai/Aat : Theognidis Megarensis 
Sententiee Morales ' the original Greek, with 
a Latin translation, notes, &c.,8vo, to which 
was prefixed an address in Greek to Joshua 
Barnes [q. v.] , the well-known Greek professor. 
In 1718 he published ' An Introduction to the 
Classics, containing a short discourse on their 
Excellencies, and Directions how to study 
them to advantage ; with an Essay on the 
Nature and use of those Emphatical and 
beautiful figures which give strength and 
ornament to Writing,' London, 12mo. This 
work gives the beauties of the ancient writers 
in a clear and concise manner, illustrated 
from the author's rich stores of knowledge, and 
with sound criticism. In 1719 appeared the 
second edition, with additions and an index, 
London, 12mo, and there were other London 
editions in 12mo (3rd ed. 1725, 4th ed., 
5th ed. 1737, 6th ed. 1746), issued both be- 




fore and after the author's death in 1730 ; 
and Dr. William Mayor, while at Woodstock 
in 1809, reissued the work as i BlackwaH's 
Introduction to the Classics,' London, 12mo, 
with an ' Essay on Rhetoric/ and a ' Biblio- 
graphy of the best English Translations of 
Greek and Roman Classics,' and describes it 
as a work most invaluable to those who have 
not received a sound education. 

In 1722 Blackwall was appointed head 
master of the grammar school of Market Bos- 
worth, Leicestershire, a school founded in 
the time of Henry VIII, but much increased 
in revenue by endowments of the Dixie 
family. Here, in the quiet of a thoroughly 
pastoral district, he produced his most cele- 
brated work, ' The Sacred Classics defended 
and illustrated, or an Essay humbly offered 
towards proving the Purity, Propriety, and 
True Eloquence of the Writers of the New 
Testament ; ' in two parts, 4to, London, 1725 ; 
2nd ed. 8vo, London, 1727. ' Not with- 
out very great labour and pains, though ac- 
companied with pleasures,' as he says, he 
completed the second and last volume of this 
work a few weeks before his death in 1730, 
and it was published under the same title 
in 1731, London, 8vo, with his portrait by 
Vertue. The two volumes were reprinted 
at Leipsic by Christopher Wollius, 4to, 1736, 
with Bernigeroth's copy of the portrait. The 
third London edition appeared in 2 vols. 8vo, 
1737. This work is chiefly on the plan of 
Raphelius, and is of very fair merit in its 
fund of general learning and its useful obser- 
vations. Words and phrases in the New 
Testament long considered to be barbarisms 
or solecisms are shown to have been used by 
the old Greek writers of the best reputation, 
but the critics thought he had failed to prove 
the general purity and elegance of the lan- 
guage of the Testament. Orme, Bickersteth, 
Dr. Williams, and especially his great oppo- 
nent, Dr. Clarke, make light of his work ; 
while, on the other hand, Dr. Doddridge and 
T. H. Home speak highly of its value. In any 
case, his work can claim the merit of leading 
the w r ay to sounder biblical criticism. 

At both Derby and Bosworth he had the 
happiness to bring up a number of excellent 
scholars, among whom were the well-known 
Richard Dawes, author of ' Miscellanea Cri- 
tica,' and Budworth, the master of Bishop 
Hurd. One of his pupils, Sir Henry Atkins, 
presented him to the rectory of Clapham, 
Surrey, on 12 Oct. 1726. About this time 
he went up for ordination and waited upon 
Dr. Gibson, then bishop of London, when a 
young chaplain of the bishop began to ex- 
amine Blackwall in the Greek Testament. 
The bishop, whom Blackwall had known well 

in the see of Lincoln, on entering the room, 
good-naturedly asked what the chaplain was 
about. ' Mr. B. knows more of the Greek 
Testament than you do, or I to help you.' The 
Latin grammar which Blackwall made use of 
in the Derby and Market Bosworth schools 
was of his own composition, and he was pre- 
vailed upon to publish it, but anonymously, 
as he did not wish to appear to prescribe rules 
to other instructors of youth. It was entitled 
* A new Latin Grammar, being a short, clear, 
and easy introduction of young Scholars to 
the Knowledge of the Latin Tongue, &c., r 
London, 12ino, 1728. 

Although the Clapham living was the only 
preferment received by l the good old school- 
master,' as Gilbert Cooper calls him in his 
'Letters on Taste,' he relinquished it by 1729, 
when he was again master of Bosworth gram- 
mar school, with an income of less than a third 
of that yielded by the clerical living. About 
this time Samuel Johnson became his ' usher, r 
.but the dates of the association are very diffi- 
cult to unravel. Blackwall returned to Bos- 
worth early in 1729 ; Johnson left college 
about December 1729, and even if he went 
direct to assist Blackwall it could only have 
been for a few months, as the latter died at 
the schoolhouse on 8 April 1730. After the 
master's death, the usher may have continued 
to teach, and when we study Johnson's his- 
tory, and read of his going on foot to the 
school in a forlorn state of circumstances on 
16 July 1732, that can only refer to his 
last attendance at Bosworth, probably at 
the close of the summer holidays. He left 
the house of Sir Wolstan Dixie, a patron of 
the school, eleven days after, and thus- 
we may conclude he taught in the school 
for two and a half years, of which only a few 
months were under Blackwall. The dis- 
tressing experiences of which we read so- 
much in Boswell's memoir and elsewhere 
must therefore be referred to the time subse- 
quent to Blackwall's death, and when the 
control of the Dixies as 'patrons of the 
school ' seems to have weighed very heavily 
upon Johnson. The present writer, when 
under-master of this school, 1854-1863, was 
unable to find any records of the association 
of Johnson with Blackwall. 

Blackwall was twice married. The only 
child by the first wife, named Toplis, was An- 
thony, who was B.A. of Emmanuel College in 
1721 ; by the second wife, who was widow 
of Cantrell, his predecessor in the Derby 
school, and mother of Henry Cantrell [q.v.] r 
he had four sons : Henry, B.A. Emmanuel 
College 1721 ; Robert, a dragoon; John, at- 
torney at Stoke Golding, near Bosworth, 
who died in 1762 ; and William, who died 




young. He had also one daughter, who 
married Mr. Pickering. The daughter of 
John Blackwall married William Cantrell, 
bookseller, Derby. 

[Nichols's Leic. iv. 2, 509 ; Glover's Derby- 
shire, i. 106 ; Boswell's Johnson (Croker's). pp. 
18, 20; Cooper's Letters on Taste, p. 119; 
Home's Introd. 10th ed. iv. 22; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. i. 130, ii. 551, iii. 332, ix. 809; and 
Blackwall's works.] J. W.-GK 

BLACKWALL, JOHN (1790-1881), 
zoologist, was born at Manchester 20 Jan. 
1790. After some years' partnership with 
his father, an importer of Irish linen, he re- 
tired in 1833 to North Wales, settling ulti- 
mately at Llanrwst. As early as 1821 he 
published, in Thomson's l Annals of Philo- 
sophy,' observations on diurnal mean tempe- 
rature, and in 1822 some notes by him on 
migratory birds appeared in the * Memoirs of 
the Manchester Philosophical Society.' This 
was followed by observations on the notes 
of birds. Fifteen of his first twenty-five 
papers were ornithological. Being attracted 
to the study of spiders and their webs, he 
was surprised to find scarcely any available 
authorities, and this determined his choice of 
a principal lifework. His first paper on 
spiders appeared in 1827 in the ' Transactions 
of the Linnean Society,'. on the means by 
which gossamer spiders effect their aerial ex- 
cursions. In 1830 he published, in the 
>l Zoological Journal,' a paper on the manner 
m which the geometric spiders construct 
their nets. His papers were collected in 
'Researches in Zoology,' 1834; the second 
-edition, 1873, was not brought up to date. 
Blackwall pursued the study of the spiders 
of his own neighbourhood and their habits 
with extreme painstaking, almost wholly un- 
aided by any British or foreign worker. His 
great work, ' A History of the Spiders of 
"Great Britain and Ireland,' 1861-4, published 
by the Ray Society, was unfortunately in the 
hands of the society ten years before its 
publication. It is full of minute detail, giv- 
ing an almost photographic picture of the 
object. Nearly all his work was done with- 
out any aid but that of a pocket lens. Some 
of his type-specimens are lost, owing to their 
having been kept indiscriminately with 
others. His writing for the press was most 
remarkably clear, and scarcely a single cor- 
rection was needed in his proof-sheets. He 
died 11 May 1881. 

[Obit, notice in the Entomologist, xiv. 145-50, 
"'by Rev. 0. Pickard-Cambridge ; see also xiv. 
190, and Entomologist's Monthly Mag. xviii. 45.] 

GK T. B. 


1747), was an adventurer, whose career is 
for the most part enveloped in mystery and 
contradiction. It is admitted that he was 
born in Aberdeen early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury; Fryxell, the Swedish historian of the 
intrigue which brought him to the scaffold, 
says in 1709, but this seems too late. Ac- 
cording to a contemporary memoir, his father 
was a petty shopkeeper ; but this production, 
although professedly written at Stockholm, 
was to all appearance fabricated in London 
to serve a political object ; and there seems 
no reasonable doubt that he was the brother 
of Dr. Thomas Blackwell [q. v.], and conse- 
quently the son of another Thomas Blackwell 
[q. v.] According to the anonymous bio- 
graphy referred to, he studied medicine at 
Leyden, under Boerhaave, and he may very 
probably have represented himself to have 
done so. As, however, we find him practis- 
ing the trade of a printer in London about 
1730, there is far more probability in the 
statement of an apparently well-informed 
correspondent of the f Bath Journal,' ab- 
stracted in ' The Gentleman's Magazine ' for 
September 1747, that Blackwell, urged by 
ambition and restlessness, left the university 
of Aberdeen without taking a degree, and 
! came up to seek his fortune in the metropo- 
lis. Having obtained employment from the 
printer Wilkins as corrector of the press, he 
married an excellent wife with a consider- 
able portion, and set up as a printer on his 
own account. He seemed on the high road 
to prosperity, when he was ruined by a com- 
bination of the London printers, who opposed 
him as an interloper who had never been ap- 
prenticed to the trade. He spent two years 
in a debtor's prison, from which he was de- 
! livered by the enterprise of his wife [see 
! BLACKWELL, ELIZABETH] He then took up 
i the study of medicine and agriculture, and was 
frequently cor suited respecting the manage- 
| ment of estates. Being introduced to the 
Duke of Chandos, he obtained employment 
as the director of that nobleman's improve- 
ments at Cannons, which situation he for- 
feited under circumstances not explained, 
but apparently little to his credit. ' It kept 
him/ says the editor of the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine/ annotating the article in the 
'Bath Journal/ 'from other employment.' 
The printer of the magazine was probably 
one of Blackwell's persecutors, yet this may 
have been the reason why, as stated in 
Chalmers's 'Dictionary/ 'Mr. Blackwell's 
family were not very desirous of preserving 
his memory/ and allowed the circulation of 
erroneous statements which have hitherto 
entirely misled his biographers. In 1741, 




while still in the duke's service, he had heir, was to have been poisoned, that ' a cer- 
published ' A New Method of improving tain young prince,' the Duke of Cumberland, 
Cold, Wet, and Clayey Grounds,' of which was to have been set upon the throne, and 
there is no copy in the British Museum or | that Adolphus Frederick's son, afterwards 

the Bodleian. It may have attracted atten- 
tion abroad, for the indomitable adventurer 
next turns up in Sweden in 1742. Here he 
represented himself as a phvsician, prescribed 

Gustavus III,was to have been indemnified bv 
a principality in Germany. On these charges, 
of most if not of all of which he was unques- 
tionably innocent, Blackwell was condemned 

successfully for the king, and was actually , without any public trial to be broken on the 
appointed one of his physicians in ordinary, j wheel, a punishment commuted into decapita- 
but soon incurred the suspicion of quackery, j tion. He met his fate on 9 Aug. 1747 with 
and fell back upon his old trade of practical I remarkable fortitude, apologising for laying 
agriculturist. He published in 1745 ' An Essay ; his head on the wrong side of the block on the 
on the Improvement of Swedish Agriculture,' I ground that it was the first time he had ever 
which was suspected of being a translation been beheaded. The speech he endeavoured to 
from the English ; and was entrusted with j address to the bystanders was drowned in 
the direction of a model farm at Allestad. I the roll of drums, and a paper published in 
This was alleged to have deteriorated under j his name is probably spurious. The real 
his management, and the precariousness of j object and secret springs of his intrigue re- 
his appointment may perhaps have driven main a mystery. Some have thought that it 
him to engage in political intrigue. Sweden, was a device of his own to gain the king's 
under the weak rule of King Frederick, j favour and magnify his own importance, and 
was at the time distracted by the contending j that the alleged anonymous letter was a 
factions of the ' Hats ' and the ' Caps,' the figment. Others deem him the instrument 
former under French influence, the latter ! of a foreign court, probably England. The 
inclining to England. An unquiet spirit j ' Hats ' regarded him as an agent of their ad- 

like Blackwell would be prone to fish in 
these troubled waters, and as his political re- 
lations were chiefly with the English party, 
the representatives of his own country might 
well seek to make a tool of him. In March 
1747 he presented himself to the king with a 
mysterious verbal communication purporting 
to come from the Queen of Denmark (Louisa, 
George II's daughter), vaguely hinting at a 
large sum of money to be bestowed on con- 
dition of altering the succession to the ex- | most plausible, but for the evident pains taken 
elusion of the infant crown prince. The king by the English government to vindicate itself 
at first referred Blackwell to two of his con- at his expense. According to the corre- 

versaries ; the ' Caps ' insisted that he had been 
made the stalking-horse of a fictitious plot. 
Not a few suspected that he had been ensnared 
by the minister Tessin, who was supposed to 
be jealous of his influence, and certainly 
took the leading part in his torture and 
execution. Blackwell is universally repre- 
sented as meddlesome, pragmatical, and lo- 
quacious, and the theory that his plot was 
wholly concocted by himself would appear the 

fidants, but on the following day, becoming 
alarmed, disclosed the incident to his minis- 
ters, who immediately arrested Blackwell. 
The latter admitted making the communica- 
tion, and declared that he had been prompted 
to do so by an anonymous letter which he had 
destroyed, and the source of which was un- 
known to him. To extract further revelations 
he was cruelly tortured. He long with- 
stood his sufferings with the greatest con- 
stancy, and although he ultimately suc- 
cumbed, he revoked his confession, and it is 
difficult to ascertain what it really was. It 
certainly implicated no other person, for no 
one else was proceeded against. The sentence 
of his judges, if correctly cited, condemned 
him for ' designing to alter the present con- 
stitution, and to render the crown absolute ; 
to set aside the present established succession ; 
and to procure large sums of money to enable 
him to execute these schemes.' It was in- 
sinuated that Adolphus Frederick, the next 

spondent of the ( Bath Journal ' Blackwell 
was an excellent scholar in his youth. His 
eminent talents were marred by want of prin- 
ciple and unsoundness of judgment, but he 
must have possessed enterprise, courage, and 

[Gent. Mag. 1747, pp. 424-6 ; A Genuine Copy 
of a Letter from a Merchant in Stockholm to his 
Correspondent in London (London, 1747) ; Chal- 
mers's Dictionary, art. ' Blackwell (Elizabeth) ; 
Credercreutz, Srerige under Ulrica, Eleonora, 
och Fredric I (1821); Fryxell, Berattelser ur 
Svenska Historien, pt. xxxvii., Stockholm, 1868. 
The proceedings of the tribunal which condemned 
Blackwell were sealed up by order of Count Tes- 
sin, and remained unexamined for thirty-three 
years, when Gustavus III deposited them in the 
public archives. Their contents were first di- 
vulged in 1846, in an essay contributed to the 
newspaper Frey, by N. Arfvidsson, upon which 
Fryxell's circumstantial and interesting narra- 
tive is mainly founded.] B. G. 




wife of Alexander Blackwell [q. v.], is posi- 
tively asserted by James Bruce (Lives of Emi- 
nent Men of Aberdeen, p. 307) to have been 
the daughter of a stocking merchant in Aber- 
deen, and to have eloped with her husband 
to London before he found employment as a 
corrector of the press. No authority is given 
for these statements. Blackwell's biographer 
in the ' Bath Journal,' who seems to write 
with a knowledge of the family, asserts on ; 
the other hand that the marriage took place ! 
subsequently, and describes Elizabeth as ' a j 
virtuous gentlewoman, the daughter of a \ 
worthy merchant,' who gave his daughter a 
handsome portion. ' Virtuous ' and ' worthy ' j 
were unquestionably epithets applicable to 
Elizabeth herself, who extricated her hus- ! 
band from his pecuniary difficulties by apply- 
ing her talent for painting to the delineation i 
of medicinal plants with the colours of nature. 
She was encouraged by Sir Hans Sloane, Dr. 
Mead, and Mr. Rand, curator of the botanical , 
garden at Chelsea. By his advice she took 
lodgings close by the garden, where she was 
supplied with plants, which she depicted with 
extreme skill and fidelity, while Blackwell 
himself supplied the scientific and foreign 
nomenclature, and, with the original author's i 
consent, abridged the descriptions in Philip I 
Miller's ' Botanicum Officinale.' After finish- 
ing the drawings, Elizabeth engraved them 
on copper herself, and coloured the prints 
with her own hands. The work at length 
appeared in 1737, in 2 vols. folio, under the 
title of ' A Curious Herbal, containing five j 
hundred cuts of the most useful plants which ! 
are now used in the practice of Physic.' It j 
was accompanied by laudatory certificates j 
from the College of Physicians and College 
of Surgeons, and dedications to Drs. Mead, 
Pellet, and Stuart. As a monument of female 
devotion it is most touching and admirable, 
and its practical value was very great. l If/ 
says a writer in Chalmers's 'Dictionary,' 
' there is wanting that accuracy which mo- 
dern improvements have rendered necessary 
in delineating the more minute parts ; yet, 
upon the whole, the figures are sufficiently | 
distinctive of the subject.' Rousseau com- I 
plains of its want of method, but it was not 
designed to accompany treatises on botany. 
Its merits received the most substantial re- 
cognition from the fine republication under- 
taken by Trew (Nuremberg, 1757-73), with 
the addition of a sixth century of plants, and j 
a preface pointing out its superiority to the 
more scientific work of Morandi alike in ac- 
curacy and delicacy of colouring and in the 
copiousness of representations of exotic plants. 
Having performed her task of delivering her 

husband and temporarily re-establishing his 
affairs, Elizabeth Blackwell disappears from 
observation. According to the contemporary 
pamphlet on her husband's execution, she 
was then in England, but had been upon tha 
point of joining him in Sweden. The date 
of her death is not recorded. She must have 
left children if, as has been stated, descend- 
ants from her exist at the present day. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. xvii. ; Chalmers's Diet. ; 
Br uce's Eminent Men of Aberdeen, 1841.1 


BLACKWELL, GEORGE (1545 P-1613), 
archpriest, was born in Middlesex in or about 
1545. A secular priest, in a controversial 
letter addressed to him, says : ' Your father 
was indeed a pewterer by Newgate in Lon- 
don, a man of honest occupation it is most 
true, but not the best neighbour to dwell by/ 
He was admitted scholar of Trinity College,. 
Oxford, 27 May 1562, graduated B.A. in 1563, 
became probationer of his college in 1565, per- 
petual fellow in the following year, and M.A. 
in 1567. ' But his mind being more addicted 
to the catholic than to the reformed religion he 
left his fellowship and retired to Gloucester 
Hall for a time, where he was held in good 
repute by Edm. Rainolds and Thomas Allen, 
the two learned seniors ' (WooD, Athence 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 122). Leaving the uni- 
versity he went over to the English college 
at Douay, where he was admitted in 1574, and 
being already far advanced in learning was 
ordained priest in 1575. He took the degree 
of B.D. the same year in the university of 
Douay, and returned to England upon the 
mission in November 1576. 

As early as 1578 he was in prison (J)oua\f 
Diaries, 147). To this occasion perhaps the 
secular priest already mentioned refers when 
he says : l About twenty years since, to my 
remembrance, you were imprisoned in Lon- 
don : but your brother, being the bishop of 
London's register, procured your release very 
shortly after.' Blackwell lodged for seven 
or eight years in the house of Mrs. Meany in 
Westminster, and was constantly in fear of" 
arrest and imprisonment. Once he owed his 
deliverance from impending danger to the in- 
tervention of the Countess of Arundel and 
Surrey, whose anonymous biographer informs - 
us that < he being forced for his own and the 
gentlewoman's security he liv'd with to hide 
himself in a secret place of the house when 
search was made after [him] by the hereticks : 
and being in great danger of being taken or 
famish'd by reason that all the catholicks of 
the house were cariy'd away to prison, and 
heretick watchmen put into the house to keep 
it and hinder any from helping him. She- 




haveing notice of his distress dealt so with the 
officer who had the principal charge of that 
business that after three dayes he was content 
two of her servants should come to that house 
at the time when the guard was chang'd, take 
Mr. Blackwell out of the hideing-place, and 
convey him away, as they speedily did, bring- 
ing him betwixt them, he not being able to 
go alone, to their lady's house, where, after 
some dayes for refreshing he had stay'd, she 
sent him safe to the place he desir'd to go ' 
(Lives of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, 
and of Anne Dacres, his wife, 216, 217). It 
would seem that he sometimes visited the 
continent, as he is said to have formed a per- 
sonal acquaintance with Cardinal Bellarmin 
And other eminent writers, who give an ex- ; 
cellent character of his learning and capacity 
which they discovered while he had occasion 
to reside in Rome (DoDD, Church Hist. ii. 380). j 

After the decease of Cardinal Allen the at- \ 
fairs of the English catholic clergy fell into 
a state of confusion, owing to the absence of j 
any means of enforcing regular discipline. 
The petitions for the appointment of a bishop 
were not favourably received at Rome, but 
on 7 March 1597-8 Cardinal Cajetan, the pro- j 
tector of the English nation, addressed a letter 
to Blackwell, announcing to him the command 
of the pope, Clement VIII, that he should be 
archpriest over the secular clergy. Unlimited 
power was given to Blackwell to restrain or 
revoke the faculties of the clergy, to remove 
them from place to place at his pleasure, and 
to punish the refractory by deprivation or j 
censures. The cardinal named six persons to 
be his assistants, and empowered him to ap- 
point six others. ' The Jesuits,' the cardinal 
continues, ' neither have nor pretend to have 
any jurisdiction or authority over the clergy, 
-or seek to disquiet them ; it seemeth, there- 
fore, a manifest subtlety and deceit of the 
devil, complotted for the overthrow of the 
whole English cause, that any catholic should 
practice or stir up emulation against them.' 
This letter was accompanied by private in- 
structions, which prohibited the archpriest j 
and his twelve assistants from determining \ 
any matter of importance without advising i 
with the superior of the Jesuits and some j 
others of the order. 

The appointment of Blackwell gave rise to i 
serious and protracted dissensions among the I 
.clergy, which were secretly fomented by the I 
English government (FoLEY, Records, i. 12 
v-et seq.) Thirty-one secular priests, headed 
by Dr. Bishop, sent an appeal to Rome, and 
on 6 April 1599 the pope issued a bull, fully 
.recognising and sanctioning the letter of Car- 
dinal Cajetan, and the appointment of the arch- | 
Driest and his acts, declaring the letter to have j 

VOL. V. 

been valid from the first, and explicitly or- 
dering it to be obeyed and its regulations to 
be complied with. The appellant priests at 
once submitted to the bull without any linii- 
: tation. It was contended, however, that the 
actual submission of the appellants did not 
undo or atone for the criminality of their 
former appeal, and on this ground the arch- 
priest and his adherents continued to treat 
them as schismatics. They again appealed to 
i Rome, and the pope addressed to the arch- 
priest a brief (17 Aug. 1601), recommending 
him to temper severity with mildness, and 
exhorting all parties to a general oblivion of 
the offence. This letter, however, did not 
entirely pacify the troubles ; the clergy sent 
a third deputation to Rome, and a second 
letter was addressed by the pope to the arch- 
priest (6 Oct. 1602). His holiness blamed him 
for proceeding by suspension and censures 
against the appellant priests, and commanded 
him to communicate no business of his office 
to the provincial of the Society of Jesus, or 
to any members of the society in England, 
lest it should be a cause of animosity and dis- 
cord between the society and the appellants ; 
and with the same view he revoked the con- 
trary injunctions given by Cardinal Cajetan. 
Thus the matters in dispute were finally set- 
tled by papal authority. 

For some time after this Blackwell exer- 
cised his authority as archpriest without 
opposition ; but he eventually got entangled 
in a controversy of another kind, and drew 
upon himself the censures of the holy see. 
In 1606 the government of King James I im- 
posed on catholics a new oath, which was 
to be the test of their civil allegiance. The 
wording of the oath was entrusted to Arch- 
bishop Bancroft, who, with the assistance of 
Sir Christopher Perkins, a ' renegado Jesuit/ 
so framed it as to give to the designs of the 
ministry the desired effect, ' which was first 
to divide the catholics about the lawfulness 
of the oath ; secondly, to expose them to daily 
prosecutions in case of refusal, and, in con- 
sequence of this, to misrepresent them as dis- 
affected persons, and of unsound principles in 
regard of civil government ' (Dors, Church 
Hist. ii. 366). Blackwell told his clergy by 
a circular letter, dated 22 July 1606, that it 
was his holiness's pleasure that they should 
behave themselves peaceably with regard to 
all civil matters. ' Sua sanctitas nullo modo 
probat, tales tractatus agitari inter catholicos: 
imo jubet, ut hujusmodi cogitationes depo- 
nantur.' Previously, on 28 Nov. 1605, he had 
written a similar letter to the catholic laity. 
At several meetings of the secular and regu- 
lar clergy, convened to consider the oath, 
Blackwell advised them to take it. Cardinal 




Bellarmin wrote to him an admonitory letter 
on this subject, to which he replied. Being 
apprehended near Clerkenwell on 24 June 
1607, he was committed prisoner to the Gate- 
house in Westminster, and thence was re- 
moved to the Clink prison in Southwark, 
where he was frequently examined upon 
several articles, especially concerning the oath 
of allegiance. In fine, he took the oath, and 
several of the clergy and laity followed his 
example, notwithstanding the fact that the 
oath had twice been formally condemned by 
Pope Paul V in 1606 and 1607. Blackwell's 
conversion being despaired of, the sovereign 
pontiff deprived him of the office of archpriest 
in 1608, and appointed George Birket [q. v.] 
to supply his place. 

Blackwell died on 12 Jan. 1612-13, per- 
sisting to the last in his approbation of the 
oath. On being taken suddenly ill some 
priests attended him, and he assured them 
that he deemed it to be a lawful oath, and 
that in taking it he had done nothing con- 
trary to conscience (WIDDKINGTON, Dispu- 
tatio Theologica de Juramento Fidelitatis, 

A large number of books were published 
against him, chiefly by Watson, Colleton, Dr. 
Bishop, Dr. Champney, and other catholic 
divines. The principal other works relating 
to the controversies in which he was engaged 
are : 1. ' The Hope of Peace, by laying open 
such doubts and manifest untruthes as are de- 
vulged by the Archpriest in his letter or an- 
swere to the Bookes which were published by 
the priestes,' Frankfort, 1601, 4to. 2. ' Mr. 
George Blackwel (made by Pope Clement 8, 
Archpriest of England), his Answeres vpon 
sundry his Examinations : together with his 
Approbation and taking of the Oath of Alle- 
geance : and his Letter written to his assis- 
tants and brethren, moouing them not onely 
to take the said Oath, but to aduise all Ro- 
mish Catholikes so to doe,' London, 1607, 4to. 
3. ' A large Examination taken at Lambeth, 
according to his Maiesties direction, point by 
point, of M. George Blakwell, made Arch- 
priest of England, by pope Clement 8. Vpon 
occasion of a certaine answere of his, without 
the priuitie of the State, to a Letter lately 
sent vnto him from Cardinall Bellarmine, 
blaming him for taking the Oath of Allegeance. 
Together with the Cardinals Letter, and M. 
Blakwels said answere vnto it. Also M. 
Blakwels Letter to the Romish Catholickes 
in England, as well Ecclesiasticall as Lay,' 
London, 1607, 4to ; also printed in French at 
Amsterdam, 1609. 4. ' In Georgium Black- 
vellum Anglige Archipresbyterum a Clemente 
Papa Octavo designatum Quaestio bipartita : 
Cuius Actio prior Archipresbyteri iusiuran- 

dum de Fidelitate prestitum, Altera eiusdem 
iuramenti Assertionem, contra Cardinalis Bel- 
larmini Literas, continet,' London, 1609, 4to. 
5. ' Relatio compendiosa turbarum quas le- 
suitae Angli, vna cum D. Georgio Blackwello 
Archipresbytero, Sacerdotibus Seminariorum 
populoq; Catholico cociuere ob schismatis & 
aliorum criminum inuidiam illis iniuriose 
impactam sacro sanctee inquisitionis officio 
exhibita, vt rerum veritate cognita ab inte- 
gerrimis eiusdem iudicibus lites & causse dis- 
cutiantur et terminentur,' Rouen, 4to. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. (1737), ii. 251-65, 366, 
380, also Tierney's edit. iv. 70 et seq., App. 110. 
142, 147, 148, 157, v. 8, 12 ; Wood's Athen. Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 122, Fasti, i. 162, 179 ; Berington's 
Memoirs of Panzani ; Ullathorne's Hist, of the 
Restoration of the Cath. Hierarchy, 7 ; Flana- 
gan's Hist, of the Church in England, ii. 265-69, 
299, 301 ; Anatomie of Popish Tyrannie (1603), 
177; Diaries of the English College, Douay; 
Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 
2nd ser. 23, 153, 154, 3rd ser. 116; MS. HarL 
6809, art. 190; MS. Lansd. 983 f. 123; MS. 
Cotton. Titus B. vii. 468 ; MS. Addit. 30, 662 f. 
726. ; Butler's Hist. Memoirs of the English 
Catholics (1822), ii. 204 et seq. 254 ; Lingard's 
Hist, of England (1849), vii. 91-95; Foley'& 
Records ; Calendars of State Papers.] T. C. 

BLACKWELL, JOHN (1797-1840), 
Welsh poet and prose writer, was born at 
Mold, in Flintshire, in 1797, and for many 
years followed the trade of a shoemaker in 
his native town. From an early age he showed 
the greatest avidity for books, and he carried 
off' several prizes offered for poems and essays 
in the Welsh language. By the liberality of 
friends he was enabled to enter Jesus College, 
Oxford, in 1824, and he took the degree of 
B.A. in 1828. In the autumn of the latter 
year, at the Royal Denbigh Eisteddvod, a 
prize was adjudged to him for his beautiful 
Welsh elegy on the death of Bishop Heber. 
In 1829 he was ordained to the curacy of 
Holy well. During his residence there he con- 
tributed largely to the columns of the t Gwy- 
liedydd,' a periodical conducted on the prin- 
ciples of the established church, and in 1832 
he was presented with a prize medal at the 
Beaumaris Eisteddvod. In 1833 he was pre- 
sented by Lord-chancellor Brougham to the 
living of Manor Deivy, in Pembrokeshire. 
I Soon afterwards he became editor of an illus- 
trated magazine in the Welsh language, en- 
1 titled ' Y Cylchgrawn,' and he conducted this 
j periodical with remarkable ability. He died on 
14 May 1840, and was buried at Manor Deivy. 
t His poems and essays, with a memoir of his 
j life, were edited by the Rev. Griffith Edwards 
I of Minera, in a volume entitled 'Ceinion. 
! Alun,' Ruthin, 1851, 8vo. 




[Williams's Eminent Welshmen, 554 ; Gent. 
Mag. (New Set.), xiv. 100.] T. C. 

(1660 P-1728), a learned Scotch minister, is 
sometimes confounded with his more cele- 
brated son of the same name. He was called 
to the charge as presbyterian minister at Pais- 
ley, Renfrewshire, on 5 April 1693, but his or- 
dination was delayed to 28 Aug. 1694 for 
various reasons, one being his own ' unclear- 
ness ' about accepting the call. He was trans- 
lated to Aberdeen on 9 Oct. 1700, and in 1710 
he was elected professor of divinity in the 
Marischal College of the university of Aber- 
deen. In the same year he published * Ratio 
Sacra, or an appeal unto the Rational World 
about the reasonableness of Revealed Religion 
. . . directed against the three grand prevailing 
errors of Atheism, Deism, and Bourignonism/ 
Edin. 12mo. The same year his second work 
appeared : ( Schema Sacrum, or a Sacred 
Scheme of Natural and Revealed Religion, 
making a Scriptural-Rational Account of 
these Three Heads ... of Creation ... of 
Divine Predestination . . . and of the Wise 
Divine Procedure in accomplishing the 
Scheme/ Edin. 8vo, pp. 340. A second edi- 
tion in 12mo was published at Paisley in 
1800. An American edition was brought 
out by a New Hampshire minister, with a 
list of over 700 names of subscribers, under 
the altered title of ' Forma Sacra, or a Sacred 
Platform of Natural and Revealed Religion 
... by the pious and learned Thomas Black- 
well ' (with a lengthy introduction on the- 
position and prospects of religion in America), 
by Simon Williams, M.A.,' 12mo, Boston, 
1774. The latter was minister of the gospel 
at Wyndham, New Hampshire, and he 
speaks of Blackwell as ' a minister much es- 
teemed in Peasley, North Britain/ his in- 
formant, the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon, then 
president of the college in the Jerseys, having 
been one of his successors in the church at 
Paisley. Blackwell appears to have taken a 
prominent part in the disturbed affairs of the 
Scottish church. The first of the ' Tracts con- 
cerning Patronage by some eminent Lairds ; 
with a candid inquiry about the constitu- 
tion of the Church of Scotland in relation to 
the Settlement of Ministers/ 8vo, Edin. 1770, 
is entitled, < Representation by Mr. William 
Carstairs, Thomas Blackwell, and Robert 
Baillie, Ministers of the Church of Scotland, 
offered by them in the name and by appoint- 
ment of the General Assembly against the 
bill for restoring patronages/ 1712. Another 
work of his was published in 1712 entitled 
'Methodus Evangelica/ 8vo, London. 

Black well's appointment as professor of 

divinity in the Marischal College was by pre- 
sentation vested in the Marischal family 

George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal, being 
the founder but on the forfeiture of their 
rights consequent upon their adherence to the 
cause of the Stuarts, the patronage in 1715 
was vested in the crown ; and the office of 
principal being vacant in 1717, George I re- 
cognised the merits of Blackwell by appoint- 
ing- him to the same, a position which, along 
with his previous professorship, he held until 
his death in 1728. The names associated 
with this famous institution in Blackwell's 
time and during his son's career, or early in 
the eighteenth century, are of great emi- 
nence. Among many others, there occur to 
us those of Bishop Burnet, Dr. Arbuthnot, 
Dr. Reid, the poet Beattie, Bishop Keith, 
Dr. Turnbull, the Fordyces (his grandsons), 
Gibbs the architect, and Professors Mac- 
laurin, Duncan, Stewart, Gerard, and George 

Blackwell married a sister of Dr. Johnston, 
many years professor of medicine in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, and by her had two sons, 
Alexander [q. v.] and Thomas [q. v.] ; and 
one daughter, married to Provost Fordyce of 
Aberdeen, by whom she had nineteen children , 
some of whom became well known : David 
Fordyce the professor, James Fordyce the 
popular preacher, and Sir William Fordyce 
the physician. 

[Blackwell's works ; Williams's Forma Sacra ; 
New Statist. H. of Scotland, vii. 235, xii. 11, 
1190 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 93] J. W.-G. 

BLACKWELL, THOMAS, the younger 
(1701-1757), classical scholar, born on 4 Aug. 
1701 in the city of Aberdeen, was the son of 
the Rev. Thomas Blackwell [see BLACZWELL, 
THOMAS, the elder]. He was educated at the 
grammar school of Aberdeen, and studied 
Greek and philosophy in the Marischal College 
of the university of the same city, of which his 
father occupied the chair of divinity from 1 710, 
and had become principal in 1717. He took 
the degree of M.A. in 1718, a remarkable in- 
stance of proficiency in a young man of seven- 
teen, and in recognition of his ability he was 
presented on 28 Nov. 1723 to the professor- 
ship of Greek in the same college, and took 
office on 13 Dec. following. He soon made 
his mark as a successful teacher of the Greek 
language. It was not in his favourite Greek 
literature only, but also in the Latin classics, 
that he exerted himself. He was held in high 
estimation by the celebrated Berkeley, who 
selected him as a professor in the projected 
college at Bermuda. 

In 1735 Blackwell published in London 
an octavo volume, without bookseller's or 

L 2 




author's name, 'An Enquiry into the Life 
and Writings of Homer/ arranged in twelve 
sections, as an answer to the question, ' By 
what fate or disposition of things it has hap- 
pened that no poet has equalled him for 
2,700 years, nor any that we know ever sur- 
passed him before ? ' A second London edi- 
tion in octavo, and also anonymous, came 
out in 1736, followed soon after by ' Proofs 
of the Enquiry into Homer's Life and 
Writings, translated into English ; being a 
Key to the ^nquiry . . . .' With a curious 
Frontispiece, 8vo, London, 1747. This was 
merely a translation of the learned and co- 
pious notes originally given in Greek, Latin, 
Spanish, Italian, and French. The t Enquiry ' 
was considered a remarkable book at the 
time, and opinions on its merits have varied 
considerably. Gibbon, without any expla- 
nation of his assertion, speaks of it as ' by 
Blackwell of Aberdeen, or rather by Bishop 
Berkeley, a fine, though sometimes fanciful, 
effort of genius ! ' 

In 1748 appeared another work by Black- 
well, 'Letters concerning Mythology,' 8vo, 
London, without his name or the bookseller's 
(Andrew Millar) imprint. The preface in- 
timates that some of the first letters ' passed 
in correspondence written by a learned and 
worthy man, whose death prevented his pro- 
secuting his plan,' the additions to the seventh 
and eighth letters, and all following, being 
by the author of ' An Enquiry . . .^JEEomer/ 
&c. No clue is afforded to the original 
writer, whose letters are given in a very 
pleasant and lively style, and chiefly refer 
to the Homeric ' Enquiry.' The later writer 
continues throughout in the same vein, and 
makes a very readable book. The second 
edition, 8vo, London, 1757, appeared soon 
after the author's death, and gives his name. 
In the first volume of the ' Archseologia ' 
there is a letter, dated 18 Aug. 1748, ad- 
dressed by Dr. T. Blackwell to Mr. Ames, 
with an explanation of an ancient Greek 
inscription on a white marble found in the 
Isle of Tasso by Captain Hales. 

On 7 Oct. 1748 George II appointed Black- 
well principal of the Marischal College in 
Aberdeen, a position which he held, along 
with the Greek chair, till his death. Black- 
well is the only layman ever appointed prin- 
cipal of this college since the patronage was 
vested in the crown. When the well-known 
Glasgow printers, Robert and Andrew Foulis, 
projected an edition of Plato, Blackwell pro- 
posed to furnish them with critical notes, 
together with an account of Plato's life and 
philosophy ; his terms being too high, the 
design was relinquished. He then published 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1751 a 

Latin advertisement of a similar venture* of 
his own. This work was never published, 
however, and his manuscripts, after death, 
offered no traces of such a scheme. 

On 30 March 1752 he took the degree of 
doctor of laws, and in the following year ap- 
peared the first volume of his ' Memoirs of 
the Court of Augustus,' 4to, Edinburgh. The 
second volume was published, 4to, Edin- 
burgh, in 1755, and the third volume, which 
was posthumous and left incomplete by the 
author (whose text reached to p. 144 only), 
was prepared for the press, with additional 
pages, by Mr. John Mills, and published in 
4to, London, 1764 (seven years after his 
death), along with the third edition of the 
two former volumes. This work contains 
fine impressions of heads of great personages 
from genuine antiques. It had a good recep- 
tion, but unfortunately it was written with so 
much parade and in such a peculiar style that 
it offered a wide field for adverse criticism. 
Johnson reviewed it sarcastically in the 
Literary Magazine,' 1756, but concludes : 
' This book is the work of a man of letters ; it 
is full of events displayed with accuracy and 
related with vivacity.' A French translation 
by M. Feutry of this work was published in 
12mo, 3 vols., Paris, 1781. 

Several years before his death Blackwell's 
health began to decline, and compelled him 
to take assistance in his Greek class. Even- 
tually he was forced to travel, and in February 
1757 he reached Edinburgh, but could pro- 
ceed no further. In that city he died on 
8 March, in his fifty-sixth year. During 
a protracted illness he had displayed an 
equable flow of temper, endearing him to 
all. Before he started on his journey he 
drew together all the professors of the col- 
lege and spent two hours of pleasant con- 
ference with them, and on the day of his 
death he wrote letters to several of his 
friends, and took leave of them in a cheerful 
and contented strain. In private life his 
habits were very agreeable ; his conversation 
ever instructive and affable, accompanied 
with a flow of good humour, even when pro- 
voked to some display of passion. 

Soon after his appointment as principal of 
his college he married Barbara Black, daugh- 
ter of an Aberdeen merchant, by whom he 
had no children. This lady survived him 
many years and died in 1793. She be- 
queathed her estates, partly to found a chair 
of chemistry in the college with which the 
names of her husband, her father-in-law, 
and the Fordyces (her nephews) had been so 
long associated, and partly for the premium 
of an English essay and for the augmenta- 
tion of the professorial salaries. 




[Nichols's Lit. Illust. ii. 35, 69, 814, 820, 851, 
iv. 84; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. v. 641 ; Kames's 
H. of Man ; Beattie's Dissertations ; Stat. H. of 
Scot. xii. 1169 ; Archseologia, i. ; Gent. Mag. xvii. 
298, xxi. 283 ; Lit. Mag. 1756 ; Johnson's Works, 
1835, vi. 9 ; Warburton's Pamphlets; Blackwell's 
Works, &c.] J. W.-G. 

BLACKWOOD, ADAM (1539-1613), 
Scottish writer, was descended from a family 
in good circumstances, and was born at Dun- 
fermline in 1539. His father, William Black- 
wood, was slain in battle before the son reached 
his tenth, year, and his mother did not long 
survive the loss of her husband. Thereupon he 
was taken in charge by her uncle, Robert Reid, 
bishop of Orkney, who, recognising his excep- 
tional abilities, sent him to the university of 
Paris, where he enjoyed the tuition of the two 
celebrated professors, Turnebus, and Auratus 
or Dorat, from the latter of whom he acquired 
an ambition to excel in Latin poetry. After 
the death of Bishop Reid in 1558, Blackwood 
went to Scotland ; but finding, on account of 
the disquiet of the times, no prospect of con- 
tinuing his studies, he returned to Paris, 
where, through the munificence of Queen 
Mary, then residing with her first husband, 
the dauphin, at the court of France, he was 
enabled to resume his university course. 
After prosecuting the study of mathematics, 
philosophy, and oriental languages, he passed 
two years at Toulouse, reading civil law. On 
his return to Paris he began to employ him- 
self in teaching philosophy. In 1574 he pub- 
lished at Paris a eulogistic memorial poem 
on Charles IX of France, entitled l Caroli IX 
Pompa Funebris versiculis expressa per A. B. 
J.C.' (Juris Consultum), and in 1575, also at 
Paris, a work on the relation between religion 
and government, entitled ' De Vinculo ; seu 
Conjunctione Religionis et Imperil libri duo, 
quibus conjurationum traducuntur insidiee 
fuco religionis adumbratse.' A third book 
appeared in 1612. The work was dedicated 
to Queen Mary of Scotland, and, in keeping 
with his poem commemorating the author of 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew, was in- 
tended to demonstrate the necessity laid upon 
rulers to extirpate heresy as a phase of rebel- 
lion against a divinely constituted authority. 
The work was so highly esteemed by James 
Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, that he re- 
commended Queen Mary to bestow on him the 
office of counsellor or judge of the parliament 
of Poictiers, the province of Poitou having by 
letters patent from Henry III been assigned to 
her in payment of a dowry. Some misunder- 
standing regarding the nature of this office 
seems to have given rise to the statement of 
Mackenzie and others that Blackwood was 
professor of civil law at Poictiers. He now 

collected an extensive library, and, encouraged 
by the success of his previous work, he set 
himself to the hard and ambitious task of 
grappling with George Buchanan, whose 
views he denounced with great bitterness 
and severity in ' Apologia pro Regibus, ad- 
versus Georgii Buchanani Dialogum de Jure 
Regni apud Scotos,' Pictavis, 1581 ; Parisiis, 
1588. During Queen Mary's captivity in 
England he paid her frequent visits, and was 
untiring in his efforts to do her all the service 
in his power. After her death he published 
a long exposure of her treatment in imprison- 
ment, interspersed with passionate denuncia- 
tions of her enemies, especially Knox and 
Elizabeth. The work bears to have been 
printed 'a Edimbourg chez Jean Nafield. 
1587,' but the name is fictitious, and it was 
in reality printed at Paris. It was reprinted 
at Antwerp in 1588, and again in 1589, and 
is also included in the collection of Jebb ' De 
Vita et Rebus gestis Mariee Scotorum Reginse 
Autores sedecim,' torn, ii., London, 1725. The 
title of the work is l Martyre de la Royne 
d'Escosse, Douairiere de France ; contenant 
le vray discours des trai'sons a elle faictes a la 
suscitation d'Elizabet Angloise, par lequel les 
mensonges, calomnies, et faulses accusations 
dressees contre ceste tresvertueuse, trescatho- 
lique et tresillustre princesse son esclarcies 
et son innocence averee.' At the end of the 
volume there is a collection of verses in Latin, 
French, and Italian, on Mary and Elizabeth. 
A fragment of a translation of the work into 
English, the manuscript of which belongs to 
the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the 
seventeenth century, was published by the 
Maitland Club in 1834. The work contains 
no contribution of importance towards the 
settlement of the vexed question regarding 
the character of the unhappy queen, but is 
of special interest as a graphic presentment 
of the sentiments and feelings which her piti- 
able fate aroused in her devoted adherents. 
In 1606 Blackwood published a poem on the 
accession of James VI of Scotland to the 
English throne, entitled ' Inauguratio Jacobi 
Magnse Britanniae Regis,' Paris, 1606. He 
was also the author of pious meditations in 
prose and verse, entitled ' Sanctarum Preca- 
tionum Prooemia, seu mavis, Ejaculationes 
Animse ad Orandum se preeparantis,' Aug. 
Pict. 1598 and 1608 ; of a penitential study, 
1 In Psalmum Davidis quinquagesimum, cujus 
initium est Miserere mei Deus, Adami Blac- 
vodaei Meditatio,' Aug. Pict. 1608 ; and of 
miscellaneous poems, * Varii generis Poemata,' 
Pictavis, 1609. He died in 1613, and was 
buried in the St. Porcharius church at Poic- 
tiers, where a marble monument was erected 
to his memory. By his marriage to Catherine 



Court inier, daughter of the ' procureur de roi ' 
of Poictiers, he left four sons and seven 
daughters. His collected works in Latin and 
French appeared at Paris in 1644, with a life 
and eulogistic notice by Gabriel Naud6. The 
volume contains a portrait of the author by 
Picart, in his official robes. 

[Life by Naud in collected ed. of his Works ; 
Mackenzie's Writers of the Scots Nation, iii. 
487-513; Irving's Scottish Writers, i. 161-9; 
Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, i. 
142-3.] T. F.H. 

RICK (1838-1880), major, was second son of 
Major William Blackwood, of the Bengal 
army, and grandson of the founder of the 

He was born in 1838 ; was educated at the 
Edinburgh academy and at Addiscombe : 
and was gazetted a second lieutenant in the 
Bengal artillery on 11 Dec. 1857. He ar- 
rived in India "in the midst of the Indian 
mutiny, and was at once appointed to com- 
mand two guns in Colonel Wilkinson's Ro- 
hilcund movable column. He was promoted 
first lieutenant on 27 Aug. 1858, and filled 
the post of adjutant first to the Bareilly 
and Gwalior divisions, and then to the 
twenty-second and nineteenth brigades of 
royal artillery from 1859 to 1864. He was 
promoted captain on 20 Feb. 1867, and in 
1 872 was appointed to command the artillery 
attached to General Bourchier's column in 
the Looshai expedition. In that capacity 
he was present at the attacks on Tipar-Mukh, 
Kiing-Is iing and Taikooni, and he gave such 
satisfaction that his services were specially 
mentioned in the general's despatch of 
19 March 1872, and he was promoted major 
by brevet on 11 Sept. following. He gave 
further evidence of his ability as an artillery 
officer by his very able report on the use of 
guns in such country as that in which he had 
been recently engaged, with hints on the 
calibre best suited for mountain guns, which 
was printed by the Indian government and 
circulated by it among its officers. Black- 
wood was promoted major on 10 Feb. 1875, 
and after temporarily commanding a battery 
of royal horse artillery came to England on 
sick leave. He thus missed the first Afghan 
campaign of 1878-79, but was in India when 
on the news of Cavagnari's death it was 
determined to once more occupy both Cabul 
and Candahar. Blackwood was posted to the 
command of the E battery B brigade of royal 
horse artillery, and ordered to join the force 
destined for Candahar. While stationed there 
the news arrived of the advance of Ayoub 
Khan, and a column was ordered out under 

the command of Brigadier-general Burrows 
to assist the wali placed in command by Ab- 
dur-rahman Khan, and to investigate the 
strength of the enemy. To that column Black- 
wood's battery was attached ; the column was 
cut to pieces in the terrible battle of Maiwand 
on 27 July 1880, where Blackwood was killed 
and two of his guns lost. 

[Times, 2 Oct. 1880.] H. M. S. 

BLACKWOOD, HENRY, M.D. (d. 1614), 
physician, was descended from a family of 
good position in Fifeshire, and was a brother 
of Adam Blackwood [q. v.], judge of the par- 
liament of Poitiers. He was born at Dun- 
fermline, and after studying belles lettres and 
philosophy was sent by his uncle, Robert 
Reid, bishop of Orkney, to the university of 
Paris, where he taught philosophy about the 
year 1551. Having afterwards studied medi- 
cine he graduated M.D., was incorporated a 
member of the College of Physicians of Paris, 
and ultimately became dean of the faculty. 
He died in 1614. He edited < In Organum 
Aristotelis Commentaria,' * Collatio Philoso- 
phise atque Medicinae,' and 'De Claris Me- 
dicis ; ' and left in manuscript ' Animadversio 
in omnes Galeni libros,' ' Hippocratis quse- 
dam cum MSS. collata,' 'In Alexandrum 
Trallianum Comment.,' and ' Locorum quo- 
rumdam Plinii explicatio.' Mackenzie also 
attributes to him ' Hippocratis Coi Progno- 
sticorum libri tres, cum Latina interpreta- 
tione, ad veterum exemplarium fidem emen- 
dati et recogniti,' Paris, 1625, but the work 
was really edited by his son Henry, who was 
also a professor of medicine and surgery at 
Paris, and who died at Rouen, 17 Oct. 1634. 
George Blackwood, a brother of the father, 
taught philosophy at Paris about the year 
1571, but subsequently took holy orders, and 
, obtained considerable preferment in the 
French Church. 

[Dempster's Hist. Eccles. Scot. Gent. (1627), 
116-17; Biographie Universelle, iv. 549 ; Moreri's 
Dictionnaire Historiqne, ii. 489 ; Mackenzie's 
Writers of the Scots Nation, iii. 479-87 ; Irving's 
Scottish Writers, i. 168-9.] T. F. H. 

1832), vice-admiral, fourth son of Sir John 
Blackwood, bart., of Ballyleidy, co. Down, 
and of Dorcas, Baroness Dufferin, and Clane- 
boye, was born on 28 Dec. 1770. In April 
1781 he entered the navy as a volunteer on 
board the Artois frigate, with Captain Mac- 
bride, and in her was present at the battle on 
the Doggerbank. He afterwards served with 
Captains Montgomery and Whitshed, and for 
four years in the Trusty with Commodore 
Cosby in the Mediterranean. In 1790 he 



was signal midshipman 011 board the Queen 
Charlotte with Lord Howe, by whom he was 
made lieutenant 3 Nov. 1790. In 1791 he 
was in the Proserpine frigate with Captain 
Curzon, and towards the close of that year 
obtained leave to go to France in order to 
improve himself in the French language. 
During the greater part of 1792 he was in 
Paris, and on one occasion was in consider- 
able danger, having been denounced as a spy, 
and eventually had to fly for his life. He 
was almost immediately appointed to the 
Active frigate, from which, a few months 
later, he was transferred to the Invincible 
at the special request of Captain Pakenham. 
Of this ship Blackwood was first lieutenant 
on 1 June 1794, and as such was promoted, 
along with all the other first lieutenants of 
the ships of the line, on 6 July. He was 
immediately appointed to the Megaera, and 
continued in her, attached to the fleet under 
Lord Howe and afterwards Lord Bridport, 
until he was promoted to the rank of captain 
2 June 1795. After a few months in com- 
mand of the guardship at Hull he was ap- 
pointed to the Brilliant frigate, of 28 guns, 
which for the next two years was attached 
to the North Sea fleet under the command 
of Admiral Duncan. Early in 1798 the 
Brilliant was sent out to join Admiral Wal- 
degrave on the Newfoundland station : and 
on 26 July, whilst standing close in to the bay 
of Santa Cruz, in quest of a French privateer, 
she was sighted and chased by two French 
frigates of the largest size. By admirable 
seamanship, promptitude, and courage, Black- 
wood succeeded in checking -the pursuit and 
in escaping (JAMES, Naval History, ed. I860, 
ii. 250). His conduct at this critical time 
was deservedly commended. Early in 1799 
the Brilliant returned to England, and Black- 
wood was appointed to the Penelope frigate, 
of 36 guns, in which, after a few months of 
Channel service, he Avas sent out to the 
Mediterranean, and employed during the 
winter and following spring in the close 
blockade of Malta. On the night of 30 March 
1800 the Guillaume Tell, of 80 guns, taking 
advantage of a southerly gale and intense 
darkness, weighed and ran out of the har- 
bour. As she passed the Penelope, Black- 
wood immediately followed, and, having the 
advantage of sailing, quickly came up with 
her : then in the words of the log ' luffed 
under her stern, and gave him the larboard 
broadside, bore up under the larboard quarter 
and gave him the starboard broadside, receiv- 
ing from him only his stern-chase guns. From 
this hour till daylight, finding that we could 
place ourselves on either quarter, the action 
continued in the foregoing manner, and with 

such success on our side that, when day broke, 
the Guillaume Tell was found in a most dis- 
mantled state' (Log of the Penelope, kept 
by Lieutenant Charles Inglis). At five 
o'clock the Lion, of 64 guns, and some little 
time afterwards the Foudroyant, of 80 guns, 
came up, and after a determined and gallant 
resistance the Guillaume Tell surrendered ; 
j but that she was brought to action at all was 
entirely due to the unparalleled brilliancy of 
i the Penelope's action. Nelson wrote from 
Palermo (5 April 1809) to Blackwood him- 
self: ' Is there a sympathy which ties men 
together in the bonds of friendship without 
1 having a personal knowledge of each other ? 
If so (and I believe it was so to you), I was 
your friend and acquaintance before I saw 
you. Your conduct and character on the 
late glorious occasion stamps your fame be- 
yond the reach of envy. It was like your- 
i self; it was like the Penelope. Thanks: and 
I say everything kind for me to your brave 
j officers and men' (Blackwood 's Magazine, 
j xxxiv. 7). 

On the peace of Amiens the Penelope was 
| paid off; and in April 1803, when war again 
j broke out, Blackwood was appointed to the 
| Euryalus, of 36 guns. During the next two 
| years he was employed on the coast of Ire- 
land or in the Channel, and in July 1805 
was sent to watch the movements of the 
allied fleet under Villeneuve after its de- 
feat by Sir Kobert Calder. On his return 
with the news that Villeneuve had gone to 
Cadiz, he stopped on his way to London to 
see Nelson, who went with him to the Ad- 
miralty, and received his final instructions to 
resume the command of the fleet without 
delay. Blackwood, in the Euryalus, accom- 
panied him to Cadiz, and was appointed to 
the command of the inshore squadron, with 
the duty of keeping the admiral informed of 
every movement of the enemy. He was 
offered a line-of-battle ship, but preferred 
to remain in the Euryalus, believing that he 
would have more opportunity of distinc- 
tion ; for Villeneuve, he was convinced, 
would not venture out in the presence of 
Nelson. When he saw the combined fleets 
outside, Blackwood could not but regret his 
decision. On the morning of 21 Oct., in 
writing to his wife, he added : ' My signal 
just made on board the Victory I hope to 
order me into a vacant line-of-battle ship/ 
This signal was made at six o'clock, and from 
that time till after noon, when the shot were 
already flying thickly over the Victory, 
Blackwood remained on board, receiving the 
admiral's last instructions, and, together with 
Captain Hardy, witnessing the so shamefully 
disregarded codicil to the admiral's will 




(Nelson Despatches, vii. 140). He was then 
ordered to return to his ship. ' God bless 

wrote it) i not only gave me the command of 
all the frigates, for the purpose of assisting 
disabled ships, but he also gave me a latitude j 
seldom or ever given, that of making any , 
use I pleased of his name in ordering any of 
the sternmost line-of-battle ships to do what 
struck me as best' (ibid. vii. 226). 

Immediately after the battle Collingwood j 
hoisted his flag on board the Euryalus, but j 
after ten days removed it to the Queen, and 
the Euryalus was sent home with despatches ' 
and with the French admiral. Blackwood 
was thus in England at the time of Lord 
Nelson's funeral (8 Jan. 1806), on which 
occasion he acted as train-bearer of the chief 
mourner, Sir Peter Parker, the aged admiral 
of the fleet. 

After this Blackwood was appointed to 
the Ajax, of 80 guns, in which he joined 
Lord Collingwood off Cadiz on the first an- 
niversary of Trafalgar, and early in the fol- 
lowing year was detached with the squadron 
under Sir John Duckworth in the expedi- 
tion up the Dardanelles. At the entrance 
of the straits, on the night of 14 Feb., the 
Ajax caught fire through the drunken care- 
lessness of the purser's steward, and was 
totally destroyed, with the loss of nearly 
half the ship's company. Blackwood himself 
was picked up hanging on to an oar, well 
nigh perished with the cold, after being 
nearly an hour in the water. During the 
following operations in the straits he served 
as a volunteer on board the flagship, and 
arrived in England in May. He was now 
offered the situation of pay-commissioner at 
the navy board, which he declined, prefer- 
ring to be appointed to the command of the 
Warspite, of 74 guns. In this, after some 
uneventful service in the North Sea, he again 
went out to the Mediterranean, where the 
principal duty of the fleet was the very 
harassing blockade of Toulon. Here, for 
some time during the summer of 1810, 
Blackwood had command of the inshore 
squadron, and on 20 July had the credit 
of driving back a sortie made by a very 
superior French force. He returned to Eng- 
land at the end of 1812, but remained in 
command of the Warspite for another year. 
In May 1814, on the occasion of the visit 
of the allied sovereigns, he was appointed 
captain of the fleet under the Duke of 
Clarence, a special service which was nomi- 
nally rewarded by a baronetcy. On 4 June 
1814 he attained the rank of rear-admiral, 

and in August 1819 was nominated aK.C.B.,. 
and appointed commander-in-chief in the 
East Indies, from which station he returned 
in December 1822. He became vice-admiral 
on 19 July 1821, and from 1827 to 1830 he 
commanded in chief at the Nore ; and still in 
the full vigour of life he died after a short ill- 
ness, differently stated as typhus or scarlet 
fever, on 17 Dec. 1832, atBallyleidy,theseatof 
his eldest brother, Lord Dufferin and Clanboye. 
He was married three times, and left a 
large family, the descendants of which are 
now numerous. His portrait, presented by 
one of his sons, is in the Painted Hall at 

[Blackwood's Magazine, xxxiv. 1 ; Marshall's, 
Eoyal Naval Biog. ii. (vol. i. part ii.) 642.] 

J. K. L. 

BLACKWOOD, JOHN ' (1818-1879), 
publisher, editor of ' Blackwood's Magazine/' 
sixth surviving son of its founder [see BLACK- 
WOOD, WILLIAM], was born at Edinburgh on 
7 Dec. 1818. Educated at the high school 
and university of Edinburgh, he early dis- 
played literary tastes, which procured for him 
the nickname of l the little editor.' At the 
close of his college career he spent three years 
in continental travel. Soon after his return, 
his father having meanwhile died and been 
succeeded by two of his elder brothers, he- 
entered, in 1839, to learn business, the house- 
of a then eminent London publishing firm. 
In 1840 he was entrusted with the superin- 
tendence of the branch which his brother's 
Edinburgh house was establishing in Lon- 
don. He occupied this position for six years,, 
during which his office in Pall Mall became 
a literary rendezvous, among his visitors being 
Lockhart of the ' Quarterly Review/ Delane- 
of the l Times/ and Thackeray, with the last 
two of w r hom he formed an intimate friend- 
ship. One of his functions was to procure 
recruits for 'Blackwood's Magazine/ then 
edited by his eldest brother, and to him was 
due the connection formed with it by the 
first Lord Lytton, who began in 1842 to con- 
tribute to it'his translation of the poems and 
ballads of Schiller. In 1845 he returned to 
Edinburgh on the death of his eldest brother, 
whom he succeeded in the editorship of 
1 Blackwood's Magazine.' In 1852, by the 
death of another elder brother, he became 
virtual head of the publishing business also, 
and he retained both positions until his death. 
As an editor he was critical and suggestive, 
as well as appreciative. As a publisher he 
preferred quality to the production of quan- 
tity ; in both capacities he displayed heredi- 
tary acumen and liberality. He quickly dis- 
cerned the genius of George Eliot, forthwith 




accepting and publishing in his magazine the 
first instalment of her earliest fiction the 
; Scenes of Clerical Life/ which had been sent 
to him without the name of the author, for 
whom thus early he predicted a great career 
as a novelist. This commencement of a busi- 
ness connection was soon followed by a per- 
sonal acquaintance between author and pub- 
lisher, which ripened into intimacy. In her 
husband's biography of George Eliot there 
are many indications of her readiness to ac- 
cept Blackwood's friendly criticisms and sug- 
gestions, and of her grateful regard for him. 
On hearing of the probably fatal termination 
of his last illness she wrote : ' He will be a 
heavy loss to me. He has been bound up 
with what I most cared for in my life for more 
than twenty years, and his good qualities 
have made many things easy to me that with- 
out him would often have been difficult.' All 
her books, after the l Scenes of Clerical Life/ 
were, with one exception, first published by 
his firm. Although Blackwood was a staunch 
conservative and the conductor of the chief 
monthly organ of conservatism, he always wel- 
comed, whether as editor or publisher, what 
he considered to be literary ability, without 
regard to the political or religious opinions 
of its possessors. A genial and convivial host 
and companion, he delighted to dispense, at 
his house in Edinburgh, and his country 
house, Strathtyrum, near St. Andrews, a libe- 
ral hospitality to authors with whom he had 
formed a business connection. To his maga- 
zine he contributed directly only occasional 
obituary notices of prominent contributors. 
A fragmentary paper of his, entitled ' Suther- 
landia/ described as ( racy/ was published in 
Mr. Clark's work on l Golf/ a game to which 
he was devoted. He died at Strathtyrum on 
29 Oct. 1879. 

[A selection from the Obituary Notices of the 
late John Blackwood, editor of Blackwood's 
Magazine, printed for private circulation, Edin- 
burgh, 1880 ; George Eliot's Life, as related in 
her Letters and Journals, arranged and edited 
by her husband, J. W. Cross, 1885.] F. E. 

1834), publisher, founder of 'Blackwood's 
Magazine/ was born at Edinburgh in Novem- 
ber 1776. The circumstances of his parents 
were very moderate, but he received a sound 
education. Intelligent and fond of reading, 
he was apprenticed at fourteen to a bookselling 
firm in Edinburgh, and while in their service 
was a diligent student of the historical and 
archaeological literature of Scotland. At the 
early age of twenty he was thought worthy 
by an Edinburgh publishing firm of some 
eminence to be entrusted with the manage- 

ment of a branch of their business which they 
were establishing in Glasgow. There he re- 
mained a year, and then resumed for another 
year his connection with his first employers. 
Entering afterwards into partnership with an 
Edinburgh bookseller and auctioneer, he found 
this conjunction of vocations distasteful, and 
migrating to London he completed his biblio- 
graphical education in the antiquarian de- 
partment of a bookseller noted for his cata- 
logues of old publications. Having acquired 
through industry and frugality some capital, 
he returned to Edinburgh in 1804 and be- 
gan business on his own account, dealing 
chiefly in old books. He soon became the 
head of that branch of the trade in Scotland, 
and his catalogue of old books, published in 
1812, is said to have been the first in which 
classification was attempted, and to have long 
remained a standard authority. Meanwhile 
he had begun to exhibit some enterprise and 
judgment as a publisher. In or about 1810 
he took a principal part in founding the elabo- 
rate and costly 'Edinburgh Encyclopaedia/ 
edited by Mr. (afterwards Sir) David Brew- 
ster. In 1811 he published what remains the 
standard biography of John Knox by Dr. 
McCrie, and it was, it is said, at Blackwood's 
instance that the university of Edinburgh 
conferred on its author, though not a minister 
of the Scottish establishment, the degree of 
D.D. Having become the Edinburgh agent 
of the first John Murray of Albemarle Street, 
Blackwood published, in conjunction with 
him, the first series of Sir Walter Scott's 
* Tales of my Landlord.' In this transaction 
he showed his reliance on his own literary 
judgment by suggesting an alteration in the 
finale of the ' Black Dwarf.' Scott indig- 
nantly rejected the suggestion, in making 
which, it must be added, Blackwood had been 
fortified by the opinion of Murray's chief 
literary adviser, William Gifford. 

In 1816 Blackwood took what was con- 
sidered the bold step of removing his business 
from the old town of Edinburgh to Prince's 
Street, at that time a fashionable thoroughfare 
of the new town. Soon afterwards he resolved 
to establish a monthly periodical which would 
combat the influence, in politics and litera- 
ture, of the ' Edinburgh Review/ then still 
published in the city from which it derived 
its name. On 1 April 1817 he issued No. 1 
of the * Edinburgh Monthly Magazine/ But , 
probably through precipitancy in his selection 
of its two editors [see CLEGHOEN, WILLIAM ; 
PKISTGLE, THOMAS], the tone and tenor of the 
new periodical w T ere calculated to strengthen 
instead of to counteract the influence of the 
1 Edinburgh Review/ The June number ac- 
cordingly contained an intimation that in 

Black wood 


three months from that date it would be dis- 
continued ; but on 1 Oct. following was is- 
sued as No. 7 ' Blackwood's Edinburgh Maga- 
zine,' Its publisher was, and until his death 
continued to be, its sole editor. John Wilson 
and John Gibson Lockhart were the chief 
contributors to the magazine under its new 
name. Its first issue produced a considerable 
sensation from the appearance in it of the 
Chaldee Manuscript, which was chiefly their 
composition. In style and phraseology a some- 
what audacious imitation of the Old Testa- 
ment, this piece satirised the chief contributors 
to and the publisher of the * Edinburgh Re- 
view,' and the leading Edinburgh whigs, while 
giving a glowing description of the parentage 
and prospects of * Blackwood's Magazine.' 
Probably its apparent profanity offended in 
presbyterian Scotland many who would have 
relished its personalities. With the caution 
which, as w r ell as enterprise, characterised 
him, Blackwood excluded the Chaldee Manu- 
script from the second edition, immediately | 
called for, of the number in which it had 

With Wilson and Lockhart among its prin- 
cipal contributors, and its sagacious publisher 
to edit it, l Blackwood's Magazine ' prospered 
and took a leading position among British 
periodicals. New contributors of mark or 
likelihood were always welcomed and libe- 
rally treated. Blackwood was the first to re- 
cognise the merits of John Gait as a novelist : 
his i Ayrshire Legatees,' the earliest pub- 
lished of his prose fictions, was at once ac- 
cepted, and speedily appeared in the magazine. 
While encouraging and rewarding his con- 
tributors, Blackwood kept in check the exu- 
berance of some of them. The restraining 
influence which he exercised over Wilson him- 
self, the most powerful and prolific of them 
all, is shown in those of Blackwood's letters 
to him published in Mrs. Gordon's ' Christo- 
pher North.' Among the latest and most 
telling of his editorial acquisitions was Samuel 
Warren's l Diary of a Late Physician,' the 
first chapter of which, declined by the editors 
of the principal London magazines, was at 
once accepted by Blackwood. 

As a publisher Blackwood was largely, but 
by no means exclusively, occupied with the 
reissue, in book form, of prominent contribu- 
tions to his magazine. In 1818 he published 
4 Marriage,' the earliest of Miss Ferrier's fic- 
tions. He lived to see completed in 1830 
the publication, begun by him twenty years 
before, of the ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.' 
The publication of the voluminous and valu- 
able ' New Statistical Account of Scotland ' 
he undertook more from patriotic motives 
than with a view to profit. One of the latest 

and most spirited of his enterprises he did 
not live to see completed, Alison's l History 
of Europe,' which he at once undertook to 
publish on a perusal of the first volume in 
manuscript, though he foresaw that it would 
be a voluminous work. In spite of his en- 
grossing business avocations he found time to 
attend, as an active member of the town coun- 
cil of Edinburgh, to the interests of his native 
city, and, while as a staunch tory opposed 
to parliamentary reform, he is said to have 
been a zealous promoter of all civic improve- 
ments. He died at Edinburgh on 16 Sept. 
1834, after an illness of some months, during 
which he was attended by D. M. Moir, poet 
and physician, the l Delta ' of his magazine. To 
the last John Wilson was a visitor to his sick 
room. In * Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk ' 
Lockhart has described him in his prime 
among the literary loungers in his Prince's 
Street shop as ( nimble, active-looking, with 
a complexion very sanguineous.' ' Nothing,' 
it is added, ' can be more sagacious than the 
expression of his whole physiognomy the 
grey eyes and eyebrows full of locomotion.' 
He is said to have contributed three papers 
to his magazine, but their subjects and dates 
have not been specified. 

[Obituary Notice (by Lockhart) in Black- 
wood's Magazine for October 1834 ; Christopher 
North, a Memoir of John Wilson, by his daugh- 
ter Mrs. Gordon (edition of 1879); Chambers's 
Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ; 
Histories of Publishing Houses : the House of 
Blackwood, in (London) Critic for July-August 
I860.] F.E. 

BLADEN, MAKTIN (1680-1746), sol* ^ 
dier and politician, was the son of Nathaniel - ' ! - e p 
Bladen of Hemsworth, Yorkshire, by Isabella, 
daughter of Sir William Fairfax of Steeton, 
and was born in 1680. He is said to have 
passed a short time at a small private school 
in the country with the great Duke of Marl- 
borough, and from 1695 to 1697 was at West- 
minster School. He went into the army, 
and served in the low countries and in Spain, 
becoming aide-de-camp to Lord Galway, and 
rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 
When he determined upon adopting a parlia- 
mentary career, he contested the Cornish con- 
stituency of Saltash in 1713 and 1715 in the 
whig interest, but was rejected on both occa- 
sions. For nineteen years (1715-34) he sat 
for Stockbridge in Hampshire, from 1734 to 
1741 he represented Maldon in Essex, and 
from the latter year until his death he sat for 
Portsmouth. In 1714he was appointed comp- 
troller of the mint, and from 1717 to 1746 he 
was a commissioner of trade and plantations. 
So complete a sinecure was the latter post 




that \vlien the colonel applied himself to the 
business, such as it was, of his office, he went 
by the name of l trade,' while his colleagues 
were called the 'board.' He refused in 1717 
the appointment of envoy extraordinary to 
Spain, but accepted the post of first commis- 
sary and plenipotentiary to the conference at 
Antwerp in 1732 for drawing up the tariffs 
between this country, the Emperor of Ger- 
many, and the States General. He ranked 
among the steadiest supporters of Sir Robert 
Walpole, and often spoke in the debates on 
fiscal, naval, or military matters, his adhe- 
rence being so marked that Horace Walpole 
says (Letters, i. 130) that it was proposed to 
impeach him for his share in the Antwerp 
conference. Bladen died 15 Feb. 1746, and 
was buried in the chancel of Stepney Church, 
the inscription on the tomb being preserved 
in Lysons s l Environs.' His first wife was 
Mary, daughter of Colonel Gibbs; the second, 
whom he married in 1728, was Frances, niece 
and heir of Colonel Joseph Jory, and widow 
of John Foche of Aldborough Hatch, Essex. 
With her he acquired a considerable estate, 
and on it he built a new house, now de- 
stroyed, at a considerable cost. She died 
14 Aug. 1747. His sister was the mother of 
Lord Hawke, the great admiral, in whose ad- 
vancement he materially aided. The colonel 
composed adulltragl-comedy, ' Solon, or Phi- 
losophy no Defence against Love. With the 
masque of Orpheus and Euridice ' (1705), and 
translated ' Caesar's Commentaries of his Wars 
in Gaul, and Civil War with Poinpey, with 
supplement commentaries and life.' The lat- 
ter work, which was dedicated to the Duke 
of Marlborough, originally appeared in 1712, 
and the seventh edition was published in 
1770. To an issue which was brought out in 
1750, Bowyer, the learned printer, added 
many notes signed 'Typogr.' These were in- 
cluded, with manv additional observations, 
in BoAvyer's 'Miscell. Tracts' (1785), pp. 189- 
222. A person of the name of Bladen is 
satirised in the fourth book of Pope's i Dun- 
ciad,' line 5GO, and this ifi sometimes sup- 
posed to have referred to Martin Bladen. 

[Welch's Westminster Scholars, p. 230 ; Ly- 
sons's Environs, iii. 430-1, iv. 86; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecdotes, ii. "222-3 ; Morant's Essex, i. 7 ; 
Blore's Entland, 180-1 ; Burro ws's Lord Hawke, 
77, 110-32; Notes and Queries, 2nd series, vii. 
326, 1865.] W. P. C. 

1820), physician, was born on 17 April 1748. 
In 1768 he graduated M.D. at the university 
of Edinburgh, selecting as the subject of his 
thesis for the occasion ' De Causis Apoplexise.' 
This treatise was afterwards published. Blag- 

den then entered the army as a medical officer, 
and remained in the service till 1814, in which 
year he was present in Paris with the allied 
armies, as a physician of the British forces. 
During his military career he is said to have 
acquired a considerable fortune, and this was 
augmented by a legacy of 16,000/. bequeathed 
to him by the celebrated chemist, Cavendish, 
with whom he was on intimate terms. Blag- 
den also enjoyed for fifty years the friendship 
of Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal 
Society, and to this circumstance he owed 
his election as secretary of the society at a 
disturbed period in its history. Blagden was 
elected fellow on 25 June 1772, and was ad- 
mitted 12 Nov. of the same year. In 1784 
arose the quarrel between Banks and his op- 
ponents [see BANKS, SIR JOSEPH], in conse- 
quence ol which Mr. Maty resigned the secre- 
taryship, and Sir Joseph Banks proposed 
Blagden for the vacant post. In the result 
he was elected on 5 May 1784 by a large 
majority in a crowded meeting. Blagden 
was a careful worker in physical research, 
and contributed many papers to the ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions,' besides publishing several 
papers on medical subjects. Perhaps the 
most noteworthy of his physical papers is that 
on the i Cooling of Water below its Freezing 
Point,' read on 31 Jan. 1788. 

He would seem also to have interested 
himself to some extent in antiquarian matters, 
as we find him mentioned in a letter of the 
Rev. Sam. Denne (1799) as inspecting, in 
company with Lord Palmerston, the ancient 
Clausenturn at Southampton (NICHOLS'S Il- 
lustrations of Literature, vol. vi.) Among 
the ' Johnson iana ' which Langton commu- 
nicated to Boswell is the statement that, 
talking of Blagden's copiousness and pre- 
cision of communication, Dr. Johnson said : 
' Blagden, sir, is a delightful fellow ' (Bos- 
WELL'S Johnson, vii. 377). Hannah More 
describes him as so modest, so sensible, and 
so knowing, that he exemplifies Pope's line : 
'Willing to teach, and yet not proud to 
know' (Life, ii. 98). 

Blagden travelled a good deal abroad, and 
for the last six years of his life always passed 
six months of the year in France. He was 
elected in 1789 a correspondent of the Aca- 
demie des Sciences of Paris. He died sud- 
denly on 26 March 1820 at the house of his 
friend Berthollet, the renowned chemist, at 
Arcueil, near Paris. 

Blagden was author of the following : 
1. ' Experiments and Observations in a 
Heated Room' (Phil. Trans. 1775). 2. < On 
the Heat of the Water in the Gulf Stream ' 
(ib. 1781). 3. * History of the Congelation of 
Quicksilver ' (ib. 1783). 4. ' An Account of 




some late Fiery Meteors ' (Phil. Trans. 1784). 
5. ' On the Cooling of Water below its Freez- 
ing Point' (ib. 1788). 6. < On the Effect of 
various Substances in lowering the Point of 
Congelation of Water ' (ib. 1788). 7. ' Re- 
port on the best Method of proportioning the 
Excise on Spirituous Liquors' (ib. 1790). 
8. < On the Tides of Naples *(tb. 1793). 9. < On 
Vision' (ib. 1813). 9. <Sur la chaleur des 
rayons solaires ' (Bullet. Soc. Philomat., 
Ann. viii.) 10. i Sur la production de la lu- 
miere solaire ' (ib. x.) 11. < Letters to Crell/ 
published in Crell's Annals, 1786, 1787, 1788. 

[Weld's Hist, of Boyal Society ; Philosophical 
Transactions; Biographie Nouvelle Grenerale; 
Revue Encyclopedique, tome 6, 1820 ; Poggen- 
doriFs Handworterbuch zur Greschichte der ex- 
acten Wissenschaften ; Candolle's Histoire des 
Sciences et des Savants; Army List, 1814.] 


1522 ?), judge, was of a Suffolk family, and 
was son of Stephen Blagge of Broke Montague 
in Somersetshire, by Alice, his wife. In 1502 
(6 Dec.) he received a grant for life of the 
office of king's remembrancer in the ex- 
chequer, with the same fees as John Fitz- 
Herbert, his predecessor, had, and on 27 June 
1511 was raised to the bench as third baron 
of the exchequer, having a deputy in the 
office of remembrancer. On 28 Oct. 1511 he 
was, with four others, appointed on a com- 
mission of inquiry into the death of William 
Lymster of London. On 23 May 1514 he 
received a patent of succession on his death 
or the first vacancy to the office of remem- 
brancer, to be held for life, for his son Bar- 
naby. This patent, however, was annulled 
on the ground that at its date and from 
and after Blagge's appointment as baron he 
had no legal estate in the remembrancership 
(DYER'S Reports, 3 Eliz., Easter Term, 47). 
In 1514 (1 Feb.) he is mentioned as receiving, 
with others, a pardon for the alienation of 
the manor of Halton, and was repeatedly in 
the commissions of the peace for Kent and 
Middlesex. On 2 June 1515 he received a 
grant to himself during pleasure of 80 marks 
annually out of the tonnage and poundage of 
London. His salary was fixed in 1516 at 
46/. 13*. 4?. as baron of the exchequer, and 
65/. 17s. 4:d. as king's remembrancer, all 
during the king's pleasure. In 1515, along 
with Sir Edward Bealknap of the privy 
council and Baron "Westby of the exchequer, 
he was appointed a surveyor of crown lands, 
pursuant to the act of 6 Hen. VIII, and is 
found as such advising a lease of the manor 
of Bewmaner 6 Oct. 1515, and of Staunford, 
part of 'Warwick's lands/ He was reap- 

pointed 30 Sept. 1517, and was acting as 
such also in 1518. He had also been ap- 
pointed one of the general purveyors of the 
king's revenues 22 May 1515. He was a 
commissioner of sewers in Cambridgeshire 
and Lincolnshire in 1515, in Middlesex, 
Essex, and Hertfordshire in 1516, and in 
Kent in 1517. On 6 May 1518 he is found 
appointed to be guardian of William, son 
and heir of George Carleton. He was still 
acting as surveyor of crown lands on 29 Nov. 
1520 and 21 March 1522. In May 1520, 
being seized of the manor of Peddon, and 
other land in Stone, in Kent, to the use of 
Sir Roger Cholmley, license was given him 
to have free warren in his lands in Stoynye. 
Foss says he was alive in 1524 ; but it seems 
more probable that he died in London 13 Sept. 
1522, and was buried near his wife in St. 
Bartholomew's Church. In a grant, how- 
ever, of 1532, he is mentioned as deceased, 
but not apparently so long as ten years pre- 
viously. His will was dated 8 Sept. 1522. 
He was twice married, first to Katherine, sole 
daughter and heiress to Thomas Brune or 
Brown, who brought him Horsman's Place, 
near Dartford, and estates in Kent, and 
bore him two sons, Barnaby and Robert (or 
John), neither of whom had issue. He mar- 
ried for the second time, on the feast of St. 
Matthew 1506, Mary, daughter of John, Lord 
Cobham, who survived him, and was ap- 
pointed his administratrix cum testamento 
annexo. She bore him in 1512 a son George, 
said to have been afterwards gentleman of 
the bedchamber to Henry VIII, and a knight, 
who married a maid of honour, Dorothy, 
daughter of "William Badby of Essex, and 
died at Stanmore in Middlesex 17 June 1551. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Dugdale's Orig. 
Juridiciales ; Dyer's Eeports; Gaze's Suffolk, 
520; cf. Collect. Topographica, iv. 126 ; Cooper's 
Ath. Cantab, i. 105; Brewer's Letters, &c., of 
Hen. VIH, vol. i. Nos. 1747, 1921, 4699, 5118, 
vol. ii. part i. pp. 40, 876, Nos. 1172, 359, 667, 
1440, 2161, 3354, 4151, 102, 1007, 3710,495, 
2870, 2138, 552, 3290, vol. iii. 1076, 2121, 854, 
vol. v. 1499.] J. A. H. 

BLAGRAVE, DANIEL (1603-1668), 
the regicide, was a nephew of John Blagrave 
of Reading, the mathematician [q. v.] He was 
born in 1603, and was bred for the bar. He 
sat in parliament 3 Nov. 1640 for the borough 
of Reading, and five years later was recorder 
of the same town, being dismissed the office 
in 1656, but reinstated in 1658. During the 
trial of Charles I he attended the high court 
of justice, and was one of those who signed 
the king's death-warrant. He was appointed 
by the parliament to the office of exigenter 




of the court of common pleas, said to have 
been worth 6001. per annum, and also became 
a master in chancery. He was also parlia- 
mentary treasurer for the county of Berk- 
shire, and in 1654 was named one of the com- 
missioners for the ejection of scandalous and 
inefficient ministers, in which capacity he is 
accused by his enemies of using undue se- 
verity and of proving a vexatious persecutor 
of the clergy. By the means which he had 
acquired from his different offices he was able 
to purchase the fee-farm rent of the manor of 
Sunning, Berkshire, and other estates, as it is 
said, on easy terms. He sat in the Conven- 
tion parliament of 1658 ; but on the Resto- 
ration he fled the kingdom and settled at 
Aachen, where he died in 1668. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (ed. Bliss), ii. 97 ; 
Noble's Lives of English Kegicides, i. 95 ; Coates's 
Hist, of Reading, 1802, p. 433.] E. M. T. 

BLAGRAVE, JOHN (d. 1611), mathe- 
matician, was the son of John Blagrave of 
Bullmarsh, near Sunning, Berkshire, by Anne, 
daughter of Sir Anthony Hungerford of 
Down-Ampney, Gloucestershire, knight. He 
was born at Reading, but the date of his 
birth is unknown. He received his early 
education in his native town, and afterwards 
entered St. John's College, Oxford. He did 
not, however, take a degree, but retired to 
his patrimony at Southcote Lodge, Reading, 
and devoted himself to his favourite study 
of mathematics, being esteemed, as Anthony 
"Wood declares, 'the flower of mathematicians 
of his age.' He published four works, viz. : 
1. 'The Mathematical Jewel, shewing the 
making and most excellent use of a singuler 
instrument so called, in that it performeth 
with wonderfull dexteritie whatever is to be 
done either by Quadrant, Ship, Circle, Cylin- 
der, Ring, Diall, Horoscope, Astrolabe, Sphere, 
Globe, or any such like heretofore devised,' 
1585. 2. ' Baculum Familliare Catholicon 
sive Generale : a booke of the making and 
use of a Staffe newly invented by the Author, 
called the Familiar Staife, as well for that it 
may be made usually and familiarlie to walke 
with, as for that it performeth the Geometri- 
cal mensurations of all Altitudes,' &c., 1590. 

3. ' Astrolabium Uranicum Generale : a ne- 
cessary and pleasaunt solace and recreation 
for Navigators in their long jorneying,' 1596. 

4. < The Art of Dyalling, in two parts/ 1609. 
In private life Blagrave was distinguished 

for his charity. His father settled upon him 
in 1591 the lease for ninety-nine years of 
lands in Southcote, which he in turn be- 
queathed to his nephews and their descen- 
dants, of whom as many as eighty are said 
to have benefited. To his native town of 

Reading he left certain legacies, one of which 
provided annually the sum of twenty nobles 
to be competed for by three maid servants 
of good character and five years' service under 
one master, to be selected by the three parishes 
of the town. The whimsical conditions of 
this bequest required that the maids should 
appear on Good Friday in the town-hall 
before the mayor and aldermen, and there 
cast lots for the prize. The losers had the 
right of competing a second and third time. 
Blagrave died on 9 Aug. 1611, and was 
buried, in the same grave as his mother, in the 
church of St. Lawrence, wherein an elaborate 
monument of himself, surrounded by alle- 
gorical figures, was erected. He married a 
widow, whose daughter is named in his will, 
but he left no issue. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (ed. Bliss), ii. 96 ; Ash- 
mole's Antiq. of Berkshire, 1723, ii. 371 ; Coates's 
Hist, of Reading, 1802, p. 430 ; Biog. Britannica ; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet.] E. M. T. 

BLAGRAVE, JOSEPH (1610-1682), as- 
trologer, was born in the parish of St. Giles, 
Reading, in 1610 ; he was probably a nephew 
of John Blagrave, the mathematician [q. v.j, 
fromwhom he appears to have inherited a small 
estate in Swallowfield, five miles from his 
native town. Of his personal history we have 
no knowledge beyond what is to be gleaned 
from a perusal of his books. His youthful 
years were spent in the study of astronomy 
and astrology, afterwards in philosophy and 
the practice of physic, upon which he writes : 
{ Without some knowledge in astronomy one 
can be no astrologer, and without know- 
ledge in astrology one can be no philosopher, 
and without knowledge both in astrology and 
philosophy one can be no good physician, the 
practice of which must be laid upon the five 
substantial pillars of time, virtue, number, 
sympathy, and antipathy' (Astrological Prac- 
tice ofPhysick, Preface). His first appearance 
as an author was in a series of : 1. 'Epheme- 
rides, with Rules for Husbandly for the years 
1658, 1659, 1660, and 1665,' London, 8vo ; 
no copy of the ' Ephemeris ' for 1658 is now 
preserved to us, as we learn from the volume 
for 1660 that ' it came into but few hands, by 
reason of the slackness of the printer before 
it came forth.' Copies for the years 1659 and 
1660 are in the British Museum library, and 
one for the year 1665 in the Bodleian library at 
Oxford. The next work ascribed to him, and 
probably with justice, is (2) ' The Epitome of 
the Art of Husbandry, by J. B., gent.,' Lon- 
don, 1669, 8vo. That this work is by Blagrave 
seems to be proved by the fact that it was 
edited by his nephew, Obadiah Blagrave, a 
bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, who 




published this and all the subsequent works 
of his uncle, two of which were posthumous. 
This was followed by (3) ' Blagrave's Astro- 
logical Practice of Physick,' London, 1671, 
8vo, already referred to. That it first saw 
the light in Trinity term for this year is cer- 
tain ; the copies usually met with bear date 
1689, being reprints published in Hilary term 
1689-90 (cf. CLAVEL, infra). His next was 
(4) 'Supplement or Enlargement to Mr. 
Nich. Culpepper's English Physitian, to which 
is annexed a new Tract for the Cure of 
Wounds by Gunshot,' London, 1674, 8vo. 
The preface to this work is dated l From my 
house called Copt Hall, upon the seven 
bridges in Reading.' (5) Blagrave's latest 
and posthumously published work is his ' In- 
troduction to Astrology,' in three parts, Lon- 
don, 1682, 8vo. The interest attached to this 
work is that it contains an engraved portrait 
of our author at the age of seventy-two years, 
and is dedicated to his friend Elias Ashmole 
the antiquary. Lowndes ascribes to Joseph 
Blagrave ' Planispherium Catholicum.' This is 
certainly an error, for the work referred to is 
a revised version of the ' Mathematical Jewel ' 
of John Blagrave, edited by J. Palmer, and 
published in London in 1658, 4to (cf. GRAN- 
GER, i. 274). Another work also ascribed to 
Blagrave is a manuscript, now lost, l A Re- 
monstrance in favour of Antient Learning 
against the Proud Pretensions of the Moderns, 
more especially in respect to the Doctrine of 
the Stars/ about 1669-70. It was never pub- 
lished ; but from the account of it preserved 
(Biog. Brit. ii. 804) we should infer from its 
wide range of subjects, and in point of style, 
that it was superior to anything that could 
have been produced by Blagrave. His cha- 
racter appears to have been a curious mixture 
of earnest piety with a profound belief in the 
virtues of astrology. Of the various cures 
which he claims to have effected, one of the 
most curious is that of casting out a dumb 
devil from a maid at Basingstoke, where we 
are quaintly informed that, after invoking the 
name of the Tetragrammaton with that of the I 
blessed Trinity, ' the devil came forth, but in- i 
visible, with a great cry and hideous noise, I 
raising a sudden gust of wind, and so vanished ' I 
(Astrological Practice of Physick^.lZty. The ! 
whole story is a curious study in the demo- ! 
nology of the seventeenth century. 

[Allibone's Diet. Eng. Literature, 1859, i. 200 ; i 
Biog. Brit. Lond. 17-47, fol. ; Clavel's^Mercurius 
Librarius, or Cat. of Books from 1668 to 1700, 
fol. Nos. 6 and 35 ; Coates's Hist, of Beading, I 
1802, p. 234 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, I 
1775 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Manual, ed. Bohn, 1864, i 
i. 214; Lysons's Mag. Brit. i. pt. 2, Berkshire, 
1813, fol. p. 545.] C. H. C. 

BLAGRAVE, THOMAS (d. 1688), mu- 
sician, was a member of an old Berkshire 
family. Dr. Rimbault and Colonel Chester 
state that he was the eldest son of Richard 
Blagrave (eldest son of John Blagrave [q.v.] 
j of Bullmarsh and Reading, Berkshire) by his 
! third wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Mason 
j of Northwood, Isle of Wight ; but it is diffi- 
I cult to reconcile this statement with the very 
| detailed family tree of the Blagraves in Berry's 
i 'County Genealogies of Berkshire' (145-8). 
Blagrave's name occurs amongst the gen- 
tlemen of the chapel at the coronation of 
Charles II (23 April 1661), and about 22 Oct. 
in the following year he was appointed clerk 
of the cheque. He was also a member of 
Charles II's private band, and Wood says 
that he was 'a player for the most part on the 
cornet-flute, and a gentill and honest man.' 
Blagrave's name occasionally occurs in Pepys's 
' Diary.' On 7 March 1662 by his means Pepys 
obtained admission to the Chapel Royal, 
Whitehall, and on 11 Sept. 1664 the same 
chronicler records that he had been ' with Mr. 
Blagrave, walking in the Abbey, he telling 
me the whole government and discipline of 
White Hall Chapel, and the caution now used 
against admitting any debauched persons.' 
Blagrave is also mentioned as one of the 
king's ' musick' at whom Pelham Humphreys 
laughed on his return from France in 1667, 
saying ( that they cannot keep time nor tune, 
nor understand anything.' On 14 Oct. 1645 
Blagrave was married, at St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, to Margaret Clarevell or Clairvox of 
Parson's Green. He died 21 Nov. 1688, and 
was buried in the north cloister of West- 
minster Abbey on 24 Nov. By his will (dated 
14 May 1686) he left to his widow his house 
and lands at Teddington, and bequeathed 
various sums to his kinsmen, among whom 
were another Thomas Blagrave, and John 
Blagrave, 'my brother Anthony Blagrave's 
youngest sonne.' A portrait by J. V. Souman 
of a Thomas Blagrave, which is preserved in 
the Music School at Oxford, has always been 
said to represent the subject of this biography ; 
but this clearly cannot be the case, as the 
picture represents a boy, and bears the in- 
scription 'eet. 12, 1702.' A few songs by him 
may be found in the publications of Playford 
and other contemporary collections. 

[Chester's Registers of Westminster Abbey ; 
Old Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal (ed. Rim- 
bault); Probate Registers ; Egerton MS. 2159 ; 
Hawkins's Hist, of Music (1853), ii. 767 ; Pepys's 
Diary (ed. 1848), i. 332, ii. 375, iv. 263.] 

W. B. S. 

(1811-1872), musician, was born at Notting- 
ham 20 Oct. 1811. He was the eldest son of 




a professor of music, from whom, when only 
four years old, he received his earliest instruc- 
tion in the violin. At the age of five he played 
in public, and in 1817 he appeared as a violinist 
at Drury Lane Theatre in an entertainment 
called ' The Liliputians,' as well as in a succes- 
sion of concerts at the Exhibition Rooms in 
Spring Gardens. In 1821 he studied with 
Spagnoletti, and two years later, on the 
opening of the Royal Academy of Music, he 
entered that institution, where he became the 
pupil of Dr. Crotch and F. Cramer. In 1824 
Blagrove was awarded a silver medal for his 
violin-playing, and in 1830 he received the 
appointment of solo-violinist in the royal pri- 
vate band, a post he held until 1837. Queen 
Adelaide took great interest in his career, and 
at her wish he went (in 1832) to Cassel, where 
he spent two years studying with Spohr. Sub- 
sequently he travelled on the continent for 
some time, playing with great success at 
Vienna and elsewhere. On his return to Eng- 
land he appeared as a soloist at the Philhar- 
monic concerts, and in 1836 assumed the 
leadership of a string quartett party, the 
other members of which were H. Gattie, 
J. B. Dando, and C. Lucas, who gave a 
series of admirable concerts at the Hanover 
Square Rooms. At the coronation of Queen 
Victoria he led the State band, with which 
he was connected until his death. At about 
the same time he gave lessons on the violin 
to the Duke of Cambridge. On 17 Aug. 1841 
Blagrove married Etheldred, daughter of Mr. 
Henry Combe, by whom he had three chil- 
dren. In the course of his long and brilliant 
professional career he was successively prin- 
cipal violin in Jullien's band, at both opera 
houses, at most of the provincial festivals, the 
Handel celebrations at the Crystal Palace, 
and the leading musical societies in London, 
besides teaching the violin at the Royal 
Academy of Music. In 1858 he was for a 
short time in Germany, and a few years later 
he played at the Lower Rhine Festival at 
Diisseldorf. On 8 Jan. 1869 Mrs. Blagrove 
died, and before long Blagrove began to show 
signs of declining health. He still, however, 
continued occasionally to perform, and in 
1872 was presented with a public testimonial 
in recognition of his merits. In the December 
following he was seized with paralysis while 
playing at a private concert, and on the 15th 
of the same month died at his house, 224 
Marylebone Road. He was buried at Kensal 
Green. Blagrove's published works comprise 
some valuable exercises and studies for the 
violin and a few solos. As a performer he 
ranked among the best of Spohr's pupils, his 
tone and execution being alike admirable. 
Personally he was very popular with all with 

whom he came in contact, and he was a most 
persevering and successful teacher. 

[Information from Mrs. Murray ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music, i. 246 ; Musical Directory for 1874, 8.1 

W. B. S. 

1611), dean of Rochester, was of Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He was undoubtedly the 
author in early life of 'A Schoole of wise Con- 
ceytes. Wherein as euery conceyte hath wit, 
so the most haue much mirth, set forth in 
common places by order of the alphabet. 
Translated out of diuers Greeke and Latin 
wryters by Thomas Blage, student of the 
Queenes Colledge in Cambridge. Printed at 
| London by Henrie Binneman. Anno 1572. 
Cvm Privilegio ' (12mo). He was admitted, 
9 Sept. 1570, to the rectory of Braxted 
Magna in Essex. Local inquiries prove 
that he was non-resident. On 2 Sept. 1571, 
being A.B., he was presented to the church of 
St. Vedast, Foster Lane, London. Again, on 
20 July 1580, he is found ' presented by the 
queen' to Ewelme, Oxfordshire, which he 
resigned in 1596. On 2 April 1582, at Ox- 
ford, being described as ' student in divinity 
! and one of the chaplains in ordinary to 
| the queen/ he ' supplicated for D.D., but 
1 whether admitted appears not' (WooD, 
Fasti, i. 222). On 1 Feb. 1591, being then 
D.D., he was installed dean of Rochester in 
the place of John Coldwell, M.D. Wood 
erroneously states that at the time he was 
master of Clare Hall, confounding him with 
another dean of Rochester (Dr. Scott). In 

1602 he, as dean, presented John Wallis (or 
Wallys), father of the more famous Dr. John 
Wallis, to the living of Ashford, Kent. In 

1603 he printed and published a sermon on 
I Psalm i. 1-2, which had been preached at the 
Charter House. In 1604 he was appointed 
| rector of Bangor, but never resided. He 

died 11 Oct. 1611. Wood, in recording the 
above solitary sermon, adds, ' and perhaps 
others ; ' but all appear to have perished. 
He had a son named John, who, in his 
father's lifetime, was a commoner of Oriel 
College, Oxford (Fasti, i. 222). Later a Colonel 
John Blague was the person by whom Isaac 
I Waltonrestored to Charles II his t George ' that 
had been lost. Another Thomas Blague per- 
haps another son wrote the following trac- 
tate : ' A great Fight at Market Harborough 
in Leicestershire betwixt the Presbyterians 
and Independents, some declaring for his Ex- 
cellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, others for the late 
elected Generals Maine and Poynts. With 
the number that were slain and wounded, 
and the manner how the Presbyterians were 
put to flight. By Thomas Blague,' 1647 




(4to). He casually names a ' cosen Blague 
the surgeon' as ' attending on the wounded.' 

[Le Neve's Fasti, i. 577 ; Reg. Abbot ; Wood's 
Fasti, ii. 184; Reg. Whitgift, 3, 269; Keg. 
G-rindall et Bancroft, Kennet; "Wood's Fasti, i. 
222, 227 ; communications from present Dean of 
Rochester, rectors of Bangor, Ewelme, Great 
Braxted, &c. &c. ; Newcourt's Repertorium, ii. 
91-2.] A. B. G-. 

BLAIR, HUGH (1718-1800), divine, 
was born in Edinburgh 7 April 1718. His 
father, John Blair, was an Edinburgh mer- 
chant, son of Hugh and grandson of Robert 
Blair, 1593-1666 [q.v.], chaplain to Charles I. 
Hugh Blair was educated at Edinburgh, and 
entered the university in 1730. An essay irepl 
rot) KCI\OV, written whilst he was a student, 
was highly praised by Professor Stevenson and 
always cherished by its author. Boswell says 
(Johnson, 1760) that Blair with his cousin, Q-. 
Bannatyne, composed a poem on the resurrec- 
tion, which was published as his own by a Dr. 
Douglas. He graduated as M. A. in 1739, and 
printed a thesis, * De fundamentis et obliga- 
tione legis naturae.' On 21 Oct. 1741 he was 
licensed to preach by the presbytery of Edin- 
burgh. A sermon in the West church pro- 
cured him the favour of Lord Leven, through 
whose interest he was ordained minister of 
Colessie, Fife, 23 Sept. 1742. In July 1743 
he returned to Edinburgh, where he was 
elected as second minister of the Canongate 
after a contest. On 11 Oct. 1754 he was 
appointed by the town council and gene- 
ral sessions to Lady Tester's, one of the city 
churches; and on 15 June 1758 was ap- 
pointed, at the request of the lords of council 
and session, to the High church, a charge 
which he retained during life. On 11 Dec. 
1759 he began to read lectures upon compo- 
sition in the university ; in August 1760 the 
town council made Mm professor of rhetoric ; 
and on 7 April 1762 a regius professorship 
of rhetoric and belles lettres was founded, 
to which Blair was appointed with a salary 
of 70Z. 

These appointments indicate the general 
estimate of Blair's merits as preacher and 
critic. He was one of the distinguished 
literary circle which nourished at Edinburgh 
throughout the century. He was a member, 
with Hume, A. Carlyle, Adam Ferguson, 
Adam Smith, Robertson, and others, of the 
famous Poker Club (TYTLER'S Kames, iii. 78). 
He was on very friendly terms with Hume, 
whose house he occupied during its owner's 
stay in France. Their friendship was not 
disturbed by Blair's sympathy with Hume's 
theological opponents, as Hume judiciously 
avoided discussions of such matters (B 

i. 427, ii. 116). He defended Kames, his 
intimate friend, when Kames's 'Essays on 
Morality ' exposed their author to a charge 
of infidelity, and brought Campbell's answer 
to Hume's essay upon Miracles under the 
notice of Hume (TYTLER'S Kames, i. 198, 
266). He was intimate with Henry Dundas, 
, afterwards Lord Melville, and through him 
had some influence upon Scotch patronage. 
He declined to use it in order to succeed 
Robertson as principal of the university, but 
is said to have been annoyed at being passed 
over in favour of Dr. Baird. Blair encouraged 
MacPherson to publish the 'Fragments of 
Ancient Poetry ' in 1760, and eulogised their 
merits with more zeal than discretion in ' A 
Critical Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian, 
the son of Fingal,' 1763. In an appendix to a 
third edition (1765) he adduces some external 
testimony to their authenticity. The essay 
was much admired at the time ; the substance 
had been given in his lectures. These were 
not published till 1783, when he resigned 
the professorship. He states in a note that 
he had borrowed some ideas from a manu- 
script treatise upon rhetoric (afterwards de- 
stroyed) by Adam Smith, who had given the 
first lectures in Scotland on the same subject 
in 1748-51. Smith and his friends seem to 
have thought the acknowledgment insuffi- 
cient (HiLL, p. 266). The lectures expressed 
the canons of taste of the time in which 
Addison, Pope, and Swift were recognised 
as the sole models of English style, and are 
feeble in thought, though written with a 
certain elegance of manner. A tenth edition 
appeared in 1806, and they have been trans- 
lated into French. The same qualities are 
obvious in the sermons, which for a long time 
enjoyed extraordinary popularity. The first 
volume was declined by Strahan. Strahan, 
however, showed one of them to Johnson, 
who saii that he 'had read it with more 
than approbation ; to say it is good is to say 
too little.' Strahan hereupon bought it for 
100/., and upon its success doubled the price. 
For a second volume he paid 3007., and for a 
third and fourth 600/. each. The first ap- 
peared in 1777 ; a nineteenth edition of the 
first volume and a fifteenth of the second 
appeared in 1794. A fifth volume, with an 
account of Blair's life by the Rev. Dr. Fin- 
lay son, appeared in 1801. A pension of 200 J. 
a year was conferred upon the author in 
1780, which he enjoyed till his death. The 
sermons were translated into many languages, 
and until the rise of a new school passed as 
models of the art. They are carefully com- 
posed ; he took a week over one (BOSWELL'S 
Tour, ch. iii.), and they are the best examples 
of the sensible, if unimpassioned and rather 




affected, style of the moderate divines of the 
time. They have gone through many editions. 
Johnson seems to have had a warm esteem 
for Blair, who had been introduced to him 
shortly before Boswell's first introduction in ! 
1763, and had been told by the doctor that i 
* many men, many women, and many chil- | 
dren ' could have written Ossian (BOSWELL'S | 
Johnson, 24 May 1763). Blair omitted from 
his published lectures a passage in which he 
had censured Johnson's pomposity (BoswELL, , 
1777). Blair is described by Hill and A. Car- j 
lyle as very amiable, ready to read manu- 
scripts of young authors, fall of harmless [ 
vanity and simplicity, and rather finical | 
in his dress and manners. He had con- j 
siderable influence in the church, and was j 
reckoned as one of the leading men amongst ! 
the ' moderate ' divines. But his diffidence | 
disqualified him from public speaking, and j 
he declined to become moderator of the 
general assembly. He married his cousin. \ 
Katharine Bannatyne, in April 1748, who died 
long before him. He had a son who died in j 
infancy, and a daughter who died at the age 
of twenty-one. He preached his last sermon | 
before the Society for the Benefit of the Sons | 
of the Clergy in the seventy-ninth year of i 
his age (1797). He died, after an illness of 
three days, on 27 Dec. 1800. Besides the 
writings above mentioned, Blair contributed 
to the short-lived ' Edinburgh Review ' of 
1755 a review of Hutcheson's ' Moral Philo- j 
sophy,' and of Dodsley's collection of poems. 
His early system of notes led to the ' Chrono- | 
logical Tables ' published by his relative, John 
Blair. A collection of the 'sentimental 
beauties' in his writings was published in | 
1809, with a life by W. H. Reed. 

[Life by Finlayson; Life by John Hill, 1807; 
Burton's Life of Hume ; A. Carlyle's Autobio- 
graphy, pp. 291-4; Tytler's Life of Kames.l 


BLAIR, JAMES, D.D. (1656-1743), epi- 
scopalian divine, was born in Scotland (it is 
believed in Edinburgh) in 1656. He was 
educated in ' one of the Scottish universities,' 
but none of the notices of him specifies which 
it was. He obtained a benefice in the revived 
episcopal church in Scotland, but where does 
not appear. He retreated to England before 
the tempest which threatened the episcopal 
church after 1679. There, having been intro- 
duced to Dr. Compton, bishop of London, he 
was sent as a missionary to Virginia, where 
he arrived in 1685. He soon secured the con- 
fidence of the provincial government and of 
the planters, and proved himself far in ad- 
vance of his contemporaries on the question of 
slavery. In 1689, when Sir Francis Nichol- 

VOL. v. 

son was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Virginia, Blair was appointed commissary, 
the highest ecclesiastical office in the pro- 
vince. By this office he had a seat in the 
council of the colonial government, presided 
over the trials of clergymen a strangely 
mixed class at the period and pronounced 
sentence upon conviction of ' crimes or mis- 

Being * deeply affected with the low state 
of both learning and religion' in Virginia, 
he endeavoured to establish a college, and 
set on foot a subscription with this object, 
which, being headed by the lieutenant- 
governor and his council, soon amounted to 
2,500Z. The project was warmly supported 
in the first assembly held by Sir Francis 
Nicholson in 1691, and was recommended to 
the sovereigns, William and Mary, in an ad- 
dress prepared for the assembly by Blair, 
which he was unanimously appointed to pre- 
sent. He accordingly proceeded to England ; 
William and Mary favoured the plan; on 
14 Feb. 1692 a charter for the college was 
granted, the Bishop of London being ap- 
pointed chancellor and Blair president, and 
the college was named ' William and Mary.' 
Among the most liberal contributors to the 
college was Robert Boyle. 

On Blair's return to Virginia the opening 
of the college was repeatedly deferred, al- 
though Blair's enthusiasm never waned. In 
1705 a destructive fire practically reduced the 
college buildings to ruins. Under the loyal 
support of the new lieutenant-governor, Spo- 
tiswoode, the edifice was re-erected, and 
classes were afterwards commenced. But, 
according to the records of the college, it was 
not until 1729 that Blair entered formally on 
the duties of his office as president. Blair 
was for some time president of the council of 
Virginia and rector of Williamsburgh. 

In 1722 he published his one work : t Our 
Saviour's Divine Sermon on the Mount, con- 
tained in the fifth, sixth, and seventh chapters 
of St. Matthew's Gospel, explained, and the 
practice of it recommended in divers Sermons 
and Discourses,' 4 vols. 8vo. A second edition 
was published in 1732, under the supervision 
of Dr. Daniel Waterland, who prefixed a 
' commendatory notice.' 

Blair died on 1 Aug. 1743, aged 87. He 
bequeathed his library to his college. Two 
portraits of him are preserved in the college, 
one taken in youth and the other in later life. 
Bishop Burnet (History of his Own Times} 
calls him < a worthy and good man.' George 
Whitefield wrote in his journal for 15 Dec. 
1740: 'Paid my respects to Mr. Blair, 
commissary of Virginia. His discourse was 
savoury, such as tended to the use of edifying. 




He received me with joy, asked me to preach, 
and wished my stay were longer.' 

[Preface to liis Sermon on the Mount. 1st, 2nd, 
and 3rd editions ; Dr. Miller's Retrospect, ii. ; 
Bishop Burnet's History of his Own Times; 
Hawks' s Ecclesiastical Contributions ; History of 
Virginia ; Dr. Totten MS. ; Sprague's Annals of 
the American Pulpit, v. 7-9.] A. B. G. 


1787), was the son of John Hunter, a mer- 
chant in Ayr, where he was born 21 Feb. 
1741. In 1756 he was apprenticed in the 
house of the brothers Coutts, bankers in 
Edinburgh, where he made the acquaintance 
of Sir William Forbes, and the two being- 
admitted to a share in the business on the 
death of the senior partner of the firm, they 
gradually rose to the head of the copartnery. 
In 1770 he married Jane, eldest daughter of 
Mr. John Blair of Dunksey, Wigtonshire, 
and on his wife succeeding to the family es- 
tate in 1777, he assumed the name of Blair. 
On his estate he effected remarkable improve- 
ments, introducing to his tenants the most 
approved modes of farming, and nearly re- 
building the town of Portpatrick, at which 
he established larger and better packet-boats 
on the passage to Donaghadee in Ireland. In 
1781 he was chosen to represent the city of 
Edinburgh in parliament, and again in 1784, 
but on account of the claims of his profes- 
sional duties he resigned a few months after- 
wards. In the same year, however, he con- 
sented, at the urgent request of the town 
council, to accept the lord-provostship. It was 
chiefly due to his energy and public spirit 
during his term of office that several impor- 
tant schemes for the improvement of the city 
were successfully carried out. He did much 
to further the rebuilding of the university, 
and contrived a plan for obtaining funds to 
erect the South Bridge over the Cowgate. 
Chiefly by his strenuous perseverance against 
strong opposition the scheme was successfully 
carried out, thus opening up a convenient 
communication between the southern suburbs 
and the city. He died of a putrid fever at 
Harrogate, Yorkshire, 1 July 1787, and 
was buried in the Greyfriars churchyard. 
Hunter Square and Blair Street, Edinburgh, 
are named after him. He held the appoint- 
ment of king's printer. 

Robert Burns, whose special regard for 
Blair was increased by his enlightened in- 
terest in agriculture, wrote an elegy on his 
death, a performance he acknowledged to be 
' but mediocre,' although his grief was sin- 
cere. ' The last time,' says Burns, { I saw 
the worthy, public-spirited man, he pressed 
my hand and asked me with the most friendly 

warmth if it was in his power to serve me.' 
In a letter to Robert Aiken of Ayr, en- 
closing the poem, Burns also wrote, ' That I 
have lost a friend is but repeating after 

[Gent. Mag. Ivii. pt. ii. 641-2; Edinburgh 
Magazine, vi. 43-4 ; Kay's Edinburgh Portraits, 
1838, i. 62-4 ; Arnot's 'History of Edinburgh, 
pp. 256, 264 ; "Works of Eobert Burns.] 

T. E. H. 

BLAIR, JOHN (jft. 1300), chaplain of 
Sir William Wallace, was a native of Fife, 
and is said to have been educated at Dun- 
dee in the same school with Wallace. After 
continuing his studies at the university of 
Paris he entered holy orders, and under the 
name of Arnoldus became a monk of the 
order of St. Benedict at Dunfermline. When 
Wallace became governor of the kingdom, 
Blair was appointed his chaplain. According 
to Henry the Minstrel, Blair, along with 
Thomas Gray, parson of Liberton, ( oft one, 
oft both,' accompanied Wallace in almost all 
'his travels,' and one or the other kept a 
record of his achievements. From these notes 
Blair l compiled in dyte the Latin book of 
Wallace life,' from which Henry the Minstrel 
professed to derive the principal materials 
for his poem on the ' Acts and Deeds of Sir 
William Wallace.' The work of Blair is 
supposed to have been written in 1327. A 
professed fragment of it from a manuscript 
in the Cottonian Library was published with 
notes by Sir Robert Si'bbald in 1705 under 
the title ' Relationes qusedam Arnoldi Blair 
Monachi de Dumfermelem et Capellani D. 
Gulielmi Wallas militis/ 1327, and was also 
reprinted along with the poem of Henry the 
Minstrel in 1758. These so-called l Relationes r 
are, however, nothing more than a plagiarism 
from the ' Scotichronicon.' He is said to have 
been also the author of a work entitled ' De 
liberata tyrannide Scotia,' which is now lost. 
[The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, 
by Henry the Minstrel, especially Book V., 
chap, i., lines 525-50 ; Dempster's Hist. Eccl. 
Scot. Gent. (1627), p. 86 ; Mackenzie's Writers of 
the Scots Nation, i. 247-8, 264; Ross's Scottish 
History and Literature (1884), p. 60.] T. E. H. 

BLAIR, JOHN, LL.D. (d. 1782), chrono- 
logist, erroneously said to have been a de- 
scendant of the Rev. Robert Blair (1593- 
1666) [q. v.], really belonged to the Blairs 
of Balthayock, Perthshire. The date of his 
birth is unknown, but he was born and edu- 
cated in Edinburgh. Leaving Scotland as^a 
young man, he became usher of a school in 
Hedge Lane, London, in succession to An- 
drew Henderson, author of a well-known 
history of the rebellion of 1745. In 1754 he 




published, after elaborate preparations, his 
magnum opus, which he designated ' The 
Chronology and History of the World, from 
the Creation to the Year of Christ 1753, 
illustrated in fifty-six tables/ It was mo- 
destly dedicated to the lord chancellor (Hard- 
wicke), and was published by subscription. 
In the preface he acknowledged great obli- 
gations to the Earl of Bute, and announced 
certain supplementary dissertations, which 
never appeared. The plan and scope of the 
work originated with Dr. Hugh Blair's scheme 
of chronological tables. The ' Chronology ' 
was reprinted in 1756, 1768, and 1814. It 
was ' revised and enlarged ' by Willoughby 
Rosse in Bohn's 'Scientific Library/ 1856. 
In 1768 Blair published ' Fourteen Maps of 
Ancient and Modern Geography, for the il- 
lustration of the Tables of Chronology and 
History ; to which is prefixed a dissertation 
on the Rise and Progress of Geography.' 
The dissertation was separately republished 
in 1784. 

Blair's first book was well received. In 
1755 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and in its ' Transactions ' appeared 
a paper by him on the 'Agitation of the 
Waters near Reading' (Phil. Trans, x. 651, 
1755). He had previously obtained orders 
in the church of England, and in September 
1757 was appointed chaplain to the Princess- 
dowager of Wales and mathematical tutor to 
the Duke of York. In March 1761, on the 
promotion of Dr. Townshend to the deanery 
of Norwich, Blair was given a prebend al stall 
at Westminster. Within a week the dean 
and chapter of Westminster presented him 
to the vicarage of Hinckley. In the same 
year he was chosen fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries. In September 1763 he left with 
the Duke of York on a tour on the continent, 
and was absent until 1764. In 1771 he was 
transferred, by presentation of the dean and 
chapter of Westminster, to the vicarage of 
St. Bride, London, and again to the rectory 
of St. John the Evangelist, Westminster, in 
April 1776. He was also rector of Horton 
(Milton's Horton) in Buckinghamshire. He 
died on 24 June 1782. The statement that 
his last illness was aggravated by the sad 
death of his gallant brother, Captain Blair 
[see BLAIK, WILLIAM, 1741-1782], is erro- 
neous. They were only cousins. Blair's 'Lec- 
tures on the Canons of the Old Testament, 
comprehending a Dissertation on the Sep- 
tuagint Version/ 1785, was a posthumous 

[Notes and Queries, 6th series, vii. 48 ; An- 
derson's Scottish Nation; researches in Edin- 
burgh.] A. B. G-. 

BLAIR, PATRICK, M.D. (Jl. 1728), 
botanist and surgeon, was born at Dundee, 
where he practised as a doctor, and in 1706 
dissected and mounted the bones of an ele- 
phant which had died in the neighbourhood, 
and of which he contributed a description, 
under the title of ' Osteographia Elephantina/ 
to the Royal Society of London, published in 
1713. Being a nonjuror and Jacobite, he 
was imprisoned as a suspect in 1715. He 
subsequently removed to London, and de- 
livered some discourses before the Royal So- 
ciety on the sexes of flowers. But he soon 
settled at Boston, Lincolnshire, where he 
published ' Miscellaneous Observations on 
the Practice of Physick, Anatomy, and Sur- 
gery' in 1718, 'Botanick Essays' in 1720, 
and 'Pharmaco-botanologia' in 1723-8, which 
closed with the letter H, it is presumed 
through his death. His l Botanick Essays ' 
formed his most valuable work. In them he 
clearly expounded the progress of the classi- 
fication of plants up to his time, and the then 
new views as to the sexual characters of 
flowering plants, which he confirmed by his 
own observations. 

[Pulteney's Progress of Botany in England, 
1790, ii. 134-140; Chalmers's Biog. Diet.] 

O. T. B. 

BLAIR, ROBERT (1593-1666), divine, 
a native of Irvine, Ayrshire, was born in 
1593. His father was a merchant>adventurer, 
John Blair of Windyedge, a younger brother 
of the ancient family of Blair of that ilk ; his 
mother was Beatrix Muir (of the house of 
Rowallan), who lived for nearly a century. 

From the parish school at Irvine Blair pro- 
ceeded to the university of Glasgow, where 
he took his degree of M.A. He is stated to 
have acted as a schoolmaster in Glasgow. In 
his twenty-second year he was appointed a 
regent or professor in the university. In 
1616 he was licensed as a preacher of the 
gospel in connection with the established 
church (presbyterian) of Scotland. In 1622 
he resigned his professorship, ' in conse- 
quence/ it is alleged, ' of the appointment 
of Dr. Cameron, who favoured episcopacy, 
as principal of the university ' (ANDEKSON, 
Scottish Nation). This reason seems im- 
probable, for having gone over to Ireland he 
was called to Bangor there and ordained by 
the Bishop of Down on 10 July 1623. But he 
was suspended in the autumn of 1631, and 
deposed in 1632 for nonconformity. By the 
interposition of the king (Charles I) he was 
restored in May 1634. Yet the former sen- 
tence was renewed, with excommunication, 
by Bramhall, bishop of Derry, the same year. 

M 2 




It would appear that even in Scotland [see 
WILLIAM BIBNIE] and in Ireland presby- 
terians were received into the episcopal 
church without subscription. 

Excommunicated and ejected, Blair, along 
with a company of others, ' fitted out a ship,' 
intending to go to New England in 1635. 
But the weather proved so boisterous that 
they were beaten back, and, returning to 
Scotland, he lived partly in that country 
and partly in England. Orders were issued 
in England for his apprehension in 1637, but 
he escaped to Scotland, and preached for 
some time in Ayr. He was invited to go to 
France as chaplain to Colonel Hepburn's regi- 
ment, but alter embarking at Leith he was 
threatened by a soldier whom he had reproved 
for swearing, and thereupon went ashore 
again. He also petitioned the privy council 
'for liberty to preach the gospel,' and re- 
ceived an appointment at Burntisland in 
April 1638. He was nominated to St. An- 
drews in the same year, and was admitted 
there on 8 Oct. 1639. In 1640 he accom- 
panied the Scottish army into England on its 
famous march. He assisted in the negotia- 
tions for the treaty of peace presented by 
Charles I, 8 Nov. 1641. After the Irish re- 
bellion of 1641 he once more proceeded to 
Ireland with several other clergymen of the 
' kirk,' the Irish general assembly (presby- 
terian) having petitioned for supplies for their 
vacant charges. He afterwards returned to 
St. Andrews. In 1645 he attended the lord 
president (Spottiswoode) and others to the 
scaffold. In the same year he was one of the 
Scottish ministers who went to Newcastle to 
speak very plainly to the king. In 1646 he 
was elected to the highest seat of honour in 
his church, that of moderator of the general 
assembly (3 June 1646). Later, on the death 
of Henderson, he was appointed chaplain- 
in-ordinary to the king, ' being paid by the 
revenues of the Chapel Royal.' The com- 
mission of the general assembly, in 1648, 
named him one of those for ' endeavouring 
to get Cromwell to establish a uniformity of 
religion in England.' The endeavour was a 
valorous one to impose presbyterianism on 
England. At the division of the church, in 
1650, into resolutioners and protesters, he 
leaned to the former, ' but bitterly lamented 
the strife.' Summoned with others to London 
in 1654, that l a method might be devised for 
settling affairs of the church,' he pleaded ill- 
health and declined to go. In the same year 
he was appointed by the council of England 
' one of those for the admission to the ministry 
in Perth, Fife, and Angus.' 

At the Restoration he came under the 
lash of Archbishop Sharp. He had to resign 

his charge in September 1661, and was con- 
fined to certain places, first of all to Mussel- 
burgh, afterwards to Kirkcaldy (where he 
remained three and a half years), and finally 
to Meikle Couston near Aberdour. As a 
covenanter he preached at the hazard of life 
in moor and glen. He died at Aberdour on 
27 Aug. 1666, and was buried in the parish 
churchyard. He left behind him a manu- 
script commentary on the book of Proverbs, 
and manuscripts on political and theological 
subjects. None were printed, and they 
appear to have perished. Fortunately his 
' Autobiography was preserved, and has 
been published by the Wodrow Society 
(1848) ; fragments were published in 1754. 
He married first Beatrix, daughter of Robert 
Hamilton, merchant, in right of whom he 
became a burgess of Edinburgh on 16 July 
1626 ; she died in July 1632, aged 27. Their 
issue were two sons and a daughter : James, 
one of the ministers of Dysart, Robert, and 
Jean, who married William Row, minister 
of Ceres. His second wife was Katherine, 
daughter of Hugh Montgomerie of Braidstane, 
afterwards Viscount Airds. Their issue were 
seven sons and a daughter. One of these 
sons, David, was father of Robert Blair [q. v.], 
the poet of the t Grave,' and another, Hugh, 
grandfather of Dr. Hugh Blair [q. v.] 

[Autobiography, 1593-1636 ; Reed's Presbyte- 
rianism of Ireland, i. ; Row and Stevenson's Hist. ; 
Rutherford's and Baillie's Letters; Kirkcaldy 
Presb. Reg. ; Connolly's Fifeshire ; Chambers's 
Biogr. ; Scott's Fasti, ii. 91 ; Hill's Life of Hugh 
Blair.] A. B. G. 

BLAIE, ROBERT (1699-1746), author 
of the ' Grave/ was born in Edinburgh in 
1699, the eldest son of the Rev. David Blair, 
a minister of the old church of Edinburgh, 
and one of the chaplains to the king. His 
mother's maiden name was Euphemia Nisbet, 
daughter of Alexander Nisbet of Carfin. 
Hugh Blair, the writer on oratory, was his 
first cousin. David Blair died in his son's 
infancy, on 10 June 1710. Robert was edu- 
cated at the university of Edinburgh, and 
took a degree in Holland. Nothing has been 
discovered with regard to the details of either 
curriculum. From about 1718 to 1730 he 
seems to have lived in Edinburgh as an un- 
employed probationer, having received license 
to preach, 15 Aug. 1729. In the second part 
of a miscellany, entitled ' Lugubres Cantus/ 
published at Edinburgh in 1719, there occurs 
an 'Epistle to Robert Blair,' which adds 
nothing to our particular information. He 
is believed to have belonged to the Athenian 
Society, a small literary club in Edinburgh, 
which published in 1720 the 'Edinburgh 




Miscellany.' The pieces in this volume are 
anonymous, but family tradition has attri- 
buted to Robert Blair two brief paraphrases 
of scripture which it contains, and Callender, 
its editor, is known to have been his intimate 
friend. In 1728 he published, in a quarto 
pamphlet, a < Poem dedicated to the Memory 
of William Law,' professor of philosophy in 
Edinburgh. This contained 140 lines of elegiac 
verse. In 1731 Blair was appointed to the , 
living of Athelstaneford in East Lothian, to | 
which he was ordained by the presbytery of j 
Haddington on 5 Jan. of that year. In 1738 ; 
he married Isabella, the daughter of his de- 
ceased friend, Professor Law ; she bore him 
five sons and one daughter, and survived 
him until 1774. He possessed a private for- 
tune, and he gave up so much of his leisure 
as his duties would grant him to the study 
of botany and of the old English poets. 
Before he left Edinburgh he had begun to 
sketch a poem on the subject of the * Grave.' 
At Athelstaneford he leisurely composed this 
poem, and about 1742 began to make arrange- j 
ments for its publication. He had formed the i 
acquaintance of Dr. Isaac Watts, who had j 
paid him, he says, ' many civilities.' He sent j 
the manuscript of the l Grave ' to Dr. Watts, | 
who offered it ' to two different London book- I 
sellers, both of whom, however, declined to j 
publish it, expressing a doubt whether any j 
person living three hundred miles from town 
could write so as to be acceptable to the 
fashionable and the polite.' In the same j 
year, however, 1742, Blair wrote to Dr. Dod- ; 
dridge, and interested him in the poem, which , 
was eventually published, in quarto, in 1743. i 
It enjoyed an instant and signal success, but i 
Blair was neither tempted out of his solitude 
nor persuaded to repeat the experiment which 
had been so happy. His biographer says : i 
' His tastes were elegant and domestic. Books , 
and flowers seem to have been the only rivals I 
in his thoughts. His rambles were from his | 
fireside to his garden : and, although the only 
record of his genius is of a gloomy character, < 
it is evident that his habits and life contri- : 
buted to render him cheerful and happy.' He ! 
died of a fever on 4 Feb. 1746, and was 
buried under a plain stone, which bears the 
initials R. B., in the churchyard of Athel- 
staneford. Although he had published so 
little, no posthumous poems were found in his 
possession, and his entire works do not amount 
to one thousand lines. His third son, Ro- 
bert [q. v.], was afterwards judge. 

The < Grave ' was the first and best of a 
whole series of mortuary poems. In spite of 
the epigrams of conflicting partisans, * Night 
Thoughts' must be considered as contem- 
poraneous with it, and neither preceding nor 

following it. There can be no doubt, how- 
ever, that the success of Blair encouraged 
Young to persevere in his far longer and more 
laborious undertaking. Blair's verse is less 
rhetorical, more exquisite, than Young's, and, 
indeed, his relation to that writer, though 
too striking to be overlooked, is superficial. 
He forms a connecting link between Otway 
and Crabbe, who are his nearest poetical 
kinsmen. His one poem, the ' Grave,' con- 
tains seven hundred and sixty-seven lines 
of blank verse. It is very unequal in merit, 
but supports the examination of modern 
criticism far better than most productions of 
the second quarter of the eighteenth century. 
As philosophical literature it is quite with- 
out value ; and it adds nothing to theology ; 
it rests solely upon its merit as romantic 
poetry. The poet introduces his theme with 
an appeal to the grave as the monarch whose 
arm sustains the keys of hell and death 
(110) ; he describes, in verse that singularly 
reminds us of the seventeenth century, the 
physical horror of the tomb (11-27), and the 
ghastly solitude of a lonely church at night 
(28-44) . He proceeds to describe the church- 
yard (45-84), bringing in the schoolboy 
1 whistling aloud to keep his courage up,' and 
the widow. This leads him to a reflection 
on friendship, and how sorrow's crown of 
sorrow is put on in bereavement (85-110). 
The poetry up to this point has been of a 
very fine order ; here it declines. A con- 
sideration of the social changes produced by 
death (111-122), and the passage of persons 
of distinction (123-155), leads on to a homily 
upon the vain pomp and show of funerals 
(156-182). Commonplaces about the de- 
vouring tooth of time (183-206) lead to the 
consideration that in the grave rank and 
precedency (207-236), beauty (237-256), 
strength (257-285), science (286-296), and 
eloquence (297-318) become a mockery and 
a jest ; and the idle pretensions of doctors 
(319-336) and of misers (337-368) are ridi- 
culed. At this point the poem recovers its 
dignity and music. The terror of death is 
very nobly described (369-381), and the mad- 
ness of suicides is scourged in verse which is 
almost Shakespearian (382-430). Our igno- 
rance of the after world (431-446), and the 
universality of death, with man's unconscious- 
ness of his position (447-500), lead the poet 
to a fine description of the medley of death 
(501-540) and the brevity of life (541-599). 
The horror of the grave is next attributed to 
sin (600-633), and the poem closes some- 
what feebly and ineffectually with certain 
timid and perfunctory speculations about the 
mode in which the grave will respond to the 
Resurrection trumpet. 




[The ' Grave ' was constantly reprinted after 
Blair's death, but with no authoritative details 
about the author. Dr. William Anderson, in 
1796, exactly half a century after Blairs death, I 
collected from surviving members of his family | 
such particulars as could still be recovered, and \ 
prefixed them to an edition of the ' Grave ' pub- ! 
lished that year in a prefatory biography which 
contains all of a biographical nature which has 
been preserved about Robert Blair. Various 
brief accounts of his life which had appeared 
previous to that date had been entirely apocry- 
phal.] E. G. 

BLAIR, EGBERT, of Avontoun (1741- 
1811), judge, was the third son of the Rev. 
Robert Blair, the author of the 'Grave' I 
[q. v.], and Isabella his wife, the daughter I 
of Mr. William Law of Elvingston, East i 
Lothian. He was born in 1741 at Athel- ! 
staneford, where his father was the minister, i 
Young Blair commenced his education at the j 
grammar school at Haddington, where he | 
formed a friendship with Henry Dundas, after- 
wards Viscount Melville, which only ended 
with their lives. From Haddington he was 
removed to the high school at Edinburgh, 
and thence was transferred to the university. 
In 1764 he was admitted a member of the 
Faculty of Advocates, and soon obtained a 
considerable practice at the bar, where he and 
Henry Erskine were often pitted against each 
other. In 1789 Blair was appointed by his 
friend Dundas one of the depute advocates, 
which office he continued to hold until 1806. 
For some years also he was one of the asses- 
sors of the city of Edinburgh. In 1789, at 
the age of forty-seven, Blair became solicitor- 
general for Scotland. This post he continued 
to occupy until the change of ministry which 
was occasioned by Pitt's death in 1806. 
During this period he twice refused the offer 
of a seat on the judicial bench, and both in 
1802 and 1805 declined to accept the office 
of lord advocate. In 1801 he was elected 
dean of the faculty of advocates. Upon the 
return of his friends to power in 1807 he re- 
fused the offices of solicitor-general and lord 
advocate, but in the next year, upon the re- 
signation of Sir Hay Campbell, he accepted 
the presidency of the college of justice. This 
dignity, however, he did not long enjoy. He 
died suddenly on 20 May 1811. His old 
friend, Viscount Melville, who came to Edin- 
burgh purposely to attend the funeral, was 
taken ill, and died on the very day the presi- 
dent was buried. This singular coincidence 
gave rise to. a i Monody on the Death of the 
Right Hon. Henry Lord Viscount Melville, 
and Right Hon. Robert Blair of Avontown, 
Lord President of the College of Justice' 
(Edinburgh, 1811), written by an anonymous 

author. Blair married Isabella Cornelia, the 
youngest daughter of Colonel Charles Craigie 
Halkett of Lawhill, Fifeshire. His widow, 
one son, and three daughters, survived him ; 
but he left them so badly off that a pension 
was granted by the crown to his widow and 
daughters through the instrumentality of Mr. 
Perceval. He was a man of a very powerful 
understanding, with a thoroughly logical 
mind and a firm grasp of legal principles, but 
without any gift of eloquence or even of flu- 
ency of speech. He had such l an innate love 
of justice and abhorrence of iniquity,' and took 
so liberal and enlarged a view of law, that he 
was eminently qualified to fill the post which 
he held for so short a time. It is somewhat 
remarkable that Blair never sat in parliament. 
As a recreation he took much pleasure in 
agricultural pursuits, and he brought his small 
estate at Avontoun, near Linlithgow, to the 
highest state of cultivation. His statue by 
Chantrey stands in the first division of the 
inner house of the Court of Session. Two 
portraits of him were taken by Kay of Edin- 
burgh, one in 1793, and the other in 1799, 
etchings of which will be found in vol. i. of 
Kay's ' Portraits,' Nos. 127-8. 

[Law Eeview, ii. 341-52 ; Kay's Original Por-^ 
traits and Caricature Etchings, 1877, i. 313-6 ; 
Edinburgh Eeview, Ixix. 31-2, 281-3 ; Scots 
Magazine, 1811, pp. 403-7.] G. F. E. B. 

BLAIR, ROBERT, M.D. (d. 1828), in- 
ventor of the ' aplanatic ' telescope, was born 
(there is reason to believe) at Murchiston, 
near Edinburgh. He was, in all proba- 
bility, identical with the Robert Blair who 
wrote 'A Description of an accurate and 
simple Method of adjusting Hadley's Qua- 
drant for the Back Observation,' appended to 
the ' Nautical Almanac ' for 1788 (published 
1783), and printed separately by order of the 
commissioners of longitude. But the first 
fact authentically known about him is his 
appointment by a royal commission, dated 
25 Sept. 1785, to the chair of practical astro- 
nomy erected for his benefit in the university 
of Edinburgh, with a yearly salary of 120. 
Being unprovided with instruments or an ob- 
servatory, he held the post as a complete 
sinecure for forty-three years, eight of which 
he is said to have spent in London, where his 
only son, Archibald Blair, was established as 
an optician. When in Edinburgh he rarely 
entered the Senatus Academicus, and his name 
was even omitted from the list of professors 
furnished to the university commission, which 
began its sittings in 1826. In 1787 Blair 
undertook, with a view to finding a substitute 
for flint glass, the first systematic investiga- 
tion yet attempted of the dispersive powers 




of various media, the results of which were 
lengthily detailed in a paper read before the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh 3 Jan. and 
4 April 1791. He was the first to attempt 
the removal of the ; secondary spectrum/ 
and succeeded in his attempt by a triple 
combination of two essential oils, such as 
naphtha and oil of turpentine, with crown 
glass ; but his discovery of fluid media pos- 
sessing the same relative, though a different 
absolute dispersion from glass, gave a far 
more brilliant prospect of practical suc- 
cess. This valuable optical property he found 
to belong to metallic solutions, especially of 
antimony and mercury, mixed with chlorhy- 
dric acid, and to the absolutely colourless re- 
fraction thus rendered possible he gave the 
name of ' aplanatic/ or < free from aberration ' 
(Ed. Phil Trans, iii. 53). < Could solid media 
of such properties be discovered,' Sir John 
Herschel remarked (Encycl. Metr. iv. 429), 
1 the telescope would become a new instru- 
ment.' Blair constructed object-glasses upon 
this principle, of which the performance was 
highly praised, in one case, at least, ventur- 
ing successfully upon the unexampled feat of 
giving to an aperture of three inches a focal 
length of only nine. He took out a patent for 
his invention, and entrusted the fabrication 
of the new instruments to a London optician, 
George Adams the younger [q. v.] ; but they 
never came into general use. An equally 
fruitless effort to establish a regular manu- 
facture and sale of them in Edinburgh was 
made by Archibald Blair, under his father's 
directions, in 1827 (Ed. Journ. of Science, vii. 
336). The fluid used in the lenses appears, 
in course of time, to have lost its transparency 
by evaporation or crystallisation, and the 
difficulty offered by the secondary spectrum is, 
by modern art, rather evaded than overcome. 

Sir David Brewster relates (Encycl. llrit. 
art. ' Optics,' p. 586, eighth edition) that an 
instrument for magnifying by means of prisms, 
similar to the ' teinoscope ' invented by him- 
self in 1812 (Ed. Phil. Journ. vi. 334), was 
shown him by Archibald Blair as having been 
constructed by his father at an unknown date. 
The principle of the contrivance was arrived 
at independently by Amici of Modena in 1821. 

Blair became a fellow of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh in January 1786, and at one 
period held the appointment of first commis- 
sioner of the board for the care of sick and 
wounded seamen. In this capacity he was 
instrumental in banishing scurvy from the 
navy by introducing the use of lime-juice, a 
method of preserving which for an indefinite 
time at sea he had previously ascertained 
(Ed. Journ. of Science, vii. 341). In 1827 he 
published at Edinburgh a small volume, en- 

' titled ' Scientific Aphorisms, being the out- 
1 line of an attempt to establish fixed principles 
of science, and to explain from them the gene- 
ral nature of the constitution and mechanism 
of the material system, and the dependence 
! of that system upon mind.' The large pro- 
[ mise of the title-page is but imperfectly ful- 
filled by the contents. Extending Lesage's 
machinery for producing the effects of gravi- 
tation, he divided matter into three classes, 
distinguished by the size of the constituting 
' projected,' ' jaculatory,' and ' quiescent ' par- 
ticles, in the mutual collisions of which he 
sought a universal explanation of phenomena 
of the material order, all motion being, how- 
ever, in the last resort, referred to the action 
of mind. His health was by this time much 
broken, and he died at Westlock, in Berwick- 
shire, 22 Dec. 1828. 

An abridgment of his l Experiments and 
Observations on the unequal Refrangibility 
of Light,' originally published in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ' 
(iii. 3-76, 1794), appeared in Nicholson's 
' Journal of Natural Philosophy ' with the 
title, ' The Principles and Application of a 
new Method of constructing Achromatic 
Telescopes ' (i. 1, 1797), and, in a German 
translation, in Gilbert's ' Annalen der Physik' 
(vi. 129, 1800). The best account of the 
principle of his * fluid lens,' or aplanatic tele- 
scopes, will be found in Sir John Herschel's 
article on Light in the * Encyclopaedia Me- 
I tropolitana ' (pars. 474-7). 

[Sir Alexander Grant's Story of the University 
1 of Edinburgh (1884), i. 339, ii. 361 ; Cat, of 
Scientific Papers, i. 1867.] A. M. C. 

BLAIR,, WILLIAM (1741-1782), cap- 
tain in the royal navy, was the son of Daniel 

i Blair of Edinburgh, collaterally related to 

I the Blairs of Balthayock. He became a 
lieutenant in the navy on 9 Oct. 1760, but 

| did not attain his commander's rank till 
6 Dec. 1777. He was posted on 18 April 
1778, and commanded the Dolphin, of 44 
guns, in the stubborn battle on the Dog- 
gerbank, 5 Aug. 1781. Notwithstanding her 
small force, the exigencies of the case com- 
pelled the Dolphin to take her place in the 
line of battle. Blair's conduct was worthy 
of the distinction thrust upon him, and won 
for him the special approval of the admiralty, 
and his appointment to the Anson, a new 

i 64-gun ship, then fitting for service in the 
West Indies. In the January following 
Blair sailed in company with Sir George Rod- 
ney, and on 12 April, when the French were 
completely defeated to leeward of Dominica, 
the Anson was in the leading squadron under 
the immediate command of Rear-admiral 




Drake, and was warmly engaged from the | 
very beginning of the battle. Her loss was i 
not especially great in point of numbers, but j 
one of her killed was Captain Blair. A monu- ; 
ment to his memory, jointly with his brother j 
officers, Captains Bayne and Lord Robert i 
Manners, was erected in Westminster Abbey j 
at the public expense. 

[Beatson's Memoirs, v. 405, 475, 479 ; Gent, j 
Mag. (1782), lii. 337; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
vii. 122.] J. K, L. 

BLAIR, WILLIAM (1766-1822), sur- 
geon, youngest son of William Blair, M.D., 
and Ann Gideon, his wife, was born at La- 
venham in Suffolk 28 Jan. 1766. He qualified 
himself for surgical practice in London under 
Mr. J. Pearson of Golden Square, by whom 
he was introduced to the Lock Hospital, and 
on a vacancy was elected surgeon to that 
charity. Blair was a master of arts, but it is 
not stated at what university he graduated. 
He became very eminent in his profession, 
and was surgeon to the Asylum, the Finsbury 
Dispensary, the Bloomsbury Dispensary in 
Great Russell Street, the Female Peniten- 
tiary at Cumming House, Pentonville, and the 
New Rupture Society. He was a member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, 
and of the medical societies of London, Paris, 
Brussels, and Aberdeen. For some time he 
was editor of the ' London Medical Review 
and Magazine.' Blair was a very earnest 
protestant of the methodist persuasion, and 
laboured zealously in the cause of the British 
and Foreign JBible Society, to which he pre- 
sented his valuable collection of rare and cu- 
rious editions of the Bible, and many scarce 
commentaries in different languages. Once 
or twice he attempted lectures on anatomy 
and other subjects, but with little success. 
On his wife's death in March 1822 he resolved 
to give up professional practice, and to retire 
into the country. He accordingly took a 
house in the neighbourhood of Colchester, but 
before the preparations for removing were 
completed he was seized with illness, and died 
at his residence in Great Russell Street, 
Bloomsbury, 6 Dec. 1822. 

His works are: 1. 'The Soldier's Friend, 
containing familiar instructions to the loyal 
volunteers, yeomanry corps, and military men 
in general, on the preservation and recovery 
of their health,' London, 1798, 12mo, 2nd 
edition 1803, 3rd edition 1804. 2. ' Essays 
on the Venereal Disease and its concomitant 
Effects,' London, 1798, 8vo, 3rd edition 1808. 
3. ' Anthropology, or the Natural History of 
Man, with a comparative view of the structure 
and functions of animated beings in general,' 
London, 1805, 8vo. 4. ' The Vaccine Con- 

test, being an exact outline of the arguments 
adduced by the principal combatants on both 
sides respecting Cow-Pox inoculation, includ- 
ing a late official report by the medical council 
of the Royal Jennerian Society/ London, 
1806, 8vo ; written in defence of vaccination 
in answer to Dr. Rowley. 5. ( Hints for the 
consideration of Parliament in a letter to Dr. 
Jenner on the supposed failure of vaccination 
at Ringwood, including a report of the Royal 
Jennerian Society, also remarks on the pre- 
valent abuse of variolous inoculation, and on 
the exposure of out-patients attending at the 
Small-pox Hospital,' London, 1808, 8vo. 

6. ' Prostitutes Reclaimed and Penitents Pro- 
tected, being an answer to some objections 
against the Female Penitentiary,' 1809, 8vo. 

7. 'Strictures on Mr. Hale's reply to the 
pamphlets lately published in defence of the 
London Penitentiary,' 1809, 8vo. 8. 'The 
Pastor and Deacon examined, or remarks on 
the Rev. John Thomas's appeal in vindication 
of Mr. Hale's character, and in opposition to 
Female Penitentiaries,' 1810, 8vo. 9. 'The 
Correspondence on the Formation, Objects, 
and Plan of the Roman Catholic Bible So- 
ciety,' 1814 ; this engaged him in a contro- 
versy with Charles Butler of Lincoln's Inn 
(vide Gent. Mag. Ixxxiv. pts. i. and ii.). 
10. A long and elaborate article on ' Cipher/ 
in Rees's < Cyclopedia ' (1819), vol. viii. The 
engraved illustrative plates are erroneously 
inserted under the heading of f Writing by 
Cipher' in the volume of 'Plates/ vol. iv. 
This article is incomparably the best treatise 
in the English language on secret writing and 
the art of deciphering. It includes a cipher 
method invented by Blair, which he declared 
to be inscrutable ; but the key was discovered 
by Michael Gage, who published at Norwich 
in 1819 (though it is by a typographical error 
dated 1809) 'An Extract taken from Dr. Rees's 
New Cyclopaedia on the article Cipher, being 
a real improvement on all the various ciphers 
which have been made public, and is the first 
method ever published on a scientific prin- 
ciple. Lately invented by W. Blair, Esq., 
A.M. ; to which is now first added a Full 
Discovery of the Principle/ 8vo. 11. An ar- 
ticle on 'Stenography' in Rees's 'Cyclopaedia/ 
vol. xxxiv. 12. ' The Revival of Popery, its 
intolerant character, political tendency, en- 
croaching demands, and unceasing usurpa- 
tions, in letters to William Wilberforce/ 
London, 1819, 8vo. 13. 'A New Alphabet 
of Fifteen Letters, including the vowels/ in 
William Harding's ' Universal Stenography/ 
2nd edit. 1824. 14. Correspondence respect- 
ing his method of Secret Writing, containing 
original letters to him on the subject from the 
Right Hon. W. Windham, G. Canning, the 




Earl of Harrowby, J. Symmons of Padding- | 
ton, and Michael Gage of Swaft'ham, with the j 
whole of his system of ciphers. Manuscript | 
sold at the dispersion of William Upcott's I 
collection in 1846. 

[MS. Addit. 19170, ff. 23, 24; Page's Sup- | 
plement to the Suffolk Traveller, v. 946 ; Collet's 
Relics of Literature, 112 ; Notes and Queries, 1st j 
ser. xii. 384, 2ndser. iii. 17 ; Biog. Diet, of Living \ 
Authors (1816), 29 ; Some Account of the Death 
of William Blair, Lond. (1823), 12mo; Orthodox j 
Journal, iv. 139, 140 ; Cat. of William Upcott's 
MSS. and Autographs, art. 23 ; Gent. Mag. xcii. I 
(ii.) 646, xciii. (i.) 213 ; Cat. of Printed Books ! 
in Brit. Mus. ; Cotton's Rhemes and Doway, 78, ' 
95, 98, 107, 115.] T. C. 

BLAK or BLACK, JOHN (d. 1563), a 
Dominican friar of Aberdeen, wrote 'De reali 
prsesentia Christ! in Sacramento Altaris;' 
' Acta coltoquii cum Willoxio symmysta ; ' 
1 Conciones pise ; ' and ' Monita ad Apostatas.' 
His public disputation with John Willox took 
place in Edinburgh in the summer of 1561. 
Bishop Lesley gives the three heads of their 
disputation, and adds that in the end nothing i 
was agreed. Indeed it would seem that the 
only important result of such discussions was 
to exasperate the temper of the people, for 
Blak was stoned to death by a protestant mob 
in Edinburgh on 7 Jan. 1562-3. 

[Camerarius, De Scot. Fort. p. 202; Collec- 
tions for the Shire of Aberdeen and Banff (Spald- 
ing Club, 1843), i. 202 ; Lesley's History of 
Scotland (Baimatyne Club, 1830), p. 295 ; Sir 
James Balfour's Annals (1824), i. 325; Wod- 
row's Biog. Collections, i. 110 ; Dempster's Hist. 
Eccles. Gent. Scot. (1627), p. 85 ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. p. 104.] T. F. H. 

BLAKE, CHARLES, D.D. (1664-1730), 
divine and poet, was born at Reading, Berk- 
shire, being the son of John Blake, ' gent.,' I 
of that town, and educated at the Merchant I 
Taylors' School and St. John's College, Ox- ! 
ford, of which he was scholar and afterwards ! 
fellow (B.A. 1683, MA. 1687-8, D.D. 1696). ! 
He was domestic chaplain to Sir William | 
Dawes, afterwards bishop of Chester and arch- I 
bishop of York, who was his close friend. 
Among his preferments were the rectory of 
St. Sepulchre's, London, of Wheldrake in ' 
Yorkshire, and of St. Mary's, Hull, and he was 
successively a prebendary of Chester, a pre- 
bendary of York (1716), and archdeacon of 
York (1720). He died 22 Nov. 1730. He 
published a small collection of Latin verses, 
consisting of a translation into Latin of the 
poem of Musaeus on Hero and Leander, and of 
part of the fifth book of Milton's l Paradise 
Lost;' and two original poems, one called 
1 Hibernia Plorans/ written in 1689, the year 

of the siege of Londonderry, deploring Ire- 
land's woes, in the style of Virgil's Eclogues, 
and the other an elegy on the death, in 1688, 
of Frederick, the Great Elector of Branden- 
burg. These were all published together in 
a little sixpenny pamphlet, under the title 
of ( Lusus Amatorius, sive Musaei de Herone 
et Leandro carmen ; cui accedunt Tres Nugae 
Poeticae,' at London in 1693. 

[Wood's Athense Oxonienses ; Lists, &c. of 
Scholars of the Merchant Taylors' School, ed. 
Hessy ; Robinson's Eegister of Merchant Taylors' 
School, i. 296; Allen's History of Yorkshire; 
Ormerod's History of Cheshire.] R. B. 

BLAKE, SIR FRANCIS (1708-1780), 
first baronet, mathematician, born 1708, was 
descended from the house of Menlough, co. 
Galway. His father, Robert Blake, by his 
marriage with Sarah, third daughter of his 
kinsman, Sir Francis Blake, knight, of Ford 
Castle, Northumberland, became possessed of 
the Twisell estate, in the county of Durham. 
The son rendered active support to the go- 
vernment during the rebellion of 1745, and 
was created a baronet 3 May 1774. He de- 
voted much of his time to mechanics and 
experimental philosophy, and upon becoming 
a fellow of the Royal Society, in 1746, 
wrote some papers in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions.' Sir Francis died at Tilmouth 
29 March 1780, and was buried at Houghton- 

[Raine's North Durham, pp. 314, 316 ; 
Betham's Baronetage, iii. 439.] G-. G. 

BLAKE, SIR FRANCIS (1738 P-1818), 
second baronet, political writer, was the 
eldest surviving son of Sir Francis, the first 
baronet [q. v.], by Isabel, his wife, second 
daughter and coheiress of Mr. Samuel Ayton 
of West Herrington, Durham. He was edu- 
cated at Westminster, whence he removed 
to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and proceeded 
LL.B. in 1763. He died at Twisell Castle 
2 June 1818, at the age of 81. He wrote : 

1. 'The Efficacy of a Sinking Fund of One 
Million per annum considered,' 8vo, 1786. 

2. < The Propriety of an Actual Payment of 
the Public Debt considered,' 8vo, 1786. 

3. ' The True Policy of Great Britain con- 
sidered,' 8vo, 1787. These, with other pieces, 
were republished collectively under the title 
of ' Political Tracts,' 8vo, Berwick, 1788, and 
again at London in 1795. His eldest son and 
successor, Francis, represented Berwick in 
several parliaments. He published some se- 
vere criticisms on the action of the House of 
Lords in regard to the corn laws, and died 
10 Sept. I860, aged 85. 




[Eaine's North Durham, pp. 3 1 3-1 4, 316-17 ; 
Cooper's Biog. Diet. p. 234 ; Biog. Diet, of Living >. 
Authors (1816), p. 29; Gent. Mag. Ixxxviii. i. 641 ! 
(1860), ix. 445-6.] GK G. 

BLAKE, JAMES (1049-1728), also 
known as JAMES CROSS, Jesuit, born in Lon- ; 
don in 1649, entered the Society of Jesus 
at Watten, in Belgium, in 1675, and was 
admitted a professed father 1 July 1675. He 
is named in Titus Oates's list of Jesuits in 
1678 as Mr. Blake, alias Cross, living in Spain. 
On 3 April 1701 he was declared provincial 
of his brethren in England, and he held that i 
office for nearly four years. He was chaplain 
at Mr. Mannock's, Bromley Hall, Colchester, 
from 1720 till his death, on 29 Jan. 1728. 
His only published work is ' A Sermon of 
the Blessed Sacrament, Preach'd in the 
Chappel of his Excellency the Spanish Em- 
bassador on Corpus Christ! day, June 3, 
1686,' London, 1686, 4to, reprinted in vol. ii. 
of 'A Select Collection of Catholick Ser- 
mons/ London, 1741, 8vo. 

[Foley's Eecords, v. 98, 108, 161, 537, vii. 64 ; 
Oliver's Collections S. J. ; Backer's Bibl. des 
Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus (1869), i. 
653.] T. C. 

BLAKE, JOHN BRADBY (1745-1773), 
naturalist, son of John Blake of Great Par- 
liament Street, Westminster, was born in 
Great Marlboro ugh Street, London, on 4 Nov. 
1745, and received his education at West- 
minster School. In 1766 he was sent out to 
China as one of the East India Company's 
supercargoes at Canton. There he devoted 
all his spare time to the advancement of na- 
tural science, His plan was to procure the 
seeds of all the vegetables found in China 
which are used in medicine, manufactures, or 
food, or which are in any way serviceable to 
mankind, and to send to Europe not only 
such seeds, but also the plants by which they 
are produced. His idea was that they might 
be propagated in Great Britain and Ireland, 
or in some of our colonies. His scheme was 
attended with success. Cochin-China rice 
was grown in Jamaica and South Carolina ; 
the tallow-tree prospered in Jamaica, in Caro- 
lina, and in other American colonies ; and 
many of the plants the seeds of which he 
transmitted were raised in several botanical 
gardens near London. He likewise forwarded 
to England some specimens of fossils and ores. 
By attending too closely to these pursuits he 
contracted a disease, of which he died at Can- 
ton on 16 Nov. 1773, when he had just en- 
tered the twenty-ninth year of his age. 

'[Biog. Brit. (Kippis), ii. 359; Annual Reg. 
xviii. pt. ii. 30-5.] . T. C. 

BLAKE, MALACHI (1687-1760), dis- 
senting minister, was born at Blagdon, near 
Taunton, and was the son of the Rev. Malachi 
Blake. The family, a collateral branch of 
that of Admiral Blake, descends from Wil- 
liam Blake of Pitminster (died 1642), whose 
second son was John (1597-1645), the father 
of John (1629-1682), the father of Malachi 
(born 1651). This last-named, the presby- 
terian minister of Blagdon, and founder of 
the dissenting cause at Wellington, Somer- 
setshire, was implicated in Monmouth's re- 
bellion, and fled to London in disguise. His 
second son Malachi, born in 1687, was pres- 
byterian minister of Blandford, where he 
died in 1760. He published : ' A Brief Ac- 
count of the dreadful Fire at Blandford 
Forum in the county of Dorset, which hap- 
pened 4 June 1731. With sermons [4 June 
1735] in remembrance, and serious address 
to the inhabitants of the town,' London 
[1735]. His younger brother, William (1688- 
1772), a woolstapler, was father of Malachi 
(1724-1795), presbyterian minister of Whit- 
ney and Fullwood, and of William (1730- 
1799), presbyterian minister of Crewkerne 
[see BLAKE, WILLIAM, 1773-1821]. 

[Blake pedigree, MS.; March's Hist. Presb. 
and Gren. Bapt. Churches in West of England, 
1835, p. 244.] A. G-. 

BLAKE, ROBERT (1599-1657), admiral 
and general at sea, of a family formerly of 
Bishop's Lydiard, near Taunton, and after- 
wards merchants of Bridgwater, was born at 
Bridgwater in August 1599, the eldest of 
the twelve sons of Humphrey Blake and of 
Sarah, daughter and coheiress of Humphrey 
Williams of Plansfield. He received his early 
education at the grammar school of the town, 
and in 1615 was sent up to Oxford, where he 
matriculated as a member of St. Alban Hall, 
whence he removed shortly afterwards to 
Wadharn College, then recently founded. 
Here he remained for nearly ten years, gradu- 
ating in due course, and standing for a fellow- 
ship at Merton, though without success. Ac- 
cording to the tradition, the cause of his 
failure was his short, squat, ungainly figure, 
which offended the artistic sense of the war- 
den. In 1625 he left Oxford. His father 
had died intestate and far from wealthy. 
When Plansfield had been sold, and all avail- 
able property had been realised, there was 
little more than 200Z. a year. Two of the 
elder brothers went to push their fortunes in 
London, the younger ones were still at school ; 
Robert, with his second brother Humphrey, 
would seem to have continued the business, 
and not without success, for a few years later, 
and through the rest of his life he was in 




easy circumstances. It is perhaps probable 
that at this time he himself made voyages to 
distant seas ; to do so was almost the common 
course for a pushing merchant. It is said 
that once, when Humphrey, as churchwarden, 
was censured by the bishop for conniving at 
certain irregularities in the service of the 
church, Robert signed a remonstrance against 
the bishop's conduct. The story is, however, 
very vague and uncertain. He was returned 
as member for his native place in the short 
parliament of 1640, but in the election of 
the following autumn he was unsuccessful ; 
he was not a member of the Long parliament 
till 1645, when, on the expulsion of Colonel 
Windham, he was again returned for Bridg- 
water. As a young man at Oxford he is said 
to have professed republican sentiments; he 
undoubtedly held republican opinions in his 
later years. v But these were, in the main, theo- 
retical preferences, which do not seem to have 
dictated his course of action ; that was ruled 
by his judgment of passing events, which, as 
he interpreted them, gave him but the choice 
between submission to arbitrary tyranny and 
a manly resistance. Even before the appeal 
to arms his mind was fully made up, and 
amongst the very first he joined the army 
raised by Sir John Homer in 1642. In July 
1643 he commanded an important post in 
Bristol when it was besieged by the royalists; 
the town,however, was surrendered by Colonel 
Fiennes, the governor, after a very feeble de- 
fence, and though Blake, unwilling to believe 
this, held his post for twenty-four hours after 
the capitulation, he was at last compelled to 
accede to its terms. It is said, but without 
probability, that Rupert was with difficulty 
persuaded not to hang him. Blake's resolute 
conduct was warmly approved by the parlia- 
mentary leaders ; he was named one of the 
Somerset committee of ways and means, and 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel of Popham's 
regiment, fifteen hundred strong, in which also 
his brother Samuel, born 1608, had a com- 
pany. With a detachment of this regiment 
he made a dash at Bridgwater, hoping to sur- 
prise the castle. He failed in doing so, and, 
being quite unprepared for a more formal at- 
tack, at once drew off. There had been no 
fighting in the town, but straggling down the 
river Samuel Blake was killed in an acci- 
dental skirmish. We are told that when the 
loss was reported to the colonel, he said 
calmly, ' Sam had no business there;' but 
presently, retiring to a private room, he wailed 
aloud in a transport of grief, crying ' Died 
Abner as a fool dieth.' Samuel left a son 
Robert, whose fortunes were afterwards very 
closely linked with those of his uncle and 

After the fall of Bristol the royalists swept 
the west of England, and there were but few 
places which still held out for the parliament. 
| One of these was Lyme in Dorsetshire, little 
j more than a fishing village ; and though it 
! was protected by a few earthworks hastily 
thrown up, Prince Maurice had no expecta- 
| tion of resistance when, at the head of some 
| five thousand men, he summoned it to sur- 
render. It happened, however, that Blake 
I had been stationed there with a detachment 
of about five hundred men, and had prepared 
! himself as he best could to hold the post, 
had raised volunteers in the neighbourhood, 
; and had strengthened the defences. The sum- 
I mons was rejected, and the assault which 
I immediately followed was bloodily repulsed. 
Maurice found that the place could not be 
! taken without attacking in form, and accor- 
1 dingly sat down before it ; but the defences 
! grew as the siege' went on, and ' after he had 
lain before it a month it was much more like 
to hold out than it was the first day he came 
before it ' (CLARENDON) ; so that when, on 
23 May 1644, the garrison was relieved by the 
fleet under Warwick, and Maurice had tidings 
of the near approach of the Earl of Essex, he 
hastily retired to Exeter, l with some loss of 
reputation for having lain so long, with such 
! a strength, before so vile and untenable a 
[ place, without reducing it ' (ibid.} 

The stand at Lyme had been of very great 
I service to the parliamentary cause, and had 
given time for Essex to come into that part 
of the country. But Essex, by marching 
into Cornwall, lost the opportunity, and com- 
mitted a mistake which, had it not been for 
Blake's prompt action, might have been fatal. 
Among the many places in Somersetshire 
held by the royalists Taunton was one ; it 
was quite unfortified, and the garrison was 
small ; but it was the point on which all the 
main roads of the county converged, it com- 
manded the lines of communication, and had 
thus a peculiar strategic importance, which 
Blake alone seems to have understood. He 
had been promoted after his brilliant defence 
of Lyme, and had an independent command, 
with which, 8 July 1644, he suddenly threw 
himself on Taunton. It was held by only 
eighty men, who made no opposition, and in 
Blake's hands the place 'became a sharp thorn 
in the sides of all that populous country.' 
The position was one of extreme peril, for it 
was quite isolated ; and when Essex's army 
was overwhelmed in August no relief could 
be expected. Blake, however, determined to 
hold his ground as long as possible ; the roads 
were barricaded, breastworks thrown up, guns 
planted, houses loopholed, and when the royal- 
ists advanced on the place, which they had 




judged it madness to defend, they received so 
rude a check that they contented themselves 
with investing it and waiting for famine to 
do their work. From time to time more ener- j 
getic attempts were made, but through all, | 
against sword and famine and repeated bom- 
bardments, the place was held for nearly a 
year, till after the battle of Naseby, 14 June, ; 
1645, had left the parliament free to under- j 
take the subjugation of the west. When the | 
siege was finally raised, Blake continued to 
act as governor of Taunton. The town was j 
little more than a heap of rubbish, the land 
round about was desolate, the people were 
impoverished. Money was granted 'by the 
parliament to meet the immediate necessities, 
and public collections were made for rebuild- 
ing the ruined houses ; but through the au- 
tumn and winter Blake was fully occupied ! 
with the task of administering relief and re- 
storing order, and though returned to parlia- 
ment he did not at that time take any part 
in the parliamentary proceedings. His repu- 
tation in Somerset stood extremely high, and 
has been supposed to have excited the jealousy 
of Cromwell himself. Of this there is no evi- 
dence ; but it appears certain that Blake was 
not of Cromwell's party, and, unlike a large 
majority of the foremost men of the time, he 
was neither relation nor connection of Crom- 
well. It is said that he openly declared that 
' he would as freely venture his life to save 
the king as ever he had done it to serve the 
parliament ' (History and Life, 28). This 
is utter nonsense, and would, had he said it, 
have been a strong condemnation of Blake, 
a dark stain on his character ; for it is per- 
fectly certain that he took no active measures, 
either in word or deed, to stay the king's exe- 
cution. It is probable enough that he con- 
sidered it as a blunder ; but his appointment 
27 Feb. 1648-9, a very few days after the 
king's death, to share in the chief command 
of the fleet, is a proof that the dominant fac- 
tion had neither doubt of his goodwill nor 
jealousy of his reputation. The events of 
1648 had indeed shown that it was necessary 
to have in command of the fleet a man whom 
the council of state could trust [see BATTEN, 
SIR WILLIAM] ; and it is very probable that 
some familiarity with ships and maritime af- 
fairs, gained as a merchant of Bridgwater, 
may have directed the appointment of Blake, 
as one of the admirals and generals at sea, to 
command the fleet during the summer of 
1649. The duty immediately before them was 
to suppress Prince Rupert, who, with the re- 
volted ships and some others, had begun a 
naval war against the parliament on a system 
scarcely, if at all, distinguishable from piracy 
(WARBURTON, Prince Rupert, iii. 275 n.), and 

had meantime established his headquarters at 
Kinsale. Here Blake blockaded him, and the 
summer of 1649 slipped away without his 
being able to stir out of the port ; but so far 
was Cromwell from the jealousy with which 
he is commonly credited, that he suggested 
and procured for Blake the offer of a command 
with himself in the army in Ireland as major- 
general of foot. The choice was left with 
Blake (Calendar S. P., Dom. 2 Oct. 1649), who 
preferred the more adventurous service, and 
continued in command of the fleet. 

Towards the end of October a gale of wind 
blew Blake's squadron off shore, and Prince 
Rupert, taking hasty advantage of the chance, 
made good his escape to the coast of Portugal 
and the straits of Gibraltar, where he was on 
the main line of all foreign trade, and his pi- 
racies rapidly filled his treasury. A winter 
fleet was at once ordered to be got ready, and, 
Deane being sick, the sole command was, in 
the first instance, given to Blake (ibid. 4 Dec.), 
who was ordered to reside at Plymouth to 
expedite matters, and to get to sea as soon 
as possible ; while Popham, the third of the 
generals, was to follow with reinforcements. 
He was directed to hunt down the princes 
as public enemies, to seize or destroy them 
wherever he should come up with them, and 
to treat as enemies any foreign powers who 
might support them (17 Jan. 1649-50 ; THTJR- 
LOE, State Papers, i. 136). It was not till 
the beginning of March that Blake got to sea, 
and when he arrived at the mouth of the 
Tagus he found that the princes were in the 
river, and had obtained a promise of support 
from the king of Portugal. The English resi- 
dent in vain urged that these were pirates, 
in vain demanded satisfaction for the in- 
sults they received from the princes, whose 
men fought with, and even killed, the English 
sailors on shore ; whilst Rupert, always dis- 
tinguished for his mechanical genius, at- 
tempted to shorten matters by sending, 
23 April, a species of torpedo not very dis- 
similar from those of our own time on board 
the vice-admiral, in hopes to set fire to his 
ship (WARBURTON, iii. 305: THTTRLOE,!. 146). 
Suspicion was excited, and the thing was not 
received on board ; but though the attempt 
was patent enough, and though the murder 
of some of the English seamen was publicly 
known, the king refused to give the English 
any satisfaction. The case was provided for 
j in Blake's instructions, and was rendered more 
I pressing by the belief that a French squadron 
j was expected, which was to act in concert 
I with the princes. Accordingly, on 21 May, 
| he seized nine ships going out of the river, 
bound for the Brazils with rich cargoes. 
i These ships were English, hired by the Por- 




tuguese ; and Blake, taking out their officers 
and strengthening their crews, converted them 
into men-of-war. Five days later his fleet 
was reinforced by Popham with several large 
ships, and definite instructions to seize or de- 
stroy any ships or goods belonging to the king | 
of Portugal or his subjects. The king, on the I 
other hand, was enraged at the injury which | 
had been done him, and still more when the j 
homeward-bound Brazil fleet ran ignorantly ! 
in amongst the blockading squadron, and was 
captured ; he went on board Prince Rupert's 
ship, and besought him to go out at once, 
with his own squadron and all the Por- 
tuguese fleet, and drive aw r ay the English. 
Rupert was nothing loth to attempt this ; 
but a foul wind in the first place, and after- 
wards a want of cooperation on the part of 
the Portuguese, prevented his gaining any 
distinct success, though Blake had with him 
but a very small force, his ships being appa- 
rently distributed at Cadiz and along the 
coast (WARBURTON, iii. 313; THTJKLOE, i. 
1 57). All the same, the blockade was raised ; 
and the Portuguese, determined to make 
peace with the parliamentary government, 
desired the princes to leave the Tagus. The 
latter accordingly set sail from Lisbon on 
29 Sept. 1650, and ran through the straits into 
the Mediterranean, plundering as they went. 
They had already made several captures when, 
in the early days of November, Blake came 
up with the greater part of their squadron, 
which had been separated from the ships in 
which the princes sailed in a storm off Cape 
Gata. Blake chased the detached ships into 
Cartagena, and, without standing on any close 
observance of the rights of a neutral port, 
followed them in, drove them ashore, and set 
fire to them (WARBURTON, iii. 317 ; HEATH, 
275). The princes, with three ships only, got 
to Toulon, and thither Blake followed them ; 
he at once sent in a protest against their being 
allowed the succour of a French port, and when 
this produced no effect he ordered reprisals 
against French ships. These measures of re- 
taliation cooled the warmth of the French wel- 
come, and the princes thought it best to quit 
the port, and to make what haste they could 
out of the Mediterranean. They did, in fact, 
sail to the West Indies, where, some eighteen 
months later, Maurice was lost in a hurricane 
(WARBURTON, iii. 324, 382). And meantime 
Blake, having instructions that Penn was on 
his way to relieve him [see PENN, SIR WIL- 
LIAM], returned to England, where he arrived 
towards the middle of February 1650-1. On 
his passage down the Mediterranean he met, it 
is said, a French ship of war, mounting forty 
guns, * whose captain he commanded on board, 
and asked him if he was willing to lay down his 

sword. The captain answered No! Then Blake 
bade him return to his ship and fight it out as 
long as he was able, which he did ; and after 
two hours' fight he came in and submitted, 
and kissing his sword delivered it to Blake, 
who sent him and his ship with the rest into 
England ' (WHITELOCKE'S Memorials, 16 Jan. 
1650-1). The story is so evidently absurd in 
every particular that it would not be worth 
repeating were it not that it is strictly con- 
temporary, and, though resting on no autho- 
rity beyond mere gossip, is, so far, evidence 
of the peculiarly chivalrous character which 
popular opinion attributed to Blake. The 
official approval is better attested : the thanks 
of parliament were given him ' for his great 
and faithful service,' and a sum of 1,000/. as 
a mark of the parliament's favour (Calendar, 
13 Feb. 1651). He was shortly afterwards 
(15 March) appointed to command the squa- 
dron designed for the Irish seas and the Isle 
of Man, and on news of a powerful Dutch 
fleet, commanded by Tromp, being in the 
neighbourhood of the Scilly islands, he was 
ordered (1 April) to proceed thither, with all 
his force, to demand of Tromp for what pur- 
pose he had come, and with what intentions ; 
and if the explanation should not be satisfac- 
tory, then to require him to desist, and, if 
necessary, ' to use the best ways and means 
to enforce him, and in all things to preserve 
the honour and interest of this nation.' The 
threatened collision with the Dutch passed 
over for the time, but the alarm was sufficient 
to point out to the parliament the necessity 
of subjugating the Scilly islands, which were 
held as strongholds of the royalist privateers. 
Blake was accordingly ordered to reduce them 
, no easy task, for the navigation w r as diffi- 
cult, the fortifications strong, and the garrison 
numerous. Negotiations proved unavailing ; 
but Blake, by seizing on Tresco, succeeded in 
establishing a strict blockade of St. Mary's, 
and having brought some of his smaller ships 
in front of the castle he effected a practicable 
breach, and compelled the governor to sur- 
render on easy terms (Calendar, 23 May, 
6 June). There were indeed murmurings at 
the leniency shown to these very stiff-necked 
! malignants ; but the council of state w r as quite 
well aware of the importance of the capture, 
: and approved of the whole business (28 June). 
Blake continued in the west, taking mea- 
I sures for the security of the Scilly islands 
j and refitting his ships. In August he received 
j a commission l to command in chief, in the 
absence of Major-general Disbrowe, all forces 
in the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, 
and Dorset ' (19 Aug.), a commission which 
was cancelled only three days later ; for Pop- 
ham had just died, Deane was with the army, 




and Blake received pressing orders ' forthwith 
to go to sea in person, to keep those affairs in 
good order, and prevent any impressions that 
may be made on the seamen by misrepresen- 
tation of affairs,' and also ' to prevent any 
supplies being sent from foreign parts to the 
king of Scotland ' (22 Aug.) Accordingly, 
with his flag in the Victory, he took his 
station in the Downs, whence he effectually 
prevented any foreign assistance being sent 
to the king, or to any of the king's supporters. 
The hopes of the king were crushed at Wor- 
cester on 3 Sept. ; but all through the autumn 
attempts were made to carry arms and stores 
to his partisans in Ireland, and the watch 
from the Downs was continued till well into 
the winter. In September Colonel Heane 
was ordered to reduce Jersey, held, as the 

he bore up and ran down towards the Eng- 
lish, his fleet following without further signal. 
Blake, observing this sudden alteration of 
course, at once understood that Trornp meant 
to attack him, and prepared for battle. As 
the Dutchman drew near and came within 
musket-shot, without striking flag or lowering 
topsails, he ordered a gun to be fired as a 
summons. This was done and repeated ; the 
third shot Tromp answered with a broadside, 
and made the general signal to engage. The 
Dutch fleet consisted of between forty and 
fifty ships. Blake had with him only fifteen ; 
but these were, as a rule, larger and more 
powerful than the Dutch. On either side 
there was no attempt at formation; Tromp's 
fleet had come on in a straggling line, which 
would have closed round Blake's squadron 

Scilly islands had been, by an enterprising j had not Bourne, with his division, arrived in 
and piratical body of cavaliers. Blake was j the nick of time, and fallen heavily on the 
ordered to accompany him l with such ships ! Dutch rear. Thus reinforced the English fully 
as he thought fit, and to give his best advice , held their own. The battle raged for four 
and assistance for its reduction' (20 Sept.) ! hours, and ended only with the day, when 
Against an attack in force, Jersey, now com- Tromp, having lost two ships, drew off, and 
pletely isolated, could do very little, and be- \ the English anchored oft* Hythe. The next 
fore October was out this last of the royalist j day the Dutch were seen steering towards 
strongholds had surrendered to the parlia- the coast of France, and Blake, having col- 
mentary army. ! lected his fleet at Dover, went into the Downs. 

On 1 Dec. 1651 the council of state for the | The exact history of this battle and the trans- 
year began its sittings. Blake was for the first actions which preceded it is to be found in 
time a member, and during the next months an official pamphlet, entitled l The Answer 
attended with some regularity (Calendar, I of the Parliament of the Commonwealth of 
1651-2, Introd., p. xlvii), which was brought j England to three papers delivered in to the 
abruptly to an end by the imminence of war Council of State by the Lords Ambassadors 
with Holland. On 10 March 1651-2 he at- ! Extraordinary of the States General of the 
tended the council for the last time j only i United Provinces.' It contains the letters of 
eleven members were present, when, probably j Blake, Bourne, and Tromp, as well as a num- 
at his own suggestion, he was ordered to re- j ber of depositions and other papers. The 
pair to Deptford, Woolwich, and Chatham, to I popular story, which has been repeated by Mr. 
hasten forth the summer fleet, f for which there I Dixon, is absurdly incorrect. It is unnecessary 
is extraordinary occasion' (11 March). The to examine it in detail, but it may be well to 

war broke out in May, and though there had 
been an accidental collision off the Start some 
days earlier, the first brunt of it fell on the fleet 
which had been got together in the Downs. 
Blake, with the bulk of his force, had gone 
along the coast to Rye, leaving Bourne, his 
rear-admiral, with only nine ships in the 
Downs, when, on 18 May, Tromp, with a large 
fleet, appeared outside, blown over, as he said, 
by stress of weather, from Dunkirk. His pro- 
fessions were amicable, but his bearing was 
most insolent ; he anchored off Dover, did not 
salute the castle, and during the rest of the 
day exercised his men with small arms, firing 
repeated volleys. The next day about noon 
Blake was seen approaching from the west- 
ward ; but the wind was foul, and his pro- 
gress slow. Tromp weighed and stood over 
towards the French coast, but afterwards, on 
getting news of the encounter off the Start, 

point out that Tromp's attack was certainly 
not a surprise to Blake ; that as his ship, the 
James, was lying to, whilst Tromp's, the Bre- 
derode, was coming down before the wind, 
the first broadside could not have been fired 
into the James's stern ; that as the James was 
cleared for action she had, for the time, neither 
cabin nor cabin windows ; that it is in the 
highest degree improbable that Blake, whilst 
ordering shotted guns to be fired on an in- 
sulting enemy, was below, either reading or 
drinking; and lastly, that as, according to 
every picture, tradition, and the custom of 
the age, he had a smooth, clean-shaven face, 
it is quite impossible that he could curl his 
whiskers in his anger. 

On the news of this battle the parliament 
took immediate measures for strengthening 
the fleet; but during the summer of 1652 
Blake was alone in his office of general at sea, 




Sir George Ayscue being subordinate to him, 
although employed in a distinct command. 
In the North Sea nothing of importance oc- 
curred, and after the check which Ayscue 
sustained from De Ruyter, 16 Aug., Blake, 
with the main fleet, cruised in the Channel, 
hoping to intercept De Ruyter on his home- 
ward voyage. Bad weather and fog, how- 
ever, enabled the Dutch fleet to escape with- 
out any serious difficulty, and De Ruyter 
joined fee With off Dunkirk on 22 Sept. He 
was closely followed by Blake, and the two 
fleets, each numbering about sixty-five ships, 
met off the mouth of the Thames on 28 Sept. 
The battle began about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, and raged with great fury where 
De With, De Ruyter, or Evertsen was ac- 
tually present ; but political intrigue had, for 
the moment, destroyed the usual spirit of the 
Dutch officers, and the approach of evening 
permitted them to draw on. No decisive ad- 
vantage was gained, but the next morning the 
Dutch were at some distance and would not 
renew the battle ; in the afternoon the wind 
was favourable, but on the English standing 
towards them they turned and fled. The 
victory was undoubted, but it was misunder- ! 
stood ; even Blake appears to have supposed 
that the battle had been fought out, and to ' 
have been led into something very like con- 
tempt for the enemy. The batteries which 
had been constructed to protect the anchorage 
in the Downs were dismantled and the fleet 
dispersed, either on different detached services 
or to refit ; Blake was left with not more than 
thirty-seven ships for the guard of the Chan- 
nel. In Holland, meanwhile, great exertions 
had been made. It was necessary for the life 
of the country that the trade which had been 
stopped for several months by the English 
fleet should be liberated, and towards the end 
of November Tromp, again in command, put 
to sea with some eighty ships of war and a 
convoy of about three hundred merchantmen. 
This last he left astern till he had cleared 
the way, and on the morning of 29 Nov. ap- 
peared with his fleet at the back of the Good- 
win, standing towards the southward. Blake, 
who was then lying in the Downs, held a 
hasty council of war, weighed, and stood out 
to meet him. It is impossible now to say 
what induced the council to recommend, or 
Blake to adopt, this extraordinary step, which, 
to us, seems rash to the verge of madness. 
All that can be said with certainty is that 
the commonly received story is incorrect, and 
that he was not influenced by any idea of 
covering the approach to London, which in- 
deed he left exposed, if Tromp had had any 
design against it. It is perhaps most pro- 
bable that he had not fully recognised the 

enemy's great superiority until he was well 
under way ; for the wind, which had been at 
south-west, veered almost suddenly, and blew 
very hard from the north-west. The Dutch 
were swept down to the southward, the Eng- 
lish avoided being carried in amongst them 
| only by hugging the shore, slipping close 
round the Foreland, and anchoring off Dover ; 
whilst Tromp, unable to withstand the force 
of the gale, anchored a couple of leagues dead 
to leeward. The next morning, 30 Nov., the 
two fleets weighed nearly together, and with 
a fresh wind at from N. to N.N.W. stood to 
the westward along the coast, Tromp unable, 
Blake, it may be, unwilling, to attack. But 
as they came near Dungeness the English 
were forced to the southward by the trend 
of the coast ; with or without their will they 
were obliged to close, and their leading ships 
were thus brought to action. Amongst the 
first the Triumph, carrying Blake's flag, sup- 
ported by Lane in the ^' ^ ictory, and Mildmay 
in the Vanguard, was closely engaged by De 
Ruyter and Evertsen. The Garland and 
Bonaventure attacked Tromp himself in the 
Brederode ; but other ships came up to their 
admiral's support, and the English ships 
were overpowered and taken after a gallant 
resistance, in which both their captains were 
slain. By those ships that did engage, the 
fight was stoutly maintained, though against 
tremendous odds ; but a great many, whether 
fearing the superiority of the enemy, or cor- 
rupted, as it was thought, by the emissaries of 
the king in Holland, persistently remained to 
windward ; whilst fortunately, on the side of 
the Dutch, several which had fallen too far to 
leeward were unable to get into the action. 
Towards evening the English had lost, besides 
the Garland and Bonaventure, one ship burnt 
and three blown up ; the Triumph had lost 
her foremast, and was unmanageable : the 
other ships that had engaged had suffered se- 
verely, and those that had not engaged still 
kept aloof. With a sorrowful heart Blake 
drew back, and under cover of the darkness 
anchored off Dover ; the next day he went 
into the Downs. Tromp, unable by the force 
and direction of the wind to follow him in, 
crossed over to the French coast, and anchored 
off Boulogne, whence he sent word to the 
convoy to pass on. For the next three weeks 
the Channel was alive with Dutch ships, and 
Tromp, having remained at Boulogne till the 
trade had all passed, proceeded to the ren- 
dezvous in the Basque roads. It was at this 
time that, according to the popular story, he 
wore the broom at the masthead, as signify- 
ing that he had swept, or was going to sweep, 
the English from the seas. There is no reason 
to believe that he ever did anything of the 




sort ; the statement is entirely unsupported 
by contemporary evidence ; not one writer of 
any credit, English or Dutch, mentions it even 
as a rumour ; but months afterwards an anony- 
mous and unauthenticated writer in a news- 
paper wrote : ' Mr. Trump, when he was in 
France, we understand, wore a flag 1 of broom ' 
(Daily Intelligencer, No. 113, 9 March 1652- 
3). The story was probably invented as a joke 
in the fleet, without a shadow of foundation. 
Blake had meantime written to the council 
of state a narrative of his defeat, complain- 
ing that ' there was much baseness of spirit, 
not among the merchant men only, but many 
of the state's ships.' He was sick at heart, and 
prayed that he might be discharged from his 
employment, but before everything he made 
it his earnest request that commissioners 
might be sent down to take an impartial 
and strict examination of the deportment of 
several commanders.' The council, however, 
refused to supersede him, although they as- 
sociated two others with him as generals of 
the fleet, his old colleague, Deane, and Monck, 
now for the first time appointed to a naval 
command. Blake they thanked for his con- 
duct, and instituted the commission he had 
desired, to investigate both the conduct of 
the officers and the internal economy of the 
fleet. Many improvements were ordered, 
and the organisation of the navy began to 
approach more nearly to that which after- 
wards prevailed ; but most of all were efforts 
made to increase the number and effective 
force of the ships. It was determined that 
Tromp should not return through the Channel 
unchallenged, and every nerve was strained 
to get together a fleet equal to the work before 
it. By the middle of February 1652-3 a fleet 
of between seventy and eighty ships was as- 
sembled at Portsmouth, and sailed to cruise to 
the westward ; it was known that Tromp was 
approaching with a fleet about equal in point 
of numbers, and a convoy of some 200 mer- 
chant ships. On the morning of the 18th 
they were sighted coming up Channel with : 
a leading wind. Blake was then off Port- j 
land and standing to the south ; his fleet in i 
no formation, but gathered in squadrons ac- ! 
cording to the several flag-officers. Penn, I 
with the blue squadron, was well to the 
southward ; Monck, with the white squadron, 
was a long way to leeward ; neither of them 
was in a position to help the red squadron, 
commanded by Blake and Deane together on 
board the Triumph. Tromp was not slow to 
understand this, though it seems altogether 
to have escaped Blake ; he saw that it was im- | 
possible for him to pass without doing battle ] 
or endangering his convoy, and, at once taking 
advantage of Blake's gross tactical blunder, 

threw himself in force on the red squadron. 
The Triumph was the very centre of the 
attack, and round her the battle raged fiercely. 
Blake was severely wounded ; Ball, her 
captain, was killed ; so also was Sparrow, 
the admiral's secretary, and very many other 
brave men. The fight seemed likely to prove 
disastrous to the English, when Penn with 
the whole blue squadron, and Lawson with 
the van of the red, who had struggled to 
windward and tacked, bore in amongst the 
Dutch. Later on, too, Monck with the 
white squadron came up, and the battle 
continued on equal terms till nightfall, when 
Tromp, seeing some of the English threaten- 
ing his convoy, drew off to its support. 
Neither side could as yet claim the vic- 
tory, and the loss of both, though very great, 
was fairly equal. During the night Tromp 
passed with his whole convoy ; when morn- 
ing dawned they were off St. Catharine's, 
and running freely up Channel. The Eng- 
lish followed ; but Tromp ranged his fleet 
astern of the merchant ships, so that they 
could not be got at but by passing through 
the ships of war ; and though many severe 
partial actions occurred, nothing very de- 
cisive was done. The chase continued 
during that day and the next ; five Dutch 
ships of war were sunk, four were captured, 
and some thirty or forty merchant- ships ; 
but Tromp kept up a semblance of order 
and protection to the last, and got the re- 
mainder away safely. The advantage was very 
markedly with the English ; but the Dutch, 
though worsted, were not dismayed, and 
immediately began preparing for a further 

Blake's wound proved more serious than 
was at first expected. He was put on shore at 
Portsmouth, but his recovery was slow, and 
a month afterwards his surgeon, Dr. Whistler, 
wrote : ' General Blake, I hope, mends, but 
my hopes are checked by the maxim " De 
senibus non temere sperandum." I trust the 
Great Physician's protection may be on him 
and on all public instruments of our safety ' 
(21 March). A few weeks later he went to 
London, where he attended to admiralty 
business (Col. 12 May) ; but it was only the 
news of the Dutch fleet being again at sea 
that impelled him, weak as he was, to resume 
the command. He hoisted his flag on board 
the Essex, then in the river (Cal. 2 June), 
but before he could get to the fleet the great 
battle of 3 June 1653 had been fought. He, 
with his squadron, did not arrive till late in 
the afternoon, and, coming fresh on the field, 
contributed largely to render the victory more 
complete. Deane had been slain in the battle, 
and for the next few weeks Blake shared the 




command with Monck ; but his health gave 
way under the strain, and he was compelled 
to go on shore at Southwold. ' We found 
him/ wrote the secretary of the admiralty, 
who had visited him, ' in a very weak con- 
dition, full of pain both in his head and left 
side, which had put him into a fever, besides 
the anguish he endures by the gravel, inso- 
much that he has no rest night or day, but 
continues groaning very sadly. This place 
affords no accommodation at all for one in 
his condition, there being no physician to be 
had hereabouts, nor any to attend him with 
necessary applications' (0 July). He had 
thus no share in the final victory of the war, 
31 July, but equally with Monck was pre- 
sented with a gold chain worth 300/. ' as a 
mark of favour for his services against the 
Dutch ' (6 Aug.) ; Penn and Lawson were 
also at the same time presented each with 
a chain of TOO/, value ; and all four with a 
large gold medal (VAX LOON, Hist. Met. 
ii. 367). One of these medals, believed to 
be Blake's, was bought for William IV in 
1832 (Gent. Mag. cii. i. 352), and is now kept 
at Windsor. The junior flag officers received 
chains of value 40/., and smaller medals, one 
of which is now in the British Museum. 

A few weeks' rest happily restored Blake's 
health so far as to permit him to return to 
the fleet (Gal. 20 Sept.) ; but the press of 
work was over, and during the winter his 
time was divided between admiralty business 
in London and his executive duties at Ports- 
After the peace with Holland in April 1654, 
he still continued the senior commissioner 
of the admiralty, and in July was appointed 
to command the fleet, which sailed on 29 Sept. 
for the Mediterranean, where, during the war, 
English interests had been very inadequately 
represented. His instructions seem to have 
been to carry on reprisals against the French, 
to repress the African pirates, to demand re- 
dress for injuries done to English ships, and, 
in general terms, to visit the different ports 
-of the Mediterranean, in order as it is now 
called to show the flag. In this way he 
visited Cadiz, Gibraltar, Alicant, Naples, 
and Leghorn (14 March 1654-5, Add. MS. 
9304) ; but his earlier letters have unfor- 
tunately not been preserved, and there is no 
authentic account of his proceedings at this 
time. It is said that he also visited Malaga, 
and that whilst there he compelled the go- 
vernor to make reparation for an outrage 
inflicted on an English seaman. The man 
liad committed a gross offence : he had insulted 
the procession of the host. If complaint had 
been made, he should have been punished ; 
' but,' said Blake, ' I will have you know, 
VOL. v. 

and the whole world know, that none but 
an Englishman shall chastise an English- 
man.' The story is extremely doubtful. It 
i rests only on the evidence of Bishop Burnet 
(Hist, of Own Times (Oxford edit.), i. 137), 
whose testimony is by no means unimpeach- 
able ; it is told in a very hearsay sort of 
manner, without any date ; and it is difficult 
to believe that had any such thing occurred, 
it would not be referred to in some of the 
existing official correspondence. It is, how- 
ever, a story which has been very generally 
accepted, and, together with that of his cap- 
ture of the French frigate already referred to, 
has perhaps done more than the whole of 
his historical career to fix the popular idea 
of Blake's character. At Leghorn he is said 
(LuDLOw's Memoirs, ii. 507) to have de- 
manded and obtained from the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany and from the pope reparation for 
the countenance shown to Prince Rupert, 
and for the loss sustained at the hands of 
RICHARD) ; and 60,000/. is said to have been 
actually paid (CAMPBELL, ii. 43). The state- 
ment is, however, entirely unsupported by 
exact evidence, and is virtually contradicted 
by Blake's silence in his extant letters from 
Leghorn, and his reference to others from the 
same place, as of little importance (12 Jan. 
1654-5, Add. MS. 9304). 

From Leghorn he went on to Tunis, where, 
according to his instructions, he demanded 
restitution or satisfaction for piracies com- 
mitted on English subjects. This was posi- 
tively refused, and finding negotiations vain 
and the Turks insolent, Blake finally resolved 
to reduce them by force to terms of civility. 
On the morning of 4 April 1655, his fleet 
sailed into Porto Farina, and anchored under 
the castles. As the fight began, a light wind 
off the sea blew the smoke over the town 
and shielded the English, so that after some 
hours' cannonade, having set on fire all 
the ships, to the number of nine, they re- 
| treated into the roadstead with no greater 
I loss than twenty-five killed and about forty 
wounded. Blake was doubtful whether, in 
thus attacking the Tunis pirates in their 
stronghold, he had not exceeded his instruc- 
tions, and in his official report expressed a hope 
that ' his highness will not be offended at it, 
nor any who regard duly the honour of our 
nation' (18 April; THURLOE, in. 232). Crom- 
well's reply was most gracious (13 June ; 
ibid. iii. 547) ; at the same time he sent orders 
to proceed off Cadiz, and carry on hostilities 
against Spain, with an especial view to inter- 
cept the Plate ships, or to prevent reinforce- 
ments being sent to the West Indies. In 
May Blake had visited Algiers, where the 





dey, convinced by the arguments put in I Spanish ship was burnt, blown up, or sunk, 
force at Tunis, entered into a friendly agree- [ and by seven o'clock the English ships had 
ment ; and, in anticipation of his later in- all drawn off ; not one was lost. ' We had 
structions, he was, by the beginning of June, not above fifty slain outright and 120 wounded, 
at Cadiz, off which he cruised during the rest and the damage to our ships was such as 
of the summer. The strain on his ships and in two days' time we indifferently well re- 
the health of his ships' companies was very ' - 
great ; and as winter approached he deter- 
mined, in accordance with the discretion en- 
trusted to him (THTJRLOE, i. 724) to return to 

England, where he arrived on 9 Oct. 

In the following spring, as soon as the 
season permitted, he returned to the same 
cruising ground in company with Colonel 
Edward Mountagu, appointed also general 
at sea. Mountagu remained during the sum- 
mer, and with Blake and the bulk of the 
fleet had gone to Aveiro in September, when 
Stayner [see STAYNER, SIR RICHARD], in com- 
mand of the light squadron, fell in with, cap- 
tured, and destroyed the Plate fleet (8 Sept.), 
with a loss to Spain estimated at nearly two 
millions sterling in treasure alone, exclusive 
of the ships and cargoes (Narrative of the 

paired for present security. "Which we had no 
sooner done, but the wind veered to the 
south-west, which is rare among those islands, 
and lasted just to bring us to our former 
station near Cape Santa Maria, where we 
arrived 2 May following' (Narrative, fyc., 
by order of parliament, 28 May 1657). The 
news of this great victory, of the daring and 
success of this extraordinary attack, which 
compares with the most brilliant of naval 
achievements, excited the greatest enthusi- 
asm in England. A public thanksgiving was 
ordered for 3 June, and the Protector wrote 
(10 June) : ' We cannot but take notice how 
eminently it hath pleased God to make use 
of you in this service, assisting you with 
wisdom in the conduct and courage in the 
execution ; and have sent you a small jewel 

late Success, fyc., published by order of par- j ps a testimony of our own and the parlia- 
liament, 4 Oct. 1656). After this severe ment's good acceptance of your carriage in 
blow to the enemy, several of the larger ships, this action ' (TnuRLOE, vi. 342). The jewel 

referred to was a portrait set in gold and 
diamonds, the cost of which amounted to 
575/. (Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 444). We 
may suppose that it reached Blake in safety, 
but nothing further is known of it. A story 
has been told and repeated that Blake's 

with Stayner and Mountagu, went home for 
the winter. Blake continued on the station, 
and early in April 1657 he had news that 
a large fleet from America had arrived at 
Santa Cruz of Teneriffe. In a council of war 

he announced his resolution of going thither 

and attacking it. They sailed on the 13th, i brother, Benjamin, commanded a ship at 

made the land on the 18th, and on the morn- ; Santa Cruz, was there guilty of cowardice, 

ing of the 20th by daybreak were off Santa 
Cruz. By signal from a frigate ahead they 
learned that the West India fleet was still 
in the bay. l Whereupon,' says the official 
report, * after a short conference how to order 
the attempt and earnest seeking to the Lord 
for his presence, w r e fell in amongst them, and 
by eight of the clock were all at an anchor, 
some under the castle and forts, and others 
by the ships' sides, as we could berth ourselves 

was tried by court martial at Blake's order, 
was sentenced to death, with a recommenda- 
tion to mercy, to which the general yielded, 
and sent the culprit home with an order ' he 
shall never be employed more.' The story is 
utterly false. Benjamin Blake went out to 
the West Indies with Penn, and was ap- 
pointed by him vice-admiral of the fleet left 

under Goodsonn as commander-in- 
chief. Between these two a quarrel arose, 

to keep clear one of another and best annoy apparently as to the right of command. The 
the enemy. They had there five or six galeons details are not known, but the result was that 
and other considerable ships, making up the \ Goodsonn sent his second in command home 
number of sixteen; most of them were fur- : (25 June 1656; THURLOE, v. 154). From 
nished with brass ordnance, and had their | beginning to end the general had nothing to 
full companies of seamen and soldiers, kept \ do with the matter, except indeed that, out 
continually on board. They were moored of respect to him, the case was not pressed 
close along the shore, which lies in a semi- \ as it otherwise might have been. 

circle, commanded as far as the ships lay by 
the castle, and surrounded besides with six 
or seven forts, with almost a continued line 
for musketeers and great shot.' This was 
the position which Blake, with a fleet barely 
superior in nominal force to that of the enemy, 
had attacked at the very closest quarters, 
with the result that before evening every 

With the destruction of the Spanish fleet, 
Blake's work before Cadiz was finished. He 
was ordered to return to England. He did 
not live to reach it. His health had long 
been extremely feeble ; and worn out by the 
fatigues and excitement of the campaign and 
by what the doctors called ' a scorbutic fever,' 
he died on board his ship, the George, at the 




very entrance of Plymouth Sound, 7 Aug. j 
1657. His body was embalmed ; was carried i 
round by sea to Greenwich, where it lay in 
state for some days ; was taken in procession | 
up the river on 4 Sept. and placed in a vault 
in Henry VII's chapel in Westminster Abbey. | 
Out of this royal burial-place it was removed | 
after the Restoration, and, with a score of j 
others, was cast into a pit dug on the north 
side of the abbey (STANLEY, Historical Me- 
morials of Westminster, 5th edit., 209). 

The peculiar and especial distinction which 
attaches to the name of Blake is by no means 
due solely to the brilliance of his achieve- 
ments in the command of fleets, nor yet to 
that exceeding care and forethought in their 
organisation and government to which his 
constant success must be mainly attributed, j 
Where he led or ordered them his men were | 
willing and able to go ; the work was done j 
heartily and well ; but the tactics of a fleet | 
were still in their infancy, and in this respect | 
Blake was unquestionably inferior to his j 
great Dutch rival, Martin Tromp. But more 
even than by his glory and by his success, 
the memory of Blake is dear to the English 
people by the traditions of his chivalrous 
character and of his unselfish patriotism. 
These cannot be proved by historical evidence, | 
but all indications tend to the same purpose, j 
and compel us to believe that his object was, j 
before everything, to uphold the honour and 
the interests of England. It is said that 
when urged to declare against Cromwell's 
assumption of supreme power, he replied, ' It 
is not for us to mind state affairs, but to keep 
foreigners from fooling us.' The reply is 
traditional; but its sentiment agrees with 
what he wrote on hearing of the dissolution 
of parliament, 22 Jan. 1654-5 : ' I cannot but 
exceedingly wonder that there should yet 
remain so strong a spirit of prejudice and 
animosity in the minds of men who profess 
themselves most affectionate patriots as to 
postpose the necessary ways and means for 
the preservation of the Commonwealth' 
(THURLOE, iii. 232). It is in this spirit that 
he commanded our fleets even to the end. 
Except by tradition we know nothing of his 
political bias ; but if in truth opposed to the 
government and the usurpation of Cromwell 
he never allowed his opposition to become 
manifest, and, irrespective of party, devoted 
his life to the service of his country. 

No undoubted portrait of Blake is known 
to exist. The portrait at Wadham College, 
and that formerly in the possession of Joseph 
Ames, are possibly originals; but the evidence 
is defective. The same must be said of the 
picture by Hanneman, which in 1866 was 
exhibited at South Kensington, lent by Mr. 

Fount aine of Narford Hall ; it may be Blake, 
but proof is quite wanting. The picture in 
the Painted Hall at Greenwich is a work of 
modern imagination, based apparently on a 
memoiy of the Ames portrait. 

[Calendars of State Papers, Domestic, 1649- 
1657 ; Granville Penn's Memorials of Sir Wil- 
liam Penn ; Thurloe's State Papers. There are 
many so-called lives of Blake : in Lives English 
and Foreign (1704), ii. 74 the author of which 
claims to have known some of the members of 
Blake's family; by Dr. Johnson a paraphrase of 
the preceding ; by Campbell, in Lives of the Ad- 
mirals, ii. 62 ; History and Life, &c., by a Gentle- 
man bred in his Family an impudent and men- 
dacious chap-book ; and by Mr. Hepworth Dixon 
(1852). From the historian's point of view they 
are all utterly worthless. Mr. Dixon's notices of 
Blake's family, so far as they are drawn from 
parish and private records, may possibly be correct, 
but his account of Blake's public life is grossly 
inaccurate, and much of it is entirely false ; he 
betrays throughout the most astonishing igno- 
rance of naval matters, and a very curious inca- 
pability of appreciating or interpreting historical 
evidence.] J. K. L. 

BLAKE, THOMAS (1597P-1657), puri- 
tan, was a native of Staffordshire. As he 
entered Christ Church College, Oxford, in 
1616 in his nineteenth year, he must have 
been born about 1597. He proceeded B.A. 
and M. A., and having obtained orders, Wood 
tells us, he had* some petit employment in the 
church bestowed on him.' ' At length/ con- 
tinues the historian, ' when the presbyterians 
began to be dominant, he adhered to that 
party,' and ' subscribed to the lawfulness of 
the covenant in 1648 among the ministers of 
Shropshire, and soon after, showing himself 
a zealous brother while he was pastor of 
St. Alkmond's in Shrewsbury, he received 
a call to Tamworth in Staffordshire and 
Warwickshire, where also being a constant 
preacher up of the cause, he was thought 
fit by Oliver and his council to be nominated 
one of the assistants to the commissioners of 
Staffordshire for the ejecting of such whom 
they called ignorant and scandalous ministers 
and schoolmasters.' 

Blake published a large number of books 
on puritan theology, but his attacks on Ri- 
chard Baxter damaged his reputation with 
many nonconformists. His arguments indi- 
cate a narrow, if subtle, intellect. The follow- 
ing are his chief works : 1. ' Birth Privilege, 
or the Right of Infants to Baptism,' 1644. 
2. f Infant's Baptism freed from Antichris- 
tianisme. In a full Repulse given to Mr. Ch. 
Blackwood in his Assault of that Part of 
Christ's Possession which he holds in his Heri- 
tage of Infants, entitled " The Storming of 





Antichrist," ' 1645 Wood misnames Black- 
wood /Charles' for 'Christopher.' 3. <A 
Moderate Answer to the Two Questions: 
(1) Whether there be sufficient Ground from 
Scripture to warrant the Conscience of a 
Christian to present his Infants to the Sacra- 
ment of Baptism ; (2) Whether it be not 
sinful for a Christian to receive the Sacra- 
ment in a Mixt Assembly/ 1645. 4. ' An 
Answer to Mr. Tombes his Letter in Vindi- 
cation of theBirth-priviledge of Believers and 

flmit* looiiQ ' 1 (\A_(\ K ( TVatirnnntr f\f tViP 

BLAKE, WILLIAM (1773-1821), dis- 
senting minister, was born at Crewkerne on 
29 March 1773, and was the second son of 
the Eev. William Blake (born on 7 July 1730, 
died on 29 March 1799), who had been a 
pupil of Doddridge at Northampton (1749), 
and who was presbyterian minister at Crew- 
kerne from 1754 (ordained 11 May 1757) till 
29 July 1798. His son William, also edu- 
cated at Northampton in 1790 under Horsey, 
preached first at Yeovil in 1793, and, on his 

their issue/ 1646.~ 5. l Testimony of the ! father's resignation, succeeded him at Crew- 
Ministers of Stafford to Solemn League/ I kerne, where he remained till his death on 
1648. 6. * Vindicia? Fcederis, a Treatise of ! 18 Feb. 1821. Rev. William Blake, jun., 
the Covenant of God with Mankind/ 1653. j of Crewkerne, was the last presbyterian 
7. ' Infant Baptism maintain'd in its Lati- minister of his name, from a family con- 
tude/ 1653. 8. ' The Covenant Sealed, or a spicuous in the ministry of West of England 
Treatise of the Sacrament of both Covenants/ j dissent [see BLAKE, MALACHI]. By his time 
1655. 9. ' Postscript to the Rev. and Learned i the original Calvinism of the race had changed 
Mr. Richard Baxter/ 1655 trenchantly an- | to Arianism, and he himself became humani- 

swered by Baxter. 10. 'Mr. Jo. Hum- 
phrey's Second Vindication of a Disciplinary 
Anti-erastian, Orthodox, Free Admission to 
the Lord's Supper, taken into consideration/ 
1656; and other pamphlets and occasional 
sermons. 'Ebenezer, or Profitable Truths 
after Pestilential Times/ 1666, which is 
assigned to him by Wood and by Brook, was 
not his, but by another Thomas Blake, who 
was ejected from East Hoadley, Sussex 
(PALMER, iii. 320). 

Blake died at Tamworth, and was interred 

tarian in his Christology. 
of wealth and influence. 

He was a man 
He published : 

1. * Devotional Services for the Public Wor- 
ship of the One True God/ &c., Sherborne, 
1812 (anonymous ; eight services, with occa- 
sional and family prayers and 250 hymns). 

2. ' Private Judgment/ Taunton, 1810 (ser- 
mon before Southern Unitarian Society). 
Like his father and grandfather he was twice 
married, and left descendants (the Blake pedi- 
gree is puzzling to trace from the constant 
recurrence of the same baptismal names). 

in his own church on 11 June 1657. His His elder brother, Malachi Blake, M.D., of 
funeral sermon was preached by Anthony Taunton, survived till 1843 ; his portrait is 
Burgesse, and was published in 1658, along j in the Taunton and Somerset Hospital, 
with an oration by Samuel Shaw, then school- | where the ' Blake Ward ' is called from him. 
master at Tamworth. It is entitled ' Paul's 
Last Farewell, or a Sermon preached at the 
Funerall of that godly and learned Minister 
of Jesus Christ, Mr. Thomas Blake, by An- 
thony Burgesse : appended, A Funerall Ora- 
tion at the death of the most desired Mr. 

[Blake pedigree, MS. ; Monthly Repository, 
1821; March's Hist. Presb. and Gen. Bapt. 
Churches in West of England, 1835, pp. 217, 
245.] A. GK 

BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-1827), poet 
Blake, by Mr. Samuel Shaw, then School- ' and painter, was born on 28 Nov. 1757, at 

master at the Free School at Tamworth/ 
1658. In the 'Oration' Blake is thus de- 
scribed : ' His kindness towards you could 
not be considered without love, his awfull 
gravity and secretly commanding presence 
without reverence, nor his conversation 
without imitation. To see him live was a 

28 Broad Street, Golden Square. His father 
was a hosier in sufficiently comfortable cir- 
cumstances to give some furtherance to his 
son's bent for art. At ten he was sent to 
Par's drawing school in the Strand the best 
of its day, where he drew from the antique. 
His father also bought him casts and gave 

provocation to a godly life; to see him dying him occasional small sums of money to make 
might have made any one weary of living, a collection of prints for study, and the auc- 
When God restrained him from this place tioneer (Langford) would sometimes knock 
(which was always happy in his company down a cheap lot to ' his little connoisseur ' 
but now), he made his chamber a church j with friendly haste in those days of 'three- 
and his bed a pulpit, in which (in my hear- | penny bids.' Raphael, Michael Angelo, 
ing) he offered many a heavenly prayer for | Giulio Romano, Diirer, &c. were the objects 
you.' of the boy's choice at a time when Guido and 

[Wood's Athenae, ed. Bliss, iii. 431-3; Brook's | the Caracciwere the idols of the connoisseur. 
Puritans, iii. 269-71; local researches; Blake's Blake began to write original verse in his 
Works.] i A. B. G. twelfth year, some of which was afterwards 




printed in the ' Poetical Sketches.' One of 
the most beautiful of these, * How sweet I 
roam'd from field to field,' was certainly 
written before fourteen (MALKIN). At that 
age Blake was apprenticed to James Basire, 
engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, a 
liberal-minded and kind master, but his style 
of engraving was flat, formal, mechanical, j 
but with solid excellence of drawing. It I 
was adhered to in the main by Blake till 
late in life, when his mode of handling the 
graver was advantageously modified by the ! 
study of the work of Bonosoni, &c., and, | 
though redeemed by the qualities of his j 
genius, was an obstacle to his acceptance by 
a public accustomed to the soft and fasci- j 
nating manner of Wollett, Strange, and i 
Bartolozzi. In summer time Basire set ! 
Blake upon the congenial task of drawing j 
the monuments in the old churches of Lon- 
don and above all in Westminster Abbey, 
where, rapt and happy, he worked for some 
years acquiring a knowledge and a fervent love 
of Gothic art which profoundly influenced 
him through life. During winter he engraved 
his summer's work for Gough's ' Sepulchral 
Monuments,' one of the best plates in which, 
a 'Portrait of Queen Philippa, from her 
monument,' though it has Basire's name 
affixed, is, on the authority of Stothard, from 
Blake's hand. In the evenings he began to 
make drawings of subjects from English 
history or from' his own already teeming 
fancy. A noteworthy example ' Joseph of 
Arimathea among the rocks of Albion ' he 
engraved so early as 1773. 

The seven years' apprenticeship ended, in 
1778 Blake became for a short time a student 
in the newly formed Royal Academy. Moser, 
the first keeper, had little to teach Blake, 
who tells how he was once looking over 
prints from Raphael and Michael Angelo in 
the library when Moser said to him, 'You 
should not study these old, hard, stiff, dry, 
unfinished works of art ; I will show you 
what you should study.' 'He took down 
Le Brun and Rubens' " Galleries." How did 
I secretly rage ! I said " These things you 
call finished are not even begun ; how then 
can they be finished ? " ' Here Blake drew 
for a short time from the living figure, but j 
early conceived a dislike to, and quickly relin- ; 
quished, academic modes of study. ' Natural , 
objects always did and do now weaken, i 
deaden, and obliterate imagination in me/ 
he said in after life. As a mere child he j 
gave evidence of that visionary power, that j 
faculty of seeing the creations of his imagina- | 
tion with such vividness that they were as 
real to him as objects of sense, which, sedu- 
lously cultivated through life, became a dis- 

tinguishing feature of his genius. Returning 
from a ramble over the hills round Dulwich, 
he said he had seen a tree filled with angels, 
bright wings bespangling every bough like 
stars ; or, again, that he had beheld angelic 
figures walking amongst some haymakers; 
and only through his mother's intercession 
did he escape a flogging from his father, who 
regarded the story as a deliberate lie. As a 
boy, he perhaps believed these were super- 
natural visions : as a man, it must be gathered 
from his explicit utterances that he under- 
stood their true nature as mental creations. 

Blake now supported himself mainly by 
engraving for the booksellers. For Harrison's 
'Novelists' Magazine' he engraved those early 
and beautiful designs by Stothard which first 
brought the latter into notice, viz. two illus- 
trations to ' Don Quixote,' one to the ' Senti- 
mental Journey.' one to ' David Simple,' one 
to ' Launcelot Greaves,' and three to ' Grandi- 
son.' Already he had made Stothard's ac- 
quaintance, who introduced him to Flaxman, 
soon to prove an influential and staunch 
friend. Of original work belonging to this 
early date (1780) may be mentioned the 
scarce engraving ' Glad Day,' and a drawing, 
' The Death of Earl Godwin,' which Blake 
contributed to the Royal Academy's first 
exhibition in Somerset House. In this year 
he found himself an involuntary participator 
in the Gordon riots, having become entangled 
in the mob and been carried along by it to 
witness the storming of Newgate and the 
release of the prisoners. 

In 1782 he married Catherine Boucher, 
daughter of a market-gardener at Battersea, 
who proved herself one of the best wives 
that ever fell to the lot of a man of genius ; 
and they set up housekeeping in lodgings at 
23 Green Street, Leicester Fields. 

In 1784 he opened a printseller's shop in 
Broad Street, in partnership with a fellow en- 
graver, Parker ; and Robert, Blake's youngest 
brother, between whom and himself there 
was the strongest sympathy and affection, 
lived with them. In this year he exhibited 
at the Royal Academy ' War unchained by 
an Angel, Fire, Pestilence, and Famine fol- 
lowing,' and ' Breach in a City, the Morning 
after a Battle.' In 1787 Robert died, the 
shop was given up, and Blake removed to 
28 Poland Street. Unable to find a pub- 
lisher for his 'Songs of Innocence,' he adopted 
a plan of reproducing them himself, revealed 
to him in a dream by his dead brother 
Robert, he used to tell. ' Next morning Mrs. 
Blake went out with their last half-crown 
to buy the necessary materials. The verse 
was written, and the design and marginal 
embellishments outlined on copper with an 




impervious liquid, and then the remainder of j 
the plate was eaten away with aquafortis, so : 
that the letters and outlines were left pro- ! 
minent as in stereotype and could be printed 
off in any tint required as the basis of his | 
scheme of colour. He then worked up the '. 
pages by hand with great variety of detail j 
in the local hues. Mrs. Blake learned to j 
take off the impressions with delicacy, to 
help in tinting them, and to do up the pages | 
in boards. Thus the little book was literally 
made by husband and wife, with a result of 
unique beauty ; and so far as the poems are 
concerned, taken in conjunction with the 
companion ' Songs of Experience ' by which j 
they were supplemented five years later, they 
are the most perfect Blake ever achieved. 
For whilst his powers of design steadily 
developed and his last completed work, the 
* Inventions to the Book of Job,' was also 
his grandest, as a poet his inspiration lapsed 
more and more into the formless incoherence 
of the so-called 'Prophetic Books,' which 
were all engraved and coloured by hand in 
the above manner. Indeed, the main, if not 
the whole, value of these t Prophetic Books,' 
of which a list is givenjbelow, consists in the 
frequent splendour of the designs interwoven 
with the text. For here the fullest scope is 
given to the two antagonistic tendencies of 
Blake's mind, on the one hand as artist to 
embody in human forms of terror, sublimity, 
beauty, or grotesqueness the most abstract 
ideas,*and on the other, as poet and theosophic 
dreamer, to resolve into shadowy symbolism 
the realities of human life and the visible 
world, and to express in the most crude 
manner his favourite tenet, that ' all things 
exist in the human imagination alone.' 

In 1791 bookseller Johnson employed him 
to design and engrave six plates to ' Original 
Stories for Children,' by Mary Wollstonecraft, 
and some to ' Elements of Morality,' trans- 
lated by her from the German. At Johnson's 
weekly dinners he met Drs. Price, Priestley, 
Godwin, Fuseli, Tom Paine, &c., with whom 
he sympathised ardently in political, but not 
at all in religious, matters. He was the only 
member of the group who donned the bonnet 
rouge and actually walked the streets in it. 
About this time, too, he made the acquaint- 
ance of Mr. Thomas Butts, a steady buyer at 
moderate prices for thirty years of his draw- 
ings, temperas, and ' frescoes.' 

In 1793 Blake removed to Hercules Build- 
ings, Lambeth, where he spent seven pro- 
ductive years, the most important fruits of 
which, in design, were 537 illustrations to 
Young's 'Night Thoughts' for Edwards's 
edition. Of these only forty-seven, to the 
first four books, were engraved, the book not 

proving successful (see description by F. J. 
Shields in GILCHKIST'S Slake, vol. ii. 2nd 
edit.) Blake's industry throughout life was 
unceasing, and the mass of work accom- 
plished by the rare union of exhaustless 
patience with a fiery, restless, creative ima- 
gination exceeds belief (see catalogues by 
W. M. E-ossetti in GILCHKIST'S Blake). He 
literally never paused. ' I don't understand 
what you mean by the want of a holiday,' he 
would say. Writing and design were his 
recreation after the tedious toil of engraving. 
Flaxman in 1800 introduced Blake to 
Hayley, who invited him to come and settle 
at Felpham while engraving the illustrations 
for the ' Life of Cowper.' Here, in a cottage 
by the sea, he spent three years, during 
which he executed eighteen tempera heads 
of the poets for Hayley's library ; a miniature 
of Cowper's cousin, Johnson ; two very sweet 
designs to ' Little Tom the Sailor,' a broad- 
sheet ballad by Hayley ; a series of illustra- 
tions to Hayley's 'Ballads on Animals/ 
besides more engraved books and drawings 
for Butts. It was not to be expected, how- 
ever, that Blake could long continue to 
breathe freely in the atmosphere of elegant 
triviality and shallow sentiment which sur- 
rounded the literary squire. Kindly as he 
I was, and unwearied in endeavours to serve, 
j his entire incapacity to understand the ar- 
tist's genius or appreciate his work except as 
! an engraver, made the constant intercourse 
! between them blighting to Blake's inner life 
I and to the exercise of his creative faculty. 
! After three years' patient endurance, there- 
| fore, he determined to return to London at 
! whatever pecuniary sacrifice, that he might 
j < be no longer pestered with Hayley's genteel 
: ignorance and polite disapprobation.' An 
j absurd charge of sedition was brought against 
; him, just before he finally quitted Felpham, 
by a drunken soldier whom he had turned out 
! of his garden. The case was tried at Chi- 
chester, and Blake was acquitted. On his 
return he settled- at 17 South Moltoii Street. 
! Cromek, Blake's next employer, purchased of 
i him that fine series of designs to Blair's 
' Grave ' by which he is most widely known. 
Never has the theme of death been handled 
in pictorial art with more elevation and 
beauty than in some of these, notably in 
' Death's Door ' and the ' Soul departing from 
the Body.' Fuseli, always a warm friend of 
Blake (paying him the naive tribute of re- 

| marking that l he was d d good to steal 

from '), wrote a laudatory notice of the de- 
| signs for the preface. But it was a bitter 
disappointment to Blake that, contrary to 
the original agreement, he was not permitted 
to engrave his own designs. They were put 




into the hands of Schiavonetti, by whom 
they were rendered with a mingled grace 
and grandeur which won for them a wider 
popularity than Blake's austere style could 
have achieved. The breach of contract and the 
consequent loss of his copyright were injuries 
which Blake deeply resented ; and Cromek's 
conduct in relation to his next enterprise 
enhanced the sense of injustice. For, having 
seen a design of Blake's from the ' Canter- 
bury Pilgrimage ' and vainly endeavoured to 
negotiate for its publication on the same 
terms, Croniek went to Stothard and sug- 
gested the subject to him, who, ignorant that 
Blake was already engaged upon it, accepted 
the offer, and thus was occasioned a breach 
between the friends which was never closed. 
Blake having completed his * Canterbury 
Pilgrimage ' as a ( fresco ' a word which he 
applied to a method of his own of painting 
in water-colour on a plaster ground of glue 
and whiting laid on to canvas or board ap- 
pealed to the public by opening an exhibition 
of this and other of his works. The ' De- 
scriptive Catalogue ' written for the occasion 
interprets his pictures, expounds his canons 
of art, and contains some admirable writing i 
on the characters in Chaucer's ' Prologue.' j 
Lamb preferred Blake's to Stothard's ' Pil- 
grimage,' and called it ' a work of wonderful i 
power and spirit, hard and dry, yet with I 
grace.' In 1808 Blake, for the last time, ex- i 
hibited at the Royal Academy. He then sent 
i Christ in the Sepulchre guarded by Angels ' j 
and t Jacob's Dream,' one of his most poetic i 
works; and also executed for Mr. Butts 'The 
Whore of Babylon,' now in the British Mu- j 
seum ; and for the Countess of Egremont j 
' The Last Judgment,' from one of the Blair j 
drawings, of which, towards the close of life, j 
he painted a replica containing some thou- j 
sand figures highly finished and with much j 
splendour of colour. 

To John Linnell, with whom Blake first 
became acquainted in 1813, is due all honour 
for having been the stay of the neglected 
artist's declining years, and for having com- 
missioned his noblest work. Through him, 
too, there gathered round a circle of friends 
and disciples John Varley, George Rich- 
mond, Samuel Palmer, Oliver Finch, and 
others. John Varley, who gave a very ma- 
terialistic interpretation to Blake's visionary 
power, would sit by him far into the night 
and say ' Draw me Moses ' or ' Julius Ceesar,' 
straining his own eyes in the hope of seeing 
what Blake saw, who would answer ' There 
he is,' and draw with alacrity, looking up 
from time to time as if he had a flesh-and- 
blood sitter before him, sometimes suddenly 
leaving off and remarking, * I can't go on, it 

j is gone,' or * it has moved, the mouth is gone.' 
i Thus were produced the famous visionary 
j heads, or * Spiritual Portraits ' some forty 
or fifty slight pencil sketches, all original, 
many full of character and power. One of 
i the most curious the 'Ghost of a Flea ' was 
1 engraved in Varley 's 'Zodiacal Physiognomy ' 
and in the ' Art Journal ' for August 1858. 
j The original drawings all passed into the 
: hands of Mr. Linnell. Blake was wont to 
say to his friends respecting these l visions,' 
; ' You can see what I do if you choose. Work 
up imagination to the state of vision, and the 
thing is done.' 

In 1820 Blake designed and executed his 
first and last woodcuts to illustrate Thorn- 
! ton's school Virgil (the ' Pastorals '). Rude 
in execution, but singularly poetic and beauti- 
ful, these prints were at the time so much 
ridiculed by the engravers that some of them 
were recut by another hand. The obscure 
little book is now much prized for their sake. 
| Samples of both styles were given to illus- 
i trate an article on the principles of wood 
engraving in the ' Athenaeum,' 21 Jan. 1843. 
Blake made his last move in 1820, to 3 Foun- 
tain Court, Strand, where, amid increasing 
poverty and neglect, he executed and engraved 
for Linnell those sublime ' Inventions to the 
Book of Job ' on which his highest claim as 
an artist rests. And whilst they were in 
progress the same friend, himself still a 
struggling artist, commissioned a series of 
drawings from the ' Divina Comrnedia,' to be 
also engraved, paying him on account the 
two or three pounds a week necessary for 
subsistence. A hundred designs were sketched 
in, some finished, but only seven engraved 
and published in 1827. For Blake's labours 
were drawing to a close. His strength had 
been for some time declining, but he worked 
on with the old ardour to within a few days 
of the end. 'I cannot think of death as 
more than the going out of one room into 
another,' he had said in speaking of Flaxman's 
death ; and in that spirit, not serene merely, 
but joyous and full of radiant visions, he 
gently, almost imperceptibly, drew his last 
breath, 12 Aug. 1827. 

The following is a list of Blake's writings, 
all engraved and coloured by hand, except 
those marked * which are type-printed and 
unillustrated : 1. *' Poetical Sketches,' 1783. 
2. ' Songs of Innocence,' 1789. 3. ' Book of 
Thel,' 1789. 4. ' Marriage of Heaven and 
Hell, 1790 ; consisting partly of aphorisms 
or proverbs, mostly vigorous and profound, 
that condensed form of expression proving 

five ' memorable fancies ' in which Sweden- 

singularly favourable to Blake ; partly of 
five ' memorable fancies ' in which Sweden- 
borg's influence upon him, very potent through 




life, though he was never a Swedenborgian, 
is first discernible. 5. *' The French Revo- 
lution/ Book i. 1791 (not thought worth 
reprinting by any of Blake's editors). 
6. ' Gates of Paradise,' 1793, engraved but , 
not coloured, consisting of seventeen plates 
of emblems, each with a title or motto and ( 
rhymed ' Keys of the Gates/ described by j 

'. UU.ULIUU11, Ui wiiicu. tilde u-pjjeu.1 a LU uc ; 

i copy in existence. 21. 'Tiriel/ first printed i 
W. M. Rossetti's ' Aldine British Poets.' 

1793. 9. ' America,' 1793. 10. ' Europe : 
a Prophecy,' 1794. 11. ' The Book of Urizen,' 
1794 (containing Asia and Africa). 12. 'The 
Song of Los,' 1795. 13. ' The Book of Ahania/ 
1795. 14. ' Jerusalem,' 1804. 15. 'Milton/ 
1804. (There are different degrees of beauty 
in the samples of all these engraved books ; 
not only because Blake himself bestowed 
different degrees of finish and richness but ; 
also because Mrs. Blake worked upon some, j 
There are copies, indeed, which appear to j 
have been entirely coloured by her after her 
husband's death. For descriptions and inter- 
pretations see SWINBURNE'S William Slake : I 
a Critical Essay, 1868.) 16. *' Descriptive 
Catalogue/ 1809. 1^ 'Prospectus/ 1793. j 
18. Four undated ' Sibylline Leaves," viz. j 
'The Laocoon/ 'Ghost of Abel/ 'On Homer's j 
Poetry/ ' On Virgil.' 19. ' There is no Na- I 
tural Religion ' (eight ? leaves with design), j 
20. ' Outhoon/ of which there appears to be 
no co 

22. 'Ideas of Good and Evil/ from Blake s 
note-book, first printed in Gilchrist's ' Blake/ 
vol. ii. 23. Prose from the same, viz. ' Public 
Address ' and ' Vision of the Last Judgment.' j 
Reprints of Blake's works have appeared as : 
follows : ' Songs of Innocence and Experience/ 
edit, by Dr. G. Wilkinson (much altered), 
1839. ' Selections/ emendated, comprising 
nearly everything except ' Prophetic Books/ 
edited by D. G. Rossetti, forming vol. ii. of 
Gilchrist's ' Life of Blake/ 1863 and 1880. 
' Songs of Innocence and Experience, with j 
other Poems' (verbatim), 1866. 'Poetical 1 
Sketches/ edit, by R. H. Shepherd (ver- 
batim), 1868. ' Poetical Works, Lyrical and j 
Miscellaneous/ edit., with prefatory memoir, j 
by W. M. Rossetti, 1874 (verbatim). A j 
facsimile, but without colour, of the ' Jeru- j 
salem,' 1877, Pearson. Also one of the 
' Marriage of Heaven and Hell/ colour- 
printed, Camden Hotten. A reproduction of 
the ' Illustrations to the Book of Job/ with 
prefatory memoir by C. E. Norton, Boston, 
1875. And lastly, a volume of 'Etchings 
from Blake's Works/ with descriptive text 
by William Bell Scott, 1878. 

[Malkin's Father's Memoirs of his Child (In- 
troduction to), 1806 ; Smith's Nollekens and his 
Times, comprehending Memoirs of several Con- 
temporary Artists, vol. ii. 1828; Cunningham's 
Lives of the most eminent British Painters, &c., 
1830. Gilchrist's Life of William Blake, with 
Selections from his Writings, &c., 1863, contains 
impressions from some of the original plates of 
' Songs of Innocence and Experience/ the ' Job,' 
some of the ' visionary heads/ ' Gates of Para- 
dise/ &c., 2nd edit. 1880, with additional letters, 
illustrations, and a memoir of the author.] 

A. G T. 

BLAKELY, FLETCHER (1783-1862), 
Irish remonstrant minister, was born on 
13 May 1783 at Ballyroney, county Down. 
He was the youngest son of Joseph Bleakly,, 
a farmer, and was named after the Rev. 
William Fletcher, presbyterian minister of 
Bally roney (d. 1824), who gave him his 
early training ; both his parents died when 
he was very young. In 1799 he entered 
Glasgow College (at which time he spelled 
his name Bleakly), where he graduated. On 
19 Sept. 1809 he was ordained by Bangor 
presbytery as minister of Moneyrea, county 
Down, in succession to Samuel Patton. 
Fletcher had trained him in Calvinism, but 
he did not long retain this form of theology. 
He became by degrees a Unitarian of what 
was then a very advanced type in Ireland, 
being the first avowed humanitarian preacher 
in Ulster (after 1813; see Mon. Rep. 1813, 
p. 515 ). Under his influence Moneyrea was- 
so marked a home of heterodox opinion that 
it passed into a proverb, 'Moneyrea, where 
there is one God and no devil.' When, in 
1821, the English Unitarians sent John Smeth- 
urst (1792-1859) on a mission to Ulster, the 
Moneyrea meeting-house was the first that was 
opened to him ; the Arian pulpits were (with 
five exceptions) refused to him. In 1829 
Blakely, with his whole congregation, joined 
the remonstrant secession from the synod of 
Ulster ; he had throughout the previous sy no- 
dical debates been one of the most powerful 
coadjutors of Henry Montgomery, the leader 
of the New Light party, and assisted him in 
forming the remonstrant synod. On 27 April 
1836 a public testimonial bore witness to his 
'successful advocacy of the rights of con- 
science and human freedom.' In his own 
neighbourhood he did much for popular edu- 
cation, for the cause of tenant right, and for 
the promotion of the flax industry. He was a 
joint-editor (1830-3) of the ' Bible Christian/ 
and published two or three tracts and ser- 
mons, especially : 1. 'A Dialogue/ Belf. 1817, 
8vo (anon.), on the bible and other standards 
of faith (not seen ; it was answered by a 
covenanting minister, not Paul). 2. ' The 




Battle of the Two Dialogues, being a conver- 
sation between a Rev. Covenanter and a Rev. 
Presbyterian on the impropriety of adhering 
to any standard of faith except the Bible,' 
Belf. 1818, 8vo (also anon. ; in reply to it John 
Paul, then covenanting minister of Lough- 
mourne, afterwards of Carrickfergus andD.D. 
(died 17 March 1848, aged 71), published his 
first work, ' Creeds and Confessions defended/ 
&c., Belf. 1819, 8vo, which is one of the most 
caustic pieces of satire ever contributed on the 
orthodox side of the religious controversies in 
Ulster). 3. ' The Doctrine of the Trinity not 
comprised in the Faith which was once de- 
livered unto the Saints ' (Jude 1-3), London, 
1846, 8vo. 4. < An Explicit Avowal of Truth 
the best mode of teaching it' (Romans i. 
16), Belfast, 1853, 8vo (preached as presi- 
dent of the Association of Irish Nonsub- 
scribing Presbyterians). He resigned his 
charge on 22 Sept. 1857, but continued to 
preach till the installation of his successor, 
John Jellie, on 27 Sept. 1859. He died on 
25 Feb. 1862 at Cradley, Worcestershire, the 
residence of the Rev. William Cochrane, who 
had married his eldest child. He was buried 
at Moneyrea. He married Margaret Lindsay 
(1783-1825), and had four children : Jane, as 
above; Sarah (1814-1844) ; David Lindsay, 
inspector of Irish National Schools (1816- 
1854) ; and William Joseph (born 17 April 
1818), Unitarian minister at Billingshurst, 
Sussex, in 1839, ordained on 15 Dec. 1840 by 
Bangor remonstrant presbytery as minister 
of York Street, Belfast, and died on 19 March 

[Glasgow Matriculation Register ; Chr. Re- 
former, 1822, p. 218, 1859, p. 474 ; Min. Gen. 
Synod, 1824 ; Synodical Portraits in Northern 
Whig, 1829; Northern Whig, 28 April, 1838; 
Inquirer, 15 March 1862; Chr. Unitarian, 1862, 
p. 123; Min. Rem. Synod, 1841, 1858, 1860, 
1862 ; tombstones at Moneyrea.] A. G. 

BLAKELY, JOHNSTON (1781-1814), 
commander in the United States' navy, was 
born in Dublin in October 1781. While he 
was still an infant, his parents emigrated to 
America and settled in North Carolina. In 
1800 Blakely entered the States' navy, and, 
when the war with England broke out in 
1812, had attained the rank of lieutenant. 
In the early months of 1813 he commanded 
the brig Enterprise on the east coast, but 
was promoted from her to the command of 
the Wasp, a new, large, and heavily armed 
sloop. In this he sailed from Portsmouth 
(New Hampshire) on 1 May 1814, and, cross- 
ing the Atlantic, ran boldly into the en- 
trance of the English Channel, where, on 
28 June, he fell in with and, after a short but 

severe action, captured the English brig 
Reindeer, commanded by Captain Manners, 
whose gallant conduct against an enemy of 
immensely superior force has called forth the 
admiration of both English and American 
writers. The Reindeer was so much damaged, 
and the risk of her recapture so great, that 
Blakely ordered her to be set on fire, after 
which he made the best of his way to Lorient, 
where he arrived on 8 July. For this impor- 
tant service congress voted him a gold medal, 
which, however, he did not live to receive. 
As soon as the Wasp was refitted he sailed 
from Lorient (27 Aug.) on another cruise. 
Within the next three days he made two 
prizes ; and on 1 Sept., having fallen in with 
a convoy of ten sail under the escort of a 
74-gun ship, succeeded in the course of the 
afternoon in cutting off and capturing one of 
the convoy laden with military stores of great 
value. The same evening, after dark, he 
met the English brig Avon, commanded by 
Captain the Hon. James Arbuthnott. The 
force of the Avon was very inferior to that 
of the Wasp, and the inferiority in her gun- 
nery practice was almost more marked. After 
a running fight of about three-quarters of an 
hour, during which the Wasp had two men 
killed and one wounded, the Avon having lost 
forty-two men killed and wounded, and being 
in a sinking condition, hailed that she sur- 
rendered. The Castilian brig, of the same 
force as the Avon, now came up, and the 
Tartarus sloop was made out in the distance : 
so the Wasp, having her rigging a good deal 
cut, ran down to leeward to gain time. The 
Castilian at first followed her, but gave up 
the chase on the Avon's making urgent sig- 
nals of distress ; she was indeed sinking fast, 
and her men were scarcely out of her before 

1 she went down. The Wasp after this sailed 
for the south. Making two or three prizes as 
she went, on 21 Sept. she was in latitude 
3312 / N.; and on 9 Oct. in latitude 18 35' N., 
longitude 30 10' W., she spoke a Swedish 
brig. This was the last known of her ; she 
was never heard of again. 

The Americans have formed a very high 
estimate of Blakely ; and though the great 
superiority of the Wasp over both the Rein- 
deer and the Avon may perhaps be considered 
as leaving little room for the display of any 
extraordinary courage, his conduct of these 
actions, and of his venturesome cruise in the 
chops of the Channel, then swarming with 
English men-of-war, and his successful raid 
on the Gibraltar convoy, all tend to show 
that the American estimate is not exagge- 

[Ripley and Dana's American Cyclopaedia; 

, Roosevelt's Naval War of 1812.] J. K. L. 




1868), field-marshal, was the fourth son of j 
Colonel William Blakeney, of Newcastle- j 
upon-Tyne, and M.P. for Athenry in Gal- j 
way in the Irish parliament, 1776-83. He | 
was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1778, | 
and entered the army, 28 Feb. 1794, as a j 
cornet in the 8th light dragoons. Accom- ; 
panying the expedition under Major-general 
White to the West Indies, he was present at 
the capture of Demerara, Berbice, and Esse- 
quibo in 1796 ; in the course of this service 
he was three times taken prisoner by pri- 
vateers and suffered severe hardships. In 
1799 he went with the expedition to Holland, 
and was present in the actions of 10 and 
19 Sept., and also in those of 2 and 6 Oct. 
In 1807 he sailed with the 7th regiment of 
foot, the Royal Fusiliers, to the Baltic, joined j 
Lord Cathcart's expedition, and took part in 
the capture of the Danish fleet and the sur- ; 
render of Copenhagen. He was present at | 
the capture of Martinique in 1809. Obtaining 
the command of the 7th foot, 20 June 1811, 
he proceeded in charge of his regiment to 
Lisbon, and during the campaigns of the 
years 1811-1-4 he served in the battles of ( 
Busaco and Albuera (where he was severely 
wounded through the thigh), the action at 
Aldea de Ponte, the sieges of Ciudad Rodrigo 
and Badajoz (where he was severely wounded 
through the arm in the assault), battles of 
Vittoria, Pampeluna, Pyrenees, and Nivelle, j 
besides various minor actions. He joined 
the army in Belgium in 1815, and was present 
at the capture of Paris. For those and other 
services he received the gold cross and a j 
silver war medal, and was made a knight of j 
the Tower and Sword of Portugal in 1812. ! 
Having retained the command of his regi- J 
ment until 2 June 1825, the first brigade of j 
the army sent to Portugal was then entrusted ; 
to his charge. On 20 Sept. 1832 he was re- | 
warded with the colonelcy of his old regi- j 
ment, the 7th foot, which he did not resign | 
until 21 Dec. 1854. In the meantime, how- 
ever, he was not idle, as he served in Ireland 
as commander-in-chief of the troops from 
1838 to 1855. On 1 Dec. in the previous j 
year he was nominated colonel of the 1st foot, ! 
and retained the appointment to his decease. ; 
After his return from Ireland he became | 
lieutenant-governor of Chelsea Hospital, ! 
6 Feb. 1855, and on 25 Sept. 1856 the go- | 
vernor of that establishment. His general's : 
commission dates from 20 June 1854, and ! 
the high honour of a field-marshalship was ; 
conferred on him 9 Nov