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O. A 

A. J. A. . . 
T. A. A. . . 

J. A 

E. C. A. A. 
G. F. R. B. 

B. B. . . . 
G. T. B. . . 
W. G. B. . 
0. B-T. . . 
G. C. B. . . 
O. Gr. B. . . 

H. B 

J. B 

R. H. B. . . 
R. C. B. . . 
A.H.B. . 
G. W. B. . 

M. B 

H. M. C. . 
A. M. C. , 
T. C 

C. H. C. . . 
W. P. C. . 

H. C 

M. C. . 





E. C. A. AXON. 

W. E. A. AXON. 








Miss A. M. CLERKE. 



L. F Louis FAGAN. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 



J. W.-G-. . . J. WESTBY-GIBSON, LL.D. 
J. T. Gr. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 




A. H. G. . . A. H. GRANT. 


J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 


R. H-T. . . . ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 




J. K. L. . . J. K. LAUGHTON. 
S. L. L. . . S. L. LEE. 


List of Writers. 

W. D. M. . THE REV. W. D. MACRAY, F.S.A. 
F. W. M. . F. W. MAITLAND. 
C. T. M. . . C. TRICE MARTIN. 








J. F. P. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

K. L. P. . . E. L. POOLE. 



J. M. E. . . J. M. EIGG. 

C. J. E. . . THE KEV. C. J. EOBINSON. 

J. H. K. . . J. H. ROUND. 

J. M. S. . . J. M. SCOTT. 

E. S. S. . . E. S. SHUCKBURGH. 

B. C. S. . . B. C. SKOTTOWE. 

G. B. S. . . G-. BARNETT SMITH. 


H. M. S. . . H. M. STEPHENS. 


C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 

R. E. T. . . R. E. THOMPSON, M.D. 

J. H. T. . . J. H. THORPE. 












musician, was born at Halifax in Yorkshire 
in 1786. His parentage is not recorded, but 
his musical education was begun at a very 
early age; when only seven years old he 
played a violin concerto in public. At the 
age of twelve he was sent to Manchester, 
where he studied under Grimshaw, organist 
of St. John's Church, and Watts, the leader 
of the concerts. Under Watts's direction he 
at the same time carried on his violin studies 
with Yaniewicz, then resident in Man- 
chester. In 1801 Bottomley was articled 
to Lawton, the organist of St. Peter's, Leeds, 
and on the expiration of his term removed 
to London to study the pianoforte under 
Wcelfl. In 1807 Bottomley returned to his 
native county, and obtained the appoint- 
ment of organist to the parish church of 
Bradford, but he made Halifax his home, 
where he had a large teaching connection. 
In 1820 he was appointed organist of Shef- 
field parish church, which post he held for 
some considerable time. The date of his 
death is uncertain. Bottomley published 
several original works, including ' Six Exer- 
cises for Pianoforte,' twelve sonatinas for 
the same instrument, two divertissements 
with flute accompaniment, twelve valses, 
eight rondos, ten airs varies, a duo for two 
pianos, and a small dictionary of music (8vo), 
published in London in 1816. 

[Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. pt. i. 138 a.] E. H. 

BOUGH, SIR THOMAS (1822-1880), 
civil engineer, the third son of William Bouch, 
a captain in the mercantile marine, was born 
in the village of Thursley, Cumberland, on 
22 Feb. 1822. A lecture by his first teacher, 
Mr. Joseph Hannah, of Thursby, ' On the 
Kaising of Water in Ancient and Modern 


Times,' made so great an impression on his 
mind that he at once commenced reading 
books on mechanics. His first entrance into 
business was in a mechanical engineering 
establishment at Liverpool. At the age of 
seventeen he engaged himself to Mr. Larmer, 
civil engineer, who was then constructing the 
Lancaster and Carlisle railway. Here he 
remained four years. In November 1844 he 
proceeded to Leeds, where he was employed 
for a short time under Mr. George Leather, 
M. Inst. C.E. Subsequently he was for four 
years one of the resident engineers on the 
Stockton and Darlington railway. In Janu- 
ary 1849 he left Darlington and assumed 
the position of manager and engineer of the 
Edinburgh and Northern railway. This en- 
gagement first brought to his notice the in- 
convenient breaks in railway communication 
caused by the wide estuaries of the Forth 
and the Tay, the efforts to remedy which 
afterwards occupied so much of his attention. 
His proposal was to cross the estuaries by 
convenient steam ferries, and he prepared 
and carried into effect plans for a l floating 
railway ' a system for shipping goods trains 
which has ever since been in operation. 
Soon after completing this work Bouch left 
the service of the Northern railway and 
engaged in general engineering business. 
He designed and carried out nearly three 
hundred miles of railways in the north of 
England and Scotland, the chief of these 
being the South Durham and Lancashire 
Union, fifty miles long, and the Peebles, ten 
miles long, the latter being considered the 
pattern of a cheaply constructed line. On 
the introduction of the tramway system he 
was extensively engaged in laying out lines, 
including some of the London tramways, 
the Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Dundee tram- 
ways, and many others. In the course of his 




professional work Bouch constructed a num- 
ber of remarkable bridges, chiefly in connec- 
tion with railways. At Newcastle-on-Tyne he 
designed the Redheugh viaduct, a compound 
or stiffened-suspension bridge of four spans, 
two of 260 feet and two of 240 feet each. 
His principal railway bridges, independent 
of the Tay bridge, were the Deepdale and 
Beelah viaduct on the South Durham and 
Lancashire railway, the Bilston Burn bridge 
on the Edinburgh, Loanhead, and Roslin 
line, and a bridge over the Esk near Mont- 
rose. In all these bridges the lattice girder 
was used, because of its simplicity and its 
slight resistance to the wind encountered at 
such high elevations. 

In 1863 the first proposals for a Tay bridge 
were made public, but the act of parliament 
was not obtained until 1870. The Tay bridge, 
which crossed the estuary from Newport in 
Fife to the town of Dundee, was within a 
few yards of two miles long. It consisted of 
eighty-five spans seventy-two in the shal- 
low water, and thirteen over the fairway 
channel, two of these being 227 feet, and 
eleven 245 feet wide. The system of wrought- 
iron lattice girders was adopted throughout. 
After many delays the line was completed 
from shore to shore on 22 Sept. 1877. The 
inspection of the work by Major-general Coote 
Synge Hutchinson, R.E., on behalf of the 
board of trade, occupied three days, and on 
31 May 1878 the bridge was opened with 
much ceremony. The engineer was then 

e'esented with the freedom of the town of 
undee, and on 26 June 1879 he was knighted. 
The traffic was continued uninterruptedly till 
the evening of Sunday, 28 Dec. 1879, when 
during a violent hurricane the central portion 
of the bridge fell into the river Tay, carrying 
with it an entire train and its load of about 
seventy passengers, all of whom lost their 
lives. Under the shock and distress of mind 
caused by this catastrophe Bouch's health 
rapidly gave way, and he died at MofFat on 
30 Oct. 1880. The rebuilding of the Forth 
bridge was begun in 1882. Bouch became 
an associate of the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers on 3 Dec. 1850, and was advanced 
to the class of member on 11 May 1858. 
He married, July 1853, Miss Margaret Ada 
Nelson, who survived him with one son and 
two daughters. His brother, Mr. William 
Bouch, was long connected with the locomo- 
tive department of the Stockton and Darling- 
ton and North Eastern lines. 

[Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, Ixiii. 301-8 (1881) ; Illustrated 
London News, with portrait, Ixxvii. 468 (1880); 
Times, 29, 30, and 31 Dec. 1879 ; Eeport of the 
Court of Inquiry and Report of Mr. Rothery 

upon the Fall of a portion of the Tay Bridge, in 
Parliamentary Papers (1880), C 2616 and C 
2616-i.] GK C. B. 

BOUCHER, JOHN (1777-1818), divine, 
was born in 1777. He was entered at St. 
John's, Oxford ; proceeded B.A. on 23 May 
1799 {Cat. Gmd. Oxon. p. 71) ; was elected 
fellow of Magdalen at the same time (Preface 
to his Sermons, p. 1) ; was admitted to holy 
orders in 1801 (id. p. 5), and proceeded M.A. 
on 29 April 1802. At this time he became 
rector of Shaftesbury, and in 1804 vicar of 
Kirk Newton, near Wooler, Northumberland. 
He married and had several children. He 
preached not only in his own parish, but in 
the neighbouring district. One of his sermons 
was delivered at Berwick-on-Tweed in 1810, 
and another at Belford in 1816. He died on 
12 Nov. 1818, at Kirk Newton. There is a 
tablet to his memory on the north wall of 
the church where he was buried (WILSON, 
Churches of Lindisfarne, p. 73). After his 
death a 12mo volume of his ' Sermons ' was 
printed, dedicated to Shute Barrington, bishop 
of Durham. The volume reached a second 
edition in 1821. 

[Preface to Sermons by the late Rev. John 
Boucher, M.A. pp. i, v, vi, vii ; private informa- 
tion.] J. H. 

BOUCHER, JOHN (1819-1878), divine, 
born in 1819, was the son of a tenant-farmer 
in Moneyrea, North Ireland. Intended for 
the Unitarian ministry (in accordance with the 
theological views of his parents), he was care- 
fully educated, and in 1837 was sent to the 
Belfast Academy, then under Drs. Mont- 
gomery and J. Scott Porter. Leaving the 
academy in 1842, Boucher became minister at 
Southport ; next at Glasgow ; and finally, in 
1848, at the New Gravel Pit Chapel, Hack- 
ney, where for five years his fervour and elo- 
quence drew full congregations from all parts 
of the metropolis. In 1850 Boucher pub- 
lished a sermon on ' The Present Religious 
Crisis,' and the ' Inquirer ' speaks of another 
of the same year on 'Papal Aggression/ 
About this time Boucher adopted rationalistic 
views ; but he soon afterwards changed his 
opinions again, resigned his pulpit in 1853, 
and entered himself at St. John's, Cambridge, 
to read for Anglican orders. He proceeded 
B.A. in 1857 (LTJARD, Grad. Cant. p. 46), 
and it was hoped that he would have a bril- 
liant career in the establishment; but his 
health failed ; he left Cambridge, and leading 
the life of a thorough invalid in the neighbour- 
hood, at Chesterton, for many years, he died 
12 March 1878, aged 59. He was one of the 
trustees of Dr. Williams's library, till his con- 



version caused him to resign ; and he was a 
member of the presbyterian board, visiting 
Carmarthen College. He married Louise, a 
daughter of Ebenezer Johnston, of Stamford 
Hill, London, who survived him a year. He 
left no issue. 

[The Inquirer, 23 March 1878, p. 190 ; Luard's 
Grad. Cant. p. 46 ; private information.] J. H. 

BOUCHER, JONATHAN (1738-1804), 
divine and philologer, the son of a Cumber- 
land ' statesman,' was born at Blencogo, a 
small hamlet in the parish of Bromfield, be- 
tween Wigton and Allonby, on 12 March 
1738, and was educated at Wigton grammar 
school. When about sixteen years old he 
went to America to act as private tutor in 
a Virginian family, and remained engaged 
in tuition for some years, the stepson of 
George Washington being numbered among 
his pupils. Having resolved upon taking 
orders he returned to England, and was 
ordained by the Bishop of London in 1762. 
For many years he had charge, in turn, of 
several ecclesiastical parishes in America. 
He was rector of Hanover, in King George's 
County, in 1762 ; then of St. Mary's, in Caro- 
lina; and lastly, in 1770, of St. Anne's, in 
Annapolis. Whilst resident in the new 
country he lived in intimate friendship with 
Washington. They often dined together, and 
spent many hours in talk ; but the time soon 
came when they ' stood apart.' Boucher's 
loyalty was uncompromising, and when the 
American war broke out he denounced from 
the pulpit the doctrines which were popular 
in the colonies. ' His last sermon, preached 
with pistols on his pulpit-cushion, concluded 
with the following* words : " As long as I 
live, yea, while I have my being, will I pro- 
claim God save the king." ' Washington 
shared in the denunciations of Boucher ; but 
when the loyal divine published the discourses 
which he had preached in North America be- 
tween 1763 and 1775 he dedicated the col- 
lection to the great American general, as ' a 
tender of renewed amity.' Some time in the 
autumn of 1775 he returned to England, and 
soon after his struggles in opposition to the 
advancement of the cause of the colonies 
were rewarded by a government pension. In 
January 1785 he was instituted to the vicar- 
age of Epsom, on the presentation of the 
Rev. John Parkhurst, the editor of the Greek 
and Hebrew lexicons. This living he re- 
tained until his death, which happened on 
27 April 1804. Boucher was considered one 
of the best preachers of his time, and was a 
member of the distinguished clerical club, 
still in existence (1886), under the fantastic 
title of ' Nobody's Club.' He was thrice 

married. His first wife, whom he married 
in June 1772, was of the same family as 
Joseph Addison ; the second, Mary Elizabeth, 
daughter of Charles Foreman, was married 
on 15 Jan. 1787, and died on 14 Sept. 1788 ; 
by his third wife, widow of the Rev. Mr. 
James, rector of Arthuret, and married to 
Boucher at Carlisle in October 1789, he left 
eight children [see BOTJCHIEE, BARTON]. Some 
portions of Boucher's autobiography were 
printed in 'Notes and Queries,' 5th ser. i. 
103-4, v. 501-3, vi. 21, 81, 141, 161. 

Boucher was a man of widespread tastes 
and of intense affection for his native county 
of Cumberland. His anonymous tract, con- 
taining proposals for its material advance- 
ment, including the establishment of a county 
bank, was signed 'A Cumberland Man, 
Whitehaven, Dec. 1792,' and was reprinted 
in Sir F. M. Eden's ' State of the Poor/ iii. 
App. 387-401. To William Hutchinson's 
1 Cumberland' he contributed the accounts 
of the parishes of Bromfield, Caldbeck, and 
Sebergham, and the lives included in the 
section entitled 'Biographia Cumbrensis.' 
The edition of Relph's poetical works which 
appeared in 1797 was dedicated to Boucher, 
and among the ' Original Poems ' of San- 
derson (1800) is an epistle to Boucher on 
his return from America. He published 
several single sermons and addresses to his 
parishioners, and issued in 1797, under the 
title of l A View of the Causes and Conse- 
quences of the American Revolution,' thirteen 
of his discourses, 1763-1775. His ' Glossary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words,' intended 
as a supplement to Johnson's Dictionary, to 
which he devoted fourteen years, was left 
uncompleted. Proposals for publication under 
the direction of Sir F. M. Eden were issued 
shortly before his death, and the part in- 
cluding letter A was published in 1807, but 
did not obtain sufficient encouragement to 
justify the continuance of the work. A 
second attempt at publication was made in 
1832, when the Rev. Joseph Hunter and 
Joseph Stevenson brought out the Intro- 
duction to the whole work and the Glossary 
as far as Blade. The attempt was again un- 
successful ; and it is understood that most of 
the materials passed into the hands of the 
proprietors of Dr. Webster's English Dic- 
tionary. A certain J. Odell, M. A., an Epsom 
schoolmaster, published in 1806 an ' Essay on 
the Elements of the English Language/ 
which was intended as an introduction to 
Boucher's work. 

[Gent. Mag. (1804), pt. ii. 591, by Sir F. M. 
Eden (1831), 450 ; Nichols's Illust, of Lit. v. 
630-41 ; Sir J. A. Park's W. Stevens (1859 ed.), 
131-9, 169; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 




75-6, 282-4, 5th ser. ix. 50, 68, 89, 311, 371 ; 
Manning and Bray's Surrey, ii. 620, 625 ; Allen's 
American Biog. Diet. (3rd ed.), 105-6; Hawks's 
Eccles. Hist, of the United States, ii. 269.] 

W. P. C. 

BOUCHERY, WEYMAN (1683-1712), 
Latin poet, son of Arnold Bouchery, one of 
the ministers of the Walloon congregation at 
Canterbury, was born in that city in 1683, 
and educated in the King's School there and 
at Jesus College, Cambridge (B.A. 1702, 
M.A. 1706). It is said that at the time he 
graduated M.A. he had migrated to Em- 
manuel College, but the circumstance is not 
recorded in the ' Cantabrigienses Graduati.' 
He became rector of Little Blakenham in 
Suffolk in 1709, and died at Ipswich on 
24 March 1712. A mural tablet to his me- 
mory was erected in the church of St. George, 
Canterbury, by his son, Gilbert Bouchery, 
vicar of Swaffham, Norfolk. He published 
an elegant Latin poem ' Hymnus Sacer : 
sive Paraphrasis in Deborae et Baraci Canti- 
cum, Alcaico carmine expressa, e libri Judi- 
cum cap. v.,' Cambridge, typis academicis, 
1706, 4to. 

[Addit. MS. 5864, f. 96, 19084, ff. 113, 1146; 
Cantabrigienses Graduati (1787), 46; Hasted's 
Kent, iv. 469 n.] T. C. 

BOUCHIER, BARTON (1794-1865), re- 
ligious writer, born in 1794, was a younger 
son of the vicar of Epsom, Surrey, the Rev. 
Jonathan Boucher [q. v.] Barton changed 
his name from Boucher to Bouchier after 
1822. He was educated at Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford. In 1816 he married Mary, 
daughter of the Rev. Nathaniel Thornbury, 
of Avening, Gloucestershire (Gent. Mag. 
1866, pp. 431-2). He proceeded B.A. in 
1822, and M.A. in 1827. Bouchier at first 
read for the bar. But he afterwards took 
holy orders and became curate at Monmouth. 
A sermon preached by him at Usk in 1822 for 
the Christian Knowledge Society was pub- 
lished by request. Bouchier held curacies 
later at Old, Northamptonshire (Gent. Mag. 
supra), and (before 1834) at Cheam, Surrey, 
from which place he issued an edition of 
Bishop Andrewes's ' Prayers.' In 1836 he 
published ' Prophecy and Fulfilment,' a little 
book of corresponding texts ; and in 1845 
'Thomas Bradley,' a story of a poor pa- 
rishioner, and the first of a series of similar 
pamphlets describing clerical experiences, 
collected and published in various editions as 
'My Parish,' and 'The Country Pastor,' from 
1855 to 1860. 

In 1852 Bouchier commenced the publica- 
tion of his ' Manna in the House,' being ex- 

positions of the gospels and the Acts, lasting, 
with intervals, down to 1858 ; in 1854 he 
wrote his 'The Ark in the House,' being 
family prayers for a month ; and in 1855 he 
wrote his ' Manna in the Heart,' being com- 
ments on the Psalms. In 1853 he wrote a 
'Letter' to the prime minister (Lord Aber- 
deen) against opening the Crystal Palace on 
Sundays, following up this appeal in 1854 by 
'The Poor Man's Palace,' &c., a pamphlet ad- 
dressed to the Crystal Palace directors. In 
1856 he published ' Solace in Sickness,' a col- 
lection of hymns, and in the same year was 
made rector of Fonthill Bishop, Wiltshire. 
He published his ' Farewell Sermon ' to his 
Cheam flock, having preached it on 28 Sept. 
In 1864 he published ' The History of Isaac.' 
He died at the rectory 20 Dec. 1865, aged 71. 
The editorship of ' The Vision,' a humorous 
illustrated poem on Jonathan Boucher's phi- 
lological studies, written by Sir F. M. Eden, 
bart., and published in 1820, has been wrongly 
attributed to Bouchier. 

[G-ent. Mag. 4th ser. 1866, i. 431-2; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] J. H. 

GEORGE (d. 1643), royalist, was a wealthy 
merchant of Bristol, fie entered into a plot 
with Robert Yeomans, who had been one of 
the sheriffs of Bristol, and several others, to 
deliver that city, on 7 March 1642-3, to Prince 
Rupert, for the service of King Charles I ; but 
the scheme being discovered and frustrated, 
he was, with Yeomans, after eleven weeks' im- 
prisonment, brought to trial before a council 
of war. They were both found guilty and 
hanged in Wine Street, Bristol, on 30 May 
1643. In his speech to the populace at the 
place of execution Bouchier exhorted all 
those who had set their hands to the plough 
(meaning the defence of the royal cause) not 
to be terrified by his and his fellow-prisoner's 
sufferings into withdrawing their exertions in 
the king's service. There is a small portrait 
of Bouchier in the preface to Winstanley's 
' Loyall Martyrology,' 1665. 

[Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion (1843), 
389; Lloyd's Memoires (1677), 565; Winstan- 
ley's Loyall Martyrology, 5; Granger's Biog. 
Hist, of England (1824), iii. 110; Barrett's 
Hist, of Bristol, 227, 228.] T. C. 

BOUGH, SAMUEL (1822-1878), land- 
scape painter, third child of a shoemaker, 
originally from Somersetshire, was born at 
Carlisle on 8 Jan. 1822, and when a boy 
assisted at his father's craft. Later he was 
for a short time engaged in the office of the 
town clerk of Carlisle ; but, while still young, 
abandoned the prospects of a law career, and 



wandered about the country, making sketches 
in water colour, and associating with gipsies. 
In the course of his wanderings he visited 
London several times ; first in 1838, when 
he made some copies in the National Gallery. 
He was never at any school of art. In 1845 
he obtained employment as a scene-painter 
at Manchester, and was thence taken by the 
manager, Glover, to Glasgow, where he mar- 
ried Isabella Taylor, a singer at the theatre. 

His abilities were recognised by Sir D. 
Macnee, P.R.S.A., who persuaded him to 
give up his work at the theatre for land- 
scape painting. He began in 1849 a more 
earnest study of nature, working at Hamil- 
ton, in the neighbouring Cadzow Forest, 
and at Port Glasgow, where he painted his 
1 Shipbuilding at Dumbarton.' Among his 
principal works may be mentioned : l Canty 
Bay,' 'The Rocket Cart,' 'St. Monan's,' 
1 London from Shooter's Hill,' ' Kirkwall,' 
' Borrowdale ' (engraved in ' Art Journal,' 
1871), ' March of the Avenging Army,' * Ban- 
nockburn and the Carse of Stirling,' ' Guild- 
ford Bridge.' He supplied landscape illustra- 
tions for books published by Messrs. Blackie 
& Co. and by other publishers ; produced a 
few etchings of no great merit ; painted seve- 
ral panoramas ; and never entirely gave up 
the practice of scene-painting. 

In 1856 he became an associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and on 10 Feb. 
1875 a full member. For the last twenty 
years of his life his abode was fixed at Edin- 
burgh, where he died 19 Nov. 1878. 

Although Bough at times painted in oil, 
the majority of his works, and among them 
his best, are in water colour. His style was 
much influenced by his practice as a scene- 
painter, and is characterised by great breadth, 
freedom, and boldness of execution, with 
power over atmospheric effects, but with at 
times some deficiency in the quality of colour. 
A thorough Bohemian, he concealed under a 
rough exterior, and an abrupt and sometimes 
sarcastic manner, a warm heart and a mind 
cultivated by loving knowledge of some 
branches of older English literature. He was 
a great amateur of music, a fair violinist, and 
the possessor of a fine bass voice. A collection 
of his works was exhibited at the Glasgow 
Institute in 1880, and another at Edinburgh 
in 1884. 

[Edinburgh Courant, November 1878; Scots- 
man, November 1878; Mr. R. L. Stevenson in 
Academy, 30 Nov. 1878 ; Academy, 5 July 1884 ; 
Art Journal, January 1879.] W. H-H. 

1660 ?), royalist divine, was a native of Buck- 
inghamshire, and received his education at 

"Westminster School, whence he was elected 
to a scholarship at Christ Church, Oxford 
(B.A. 1609, M.A. 1612). He was appointed 
chaplain to Dr. Howson, bishop of Oxford ; 
he afterwards held a cure at Bray in Berk- 
shire; and on 13 April 1633 was collated 
to the rectory of Woodchurch in Kent. The 
presbyterian inhabitants of Woodchurch pe- 
titioned against him in 1640 for having acted 
as a justice of the peace, and he was ejected 
from both his livings. Thereupon he retired 
to Oxford, where he was created D.D. on 
1 July 1646, shortly before the surrender of 
the garrison to the parliamentary forces; 
he afterwards resided at Chartham in Kent. 
Wood says : ' This Dr. Boughen, as I have 
been informed, lived to see his majesty re- 
stored, and what before he had lost, he did 
obtain ;' and Baker also states that ' Boughen 
died soon after the Restoration, aged 74, plus 
minus.' It is not improbable that he is 
identical with the Edward Boughen, pre- 
bendary of Marden in the church of Chiches- 
ter, whose death occurred between 29 May 
and 11 Aug. 1660 (WALKER, Sufferings of 
the Clergy, ed. 1714, ii. 13). 

Boughen was a learned man and a staunch 
defender of the church of England. He 
published : 1. Several sermons, including 
' Unanimity in Judgment and Affection, ne- 
cessary to Unity of Doctrine and Uniformity 
in Discipline. A Sermon preached at Can- 
terbury at the Visitation of the Lord Arch- 
bishop's Peculiars. In St. Margaret's Church, 
April 14, 1635,' Lond. 1635, 8vo ; reprinted in 
1714, l with a preface by Tho. Brett, LL.D., 
rector of Betteshanger in Kent. Giving some 
account of the author, also vindicating him 
and the preachers, who flourished under King 
James I and King Charles I, from the reflec- 
tions cast upon them in a late preface before 
a sermon of Abp. Whit gift's.' 2. ' An Ac- 
count of the Church Catholick : where it was 
before the Reformation, and whether Rome 
were or bee the Church Catholick. In answer 
to two letters' signed T. B., Lond. 1653, 4to. 
A reply by R. T., printed, it is said, at Paris, 
appeared in 1654. ' By which R. T. is meant, 
as I have been informed by some Rom. Catho- 
lics, Thomas Read, LL.D., sometimes fellow 
of New Coll. in Oxon.' (WooD, Athena Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, iii. 390). 3. ' Observations upon 
the Ordinance of the Lords and Commons at 
Westminster. After Advice had with their 
Assembly of Divines, for the Ordination of 
Ministers pro Tempore, according to their 
Directory for Ordination, and Rules for Ex- 
amination therein expressed,' Oxford, 1645. 
4. ' Principles of Religion ; or, a short Expo- 
sition of the Catechism of the Church of Eng- 
land,' Oxford, 1646; London, 1663, 1668, 



1671. The later editions bear this title : 'A 
short Exposition of the Catechism of the 
Church of England, with the Church Cate- 
chism it self, and Order of Confirmation, in 
English and Latin for the use of Scholars,' 
Lond. 1671, 12mo. Some of the prayers an- 
nexed are very singular. That for the king 
implores ' that our sovereign King Charles 
may be strengthened with the faith of Abra- 
ham, endued with the mildness of Moses, 
armed with the magnanimity of Joshua, 
exalted with the humility of David, beauti- 
fied with the wisdom of Solomon ; ' for the 
queen : l That our most gracious queen Catha- 
rine may be holy and devout as Hesther, loving 
to the king as Rachel, fruitful as Leah, wise 
as Rebecca, faithful and obedient as Sarah,' 
&c. 5. 'Mr. Geree's Case of Conscience 
sifted ; wherein is enquired whether the king 
(considering his oath at coronation to protect 
the clergy and their priviledges) can with a 
safe Conscience consent to the Abrogation of 
Episcopacy,' Lond. 1648, 1650, 4to. Geree 
published a reply under the title of Smoppayia, 
the Sifter's Sieve broken.' 6. Poems in the 
university collections on King James's visit 
to Christ Church in 1605, and on the mar- 
riage of the Princess Elizabeth in 1613. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 388-90, 
Fasti, i. 333, 347, ii. 100; Addit. MS. 5863, 
f. 215 b ; Hasted's Kent, iii. Ill ; Kennett's Re- 
gister and Chronicle, 597, 842, 843, 861 
Welch's Alumni Westmon. (Phillimore), 73.] 

T. C. 

BOUGHTON, JOAN (d. 1494), martyr, 
was an old widow of eighty years or more, 
who held certain of Wycliffe's opinions. She 
was said to be the mother of a lady named 
Young, who was suspected of the like 
doctrines. She was burnt at Smithfield 
28 April 1494. 

[Fabyan, p. 685, ed. Ellis ; Foxe's Acts and 
Monuments, iii. 704, iv. 7, ed. 1846.] W. H. 

BOULT, SWINTON (1809-1876), secre- 
tary and director of the Liverpool, London, 
and Globe Insurance Company, commenced 
life in Liverpool as local agent for insurance 
offices. In 1836 he founded the Liverpoo 
Fire Office, which, after struggling with many 
difficulties, became, through Boult's energy, 
the largest fire insurance office in the world 
After the great fires in Liverpool of 1842-i 
Boult offered to the merchants of Liverpool 
opportunities of insuring their merchandise 
against fire in the various parts of the worlc 
where it was lying awaiting transshipment 
Agencies, which proved very successful, were 
gradually opened in various parts of America 
and Canada, in the Baltic, in the Mediter- 

anean, and afterwards in the East generally, 
ind in Australia. About 1848 the company, 
3n account of the number of its London clients, 
>ecame known as the Liverpool and London ; 
fterwards, on absorbing the business of the 
jlobe Insurance Company, under the autho- 
rity of parliament the present title of Liver- 
3Ool, London, and Globe was assumed. The 
company now transacts a large business in all 
:he leading mercantile countries of the world, 
its premiums from fire insurance alone con- 
siderably exceeding one million per annum. 

Boult was the principal means of intro- 
ducing * tariff rating ' as applied to cotton mills, 
whereby real improvements in construction 
are taken into account in determining the pre- 
miums ; he originated the Liverpool Salvage 
Committee, did much to secure the passing of 
the Liverpool Fire Prevention Act, and de- 
vised a uniform policy for the tariff fire offices. 
He made the circuit of the globe in order to 
render himself familiar with the real nature 
of the fire risks which his company, in com- 
mon with other fire offices, was called upon 
to accept ; became managing director of his 
company, and gave evidence before various 
parliamentary committees on points affecting 
the practice of fire insurance, especially before 
that on fire protection which sat in 1867. He 
died in 1876, aged 67. 

[Walford's Insurance Cyclopaedia.] C. W. 

LL.D. (1818-1884), divine, the eldest son of 
Thomas Boultbee, for forty-seven years vicar 
of Bidford, Warwickshire, was born on 7 Aug. 
1818. He was sent to Uppingham school in 
1833, which he left with an exhibition to St. 
John's College, Cambridge. He took the de- 
gree of B. A. in 1841, as fifth wrangler. In 
March 1842 he was elected fellow of his col- 
lege, and proceeded M.A. in 1844. He took 
orders immediately ; and after holding one or 
two curacies, and taking pupils, he became 
curate to the Rev. Francis Close, of Chelten- 
ham, afterwards dean of Carlisle. From 1852 
to 1863 he was theological tutor and chaplain 
of Cheltenham College. In 1863 he assumed 
the principalship of the newly instituted Lon- 
don College of Divinity, at first located in a 
private house at Kilburn, where the principal 
entered upon his task with a single student. 
Two years afterwards it was moved to St. 
John's Hall, Highbury, and the number of 
pupils rose to fifty or sixty. In 1884 the 
number of students in residence was sixty- 
eight. Boultbee took the degree of LL.D. in 
1872, and in October 1883 received from the 
Bishop of London, Dr. Jackson, the preben- 
dal stall of Eadland in St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Dr. Boultbee died at Bournemouth on 30 Jan. 



1884, and was buried at Chesham, Bucking- 
hamshire,'of which, his youngest son was vicar. 
Besides a few sermons and occasional 
papers, Dr. Boultbee published: 1. ' The 
Alleged Moral Difficulties of the Old Tes- 
tament, a Lecture delivered in connection 
with the^Christian Evidence Society,' 28 June 
1872 ; 8vo, London, 1872. 2. < The Annual 
Address of the Victoria Institute, or Philoso- 
phical Society of Great Britain,' 8vo, London, 
1873. 3. ' A Commentary on the Thirty-nine 
Articles, forming an Introduction to the 
Theology of the Church of England,' 8vo, 
London, 1871, and other editions. 4. ' A 
History of the Church of England Pre-Re- 
formation Period,' 8vo, London, 1879. 

[Graduati Cantabrigienses, 1873; Crockford's 
Clerical Directory; Times, 1 Feb. 1884; Eev. 
C. H. Waller, St. John's Hall, Highbury, in the 
Eock, 8 Feb. 1884; Eecord, 1, 8, and 15 Feb. 
1884, where appear a funeral sermon by Bishop 
Eyle, and communications from Gr. C., A. P., and 
the Eev. Thomas Lewthwaite, Newsome Vicarage, 
Huddersfield.] A. H. G. 

BOULTER, HUGH (1672-1742), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, born in London 4 Jan. 
1671-2, was descended from a 'reputable and 
.estated family.' His father was John Boulter 
of St. Katharine Cree. He entered Merchant 
Taylors' School 11 Sept. 1685, matriculated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, 1686-7. He was 
an associate of Addison, and was subse- 
quently made fellow of Magdalen College 
(B.A. 1690, M.A. 1693, D.D. 1708). In 
1700 he received the appointment of chaplain 
to Sir Charles Hedges, secretary of state, 
and afterwards acted in the same capacity to 
Archbishop Tenison. Through the patronage 
of Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland, Boul- 
ter was appointed to St. Olave's, Southwark 
(1708), and archdeacon of Surrey (1715-16). 
With Ambrose Philips, Zachary Pierce, 
bishop of Rochester, and others, Boulter 
contributed to a periodical established in 
1718, and entitled < The Free Thinker.' In 
1719 Boulter attended George I as chaplain 
to Hanover, and was employed to instruct 
Prince Frederick in the English language. 
The king in the same year appointed him 
bishop of Bristol and dean of Christ Church, 
Oxford. Five years subsequently George 
nominated Boulter to the primacy of the 
protestant church in Ireland, then vacant, 
which he for a time hesitated to accept. The 
king's letter for his translation from the see of 
Bristol to that of Armagh was dated 31 Aug. 
1724. In November of that year he arrived 
in Ireland, and Ambrose Philips accompanied 
him as his secretary. As a member of the 
privy council and lord justice in Ireland 

Boulter devoted himself with much assiduity 
to governmental business, as well as to the 
affairs of the protestant church. He approved 
of the withdrawal of Wood's patent for cop- 
per coinage. On other points he differed both 
with William King, archbishop of Dublin, 
and with Swift. One of Swift's last public 
acts was his condemnation of the measure 
promoted by Boulter for diminishing the value 
of gold coin and increasing the quantity of 
silver currency, which it was apprehended 
would, by causing an advance in the rent of 
land, increase the absentee drain from Ire- 
land. Swift, in some satirical verses, ridi- 
culed Boulter's abilities. Through Sir Robert 
Walpole and his connections in England 
Boulter acquired a predominating influence 
in administration and in the parliament at 
Dublin, where he considered himself to be 
the head of the * English interest.' Boulter's 
state policy, to secure what he styled l a good 
footing ' for the ' English interest ' in Ireland, 
was to confer important posts in church and 
state there on his own countrymen, to repress 
efforts of the protestants in Ireland towards 
constitutional independence, and to leave the 
Roman catholics subjected to penal legisla- 
tion. By a statute enacted through Boulter's 
influence the Roman catholics were excluded 
from the legal profession, and disqualified 
from holding offices connected with the ad- 
ministration of law. Under another act passed 
through Boulter's exertions they were de- 
prived of the right of voting at elections for 
members of parliament or magistrates the 
sole constitutional right which they had been 
allowed to exercise. Boulter forwarded with 
great energy the scheme for protestant charter 
schools, with a view to strengthen the ' Eng- 
lish interest,' by bringing over the Irish to 
the church of England. He gave many liberal 
contributions to protestant churches, and for 
the relief of the poor in periods of distress in 
Ireland. As a memorial of his charity, in 
1741 a full-length portrait of him by Francis 
Bindon was placed in the hall of the poor 
house, Dublin. Boulter repeatedly held of- 
fice as lord justice in Ireland during the ab- 
sence of the viceroy, Carteret, and his suc- 
cessors, the Dukes of Dorset and Devonshire. 
The death of Boulter occurred at London on 
27 Sept. 1742. He was interred in the north 
transept of Westminster Abbey, where a 
marble monument and bust were placed over 
his remains. * Sermons,' and l A Charge at 
his Primary Visitation in Ireland in 1725,' 
are his only published productions, with the 
exception of a portion of his correspondence. 
A selection of his letters was printed in two 
volumes at Oxford in 1769, under the super- 
intendence of Ambrose Philips, who had acted 




as his, secretary in Ireland. This series con- 
sists of letters from November 1724 to De- 
cember 1738, to state officials and eminent 
churchmen in England. They were repub- 
lished at Dublin in 1770 by George Faulkner, 
who, in his introduction to them, observed 
that Boulter, with all his virtues, ' was too 
partially favourable to the people of England 
and too much prejudiced against the natives 
of Ireland.' In 1745 Dr. Samuel Madden 
published at London ' Boulter's Monument, 
a panegyrical poem.' This production, dedi- 
cated to Frederick, prince of Wales, was re- 
vised by Samuel Johnson, and quoted by him 
in his dictionary. A full-length portrait 
of Boulter is preserved in Magdalen College, 
and a bust of him is in the library of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

[Letters of Hugh Boulter, D.D., 1769-70; 
Biographia Britannica, 1780; O'Conor's Hist, of 
Irish Catholics, 1813 ; Stuart's Hist. Memoirs of 
Armagh, 1819 ; Works of Swift, ed. Sir W. Scott, 
1824 ; Works of Samuel Johnson, 1825 ; Mant's 
Hist, of Church of Ireland, 1840 ; Boswell's Life 
of Johnson, ed. Napier, 1884 ; C. J. Robinson's 
Registers of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 315.] 

J. T. GK 

BOULTON, MATTHEW (1728-1809), 
engineer, was born in Birmingham 3 Sept. 
1728, where his father, Matthew Boulton the 
elder, had long been carrying on the trade, ac- 
cording to Dr. Smiles, of a silver stamper and 
piercer. The Boultons were a Northamp- 
tonshire family, but John, the grandfather 
of the younger Matthew, settled in Lich- 
field, and Matthew the elder was sent to 
Birmingham to enter into business, in con- 
sequence of the reduced fortunes of the 
family. The younger Boulton entered his 
father's business early, and soon set himself 
to extend it. This he had succeeded in doing 
to a considerable extent, when in 1759 his 
father died. In the following year he mar- 
ried Anne Robinson of Lichfield, with 
whom he received a considerable dower. 
Being thus able to command additional 
capital, he determined to enlarge his opera- 
tions still further, and with this view he 
founded the famous Soho works. About the 
same time he also entered into partnership i 
with Mr. Fothergill. The works were opened 
in 1762, and soon obtained a reputation for ! 
work of a higher character than it was then 
usual to associate with the name of Birming- 
ham. Boulton laid himself out to improve 
not only the workmanship, but the artistic 
merit of his wares, and for this purpose em- 
ployed agents to procure for him the finest t 
examples of art-work not only in metal, but 
in pottery and other materials, which he : 

employed as models for his own produc- 

The growth of the factory, and the con- 
sequent increased need for motive power 
more abundant than the water-power with 
which Soho was but scantily furnished, led 
Boulton to direct his thoughts to the steam 
engine, then only used for pumping. He 
himself made experiments, and constructed 
a model of an improved engine, but nothing 
came of it. Watt was then in partnership 
with Roebuck, endeavouring unsuccessfully 
to perfect his engine. Roebuck was a friend 
of Boulton, and told him of Watt and his 
experiments. Two visits paid by Watt to 
Soho in 1767 and 1768 made him anxious 
to secure the help of Boulton and to avail 
himself of the resources in Soho in perfect- 
ing the engine, while Boulton was on his 
side desirous of getting Watt's aid in the 
construction of an engine for the works. 
For some time negotiations as to a partner- 
ship between the two went on, but they 
came to nothing until Roebuck's failure in 
1772. As a set-off against a claim of 1,2007., 
Boulton then accepted Roebuck's share in 
the engine patent, and entered into partner- 
ship with Watt. In consequence of Boul- 
ton's advice the act of parliament was pro- 
cured by which the patent rights were 
extended for a period of twenty-four years 
(with the six expired years of the original 
patent, thirty years in all). The history 
of the difficulties which were vanquished 
by the mechanical skill of one partner and 
by the energy of the other will more fitly be 
related in the account of Watt [see WATT, 
JAMES], but it may be said here that if the 
completion of the steam engine was due 
to Watt, its introduction at that time 
was due to Boulton. He devoted to the 
enterprise not only all the capital he pos- 
sessed, but all he could raise from any 
source whatever, and indeed he brought 
himself to the verge of bankruptcy before 
the work was completed and the engine a 
commercial success. He kept up the droop- 
ing spirits of his partner, and would never 
allow him to despond, when he was almost 
inclined to despair of his own invention. 
Of course at last he had his reward, but it 
was not until after six or seven years' labour 
and anxiety, and when he had passed his 
sixtieth year. Dr. Smiles gives 1787 as the 
year when Watt began to realise a profit 
from the engine, but the greater outlay for 
which Boulton had been responsible made 
it some time later before he got clear from 
his liabilities and began to make a profit. 

The reform of the copper coinage was an- 
other important movement with which 



Boulton was connected in the latter part of 
his life. In 1788 he set up several coining 
presses at Soho to be worked by steam (he 
patented his press in 1790), and after making 
large quantities of coins for the East India 
Company, for foreign governments, and for 
some of the colonies, he in 1797 undertook 
the production of a new copper coinage for 
Great Britain. He also supplied machinery 
to the new mint on Tower Hill, commenced 
in 1805, and until quite lately part at least 
of our money was coined by the old machinery 
constructed by Boulton and Watt. It was 
not until the reorganisation of the mint ma- 
chinery in 1882 that Boulton's press was 
finally abandoned. 

In the scientific society of his time Boul- 
ton held a prominent place. Among his 
intimates were Franklin, Priestley, Darwin, 
Wedgwood, and Edgeworth ; he was a fellow 
of the Royal Society and a member of the 
Lunar Society, a provincial scientific society 
of note. His house at Soho was the meeting- 
place for all scientific men, both English and 
foreign. He died there 18 Aug. 1809. 

[Smiles's Lives of Boulton and "Watt (founded 
on original papers), London, 1865 ; Muirhead's 
Life of Watt, London, 1858 ; Gent. Mag. 1809, 
780, 883, 979.] H. T. W. 

BOULTON, RICHARD (ft. 1697-1724), 
physician, educated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford, and for some time settled at Chester, was 
the author of a number of works on the medical 
and kindred sciences, including : 1. ' Reason 
of Muscular Motion,' 1697. 2. ' Treatise con- 
cerning the Heat of the Blood,' 1698. 3. ' An 
Examination of Mr. John Colbatche's Books,' 

1699. 4. < Letter to Dr. Goodal occasioned by 
his Letter to Dr. Leigh,' 1699. 5. ' System of 
Rational and Practical Chirurgery,' 1699 ; 
2nd edition, 1713. 6. 'The Works of the 
Hon. Robert Boyle epitomised,' 3 vols. 1699- 

1700. 7. ' Physico-Chirurgical Treatises of 
the Gout, the King's Evil, and the Lues Ve- 
nerea,' 1714. 8. 'Essay on External Reme- 
dies,' 1715. 9. ' Essay on the Plague,' 1721. 
10. ' Vindication of the Compleat History of 
Magic,' 1722. 11. 'Thoughts concerning the 
Unusual Qualities of the Air,' 1724. Though 
apparently learned in the science of his pro- 
fession, he was seemingly not successful in 
his practice, for in a letter to Sir Hans Sloane 
he states that he undertook to write an 
abridgment of Mr. Boyle's works on account 
of ' misfortunes still attending him ; ' and in 
another letter he mentions that successive 
misfortunes had made him the object of his 
compassion, and begs him to effect something 
towards putting him in a way to live. In 
the preface to the ' Vindication of the His- 

tory of Magic ' he states that he had been for 
some time out of England. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Catalogue ; 
Sloane MS. 4038.] 

BOUND, NICHOLAS (d. 1613). [See 


BOUQUET, HENRY (1719-1765), gene- 
ral, born at Rolle, in the canton of Berne, 
Switzerland, was in 1736 received as a cadet 
in the regiment of Constant in the service of 
the States-General of Holland,and in 1738 was 
made ensign in the same regiment. Thence he 
passed into the service of the king of Sardinia, 
and distinguished himself in the wars against 
France and Spain. The accounts he sent to 
Holland of these campaigns having attracted 

| the attention of the Prince of Orange, he was 

j engaged by him in the service of the republic. 
As captain-commandant, with the rank of 

I lieutenant-colonel in the regiment of Swiss 
guards newly formed in the Hague in 1748, 

j he was sent to the Low Countries to receive 
from the French the places they were about 
to evacuate. A few months afterwards he 
accompanied Lord Middleton in his travels 
in France and Italy. On the outbreak of the 
war between the French and English settlers 
in America in 1754 he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Royal American regi- 
ment which was then raised in three bat- 
talions, and by his integrity and capacity 
gained great credit, especially in Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia. In 1763 he was sent 
by General Amherst from Canada with mili- 
tary stores and provisions for the relief of 
Fort Pitt, and on 5 Aug. was attacked by a 
powerful body of the Indians near the defile 
of Turtle Creek, but so completely defeated 
them that they gave up their designs against 
Fort Pitt and retreated to their remote set- 
tlements. In the following year he was sent 
from Canada against the Ohio Indians, and 
succeeded in reducing a body of Shawanese, 
Delaware, and other tribes to make terms of 
peace. At the conclusion of the peace with 
the Indians he was made brigadier-general 
and commandant of all troops in the south- 
ern colonies of British America. He died in 
the autumn of 1765 at Pensacola, from an 
epidemic then prevalent among the troops. 

[The account of General Bouquet's Expedition 
against the Ohio Indians in 1764 was published 
at Philadelphia in 1765 and reprinted in London 
in the following year. The work has been as- 
cribed to Thomas Hutchins, geographer of the 
United States, who supplied the map, but pro- 
perly belongs to Dr. William Smith, provost of 
the College of Philadelphia. An edition in 
French by C. G-. F. Dumas, with an histori- 
cal sketch of General Bouquet, was issued at 




Amsterdam in 1769. An English translation of 
this life is added to an edition of the work pub- 
lished at Cincinnati in 1868, and forming vol. i. 
of the Ohio Historical Series. The letters and 
documents formerly belonging to Bouquet, and 
relating to military events in America, 1757- 
1765, occupy thirty volumes of manuscripts in 
the British Museum, Add. MSS. 21631-21660. 
In Add. MS. 21660 there is a copy of the inven- 
tory of his property and of his will.] 

T. F. H. 

1748), Hebrew professor, was educated at 
"Westminster School, whence he was elected 
in 1689 to a scholarship at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He became B.A. 1692, M.A. 
1696,B.D. 1706,D.D. 1711. Whenavacancy 
occurred in the professorship of Hebrew in 
1704, which it was thought desirable to con- 
fer on Sike, Bouquett was temporarily ap- 
pointed to it in the absence of Sike, the 
famous oriental scholar, for whom the post 
was reserved. Sike was definitely elected in 
August 1705, but on the professorship falling 
vacant again seven years later, Bouquett was 
elected to fill it permanently. He died senior 
fellow of Trinity on 12 Feb. 1747-8, aged 79. 
Cole describes him as 'born in France, an old 
miserly refugee, who died rich in college, and 
left his money among the French refugees. 
He was a meagre, thin man, bent partly 
double, and for his oddities and way of living 
was much ridiculed.' He refused to sign the 
petition against Dr. Bentley. Bouquett con- 
tributed a copy of elegiacs to the university 
collection of poems on the death of George I 
and accession of George II in 1727. 

[Welch's Al. West. 214 ; Gent. Mag. xviii. 92 ; 
Cole's MSS. xxxiii. 274, xlv. 244, 334 ; Monk's 
Life of Bentley, i. 186, 329-30.] J. M. 



(d. 1483), was the son of Sir William Bour- 
chier, earl of Ewe or Eu, and of Anne, 
daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, duke of 
Gloucester, and widow of Edmund, earl of 
Stafford. He was therefore great-grandson of 
Robert Bourchier [q. v.], chancellor to Ed- 
ward III, brother of Thomas [q.v.], archbishop 
of Canterbury, and of Anne, wife of John, 
duke of N orfolk, and half-brother of Humfrey, 
duke of Buckingham. Early in the reign of 
Henry VI he served in the French war, going 
to Calais in 1430 with the king and the Duke 
of York. He succeeded his father as earl of 
Ewe, and was once summoned to parliament 
by that title. In 1435 he succeeded to the 
barony of Bourchier. He served in France 
under the Duke of York, was appointed lieu- 

tenant-general in 1440, and in 1443 \vas cap- 
tain of Crotoy in Picardy. He was summoned 
to parliament as Viscount Bourchier in 1446. 
He married Isabel, daughter of Richard, earl 
of Cambridge, and aunt of Edward IV. In 
1451 he served on the commission of oyer and 
terminer for Kent and Sussex. The battle of 
St. Albans made the Duke of York and his 
party the masters of the king, and on 29 May 
1455 Henry appointed Bourchier, the duke's 
brother-in-law, treasurer of the kingdom. 
Bourchier held office until 5 Oct. 1456, and 
was then succeeded by the Earl of Shrewsbury 
a change that l perhaps indicates that the 
mediating policy of the Duke of Buckingham 
was exchanged for a more determined one' 
(STUBBS, Const. Hist. iii. 176) ; for up to this 
time the Bourcliiers, in spite of their close 
connection with the house of York, held a kind 
of middle place between the two parties, and, 
though the queen's party came into power in 
February, continued to hold office in what 
may be called the Lancastrian government. 
His and his brother's sudden discharge from 
office was put down to the queen's influence 
(Paston Letters, i. 408). In 1460 Bourchier 
was with the Earls of March and Warwick 
at the battle of Northampton, and was there- 
fore by that time a declared partisan of the 
duke. On the accession of his nephew, Ed- 
ward IV, he was created earl of Essex (30 June 
1461) ; lie was made treasurer for the second 
time, and held office for a year. He received 
from the king the castle of Werk and the 
honour of Tindall, in Northumberland, to- 
gether with many other estates in different 
counties. In 1471 the earl was again made 
treasurer, and retained his office during the 
rest of his life. When, on 28 May 1473, John 
de Vere, earl of Oxford, landed at St. Osyth's, 
Essex and others rode against him and com- 
pelled him to re-embark (Paston Letters, iii. 
92). In this year also he was for about a 
month keeper of the great seal during the 
vacancy of the chancellorship. Essex died 
4 April 1483, and was buried at Bylegh. He 
had a large family. His eldest son, William, 
who married Anne Woodville, died during his 
lifetime, and he was therefore succeeded by 
his grandson, Henry [q. v.] His second son, 
Sir Henry Bourchier, married the daughter 
and heiress of Lord Scales ; the third son, 
Humfrey, Lord Cromwell, died in the battle 
of Barnet ; the fourth son, Sir John, married 
the niece and heiress of Lord Ferrers of 
Groby. He had four other children. 

[Polydore Vergil's Hist. Angl. 1299, ed. 1603; 
Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner ; Will. Worcester ; 
Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 129 ; Stubbs's Constitu- 
tional History, iii. 176 ; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
land, iv. 423.] W. H. 



OF ESSEX (d. 1539), was the son of William 
Bourchier and the grandson of Henry Bour- 
chier, first earl [q. v.] His mother was Anne 
Woodville, sister of the queen of Edward IV. 
He succeeded his grandfather in 1483. He was 
a member of the privy council of Henry VII. 
In 1492 he was present at the siege of Bou- 

logne. At the knighthood of Henry, duke ; endangered 

folk to overawe the malcontents. On a di- 
vision being made of the council in 1526 for 
purposes of business, his name was placed 
with those who were to treat of matters of 
law. He joined in the letter sent by a num- 
ber of English nobles to Clement VII in 
1530, warning him that imless he hastened 
the king's 

of York (Henry VIII), the earl took a pro- 
minent part in the ceremonies, and was one 
of the challengers at the jousts held in honour 
of the event. In 1497 he commanded a de- 
tachment against the rebels at Blackheath. 
He accompanied the king and queen when 
they crossed to Calais in 1500, to hold an in- 
terview with the Duke of Burgundy. The 
next year he was one of those appointed to 
meet Catherine of Arragon. On the acces- 
sion of Henry VIII he was made captain of 
the new bodyguard. During the early years 
of the king's reign he took a prominent part 
in the revels in which Henry delighted. 
Constant references may be found in the 
State Papers to the earl's share in these en- 
tertainments. For example, in 1510 he and 
others, the king among the number, dressed 
themselves as Robin Hood's men in a revel 
given for the queen's delectation. He was also 
constantly employed in state ceremonies, such 
as meeting papal envoys, as in 1514, when 
the pope sent Henry a cap and sword; in 
1515, when he met the prothonotary who 
brought over the cardinal's hat for Wolsey ; 
and in 1524, when Dr. Hanyball came over 
with the golden rose for the king. These 
and such like engagements necessarily put 
him to great expense. He received some 
grants from Henry, and appears both as a 
pensioner and a debtor of the crown. On 
one occasion his tailor seems to have had 
some difficulty in getting his bill settled. 
He served at the sieges of Terouenne and 
Tournay as ' lieutenant-general of the spears ' 
(HERBEKT) in 1513, and the next year was 
made chief captain of the king's forces. When 
the king's sister Margaret, widow of James 
IV and wife of the Earl of Angus, sought 
refuge in England, the Earl of Essex, in 
company with the king, Suffolk, and Sir G. 
Carew, held the lists in the jousts given in 
her honour. In 1520 he attended the king 
at the celebrated meeting held at Guisnes. 
He sat as one of the judges of the Duke of 
Buckingham, and received the manor of Bed- 
minster as his share of the duke's estates. 
In 1525, when engaged in raising money for 
the crown from the men of Essex, he wrote 
to Wolsey, pointing out the danger of an in- 
surrection, and by the king's command took 
a company to the borders of Essex and Suf- 

divorce, his supremacy would be 
1. While riding a young horse, in 

1539, he was thrown and broke his neck. 
As he had no male issue by his wife Mary, 
his earldom (of Essex) and viscounty (Bour- 
chier) became extinct at his death. His 
barony descended to his daughter Anne, who 
married William Parr, afterwards Earl of 

[Hall's Chron. (Hen. VIII), f. 6, 8, 26, 63, ed. 
1548; Stow's Annals; Polydore Vergil's Historia 
Anglica, 1437, 1521, ed. 1603 ; Letters, Eic. Ill 
and Hen. VII, Eolls Series ; Herbert's Life and 
Keign of Henry VIII, 34 ; Cal. of State Papers, 
Hen. VIII, ed. Brewer, passim; Dugdale's Baron- 
age, ii. 130.] W. H. 


DE (d. 1330 ?), judge, is first mentioned as 
deputed by Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford, 
to represent him in the parliament summoned 
in 1306 for the purpose of granting an aid on 
the occasion of the Prince of Wales receiving 
knighthood. In 1312 he was permitted to 
postpone the assumption of the same rank 
for three years in consideration of paying a 
fine of lOOs. In 1314-y> he appears as one 
of the justices of assize for the counties of 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, and his name ap- 
pears in various commissions for the years 
1317, 1319, and 1320. In 1321 (15 May) he 
was summoned to parliament at Westminster, 
apparently for the first time, as a justice, and 
on the '31st of the same month was appointed 
a justice of the common bench. Next year 
he was engaged in trying certain persons 
charged with making forcible entry upon the 
manors of Hugh le Despenser, in Glamorgan- 
shire, Brecknock, and elsewhere, and in in- 
vestigating a charge of malversation against 
certain commissioners of forfeited estates in 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, and trying cases 
of extortion by sheriffs, commissioners of 
array, and other officers in Essex, Hertford, 
and Middlesex. In the same year he sat on 
a special commission for the trial of persons 
accused of complicity in the fabrication of 
miracles in the neighbourhood of the gallows 
on which Henry de Montfort and Henry de 
Wylyngton had been hanged at Bristol. In 
February 1325-6 he was placed at the head 
of a commission to try a charge of poaching 
brought by the Bishop of London and the 
dean and chapter of St. Paul's against a 




number of persons alleged to have taken a 
large fish, ' qui dicitur cete,' from the manor 
of Walton, in violation of a charter of 
Henry III, by which the chapter claimed the 
exclusive right to all large fish found on 
their estates, the tongue only being reserved 
to the king. In the same year he was en- 
gaged in trying cases of extortion by legal 
officials in Suffolk, Nottinghamshire, and 
Derbyshire, and persons indicted before the 
conservators of the peace in Lincolnshire. 
In December of this year he was summoned 
to parliament for the last time. He was re- 
appointed justice of the common bench 
shortly after the accession of Edward III, 
the patent being dated 24 March 1326-7. 
The last fine was levied before him on Ascen- 
sion day 1329. He died shortly afterwards, 
as we know from the fact that in the follow- 
ing year his heir, Robert, was put in posses- 
sion of his estates by the king. By his mar- 
riage with Helen, daughter and heir of 
Walter of Colchester, he acquired the manor 
of Stanstead, in Halstead, Essex, adjoining 
an estate which he had purchased in 1312. 
He was buried in Stanstead Church. 

[Parl. Writs, i. 164, 166, ii. Div. ii. pt. i. 139- 
140, 236, 351, 419, pt, ii. 110-11, 119, 134-5, 
139, 148-9, 151, 153-4, 188, 193, 230-2, 237, 
241, 283, 288; Rot, Parl. i. 449 b Dugdale's 
Orig. 45 ; Rot. Orig. Abbrev. ii. 44 ; Gal. Rot. 
Pat. 89 m. 6, 99 m. 10 ; Rymer's Fcedera (ed. 
Clarke), ii. 619 ; Morant's Essex, ii. 253 ; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

BERNERS (1467 -1533), statesman and author, 
was the son of Humphrey Bourchier, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney, 
and widow of Sir Thomas Howard. His 
father was slain at the battle of Barnet 
(14 April 1471) fighting in behalf of Ed- 
ward IV, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey (WEEVER'S Funerall Monuments, 
1632, p. 482). His grandfather, John, the 
youngest son of William Bourchier, earl of 
Ewe, was created Baron Berners in 1455, and 
died in 1474. Henry Bourchier [q. v.], the 
Earl of Ewe's eldest son and the second Lord 
Berners's granduncle, became Earl of Essex in 
1461. Another granduncle, Thomas Bour- 
chier [q. v.], was archbishop of Canterbury 
from 1454 to 1486. 

In 1474 John Bourchier succeeded his 
grandfather as Baron Berners. He is believed 
to have studied for some years at Oxford, and 
Wood conjectures that he was of Balliol Col- 
lege. But little is known of his career till 
after the accession of Henry VII. In 1492 
he entered into a contract ' to serue the king in 
his warres beyond see on hole yeere with two 

speres ' (RYMER, Fc&dera, xii. 479). In 1497 
he helped to repress the Cornish rebellion in 
behalf of Perkin Warbeck. It is fairly cer- 
tain that he and Henry VIII were acquainted 
as youths, and the latter showed Berners 
much favour in the opening years of his reign. 
In 1513 he travelled in the king's retinue to 
Calais, and was present at the capture of 
Terouenne. Later in the same year he was mar- 
shal of the Earl of Surrey's army in Scotland. 
When the Princess Mary married Louis XII 
(9 Oct. 1514), Berners was sent with her to 
France as her chamberlain. But he did not 
remain abroad. On 18 May 1514 he had 
been granted the reversion to the office of 
chancellor of the exchequer, and on 28 May 
1516 he appears to have succeeded to the post. 
In 1518 Berners was sent with John Kite, 
archbishop of Armagh, on a special mission to 
Spain to form an alliance between Henry VIII 
and Charles of Spain. The letters of the 
envoys represent Berners as suffering from 
severe gout. He sent the king accounts of 
the bull-baiting and other sports that took 
place at the Spanish court. The negotiations 
dragged on from April to December, and the 
irregularity with which money was sent to 
the envoys from home caused them much 
embarrassment (cf.Berners to Wolsey, 26 July 
1518, in BRE WEE'S Letters fyc. of Henry 
VIII}. Early in 1519 Berners was again 
in England, and he, with his wife, attended 
Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold in the next year. The privy council 
thanked him (2 July 1520) for the account of 
the ceremonial which he forwarded to them. 
Throughout this period Berners, when in 
England, regularly attended parliament, and 
was in all the commissions of the peace 
issued for Hertfordshire and Surrey. But 
his pecuniary resources were failing him. 
He had entered upon several harassing law- 
suits touching property in Staffordshire, 
Wiltshire, and elsewhere. As early as 1511 
he had borrowed 350/. of the king, and the 
loan was frequently repeated. In Decem- 
ber 1520 he left England to become deputy 
of Calais, during pleasure, with 100Z. yearly 
as salary and 104/. as ' spyall money.' His 
letters to Wolsey and other officers of state 
prove him to have been busily engaged in suc- 
ceeding years in strengthening the fortifica- 
tions of Calais and in watching the armies of 
France and the Low Countries in the neigh- 
bourhood. In 1522 he received Charles V. 
In 1528 he obtained grants of manors in 
Surrey, Wiltshire, Hampshire, and Oxford- 
shire. In 1529 and 1531 he sent Henry VIII 
gifts of hawks (Privy Purse Expenses, pp. 54, 
231). But his pecuniary troubles were in- 
creasing, and his debts to the crown remained 



unpaid. Early in 1532-3, while Berners was 
very ill, Henry VIII directed his agents in 
Calais to watch over the deputy's personal 
effects in the interests of his creditors. On 
16 March 1532-3 Berners died, and he was 
buried in the parish church of Calais by his 
special direction. All his goods were placed 
under arrest and an inventory taken, which 
is still at the Record Office, and proves 
Berners to have lived in no little state. 
Eighty books and four pictures are men- 
tioned among his household furniture. By 
his will (3 March 1532-3) he left his chief 
property in Calais to Francis Hastings, his 
executor, who became earl of Huntingdon in 
1544 (Chronicle of Calais, Camd. Soc. p. 164). 
Berners married Catherine, daughter of John 
Howard, duke of Norfolk, by whom he had a 
daughter, Joan or Jane, the wife of Edmund 
Knyvet of Ashwellthorp in Norfolk, who suc- 
ceeded to her father's estates in England. 
Small legacies were also left to his illegiti- 
mate sons, Humphrey, James, and George. 

The barony of Berners was long in abey- 
ance. Lord Berners's daughter and heiress 
died in 1561, and her grandson, Sir Thomas 
Knyvett, petitioned the crown to grant him 
the barony, but died in 1616 before his claim 
could be ratified. In 1720 Elizabeth, a great- 
granddaughter of Sir Thomas, was confirmed 
in the barony and bore the title of Baroness 
Berners, but she died without issue in 1743, 
and the barony fell again into abeyance. A 
cousin of this lady in the third degree married 
in 1720 Henry Wilson of Didlington, Norfolk, 
and their grandson, Robert Wilson, claimed 
and secured the barony in 1832. The barony 
is now held by a niece of Henry William 
Wilson (1797-1871), the third bearer of the 
restored title. 

While at Calais Berners devoted all his 
leisure to literary pursuits. History, whether 
real or fictitious, always interested him, and 
in 1523 he published the first volume of his fa- 
mous translation of (1) Froissart's Chronicles. 
The second volume followed in 1525. Richard 
Pynson was the printer. This work was un- 
dertaken at the suggestion of Henry VHI 
and was dedicated to him. Its style is re- 
markably vivid and clear, and although a few 
French words are introduced, Berners has 
adhered so closely to the English idiom as 
to give the book the character of an original 
English work. It inaugurated the taste for 
historical reading and composition by which 
the later literature of the century is charac- 
terised. Fabian, Hall, and Holinshed were 
all indebted to it. E. V. Utterson issued a 
reprint of Berners's translation in 1812, and 
although Col. Johnes's translation of Froissart 
(1803-5) has now very generally superseded 

that of Berners, the later version is wanting 
in the literary flavour which still gives 
Berners's book an important place in Eng- 
lish literature. But chivalric romance had 
even a greater attraction for Berners than 
chivalric history, and four lengthy transla- 
tions from the French or Spanish were com- 
pleted by him. The first was doubtless 
(2) ' Huon of Burdeux,' translated from the 
great prose French Charlemagne romance, 
about 1530, but not apparently published 
till after Lord Berners's death. It is pro- 
bable that Wynkyn de Worde printed it in 
1534 under the direction of Lord George 
Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, who had urged 
Berners to undertake it. Lord Crawford 
has a unique copy of this book. A second 
edition, apparently issued by Robert Copland 
in 1570, is wholly lost. Two copies of a third 
revised edition, dated 1601, are extant, of 
which one is in the British Museum and the 
other in the Bodleian. The first edition was 
reprinted by the Early English Text Society 
1883-5. (3) < The Castell of Love ' (by D. de 
San Pedro) was translated from the Spanish 
1 at the instaunce of Lady Elizabeth Carew, 
late wyfe to Syr Nicholas Carewe, knight.' 
The first edition was printed by Robert Wyer 
about 1540, and a second came from the press 
of John Kynge about the same time. (4) * The 
golden boke of Marcus Aurelius, emperour 
and eloquent oratour,' was a translation of a 
French version of Guevara's ' El redox de 
Principes.' It was completed only six days 
before Berners's death, and was under- 
taken at the desire of his nephew, Sir Francis 
Bryan [q. v.] It was first published in 1534, 
and republished in 1539, 1542, 1553, 1557, 
and 1559. A very definite interest attaches 
to this book. It has been proved that English 
< Euphuism' is an adaptation of the style of 
the Spanish Guevara. Lyly's ' Euphues ' was 
mainly founded on Sir Thomas North's * Dial 
of Princes ' (1558 and 1567), and the ' Dial 
of Princes' is a translation of an enlarged 
edition of Guevara's ' El Redox/ which was 
first translated into English by Berners. The 
marked popularity of Berners's original trans- 
lation clearly points to him as the founder of 
'Guevarism' or so-called Euphuism in England 
(LANDMANN'S Euphuismus, Giessen, 1881). 

Berners also translated from the French 
(5) 'The History of the moost noble and 
valyaunt knight, Artheur of Lytell Brytaine.' 
The book was reprinted by Utterson in 1812. 
Wood, following Bale, attributes to Berners 
a Latin comedy, (6) ' Ite ad Vineam,' which 
he says was often acted after vespers at 
Calais, and a tract on (7) ' The Duties of the 
Inhabitants of Calais.' Nothing is known 
now of the former work ; but the latter may 



not improbably be identified with the elabo- 
rate ' Ordinances for watch and ward of 
Calais' in Cotton MS. (Faust. E. vii. 89- 
102 b}. These ordinances were apparently 
drawn np before 1532, and have been printed 
at length in the ' Chronicle of Calais ' pub- 
lished by the Camden Society, pp. 140-62. 
Warton states, on the authority of Oldys, 
that Henry, lord Berners, translated some of 
Petrarch's sonnets, but the statement is pro- 
bably wholly erroneous (Hist. EngL Poet. 
iii. 58). 

Holbein painted a portrait of Berners in 
his robes as chancellor of the exchequer 
(WALPOLE, Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num, i. 82). The picture is now at Key- 
thorpe Hall, Leicestershire, in the posses- 
sion of the Hon. H. Tyrwhitt Wilson. It 
was engraved for the Early English Text , 
Society's reprint of ' Huon of Burdeux ' | 

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 132-3 ; Marshall's 
Genealogist's Guide ; Burke's Peerage ; Foster's 
Peerage ; Bale's Cent. Script, ix. 1 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 72 ; Brewer's Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII, 1509-1534 ; Utter- 
son's Memoir of Berners in his reprint of the 
Froissart (1812); Walpole's Eoyal and Noble 
Authors, i. 239-45 ; Fuller's Worthies ; Intro- 
duction to the Early English Text Society's 
reprint of Huon of Burdeux, ed. S. L. Lee.] 

S. L. L. 

regicide, grandson and heir of Sir Ralph 
Bourchier, of Benningborough, Yorkshire, 
appears in 1620 in the list of adventurers 
for Virginia as subscribing 371. 10s. In the 
following year, having complained of the lord- 
keeper for giving judgment against him in a 
lawsuit, he was censured and obliged to 
make a humble submission (Lords' Journals, 
iii. 179-92). He suffered more severely in 
a contest with Strafford concerning the en- 
closure of certain lands in the forest of Galtre, 
near York. Sir John attempted to assert his 
claims by pulling down the fences, for which 
he was fined and imprisoned. Directly the 
Long parliament met he petitioned, and his 
treatment was one of the minor charges 
against Strafford (RusHWORTH, Strajford's 
Trial, p. 146 ; see also Straff. Corr. i. 86-88, 
ii. 59). His name also appears among those 
who signed the different Yorkshire petitions 
in favour of the parliament, and a letter from 
him describing the presentation of the peti- 
tion of 3 June 1642 on Hey worth Moor, and 
a quarrel between himself and Lord Savile 
on that occasion, was printed by order of 
the House of Commons (Commons' Journals, 
6 June 1642). He entered the Long parlia- 

ment amongst the ' recruiters ' as member 
for Ripon (1645). In December 1648 he was 
appointed one of the king's judges, and signed 
the death-warrant. In February 1651, and 
again in November 1652, he was elected a 
member of the council of state, and finally 
succeeded in obtaining a grant of 6,000/. out 
of the estate of the Earl of Strafford, but it 
is not evident what satisfaction he actually 
obtained (Commons 1 Journals, 31 July 1651). 
At the Restoration he was, with the other 
regicides, summoned to give himself up, and 
the speaker acquainted the House of Com- 
mons with his surrender on 18 June 1660 
(Journals). While the two houses were 
quarrelling over the exceptions to be made 
to the act of indemnity, Bourchier died, as- 
serting to the last the justice of the king's 
condemnation. 1 1 tell you it was a just act ; 
God and all good men will own it' (LuDLOw's 
Memoirs, ed. 1751, p. 358). Sir John's son, 
Barrington Bourchier, having aided in the 
Restoration, obtained a grant of his father's 
estate (Cal. of State Papers, Dom., 1661, 
p. 557). 

[Noble's Regicides and House of Cromwell, 
ii. 36 ; the Fairfax Correspondence (Civil Wars), 
i. 338, contains a letter from Sir John Bourchier 
to Lord Fairfax on the want of ministers in 
Yorkshire.] C. H. F. 

BERT (d. 1349), chancellor, the eldest son 
of John Bourchier [q. v.], a judge of common 
pleas, began life in the profession of arms. 
He was returned as a member for the county 
of Essex in 1330, 1332, 1338, and 1339. In 
1334 he was chief justice of the king's bench 
in Ireland. He was present at the battle of 
Cadsant in 1337. He sat in the parliament 
of 1340 (Rolls of Parliament, ii. 113). When 
on his return to England the king displaced 
his ministers, he committed the great seal, 
which had long been held by Archbishop 
Stratford and his brother, the Bishop of Chi- 
chester, alternately, to Bourchier, who thus 
became, on 14 Dec. 1340, the first lay chan- 
cellor. His salary was fixed at 500 L, besides 
the usual fees. In the struggle between the 
king and the archbishop, Bourchier withheld 
the writ of summons to the ex-chancellor, in- 
terrupted his address to the bishops in the 
Painted Chamber, and on 27 April 1341 urged 
him to submit to the king. When the parlia- 
ment of 1341 extorted from the king his assent 
to their petitions that the account of the royal 
officers should be audited, and that the chan- 
cellor and other great officers should be 
nominated in parliament, and should swear 
to obey the laws, Bourchier declared that he 
had not assented to these articles, and would 



not be bound by them, as they were contrary 
to his oath and to the laws of the realm. 
He nevertheless exemplified the statute, and 
delivered it to parliament. He resigned his 
office on 29 Oct. He was summoned to par- 
liament as a peer in 16 Edward III. In 
1346 he accompanied the king on his expedi- 
tion to France. He was in command of a 
large body of troops, and fought at Crecy in 
the first division of the army. He married 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas 
Preyers. He founded a college at Halstead 
for eight priests ; but it probably never con- 
tained so many, as its revenues were very 
small. The king granted him the right of 
free warren, and license to crenellate his 
house. He died of the plague in 1349, and 
was buried at Halstead. 

[Eolls of Parliament, ii. 113, 127, 131 ; Keturn 
of Members, i. 89-126; Murimuth, 111, Eng. 
Hist. Soc.; Froissart, i. 151, 163 (Johnes); Foss's 
Judges of England, iii. 399-402 ; Campbell's 
Lives of the Chancellors, i. 234-41; Stubbs's 
Constitutional History, ii. 387, 391 ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, ii. 126; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 
1453.] W. H. 

BpURCHIER, THOMAS (1404P-1486), 
cardinal, was the third son of William 
Bourchier, earl of Ewe, by the Lady Anne 
Plantagenet, second daughter of Thomas of 
Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, youngest 
son of Edward III. His father had won the 
title he bore by his achievements under 
Henry V in France, and transmitted it to 
his eldest son, Henry [q. v.j, who afterwards 
was created earl of Essex. A second son, by 
right of his wife, was summoned to parlia- 
ment as Lord Fitzwarren. The third, Thomas, 
the subject of this article, was born about 
1404 or 1405, and was but a child at the death 
of his father. A fourth, John Bourchier, was 
ennobled as Lord Berners [see BOTJKCHIER, 
JOHN]. A daughter Eleanor married John 
Mowbray, third duke of Norfolk of that sur- 
name, and the fourth duke, his son, conse- 
quently speaks of the cardinal as his uncle 
(Paston Letters, ii. 382). 

Thomas Bourchier was sent at an early 
age to Oxford, and took up his abode at 
Nevill's Inn, one of five halls or inns which 
occupied the site of what is now Corpus 
Christi College. In 1424 he obtained the 
prebend of Colwick, in Lichfield Cathedral, 
and before 1427 he was made dean of St. 
Martin's-le-Grand, London. He also received 
the prebend of West Thurrock, in the free 
chapel of Hastings. In 1433, though not yet 
of full canonical age, he was recommended 
for the see of Worcester, then vacant by the 
death of Thomas Polton. But Polton had 

died at Basle while attending the general 
council, and the pope had already nominated 
as his successor Thomas Brouns, dean of Salis- 
bury. On the other hand the commons in 
parliament addressed the king in favour of 
Bourchier, putting forward, according to the 
royal letters, the 'nighness of blood that our 
well-beloved master Thomas attaineth unto 
us and the cunning and virtues that rest in 
his person.' Accordingly Brouns was trans- 
lated to Rochester, and the pope cancelled his 
previous nomination to Worcester by an ante- 
dated bull in favour of Bourchier, whose no- 
mination therefore bears date 9 March 1434. 
The temporalities of the see were restored to 
him on 15 April 1435. 

Meanwhile, in 1434, Bourchier was made 
chancellor of the university of Oxford, a po- 
sition which he held for three years, and which 
implies at least that he took some interest 
in scholarship, though we have no evidence 
that he himself was a distinguished scholar. 
Wood says that he took part in a convocation 
of the university as early as 1428. But we 
may reasonably surmise that his subsequent 
promotions were as much owing to high birth 
as to great abilities. He had not remained 
long in the see of Worcester when, in 1435, 
the bishopric of Ely fell vacant. The chapter, 
at the instigation of John Tiptoft, the prior, 
agreed to postulate Bourchier, who sent mes- 
sengers to Rome to procure bulls for his 
translation. The bulls came, but as the 
government refused to ratify his election, 
Bourchier feared to receive them. The king's 
ministers wished to reward Cardinal Louis 
de Luxembourg, archbishop of Rouen (chan- 
cellor of France under the English king) with 
the revenues of the bishopric of Ely. So by 
an arrangement with the pope, notwithstand- 
ing the opposition of Archbishop Chichele, 
the bishopric was not filled up, but the arch- 
bishop of Rouen was appointed administrator 
of the see. But when he died in 1443, there 
was no further difficulty in the way of Bour- 
chier's promotion. He was nominated by the 
king, elected by the chapter, and having re- 
ceived a bull for his translation, dated 20 Dec. 
1443, he was confirmed and had the tempo- 
ralities restored to him on 27 Feb. 1444. 

There is little known of his life at this 
time beyond the story of his promotions, and 
what we hear of his conduct as bishop is 
from a very adverse critic, the historian of 
the monastery of Ely, who says that he was 
severe and exacting towards the tenants, and 
that he would never celebrate mass in his 
own cathedral except on the day of his in- 
stallation, which he put off till two years 
after his appointment. It appears that in 1 438 
there was an intention of sending Bourchier, 




then bishop of Worcester, with others to the 
council of Basle ; but it does not appear that 
he actually went (NICOLAS, Privy Council 
Proceedings, v. 92, 99). That he was often 
called to the king's councils at Westminster 
there is ample evidence to show. 

In March 1454 Kemp, the archbishop of 
Canterbury, died. A deputation of the lords 
rode to Windsor to convey the intelligence to 
the king, and to signify to him, if possible, that 
a new chancellor, a new primate, and a new 
council required to be appointed. But Henry's 
intellectual prostration was complete, and he 
gave no sign that he understood the simplest 
inquiry. The lords accordingly appointed the 
Duke of York protector, and on 30 March the 
council, in compliance with a petition from 
the commons, recommended the Bishop of 
Ely's promotion to the see of Canterbury ' for 
his great merits, virtues, and great blood that 
he is of ' (Rolls of Parl. v. 450). Bourchier 
was translated on 22 April following ; and we 
may presume that he owed his promotion to 
the Duke of York's influence. On 6 Sept. in 
the same year William Paston writes from 
London to his brother : t My lord of Canter- 
bury hath received his cross, and I was with 
him in the king's chamber when he made his 
homage ' (Paston Letters, i. 303) . Apparently 
he paid a conventional reverence to the poor 
unconscious king ; he was enthroned in Fe- 
bruary following. 

On 7 March 1455 Bourchier was appointed 
lord chancellor, and received the seals at 
Greenwich from the king himself, who had 
recovered from his illness at the new year. 
His appointment, in fact, was one consequence 
of the king's recovery, as the Earl of Salis- 
bury (the chancellor, and brother-in-law of the 
Duke of York) could not have been acceptable 
to the queen. Bourchier apparently had to 
some extent the good-will of both parties, 
and was expected to preserve the balance be- 
tween them in peculiarly trying times. Little 
more than two months after his appointment, 
when the Duke of York and his friends took 
up arms and marched southwards, they ad- 
dressed a letter to Bourchier as chancellor 
declaring that their intentions were peace- 
able and that they came to do the king service 
and to vindicate their loyalty. Bourchier 
sent a special messenger to the king at Kil- 
burn, but the man was not allowed to come 
into the royal presence, and neither the letter 
to the archbishop nor an address sent by the 
lords actually reached the king (Rolls of Parl. 
v. 280-1). The result was the first battle of 
St. Albans, which was the commencement of 
the wars of the Roses. 

A parliament was summoned for 9 July fol- 
lowing, which Bourchier opened by a speech 

as chancellor. His brother Henry, viscount 
Bourchier, was at the same time appointed 
lord treasurer. The parliament was soon pro- 
rogued to November. Before it met again 
the king had fallen a second time into the 
same melancholy state of imbecility, and for 
a second time it was necessary to make York 
protector. The archbishop resigned the great 
seal in October 1456, when the queen had ob- 
tained a clear advantage over the Duke of 
York, and got the king, who had been long 
separated from her, down to Coventry, where 
a great council was held. These changes 
raised misgivings, even in some who were 
not of Yorkist leanings. The Duke of Buck- 
ingham, who was a son of the same mother as 
the two Bourchiers, was ill-pleased at seeing 
his brothers discharged from high offices of 
state, and it was^said that he had interposed to 
protect the Duke of York himself from unfair 
treatment at the council (Paston Letters, i. 
408). But the archbishop was a peacemaker ; 
and the temporary reconciliation of parties in 
the spring of 1458 appears to have been greatly 
owing to him. He and Waynflete drew up 
the terms of the agreement between the lords 
on both sides, which was sealed on 24 March, 
the day before the general procession at St. 

Shortly before this, in the latter part of 
the year 1457, the archbishop had been called 
upon to deprive Pecock, bishop of Chichester, 
as a heretic. The case was a remarkable one, 
for Pecock was anything but a Lollard. He 
was first turned out of the king's council, the 
archbishop as the chief person there ordering 
his expulsion, and then required to appear be- 
fore the archbishop at Lambeth. His writings 
were examined by three other bishops and 
condemned as unsound. Then the archbishop, 
as his judge, briefly pointed out to him that 
high authorities were against him in several 
points, and told him to choose between re- 
cantation and burning. The poor man's spirit 
was quite broken, and he preferred recanta- 
tion. Nevertheless he was imprisoned by the 
archbishop for some time at Canterbury and 
Maidstone, and afterwards committed by him 
to the custody of the abbot of Thorney. 

In April 1459 Bourchier brought before 
the council a request from Pius II that the 
king would send an ambassador to a council 
at Mantua, where measures were to be con- 
certed for the union of Christendom against 
the Turks (NICOLAS, Privy Council Proceed- 
ings, vi. 298). Coppini, the pope's nuncio, 
after remaining nearly a year and a half in 
England, gave up his mission as hopeless and 
recrossed the Channel. But at Calais the Earl 
of Warwick, who was governor there, won 
him over to the cause of the Duke of York. 



He recrossed the Channel with the Earls of 
Warwick, March, and Salisbury, giving their 
enterprise the sanction of the church. Bour- 
chier met them at Sandwich with his cross 
borne before them. A statement of the Yorkist 
grievances had been forwarded to him by the 
earls before their coming, and apparently he 
had done his best to publish it. Accompanied 
by a great multitude, the earls, the legate, and 
the archbishop passed on to London, which 
opened its gates to them on 2 July 1460. Next 
day there was a convocation of the clergy at 
St. Paul's, at which the earls presented them- 
selves before the archbishop, declared their 
grievances, and swore upon the cross of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury that they had no de- 
signs against the king. The political situation 
was discussed by the bishops and clergy, and it 
was resolved that the archbishop and five of 
his suffragans should go with the earls to the 
king at Northampton and use their efforts for 
a peaceful settlement. Eight days later was 
fought the battle of Northampton, at which 
Henry was taken prisoner. The archbishop, 
as agreed upon in convocation, accompanied 
the earls upon their march from London, and 
sent a bishop to the king to explain their 
attitude ; but the bishop (of whose name we 
are not informed) acted in a totally different 
spirit and encouraged the king's party to fight. 
When the Duke of York came over from 
Ireland later in the year and challenged the 
crown in parliament, the archbishop came up 
to him and asked if he would not first come 
and pay his respects to the king. * I do not 
remember,' he replied, l that there is any one 
in this kingdom who ought not rather to 
come and pay his respects to me.' Bourchier 
immediately withdrew to report this answer 
to Henry. When, after the second battle of 
St. Albans, the queen was threatening Lon- 
don, the archbishop had betaken himself to 
Canterbury, awaiting better news with the 
young Bishop of Exeter, George Nevill, whom 
the Yorkists had appointed lord chancellor. 
Bourchier, though he had shown in the 
house of peers that he did not favour York's 
repudiation of allegiance, could not possibly 
sympathise with the disturbance of a parlia- 
mentary settlement and the renewal of strife 
and tumult. From this time, at all events, 
he was a decided Yorkist ; and when the Duke 
of York's eldest son came up to London and 
called a council at his residence of Baynard's 
Castle on 3 March, he was among the lords 
who attended and agreed that Edward was 
now rightful king. On 28 June he set the 
crown upon Edward's head. Four years later, 
on Sunday after Ascension day (26 May) 
1465, he also crowned his queen, Elizabeth 

VOL. vr. 

For some years nothing more is known of 
the archbishop's life except that Edward IV 
petitioned Pope Paul II to make him a car- 
dinal in 1465, and it appears that he was 
actually named by that pope accordingly on 
Friday, 18 Sept. 1467. But some years elapsed 
before the red hat was sent and his title of 
cardinal was acknowledged in England. In 
1469 the pope wrote to the king promising 
that it should be sent very shortly ; but the 
unsettled state of the country, and the new 
revolution which for half a year restored 
Henry VI as king in 1470, no doubt delayed 
its transmission still further, and it was only 
sent by the succeeding pope, Sixtus IV, in 
1473. It arrived at Lambeth on 31 May. 

By this time the archbishop had given 
further proofs of his devotion to Edward. 
He and his brother, whom the king had 
created earl of Essex after his coronation, 
not only raised troops for his restoration in 
1471, but were mediators with the Duke of 
Clarence before his arrival in England, and 
succeeded in winning him over again to his 
brother's cause. After the king was again 
peacefully settled on his throne he went on 
pilgrimage to Canterbury at Michaelmas, ap- 

rrently to attend the jubilee of St. Thomas 
Becket, which, but for the state of- the 
country, would have been held in the pre- 
ceding" year. Edward had visited Canter- 
bury before, soon after the coronation of his 
queen, and bestowed on the cathedral a 
window representing Becket's martyrdom, 
of which, notwithstanding its destruction in 
the days of Henry VIII, some fragments are 
still visible. 

Bourchier was hospitable after the fashion 
of his time. In 1468 he entertained at Can- 
terbury an eastern patriarch, who is believed 
to have been Peter II of Antioch. In 
1455 the year after he became archbishop 
he had purchased of Lord Saye and Sele 
the manor of Knowle, in Sevenoaks, which 
he converted into a castellated mansion and 
bequeathed to the see of Canterbury. It re- 
mained as a residence for future archbishops 
till Cranmer gave it up to Henry VIII. 
Here Bourchier entertained much company, 
among whom men of letters like Botoner and 
patrons of learning like Tiptoft, earl of Wor- 
cester, were not unfrequent ; also musicians 
like Hambois, Taverner, and others. That 
he was a promoter of the introduction of 
printing into England, even before the date 
of Caxton's first work, rests only on the evi- 
dence of a literary forgery published in the 
seventeenth century. 

In 1475 Bourchier was one of the four 
arbitrators to whom the differences between 
England and France were referred by the 




peace of Amiens (RYMEK, xii. 16). In 1480, 
feeling the effects of age, he appointed as his 
suffragan William Westkarre, titular bishop 
of Sidon. In 1483, after the death of Ed- 
ward IV, he was again called on to take 
part in public affairs in a way that must have 
been much to his own discomfort. He went 
at the head of a deputation from the council 
to the queen-dowager in sanctuary at West- 
minster, and persuaded her to deliver up her 
second son Richard, duke of York, to the 
keeping of his uncle, the protector, to keep 
company with his brother, Edward V, then 
holding state as sovereign in the Tower. The 
cardinal pledged his own honour so strongly 
for the young duke's security that the queen 
at last consented. Within three weeks of the 
time that he thus pledged himself for the 
good faith of the protector he was called on 
to officiate at the coronation of Richard III ! 

That he should have thus lent himself as 
an instrument to the usurper must appear all 
the more melancholy when we consider that 
in 1471 he had taken the lead among the 
peers of England (as being the first subject 
in the realm) in swearing allegiance to 
Edward, prince of Wales, as heir to the 
throne (Parl. Rolls, vi. 234). But perhaps 
we may overestimate the weakness involved 
in such conduct, not considering the speci- 
ous plea on which young Edward's title was 
set aside, and the winning acts and plausible 
manners which for the moment had made 
Richard highly popular. The murder of the 
princes had not yet taken place, and the 
attendance of noblemen at Richard's corona- 
tion was as full as it ever had been on any 
similar occasion. After the murder a very 
different state of feeling arose in the nation, 
and the cardinal, who had pledged his word 
for the safety of the princes, could not but 
have shared that feeling strongly. How far 
he entered into the conspiracies against 
Richard III we do not know, but doubtless 
he was one of those who rejoiced most sin- 
cerely in the triumph of Henry VII at 
Bosworth. Within little more than two 
months of that victory he crowned the new 
king at Westminster. 

One further act of great solemnity it was 
left for him to accomplish, and it formed the 
fitting close to the career of a great peace- 
maker. On 18 Jan. 1486 he married Henry 
VII to Elizabeth of York, thus joining the 
red rose and the white and taking away all 
occasion for a renewal of civil war. He died at 
Knowle on 6 April following, and was buried 
in his own cathedral. 

[W. Wyrcester; Contin. Hist.deEpp. Wygorn., 
and Hist. Eliensis in Wharton's Anglia Sacra ; 
Nicolas's Privy Council Proceedings, vol. vi.; An 

English Chronicle, ed. Davies (Camclen Society) ; 
Registrum Johannis Whethamstede (Eolls ed.) ; 
Hearne's Fragment, Fleetwood, and Warkworth 
(three authorities which may be conveniently 
consulted together in one volume, though very ill 
edited, entitled ' Chronicles of the White Rose ') ; 
Paston Letters ; Polydore Vergil ; Hall ; Pii 
Secundi Commentarii a Gobellino compositi, 
161 (ed. 1584); Rolls of Parliament; More's 
Hist, of Richard III; Loci e Libro Veritatum 
(Grascoigne), ed. Rogers; Babington's Introduc- 
tion to Pecock's Represser ; Brown's Venetian 
Calendar, i. 90, 91. A valuable modern life of 
Bourchier will be found in Hook's Lives of the 
Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. v.] J. G-. 

BOURCHIER, THOMAS (d. 1586?), 
was a friar of the Observant order of the Fran- 
ciscans. He was probably educated at Mag- 
dalen Hall, Oxford, but there is no record of 
his having graduated in that university. 
When Queen Mary attempted to re-esta- 
blish the friars in England, Bourchier be- 
came a member of the new convent at Green- 
wich ; but at that queen's death he left the 
country. After spending some years in Paris, 
where the theological faculty of the Sor- 
bonne conferred on him the degree of doctor, 
he travelled to Rome. He at first joined the 
convent of the Reformed Franciscans at the 
church of S. Maria di Ara Caeli, and subse- 
quently became penitentiary in the church of 
S. Giovanni in Laterano, where John Pits, 
his biographer, speaks of having sometimes 
seen him. 

He wrote several books, but the only one 
that survives is the i Historia Ecclesiastica 
de Martyrio Fratrum Ordinis Divi Francisci 
dictorum de Observantia, qui partim in Anglia 
sub Henrico octavo Rege, partim in Belgio 
sub Principe Auriaco, partim et in Hybernia 
tempore Elizabethse regnantis Reginse, idque 
ab anno 1536 usque ad hunc nostrum prsesen- 
tem annum 1582, passi sunt.' The preface is 
dated from Paris, ' ex conventu nostro,' 1 Jan. 
1582. The book was very popular among 
catholics, and other editions were brought 
out at Ingolstadt in 1583 and 1584, Paris in 
1586, and at Cologne in 1628. Another of 
his works was a treatise entitled ' Oratio doc- 
tissima et efficacissima ad Franciscum Gon- 
zagam totius ordinis ministrum generalem 
pro pace et disciplina regulari Magni Conven- 
tus Parisiensis instituenda,' Paris, 1582. This 
was published under the name of Thomas 
Lancton, or Lacton, which appears to have 
been an alias of Bourchier. 

Wadding, the historian of the Franciscans, 
calls him, in his supplementary volume, 
1 Thomas Bourchier Gallice, Lacton vero An- 
glice, et Latinis Lanius, vel Lanio, Italis 
autem Beccaro ' (an alternative form of 

ajo), and elsewhere expresses himself con- 
vinced of the identity of Lancton and Bour- 
3hier. It is but fair to say that Francis a S. 
)lara and Parkinson, the author of ' Collec- 
inea Anglo-Minoritica,' consider them two 
listinct persons, who both took their degree 
" D.D. at Paris about 1580. These writers 
however, of no better authority than 
/'adding. Another treatise by Bourchier, 
( De judicio religiosorum, in quo demonstratur 
juod a saecularibus judicari non debeant,' is 
lentioned by Wadding as in his possession, 
ut only in manuscript ; this was written at 
'aris in 1582. In 1584 he edited and anno- 
the 'Censura Orient alis Ecclesiae de 
;ipuis Hsereticorum dogmatibus,' which 
fas published by Stanislaus Scoluvi. Bour- 
chier died, according to Pits, at Rome about 

[Pits, De AngliaeScriptoribus, 789; "Wadding's 
Scriptores Ordinis Minorum, pp. 219, 221 ; Suppl. 
ad Scriptores trium Ordinum, 671 ; Wood's 
Athene Oxon. i. 525 ; Joannes a S. Antonio ; 
Bibliotheca Univ. Franciscana, iii. 116; Fran- 
jiscus a S. Clara, Hist. Min. Provin. Angl. Frat. 
Min. 48-55.] C. T. M. 






(1811-1883), Madras civil servant, was the 
second son of the Rev. Thomas Bourdillon, 
vicar of Fenstanton and Hilton, Huntingdon- 
shire. He was educated partly by his father, 
and partly at a school at Ramsgate ; having 
been nominated to an Indian writership, he 
proceeded to Haileybury College in 1828, 
and in the following year to Madras. After 
serving in various subordinate appointments 
in the provinces, he was appointed secretary 
to the board of revenue, and eventually in 
1854 secretary to government in the depart- 
ments of revenue and public works. Bour- 
dillon had previously been employed upon an 
important commission appointed under in- 
structions of the late court of directors to 
report upon the system of public works in the 
Madras presidency, his colleagues being Major 
{now Major-general) F. C. Cotton, C.S.I., of 
the Madras engineers, and Major (now Lieu- 
tenant-general) Sir George Balfour, K.C.B., 
of the Madras artillery. The report of the 
commission, which was written by Bourdillon, 
enforces in clear and vigorous language the 
enormous importance of works of irrigation, 
and of improved communications for the pre- 
vention of famines and the development of 
the country. The writer's accurate know- 
ledge of details and breadth of view render 

the report one of the most valuable state 
papers ever issued by an Indian government. 
Bourdillon was also the author of a treatise 
on the ryotwar system of land revenue, which 
exposed a considerable amount of prevalent 
misapprehension as to the principles and 
practical working of that system. Working 
in concert with his friend and colleague, Sir 
Thomas Py croft, he was instrumental in ef- 
fecting reforms in the transaction of public 
business, both in the provinces and at the 
presidency. He especially helped to improve 
the method of reporting the proceedings of 
the local government to the government of 
India and to the secretary of state, which for 
some years put Madras at the head of all the 
Indian governments in respect of the thorough- 
ness with which its business was conducted 
and placed before the higher authorities. 

Bourdillon's health failed in 1861, and he 
was compelled to leave India, and to retire 
from the public service at a time when the 
reputation which he had achieved would in 
all probability have secured his advancement 
to one of the highest posts in the Indian 
service. To the last he devoted much time 
and attention to Indian questions, occasion- 
ally contributing to the ' Calcutta Review,' 
and interesting himself among other matters 
in the questions of provincial finance and of 
the Indian currency. He revised for the 
late Colonel J. T. Smith, R.E., all his later 
pamphlets on a gold currency for India. He 
died suddenly at Tunbridge Wells on 21 May 

[Madras Civil List; Eeport of the Madras 
Public Works Commissioners, Madras Church 
of Scotland Mission Press, 1856 ; family papers 
and personal knowledge.] A. J. A. 


(1756-1811), painter, is said to have been 
descended from a family of some importance 
in Switzerland. His father was a watch- 
maker, residing in London at the time of his 
birth. He was intended for the army, and 
Lord Heathfield offered to procure him a 
commission, but he preferred to be an artist, 
and was encouraged in his choice of profes- 
sion by Reynolds and Gainsborough. De 
Loutherbourg was his master, and he early 
acquired a reputation as a landscape-painter. 
In 1776 he set out on a tour through France, 
Holland, and Italy. Between 1779 and 1810, 
the year before his death, he exhibited 103 
pictures at the Royal Academy and five at 
the British Institution. In 1787 he was 
elected an associate, and in 1793 a full mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed landscape-painter 
to George III. 





Bourgeois owed his knighthood to Stanis- 
laus, king of Poland, who in 1791 appointed 
him his painter and conferred on him the 
honour of a knight of the order of Merit, 
and his title was confirmed by George III. 
Although he appears to have been successful 
as a painter, he owed much of his good for- 
tune to Joseph Desenfans, a picture-dealer, 
who was employed by Stanislaus to collect 
works of art, which ultimately remained on 
his hands. Bourgeois, who lived with Desen- 
fans, assisted him in his purchases, and at his 
death inherited what, with some pictures 
added by himself, is no\v known as the Dul- 
wich Gallery. He died from a fall from his 
horse on 8 Jan. 1811, and was buried in the 
chapel of Dulwich College. He bequeathed 
371 pictures to Dulwich College, with 10,0001. 

campaign was put on half-pay. In 1808 he- 
was posted to the staff of the army in Por- 
tugal as assistant quartermaster-general, and 
on account of his knowledge of Spanish was 
sent by Sir Arthur Wellesley to the head- 
quarters of Don Gregorio Cuesta, the com- 
mander-in-chief of the Spanish army. From 
30 May to 28 June 1809 he fulfilled his diffi- 
cult mission to Wellesley's entire satisfaction, 
and then for some unexplained reason resigned 
his post on the staff and returned to England. 
He was again sent, on account of his know- 
ledge of Spanish, on a detached mission to 
Galicia in 1812. He was gazetted an assistant 
quartermaster-general, and stationed at Co- 
runna, whence he sent up provisions and 
ammunition to the front, and acted in general 
as military resident in Galicia. At the con- 

to provide for the maintenance of the collec- j elusion of the war he was promoted colonel 

--''-* Jl ' and made a C.B. He was promoted major- 
general in 1821, and was lieutenant-governor 
of the eastern district of the Cape of Good 
Hope from 1825 to 1828, when he returned 
to England. In 1829 he edited, with Lord 
Fitzwilliam, the ' Correspondence ' of Ed- 
mund Burke, whom he had often visited at 
Beaconsfield in his own younger days. In 
1831 he was appointed governor of New 
South Wales in succession to General Dar- 

When Bourke arrived he found the colony 
divided into two parties. The emancipists, or 
freed convicts,had been encouraged byGeneral 
Macquarie to believe that the colony existed 
for them alone ; while, on the other hand, Bris- 
bane and Darling had been entirely governed 
by the wealthy emigrants and poor adven- 
turers, and given all power to the party of the 
exclusivists or pure merinos. General Darling 
had behaved injudiciously, and had got into 
much trouble. Bourke at once took up a posi- 
tion of absolute impartiality to both parties. 
He freed the press at once from all restrictions ; 
and though himself foully abused, he would 
not use his position to interfere. Still more 
important was his encouragement of emigra- 
tion. Under his influence a regular scheme 
of emigration was established, evidence was. 
taken in Australia and issued in England 
by the first Emigration Society, which was. 
established in London in 1833, and means 
were provided for bringing over emigrants 
by selling the land in the colony at a mini- 
mum price. He succeeded in carrying what 
is known as Sir Eichard Bourke's Church 
Act. Bourke's impartiality made him popular, 
and he became still more so by his travels, 
throughout the inhabited part of his vice- . 
kingdom. He was made a K.C.B. in 1835. 
He resigned his governorship on 6 Dec. 1837, 
after six years of office, on being reprimanded 

tion, and 2,000/. to repair and beautify the 
west wing and gallery of the college. The 
members of the college, however, determined 
to erect a new gallery, and they and Mrs. 
Desenfans contributed 6,000/. apiece for this 
purpose, and employed Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
John Soane as the architect of the present 
buildings, which were commenced in the year 
of the death of Bourgeois, and include a mau- 
soleum for his remains and those of Mr. and 
Mrs. Desenfans. 

Although Bourgeois generally painted land- 
scapes, he attempted history and portrait. 
Amongst his pictures were ' Hunting a Tiger,' 
Mr. Kemble as ' Coriolanus,' and ' A Detach- 
ment of Horse, costume of Charles I.' Twenty- 
two of his own works were included in his 
bequest to Dulwich College, where, besides 
landscapes, may now be seen ' A Friar kneel- 
ing before a Cross,' 'Tobit and the Angel,' 
and a portrait of himself. Though an artist 
of taste and versatility, his works fail to sus- 
tain the reputation which they earned for 
him when alive. 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878 ; Bryan's 
Diet. (Graves) ; Annals of the Fine Arts, 1818 ; 
Warner's Cat. Dulwich Coll. MSS.] C. M. 

BOURKE, SIB RICHARD (1777-1855), 

colonial governor, was the only son of John 
Bourke of Dromsally, a relation of Edmund 
Burke, and was born in Dublin on 4 May 
1777. He was originally educated for the 
bar, and was more than twenty-one when 
he was gazetted an ensign in the 1st or 
Grenadier guards on 22 Nov. 1798. He 
served in the expedition to the Helder, when 
he was shot through the jaws at the battle 
of Bergen, and was proiroted lieutenant and 
captain on 25 Nov. 1799. As quartermaster- 
general he served with Auchmuty's force at 
Monte Video, and on the conclusion of the 




by the secretary of state on account of his 
dismissal of a Mr. Riddell from the executive 
council. The sorrow at his departure was 
genuine, and money was at once raised to 
erect a statue to him. ' He was the most 
popular governor who ever presided over the 
colonial affairs' (BKAIM, History of New 
South Wales, i. 275). 

On returning home to Ireland Bourke 
spent nearly twenty years at his country 
seat, Thornfield, near Limerick. He was \ 
promoted lieutenant-general, and appointed 
colonel of the 64th regiment in 1837, served 

of it (' St. Petersburg and Moscow : A Visit 
to the Court of the Czar, by Richard South- 
well Bourke, Esq.,' 2 vols., Henry Colburn, 
1846), which gave evidence of acute observa- 
tion, and met with considerable success. In 
1847 he took an active part in the relief of 
the sufferers from the Irish famine. At the 
general election in the same year he was 
elected to parliament as one of the members 
for the county of Kildare. In the following 
year he married Miss Blanche Wyndham, 
daughter of the first Lord Leconfield. In 
1849 his grand uncle died, and his father suc- 

the office of high sheriff of the county of ceeding to the earldom, he assumed the cour- 

1 tesy title of Lord Naas. In 1852 he was 
appointed chief secretary for Ireland in Lord 
Derby's administration, and held the same 
office during the subsequent conservative ad- 
ministrations which came into power in 1858 
and 1866, retaining it on the last occasion 
until his appointment as viceroy and gover- 
nor-general of India shortly before the fall of 
Mr. Disraeli's government. He succeeded to 
the Irish earldom on the death of his father 
in 1867. 

During all these years Lord Mayo had a 
seat in the House of Commons, serving as 
member for Kildare county from 1847 to 
1852, for the Irish borough of Coleraine from 
1852 to 1857, and for the English borough of 
Cockermouth during the remainder of his 
parliamentary life. His politics were those 
of a moderate conservative. His policy was 

Limerick in 1839, and was promoted general 
in 1851. He died suddenly, at the age of 
.seventy-eight, at Thornfield, on 13 Aug. 1855. 

[Gent. Mag. 1855, p. 428; Eoyal Military 
Calendar. For his Australian government con- 
sult Braim's History of New South Wales, 
from its Settlement to the Close of 1844, 2 vols. 
1846 ; Lang's Historical and Statistical Account 
of the Colony of New South Wales, from the 
Foundation of the Colony to the Present Day, 
1834, 1837, 1852, 1875; Flanagan's History of 
New South Wales, 2 vols. 1862.] H. M. S. 


sixth EAEL or MAYO (1822-1872), viceroy 
and governor-general of India, was the eldest 
son of Robert Bourke, fifth earl of Mayo, who 
succeeded his uncle, the fourth earl, in 1849. 
he earls of Mayo, like the earls and mar- 
quises of Clanricarde, are said to have de- 
scended from William Fitzadelm de Borgo, 
who succeeded Strongbow in the government 
of Ireland in 1066. Richard, the eldest of j 
ten brothers and sisters, was born in Dublin 
on 21 Feb. 1822, and spent his earlier years 
at Hayes, a country house belonging to the 
family in the county of Meath. He was edu- 
cated at home, and in 1841 entered Trinity 
College, Dublin, where, without going into 
residence, he took an ordinary degree. His 
father was a strong evangelical. His mother, 
Anne Jocelyn, a granddaughter of the first 
Earl of Roden, was a woman of considerable 
culture, of deep religious feelings, and of 
strong common sense. Brought up amidst 
the sports of country life he became a clever 
shot, an accomplished rider, and a good 
swimmer. While an undergraduate he spent 
much of his time at Palmerstown and in 
London with his granduncle, the fourth Earl 
of Mayo, whom Praed described as 

A courtier of the nobler sort, 
A Christian of the purer school, 

Tory when whigs are great at court, 
And protestant when papists rule. 

^ In 1845 he made a tour in Russia, and after 
Iiis return to England published an account 

eminently conciliatory, combined with un- 
flinching firmness in repressing sedition and 
crime. While opposed to any measure for 
disestablishing the protestant church in 
Ireland, he was in favour of granting public 
money to other institutions, whether catholic 
or protestant, without respect of creed, ' esta- 
blished for the education, relief, or succour of 
his fellow-countrymen.' His view was that 
no school, hospital, or asylum should languish 
because of the religious teaching it afforded, or 
because of the religion of those who supported 
it. His opinions on these questions and on 
the land question were very fully stated in a 
speech made by him in the House of Commons 
on 10 March 1868, in which he propounded a 
policy which has been often described as the 
' levelling-up policy,' involving the establish- 
ment of a Roman catholic university, and such 
changes in ecclesiastical matters as would 
meet the just claims of the Roman catholic 
portion of the community. He was in favour 
of securing for tenants compensation for im- 
provements effected by themselves, of pro- 
viding for increased powers of improvement 
by limited owners, and of written contracts in 
supersession of the system of parole tenancies. 
Lord Mavo's views on all these matters met 




with full support from his political chief, Mr. 
Disraeli, who, when announcing to the Buck- 
inghamshire electors the appointment of his 
friend to the office of viceroy and governor- 
general of India, declared that ' a state of 
affairs so dangerous was never encountered 
with greater firmness, but at the same time 
with greater magnanimity.' ' Upon that no- 
bleman, for his sagacity, for his judgment, 
fine temper, and knowledge of men, her ma- 
jesty has been pleased to confer the office of 
viceroy of India, and as viceroy of India I 
believe he will earn a reputation that his 
country will honour.' The resignation of the 
ministry had actually taken place before the 
governor-generalship became vacant ; but the 
appointment was not interfered with by Mr. 
Gladstone's government, and Lord Mayo was 
sworn in as governor-general at Calcutta on 
12 Jan. 1869. 

Under Sir John Lawrence the attention of 
the government of India and of the subordi- 
nate governments had been mainly devoted 
to internal administrative improvements, and 
to the development of the resources of the 
country. With the exception of the Orissa 
famine no serious crisis had taxed the ener- 
gies or the resources of the state, and Lord 
Mayo received the government in a condition 
of admirable efficiency, with no arrears of 
current work (SiR JOHN STKACHEY'S Minute 
on the Administration of the Earl of Mayo, 
30 April 1872). But clear as the official file 
was, and tranquil as was the condition of the 
empire, several questions of first-rate impor- 
tance speedily engaged the consideration of 
the new viceroy. Of these the most important 
were the relations of the government of India 
with the foreign states on its borders, and 
especially with Afghanistan, and the con- 
dition of the finances, which, notwithstanding 
the vigilant supervision of the late viceroy, 
was not altogether satisfactory. 

The condition of Afghanistan from the 
time of the death of the amir, Dost Muham- 
mad Khan, in 1863, up to a few months 
before Lord Mayo's accession to office, had 
been one of constant intestine war, three of 
the sons of the late amir disputing the suc- 
cession in a series of sanguinary struggles 
which had lasted for five years. Sir John 
Lawrence had from the first declined to aid 
any one of the combatants in this internecine 
strife, adhering to the policy of recognising 
the de facto ruler, and at one time two de 
facto rulers, when one of the brothers had 
made himself master of Cabul and Candahar, 
and the other held Herat. At length, in the 
autumn of 1868. Shir Ali Khan having suc- 
ceeded in establishing his supremacy, was 
officially recognised by the governor-general 

as sovereign of the whole of Afghanistan,, 
and was presented with a gift of 20,000/. r 
accompanied by a promise of 100,000/. more. 
It was also arranged that the amir should 
visit India, and should be received by the 
viceroy with the honours due to the ruler of 
Afghanistan. This position of affairs had 
been brought to the notice of Lord Mayo 
before his departure from England. While 
fully realising the difficulties by which the 
whole question was encompassed, he appears- 
to have entertained some doubts as to the- 
policy which so long had tolerated anarchy 
in Afghanistan, but cordially approving of 
the final decision to aid the re-establishment 
of settled government in that country, he lost 
no time on his arrival in giving effect to the 
promises of his predecessor. A meeting with 
the amir took place at Amballa in March 
1869. The amir had come to India bent 
upon obtaining a fixed annual subsidy, a 
treaty laying upon the British government 
an obligation to support the Afghan govern- 
ment in any emergency, and the recognition 
by the government of India of his younger 
son, Abdulla Jan, as his successor, to the- 
exclusion of his eldest son, Yakub Khan. 
None of these requests were complied with. 
But the amir received from Lord Mayo 
emphatic assurances of the desire of the 
government of India for the speedy consoli- 
dation of his power, and of its determination 
to respect the independence of Afghanistan. 
He was encouraged to communicate fre- 
quently and fully with the government of 
India and its officers. Public opinion dif- 
fered as to the success of the meeting. The 
intimation that the government of India 
would treat with displeasure any attempt of 
the amir's rivals to rekindle civil war was 
by some regarded as going too far, and by 
others as not going far enough ; but the pre- 
valent view was that good had been done, 
and that Shir Ali had returned to Cabul 
well satisfied with the result of his visit. 

On the general question of the attitude of 
the British government towards the adjoining 
foreign states, Lord Mayo held that while 
British interests and influence in Asia were 
best secured by a policy of non-interference 
in the affairs of such states, we could not 
safely maintain <a Thibetian policy' in the 
East, but must endeavour to exercise over 
our neighbours ' that moral influence which 
is inseparable from the true interests of the 
strongest power in Asia.' Regarding Russia,, 
he considered that she was not ' sufficiently 
aware of our power ; that we are established,, 
compact, and strong, whilst she is exactly the 
reverse, and that it is the very feeling of our 
enormous power that justifies us in assuming- 



that passive policy which, though it may be 
carried occasionally too far, is perhaps right 
in principle.' But* while entertaining these 
views, he by no means agreed with the ex- 
treme supporters of the ' masterly inactivity ' 
policy. Writing on this subject little more 
than a month before his death, he said : ' 1 
have frequently laid down what I believe 
to be the cardinal points of Anglo-Indian 
policy. They may be summed up in a few 
words. We should establish with our fron- 
tier states of Khelat, Afghanistan, Yarkand, 
Nipal, and Burma, intimate relations of 
friendship ; we should make them feel that 
though we are all-powerful, we desire to sup- 
port their nationality; that when necessity 
arises, we might assist them with money, 
arms, and even perhaps, in certain eventuali- 
ties, with men. We could thus create in 
them outworks of our empire, and, assuring 
them that the days of annexation are past, 
make them know that they have everything 
to gain and nothing to lose by endeavouring 
to deserve our favour and support. Further, 
we should strenuously oppose any attempt 
to neutralise those territories in the European 
sense, or to sanction or invite the interference 
of any European power in their affairs/ 

Another point upon which Lord Mayo felt 
very strongly was the necessity of checking 
the tendency to aggression on the part of the 
Persian government. He considered that 
'the establishment by Persia of a frontier 
conterminous with that of the British empire 
in India would be an event most deeply to be 
deplored,' and,with a view to the more effectual 
prevention of any such designs, he urged in 
a 'despatch to the secretary of state, which 
was drafted just before his death, that the 
British mission at Teheran should be trans- 
ferred to the control of the secretary of state 
for India. It may here be mentioned that the 
appointment, with the consent of the govern- 
ments of Persia and Afghanistan, of a com- 
mission to delimitate the boundary between 
Persia and the Afghan province of Seistan, 
which prevented war between the two coun- 
tries, was one of the latest of Lord Mayo's 

Another question which engaged much of 
the viceroy's attention was that of punitory 
expeditions against the savage tribes inhabit- 
ing various tracts on the frontier. To such 
expeditions Lord Mayo was extremely averse, 
except under circumstances of absolute ne- 
cessity. The Lushai expedition, which took 
place in the last year of his government, was 
rendered necessary by the repeated inroads 
of the tribe of that name upon the Cachar 
tea plantations. 

With the feudatory states within the 

borders of India Lord Mayo's relations were 
of the happiest kind. Scrupulously abstain- 
ing from needless interference, but never 
tolerating oppression or misgovernment, he 
laboured to convince the princes of India 
that it was the sincere desire of the British 
government to enable them to govern their 
states in such a manner as to secure the 
prosperity of their people and to maintain 
their own just rights. With this view he 
encouraged the establishment of colleges for 
the education of the sons of the chiefs and 
nobles in the native states. The Mayo Col- 
lege at Ajmir and the Rajkumar College in 
Kathiawar were the result of his efforts. 
Another measure which he contemplated 
was the amalgamation, many years before 
advocated by Sir John Malcolm, of the 
Central India and Rajputana agencies under 
a high officer of the crown, with the status 
of a lieutenant-governor. 

When Lord Mayo took charge of the go- 
vernment of India, the condition of the 
finances was not satisfactory. Lord Mayo 
dealt vigorously with the situation. By re- 
ductions of expenditure on public works and 
other branches of the civil administration, 
by increasing the salt duties in Madras and 
Bombay, and by raising the income-tax in the 
middle of the financial year, he converted 
the anticipated deficit into a small surplus, 
and by other measures he so improved the 
position, that the three following years pre- 
sented an aggregate surplus of nearly six 
millions. Among the measures last referred 
to were the reduction of the military expen- 
diture by nearly half a million without any 
diminution in the numerical strength of the 
army, and the transfer to the local govern- 
ments of financial responsibility for certain 
civil departments, with a slightly reduced 
allotment from imperial funds, and with 
power to transfer certain items of charge to 
local taxation. For many years over-cen- 
tralisation had been one of the difficulties 
of Indian administration. The relations of 
the supreme government and some of the 
local governments were altogether inhar- 
monious, and there was no stimulus to avoid 
waste or to develope the public revenues in 
order to increase the local means of improve- 
ment. This policy, commonly described as 
the ' decentralisation policy,' has been tho- 
roughly successful, and has since been ex- 
tended by Lord Mayo's successors. 

Another financial reform suggested by 
Lawrence, and carried into effect by Mayo, 
was that of constructing extensions of the 
railway system by means of funds borrowed 
by the government, in supersession of the 
plan of entrusting such works to private 



companies with interest guaranteed by the 
state. A further economy under this head, 
for which Mayo's government was solely re- 
sponsible, was effected by adopting a narrow 
gauge of three feet three inches for the new 
state railways. To public works generally 
Mayo devoted a considerable portion of his \ 
time. He took charge personally of the 
public works department of the government j 
in addition to the foreign department. He ! 
effected large savings in the construction of | 
barracks, arid endeavoured to economise the | 
expenditure on irrigation by enforcing pro- 
vincial and local responsibility. The ques- 
of providing adequate defences for the | 


principal Indian ports engaged his early and 
anxious attention. He took great interest 
in agricultural reform, constituting a new ; 
department of the secretariat for agriculture, , 
revenue, and commerce. He passed a land- 
improvement act, and an act to facilitate by ' 
means of government loans works of public j 
utility in towns. The decision that the per- 
manent settlement of the land revenue upon j 
the system established by Lord Cornwallis in | 
Bengal should not be extended to other pro- 
vinces was mainly due to him. While not I 
opposed to a permanent settlement of the | 
land revenue, he considered that it should be j 
upon the basis, not of a fixed money payment, 
but of an assessment fixed with reference to 
the produce of the land. Although under 
the stress of financial difficulties he tempo- 
rarily raised the income-tax in his first year 
of office, the result of his inquiries was that 
he discarded it as a tax unsuited to India. 
The equalisation of the salt duties through- 
out India, and the abolition of the inland 
preventive line, were measures which he had 
much at heart. He advocated the develop- 
ment of primary education, and suggested 
special measures for promoting the education 
of the Muhammadan population. During 
the three years of his viceroyalty he saw 
more of the territory under his rule than 
had been seen by any of his predecessors. 
The distances which he travelled over in his 
official capacity during this period exceeded 
20,000 miles. 

In the midst of these useful and devoted 
labours Lord Mayo was suddenly struck 
down by the hand of an assassin on "che occa- 
sion of a visit of official inspection to the 
penal settlement of Port Blair on 8 Feb. 
1872. The intelligence of his death was re- 
ceived with the deepest sorrow by all classes 
throughout India and in England. The queen 
bore testimony in language of touching sym- 
pathy to the extent of the calamity which had 
' so suddenly deprived all classes of her sub- 
jects in India of the able, vigilant, and impar- 

tial rule of one who so faithfully represented 
her as viceroy of her Eastern empire.' The 
secretary of state, in an official despatch ad- 
dressed to the government of India, described 
the late governor-general as a statesman whose 
exertions ' to promote the interests of her ma- 
jesty's Indian subjects,' and to ' conduct with 
justice and consideration the relations of the 
queen's government with the native princes 
and states,' had been 'marked with great 
success,' and had not been surpassed by the 
most zealous labours of any of his most dis- 
tinguished predecessors at the head of the 
government of India.' Lord Mayo had nearly 
completed his fiftieth year at the time of his 
death. He left a widow, four sons, and two 

[Hunter's Life of the Earl of Mayo, London, 
1875; a Minute by Sir John Strachey on the 
administration of the Earl of Mayo as Viceroy 
and Governor-general of India, dated 30 April 
1872 ; Records of the India Office; The Finances 
and Public Works of India, 1869-81, by Sir J. 
Strachey, Gr.C.S.I., and Lieutenant-general R. 
Strachey, F.R.S., London, 1882; private papers ; 
personal recollections.] A. J. A. 




BOURN, SAMUEL, the elder (1648- 
1719), dissenting minister, was born in 1648 
at Derby, where his father and grandfather, 
\ who were clothiers, had shown some public 
I spirit in providing the town with a water sup- 
I ply. His mother's brother was Robert Seddon, 
who, having received presbyterian ordination 
on 14 June 1654, became minister at Gorton, 
Lancashire, and then at Langley, Derbyshire, 
where he was silenced in 1662. Seddon sent 
Bourn to Emmanuel College, which he left in 
1672. His tutor was Samuel Richardson, who 
taught him that there is no distinction between 
gTace and moral righteousness, and that salva- 
tion is dependent upon the moral state. It 
does not appear that he accepted this view ; 
his theology was always Calvinistic, and he 
lamented the deflections from that system. in 
his time, though he was no heresy-hunter. 
Leaving Cambridge without a degree, being 
unwilling to subscribe, Bourn taught in a 
school at Derby. He then became chaplain 
to Lady Hatton. Going to live with an aunt 
Bourn in London, he was ordained there. In 
1679 Dr. Samuel Annesley's influence gained 
him the pastoral charge of the presbyterian 
congregation at Calne, Wiltshire, which he 
held for sixteen years, declining overtures 
from Bath, Durham, and Lincoln. Seddon, 
who, after 1688, preached at Bolton, Lanca- 



.shire, on his death-bed in 1695 recommended 
Bourn as his successor there. Bourn removed 
thither in 1695, and though at first not well 
received by the whole congregation, he de- 
clined the inducement of a larger salary offered 
by the Calne people to tempt him back, and 
gradually won the love of all his Bolton flock. 
For him the new meeting-house (licensed 
30 Sept. 1696) was built on the ground given 
by his uncle. He originated, and after a time 
entirely supported, a charity school for twenty 
poor children. His stipend was very meagre, 
though when pleading for the wants of others 
he was known as ' the best beggar in Bolton.' 
By will he left 20 1. as an additional endow- 
ment to the Monday lecture. His constitu- 
tion broke some time before his death, which 
occurred on 4 March 1719. On his deathbed, 
in answer to his friend Jeremiah Aldred 
(d. 1729), minister of Manton, he emphati- 
cally expressed his satisfaction with the non- 
conformist position he had adopted. His fune- 
ral sermon was preached (from 2 Kings ii. 3) 
by his son Samuel [see below], who had al- 
ready been appointed to preach a funeral ser- 
mon for a member of his father's flock, and 
discharged the double duty. Brown married 
the daughter of George Scortwreth, ejected 
from St. Peter's, Lincoln, and had seven 
children. His eldest son Joseph died on 
17 June 1701 in his twenty-first year ; his 
youngest sons, Daniel and Abraham, had 
died in infancy in April 1701 ; his widow 
survived him several years. Bourn printed 
nothing, but his son Samuel published: 
4 Several Sermons preached by the late Rev. 
Mr. Samuel Bourn of Bolton, Lane.,' 1722, 
8vo (two sets of sermons from 1 John iii. 2, 3, 
on ' The transforming vision of Christ in the 
future state,' &c.), adding the funeral sermon, 
and a brief memoir by William Tong (b. 1662, 
d. 21 March 1727), and dedicating the volume 
to a relative, Madam Hacker of Dufneld. 
He speaks of his father as a great preacher, 
a good pastor, a good scholar, and an honest, 
upright man. A portrait prefixed to the 
volume shows a strong countenance ; Bourn 
wears gown and bands, and his flowing hair 
is confined by a skull-cap. 

[Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial (1802), i. 411 ; 
Toulmin's Mem. of Rev. Samuel Bourn, 1808 
(an oddly arranged storehouse of dissenting 
biography); March's Hist. Presbyt. and Gen. 
Bapt. Churches in West of Engl. (1835), pp. 56, 
<60; Baker's Nonconformity in Bolton, 1854.] 

A. G. 

BOURN, SAMUEL, the younger (1689- 
1754), dissenting minister, second son of 
Samuel Bourn the elder [q. vj, was born in 
1689 at Calne, Wiltshire. He was taught 

classics at Bolton, and trained for the ministry 
in the Manchester academy of John Chorlton 
and James Coningham, M.A. His first settle- 
ment was at Crook, near Kendal, in 1711, 
where he gave himself to study. He carried 
with him his father's theology, but seems to 
have attained at Manchester the latest de- 
velopment of the nonsubscribing idea, for at 
his ordination he declined subscription, not 
from particular scruples, but on general prin- 
i ciples ; hence many of the neighbouring mi- 
! nisters refused to concur in ordaining him. 
I Toulmin says 'the received standard of or- 
thodoxy ' which was proffered to him was the 
assembly's catechism. In 1719, when the 
Salters' Hall conference had made the Trini- 
: tarian controversy a burning question among 
! dissenters, Bourn, hitherto ' a professed Atha- 
nasian,' addressed himself to the perusal of 
Clarke and Waterland, and accepted the 
Clarkean scheme. While at Crook, Bourn 
dedicated a child (probably of baptist pa- 
rentage) without baptism, according to a 
form given by Toulmin. In 1720 Bourn suc- 
1 ceeded Henry Winder (d. 9 Aug. 1752) at 
! Tunley, near Wigan. He declined in 1725 
| a call to the neighbouring congregation of 
Park Lane, but accepted a call (dated 29 Dec. 
1727) to the ' new chapel at Chorley.' On 
i 7 May 1731 Bourn was chosen one of the 
Monday lecturers at Bolton, a post which he 
held along with his Chorley pastorate. On 
19 April 1732 Bourn preached the opening 
sermon at the New Meeting, which replaced 
the Lower Meeting, Birmingham, and on 21 
and 23 April he was called to be colleague with 
Thomas Pickard in the joint charge of this 
! congregation and a larger one at Coseley, 
where he was to reside. He began this minis- 
try on 25 June. He was harassed by John 
j Ward, J.P., of Sedgley Park (M.P. for New- 
castle-under-Lyne, afterwards sixth Baron 
| Ward, and first Viscount Dudley and Ward), 
j who sought to compel him to take and 
maintain a parish apprentice. Bourn twice 
appealed to the quarter sessions, and pleaded 
his own cause successfully. Subsequently, 
on 15 Dec. 1738, Ward and another justice 
tried to remove him from Sedgley parish 
to his last legal settlement, on the pretext 
that he was likely to become chargeable. 
Toulmin prints his very spirited reply. After 
Pickard's death, his colleague was Samuel 
Blyth, M.D. Bourn had a warm temper, and 
was not averse to controversy ; was in his ele- 
ment in repelling a field-preacher, or attack- 
ing quakers in their own meeting-house, and 
with difficulty was held back by his friend 
Orton from replying on the spot to the doc- 
trinal confession of a young independent 
minister, who was being ordained at the New 



Meeting, lent for the occasion. He engaged in 
correspondence on the ' Logos ' (1740-2) with 
Doddridge (printed in Theol. Repos. vol. i.) ; 
on subscription (1743) with the Kidder- 
minster dissenters ; on dissent (1746) with 
Groome, vicar of Sedgley. In his catecheti- 
cal instructions, founded on the assembly's 
catechism, he used that manual rather as a | 
point of departure than as a model of doc- 
trine. Although he had a great name for 
heterodoxy, his preaching was seldom po- 
lemical, but full of unction, as were his 
prayers. In 1751 Bourn declined a call to 
succeed John Buck (d. 8 July 1750) in his 
father's congregation at Boltoii. He died at 
Coseley of paralysis on 22 March 1754. His 
person was small, slight, and active ; his 
glance keen ; in dress he was somewhat neg- 
ligent. He married while at Crook (about 
1712) Hannah Harrison (d. 1768), of a good 
family near Kendal. She bore him nine 
children : 1. Joseph, born 1713; educated at 
Glasgow; minister first at Congleton, then 
at Hindley (1746) ; married (1748) Miss 
Farnworth (d. 1785) ; died 17 Feb. 1765 ; his 
eldest daughter Margaret married Samuel 
Jones (d. 17 March 1819), the Manchester 
banker, uncle of the first Lord Overstone. 
2. Samuel [see below]. 3. Abraham, surgeon at 
Market Harborough, Leicester, and Liverpool; 
author of pamphlets (' Free and Candid Con- 
siderations,' &c., 1755, and { A Review of the 
Argument,' &c., 1756) in reply to Peter Whit- 
field, a learned Liverpool printer and sugar- 
refiner, who left the dissenters and vigorously 
attacked their orthodoxy. 4. Benjamin, a 
London bookseller, author of 'A Sure Guide to 
Hell ' (anon.), 1750, and supplement ; he pub- 
lished some of his father's pieces. 5. Daniel, 
who built at Leominster what is said to have 
been the first cotton mill erected in England, 
an enterprise wrecked by a fire. 6. Miles, a 
mercer at Dudley. 7. John : died under age. 
Two others died young. Bourn's publica- 
tions were : 1. ' The Young Christian's Prayer 
Book,' &c.; 1733 ; 2nd ed. Dublin, with preface 
by John Leland, D.D. : 3rd ed. enlarged, 1742 ; 
4th and best edition, 1748. 2. 'An. Intro- 
duction to the History of the Inquisition,' &c. 
(anon.), 1735. 3. ' Popery a Craft, and Popish 
Priests the chief Craftsmen/ 1735, 8vo (a 
Fifth of November sermon on Acts xix. 25, re- 
printed in ' A Cordial for Low Spirits,' edited 
by Thomas Gordon, 2nd ed. 1763, edited 
by Rev. Richard Baron. 4. 'An Address 
to Protestant Dissenters ; or an Inquiry into 
the grounds of their attachment to the As- 
sembly's Catechism . . . being a calm examina- 
tion of the sixth answer ... by a Prot. Dis- 
senter' (anon.), 1736. 5. 'A Dialogue betw. 
a Baptist and a Churchman ; occasioned by 

the Baptists opening a new Meeting-House^ 
for reviving old Calvinistical doctrines and 
spreading Antinomian and other errors, at 
Birmingham,' &c. Part I. by ' a consistent 
Protestant ' (anon.), 1737 ; Part II. by ' a con- 
sistent Christian' (anon.), 1739. 6. ' The 
Christian Family Prayer Book,' &c., with a, 
recommendation by Isaac Watts, D.D., 1738 
(frequently reprinted with additions. A pre- 
fixed 'Address to Heads of Families on Family 
Religion' was reprinted by Rev. John Kentish,, 
1803). 7. ' Address to the Congregation of 
Prot. Dissenters ... at the Castle Gate in 
Nottingham,'&c., by a Prot. Dissenter (anon.),, 
1738 (in vindication of No. 4, which had been 
attacked by Rev. James Sloss, of Notting- 
ham). 8. ' Lectures to Children and Young 
People . . . consisting of Three Catechisms- 
. . . with a preface,' &c., 1738 (prefixed is a, 
recommendation by Revs. John Motters- 
head, Josiah Rogerson, Henry Grove, Thomas- 
Amory, D.D. [q. v.], Samuel Chandler, D.D., 
and George Benson, D.D. [q. v.], whom Bourn 
describes as his intimate friend ; appended is- 
the revision of the assembly's catechism, by 
James Strong, minister at Ilminster ; 2nd ed. 
1739 ; 3rd ed. 1748 (with title, ' Religious Edu- 
cation,' &c.) ; the third catechism of the set 
was re-edited by Job Orton as ' A Summary 
of Doctrinal and Practical Religion.' 9. ' The. 
True Christian Way of Striving for the Faith 
of the Gospel,' 1738, 8vo (sermon, on Phil. i. 
27, 28, at the Dudley double lecture, 23 May). 
10. * Remarks on a pretended Answer ' to th& 
last piece (anon.), 1739. 11. 'The Christian 
Catechism,' &c. (anon.), 1744 (intended as a 
preservative against Deism). 12. ' Address * 
in services at ordination of Job Orton on 
18 Sept. 1745 at Shrewsbury (a charge, from 
1 Thess. ii. 10). 13. ' The Protestant Cate- 
chism,' &c. (anon.), 1746. 14. 'The Protes- 
tant Dissenters' Catechism ... by a lover of 
truth and liberty ' (anon.), 1747. 15. ' An 
Answer to the Remarks of an unknown 
Clergyman ' on the foregoing (anon.), 1748- 
(annexed is a letter from a London dissenter 
on kneeling at the Lord's Supper). 16. 'A 
new Call to the Unconverted' (anon.) 1754, 
8vo (four sermons on Ezek. xxxiii. 2). 
17. (posthumous) ' Twenty Sermons on the 
most serious and practical subjects of the 
Christian Religion,' 1755, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1757. 
Toulmin prints selections from his cateche- 
tical lectures on scripture history, and de- 
scribes the manuscript of a projected work 
on ' The Scriptures of the O. T. digested under 
proper heads . . . according to the method of 
Dr. Gastrell, bishop of Chester,' &c. 

[Blyth's Fun. Serm. for Eev. S. Bourn, 1754; 
Toulmin's Mem. of Eev. Samuel Bourn, 1808; 
Turner's Lives of Eminent Unitarians, vol. iu 



1843 ; Twamley's Hist, of Dudley Castle (1867), 
p. 53; Pickard's Brief Hist, of Congleton Uni- 
tarian Chapel, 1883; Baker's Memorials of a 
Dissenting Chapel (Cross Street, Manchester), 
1884.1 A. G. 

BOURN, SAMUEL (1714-1796), dis- 
senting minister, second son of Samuel 
Bourn the younger [q. v.], was born in 1714 at 
Crook near Kendal, and educated at Stand 
grammar school and Glasgow University, 
where he studied under Hutcheson and Sim- 
son. In 1742 he settled in the ministry at 
Eivington, Lancashire, where he enjoyed 
the friendship of Hugh, fifteenth Lord Wil- 
loughby of Parham, who lived at Shaw Place, 
near Rivington, and was the representative 
of the last of the presbyterian noble families. 
Bourn was not ordained till some years after 
his settlement. He then made a lengthy 
declaration (printed by Toulmin) dealing 
with the duties of the ministry and allowing 
no doctrine or duty except those taught in 
the New Testament. Bourn lived partly at 
Leicester Mills, a wooded vale near Riving- 
ton, and partly at Boltoii. He does not seem 
to have taken very kindly to Rivington at 
the outset, for his father writes to his son 
Abraham at Chowbent on 13 Feb. 1742-43, 
' I am afraid your brother Samuel is too im- 
patient under his lot, and would have ad- 
vancement before God sees he is fit for it, or 
it for him.' In 1752 the publication of his 
first sermon led to overtures from the presby- 
terian congregation at Norwich, and in 1754, 
apparently after the death of the senior mini- 
ster, Peter Finch (1661-1754), Bourn became 
the colleague of John Taylor. The Norwich 
presbyterians had laid the first stone of a 
new meeting-house on 25 Feb. 1754. When 
Bourn came to them they were worshipping 
in Little St. Mary's, an ancient edifice, then 
and still held by trustees for the Walloon or 
French protestants. On 12 May 1756 was 
opened the new building, the Octagon Chapel, 
described in the following year by John 
Wesley (Journals, iii. 315). Not long after 
Bourn lost 1,000/., which he had risked in 
his brother Daniel's cotton mill, and in 1758 
he travelled about to obtain subscriptions 
for two volumes of sermons. He placed the 
manuscript in the hands of Samuel Chand- 
ler, D.D., of the Old Jewry. In one of these 
sermons Bourn had espoused the doctrine of 
the annihilation of the wicked, but being in 
London in 1759, he heard Chandler charac- 
terise in a sermon the annihilation doctrine 
as ' utterly inconsistent with the Christian 
scheme.' Deeming this a personal attack, 
he vainly sought to draw Chandler into a 
controversy by a published letter. His ser- 

mons, when published, produced a contro- 
versy with John Mason (1706-1763). The 
point in discussion was the resurrection of the 
flesh. Mason's (affirmative) part in the con- 
troversy will be found in his 'Christian 
Morals,' 2 vols. 1761. Bourn's opposite view 
is defended in an appendix to his sermons 
' on the Parables. Bourn's reputation as a 
i preacher was due to the force, and sometimes 
. the solemn pathos, of his written style, and 
to the strength of his argumentative matter, 
! Among those brought up under his ministry 
was Sir James Edward Smith, founder of 
the Linnean Society. Like his father, Bourn 
rested in the Christology of Dr. Clarke. He 
was no optimist ; he devoted a powerful dis- 
course to the theme that no great improve- 
ment in the moral state of mankind is prac- 
ticable by any means whatsoever (vol. i. 1760, 
| No. 14). W' hen, in 1757, Dr. Taylor left Nor- 
wich to fill the divinity chair in Warring- 
ton Academy, Bourn obtained as colleagues 
first John Hoyle, and afterwards Robert 
Alderson, subsequently a lawyer, and father 
of Sir E. H. Alderson [q. v.], who, when 
Bourn became incapable of work, had to 
discharge the whole duty, and was accord- 
; ingly ordained on 13 Sept. 1775. Bourn 
| was a favourite with the local clergy of the 
| establishment. Samuel Parr took him to 
Cambridge, and speaks of him as ( a mas- 
! terly writer, a profound thinker, and the 
I intimate friend of Dr. Parr at Norwich ' 
I (Bibl. Parr. p. 704). W 7 hen his health failed, 
! and he was retiring to Thorpe on a pro- 
I perty of 60/. a year, it is said by Toulmin 
I (and repeated by Field) that Dr. Mann, 
bishop of Cork, who was visiting Norwich, 
offered him a sinecure preferment of 300/. a 
year if he chose to conform. He declined, 
| to the admiration of Parr, who did his best 
privately to assist his ' noncon. friend.' Bourn 
died in Norwich on 24 Sept. 1796, and was 
buried (27 Sept.) in the graveyard of the 
1 Octagon Chapel. Late in life he married, 
I but left no family. He published : 1. ' The 
Rise, Progress, Corruption, and Declension 
of the Christian Religion,' &c. (anon.), 1752, 
! 4to (sermon from Mark iv. 30, before the Lan- 
cashire provincial assembly at Manchester, 
12 May 1752). 2. 'A Letter to the Rev. 
Samuel Chandler, D.D., concerning the 
| Christian Doctrine of Future Punishment,' 
1759, 8vo (afterwards added to the second 
| edition of his sermons, and reprinted by Ri- 
; chard Baron [q. v.] in The Pillars of Priest- 
craft and Orthodoxy shaken,' 1768, vol. iii.) 
3. ' A Series of Discourses on the Principles 
! and Evidences of Natural Religion and the 
| Christian Revelation,' &c. 1760, 2 vols. 8vo 
j (the 2nd vol. has a different title-page). 



4. 'Discourses on the Parables of our Saviour,' 
1764, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. ' Fifty Sermons on 
various Subjects, Critical, Philosophical, and 
Moral,' Norwich, 1777, "2 vols. 8vo. Toulmin 
mentions a manuscript ' History of the He- 
brews,' which Bourn had partly prepared for 
the press. 

[Toulmin's Mem. of Rev. Samuel Bourn, 1808 ; 
Field's Mem. of Parr, 1828, i. 139-141 ; Taylor's 
Hist, of Octagon Chapel, Norwich, 1848 ; tomb- 
stone at Norwich.] A. Gr. 

BOURN, THOMAS (1771-1832), com- 
piler, was born in Hackney on 19 April 1771, 
and in conjunction with his father-in-law, 
Mr. William Butler, the author of various 
works for the instruction of the young, he 
became a teacher of writing and geography 
in ladies' schools. His death occurred at his 
house in Mare Street, Hackney, on 20 Aug. 
1832. He published ' A Concise Gazetteer of 
the most Remarkable Places in the World ; 
with references to the principal historical 
events and most celebrated persons connected 
with them.' London, 1807, 8vo, 3rd edit. 

[Gent. Mag. cii. 297 : Biog. Diet, of Living 
Authors ( 1 8 1 6), 34 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; E. Evans's 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 13005.] T. C. 

BOURN, WILLIAM (Jl. 1562-1582). 
[See BOURNE.] 

BOURNE, GILBERT (d. 1569), bishop 
of Bath and Wells, the son of Philip Bourne 
of Worcestershire, entered the university 
of Oxford in 1524, and was a fellow of All 
Souls' College in 1531, l and in the year 
after he proceeded in arts, being then es- 
teemed a good orator and disputant ' (WOOD'S 
Athence Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 805). In 1541 he 
was made one of the prebendaries of the 
king's new foundation at Worcester; in 1545 
lie received a prebend of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, and took another prebend in its place 
in 1548 ; in 1547 he was proctor for the clergy 
of the diocese of London; and in 1549 he 
"became rector of High Ongar in Essex, and 
archdeacon of Bedford. He is described, 
probably in error, by Foxe and Wood as 
archdeacon of Essex and Middlesex, and by 
Godwin as archdeacon of London. He be- 
came chaplain to Bishop Bonner in the reign 
of Henry VIII, and preached against heretics 
(WooD and FOXE). His preferments prove 
that he must have complied with the reli- 
gious changes of the reign of Edward VI. 
In spite, however, of this compliance, he did 
not desert his patron, for he stood by Bonner 
during the hearing of his appeal in 1549. 
On the accession of Mary he acted as one of 
the delegates for Bonner's restitution, and on 

13 Aug. of the same year (1553) preached a 
sermon at Paul's Cross justifying the conduct 
of the bishop, and enlarging on his sufferings 
in the Marshalsea. His hearers, enraged at 
the tone of his discourse, raised a hubbub, 
and a dagger was thrown at the preacher. 
The weapon missed its aim, and Bradford 
and Rogers, who were popular with the Lon- 
doners, led him out of the tumult, and put 
him in safety within the door of the gram- 
mar school. Three days after this Bradford 
was arrested. On being brought to trial the 
next year, Bradford was accused of having 
excited the people to make this disturbance. 
He pleaded the help he had given to Bourne, 
but that was not allowed to profit him 
(FoxE, Acts, fyc. ; HETLIN, Hist. Reform. ; 
BURNET, Hist. Reform.} As Bourne's uncle, 
Sir John Bourne, was principal secretary of 
state, his advancement in the church was cer- 
tain. Accordingly he was elected bishop of 
Bath and Wells on 28 March 1554 in the 
place of Barlow, who was deprived of his 
office. He was consecrated on 1 April along 
with five others, and received the temporali- 
ties of his see on 20 April. He received 
from the queen the office of warden of the 
Welsh marches. As bishop he was zealous 
in restoring the old order of the church. Im- 
mediately after his consecration he commis- 
sioned Cottrel, his vicar-general, to deprive 
and punish 'all in holy orders keeping in 
adulterous embraces women upon show of 
feigned and pretensed matrimony ; ' and ' mar- 
ried laics who in pretence and under colour 
of priestly orders had rashly and unlawfully 
mingled themselves in ecclesiastical rights, 
and had obtained de facto parish churches, to 
deprive and remove from the said churches and 
dignities, and those so convicted to separate 
and divorce from their women or their wives, 
or rather concubines, and to enjoin salutary 
and worthy penances, as well to the same 
clerks as to the women for such crimes ' 
(STRYPE, Eccl. Mem. in. i.) Accordingly 
no less than eighty-two cases of deprivation, 
and an unusually large number of resigna- 
tions, appear in the Register of this bishop. 
Bourne was much employed in the proceed- 
ings taken against heretics. In April 1554 
j he took part in the disputation held with 
: Cramner, Latimer, and Ridley at Oxford, 
! and at different dates acted on commissions 
for the -trial of Bishop Hooper, Dr. Taylor, 
Tomkins, and Philpot. In these proceedings, 
however, he always did what he could for the 
prisoners, checking Bonner's violence, and 
earnestly exhorting them to save themselves 
by recantation. Proofs of this unwilling- 
ness to allow men to suffer may be found in 
Foxe, who records the repeated endeavours 



he made to induce Mantel (1554) to save 
himself, the appeal he made to Tomkins 
(1555), and the interruption he made when 
Bonner was about to pass sentence on Phil- 
pot somewhat eagerly (1555). In his own 
diocese it does not appear that any one was 
put to death for religious opinions. The im- 
prisonment of two clerks is noticed in his 
Register under 11 April 1554, and in 1556 
a certain Richard Lush was condemned and 
sentenced to be committed to the sheriffs. A j 
certificate of this condemnation was sent by j 
the bishop to the king and queen, but as not ! 
even Foxe has been able to find any record 
of Lush's martyrdom (Acts and Mon. viii. 
378), it may be taken for granted that he was 
not put to death. Zealous then as he was 
for his own religion, Bourne saved Somerset 
from any share in the Marian persecution. 
He did all that lay in his power to regain 
some of the possessions of which his church 
had been robbed in the late reign, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining such as had fallen into 
the hands of the crown. Banwell was re- 
gained for the bishopric, and Long Sutton 
and Dulverton for the chapter of Wells. He 
sent his proxy to the first parliament of Eliza- 
beth in 1558. The next year he and other 
disaffected bishops were summoned to appear 
before the queen, possibly in convocation, and 
were bidden to drive all Romish worship out 
of their dioceses. He was one of the bishops 
appointed by the queen for the consecration 
of Matthew Parker ; but the commission 
failed, probably through the unwillingness of 
those nominated to carry it out. Bourne re- 
fused to take the oaths of supremacy and 
allegiance, and with six other bishops was 
committed to the Tower. The recusant 
bishops were treated with indulgence, and 
allowed to eat together at two tables. When 
the plague visited London in 1562, they were 
removed from the Tower for fear of infection. 
Bourne was committed to the keeping of Bul- 
lingham, bishop of Lincoln, and dwelt with 
him as a kind of involuntary guest. He was 
an inmate of his household in 1565, and in 
that year seems to have stayed for a while in 
London. He was also kept by Dean Carey 
of Exeter. He died at Silverton in Devon- 
shire on 10 Sept. 1569, and was buried there 
on the south side of the altar. Such pro- 
perty as he had he left to his brother, Richard 
Bourne of Wiveliscombe. ' He was,' Fuller 
says, ' a zealous papist, yet of a good nature, 
well deserving of his cathedral.' 

[Strype's Annals, i. i. 82, 211, 220, 248, n. ii. 
51 ; Ecclesiastical Memorials, in. i. 180, 286, 
827, 352 ; Memorials of Abp. Cranmer, 459 ; Life 
of Abp. Parker, i. 106, 172, 282 (8vo ecL); Foxe's 
Acts and Monuments, v, vi, vii, viii passim (ed. 

1846); Heylin's Hist, of Reformation, 286 (ed.. 
1674) ; Fuller's Church History, ii. 449, iv. 180, 
367 (ed. Brewer) ; Burnet's Hist, of Keforma- 
tion ; Nichols's Narratives of the Keformation, 
142, 287, Camden Society; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
(ed. Bliss), ii. 805 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Godwin, 
De Prsesulibus (1742), p. 388 ; Cassan's Lives of 
the Bishops of Bath and Wells, i. 462 Bourne's- 
Register, MS. Wells.] W. H. 

BOURSE, HENRY (1696-1733), anti- 
quary, was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 
1696. He was the son of Thomas Bourne, a 
tailor, and was intended for the calling of a 
glazier. His talents, however, attracted the- 
attention of some friends, through whose of- 
fices he was released from his apprenticeship 
and sent to resume his education at the New- 
castle grammar school. He was admitted a 
sizar of Christ College, Cambridge, in 1717, 
under the tuition of the Rev. Thomas Ather- 
ton, a fellow-townsman. He graduated B. A. 
in 1720 and M.A. in 1724, and received the- 
appointment of curate of All Hallows Church, 
Newcastle, where he remained until his death 
on 16 Feb. 1733. 

In 1725 he published ' Antiquitates Vul- 
gares, or the Antiquities of the Common 
People, giving an account of their opinions 
and ceremonies.' This was republished, with 
additions by Brand, in 1777 in his l Popular' 
Antiquities/ and forms the groundwork of the 
later labours of Sir Henry Ellis and W. C. 
Hazlitt. In 1727 he issued ' The Harmony 
and Agreement of the Collects, Epistles, and 
Gospels, as they stand in the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer for the Sundays throughout the 
Year.' He also wrote a history of his native 
town, which was left in an unfinished state- 
at his death, but was afterwards published 
by his widow and children in a folio volume 
in 1736, under the title of The History of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, or the Ancient and 
Present State of that Town.' 

[Adamson's Scholse Novocastrensis Alumni,, 
p. 13 ; Brand's Hist, of Newcastle, 1789, preface ; 
Allibone's Dictionary.] C. W. S. 

BOURNE, HUGH (1772-1852), founder 
of the primitive methodists, son of Joseph 
Bourne, farmer and wheelwright, by his wife 
Ellen, daughter of Mr. Steele, was born at 
Fordhays Farm, in the parish of Stoke-upon- 
Trent, 3 April 1772, and, after some educa- 
tion at Werrington and Bucknall, worked' 
with his father in his business. The family 
removed to Bemersley, in the parish of Nor- 
ton-in-the-Moors, in 1788, and Bourne then' 
took employment under his uncle, William 
Sharratt, a millwright and engineer at Milton. 
He had so far been carefully brought up by 
a pious mother, and in June 1799 joined the- 



Wesleyan methodists, soon after became a 
local preacher, and in 1802 built, chiefly at 
his own expense, a chapel at Harrisehead. 
In imitation of the camp meetings for preach- 
ing and fellowship, which had been the means 
of reviving religion in America, Bourne, in 
company with his brother James, "William 
Clowes [q. v.], and others, held a camp 
meeting on the mountain at Mowcop, near 
Harrisehead, on Sunday, 31 May 1807. The 
meeting commenced at six in the morning, 
and prayer, praise, and preaching were con- 
tinued until eight at night. This success- 
ful revival was the first of many held in 
that part of the country. The Wesleyan 
methodist conference at the meeting at Li- 
verpool on 27 July 1807 passed a resolution 
protesting against such gatherings. The camp 
meetings were, however, continued, and on 
27 June 1808 Bourne was, in what seems to 
have been an illegal manner, expelled from 
the Wesleyan Methodist Society by the 
Burslem circuit's quarterly meeting ; but he 
still continued to raise societies here and 
there, recommending them to join the Wes- 
leyan circuits, and as yet entertained no idea 
of organising a separate community. But the 
Wesleyan authorities remained hostile, and a 
disruption was the consequence. On 14 March 
1810 the first class of the new community was 
formed at Standley, nearBemersley . Quarterly 
tickets were introduced in the following year, 
and the first general meeting of the society was 
held at Tunstall on 26 July 1811. The name 
Primitive Methodist, implying a desire to 
restore methodism to its primitive simplicity, 
was finally adopted on 13 Feb. 1812, but the 
opponents of the movement often called the 
people by the name of ranters. The first 
annual conference was held at Hull in May 
1820, and a deed poll of the primitive ruetho- 
dists was enrolled in the court of chancery 
on 10 Feb. 1830. Bourne and his brother 
purchased land and built the first chapel of 
the new connexion at Tunstall in 1811. 
After the foundation and settlement of the 
society Bourne made many journeys to Scot- 
land and Ireland, for the purpose of enrolling 
recruits in the new sect. During 1844-6 he 
travelled in the United States of America, 
where he obtained large congregations. He 
lived to see primitive methodism with 1,400 
Sunday schools, 5,300 chapels, and 110,000 
enrolled members, and died from a mortifi- 
cation of his foot at Bemersley, Staffordshire, 
onll Oct. 1852, aged 80 years and six months, 
and was buried at Englesea Brook, Cheshire. 
He was, in common with many preachers and 
members of the primitive methodist church, 
a rigid abstainer. For the greater part of his 
life he worked as a carpenter and builder, so 

as not to become chargeable to the denomi- 
nation, and it was not until he had reached 
his seventieth year that he was placed on the 
superannuation fund. He was the author 
of: 1. ' Observations on Camp Meetings, 
with an Account of a Camp Meeting held at 
Mow, near Harrisehead,' 1807. 2. ' The 
Great Scripture Catechism, compiled for Nor- 
ton and Harrisehead Sunday Schools,' 1807. 
3. 'Remarks on the Ministry of Women/ 
1808. 4. ' A General Collection of Hymns 
and Spiritual Songs for Camp Meetings and 
Revivals,' 1809. 5. < History of t^ie Primi- 
tive Methodist,' 1823. 6. 'A Trcitise on 
Baptism,' 1823. 7. ' Large Hymn Book for 
the use of the Primitive Methodists,' 1825. 
8. 'The Primitive Methodist Magazine,' 
1824, which he edited for about twenty 

[Walford's Memoirs of H. Bourne, 1855, with 
portrait ; Petty's Primitive Methodist Connexion, 
1864, with portrait ; AntlifFs Funeral Sermon on 
H. Bourne, 1852; Simpson's Recollections of 
H. Bourne, 1859.] G. C. B. 

BOURNE, IMMANUEL (1590-1672), 
divine, born on 27 Dec. 1590, was the eldest 
son of the Rev. Henry Bourne, who was 
vicar of East Haddon, Northamptonshire, 
from 1595 till his death in 1649 (BRIDGES'S 
Northamptonshire, i. 506). He was educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, and proceeded 
B.A. 29 Jan. 1611-12 and M.A. 12 June 
1616. Soon afterwards he was appointed 
preacher at St. Christopher's Church, Lon- 
don, by the rector, Dr. William Piers, a 
canon of Christ Church. Bourne found a 
patron in Sir Samuel Tryon, an inhabitant 
of the parish of St. Christopher, and he dates 
one of his sermons 'The True Way of a 
Christian ' ' from my study at Sir Samuel 
Tryon's in the parish of St. Christopher's, 
April 1622.' In 1622 he received the living 
of Ashhover, Derbyshire, where he exhibited 
strong sympathy with the puritans. In 
1642, on the outbreak of the civil war, his 
open partisanship with the presbyterians 
compelled him to leave Ashhover for Lon- 
don. There he was appointed preacher at 
St. Sepulchre's Church, and about 1656 he 
became rector of Waltham-on-the-Wolds, 
Leicestershire, where he engaged in contro- 
versy with the quakers and anabaptists. He 
conformed at the Restoration, and on 12 March 
1669-70 was nominated to the rectory of 
Aylestone, Leicestershire, where he died on 
27 Dec. 1679. He was buried in the chancel 
of the church. 

Bourne's works were : 1. ' The Rainbow, 
Sermon at St. Paul's Cross. 10 June 1617, 
on Gen. ix. 13,' London, 1617 ; dedicated to 



Robert, first Baron Spencer of Wormleighton. 
2. ' The Godly Man's Guide, on James iv. 13,' 
London, 1620. 3. ' The True Way of a 
Christian to the New Jerusalem . . . on 2 Cor. 
v. 17,' London, 1622. 4. < Anatomy of Con- 
science,' Assize Sermon at Derby, on Rev. 
xx. 11, London, 1623. 5. A Light from 
Christ leading unto Christ, by the Star of 
His Word ; or, a Divine Directory for Self- 
examination and Preparation for the Lord's 
Supper,' London, 1645, 8vo. An edition, 
with a slightly altered title-page, appeared 
in 1646. 6. l Defence of Scriptures,' to which 
was added a ' Vindication of the Honour 
due to the Magistrates, Ministers, and 
others,' London, 1656. This work describes 
a disputation between clergymen and James 
Nayler, the quaker. Bourne's argument 
against the quaker was answered by George 
Fox in 'The Great Mystery of the Great 
Whore unfolded,' 1659. 7. ' Defence and Jus- 
tification of Ministers' Maintenance by Tithes, 
and of Infant Baptism, Humane Learning, 
and the Sword of the Magistrate, in a reply 
to a paper by some Anabaptists sent to Im. 
Bourne,' to which was added ' Animadver- 
sions upon Anth. Perisons [Parsons] great 
case of tithes,' London, 1659. 8. < A Gold 
Chain of Directions with 20 Gold Links of 
Love to preserve Love firm between Hus- 
band and Wife,' London, 1669. Only the 
works marked 1, 3, and 4 in this list are in 
the British Museum Library. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 977-9 ; 
Fasti, i. 342, 366 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

S. L. L. 

BOURNE, NEHEMIAH (fi. 1649- 
1662), admiral, in his earlier days appa- 
rently a merchant and shipowner, served in 
the parliamentary army during the civil 
war, and on the remodelling of the fleet after 
Batten's secession, having then the rank of 
major, was appointed to the command of the 
Speaker, a ship of the second rate. As cap- 
tain of the Speaker he was for two years 
commander-in-chief on the coast of Scotland, 
and in September 1651 carried the Scottish 
records, regalia, and insignia taken in Stir- 
ling Castle to London, for which services he 
afterwards received a gold medal of the value 
of 60/. In 1652 he was captain of the An- 
drew, and in May was senior officer in the 
Downs, wearing a flag by special authority 
from Blake, when, on the 18th, the Dutch 
fleet under Tromp anchored off Dover. It 
was thus Bourne who sent, both to the coun- 
cil of state and to Blake, the intimation of 
Tromp's presence on the coast, and who 
commanded that division of the fleet which 
had so important a share in the action of 

Bourne, Nehemiah. ii. 939*. This article 
needs revision. See Sir Charles Firth in 

The Marinpr** A/Tirrnr. xii. 

19 May [see BLAKE, ROBEKT]. Without 
knowledge of the battle, the council had 
already on the 19th appointed Bourne rear- 
admiral of the fleet, a rank which he held 
during the whole of that year, and com- 
manded in the third post in the battle near 
the Kentish Knock on 28 Sept. But after 
the rude check sustained by Blake off 
Dungeness on 30 Nov., it was found neces- 
sary to have some well-skilled and trust- 
worthy man as commissioner on shore to 
superintend and push forward the equipment 
and manning of the fleets. To this office 
Bourne was appointed, and he continued to 
hold and exercise it not only during the rest 
of the Dutch war, but to the end of the pro- 
tectorate. In this work he was indefatigable, 
and in a memorial to the admiralty, 18 Sept. 
1653, claimed, by his special knowledge, to 
have saved hundreds of pounds in buying 
masts and deals ; from which we may perhaps 
assume that he had formerly been engaged in 
the Baltic trade. Nor was he backward in 
representing his merits to the admiralty ; and 
although he wrote on 13 Oct. 1653, that his 
modesty did not suit the present age, it did 
not prevent him from quaintly urging his 
claims both to pecuniary reward and to 
honourable distinction. This last, he says, 
13 April 1653, ' would give some counte- 
nance and quicken the work. I ask for the 
sake of the service, for I am past such toys 
as to be tickled with a feather.' 

After the Restoration, being unwilling to 
accept the new order of things, he emigrated 
to America ; the last that is known of him is 
the pass permitting him ' to transport him- 
self and family into any of the plantations ' 
(May 1662). On 3 April 1689 the secretary 
of the admiralty wrote to a Major Bourne in 
Abchurch Lane, desiring him to attend the 
board, who wished ' to discourse him about 
some business relating to their majesties' 
service ; ' and 011 28 June 1690 a Nehemiah 
Bourne was appointed captain of the Mon- 
mouth (Admiralty Minutes^). If this was the 
old puritan, he must have been of a very ad- 
vanced age : it may more probably have been 
a son. In either case he apparently refused 
to take up the appointment, for on 9 July 
another captain was appointed in his stead. 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom. 1651-62.] 

J. K. L. 

BOURNE, REUBEN (Jl. 1692), dra- 
matist, belonged to the Middle Temple, and 
left behind him a solitary and feeble comedy 
which has never been acted. The title of 
this is ' The Contented Cuckold, or Woman's 
Advocate,' 4to, 1692. Its scene is Edmonton, 
and the principal character, Sir Peter Lovejoy, 


3 2 



contends that a cuckold is one of the scarcest 
of created beings. 

[Genest's History of the Stage ; Balcer, Reed, 
and Jones's Biographia Dramatica.] J. K. 

BOURNE, ROBERT, M.D. (1761-1829), 
professor of medicine, was born at Shrawley, 
Worcestershire, and educated at Bromsgrove, 
whence he was elected scholar of Worcester 
College, Oxford, and became a fellow of that 
society. He proceeded B.A. in 1781, M.A. 
in 1784, M.B. in 1786, and in 1787 took the 
degree of M.D. and was elected physician to 
the Radcliffe Infirmary at Oxford. In 1790 
he became a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians. In 1794 he was appointed 
reader of chemistry at Oxford, in 1803 pro- 
fessor of physic, and in 1824 of clinical me- 
dicine. He died at Oxford on 23 Dec. 1829. 
A monument was erected to him in the chapel 
of his college. His published works are : 
1. ' An Introductory Lecture to a Course of 
Chemistry,' 1797. 2. ' Cases of Pulmonary 
Consumption treated with Uva ursi,' 1805. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), ii. 401.] 

BOURNE, VINCENT (1695-1747), Latin 
et, son of Andrew Bourne, was born in 
695, and admitted on the foundation of 
Westminster School in 1 7 1 0. He was elected 
to a scholarship at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, on 27 May 1714, proceeded B.A. in 
1717, became a fellow of his college in 1720, 
and commenced M.A. in 1721. On Addi- 
son's recovery in 1717 from an attack of ill- 
ness, Bourne addressed to him a copy of 
congratulatory Latin verses. In 1721 he 
edited a collection of l Carmina Comitialia,' 
which contains, among the ' Miscellanea ' at 
the end, some verses of his own. On leaving 
Cambridge he became a master at Westmin- 
ster School, and continued to hold this ap- 
pointment until his death. In 1734 he pub- 
lished his ' Poemata, Latine partim reddita, 
partim scripta,' with a dedication to the 
Duke of Newcastle, and in November of the 
same year he was appointed housekeeper and 
deputy sergeant-at-arms to the House of 
Commons. A second edition of his poems 
appeared in 1735, and a third edition, with 
an appendix of 112 pages, in 1743. Cowper, 
who was a pupil of Bourne's at Westminster, 
and who translated several of his pieces into 
English verse, says (in a letter to the Rev. 
John Newton dated 10 May 1781) : 1 1 love 
the memory of Vinny Bourne. I think him 
a better Latin poet than Tibullus, Proper- 
tius, Ausonius, or any of the writers in his 
way except Ovid, and not at all inferior to 
him.' Landor remarks on this judgment of 
Cowper's: 'Mirum ut perperam, ne dicam 

stolidejudicaverit poeta psene inter summos 
j nominandus ' (Poemata et Inscriptiones, ed. 
| 1847, p. 300). Charles Lamb was a warm 
admirer of Bourne. In his ' Complaint of 
the Decay of Beggars ' he inserted a trans- 
lation of the ' Epitaphium in Canem,' together 
with the Latin original ; and in one of his 
letters to Wordsworth, written in 1815, there 
is a charming criticism of Bourne's poems, 
which he had then been reading for the first 
time : ' What a sweet, unpretending, pretty- 
manner'd, matterful creature ! Sacking from 
every flower, making a flower of everything f 
His diction all Latin, and his thoughts all 
English ! ' A special favourite with Lamb 
was ' Cantatrices,' a copy of verses on the 
ballad-singers of the Seven Dials. Among 
Lamb's miscellaneous poems are nine trans- 
lations from the Latin of Vincent Bourne. 
The charm of Bourne's poems lies not so 
much in the elegance of his Latinity (though 
that is considerable) as in his genial optimism 
and homely touches of quiet pathos. He 
had quick sympathy for his fellow-men, and 
loving tenderness towards all domestic ani- 
mals. His epitaphs, particularly the ' Epi- 
taphium in septem annorum puellulam,' are 
models of simplicity and grace. Bourne's 
little volume of Latin verses will keep his- 
memory fragrant and his fame secure when 
many whose claims were more pretentious 
are forgotten. He was a man of peaceful 
temperament, content to pass his life in in- 
dolent repose. As a teacher he wanted 
energy, and he was a very lax disciplinarian. 
Cowper, in one of his letters to Rose (dated 
30 Nov. 1788), says that he was so inatten- 
tive to his pupils, and so indifferent whether 
they brought him good or bad exercises, that 
' he seemed determined, as he was the best, 
so to be the last, Latin poet of the West- 
minster line.' In another letter Cowper 
writes : ' I lost more than I got by him ; for 
he made me as idle as himself.' He was 
particularly noted for the slovenliness of his 
attire. Cowper relates that he remembered 
seeing the Duke of Richmond l set fire to his- 
greasy locks, and box his ears to put it out 
again.' It is said that the Duke of New- 
castle offered him valuable ecclesiastical pre- 
ferment, and that he declined the offer from 
conscientious motives. In a letter to his 
wife, written shortly before his death, he 
says : * I own and declare that the import- 
ance of so great charge [i.e. entering into 
holy orders], joined with a mistrust of my 
own sufficiency, made me fearful of under- 
taking it : if I have not in that capacity 
assisted in the salvation of souls, I have not 
been the means of losing any ; if I have not 
brought reputation to the function by any 




merit of mine, I have the comfort of this 
reflection I have given no scandal to it by 
my meanness and unworthiness.' Bourne 
died on 2 Dec. 1747, and was buried at 
Fulham. He had written his own epitaph : 
'Pietatis sincere summeeque humilitatis, 
nee Dei usquam immemor nee sui, in silen- 
tium quod amavit descendit V. B.' From 
his will we learn that he had a son who was 
a lieutenant in the marines. A careful edi- 
tion of Bourne's poems, with a memoir by 
the Rev. John Mitford, was published in 1840. 

[Southey's Life and Works of Cowper,iii. 226, 
iv. 97-8, vi. 201 ; Welch's Alumni Westmonas- 
terienses, ed. 1852, pp. 252, 264; Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes, viii. 428 n. ; Nichols's Lite- 
rary Illustrations, vii. 656-7; Aikin's Life of 
Addison, ii. 214; Bourne's Poemata, ed. Mit- 
ford, 1840.] A. H. B. 


1583), mathematician, was the son of William 
Bourne of Gravesend, who died 1560. The 
earliest mention of the mathematician is in 
the first charter of incorporation of Gravesend, 
granted 22 July 1562, where he appears on the 
list of jurats of the town. His name is also 
repeated in the same* capacity in the second 
charter, granted 5 June 1568. It is worthy of 
remark that the only records of the measures 
taken for the regulation of the traders of the 
town under the authority of the second charter 
are in the handwriting of Bourne. In one of 
the presentments of a jury, touching the office 
of clerk of the market, drawn up by him in 
a tabular form, 15 March 1571, he records his 
own name as Mr. Bourne, portreve, one of 
fourteen of the ' Innholders and Tiplers that 
were amerced for selling Beer and Ale in 
Pots of Stone and Cans not being quarts full 
measure ' (CRTJDEN, p. 208). The fine in- 
flicted upon Bourne was ' vi d .' This serves 
to show that, according to the practice of the 
period, he engaged in business as an inn- 
keeper. In ' A note of all the inhabitants, 
reseant [i.e. resident] and dwelling in the 
parishes of Gravesend and Milton the 20th 
Sept. 1572-3,' his name appears once more as 
one of the jurats, and as having paid for his 
freedom of the Mercers' Company (CKUBEN, 
197). In the dedication of his 'Treasure 
for Travellers ' to Sir William Winter, he 
writes : ' I have most largely tasted of your 
benevolence towards me being as a poors 
gunner serving under your worthiness.' In 
book iii. cap. 9 of the same work he describes 
himself as being ' neither Naupeger or Ship- 
carpenter, neither usuall Seaman.' From 
these passages it is clear that 'he was not a 
seaman by profession ; as the offices of his 
patron were of a general nature, not to be dis- 


charged at sea, it may be that Bourne served 
under him on shore, perhaps as one of the 
gunners of Gravesend bulwark, which he has 
delineated and referred to in more than one 
of his works. These, from internal evidence, 
appear to have been written at Gravesend, 
his native town. He wrote : 1. ' An Alma- 
nacke and prognostication for iii yeres, with 
serten Rules of navigation,' 1567 (AEBEK, i. 
336). 2. ' An Almanacke and prognostica- 
tion for iii years . . . now newly added vnto 
my late rules of navigation that was printed 
iiii years past. Practised at Gravesend, for 
the meridian of London by William Bourne, 
student of the mathematical sciences,' T. 
Purfoot, imp. 1571 (AMES, 996). 3. 'An 
Almanacke for ten yeares beginning at the 
yeare 1581, with certaine necessarie Rules,' 
R. Watkins with J. Roberts, imp. 1580 
(AMES, 1025). 4. ' A Regiment of the Sea : 
conteyning . . . Rules, Mathematical experi- 
ences, and perfect Knowledge of Navigation 
for all Coastes and Countreys : most needfull 
and necessarie for all Seafaring Men and 
Travellers, as Pilots, Mariners, Merchants, 
&c.,' T. Dawson and T. Gardyner for lohn 
Wight, imp. [1573]. It is dedicated to the 
Earl of Lincoln, lord high admiral, whose^ 
arms are given in his flag flying at the maintop 
of a large ship-of-war on the title-page. This 
work, by which Bourne is best known, passed 
through several editions, viz., 1580, pos- 
thumous 1584, 1587, 1592 (corrected by T. 
Hood), 1596, and 1643. 5. ' A booke called 
the Treasure for Travellers, divided into five 
Bookes or partes, conteynyng very necessary 
matters, for all sortes of Travailers, eyther by 
Sea or Lande,' Thomas Woodcocke, imp. 
1578. It is dedicated to l Syr William Win- 
ter, knight, Maister of the Queenes Maiesties 
Ordinaunce by Sea, Survaior of her highnesse 
marine causes,' whose arms and crest are 
given on verso of the title-page. 6. Another 
edition, under the title of ' A Mate for Mari- 
ners,' 1641 (CRUDEN, p. 209). 7. ' The Arte 
of Shooting in great Ordnance, conteyning 
very necessary matters for all sortes of Ser- 
vitoures, eyther by Sea or by Lande,' Thos. 
Woodcocke, imp. 1587. It is dedicated to ' Lord 
Ambrose Dudley, Earle of Warwick . . . 
Generall of the Queen's Maiesties Ordnance 
within her highnesse Realme and Dominions.' 
Other editions, 1596 (CKTJDEN) and 1643. 
That 1587 is not the date of its composition 
is certain, as the license for printing was 
granted to H. Bynnemann 22 July 1578 
(AMES, 992 ; ARBEK, 2, 150) ; moreover it is 
referred to in Bourne's next work : 8. ' In- 
ventions or Devises ; Very necessary for all 
Generalles and Captaines, or Leaders of men, 
as wel by Sea as by Land,' Thos. Woodcocke, 




imp. 1578. This is dedicated to ' Lorde 
Charles Howard of Effingham.' Some of 
these devises are of peculiar interest, as they 
anticipated by more than eighty years the 
' Century of Inventions ' by the Marquis of 
Worcester. No. 21 is supposed to be the 
earliest mention in our language of a ship's 
log and line, the deviser of which was Hum- 
prey Cole, of the Mint in the Tower. No. 75 
is a night signal or telegraph, afterwards used 
by Captain John Smith, and for which he ob- 
tained such renown. No. 110 seems to be a 
curious anticipation of the telescope, appa- 
rently borrowed from the Pantometria by 
Digges (1571), while some have been brought 
forward as new discoveries at Gravesend 
within the present century. 

Of Bourne's manuscripts three are ex- 
tant : 1. ' The Property or Qualytyes of 
Glaces [glasses], Acordyng vnto ye severall 
mackyng pollychynge & gryndyng of them ' 
(Brit. Mus. 'Lansd.,' 121 (13), printed by 
Halliwell-Phillipps). 2. ' A dyscourse as 
tochying ye Q. maejisties Shypes.' Brit Mus. 
' Lansd.,'29 (20). All doubt as to the author- 
ship is obviated by a reference to his f Inven- 
tions and devises ' to be found in it. 3. A 
m manuscript in three parts (1) 'Of Certayne 
principall matters belonging vnto great Ord- 
nance ; ' (2) ' Certayne conclusions of the skale 
of the backside of the Astrolabe ; ' (3) ' A litle 
briefe note howe for to measure plattformes 
and bodyes and so foorth' (Brit. Mus. 
' Sloane,' 3651). Dedicated to Lord Burleigh. 
The substance of this manuscript is to be 
found in ' Shooting in Great Ordnance ' and 
' Treasure for Travellers ; ' it, however, con- 
tains two unpublished drafts in Bourne's 
hand : a small one of the Thames and Med- 
way, and another on a larger scale of the 
Thames near Gravesend, with ' plattformes ' 
for the defence of the river. A short study 
of his writings serves to show that Bourne 
was a self-taught genius, who, although he 
had mastered mathematics as then under- 
stood in all its branches, did not always suc- 
ceed in setting forth his acquired knowledge 
in fairly good English. His sentiments, as 
expressed in his several addresses to <ye 
gentell reader,' are as pious as they are pa- 
triotic, the little incident of the fine not- 
withstanding, which arose doubtless from the 
negligence of his servants or from preoccu- 
pation. He died 22 March 1582-3, leaving 
a widow and four sons. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit., 1748; Ames's Typogr. 
Antiq., 1785; Hutton, Math, and Philos. Diet., 
1815, i. 244; Halliwell-Phillipps's Kara Mathe- 
matica, 1839, p. 32 ; Cruden's Hist, of Gravesend, 
1843, pp. 207-12 ; Arber's Register of Company 
of Stationers, 1875, 4to.] C. H. C. 


(1769-1845), politician, the only son of the 
Rev. John Sturges, D.D., chancellor of the 
diocese of Winchester, by Judith, daughter 
of Richard Bourne, of Acton Hall. Worcester, 
was born on 7 Nov. 1769. After having 
been at a private school near Winchester, 
where he made the acquaintance of Canning, 
he entered the college where he remained as 
a commoner until 1786. In the Michaelmas 
term of that year he matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford ; and as Canning was at 
the same house, their friendship was re- 
newed and never interrupted. His degrees 
were B.A. 26 June 1790, M.A. 28 June 
1793, and D.C.L. 15 June 1831. He was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 23 Nov. 
1793, and entered into public life as member 
for Hastings on 3 July 1798. During his 
parliamentary career he represented many 
constituencies in turn : Christchurch from 
1802 to 1812 and from 1818 to 1826, Bandon 
1815-18, Ashburton 1826-30, and Milburne 
Port 1830-1. On the death in 1803 of his 
uncle, Francis Bourne, who had assumed the 
name of Page, the bulk of his wealth came 
to Sturges, coupled with the condition that 
he should assume the name of Bourne. He 
refused the post of under-secretary of the 
home department in 1801, but acted as joint- 
secretary of the treasury from 1804 to 1806, 
and as a lord of the treasury from 1807 to 
1809, when he resigned with Canning. In 
1814 he was created an unpaid commissioner 
for Indian affairs, was raised to the privy 
council, and from 1818 to 1822 served as a 
salaried commissioner. Sturges-Bourne had 
more than once refused higher office in the 
state ; but on the formation, in April 1827,. 
of Canning's administration he consented to 
hold the seals of the home department. He 
only retained this place until July in the same 
year. When he resigned the home depart- 
ment in favour of Lord Lansdowne, he ac- 
cepted the post of commissioner of woods 
and forests, and retained his seat in the ca- 
binet. In January 1828 he resigned all his 
offices with the exception of the post of lord 
warden of the New Forest, and in February 
1831 he retired from parliament. His name 
is commemorated by an act for the regulation 
of vestries passed in 1818 (58 Geo. Ill, c. 69), 
which is still in force, and is usually called 
after him Sturges-Bourne's Act. He died at 
Testwood House, near Southampton, on 1 Feb. 
1845, and was buried at Winchester Cathe- 
dral. He married, on 2 Feb. 1808, Anne, 
third daughter of Oldfield Bowles of North 
Aston, Oxford. His manner was not impres- 
sive, and his speech was ineffective ; but he 
had much knowledge of public affairs, and his 




opinions were highly valued in the House of 

[Gent. Mag. (1808), 169, (1845) pt. i. 433-4, 
661 ; Stapleton's Canning, iii. 343, 426 ; Return 
of Members of Parliament.] W. P. C. 

BOTJTEL, MKS. (fi. 1663-1696), actress, 
joined, soon after its formation, the company at 
the Theatre Royal, subsequently Drury Lane, 
and was accordingly one of the first women 
to appear on the stage. Her earliest recorded 
appearance took place presumably in 1663 or 
1664, as Estifania in ' Rule a Wife and Have 
a Wife.' She remained on the stage until 
1696, ' creating,' among other characters, 
Melantha in ' Marriage a la Mode,' Mrs. 
Pinchwife in Wycherley's ' Country Wife,' 
Fidelia in 'The Plain Dealer,' Statira in 
Lee's 'Rival Queens,' Cleopatra in Dry- 
den's ' All for Love,' and Mrs. Termagant in 
Shadwell's 'Squire of Alsatia.' Gibber 
somewhat curiously omits from his ( Apology ' 
all mention of her name. In the ' History 
of the Stage ' which bears the name of Bet- 
terton, Mrs. Boutel is described as a ' very 
considerable actress,' low of stature, with 
very agreeable features, a good complexion, 
a childish look, and a voice which, though 
weak, was very mellow. l She generally 
acted/ says the same authority, ' the young 
innocent lady whom all the heroes are mad 
in love with,' and was a great favourite with 
the town. A well-known story concerning 
her is that, having in the character of Sta- 
tira obtained from the property-man a veil 
to which Mrs. Barry, the representative 
of Roxana, thought herself entitled, much 
heat of passion was engendered between the 
two actresses, and Mrs. Barry dealt so for- 
cible a blow with a dagger as to pierce 
through Mrs. Boutel's stays, and inflict a 
wound a quarter of an inch in length. 
Davies, in his ' Dramatic Miscellanies,' vol. 
ii. p. 404, speaks of Mrs. Boutel as * celebra- 
ted for the gentler parts in tragedy such as 
Aspatia in the '' Maid's Tragedy." ' After the 
union of the companies, 1682, her recorded 
appearances are few. The last took place in 
1696, as Thomyris in ' Cyrus the Great.' 
She appears to have lived in comfort for 
some years subsequently. 

[G-enest's History of the Stage ; Downe's Ros- 
cius Anglicanus ; Davies's Dramatic Miscellanies ; 
Betterton's History of the English Stage (ed. 
Curll), 1741.] J. K. 

BOUTELL, CHARLES (1812-1877), 
archaeologist, born at St. Mary Pulham, Nor- 
folk, on 1 Aug. 1812, was the son of the 
Rev. Charles Boutell, afterwards rector of 
Litcham and East Lexham. He was B.A. 

of St. John's, Cambridge, 1834 ; incorporated 
at Trinity College, Oxford, and M.A., 1836 ; 
took priest's orders, 1839 ; and was after- 
wards curate of Hemsby, Norfolk; Sand- 
ridge, Hertfordshire ; Hampton, Middlesex ; 
and Litcham, Norfolk ; rector of Downham 
Market and vicar of St. Mary Magdalen, 
Wiggenshall, Norfolk ; and rector of Nor- 
wood, Surrey. His works on archaeology 
and mediaeval heraldry are numerous. He 
was secretary of the St. Albans Architectural 
Society, and one of the founders, in 1855, 
of the London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society, of which he was honorary secretary 
for a few months in 1857, but was dismissed 
under very painful circumstances (London 
and Middlesex Arch. Soc. Trans, i. 209, 
316). His life was one of continuous trouble, 
and at length, after two years of declining 
health, he died of a ruptured heart on 
11 Aug. 1877. 

His antiquarian works are : 1. Descriptive 
and Historical Notices to 'Illustrations of 
the Early Domestic Architecture of Eng- 
land,' drawn and arranged by John Britton, 
F.S.A., &c., London, 1846. This book is a 
small octavo, with a folding plate nine times 
its size. 2. ' Monumental Brasses and Slabs 
. . . of the Middle Ages, with numerous il- 
lustrations,' London, 1847, 8vo, pp. 236. 
Consisting of papers read to the St. Albans 
Architectural Society, with illustrations. 
3. 'Monumental Brasses of England,' de- 
scriptive notices illustrative of a series of 
wood engravings by R. B. Utting, London, 
1849, 8vo. 4. ' Christian Monuments in Eng- 
land and Wales from the Era of the Norman 
Conquest,' with numerous illustrations, Lon- 
don, 1849. 5. ' A Manual of British Archaeo- 
logy,' illustrated by Orlando Jewitt, London, 
1858, 4to, pp. 384. 6. 'A Manual of He- 
raldry, Historical and Popular,' with 700 
illustrations, London, 1863, 8vo. A second 
edition was called for in two months, and 
published as : 7. ' Heraldry, Historical and 
Popular,' with 850 illustrations, London, 

1863. 8. The third edition, revised and en- 
larged, same title, 975 illustrations, London, 

1864. 9. 'The Enamelled Heraldic Shield 
of Wm. de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 1296, 
from . . . Westminster Abbey, drawn by 
Luke Berrington, with descriptive notice by 
Charles Boutell, M.A.,' London, 1864, large 
folio. 10. 'English Heraldry,' illustrated, 
London, 1867, 8vo. This is a cheaper ar- 
rangement of his larger work, for the use of 
architects, sculptors, painters, and engravers ; 
a fourth edition of it appeared in 1879. 
11. 'Arms and Armour in Antiquity and 
the Middle Ages. Also a descriptive notice 
of Modern Weapons. Translated from the 




French of M. P. Lacombe,' illustrated, Lon- 
don, 1874, 8vo preface, notes, and a chapter 
on English Arms and Armour by Boutell. 
12. ' Arts and the Artistic Manufactures of 
Denmark/ illustrated, London, 1874, large 
4to. 13. l Gold-working ' in ' British Manu- 
facturing Industries,' edited by G. P. Bevan, 
F.G.S., London, 1876, 8vo. Besides these 
antiquarian works he published ' The Hero 
and his Example,' a sermon on the Duke 
of Wellington's death, preached at Litcham 
when curate under his father, London, 1852, 
8vo; 'An Address to District Visitors/ 
&c., London, 1854, 8vo ; ' A Bible Diction- 
ary . . . Holy Scriptures and Apocrypha/ 
London, 1871, thick 8vo ; since republished 
as ' Haydn's Bible Dictionary,' London, 1879. 
A work written by his daughter, Mary E. 0. 
Boutell, * Picture Natural History, including 
Zoology, Fossils, and Botany/ with upwards 
of 600 illustrations, London [1869], 4to, has 
a preface and introduction by him. In the 
' Gentleman's Magazine/ 1866, he wrote a 
series of articles on ' Our Early National 
Portraits/ and many papers of his on church 
monuments, heraldry, &c., will be found in 
the journals of the Archaeological Institute 
and Association. 

[Boutell's "Works; Lond. and Mid. Archseol. 
Soc. Trans, vol. i. : Athenaeum, 11 Aug. 1877.1 

J. W.-G. 


(1796-1863), Hulsean essayist, was the son 
of John Boutflower, surgeon, of Salford, and 
was born 25 Oct. 1796. He was educated at 
the Manchester grammar school, and in 1815 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge. In 
1816 he gained the Hulsean theological prize. 
The degrees of B. A. and M. A. were conferred 
on him in 1819 and 1822, and he was ordained 
in 1821, when he became curate at Elmdon 
near Birmingham, having previously acted as 
assistant-master at the Manchester grammar 
school. In 1823 he was elected to the head- 
mastership of the Bury school, Lancashire, 
and in 1832 was presented to the perpetual 
curacy of St. John's Church in that town. 
He was highly respected there as an able 
and conscientious clergyman and a good 
preacher. The rectory of Elmdon, where he 
first exercised his ministry, was offered to and 
accepted by him in 1857, and he held it until 
his death, which took place 4 June 1863, while 
on a visit at West Felton vicarage, Salop. 
He was buried at Elmdon. He collected ma- 
terials for a history of Bury, which he left in 
manuscript. His Hulsean prize essay, which 
was published in 1817 at Cambridge, was en- 
titled ' The Doctrine of the Atonement agree- 
able to Reason.' He also published a sermon 

on the death of William IV, 1837, and other 

[Manchester School Eegister, published by the 
Chetham Society, iii. 13-15]. W. C. S. 

RICK (1783-1852), general, was the third 
son of the Hon. Edward Bouverie, of Delapr6 
Abbey, near Northampton, M.P. for Salisbury 
from 1761 to 1775, and for Northampton from 
1790 to 1807, who was the second son of Sir 
Jacob Bouverie, first Viscount Folkestone, 
and brother of the first Earl of Radnor. Henry 
Frederick was born on 11 July 1783. He 
was gazetted an ensign in the 2nd or Cold- 
stream guards on 23 Oct. 1799, and served 
with the brigade of guards under Sir Ralph 
Abercromby in Egypt. In 1807 he acted as 
aide-de-camp to the Earl of Rosslyn at Copen- 
hagen, and in 1809 accompanied Sir Arthur 
Wellesley to Portugal in the same capacity, 
and was present at the Douro and at Talavera. 
He acted for a short time as military secretary, 
but on being promoted captain and lieutenant- 
colonel in June 1810 he gave up his post on 
Lord Wellington's personal staff, and was 
appointed to the staff of the army as assistant 
adjutant-general to the fourth division. He 
was present at the battles of Salamanca, 
Vittoria, the Nive, and Orthes, and at the 
storming of San Sebastian, and was parti- 
cularly mentioned in both Sir Rowland Hill's 
and the Marquis of Wellington's despatches 
for his services at the battle of the Nive. 
On the conclusion of the war he was made an 
extra aide-de-camp to the king and a colonel 
in the army in June 1814, and a K.C.B. in 
January 1815. He was promoted major- 
general in 1825, and was appointed governor 
and commander-in-chief of the island of Malta 
on 1 Oct. 1836. His governorship, which he 
retained till June 1843, was uneventful, and 
at its close he was made a G.C.M.G. He had 
been promoted lieutenant-general in 1838, 
appointed colonel of the 97th regiment in 
1843, and made a G.C.B. on 6 April 1852. 
Just as he was preparing to leave his country 
seat, Woolbeding House, near Midhurst in 
Sussex, to attend the funeral of his old com- 
mander-in-chief, the Duke of Wellington, 
apparently in his usual health, he suddenly 
fell ill from excitement and sorrow, and died 
on 14 Nov. 1852. 

[Royal Military Calendar ; Times, Obituary 
Notice, 17 Nov. 1852.] H. M. S. 


(1779-1869), third EARL RADNOR, a distin- 
guished whig politician, was born in London 
on 11 May 1779, descended from a Huguenot 
family which settled in Canterbury in the six- 





teenth century. He was partly educated in 
France. When quite a boy he was presented 
to Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, 
and he subsequently witnessed the early 
scenes of the French revolution. He returned 
to England a staunch advocate of popular 
rights, and entered parliament in 1801 as 
representative for the family borough of 
Downton, and boldly ventured into the front 
ranks of opposition. In 1802 he was re- 
turned for Salisbury, and sat for that borough 
as Viscount Folkestone until he succeeded to 
the title of Radnor in the year 1828. During 
this long period he uniformly advocated ad- 
vanced liberal principles. He took a leading 
part in the impeachment of Lord Melville, 
the proposed inquiry into Wellesley's al- 
leged abuse of power in India, and Wardle's 
charges against the Duke of York ; he was 
an active assailant of corporal punishment in 
the army, excessive use of ex-ojficio informa- 
tion against the press, attempts to exclude 
strangers from the House of Commons, en- 
deavours to coerce the people in times of 
distress, and any process which aimed at 
limiting public freedom. He opposed the 
treaty of Amiens, and the proposal to pay Mr. 
Pitt's debts. He warmly resisted the im- 
position of the corn laws in 1815, and in 
1819 the arbitrary coercive measures of Lord 
Castlereagh. Upon his removal to the upper 
house, Radnor continued his active support 
of all measures bearing on social ameliora- 
tion. He made two vigorous but unsuccessful 
endeavours to promote university reform, the 
first in 1835, by the introduction of a bill for 
abolishing subscription to the Thirty-nine 
Articles ; secondly, two years later, with a 
measure for revising the statutes of Oxford and 
Cambridge universities. One of his later par- 
liamentary efforts (1845) was to enter a lords' 
protest against an Allotment Bill, which 
he maintained would strike at the indepen- 
dence of the agricultural labourer and have a 
tendency to lower wages. Radnor offered 
the borough of Downton to Robert Southey 
in 1826, and subsequently to Mr. Shaw-Le- 
fevre, stipulating on each occasion that the 
member should vote for its disfranchisement. 
He never held office. 

Radnor gradually withdrew from the scene 
of his political career, and devoted himself 
to agricultural pursuits and to the duties 
of a country gentleman. He was long as- 
sociated, both in political views and on terms 
of private friendship, with William Cobbett. 
It has been said that he was the only man 
with whom Cobbett never quarrelled. He 
did not pretend to be an orator, but he was 
always attentively listened to. Some of his 
speeches may still be read in 'Hansard' with 

considerable interest, notably that of March 

1835 in support of his proposal to abolish 

subscription. He died 9 April 1869, at the 

j age of ninety, leaving behind him a name 

I distinguished by unwearied generosity and 

devotion to the welfare of his countrymen. 

Radnor married in 1800 Lady Catherine 
Pelham Clinton, who died in 1804; and 
secondly, in 1814, Judith, daughter of Sir 
Henry Mildmay. 

[Eandom Recollections of the House of Lords, 
pp. 290-4 ; Swindon Advertiser, April 12 and 19 ; 
Salisbury and "Winchester Journal, April 17 ; 
Wilts County Mirror, April 14 ; Times, April 12, 
1869; Cobbett's Register, passim; Journal of 
Thomas Raikes, Esq., ii. 169, iii. 159; Romilly's 
Memoirs, ii. 380, iii. 329; Southey's Life and 
Correspondence, v. 261 j William Cobbett, a 
Biography (1878), ii. 23, 49, 97, 112, 231, 264, 
277.] E. S. 


1826), archdeacon of Northumberland, was 
educated at Jesus College, Cambridge (LL.B. 
1769) ; collated to the prebend of Preston 
in the church of Sarum, 1785 ; obtained the 
rectory of Howick and the vicarage of North 
Allerton, with the chapelries of Brompton 
and Dighton, all in the diocese of Durham ; 
was collated to the archdeaconry of Northum- 
berland, 9 May 1812; and died, 20 Jan. 
1826. He published two occasional dis- 
courses, but is remembered for the parochial 
libraries which he established at his own 
expense in every parish in Northumberland. 
They contained upwards of 30,000 volumes, 
which cost him about 1,400/., although he 
was supplied with them by the Society for 
the Promotion of Christian Knowledge at 
40 per cent, under prime cost. These useful 
libraries were placed under the care of the 
parochial ministers, and the books were lent 
gratuitously to the parishioners. 

[Funeral Sermon by W. K Darnell, B.D., 
Durham, 1826; Richardson's Local Historian's 
Table Book (Hist. Div.), iii. 323; Graduati 
Cantab. (1856), 43; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
ii. 678, iii. 308.] T. C. 


(1669-1726), charitable lady, was born in 
London in 1669, her father being John Riches, 
a very wealthy merchant there (WiLFOKD, 
Memorials of Eminent Persons, p. 746, Epi- 
taph), originally of Amsterdam, and her 
mother being a daughter of Sir Bernard de 
Gomme, also of Holland, surveyor of ordnance 
to Charles II, and delineator of the maps of 
Naseby, &c. (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
ix. 221-2). Catharina was a great beauty. In 
< The New Atlantis ' of 1736 (iii. 208 et seq.), 
where she is called Portia, she is described as 



' one of those lofty, black, and lasting beauties 
that strike with reverence and yet delight/ 
and in 1684 she was married to William Bovey 
or Boevey, of Flaxley Hall, Gloucestershire. 
He was given to l excesses, both in debauch 
and ill-humour,' bringing much suffering to 
his wife ; she never complained, however, but 
supported it all ' like a martyr, cheerful under 
her very sufferings ' (ift.). In 1691, when 
Mrs. Bovey was only twenty-two, Mr. Bovey 
died, leaving her mistress of his estate of 
Flaxley (Magna Britannia, 1720, ii. 834) ; 
and as she was also the sole heiress to her 
wealthy father (BALLAKD, British Ladies, p. 
439), she was at once the centre of a crowd of 
wooers. Mrs. Bovey would listen to none. 
About 1686 she had formed a strong friend- 
ship with a Mrs. Mary Pope ; and seeing ample 
scope for a life of active benefactions, she asso- 
ciated Mrs. Pope with her in her good works. 
She distributed to the poor, relieved prisoners, 
and taught the children of her neighbours. 
Her gifts, which included the purchase of an es- 
tate to augment the income of Flaxley Church 
(FosBROKE, Gloucestershire, ii. 177 e't seq.), a 
legacy to Bermuda, and bequests to two schools 
at Westminster, are duly enumerated in her 
epitaph at Flaxley. Particulars of her habits, 
and of how she dispensed her charities, ap- 
pear in H. G. Nicholls's ' Forest of Dean,' pp. 
185 et seq. 

In 1702 Dr. Hickes, in the preface (p. xlvii) 
to ' Linguarum Septentrionalium Thesaurus/ 
calls Mrs. Bovey 'Angliee nostree Hypatia 
Christiana.' In 1714, Steele prefixed an 
' Epistle Dedicatory ' to her to the second 
volume of the ' Ladies' Library.' i Do not 
believe that I have many such as Portia to 
speak of,' said the writer of ' The New At- 
lantis ' (p. 212); and the repute of her happy 
ways and generous deeds had not died out in 
1807, when Fosbroke ( Gloucestershire,^. 179) 
wrote of her as ' a very learned, most exem- 
plary, and excellent woman.' She died at 
Flaxley Hall on Saturday, 18 Jan. 1726, and 
was buried ' in a most private manner,' accor- 
ding to her own directions (Gent. Mag. Ixii. 
pt. ii. 703). 

A monument was erected to Mrs. Bovey 
in Westminster Abbey, by her friend Mrs 
Pope, shortly after her death ; and it was 
there certainly as late as 1750. Ballard 
who calls it 'a beautiful honorary marble 
monument,' writes to a friend asking him to 
copy the inscription for him, telling him i1 
is on the north side ( NICHOLS, Lit. Illustr. iv. 
223). It is copied in Ballard's ' Ladies ' anc 
in Wilford's 'Memorials;' there is no men- 
tion of Mrs. Bovey or the monument, how- 
ever, either in Walcott's ' Memorials of West- 
minster,' 1851, or in Stanley's ' Westminster 

Abbey/ fifth edition, 1882. Mrs. Bovey was 
)y some thought to be the widow who was 
nexorable to Sir Roger de Coverley in ' The 
Spectator' (Gent. Mag. Ixii. pt. ii. 703). 

[Wilford's Memorials of Eminent Persons, 
pp. 745, 746 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 
221-2; Nicholls's Forest of Dean, pp. 185 et 
seq. ; The New Atlantis, ed. 1736, iii. 208 etseq. ; 
Fosbroke's Gloucestershire, 1807, ii. 177 et seq.; 
Ballard's British Ladies, 437 et seq. ; Steele's 
Ladies' Library, Preface, 1714 ; Gent. Mag. 1792, 
Ixii. pt. ii. 703.1 J. H. 

BOVILL, SIR WILLIAM (1814-1873), 
judge, was a younger son of Mr. Benjamin Bo- 
vill of Durnford Lodge, Wimbledon, and was 
born at Allhallows, Barking, on 26 May 1814. 
He was not a member of any university, but 
began his legal career by accepting articles 
with a firm of solicitors in the city of London. 
'At an early age/ says a fellow-pupil, < he was 
remarkable for the zeal with which he pursued 
his legal studies.' For a short time he prac- 
tised as a special pleader below the bar. He 
became a member of the Middle Temple, and 
was called to the bar in 1841. He joined the 
home circuit, and at a peculiarly favourable 
time. Platt had already gone, and Serjeants 
Shee and Channell, and Bramwell and Lush, 
the then leaders, were all raised to the bench 
within a few years. Bovill owed something 
to his early connection with solicitors. He 
was also connected with a firm of manufac- 
turers in the east end of London, and so be- 
came familiar with the details of engineering. 
Hence he in time acquired a considerable, 
though far from an exclusive, patent practice, 
and was largely engaged in commercial cases. 
Still it was somewhat remarkable that, almost 
alone among large city firms, Messrs. Hoi- 
lams, one of the largest, never were clients 
of his. He became a Q.C. in 1855, and, 
being very popular in his circuit towns, was 
elected M.P. for Guildford in 1857. In poli- 
tics he was a conservative, but did not take 
any leading part in the House of Commons 
for some years. He was, however, zealous in 
legal reforms, and two useful acts, the Pe- 
tition of Right Act, 23 & 24 Viet., and the 
Partnership Law Amendment Act, 28 & 
29 Viet., bear his name. In 1865, too, he 
urged the concentration of all the law courts 
into one building, and in 1866 pressed for more 
convenient and suitable provision for the li- 
brary of the Patent Office. On 6 July 1866, 
when Sir Fitzroy Kelly was made lord chief 
baron, Bovill was appointed solicitor-general 
in Lord Derby's last administration ; but he 
held office only for five months, and in No- 
vember of the same year succeeded Sir Wil- 
liam Erie as chief justice of the common pleas. 




A few months previously he had been elected 
treasurer of the Middle Temple, but on being 
raised to the bench he resigned that office. In 
1870 he was made honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, 
and he was also F.R.S. He became most 
familiar to the public during the first Tich- 
borne trial, which took place before him. At 
its conclusion he ordered the plaintiff to be 
indicted for perjury, admitting him to bail in 
5,000 for himself and two sureties of 2,500 
each. In January 1873 he was appointed a 
member of the judicature commission ; but 
going the midland circuit in March he did not 
long act upon it. For some weeks before his 
death he was in ill-health, but was thought to 
be recovering when, on 1 Nov., he died at noon 
at his residence, Coombe House, Kingston, 
Surrey, for which county he was many years 
a magistrate. He was of the best type of the 
non-university judge ; very few were more 
learned, though some might be more eloquent ; 
but in advocacy no one at the common law 
bar surpassed him. At nisi prius he displayed 
great force and energy, a great grasp of facts, 
and a very acute perception of the true point 
of a case. In argument before a court in bane 
he was logical, skilful, and authoritative. His 
memory and industry were alike great, and 
he was scrupulous in attending to all cases 
that he undertook, often returning briefs in 
preference to neglecting them. If not one 
of the great judges whose tradition is handed 
down for generations, he was unsurpassed in 
his practical mastery of commercial law. His 
successor, the attorney-general, Sir John Cole- 
ridge, said of him : ' Not a single day passes 
that I do not long for some portion of his great 
and vigorous capacity, and for his remarkable 
command of the whole field of our great pro- 
fession.' His defect as a judge was a too great 
confidence that he had apprehended the point 
and the merits of a case at nisi prius before 
hearing the evidence out, but with time he 
got rid of it. Always patient, courteous, and 
genial, and very kind to junior counsel, he 
was much lamented by the profession. He 
married in 1844 Maria, eldest daughter of 
Mr. John Henry Bolton, of Lee Park, Black- 
heath, by whom he had a large family. One 
of his sons he appointed in 1868 clerk of as- 
size of the western circuit. 

[Times, 1 Nov. 1873 ; Law Journal, viii. 657, 
ix. 365 ; Law Magazine, 2nd ser. xxii. 362, 3rd 
ser. ii. 79, 368, iii. 28 ; Annual Register, 1873 ; 
Hansard, 10 Feb. 1865, 9 April 1866; Quarterly 
Eeview, v. 139, 404, 409.] J. A. H. 


BOWACK, JOHN (Jl. 1737), topogra- 
pher, was for many years a writing-master 
at Westminster School. In 1705-6, when 

living in Church Lane, Chelsea, he began to 
publish, in folio numbers, ' The Antiquities 
of Middlesex, being a collection of the several 
church monuments in that county ; also an 
historical account of each church and parish, 
with the seats, villages, and names of the 
most eminent inhabitants.' Of this work two 
parts appeared, comprising the parishes of 
Chelsea, Kensington, Fulham, Hammersmith, 
Chiswick, and Acton. A third part was pro- 
mised, which would have extended through 
Baling, New Brentford, Isleworth, and Han- 
well ; but from want of encouragement Bo- 
wack proceeded no further. A beautiful 
specimen of his skill in ornamental hand- 
writing is to be seen in Harleian MS. 1809, 
a thin vellum book, containing two neat 
drawings in Indian ink, and various kinds of 
English text and print hands, which was 
sent to Lord Oxford in December 1712, with 
a letter, wherein the author expresses the 
hope that his little work may find a place in 
his lordship's library. Bowack was appointed 
in July 1732 clerk to the commissioners of 
the turnpike roads, and in 1737 assistant- 
secretary to the Westminster Bridge com- 
missioners, with a salary of 100. a year. 
The date of his death appears to be un- 

[Gough's Brit. Topography, i. 537-8 ; Faulk- 
ner's Chelsea, i. 161 ; Gent. Mag. ii. 877, vii. 
515.] GK G-. 

1861), lieutenant-general and colonel 49th 
foot, was descended from a respectable Co- 
ventry family, members of which were esta- 
blished in London and at Woolwich during 
the last century. From one of the latter, a 
landowner of considerable wealth, the govern- 
ment purchased most of the freehold sites 
since occupied by the artillery and other 
barracks, the military repository grounds, &c., 
at Woolwich. Sir Edward was the only son 
of Admiral Edward Bowater, of Hampton 
Court, by his wife Louisa, daughter of Thomas 
Lane and widow of G. E. Hawkins, sergeant- 
surgeon to King George III. He was born 
in St. James's Palace on 13 July 1787, edu- 
cated at Harrow, and entered the army in 
1804 as ensign in the 3rd foot guards, with 
which he served in the Peninsula from De- 
cember 1808 to November 1809, in the Penin- 
sula and south of France from December 1811 
to the end of the war, and in the Waterloo 
campaign. He was present at the passage of 
the Douro, the capture of Oporto, the battles 
of Talavera, Salamanca, and Vittoria, the 
sieges of Burgos and San Sebastian, the pas- 
sage of the Bidassoa, and the battles of 
Quatre Bras and Waterloo, and was wounded 



at Talavera and at Waterloo. In 1837 he 
left the Scots Fusilier guards, after thirty- 
three years' service therein, on promotion to 
the rank of major-general. In 1839 he mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of the late M. Barne, 
sometime M.P. for the since disfranchised 
borough of Dunwich. Soon after the arrival 
of the prince consort, Bowater was ap- 
pointed his equerry, and in 1846 he became 
groom in waiting in ordinary to the queen. 
In 1861, it being desired that the late Duke 
of Albany, then a child eight years old, should 
winter in a warmer climate, it was arranged 
that he should proceed with Sir Edward and 
Lady Bowater and their daughter to the south 
of France. While there Bowater, whose 
health had been failing, died at Cannes, in 
his seventy-fourth year, on 14 Dec. 1861, the 
day of the prince consort's death. 

[Miscel. Gen. et Heral., new series, ii. 177-9 
(pedigree) ; Hart's Army Lists ; Ann. Eeg. 1 862 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1862, i. 109; Martin's Life of Prince 
Consort, v. 405, 417.] H. M. C. 

BOWDEN, JOHN (d. 1750), presbyterian 
minister, is identified, in Walter Wilson's 
manuscript list of dissenting academies, with 
the Bowden who studied under Henry Grove 
at Taunton ; but this is apparently an error. 
Bowden was settled at Frome, Somersetshire, 
before 1700, as assistant to Humphrey Phil- 
lips, M.A. (silenced at Sherborne, Dorsetshire, 
1662, died 27 March 1707). He became sole 
minister on Phillips's death, and the present 
meeting-house in Rook Lane was built for 
him in 1707. According to Dr. Evans's list 
he had a thousand hearers in 1717. Among 
them was Elizabeth Howe, the dissenting 
poetess and friend of Bishop Ken, whose 
funeral sermon Bowden preached in 1737. 
During the last nine years of his long mi- 
nistry Bowden was assisted successively by 
Alexander Houston (1741), Samuel Blyth 
(1742, removed to Birmingham 1746; see 
BOUKN, SAMUEL, 1689-1754), Samuel Perrott, 
and Josiah Corrie (1750), who became his suc- 
cessor. There is a tablet to Bowden's memory 
outside the front of his meeting-house, which 
says that he died in 1750, and that he was ' a 
learned man, an eloquent preacher, and a 
considerable poet.' Four lines which follow, 

Though storms about the good man rise, 
Yet injured virtue mounts the skies, 

are thought by Walter Wilson to indicate 
that he was not comfortable in his later 
years. Perhaps, since Bowden is classed with 
the liberal dissenters of the day, the allusion 
may be explained by T. S. James's reference 
to a trinitarian secession from his ministry. 

A writer in * Notes and Queries ' (3rd ser. 
iv. 431) speaks of having in his possession 
a letter from Anne Yerbury, of Bradford, to 
Bowden's widow, dated January 1749, and 
forwarding ' An Essay towards ye character 
of my greatly esteemed Friend, the Rev. Mr. 
Bowden,' which contains some rather fulsome 
verses in reference to his poetical powers. 
This is reconcilable with the date on the 
memorial tablet, if we assume the letter- 
writer to have retained the old style. Samuel 
Bowden, M.D., known as l the poet of Frome,' 
was probably his brother. John Bowden 
does not seem to have published any separate 
volume of poetry. He is the author of a 
1 Hymn to the Redeemer of the World ' (34 
stanzas), and a ' Dialogue between a Good 
Spirit and the Angels' (11 pages), contained 
in ' Divine Hymns and Poems on several 
Occasions, &c., by Philomela and several other 
ingenious persons,' 1704, 8vo. (The volume 
is dedicated to Sir Richard Blackmore, and 
the preface, which is unsigned, is probably 
by Bowden. ' Philomela ' is Elizabeth Rowe ; 
she had already published under this nom de 
plume in 1696.) He is the author also of a 
few sermons: 1. 'Sermon (1 Tim. iv. 16) at 
Taunton before an Assembly of Ministers/ 
1714, 8vo. 2. ' Sermon (Eccl. x. 16, 17) at 
Frome, on 20 Jan. 1714-5,' 1715, 8vo (thanks- 
giving sermon for accession of George I). 
3. ' Exhortation,' 1717, 8vo, 3rd ed. 1719, 
8vo (i.e. charge at the ordination of Thomas 
Morgan at Frome, 6 Sept. 1716, published 
with the ordination sermon, 'The Conduct 
of Ministers, &c.,' by Nicholas Billingsley, 
minister at Ashwick from 1710 to 1740. 
Morgan, who was independent minister at 
Bruton, Somersetshire, and afterwards at 
Marlborough (1715-26), became M.D., and 
was the author of l The Moral Philosopher/ 
1738. The fact that Morgan, an independent 
at Marlborough, went to Frome for presby- 
terian ordination, is curious, and has been 
treated as an early indication of the theo- 
logical divergences of the two bodies, but 
Morgan's ' Confession of Faith ' on the occa- 
sion shows no doctrinal laxity ; it is strongly 
trinitarian and Calvinistic). 4. 'The Vanity 
of all Human Dependance, Sermon (Ps. 
cxlvi. 3, 4) at Frome, 18 June, on the death 
of George I,' &c., 1727, 8vo (dedicated to 
Benjamin Avery, LL.D., to whom Bowden 
was under l particular obligations '). Bowden 
was perhaps the grandfather of Joseph Bow- 
den, ' born at or near Bristol/ entered Daventry 
academy under Ashworth in 1769, minister 
at Call Lane, Leeds, for over forty years, from 
about 1778, and author of (1) l Sermons de- 
livered to the Protestant Dissenters at Leeds/ 
1804, 8vo ; (2) ' Prayers and Discourses for 



the use of Families, in two parts/ 1816, 

[Wilson's MSS. in Dr. Williams's Library; 
Christian's Magazine, 1763, p. 531 sq. ; James's 
Presb. Chapels and Charities, 1867, pp. 676, 
693, 695; Mon. Rep. 1822, p. 196; Wicksteed's 
Memory of the Just, 2nd ed. 1849, p. 115; Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 431, 504 ; information 
from Eev. J. E. Kelly, Frome.] A. G. 

1844), ecclesiastical writer, was born in 
London on 21 Feb. 1798. He was the eldest 
son of John Bowden, of Fulham and Gros- 
venor Place. In 1812 he went to Harrow, 
and in 1817 was entered as a commoner at 
Trinity College, Oxford, simultaneously with 
the dearest of his friends, John Henry New- 
man. In 1820 Bowden obtained mathe- 
matical honours, and on 24 Nov. took his 
degree of B.A. In collaboration with New- 
man, in the following year, he wrote a fiery 
poem in two cantos on ' St. Bartholomew's 
Eve.' On 4 June 1823 Bowden took his degree 
of M. A. Three years later, in the autumn of 
1826, he was appointed a commissioner of 
stamps. That office he held for fourteen 
years, resigning it only on account of ill- 
health in 1840. Nearly two years after its 
acceptance he was married, on 6 June 1828, 
to Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Sir John 
Edward Swinburne. From 1833 he zealously 
took part in the tractarian movement. To 
Hugh Rose's l British Magazine ' he contri- 
buted six of the 178 hymns afterwards, in 

1836, collected into a volume as the ' Lyra 
Apostolica.' His contributions are signed a. 
Cardinal Newman said Bowden ' was one of 
the earliest assistants and supports of a 
friend ' (meaning himself) ' who at that time 
commenced the "Tracts for the Times."' 
For the ' British Critic ' Bowden supplied 
four important contributions. These were : 
July 1836, ' Rise of the Papal Power; ' April 

1837, ' On Gothic Architecture ; ' January 
1839, ' On British Association ; ' July 1841, 
* On the Church in the Mediterranean.' The 
last two were published under Newman's 
editorship. In the spring of 1839 Bowden 
was first attacked by the malady which five 
years afterwards proved fatal. In the au- 
tumn of 1839 he went abroad with his 
family. The winter of that year he passed in 
Malta. In the spring of 1840 he published 
his ' Life of Gregory the Seventh.' This work 
had been first suggested to him, at the in- 
stance of Hurrell Froude, by Newman. For 
some years it had been gradually growing 
under his hands. Cardinal Newman com- 
mends the * power and liveliness of Bowden's 
narrative.' He proposed to write, but never I 

produced, a ' Life of St. Boniface,' which in 
1843 was announced as in preparation. 
Bowden's only publication in 1843 was ' A 
few Remarks on Pews.' How completely 
at one Newman and Bowden were through- 
out the whole of the Oxford movement is 
clearly shown in almost every page of New- 
man's ' Apologia.' During the summer of 
1843 Bowden's complaint returned with in- 
creased severity, and he died at his father's 
house in Grosvenor Place, on 15 Sept. 1844. 
Cardinal Newman attests emphatically that 
he passed away ' in undoubting communion 
with the church of Andrewes and Laud,' 
adding, with reference to his interment at 
Fulham, * he still lives here, the light and 
comfort of many hearts, who ask no happier, 
holier end than his.' A posthumous. work 
from Bowden's hand was published in 1845, 
1 Thoughts on the Work of the Six Days of 
Creation.' The key to his argument was 
the motto on the title-page, ' Novum Testa- 
mentum in Veteri velabatur, Vetus Testa- 
mentum in Novo revelatur.' 

[Preface by J. H. N. (Cardinal Newman) to 
Bowden's Thoughts on the Work of the Six 
Days of Creation, 1845, pp. v-viii ; Newman's 
Apologia, passim ; Mozley's Eeminiscences, 1882, 
ii. 4.] C. K. 

BOWDEN, SAMUEL (fl. 1733-1761), 
a physician at Frome, Somersetshire, was 
author of two volumes of poems published 
1733-5. Neither the date of his birth nor 
that of his death has been ascertained, though 
it appears from the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
to which he was an occasional contributor, 
that he was living in 1761, while a passing 
mention of him in 1778 is in the past tense. 
The writer adds that he was a friend of 
Mrs. Rowe [see ROWE, ELIZABETH, poetess], 
and belonged to the same communion. Bow- 
den was therefore a nonconformist, and not 
improbably a relative of the Rev. John Bow- 
den [see BOWDEN, JOHN] who preached Mrs. 
Rowe's funeral sermon. 

[Gent. Mag. xxxi. 424, xlviii. 485; Life of 
Mrs. Howe prefixed to her works, 1739.] 

J. M. S. 


(1791-1824), African traveller, was born at 
Bristol 20 June 1791. His father, Thomas 
Bowdich, was a hat manufacturer and mer- 
chant there, and his mother was one of the 
Vaughans of Payne's Castle, Wales. He 
was educated at the Bristol grammar school, 
and when nine years old removed to a well- 
known school at Corsham, Wiltshire, where, 
being fond of classics, he soon became head 
boy, but what he knew of mathematics he 



was ' flogged through.' In his youth he was 
noted for his clever jeux-d'esprit in maga- 
zines, and his skill as a rider. Originally 
intended for the bar, it was much against his 
wishes that his father put him to his own 
trade, and for one year, 1813, he was partner in 
the firm of Bowdich, Son, & Luce. The same 
year he married a lady (Sarah , daughter of Mr. 
JohnEglingtonWallis, of Colchester) nearly 
of his own age, and entered himself at Oxford, 
but never matriculated. His uncle, Mr. Hope 
Smith, governor-in-chief of the settlements 
belonging to the African Company, obtained 
for him a writership in the service, and he 
proceeded to Cape Coast Castle in 1814 ; his 
wife, whose name is thenceforward so closely 
linked with his, following him, but on her 
arrival she found he had returned to England 
for a time. In 1815 the African Company 
planned a mission to Ashantee, and appointed 
Bowdich the conductor. On reaching Cape 
Coast Castle the second time, the council, con- 
sidering him too young, appointed Mr. James 
(governor of Fort Accra) principal. Events 
at Coomassie, however, soon compelled Bow- 
dich to supersede his chief (a bold step after- 
wards sanctioned by the authorities), and by 
diplomatic skill and intrepidity, when the 
fate of himself and comrades hung on a 
thread, he succeeded in a most difficult nego- 
tiation, and formed a treaty with the king 
of Ashantee, which promised peace to the 
British settlements on the Gold Coast. He 
was therefore the first whose labours accom- 
plished the object of penetrating to the in- 
terior of Africa. In 1818 he returned home 
with impaired health, and in 1819 published 
the interesting and valuable details of his 
expedition, * A Mission from Cape Coast 
Castle to Ashantee,' &c., London, 4to. This 
work, the most important after Bruce's, ex- 
cited great interest, as an almost incredible 
story (recalling * The Arabian Nights ') of a 
land and people of warlike and barbaric 
splendour hitherto unknown. Bowdich pre- 
sented to the British Museum his African col- 
lection of works of art and manufacture, and 
specimens of reptiles and insects. The inde- 
pendent spirit of the young traveller soon 
came into collision with the African Com- 
pany. His writings and letters continually 
speak of unmerited disappointment ; the net 
reward for his great mission amounted to 
only 200/., and it cost him a moiety of this 
to return home ; while another gentleman, 
Mr. Dupuis, was appointed consul at Coo- 
massie with 600Z. a year. In the same year 
he published ( The African Committee, by 
T. E. Bowdich, conductor of the Mission to 
Ashantee,' in which he attacked the African 
Company, and made such an exposure of 

the management of their possessions that 
the government was compelled to take them 
into its own hands. Feeling deficient in 
several of the requisites of a scientific tra- 
veller, he proceeded to Paris to perfect him- 
self in mathematics, physical science, and 
natural history, and such was his progress 
that he soon after gained the Cambridge prize 
of 1,000/. for a discovery which was depen- 
dent on mathematics. Humboldt, Cuvier, 
Denon, Biot, and other savants, gave the 
famous traveller a generous reception in 
Paris, and a public eloge was pronounced 
upon him at the Institute. Not only was 
* the brilliant society of the Hotel Cuvier ' 
open to him and his accomplished wife, but 
for three years the extensive library and 
splendid collections of that great scholar were 
to them as their own. The French govern- 
ment made him an advantageous offer of an 
appointment, which an honourable feeling 
towards his own country compelled him to 
decline. Early in 1820 he wrote ' A Reply to 
the Quarterly Review,' Paris, 8vo, in which 
he successfully answered the article on his 
Ashantee mission. His next work, published 
anonymously, was a translation of a French 
book, * Taxidermy, &c.,' with plates, London, 
1820, 12mo, followed by a translation of ' Tra- 
vels in the Interior of Africa to the Sources 
of the Senegal and Gambia, by G. Mollien,' 
with full page illustrations, London, 1820, 4to, 
and an appendix (separately issued) ' British 
and Foreign Expeditions to Teembo, with 
remarks on Civilization,' &c., London, 1820. 
In 1821 appeared an ( Essay on the Geo- 
graphy of North- Western Africa,' accom- 
panied by a large lithographed map, compiled 
from his own discoveries, and an ' Essay on 
the Superstitions, Customs, and Arts common 
to the Ancient Egyptians, Abyssinians, and 
Ashantees,' with plates, Paris, 4to. His 
next publications were three works, in 8vo, 
illustrated by numerous lithographed figures 
done by his wife, 'Mammalia,' &c., Paris, 
1821 ; ' Ornithology,' &c., Paris, 1821 ; ' Con- 
chology, &c., including the Fossil Genera,' 
Paris, 1822. About this time he issued in 
lithograph ' The Contradictions in Park's Last 
Journal explained.' He was also the author 
of ' A Mathematical Investigation with Ori- 
ginal Formulae for ascertaining the Longitude 
of the Sea by Eclipses of the Moon.' The 
funds realised by their joint labours enabled 
Bowdich and his wife to start upon a second 
African expedition, and in August 1822 they 
sailed from Havre to Lisbon. Here, from 
various manuscripts, he collected a complete 
history of all the Portuguese discoveries in 
South Africa, afterwards published as ' An 
Account of the Discoveries of the Portuguese 




in Angola and Mozambique/ London, 1824, 
8vo. Proceeding to Madeira, where they 
were detained for some months, he wrote a 

Geological description of the island of Porto 
anto, the trigonometrical measurement of j 
the peaks, a flora, &c., which was pub- j 
lished in 1825, after his death. They next j 
reached the Cape de Verde Islands and the | 
mouth of the Gambia, and, while waiting at I 
Bathurst for a means of transit to Sierra 
Leone, he began a trigonometrical survey of 
the river. Unfortunately, while taking astro- 
nomical observations at night, he caught cold, 
which was followed by fever, to which, after 
several partial recoveries, he succumbed at 
the early age of thirty-three, on 10 Jan. 1824. 
The last chapter of his life's story was pub- 
lished by Mrs. Bowdich, in a work entitled ' A 
Description of the Island of Madeira, by the 
late Thomas Edward Bowdich ... A Narra- 
tive of his last Voyage to Africa . . . Re- 
marks on the Cape de Verde Islands, and a 
Description of the English Settlements in the 
River Gambia,' with plates coloured and plain, 
London, 1825, 4to. Under dates from 1819 
to 1825 there are also five scientific papers 
by Bowdich in l Tilloch's Philosophical Ma- 
gazine/ { Edinburgh Philosophical Journal/ 
and the { Zoological Journal.' 

In figure Bowdich was slightly but well 
formed, and he possessed great activity ot 
body and mind. He was an excellent lin- 
guist, a most pleasing and graphic writer, 
and his conversational powers made him a 
very agreeable companion. His enthusiastic 
devotion to science cost him his life. He 
left a widow and three children, one of them 
named after the two companions of his 
Ashantee mission. Mrs. Tedlie Hutchison 
Hale (wife of Dr. Douglas Hale) repub- 
lished her father's early work, with an intro- 
ductory preface, 'The Mission from Cape 
Coast Castle to Ashantee, &c./ London, 1873, 
8vo, inscribing the volume to her father's 
old friend, Mr. David R. Morier. 

Mrs. Bowdich afterwards married Mr. R. 
Lee, and under the name of * Mrs. R. Lee ' 
became a popular writer and illustrator of 
scientific works for the young up to her 
death in 1865. 

[Bowdich's Works; Mrs. Bowdich's Works; 
Mrs. Hale's Mission, 1873 ; Dupuis's Ashantee, 
1824; Bristol Directory, 1812-15 ; Lit. Gazette, 
1824 ; Gent. Mag. 1824, pt. i. 279-80 ; Koyal 
Society's Cat. of Scientific Papers; Quarterly 
Eev. xxii.l J. W.-G. 


(1754-1830), commonly called Mrs. Harriet 
Bowdler, author, daughter of Thomas and 
Elizabeth Stuart Bowdler, and sister of John 

Bowdler the elder [q.v.] and Thomas Bowdler 
the elder [q. v.], was the author of a series of 
religious * Poems and Essays/ 2 vols. (Bath, 
1786), which passed through a large number 
of editions. Her ' Sermons on the Doctrines 
and Duties of Christianity ' (n. d.) appeared 
anonymously, and passed through nearly 
fifty editions. Beilby Porteus, bishop of Lon- 
don', believed them to be from the pen of a 
clergyman, and is said to have offered their 
author, through the publishers, a living in 
his diocese. In 1810 Miss Bowdler edited 
( Fragments in Prose and Verse by the late 
Miss Elizabeth Smith/ which was very popu- 
lar in religious circles. A novel by Miss 
Bowdler entitled ' Pen Tamar, or the His- 
tory of an Old Maid/ was issued shortly 
after her death. Miss Bowdler died at Bath 
on 25 Feb. 1830. 

[Gent. Mag. 1830, pt. i. 567, pt. ii. 649; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] S. L. L. 

BOWDLER, JANE (1743-1784), author, 
born 14 Feb. 1743 at Ashley, near Bath, was 
the eldest daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth 
Stuart Bowdler, and thus sister of John the 
elder [q.v.], and of Thomas the elder, the editor 
of Shakespeare [q. v.] Throughout her life she 
suffered from ill-health. In 1759 she had a 
severe attack of small-pox, and from 1771 
till her death was a confirmed invalid. She 
died in the spring of 1784. In her later 
years she wrote many poems and essays, and 
a selection was published at Bath for the 
benefit of the local hospital in 1786 under 
the title of ' Poems and Essays by a Lady, 
lately deceased.' This volume became extra- 
ordinarily popular. The verse is very poor, and 
the prose treats, without any striking origi- 
nality, such subjects as sensibility, politeness, 
candour, and the pleasures of religion. Never- 
theless, sixteen editions (with the author's 
name on the title-page) were published at 
Bath in rapid succession between 1787 and 
1830. Other editions appeared at Dublin, in 
London, and in New York, where the first 
American edition (from the tenth Bath edi- 
tion) appeared in 1811. A few of Miss Bowd- 
ler's pieces, not previously printed, appear in 
Thomas Bowdler's ' Memoir of John Bowdler/ 

[T. Bowdler's Memoir of John Bowdler the 
elder, 1824, 93-104.] S. L. L. 

BOWDLER, JOHN, the elder (1746- 
1823), author, born at Bath on 18 March 
1746, was descended from a Shropshire family 
originally settled at Hope Bowdler. His 
great-grandfather, John Bowdler (1627- 
1661), held high office in the Irish civil 
service during the Commonwealth, and was 




intimate with Archbishop Ussher. This 
John Bowdler's son, Thomas, was a fellow- 
officer at the admiralty with Samuel Pepys, 
became a conscientious Jacobite, was the 
intimate friend of Dr. Hickes, and died in 
Queen Square in July 1738, at the age ol 
77. His elder son, Thomas, married in 
1742 Elizabeth Stuart, second daughter and 
coheiress of Sir John Cotton, a direct de- 
scendant from the famous Sir Robert Cotton, 
and died in May 1785. John Bowdler the 
elder was the eldest son of this marriage. 
His mother, the authoress of ' Practical Ob- 
servations on the Revelations of St. John ' 
(Bath, 1800), written in the year 1775, was 
noted for her piety and general culture, and 
gave all her children a strict religious train- 
ing. After attending several private schools, 
Bowdler was placed, in November 1765, in 
the office of Mr. Barsham, a special pleader, 
and practised as a chamber conveyancer be- 
tween 1770 and 1780. In January 1778 he 
married Harrietta, eldest daughter of John 
Hanbury, vice-consul of the English factory 
at Hamburg. In November 1779 he attended 
Robert Gordon, the last of the nonjuring 
bishops, through a fatal illness. His father's 
death in 1785 put Bowdler in possession of a 
small fortune ; he then finally retired from 
his profession. In 1795 he wrote a long letter 
to Lord Auckland about the high prices of 
the time, in which he fiercely attacked the 
clergy and the legislators for neglecting mo- 
rality and religion. In 1796 he addressed 
letters on similar subjects to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and Bishops Porteus and 
Horsley. He published in 1797 a strongly 
worded pamphlet entitled ' Reform or Ruin,' 
in which he sought again to expose the im- 
morality and irreligion of the nation. The 
pamphlet had a very wide sale, and reached an 
eighth edition within a year of its first publi- 
cation. He disapproved of Sir Richard Hill's 
'Apology for Brotherly Love,' a partial justi- 
fication of the prevailing dissent, and issued 
pamphlets in support of the opposite views ex- 
pounded in Daubeney's ' Guide to the Church.' 
In 1815 he formed a committee to memo- 
rialise the government to erect additional 
churches in the populous parts of England 
out of the public funds. In 1816 he petitioned 
Lord Sidmouth to abolish lotteries. He died 
at Eltham on 29 June 1823. Bowdler was 
one of the founders of the Church Building 
Society. He had ten children, six of whom 
survived infancy. His sons John and Thomas 
are separately noticed. His daughter Eliza- 
beth died on 4 Dec. 1810. 

[Memoir of Life of John Bowdler, Esq., written 
for private circulation by his son Thomas in 1824 
and published for sale in 1825.] S. L. L. 

BOWDLER, JOHN, the younger (1783- 
1815), author, younger son of John Bowdler 
the elder [q. v.], was born in London on 2 Feb. 
1783. He was educated at Winchester, and 
in 1798 was placed in a London solicitor's 
office. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn in 1807, made some progress in his pro- 
fession, and attracted the notice of Lord- 
chancellor Eldon. But in 1810 signs of 
consumption appeared, and he spent the two 
following years in the south of Europe. In 
May 1812 he returned to England and lived 
with an aunt near Portsmouth. But his 
health was not restored, and he died 1 Feb. 
1815. According to the testimonies of his 
father and brother Charles, John was in every 
way an exemplary character. He engaged 
in literary pursuits during his illness, and his 
father published in 1816 his ' Select Pieces in 
Prose and Verse ' (2 vols.) The book con- 
tained a full memoir and the journal kept 
by Bowdler during his foreign tour of 1810- 
1812. Wide reading in current English 
philosophy is exhibited in a long sympathetic 
exposition of Dugald Stewart's philosophi- 
cal theories, but the other essays and the 
poems are religious rhapsodies of no literary 
merit. The book was reprinted in 1817, 
1818, 1819, and 1820. Selections from the 
religious portions of it appeared in 1821 and 
1823, and in 1857 the author's brother Charles 
reissued a part of it under the title of ' The 
Religion of the Heart, as exemplified in the 
Life and Writings of John Bowdler.' This 
edition includes a new biographical preface 
and much hitherto unpublished correspon- 

[The editions of Bowdler's works of 1816 and 
1857.] S. L. L. 

BOWDLER, THOMAS (1754-1825), 
editor of the ' Family Shakespeare,' the 
younger son of Thomas and Elizabeth Stuart 
Bowdler, was born at Ashley, near Bath, on 
11 July 1754. His father, a gentleman of 
independent means, belonged to an ancient 
family originally settled at Hope Bowdler, 
Shropshire. His mother, the second daugh- 
ter of Sir John Cotton of Conington, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, fifth baronet in direct descent 
from the well-known Sir Robert Cotton, 
was a highly accomplished woman and author 
of ' Practical Observations on the Book of 
Revelation,' Bath, 1800 (Life ofJ. Bowdler, 
pp. 109-23). Thomas suffered much through 
life from a serious accident sustained when 
he was nine years old. About 1765 he went 
to Mr. Graves's school at Claverton, near 
Bath, where his intimate friend in after life, 
William Anne Villettes, a military officer 
of repute, was a fellow-pupil. In 1770 he 




proceeded to St. Andrews University to study 
medicine. He subsequently removed to Edin- 
burgh, where he graduated M.D. in 1776 and 
published a thesis, ' Tentamen . . . de Febrium 
Intermittentium Natura et Indole.' He spent 
the next four years in travel, and visited 
Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Sicily. In 
1781 he caught a fever from a young friend 
whom he attended, on a journey to Lisbon, 
through a fatal illness. He returned to Eng- 
land in broken health, and with a strong 
aversion to his profession. In the same year 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
and a licentiate of the College of Physicians 
(9 April). Soon afterwards he permanently 
settled in London, and obtained an intro- 
duction to Mrs. Montagu's coterie, where 
he became intimate with Bishops Hinch- 
cliffe and Porteus, Mrs. Carter, Mrs. Cha- 
pone, and Mrs. Hannah More. He was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
in 1784. He devoted himself to charitable 
work, and acted for many years as chair- 
man of St. George's vestry, Hanover Square, 
as a committee-man of the Magdalen Hos- 
pital, and as a commissioner (with Sir Gil- 
bert Elliott and Sir Charles Bunbury) to in- 
quire into the state of the penitentiaries 
(1781). After the death of John Howard, 
the prison reformer, in 1790, he inspected the 
prisons throughout the country, with a view 
to continuing Howard's work. In 1787 
Bowdler visited the Low Countries when the 
struggle between the patriotic party and the 
stadtholder (the Prince of Orange), supported 
by a Prussian army, was at its height, and he 
wrote a detailed account of the revolution in 
1 Letters written in Holland in the months 
of September and October, 1787 ' (London, 
1788) ; an appendix collects a large number 
of proclamations and other official documents. 
During 1788 Bowdler travelled in France. 
From 1800 to 1810 he resided at St. Boniface, 
Isle of Wight, and after 1810 until his death 
at Rhyddings, near Swansea. In 1814 he 
visited Geneva to settle the affairs of his old 
friend, Lieutenant-general Villettes, who had 
died in Jamaica in 1807, and in the following 
year he published a ' Life of Villettes ' (Bath, 
1815), with an appendix of ' Letters during 
a Journey from Calais to Geneva and St. 
Bernard in 1814,' and a short biography (in- 
cluding seven letters) of ' The late Madame 
Elizabeth.' With later copies of the book 
was bound up a postscript, entitled ' Obser- 
vations on Emigration to France, with an 
account of Health, Economy, and the Edu- 
cation of Children,' also published separately 
in 1815. Bowdler here warned Englishmen 
against France, and English invalids espe- 
cially against French watering-places, and 

recommended Malta, which he had visited 
with a nephew in 1810, as a sanitary resort. 

In 1818 Bowdler published his edition of 
1 Shakespeare,' the work by which he is best 
known. Its title ran : < The Family Shake- 
speare in ten volumes ; in which nothing is 
added to the original text ; but those words 
and expressions are omitted which cannot 
with propriety be read aloud in a family.' 
In the preface he writes of Shakespeare's 
language : ' Many words and expressions 
occur which are of so indecent a nature as 
to render it highly desirable that they should 
be erased.' He also complains of the un- 
necessary and frivolous allusions to Scrip- 
ture, which * call imperiously for their erase- 
ment.' Bowdler's prudery makes sad havoc 
with Shakespeare's text, and, although his 
' Shakespeare ' had a very large sale, it was 
deservedly attacked in the ' British Critic ' 
for April 1822. To this review Bowdler 
published a long reply, in which he stated 
his principle to be : ' If any word or expres- 
sion is of such a nature that the first impres- 
sion it excites is an impression of obscenity, 
that word ought not to be spoken nor written 
or printed ; and, if printed, it ought to be 
erased.' He illustrates his method from his 
revisions of 'Henry IV,' ' Hamlet/ and ' Mac- 
beth.' Bowdler's ' Shakespeare ' has been very 
frequently reissued. Four editions were pub- 
lished before 1824, and others have appeared 
in 1831, 1853, and 1861. 

During the last years of his life Bowdler 
was engaged in purifying Gibbon's ' History.' 
The work was completed just before his death 
in 1825, and published in six volumes by his 
nephew Thomas [q. v.] in 1826. The full title 
runs: 'Gibbon's History of the Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, for the use of 
Families and Young Persons, reprinted from 
the original text with the careful omissions of 
all passages of an irreligious or immoral ten- 
dency.' In the preface Bowdler is self-con- 
fident enough to assert a belief that Gibbon 
himself would have approved his plan, and 
that his version would be adopted by all 
future publishers of the book. Bowdler's 
nephew adds in a note that ' it was the pe- 
culiar happiness of the writer' to have so 
purified Shakespeare and Gibbon that they 
could no longer ' raise a blush on the cheek 
of modest innocence nor plant a pang in the 
heart of the devout Christian.' 

Bowdler died at Rhyddings on 24 Feb. 1825, 
and was buried at Oystermouth, near Swan- 
sea. Besides the works already mentioned, 
he published l A short Introduction to a se- 
lection of Chapters from the Old Testament, 
intended for the use of the Church of Eng- 
land Sunday School Society in Swansea/ 


4 6 


Swansea, 1822 ; it was reprinted in 1823 as 
' Select Chapters from the Old Testament 
. . . with Short Introductions.' Bowdler was 
an active promoter of the Proclamation So- 
ciety, formed in 1787 to enforce a royal pro- 
clamation against impiety and vice a society 
which was afterwards replaced by the Society 
for the Suppression of Vice. 

The verb to l bowdlerise ' is of course a 
derivative from Bowdler's name. It was ap- j 
parently first used in print by General Per- 
ronet Thompson in 1836 in his ' Letters of a ! 
Representative to his Constituents during 
the session of 1836 ' (London), reprinted in ' 
Thompson's 'Exercises,' 1842, iv. 124. Thomp- 
son writes that there are certain classical | 
names in the writings of the apostles which j 
modern ultra-christians ' would probably have ' 
owdler-ized ' (information kindly supplied 
by Dr. J. A. H. Murray of Oxford). 

[Some account of Thomas Bowdler, F.R.S. and | 
F.S.A., is appended to the Life of John Bowdler I 
by his son Thomas Bowdler, 1825, pp. 298-331. | 
This notice was reprinted in the Annual Bio- ! 
graphy and Obituary (1826), x. 191-218. See j 
also Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, ix. 37 ; preface to j 
Bowdler's Shakespeare (4th ed.) ; Munk's College 
of Physicians, ii. 324 ; Nichols's Illustrations, j 
v. 641.] S. L. L. 

BOWDLER, THOMAS, the younger 
(1782-1856), divine, the eldest son of John 
Bowdler the elder [q. y.],born 13 March 1782, 
was educated at a private school, and at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where he pro- I 
ceeded B. A. in 1803, and M.A. in 1806. He i 
was appointed curate of Leyton, Essex, in j 
1803, and after holding the livings of Ash and 
Ridley, and of Addington, Kent, became in- 
cumbent of the church at Sydenham in 1834. 
He took an active part in opposing the trac- 
tarian movement of 1840. In 1846 he became 
secretary of the Church Building Society, 
which his father had been instrumental in 
founding. On 7 Dec. 1849 he received a pre- 
bend in St. Paul's Cathedral. He died on 
12 Nov. 1856. He married about 1804 Phoebe, 
the daughter of Joseph Cotton, who died in 
December 1854. Of nine children, four died 
in infancy, and three in succession between 
1833 and 1839. Bow.dler was the author of 
a large number of published sermons. Col- 
lected editions were issued in 1820, 1834, and 
1846 respectively. He wrote a memoir of 
his father in 1824, and edited with Launcelot 
Sharpe the Greek version of Bishop An- 
drewes's ' Devotions.' He was the editor of 
the edition of Gibbon prepared by his uncle, 
Thomas Bowdler the elder [q. v.] 

[Gent. Mag. 1857, pt. i. 241-2 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] S. L. L. 

BOWEN, JAMES (d. 1774), painter and 
topographer, was a native of Shrewsbury, 
where he died in 1774 (LEIGHTON, Guide 
through Shrewsbury, p. 182). He made a 
copious collection for a history of Shropshire, 
having taken church notes, sketches of monu- 
ments, transcripts of records, &c., when he 
was accompanying Mr. Mytton through the 
county (GOTTGH'S Topography, ii. 176). One 
of Bowen's works is a view of the church of 
Mary in the Battlefield, Shrewsbury (ib. 
p. 184), and he produced also some useful 
maps (ib. p. 185). Gough bought all the 
genealogical and topographical materials 
which Bowen had amassed, and they form 
part of the manuscripts and similar relics 
which Gough bequeathed to the Bodleian 

[Leigbton's Guide through Shrewsbury, p. 182 ; 
Gent. Mag. vol. cii. pt. ii. p. 185 ; Gough's Topo- 
graphy, ii. 176.] J. H. 

BOWEN, JAMES (1751-1835), rear- 
admiral, was born at Ilfracombe. He first 
went to sea in the merchant service, and in 
1776 commanded a ship in the African and 
West India trade ; but shortly after entered 
the navy as a master, and served in that ca- 
pacity on board the Artois with Captain Mac- 
bride during 1781-2, being present in the 
battle on the Doggerbank on 5 Aug. 1781, 
and on many other occasions. He continued 
with Captain Macbride in different ships till 
1789, when he was appointed inspecting 
of transports in the Thames. When the revo- 
lutionary war broke out, Bowen quitted this 
employment at the request of Lord Howe to 
go with him as master of his flagship, the 
Queen Charlotte, and h,e had thus the glo- 
rious duty of piloting her into the battle of 
1 June. It is told by ancient tradition that 
on the admiral giving the order { Starboard ! ' 
Bowen ventured to say, ' My lord, you'll be 
foul of the French ship if you don't take care.' 
* What is that to you, sir ? ' replied Howe 
sharply ; ' starboard ! ' ' Starboard ! ' cried 
Bowen, muttering by no means inaudibly, 
' Damned if I care, if you don't. I'll take you 
near enough to singe your black whiskers.' 
He did almost literally fulfil this promise, 
passing so close under the stern of the Mon- 
tagne, that the French ensign brushed the 
main and mizen shrouds of the Queen Char- 
lotte as she poured her broadside into the 
French ship's starboard quarter. For his con- 
duct on this day Bowen was made a lieutenant 
on 23 June 1794; after the action offL'Orient 
on 23 June 1795, in which he was first lieu- 
tenant of the Queen Charlotte, he was made 
commander ; and on 2 Sept. of the same year 
was advanced to the rank of captain. During 




the two following years he commanded the 
Thunderer in the West Indies. In 1798 he 
commanded the Argo of 44 guns in the Me- 
diterranean, took part in the reduction of 
Minorca by Commodore Duckworth, and on 
6 Feb. 1799, after a brilliant chase of two 
Spanish frigates of nearly equal force, suc- 
ceeded in capturing one of them, the Santa 
Teresa of 42 guns. For the next three 
years Bowen was employed in convoy ser- 
vice, in the course of which he was officially 
thanked by the court of directors of the East 
India Company, and presented with a piece 
of plate value 400Z. for his { care and atten- 
tion ' in convoying one of their fleets from 
England to St. Helena. In 1803 he was ap- 
pointed to command the Dreadnought of 
98 guns, but was shortly afterwards nomi- 
nated a commissioner of the transport board. 
In 1805 he had the charge of laying down 
moorings for the fleet in Falmouth harbour ; 
in 1806 he was for some time captain of the 
fleet to Lord St. Vincent off Brest ; and in 
January 1809 superintended the re-embarka- 
tion of the army at Corunna, for which im- 
portant service he received the thanks of 
both houses of parliament. In 1816 he was 
appointed one of the commissioners of the 
navy, and continued in that office till July 
1825, when he was retired with the rank of 
rear-admiral. He died on 27 April 1835. 

Bowen was not the only one of his family 
who rendered the name illustrious in our 
naval annals. His brother Richard, captain 
of the Terpsichore in 1797, fell in the attack 
on Santa Cruz on 24 July, 'than whom,' 
wrote Nelson, ' a more enterprising, able, and 
gallant officer does not grace his majesty's 
naval service ' {Nelson Despatches, ii. 423). 
Another brother George, also a captain in 
the navy, died at Torquay in October 1817. 
His eldest son James died captain of the 
Phoenix frigate, on the East India station, in 
1812 ; and another son John, also a captain, 
after serving in that rank through the later 
years of the war, died in 1828. His youngest 
son St. Vincent was a clergyman. He had 
also a daughter Teresa, who died in 1876, 
bequeathing to the Painted Hall at Green- 
wich a very pleasing portrait of her father. 

[Marshall's Eoy. Nav. Biog. iii. (vol. ii.) 94.] 

J. K. L. 

BOWEN, JOHN (1756-1832), painter 
and genealogist, was the eldest son of James 
Bowen, painter and topographer, of Shrews- 
bury [q.v.], and was born in that city in 1756. 
Bowen studied the local antiquities under 
his father; traced out the pedigrees of Shrop- 
shire families, and became especially skilful in 
deciphering and copying ancient manuscripts. 

In 1795 he sent a drawing of the Droitwich 
town seal to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
(vol. Ixv. pt. i. p. 13), signing himself <Anti- 
quarius ;' and in 1802 (vol. Ixxii. pt. i. p. 210) 
he followed this up with another communica- 
tion, to which he put his initials. He drew 
four views of Shrewsbury, which were en- 
graved by Vandergucht (GouGH, Topography, 
ii. 177), and in the < Philosophical Transac- 
tions' (xlix. 196) is a plate of some Roman 
inscriptions from his hand. He died on 19 June 
1832, aged 76. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. ii. p. 185; Gough's 
Topography, ii. 177 ; Leighton's Guide through 
Shrewsbury, p. 182.] J. H. 

BOWEN", JOHN, LL.D. (1815-1859), 
bishop of Sierra Leone, son of Thomas 
Bowen, captain in the 85th regiment, by his 
third wife, Mary, daughter of the Rev. 
John Evans, chaplain to the garrison at Pla- 
centia, Newfoundland, was born at Court, 
near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, on 21 Nov. 
1815. At twelve years of age he was sent to 
school at Merlin's Vale, near Haverfordwest, 
and in 1830 continued his studies at the 
same place under the care of the Rev. David 
Adams. He emigrated to Canada in April 
1835, and took a farm at Dunville, on the 
shores of Lake Erie, where, during the re- 
bellion of 1837-8, he served in the militia. 
On Sunday, 6 March 1842, he heard a sermon 
in the Lake Shore church, which made a 
great impression on his mind, and ultimately 
led to a desire to prepare himself for the 
ministerial office. A favourable opportunity 
having occurred for disposing of his farm 
advantageously, he returned home, and in 
January 1843 entered himself at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 
1847, and became LL.B. and LL.D. ten years 
later. His first appointment was to the 
assistant-curacy of Knaresborough, York- 
shire, in 1848. While residing here he asked 
the Church Missionary Society to allow him 
to visit their numerous foreign stations. The 
society suggested that he should proceed to 
Jerusalem, there to confer with Bishop Gobat, 
and then to visit the missionary stations at 
Syra, Smyrna, and Cairo ; afterwards to jour- 
ney to Mount Lebanon, Nablous, and other 
places in Syria, and thence to proceed to Mosul 
by Constantinople and Trebizond, returning 
by Bagdad and Damascus to Jerusalem. All 
this he accomplished, going through many 
hardships and dangers, and returning to 
England in December 1851. In 1853 he was 
named, by the Marquis of Huntly, rector of 
Orton-Longueville with Botolph Bridge in 
Huntingdonshire. Having obtained permis- 
sion from his bishop, he again left England 



in September. 1854, and was absent in the 
East until July 1856. He had by this time 
made such good use of his opportunities 
for the study of Arabic, that he was able to 
preach with fluency in that difficult language. 
On 10 Aug. 1857 he was consecrated bishop 
of Sierra Leone by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury and the Bishops of Peterborough 
and Victoria, and sailed for his diocese on 
26 Nov. following. The bishop recovered from 
several attacks of yellow fever. Malignant 
fever, however, broke out in the colony, and 
he died of it on 2 June 1859, when he had 
occupied the see two years and five months. 
He married, on 24 Nov. 1857, Catharine 
Butler, second daughter of Dr. George But- 
ler, dean of Peterborough. She died at Free- 
town, after giving birth to a stillborn son, on 
4 Aug. 1858. 

[Memorials of John Bowen, LL.D., Bishop of 
Sierra Leone, by his Sister, 1862; Gent. Mag. 
vii. 187-8 (1859).] G. C. B. 

BOWEN, THOMAS (d. 1790), engraver 
of charts, was the son of EMANTJEL BOWEIT, 
map engraver to George II and Louis XV, 
who published a 'Complete Atlas of Geo- 
graphy,' with good maps, 1744-7 ; an ' Eng- 
lish Atlas, with a new set of maps,' 1745 (?) ; 
a * Complete Atlas ... in sixty-eight Maps,' 
1752 ; 'Atlas Minimus ; or a new set of Pocket 
Maps,' 1758, 24mo ; and a series of separate 
maps of the English counties, of Germany, 
Asia Minor, and Persia, between 1736 and 
1776, of which Gough speaks with little ap- 
proval. Thomas Bowen engraved the maps 
and charts of the West Indies, published 
by the direction of the government from the 
surveys of Captain James Speer ; maps of the 
country twenty miles round London and of 
the road between London and St. David's, 
about 1750 ; a ' New Projection of the Eastern 
and Western Hemispheres of the Earth,' 1776; 
and an 'Accurate Map of the Russian Empire 
in Europe and Asia,' 1778. He contributed 
to Taylor and Skinner's ' Survey and Maps of 
the Roads of North Britain ' in 1776. He 
died at an advanced age in Clerkenwell work- 
house early in 1790. 

[Gent. Mag. Ix. pt. i. p. 374 ; Eedgrave's Diet, 
of English Artists ; Gough's British Topography, 
vols. i. ii. ; "Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Map 
Cat.] S. L. L. 

BOWER, ALEXANDER (fl. 1804- 
1830), biographer, was originally a teacher 
in Edinburgh, and afterwards acted as assis- 
tant-librarian in the university of Edinburgh. 
He died suddenly about 1830-1. He pub- 
lished several works between 1804 and 1830, 
the titles of them being: 1. 'An Account 

of the Life of James Beattie, LL.D.,' in which 
are occasionally given characters of the prin- 
cipal literary men, and a sketch of the state 
of literature in Scotland during the last cen- 
tury, 1804, 8vo. 2. ' The Life of Luther, 
with an account of the early progress of the 
Reformation,' 1813, 8vo. 3. ' The History of 
the University of Edinburgh, chiefly com- 

n" 1 id from original Papers and Records never 
ore published,' vols. i. ii., 1817, vol. iii. 
1830, 8vo. This work is strong in biographi- 
cal details of the professors and others, but 
in other points the history is now of little 
value. 4. ' The Edinburgh Students' Guide, 
or an Account of the Classes of the Univer- 
sity,' 1822. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Cat. of the Advocates' 
Library; Grant's Edin. University, 1884, i.p.ix.l 

C. W. S. 

BOWER, ARCHIBALD (1686-1766), 
author of the 'History of the Popes,' was 
born on 17 Jan. 1685-6 at or near Dundee ; 
according to his own account, he was de- 
scended from an ancient family which had 
been for several hundred years possessed of 
an estate in the county of Angus in Scot- 
land. In 1702 he was sent to the Scotch 
college at Douay; afterwards proceeded to 
Rome, and was there admitted into the So- 
ciety of Jesus on 9 Dec. 1706. His own 
statement that he was admitted into the 
order in November 1705 is evidently untrue, 
as is shown by the entry in the register of 
the Roman province of the society. After a 
novitiate of two years he went in 1712 to 
Fano, where he taught classics till 1714, 
when he removed to Fermo. In 1717 he was 
recalled to Rome to study divinity in the 
Roman college, and in 1721 he was trans- 
ferred to the college of Arezzo, where he re- 
mained till 1723, and became reader of phi- 
losophy and consultor to the rector of the 
college. He was next sent to Florence, and 
in the same year removed to Macerata, at 
which place he continued till 1726. Before 
the latter date he was probably professed of 
the four vows, his own account fixing that 
event in March 1722 at Florence (Full Con- 
futation, p. 54), though, as he certainly was 
resident at Arezzo in that year, his profession 
was most likely made a year later. All his 
statements concerning himself must be re- 
ceived with extreme caution. 

The turning-point in Bower's career was 
his removal from Macerata to Perugia, and 
his flight from the latter city to England in 
1726. His enemies said that this step was 
taken in consequence of his having been de- 
tected in an amour with a nun, but he him- 
self ascribes it to the ' hellish proceedings ' 




of the court of the inquisition at Macerata, 
in which he says that he was counsellor or 
judge. He was greatly impressed with the 
horrible cruelties committed in the torture- 
chamber, particularly on two gentlemen, 
whose stories, as well as his own escape, he 
related in detail in an ' Answer to a Scurri- 
lous Pamphlet' (1757). Another account 
had been previously published by Richard 
Baron [q. v.] in 1750, professing to contain 
the substance of the relation which Bower 
gave of his escape to Dr. Hill, chaplain to 
the archbishop of Canterbury (Six Letters 
from Bower to Father Sheldon, p. 3 ri). The 
title of Baron's pamphlet is : 'A faithful 
Account of Mr. Archibald Bower's Motives 
for leaving his Office of Secretary to the 
Court of Inquisition ; including also a rela- 
tion of the horrid treatment of an innocent 
gentleman, who was driven mad by his suf- 
ferings, in this bloody Court ; and of a Noble- 
man who expired under his tortures. To 
both which inhuman and shocking scenes the 
author was an eye-witness.' A third account 
of these occurrences is printed at the end 
of 'Bower and Tillemont compared' (1757). 
The narrative published by Bower thirty- 
one years after the date of his alleged ' es- 
cape ' conflicts with the versions previously 
given by him orally, and is of doubtful 

On his arrival in England in June or July 
1726 he became acquainted with Dr. Edward 
Aspinwall, formerly a Jesuit, who received 
him kindly and introduced him to Dr. Clarke. 
After several conferences with these gentle- 
men, and some with Berkeley, dean of Lon- 
donderry (afterwards bishop of Cloyne), he 
withdrew himself from the communion of 
the Roman catholic church, took leave of the 
provincial, and quitted the Society of Jesus. 
He says that he formed a system of religion 
for himself and was for six years a protestant 
of no particular denomination, but at last he 
conformed to the church of England. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Goodman 
(physician to George I) Bower obtained a 
recommendation to Lord Aylmer, who wanted 
a person to assist him in reading the classics. 
With Aylmer he continued for several years 
on terms of the greatest intimacy, and was 
introduced to all his patron's connections, 
one of whom George (afterwards Lord) 
Lyttelton remained his steady friend when 
he was deserted by almost every other per- 
son. While he resided with Lord Aylmer 
he wrote the f Historia Literaria,' a monthly 
review, begun in 1730 and discontinued in 
1734. During the following nine years (1735- 
1744) he was employed by the proprietors 
of the t Universal History,' to which work he 


contributed the history of Rome. He also 
undertook the education of the son of Mr. 
Thompson, of Cooley, Berkshire, but ill-health 
did not allow him to continue more than a 
twelvemonth in that family, and upon his 
recovery Lord Aylmer secured his services 
as tutor to two of his children. 

In 1740 he invested his savings (1,100/.) 
in the Old South Sea annuities, and with this 
sum he resolved to purchase an annuity. In 
the disposition of this money he engaged in 
a negotiation which afterwards proved fatal 
to his reputation. Bower's own account of 
j the transaction is that as none of his protestant 
friends cared to burden their estates with a 
life-rent, he left his money in the funds till 
August 1741, when being informed that an 
act of parliament had passed for rebuilding 
a church in the city of London upon life- 
annuities, at seven per cent., he went into 
the city, intending to dispose of his money in 
that way, but he found the subscription was 
closed. This disappointment he mentioned 
to a friend, Mr. Hill, whom he accidentally 
met in Will's coffee-house, and upon Hill's 
offering the same interest that was given by 
the trustees of the above-mentioned church 
the sum of 1,100/. was transferred to Mr. 
Wright, Mr. Hill's banker. Mr. Hill, Bower 
adds, was a Jesuit, but transacted money mat- 
ters as an attorney. Some time after Bower 
added 250Z. to the sum already in Hill's 
hands, and received for the whole 94/. 10s. a 
year. He afterwards resolved to marry, and 
it was chiefly upon that consideration that 
he applied to Hill to know upon what terms 
he would return the capital. Hill agreed at 
once to repay it, only deducting what Bower 
had received over and above the common in- 
terest of four per cent, during the time it had 
been in his hands, and this was done. ' Thus/ 
Bower asserts, ' did this money transaction 
begin with Mr. Hill, was carried on by Mr. 
Hill, and with Mr. Hill did it end.' 

By his opponents it is alleged with more pro- 
bability that after a time he wished to return 
to the church he had renounced, and there- 
fore, in order to recommend himself to his 
superiors, he desired effectually to prove his 
sincerity towards them. He proposed to Father 
Shireburne, then provincial in England, to 
give up to him, as representative of the So- 
ciety of Jesus, the money he then possessed, 
on condition of being paid during his life an 
annuity at the rate of seven per cent. This 
offer was accepted, and on 21 Aug. 1741 he 
paid to Father Shireburne 1,100/f., and on 
27 Feb. 1741-2 he paid to the same person 
150/. more upon the same conditions. Nor 
did his confidence rest here, for on 6 Aug. 
1743 he added another 100/. to the above 



sums, now augmented to 1,350/., when the 
several annuities were reduced into one, 
amounting to 94/. 10s., for which a bond was 
given. This negotiation had the desired 
effect, and Bower was readmitted in a formal 
manner into the order of Jesus by Father 
Carteret at London some time before the 
battle of Fontenoy (30 April 1745). 

Bower soon again grew dissatisfied with his 
situation. It has been suggested that he took 
offence because his superiors insisted on his 
going abroad, or that he had a prospect of ad- 
vancing his interest more surely as an avowed 
protestant than as an emissary of the pope. 
Whatever motive may have impelled him, it 
seems certain that when he began his corre- 
spondence with Father Sheldon, the succes- 
sor of Father Shireburne in the office of 
provincial, he had finally resolved to make a 
second breach of his vows. To accomplish 
that object he wrote the famous letters which 
occasioned a lively controversy. The cor- 
respondence answered his purpose, and he 
received his money back from the borrowers 
on 20 June 1747. 

He received 300/. for revising and correct- 
ing the second edition of the ' Universal 
History,' but he performed the task in a 
slovenly and careless manner. On 25 March 
1747 he issued the ' proposals ' for printing 
by subscription his l History of the Popes,' 
describing himself as 'Archibald Bower, esq., 
heretofore public professor of rhetoric, his- 
tory, and philosophy in the universities of 
Home, Fermo, and Macerata, and, in the latter 
place, counsellor of the inquisition.' He 
announced that he had begun the work at 
Rome some years previously, his original 
design being to vindicate the doctrine of the 
pope's supremacy, and that while prosecuting 
his researches he became a proselyte to the 
opinion which he had proposed to confute. 
He presented the first volume to the king 
13 May 1748, and on the death of Mr. Say, 
keeper of Queen Caroline's library (10 Sept.), 
he obtained that place through the interest 
of his friend Lyttelton with the prime minis- 
ter, Pelham. The next year (4 Aug. 1749) 
he married a niece of Bishop Nicolson and 
daughter of a clergyman of the church of Eng- 
land. This lady had a fortune of 4,000/. and 
a child by a former husband. He had been 
engaged in a treaty of marriage, which did 
not take effect, in 1745. 

The second volume of the ' History of the 
Popes ' appeared in 1751, and in the same 
year Bower published, by way of supplement 
to this volume, seventeen sheets, which were 
delivered to his subscribers gratis. Towards 
the end of 1753 he produced a third volume, 
which brought down his history to the death 

of Pope Stephen in 757. In April 1754 his. 
constant friend Lyttelton appointed him 
clerk of the buck-warrants. It was in this 
year that the first serious attack was made 
upon him on account of his * History of the 
Popes ' in a pamphlet by the Rev. Alban But- 
ler, published anonymously at Douay under 
the title of ' Remarks on the two first volumes 
of the late Lives of the Popes ; in letters from 
a Gentleman to a Friend in the Country.'' 
Meanwhile the letters addressed by Bower to 
the provincial of the Jesuits had fallen into- 
the hands of Sir Henry Bedingfield, a Roman 
catholic baronet, who made no secret of their 
contents. He asserted that the letters clearly 
demonstrated that while their writer was 
pretending to have the liveliest zeal for the 
protestant faith, he was in fact a member of 
the Roman church, and in confidential corre- 
spondence with the head of that body. Bower 
maintained that these letters were infamous 
forgeries, designed to ruin his credit with his- 
protestant friends, and brought forward by 
the Jesuits in revenge for his exposure of the 
frauds of the priesthood. At this juncture 
the Rev. John Douglas (afterwards bishop of 
Salisbury), who had already detected the 
frauds of Lauder in regard to Milton, deter- 
mined to expose the duplicity of Bower's 
conduct, and published in 1756 a pamphlet 

entitled ' Six Letters from A d B r 

to Father Sheldon, provincial of the Jesuits 
in England ; illustrated with several remark- 
able facts, tending to ascertain the authen- 
ticity of the said letters, and the true character 
of the writer.' In this tract Douglas proved 
the genuineness of the letters ; showed that 
want of veracity was not the only defect in 
Bower's character, but that he was as little 
remarkable for his chastity as for his love of 
truth ; and brought forward the attestation 
of Mrs. Hoyles. Bower had converted this 
lady to Roman Catholicism, and her state- 
ment leaves no cause to doubt the historian's 
zeal to support in secret the church which, 
for self-interested ends, he was publicly dis- 
owning. Douglas's pamphlet elicited a reply 
from Bower, or one of his friends, under the 
character of a ' Country Neighbour.' Douglas 
then published his second tract, ' Bower and 
Tillemont compared' (1757), in which he de- 
monstrates that the ' History of the Popes,' 
especially the first volume, is merely a trans- 
lation of the work of the French historian. In 
1757 Bower brought out three large pamph- 
lets, in which he labouredto refute the charges 
made against his moral, religious, and literary 
character. Douglas followed with ' A Full 
Confutation of all the Facts advanced in Mr. 
Bower's Three Defences ' (1757), and ' A Com- 
plete and Final Detection of A d B r '' 



(1758). To the last two pamphlets were 
attached certificates and other documents ob- 
tained from Italy, clearly establishing Bower's 
guilt and imposture. In the course of this 
embittered controversy, Garrick, who had 
formerly been his friend, threatened to write 
a farce in which Bower was to be introduced 
on the stage as a mock convert and to be 
shown in various situations, so that the pro- 
fligacy of his character might be exposed 
(DAVIES, Memoirs of Garrick, ed. 1808, i. 
306). From this period Bower's whole time 
was spent in making ineffectual attacks upon 
his enemies, and equally vain efforts to re- 
cover the reputation of himself and his 'His- 
tory of the Popes.' Before the controversy 
had ended he published his fourth volume, 
and in 1757 an abridgment of the first four 
volumes of his work was published in French 
at Amsterdam. In 1761 he seems to have 
assisted the author of ' Authentic Memoirs 
concerning the Portuguese Inquisition, in a 
series of letters to a friend ; ' and about the 
same time he produced the fifth volume of 
his ' History of the Popes.' To this volume 
he annexed a summary view of the contro- 
versy between himself and the Roman catho- 
lics. The remainder of his history did not 
appear till just before the author's death, 
when the sixth and seventh volumes were 
published together, but in so hasty and slo- 
venly a manner that the whole period from 
1600 to 1758 was comprehended in twenty- 
six pages. The ' History of the Popes ' has 
been reprinted with a continuation by Dr. 
Samuel Hanson Cox, in 3 vols., Philadelphia, 
1844-5, 8vo. 

Bower died on 3 Sept. 1766, and was buried 
in Marylebone churchyard. The epitaph on 
his tomb describes him as ' a man exemplary 
for every social virtue, justly esteemed by all 
who knew him for his strict honesty and in- 
tegrity, a faithful friend, and a sincere Chris- 
tian.' He bequeathed all his property to his 
wife, who, some time after his death, attested 
that he died in the protestant faith (London 
Chronicle, 11 Oct. 1766). 

His portrait has been engraved by J. 
M'Ardell and T. Holloway from a painting 
by G. Knapton; and by J. Faber from a 
painting by Reynolds. 

[The principal authorities are the twenty-two 
pamphlets published during the Bower contro- 
versy, and a series of articles, probably by Bishop 
Douglas, in the European Magazine for 1794, 
xxv. 3, 133, 209, 261, xxvi. 32. These articles 
were reprinted without acknowledgment in the 
General Biog. Diet. (1798), ii. 528, and thence 
transferred by Alexander Chalmers (but with 
the omission of the references) to his edition of 
that work. Consult also Birch MS. in Addit. 

MS. Brit. Mus. 4234 ; Gent. Mag. Ix. 1187, Ixi. 
118, Ixxi. 509; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. ii. 134; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 477, ii. 42, 394, 554, 565, 
iii. 507, iv. 95, vi. 463, 467, viii. 269 ; Milner's 
Life of Bishop Challoner, 29-31 ; Bromley's Cat. 
of Engraved Portraits, 383; Oliver's Jesuit Col- 
lections, 40 ; Foley's Kecords, vii. 882 ; Cat. of 
Birch and Sloane MSS. 713, 717 ; Lysons's En- 
virons, iii. 263, 264; Edinburgh Mag. (1785), 
i. 284 ; Memoirs of George Psalmanazar, 2nd 
edit. 277 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 
1212, 1213; Macdonald's Memoir of Bishop 
Douglas, 28-36 ; C. Butler's Life of Alban Butler 
(1800), 9.] T. C. 

1681), medallist, worked principally in the 
reigns of Charles II and James II, and for a 
short time under William III. In January 
1664 he was appointed ' embosser in ordinary * 
(engraver) to the Mint, an office which he con- 
tinued to hold till his death in the early part 
of 1689-90. He executed numerous medals 
for the royal family as well as for private 
persons, and his work displays considerable 
skill, though it is inferior in finish and exe- 
cution to that of the Roettiers, the well- 
known medallists of the same period. The 
most interesting of all his medals is, perhaps, 
the specimen struck to commemorate the ac- 
quittal of the Earl of Shaftesbury on the 
charge of high treason, showing on the ob- 
verse the bust of the earl, and on the reverse 
the legend < Lsetamur, 24 Nov. 1681,' and a 
view of London with the sun bursting from 
behind a cloud. It was the production of 
this specimen which gave rise to Dryden's 
satire on Shaftesbury entitled ' The Medal : r 

Five days he sate for every cast and look, 
Four more than God to finish Adam took ; 
But who can tell what essence angels are, 
Or how long Heaven was making Lucifer ? 

Bower also executed in the reign of Charles II 
the Restoration medal (1660: reverse, Jupi- 
ter destroying prostrate giants, signed ' G. 
Bower '), the marriage medal (1662 : signed 
* G. B.'), and medals relating to the popish 
and Rye House plots. Of the medals made 
by him under James II, we may mention a 
piece commemorating the defeat of Mon- 
mouth (signed ' G. Bowers '), and specimens 
referring to the trial of the seven bishops. 
He further produced a medal celebrating the 
landing of William (III) at Torbay, 1688, 
and the coronation medal of William and 
Mary, 1689. 

[Grueber's Guide to English Medals exhibited 
in British Museum, reff. in Index of Artists, s. v. 
' Bower.' and ib. p. xx, p. 39 ; Hawkins's Medallic 
Illustrations, ed. Franks and Grueber ; Calendar 
of State Papers, Domestic, 1664, p. 462 ; Numis- 




matic Chronicle, 1841, iii. p. 177; Calendar of 
Treasury Papers, 1556-7-1696, pp. 53, 106, 1 10.] 

W. W. 

(d. 1449), abbot of Inchcolm, is the reputed 
continuator of Fordun's 'Chronica Gentis 
Scotorum/ as it appears in the volume gene- 
rally known as the ' Scotichronicon.' The 
latter book, however, in its printed form 
does not contain the name of Walter Bower, 
nor does it include any passage ascribing 
its compilation to the abbot of Inchcolm, 
who is credited with having written the 
work on the testimony of his contemporary 
but anonymous abbreviator in the Carthusian 
monastery at Perth a theory which is also 
supported by the heading of the ' Black Book 
of Paisley.' The abbot of Inchcolm is also 
cited in 1526 by Boethius as one of the 
chief authorities for his ' Histories Scotorum ' 
(prsef. iii, 2nd ed., Paris, 1526). Other evi- 
dence points in the same direction, and the 
identity of the author of the ' Scotichronicon ' 
with the abbot of Inchcolm may be con- 
sidered as fairly certain. According to his 
own testimony (xiv. 50), the writer of the 
4 Scotichronicon ' was born in the year when 
Richard II burnt Dryburgh and Edinburgh, 
i.e. in 1385. To this the Book of Cupar adds 
that his birthplace was Haddington, where 
we find that a certain John Bower or Bow- 
maker was deputy-custumar from 1395 to 
1398 (Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, iii. 364, 
433). This officer Mr. Tytler considers to have 
been the abbot's father (Lives of Scottish Wor- 
thies, ii. 199; with which cf. Exch. Rolls, 
iv. pref. 88). Goodall makes Walter Bower 
become a monk at eighteen, after which, ac- 
cording to the same authority, he completed 
his philosophical and theological studies in 
Scotland, and was ordained priest before 
taking up his abode in Paris for the sake of 
perfecting himself in the law. But there 
seem to be no satisfactory proofs for these 
statements, and we are without any posi- 
tive information as to Bower's life until 
in his thirty-third year he was consecrated 
abbot of Inchcolm on 17 April 1418 (Scoti- 
chronicon, xv. 30). It seems, however, very 
clear that the author of the ' Scotichronicon ' 
had been a member of the Augustinian priory 
of St. Andrews and well acquainted with at 
least two of its priors James Biset (1393- 
1416) and James Haldenden (1418-1443). 
Under the former he appears to have received 
his education, and he may from his own 
words be inferred to have been a licentiate 
or bachelor in canon law, though perhaps not 
a master in theology (ib. vi. 55-7). There is, 
however, nothing to show with any certainty 
whether he took his degree at Paris or in the 

new university of St. Andrews, of which his 
patron James Biset was so prominent a 
founder (1410). 

Very shortly after Biset's death at least six 
of his pupils were appointed to high church 
dignities, and amongst them, on 17 April 
1418, Walter was consecrated abbot of Inch- 
colm, a small island in the Firth of Forth. 
Every summer he had to leave his house for 
the mainland to avoid the attacks of the Eng- 
lish pirates, though before his death he fortified 
Inchcolm. Besides attending to the affairs of 
his abbey whose documents he copied with 
his own hands the new abbot was a promi- 
nent figure in politics. When James I returned 
from captivity, Bower was one of the two com- 
missioners appointed to collect that king's 
ransom-money in 1423 and 1424. Nine years 
later (1433), on the betrothal of James's 
daughter to the dauphin, the same two com- 
missioners were again entrusted with the 
collecting of the tax for her dowry, but were 
soon bidden by the king himself to desist 
from exacting the imposition (ib. xvi. 9). A 
few years previously (December 1430), on 
the submission of Alexander of the Isles, 
this nobleman's mother, the Countess of Ross, 
was confined in Inchcolm probably under 
the charge of Abbot Walter till her release 
in February 1432 (ib. xvi. 16, 20). In 
October of the same year the abbot was 
present at the council held at Perth for the 
consideration of the English propositions 
for peace. On this occasion, in company 
with his old friend the abbot of Scone, he 
made a strenuous opposition to the English 
offers, on the ground that James had sworn 
to make no peace with the English except 
with the consent of the French. The pru- 
dence of the two abbots was confirmed by 
the discovery that the whole affair was an 
artifice on the part of the English. It was 
not till about the year 1440 that Bower com- 
menced to write the ' Scotichronicon,' at the 
request of Sir David Stewart of Rossyth, who, 
according to Mr. Skene, died in 1444. This 
work seems to have occupied several years, 
and was not completed till 1447 (cf. the dates 
given in Scotichronicon, lib. i. 8, vi. 57, xvi. 8, 
26). Shortly before his death, which took 
place in 1449, according to the statement of 
the Carthusian abbreviator (SKENE, John of 
For dun, Iii), Bower seems to have condensed 
his larger work and divided it into forty books. 

The ' Scotichronicon ' in its original form 
was divided into sixteen books, of which the 
first five and chapters 9-23 of the sixth are 
mainly the work of John Fordun, who also 
collected certain materials for continuing 
the history down to the year 1385. To the 
earlier books of Fordun Bower made large 




additions, carefully distinguishing them from 
the work of his predecessor (whom he speaks 
of as the author} by prefixing the word ' Scrip- 
tor ' to his own insertions. The last eleven 
Bower claims as practically his own : 'Quinque 
librosFordun,undenos scriptor arabat;' though 
even here he has made use of Fordun's 'Gesta 
Annalia,' down to the middle of David II's 
reign, and, to a very slight extent, beyond this 
date (Scotichronicon, prologue, pp. ii and iii, 
also i. 7 and 9, vi. 23). With the reign of 
Robert I, towards the end of the fourteenth 
book, Bower becomes a contemporary writer, 
and continues his narrative till the death of 
James I. Soon after the completion of the 
' Scotichronicon ' its immense length and ver- 
bosity induced its author shortly before his 
death to write the abridgment, generally 
known as the Book of Cupar, which still 
exists in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh 
(MS. 35, 1, 7) ; it has not yet been printed, 
though an edition has long been promised in 
the ' Historians of Scotland.' A year or so 
later (c. 1451) the ' Scotichronicon' was con- 
densed once more for the newly founded 
Carthusian monastery at Perth, probably by 
the Patrick Russell 'spoken of below (MS. 
Adv. Lib. 35, 6, 7). Another abridgment 
of the ' Scotichronicon ' (ib. 35, 5, 2) was 
drawn up in 1461 by a writer who had 
been in France in attendance on the Princess 
Margaret (SKENE, preface, liv). This work, 
which, according to Mr. Skene, after the 
twenty-third chapter of book vi. differs greatly 
from the original Scotichronicon,' was copied 
several times, notably about the year 1489, 
by a writer who tells us that he had himself 
seen Joan of Arc (SKENE, preface, liv ; MS. 

Besides these abbreviations the ' Scoti- 
.chronicon' itself was copied several times 
during the fifteenth century, notably by one 
Master Magnus Makculloch in 1483-4 for 
the archbishop of Glasgow (Harl MS. 712), 
and in the large volume in the royal library 
at the British Museum, known as the Black 
Book of Paisley (13 Ex.) Another tran- 
script (Donibristle MS.) assigns the work to 
one Patrick Russell, a Carthusian of Perth. 
Each of these last transcribers has some- 
times been considered as the author of the 
larger work; but, after careful considera- 
tion, Mr. Skene has rejected both their claims 
in favour of Walter Bower. Many other 
manuscripts of the original work (a) and the 
abbreviations () exist : notably of (a) in 
the Edinburgh College Library (from which 
Goodall's edition is published) ; in the British 
Museum Royal Library (the Black Book 
of Paisley) ; and at Corpus Christi, Cam- 

The only complete printed edition of the 
'Scotichronicon' as it left the hands of Walter 
Bower is that printed from the Edinburgh 
College Library MS. by Walter Goodall in 
the middle of the last century (Edinburgh, 
1759). The edition of Fordun published by 
Hearne in 1722 (Oxford, 5 vols.), though ap- 
parently containing a good deal of Bower's 
work, notably the history of St. Andrews, 
appears to be mainly Fordun's production. 
The exact relationship, however, of this ma- 
nuscript to Fordun and Bower has yet to 
be worked out. Some thirty years earlier 
(1691) Thomas Gale had printed a portion 
of the same manuscript belonging to Trinity 
College, Cambridge (GALE, i. 6, ix. 9) in the 
third volume of his ( Rerum Anglicarum 

[Scoticbronicon (ed. Goodall), Edinburgh, 
1759 ; John of Fordun, ed. Skene, ap. Histo- 
rians of Scotland, preface and introductions) ; 
Tytler's Lives of Scottish Worthies, ii. 198-202; 
Exchequer Eolls of Scotland, ed. George Bur- 
nett, iii. and iv.] T. A. A. 

1877), geologist, was born in Bishopsgate, 
London, in 1797. We have no reliable in- 
formation as to his early education ; but he 
certainly exhibited in his youth a strong at- 
tachment to natural history, and in his boy- 
hood he was especially fond of collecting 
plants, and of studying books on botany. 
Bowerbank was most happily placed in this 
world ; as the son of a highly respectable city 
merchant and a distiller he enjoyed all that 
wealth could afford him. He succeeded with 
his brother, on the death of his father, to the 
well-established distillery of Bowerbank & 
Co., in which firm he remained an active 
partner until 1847. His energy and industry 
secured for him amongst the most intelligent 
of his city friends the character of a careful 
and attentive man of business. He, however, 
found sufficient leisure to pursue his scien- 
tific studies, and early in life he obtained 
much exact knowledge, as is proved by his 
having published papers on the Insecta and 
their anatomy at an age which is generally 
considered as immature. Bowerbank also, 
in the years 1822-3-4, lectured on botany, 
and in 1831 we find him conducting a class 
on human osteology, and studying the works 
of Haller, Alexander Monro, and other osteo- 
logists. When of age he joined the Mathe- 
matical Society of Spitalfields, and remained 
a member until its incorporation with the 
Astronomical Society in 1845. In 1836, 
Bowerbank, associating himself with several 
geological friends, originated 'The London 
Clay Club,' the members of which devoted 




themselves to the task of examining the fos- 
sils of this tertiary formation, and making 
a complete list of the species found in it. 
Bowerbank's anatomical studies, which were 
pursued with considerable attention, prepared 
his mind by a stern discipline for the study of 
the sponges, to which he subsequently devoted 
himself for many years. At the same time 
he occupied his leisure by examining the moss 
agates, and the minute structure of shells and 

In 1840 he published a volume on the 
* Fossil Fruits of the London Clay,' which re- 
mains a standard work ; indeed, the only one 
in which these very interesting remains are 
thoroughly described and accurately figured. 
In 1842 Bowerbank was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. In 1847, after the reading 
of a paper by Professor Prestwich at the rooms 
of the Geological Society, Bowerbank invited 
the leading geologists to meet him in the tea- 
room. He then proposed the establishment 
of a society for the publication of undescribed 
British fossils. He was supported in this by 
Buckland, De la Beche, Fitton, and others, 
and thus was founded the Palgeontographical 
Society. From 1844 to 1864 Bowerbank was 
in the habit of receiving at his residence, once 
a week, professed geologists and young ama- 
teurs who showed a real fondness for this 
science, which was still struggling against the 
prejudices which dogmatic teaching had fos- 
tered. Every young and earnest geologist 
found in him a sincere friend and always a 
willing instructor. Bowerbank's classification 
of the spongidse, his observations on their spi- 
culate elements, and his papers on the vital 
powers of the sponges, remain splendid ex- 
amples of unwearying industry and careful 
observation. On his retirement from the ac- 
tive labours of life, his fervent desire was to 
finish his great work on the sponges, and un- 
remittingly he gave all the energies of his 
well-trained mind to this object, until the 
failure of brain-power compelled intervals of 
entire repose. Happily he reached the last 
plate of his great work. When half of it was 
drawn his powers began to fail him, and he 
became sadly depressed. The finishing tasks 
were postponed from day to day, then resumed 
for a few hours, to be again deferred, until 
8 March 1877, when death closed for ever the 
labours of a well-spent life. 

Bowerbank was always a most indefati- 
gable collector, and in 1864 his collection had 
arrived at a state which truly merited the 
name of magnificent. It was purchased by 
the British Museum, and forms a well-known 
and most important division of the natural 
history section of this national establish- 
ment. The catalogue of scientific papers pub- 

j lished by the Royal Society credits Bower- 
bank with forty-five papers. These appeared 
i in the ' Journal of the Microscopic Society,' 
' The Annals and Magazine of Natural His- 
| tory,' the ' Journal of the Geological Society,' 
I the ' Reports of the British Association,' and 
| the publications of the Zoological and Lin- 
! nean Societies. l The Pterodactyles of the 
I Chalk,' published in the ' Proceedings of the 
! Zoological Society,' was one of Bowerbank's 
most important memoirs. He paid great at- 
tention to the question of silicification, and 
some admirable papers on this interesting 
subject are scattered through the journals 
named. His ( Contributions to a General 
History of the Spongidee,' which is in the 
1 Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' de- 
serves especial attention. Bowerbank's first 
Sublished paper was ' Observations on the 
irculation of the Blood in Insects,' which 
appeared in 1833. His last was a l Report 
on a Collection of Sponges found at Ceylon 
by E. W. H. Holdsworth,' printed in 1873. 

[Geological Magazine ; Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society; Koyal Society Catalogue 
of Scientific Papers ; Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society ; Palseontological Journal.] 

R. H-T. 

1872), dean of Manchester, born in Stafford- 
shire in 1794, was the son of Mr. Francis 
Bowers. He was sent to the Pembroke 
grammar school, and thence proceeded to 
Clare College, Cambridge. After a success- 
ful university career he was appointed per- 
petual curate of Elstow, Bedfordshire'. He 
graduated B.A. in 1819, proceeding B.D. in 
1829, and D.D. in 1849. He was select 
preacher of his university in 1830. In 1832 
he became rector of St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden. On the death of Dean Herbert in 
1847 he was nominated by Lord John Russell 
to the deanery of Manchester, an office which 
he held until 26 Sept. 1871. He was not a 
frequent preacher in Manchester, but his 
pulpit discourses were at once simple and 
scholarly, and his delivery effective. 

His chief writings are : 1. l Sermons 
preached before the University of Cambridge.' 
2. t A Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
on a Proposed School for Sons of Clergymen/ 
London, 1842. 3. ( A Scheme for the Founda- 
tion of Schools for the Sons of Clergymen and 
others,' London, 1842 ; this led to the esta- 
blishment of Marlborough School, of which, 
conjointly with the Rev. C. E. Plater, he was 
founder. Similarly Rossall and Haileybury 
owed their origin to Bowers's suggestion, 
and the latter gained much on its establish- 
ment from Bowers's personal help and expe- 




rience. 4. ' Sermons preached in the Parish 
hurch of St. Paul, Covent Garden/ London, 
1849. 5. ' Open Churches with Endowments 
preferable to Pew Rents, a Sermon,' Man- 
chester, 1855. 6. ' Pew Rents injurious to 
the Church, an Address,' Oxford, 1865. He 
was a warm advocate of the ' free and open 
church movement.' He was for this reason 
instrumental in the erection of St. Alban's, 
Cheetwood, and various addresses which he 
-delivered there have been printed. On his 
resignation of the office of dean of Manchester 
he retired to Leamington, where he died 
Friday, 27 Dec. 1872. He was twice married. 
He bequeathed 300/. for the support of the 
special Sunday evening services at the Man- 
chester Cathedral, where a window and a 
brass were placed by his widow to his me- 
mory. A portrait by Charles Mercier is 
at Rossall School. One of his daughters, 
Georgiana Bowers, has distinguished herself 
by successful pictures of hunting and country 
life in ' Punch.' Some of these have been 
issued in book form. 

[Manchester Guardian, 30 Dec. 1872 ; Parkin- 
.son's Old Church Clock, ed. Evans ; private in- 
formation.] W. E. A. A. 

BOWES, ELIZABETH (1502 P-1568), 
disciple of John Knox, was the daughter 
of Roger Aske, of Aske, Yorkshire. Her 
father died when she was a child, and she 
and her sister Anne were coheiresses of 
their father and grandfather. Their ward- 
ship was sold in 1510 to Sir Ralph Bowes of 
Dalden, Streatlam, and South Cowton. In 
1521 Elizabeth Aske was betrothed to Richard 
Bowes, youngest son of Sir Ralph, and the 
king granted to him special livery of half 
the lands of William Aske, which he was to 
receive on his marriage. Richard Bowes, like 
the rest of his family, was engaged in border 
business, but seems to have lived chiefly at 
Aske, where his wife bore him five sons and 
ten daughters. Two of the sons, George 
(b. 1527) and Robert (b. 1535), are noticed 
below. In 1548 Richard Bowes was made 
-captain of Norham. His wife and family 
followed him northwards and lived in Ber- 
wick. Mrs. Bowes was deeply religious and 
had been much affected by the theological 
movements of the Reformation period. At 
Berwick she met John Knox, who took up 
his abode there in 1549. She fell at once 
under his influence, and Knox gained the 
affections of her daughter Marjory. Her 
husband's family pride was hurt by Knox's 
proposal to marry his daughter, and he re- 
fused his consent. Knox, however, who was 
about the same age as Mrs. Bowes, contracted 
himself to Marjory, and adopted Mrs. Bowes 

as a relative. He wrote to Marjory as 
' sister,' and to Mrs. Bowes as ' mother.' In 
July 1553 he married Marjory Bowes in 
spite of the opposition of her father and the 
rest of his family. At this time Knox's 
fortunes were at a low ebb, as Mary had 
just ascended the throne. His letters to Mrs. 
Bowes were intercepted by spies, and in 
January 1554 he judged it prudent to leave 
England. His letters to Mrs. Bowes are the 
chief source of information concerning his 
doings at this time. In June 1556 Mrs. 
Bowes and her daughter joined Knox at 
Geneva, where two sons were born to him. 
It would seem that the breach in the Bowes 
family owing to Marjory's marriage was 
never healed, and that Mrs. Bowes found 
Knox's counsels so necessary to her spiritual 
comfort that she left her husband and her 
other children and followed Marjory's for- 
tunes. In 1558 her husband died, and in 
1559 Knox left Geneva for Scotland. He 
was soon followed by his wife, and Mrs. Bowes 
after a short stay in England made her way 
to her son-in-law, who wrote for the queen's 
permission for her journey (Sadler Papers, 
i. 456, 479, 509). In 1560 Mrs. Knox died, 
but her mother still stayed near her son-in- 
law. She left her own family and adhered to 
Knox. She died in 1568, and immediately 
after her death Knox thought it desirable to 
give some account of this strange intimacy. 
In the Advertisement to his 'Answer to a 
Letter of a Jesuit named Tyrie ' (1572) he 
published a letter to Mrs. Bowes, 'to declare 
to the world what was the cause of our great 
familiarity, which was neither flesh nor blood, 
but a troubled conscience on her part which 
never suffered her to rest but when she was 
in the company of the faithful. Her company 
to me was comfortable, but yet it was not 
without some cross ; for besides trouble and 
fasherie of body sustained for her, my mind 
was seldom quiet for doing somewhat for the 
comfort of her troubled conscience.' 

[Sharp's Memorials of the Eebeliion, 371-2 ; 
Surtees's Durham, iv. 114; Knox's letters to 
Mrs. Bowes are largely quoted in M'Crie's Life 
of John Knox, and are published in full in 
Knox's Works (Wodrow Soc. 1854), iii. 337.] 

M. C. 

BOWES, SIR GEORGE (1517-1556), 
commander in border warfare, was a pos- 
thumous son of Sir Ralph Bowes of Dalden, 
Streatlam, and South Cowton, and Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Henry, lord Clifford. Car- 
dinal Wolsey, then bishop of Durham, sold 
his ' ward, custody, and marriage ' for 800/. 
to Sir William Bulmer in 1524. Sir William 
in turn sold it to Lord Eure, whose daughter 



Muriel was married to George Bowes. He 
had livery as heir to his father in 1535. He 
early took part in border warfare. He went 
with the Earl of Hertford on his devastating 
raid in 1544, and was knighted at Leith on 
11 May. So highly were his services esteemed 
that the privy council announced to the Earl 
of Shrewsbury, lieutenant-general in the 
north, that it was the king's intention to 
confer on him a barony ( Talbot Papers, in 
Illustrations of the Reign of Queen Mary, 
Maitland Club, p. 171). This intention, how- 
ever, was not carried into effect. Bowes 
returned from Scotland and died in 1556, 
leaving no male heir. 

[Surtees's Durham, iv. 112; Sharp's Memorials 
of the Rebellion of 1569, 370.] M. C. 

BOWES, SIR GEORGE (1527-1580), 
military commander, was the son of Richard 
Bowes and Elizabeth A ske [see BOWES, ELIZA- 
BETH]. At the age of fourteen he was married 
to Dorothy, daughter of Sir William Mallory 
of Studley Royal. He early went to the Scot- 
tish war, and in 1549 is mentioned as being in 
command of one hundred cavalry at Douglas. 
In 1558 he was made marshal of Berwick. 
Being at this time a widower, he strengthened 
his position by an alliance with the powerful 
house of Shrewsbury. He married Jane, 
daughter of Sir John Talbot of Albrighton. 
His opinion was often asked by the govern- 
ment about border affairs, and in 1560 he 
was knighted at Berwick by the Duke of 
Norfolk. Soon afterwards he resigned the 
onerous post of marshal of Berwick and re- 
tired to his house at Streatlam. In 1567 the 
privy council gave him a curious commission 
to get quicksets for hedges to enclose parts 
of the frontier'(C/. State Papers, For. 1566-8, 
p. 412). In 1568 he was employed to escort 
Mary queen of Scots from Carlisle to Bolton 
Castle. He displayed such courtesy in the 
discharge of this duty that Mary in later 
years had a grateful remembrance of his kind- 
ness, and wrote to him as to a friend (Memo- 
rials of the Rebellion, p. 379). Next year the 
rebellion of the northern earls threatened 
Elizabeth's throne, and it was chiefly owing 
to the steadfastness of Bowes that the re- 
bellion did not become more serious. He 
remained at Streatlam, in the centre of a 
disaffected neighbourhood, and faced the un- 
popularity which his notorious loyalty drew 
upon his head. Already, on 7 March 1569, 
Lord Hundson wrote, ' The country is in 
great hatred of Sir George Bowes so as he 
dare scant remain there' (Cal. State Papers, 
For. 1569-71, p. 199). Streatlam was not far 
from Brancepeth, the seat of the Earl of 
Westmorland, who was the centre of the dis- 

affected party. Bowes kept a sharp watch 
on all that was passing, and sent informa- 
tion to the Earl of Sussex, lord president of 
the north, who was stationed at York. Sus- 
sex for some time did not believe that the 
earls would proceed to any open action. At 
length their proceedings were so threaten- 
ing that Bowes thought it safer, on 12 Nov., 
to leave Streatlam, and shut himself up in 
the strong castle of Barnard Castle, which 
belonged to the crown and of which he was. 
steward. He was empowered to levy forces 
for the queen, and the well-affected gen- 
tlemen of the neighbourhood gathered round 
him. He wished to use his small force for 
the purpose of cutting off the rebels who 
were gathering at Brancepeth ; but Sussex 
hesitated to give permission, and things were 
allowed to take their course. At last, on 
14 Nov., the rebel earls entered Durham, 
and advanced southwards for the purpose of 
releasing Queen Mary from her prison at 
Tutbury. They were not, however, agreed 
amongst themselves. They changed their 
plan suddenly and retreated northwards. 
The sole point in which they were agreed 
was hatred of Bowes. His house at Streat- 
lam was destroyed, and Barnard Castle was 
besieged. It was ill supplied with provisions, 
and the hasty levies which formed its gar- 
rison were not adapted to endure hardships. 
Many of the garrison leapt from the wall 
and joined the enemy. Bowes held out 
bravely for eleven days, but dreaded trea- 
chery within. He thought it better to sur- 
render while honourable terms were possible. 
He was permitted to march out with four 
hundred men. He joined the Earl of Sussex 
and was appointed provost marshal of the 

By this time the royal army had marched 
northwards. The rebels, discouraged by the- 
indecision of their leaders, retreated and 
gradually dispersed. The rebellion was at 
an end, but Elizabeth had been thoroughly 
frightened and gave orders that severe punish- 
ment should be inflicted on the ringleaders. 
The executions were carried out by Bowes, 
as provost marshal, though the lists of those 
to be executed were drawn out by the Earl 
of Sussex. Bowes had been the principal 
sufferer, but he does not appear to have shown 
any personal vindictiveness. The Earl of 
Sussex warmly commended him to the grati- 
tude of the queen, both on account of the 
losses which he had sustained, and for his- 
eminent services. But Bowes appealed in 
vain to Elizabeth's generosity. Not till 1572 
did he receive some grants of forfeited lands, 
which appear to have been of small value. 
In 1571 he was elected M.P. for Knares- 




borough, and in 1572 for Morpeth. In 1576 
he was made high sheriff of the county 
palatine. In 1579 .he relieved his brother 
Robert [see BOWES, EGBERT, 1535P-1597], 
who wished for a short leave of absence from 
the post of marshal of Berwick. His resi- 
dence in Berwick was both costly and cum- 
bersome, and after staying there for nearly 
a year he begged to be relieved. Soon after 
his return to Streatlam he died, in 1580. The 
general testimony to his character is given in 
a contemporary letter to Burghley : ' He was 
the surest pyllore the queen's majesty had in 
these parts.' 

[The letters of Sir George Bowes dealing with 
the rebellion are given in Sharp's Memorials of 
the Rebellion of 1569 (1840), where is also the I 
fullest account of the life of Sir George Bowes j 
drawn from manuscripts at Streatlam, p. 373, &c. 
See also Cal. State Papers, Dom., Addenda, ! 
1566-79.] M. C. 

BOWES, SIE JEROME (d. 1616), am- | 
bassador, was of a Durham family, ' sprung 
from John Bowes, who married Anne, daugh- ; 
ter of Gunville of Gorleston in Suffolk, who [ 
bore the same arms as those of Gonville and ! 
Caius College, Cambridge ' (Notes and Queries, 
1st series, xii. 230). His name occurs in the 
list of those gentlemen who followed Clinton, 
earl of Lincoln, to France, in his expedition 
to revenge the fall of Calais in the spring of 
1 558 ( Calendar of Hat field MSS. p. 146). It 
has been inferred from a casual mention of 
him by Stowe (p. 669, ed. 1631) that he was 
a client of the Earl of Leicester in 1571 ; 
but he was certainly banished from court six 
years later for ' slanderous speech ' against the 
favourite (Cal. State Papers, Dom., Addenda, 
8 Aug. 1577). In his retirement he had 
leisure to translate from the French an * Apo- 
logy for the Christians of France ... of the 
reformed religion' (1579), 'whereby the pure- 
ness of that religion ... is plainly shewed, 
not only by the holy scriptures and by rea- 
son, but also by the pope's own canons.' 
He was restored to favour, and in 1583 was 
appointed ambassador to Russia. His claim 
to remembrance mainly rests on his conduct 
in that capacity. Eighty years later the 
officers of the customs, fellow-guests with 
Pepys, ' grave, fine gentlemen,' held dis- 
course with him of Bowes, who, ' because 
some of the noblemen there would go up- 
stairs to the emperor before him, would not 
go up till the emperor had ordered those 
two men to be dragged downstairs, with 
their heads knocking upon every stair till 
they were killed.' On demand being made 
of his sword before entering the presence, 
he had his boots pulled off and made the 

emperor wait till he could go in his night- 
gown, nightcap, and slippers, < since he might 
not go as a soldier.' The emperor having 
ordered a man to leap from a window to cer- 
tain death, and having been obeyed, Bowes 
scornfully observed that 'his mistress did 
set more by, and make better use of, the 
necks of her subjects.' He then showed what 
her subjects would do for her sake by fling- 
ing down his gauntlet before the emperor, 
and challenging all the nobility to take it 
up, in defence of the emperor against his 
queen, ' for which at this very day the name 
of Sir Jerome Bowes is famous and honoured 
there ' (Diary, 5 Sept. 1662). Milton, in his 
' Brief History of Moscovia,' gives an ac- 
count of this embassy, taken from Hakluyt. 
He does not mention the foregoing anecdotes, 
nor those recorded in Dr. Collins's ' Present 
State of Russia/ 1671 (quoted in Notes and 
Queries, 1st series, x. 210). The czar(Ivan- 
vasilovitch) is there said to have nailed the 
French ambassador's hat to his head. Bowes 
at his next audience put on his hat, and the 
czar threatened him with the like punish- 
ment. Bowes replied that he did not repre- 
sent the cowardly king of France, but the 
invincible queen of England, * who does not 
vail her bonnet nor bare her head to any 
prince living.' The czar commended his 
bravery and took him into favour. Bowes 
also tamed a wild horse a task assigned 
him at the instance of envious courtiers so 
effectually that the beast fell dead under 

Milton's account fully bears out the cha- 
racter assigned to Bowes by Pepys and 
Collins. He describes the pomp of the re- 
ception and the failure of its intended effect 
on the ambassador, who would not submit 
to the etiquette prescribing the delivery of 
his letters into the hands of the chancellor, 
but insisted upon his right to give them to 
the emperor himself. The czar, irritated by 
the assertion of Elizabeth's equality with the 
French and Spanish kings, lost all patience 
when Bowes, to his question ' What of the 
emperor ? ' replied that her father had the 
emperor in his pay. He hinted that Bowes 
might be thrown out of the window, and 
received for answer that the queen would 
know how to revenge any injury done to her 
ambassador. Ivan's anger gave place to ad- 
miration, and he renewed his proposal of an 
alliance with one of the queen's kinsfolk. 
But he died soon after, and the Dutch anti- 
English faction came into power. M. Ram- 
baud, in his ' History of Russia,' has blamed 
Bowes for clumsiness and want of tact ; but 
his diplomacy seems to have been suited to 
the barbaric court, and his misfortunes are 



more justly attributed to the death of the 
czar. He was imprisoned, threatened, and 
at last dismissed in a fashion strongly con- 
trasting with the splendour of his recep- 
tion. When ready to embark he sent back 
the new emperor's letters and ' paltry present ' 
by ' some of his valiantest and discreetest 
men,' who safely fulfilled their dangerous 

The subsequent life of Bowes has left few 
traces. In a report by the lord chief baron 
of the exchequer he appears in a discreditable 
light, as having fraudulently dealt with a 
will under which he claimed (the record 
is undated, but assigned to 1587 in the Cal. 
State Papers, Domestic). On 5 Feb. 1592 a 
special license is granted him to make drink- 
ing-glasses in England and Ireland for twelve 
years, and in 1597 ' the inhabitants of St. 
Ann, Blackfriars, built a fair warehouse under 
the isle ' for his use, and also gave him 133/. 
{Notes and Queries, 1st series, x. 349). In 
1607 he was living at Charing Cross, as ap- 
pears by an account of a robbery and murder 
committed at his house there. ' A true re- 
port of the horrible murder ... in the house 
of Sir Jerome Bowes on 22 Feb. 1606' (Lon- 
don, 1607), tells the story in great detail, 
with many invectives against Brownists, to 
which sect one of the murderers belonged. 
The culprits were apprehended on suspicion 
at Chester, and the lords of the council gave 
directions for the restitution of their plunder 
to Bowes (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. 381). 

Bowes was buried on 28 March 1616 in 
Hackney Church. A portrait of him, painted 
in the year of his embassy, is in the posses- 
sion of the Earl of Suifolk at Charlton, and 
was in the National Portrait Exhibition of 
1866 (No. 400 in Cat.) 

[Authorities as above.] R. C. B, 

BOWES, JOHN (1690-1767), lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, born in 1690, studied law at 
London with Philip Yorke, subsequently Lord 
Hardwicke. Bowes was called to the bar in 
England in 1718, and in Ireland in 1725. He 
was appointed third serjeant-at-law there in 
1727, solicitor-general in 1730, and through 
government influence became,in 1731, member 
of parliament for the borough of Taghmon, in 
the county of Wexford. He was appointed 
attorney-general for Ireland in 1739, and be- 
fore a court of high commission at Dublin in 
that year displayed great eloquence and legal 
acquirements at the trial of Lord Santry for 
murder. In 1741 Bowes was appointed chief 
baron of the exchequer in Ireland. He pre- 
sided at the remarkable trial at bar between 
James Annesley and Richard, earl of Angle- 
sey, which continued from 11 Nov. 1743 to 

the 25th of the same month [see ANNESLEY, 
JAMES]. A mezzotinto portrait of Bowes as 
chief baron was executed by John Brooks. 
Through the influence of Lord Hardwicke, 
Bowes was promoted to the chancellorship 
of Ireland in 1757, and took his seat as chair- 
man of the House of Lords in October in that 
year. In 1758 the title of Baron of Clonlyon, 
in the county of Meath, was conferred upon 
him. Mrs. Delany, who met Bowes in May 
1759, wrote that he was at that time ' in a 
miserable state of health, with legs bigger 
considerably at the ankle than at the calf.' 
In the same year, during the riot at Dublin 
against the proposed union of Ireland with 
England, Bowes was taken out of his coach 
by the populace at the entrance to the par- 
liament house, and compelled to swear that 
he would oppose the measure. Bowes was 
averse to relaxation of penal laws against 
Irish catholics. He continued in office as 
chancellor on the accession of George III. 
Bowes promoted the publication of an edition 
of the ' Statutes of Ireland,' which was printed 
by the government in 1762 under the super- 
intendence of Francis Vesey. According to 
Vesey, in his dedication of this work to 
Bowes, the latter had made the high court of 
chancery ' a terror to fraud, and a protection 
and comfort to every honest man.' Bowes 
acted as a lord justice in Ireland in 1765 and 
1766. The House of Lords in 1766 passed a 
resolution to present an address to the crown 
for a grant of one thousand pounds to Chan- 
cellor Bowes, in addition to his customary 
allowance, in consideration of his ' particular 
merit and faithful services ' during that ses- 
sion of parliament. The faculties of Bowes 
are stated to have been unimpaired when he 
died in office as lord justice in July 1767. He 
was interred in Christ Church, Dublin, where 
a marble monument, including a bas-relief of 
his bust, was erected to him in that cathedral 
by his brother, Rumsey Bowes of Binfield, 

[Rolls of Chancery, Ireland, George I, 
George II ; Journals of Lords and Commons, 
Ireland, 1731-67; Dublin Freeman's Journal, 
1767; Annual Register, 1767; Statutes of Ire- 
land, vol. i. 1786 ; Berkeley's Literary Relics, 
1789; Hist, of King's Inns, Ireland, 1806; 
Hardy s Life of Lord Charlemont, 1810 ; Hist, of 
City of Dublin, 1854-59; Autobiography of Mrs. 
Delany, 1861 ; Dormant and Extinct Peerages, 
1866 ; Reports Hist. MSS. Commission, 1881-84.] 

J. T. G. 

BOWES, JOHN (1804-1874), preacher, 
was born at Swineside, Coverdale, in Cover- 
ham parish, Yorkshire, on 12 June 1804, the 
son of parents in very humble circumstances. 
While still in his teens he began preaching, 




iirst among theWesleyans, then as a primitive 
methodist minister. About 1830 he separated 
himself from that body, and, renouncing all 

ry appellations, started a mission at Dun- 
where he was joined by Mr. (afterwards 
Dr.) Jabez Burns. Bowes subsequently left 
Dundee and went from town to town, preach- 
ing in the open air or wherever he could 
gather a congregation, but he always declined 
to take part in a service at which money was 
taken, as he could not think of ' saddling the 
gospel with a collection.' He was several 
times prosecuted for street preaching, and 
often suffered privations in his journeyings. 
He was an earnest and vigorous platform 
.speaker, ever ready to combat w T ith social- 
ists, freethinkers, or Roman catholics. With 
like ardour he entered into the advocacy of 
temperance and of peace, and in 1848 was 
one of the representatives of England at the 
Brussels Peace congress. During the greater 
portion of his life he refused to accept a salary 
for his ministrations, and he seems to have 
.supported himself and family chiefly by the 
sale of his own tracts and books. He died 
.-at Dundee on 23 Sept. 1874, aged 70. 

His publications consist of some 220 tracts ; 
two series of magazines the ' Christian 
Magazine ' and the ' Truth Promoter ' is- 
sued between 1842 and 1874 ; pamphlets on 
4 The Errors of the Church of Home,' ' Mor- 
monism exposed,' ' Second Coming of Christ,' 
' The Ministry,' &c. ; discussions with Lloyd 
Jones, G. J. Holyoake, Joseph Barker, C. 
Southwell, W. Woodman, and T. H. Milner ; 
.a volume on ' Christian Union' (1835, 310 
pages) ; a translation by himself of the New 
Testament (1870) ; and his ' Autobiography ' 
(1872). His son, Robert Aitken Bowes, was 
editor of the ( Bolton Guardian,' and died on 
7 Nov. 1879, aged 42. 

[Autobiography or History of the Life of John 
Bowes, 1872; Alliance News, 10 Oct. 1874; 
G. J. Holyoake's History of Co-operation, i. 
326; Old South-East Lancashire, 1880, p. 40.1 

C. W. S. 

BOWES, MARMADUKE (d. 1585), ca- 
tholic martyr, is described as a substantial 
Yorkshire yeoman, of Angram Grange, near 
Appleton, in Cleveland. He was much divided 
on religious questions, but refused to declare 
himself a catholic, although he sympathised 
strongly with the catholic cause. According 
to the recollections of Grace, wife of Sir Ralph 
Babthorpe of Babthorpe, Yorkshire, Bowes 
was a married man, and l kept a schoolmaster 
to teach his children.' The tutor, himself a 
-catholic, was arrested and apostatised. The 
fellow thereupon reported to the council at 
York that Bowes, who, according to catholic 

testimony, was * no catholic, but a poor schis- 
matic,' was in the habit of entertaining ca- 
tholic priests. Bowes was summoned to 
answer this complaint, and was ordered to 
appear at the August assizes of 1585. There 
he was indicted, condemned, and hanged, 
' and, as it was reported, in his boots and 
spurs as he came to the town. He died very 
willingly and professed his faith [i.e. was 
openly converted to Catholicism], with great 
repentance that he had lived in schism.' He 
suffered on 17 Nov. 1585 under the recent 
statute (27 Eliz.) against harbouring priests. 
Hugh Taylor, a seminary priest, who had 
stayed with him some time previously, was 
hanged about the same time. 

[Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 
i. 244, iii. passim; Dodd's Church History, ii. 154 ; 
Challoner's Missionary Priests, i. 85.] S. L. L. 

BOWES, SIE MARTIN (1500P-1666), 
lord mayor of London and sub-treasurer of 
the Mint, was son and heir of Thomas Bowes 
of York. Early in life he became a well- 
known jeweller and goldsmith in London, 
and had large transactions with the Mint. 
In 1530 he acted as deputy for Robert Ama- 
das, deputy of Lord Mountjoy, ' keeper of the 
exchange,' and in April 1533 received a 
| grant of the office of master and worker of the 
i king's moneys, and keeper of the change in 
j the Tower of London with his friend Ralph 
Rowlet 'in survivorship.' Strype states that 
in January 1550-1 he surrendered the post 
of sub-treasurer of the Mint, and was found 
to be 10,000/. in debt to the king. But the 
government were well enough satisfied with 
' his honest and faithful managery of his 
place ' to grant him an annuity of 200 marks 
in addition to the pension of 66Z. 13s. 4<?. 
already granted him by Henry VIII. He 
was an alderman of the city, and was elected 
sheriff of London in 1540 and lord mayor in 
1545. In June 1546 he examined the re- 
puted heretic Anne Askew [q. v.] in the 
Guildhall, and committed her to the Counter 
(Narratives of the Reformation, Camd. Soc. 
pp. 40-1). He was a liveryman of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, and was a constant guest 
at the feasts of the other city companies, and 
a generous benefactor to his own company. 
He bequeathed to the latter the houses in 
Lombard Street where Messrs. Glyn's bank- 
ing-house now stands. 

Bowes died on 4 Aug. 1566, and was buried 
in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, Lom- 
bard Street, beneath ' a goodly marble close 
tombe under the communion table.' By his 
will dated 20 Sept. 1562 he left lands to dis- 
charge the ward of Langbourne ' of all fiftenes 
to bee granted to the king by parliament/ 



and founded almshouses at Woolwich, where 
he had a house and lands. He established 
a yearly sermon on St. Martin's day at the 
church of St. Mary Woolnoth. A broad- 
sheet entitled ' The epethaphe of syr Marten 
Bowes ' was licensed for the press soon after 
his death, but no copy is known (ARBER'S 
Transcript, i.) 

Bowes was thrice married : (1) to Cicely 
Elyot ; (2) to one Anne , who, dying on 
19 Oct. 1553, was buried with heraldic cere- 
mony (22 Oct.) at St. Mary Woolnoth, 
Lombard Street (Harl. MS. 897 f. 13 b ; Ma- 
chyn's Diary, Camd. Soc. pp. 46, 335) ; and 
(3) to Elizabeth Harlow. By his first wife 
Bowes had two sons, Thomas and Martin. Jo- 
anna, a daughter of Bowes, married George 
Heton of Heton, Lancashire, and was mother 
of Martin Heton, bishop of Ely (STRYPE, 
Annals, 8vo, iv. 490). 

A contemporary portrait of Bowes (' a 
1566 set. suse 66 ') still hangs in the commit- 
tee-room of Goldsmiths' Hall, and a cup pre- 
sented by him to the same company is still 
extant, and has been engraved in H. Shaw's 
' Decorative Arts.' 

[Visitations of Essex, pub. by Harl. Soc. 
xiii. 27 ; Redpath's Border History ; Surtees's 
Hist, of Durham, i. 236, iv. 117 ; Stow's London, 
ed. Strype ; Herbert's Livery Companies, ii. 143, 
247 ; Malcolm's Londinium Rediv. ii. 411 ; 
Strype's Memorials, n. i. 424-5, ii. 216 ; Brewer's 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII ; notes sup- 
plied by Mr, H. H. S. Crofts.] S. L. L. 

OP STRATHMORE (1749-1800), was the daugh- 
ter and sole heiress of George Bowes, M.P., 
of Streatlam and Gibside in the county of 
Durham, the head of a family well known in 
border warfare [see BOWES, SIR WILLIAM]. 
After some flirtations with the brother of 
the Duke of Buccleuch, she was married on 
24 Feb. 1767 to John Lyon, ninth earl of 
Strathmore. He was born at Houghton-le- 
Spring on 16 Aug. 1737, and after his mar- 
riage obtained an act of parliament which 
enabled him to take his wife's surname. In 
the same year he was elected a represen- 
tative peer of Scotland. Three sons and 
two daughters were the fruits of this union. 
Lord Strathmore died on 7 March 1776, 
whilst on a voyage to Lisbon. After his 
death the widow had several suitors, and 
the Hon. George Grey was thought to be 
the favoured man. His 'Turkish Tale' is 
said to have been written for her entertain- 
ment. Her conduct was not very discreet, 
and some paragraphs reflecting on her cha- 
racter appeared in the ' Morning Post,' then 
controlled by < Parson Bate ' (the Rev. Sir 

Henry Bate Dudley), who went through a, 
sham duel with another suitor, Andrew Ro- 
binson Stoney. This adventurer induced her 
to marry him on 17 Jan. 1777. Stoney was 
a bankrupt lieutenant on half-pay, who had 
wasted the fortune acquired with a previous 
wife, Hannah Newton of Newcastle. In the 
following month he assumed his wife's sur- 
name of Bowes, and found that when en- 
gaged to Mr. Grey the countess had executed 
a deed securing her estates to herself. This 
she had made known to Grey, who supped 
with her the night before her marriage, but 
not to her husband, who by cruelty induced 
her to make a deed of revocation. John 
Hunter was a witness to this document, 
which was executed at the dinner-table. Two 
children were born of this marriage, one of 
whom, William Johnstone Bowes, lieutenant 
in the royal navy, was lost with Sir Thomas 
Trowbridge in the Blenheim in 1807. Lady 
Strathmore's influence secured her husband's 
election as M.P. for Newcastle in 1780. He 
was nominated in 1777, and petitioned against 
Sir John Trevelyan, but lost the election. 
He was also sheriff of Newcastle. Bowes 
treated his wife with barbarity and was un- 
faithful to her. She instituted proceedings 
in the ecclesiastical courts for a divorce, and 
escaped from her husband, against whom 
she exhibited articles of the peace in the 
court of king's bench on 7 Feb. 1785. On 
10 Nov. 1786 she left her house in Blooms- 
bury Square to call on business at a Mr. 
Foster's in Oxford Street, when she was ab- 
ducted by a gang of men in the pay of her 
husband. At Highgate Bowes made his 
appearance. Lady Strathmore was hurried 
off to Straithland Castle. After much bru- 
tal ill-treatment she was rescued by some 
husbandmen and taken back to London by 
her deliverers. Bowes and his colleagues 
were convicted of conspiracy and sentenced 
on 26 June 1787 to a fine of 300/., imprison- 
ment of three years, and to find securities for 
good behaviour for fourteen years. The deed 
by which she had placed her estates under 
the control of Bowes was invalidated on 
the ground of duress on 19 May 1788. The 
court of delegates made a decree of divorce 
on 2 March 1789 against A. R. Bowes. On 
the following day the lord chancellor pro- 
nounced in favour of the validity of the deed 
executed before marriage by Lady Strath- 
more, who was thus restored to the control 
of her own fortune. Bowes became in 1790 
an inmate of the king's bench prison, but in 
the following year behaved creditably during 
a riot in the prison, and his imprisonment was 
relaxed. Lady Strathmore died at Christ- 
church, Hampshire, on 28 April 1800, and 




was buried in Westminster Abbey, arrayed 
In ' a superb bridal dress.' Her persecutor 
survived her until 16 Jan. 1810. There are 
engraved portraits of both husband and wife. 
Lady Strathmore wrote : 1. ' The Siege of 
Jerusalem,' 1774. A few copies only were 
printed to be given away. 2. l The Confes- 
sions of the Countess of Strathmore : written 
by herself. Carefully copied from the originals 
lodged in Doctors' Commons,' London, 1793. 
This appears to have been extorted by her 

[Gent. Mag. Ivi. 991, 993, 1079, Ivii. 88, lix. 
269, lx. 665, Ixx. 488 ; Surtees's History of Dur- 
ham, iv. 1 09 ; Baker's Biographia Dramatica ; 
Martin's Catalogue of Privately Printed Books ; 
Full and Accurate Keport of Trial between Ste- 
phens, Trustee to E. Bowes, and A. R. Bowes, 
1788; Eeport of the Proceedings in the High 
Court of Chancery in the matter of Andrew 
Robinson Bowes, 1804 ; Foot's Lives of Andrew 
Robinson Bowes and the Countess of Strath- 
more, 1810.] W. E. A. A. 

Mrs. Bowes died in 1706. The eldest son, 
Martin, born in London, was also a pensioner 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
was admitted 16 April 1686, at the age of 
sixteen, but left without taking a degree. 
He married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Edward Thurland of Reigate, Surrey, and 
afterwards settled at Bury St. Edmund's, 
Suffolk, where he died in 1726. His second 
daughter, Ann, became, in 1732, the wife of 
Philip Broke of Nacton. 

[Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir 
', Simonds D'Ewes, ii. 17-18; Admissions to the 
College of St. John the Evangelist, ed. J. E. B. 
Mayor, p. 98; Admission Book of Middle Temple; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 70, vii. 517, 3rd 
ser. v. 247, 330; St. Dunstan's Register; Hut- 
chins's Dorsetshire, 3rd ed. i. 421 ; Morant's 
Essex, i. 250, 442, ii. 36 ; Wills reg. in P. C. C. 
91 Bath, HOEedes, 177 Plymouth; Harl. MSS. 
374, if. 315, 316, 1542, f. 148 ; Page's Supple- 
ment to Suffolk Traveller, p. 61 ; Gent. Mag. iii. 
45.] G. GK 

BOWES, PAUL (d. 1702), editor of 
D'Ewes's ' Journals,' was the second son of 
Sir Thomas Bowes, knight, of Great Bromley, 
Essex, the notorious witch-persecutor, by 
Mary, third daughter of Paul D'Ewes, one 
of the six clerks in chancery. He was born 
at Great Bromley, and after being educated 
in the school at Moulton, Norfolk, was ad- 
mitted a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 21 Dec. 1650. He took no de- 
gree ; indeed, he does not appear to have ma- 
triculated. Having fixed on the law for his 
future profession, he was on 12 May 1654 
entered of the Middle Temple, and being 
called to the bar by that society 10 May 
1661, became a bencher on 24 Oct. 1679. 
In addition to his professional acquirements, 
he possessed a taste for history and anti- 
quities, and he edited the manuscript work 
of his celebrated uncle, Sir Simonds D'Ewes, 
entitled * The Journals of all the Parliaments 
during the Reign of Queen t Elizabeth, both 
of the House of Lords and 'House of Com- 
mons,' folio, London, 1682. Other editions 
appeared in 1693 and 1708. Bowes was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society 30 Nov. 
1699, and, dying in June 1702, was buried 
3 July at St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, Fleet 
Street. By his wife Bridget, daughter of 
Thomas Sturges of the Middle Temple, he 
left issue three sons and two daughters. 
His will, dated 5 Aug. 1699 (with two co- 
dicils dated 17 April and 12 Aug. 1701), 
was proved by his widow and sole executrix, 
16 July 1702. Besides property in Lincoln- 
shire, Suffolk, and Essex, he was possessed, 
in 1700, of the manor of Rushton, Stokeford, 
and Binnegar in East Stoke, Dorsetshire. 

BOWES, SIR ROBERT (1495 P-1554), 
military commander and lawyer, son of Sir 
Ralph Bowes and Marjory Conyers of South 
Cowton, Yorkshire, studied law in his early 
years, but his ancestral connection with the 
borders marked him out for employment in 
border affairs, where he did active service. 
In 1536 he was in the royal army against 
the Pilgrimage of Grace, and carried to the 
king the petition of the rebels. In 1541 he 
was specially summoned to London to advise 
the privy council about Scottish business. In 
1542 he accompanied the Duke of Norfolk 
on his plundering raid into Scotland, and 
was sent with 3,000 men to harry Jed- 
burgh. He was attacked on his way and was 
made prisoner, but soon released. In 1550 
he was made warden of the east and middle 
marches, and in this office left a valuable 
record of his administrative capacity. At the 
request of the warden general, Henry, mar- 
quis of Dorset, he drew up ' A Book of the 
State of the Frontiers and Marches betwixt 
England and Scotland.' This record is the 
chief authority for the state of the border 
country in the sixteenth century. It de- 
scribes the nature of the land, its military 
organisation, the condition of the fortresses, 
the number of the garrisons, and besides 
gives much information about the character 
of the borderers. As Bowes was a lawyer 
as well as a soldier, he added to his survey 
of the country a legal treatise on the adminis- 
tration of the complicated system of inter- 
national law by which disputes between 
the borderers of England and Scotland were 
settled. His treatise of 'The Forme and 
Order of a Day of Truce ' explains the 



formalities to be used in the execution of 
justice in the combined court of the wardens 
of England and Scotland. We are not sur- 
prised that a man of such powers of ad- 
ministration was needed for weighty matters. 
In June 1551 he was one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to make a convention with 
Scotland. In the following September he 
was made a member of the privy council, 
and next year he was appointed master of 
the rolls. His signature is affixed as one of 
the witnesses of Edward VI's will, and he 
was a member of the short-lived council of 
the Lady Jane Grey. The council soon found 
its position to be impossible. On 19 July 
1553 Bowes signed a letter to Lord Rich 
on Jane's behalf. On 20 July he signed an 
order to the Duke of Northumberland bid- 
ding him disarm (Queen Jane and Queen 
Mary, Camd. Soc. 1851, p. 109). On the 
accession of Queen Mary Bowes was not 
disgraced. He held office as master of the 
rolls for two months, and then resigned of 
his own accord. In 1554 he was ordered 
by the privy council to repair to Berwick 
and assist Lord Conyers in organising the 
defences of the border, and received from 
the queen a grant of 100/. Soon after his 
return from this duty he died. He married 
Alice, daughter of Sir James Metcalfe of 
Nappa, near Richmond, but left no surviving 

Bowes's ' Survey of the Border ' is printed 
in Hodgson's ' Northumberland,' ii. pt. v. 171, 
&c., where, besides the survey of 1551, there 
is given in the note an earlier one of 1542 
made by Bowes and Sir Ralph Elleker. The 
latter one is more detailed and is more full 
of interest. It is also printed in ' Reprints 
of Rare Tracts,' vol. iv. Newcastle, 1849, and 
in a private issue of the Border Club, 1838. 
The ' Form of Holding a Day of Truce ' is 
partially printed in the same issue of the 
Border Club, and extracts are given in 
Raine's ' North Durham,' xxii. There are 
three manuscripts, one in the Record Office 
(State Papers Edward VI, iv. No. 30), and 
two in the British Museum (Caligula B. viii. 
f. 106, and Titus F. xiii. f. 160). The last 
is most perfect. 

[Foss's Judges of England, v. 354 ; Sharp's 
Memorials of the Rebellion, 370 ; Surtees's 
Durham, iv. 112.] M. C. 

BOWES, ROBERT (1535 P-1597), Eng- 
lish ambassador to Scotland, fifth son of Rich- 
ard Bowes and Elizabeth Aske [see BOWES, 
ELIZABETH], married first Anne, daughter of 
Sir George Bowes of Dalden, and in 1566 
Eleanor, daughter of Sir Richard Musgrave 
of Eden Hall. He served under his father 

in the defence of the borders. In 1569 he 
was sheriff of the county palatine of Durham, 
and helped his brother, Sir George Bowes 
[q. v.], to hold Barnard Castle against the 
rebel earls. Afterwards he was sent in com- 
mand of a troop of horse to protect the west 
marches. In 1571 he was elected M.P. for 
Carlisle. In 1575 he was appointed treasurer 
of Berwick, and in this capacity had many 
dealings with the Scottish court. In 1577 
he was appointed ambassador in Scotland, 
where he had a difficult task to perform. 
His object was to counteract the influence of 
France, retain a hold on James VI, keep 
together a party that was favourable to 
\ England, and promote disunion among the 
Scottish nobles. His letters to Burghley, 
i Walsingham, and Leicester are of the greatest 
\ importance for a knowledge of Scottish affairs 
I between 1577 and 1583. In 1578 he managed 
by his tact to compose a quarrel between Mor- 
I ton and the privy council which threatened 
to plunge Scotland into civil war (BOWES'S 
Correspondence, 6, 11). In 1581 he was busily 
employed in endeavouring to counteract the 
growing influence of Esme Stewart, lord of 
Aubigne, over James VI. He witnessed the 
events which led to the raid of Ruthven and 
D'Aubigne's fall. He tried hard to gain 
possession of the casket letters, which after 
Morton's death were said to have come into 
the hands of the Earl of Gowrie, but his 
attempts failed. He was weary of his arduous 
task in Scotland, and managed to procure his 
recall in 1583. But he still held the post of 
treasurer of Berwick, and was often em- 
ployed on diplomatic missions in Scotland, 
though the affairs were not afterwards of 
so much importance. Like his brother, Sir 
George, he worked for the penurious Elizabeth 
at his own cost, and was rewarded by no sub- 
stantial tokens of the royal gratitude. Ha 
wrote in 1596 : ' I shall either purchase my 
liberty, or at least lycence to come to my 
house for a tyme to put in order my broken 
estate before the end of my dayes.' This satis- 
faction was, however, denied him. Elizabeth 
held him at his post, and he died in Berwick 
in 1597. 

[The letters of Robert Bowes are published 
by Stevenson, ' The Correspondence of Robert 
Bowes, of Aske, Esquire' (Surtees Soc. 1842). 
For his life see Stevenson's Preface, and Sharp's 
Memorials of the Rebellion, p. 30.] M. C. 

BOWES, THOMAS (fi. 1586), translated 
into English the first and second parts of the 
' French Academy,' a moral and philosophical 
treatise written by Peter of Primaudaye, a 
French writer of the latter half of the six- 
teenth century. The translation of the first 



part was published in 1586, and seems to have 
met with immediate popularity, for a fifth 
edition was issued in 1614. Along with the 
third edition in 1594 was published the trans- 
lation of the second part. To both parts 
Bowes prefixes a letter to the reader, and in 
the longer of the two, prefixed to the second 
part, J. Payne Collier detects allusions to 
Marlowe, Greene, and Nash. The allusion 
to Marlowe can scarcely be maintained if the 
second part appeared for the first time in the 
1594 edition ; for Marlowe, who, if indeed he 
is meant, is alluded to as living, died in 1593. 
Bowes is denouncing the prevalence of athe- 
istic and licentious literature, and after giving 
as an instance Ligneroles, a French atheist, 
goes on to quote from English imitators, but 
gives no names. He ends by denouncing 
lying romances about Arthur and Huon of 
Bordeaux. J. Payne Collier, in the ' Poeti- 
cal Decameron,' discusses the whole passage. 
There is an edition of the third part of the 
' Academy,' englished by R. Dolman, pub- 
lished in 1601. Strype mentions a certain 
Thomas Bowes, M.A., of Queens' College, 
Cambridge, whom some have identified with 
the translator. 

[Brit. Mus. Catalogue ; Collier's Poetical De- 
cameron, ii. 271 ; Collier's Extracts from Registers 
of Stationers' Company, ii. 198 ; Strype's An- 
nales Reform, iii. 1, 645, Oxford, 1824; Nouvelle 
Biographie Grenerale, xxix. n. article ' La Pri- 
maudaye.'] R. B. 

BOWES, SIB WILLIAM (1389-1460?), 
military commander, was the founder of the 
political importance of his family. He was 
the son of Sir Robert Bowes, and of Maude, 
lady of Dalden. He married Jane, daughter 
of Ralph, lord Greystoke. His wife died in 
the first year of her marriage, whereon ' he 
toke much thoght and passed into France ' 
about the year 1415. He showed much gal- 
lantry in the French war, and so commended 
himself to John, duke of Bedford, whom he 
served as chamberlain. He fought at the battle 
of Verneuil, where he was knighted. While 
in France he was impressed with the archi- 
tecture of the country, and sent home plans 
for rebuilding his manor house at Streatlam, 
near Barnard Castle. He returned from 
France after seventeen years' service and 
superintended his buildings at Streatlam, 
which unfortunately have been entirely de- 
stroyed. After his return he took part in 
the government of the borders, as warden of 
the middle marches and governor of Berwick. 
He died at a good old age, and is known in 
the family records as * Old Sir William.' 

[Surtees's Durham, iv. 102 : Leland's Itinerary 
(ed. 1744),iv. 9.] M. C. 

BOWET, HENRY, LL.D. (d. 1423), 
bishop of Bath and Wells, and subsequently 
archbishop of York, was apparently a mem- 
ber of a knightly family that, about his time, 
migrated from the north to the eastern coun- 
ties (BLOMEFIELB, Hist, of Norfolk, x. 434-5; 
cf. Harleian MS. 6164, 92 b). His father was- 
buried at Penrith, his mother in Lincolnshire. 
His kinsfolk mostly lived in Westmoreland 
(Testamenta Eboracensia, i. 398). The date 
and place of his birth, the university in which 
he studied civil and canon law, and of which 
he became a doctor, are, with the time of his- 
ordination, equally unknown. He seems to 
have practised law in the ecclesiastical courts 
(ADAM or USE, p. 63), and to have become 
clerk to the warlike Bishop Spencer of Nor- 
wich, whom he accompanied on his unlucky 
crusade to Flanders. On the bishop's im- 
peachment in 1383, after his return, Bowet 
gave evidence before parliament that tended 
to clear his patron of the charge of receiving 
bribes from the French (Rot. Part. iii. 152 a). 
A few years later he appears at Rome as a 
chaplain of Urban VI and auditor of causes 
in the court of the apostolic chamber (RYMEK, 
vii. 569). In 1385 he was the only English- 
man at the papal court who had courage to 
remain with Urban after the riots at Luceria, 
in which an Englishman named Alleyn 
was slain (WALSINGHAM, ii. 124). Early in 
February 1388 he acted as Richard IPs agent 
in an important negotiation with the pope r 
but had not sufficient powers from his master 
to complete the affair. He must then have 
returned to England, where already in 1386 
he had been appointed archdeacon and pre- 
bendary of Lincoln. A namesake was at 
this time the archdeacon of Richmond ( Test. 
Ebor. i. 390). That he was high in the 
confidence of Richard II is shown by his 
being excepted in 1388 by the Merciless 
Parliament from the pardon which they is- 
sued at the end of their work of proscribing 
the king's friends (Eot. Parl. iii. 249 b). It 
is not easy to understand Bowet's subsequent 
movements. He seems to have been pri- 
marily anxious for advancement, and with 
that object to have transferred his services 
to the house of Lancaster. In 1393 he was, 
with others, appointed to negotiate with the 
king of Castile, still on bad terms with Eng- 
land (RYMEK, vii. 743, mispaged 739). On 
19 July 1397 Bowet was made chief jus- 
tice of the superior court of Aquitaine (ib. 
viii. 7), and on 23 July 1398 constable of 
Bordeaux (ib. viii. 43). In the latter year, 
Henry of Bolingbroke, Bowet's patron, was 
banished from England, but obtained per- 
mission to appoint a proxy to receive his 
inheritance in the event of the death of his 


6 4 


father, Lancaster. Bowet seems to have as- 
sisted Henry in obtaining this. When Lan- 
caster died, however, in January 1399, Richard 
revoked his grant, and procured Bo wet's 
condemnation in the committee of parlia- 
ment at Shrewsbury. As the counsellor and 
abettor of Bolingbroke, Bowet was declared 
a traitor, and sentenced to execution ; this 
sentence, however, was commuted into per- 
petual banishment in consideration of his 
clergy (Rot. Parl. iii. 385). His archdeaconry 
was taken away from him and conferred on 
another. After the accession of Henry IV, 
Bowet was rewarded for his fidelity to the 
new king by restoration to his old preferment 
at Lincoln, along with the profits that had 
.accrued during his deprivation ; by a pre- 
bend at London ; by lavish grants of land, 
houses, rents, and tolls in Aquitaine ; and by 
his appointment in May 1400 as one of the 
four regents to whom the new king entrusted 
the government of his possessions in southern 
France (RYMER, viii. 141). His presence 
being required in England, where he became, 
says Dr. Stubbs, Henry's confidential agent, 
he was allowed to appoint a deputy to dis- 
charge his duties in Aquitaine. In 1400 a 
majority of the chapters of Bath and Wells 
elected him at the royal request as their 
bishop, but Boniface IX provided another 
minister of Henry's, Richard Clifford, keeper 
of the privy seal, for the vacant see. A diffi- 
culty arose, although Clifford, at the king's 
command, declined to accept the illegal pre- 
ferment. At last matters were settled by the 
death of the bishop of Worcester. Clifford 
was transferred to that see, and the pope 
now issued a provision appointing Bowet to 
Wells (19 Aug. 1401). He was consecrated 
at St. Paul's on 20 Nov. (ADAM or USE:, 
p. 63 ; WALSINOHAM, ii. 247 ; Annales Ric. II 
et Hen. IV, 334 ; Anglia Sacra, i. 571). 

The appointment of a suffragan perhaps 
.showed that Bowet was still mainly de- 
voted to cares of state. On 27 Feb. 1402 he 
became treasurer, though he did not hold 
that post very long. He was constantly em- 
ployed, however, by Henry in various capa- 
cities. In 1403, on a special embassy, he 
concluded a truce with France (TROKELOWE, 
Annales Hen. IV, p. 372). In 1403, 1404, 
1406, and 1407, he was a trier of petitions 
(Rot. Parl. iii.) In 1404 he was one of the 
king's council nominated in parliament. In 
1406 he swore to observe Henry's settlement 
of the succession. His name appears con- 
.stantly in the proceed ings of the privy council. 
In 1406 he accompanied the court to Lynn, 
and was thence despatched on an important- 
mission to Denmark, to escort Philippa, the 
king's daughter, to the home of her intended 

husband Eric, the heir of the famous Mar- 
garet, who had united the three Scandina- 
vian kingdoms. His report of the young 
king's character and the condition of his 
country is full of interest (Annales Hen. IV. 
p. 420). 

Bowet had scarcely returned from his 
Danish embassy when he was translated to 
York by papal provision, after the arch- 
bishopric, vacant since the execution of Scrope, 
had been unoccupied for two years and a 
half. He was enthroned on 9 Dec. 1407. 
With increasing age and with i nportant 
duties in the north Bowet seems henceforth 
to have had less to do with the court. He 
was still often in parliament, where in 1413, 
1414, 1415, and 1416 he was again trier of 
petitions, but he was employed on no more 
embassies, and his name appears less often 
in the proceedings of the council. It is re- 
markable that the registers of the arch- 
bishopric, till then full of documents of 
public interest, assume a new aspect under 
Bowet, and henceforth contain little but the 
ordinary proceedings of the diocese (RAINE, 
Northern Registers, p. xiv, Rolls Ser.) The 
inventory of his property (printed in ' Testa- 
menta Eboracensia,' iii. 69) shows him to have 
been possessed of very considerable wealth. 
He acquired a great reputation for a hospitality 
and sumptuous housekeeping that consumed 
eighty tuns of claret yearly. He built the 
great hall at Cawood and a new kitchen at 
Ottley, and was a liberal benefactor to his 
cathedral (GODWIN", De Prcesulibus ; RAINE, 
Fabric Rolls of York Minster). In 1411 he 
had a suit against the archbishop of Can- 
terbury with respect to the right of visitation 
of Queen's College, Oxford, which seems to 
have resulted in a compromise (Rot. Parl. 
iii. 652 b}. 

In 1410 he showed his zeal against Lol- 
lardy by acting as one of Aruiidel's assistants 
at the trial of Badby (FoxE, iii. 235), and in 
1421 he wrote a strong letter to the king 
against another heretic named John Tailor 
or Bilton (MS. Harl. 421). It was not 
until 1414 that he saw the last of a trouble- 
some suit with Sir W. Farenden, which had 
originated when he was regent of Guienne. 
He was one of Henry IV's executors, and 
sat on a commission appointed to pay that 
monarch's debts. He had himself lent Henry 
various sums of money, sometimes at least 
on good security. In 1417 the Scots profited 
by Henry V's absence in Normandy to in- 
vade the borders. Bowet, though advanced 
in years and so infirm that he could only be 
carried in a litter, resolved to accompany the 
army of defence with his clergy. His bravery, 
patriotism, and loyalty largely encouraged 



the English to victory. He died on 20 Oct. 
1423, and was buried at the east end of York 
minster, opposite the tomb of his ill-fated 

[Anglia Sacra ; Walsingham ; Kymer ; Eolls 
of Parliament ; Proceedings of Privy Council ; 
Annales Kic. II et Hen. IV, ed. Eiley ; Adam of 
Usk, ed. Thompson ; Memorials of Henry V, ed. 
Cole ; G-esta Henrici V, ed. Williams ; Hingeston's 
Koyal and Historical Letters under ' Henry IV ; ' 
Torr's MS. collections at York are often referred 
to as a great source of information ; there are 
original brief lives of Bowet by a Canon of Wells 
(Anglia Sacra, i. 571), and by the continuator of 
Thomas Stubbs; short modern lives are to be 
found in Godwin's De Prsesulibus and Cassan's 
Bishops of Bath and Wells; Le Neve's Fasti 
Ecclesise Anglicanae ; Drake's Eboracum. Bowet's 
will is printed in Kaine's Testamenta Eboracensia 
(Surtees Soc.), i. 398-402.] T. F. T. 

BOWIE, JAMES (d. 1853), botanist, was 
born in London, and entered the service of the 
Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1810. In 1814 he was 
appointed botanical collector to the gardens in 
conjunction with Allan Cunningham. They 
went to Brazil, where they remained two 
years, making collections of plants and seeds. 
In 1817 Bowie was ordered to proceed to the 
Cape ; here he worked with much energy, 
taking journeys into the interior, and send- 
ing home large collections of living and dried 
plants, as well as of drawings ; the last are in 
the Kew herbarium, the dried specimens for 
the most part in the British Museum. A vote 
of the House of Commons having reduced the 
sum granted for botanical collectors, Bowie 
was recalled in 1823, taking up his residence 
at Kew. After four years of inactivity he set 
out again for the Cape, where he was for 
some years gardener to Baron Ludwig of 
Ludwigsberg. He became a correspondent 
of Dr. Harvey, who, in dedicating to him 
the genus Bowiea, says ' by many years of 
patient labour in the interior of South Africa 
he enriched the gardens of Europe with a 
greater variety of succulent plants than had 
ever been detected by any traveller.' He 
left his employment in or before 1841, and 
made journeys into the interior to collect 
plants for sale ; his habits, however, were 
such as to interfere with his prospects, and 
he died in poverty in 1853. 

[Gardeners' Chronicle, new ser. xvi. 568 
(1881).] J. B. 


1860), ' Times ' correspondent, son of Thomas 
Bowlby, a captain in the royal artillery, by 
his wife, a daughter of General Balfour, was 
born at Gibraltar, and when very young was 


taken by his parents to Sunderland, where his 
father entered on the business of a timber mer- 
chant. Young Bowlby's education was en- 
trusted to Dr. Cowan, a Scotch schoolmaster 
who had settled in Sunderland. After leaving 
school he was articled to his cousin, Mr. Rus- 
sell Bowlby, solicitor, Sunderland. On com- 
pletion of his time he went to London and 
spent some years as a salaried clerk in the office 
of a large firm in the Temple. In 1846 he com- 
menced practice in the city as junior partner 
in the firm of Lawrence, Crowdy, & Bowlby, 
solicitors, 25 Old Fish Street, Doctors' Com- 
mons, and for some years enjoyed a fair prac- 
tice ; but the profession of the law was not 
to his taste, and he made many literary ac- 
quaintances. Although remaining a member 
of the firm until the year 1854, he went to 
Berlin as special correspondent of the * Times ' 
in 1848. Bowlby married Miss Meine, the 
sister of his father's second wife, and on the 
death of her father Mrs. Bowlby became pos- 
sessed of a considerable fortune. During the 
railway mania Bowlby got into pecuniary 
difficulties, which caused him to leave Eng- 
land for a short time, but he made arrange- 
ments for the whole of his future earnings 
to be applied in liquidation of his debts. On 
returning to England he was for some time 
associated with Jullien, the musical director 
and composer. He next repaired to Smyrna, 
where he was employed for a while in con- 
nection with the construction of a railway. 
In 1860 he was engaged to proceed to China 
as the special correspondent of the ' Times.' 
Lord Elgin and Baron Gros were fellow- 
passengers with him in the steamship Mala- 
bar, which was lost at Point de Galle on 
22 May. His narrative of this shipwreck 
is an admirable piece of work. His various 
letters from China afforded much information 
and pleasure to the readers of the ' Times.' 
After the capture of Tien-tsin on 23 Aug. 
1860, Bowlby accompanied Admiral Hope 
and four others to Tang-chow to arrange 
the preliminaries of peace ; here they were 
treacherously captured and imprisoned by 
the Tartar general, San-ko-lin-sin. Bowlby 
died from the effects of the ill-treatment he 
received on 22 Sept. 1860 ; his body was 
afterwards given up by the Chinese, and 
buried in the Russian cemetery outside the 
An-tin gate of Pekin on 17 Oct. His age 
was about forty-three ; he left a widow and 
five young children. 

[Gent. Mag. 1861, pp. 225-6; Times, 26, 27, 30 
Nov., 10, 11, 15, 17, 19, 25 Dec. 1860; Illus- 
trated London News, with portrait, xxxvii. 615 - 
616 (1860); Annual Register, 1860, pp. 265-71; 
Boulger's History of China (1884), iii. 499-521.] 

G. C. B. 




BOWLE or BOWLES, JOHN (d. 1637), 
bishop of Rochester, a native of Lancashire, 
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he obtained a fellowship. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. (1603), D.D. (1613), and was 
incorporated M.A. of Oxford on 9 July 1605, 
and D.D. on 11 July 1615. He was house- 
hold chaplain to Sir Robert Cecil, first earl 
of Salisbury, and attended him through his 
last illness in 1612. After the earl's death 
Bowie addressed to Dr. Mountague, bishop 
of Bath and Wells, * a plaine and true rela- 
tion of those thinges I observed in my Lord's 
sickness since his goeing to Bath,' which is 
printed in Peck's ' Desiderata,' pp. 205-11. 
Bowie held at one time the living of Tile- 
hurst, Berkshire. He became dean of Salis- 
bury in July 1620, preached before the king 
and parliament on 3 Feb. 1620-1, and was 
elected bishop of Rochester on 14 Dec. 1629. 
He died ' at Mrs. Austen's house on the Banck- 
side the 9th of October 1637, and his body 
was interred in St. Paul's ch., London, in 
the moneth following.' Archbishop Laud, in 
his account of his archiepiscopate addressed 
to Charles I for 1637, complained that Bowie 
had been ill for three years before his death, 
and had neglected his diocese. He was the 
author of a 'Sermon preached at Flitton in the 
countie of Bedford at the funerall of Henrie 
[Grey], Earle of Kent,' London, 1614, and 
of a ' Concio ad ... Patres et Presbyteros 
totius Provincise Cantuar. in Synodo Lon- 
dini congregates, habita . . . 1620, Jan. 31,' 
London, 1621. Bowie married Bridget, a 
sister of Sir George Copping, < of the crown 
office,' by whom he had a son (Richard ) and 
a daughter (Mary). 

[Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, pp. 308, 364; Le 
Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 517, 673 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Domestic, 1620-37; Nichols's Progresses 
of James I, ii. 448 ; Laud's Works, v. 349 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] S. L. L. 

BOWLE, JOHN (1725-1788), writer on 
Spanish literature, and called by his friends 
Don Bowie, was descended from Dr. John 
Bowie, bishop of Rochester [q. v.l He was 
born on 26 Oct. 1725. He was educated at 
Oriel College, Oxford, and became M.A. in 
1750. He was elected F.S.A. in 1776. 
Having entered orders, he obtained the vicar- 
age of Idmiston (spelt Idemeston in his ' Don 
Quixote,' Salisbury, 1781, 6 vols. 4to), in 
Wiltshire, where he died on 26 Oct. 1788, 
the day of his birth, aged 63. 

Bowie was an ingenious scholar of great 
erudition and varied research in obscure and 
ancient literature. In addition to his know- 
ledge of the classics, he was well acquainted 
with French, Spanish, and Italian, and had 
accumulated a large and valuable library, 

sold in 1790. He was a member of Dr. John- 
son's Essex Head Club. He preceded Dr. 
Douglas in detecting Lander's forgeries, and 
had, according to Douglas, the justest claim 
to be considered their original discoverer. 
He published in 1765 miscellaneous pieces of 
ancient English poetry, containing Shake- 
speare's ' King John,' and some of the satires 
of Marston. In 1777 he printed l a letter to 
the Rev. Dr. Percy concerning a new and 
classical edition of "Historia del valoroso 
Cavallero Don Quixote de la Mancha," to be 
illustrated by annotations and extracts from 
the historians, poets, and romances of Spain 
and Italy, and other writers, ancient and 
modern, with a glossary and indexes in which 
are occasionally interspersed some reflections 
on the learning and genius of the author, 
with a map of Spain adapted to the history, 
and to every translation of it,' 4to. He gave 
also an outline of the life of Cervantes in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1781, Ii. 22, and cir- 
culated proposals to print the work by sub- 
scription. It appeared in 1781, in six4to vols., 
the first four containing the text, the fifth 
the notes, and the sixth the indexes. The 
whole work is written in Spanish. Its re- 
ception was unfavourable, except in Spain, 
where it called forth hearty approval from 
many of the best writers of the day, including 
Don Antonio Pellicer, the earliest and best 
commentator on ' Don Quixote.' Inl784 Bowie 
complained in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
of his critics, and in 1785 he published 'Re- 
marks on the extraordinary conduct of the 
Knight of the Ten Stars and his Italian 
Squire, to the editor of Don Quixote. In a 
letter to J. S., D.D./ 8vo. The pamphlet was 
directed against Joseph Baretti, who retorted 
in an anonymous pamphlet full of bitter per- 
sonalities, entitled ' Tolondron, speeches to 
John Bowie about his edition of Don Quixote,' 
8vo, 1786. Bowie wrote frequently under 
various signatures in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' contributed to Granger's 'History,' 
Steevens's edition of ' Shakespeare,' 1778, 
and Warton's ' History of Poetry.' In ' Ar- 
cheeologia,' vi. 76, are his remarks on the 
ancient pronunciation of the French lan- 
guage ; in vii. 114, on some musical instru- 
ments mentioned in ' Le Roman de la Rose ; ' 
in viii. 67, on parish registers ; and in viii. 
147, on playing cards. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd.ii. 553, iii. 160, 670, vi. 
182, viii. 660, 667; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Gent. 
Mag. liv. Iv. Iviii. 1029; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Nichols's Lit. Illust. vi. 382, 402, 403, 411, vii. 
592, viii. 165, 169, 193, 274; Granger's Letters, 
1805, pp. 37-47; Nicolas's Life of Ritsoii, 
p. xxii ; Epistolarium Bowleanum, manuscript in 
the possession of A. J. Duffield, Esq.] J. M. 


6 7 



1869), landscape painter, was born in the 
Vale of Aylesbury. His general talent was 
noticed by Dr. Lee, F.R.S., who obtained for 
him the office of assistant-astronomer under 
Sir T. Maclear at the Cape. After four years, 
he resigned his post at the observatory, and 
established himself successfully in Cape Town 
as an artist and teacher of drawing. He 
painted a panorama of the district, and pub- 
lished, in 1844, 'Four Views of Cape Town ; ' 
in 1854, ' South African Sketches,' a series of 
ten lithographs of scenes at the Cape of Good 
Hope ; and in 1865, ' The Kafir Wars,' a series 
of twenty views, with descriptive letterpress 
by W. R. Thomson. In 1857 he exhibited at 
the rooms of the Society of British Artists 
a drawing of the Royal Observatory, Cape 
Town ; and in 1860, at the Royal Academy, 
two views of Cape scenery. In 1866 he visited 
Mauritius and made a number of drawings, 
but a fever there permanently weakened his 
health, and coming to England he died from 
an attack of bronchitis, 24 Oct. 1869. 

His lithographs are somewhat in the style 
of Harding, and show facility in handling the 
chalk and some power of composition. 

[Cat. Brit. Mus. Lib. ; Cat. Eoyal Academy ; 
Cat. Soc. Brit. Artists; Art Journal, April 1870 ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists (1878).] W. H-H. 



BOWLES, EDWARD (1613-1662), 
presbyterian minister, was born in February 
1613 at Sutton, Bedfordshire. His father, 
Oliver Bowles, B.D., minister of Sutton, was 
one of the oldest members of the Westminster 
Assembly, and author of: 1. ' Zeale for God's 
House quickned : a Fast Sermon before the 
Assembly of the Lords, Commons, and Di- 
vines,' 1643, 4to. 2. <De Pastore Evangelico,' 
1649, 4to ; 1655 and 1659, 16mo (published 
"by his son, and dedicated to the Earl of Man- 
chester). Bowles was educated at Catherine 
Hall, Cambridge, under Sibbes and Brown- 
rigge. He was chaplain to the second Earl 
of Manchester, and after the surrender of 
York, 15 July 1644, was appointed one of the 
four parliamentary ministers in that city, 
officiating alternately at the minster and 
Allhallows-on-the-Pavement. On 10 June 
1645 the House of Commons voted him 100. 
as one of the ministers in the army. His 
preaching is said to have been extremely 
popular, even with hearers not of his own 
party. Among the presbyterians of the city 
and district he was the recognised leader; 
nay, it is said that, without being a forward 
man, < he ruled all York.' On 29 Dec. 1657 
he wrote to Secretary Thurloe, urging the 

suppression of preachers who advocated the 
observance of Christmas. Matthew Pool, the 
commentator, thought more of his judgment 
than of any other man's. He was a man of 
some humour. In 1660 he was active in the 
restoration of the monarchy, accompanying 
Fairfax to Breda, and incurring some odium 
with his friends for over-zeal. He did not* 
however, flinch from his presbyterianism, 
though report said that the deanery of York 
was offered to him. Bradbury relates that 
Bowles, on leaving London after the Resto- 
ration, said to Albemarle, * My lord, I have 
buried the good old cause, and I am now 
going to bury myself.' Excluded from the 
minster, he continued to preach at Allhallows, 
and subsequently at St. Martin's, besides con- 
ducting a Thursday lecture at St. Peter's. 
The parishioners of Leeds petitioned the king 
in April 1661 for his appointment to that 
vicarage, but it was given to John Lake (after- 
wards bishop of Chichester). Efforts were 
made (Calamy says by Tillotson and Stilling- 
fleet) to induce him to conform ; but when 
asked in his last illness what he disliked in 
conformity, he replied ( The whole.' Calamy 
reckons him among the silenced ministers, 
but he died just before the act came into 
force, and was buried on 23 Aug. 1662. His 
wife, who predeceased him, was a grand- 
daughter of Matthew Hutton, archbishop of 
York, and widow of John Robynson of Digh- 
ton. Bowles's portrait (which has been pho- 
tographed) was in 1869 the property of 
Leonard Hartley of Middleton Tyas, a col- 
lateral descendant. He published : 1. ' The 
Mystery of Iniquity yet working,' &c., 
1643, 4to (he means popery). 2. 'Manifest 
Truth,' 1646, 4to (a narrative of the pro- 
ceedings of the Scotch army, and vindica- 
tion of the parliament, in reply to a tract 
called ' Truths Manifest '). 3. ' Good Counsell 
for Evil Times,' 1648, 4to (sermon [Eph. v. 
15, 16] at St. Paul's, before the Lord Mayor 
of London). 4. ' The Dutie and Danger of 
Swearing,' 1655 (sermon at York). 5. ' A 
Plain and Short Catechism ' (anon), 8th edit. 
1676, 8vo (reprinted in Calamy 's ' Continua- 
tion ' and in James's ' History '). The will, 
dated 9 July 1707, codicil 21 Aug. 1710, of the 
presbyterian Dame Sarah Hewley (born 1627, 
died 23 Aug. 1710), widow of Sir John Hew- 
ley, knt. (died 1697), left a large estate to 
found several trusts for almshouses, preachers, 
and students ; a condition of admission to the 
almshouses being the repeating of Mr. Ed- 
ward Bowles's catechism. The trust having 
descended to anti-trinitarian hands, a suit 
was begun on 18 June 1830, which ended in 
the removal of the trustees by a judgment 
of the House of Lords given on 5 Aug. 1842. 

T? 9 




Much use was made on both sides of the 
doctrinal statements and omissions in the 
catechism. This suit was the immediate 
occasion of the passing of the Dissenters' 
Chapels Act, 1844. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 779; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1729, p. 933; Palmer's Nonconf. 
Memorial, 1802, p. 455; Mitchell's Westminster 
Assembly, 1883, p. 137 ; Kenrick's Memorials 
Presb. Chapel, York, 1869, pp. 6 sq. ; James's 
Hist, of Presb. Chapels and Charities, 1867, pp. 
227 seq., 733 seq. ; Cole's MS. Athense Cantab. ; 
extracts from Bowles's will, in the Prerogative 
Court, York.] A. G. 

BOWLES, SIR GEORGE (1787-1876), 
general, colonel 1st West India Regiment, 
and lieutenant of the Tower of London, was 
second son of W. Bowles of Heale House, 
Wiltshire, and was born in 1787. He entered 
the army as ensign in the Coldstream guards 
in 1804, and served with that corps in the 
north of Germany in 1805-6, at Copenhagen 
in 1807, in the Peninsula and south of France 
from 1809 to 1814, excepting the winters of 
1810 and 1811, and in the Waterloo cam- 
paign, being present at the passage of the 
Douro, the battles of Talavera, Salamanca, 
and Vittoria, the capture of Madrid, the sieges 
of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajos, Burgos, and San 
Sebastian, the passages of the Nive, Nivelle, 
and Adour, the investment of Bayonne, the 
battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo, and 
the occupation of Paris. When a brevet- 
major he served as military secretary to the 
Duke of Richmond in Canada in 1818-20, 
and as deputy adjutant-general in the West 
Indies from 1820to 1825. While with his bat- 
talion of the Coldstreams in Canada, as lieu- 
tenant-colonel and brevet-colonel, he com- 
manded the troops in the Lower Province 
during the rebellion of 1838. He retired on 
half-pay in 1843. In 1845 Bowles, who 
while on half-pay had been comptroller of 
the viceregal household in Dublin, was ap- 
pointed master of the queen's household, in 
succession to the Hon. 0. A. Murray. A 
good deal of invidious feeling had arisen in 
connection with the duties of the office, and 
Bowles's appointment is said to have been 
made at the recommendation of the Duke of 
Wellington. He was promoted to the rank 
of major-general in 1846, and on his re- 
signation of his appointment in the royal 
household, on account of ill-health, in 1851, 
was made K.C.B. and appointed lieutenant 
of the Tower of London. Bowles, who was 
unmarried, died at his residence in Berkeley 
Street, Berkeley Square, London, on 21 May 
1876, in the ninetieth year of his age. 

[Hoare's Wiltshire, iv. 11, 36 (pedigree); 
Mackinnon's Origin of Coldstream Guards (Lon- 

don, 1832); Hart's Army Lists ; Sketches H.M. 
Household (London, 1848) ; Martin's Life of 
the Prince Consort, ii. 382-3; Ann. Eeg. 1876; 
lllust. London News, Ixviii. 551, and Ixix. 255 
(will).] H. M. C. 

BOWLES, JOHN (d. 1637). [See 


BOWLES, PHINEAS (d. 1722), major- 
general, is first mentioned in the t Military 
Entry Books ' in January 1692, when he was 
appointed captain-lieutenant in the regiment 
of Colonel W. Selwyn, since the 2nd Queen's, 
then just arrived in Holland from Ireland 
(Home Off. Mil. Entry Books, vol. iii.) In 
July 1705 he succeeded Colonel Caulfield in 
command of a regiment of foot in Ireland, 
with which he went to Spain and served at 
the siege of Barcelona. According to memo- 
randa of General Erie (Treas. Papers, vols. 
cvi. cxvi.), Bowles's was one of the regi- 
ments broken at the bloody battle of Almanza. 
It appears to have been reorganised in Eng- 
land, as Narcissus Luttrell mentions Bowles's 
arrival in England on parole, and afterwards 
that he was at Portsmouth with his regi- 
ment, awaiting embarkation with some troops 
supposed to be destined for Newfoundland. 
Instead, he again proceeded with his Regi- 
ment to Spain, where it was distinguished 
at the battle of Saragossa in 1710, and was 
one of the regiments surrounded in the 
mountains of Castile, and made prisoners 
after a gallant resistance, in December of 
the same year. After this Bowles's regi- 
ment disappeared from the rolls, and its 
colonel remained unemployed until 1715, 
when, as a brigadier-general, he was com- 
missioned to raise a corps of dragoons, of 
six troops, in Berkshire, Hampshire, and 
Buckinghamshire, to rendezvous at Read- 
ing. This corps is now the 12th lancers. 
In 1719 Bowles was transferred to the 
colonelcy of the 8th dragoons. He died in 

PHINEAS BOWLES, lieutenant-general, son 
of the above, served long as an officer in the 
3rd foot guards, in which he became captain 
and lieutenant-colonel in 1712 (Home Off. 
Mil. Entry Books, vol. viii.) He made the 
campaigns of 1710-11 under the Duke of 
Marlborough, and was employed in Scotland 
in 1715 during the suppression of the Earl 
of Mar's rebellion. In 1719, being then lieu- 
tenant-colonel, 12th dragoons, he succeeded 
his father as colonel, and commanded the 
regiment in Ireland until 1740. He became 
a brigadier-general in 1735, major-general 
in 1739, and a lieutenant-general 27 May 
1745. He was also governor of Londonderry 
(CHAMBERLAYNE, Magn. Brit. Not. 1745), 


6 9 


and colonel of the 7th horse, now the 6th 
dragoon guards or carabineers. He died in 
1749. He was member of parliament for 
Bewdley in February 1734-5. 

[Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs, 1857, vi. 
213, 427 ; Home Office Mil. Entry Books, vols. 
iii. and viii.; Treasury Papers, cvi. 57, cxvi. 32; 
Cannon's Hist. Eecords, 6th Dragoon Guards, 
8th Hussars, 12th Lancers.] H. M. C. 

BOWLES, WILLIAM (1705-1780), 
naturalist, was born near Cork. He gave up 
the legal profession, for which he was des- 
tined, and in 1740 went to Paris, where he 
studied natural history, chemistry, and metal- 
lurgy. He subsequently travelled through 
France, investigating its natural history and 
mineral and other productions. In 1752, 
having become acquainted with Don Antonio 
de Ulloa, afterwards admiral of the Spanish 
fleet, Bowles was induced to enter the Spanish 
service, being appointed to superintend the 
state mines and to form a collection of natural 
history and fit up a chemical laboratory. He 
first visited the quicksilver mines of Alma- 
den, which had been seriously damaged by 
fire, and the plans he suggested were success- 
fully adopted for their resuscitation. He after- 
wards travelled through Spain, investigating 
its minerals and natural history, living chiefly 
at Madrid and Bilbao. He married a German 
lady, Anna Rustein, who was pensioned by 
the king of Spain after her husband's death. 
Bowles is described as tall and fine-looking, 
generous, honourable, active, ingenious, and 
well informed. His society was much valued 
in the best Spanish circles. He died at Madrid 
25 Aug. 1780. 

Bowles's principal work was ' An Intro- 
duction to the Natural History and Physical 
Geography of Spain/ published in Spanish at 
Madrid 1775. It is not systematically ar- 
ranged, but has very considerable value as 
being the first work of its kind. The second 
edition (1782) was edited by Don J. N. de 
Azara, who rendered considerable assistance 
to the author in preparing the first edition. 
It was translated into French by Vicomte de 
Flavigny (Paris, 1776). An Italian edition, 
much enlarged by Azara, then Spanish am- 
bassador at Rome, was published at Parma in 
1784. Bowles was also the author of ' A Brief 
Account of the Spanish and German Mines ' 
(Phil. Trans. Ivi.) ; of ' A Letter on the Merino 
Sheep,' &c. ( Gent. Mag. May and June 1764) ; 
and of ' An Account of the Spanish Locusts ' 
(Madrid, 1781). Sir J. T. Dillon's ' Travels 
through Spain' (London, 1781) is very 
largely an adaptation of Bowles. 

[Preface to English translation of Bowles's 
Treatise on Merino Sheep, London, 1811.] 

G. T. B. 

1850), divine, poet, and antiquary, was born 
on 24 Sept. 1762 at King's Sutton, North- 
amptonshire, of which his father was the 
vicar. Both his father and mother, as he 
tells us in his autobiographical preface to 
'Scenes and Shadows of Days Departed,' 
were descended from old and much-respected 
families. In 1776 he was placed at Win- 
chester School, under Dr. Joseph Warton, 
who, discerning his taste for poetry and 
general literature, did his best to foster it 
by encouragement and training. On the 
death of his old master, Bowles wrote a mo- 
nody which expresses his regard for his 
character. On leaving Winchester he was 
elected in 1781 a scholar of Trinity College, 
Oxford, of which Joseph Warton's brother, 
Thomas Warton professor of poetry at Ox- 
ford and eventually poet laureate was the 
senior fellow. In 1783 the young student, 
by his poem entitled ' Calpe Obsessa, or the 
! Siege of Gibraltar,' carried off the chancellor's 
prize for Latin verse. Here, however, any 
signal distinctions at the university seem to 
have ended. It was not until 1792 that he ob- 
tained his degree. Having entered holy orders 
he first officiated as curate of Donhead St. 
Andrew in Wiltshire. In 1792 he was 
appointed to the rectory of Chicklade in Wilt- 
shire, which he resigned in 1797, on being pre- 
sented to the rectory of Dumbleton in Glou- 
cestershire. In the same year he was married 
to Magdalene, daughter of Dr. Wake, pre- 
bendary of Westminster, whom he survived. 
In 1804 he became vicar of Bremhill, Wilt- 
shire, where, greatly beloved by his parish- 
ioners, he thenceforth generally resided till 
near the close of his life. In 1804 he was 
also made prebendary of Stratford in the 
cathedral church of Salisbury, of which in 
1828 he became canon residentiary. Ten 
years earlier he had been appointed chaplain 
to the prince regent. 

About 1787, the year of his leaving college, 
Bowles fell in love with Miss Romilly, niece 
of Sir Samuel Romilly; but his suit, pro- 
bably for want of sufficient means on his 
part, was rejected. After a while he formed 
a second attachment, but the hopes to which 
it gave rise were unhappily cut short by the 
lady's death. Bowles then turned for con- 
solation to poetry. During a tour through 
the north of England, Scotland, and some 
parts of the continent, he composed the 
sonnets which first brought him before the 
public. The little volume was published at 
Bath in 1789, under the title of * Fourteen 
Sonnets written chiefly on Picturesque Spots 
during a Journey.' Their success was ex- 
traordinary, the first small edition being 




speedily exhausted, while Coleridge, then in 
his seventeenth year, expressed his delight 
at the restoration of a natural school of 
poetry, a tribute which he confirmed later 
by celebrating the praise of Bowles in a fine 
sonnet. The simplicity and earnestness of 
Bowles had all the charm of novelty and 
contrast. His pensive tenderness, delicate 
fancy, refined taste, and, above all, his power 
to harmonise the moods of nature with those 
of the mind, were his chief merits. He was 
a true though not a great poet, having 
neither depth of thought nor vigour of ima- 
gination. The qualities of his early sonnets 
are common to all his poetry, though in his 
longer works they frequently sink into a 
graceful feebleness. His 'Verses to John 
Howard ' appeared in 1789, and were re- 
printed in 1790. In 1805 this collection 
had passed into an illustrated ninth edition. 
1 Coombe Ellen ' and St. Michael's Mount ' 
were published in 1798 ; ' The Battle of the 
Nile' appeared in 1799; 'The Sorrows of 
Switzerland ' in 1801 ; 'The Picture' in 1803; 
* The Spirit of Discovery,' his longest poem, 
in 1804 ; ' Bowden Hill ' in 1806 ; < The Mis- 
sionary of the Andes ' in 1815 ; * The Grave 
of the last Saxon ' in 1822 ; < Ellen Gray ' in 
1823 ; ' Days Departed ' in 1828 ; ' St. John 
in Patmos ' in 1833 ; ' Scenes and Shadows 
of Days Departed,' with an autobiographical 
introduction , in 1 837 ; and ' The Village Verse- 
Book,' a series of hymns composed by him- 
self for the use of children, in the same year. 
In 1806, not in 1807 (as is erroneously stated 
by Gilfillan and others), Bowles issued in ten 
volumes his memorable edition of Pope, with 
a sketch of his life and strictures on his 
poetry. His comments on Pope's life are 
undoubtedly written in a severe, if not a 
hostile spirit. It has been justly urged, that 
while he omitted no detail that could harm 
Pope's memory, he either left out or men- 
tioned coldly such facts as did him honour. 
These errors drew upon the biographer sting- 
ing assaults from Byron both in verse and 
prose. Bowles's estimate of Pope as a poet 
gave rise to a long controversy, in which much 
bitterness was displayed. Bowles's propo- 
sition that ' images drawn from what is beau- 
tiful or sublime in nature are more sublime and 
beautiful than images drawn from art,and that 
they are therefore per se more poetical, and 
that passions are more adapted to poetry than 
manners,' is by no means refuted by Camp- 
bell's assertion that 'the exquisite description 
of artificial objects and manners is no less 
characteristic of genius than the description 
of physical appearances.' Bowles never de- 
nied that many artificial objects are beautiful. 
Byron's instances, in opposition to Bowles, go 

chiefly to show that certain natural objects are 
| less interesting than certain artificial ones, 
, and that by laws of association the latter at 
times, especially when unfamiliar, strike us 
more than the former, though intrinsically 
superior, when custom has lessened their 
effect. The doctrine of Bowles is not shaken 
by either of his principal antagonists. If it 
exclude Pope from the small band of the 
very highest poets, his critic nevertheless 
declares that in the second rank none were 
superior to him. Besides his poetical claims, 
those of Bowles as an antiquary are by 
no means inconsiderable. Of his labours 
j in this capacity his l Hermes Britannicus/ 
! published in 1828, is perhaps the most im- 
I portant. He wrote largely also upon ecclesias- 
; tical matters. Upon crime, education, and the 
condition of the poor he addressed a letter 
to Sir James Mackintosh. His sermons, 
though scarcely eloquent, have a rare union 
of dignity with simplicity of style. He was 
an active but lenient magistrate. In cha- 
racter he seems to have been ardent and 
impulsive, but genial and humane. Moore, 
the poet, in his journal, gives some interest- 
| ing particulars of him, illustrating his keen 
susceptibility to impressions, his high-church 
principles, his love of simple language in 
the pulpit, together with certain eccentri- 
cities, such as his constant refusal to be 
measured by a tailor. His health had failed 
some time before his death, which took 
place when he was eighty-eight at the Close, 
Salisbury. Of his numerous productions, 
in addition to his poems, the following, be- 
sides those already named, may be cited as 
representative : 1. ' The Parochial History 
of Bremhill,' 1828. 2. < Life of Bishop Ken/ 
1830. 3. ' Annals and Antiquities of Lacock 
Abbey,' 1835. 4. 'A few Words to Lord 
Chancellor Brougham 011 the Misrepresenta- 
tion concerning the Property and Character 
of the Cathedral Clergy of England,' Salis- 
bury, 1831. 5. < The Cartoons of Raphael.' 
6. ' Sermons preached at Bowood,' 1834. 

[Bowles's Poetical Works, collected edition, 
with Memoir, &c., by Eev. George Gilfillan, 
Edin., 1855; Eng. Cyclop. Biog. vol. i., 1856; 
Bowles's Autobiog. In trod, to Scenes and Shadows 
of Departed Days, 1837 ; Maginn's Gall, of Illust. 
Characters, ed.-by G. "W. Bates, 1873; Bowles's 
edition of Pope in ten vols., 1806; Campbell's 
Specimens of British Poets, &c., with an Essay 
on Poetry, 1819 ; Bowles's Invariable Principles 
of Poetry, 1819; Byron's Letter to John Murray 
and Observations upon Observations, &c., 182,1 ; 
Bowles's Letters to Byron and Campbell, 1822; 
Quarterly Kev., May to July 1820, June to Oc- 
tober 1825 ; Memoirs, Journal, and Correspon- 
dence of Thomas Moore, edited by Lord John 
Kussell, 1853.] W. M. 



1870), amateur musician, was born 13 May 
1813. His father was a bootmaker at Cha- 
ring Cross, and Bowley was brought up to 
the same business. His first taste for music 
was acquired by associating with the cho- 
risters of Westminster Abbey, and at an 
early age he became a member, and subse- 
quently conductor, of the Benevolent Society 
of Musical Amateurs. He was a member of 
the committee of the amateur musical festival 
held at Exeter Hall in 1834, and about the 
same date was appointed organist of an inde- 
pendent chapel near Leicester Square. Bowley 
joined the Sacred Harmonic Society in 1834, 
and all his life contributed much to its suc- 
cess, being librarian from 1837 to 1854, and 
treasurer from 1854 to the year of his death. 
It was Bowley who, in 1856, originated the 
plan of the gigantic Handel festivals, which 
have been held every three years at the Crystal 
Palace since 1857. His connection with these 
performances led to his appointment (in 1858) 
as general manager of the building at Syden- 
ham, a post he continued to hold until his 
death, which took place 25 Aug. 1870. 

[Mr. W. H. Husk in Grove's Diet, of Music, 
i. 266 b, 658.] W. B. S. 

BOWLY, SAMUEL (1802-1884), slavery 
abolitionist and temperance advocate, son 
of Mr. Bowly, miller at Bibury, Gloucester- 
shire, was born in Cirencester on 23 March 
1802. During his youth he had a sound busi- 
ness training under his father. In 1829 he 
removed from Bibury to Gloucester, and com- 
menced business as a cheese factor. He be- 
came chairman of many local banking, gas, 
railway, and other companies, and for the 
last twenty years of his life he was looked 
upon as a leader in commercial circles and 
affairs. In the agitation against the corn 
laws he took a prominent part, and loyally 
supported Messrs. Cobden and Bright. It 
was one of his endeavours to give the people 
cheap and universal education, and he was 
not only one of the founders of the British 
and ragged schools in Gloucester, but a con- 
sistent advocate of a national system. Like 
his father, he belonged to the Society of 
Friends ; he was a faithful though courteous 
and fair supporter of disestablishment. 

Bowly took an active part in the anti- 
slavery agitation, and by his powerful ap- 
peals completely beat Peter Borthwick [q. v.J, 
the pro-slavery lecturer, off the ground. He 
was one of the deputation, 14 Nov. 1837, 
which went to Downing Street to have an 
interview with Lord Melbourne about the 
cruelties exercised towards the slaves under 
the seven years' apprenticeship system, and 

in the following year took an active part in 
the formation of the Central Negro Eman- 
cipation Committee, which was ultimately 
instrumental in causing the abolition of the 
objectionable regulations. But his advocacy 
of temperance made him best known. It was 
on 30 Dec. 1835 that he signed the pledge 
of total abstinence, and formed a teetotal 
society in his own city. One of his earliest 
missions was to the members of his own re- 
ligious society, undertaken in company with 
Edward Smith of Sheffield, throughout Great 
Britain and Ireland. During his later years 
he held frequent drawing-room meetings. 
As president of the National Temperance 
League, as president of the Temperance Hos- 
pital from its foundation, and as a director of 
the United Kingdom Temperance and General 
Provident Institution, he was able to draw the 
attention of scientific men to the injurious 
effects of alcohol on the human system. On 
behalf of the National Temperance League 
he attended and addressed 107 meetings 
during the last year of his life, travelling 
many hundreds of miles. 

The eightieth anniversary of his birth was 
celebrated in Gloucester in 1882, and he died 
in that city on Sunday, 23 March 1884, the 
eighty-second anniversary of his birthday. 
He was buried in the cemetery on 27 March, 
when an immense concourse of people, both 
rich and poor, attended the funeral. 

He married, first, Miss Shipley, daughter 
of Mr. John Shipley of Shaftesbury. His 
second wife was the widow of Jacob Henry 
CottrellofBath, especially known for his con- 
nection with the Rechabite Friendly Society. 
Bowly published : 1. 'A Speech delivered 
1 Oct. 1830 at a meeting to petition Par- 
liament for the Abolition of Negro Slavery,' 
1830. 2. ' Speech upon the present condition 
of the Negro Apprentices,' 1838. 3. l A Letter 
to J. Sturge on the Temperance Society and 
Church Rates, by L. Rugg, with a reply by 
S. Bowly,' 1841. 4. < An Address to Christian 
Professors,' 1850. 5. ' Total Abstinence and 
its proper Place,' 1863. 

[Sessions's Life of Samuel Bowly, 1884, with 
portrait.] G. C. B. 

BOWMAN, EDDOWES (1810-1869), 
dissenting tutor, eldest son of John Eddowes 
Bowman the elder [q. v.] and Elizabeth, his 
cousin, was born at Nantwich on 12 Nov. 
1810. He was educated chiefly at Hazelwood, 
near Birmingham, by Thomas Wright Hill, 
father of Sir Rowland Hill . The future postal 
reformer was his teacher in mathematics. 
From school he passed to the Eagle foundry, 
Birmingham, where he improved himself in 
mechanical engineering. He became, about 



1835, sub-manager of the Varteg ironworks, 
near Pontypool. On the closing of the 
Varteg works in 1840 Bowman betook him- 
self to study, graduated M.A. at Glasgow, 
and attended lectures at Berlin, acquiring 
several modern languages and mastering 
various branches of physical science. In 1846 
Francis W. Newman resigned the classical 
chair in the Manchester New College, having 
been elected to the chair of Latin in Univer- 
sity College, London. Bowman was imme- 
diately appointed his successor at Manchester 
as professor of classical literature and history, 
and he held that post till the removal of the 
college to Gordon Square, London, as a purely 
theological institution, in 1853. To this re- 
moval he was strongly opposed. Remaining 
in Manchester, though possessed of a sufficient 
independence, he gratified his natural taste 
for teaching by engaging in the education of 
girls. For the study of astronomy he had built 
himself an excellent observatory. On optics 
and acoustics he delivered several courses of 
lectures at the Manchester Royal Institution 
and elsewhere. From 1865, when the Owens 
scholarship was founded in connection with 
the Unitarian Home Missionary Board, he 
was one of the examiners. He was a man 
of undemonstrative disposition, of wise kind- 
ness, and of cultured philanthropy. He died, 
unmarried, at Victoria Park, Manchester, 
on 10 July 1869. Among his publications 
are : 1. ' Arguments against the Divine 
Authority of the Sabbath . . . considered, 
and shown to be inconclusive/ 1842, 8vo. 
2. l Some Remarks on the proposed Removal 
of Manchester New College, and its Connec- 
tion with University College, London,' 1848, 
8vo. 3. l Replies to Articles relating to Man- 
chester New College and University College,' 
1848, 8vo. 4. < On the Roman Governors of 
Syria at the time of the Birth of Christ' 
(anonymous, but signed B.), 1855, 8vo (an 
able and learned monograph, reprinted from 
the 'Christian Reformer,' October 1855, a 
magazine to which he was a frequent con- 

[W. H. H. (Rev. AVilliam Henry Herford) in 
Inquirer, 10 July 1869 ; Unitarian Herald, 16 July 
1869 ; Roll of Students at Manchester New Col- 
lege, 1868; Hall's Hist, of Nantwich, 1883, 
p. 505 sq.] A. G. 

BOWMAN, HENRY (fl. 1677), was a 
musician, of whose life little is recorded. He 
was probably a connection of that Franc. 
Bowman mentioned by Anthony a Wood as 
a bookseller of St. Mary's parish, Oxford, 
with whom lodged Thomas Wren, the bishop 
of Ely's son, an amateur musician of repute in 
Oxford (WooD, Athena Oxon. (Bliss), i. xxv). 

Henry was organist of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and published in 1677 at Oxford a thin 
folio volume of ' Songs for one, two, and three 
Voices to Thorow Bass ; with some short 
Simphonies collected out of some of the Se- 
lect Poems of the incomparable Mr. Cowley 
and others, and composed by H. B., Philo 
Musicus.' A second edition was brought out 
at Oxford in 1679. The Oxford Music School 
Collection contains some English songs and 
a set of ' Fifteen Ayres,' which were * first per- 
formed in the schooles 5 Feb. 1673-4.' In 
the same collection are some Latin motets by 
Bowman, and the Christ Church Collection 
contains a manuscript Miserere by him. 

[Euing Musical Library Catalogue, 1878, 
p. 148 ; North's Memoirs of Musick ; Catalogues 
of Royal College of Music Library, Christ Church 
Collection and Music School Collection ; Grove's 
Dictionary of Music.] R. H. 

(1785-1841), banker and naturalist, was born 
30 Oct. 1785 at Nantwich, where his father, 
Eddowes Bowman (1758-1844), was a to- 
bacconist. His education was only that of a 
grammar school, but he was a bookish boy, 
and got from his father a taste for botany, and 
from his friend Joseph Hunter (1783-1861), 
then a lad at Sheffield, a fondness for genea- 
logy. He was at first in his father's shop, 
and became manager of the manufacturing 
department, and traveller. He wished to 
enter the ministry of the Unitarian body to 
which his family belonged, but his father 
dissuaded him. In 1813 he joined, as junior 
partner, a banking business on which his 
father entered. Its failure in 1816 left him 
penniless, and he became manager at Welsh- 
pool of a branch of the bank of Beck & Co. 
of Shrewsbury. In 1824 he became manag- 
ing partner of a bank at Wrexham, and was 
able to retire from business in 1830. From 
1837 he resided in Manchester, where he pur- 
sued many branches of plrysical science. He 
was a fellow of the Linnean and Geological 
Societies, and one of the founders of the 
Manchester Geological Society. His dis- 
coveries were chiefly in relation to mosses, 
fungi, and parasitical plants. A minute fossil, 
which he detected in Derbyshire, is named 
from him the ' Endothyra Bowmanni.' In the 
last years of his life he devoted himself almost 
entirely to geology. He died on 4 Dec. 1841. 
He married, 6 July 1809, his cousin, Eliza- 
beth (1788-1859), daughter of W. Eddowes 
of Shrewsbury. A daughter, married to 
George S. Kenrick, died in November 1838. 
Four sons survived him : 1. Eddowes [q. v.] 
| 2. Henry [see below]. 3. Sir William, born 
j 20 July 1816, the distinguished oculist. 




4. John Eddowes, professor of chemistry 
[q. v.] J. E. Bowman, senior, contributed 
various papers to the Transactions of the Lin- 
nean and other learned societies, and also to 
London's ' Magazine of Natural History.' 

HENKY BOWMAN (1814-1883), second son 
of J. E. Bowman, an architect in Manchester, 
was joint author with James Hadfield of 
' Ecclesiastical Architecture of Great Britain, 
from the Conquest to the Reformation,' 1845, 
4to ; and with his partner, J. S. Crowther, of 
' The Churches of the Middle Ages,' 1857, fol. 
He died at Brockham Green, near Reigate, on 
14 May 1883. 

[Tayler's Sketch of the Life and Character of 
J. E. Bowman, in Memoirs of the Manch. Lit. 
and Phil. Soc., 2nd ser. vol. vii. pt. i. p. 45 
(read 4 Oct. 1842); Hall's Hist. Nantwich, 1883, 
p. 505 sq. ; Lyell's Student's Elem. of G-eology, 
1871, p. 382; Cooper's Men of the Time, 1884, 

E. 155 ; Catalogues of Advocates' Library, Edin. ; 
urgeon-G-eneral's Library, Washington, U.S. ; 
information from C. W. Sutton, Manchester.] 

A. G. 


younger (1819-1854), chemist, son of John 
Eddowes Bowman the elder [q. v.], and 
brother of Sir William Bowman, physiologist 
and oculist, was born at Welchpool on 7 July 
1819. He was a pupil of Professor Daniell at 
King's College, London, and in 1845 succeeded 
W. A . Miller as demonstrator of chemistry at 
that college, becoming subsequently, in 1851, 
the first professor of practical chemistry there. 
He was one of the founders of the Chemical 
Society of London. He died on 10 Feb. 1854. 
Besides contributions to scientific journals, he 
published ' A Lecture on Steam Boiler Ex- 
plosions,' 1845 ; ' An Introduction to Practi- 
cal Chemistry ' (London, 1848 ; subsequent 
editions in 1854, 1858, 1861, 1866, and 1871) ; 
and *A Practical Handbook of Medical 
Chemistry ' (London, 1850, 1852, 1855, and 
1862). The later editions of these works 
are edited by C. L. Bloxam. 

[Chem. Soc. Journ. ix. 159, and private infor- 
mation.] H. F. M. 

BOWMAN, WALTER (d. 1782), anti- 
quary, was a native of Scotland, and owned 
an estate at Logie in Fifeshire. He had been 
travelling tutor to the eldest son of the first 
Marquis of Hertford, and was rewarded with 
the place of comptroller of the port of Bristol. 
For many years he resided at East Molesey, 
Surrey, but latterly on his property at Egham, 
in the same county. A zealous traveller and 
collector, he had some celebrity in his day 
as a virtuoso and man of science, which 
gained him admission in 1735 to the Society 
of Antiquaries, and in 1742 to the Royal 

Society. To the former he cont ributed several 
papers, chiefly on classical antiquities, three 
of which were printed in vol. i. of the ' Ar- 
chaeologia,' pp. 100, 109, 112. His only pub- 
lished communication to the Royal Society 
was an eccentric letter addressed to Dr. 
Stephen Hales, on an earthquake felt at East 
Molesey 14 March 1749-50, which appeared 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' xlvi. 
684. Bowman had withdrawn from both 
societies several years before his death, in 
February 1782. In his will (proved 16 March 
of that year) he left singularly minute and 
whimsical directions regarding the arrange- 
ment and preservation of his fine library at 
Logie, where the family still continues to 

[Leighton's History of the County of Fife, ii. 
50 ; Letters of Horace Walpole, ed. Cunningham, 
iv. 122, 199, iii. 282 ; Nichols's Literary Illus- 
trations, iv. 795; Egerton MS. 2381, f. 41; 
Sloane MS. 4038, f. 324; Addit. MS. 4301, 
ff. 229-233 ; Willreg. in P. C. C. Ill G-ostling.] 

G. G. 

BOWNAS, SAMUEL (1676 - 1753), 
quaker minister and writer, was born at 
Shap, Westmoreland, on 20 Nov. 1676. His 
father, a shoemaker, died within a month of 
Samuel's birth, leaving his mother a house 
to live in and a yearly income of about 
4:1. 10s. ; there was another son about seven 
years old. Hence Bownas got little educa- 
tion ; in fact, he could just read and write. 
At the age of thirteen he was apprenticed to 
his uncle, a blacksmith, who used him harshly; 
afterwards to Samuel Parat, a quaker, near 
Sedbergh, Yorkshire. Bownas's father had 
been a persecuted quaker, who held meetings 
in his house; his mother brought him up 
with a deep regard for his father's memory, 
and took him as a child to visit quaker pri- 
soners in Appleby gaol. But the lad was 
fonder of fun than of meetings, and grew up, 
as he says, ' a witty sensible young man.' 
The preaching of a young quakeress, named 
Anne Wilson, roused him from the state of 
' a traditional quaker,' and he very shortly 
after opened his mouth in meeting, 'on that 
called Christmas day,' about 1696. He had 
still some three years of his apprenticeship 
to serve ; on its expiry he got a certificate 
from Brigflats monthly meeting to visit Scot- 
land on a religious mission. His heart failed 
him while on the way, and the work fell 
to a companion, but he made missionary 
visits to many parts of England and Wales, 
supporting himself by harvest work. At 
Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, he met with his 
future wife. He started for Scotland in 
good earnest on 11 Aug. 1701. Of this 
journey he gives a graphic account, telling 




how lie was put into the Jedburgh tolbooth 
as a precautionary measure, the officer re- 
marking, ' I ken very weel that you'll preach, 
by your looks.' In March 1702 he sailed for 
America, arriving in Potuxant river, Mary- 
land, at the end of May. Preaching here, he 
soon received a written challenge from George 
Keith,who had left the quakers in 1692. After 
leading a sect of his own, Keith had received 
Anglican orders in May 1700, and was now 
an ardent (and not unsuccessful) advocate of 
episcopacy. Bownas wrote declining ' to take 
any notice of one that hath been so very 
mutable in his pretences to religion ;' but he 
distributed a tract (whether original or not 
does not appear) in answer to one by Keith. 
Keith got him prosecuted for his preaching, 
and on 30 Sept. 1702 he was put into the 
county gaol of Queen's County, Long Island, 
as he would not give bail, ' if as small a sum 
as three-halfpence would do.' On 28 Dec. 
the grand jury threw out the indictment, but 
Bownas was held in prison, where he learned 
to make shoes, and had a visit from an 'Indian 
king, as he styled himself,' who discoursed 
with him about the good Monettay, or God, 
and the bad Monettay, or Devil. A seventh- 
day baptist, John Rogers, also came to con- 
fer with him. On 3 Sept. 1703 he was set 
at liberty. After further travels in America 
he returned home, reaching Portsmouth in 
October 1706. He was married in the spring 
of 1 707 ; his wife's name is not given ; she 
died in September 1719. He visited Ireland 
in 1708, and was put into Bristol gaol for 
tithes by the Rev. William Ray, of Lyming- 
ton, in 1712, but was soon let out ; after all, 
the parson outwitted Mrs. Bownas, and got 
101. for tithe, a sore subject with the poor 
woman on her death-bed. 

In February 1722 Bownas married his 
second wife, a widow named Nichols, of Brid- 
port, where he henceforth resided, though 
he still travelled much. Visiting America 
again in 1726, he met Elizabeth Hanson, of 
' Knoxmarsh, in Kecheachy, in Dover town- 
ship,' New England, from whom he obtained 
particulars of her captivity (with her children) 
among the Indians in 1724. The substance of 
the story was afterwards printed. The Lon- 
don reprint of this ' Account of the Captivity, 
&c.,' 1760, 8vo (2nd edition, same year ; 3rd 
edition, 1782 ; 4th edition, 1787), purports to 
be ' by Samuel Bownas,' but it is a mere re- 
issue, with a new title, of an American pub- 
lication, ' God's mercy surmounting Man's 
Cruelty, &c.,' which Bownas expressly says 
that he first saw in Dublin. He got home 
again on 2 Aug. 1728, travelled in the north 
and in Ireland ; lost his second wife on 
6 March 1746; and continued to travel at 

intervals till within a few years of his death, 
which took place at Bridport on 2 April 
1753. He was a tall man, with a great voice, 
ready in retort, more given to scriptural 
argument than some of the earlier Friends. 
He wrote: 1. Preface (dated Lymington, 
2 June 1715) prefixed to Daniel Taylor's 
'Remains,' 1715, 8vo (edited by Bownas). 
2. l Considerations on a Pamphlet entituled, 
The Duty of Consulting a Spiritual Guide, 
&c.,' 1724, 8vo (in reply to a Lincolnshire 
clergyman named Bowyer). 3. ' A Descrip- 
tion of the Qualifications necessary to a 
Gospel Minister, &c.,'1750, 8vo; 2nd edition, 
1767, 8vo (with appendix) ; 3rd edition, 1853, 
16mo (with new appendix). 4. 'Account of 
the Life, Travels, ... of Samuel Bownas,' 
1756, 8vo (this is an autobiography to 2 Sept. 
1749, with preface by Joseph Besse, and tes- 
timony of the Bridport monthly meeting), 
reprinted 1761, 8vo ; 1795, 12mo ; Stamford, 
1805, 12mo; 1836, 16mo; Philadelphia, 1839: 
1846, 8vo. 

[Life, ed. of 1846; Smith's Cat. of Friends' 
Books, 1867, i. 308, 912, ii. 703 ; Smith's Biblio- 
tlieca Anti-Quak. 1872, p. 82.] A. G-. 

D.D. (d. 1613), divine, was son of Richard 
Bound, M.D., physician to the Duke of 
Norfolk. He received his academical edu- 
cation at Peterhouse, Cambridge, of which 
college he was elected a fellow in 1570 (Ad- 
dit. MS. 5843, f. 41 ). He graduated B.A. 
in 1571 and M.A. in 1575. On 19 July 1577 
he was incorporated in the latter degree at 
Oxford, and on 3 Sept. 1585 he was insti- 
tuted to the rectory of Norton in Suffolk, a 
living in the gift of his college. He was 
created D.D. at Cambridge in 1594. 

In 1595 Bownde published the first edi- 
tion of his famous treatise on the Sabbath. 
In it he maintained that the seventh part of 
our time ought to be devoted to the service 
of God ; that Christians are bound to rest on 
the seventh day of the week as much as the 
Jews were on the Mosaical sabbath. He 
contended that the ' sabbath ' was profaned by 
interludes, May-games, morris dances, shoot- 
ing, bowling, and similar sports; and he 
would not allow any feasting on that day, 
though an exception was made in favour of 
'noblemen and great personages' (Sabbathvm 
veteris et novi Testamenti, 211). The obser- 
vance of the Lord's day immediately became 
a question between the high-church party 
and the puritans, and it is worthy of notice 
that this was the first disagreement between 
them upon any point of doctrine. The Sab- 
batarian question, as it was henceforth called, 
soon became the sign by which, above all 




others, the two parties were distinguished. 
The new doctrine made a deep impression 
on men's minds. The prelates took official 
cognisance of it, and cited several ministers 
before the ecclesiastical courts for preaching 
it. But these extreme measures were un- 
availing to prevent the rapid spread of the 
strict Sabbatarian doctrine. 

In 1611 Bownde became minister of the 
church of St. Andrew the Apostle at Norwich, 
and he was buried there on 26 Dec. 1613. He 
married the widow of John More, the ( apostle 
of Norwich.' His daughter Anne married John 
Dod (CLARKE, Lives, ed. 1677, p. 169) ; and 
his widow married Richard Greenham (ib, 
13, 169). 

Subjoined is a list of his works : 1. ' Three 
godly and fruitfull Sermons, declaring how 
we may be saved in the day of Judgement. 
. . . Preached and written by M. John More, 
late Preacher in the Citie of Norwitch. 
And now first published by M. Nicholas 
Bound, whereto he hath adjoined of his 
owne, A Sermon of Comfort for the Afflicted ; 
and a short treatise of a contented mind,' 
Cambridge, 1594, 4to. 2. ' The Doctrine of 
the Sabbath, plainely layde forth, and soundly 
proued by testimonies both of holy Scrip- 
ture, and also of olde and new ecclesiastical 
writers. . . . Together with the sundry abuses 
of our time in both these kindes, and how 
they ought to bee reformed,' London, 1595, 
4to. Dedicated to Robert Devereux, earl of 
Essex. Reprinted, with additions, under 
the title of ' Sabbathvm veteris et novi Tes- 
tamenti : or the true doctrine of the Sabbath 
. . . ,' London, 1606, 4to. 3. ' Medicines for 
the Plagve : that is, Godly and fruitfull Ser- 
mons vpon part of the twentieth Psalme . . . 
more particularly applied to this late visi- 
tation of the Plague/ London, 1604, 4to. 
4. ' The Holy Exercise of Fasting. Described 
largely and plainly out of the word of God. 
... In certaine Homilies or Sermons . . . ,' 
Cambridge, 1604, 4to. Dedicated to Dr. Je- 
gon, bishop of Norwich. 5. ' The Vnbeliefe 
of St. Thomas the Apostle, laid open for the 
comfort of all that desire to beleeue . . . ,' 
London, 1608, 8vo ; reprinted, London, 1817, 
12mo. 6. ' A Treatise ful of Consolation for 
all that are afflicted in minde or bodie or 
otherwise . . . ,' Cambridge, 1608, 8vo ; re- 
printed, London, 1817, 12mo. The reprints 
of this and the preceding work were edited 
by G. W. Marriot. Bownde has a Latin ode 
before Peter Baro's * Prselectiones in lonam,' 
1579 ; and he edited the Rev. Henry More's 
' Table from the Beginning of the World to 
this Day. Wherein is declared in what yeere 
of the World everything was done,' Cam- 
bridge, 1593. 

[Blomefield's Norfolk (1806), iv. 301 ; Brook's 
Puritans, ii. 171 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 
356 ; Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, 
i. 145-51, 418 ; Fuller's Church Hist. (1655), 
lib. ix. 227, 228 ; Gent. Mag. Ixxxvi. (ii.) 487, 
Ixxxvii. (i.) 157, 429, 503, 596, 597 ; Hallam's 
Const. Hist, of England (1855), i. 397 n ; Hey- 
lyn's Hist, of Abp. Laud (1671), 195 ; Heylyn's 
Hist, of the Presbyterians (1672), 337, 338; 
Heylyn's Extraneus vapulans, or the Observator, 
117 ; Addit. MS. 5843, f. 41, 5863, f. 94, 19079, 
ff. 293-5, 19165, f. 136, 27960, f. 16; manu- 
script collections for Cooper's Athense Cantab. ; 
Marsden's Hist, of the Early Puritans, 241 ; 
Neal's Hist, of the Puritans (1822), i. 451, 452; 
Page's Suppl. to the Suifolk Traveller, 798; 
Eogers's Catholic Doctrine of the Ch. of Eng- 
land (ed. Perowne), introd. ix. 19, 90, 97, 98, 
187, 233, 271, 315, 319, 322, 326, 327 ; Taylor's 
Eomantic Biog. ii. 88, 89; Topographer (1791), 
iv. 164, 165; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (ed. Bliss), 
ii. 207.] T. C. 

BOWNE, PETER (1575-1624?), physi- 
cian, was a native of Bedfordshire ; became 
at the age of fifteen a scholar of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, in April 1590;' and 
was afterwards elected a fellow of that so- 
ciety. After taking degrees in arts he ap- 
plied himself to medicine, and proceeded 
B.M. and D.M. at Oxford on 12 July 1614. 
He was admitted a candidate of the College 
of Physicians on 24 Jan. 1616-17, and fellow 
on 21 April 1620. On 3 March 1623-4 
Richard Spicer was admitted a fellow in his 
place. According to Wood, Bowne prac- 
tised medicine in London, ' and was much in 
esteem for it in the latter end of King Jam. I 
and beginning of Ch. I.' It is probable, 
nevertheless, that 1624 was the date of his 
death. He was the author of ' Pseudo-Medi- 
corum Anatomia,' London, 1624, 4to, in 
which his name appears as Boungeus. A 
Laurentius Bounseus, probably a son of 
Peter Bowne, matriculated at Leyden Uni- 
versity on 16 Nov. 1602, and is described in 
the register as * Anglus-Londinensis ' (PEA- 
COCK'S Leyden Students (Index Soc.), p. 12). 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 363-4; 
Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 357-8 ; Munk's College 
of Physicians, i. 177.] S. L. L. 

BOWNESS, WILLIAM (1809-1867), 
painter, was born at Kendal. He was self- 
taught, and after some practice in his native 
town he, soon after his twentieth year, came 
to London and achieved moderate success as 
a portrait and figure painter. In 1836 he ex- 
hibited his ' Keepsake ' at the Royal Academy, 
and afterwards sent thither about one picture 
annually until his death. He also contributed 
to the exhibitions of the British Institution 
in Pall Mall, and, in great number, to those 




of the Society of British Artists in Suffolk 
Street. His works are mostly portraits and 
figure-subjects of domestic character. 

He periodically visited his native town, 
and is author of a number of poems in the 
Westmoreland dialect, and of some of senti- 
mental strain in ordinary English. He died 
at his house in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy 
Square, London, 27 Dec. 1867. 

His writings have been collected under the 
title 'Rustic Studies in the Westmoreland 
Dialect, with other scraps from the sketch- 
book of an artist,' London and Kendal, 1868. 
A pamphlet, ' Specimens of the Westmore- 
land Dialect,' by Rev. T. Clarke, William 
Bowness, &c., Kendal, 1872, contains one 
poem from the above-named collection. 

[Cat. Royal Academy ; Cat. Brit. Institution ; 
Cat. Soc. Brit. Artists ; Art Journal, February 
1868; Kendal Mercury, 4 Jan. 1868; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists (1878).] W. H-H. 

BOWRING, SIB JOHN (1792-1872), 
linguist, writer, and traveller, was born at 
Exeter on 17 Oct. 1792. He was descended 
from an ancient Devonshire family, which 
gave its name to the estate of Bowringsleigh, 
in the parish of West Allington. For many 
generations the Bowrings had been engaged 
in the woollen trade of Devon, and in 1670 
an ancestor coined tokens for the payment of 
his workmen bearing the inscription, with a 
wool-comb for a device, 'John Bowring of 
Chulmleigh, his half-penny.' Sir John was 
the eldest son of Mr. Charles Bowring, of 
Larkbeare. He was first placed under the 
care of the Rev. J. H. Bransby, of Moreton- 
hampstead, and subsequently under that of 
Dr. Lant Carpenter. 

Bowring entered a merchant's house at 
Exeter on leaving school, and during the 
next four years laid the foundation of his 
linguistic attainments. According to the 
brief memoir written by his son, he learned 
French from a refugee priest, Italian from 
itinerant vendors of barometers and mathema- 
tical instruments, while he acquired Spanish 
and Portuguese, German and Dutch, through 
the aid of some of his mercantile friends. 
He afterwards acquired a sufficient acquaint- 
ance with Swedish, Danish, Russian, Servian, 
Polish, and Bohemian, to enable him to trans- 
late works in those languages. Magyar and 
Arabic he also studied with considerable 
success, and in later life, during his residence 
in the East, he made good progress in Chinese. 
In 1811 Bowring became a clerk in the Lon- 
don house of Milford & Co., by whom he 
was despatched to the Peninsula. He subse- 
quently entered into business on his own 
account, and in 1819-20 travelled abroad for 

commercial purposes, visiting Spain, France, 
Belgium, Holland, Russia, and Sweden. In. 
France he made the acquaintance of Cuvier, 
Humboldt, Thierry, and other distinguished 
men. On his return from Russia in 1820 he 
published his ' Specimens of the Russian 

In 1822 he was arrested at Calais, being 
the bearer of despatches to the Portuguese 
ministers announcing the intended invasion 
of the Peninsula by the Bourbon government 
of France. He was thrown into prison and 
passed a fortnight in solitary confinement. 
The real object of his imprisonment was to 
extort from him admissions which would en- 
able the Bourbon government to prosecute 
the French liberals. Canning, then British 
foreign minister, insisted upon an indictment 
or a release. Bowring was eventually released 
without trial, but as he had been accused of 
complicity in the attempt to rescue the young 
sergeants of La Rochelle, who were executed 
for singing republican songs, he was con- 
demned to perpetual exile from France. Lord 
Archibald Hamilton brought the illegality of 
the arrest before the House of Commons, but 
Canning explained that the proceedings, how- 
ever despotic, were warranted by the then 
existing laws of France. Bowring published 
a pamphlet entitled < Details of the Imprison- 
ment and Liberation of an Englishman by 
the Bourbon Government of France,' 1823. 
In 1830, Bowring was the writer of an address 
from the citizens of London congratulating 
the French people on the revolution of July. 
He headed the deputation which bore the 
address to Paris, was welcomed at the hotel 
de ville, and was the first Englishman re- 
ceived by Louis-Philippe after his recognition 
by the British government. 

Bowring's intimate friend and adviser, 
Jeremy Bentham, founded, in 1824, the 
1 Westminster Review,' intended as a vehicle 
for the views of the philosophical radicals. 
The editorship was first offered to James 
Mill, but declined by him on the ground of 
the incompatibility of the post with his official 
work. Bowring and Southern eventually 
became the first editors of the ' Review,' the 
former taking the political and the latter the 
literary department ; but subsequently the 
management passed into Bowring's hands 
alone. Bowring not only wrote many of 
the political articles, but also papers on the 
runes of Finland, the Frisian and Dutch 
tongues, Magyar poetry, and a variety of 
other literary subjects. 

In 1824 Bowring issued his ' Batavian 
Anthology' and 'Ancient Poetry and Ro- 
mances of Spain ; ' in 1827 appeared his 
' Specimens of the Polish Poets,' and ' Servian 




Popular Poetry;' in 1830 ' Poetry of the 
Magyars;' and in 1832 'Cheskian Antho- 
logy.' He published Bentham's ' Deontology ' 
(1834) in two volumes, and nine years sub- 
sequently he edited a collection of the works 
of Bentham, accompanied by a biography, the 
whole consisting of eleven volumes. The uni- 
versity of Groningen conferred upon him, in 
1829, the degree of LL.D. 

In 1828 Bowring was appointed a com- 
missioner for reforming the system of keeping 
the public accounts, by Mr. Herries, then 
chancellor of the exchequer ; but his appoint- 
ment was cancelled at the instance of the 
Duke of Wellington, who objected to Bow- 
ring's radical opinions. He was, however, 
authorised to proceed to Holland, for the 
purpose of examining the method pursued by 
the financial department of that country. He 
prepared a report, the first of a long series on 
the public accounts of various European states. 
It was during this visit to the continent that 
he translated ' Peter Schlemihl' from the 
German at the suggestion of Adelung. 

During a stay in Madrid Bowring had 
published in Spanish his ' Contestacion a las 
Observaciones de Don Juan B. Ogavan sobre 
la esclavitud de los Negros,' being an exposition 
of the arguments in favour of African slavery 
in Cuba. At a later period he translated 
into French the ' Opinions of the Early 
Christians on War,' by Thomas Clarkson. 
His ' Matins and Vespers ' (1823) went into 
many editions, both in England and the United 
States, and his ' Minor Morals ' (1834-9), re- 
collections of travel for the use of young 
people, were likewise very popular. For his 
' Russian Anthology ' he received a diamond 
ring from Alexander I, and for his works on 
Holland, some of which were translated into 
Dutch, a gold medal from the king of the 

In 1831 Bowring who had sought official 
employment in consequence of commercial 
disasters was associated with Sir H. Parnell 
in the duty of examining and reporting on 
the public accounts of France, ' a task which 
was so satisfactorily performed that he was 
appointed secretary to the commission for 
inspecting the accounts of the United King- 
dom.' Bowring visited Paris, the Hague, and 
Brussels, and examined the finance depart- 
ments of their various governments. The 
first report made by the commission led to a 
complete change in the English exchequer, 
and was the foundation of all the improve- 
ments which have since been made. The 
second report, dealing with the military ac- 
counts, was carried into immediate effect. 
Bowring and Mr. Villiers (afterwards Earl of 
Clarendon) were appointed, in 1831, commis- 

sioners to investigate the commercial relations 
between England and France, and presented 
two elaborate reports to parliament. 

On the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832 
Bowring appeared as a candidate for the re- 
presentation of Blackburn, but, though popu- 
lar with the mass of the people, he lost the 
election by twelve votes. He now went over 
to France, where he made close investigation 
into the silk trade ; and in 1833 he visited 
Belgium on a commercial mission for the 
government. His exertions in the south of 
France in the succeeding year led to a free- 
trade agitation in the wine districts. In 1835 
he went through the manufacturing districts 
of Switzerland, and reporting to parliament 
on the trade of that country, he showed the 
great advantages that had been reaped from 
the system of free trade. He was in Italy 
in the autumn of 1836, when he reported to 
parliament on the state of our commercial 
relations with Tuscany, Lucca, the Lom- 
bardian and Pontifical states. Bowring had 
been returned to parliament for the Clyde 
burghs in 1835, but losing his seat at the 
general election of 1837, he now travelled 
in Egypt, Syria, and Turkey on another 
commercial mission for the government. 
During this tour Bowring visited every part 
of Egypt as far as Nubia in the south, tra- 
versed Syria from Aleppo to Acre, and re- 
turned by way of Constantinople and the 
Danube. Shortly after his arrival in England 
he accepted an invitation to a public dinner 
at Blackburn. This was in September 1838 ; 
and, halting at Manchester on his way to 
Blackburn, Bowring met Cobden and others 
at the York Hotel, the result of this meeting 
being the formation of the Anti-Corn Law 
League. In 1839 Bowring was deputed to 
proceed to Prussia with the object of in- 
ducing that country to modify her tariff on 
English manufactures. He was met by the 
objection that, ' so long as the English corn 
laws imposed a prohibitive tariff on foreign 
grain, it was useless to ask Germany to relax 
her heavy duties on English goods.' Bowring 
was the chief author of the important report 
to parliament on the import duties, which 
led to the proposed but unsuccessful measure 
for the relaxation of the English tariff by 
the whigs, and to Sir Robert Peel's great 
revised tariff scheme of 1842. 

Convinced of the necessity for the aboli- 
tion of the corn laws, Bowring again sought 
a seat in parliament for the purpose of ad- 
vocating this measure. Defeated at Kirk- 
caldy, he was elected for Bolton in 1841. 
He was a frequent speaker on commercial 
and fiscal questions, on education, the factory 
acts, and similar subjects. He took an active 



part on the committee of inquiry into the dis- ' 
tress of the hand-loom weavers, on that in j 
connection with Irish education, and on that 
on the state of the arts as applied to com- 
merce and manufactures, and he was an 
eloquent advocate for the abolition of flogging 
in the army. Bowring received services of 
silver plate from the electors of Blackburn, 
Kirkcaldy, and Kilmarnock respectively ; 
from the Manxmen for his valuable aid in 
obtaining an act of parliament for their eman- 
cipation from feudal tyranny ; and from the 
Maltese in recognition of the success of his 
advocacy as their unofficial representative in 
the House of Commons. Supported by the 
prince consort, Bowring obtained, after a dis- 
cussion in the House of Commons, the issue 
of the florin, intended as the first step towards 
the introduction of the decimal system into 
the English currency. He subsequently pub- 
lished a volume on ' The Decimal System in 
Numbers, Coins, and Accounts, especially 
with reference to the Decimalization of the 
Currency and Accountancy of the United 
Kingdom '(1854). 

After his election for Bolton, Bowring em- 
barked all his fortune in ironworks in Gla- 
morganshire. In 1847 a period of severe 
depression set in, and as there was no prospect 
of the cloud lifting, Bo wring became seriously 
alarmed at the aspect of his affairs. He 
consequently applied for the appointment of 
consul at Canton, and, obtaining it through 
the friendship of Lord Palmerston, resigned 
his seat in parliament. The general relations 
between England and China were even then 
in a somewhat critical condition. It was 
understood that the gates of Canton, hitherto 
closed against foreigners, were now to be 
opened, and Bowring hoped that the man- 
darins would at least receive him officially 
within the walls of the city, thus paving the 
way for the entrance eventually of all Euro- 
peans. But the Chinese treated him with the 
same contumely as they had done his prede- 
cessors, and the governor-general wrote him 
offensive letters. Yet the Cantonese, with 
whom Bowring mixed a great deal, received 
him with good feeling, thus proving that the 
mandarins were the sole ground of opposition. 

From April 1852 to February 1853 Bowring 
had charge of the office of plenipotentiary 
in the absence of Sir George Bonham ; but on 
the return of the latter Bowring applied for 
leave of absence for a year, visiting the island 
of Java on his way home. In 1854 he was 
appointed plenipotentiary to China, and sub- 
sequently held the appointment of governor, 
commander-in-chief, and vice-admiral of Hong 
Kong and its dependencies, as well as chief 
superintendent of trade in China. He was 

also accredited to the courts of Japan, Siam, 
Cochin-China, and the Corea. On receiving 
these appointments he was knighted by the 
queen. The Taiping insurrection shortly 
afterwards broke out in China, trade was 
paralysed, smuggling was largely carried on 
at Shanghai, and the imperial dues could not 
be collected. Sir John Bowring resolutely 
endeavoured to put an end to the disorder. 

Bowring has stated (Autobiographical Re- 
collections) that one of the most interesting 
parts of his public life was his visit to Siam 
in 1855. He went upon a special mission, 
being authorised to conclude a treaty of com- 
merce with the two kings of that country. 
There had already been many unsuccessful 
attempts on the part of the United States, 
of the governor-general of British India, and 
of the English government, to establish diplo- 
matic and commercial relations with Siam. 
Sir John Bowring succeeded in concluding a 
treaty, which was carried out with prompti- 
tude and sagacity. In 1857 Bowring pub- 
lished an account of his travels and experiences 
in Siam under the title of * The Kingdom 
and People of Siam.' 

In October 1856 the outrage on the lorcha 
Arrow by the Canton authorities involved 
Sir John Bowring in hostilities with the 
Chinese government. It was admitted that 
the vessel had no right to carry the British 
flag, the term of registry having expired ; 
but the English representative maintained 
that the expiry of the license did not warrant 
the violence perpetrated by the Canton autho- 
rities. He affirmed that the authorities did 
not know of its expiry ; that it was their 
specific object to violate the privileges of the 
British flag ; that the case of the Arrow was 
only one of a succession of outrages for which 
no redress had been given ; and that the 
expiry of the license and the failure to renew 
it placed the ship under colonial jurisdiction. 
Votes of censure on the conduct of Sir John 
Bowring, and the British government in sup- 
porting him, were moved in both houses of 
parliament, and some of the former friends 
and colleagues of the British plenipotentiary 
took a strong part against him. The Earl 
of Derby moved the hostile resolution in the 
House of Lords, but after a long debate it 
was negatived by a majority of thirty-six. 
In the House of Commons Cobden proposed 
the vote of censure, and contended that Sir 
John Bowring had not only violated the prin- 
ciples of international law, but had acted 
contrary to his instructions, and even to ex- 
press directions from his government. Lord 
Palmerston warmly defended Sir John Bow- 
ring and his action. Cobden's motion was 
carried against the government by a majority 




of sixteen. Lord Palmerston appealed to the 
country, and in the elections that ensued the 
chief movers against Sir John Bowring lost 
their seats, while the ministry came back 
greatly strengthened. Lord Elgin, who suc- 
ceeded Bowring as English plenipotentiary 
in China, endorsed and carried out his pre- 
decessor's policy. 

During the hostilities with China the 
mandarins put a price on Sir John Bo wring's 
head. He had a narrow escape of his life 
in January 1857, when the colony of Hong 
Kong was startled by a diabolical attempt to 
poison the residents by putting arsenic into 
their bread. The governor's family suffered 
severely, and the constitution of Lady Bow- 
ring was so undermined that in the ensuing 
year she was obliged to leave for England, 
where she died soon after her arrival. 

Towards the close of 1858 Sir John Bow- 
ring proceeded to Manila, on a visit to the 
Philippine islands, chiefly with a view to 
the extension of the trade of the islands 
with Great Britain. Manila had been the 
only port accessible to foreigners, but the 
more liberal policy of the Spaniards had 
opened the harbours of Sual, Hoilo, and 
Zamboanga, which Bowring visited in H.M.S. 
Magicienne. As the representative of free 
trade he was everywhere welcomed, and on 
the completion of the tour he published 
his 'Visit to the Philippine Islands.' Sir 
John returned to China in January 1859, and 
in the following May resigned his office, after 
more than nine years of unusually harassing 
and active service. On leaving China he re- 
ceived from the Chinese people several cha- 
racteristic marks of their appreciation of his 

On the voyage home the Alma, in which 
he sailed, struck upon a sunken rock in the 
Red Sea. The passengers were compelled to 
remain for three days upon a coral reef, where 
they suffered greatly before relief arrived. 
The remainder of Bowring's life was passed 
in comparative quiet. In 1860 he was de- 
puted by the English government to inquire 
into the state of our commercial relations with 
the newly formed kingdom of Italy. He had 
interviews with Count Cavour; but at Rome 
he was seized with illness, the attack being 
aggravated by the effects of the arsenical poi- 
soning at Hong Kong three years before. He 
was not fully restored to health until 1862. 
In addition to Bowring's labours in connec- 
tion with commercial treaties with various 
European and Asiatic powers, at home ' he 
was an active member of the British Associa- 
tion, the Social Science Association, the 
Devonshire Association, and other institu- 
tions, often contributing papers to their pro- 

ceedings and taking a prominent part in their 
discussions.' He was a constant contributor 
o the leading reviews and magazines, and 
delivered many public lectures on oriental 
topics and the social questions of the day. 

Bowring was the writer of many poems 
and hymns, one at least of which, ' In the 
cross of Christ I glory,' has acquired universal 
fame. Early in his career he conceived an 
extensive scheme in connection with the 
poetic literatures of the continent. Enjoying 
the advantage of personal acquaintance with 
most of the eminent authors and poets of his 
time, he secured their assistance in his pur- 
pose (never fully carried out) of writing the 
history and giving translated specimens of 
the popular poetry, not only of the western, 
but of the oriental world. He was promised 
the co-operation of Rask and Finn Magnusen 
(Icelandic), Oehlenschlager and Munter 
(Danish), Franz6n (Swedish), in the Scandi- 
navian field ; of Karamsin and Kriulov 
(Russian), Niemcewicz and Mickiewicz (Po- 
lish), Wuk (Servian), Hanka and Celakow- 
sky (Bohemian), Talvj (von Jakob), and many 
coadjutors in the Moravian, Illyrian, and 
other branches of the Slavonic stem ; while 
in the Magyar, Toldy and Kertbeny lent him 
their aid ; Fauriel in Romaic, and Teng- 
strom in Finnish. In the various kingdoms 
of southern Europe he gathered together 
extensive materials for a work which might 
well have occupied a lifetime. His scattered 
translations from the Chinese, Sanskrit, Cin- 
galese, and other oriental languages, and his 
Spanish, Servian, Magyar, Cheskian, Russian, 
and other poetical selections, amply attest 
that he never relinquished his scheme, though 
the comprehensive and exhaustive plan he 
originally formed was found to be impossible 
of execution. 

In the closing years of his life Bowring's 
mental and physical faculties were strong 
and apparently unimpaired. When verging 
upon eighty years of age he addressed an 
assemblage of three thousand persons at 
Plymouth with all the energy of youth. 
After a very brief illness he died at Exeter 
on 23 Nov. 1872, almost within a stone's- 
throw of the house where he was born. 

Bowring was a fellow of the Royal Society, 
a knight commander of the Belgian order 
of Leopold, and a knight commander of the 
order of Christ of Portugal with the star; he 
had the grand cordon of the Spanish order 
of Isabella the Catholic, and of the order of 
Kamehameha I ; he was a noble of the first 
class of Siam, with the insignia of the White 
Elephant, a knight commander with the star 
of the Austrian order of Francis Joseph, and 
of the Swedish order of the Northern Star, 



and also of the Italian order of St. Michael and 
St. Lazarus ; and he was an honorary member 
of many of the learned societies of Europe. 
He received no fewer than thirty diplomas 
and certificates from various academies and 
other learned bodies and societies. 

Bowring was twice married : first, in 
1816, to a daughter of Mr. Samuel Lewin, of 
Hackney, who died in 1858 ; secondly, to a 
daughter of Mr. Thomas Castle, of Bristol. 
His eldest son by the former marriage, Mr. 
J. C. Bowring, presented to the British 
Museum a fine collection of coleoptera, con- 
sisting of more than 84,000 specimens, known 
by the name of the Bowringian collection. 
His second son, Mr. Lewin Bowring, was 
Lord Canning's private secretary through 
the Indian mutiny of 1857, and held for 
some time the post of chief commissioner of 
Mysore and Coorg. A third son, Mr. E. A. 
Bowring, C.B., represented his native city of 
Exeter in parliament from 1868 to 1874, and 
was made companion of the Bath for his 
services in connection with the Great Exhi- 
bition of 1851. He is also known in litera- 
ture for his translations of Goethe, Schiller, 
and Heine. 

The following is a complete list of the 
works of Sir John Bowring: 1. i Some Ac- 
count of the State of the Prisons in Spain and 
Portugal,' published in the * Pamphleteer,' 
1813. 2. ' Observations on the State of Re- 
ligion and Literature in Spain,' published in 
the series ' New Voyages and Travels,' 1820. 
3. ' Contestacion a las Observaciones de Don 
Juan B. Ogavan sobre la Esclavitud de los 
Negros,' 1821. 4. ' Observations on the Re- 
strictive and Prohibitory Commercial System 
from MSS. of Jeremy Bentham,' 1821. 

5. 'Details of the Arrest, Imprisonment, 
and Liberation of an Englishman,' 1823. 

6. 'Russian Anthology ,'1820-3. 7. 'Matins 
and Vespers,' 1823. 8. 'Batavian Anthology,' 

1824. 9. ' Ancient Poetry and Romances of 
Spain,' 1824. 10. ' Peter Schlemihl ' (trans- 
lation from Chamisso), 1824. 11. 'Hymns,' 

1825. 12. ' Servian Popular Poetry,' 1827. 

13. ' Specimens of the Polish Poets,' 1827. 

14. ' Sketch of the Language and Literature 
of Holland, being a Sequel to "Batavian 
Anthology," ' 1829. 15. ' Poetry of the Mag- 
yars,' 1830. 16. ' Cheskian Anthology,' 1832. 
17. 'Deontology,' 1834. 18. ' Minor Morals,' 
1834-9. 19. 'Observations on Oriental Plague 
and Quarantines,' 1838. 20. ' The Influence 
of Knowledge on Domestic and Social Happi- 
ness,' 1842. 21. ' Jeremy Bentham's Life 
and Works,' 1843. 22. ' Manuscript of the 
Queen's Court ; a Collection of old Bohemian 
Lyrico-epic Songs, with other ancient Bohe- 
mian Poems,' 1843. 23. 'A Speech delivered 

j on the occasion of the Opening of the Barker 
I Steam Press,' 1846. 24. ' The Political and 
Commercial Importance of Peace,' 1846 (?). 
25. ' The Decimal System in Numbers, Coins, 
and Accounts,' 1854. 26. 'The Kingdom 
and People of Siam,' 1857. 27. ' A Visit to 
the Philippine Isles,' 1859, 28. ' Ode to the 
Deity,' translated from the Russian, 1861. 
29. ' On Remunerative Prison Labour as 
an Instrument for promoting the Reforma- 
tion and diminishing the Cost of Offenders,' 
1865. 30. ' Translations from Petofi,' 1866. 
31. 'On Religious Progress beyond the Chris- 
tian Pale,' 1866. 32. ' Siam and the Siamese/ 
a discourse in connection with the Sunday 
Evenings for the People, 1867. 33. 'The 
Flowery Scroll,' translation of a Chinese 
novel, 1868. 34. 'The Oak,' original tales 
and sketches by Sir J. B., &c., 1869. 35. ' A 
Memorial Volume of Sacred Poetry,' to which 
is prefixed a memoir of the author by Lady 
B., 1873. 36. 'Autobiographical Recollec- 
tions of Sir John Bowring,' 1877. 

[Bowring, Cobden, and China, a Memoir, by 
L. Moor, 1857 ; the various Works of Bowring ; 
Annual Reg. 1857 and 1872; Times, 25 Nov. 
1872 ; Autobiographical Recollections of Sir 
John Bowring, with a brief Memoir by Lewin 
Bowring, 1877 ; Western Times, Exeter, 26 Nov. 
1872; Men of the Time, 8th ed. 1872.] 

a. B. s. 

BOWTELL, JOHN (1753-1813), topo- 
grapher, born in the parish of Holy Trinity, 
Cambridge, in 1753, became a bookbinder and 
stationer there. He compiled a history of 
the town, keeping it by him -unprinted ; col- 
lected fossils, manuscripts, and other curiosi- 
ties ; and was a member of the London Col- 
lege Youths. He was also an enthusiastic 
bell-ringer, and in 1788, at Great St. Mary's, 
Cambridge, he rang on the 30-cwt. tenor bell 
as many as 6,609 harmonious changes ' in the 
method of bob maximus, generally termed 
"twelve-in." ' Bowtell had no family, and 
dying on 1 Dec. 1813, aged 60, he made the 
following important bequests for the benefit 
of Cambridge: 7,000/. to enlarge Adden- 
brooke's Hospital; 1,000/. to repair Holy 
Trinity ; 500/. to repair St. Michael's ; 500/. 
to apprentice boys belonging to Hobson's 
workhouse ; and his ' History of the Town ' 
and other manuscripts, his books, his fossils, 
and curiosities, to Downing College. He was 
buried at St. Michael's, where the Adden- 
brooke's Hospital governors erected a tablet 
to his memory. The governors also placed 
a portrait of him in their court-room. 

[Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iv. 505-6 ; 
Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxiv. pt. ii. p. 85 ; Cambridge 
Chronicle for 3, 17, 24 Dec. 1813.] J. H. 




BOWYER, SIB GEORGE (1740 P-1800), 
admiral, third son of Sir William Bowyer, 
bart., of Denham, Buckinghamshire, and, by 
right of his wife, of Radley, Berkshire, attained 
the rank of lieutenant in the navy on 13 Feb. 
1758, commander 4 May 1761, and captain 
28 Oct. 1762, from which time he commanded 
the Sheerness frigate till the peace. On the 
breaking out of the dispute with the colonies 
of North America he was appointed to the 
Burford of 70 guns, and early in 1778 was 
transferred to the Albion of 74 guns, one of 
the squadron which sailed for North Ame- 
rica with Vice-admiral Byron, whom he ac- 
companied to the West Indies, taking part 
in the battle of Grenada, 6 July 1779. He 
remained in the West Indies for two years 
longer, and was present in Sir George Rod- 
ney's three actions with the Count de Gui- 
chen on 17 April, 15 and 19 May, 1780, in 
which the Albion suffered severely in men, 
spars, and hull, and had to be sent to Ja- 
maica for repairs. In 1783 he commissioned 
the Irresistible of 74 guns, as guardship in 
the Medway, and commanded there for the 
next two years, during which time he wore 
a commodore's broad pennant. In 1784 he 
was returned to parliament by the borough 
of Queenborough, and in 1785 was a member 
of a committee appointed to consider the 
defences of Portsmouth and Plymouth. On 
the occasion of the Spanish armament in 
1790, he was appointed to the Boyne of 
98 guns, a ship newly launched at Wool- 
wich, which, however, was paid off towards 
the end of the year. On 1 Feb. 1793 he 
was advanced to the rank of rear-admiral, 
and shortly afterwards hoisted his flag in the 
Prince of 90 guns, in the Channel fleet, 
under the command of Lord Howe. On 
1 June 1794 he took an important part in 
the engagement off Ushant, in which he sus- 
tained the loss of a leg. For this he re- 
ceived a pension of 1,000/. in addition to 
the chain and gold medal, and on 16 Aug. 
was created a baronet. His wound incapaci- 
tated him from further active service, though 
he was in due course advanced to the rank 
of vice-admiral, 4 July 1794, and of admiral, 
14 Feb. 1799. By the death of his brother 
in April 1797 he succeeded to the older 
baronetcy, in which his newer title was 
merged. He died at Radley, 6 Dec. 1800. 
He was twice married : first to Lady Down- 
ing, widow of Sir Jacob Downing, bart., 
who died without issue ; and second, to Hen- 
rietta, only daughter of Admiral Sir Peircy 
Brett, by whom he had three sons and two 

[Ralfe's Nav. Biog. i. 374 ; Charnock's Biog 
Nav. vi. 511.] J. K. L. 

VOL. Ti. 

BOWYER, SIR GEORGE (1811-1883), 
seventh baronet, jurist, was born on 8 Oct. 
1811, at Radley Park, near Abingdon, Berk- 
shire. He was the eldest son of Sir George 
Bowyer, bart., of Denham Court, Bucking- 
hamshire, by his wife, Anne Hammond, 
daughter of Captain Sir Andrew Snape Dou- 
las, R.N. Admiral Sir George Bowyer [q.v.] 
was his grandfather. Sir William Bowyer, 
mt., teller of the exchequer in the reign of 
James I, originally purchased the family es- 
;ate of Denham Court. His grandson, William 
Bowyer, M.P. for Buckinghamshire in the 
Irst two parliaments of Charles II, on 25 June 
1660 was created a baronet. 

Bowyer was for a short time a cadet of the 
Royal Military College at Woolwich. On 
1 June 1836 he was admitted as a student of 
the Middle Temple. In 1838 he published < A 
Dissertation on the Statutes of the Cities of 
Italy, and a Translation of the Pleading of 
Prospero Farinacio in Defence of Beatrice 
Cenci, with Notes.' On 7 June 1839 he was- 
called to the bar of the Middle Temple, being 
immediately afterwards (12 June) created an 
honorary M . A. at Oxford. He then began prac- 
tising as an equity draughtsman and convey- 
ancer. In 1841 he brought out, in twenty- 
seven chapters with an appendix, pp. xiv, 
712, 'The English Constitution: a Popular 
Commentary on the Constitutional Laws of 
England.' This was the first of a series of 
valuable text-books from his hand on consti- 
tutional jurisprudence. On 20 June 1844 he 
was made aD.C.L. at Oxford. In 1848 he pub- 
lished, in fifty-two chapters, pp. xx, 334, his 
' Commentaries on the Civil Law,' inscribed 
to the Marquis of Lansdowne. In the same 
year he brought out, in an octavo pamphlet 
inscribed 'to Henry Lord Holland by his- 
sincere friend,' a vindication of Charles Albert, 
under the title of l Lombardy, the Pope, and 
Austria.' In the July of 1849 he stood un- 
successfully as a candidate for the represen- 
tation of Reading. He was converted to 
Catholicism in 1850, and issued in the same 
year a pamphlet entitled ' The Cardinal 
Archbishop of Westminster and the New 
Hierarchy/ 8vo, pp. 42, which was announced 
on its title-page as issued ' by authority,' and 
rapidly passed through four editions. Early 
in the same year he was appointed reader in 
law at the Middle Temple, and before its close 
published the first two of his readings, * On the 
Uses of the Science of General Jurisprudence 
and the Classification of Laws,' and ' On the^ 
Uses of the Roman Law and its Relation* 
to the Common Law.' In 1851 the whole 
course was published as ' Readings delivered 
before the Honourable Society of the Middle 
Temple,' inscribed to Lord Campbell. During 



that year he issued from the press two supple- 
mentary papers on the catholic hierarchy, 
one of them entitled ' The Roman Docu- 
ments relating to the New Hierarchy, with 
an Argument,' and the other (8vo, pp. 44), 
1 Observations on the Arguments of Dr. 
Twiss respecting the new Roman Catholic 
Hierarchy.' In the July of 1852 Bowyer 
entered parliament for the first time as M.P. 
for Dundalk, which borough he continued to 
represent in the House of Commons for six- 
teen years, down to December 1868. In 1854 
he published, in twenty-eight chapters, 8vo, 
pp. xi, 387, his ' Commentaries on Universal 
Public Law,' and in 1856 two pamphlets 
4 Rome and Sardinia,' and ' The Differences 
between the Holy See and the Spanish Go- 
vernment ' in vindication of the holy see, 
reprinted from the ' Dublin Re view,' Septem- 
ber 1855, and March 1856. On 1 July 1860 
Bowyer succeeded his father as baronet. In 
1864 appeared, in quarto, ' Friends of Ireland 
in Council,' the interlocutors in which were 
Bowyer, William Henry Wilberforce, and 
John Pope Hennessy. In 1868 Bowyer, in 
the form of a letter to the Earl of Stanhope, 
published, 8vo, pp. 19, ' The Private History | 
of the Creation of the Roman Catholic Hier- j 
archy in England.' In 1873 he brought out j 
a reprint from the ' Times ' of ' Four Letters i 
on the Appellate Jurisdiction of the House 
of Lords and the New Court of Appeal.' 
Bowyer was defeated in his candidature at 
Dundalk in December 1868, but in December 
1874 was returned in the home-rule interest 
for the county of Wexford, and retained that 
seat until March 1880. He published, in 
1874, 8vo, pp. 72, his 'Introduction to the 
Study and Use of the Civil Law, and to Com- 
mentaries on the Modern Civil Law,' a work 
inscribed to Earl Cairns. During the last five 
years of his career in parliament he estranged 
himself from the liberal party, and was at 
last expelled, on 23 June 1876, from the Re- 
form Club. Bowyer was conspicuous as a 
representative catholic. His numerous let- 
ters to the ' Times ' mainly bore reference to 
questions of religious or constitutional law. 
He was a prominent member of the commit- 
tee convened to farther the agitation against 
the abolition of the legal duties of the House 
of Lords. Bowyer was found dead in his 
bed at his chambers in the Temple, 13 King's 
Bench Walk, on the morning of 7 June 
1883. The funeral service was performed 
in his own church of St. John of Jerusalem, 
in Great Ormond Street, Bloomsbury, which 
had been entirely built by him. Bowyer 
was a knight of Malta and honorary president 
of the Maltese nobility. He was knight 
commander of the order of Pius IX, as 

well as a chamberlain to that pontiff, knight 
grand cross of the order of St. Gregory the 
Great, and grand collar of the Constan- 
tinian order of St. George of Naples. He 
was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 

[Men of the Time (10th ed.), 137; Annual 
Register, 1883, 152-3; Times, 8 June 1883; 
Tablet, 9 and 23 June 1883, 901, 994; Weekly 
Register, 9 June 1883, 724 ; Law Times, 16 June 
1883, 137; Law Journal, 16 June 1883, 339.1 

C. K. 

BOWYER, ROBERT (1758-1834), minia- 
ture painter, seems to have been at an early 
date known to Smart, the miniature painter, 
and is supposed by Redgrave to have been 
Smart's pupil. He exhibited miniatures and 
paintings at the Royal Academy occasionally 
between 1783 and 1828; was appointed 
painter in water-colours to the king, and 
miniature painter to the queen; and re- 
ceived much fashionable patronage. In 1792 
he issued a prospectus giving details of a 
plan for an edition of Hume's 'History of 
England,' with continuation to date, to be 
' superbly embellished.' West, Smirke, Lou- 
therbourg, and other leading artists of the 
day furnished historical pictures specially to 
be engraved for this work, which contains 
besides a number of engravings of portraits, 
medals, and antiquities. It was issued in 
parts, and by 1806 five unwieldy folios were 
published, reaching to the year 1688 ; the con- 
tinuation was never issued, as a loss of 30,OOOZ. 
is asserted to have been already incurred. 
Bowyer also published ' An Impartial Narra- 
tive of Events from 1816 to 1823,' London, 
1823. He died at his house at Byfleet, 
Surrey, 4 June 1834. 

[Cat. Brit. Mus. Lib.; Cat, R. A.; Gent. 
Mag. August 1834, p. 221 ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists (1878).] W. H-H. 

BOWYER, WILLIAM, the elder (1663- 
1737), printer, son of John Bowyer, citizen 
and grocer of London, by Mary, daughter of 
'William King, citizen and vintner of London, 
was born in 1663, apprenticed to Miles 
Flesher, printer, in 1679, and admitted to 
the freedom of the Company of Stationers 
1686. By his first wife, who died early, he 
had no issue. By his second wife, Dorothy, 
daughter of Thomas Dawks (a printer who 
had been employed on Bishop Walton's Poly- 
glot Bible) and widow of Benjamin Allport, 
bookseller, he was father of William Bowyer 
the younger, 'the learned printer' [q. v.], 
and a daughter Dorothy married to Peter 
Wallis, a London jeweller. In 1699, a few 


months before the birth of his son, he began 
business as a printer at the White Horse in 
Little Britain, and here he produced his first 
book, a neat small 4to, of 96 pp., t A Defence of 
the Vindication of King Charles the Martyr 
justifying his Majesty's title to EIK^I/ Bao-i- 
At77 in answer to .... Amyntor [i.e. John 
Toland],' Lond. 1699, 4to. Immediately after 
he removed to Dogwell Court, Whitefriars. 
In 1700 he was made liveryman of the Sta- 
tioners' Company, and was chosen one of the 
twenty printers allowed by the Star-cham- 
ber. On 29 Jan. 1712-13 a fire destroyed his 
printing-office and dwelling, and one member 
of the family was burnt to death. Plant and 
stock were consumed ; Atkyn's ( Gloucester- 
shire,' Bishop Bull's ' Primitive Christianity,' 
L'Estrange's ' Josephus,' part of Thoresby's 
4 Ducatus Leodiensis,' and many other works, 
with some valuable manuscripts, were lost. 
The estimated total loss was 5,146, but this 
was more than half replaced by the produce 
of a king's brief granted 6 March 1713 for 
a charitable collection, the contributions of 
friends and a subscription of his own frater- | 
nity amounting to 2,539 In remembrance { 
of this kindness he had several tail-pieces I 
and devices engraved, representing a phoenix 
rising from the flames, with suitable mottoes j 
used afterwards in some of his best books. | 
Continuing his business at the houses of j 
friends, he at length returned to Whitefriars, | 
October 1713, where he became the foremost 
printer of his day, until the fame of his learned 
son overshadowed his. The latter was taken 
into partnership in 1722, and his duty thence- 
forward was to correct the press, while his 
father up to his death retained the execu- 
tive, the imprint of their works continuing 
to be ' Printed by William Bowyer.' The list, ' 
with copious notes, of all the works pub- 
lished by him is given in Nichols's ' Literary 
Anecdotes,' from 1697 to 1722, 230 pages, 
and of the joint works, 1722 to 1737, 370 

Bowyer died 27 Dec. 1737, having survived 
his wife ten years, and was buried in the 
church of Low Leyton, Essex, in the south- 
west corner of which is an inscription to the 
memory of the Bowyer family generally. 
There is a marble monument erected by his 
son to his memory in the same church. In 
the stock room at Stationers' Hall there is a 
brass tablet, also by his son, commemorative 
of his loss by fire in 1712-13, and of the 
donations of the Stationers' Company and 
friends. By the side of it hangs a half-length 
portrait of Bowyer, which has been well de- 
scribed as that of 'a pleasant round-faced 
man ' and ' a jolly good-looking man in a 
flowing wig.' An engraving of it by Basire 

3 Bowyer 

is the frontispiece of Nichols's first volume of 
' Literary Anecdotes.' 

In 1724 Bowyer was a nonjuror ; we know 
nothing more of his religious views except a 
few traces, in his early life, recorded by Ord 
in the ' History of Cleveland,' where it is 
said that he had a controversy with a priest 
who defended the conduct of his sister, a 
professed nun of the order of Poor Clares, 
at Dunkirk. The letters commence October 
1696, and end in June 1697, at the time 
when he was a journeyman printer at Daniel 
Sheldon's in Bartholomew Close. He seems 
to have been a very kind-hearted man, and 
ever ready to show kindness to others. He 
was the principal means of establishing the 
elder Caslon as a typefounder. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 1-485, ii. 1-116, iii. 
272; Gent. Mag. xlviii. 409, 449, 513, Iii. 348, 
554, 582, liv. 893; Ord's Cleveland, p. 340; 
Bigmore and Wyman's Bibliog. of Printing, p. 
75 ; Hansard's Typographia, p. 324 ; Wright's 
Essex, i. 496.] J. W.-G. 

BOWYER, WILLIAM, the younger 
(1699-1777), 'the learned printer,' only son of 
William Bowyer the elder [q.v.] and his second 
wife, Dorothy Dawks, was born at Dogwell 
Court, Whitefriars, London, on 19 Dec. 1699, 
a few months after his father had set up in 
business as a printer and issued his first book. 
Early in life he was placed under Ambrose 
Bonwicke the elder [q. v.J, at Headley, near 
Leatherhead. Bowyer so won his master's 
affection, that when his father suffered in the 
great fire of 1712, he was gratuitously taught 
and boarded by Bonwicke for a year, without 
any intimation that it was the good divine's 
own deed. In June 1716 his father placed him 
as a sizar at St. John's, Cambridge, but seems 
to have dealt not very kindly in the matter of 
finances. Here he was under Dr. Christopher 
Anstey and Dr. Newcome, and in 1719 ob- 
tained Roper's exhibition, and wrote l Epi- 
stola pro Sodalitio a rev. viro F. Roper mihi 
legato,' but did not take a B.A. degree. He 
was therefore not a candidate for a fellowship 
in 1719, as sometimes stated. In 1722 he 
was still at college without a degree, and 
about this time he began to help his father in 
correcting learned works for the press, Dr. 
Wilkins's great folio edition of Selden's works 
being the first, and for this he drew up an 
epitome ' De Synedriis veterum Ebraeorum,' 
and memoranda of ' Privileges of the Baronage' 
and ' Judicature in Parliament.' His father 
took him into partnership towards the end of 
1722, retaining the management of the busi- 
ness, and delegating the learned work to his 
son. In 1727 he wrote and published ' AView 
of a Book entitled Reliquiae Baxterianae ' [see 

G 2 


8 4 


BAXTER, WILLIAM, 1650-1723], which was 
received with high approbation from Dr. Wot- 
ton, Samuel Clarke, and other men of letters. 
On 9 Oct. 1728, shortly after his mother's 
death, he married Anne Prudom, his mother's 
niece, a ward of his father, acquiring with 
her freehold farms in Yorkshire and Essex. 
On 17 Oct. 1731 his wife died in her twenty- 
sixth year, leaving one child only, Thomas, j 
born 1730, a previous son, William, having j 
died in infancy. In 1729 he wrote the preface ! 
to Bonwicke's life of his son 'A Pattern 
for Young Students in the University,' &c., 
London, 1 2mo ; and in the same year he was ap- 
pointed, through Onslow, the speaker, to print 
the votes of the House of Commons, an office 
he held under three speakers, and for nearly 
fifty years, in spite of efforts to prejudice him 
as a nonjuror. In 1730 he edited Dr. Wot- 
ton's posthumous work, 'A Discourse con- 
cerning the Confusion of Languages at Babel,' 
London, 8vo. In 1731 he wrote 'Remarks 
on Mr. Bowman's Visitation Sermon on the 
Traditions of the Clergy,' exposing that gen- 
tleman's deficiency in Latin and Greek, as 
well as in ecclesiastical history. The * Ser- 
mon ' and these ' Remarks ' made a great stir 
at the time. In 1732 Bowyer was involved 
in a literary dispute with Pope, which seems 
to have ended with the poet's expressing a 
good opinion of his critic. The same year he 
published ' The Beau and Academick,' a trans- 
lation of Haseldine's ' Bellus Homo et Aca- 
demicus,' recited in the Sheldonian theatre. 
In 1733 he wrote in the magazines many let- 
ters and papers on Stephen's ' Thesaurus.' In 
May 1736, at the recommendation of Drake, 
the antiquary, Bowyer was appointed printer 
to the Society of Antiquaries, of which he was 
elected a fellow the July following. He 
made several valuable contributions to the 
society, of which are noteworthy one on ' The 
Inscription on Vitellius at Bath,' and a 'Dis- 
sertation on the Gule or Yule of our Saxon 
Ancestors.' The same year, in conjunction 
with Dr. Birch, he formed the Society for the 
Encouragement of Learning, an institution 
which promised well, but had a very brief 
existence. In 1738 he became liveryman of 
the Stationers' Company, of which he was 
afterwards called on the court in 1763, and 
fined for the office of master in 1771. In 
1741 he put into useful form two schoolbooks, 
' Selectee ex Profanis Scriptoribus Histories,' 
and ' Selectee e Veteri Testamento Histories,' 
with his own prefaces. In 1742 he edited a 
translation of Trapp's 'Latin Lectures on 
Poetry,' with additional notes ; and also 
the seventh volume of Dr. Swift's ' Miscella- 
nies,' 8vo ; and in 1744 he wrote a pamphlet 
on the 'Present State of Europe,' chiefly 

from Puffendorf, which is now exceedingly 

In 1747 he married his housekeeper, a 
widow, Mrs. Elizabeth Bill, who had lived 
with him fourteen years. In 1750 he wrote 
a prefatory critical dissertation to Kuster's 
treatise, ' De vero usu Verborum Mediorum, r 
also a Latin preface to Leedes's ' Veteres 
Poetee citati,' works, printed together, of 
which new editions with improvements were 
issued in 1773, 12mo, 1806, 8vo, 1822, 12mo. 
The valuable and extensive notes on Colonel 
Bladen's ' Translation of Caesar's Commen- 
taries ' signed 'Typogr.' were by Bowyer, 
1750. He also wrote the long preface to- 
Montesquieu's ' Reflections on the Rise and 
Fall of the Roman Empire/ Lond. 1751, and 
translated the dialogue between Sylla and 
Eucrates. The same year he gave to the world 
the first translation of Rousseau's ' Paradoxi- 
cal Oration on the Arts and Sciences,' which 
gained the Dijon prize in 1750, and wrote 
a preface to the work. Excepting a few 
brief periods of retirement to Knightsbridge r 
Bowyer clung to business very closely, and 
his great labours in producing an immense 
number of learned works at length told upon 
his constitution. He therefore entered into 
partnership in 1754 with Mr. James Emon- 
son, a relative, and Mr. Spens, a corrector of 
the press, and afterwards editor of ' Lloyd's^ 
Evening Post,' and took another house in 
Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, to enjoy ' a 
freer and sweeter air ' in the garden grounds-- 
attached. A separation of partnership took 
place in 1757, when Bowyer resumed the* 
active duties of his profession. This year he- 
took as his apprentice John Nichols, then 
thirteen years of age, who was soon entrusted 
with the management of the office. In 1761, 
through the interest of the Earl of Maccles- 
field, president of the Royal Society, Bowyer 
became printer for that institution, and held 
the same office under five presidents up to his 
death. The same year he published ' Verses 
on the Coronation of their late Majesties, 
King George II and Queen Caroline,' spoken 
by scholars of Westminster School, with 
translations of all the Latin copies. In this 
humorous pamphlet he had the assistance of 
Mr. Nichols. In 1762 he edited the thirteenth 
and fourteenth volumes of Swift's Works, 
8vo, and in 1763 appeared his excellent edi- 
tion of the Greek Testament in 2 vols. 12mo, 
pp. 488, to which he added ' Conjectural 
Emendations,' &c., paged separately, pp. 178. 
These critical notes, selected from the works 
of Bishop Barrington, Markland, Schultz, 
Michaelis, Owen, Woide, Gasset, and Stephen 
Weston, were considered of very great value. 
A second edition of the ' Conjectural Emen- 


Nations' appeared in 1772, 8vo; 3rd ed. 1782, 
4to ; 4th ed., much enlarged, 1812, 4to. In 
1765 Bowyer had some intention of purchas- 
ing a lease of exclusive privilege of the uni- 
versity press, but the scheme fell through. 
Early in the next year he took into partner- 
ship the apprentice-manager of his business, 
and thenceforward the ever-increasing suc- 
cess of the business was insured. The typo- 
graphical anecdotes of the Bowyer Press from 
1722, when Bowyer became a partner with 
his father, to 1766, when he took John 
Nichols into partnership, extend in Nichols's 
' Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury' to 703 closely printed 8vo pages, and 
from the latter date to his death in 1777 the 
joint productions of Bowyer and Nichols oc- 
cupy in description and anecdotes 293 further 
pages of the same work. In 1766 Bowyer 
brought out with an excellent Latin preface 
'Joannis Harduini Jesuitse ad censuram 
-Scriptorum Veterum Prolegomena.' In 1767 
he was appointed to print the rules of par- 
liament and the journal of the House of 
Lords through the influence of the Earl of 
Marchmont ; and at this time, for want of 
room, the printing-office was removed from 
Whitefriars to Red Lion Passage, where he 
placed the sign of Cicero's head, and styled 
himself 'ArchitectusVerborum.' The anxiety 
consequent upon this removal from the place 
of his birth brought on a touch of paralysis, 
that affected him throughout his after life. 
In 1771 his second wife died, aged 70. She 
had assisted in correcting the press until 
young Nichols took her place. In the pre- 
face to the second edition of ' Conjectural 
Emendations,' 1772, Bowyer craves indul- 
gence from his readers in consequence of suf- 
fering from palsy and affection of the stone 
.and bilious colic, but still continued his 
literary labours. In 1773 he translated and 
published ' Select Discourses from Michaelis, 
on the Hebrew Months, Sabbatical Years,' 
&c. 12mo ; in 1774 he published anonymously 
his well-known work, l The Origin of Print- 
ing, in Two Essays, 8vo,' in which he was 
assisted by Dr. Owen and Mr. Missy. A se- 
cond and enlarged edition appeared in 1776, 
8vo, with a supplement in 1781, 8vo, by Mr. 
Nichols. In 1776 he was laid up for weeks 
with paralysis ; still he managed to push for- 
ward his last editorial work, Dr. Bentley's 
' Dissertation on the Epistles of Phalaris,' 
which was not published until 1782 (8vo), 
five years after his death. 

In the last year of his life he published 
* Rolls of Parliament ' in six folio volumes, 
and thirty-one volumes of the * Journal of the 
House of Lords,' and he had a multitude of 
works in the press for instance, the two 

> Bowyer 

handsome folios of * Domesday Book,' which 
were not completed until 1783. He died on 
18 Nov. 1777, aged 77. Most of his learned 
pamphlets, essays, prefaces, corrections, and 
notes have been reprinted as ' Miscellaneous 
Tracts by the late William Bowyer . . . col- 
lected and illustrated with notes by John 
Nichols, F.S.L. Edin.,' London, 1785, 4to, 
pp. 712. 

Bowyer was a man of very small stature, 
and in the jeux $ esprit of his day we find 
him called 'the little man,' <a little man 
of great sufficiency.' In character he was 
very amiable, and his cheerful disposition 
and learned conversation cemented many 
a lifelong friendship. Every species of dis- 
tress was relieved by him, and so privately 
that the knowledge of his kindness came 
only from letters found after his death. His 
will, made 30 July 1777, often reprinted, is 
full of an affectionate and grateful spirit to 
the institutions and families of persons who 
had helped his father in the trouble of the 
great fire. To his own profession this will 
shows him a great benefactor, and his be- 
quests are now administered by the Sta- 
tioners' Company. For religion he had a great 
regard, and his moral character was unim- 
peachable. In the church of Low Leyton, 
Essex, there is a white marble monument to 
the memory of his father and himself, with 
a Latin inscription by him. A bust of him 
is placed in Stationers' Hall, with his father's 
portrait, and the brass plate underneath has 
an inscription in English in reference to the 
fire of 1712. His portrait by Basire is the 
frontispiece to -vol. ii. of Nichols's l Literary 
Anecdotes,' 1812, 8vo. The 1812 edition of 
his t Conjectural Emendations ' has a fine 
quarto-sized portrait of him as ' Gulielmus 
Bowyer, Architectus Verborum, set. Ixxviii.,' 
with various emblems beneath, including the 
phoenix, symbolical of the rise of the new 
firm from the memorable fire. There are also 
inferior portraits in Hansard's ' Typographia ' 
and Wyman's 'Bibliography of Printing.' 
Each representation reveals to us a severe 
face as of one of the old puritans, in remark- 
able contrast to the genial faces of his father 
and his successor. His son Thomas survived 
him. He was intended to be his father's 
successor in business, but seems to have 
been a very wayward youth, though it is 
clear from his father's gossiping letters on 
domestic matters that it was the stepmother's 
refusal to take proper care of ' Tom.' and her 
extraordinary affection for her young nephew, 
Emonson, that disgusted the lad and turned 
the current of his life. Ordained by Bishop 
Hoadly for the church, and for a time curate 
at Hillsdon, Middlesex, he then became a 




military man, but changed once more to a j 
quaker shortly before his father's death. He j 
had several estates from his grandfather Pru- | 
dom, and his father's will dealt very kindly 
with him. For some time he resided at a i 
secluded village near Darlington, calling him- 
self ' Mr. Thomas/ and died suddenly in 1783, 
aged 53. 

[Bowyer's Works ; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, i. 
ii. iii. &c. ; Nichols's Illustrations of Literature ; 
Nichols's Miscellaneous Tracts, 1785; Wyman's 
Bibliog. of Printing; Hansard's Typographia.] 

J. W.-G. 

BOXALL, JOHN, D.D. (d. 1571), Queen 
Mary's secretary of state, a native of Bram- 
shoot in Hampshire, was, after a preliminary 
training in Winchester School, admitted a 
perpetual fellow of New College, Oxford, in 
1542, where he took his degrees in arts, 
1 being then accounted one of the subtilest 
disputants in the university.' He took orders, 
but. being opposed to the doctrines of the re- 
formers, he abstained from exercising the func- 
tions of his ministry during the reign of Ed- 
ward VI. On Queen Mary's accession he was 
appointed her majesty's secretary of state, dean 
of Ely, prebendary of Winchester, and warden 
of Winchester College (1554) in the place of | 
Dr. John White, who had been promoted | 
to the see of Lincoln. He was one of the | 
divines who were chosen to preach at St. 
Paul's Cross in support of the catholic reli- 
gion, and Pits relates that on one occasion, 
while thus engaged, a bystander hurled a 
dagger at him (De illustr. Anylice Scriptori- 
bus, 870). Other writers assert that this 
happened to Dr. Pendleton ; but Stow (An- 
nales, 1615, p. 614) correctly tells us that 
Gilbert Bourne [q. v.] occupied the pulpit on j 
the occasion referred to. On 23 Sept. 1556 ! 
Boxall was sworn as a member of the privy 
council ; also as one of the masters of requests 
and a councillor of that court (Lansd. MS. 
981, f. 85). In July 1557 he was made dean 
of Peterborough ; on 20 Dec. following he 
was installed dean of Norwich, and about 
the same time dean of Windsor. He was 
elected registrar of the order of the Garter 
on 6 Feb. 1557-8, and in 1558 was created 
D.D. and appointed prebendary of York and 
Salisbury. It should be mentioned that Queen 
Mary allowed him ten retainers (STRYPE, 
Memorials, iii. 480), and that he was one of 
the overseers of Cardinal Pole's will (ib. 

Boxall was removed from the office of se- 
cretary of state by Queen Elizabeth, on her 
accession, to make way for Cecil, and his be- 
haviour on the occasion places his character 
in a favourable light ; for, instead of op- 

posing obstacles to his successor in office, it 
is clear from a few of his letters to Cecil, 
dated about this period, that he cherished 
no sentiment but that of anxiety to give him 
all the assistance in his power. Having been 
deprived of his ecclesiastical preferments, he 
was on 18 June 1560 committed to the Tower 
by Archbishop Parker and other members of 
the ecclesiastical commission (STRYPE, An- 
nals, i. 142, 148, 167 ; MACHYN, Diary, 238 ; 
Lansd. MS. 981, f. 85 b). Subsequently he 
was committed to ' free custody ' in the pri- 
mate's palace at Lambeth, with Thirleby, late 
bishop of Ely, Tunstall, late bishop of Dur- 
ham, and other divines who adhered to the 
old doctrines. He was removed at different 
periods to Bromley and Beaksbourne, re- 
maining still in the archbishop's charge. In 
the library of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge (MSS. No. 114, f. 286) is a letter 
from Boxall thanking Parker for his kind- 
ness to him when confined in his house and 
for the leave he had obtained of removing to- 
Bromley. On 20 July 1569 Boxall, then in 
custody at Lambeth, wrote to Sir William 
Cecil requesting leave to visit his mother. 
In his letter, which is signed ' Jo. Boxoll/ 
he says : ' My poore mother beside the comen 
sicknes of age, beinge of SOyeares at the lest, 
ys also dangerously diseased, desyrouse to- 
see me & I likewyse desyrous to do my dewtye 
vnto her ' (Lansd. MS. 12, f. 12). Even- 
tually, being attacked by illness, Boxall was 
allowed to go to the house of a relative in 
London, where he died on 3 March 1570-1. 
His brothers Edmund and Richard were ap- 
pointed administrators of his property. 

He published a Latin sermon preached in 
a convocation of the clergy in 1555 and 
printed at London in octavo in the same 
year. He also wrote an t Oration in the 
Praise of the Kinge of Spaine,' MS. Reg. 
12 A. xlix. This discourse, which is in Latin, 
was probably composed in May or June 1555,, 
on the report of the queen having been de- 
livered of a prince. 

It is recorded to his honour that he was- 
' a man who, though he were so great with 
Queen Mary, yet had the good principle to 
abstain from the cruel blood-shedding of the 
protestants, giving neither his hand nor his 
consent thereunto ' (STRYPE, Life of Parker y 
i. 47). Lord Burghley (Execution of Justice r 
1583, sheet B ii.) describes him as ' a person 
of great modestie and knowledge,' and Arch- 
bishop Parker says : ' Inerat enim ei tan- 
quam a natura ingenita modestia comitasque 
summa, qua quoscunque notos ad se dili- 
gendum astrinxit' (PARKER, Mattheus, ap- 
pended to some copies of De Antiq. Brit* 



[Wood's Athense Oxon (ed. Bliss), i. 380; 
Dodd's Church Hist. i. 513 ; Jewel's Works, iv. 
1146 ; Le Neve's Fasti (ed. Hardy), i. 257, 352, 
354, ii. 418, 476, 539, iii. 374; Strype's Annals, 
i. 83, 142, 148, 167; Strype's Eccl. Memorials, 
iii. 183, 352, 456, 468, 479; Strype's Parker, i. 
47, 89,140, 141, 142, 146, iii." Append. 161; 
Strype's Life of Sir T. Smith (1820), 46, 65; 
Parker Correspondence, 65, 104, 122, 192, 194, 
203^,215,217, 218; Willis's Hist, of the Mitred 
Parliamentary Abbeys, i. 333 ; Burgon's Life of 
Sir T. Gresham, i. 214 ; Kegal. MS. 12 A. xlix. ; 
Addit. MS. 5842, f. 1806; Machyn's Diary, 238, 
380; Zurich Letters, i. 5, 255, ii. 183; Nas- 
mith's Cat. of MSS. in C. C. C. C. 164.] T. C. 

BOXALL, SIB WILLIAM (1800-1879), 
portrait-painter, the son of an Oxfordshire 
exciseman, was born on 29 June 1800. He 
was educated at the grammar school at 
Abingdon, and entered the schools of the 
Royal Academy in 1819. In 1827 he went 
to Italy, and resided there for about two 
years. He first exhibited at the Koyal Aca- 
demy in 1823 ' Jupiter and Latona' and 
' Portrait of Master Maberley,' and in the 
following year ' The Contention of Michael 
and Satan for the Body of Moses.' In 1831 
appeared ' Lear and Cordelia,' which was 
engraved in Finden's 'Gallery.' Boxall 
painted the portraits of many literary and 
artistic celebrities, among them those of 
Allan Cunningham (1836), Walter Savage 
Landor (1851), David Cox (1857), and Cop- 
ley Fielding ; the last now hangs in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery. In 1859 he painted 
for Trinity House a portrait of the prince 
consort, wearing the robes of master of the 
corporation. He excelled in the portrayal of 
female beauty, and many of his works of that 
class were engraved in the publications of 
the day. He exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy altogether eighty-six portraits. In 
1851 he was elected an associate of the aca- 
demy, and in 1863 a full academician. Two 
years afterwards, in 1865, he succeeded Sir 
Charles Eastlake in the directorship of the 
National Gallery, which post he held until 
1874. In 1867 he received the honour of 

During Boxall's administration the pic- 
ture by Rembrandt of ' Christ blessing Little 
Children,' known as the ' Suermondt Rem- 
brandt,' was secured for the National Gal- 
lery ; also ' The Entombment,' attributed to 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, the authenticity 
of which was the subject of some discussion 
in the < Times ' in September 1881. In 1874, 
when the Peel collection was offered to the 
nation, Boxall had already resigned his post 
in consequence of failing health, but his suc- 
cessor not having been appointed, Mr. Lowe 

(now Lord Sherbrooke), the chancellor of the 
exchequer, entrusted him with the negotia- 
tion, which he brought to a successful issue. 
He died on 6 Dec. 1879. One of his works, 
entitled ' Geraldine,' and representing a lady 
at her toilette, is in the National Gallery. 

[Ottley's Biographical and Critical Dictionary 
of Recent and Living Painters, &c., London, 
1866, 8vo ; Art Journal, 1880, p. 83.] L. F. 

BOXER, EDWARD (1784-1855), rear- 
admiral, entered the navy in 1798, and after 
eight years' junior service, for the most part 
with Captain (afterwards Sir) Charles Bris- 
bane, and for some short time in the Ocean, 
bearing Lord Collingwood's flag, was con- 
firmed, 8 June 1807, as lieutenant of the Tigre 
with Captain Benjamin Hallo well (afterwards 
Carew), whom, on promotion to flag rank in 
October 1811, he followed to the Malta, and 
continued, with short intermissions, under 
Rear-admiral Hallowell's immediate com- 
mand, until he was confirmed as commander 
on 1 March 1815. In 1822 he commanded the 
Sparrowhawk (18) on the Halifax station, 
and was posted out of her on 23 June 1823. 
From 1827 to 1830 he commanded the Hussar 
as flag-captain to Sir Charles Ogle at Hali- 
fax. In August 1837 he was appointed to 
the Pique, which he commanded on the North 
American and West Indian stations; and 
early in 1840 was sent to the Mediterranean, 
where he conducted the survey of the posi- 
tion afterwards occupied by the fleet off Acre, 
and took part in the bombardment and re- 
duction of that place in November. For his 
services at that time he received the Turkish 
gold medal, and was made C.B. 18 Dec. 1840. 
In August 1843 he was appointed harbour- 
master at Quebec, and held that office till his 
promotion to flag-rank, 5 March 1853. In 
December 1854 he was appointed second in 
command in the Mediterranean, and under- 
took the special duties of superintendent at 
Balaklava, which the crowd of shipping, the 
narrow limits of the harbour, and the utter 
want of wharves or of roads had reduced to a 
state of disastrous confusion. This, and more 
especially the six-mile sea of mud between the 
harbour and the camp, gave rise to terrible suf- 
fering and loss, the blame for which was all laid 
on the head of the admiral-superintendent at 
Balaklava, so that even now Admiral Boxer's 
name is not uncommonly associated with the 
memory of that deadly Crimean winter. But 
in truth it ought to be remembered rather as 
that of the man who, at the cost of his life, 
remedied the evils which had given rise to 
such loss. He died of cholera on board the 
Jason, just outside the harbour, on 4 June 
1855, and Lord Raglan in reporting his death 




said : ' Since he undertook the appointment 
of admiral-superintendent of the harbour of 
Balaklava he has applied himself incessantly 
to the discharge of his arduous duties, ex- 
posing himself in all weathers ; and he has 
rendered a most essential service to the army 
by improving the landing-places and esta- 
blishing wharves on the west side of the 
port, whereby the disembarkation of stores 
and troops has been greatly accelerated, and 
communications with the shore have been 
rendered much easier.' He had been a 
widower for nearly thirty years, but left 
a numerous family. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 
(1855), N.S. xliv. 95.] J. K. L. 

BOYCE, SAMUEL (d. 1775), dramatist, 
was originally an engraver, and held subse- 
quently a place in the South Sea House. He 
is the author of ' The Rover, or Happiness 
at Last,' a dramatic pastoral, 4to, 1752, which 
was never acted, and 'Poems on several 
Occasions,' Lond. 1757, 8vo, a large-paper 
copy of which was in the Garrick sale. He 
died 21 March 1775. 

[Baker, Eeed, and Jones's Biographia Dra- 
matica ; Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual.] 

J. K. 

BOYCE, THOMAS (d. 1793), dramatist, 
was rector of Worlingham, Suffolk, and 
chaplain to the Earl of Suffolk. He is the 
author of one tragedy, ' Harold,' Lond. 4to, 
L786, which was never acted. In the preface 
to this he states that when he wrote it he 
was unaware that Cumberland's play on the 
same subject was in rehearsal at Drury Lane. 
It is a dull work, but the termination, judged 
by the standard of the day, is not ineffective. 
He died 4 Feb. 1793. 

[Genest's History of the Stage ; Baker, Keed, 
and Jones's Biographia Dramatica.] J. K. 

BOYCE, WILLIAM (1710-1779), Mus. 
Doc., was born at Joiners' Hall, Upper Thames 
Street, in 1710. His father is variously stated 
to have been a 'housekeeper,' a joiner and 
cabinet maker, a man of considerable property, 
and the beadle of the Joiners' Company. 
Boyce was educated at St. Paul's School, 
and was a chorister of St. Paul's Cathedral 
under Charles King. When his voice broke 
he was apprenticed to Dr. Maurice Greene, 
with whom he always remained on close 
terms of friendship. In 1734 he competed 
for the post of organist at St. Michael's, Corn- 
hill, the other candidates being Froud, Wor- 
gan, Young, and Kelway. The appointment 
was given to the last-named musician, and 
Boyce became organist of Oxford Chapel (now 
St. Peter's), Vere Street, where he succeeded 

Joseph Centlivre. At this time he studied 
theory under Dr. Pepusch, and was much in 
demand as a teacher of the harpsichord, par- 
ticularly in ladies' schools. In 1736 Kelway 
left St. Michael's, and succeeded Weldon at 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields ; whereupon Boyce 
resigned his post at Oxford Chapel, and took 
Kelway 's place in the city, which he continued 
to occupy until 5 April 1768. On 21 June 
of the same year he was sworn in as composer 
to the Chapel Royal, the post of organist at 
the same time being conferred upon Jonathan 
Martin, while Boyce undertook to fulfil the 
third part of the duty of organist, receiving 
in return one-third part of the money allotted 
to Martin as * travelling expenses.' In 1734 
Boyce's setting of ' Peleus and Thetis,' a 
masque, written by Lord Lansdowne, had been 
performed by the Philharmonic Society, and 
in 1736 the Apollo Society produced an ora- 
torio by him, ' David's Lamentation over Saul 
and Jonathan,' the words of which were by 
John Lockman. In 1737 he was appointed 
conductor of the Three Choirs festivals, a post 
he held for many years. About the same 
time he became a member of the Royal So- 
ciety of Musicians, and a little later he com- 
posed music to two odes for St. Cecilia's day, 
written respectively by Lockman and an 
under-master of Westminster School named 
Vidal. In 1740 he composed the Pythian 
Ode, ' Gentle lyre, begin the strain,' and in 
1743 produced his best work, the serenata of 
' Solomon,' the book of which was compiled 
from the Song of Solomon by Edward Moore, 
the author of t Fables for the Female Sex.' 
Shortly afterwards he published a set of 
' Twelve Sonatas for Two Violins, with a 
Bass for the Violoncello or Harpsichord/ 
which long remained very popular as cham- 
ber music ; and in 1745 he began the publi- 
cation of his miscellaneous songs and cantatas, 
which, under the name of ' Lyra Britannica/ 
ultimately extended to six volumes. The 
year 1749 saw Boyce at the height of his ac- 
tivity. On 2 Jan. the masque of ' Lethe ' 
was revived at Drury Lane, with Beard as 
Mercury, for whom Boyce wrote new songs. 
On 1 July his setting of Mason's ode on the 
installation of the Duke of Newcastle as 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge was 
performed in the senate house, and on the 
following day an anthem by him, with or- 
chestral accompaniments, was performed at 
Great St. Mary's as an exercise for the degree 
of Mus. Doc., which the university had con- 
ferred on him. On 2 Dec. < The Chaplet,' an 
operetta by Moses Mendez, with music by 
Boyce, was produced at Drury Lane, the 
principal parts in which were filled by Beard, 
Mrs. Clive, and Master Mattocks, on which 


8 9 


occasion Mattocks made his first appear- 
ance on the stage. In the same year the 
parishioners of Allhallows the Great and 
Less, Thames Street, where Boyce was born, 
requested him to become organist of the parish 
<church ; he held this post until 18 May 1769, 
when he was dismissed, probably because his 
numerous occupations prevented him from 
attending properly to the duties of the post. 
In 1750 Garrick revived Dryden's ' Secular 
Masque ' (30 Oct.), which had been originally 
produced with ' The Pilgrim ' on 25 March 
1700. For this Boyce had already written 
music, which had been performed at ' Hick- 
ford's Room, or the Castle Concert ; ' this 
was now heard at Drury Lane, with Beard 
as Momus. In the following year (19 Nov. 
1751) another small work by Mendez and 
Boyce was brought out at Drury Lane ; this 
was ' The Shepherd's Lottery,' in which Beard 
and Mrs. Clive sang the principal parts. 
About this time he moved from his father's 
house in the city to Quality Court, Chancery 
Lane, where he lived with his wife until his 
removal to Kensington in 1758. In 1755, on 
the death of Dr. Greene, Boyce was nomi- 
nated by the Duke of Grafton to be master 
of the king's band of musicians. He was not 
sworn in until June 1757, but he fulfilled the 
duties of the post from the death of Greene. 
In this capacity he composed a large number 
of odes for the king's birthday and new year's 
day. A complete collection of these from 
the year 1755 to 1779 is preserved in the 
Music School Collection at Oxford, besides a 
queen's ode (performed 6 June 1763), and two 
settings of ' The king shall rejoice,' the earliest 
of which was performed at the wedding of 
George III (8 Sept. 1761), and the other at 
St. Paul's Cathedral (22 April 1766). As 
conductor of the festivals of the Sons of the 
Clergy, another post to which he succeeded 
on Greene's death, Boyce wrote additional 
accompaniments to Purcell's great Te Deum 
and Jubilate, besides composing specially for 
these occasions two of his finest anthems. I 
In 1758 John Travers, the organist of the ! 
Chapel Royal, died, and on 23 June Boyce ; 
was admitted to this post. In the same year j 
he wrote music for Home's tragedy of * Agis,' 
which was produced at Drury Lane 21 Feb. 
Boyce also wrote at different times music for ' 
Shakespeare's ' Tempest,' l Cymbeline,' and i 
4 Winter's Tale,' and a dirge for ' Romeo and 
Juliet.' His last work for the theatre was j 
the music to Garrick's pantomime, ' Har- i 
lequin's Invasion,' which was produced at ! 
Drury Lane 31 Dec. 1759. Boyce's most im- j 
portant contribution to this work was the | 
fine song * Hearts of Oak,' a composition I 
which almost rivals ' Rule Britannia ' in i 

vigour and popularity. This song was origi- 
nally sung by Champness ; it was published 
in * Thalia, a Collection of six favourite Songs 
(never before Publish'd) which have been 
occasionally Introduced in several Dramatic 
Performances at the Theatre Royal in Drury 
Lane ; the words by David Garrick, Esq., and 
the musick compos'd by Dr. Boyce, Dr. Arne, 
Mr. Smith, Mr. M. Arne, Mr. Battishill, and 
Mr. Barthelemon.' During the whole of his 
life Boyce suffered much from deafness ; even 
before his articles had expired this infirmity 
had made itself very apparent, and by the 
year 1758 it had increased to such an extent 
that he resolved to give up teaching and to 
retire to Kensington, and devote himself to 
editing the collection of church music which 
bears his name. The idea of publishing a 
work of this description occurred simulta- 
neously to Dr. Alcock and Dr. Greene about 
the year 1735. The latter issued a prospectus 
on the subject, whereupon Dr. Alcock gave 
up the plan, and presented Greene with his 
collections ; but he did not live to begin the 
work in earnest, which thus devolved, by 
Greene's wishes, upon Boyce. The ' Cathe- 
dral Music,' the first volume of which was 
published in 1760, has been often reprinted, 
and, although at the time of its publication 
it brought but little beyond honour to its 
editor, it still remains a most valuable and 
important work, and a monument of Boyce's 
erudition and good judgment. Besides the 
preparation of this great work, in his latter 
years Boyce revised most of his earlier com- 
positions, and published a selection of the over- 
tures to his new-year and birthday odes, under 
the title of * Eight Symphonys.' Most of his 
anthems were not published until after his 
[ death, whentw r o volumes were brought out by 
his widow and by Dr. Philip Hayes, besides a 
' burial service and a collection of voluntaries 
I for the organ or harpsichord. He died of 
J gout at Kensington 7 Feb. 1779, and was 
! buried under the dome of St. Paul's on the 
i 16th of the same month. His will, dated 
1 24 June 1775, proved by his wife and daugh- 
; ter 20 Feb. 1779, directs that he should not 
be buried until seven days and seven nights 
after his death. By his wife Hannah he had 
two children : (1) Elizabeth, who was born 
29 April 1749; and (2) William, born 
25 March 1764. The latter, after his father's 
death, entered at an Oxford college, but was 
sent down without taking a degree. He at- 
tained some distinction as a double-bass 
player, and died about 1823. Two oil paint- 
ings of Boyce are known to exist. One, a full 
length, is in the Music School Collection at 
Oxford; another, a small three-quarter length 
of him, seated, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is 

Boyd 9 

now (1886) in the possession of Mr. John 
Rendall. There is an engraved portrait of 
him, ' drawn from the life, and engraved by 
F. K. Sherwin/ prefixed to the second edition 
of the ' Cathedral Music ' (1788). The same 
portrait was prefixed to the ' Collection of 
Anthems/ published by Mrs. Boyce in 1790. 
A vignette of him, by Dray ton, after R. 
Smirke (together with Blow, Arne, Purcell, 
and Croft), was published in the * Historic 
Gallery/ September 1801. 

Personally, Boyce was a most amiable and 
estimable man. Burney, twenty-four years 
after his death, wrote of him as follows : 
1 There was no professor whom I was ever 
acquainted with that I loved, honoured, and 
respected more/ and he seems to have been 
a universal favourite with all with whom 
he came in contact. Musically, he occupies 
a distinct position amongst his contempora- 
ries. Like all the English composers of his 
day, it was his ill fortune to be overshadowed 
by the giant form of Handel, and yet, in spite 
of this, he managed to preserve an individu- 
ality of his own. He may best be described 
as the Arne. of English church music ; for the 
same characteristics of grace and refinement 
are to be found in his music as in that of his 
contemporary, and, like Arne, he had a re- 
serve of power which was all the more ef- 
fective for not being too often brought into 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 267 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Burney in Rees's Encyclopaedia, v. ; the 
Georgian Era, iv. 243 ; Life of Boyce prefixed 
to Cathedral Music, vol. i. (Warren's edition, 
1849); Busby's Concert Room Anecdotes, iii. 
166; Gent. Mag. xlix. 103; Genest's History 
of the Stage, iv. ; Probate Registers (42 War- 
burton) ; manuscripts in the possession of Mr. 
T. W. Taphouse ; manuscripts in the Music School 
Collection, Oxford ; Appendix to Bemrose's 
Choir Chant Book : Cheque Book of the Chapel 
Rojal.] W. B. S. 

BOYD, ARCHIBALD (1803-1883), dean 
of Exeter, son of Archibald Boyd, treasurer 
of Derry, was born at Londonderry in 1803, 
and, after being educated at the diocesan 
college in that city, proceeded to Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. 
1823, proceeded M.A. 1834, and B.D. and 
D.D. long after, in 1868. He officiated as 
curate and preacher in the cathedral of Derry 
1827-42, and here he first distinguished him- 
self as an able and powerful preacher, as a 
controversialist, and as an author. At that 
time the controversy between the presby- 
terians and the episcopalians of the north of 
Ireland was at its height. Boyd came to the 
defence of the church and preached a series 


of discourses in reply to attacks. These dis- 
courses attracted great attention, and were 
afterwards printed. In 1842 he was appointed 
perpetual curate of Christ Church, Chelten- 
ham. With Francis Close, his fellow-worker 
here, he joined in a scheme for establishing 
additional Sunday schools, infant schools, and 
bible classes. For eight years after 1859 he 
was entrusted with the care of Paddington. 
On 11 Nov. 1867 he accepted the deanery of 
Exeter, and resigned, with his vicarage, an 
honorary canonry in Gloucester Cathedral, 
which he had held since 1857. Like Dean 
Close, he was a preaching and a working dean. 
He was a firm but moderate evangelical, and 
was a voluminous writer on the ecclesiastical 
questions of the day. His name is connected 
with the well-known Exeter reredos case. 
The dean and chapter erected in the cathe- 
dral, 1872-3, a stone reredos, on which were 
sculptured representations in bas-relief of the 
Ascension, the Transfiguration, and the De- 
scent of the Holy Ghost, with some figures of 
angels. In accordance with a petition pre- 
sented by William John Phillpotts, chancellor 
of the diocese, the bishop (Dr. Temple) on 
7 Jan. 1874 declared the reredos to be con- 
trary to law and ordered its removal. After 
much litigation touching the bishop's juris- 
diction in the matter, the structure was de- 
clared not illegal by the judicial commit- 
tee of the privy council on 25 Feb. 1875 
(Law Reports, BTJLWER'S Admiralty and 
Ecclesiastical Reports, iv. 297-379 (1875); 
COWELL'S Privy Council Appeals, vi. 435-67 

Whilst on the continent during the autumn 
of 1882 Dean Boyd met with an accident at 
Vienna, from the effects of which he never 
fully recovered. He died at the deanery, 
Exeter, on 11 July 1883, bequeathing nearly 
40,000/. to various societies and institutions 
in the diocese of Exeter. He married Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Waller of Ospringe, and 
widow of the Rev. Robert Day Denny. She 
died on 6 Jan. 1877. 

Boyd was the author of the following 

works : 1. ' Sermons on the Church, or the 

Episcopacy, Liturgy, and Ceremonies of the 

Church of England,' 1838. 2. < Episcopacy, 

Ordination, Lay-eldership, and Liturgies,' 

! 1839. 3. 'Episcopacy and Presbytery,' 1841. 

i 4. ' England, Rome, and Oxford compared 

! as to certain Doctrines,' 1846. 5. ' The History 

of the Book of Common Prayer,' 1850. 

I 6. < Turkey and the Turks,' 1853. 7. < Baptism 

i and Baptismal Regeneration,' 1865. 8. ' Con- 

fession, Absolution, and the Real Presence/ 

; 1867. 9. < The Book of Common Prayer/ 

1869. He also printed many single sermons 

, and minor publications. 


[Times, 12 July 1883, p. 6; Devon Weekly 
Times, 13 and 20 July 1883 ; The Golden Decade 
of a Famous Town, i.e. Cheltenham, by Contem 
Ignotus (1884), pp. 70-102.] G. C. B. 

BOYD, BENJAMIN (1796-1851), Aus- 
tralian squatter, second son of Edward Boyd 
of Merton Hall, Wigtonshire, by his wife, 
Jane, eldest daughter of Benjamin Yule of 
Wheatfield, Midlothian, and brother of Mark 
Boyd [q. v.], was born at Merton Hall 
about 1796, and, after being in business as a 
stockbroker in the city of London from 1824 
to 1839, went out to Sydney in 1840-41 
for the purpose of organising the various 
branches of the Royal Banking Company of 
Australia. Acting on behalf of this com- 
pany, he purchased station property in the 
Monaro district, Riverina, Queensland, and 
elsewhere. At the first-named place he erected 
large stores and premises for boiling down 
his sheep into tallow. He at the same time 
speculated largely in whaling, and Twofold 
Bay became the rendezvous for his whaling 
ships. On the south head of the bay he put 
up a lighthouse for the purpose of directing 
vessels coming to his wharf. Another busi- 
ness which he carried on extensively was 
shipping cattle to Tasmania, New Zealand, 
and other markets. Boyd had also in view 
the making of Boyd Town, which he had 
founded, a place of commercial importance, 
by stealing a march on the government, who 
had made Eden the official township. He 
was the first, or amongst the first, to attempt 
to procure cheap labour in Australia by the 
employment of South Sea Islanders as shep- 
herds, but the scheme proved abortive. Mean- 
time the company grew dissatisfied with 
Boyd's management, and after a good deal 
of trouble Boyd agreed to retire and to re- 
sign all claims on the company on condition 
of receiving three of the whaling ships, his 
yacht, called the Wanderer, in which he had 
come from England, and two sections of land 
at Twofold Bay. His next enterprise was to 
embark with a digging party on board the 
Wanderer and to sail for California in 1850 
at the time of the gold excitement there. He 
was unsuccessful in his search for gold, and 
was on his way back to Sydney in 1851 
when his yacht touched at one of the islands 
in the Solomon group, known as Gandal- 
canar. There he went ashore with a black 
boy to have some shooting, and was never 
seen again. The affairs of the Royal Banking 
Company were ultimately wound up, when 
the shareholders had to make good a defi- 
ciency of 80,000. Boyd also had large estates 
of his own, amounting to 381,000 acres, for 
which, in 1847, he paid an annual license of 

i Boyd 

80/. He was in his time the largest squatter 
in the Australian colonies. He never married. 
[Heaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates 
(1879), pp. 23-24.] G. C. B. 

BOYD, HENRY (d. 1832), translator of 
Dante, was a native of Ireland, and was most 
probably educated at Dublin University. He 
published a translation of Dante's 'Inferno' 
in English verse, the first of its kind, with a 
specimen of the ' Orlando Furioso ' of Ariosto, 
1785. It was printed by subscription, and 
dedicated to the Earl of Bristol, bishop of 
Derry. The dedication is dated from Kil- 
leigh, near Tullamore, of which place presu- 
mably Boyd was incumbent. In 1796 he pub- 
lished ' Poems chiefly Dramatic and Lyric/ 
As early as 1791 the l ingenious and unfor- 
tunate author ' was seeking subscriptions for 
his original poems (NICHOLS, Lit. Illustra- 
tions, vii. 717). In 1802 he issued three 
volumes of an English verse translation of 
the whole ' Divina Commedia' of Dante, with 
preliminary essays, notes, and illustrations, 
which was dedicated to Viscount Charleville, 
whose chaplain the author is described to be 
in the title-page. In the dedication Boyd 
states that the terrors of the Irish rebellion, 
had driven him from the post of danger at 
Lord Charleville's side to seek a safe asylum 
in a ' remote angle of the province.' In 1805 
he was seeking a publisher for his translation, 
of the 'Araucana ' of Ercilla, a long poem, 
which 'was too great an undertaking for 
Edinburgh publishers,' and for which he 
vainly sought a purchaser in London (ibid. 
120, 149). In 1805 he published the 'Pe- 
nance of Hugo, a Vision,' translated from the 
Italian of Vincenzo Monti, with two ad- 
ditional cantos ; and the ' Woodman's Tale/ 
a poem after the manner and metre of Spen- 
ser's ' Faery Queen.' The latter poem formed 
really the first of a collection of poems and 
odes. These poems were to have been pub- 
lished at Edinburgh, and Boyd seems to have 
acted badly in making an engagement with 
a London house to publish them after they 
had been announced there (ibid. 157). In. 
the title-pages to both these works the author 
is described as vicar of Drumgath in Ireland ; 
but in all biographical notices and in the 
obituary record of the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine' for September 1832, the date of his 
death, he is invariably described simply as 
vicar of Rathfriland and chaplain to the 
Earl of Charleville. Anderson, writing to 
Bishop Percy in 1806, says that he had re- 
ceived some squibs written by Boyd against 
Mone, and that the humour was coarse and 
indelicate (ibid. 171). In 1807 he issued 
the ' Triumphs of Petrarch,' translated, into 


English verse, and in 1809 some notes of his 
on the Fallen Angels in ' Paradise Lost ' 
were published, with other notes and essays 
on Milton, under the superintendence of the 
Rev. Henry Todd. He died at Ballintemple, 
near Newrv, at an advanced age. 18 Sept. 

[Nichols's Illustrations of Literature, vii. 120, 
149, 157, 171, 717 ; Gent. Mag. vol. Iv. pt. i., vol. ii. ; Boyd's Dante, Dedication.] B. C. S. 

BOYD, HUGH (1746-1794), essayist, 
was the second son of Alexander Macauley 
of county Antrim, Ireland, and Miss Boyd 
of Ballycastle in the same county. He was 
born at Ballycastle in October 1746, and 
showed precocious talents. He was sent to 
Dr. Ball's celebrated school at Dublin, and 
at the age of fourteen entered at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. He became M.A. in 1765, and 
would have entered the army, but his father's 
somewhat sudden death left him unprovided 
for. He accordingly chose the law for a 
profession, and came to London. Here he 
became acquainted with Goldsmith and with 
Garrick. His wit and talents and his re- 
puted skill at chess soon brought him into 
the best society. In 1767 he married Miss 
Frances Morphy, and on the death of his ma- 
ternal grandfather he took the name of Boyd. 
After a visit to Ireland in 1768, during which 
he wrote some political letters in the Dublin 
journals, he resided at various places in and 
near London, his time and talents being de- 
voted to literature, politics, and legal studies. 
During these years in London Boyd was a fre- 
quent contributor to the ' Public Advertiser ' 
and other journals, and was in close intimacy 
with the circle of Burke and Reynolds. In 
1774 he began to work harder at the law, 
and also attended the commons' debates, 
which he wrote down from memory with 
extraordinary accuracy. Another visit to 
Ireland took place in 1776, on the occasion 
of an election for Antrim, the candidate for 
which he supported by a series of able letters 
under the signature of * A Freeholder.' Boyd 
was at length compelled by pecuniary pres- 
sure to seek a post of some emolument, and 
in 1781 he accepted the appointment of secre- 
tary to Lord Macartney, when that officer 
was nominated governor of Madras. Boyd 
now applied himself sedulously to the study 
of Indian affairs. Not long after his arrival 
at Madras he conducted a mission from the 
governor to the king of Candy in Ceylon, 
requiring that potentate's assistance against 
the Dutch. On his return the vessel in which 
he sailed was captured by the French, and 
he became a prisoner for some months at 
the isle of Bourbon. Returning at length to 

i Boyd 

India he lived for some time at Calcutta, 
and eventually was appointed master-attend- 
ant at Madras. In 1792 Boyd conducted a 
paper called the ' Madras Courier,' and the 
following year projected the 'Indian Ob- 
server,' being papers on morals and litera- 
ture ; and started a weekly paper, ' Hircarrah ' 
(i.e. messenger), as a vehicle for the essays. 
In 1794 he proposed to publish by subscrip- 
tion an account of his embassy to Candy, and 
had actually begun the work when he was 
carried off" by an attack of fever. He died on 
19 Oct. 1794. 

Boyd is represented as possessed of very 
high social and intellectual qualities. His 
claims to a place in the history of English 
literature rest very much on the assumption 
maintained by Almon and by George Chal- 
mers that he is the veritable ' Junius.' The 
argument in his favour is stated in the books 
mentioned below. Boyd's writings were col- 
lected and republished after his death by one 
of his Indian friends, under the title of ' The 
Miscellaneous Works of Hugh Boyd, the 
author of the Letters of Junius, with an 
Account of his Life and Writings, by Law- 
rence Dundas Campbell,' 2 vols. 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1800. They comprise the 'Freeholder 
Letters ; ' ' Democraticus,' a series of letters 
printed in the 'Public Advertiser,' 1779; 
' The Whig,' a series of letters contributed 
to the 'London Courant,' 1779-80: 'Abs- 
tracts of Two Speeches of the Earl of Chat- 
ham ; ' ' Miscellaneous Poems ; ' ' Journal of 
Embassy to the King of Candy ; ' and the 
' Indian Observer.' 

[Almon's Biographical Anecdotes, i. 16 ; Al- 
mon's Letters of Junius, passim (2 vols. 12mo, 
1806) ; Reasons for rejecting the presumptive 
Evidence of Mr. Almon that Mr. Hugh Boyd 
was the Writer of Junius (8vo, London, 1807) ; 
An Appendix to the Supplemental Apology for 
the Believers in the Supposititious Shakespeare 
Papers, being the documents for the opinion 
that Hugh M'Auley Boyd wrote Junius's Let- 
ters, by Gi-eorge Chalmers (8vo, London, 1800) ; 
The Author of Junius ascertained ... by George 
Chalmers (8vo, London, 1819); Campbell's Mis- 
cellaneous Works of Boyd, with Life, &c. (2 vols. 
London, 1800); (rent. Mag. Ixxxiv. 224; Euro- 
pean Mag. xxxvii. 339, 433 ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser., i. 43, ix. 261, xi. 8; Taylor's Records 
of my Life, i. 188, 190.] E. S. 

BOYD, HUGH STUART (1781-1848), 
Greek scholar, was born at Edgware. Before 
his birth his father, Hugh McAuley, took the 
name of Boyd, borne by the family of his 
wife, the daughter of Hugh Boyd of Bally- 
castle, Ireland [q. v.], one of the supposed 
authors of the ' Letters of Junius.' His 
mother's maiden name was Murphy. Boyd 



was admitted a pensioner of Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, on 24 July 1799, and matriculated 
on 17 Dec. of the following year. He left 
the university without taking a degree. He 
had a good memory, and once made a curious 
calculation that he could repeat 3,280 'lines' 
of Greek prose and 4,770 lines of Greek verse. 
In 1833 he appears to have resided some time j 
at Bath. During the last twenty years of j 
his life he was blind. He married a lady of 
Jewish family, and by her had one daughter, 
Henrietta, married to Mr. Henry Hayes. 
He lived chiefly at Hampstead, and died at 
Kentish Town on 10 May 1 848. While blind 
he taught Greek to Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
ing, who was much attached to him. One of 
her poems, the ' Wine of Cyprus,' is dedicated 
to Boyd. She also wrote a sonnet on his 
blindness and another on his death. His 
published works are : 1. ' Luceria, a Tragedy,' 
1806. 2. ' Select Passages from the Works 
of St. Chrysostom, St. Gregory Nazianzen, 
&c., translated,' 1810. 3. * Select Poems of 
Synesius, translated/ with original poems, 
1814. 4. ' Thoughts on the Atoning Sacrifice,' 
1817. 5. * Agamemnon of -^Eschylus,' trans- 
lated, 1823. 6. 'An Essay on the Greek 
Article,' included in Clarke's ' Commentary 
on the Epistle to the Ephesians,' second edi- 
tion, 1835. 7. ' The Catholic Faith,' a sermon 
of St. Basil, translated, 1825. 8. ' Thoughts 
on an illustrious Exile,' 1825. 9. * Tributes 
to the Dead,' translation from St. Gregory 
Nazianzen, 1826. 10. < A Malvern Tale, and 
other Poems,' 1827. 11. < The Fathers not 
Papists, with Select Passages and Tributes 
to the Dead,' 1834. 

[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. v. 88, 175, 226, 
vii. 284, 523, 3rd ser. iv. 458 ; Etheridge's Life 
of Dr. Adam Clarke, 382-4 ; Weldon's Eegister, 
August 1861, p. 56; Gent. Mag. 
ii. p. 623, new ser. xxx. p. 130; Brit. Mus. 
Catal.] W. H. 

BOYD, JAMES, LL.D. (1795-1856), 
schoolmaster and author, the son of a glover, 
was born at Paisley on 24 Dec. 1795. After 
receiving his early education partly in Paisley 
and partly in Glasgow, he entered Glasgow 
University, where he gained some of the 
highest honours in the humanity, Greek, and 
philosophical classes. After taking his de- 
grees of B.A. and M.A., he devoted him- 
self for two years to the study of medicine, 
but abandoned this pursuit ; entered the di- 
vinity hall of the university of Glasgow, and 
was licensed to preach the gospel by the pres- 
bytery of Dumbarton in May 1822. Towards 
the close of that year he removed to Edin- 
burgh, where for three years he maintained 
himself by private tuition. In 1825 he was 


unanimously chosen house governor in George 
Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh. The university 
of Glasgow conferred on him the honorary 
degree of doctor of laws. 

Boyd became classical master in the high 
school of Edinburgh 19 Aug. 1829. The 
largely attended classes which he always 
had decisively proved the public estimate of 
his merits. For many years before his. 
death he held the office of secretary to the 
Edinburgh Society of Teachers. He died 
at his house, George Square, Edinburgh, on 
18 Aug. 1856, having nearly completed an 
incumbency of twenty-seven years in the 
high school. He was interred at New 
Calton, Edinburgh, on 21 Aug. The affec- 
tionate respect which all his pupils entef- 
tained towards Boyd is evinced by the number 
of clubs formed in his honour by his classes. 
In the Crimea, during the Russian war, 
two l Boyd clubs ' were formed by British 
officers in acknowledgment of their common, 
relation to him as their preceptor. Within 
two months after his death a medal, to be 
named the Boyd medal, and to be annually 
presented to the ' dux ' of the class in the 
high school taught by Boyd's successor, was- 
subscribed for at a meeting held in Edin- 
burgh by his friends and pupils. He married 
on 24 Dec. 1829 Jane Reid, eldest daughter 
of John Easton, merchant, Edinburgh, by 
whom he was the father of nine children. 

Boyd's literary talents were confined to 
the editing of classical and other school 
books. They include : * Roman Antiquities,' 
by A. Adams, 1834, which was reprinted fif- 
teen times during the editor's lifetime ; ' Q. 
Horatii Flacci Poemata,' by C. Anthon, 1835, 
which passed through three editions ; * Ar- 
chaeologia Greeca,' by J. Potter, Bishop of Ox- 
ford, 1837; ' Sallustii Opera,' by C. Anthon, 
1839 ; ' Select Orations of Cicero,' by C. An- 
thon, 1842 ; ' A Greek Reader,' by C. Anthon, 
1844 ; ' A Summary of the Principal Evi- 
dences of the Christian Religion,' by B. Por- 
teus, Bishop of London, 1850 ; and < The First 
Greek Reader,' by Frederic Jacobs, 1851. 

[Colston's History of Dr. Boyd's Fourth High 
School Class, with biographical sketch of Dr. 
Boyd, 1873 ; Dalgleish's Memorials of the High 
School of Edinburgh (1857), pp. 31, 46-7, with 
portrait.] GK C. B. 

BOYD, MARK (1805 P-1879), author, 
born in Surrey near the Thames, was the 
younger son of Edward Boyd of Merton Hall r 
Newton Stuart, Wigtonshire, a merchant 
and brother of Benjamin Boyd [q. v.l He 
mainly spent his childhood on the Scotch 
estate, which was near the river Cree. He 
afterwards pursued in London an active 


"business career, and became London director 
of a Scotch insurance society, and a lively 
promoter of the colonisation of Australia 
and New Zealand, and of other useful public 
undertakings. He travelled much in Europe. 
He published an account in the ' London 
and Shetland Journal ' of a journey in the 
Orkney Isles in 1839. On 23 Dec. 1848 he 
married Emma Anne, the widow of ' Romeo ' 
Coates, who had been run over and killed in 
the previous February. In 1864 Boyd pub- 
lished a pamphlet on Australian matters ; in 
1871 his ' Reminiscences of Fifty Years,' and 
in 1875 his ' Social Gleanings,' dedicating the 
first to the Australian colonists, and the last 
(from Oatlands, Walton-on-Thames) to Dean 
Ramsay. He died in London on 12 Sept. 1879, 
aged 74. 

[Boyd's Keminiscences of Fifty Years, Dedica- 
tion, vi, vii, and pp. 102, 310, 333, 336, 368, 397, 
464, 466; Annual Reg. 1848, p. 216, 1879, 
p. 222 ; Gent. Mag. N.S. xxx. 648.] J. H. 

1601), Latin scholar, born in Galloway 
on 13 Jan. 1563, was a son of Robert Boyd 
of Penkill Castle, Ayrshire. His father 
was the eldest son of Adam Boyd, brother 
of Robert, restored to the title of Lord 
Boyd in 1536. Boyd is said to have been 
baptised Mark, and to have himself added 
the name Alexander. He had a brother 
"William. His education began under his 
uncle, James Boyd, of Trochrig, consecrated 
archbishop of Glasgow at the end of 1573. 
Proceeding to Glasgow College, of which 
Andrew Melville was principal, he proved 
insubordinate, and is said to have beaten the 
professors, burned his books, and forsworn 
all study. Going to court he fought a duel. 
He was advised to follow the profession of 
arms in the Low Countries, but instead of 
this he went to France in 1581 . After losing 
his money at play, he resumed his studies at 
Paris under Jacques d'Amboise, Jean Pas- 
serat, famed for the beauty of his Latin and 
French verse, and Gilbert G6ne~brard. G6- 
nebrard was professor of Hebrew, but Boyd 
confesses his ignorance of that language. He 
then began to study civil law at Orleans, and 
pursued the same study at Bourges, under 
Jacques Cujas, with whom he ingratiated him- 
self by some verses in the style of Ennius, a 
favourite with that great jurist. Driven from 
Bourges by the plague, he went to Lyons, and 
thence to Italy, where he found an admiring 
friend in Cornelius Varus, who calls himself 
a Milanese (Boyd in a manuscript poem calls 
him a Florentine). Returning to France in 
1587, he j oined a troop of horse from Auvergne, 
under a Greek leader, and drew his sword for 



Henri III. A shot in the ankle sent him back 
to law studies, this time at Toulouse, where 
he projected a system of international law. 
From Toulouse he visited Spain, but soon 
returned on account of his health. When 
Toulouse fell into the hands of the leaguers 
in 1588, Boyd, with a view to joining the 
king's party, betook himself to Dumaise, on 
the Garonne. Not liking the look of things 
here, he was for going on, but his boy warned 
him of a trap set for his life, into which a 
guide was to lead him. After hiding for two 
days among the bushes, he went back to the 
leaguers, and was imprisoned at Toulouse. 
As soon as he got his liberty he hastened by 
night to Bordeaux. His letters allow us to 
trace his wanderings to Fontenai, Bourges, 
Cahors, &c. He laments that he was no deep 
drinker, or he would have pushed on more 
confidently (JEpp. p. 159). He went to Ro- 
chelle, being robbed and nearly murdered on 
the way. Rochelle not suiting him, he found 
for some time a country retreat on the bor- 
ders of Poitou. From France he repaired to 
the Low Countries, printing his volume of 
poems and letters at Antwerp in 1592. From 
first to last there is a good deal of eccentri- 
city about Boyd, but his accomplishments 
as a writer of Latin verse are undoubted, 
though it must be left for his friend Varus 
to set him above Buchanan. Another ad- 
mirer calls him ' Naso redivivus.' His own 
verdict is that there were few good poets of 
old, and hardly any in his own time ; the 
Greek poets rank first, in this order : Theocri- 
tus, Orpheus, Musaeus, Homer ; the Hebrew 
poets (judging from translations) fall de- 
cidedly below the Latin, of whom Virgil is 
chief. Boyd conversed in Greek, and is said 
to have made a translation of Csesar in the 
style of Herodotus. On his way back to 
Scotland in 1595, after fourteen years' absence, 
he heard of the death of his brother William, 
who, as we learn from Boyd's verses, had been 
in Piedmont, and for whom he expresses a 
great affection. Having once more gone abroad 
as tutor to the Earl of Cassilis, he finished 
his career in his native land, dying of slow 
fever at Penkill on 10 April 1601. He was 
buried in the church of Dailly. His publica- 
tion above referred to is ' M. Alexandri Bodii 
Epistolae Heroides, et Hymni. Ad lacobum 
sextum Regem. Addita est ejusdem Literu- 
larum prima curia,' Antv. 1592, small 8vo 
(there are fifteen ' epistolse,' the first two of 
which are imitated in French by P. C. D. 
[Pietro Florio Dantoneto] ; the ( hymni,' de- 
dicated in Greek elegiacs to James VI, are 
sixteen Latin odes, nearly all on some special 
flower, and each connected with the name 
of a friend or patron ; there is also a Greek 




ode to Orpheus ; a few epigrams in the an- \ 
thor's honour are added ; then come the prose j 
letters. The poetical portion of the book is j 
included in Arthur Johnston's ' Deliciae Poe- j 
tarum Scotorum,' Amst. 1637, 12mo. John- [ 
ston prints the title as ' Epistolae Heroidum '). \ 
Boyd is said to have published also a defence 
of Cardinal Bembo and the ancient eloquence, 
addressed to Lipsius. He left prose and verse 
manuscripts, now in the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh ; among them are, ' In Institutiones 
Imperatoris Comments,' 1591 ; ' L'Estat du 
Royaume d'Escosse a present ;' ' Politicus, ad 
Joannem Metellanum cancellarium Scotise ' 
(Sir John Maitland, or Matlane, died 3 Oct. 

[Sibbald's Scotia Illustrata, sive Prodromus, 
&c. 1684 fol. (gives a life, with portrait engraved 
by T. de Leu) ; Kippis, in Biog. Brit. ii. (1780) 
455 (Kippis used Dr. Johnson's copy of the De- 
licise) ; Dalryraple's (Lord Hailes) Sketch of the 
Life of Boyd, 1787, 4to (portrait) ; Granger's 
Biog. Hist, of England, 1824, i. 318; Irving's 
Lives of Scottish Writers, 1839, i. 182; Grub's 
Eccl. Hist, of Scotland, 1861, ii. 191. 225; An- 
derson's Scottish Nation, 1863, i. 364.] A. G. 

BOYD, ROBERT, LORD (d. 1469 ?), Scotch 
.statesman, eldest son of Sir Thomas Boyd of 
Kilmarnock, was created a peer of parlia- 
ment by James II by the title of Lord Boyd, 
and took his seat on 18 July 1454. In 1460 
he was appointed one of the regents during 
the minority of the young king, James III. 
In 1464 (11 April) he was joined with the 
Bishop of Glasgow, the Abbot of Holyrood, 
his brother, Sir Alexander Boyd of Duncole, 
and three others, in a commission to nego- 
tiate a truce with Edward IV. In 1466 he 
obtained the appointment of his brother, Sir 
Alexander, as instructor to the young king 
In knightly exercises, and conspired with 
him to obtain entire control of the affairs of 
the kingdom. To this end they, in defiance 
of the protests of Lord Kennedy, one of their 
co-regents, took possession of the person of 
the king, and carried him from Linlithgow 
to Edinburgh, where, in a parliament sum- 
moned (9 Oct.), a public expression of ap- 
proval of their conduct was obtained from 
the king, and an act was passed constituting 
Boyd sole governor of the realm. He now 
governed autocratically, but he appears by 
no means to have abused his power. On 
the contrary, some of the measures which 
he introduced must have been eminently 
salutary. Commendams were abolished, and 
religious foundations which had deviated 
from their original purposes were reformed. 
He also passed enactments designed to pro- 
mote the interests of the mercantile and 
.shipping community, prohibiting the freight- 

ing of ships without a charter-party by sub- 
jects of the king, whether within the realm 
or without it, and also fostering the importa- 
tion and discouraging the exportation of bul- 
lion. He negotiated a marriage between the 
king and Margaret, the only daughter of Chris- 
tian, king of Norway, thereby obtaining the 
cession of Orkney (8 Sept, 1468) and the 
formal release of the annual tribute of 100 
marks, which was still nominally payable 
to the king of Norway, in the church of 
St. Magnus, Kirkwall, though it had long 
ceased to be paid. In 1467 he obtained for 
himself the office of great chamberlain for 
life, while his eldest son, Thomas (by Mariota, 
daughter of Sir Robert Maxwell of Calder- 
wood) was created Earl of Arran and Baron 
of Kilmarnock, and married to the king's 
elder sister, the Lady Mary. This last step 
was more than the jealousy of the Scotch 
nobles could endure, and they determined to 
strike a blow at the supremacy of the Boyds. 
Accordingly, in November 1469, Lord Robert 
and his brother were arraigned before the 
parliament on a charge of treason based on 
their conduct of three years previously in 
laying hands on the person of the king. They 
were found guilty and sentenced to death 
(22 Nov.) Boyd, however, anticipating the 
issue of the trial, fled to Alnwick in North- 
umberland, where he soon afterwards died. 
His brother was detained in Scotland by 
illness, and lost his head on the Castle Hill. 
His eldest son, THOMAS, EARL OF ARRAN, 
was sent to Denmark to bring over the king's 
destined bride, returned while the trial was 
in progress, and, being warned by his wife of 
the condition of affairs, landed the princess, 
but did not himself set foot on shore. He is 
said by the older historians of Scotland to have 
sailed back to Denmark accompanied by his 
wife, and thence to have travelled by way of 
Germany into France, there to have sought 
service with the Duke of Burgundy, and 
dying prematurely at Antwerp to have been 
splendidly buried there by the duke. In an 
undated letter of John Paston to Sir John 
Paston he is referred to in terms of the high- 
est eulogy as t the most courteous, gentlest, 
wisest, kindest, most companionable, freest, 
largest, most bounteous knight/ and as * one 
of the lightest, deliverst, best spoken, fairest 
archer, devoutest, most perfect, and truest 
to his lady of all the knights that ever ' the 
writer ' was acquainted with.' Fenn conjec- 
tures that the letter was written either in 
1470 or 1472 ; but the expression ' my lord 
the Earl of Arran which hath married the 
king's sister of Scotland/ coupled with the 
absence of any reference to the sudden pre- 
cipitation of the family from supreme power 


9 6 


to a position of dependence, for the estates 
not only of LordKobert and his brother, but 
of the Earl of Arran, were forfeited in 1469, 
would seem to argue an earlier date. "What- 
ever the true date may be, he was then in 
London lodging at the George in Lombard 
Street, his wife apparently with him. The 
date of his death is uncertain. In 1474 his 
widow married James, lord Hamilton, whose 
son was in August 1503 created Earl of 
Arran. Lord Robert's second son, Alex- 
ander, was restored to a portion of the Kil- 
marnock estates in 1492, but without the 
title of Lord Boyd. Alexander's eldest son, 
Robert, created Lord Boyd in 1536, is called 
third lord. 

[Acts Parl. Scot. ii. 77, 86, 185, xii. Suppl. 23 ; 
Keg. Mag. Sig.Eeg. Scot. (1424-1513), 912-15, 
1177; Kymer'sFoedera (Holmes), xi. 517, 524, 558; 
Exch. KollsScot. vii. Ix. Ixvii. 463, 500, 520, 564, 
594-8, 652, 663, 670; Accounts of the Lord High 
Treasurer of Scotland, i. xl-xliii ; Drummond's 
Hist. Scot. 120, 127 ; Maitland's Hist. Scot. ii. 
660-5 ; Paston Letters (ed. Gairdner), iii. 47 ; 
Douglas's Peerage, ii. 32.] J. M. K. 

1590), son of Robert the third lord, is men- 
tioned by Herries (Hist, of the Reign of Mary 
Queen of Scots, 10) as defeating the Earl of 
Glencairn at Glasgow in 1544, thereby ren- 
dering material aid to the regent, the Earl of 
Arran, in quelling the insurrection of Lennox. 
Two years later (19 Dec./i546) we find him 
present at a meeting otflie privy council at 
St. Andrews. On the<fitbeak of the civil war 
between the lords of the congregation and the 
queen regent he took part with the former, 
being present with them at Perth in May 1559. 
He signed the letter addressed by the lords to 
Sir William Cecil (19 July) explaining their 
policy, and another of the same date to Eliza- 
beth asking for support. He also took part in 
the negotiations with the queen regent for a 
compromise, which were entirely without re- 
sult. Apparently at this time Boyd's zeal in the 
cause of the congregation was growing luke- 
warm, for Balnaves, accounting to Sir James 
Crofts for the way in which he had applied 
the English subsidy, writes under date 4 Nov. 
1559 : ' And I delivered to the Earl of Glen- 
cairn and Lord Boyd 500 crowns, which was 
the best bestowed money that ever I bestowed, 
either of that or any other ; the which if I 
had not done our whole enterprise it hath 
been stayed, both in joining with the duke 
(Chatelherault) and coming to Edinburgh, for 
certain particular causes that were betwixt 
the said lords and the duke, which were set 
down by that means by me so secret that it 
is not known to many.' 

In February 1559-60 he was one of the sig- 
natories of the treaty of Berwick, by which 
Elizabeth engaged ' with all convenient speed 
to send into Scotland a convenient aid of 
men of warr,' for the purpose of driving out 
the French, and in the following April joined 
the English army at Prestonpans. On the 
27th of that month he signed the contract 
in defence of the liberty of the ' evangel of 
Christ,' by which the lords of the congrega- 
tion sought to encourage and confirm one 
another in the good work. He was present, 
on 7 May, at the unsuccessful attempt made 
by the English army to carry Leith by esca- 
lade, and on the 10th signed the document 
by which the treaty of Berwick was con- 
firmed. On 27 Jan. 1560-1 he subscribed 
the ' Book of Discipline of the Kirk,' and at 
Ayr, on 3 Sept. 1562, he signed a bond to 
* maintain and assist the preaching of the 
evangel.' Shortly after the marriage of 
Darnley (28 July 1564) the lords, despairing 
of prevailing on the queen to abolish ' the 
idolatrous mass,' and incensed by some acts 
of a rather high-handed character done by 
her, surprised Edinburgh during her tempo- 
rary absence, but hastily abandoned the city 
on hearing that she was returning. Upon 
this Boyd, with Argyle, Murray, Glencairn, 
and others, was summoned to appear at the 
next meeting of parliament, which was fixed 
for 3 Feb. 1565, to answer for their conduct on 
pain of being denounced rebels and put to the 
horn. Parliament, however, did not meet in 
February, and before its next session, which 
began on 14 April 1567, Boyd's political 
attitude had undergone a complete change. 
If any credit is to be given to the so-called 
dying declaration of Bothwell, Boyd, ac- 
cording to that version of it which is found 
in Keith's ' History of Scotland ' (App. 144), 
was privy to the murder of Darnley. His 
name, however, is not mentioned in the copy, 
or rather abstract, preserved in the Cottonian 
Library (Titus, c. vii. fol. 396), nor is the frag- 
ment Cal. D. ii. fol. 519 in the same collec- 
tion ; the original was in all probability a for- 
gery. Though a member of the packed jury 
which acquitted Bothwell of the deed (April 
1567), he, after Both well's marriage to Mary, 
joined a confederacy of nobles who bound 
themselves to protect the young prince against 
the sinister designs with which Bothwell was 
credited. Afterwards, however, he united 
himself with the faction which by a solemn 
' league and covenant ' engaged to take part 
with Bothwell ' against his privy or public ca- 
lumniators,' * with their bodies, heritage, and 

Boyd was now made one of the permanent 
members of the privy council (17 May), and 




soon became as decided and energetic a par- 
tisan of the queen as he had formerly been 
of the congregation. In June he attempted 
to hold Edinburgh for the queen, in conjunc- 
tion with Huntly, the archbishop of St. 
Andrews, and the commendator of Kilwin- 
ning. The citizens, however, refused to de- 
fend the place, and it almost immediately 
fell into the hands of the other faction. In 
August we find him, with Argyll, Livingston, 
and the commendator of Kilwinning, in ne- 
gotiation with Murray for the release of the 
queen from captivity. In 1568, after her 
escape from Lochleven (2 May), he joined 
her forces at Hamilton, and was present at 
the battle of Langside (13 May). After the 
battle he retired to his castle of Kilmarnock, 
which, however, he was soon compelled to 
surrender to the council. In September he 
was appointed one of the bishop of Ross's 
colleagues for the conference to be held at 
York. After the conclusion of the negotia- 
tions he accompanied the bishop to London, 
and was admitted to audience of the queen 
at Hampton Court (24 Oct.) On 6 Jan. 
1568-9 Mary made him one of her council. 
He was employed by her in her intrigues 
with the Duke of Norfolk, and was entrusted 
by the latter with a diamond to deliver to 
the queen at Coventry as a pledge of his 
affection and fidelity. In a letter to the 
duke, apparently written in December 1569, 
she says: 'I took from my lord Boyd the 
diamond, which I shall keep unseen about 
my neck till I give it again to the owner of 
it and me both.' In June 1569 he was des- 
patched to Scotland with authority from 
Mary to treat with the regent, and a written 
mandate to institute proceedings for a divorce 
from Bothwell. Chalmers (Life of Mary, 
p. 331, published in 1818) asserts that Both- 
well's consent to the divorce had been obtained 
before the commencement of the correspon- 
dence with Norfolk, and that the document 
signifying it l remained among the family 
papers of Lord Boyd to the present century.' 
The papers referred to are presumably iden- 
tical with those which on the attainder of 
William Boyd (the fourth earl of Kilmarnock) 
[q. v.], were placed in the custody of the public 
officials of the town of Kilmarnock, where 
they remained until 1837, when a selection 
from them, comprising all such as were of any 
historical value, was edited for the Abbotsford 
Club, and constitutes the first portion of the 
'Abbotsford Miscellany.' No such document, 
however, as Chalmers refers to is there to be 
found, though a draft of the formal authority 
to apply for the divorce is among the papers. 
Boyd had an interview with Murray in July 
at Elgin, and on the 30th the question of the 


divorce was submitted to the council at 
Perth, when it was decided by a large ma- 
jority that nothing further should be done 
in the matter. After reporting the failure 
of his mission to the queen, Boyd appears to 
have remained in England for some months, 
during which the record of his life is very 
scanty. He seems to have stood very high 
in the estimation of his mistress. In one of 
her letters (5 Jan. 1568-9) she designates 
him 'our traist cousigne and counsallour/ 
and writing to Cecil, under date 11 Feb. 
1569-70, she expresses a desire to retain him 
with the bishop of Ross permanently about 
her person. At this time, however, he was 
again in Scotland actively engaged in hatch- 
ing a plot for a general rising, and much 
suspected of complicity in the murder of 
Murray (22 Jan. 1569-70). The following 
year he was commissioned by Mary to esta- 
blish in that country ' a lieutenant, ane or 
twa,' in her name. In the brief insurrection 
of the summer he was taken prisoner by 
Lennox at Paisley, but escaped to Edinburgh, 
and thence went to Stirling in August, and on 
the 12th, with Argyll, Cassilis, and Eglinton, 
affixed his seal to a treaty of secession and 
amity executed on the part of the regent by 
Morton and Mar. This defection is ascribed 
by the unknown author of the ' History of 
King James the Sext ' to the ' great promises ' 
of Lennox, but the reason given by Mary is 
probably nearer the mark. She writes to 
De la Motte Fenelon, under date 28 June 
1571, that she is advised that Argyll, Athole, 
and Boyd, ' comme desespe~res d'aucune aide, 
' commencent a se retirer et regarder qui aura 
du meilleur.' On 5 Sept. we find Boyd men- 
tioned as a consenting party to the election 
of Mar to the regency ; on the 7th he was 
made a member of the privy council. He 
visited Knox on his deathbed (17 Nov.), but 
except that he said, 1 1 know, sir, I have 
offended in many things, and am indeed come 
to crave your pardon,' what passed on either 
side is unknown. He was included in the 
act of indemnity passed 26 Jan. 1571-2, and 
subscribed the articles of pacification drawn 
up at Perth on 23 Feb. 1572-3, by one of 
which he was appointed one of the judges 
for the trial of claims for restitution of goods 
arising out of acts of violence committed 
during the civil war. On 24 Oct. 1573 he 
was appointed extraordinary lord of session 
by Morton, of whom from this time forward 
he was a firm adherent. Relying on the 
favour of Morton, he signalised his elevation 
to the bench by ejecting (November 1573) 
Sir John Stewart from the office of baillie 
of the regality of Glasgow, held under a 
grant from the late king, and engrossing the 


9 8 


profits himself. About the same time he 

Procured the appointment of his kinsman, 
ames Boyd, to the archiepiscopal see of 
Glasgow. On Morton's resignation in Fe- 
bruary 1577-8, Boyd, according to Spottis- 
woode, ' did chide him bitterly,' pointing out 
that the king was a mere boy, and that by 
resigning Morton was in fact playing into 
the hands of his enemies, the Argyll-Athole 
faction. In consequence of Morton's eclipse, 
Boyd for a time lost his seat both at the 
council table and on the bench, but on the 
regent's return to power as prime minister 
in July 1578 he was again made a permanent 
member of the council, being at the same 
time appointed visitor of the university of 
Glasgow and commissioner for examining the 
book of the policy of the kirk and settling 
its jurisdiction. The same month (23rd) 
he was compelled to surrender the bailliary 
of the regality of Glasgow to the king as 
Earl of Lennox. On 15 Oct. his seat on the 
bench was restored to him. In the spring 
of the next year he was appointed one of the 
commission to pursue and arrest Lord John 
Hamilton and his brother, Lord Claud, who, 
however, made their escape to England. 
The commissioners received the thanks of 
the council for their services on 22 May. 
Boyd was a party to the conspiracy known 
as the Raid of Ruthven, by which the person 
of the king was seized as a pledge for the 
dismissal of the Duke of Lennox then in 
power, and in consequence was banished the 
realm in June 1583, James Stuart, earl of 
Arran, taking his place as extraordinary lord 
of session. He retired for a time to France, 
but in June 1586 we find him acting for the 
king in the negotiations which resulted in 
the treaty of alliance between the crowns of 
England and Scotland of that year, and 
while thus engaged induced the king to 
restore him to his former place on the bench, 
which, however, he resigned two years later 
(4 July 1588). In 1587-8 he was appointed 
commissioner to raise 100,OOOJ. for the ex- 
penses connected with the king's marriage, 
and in 1589 was placed on a commission to 
enforce the statute against Jesuits (passed 
14 Aug. 1587), and on the king's leaving for 
Norway (October) was constituted one of 
the wardens of the marches. He died on 
3 Jan. 1589-90, in the seventy-second year 
of his age, being survived by his wife Mar- 
garet or Mariot, daughter of Sir John Col- 
quhoun of Glins, and was succeeded by his 
second son Thomas. 

[State Papers, Scottish Series; Eeg. P. C. 
Scot. i. 57, 192, 335, 365, 386, 409, 509, 608, 
614, 616, 617, 625, ii. 8, 12, 193-200, 312, 
697, iii. 6, 8, 146, 150, 165, iv. 86 n, 269, 

426, 507 , 652 n ; Knox's Works (Bann. Club), 
i. 340-5, 369, 382, 413, 434, ii. 38, 53, 56, 58, 
61, 63, 128, 258, 348, 498-503, 552, 556, 563, 
iii. 413, 425, vi. 35, 43, 640, 657 ; Spottiswoode's 
Hist. (Bann. Club), ii. 35, 56, 65-7, 208, 264 ; 
Anderson's Coll. i. 112, iii. 13, 33, 43, 52, 61, 70, 96, 
iv. 33, 156; Hume of Godscroft's Hist. House 
Angus, 167, 183, 199, 381; Keith's Hist. Scot. 
97, 100, 127, 316, 320, 326, 337, 381, 447, App. 
44, 145 ; Lesley's Hist. Scot. (Bann. Club), 151, 
177, 274, 284 ;Froude's Hist. vii. 121, 122, ix. 434 ; 
Acts and Proceedings Gen. Ass. Kirk Scot. 93, 
102, 750, 755 ; Book Univ. Kirk Scot. 348, 571 ; 
Bann. Misc. iii. 123; Herri es's Memoirs (Abbots- 
ford Club), 10, 87, 91, 102, 123, 131, 135, 139; 
James Melville's Diary (Bann. Club), 37; Hist. 
King James Sext (Bann. Club\ 8, 10, 19, 26, 
32, 35, 53, 55, 74, 75, 85, 129, 141, 189, 198; 
Memoirs of Lords Kilmarnock, Cromartie, and 
Balmerino (London, 1746, 8vo) ; Colville's Letters 
to Walsingham (Bann. Club), 44 ; Lettres de 
Marie Stuart (ed. Labanoff), ii. 265, 266, 271, 
294, 304, 321, iii. 22, iv. 340 ; Moysie's Mem. 
(Bann. Club), 21, 22, 57 ; Diurnal of Occurrents 
in Scotland (Bann. Club), 279-82, 313, 324, 328 ; 
Acts Parl. Scot. iii. 77, 96, 98, 105; Douglas's 
Peer. ii. 34.] J. M. E. 

BOYD, ROBERT, of Trochrig (1578- 
1627), theological writer, was the eldest son 
of James Boyd, archbishop of Glasgow, great- 
grandson of Robert Boyd (d. 1469) [q. v.], and 
owner of an estate in Ayrshire, which is vari- 
ously spelled Trochrig, Trochridge, and Tro- 
chorege. He was connected by birth with the 
noble family of Cassilis, and enjoyed a good 
social position. He studied at the university 
of Edinburgh, taking his divinity course under 
Robert Rollok, first principal of the university, 
for whom he had an extraordinary reverence 
and affection. The profound religious impres- 
sions made on him under Rollok led him to as- 
sociate himself with the earnest presbyterians 
of the day. In compliance with the custom 
of the times he went abroad to complete his 
studies, and in 1604 was chosen pastor of the 
church at Verteuil, and in 1606 professor in 
the university of Saurnur, both in France. 
Along with the duties of the chair he dis- 
charged the office of a pastor in the town, and 
was afterwards called to the chair of divinity. 
While at Saumur he married a French young 
lady, though he had always the hope of re- 
turning to his native country. The university 
of Saumur had been founded some years 
before by the celebrated Philip de Mornay 
(Seigneur du Plessis-Mornay), with whom, 
as with many more of the eminent men 
whom the reformed church of France then 
possessed, he was on terms of intimacy. 

The fame of Robert Boyd having reached 
the ears of King James, he offered him the 
principalship of the university of Glasgow. 




In 1615 Boyd removed to Glasgow, to the 
great loss and sorrow of the people and pro- 
fessors of Saumur ; in addition to the du- 
ties of principal he had to perform those of 
a teacher of theology, Hebrew, and Syriac, 
and those also of preacher to the people of 
Govan. ' His exemplary holiness/ says his 
earliest biographer, Dr. Rivet, l singular 
learning, admirable eloquence; his gravity, 
humility, unaffected modesty, and extraor- 
dinary diligence, both in his ecclesiastical 
and scholastical employment, above the rate 
of ordinary pastors and professors, drew all 
to a reverence, love, and esteem for, and 
many even to an admiration of him.' Boyd 
delivered extemporaneous lectures in Latin 
with all the flow and elegance of a written 
discourse. His preaching at Saumur in 
French had been admired by the natives. 
In his lectures, all his quotations from the 
Greek fathers, which were very frequent and 
sometimes very long, were repeated by heart. 
He himself used to say that, if he were at 
liberty to select a language for his public 
discourses, he would choose Greek, as the 
most appropriate to express his thoughts. 

As it was known to the bishops that Boyd 
was not in favour of the ' five articles of 
Perth,' he began to experience annoyance. 
The mind of the king was poisoned against 
him, and in 1621 he resigned the principal- 
ship and retired to the family house of 
Trochrig. But, being invited by the magis- 
trates and people of Edinburgh in 1622 to 
be principal of the university there and one 
of the ministers of the city, he accepted 
the invitation. The king, on hearing this, 
reproved the magistrates for the appoint- 
ment, and ordered them not only to deprive 
him of his office, but to expel him from the 
city unless he should conform absolutely to 
the articles of Perth. As Boyd refused to 
comply with this condition, he was deprived 
and expelled accordingly. Afterwards he 
had some hope of being restored to his office 
in Glasgow, and was induced to sign a quali- 
fied declaration of conformity. But, after all, 
the appointment was given to another. In 
1626-7 he was called to be minister of Paisley, 
but owing to disturbances fomented by a 
bitter enemy, the Marchioness of Abercorn, 
who had recently gone over to the church of 
Rome, he was obliged to leave Paisley. In 
1627, on a visit to Edinburgh, he was seized 
with his last illness, and died there, in much 
bodily pain but great mental serenity, in the 
forty-ninth year of his age. 

Boyd's chief work was a large and very 
elaborate 'Commentary on the Epistle to 
the Ephesians,' published after his death. 
Dr. Walker thus describes it in his ' Theo- 

logy and Theologians of Scotland : ' ' A work 
it is of stupendous size and stupendous learn- 
ing. Its apparatus criticus is something 
enormous. . . . Much more properly it might 
be called a theological thesaurus. You have 
a separate discussion of almost every im- 
portant theological topic.' 

Boyd excelled in Latin poetry, and his 
' Hecatombe ad Christum Salvatorem ' was 
included by Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet 
in his ' Delicias Poetarum Scotorum.' This 
was afterwards reprinted at Edinburgh by 
the well-known naturalist, Sir Robert Sib- 
bald, M.D., nephew of Dr. George Sibbald, 
who married Boyd's widow. 

[Life of Robert Boyd by Dr. Rivet, prefixed 
to Bodii Preelections in Epist. ad Ephes. 1652 ; 
"Wodrow's Life of Mr. Robert Boyd of Trochrig 
(Maitland Club), 1848.] W. G. B. 

BOYD, SIK ROBERT (1710-1794), 
general, colonel 39th foot, and governor of 
Gibraltar, is first noticed in official lists 
about 1740, when he appears as (civilian) 
storekeeper of ordnance at Port Mahon, Mi- 
norca, at a salary of 182/. 10s. per annum, 
in succession to Mr. Ninian Boyd, by whom 
the post had previously been held for a good 
many years. Robert Boyd was still store- 
keeper sixteen years later, in 1756, when the 
garrison, commanded by the aged general, 
afterwards Lord Blakeney, was besieged by 
the French and Spaniards. During this time, 
on 19 May 1756, he distinguished himself 
by a gallant but unsuccessful attempt to carry 
despatches in an open boat, in view of the 
j enemy, from Governor Blakeney to Admiral 
j Byng, whose long-expected fleet was in the 
I offing, in consequence of which he was one 
| of the first witnesses called by the crown at 
the subsequent trial of the unfortunate ad- 
miral. In recognition of his services at Mi- 
norca Boyd received a commission in the 
army as lieutenant-colonel unattached, bear- 
ing date 25 March 1758. On 13 Jan. 1760 he 
was brought into the 1st foot guards, then 
commanded by the Duke of Cumberland, as 
captain-lieutenant and lieutenant-colonel, 
and on 23 July following was promoted to 
captain and lieutenant-colonel in the regi- 
ment, being at the time in Germany on the 
personal staff of the Marquis of Granby, then 
in command of the British troops serving 
under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. A 
couple of letters from Colonel Boyd to Sir 
Andrew Mitchell, dated from Germany in 
January 1759 and December 1760, show 
that there was some intention of sending him 
to India in command of a regiment, but, the 
East India Company having applied for an 
officer who had served in India before, he 





escaped what appears to have been an un- 
welcome duty (Mitchell Papers, Add, MSS. 
6860, p. 86). On 18 Sept. 1765 he exchanged 
from the Guards to the 39th foot, and on 
6 Aug. 1766 was promoted colonel of that 
regiment, in succession to Lieutenant-general 
Aldercron, deceased. On 25 May 1768 he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar, 
whither his regiment had proceeded (Home 
Off. Military Entry Books, vol. xxvii.) j 
Sundry references to Colonel Boyd will be ! 
found in the Calendars of Home Office Papers 
for 1760-70, and a number of letters written 
by him whilst acting governor of Gibraltar 
are in British Museum, Add. MSS. 24159 to 
24163. He became a major-general in 1772, I 
and lieutenant-general in 1777. He was j 
second in command under Lord Heathfield 
during the famous defence of Gibraltar from j 
1779 to 1783, and it was at his suggestion \ 
that red-hot shot were first employed for the I 
destruction of the enemy's floating batteries 
(DRINKWATER, p. 129). For his distinguished l 
services at this eventful period he was created ' 
K.B. In May 1790 he succeeded Lord 
Heathfield as governor. On 12 Oct. 1793 ! 
he attained the rank of general, and died on ' 
13 May 1794. He was buried in a tomb con- ' 
structedby his directions in the king's bastion ' 
on the sea-line of defences, in the salient 
angle of which is a marble tablet, the very ' 
existence of which is now unknown to many \ 
dwellers on the Rock, with the following ! 
inscription: ' Within the walls of this bastion ! 
are deposited the mortal remains of the late ' 
General Sir Robert Boyd, K.B., governor of : 
this fortress, who died on 13 May 1794, aged ' 
84 years. By him the first stone of the I 
bastion was laid in 1773, and under his super- I 
vision it was completed, when, on that occa- ! 
sion, in his address to the troops, he expressed I 
a wish to see it resist the combined efforts of ! 
France and Spain, which wish was accom- 
plished on 13 Sept. 1782, when, by the fire 
of this bastion, the flotilla expressly designed 
for the capture of this fortress were utterly 

A mural tablet in the King's Chapel, Gib- 
raltar, also records the date of his death and 
the place of his burial. 

[Anglise Notitia, 1727-55; Ordnance "Warrant 
Books in Public Eecord Office ; Beatson's Nav. and 
Mil. Memoirs (ed. 1804), i. 490-1 ; Shorthand 
Report Trial Admiral Byng, Brit. Mus., Trials ; ! 
Annual Army Lists; Hamilton's Hist. Gren. ' 
Guards, vol. iii. Appendix ; Cannon's Hist. Ree. 
39th Foot ; Add. MSS. 5726 C and 6860 f. 86 ; 
Add. MSS. Lord Granby's Orders ; Add. MSS. 
24159-63 ; Calendars Home Office Papers, 1760- 
72 ; Drinkwater's Siege of Gibraltar (ed. 1844), 
pp. 11-12, 129, 164-6; Scots Mag. Ivi. 442; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser. x. 6.] H. M. C. 

BOYD, ROBERT (d. 1883), writer on 
diseases of the insane, became a member of 
the Royal College of Surgeons in 1830, and 
in the following year graduated M.D. in the 
university of Edinburgh. In 1836 he be- 
came a licentiate of the Royal- College of 
Physicians, and in 1852 was elected to the 
fellowship of the college. For some time he 
was resident physician at the Marylebone 
workhouse infirmary, and afterwards physi- 
cian and superintendent of the Somerset 
county lunatic asylum. He then became 
proprietor and manager of the Southall Park 
private asylum, which was destroyed on 

14 Aug. 1883 by a fire in which he lost his 
life. In the various positions in which he 
was placed he utilised to the utmost his op- 
portunities for original research. He pub- 
lished the annual ' Reports on the Pauper 
Lunatics' at the St. Marylebone infirmary 
and the Somerset county asylum, and contri- 
buted numerous independent papers to the 
literature of pathology and psychological 
medicine. He was the author of patho- 
logical contributions to the ' Royal Medical 
and Chirurgical Transactions,' vols. xxiv. 
and xxxii., and to the ' Edinburgh Medical 
Journal,' vols. Iv. to Ixxii. ; of 'Tables of 
the Weights of the Human Body and In- 
ternal Organs,' in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions ; ' and of a paper, f The Weight of 
the Brain at different Ages and in various 
Diseases.' To the ' Journal of Mental Sci- 
ence ' he contributed no fewer than sixteen 
papers on ' Treatment of the Insane Poor/ 
' Diseases of the Nervous System,' ' Statistics 
of Pauper Insanity,' and cognate subjects, 
the most important being that on ' General 
Paralysis of the Insane ' in the ' Journal of 
Mental Science ' for May and October 1871, 
the result of 155 post-mortem examinations 
of persons who had died from that disease in 
the Somerset county asylum. He was also 
the author of three papers on ' Vital Statis- 
tics,' ' Insanity,' and ' The Pauper Lunacy 
Laws,' published in the 'Lancet.' 

[Lancet, 1883, ii. 352-3; Medical Times, 1883, 
ii. 249-50.] 

BOYD, WALTER (1754 P-1837), finan- 
cier, was born about 1754. Before the 
outbreak of the French revolution he was 
engaged as a banker in Paris, but the pro- 
gress of events soon caused him to flee for 
his life, whilst the property of the firm of 
Boyd, Ker, & Co., of which he was the chief 
member, was confiscated in October 1793. On 

15 March 1793 the firm of Boyd, Benfield, & 
Co. was established in London. Boyd, as the 
principal partner, contributed 60,000/. to the 
common stock, and his ' name, connections, 




and exertions' soon carried it to a great 
'pitch of celebrity.' He was 'zealously 
attached to Mr. Pitt, and enjoyed his confi- 
dence for many years ' (advertisement to 2nd 
edition of Letter to Pitt}. He was employed 
in contracting to the amount of over thirty 
millions for large government loans, and for 
some time was very prosperous. He was also 
M.P. for Shaftesbury (1796-1802), which at 
the period of his election was a pocket 
borough of his partner Paul Benfield [q. v.], 
who was returned along with him (HUTCHINS, 
History of County of Dorset, iii. 19, 20, West- 
minster, 1868). After a few years the firm 
got into difficulties. It had at one time 
seemed likely that the property seized at Paris 
would be restored, but the revolution of 
4 Sept. 1797 caused the overthrow of the 
government which had taken the preliminary 
steps towards this restitution, and the final 
confiscation of the property followed. In 
expectation of a different issue, Boyd, Benfield, 
& Co. had entered into various arrangements 
which soon resulted in disaster. They ob- 
tained private help, and even assistance from 
government, but in 1799 the affairs of the 
company were put into liquidation, and Boyd 
found himself ruined. He visited France in 
the brief interval of peace (March 1802-May 
1803), was one of the detained, and was not 
released till the fall of Napoleon in 1814. 
On his return to England he was able to re- 
cover something of his former prosperity, and 
sat as M.P. for the borough of Lymington 
from April 1823 to 1830. Scott met him 
in April 1828, and gives an account, appa- 
rently not quite accurate, of his remarkable 
self-sacrifice on behalf of his creditors (LOCK- 
HART'S Life of Scott , ch. Ixxvi.) He died 
at Plaistow Lodge, Kent, on 16 Sept. 1837. 
Boyd wrote several pamphlets on financial 
subjects, which were not without weight in 
themselves, and to which the author's posi- 
tion gave additional force. They were : j 
1. 'Letter to the Right Honourable William 
Pitt on the Influence of the Stoppage of Issues I 
in Specie at the Bank of England on the 
Prices of Provisions and other Commodities ' 
(London, 1801, 2nd ed. 1811). This was called 
forth by a pamphlet on the effects of the sus- 
pension of cash payments in 17"*" d was 
intended to prove ' that the increase of bank- 
notes is the principal cause of the great rise 
in the price of commodities and every species 
of exchangeable value' (p. 7). These con- 
clusions were attacked by Sir Francis Baring 
in his ' Observations ' (1801) and a number 
'of other writers (a list of some of these is given 
in general index to Monthly Review, London, 
1818, i. 610). 2. ' Reflections on the Financial 
System of Great Britain, and particularly on 

the Sinking Fund' (1815, 2nd ed. 1828). This 
was written in captivity in France in 1812. It 
enlarges on the benefits of a sinking fund as 
a means of clearing off national debt, and 
explains various schemes for its application. 
3. ' Observations on Lord Grenville's Essay 
on the Sinking Fund ' (London, 1828), pursues 
the same line of argument, and is a reply to 
the treatise of that nobleman published the 
same year. 

[G-ent. Mag. for 1837, p. 548 ; Letter to the 
creditors of the house of Boyd, Benfield, & 
Co., by Walter Boyd, 1800 ; List of Members of 
Parliament ; Commons Eeturn, part ii. 1 March 
1878.] F. W. 

MARNOCK (1704-1746), belonged to a family 
which derives its descent from Simon, third 
son of Alan, lord high chancellor of Scotland, 
and brother of Walter, the first high steward 
of Scotland. Simon's grandson Robert was 
awarded a grant of lands in Cunninghame by 
Alexander III, as a reward for his bravery at 
the battle of Largs, 1263. From the earliest 
times the family was noted for its antagonism 
to the English, and it is recorded of Sir Robert 
Boyd that he was a staunch partisan of Sir 
William Wallace, and subsequently of Bruce, 
from whom he received a grant of the lands 
of Kilmarnock, Bondington, and Hertschaw 
(HERVEY, Life of Bruce). 

William, ninth lord Boyd, descendant of 
Robert, first lord Boyd [q. v.], was created 
first earl of Kilmarnock by Charles II, by 
patent bearing date 7 Aug. 1661. 

The third earl was an ardent supporter of 
the house of Hanover. Rae, in his ' History 
of the Rebellion,' says of him : ' It must not 
be forgot that the Earl of Kilmarnock ap- 
peared here at the head of above 500 of 
his own men well appointed . . . and that 
which added very much unto it was the early 
blossoms of the loyal principle and education 
of my Lord Boyd, who, though but eleven 
years of age, appeared in arms with the Earl 
his father.' This was in 1715, and the boy 
here mentioned succeeded his father as fourth 
earl of Kilmarnock in 1717. He was born in 
1704, his mother being the Lady Euphane, 
eldest daughter of the eleventh Lord Ross. 
His character was generous, open, and affec- 
tionate, but he was pleasure-loving, vain, and 
inconstant. He was educated at Glasgow, and 
during the earlier part of his life he continued, 
in accordance with his father's principles, to 
support the house of Hanover; and we find 
that, on the death of George I, he sent an 
order calling on the authorities of Kilmar- 
nock to hold ' the train bands in readiness for 
proclaiming the Prince of Wales.' It was not 




indeed until quite the close of the rebellion of 
'45 that he proved false to the opinions which 
this act shows him to have held. Various 
reasons are assigned for his defection ; by some 
it was attributed to the influence of his wife, 
Lady Anne Livingstone, who was a catholic, 
and whose father, fifth earl of Linlithgow, had 
been attainted for treason in 1715. Smollett, 
however, says : { He engaged in the rebellion 
partly through the desperate situation of his 
fortune, and partly through resentment to the 
government on his being deprived of a pension 
which he had for some time enjoyed.' This 
opinion is supported by Horace Walpole, who 
mentions that the pension was obtained by his 
father (Sir Robert Walpole) and stopped by 
Lord Wilmington. In his confession to Mr. 
James Foster a dissenting minister who at- 
tended him from the time sentence of death 
was passed on him to the day of his execu- 
tion the earl himself says : ' The true root 
of all was his careless and dissolute life, by 
which he had reduced himself to great and 
perplexing difficulties.' The persuasions of 
his, wife, who was captivated by the affability 
of the young Pretender, no doubt influenced 
him in deserting the Hanoverian cause ; but 
the hope of bettering his straitened fortunes 
by a change of dynasty must also be taken 
into account. His estates were much encum- 
bered when he succeeded to them, and a long 
course of dissipation and extravagance had 
plunged him into such embarrassment that 
his wife writes to him : ' After plaguing the 
Stewart for a fortnight I have only succeeded 
in obtaining three shillings from him.' 

When he finally joined the rebels he was 
received by Prince Charles with great marks 
of distinction and esteem, and was made by 
him a privy councillor, colonel of the guards, 
and subsequently general. He took a leading 
part in the battle of Falkirk, 17 Jan. 1746. At 
the battle of Culloden he was taken prisoner 
in consequence of a mistake he made in sup- 
posing a troop of English to be a body of Fitz- 
James's horse. In his speech at the trial he 
pleaded as an extenuating circumstance that 
his surrender was voluntary, but afterwards 
admitted the truth, and requested Mr. Foster 
to publish his confession. On 29 May he, to- 
gether with the Earl of Cromarty and Lord 
Balrcerino, was lodged in the Tower. They 
were subsequently tried before the House of 
Lords, and convicted of high treason, notwith- 
standing an eloquent speech from Lord Kil- 
marnock. The court was presided over by 
Lord Hardwicke as lord high steward, and his 
conduct on this occasion seems to have been 
strangely wanting in judicial impartiality. 
Walpole, in a letter to Sir Horace Mann com- 
menting on this, says : l To the prisoners he was 

peevish, and instead of keeping up to the hu- 
mane dignity of the law of England, whose 
character it is to point out favour to the 
criminal, he crossed them and almost scoffed 
at any offer they made towards defence.' 

The sentence on Lord Cromarty was after- 
wards remitted, but no such grace was ac- 
corded to Lord Kilmarnock, principally on 
account of the erroneous belief held by the 
Duke of Cumberland that it was he who was 
responsible for the order that no quarter was 
to be given to the English at Culloden. 

On 18 Aug. 1746 he was executed on Tower 
Hill in company with Lord Balmerino. He 
is described as being ' tall and slender, with 
an extreme fine person,' and his behaviour at 
the execution was held to be ( a most just 
mixture between dignity and submission.' 

His lands were confiscated, but subse- 
quently restored to his eldest son, and sold 
by him to the Earl of Glencairn. The title 
was merged in 1758 in that of Errol. 

[Paterson's History of Ayr, 1847; M'Kay's 
History of Kilmarnock, 1864; Doran's London 
in the Jacobite Times, 1871 ; Moore's Compleat 
Account of the Lives of the two Eebel Lords, 
1746; Ford's Life of William Boyd, Earl of 
Kilmarnock, 1746; Foster's Account of the Be- 
haviour of William Boyd, Earl of Kilmarnock, 
1746; Observations and Eemarks on the two 
Accounts lately published by J. Ford and J. Foster, 
1746; Gent. Mag. xvi.; Scots Mag. viii. ; Howell's 
State Trials, xviii.] N. G. 

BOYD, WILLIAM (d. 1772), Irish pres- 
byterian minister, was ordained minister of 
Macosquin,co. Derry,by the Coleraine presby- 
tery, on 31 Jan. 1710. He is memorable as 
the oearer of a commission to Colonel Samuel 
Suitte, governor of New England, embodying- 
a proposal for an extensive emigration from 
co. Derry to that colony. The commission 
is dated 26 March 1718, is signed by nine 
presbyterian ministers and 208 members of 
their flocks, who declare their ' sincere and 
hearty inclination to transport ourselves to 
that very excellent and renowned Plantation, 
upon our obtaining from His Excellency 
suitable encouragement.' Witherow reprints 
the document, with the signatures in full, 
from Edward Lutwyche Parker's 'History 
of Londonderry, New Hampshire,' Boston, 
1851. Boyd fulfilled his mission in 1718. 
How he was received is not known ; the in- 
tended emigration did not, however, take 
place. But in the same year, without await- 
ing the issue of Boyd's negotiation, James 
McGregor (minister of Aghadowey, co. Derry, 
from 1701 to 1718), who had not signed the 
document, emigrated to New Hampshire with 
some of his people, and there founded a town 
to which was given the name of Londonderry. 




In the non-subscription controversy Boyc 
took a warm part. When the general synod of 
Ulster in 1721 permitted those of its members 
to subscribe the Westminster Confession who 
thought fit, Boyd was one of the signatories 
He was on the committee of six appointed 
in 1724 to draw up articles against Thomas 
Nevin, M.A. (minister of Downpatrick from 
1711 to 1744 ; accused of impugning the deity 
of Christ), and probably drafted the docu- 
ment. Next year Boyd moved from Macos- 
quin to a congregation nearer Londonderry, 
anciently known as Taughboyne, subsequently 
as Monreagh, where he was installed by Deny 
presbytery on 25 April 1725. The stipend 
promised was 50/. The congregation had 
been vacant since the removal of William 
Gray to Usher's Quay, Dublin, in 1721. In 
1727 Gray, without ecclesiastical sanction, 
came back to Taughboyne and set up an 
opposition meeting in a disused corn-kiln at 
St. Johnston, within the bounds of his old 
congregation. Hence arose defections, re- 
criminations, and the diminution of Boyd's 
stipend to 40/. The general synod elected 
him moderator at Dungannon in 1730. The 
sermon with which he concluded his term of 
office in the following year at Antrim proves 
his orthodoxy as a subscriber to the West- 
minster Confession, and perhaps also proves 
that the influence of a non-subscribing pub- 
lication, above ten years old, was by no 
means spent. It is directed specially against 
a famous discourse by the non-subscribing 
minister of the town in which it was de- 
livered, John Abernethy, M.A., whose 'Re- 
ligious Obedience founded on Personal Per- 
suasion ' was preached at Belfast on 9 Dec. 
1719, and printed in 1720 [see ABEKNETHY, 
JOHN, 1680-1740]. Boyd decides that < con- 
science is not the supreme lawgiver,' and that 
it has no judicial authority except in so far 
as it administers ' the law of God/ an expres- 
sion which with him is synonymous with the 
interpretation of Scripture accepted by his 
church. In 1734 Boyd was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the clerkship of the general 
synod. His zeal for the faith was again 
shown in 1739, when he took the lead against 
Richard Aprichard, a probationer of the 
Armagh presbytery, who had scruples about 
some points of the Confession, and ultimately 
withdrew from the synod's jurisdiction. He 
was one of the ten divines appointed by the 
synod at Magherafelt on 16 June 1747 to 
draw up a ' Serious Warning ' to be read from 
the pulpits against dangerous errors 'creeping 
into our bounds.' These errors were in re- 
ference to such doctrines as original sin, the 
' satisfaction of Christ,' the Trinity, and the 
authority of Scripture. The synod, in spite 

of its ' Serious Warning,' would not enter- 
tain a proposal to forbid the growing practice 
of intercommunion with the non-subscribers. 
We hear nothing more of Boyd till his death, 
which occurred at an advanced age on 2 May 
1772. He published only <A Good Con- 
science a Necessary Qualification of a Gospel 
Minister. A Sermon (Heb. xiii. 18) preached 
at Antrim June 15th 1731, at a General 
Synod of the Protestants of the Presbyterian 
Persuasion in the North of Ireland,' Derry. 
1731, 18mo. 

[Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presb. 
in Ireland, 2nd ser. 1880, p. 1 ; Armstrong's Ap- 
pendix to Ordination Service, James Martineau, 
1829, p. 102; Manuscript Extracts from Minutes 
of General Synod.] A. GK 

BOYD, ZACHARY (1585 P-1653), was 
a descendant of the family of Boyd of Pen- 
kill in Ayrshire. He was born about 1585, 
and was first educated at Kilmarnock, whence 
he went to Glasgow University in 1601. He 
also attended the university of St. Andrews 
from 1603 to 1607, and graduated there as 
M.A. Subsequently he went over to the 
protestant college of Saumur, in France, and 
was offered, but declined, the principalship 
of that college. He resided in France for 
sixteen years, and seems to have left it on 
account of the religious troubles. In 1623 
he returned to Scotland, and was appointed 
minister of the Barony parish in Glasgow. 
He died in 1653. The latter part of his life 
was spent in the management of his parish 
and of the affairs of the Glasgow University, 
in which he took a deep interest, and in lite- 
rary pursuits. Only a part of his writings 
were printed; some still remain in manu- 
script in the possession of Glasgow Uni- 
versity, to which he left them, along with a 
money bequest, which not only assisted in 
>roviding new buildings, but served to esta- 
)lish some bursaries. His bust, well known 
to many generations of students, stood in a 
niche of the quadrangle which was built 
with his bequest, until a few years ago the 
university deserted those buildings and moved 
to its present situation, where the bust is still 
preserved in the library. Boyd served the 
offices of dean of faculty, rector, and vice- 
chancellor in the university during several 
years. His printed prose works appeared 
between 1629 and 1650 ; the printed poetical 
works between 1640 and 1652. < The Battell 
of the Soul in Death ' (1629), dedicated to 
Charles I, and in French to Queen Henrietta 
Maria, while the second volume contains a de- 
dicatory letter to Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, 
on the death of her son Frederick, is a sort 
of prose manual for the sick. About 1640 




he published a poem on General Lesly's vic- 
tory at Newburn, which is marked by the 
utmost extravagance and absurdity of lan- 
guage and of metaphor. In 1640 he pub- 
lished 'Four Letters of Comforts for the 
deaths of Earle of Haddington and of Lord 
Boyd.' The ' Psalms of David in Meeter,' 
with metrical versions of the songs of the 
Old and New Testament, was published in 
1648. The manuscript writings of Boyd, 
preserved in Glasgow University, are very 
voluminous, and some extracts have been 
published as curiosities. The chief portions 
are the ' Four Evangels ' in verse, and a col- 
lection of poetical stories, taken chiefly from 
Bible history, which he calls * Zion's Flowers,' 
and which, having been commonly called 
' Boyd's Bible,' gave currency to the idea 
that he had translated the whole Bible. The 
stories are often absurd enough in style and 
treatment, but the general notion of their 
absurdities has been exaggerated from the 
fact that they were abundantly parodied by 
those whose object was to caricature the 
presbyterian style which Boyd represented. 
He seems to have been inclined to oppose 
the policy of the royalist party even in earlier 
days ; for though he wrote a Latin ode on 
the coronation of Charles I at Holyrood in 
1633, his dedication of the ' Battell of the 
Soul ' to the king contained what must have 
been taken as a reflection on the want of 
strict Sabbatarianism in the episcopal church. 
In later years he became a staunch cove- 
nanter, but did not relish the triumph of 
Cromwell. In 1650 he preached before Crom- 
well in the cathedral, and, as we are told, 
1 railed at him to his face.' Thurloe, Crom- 
well's secretary, would have called him to 
account, but Cromwell took means to pay 
him back more effectually in kind by inviting 
him to dine and then treating him to three 
hours of prayers. After that, we are told, 
Boyd found himself on better terms with the 
Protector. Reflecting many of the oddities 
and absurdities of style which were charac- 
teristic of his time, Boyd seems nevertheless 
to have been a man of considerable energy 
and shrewdness, and to have won a fair 
amount of contemporary popularity as an 

[Four Letters of Comfort, 1640, reprinted Edin. 
1878; Four Poems from Zion's Flowers, by Z. B., 
with introductory notice by Gr. Neil, Glasgow, 
1855 ; The Last Battle of the Soul in Death, 
Edin. 1629.] H. C. 

BOYDELL, JOHN (1719-1804), en- 
graver, print publisher, and lord mayor, was 
born at Dorrington in Shropshire on 19 Jan. 
1719. His father, Josiah, was a land surveyor, 

and his mother's maiden name was Millies. 
His grandfather was the Rev. J. Boydell, 
D.D., vicar of Ashbourne and rector of Maple - 
ton in Derbyshire. Boydell was brought up 
to his father's profession, but when about 
one-and-twenty he appears to have aban- 
doned it in favour of art. He walked up to 
London, became a student in the St. Martin's 
Lane academy, and apprenticed himself to 
W. H. Toms, the engraver. The year of his 
apprenticeship is stated by himself to have 
been 1741, but in another place he says that 
he bound himself apprentice when ' within a 
few months of twenty-one years of age.' It 
is said that he was moved to do this by his 
admiration of a print by Toms, after Bades- 
lade, of Hawarden Castle, but we have his 
own statement engraved upon his first print 
that he ' never saw an engraved copper-plate 
before he came on trial.' This first print, 
which was begun immediately on being bound 
apprentice, is a copy of an engraving by Le 
Bas after Teniers. He soon began to publish 
on his own account small landscapes, which 
he produced in sets of six and sold for six- 
pence. One of these was known as his 
' Bridgebook ' because there was a bridge in 
each view. As there were few print-shops at 
that time in London, he induced the sellers 
of toys to expose them in their windows, and 
his most successful shop was at the sign of 
the Cricket-bat in Duke's Court, St. Martin's 
Lane. Twelve of these small landscape plates 
are included in the collection of his engravings 
which he published in 1790, and the earliest 
date to be found on any of them is 1744. In 
the next year he appears to have commenced 
the publication, at the price of one shilling 
each, of larger views about London, Oxford, 
and other places in England and Wales, 
drawn and engraved by himself. This prac- 
tice he continued with success for about ten 
years, by which time he had amassed a small 
capital. This was the foundation of his for- 
tune. In the copy of the Collection of 1790 
in the British Museum, which was presented 
by him to Miss Banks (daughter of the sculp- 
tor), is preserved an autograph note, in which 
he calls it ' The only book that had the ho- 
nour of making a Lord Mayor of London.' 
In the * advertisement ' or preface to the 
volume he speaks of his master Toms as one 
1 who had himself never risen to any degree 
of perfection,' and adds, 'indeed at that 
period there was no engraver of any emi- 
nence in this country.' Of his own engrav- 
ings he speaks with proper humility, for 
beyond a certain neatness of execution they 
have little merit. ' The engraver has now 
collected them,' he wrote, l more to show the 
improvement of art in this country, since 




the period of their publication, than from 
any idea of their own merits.' 

Though not altogether relinquishing the 
burin till about 1767, he had long before 
this commenced his career as a printseller 
and a publisher of the works of other en- 
gravers. After serving six years with Toms, 
he purchased the remainder of his term of 
apprenticeship, and the success of his prints, 
especially of a volume of views in England 
and Wales, published in 1751, enabled him 
to set up in business on his own account. 
The first engraving of great importance pro- 
duced under his encouragement was Wool- 
lett's plate after Wilson's ( Niobe,' published 
in 1761. This was also (with the exception 
of Hogarth's prints) the first important en- 
graving by a British engraver after a British 
painter. J. T. Smith, in his account of Wool- 
lett appended to ' Nollekens and his Times,' 
recounts the history of this plate as told him 
by Boydell. ' When I got a little forward in 
the world,' said Boydell, 'I took a whole shop, 
for at my commencement I kept only half a 
one. In the course of one year I imported 
numerous impressions of Vernet's celebrated 
" Storm," so admirably engraved by Lerpi- 
niere ; for which I was obliged to pay in 
hard cash, as the French took none of our 
prints in return. Upon Mr. Woollett's ex- 
pressing himself highly delighted with this 
Erint of the " Storm," I was induced, knowing 
is ability as an engraver, to ask him if he 
thought he could produce a print of the same 
size, which I could send over, so that in 
future I could avoid payment in money, and 
prove to the French nation that an English- 
man could produce a print of equal merit ; 
upon which he immediately declared that he 
should much like to try.' 

The result was the print of ' Niobe,' for 
which Boydell agreed to pay 100/., ' an un- 
heard of price, being considerably more than 
I had given for any copperplate.' He had, 
however, to advance the engraver more than 
this before the plate was finished. Very few 
proofs were struck off, and 5s. only was 
charged for the prints ; but the work brought 
Boydell 2,000/. It was followed by the 
' Phaeton,' also engraved by Woollett, after 
Wilson, and published by Boydell in 1763. 
These prints had a large sale on the con- 
tinent, with which an enormous trade in 
English engravings was soon established. 
BoydelFs enterprise increased with his capi- 
tal, and he continued to employ the latter in 
encouraging English talent. In the list of 
engravers employed by him are the names of 
Woollett, M'Ardell, Hall, Earlom, Sharpe, 
Heath, J. Smith, Val. Green, and other 
Englishmen, and a large proportion of the 

prints he published were, from the first, after 
Wilson, West, Reynolds, and other English 
painters. His foreign trade spread the fame 
of English engravers and English painters 
abroad for the first time. The receipts from 
some of the plates, especially the engravings 
by Woollett after West's ' Death of General 
Wolfe,' and ' Battle of La Hogue,' were 
enormous. In 1790 he stated the receipts 
from the former amounted to 15,000/. Both 
were copied by the best engravers in Paris 
and Vienna. 

In 1790 he was elected lord mayor of Lon- 
don, having been elected alderman for the 
ward of Cheap in 1782, and served sheriff 
in 1785. During his career as a print pub- 
lisher the course of the foreign trade in 
prints was turned from an import to an ex- 
port one. It was stated by the Earl of Suf- 
folk in the House of Lords that the revenue 
coming into this country from this branch 
of art at one time exceeded 200,000/. per 
annum. Having amassed a large fortune, 
Boydell in 1786 embarked upon the most 
important enterprise of his life, viz. the pub- 
lication, by subscription, of a series of prints 
illustrative of Shakespeare, after pictures 
painted expressly for the work by English ar- 
tists. For this purpose he gave commissions 
to all the most celebrated painters of this 
country for pictures, and built a gallery in 
Pall Mall for their exhibition. The execution 
of this project extended over several years. 
In 1789 the Shakespeare Gallery contained 
thirty-four pictures, in 1791 sixty-five, in 
1802 one hundred and sixty-two, of which 
eighty-four were of large size. The total 
number of works executed was 170, three of 
which were pieces of sculpture, and the artists 
employed were thirty-three painters and two 
sculptors, Thomas Banks and the Hon. Mrs. 
Darner. It appears from the preface to the cata- 
logue of 1789, and from other recorded state- 
ments of Boydell, that he wished to do for Eng- 
lish painting what he had done for English 
engraving, to make it respected by foreigners, 
and there is independent evidence of the 
generous spirit in which he conducted the 
enterprise. Northcote, in a letter addressed 
to Mrs. Carey, 3 Oct. 1821, says : * My picture 
of " The Death of Wat Tyler " was painted 
in the year 1786 for my friend and patron 
Alderman Boydell, who did more for the ad- 
vancement of the arts in England than the 
whole mass of nobility put together. He 
paid me more nobly than any other person 
has done ; and his memory I shall ever 
hold in reverence.' 

Boydell's l Shakespeare ' was published in 
1802, but the French revolution had stopped 
his foreign trade, and placed him in such 




serious financial difficulties that in 1804 he 
was obliged to apply to parliament for permis- 
sion to dispose of his property by lottery. This 
property was very considerable. In the pre- 
vious year Messrs. Boydell had published a 
catalogue of their stock in forty-eight volumes, 
which comprised no less than 4,432 plates, 
of which 2,293 were after English artists. In 
a letter read to the House of Commons Boy- 
dell wrote : 'I have laid out with my brethren, 
in promoting the commerce of the fine arts in 
this country, above 350,000/.' In his printed 
lottery scheme it is stated that it had been 
proved before both houses of parliament that 
the plates from which the prize prints were 
taken cost upwards of 300,000/., his pictures 
and drawings 46,266/., and the Shakespeare 
Gallery upwards of 30,000/. The lottery 
consisted of 22,000 tickets, all of which were 
sold. The sum received enabled Boydell to 
pay his debts, but he died at his house in 
Cheapside on 12 Dec. 1804, before the lottery 
was drawn. 

This was done on 28 Jan. 1805, when the 
chief prize, which included the Shakespeare 
Gallery, pictures and estate, fell to Mr. Tassie, 
nephew of the celebrated imitator of cameos 
in glass, who sold the property by auction. 
The pictures and two bas-reliefs by the Hon. 
Mrs. Darner realised 6,181 1. 18s. 6d. The 
gallery was purchased by the British Insti- 
tution, and Banks's 'Apotheosis of Shake- 
speare ' was reserved for a monument over 
the remains of Boydell. This piece of sculp- 
ture, however, after remaining for many 
years in its original position over the en- 
trance to the gallery, has now been removed 
to Stratford-upon-Avon. 

Although Boydell appears to have been 
responsible for an imposition on the public 
in regard to Woollett's print of < The Death 
of General Wolfe/ the entire property of 
which fell into his hands after the engraver's 
death the plate was repaired and unlettered 
proofs printed and sold his career was one 
of well-won honour and success, until the 
French revolution marred his prosperity. 
His influence in encouraging native art in 
England was great, and salutary, assuming 
proportions of national importance. It is 
true that the Boydell ' Shakespeare,' taken as 
a whole, seems now to shed little lustre on 
the English school, but this was not Boy- 
dell's fault ; he employed the best artists he 
could get Reynolds, Stothard, Smirke, Rom- 
ney, Fuseli, Opie, Barry, West, Wright of 
Derby, Angelica Kauffman, Westall, Hamil- 
ton, and others. It must also be remembered 
that this was the first great effort of the kind 
ever made by English artists, and its influ- 
ence cannot easily be overestimated. Boy- 

dell deserves great credit for his patriotism, 
generosity to artists, and public spirit. To 
the corporation of London he presented the 
frescoes by Rigaud on the cupola of the com- 
mon-council chamber, and many other paint- 
ings, including Reynolds's ' Lord Heathfield ;' 
to the Stationers' Company, West's ' Alfred 
the Great ' and Graham's ' Escape of Mary 
Queen of Scots.' It was his intention, before 
the reverse of his fortunes, to bequeath the 
Shakespeare gallery of paintings to the na- 
tion. In 1748 he married Elizabeth Lloyd, 
second daughter of Edward Lloyd of the 
Fords, near Oswestry, in Shropshire, by whom 
he had no issue. He was buried at St. Olave's, 
Coleman Street. 

[Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; Redgrave's Diet. o-. 
Artists (1878) ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves, now in 
course of publication) ; Annual Eeg. (1804) ; 
Gent. Mag. (1804); Hayley's Life of Eomney; 
Nollekens and his Times; Pye's Patronage of 
British Art ; A Collection of Views in England 
and Wales by J. B. (1790) ; Shakespeare's Dra- 
matic Works revised by Steevens, with plates, 
9 vols. (1802) ; A Description of several Pictures 
presented to the Corporation of London by J. B. 
(1794); Catalogues of Pictures in Shakespeare 
Gallery (1789-1802); Hansard's Parliamentary 
Debates, vol. i. 1803-4, p. 249.] C. M. 

BOYDELL, JOSIAH (1752-1817), 
painter and engraver, nephew of Alderman 
John Boydell [q. v.], was born at the Manor 
House, near Hawarden, Flintshire, on 18 Jan. 
1752. Giving early proofs of his love for art 
and his capacity in design, he was sent to Lon- 
don and placed under the care and patronage 
of his uncle, whose partner and successor he 
eventually became. He drew from the an- 
tique, studied painting under Benjamin West, 
and acquired the art of mezzotinto engraving 
from Richard Earlom. When Alderman Boy- 
dell undertook the publication of the series 
of engravings from the famous Houghton 
collection previous to its removal to thb 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg, he employed his 
nephew and Joseph Farington to make the 
necessary drawings from the pictures for the 
use of the engravers. Boydell painted seve- 
ral of the subjects for the Shakespeare Gal- 
lery, and exhibited portraits and historical 
subjects at the Royal Academy between 1772 
and 1799. He resided for some time at 
Hampstead, and during the French war as- 
sisted in forming the corps known as the 
Loyal Hampstead Volunteers, of which he 
was lieutenant-colonel. He was master of 
the Stationers' Company, and succeeded his 
uncle as alderman of the ward of Cheap, but 
ill-health compelled him to resign this latter 
office within a few years. During the latter 
part of his life he resided at Halliford, Middle- 




sex, and lie died there on 27 March 1817. He 
was buried in Hampstead Church. Among his 
principal paintings may be mentioned : a por- 
trait of Alderman John Boydell, exhibited 
at the Academy in 1772, and engraved by 
Valentine Green : a portrait of his wife, when 
Miss North, in the character of Juno, exhi- 
bited in 1773 ; and * Coriolanus taking leave 
of : his Family/ also exhibited in 1773. He 
engraved some excellent plates in mezzo- 
tinto : ' Hansloe and his Mother,' after Rem- 
brandt; 'The Holy Family,' after Carlo 
Maratti ; ' The Virgin and Child,' after Par- 
migiano ; ' Charles I,' after A. van Dyck. 

[Magazine of the Fine Arts, ii. 410 ; MS. notes 
in the British Museum.] L. F. 

BOYER, ABEL (1667-1729), miscella- 
neous writer, was born on 24 June 1667, at 
Castres, in Upper Languedoc, where his father, 
who suffered for his protestant zeal, was one of 
the two consuls or chief magistrates. Boyer's 
education at the academy of Puylaurens was 
interrupted by the religious disturbances, and 
leaving France with an uncle, a noted Hugue- 
not preacher, he finished his studies at Frane- 
ker in Friesland, after a brief episode, it is said, 
of military service in Holland. Proceeding 
to England in 1689 he fell into great poverty, 
and is represented as transcribing and pre- 
paring for the press Dr. Thomas Smith's 
edition of Camden's Latin correspondence 
(London, 1691). A good classical scholar, 
Boyer became in"1692 tutor to Allen Bathurst, 
afterwards first Earl Bathurst, whose father 
Sir Benjamin was treasurer of the household 
of the princess, afterwards Queen Anne. Pro- 
bably through this connection he was ap- 
pointed French teacher to her son William, 
duke of Gloucester, for whose use he prepared 
and to whom he dedicated ' The Complete 
French Master,' published in 1694. Disap- 
pointed of advancement on account of his zeal 
for whig principles, he abandoned tuition for 
authorship. In December 1 699 he produced on 
the London stage, with indifferent success, a 
modified translation in blank verse of Racine's 
' Iphigenie,' which was published in 1700 as 
' Achilles or Iphigenia in Aulis, a tragedy 
written by Mr. Boyer.' A second edition of 
it appeared in 1714 as ' The Victim, or Achilles 
and Iphigenia in Aulis,' in an ' advertisement' 
prefixed to which Boyer stated that in its first 
form it had ' passed the correction and appro- 
bation ' of Dryden. In 1702 appeared at the 
Hague the work which has made Boyer's a 
familiar name, his ' Dictionnaire Royal Fran- 
cais et Anglais, divisS en deux parties,' osten- 
sibly composed for the use of the Duke of Glou- 
cester, then dead. It was much superior to 
every previous work of the kind, and has been 

the basis of very many subsequent French- 
English dictionaries ; the last English un- 
abridged edition is that of 1816 ; the edition 
published at Paris in 1860 is stated to be the 
41st. For the English-French section Boyer 
claimed the merit of containing a more com- 
plete English dictionary than any previous 
one, the English words and idioms in it being 
defined and explained as well as accompanied 
by their French equivalents. In the French 
preface to the whole work Boyer said that 
1,000 English words not in any other English 
dictionary had been added to his by Richard 
Savage, whom he spoke of as his friend, and 
who assisted him in several of his French 
manuals and miscellaneous compilations and 
translations published subsequently. Among 
the English versions of French works exe- 
cuted in whole or in part by Boyer was a 
popular translation of Fenelon's { Tel6maque,' 
of which a twelfth edition appeared in 1728. 
In 1702 Boyer published a ' History of 
William III,' which included one of James II, 
and in 1703 he began to issue t The History 
of the Reign of Queen Anne digested into 
annals,' a yearly register of political and mis- 
cellaneous occurrences, containing several 
plans and maps illustrating the military 
operations of the war of the Spanish succes- 
sion. Before the last volume, the eleventh, 
of this work appeared in 1713, he had com- 
menced the publication of a monthly periodi- 
cal of the same kind, < The Political State of 
Great Britain, being an impartial account of 
the most material occurrences, ecclesiastical, 
civil, and military, in a monthly letter to a 
friend in Holland' (38 volumes, 1711-29). Its 
contents, which were those of a monthly news- 
paper, included abstracts of the chief political 
pamphlets published on both sides, and, like 
the ' Annals,' is, both from its form and mat- 
ter, very useful for reference. ' The Political 
State ' is, moreover, particularly noticeable as 
being the first periodical, issued at brief in- 
tervals, which contained a parliamentary chro- 
nicle, and in which parliamentary debates were 
reported with comparative regularity and with 
some approximation to accuracy. In the case 
of the House of Lords' reports various devices, 
such as giving only the initials of the names 
of the speakers, were resorted to in order to 
escape punishment, but in the case of the 
House of Commons the entire names were 
frequently given. According to Boyer's own 
account (preface to his folio History of Queen 
Anne, and to vol. xxxvii. of the Political 
State) he had been furnished by members of 
both houses of parliament (among whom he 
mentioned Lord Stanhope) with reports of 
their speeches, and he had even succeeded in 
becoming an occasional ' ear-witness ' of the 




debates themselves. When he was threatened 
at the beginning of 1729 with arrest by the 
printers of the votes, whose monopoly they 
accused him of infringing, he asserted that for 
thirty years in his ' History of King William/ 
his ' Annals/ and in his ' Political State/ he 
had given reports of parliamentary debates 
without being molested. The threat induced 
him to discontinue the publication of the de- 
bates. He intended to resume the work, but 
failed to carry out his intention (see Gent. 
Mag. for November 1856, Autobiography of 
Sylvanus Urban). He died on 16 Nov. 1729, 
in a house which he had built for himself at 

Besides conducting the periodicals men- 
tioned, Boyer began in 1705 to edit the ' Post- 
boy/ a thrice-a-week London news-sheet. 
His connection with it ended in August 1709, 
through a quarrel with the proprietor, when 
Boyer started on his own account a ' True Post- 
boy/ which seems to have been short-lived. 
A ' Case ' which he printed in vindication of 
his right to use the name of ' Post-boy ' for 
his new venture gives some curious particu- 
lars of the way in which the news-sheets of 
the time were manufactured. Boyer was 
also the author of pamphlets, in one of which, 
' An Account of the State and Progress of 
the present Negotiations of Peace/ he attacked 
Swift, who writes in the ' Journal to Stella ' 
(16 Oct. 1711), after dining with Boling- 
broke : f One Boyer, a French dog, has 
abused me in a pamphlet, and I have got 
him up in a messenger's hands. The secre- 
tary ' St. John ' promises me to swinge him. 
... I must make that rogue an example for 
warning to others.' Boyer was discharged 
from custody through the intervention, he 
says, of Harley, to whom he boasts of having 
rendered services (Annals of Queen Anne, vol. 
for 1711, pp. 264-5). Though he professed 
a strict political impartiality in the conduct 
of his principal periodicals, Boyer was a zea- 
lous whig. For this reason doubtless Pope 
gave him a niche in the ' Dunciad ' (book ii. 
413), where, under the soporific influence of 
Dulness, ' Boyer the state, and Law the stage 
gave o'er ' his crime, according to Pope's ex- 
planatory note, being that he was ' a volu- 
minous compiler of annals, political collec- 
tions, &c.' 

Of Boyer's other writings the list of those 
of them which are in the library of the British 
Museum occupies nearly four folio pages of 
print in its new catalogue mention may be 
made of his folio ' History of Queen Anne ' 
(1722, second edition 1735), with maps and 
plans illustrating Marlborough's campaigns, 
and ' a regular series of all the medals that 
were struck to commemorate the great events 

of this reign ; ' and the ' Memoirs of the Life 
and Negotiations of Sir William Temple, 
Bart., containing the most important occur- 
rences and the most secret springs of affairs in 
Christendom from the year 1655 to the year 
1681 ; with an account of Sir W. Temple's 
writings/ published anonymously in 1714, 
second edition 1715. Boyer's latest produc- 
tion in composing which he seems to have 
been assisted by a ' Mr. J. Innes ' was ' Le 
Grand Theatre de 1'Honneur/ French and 
English, 1729, containing a dictionary of he- 
raldic terms and a treatise on heraldry, with 
engravings of the arms of the sovereign prin- 
ces and states of Europe. It was published 
by subscription and dedicated to Frederick, 
prince of Wales. 

[Boyer's "Works ; obituary notice in vol. 
xxxviii. of Political State, of which the Memoir 
in Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 1812, is mainly 
a reproduction ; Haag's La France Protestante, 
2nd edition, 1881; Grenest's Account of the Eng- 
lish Stage, ii. 166-9; Catalogue of the British 
Museum Library.] F. E. 

1879), classical scholar, born 10 Feb. 1811, 
entered Merchant Taylors' School in the 
month of October 1819, his father, Benjamin 
Boyes (a Yorkshireman), being then resident 
in Charterhouse Square. After a very credit- 
able school career extending over nearly ten 
years, he went in 1829 as Andrew's civil law 
exhibitioner to St. John's College, Oxford, 
having relinquished a scholarship which he had 
gained in the previous year at Lincoln College. 
He graduated B.A. in 1833, taking a second 
class in classics, his papers on history and 
poetry being of marked excellence. Soon 
afterwards he was appointed second master 
of the proprietary school, Walthamstow, and 
eventually succeeded to the head-mastership, 
which he filled for many years. He proceeded 
M.A. in due course. At school, at Oxford 
(whither he was summoned to act as ex- 
aminer at responsions in 1842), and among 
a large circle of discriminating friends, he 
enjoyed a high reputation for culture and 
scholarship. l There was not an English or 
Latin or Greek poet with whom he was not 
familiar, and from whom he could not make 
the most apposite quotations. With th$ best 
prose authors in our own and in French, 
and indeed other continental literature, he 
was thoroughly acquainted ' (AKCHDEACON 
HESSE Y). The fruits of his extensive read- 
ing and literary taste are to be seen in his 
published works, which evince also consider- 
able originality of thought, terseness of ex- 
pression, and felicity of illustration. The 
closing years of his life were largely devoted 




to practical benevolence, in the exercise of 
which he was as humble as he was liberal. 
He died at Maida Hill, London, 26 May 

His writings comprise: 1. 'Illustrations 
of the Tragedies of ^Eschylus and Sophocles, 
from the Greek, Latin, and English Poets,' 
1844. 2. ' English Repetitions, in Prose and 
Verse, with introductory remarks on the 
cultivation of taste in the young,' 1849. 
3. ' Life and Books, a Record of Thought 
and Reading,' 1859. 4. ' Lacon in Council,' 
1865. The two latter works remind one 
very much in their style and texture of 
1 Guesses at Truth,' by the brothers Hare. 

[Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' 
School, ii. 211; Information from Archdeacon 
Hessey, Dr. Seth B. "Watson, and other personal 
friends of Mr. Boyes ; Preface and Appendix to 
Sermon by Rev. J. G-. Tanner (E. Hale), 1879.] 

C. J. R. 

RERY in Ireland, and first BARON MARSTON, 
of Marston in Somersetshire (1676-1731), 
grandson of Roger Boyle, first earl of Orrery 
[q. v.], was born at Chelsea in 1676, and suc- 
ceeded his brother as Earl of Orrery in 1703. 
Educated at Christ Church, he joined the wits 
engaged in a struggle with Bentley, who re- 
presented the scholarship of the Cambridge 
whigs. Sir W. Temple had made some rash 
statements as to the antiquity of Phalaris in 
a treatise on ancient and modern learning, 
and this was the subject of attack by Wotton, 
a protege" of Bentley's, in his ' Reflections on 
Ancient and Modern Learning/ published in 
1694. By way of covering Temple's defeat, 
the Christ Church scholars determined to 
publish a new edition of the epistles of Pha- 
laris. This was entrusted to Boyle, who, 
without asserting the epistles to be genuine, 
as Temple had done, attacked Bentley for 
his rudeness in having withdrawn too ab- 
ruptly a manuscript belonging to the King's 
Library, which Boyle had borrowed. Bentley 
now added to a new edition of Wotton's ' Re- 
flections ' a ' Dissertation ' upon the epistles, 
from his own pen [see BENTLEY, RICHARD, 
1662-1742J. Boyle was aided by Atterbury 
and Smalridge in preparing a defence, pub- 
lished in 1698, entitled ' Dr. Bentley's Dis- 
sertations .... examined.' Bentley returned 
to the charge and overwhelmed his opponents 
by the wealth of his scholarship. The dispute 
led to Swift's ' Battle of the Books.' Before 
succeeding to the peerage Boyle was elected 
M.P. for Huntingdon, but his return was 
disputed, and the violence of the discussion 
which took place led to his being engaged in 
a duel with his colleague, Francis Wortley, 

in which he was wounded. He subsequently 
entered the army, and was present at the battle 
of Malplaquet, and in 1709 became major- 
general. In 1706 he had married Lady Eliza- 
beth Cecil, daughter of the Earl of Exeter. We 
find him afterwards in London, as the centre 
of Christ Church men there, a strong adhe- 
rent of the party of Harley, and a member 
of ' the club ' established by Swift. As envoy 
in Flanders he took part in the negotiations 
that preceded the treaty of Utrecht, and 
was afterwards made a privy councillor and 
created Baron Marston. He was made a 
lord of the bedchamber on the accession of 
George I, but resigned this post on being de- 
prived of his military command in 1716. Swift, 
in the ' Four Last Years of the Queen,' adduces 
Orrery's support of the tory ministry as a proof 
that no Jacobite designs were entertained by 
them ; but it is curious that in 1721 Orrery 
was thrown into the Tower for six months 
as being implicated in Layer's plot, and was 
released on bail only in consequence of Dr. 
Mead's certifying that continued imprison- 
ment was dangerous to his life. He was 
subsequently discharged, and died on 28 Aug. 
1731. Besides the works above named, he 
wrote a comedy called 'As you find it.' The 
astronomical instrument, invented by Gra- 
ham, received from his patronage of the in- 
ventor the name of an ' Orrery.' 

[Budgell's Memoirs of the Boyles ; Bentley's 
Dissertation ; Swift's Battle of the Books ; Biog. 
Brit.] H. C. 


1853), president of the Scottish court of ses- 
sion, fourth son of the Hon. Patrick Boyle 
of Shewalton, near Irvine, the third son of 
John, second Earl of Glasgow, was born at 
Irvine on 26 July. 1772 ; was called to the 
Scottish bar on 14 Dec. 1793 ; was gazetted 
(9 May 1807), under the Duke of Portland's 
administration, solicitor-general for Scotland ; 
and in the general election of the following 
month was returned to the House of Commons 
by Ayrshire, which he continued to represent 
until his appointment, on 23 Feb. 1811, as a 
lord of session and of justiciary. He was ap- 
pointed lord justice clerk on 15 Oct. 1811. He 
was sworn on 11 April 1820 a member of the 
privy council of George IV, at whose corona- 
tion, on 19 July 1821, he is recorded by Sir 
Walter Scott to have shown to great advan- 
tage in his robes. 

After acting as lord justice clerk for nearly 
thirty years, Boyle was appointed lordjustice- 
general and president of the court of session, 
on the resignation of Charles Hope, lord Gran- 
ton. Boyle resigned office in May 1852, de- 
clining the baronetcy which was offered to 




him, and retired to his estate at Shewalton, 
to which he had succeeded on the death of a 
brother in 1837. He died on 30 Jan. 1853. 

Boyle was always distinguished for his 
noble personal appearance. Sir J. W. Gordon 
painted full-length portraits of him for the 
Faculty of Advocates and for the Society of 
Writers to the Signet. Mr. Patrick Park 
also made a bust of him for the hall of the So- 
ciety of Solicitors before the Supreme Courts 
in Edinburgh. 

Boyle was twice married : first, on 24 Dec. 
1804, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Alex- 
ander Montgomerie of Annick, brother of 
the twelfth Earl of Eglintoun, who died on 
14 April 1822 ; he had nine children by her, 
the eldest of whom, Patrick Boyle, succeeded 
to his estates; and secondly, on 17 July 1827, 
to Camilla Catherine, eldest daughter of David 
Smythe of Methven, lord Methven, a lord of 
session and of justiciary, who died on 25 Dec. 
1880, leaving four children. 

[Wood's Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, 1813 ; 
Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage, 1883 ; Gent. 
Mag., passim ; Brunton and Haig's Senators of 
the College of Justice, 1813; Caledonian Mer- 
cury and Glasgow Herald, 7 Feb. 1853; Edin- 
burgh Evening Courant and Ayr Observer, 
8 Feb. 1853; Times, 9 Feb. 1853; Illustrated 
London News, 29 Jan. and 12 Feb. 1853.] 

A. H. G. 

(d. 1725), politician, was the third and 
youngest son of Charles, lord Clifford, of 
Lanesborough, by Jane, youngest daughter 
of William, duke of Somerset, and grandson 
of Richard Boyle, second earl of Cork [q. v.] 
He sat in parliament for Tamworth from 
1689 to 1690, for Cambridge University- 
after a contest in which Sir Isaac Newton 
supported his opponent from 1692 to 1705, 
and for Westminster from 1705 to 1710. 
Although he was at the head of the poll at 
Cambridge in 1701, he did not venture to try 
his fortune in 1705. From 1699 to 1701 he 
was a lord of the treasury, and in the latter 
year he became the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer; from 1704 to 1710 he was lord 
treasurer of Ireland, and in 1708 he was 
made a principal secretary of state in the 
room of Harley. Two years later he was 
displaced for St. John, and the act formed 
one of those bold steps on the part of the 
tory ministry which ' almost shocked ' Swift. 
Boyle is generally said to have been the 
messenger who found Addison [q. v.] in his 
mean lodging, and by his blandishments, and 
a definite promise of preferment and the pro- 
spect of still greater advancement, secured 
the poet's pen to celebrate the victory of 

Blenheim and its hero. In return, it is'said, 
for his good offices on this occasion, the third 
volume of the ' Spectator ' was dedicated to 
Boyle, with the eulogy that among politicians 
no one had ' made himself more friends and 
fewer enemies.' Southerne, the dramatist, 
was another of the men of letters whom he 
befriended. Boyle was engaged as one of 
the managers of the trial of Sacheverell. On 
20 Oct. 1714 he was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Carleton of Carleton, Yorkshire, and 
from 1721 to 1725 was lord president of the 
council in Walpole's administration. He 
died a bachelor at his house in Pall Mall on 
14 March 1725. He left this house, known 
as Carlton House, to the Prince of Wales, 
and it was long notorious as the abode of 
the prince regent : the name is still per- 
petuated in Carlton House Terrace. The 
winning manners and the tact of Lord Car- 
leton have been highly praised. He was 
never guilty, so it was said by his pane- 
gyrists, of an imprudent speech or of any 
acts to injure the success of the whig cause. 
Swift, however, accuses him of avarice. 

[Budgell's Lives of Boyles, 149-55; Swift's 
Works ; Chalmers ; Cooper's Annals of Cam- 
bridge, iv. 19, 40, 47 ; Lodge's Peerage, i. 175.] 

W. P. C. 

(1682-1764), born at Castlemartyr, county 
Cork, in 1682, was second son of Lieutenant- 
colonel Henry Boyle, second son of Roger 
Boyle, first earl of Orrery [q. v.] Henry 
Boyle's mother was Lady Mary O'Brien, 
daughter of Murragh O'Brien, first earl of 
Inchiquin, and president of Munster. Henry 
Boyle's father died in Flanders in 1693, and 
on the death of his eldest son, Roger, in 1705, 
Henry Boyle, as second son, succeeded to the 
family estates at Castlemartyr, which had 
been much neglected. In 1715 he was elected 
knight of the shire for Cork, and married 
Catherine, daughter of-Chidley Coote. After 
her death he married, in 1726, Henrietta 
Boyle, youngest daughter of his relative, 
Charles, earl of Burlington and Cork. That 
nobleman entrusted the management of his 
estates in Ireland to Henry Boyle, who much 
enhanced their value, and carried out and 
promoted extensive improvements in his dis- 
trict. In 1729 Boyle distinguished himself 
in parliament at Dublin in resisting success- 
fully the attempt of the government to obtain 
a vote for a continuation of supplies to the 
crown for twenty-one years. Sir Robert Wai- 
pole is stated to have entertained a high opi- 
nion of the penetration, sagacity, and energy 
of Boyle, and to have styled him ' the King 
of the Irish Commons.' Boyle, in 1733, was 

Boyle i] 

made a member of the privy council, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, and commissioner of 
revenue in Ireland. He was also in the same 
year elected speaker of the House of Commons 
there. Through his connections, Boyle exer- 
cised extensive political influence, and was 
parliamentary leader of the whig party in 
Ireland. In 1753 Boyle acquired high popu- 
larity by opposing the government proposal 
for appropriating a surplus in the Irish ex- 
chequer. In commemoration of the parlia- 
mentary movements in this affair, medals 
were struck containing portraits of Boyle 
as speaker of the House of Commons. For 
having opposed the government, Boyle and 
some of his associates were dismissed from 
offices which they held under the crown. 
After negotiations with government, Boyle, 
in 1756, resigned the speakership, and was 
granted an annual pension of two thousand 
pounds for thirty-one years, with the titles of 
Baron of Castlemartyr, Viscount Boyle of 
Bandon, and Earl of Shannon. He sat for 
many years in the House of Peers in Ireland, 
and frequently acted as lord justice of that 
kingdom. Boyle died at Dublin of gout in 
his head, on 27 Sept. 1764, in the 82nd year 
of his age. Portraits of Henry Boyle were 
engraved in mezzotinto by John Brooks. 

[Account of Life of Henry Boyle, 1754; 
Journals of Lords and Commons of Ireland ; 
Peerage of Ireland, 1789, ii. 364; Hardy's Life of 
Charlemont, 1810; Charlemont MSS. ; Works 
of Henry Grattan, 1822 ; Hist, of City of Dublin, 
1854-59.] J. T. G-. 

BOYLE, JOHN, fifth EARL OF CORK, fifth 
STOBT (1707 r 1762), was born on 2 Jan. 1707, 
and was the only son of Charles Boyle, fourth 
earl of Orrery [q. v.], whom he succeeded as 
fifth earl in 1731. Like his father, he was 
educated at Christ Church. He took some 
part in parliamentary debates, chiefly in op- 
position to Walpole. On the death, in 1753, 
of his kinsman, Richard Boyle, the Earl of 

Cork and Burlington [q. v.], he succeeded 
him as fifth earl of Cork, thus uniting the 
Orrery peerage to the older Cork peerage. 
His father, from some grudge, left his library 
to Christ Church, specially assigning as his 
reason his son's want of taste for literature. 
According to Johnson, the real reason was 
that the son would not allow his wife to as- 
sociate with the father's mistress. The pas- 
sage in the will seems to have stimulated 
the son to endeavour to disprove the charge, 
and he has succeeded in making his name re- 
membered as the friend first of Swift and 
Pope, and afterwards of Johnson. His ' Re- 
marks on Swift,' published in November 

t Boyle 

1751, attracted much attention as the first 
attempt at an account of Swift, and 7,500 
copies appear to have been sold within a 
month. But neither Lord Orrery's ability, 
nor his acquaintance with Swift, was such as 
to give much value to his l Remarks.' The 
acquaintance had begun about 1731 (appa- 
rently from an application by Swift on behalf 
of Mrs. Barber for leave to dedicate her 
poems to Orrery, although Swift had pre- 
viously seen a good deal of his father), when 
Swift was already sixty-four years old, and 
their meetings, during the few succeeding 
years before Swift became decrepit, were not 
very frequent. If we are to judge, however, 
from the expressions used by Swift, both in 
his letters to Orrery and in correspondence 
with others, the friendship seems to have 
been cordial so far as it went. In one of the 
earliest letters he hopes Orrery will be ' a 
great example, restorer, and patron of virtue, 
learning, and wit ; ' and he writes to Pope 
that, next to Pope himself, he loves l no man 
so well.' Pope, too, writes of Orrery to 
Swift as one ' whose praises are that precious 
ointment Solomon speaks of.' A bond of 
sympathy existed between Swift and Orrery 
in a common hatred of Walpole's govern- 
ment. It was to Orrery's hand that Swift 
entrusted the manuscript of his l Four Last 
Years of the Queen ' for delivery to Dr. King 
of Oxford ; and Orrery was the go-between 
employed by Pope to get his letters from 
Swift. In his will Swift leaves to Orrery a 
portrait and some silver plate. On the other 
hand, there are traditional stories of con- 
temptuous expressions used by Swift of 
Orrery, and these, if repeated to him, may 
have inspired in Orrery that dislike which 
made his ' Remarks ' so full of rancour and 
grudging criticism. The ' Remarks on the 
Life and Writings of Jonathan Swift,' pub- 
lished in 1751, are given in a series of 
letters to his son and successor, Hamilton 
Boyle (1730-1764), then an undergraduate 
at Christ Church, and are written in a stilted 
and affected style. The malice which he 
showed made the book the subject of a bitter 
attack (1754) by Dr. Patrick Delany [q. v.], 
who did something to clear Swift from the 
aspersions ca'st on him by Orrery. But the 
grudging praise and feeble estimate of Swift's 
genius shown in the ' Remarks ' are mainly due 
to the poverty of Orrery's own mind. He was 
filled with literary aspirations, and, as Ber- 
keley said of him, ' would have been a man 
of genius had he known how to set about it.' 
But he had no real capacity for apprehending 
either the range of Swift's intellect or the 
meaning of his humour. Orrery was after- 
wards one of those who attempted to patronise 




Johnson, by whom he was regarded kindly 
and spoken of as one ( who would have been 
a liberal patron if he had been rich.' 

Orrery married in 1728 Lady Harriet 
Hamilton, third daughter of the Earl of 
Orkney, and after her death he married, in 
1738, Miss Hamilton, of Caledon, in Tyrone. 
He was made a D.C.L. of Oxford in 1743, 
114-b and F.R.S. in 1&. He died on 16 Nov. 
1762. He wrote some papers in the 'World' 
and the l Connoisseur,' and various prologues 
and fugitive verses. His other works are : 
1. 'A Translation of the Letters of Pliny the 
Younger' (2 vols. 4to, 1751). 2. ' An Essay 
on the Life of Pliny.' 3. ' Memoirs of Robert 
Carey, Earl of Monmouth,' published from the 
original manuscript, with preface and notes. 
4. ' Letters from Italy in 1754 and 1755,' 
published after his death (with a life) by the 
Rev. J. Buncombe in 1774. 

[Buncombe's Life, as above ; Swift's and Pope's 
Letters; Nichols's Lit. Illust. ii. 153, 232; Biog. 
Brit.] H. C. 

BOYLE, JOHN (1563 ?-l 620), bishop of 
Roscarberry, Cork, and Cloyne, a native of 
Kent and elder brother of Richard, first earl 
of Cork [q. v.], was born about 1563.^Kjohn 
Boyle obtained the degree of D.D. at Oxford, 
and is stated to have been dean of Lichfield 
in 1610. Through the interest and pecuniary 
assistance of his brother, the Earl of Cork, 
and other relatives, he was in 1617 appointed 
to the united sees of Roscarberry, Cork, and 
Cloyne. His consecration took place in 1618. 
He died at Cork on 10 July 1620, and was 
buried at Youghal. 

[Ware's Bishops of Ireland, 1739; Fasti Ec- 
clesise Hibernicae, 1 851 ; Brady's Records of Cork, 
Cloyne, and Ross, 1863.] J. T. G. 

BOYLE, MICHAEL, the elder (1580 ?- 
1635), bishop of Waterford and Lismore, 
born in London about 1580, was son of Mi- 
chael Boyle, and brother of Richard Boyle, 
archbishop of Tuam [q. v.l Michael Boyle 
entered Merchant Taylors School, London, 
in 1587, and proceeded to St. John's College, 
Oxford, in 1593. He took the degree of B. A. 
5 Dec. 1597, of M.A. 25 June 1601, of B.D. 
9 July 1607, and of D.D. 2 July 1611. He be- 
came a fellow of his college,and no high opinion 
was entertained there of his probity in matters 
affecting his own interests. Boyle was ap- 
pointed vicar of Finden in Northamptonshire. 
Through the influence of his relative, the Earl 
of Cork, he obtained the deanery of Lismore 
in 1614, and was made bishop of Waterford 
and Lismore in 1619. He held several 
other appointments in the protestant church, 
and dying at Waterford on 27 Dec. 1635, was 
>, buried in the cathedral there. 

After ' 1563.' insert * He was admitted to 
Corpus Christi, Cambridge, in 1583, and 
proceeded B.A. in 1586, M.A. in 1590, 
B.D. in 1598, and D.D. in 1614 (Venn, 
Alumni Cantab.^ pt. i, i. 196).' 

[Ware's Bishops of Ireland, 1739 ; Robinson's 
Register of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 30 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxonienses (Bliss), ii. 88 ; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), i. 275, 292, 321, 344 ; Elrington's 
Life of Ussher, 1848; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesise 
Hibernicae, 1851 ; Brady's Kecords of Cork, 
Cloyne, and Eoss, 1863.] J. T. G-. 

BOYLE, MICHAEL, the younger (1609?- 
1702), archbishop of Armagh, eldest son of 
Richard Boyle, archbishop of Tuam [q.v.], and 
nephew of the elder Michael [q. v.], was born 
about 1609. He was apparently educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he proceeded 
M.A., and on 4 Nov. 1637 was incorporated 
M.A. of Oxford. In 1637 he obtained a rectory 
in the diocese of Cloyne, received the degree of 
D.D., was made dean of Cloyne, and during the 
war in Ireland acted as chaplain-general to 
the English army in Munster. In 1650 the pro- 
testant royalists in Ireland employed Boyle, 
in conjunction with Sir Robert Sterling and 
Colonel John Daniel, to negotiate on their be- 
half with Oliver Cromwell. Ormonde resented 
the conduct of Boyle in conveying Cromwell's 
passport to him, which he rejected. Letters 
of Boyle on these matters have been recently 
printed in the second volume of the ' Con- 
temporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1641- 
1652.' At the Restoration, Boyle became privy 
councillor in Ireland, and was appointed bi- 
shop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross. In addition 
to the episcopal revenues, he continued to re- 
ceive for a time the profits of six parishes in 
his diocese, on the ground of being unable to 
find clergymen for them. For Boyle's ser- 
vices in England in connection with the Act 
for the Settlement of Ireland, the House of 
Lords at Dublin ordered a special memorial 
of thanks to be entered in their journals in 
1662. Boyle was translated to the see of 
Dublin in 1663, and appointed chancellor of 
Ireland in 1665. In the county of Wicklow 
he established a town, to which he gave 
the name of Blessington, and at his own 
expense erected there a church, which he sup- 
plied with plate and bells. In connection 
with this town he in 1673 obtained the title 
of Viscount Blessington for his eldest son, 
Murragh. In 1675 Boyle was promoted from 
the see of Dublin to that of Armagh. An 
autograph of Boyle at that time has been 
reproduced on plate Ixxix of 'Facsimiles 
of National MSS. of Ireland,' part iv. p. 2. 
On the accession of James II, he was con- 
tinued in office as lord chancellor, and ap- 
pointed for the third time as lord justice 
in Ireland, in conjunction with the Earl of 
Granard, and held that post until Henry, 
earl of Clarendon, arrived as lord-lieutenant 
in December 1685. In Boyle's latter years 
his faculties are stated to have been much 

Boyle i 

impaired. He died in Dublin on 10 Dec. 1702, 
in his ninety-third year, and was interred in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral there. Little of the 
wealth accumulated by Boyle was devoted 
to religious or charitable uses. Letters and 
papers of Boyle are extant in the Ormonde 
archives at Kilkenny Castle and in the 
Bodleian Library. Portraits of Archbishop 
Boyle were engraved by Loggan and others. 
Boyle's son, Murragh, viscount Blessington, 
was author of a tragedy, entitled ' The Lost 
Princess.' Baker, the dramatic critic, cha- 
racterised this production as 'truly con- 
temptible,' and added that the ' genius and 
abilities of the writer did no credit to the 
name of Boyle/ Viscount Blessington died 
25 Dec. 1712, and was succeeded by his son 
Charles (d. 10 Aug. 1718), at one time go- 
vernor of Limerick, and lord j ustice of Ireland 
in 1696. The title became extinct on the 
death of the next heir in 1732. 

[Carte's Life of Ormonde, 1736 ; Wood's Fasti 
(Bliss), i. 498; Ware's Works (Harris), i. 130; 
Journals of Lords and Commons of Ireland; 
Peerage of Ireland; BiographiaDramatica, 1812; 
Mant's Hist, of Church of Ireland, 1840 ; G-ranard 
Archives, Castle Forbes; Elrington's Life of 
Ussher, 1848; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesise Hibernicse, 
1851; Reports of Royal Commission on Hist. 
MSS.] J. T. G. 

1609 P-1702.] 

(1566-1643), an Irish statesman frequently 
referred to as the ' great earl,' was descended 
from an old Hereford family, the earliest of 
which there is mention being Humphry de 
Binvile, lord of the manor of Pixeley Court, 
r Ledbury, about the time of Edward 
Confessor. He was the great-grandson 
1 Ludovic Boyle of Bidney, Herefordshire, 
a younger branch of the family, and the 
jond son of Roger Boyle, who had removed 
Faversham, Kent, and had married there 
>an, daughter of Robert Naylor of Canter- 
iry (pedigree in ROBINSON'S Mansions of 
Herefordshire, pp. 94-5). In his ' True Re- 
lembrances ' he says : 'I was born in the city 
'" Canterbury, as I find it written by my 
TI father's hand, the 13th Oct. 1566.' After 
fivate instruction in ' grammar learning' 
>m a clergyman in Kent, he became 'a 
lolar in Bennet's (Corpus Christi) College, 
mbridge,' into which he was admitted in 
L583 (MASTERS, Hist. Corpus Christi Coll., 
1831, p. 459). On leaving the university 
entered the Middle Temple, but, finding 
dmself without means to prosecute his 
( studies, he became clerk to Sir Richard Man- 


3 Boyle 

wood, chief baron of the exchequer. In this 
employment he discovered no prospect ade- 
quate to his ambition, and therefore resolved 
to try his fortunes in Ireland. Accordingly, 
on Midsummer's eve, 23 June 1588, he landed 
in Dublin, his whole property, as he tells us, 
amounting only to 277. 3*. in money, a dia- 
mond ring and a bracelet, and his wearing 
apparel. With characteristic astuteness he 
secured introductions to persons of high influ- 
ence, and he was even affirmed to have done so 
by means of counterfeited letters. At any rate, 
as early as 1590 his name appears as escheator 
to John Crofton, escheator general, a situa- 
tion which he doubtless knew how to utilise 
to his special personal advantage. In 1595 
he married, at Limerick, Joan, the daughter 
and coheiress of William Ansley, who died 
in 1599 in childbed, leaving him an estate of 
500/. a year in lands, ' which,' he says, ' was 
the beginning of my fortune.' The last state- 
ment must, however, be compared with the 
fact that some time before this he had been 
the victim of prosecutions, instigated, accord- 
ing to his own account, by envy at his pro- 
sperity. About 1592 he was imprisoned by 
Sir William Fitzwilliam on the charge of 
having embezzled records, and subsequently 
he was several times apprehended at the in- 
stance of Sir Henry Wallop on a variety of 
charges, one of them being that of stealing a 
horse and jewel nine years before, of which 
he was acquitted by pardon (Answers of Sir 
Richard Boyle to the Accusations against him, 
17 Feb. 1598, Add. MS. 19832, f. 12). Find- 
ing these prosecutions unsuccessful, Sir Henry 
Wallop and others, according to Boyle, ' all 
joined together by their lies complaining 
against me to Queen Elizabeth, expressing 
that I came over without any estate, and 
that I made so many purchases as it was not 
possible to do without some foreign prince's 
purse to supply me with money ' ( True Re- 
membrances}. To defeat these machinations 
Boyle resolved on the bold course of pro- 
ceeding to England to justify himself to the 
queen, but the fulfilment of his purpose 
was frustrated by the outbreak of the re- 
bellion in Munster. As the result of the 
rebellion was to leave him without ' a penny 
of certain revenue,' he ceased for the time 
to be in danger from the accusations of his 
enemies. Indeed, his fortunes in Ireland 
were now so desperate that he was compelled 
to leave the country and resume his legal 
studies in his old chambers in the Temple. 
Scarcely, however, had he entered upon them 
when the Earl of Essex offered him employ- 
ment in connection with ' issuing out his 
patents and commissions for the government 
of Ireland.' This at once caused him again 





to experience the attentions of Sir Henry 
Wallop, ' who/ says Boyle, ' being conscious 
in his own heart that I had sundry papers 
and collections of Michael Kittlewell, his late 
treasurer, which might discover a great deal of 
wrong and abuse done to the queen in his late 
accounts ... he renewed his former com- 
plaints against me to the queen's majesty.' In 
consequence of this Boyle was conveyed a close 
prisoner to the Gatehouse, and at the end of 
two months underwent examination before 
the Star-chamber. Boyle does not state that 
the complaints were in any way modified or 
altered, but if they were not his account of 
them in his ' True Remembrances ' is not only 
inadequate but misleading. His examination 
before the Star-chamber had no reference 
whatever to his being in the pay of the king 
of Spain or a pervert to Catholicism the ac- 
cusations he specially instances as ' formerly ' 
made against him by Sir Henry Wallop 
but bore chiefly on the causes of his previous 
imprisonments, and on several asserted in- 
stances of trafficking in forfeited estates (see 
Articles wherein Richard Boyle, prisoner, is 
to be examined, Add. MS. 19832, f. 8, and 
Articles to be proved against Richard Boyle, 
Add. MS. 19832, f. 9). It can scarcely be 
affirmed that he came out of the ordeal of 
examination with a reputation utterly un- 
sullied, but the unsatisfactory character of 
his explanations was condoned by the reve- 
lations he made regarding the malversations 
of his accuser as treasurer of Ireland, and 
according to his own account he had no 
sooner done speaking than the queen broke 
out ' By G 's death, these are but inventions 
against the young man, and all his sufferings 
are but for being able to do us service.' Sir 
Henry Wallop was at once superseded in the 
treasurership by Sir George Carew [q. v.],and 
a few days afterwards Boyle received the 
office of clerk of the council of Munster. He 
was chosen by Sir George Carew, who was 
also lord president of Munster, to convey to 
Elizabeth tidings of the victory near Kinsale 
in December 1601, and after the final reduc- 
tion of the province he was, on 15 Oct. 1602, 
sent over to England to give information in 
reference to the condition of the country. 
On the latter occasion he came provided by 
Sir George Carew with a letter of introduc- 
tion to Sir Walter Raleigh, recommending 
him as a proper purchaser for all his lands in 
Ireland ' if he was disposed to part with them.' 
Through the mediation of Cecil, terms were 
speedily adjusted, and for the paltry sum of 
1,000/. Boyle saw himself the possessor of 
12,000 acres in Cork, Waterford, and Tip- 
perary, exceptionally fertile, and present- 
ing unusual natural advantages for the de- 

velopment of trade. All, it is true, depended 
on his own energy and skill in making proper 
use of his purchase. Raleigh had found it 
such a bad bargain that he was glad to be 
rid of it. In the disturbed condition of the 
country it was even possible that no amount 
of enterprise and skill might be rewarded 
with immediate success. Boyle, however, 
possessed the advantage of being always on 
the spot, and of dogged perseverance in the 
one aim of acquiring wealth and power. 
Before the purchase could be completed Ra- 
leigh was attainted of high treason, but in 
1604 Boyle obtained a patent for the pro- 
perty from the crown, and paid the purchase- 
money to Raleigh. There can indeed be no 
doubt whatever as to the honourable cha- 
racter of his dealings with Raleigh, who 
throughout life remained on friendly terms 
with him. The attempt of Raleigh's widow 
and son to obtain possession of the property 
was even morally without justification. It 
had become to its possessor a source of im- 
mense wealth, but the change was the result 
solely of his marvellous energy and enter- 
prise. Cromwell, when he afterwards be- 
held the prodigious improvements Boyle had 
effected, is said to have affirmed that, if there 
had been one like him in every province, it 
would have been impossible for the Irish 
to raise a rebellion (Cox, Hist. Ireland, 
vol. ii.) One of the chief causes of his suc- 
cess was the introduction of manufactures 
and mechanical arts by settlers from Eng- 
land. From his ironworks alone, according 
to Boate, he made a clear gain of 100,000/. 
(Ireland's Nat. Hist. (1652), p. 112). At 
enormous expense he built bridges, con- 
structed harbours, and founded towns, pro- 
sperity springing up at his behest as if by a 
magician's wand. All mutinous manifesta- 
tions among the native population were kept 
in check by the thirteen strong castles erected 
in different districts, and defended by well- 
armed bands of retaineis. At the same time, 
for all willing to work, immunity from the 
worst evils of poverty was guaranteed. C n 
his vast plantations he kept no fewer thain 
4,000 labourers maintained by his moneT- 
His administration was despotic, but eji- 
lightened and beneficent except as regarded 
the papists. For his zeal in putting into 
execution the laws against the papists IJie 
received from the government special co^- 
mendation a zeal which, if it arose from \ a 
mistaken sense of duty, would deserve at leaa t 
no special blame ; but probably self-interesp 
rather than duty was what chiefly inspirecjl 
it, for by the possession of popish houses h(P 
obtained a considerable addition to his wealth! 
The services rendered by Boyle to the Eng- 

Boyle i 

lish rule in the south of Ireland and his 
paramount influence in Munster marked him 
out for promotion to various high dignities. 
On the occasion of his second marriage on 
25 July 1603 to Catherine Fenton, daughter 
of Sir George Fenton, principal secretary of 
state, he received the honour of knighthood. 
On 12 March 1606 he was sworn a privy 
councillor for the province of Munster, and 
12 Feb. 1612 a privy councillor of state for 
the kingdom of Ireland. On 29 Sept. 1616 
he was created Lord Boyle, baron of Youghal, 
and on 6 Oct. 1620 Viscount Dungarvan 
and Earl of Cork. On 26 Oct. 1629 he was 
appointed one of the lords justices of Ireland, 
and on 9 Nov. 1631 he was constituted lord 
high treasurer. So greatly was he esteemed 
for his abilities and his knowledge of affairs 
that, ' though he was no peer of England, yet 
he was admitted to sit in the Lords House 
upon the woolsack ut consularius ' (BORLASE, | 
Reduction of Ireland, 219). For his pro- ; 
motion and honours he was in a great | 
degree indebted first to Sir George Carew, 
and afterwards to Lord-deputy Falkland. 
On the appointment of Wentworth, after- j 
wards Earl of Strafford, as lord deputy in | 
1633, he, however, discovered not only that 
the fountain of royal favour was, so far as 1 
he was concerned, completely intercepted, | 
but that all his astuteness would be required j 
to enable him to hold his own against the 
overmastering will of Strafford. The action 
of Strafford in regard to the immense tomb 
of black marble which the earl had erected 
for his wife in the choir of St. Patrick's Ca- 
thedral, Dublin, was, though not unjustifi- 
able, sufficiently indicative of the general 
character of his sentiments towards him. It 
was utterly impossible, indeed, that there 
could be harmonious action between men of 
such consuming ambition placed in circum- 
stances where their vital interests so conflicted. 
At first Strafford had the advantage, but the 
Earl of Cork's patience and self-control, dis- 
ciplined by a long course of trials and hard- 
ships, never for a moment failed him. In 
e management of intrigue he was much 
re than a match for Strafford, who found 
purposes thwarted by causes in a great 
ee beyond his ken, and ultimately fell 
ictim to the hostility provoked by his 
e of ' thorough.' One of the first intima- 
.ons made to the council after Wentworth's 
irrival was the intention of the king to issue 
t commission for the remedying of defec- 
ive titles to estates. The real design of the 
;ommission was to enable the king to obtain 
noney by confiscating estates to which the 
title was doubtful. It was too probable that 
the Earl of Cork, if an inquiry of this kind 


were set on foot, would not escape scatheless. 
A charge was preferred against him in regard 
to his possession of the college and revenues 
of Youghal. Wentworth, after hearing the 
defence, adjourned the court, and sent word 
to the Earl of Cork that, if he consented to 
abide by his award, he would prove the best 
friend he ever had. The earl at once agreed, 
whereupon he intimated the decision ' that 
he should be fined fifteen thousand pounds 
for the rents and profits of the Youghal Col- 
lege property, and surrender all the advow- 
sons and patronage everything except the 
college house and a few fields near the town.' 
On learning the sentence Laud wrote to 
Wentworth in high glee : ' No physic is better 
than a vomit if it be given in time, and there- 
fore you have taken a very judicious course to 
administer one so early to my lord of Cork ' 
(Laud to Wentworth, 15 Nov. 1633, Letters 
and Despatches of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, 
i. 156). Deeply chagrined as the Earl of 
Cork no doubt was by this turn of affairs, he 
never permitted himself to indulge in ex- 
pressions of anger or to show any direct 
hostility to Strafford. While undoubtedly 
working to undermine his authority, he even 
took pains to let it be known indirectly to 
Strafford how thoroughly he admired his rule. 
Laud, writing to Strafford 21 Nov. 1638, 
mentions that the Earl of Cork had spoken to 
him in high terms of his ' prudence, inde- 
fatigable industry, and most impartial justice ' 
(Letters of Strafford, ii. 245), to which the un- 
suspecting Strafford replies : ' It must be con- 
fessed his lordship hath in a judicious way had 
more taken from him than any one, nay than 
any six in the kingdom besides ; so in this pro- 
ceeding with me I do acknowledge his in- 
genuity as well as his justice' (Letters, ii, 271). 
Possibly the Earl of" Cork deemed it best, in 
the uncertain condition of the struggle at 
this time, to be secure against any result ; but 
even to the last, when the fall of Strafford 
seemed inevitable, he avoided taking a pro- 
minent part against him. At the trial he bore 
witness with seeming reluctance. ' Though 
I was prejudiced,' he says, l in no less than 
40,000/. and 200 merks a year, I put off my 
examination for six weeks.' He also states 
that he was ' so reserved in his answers, that 
no matter of treason could by them be fixed 
upon the Earl of Strafford.' All the same, 
but for the Earl of Cork, Stratford's Irish 
policy would very likely not have been met 
with the skilful and persistent opposition 
which led to his impeachment ; and in any 
case that the Earl of Cork's reluctance to bear 
witness against him was not inspired by affec- 
tion or esteem is sufficiently shown from an 
entry in his diary on the day of Strafford's 





execution : < This day the Earl of Stratford Michael Boyle [q. v.], bishop of Waterford, 
was beheaded. No man died more universally and the second son of Michael Boyle, mer- 
hated, or less lamented by the people.' , chant, of London, and Jane, daughter and co- 

Short ly after his return from England heir to William Peacock. He became warden 
whither he had gone as a witness at Strafford's of Youghal on 24 Feb. 1602-3, dean of Water- 
trial the rebellion of 1641 broke out in Ire- ford on 10 May 1603, archdeacon of Limerick 
land. Sudden as was the outbreak, the earl on 8 May 1605, and bishop of Cork, Cloyne, 
was not taken by surprise, for from the be- and Koss on 22 Aug. 1620, these three prefer- 
ginning he had carefully prepared against ! ments being obtained through the interest of 
such a contingency. In Munster, therefore, ( his cousin, the first Earl of Cork. He was 
the rebels, owing to the stand made by the j advanced to the see of Tuam on 30 May 1638. 
Earl of Cork, found themselves completely I On the outbreak of the rebellion in 1641, he 
checkmated. Repairing to Youghal he sum- retired with Dr. John Maxwell, bishop of 
moned all his tenants to take up arms, and Killala, and others, to Galway for protection, 
placed his sons at their head without delay, j where, when the town rose in arms against 
In a letter to Speaker Lenthall, giving an the garrison, his life was preserved through 
account of his successes, he states that, his ! the influence of the Earl of Clanricarde. 
ready money being all spent in the payment ! He died at Cork on 19 March 1644, and was 
of his troops, he had converted his plate into buried in the cathedral of St. Finbar. . He is 
coin {State Papers of the Earl of Orrery, p. 7). said to have repaired more churches and con- 
At the battle of Liscarrol, 3 Sept. 1642, his i secrated more new ones than any other bishop 

four sons held prominent commands, and his 
eldest son was slain on the field. The Earl 
of Cork died on 15 Sept. 1643, and was 
buried at Youghal. He left a large family, 
many of whom were gifted with exceptional 
talents, and either by their achievements or in- 
fluential alliances conferred additional lustre 
on his name. Of his seven sons, four were 
ennobled in their father's lifetime. Eichard 
[q. v.l was first earl of Burlington ; Roger 
[q. v.J was first earl of Orrery ; Robert [q. v.], 
the youngest, by his scientific achievements, 
became the most illustrious of the Boyles ; 
and of the eight daughters, seven were mar- 
ried to noblemen. 

[Earl of Cork's True Remembrances, printed 
in Birch's edition of Robert Boyle's works ; Bud- 
gell's Memoirs of the Boyles (1737), pp. 2-32; 
A Collection of Letters chiefly written by Richard 
Boyle, Earl of Corke, and several members of his 
family in the seventeenth century, the originals 
of which are in the library of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and a copy in the British Museum 
Harleian MS. 80 ; various papers regarding his 

of his time. By his marriage to Martha, 
daughter of Richard (or John) Wright, of 
Catherine Hill, Surrey, he left two sons and 
nine daughters. 

[Ware's Works (ed. Harris), i. 566, 616-7 ; 
Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), i. 145.] 

T. F. H. 

LINGTON and second EARL OF CORK (1612- 
1697), was the second son of Richard Boyle 
[q. v.], first earl of Cork, by Catherine, daugh- 
ter of Sir Geoffrey Fenton, and was born at the 
college of Youghal on 20 Oct. 1612 (EARL OF 
CORK, True Remembrances). On 13 Aug. 1624 
he was knighted at Youghal by Falkland, lord 
deputy of Ireland. In his twentieth year he 
was sent under a tutor to ' begin his travels 
into foreign kingdoms,' his father allowing 
him a grant of a thousand pounds a year 
($.) On the continent he spent over two 
years, visiting France, Flanders, and Italy. 
Shortly after his return he made the ac- 

examination before the Privy Council in 1598 <l u aintance f ^e Earl of Strafford, and corn- 
Add. MS. 19832 ; copies of various of his letters Bended himself so much to his good graces 

that he arranged a match between him and 

from 1632 to 1639, Add. MS. 19832; copy of 
indenture providing for his children 1 March 
1624, Add. MS. 18023; Earl of Strafford's 
Letters and Despatches ; Cal. State Papers (Dom. 
series) reign of Charles I ; State Papers of the 
Earl of Orrery ; Cox's History of Ireland ; Bor- 
lase's Reduction of Ireland ; Biog. Brit. (Kippis), 
ii. 459-71; Lodge's Irish Peerage, i. 150-162; 
the Diary of the Earl of Cork and his corre- 
spondence, formerly atLismore Castle, are with 
other Lismore papers being published (1886) 
under the editorship of Rev. A. B. Grosart, LL.D.] 

T. F. H. 

BOYLE, RICHARD (d. 1644), arch- 
bishop of Tuam, was the elder brother of 

Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Henry 
Lord Clifford, afterwards Earl of Cumber- 
land. The marriage was solemnised in the 
chapel of Skipton Castle, Craven, on 5 July 
1635. This was the Countess of Burlington 
referred to by Pepys as ' a very fine speaking 
lady and a good woman ' (Diary, 28 Sept., 
1668). Through the marriage he acquirec?. 
an influential position at court, which her 
greatly improved by his devotion to the 
interests of the king. When Charles in 1639 
resolved on an expedition to Scotland, he 
raised a troop of horse, at the head of which 
he proposed to serve under the Earl of Cum- 




berland. On the outbreak of the rebellion 
in Ireland in 1642, he went to his father's 
assistance at Munster, distinguishing him- 
self at the battle of Liscarrol. He was mem- 
ber for Appleby in the Long parliament, but 
was disabled in 1643 (list in CARLYLE'S Crom- 
well). After the cessation of arms in Sep- 
tember 1643 he joined the king at Oxford 
with his regiment. Some months previously 
he had succeeded his father as Earl of Cork, 
but the king as a special mark of favour raised 
him also to the dignity of Baron Clifford of 
Lanesborough, Yorkshire. Throughout the 
war he strenuously supported the cause of 
the king until that of the parliament was 
completely triumphant, after which he was 
forced to compound for his estate for 1,6311. 
(LLOYD, Memoirs, 678). During the protec- 
torate he retired to his Irish estates, but in 
1651 his affairs were in such a desperate con- 
dition that his countess was obliged to sup- 
plicate Cromwell for redress. Through the 
mediation of his brother Roger, lord Broghill 
[q. v.], he then obtained a certain amount of 
relief from his grievances. After this matters 
improved with him so considerably that at the 
Restoration he was able to assist Charles II 
with large sums of money, in consequence of 
which he was, in 1663, raised to the dignity 
of Earl Burlington or Bridlington in the 
, county of York. Subsequently he was ap- 
1 pointed lord-lieutenant of the West Riding 
of Yorkshire and custos rotulorum. These 
offices he retained under James II, until he 
could no longer support him in his unconsti- 
tutional designs. Although he took an active 
part in promoting the cause of William and 
> Mary, he accepted no office under the new 
I regime. It was the Earl of Burlington who 
was the first occupant of Burlington House, 
/ Piccadilly. He died 15 Jan. 1697-8. His son 
t Charles, lord Clifford, was father of Charles, 
third earl of Cork, and of Henry, lord Car- | 
leton [q. v.] 

[Budgell's Memoirs of the Family of the 
Boyles, pp. 32-3 ; Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. 
1789, i. 169-174 ; Biog. Brit. (Kippis), ii. 
471-4.] T. F. H. 

LINGTON and fourth EARL OF CORK (1695- 
1753), celebrated for his architectural tastes 
and his friendship with artists and men of let- 
ters, was the only son of Charles, third earlof j 
Cork, and Juliana, daughter and heir to Henry i 
Noel, Luffenham, Rutlandshire. He was born I 
25, April 1695, and succeeded to the title and | 
estates of his father in 1704. On 9 Oct. 1714 
he was sworn a member of the privy council. 
In May 1715 he was appointed lord-lieute- 
nant of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and in 

June following custos rotulorum of the North 
and West Ridings. In August of the same 
year he was made lord high treasurer of Ire- 
land. In June 1730 he was installed one of 
the knights companions of the Garter, and in 
June of the folio wing year constituted captain 
of the band of gentlemen pensioners. Having 
before he attained his majority spent several 
years in Italy, Lord Burlington became an 
enthusiastic admirer of the architectural 
genius of Palladio, and on his return to Eng- 
land not only continued his architectural 
studies, but spent large sums of money to 
gratify his tastes in this branch of art. His 
earliest project was about 1716, to alter and 
partly reconstruct Burlington House, Pic- 
cadilly, which had been built by his great 
grandfather, the first earl of Burlington. 
The professional artist engaged was Campbell, 
who in f Vitruvius Britannicus,' published 
in 1725, during the earl's lifetime, takes 
credit for the whole design. Notwithstand- 
ing this, Walpole asserts that the famous 
colonnade within the court was the work of 
Burlington ; and in any case it D ay be as- 
sumed that Campbell was in a g: jat degree 
guided in his plans by his patron's sugges- 
tions. That Burlington was chiefly respon- 
sible for the character of the building is 
further supported by the fact that it formed a 
striking and solitary exception to the bastard 
and commonplace architecture of the period. 
It undoubtedly justified the eulogy of Gay : 
Beauty within ; without, proportion reigns. 
(Trivia, book ii. line 494.) 

But, as was the case in most of the designs 
of Burlington, the useful was sacrificed to 
the ornamental. The epigram regarding the 
building attributed to Lord Hervey who, 
if he did make use of it, must have trans- 
lated it from Martial, xii. 50 contained a 
spice of truth as well as malice. He says 
that it was 

Possessed of one great hall of state, 
Without a room to sleep or eat. 

The building figures in a print of Hogarth's 
intended to satirise the earl and his friends, 
entitled ' Taste of the Town,' afterwards 
changed to ' Masquerades and Operas, Bur- 
lington Gate.' Hogarth also published 
another similar print entitled ' The Man of 
Taste,' in which Pope is represented as white- 
washing Burlington House and bespattering 
the Duke of Chandos, and Lord Burlington 
appears as a mason going up a ladder. Bur- 
lington House was taken down to make way 
for the new buildings devoted to science and 
art. In addition to his town house Bur- 
lington had a suburban residence at Chis- 
wick. He pulled down old Chiswick House 




and erected near it, in 1730-6, a villa built 
after the model of the celebrated villa of Pal- 
ladio. This building also provoked the satire 
of Lord Hervey, who said of it that ' it was 
too small to live in and too large to hang to 
a watch.' The grounds were laid out in the 
Italian style, adorned with temples, obelisks, 
and statues, and in these ' sylvan scenes ' it 
was the special delight of Burlington to en- 
tertain the literary and artistic celebrities 
whom he numbered among his friends. Here, 
relates Gay, 

Pope unloads the boughs within his reach, 
The purple vine, blue plum, and blushing peach. 
(Epistle on a Journey to Exeter.) 

Pope addressed to Burlington the fourth 
epistle of his Moral Essays, ' Of the Use of 
Riches,' afterwards changed to ' On False 
Taste ; ' and Gay, whom he sent into Devon- 
shire to regain his health, addressed to him 
his ' Epistle on a Journey to Exeter,' 1716. 
Both poets frequently refer in terms of warm 
eulogy to his disinterested devotion to lite- 
rature ai d art ; but Gay, though he was en- 
tertained by him for months, when he lost 
in the South Sea scheme the money obtained 
from the publication of his poems, expressed 
his disappointment that he had received from 
him so 'few real benefits' (CoxE, Life of 
Gay, 24). This, however, was mere unrea- 
sonable peevishness, for undoubtedly Bur- 
lington erred rather on the side of generosity 
than otherwise. Walpole says of him ' he 
possessed every quality of a genius and artist 
except envy.' He was a director of the 
Royal Academy of Music for the performance 
of Handel's works, and about 1716 received 
Handel into his house (SCHOELCHEE, Life of 
Handel, p. 44). At an early period he was a 
patron of Bishop Berkeley. The architect 
Kent, whose acquaintance he made in Italy, 
resided in his house till his death in 1748, 
and Burlington used every effort to secure 
him commissions and extend his fame. His 
enthusiastic admiration of Inigo Jones in- 
duced him to repair the church at Covent 
Garden. It was at his instance and by his help 
that Kent published the designs of Inigo 
Jones, and he also brought out a beautiful 
edition of Palladio's ' Fabbriche Antiche,' 

Burlington supplied designs for various 
buildings, including the assembly rooms at 
York built at his own expense, Lord Harring- 
ton's house at Petersham, the dormitory at 
"Westminster School, the Duke of Richmond's 
house at Whitehall, and General Wade's in 
Cork Street. The last two were pulled down 
many years ago. Of General Wade's house 
Walpole wrote, l It is worse contrived in the 

inside than is conceivable, all to humour the 
beauty of front,' and Lord Chesterfield sug- 
gested that, ' as the general could not live in 
it to his ease, he had better take a house over 
against it and look at it.' Burlington ' spent,' 
says Walpole, ' large sums in contributing to 
public works, and was known to choose that 
the expense should fall on himself rather 
than that his country should be deprived 
of some beautiful edifices.' On this account 
he became so seriously involved in money 
difficulties that he was compelled to part 
with a portion of his Irish estates, as we 
learn from Swift : * My Lord Burlington is 
now selling in one article 9,000/. a year in 
Ireland for 200,000/., which won't pay his 
debts ' (Swift's Works, ed. Scott, xix. 129). 
He died in December 1753. By his wife, 
Lady Dorothy Savile, daughter and coheiress 
of William, marquis of Halifax, he left three 
daughters, but no male heir. His wife was 
a great patroness of music. She also drew 
in crayons, and is said to have possessed a 
genius for caricature. 

[Lodge's Irish Peerage, i. 177-8; Walpole's 
Anecdotes of Painting;. Works of Pope, Gay,' 
and Swift ; Wheatley's Bound about Piccadilly, 
46-59.] T. F. H. 

BOYLE, HON. ROBERT (1627-1691), 
natural philosopher and chemist, was the \ 
seventh son and fourteenth child of Richard I 
Boyle, the 4 great ' Earl of Cork, by his second 1 
wife Catherine, daughter of Sir Geoffrey 
Fenton, principal secretary of state for Ire- 
land, and was born at Lismore Castle, in the 
province of Munster, Ireland, on 25 Jan. 1627. 
He learned early to speak Latin and French, 
and won paternal predilection by his aptitude ! 
for study, strict veracity, and serious turn of , 
mind. His mother died when he was three \ 
years old, and at the age of eight he was sent \ 
to Eton, the provost then being his father's 
friend, Sir Henry Wotton, described by 
Boyle as ' not only a fine gentleman himself, 
but very well skilled in the art of making 
others so.' Here an accidental perusal of 
Quintus Curtius 'conjured up in him' (he 
narrates in an autobiographical fragment) 
' that unsatisfied appetite for knowledge that 
is yet as greedy as when it first was raised ; ' 
while ' Amadis de Gaule,' which fell into his 
hands during his recovery from a fit of tertian 
ague, produced an unsettling effect, counter- j 
acted by a severe discipline self-imposed ) 
by a boy under ten of mental arithmetic 
and algebra. 

From Eton, after nearly four years, he was 
transferred to his father's recently purchased ! 
estate of Stalbridge, in Dorsetshire, and his 
education continued by the Rev. Mr. Douch, 




and later by a French tutor named Mar- 
combes. With him and his elder brother 
Francis he left England in October 1638, 
and, passing through Paris and Lyons, settled 
during twenty-one months at Geneva, where 
he acquired the gentlemanly accomplish- 
ments of fluent French, dancing, fencing, 
and tennis-playing. From this time, when 
he was about fourteen, he dated his ' con- 
version,' or that express dedication to religion 
from which he never afterwards varied. The 
immediate occasion of this momentous resolve 
was the awe inspired by a thunderstorm. 

At Florence during the winter of 1641-2 
he mastered Italian, and studied 'the new 
paradoxes of the great star-gazer Galileo/ 
whose death occurred during his stay (8 Jan. 
1642). He chose in Rome to pass for a 
Frenchman, and with the arrival of the party 
at Marseilles, about May 1642, Boyle's record 
of his early years abruptly closes. A serious 
embarrassment here awaited them. A sum 
of 250/., with difficulty raised by Lord Cork 
during the calamities of the Irish rebellion, 
was embezzled in course of transmission to 
his sons. Almost penniless, they made their 
way to Geneva, M. Marcombes' native place, 
and there lived on credit for two years. At 
length, by the sale of some jewels, they 
raised money to defray their expenses home- 
wards, and reached England in the summer 
of 1644. They found their father dead, and 
the country in such confusion that it was 
nearly four months before Robert Boyle, who 
had inherited the manor of Stalbridge, could 
make his way thither. 

But civil distractions were powerless to 
extinguish scientific zeal. From the meet- 
ings in London in 1645 of the ' Philosophi- 
cal,' or (as he preferred to call it) the ' In- 
visible College,' incorporated, after the Re- 
storation, as the Royal Society, Boyle de- 
rived a definitive impulse towards experi- 
mental inquiries. He was then a lad of 
eighteen, but rose rapidly to be the acknow- 
ledged leader of the movement thus origi- 
nated. Chemistry was from the first his 
favourite study. * Vulcan has so transported 
and bewitched me,' he wrote from Stalbridge 
to his sister, Lady Ranelagh, 31 Aug. 1649, 
as to ' make me fancy my laboratory a kind 
of Elysium.' Compelled to visit his disor- 
dered Irish estates in 1652 and 1653, he de- 
scribed his native land as 'a barbarous country, 
where chemical spirits were so misunder- 
stood, and chemical instruments so unpro- 
curable, that it was hard to have any Her- 
metic thoughts in it.' Aided by Sir William 
Petty, he accordingly practised instead ana- 
tomical dissection, and satisfied himself ex- 
perimentally as to the circulation of the 

blood. On his return to England in June 
1654 he settled at Oxford in the society of 
some of his earlier philosophical associates, 
and others of the same stamp, including 
Wallis and Wren, Goddard, Wilkins, and 
Seth Ward. Meetings were alternately held 
in the rooms of the warden of Wadham 
(Wilkins) and at Boyle's lodgings, adjoining 
University College, and experiments were 
zealously made and freely communicated. 
Boyle erected a laboratory, kept a number 
of operators at work, and engaged Robert 
Hooke as his chemical assistant. Reading 
in 1657, in Schott's ' Mechanica hydraulico- 

Eneumatica,' of Guericke's invention for ex- 
austing the air in a closed vessel, he set 
Hooke to contrive a method less clumsy, and 
the result was the so-called l machina Boyle- 
ana,' completed towards 1659, and presenting 
all the essential qualities of the modern air- 
pump. By a multitude of experiments per- 
formed with it, Boyle vividly illustrated the 
effects (at that time very imperfectly recog- 
nised) of the elasticity, compressibility, and 
weight of the air ; investigated its function 
in respiration, combustion, and the convey- 
ance of sound, and exploded the obscure notion 
of &fuga vacui. /A. first instalment of results 
was published at Oxford in 1660, with the 
title, l New Experiments Physico-Mechanical 
touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects, 
made, for the most part, in a new Pneumatical 
Engine.' His 'Defence against Linus,' ap- 
pended, with his answer to the objections of 
Hobbes, to the second edition (1662), con- 
tained experimental proof of the proportional 
relation between elasticity and pressure, still 
known as ' Boyle's Law ' ( Works, folio ed. 
1744, i. 100). This approximately true prin- 
ciple, although but loosely demonstrated, was 
at once generalised and accepted, and was 
confirmed by Mariotte in 1676. j 

Boyle meanwhile bestowed upon theolo- 
gical subjects attention as earnest as if it 
had been undivided. At the age of twenty- 
one he had already written, besides a treatise 
on ethics, several moral and religious essays, 
afterwards published. His veneration for 
the Scriptures induced him, although by 
nature averse to linguistic studies, to learn 
Hebrew and Greek, Chaldee and Syriac 
enough to read them in the originals. At 
Oxford he made some further progress in this 
direction,with assistance from Hyde, Pococke, 
and Clarke ; applied himself to divinity under 
Barlow (afterwards bishop of Lincoln) ; and 
encouraged the writings on casuistry of Dr. 
Robert Sanderson with a pension of 50/. a 
year. Throughout his life he was a munifi- 
cent supporter of projects for the diffusion 
of the Scriptures. He bore wholly, or in 




part, the expense of printing the Indian, Irish, 
and Welsh Bibles (1685-86) ; of the Turkish 
New Testament, and of the Malayan version 
of the Gospels and Acts (Oxford, 1677). As 
governor of the Corporation for the Spread 
of the Gospel in New England, and as direc- 
tor of the East India Company (the charter 
of which he was instrumental in procuring), 
he made strenuous efforts, and gave liberal 
pecuniary aid towards the spread of Chris- 
tianity in those regions. He contributed, 
moreover, largely to the publication of Bur- 
net's l History of the Reformation,' bestowed 
a splendid reward upon Pococke for his trans- 
lation into Arabic of Grotius' ' De Veritate,' 
and during some time spent 1,0001. a year in 
private charity. Nor was science forgotten. 
Besides his heavy regular outlay, and help 
afforded to indigent savants, we hear in 1657, 
in a letter from Oldenburg, of a scheme for 
investing 12,000/. in forfeited Irish estates, 
the proceeds to be devoted to the advance- 
ment of learning ; and a looked-for increase 
to his fortunes in 1662 should have been simi- 
larly applied, but that, being ' cast upon im- 
j>ropriations,' he felt bound to consecrate it 
to religious uses. 

On the Restoration, he was solicited by 
the Earl of Clarendon to take orders ; but 
excused himself, on the grounds of the absence 
of an inner call, and of his persuasion that 
arguments in favour of religion came with 
more force from one not professionally pledged 
to uphold it. This determination involved 
the refusal of the provostship of Eton, offered 
to him in 1665. He also repeatedly declined 
a peerage, and died the only untitled member 
of his large family. 

In 1668 he left Oxford for London, and re- 
sided until his death in Lady Ranelagh's house 
in Pall Mall. The meetings of the Royal 
Society perhaps furnished in part the induce- 
ment to this move. Boyle might be called 
the representative member of this distin- 
guished body. He had taken a leading part 
in its foundation ; he sat on its first council ; 
the description and display of his ingenious 
experiments gave interest to its proceedings ; 
he was elected its president 30 Nov. 1680, 
but declined to act from a scruple about 
the oaths, and was replaced by Wren. His 
voluminous writings flowed from him in 
an unfailing stream from 1660 to 1691, and 
procured him an immense reputation, both 
at home and abroad. Most of them ap- 
peared in Latin, as well as in English, and 
were more than once separately reprinted. 
I In the < Sceptical Chymist ' (Oxford, 1661) 
he virtually demolished, together with the 
peripatetic doctrine of the four elements, the 
Spagyristic doctrine of the tria prima, tenta- 

tively substituting the principles of a ' me- 
chanical philosophy/ expounded in detail in 
his ' Origin of Forms and Qualities ' (1666). 
Founded on the old atomic hypothesis, these 
accord, in the main, with the views of many 
recent physicists. They postulate one uni- 
versal kind of matter, admit in the construc- 
tion of the visible world only moving atoms, 
and derive diversity of substance from their 
various modes of grouping and manners of 
movement, j, Boyle added as a corollary the 
transmutability of differing forms of matter 
by the rearrangement of their particles ef- 
fected through the agency of fire or otherwise ; 
referred ' sensible qualities ' to the action of 
variously constituted particles on the human 
frame, and declared, in the obscure phrase- 
ology of the time, that ' the grand efficient of 
forms is local motion ' ( Works, ii. 483). He 
acquiesced in, rather than accepted, the cor- 
puscular theory of light, but clearly recog- 
nised in heat the results of a ( brisk ' molecular 
agitation (ibid. i. 282). 

In 'Experiments and Considerations touch- 
ing Colours ' (1663) he described for the first 
time the iridescence of metallic films and 
soap-bubbles ; in ' Hydrostatical Paradoxes ' 
(1666) he enforced, by numerous and striking 
experiments (presented to the Royal Society 
in May 1664), the laws of fluid equilibrium. 
His statement concerning the ' Incalescence 
of Quicksilver with Gold' (Phil. Trans. 
21 Feb. 1676) drew the serious attention of 
Newton (see his letter to Oldenburg in Boyle's 
Works, v. 396), and a widespread sensatio'n 
was created by his ' Historical Account of a 
Degradation of Gold ' (1678), the interest of 
both these pseudo-observations being derived 
from their supposed connection with alche- 
mistic transformations. Boyle's faith in their 
possibility was further evidenced by the re- 
peal, procured through his influence in 1689, 
of the statute 5 Henry IV against ' multi- 
plying gold.' 

Amongst Boyle's numerous correspondents 
were Newton, Locke, Aubrey, Evelyn, Ol- | 
denburg, Wallis, Beale, and Hartlib. To him 
Evelyn unfolded, 3 Sept. 1659, his scheme for 
the foundation of a ' physico-mathematic col- 
lege,' and Newton, 28 Feb. 1679, his ideas 
regarding the qualities of the aether. Na- 
thaniel Highmore dedicated to him in 1651 \ 
his ' History of Generation ; ' Wallis in 1659 
his essay on the ' Cycloid ; ' Sydenham in 1666 
his ' Methodus curandi Febres,' intimating 
Boyle's frequent association with him in his 
visits to his patients ; and Burnet addressed 
to him in 1686 the letters constituting his 
'Travels.' Wholesale plagiarism and theft 
formed a vexatious, though no less flattering, 
tribute to his fame. Hence the ' Advertise- 




ment about the loss of many of his Writings/ 
published in May 1688, in which he described 
the various mischances, both by fraud and 
accident, having befallen them, and declared 
his intention to write thenceforth on loose 
sheets, as offering less temptation to thieves 
than bulky packets, and to send to press with- 
out the dangerous delays of prolonged re- 
vision. In the same year he gave to the 
world * A Disquisition concerning the Final 
Causes of Natural Things,' and in 1690 ' Me- 
dicina Hydrostatica ' and 'The Christian 
Virtuoso,' setting forth the mutual service- 
ableness of science and religion. The last 
work published by himself was entitled ' Ex- 
perimenta et Observationes Physicee,' part i. 
(1691) ; the second part never appeared. 

In 1689 the failing state of his health com- 
pelled him to suspend communications to the 
Royal Society, and to resign his post, filled 
since 1661, as governor of the Corporation for 
the Spread of the Gospel in New England. 
About the same time he publicly notified his 
intention of excluding visitors on certain por- 
tions of four days in each week, thus reserving 
leisure to ' recruit ' (as he said) ' his spirits, 
to range his papers, and to take some care of 
his affairs in Ireland, which are very much 
disordered, and have their face often changed 
by the public calamities there.' He was also 
desirous to complete a collection of elaborate 
chemical processes, which he is said to have 
entrusted to a friend as t a kind of Hermetick 
legacy,' but which were never made known. 
Some secrets discovered by him, such as the 
preparation of subtle poisons and of a liquid 
for discharging writing, he concealed as mis- 

From the age of twenty-one he had suffered 
from a torturing malady, of which he dreaded 
the aggravation, with the approach of death, 
beyond his powers of patient endurance. But 
his end was without pain, and almost with- 
out serious illness. His beloved sister, Ca- 
therine Lady Ranelagh, a conspicuous and 
noble personage, died 23 Dec. 1691. He sur- 
vived her one week, expiring three-quarters 
of an hour after midnight, 30 Dec., aged 
nearly 65, and was buried 7 Jan. 1692 in 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Westminster. Dr. 
Burnet preached his funeral sermon. By his 
will he founded and endowed with 50/. a 
year the < Boyle Lectures,' for the defence of 
Christianity against unbelievers, of which the 
first set of eight discourses was preached by 
Bentley in 1692. 

' Mr. Boyle,' Dr. Birch writes (Life, p. 86), 
'was tall of stature, but slender, and his 
countenance pale and emaciated. His con- 
stitution was so tender and delicate that he 
had divers sorts of cloaks to put on when he 

went abroad, according to the temperature of 
the air, and in this he governed himself by 
his thermometer. He escaped, indeed, the 
small-pox during his life, but for almost forty 
years he laboured under such a feebleness of 
body and lowness of strength and spirits that 
it was astonishing how he could read, medi- 
tate, ,try experiments, and write as he did. 
He had likewise a weakness * His eyes, which 
made him very tender of them, .*nd extremely 
apprehensive of such distempers as might 
affect them.' To these disabilities was added 
that of a memory so treacherous (by his own 
account) that he was often tempted to abandon 
study in despair. He spoke with a slight 
hesitation ; nevertheless at times ' distin- 
guished himself by so copious and lively a 
flow of wit that Mr. Cowley and Sir William 
Davenant both thought him equal in that 
respect to the most celebrated geniuses of 
that age.' He never married, but Evelyn 
was credibly informed that he had paid court 
in his youth to the Earl of Monmouth's beau- 
tiful daughter, and that his passion inspired 
the essay on ' Seraphic Love,' published in 
1660. It was, however, already written in 
1648, and Boyle himself assures us, 6 Aug. 
of that year, that he ' hath never yet been 
hurt by Cupid ' ( Works, i. 155). The story 
is thus certainly apocryphal. 

The tenor of his life was in no way in- 
consistent with his professions of piety. It 
was simple and unpretending, stainless yet 
not austere, humble without affectation. His 
temper, naturally choleric, he gradually sub- 
dued to mildness ; his religious principles 
were equally removed from laxity and in- 
tolerance, and he was a declared foe to per- 
secution. He shared, indeed, in some degree 
the credulousness of his age. He publicly 
subscribed to the truth of the stories about 
the ' demon of Mascon,' and vouched for the 
spurious cures of Greatrakes the 'stroker.' 
Nor did he wholly escape the narrowness in- 
separable from the cultivation of a philosophy 
' that valued no knowledge but as it had a 
tendency to use.' His view of astronomical 
studies is, in this respect, characteristic. If 
the planets have no physical influence on 
the earth, he admits his inability to propound 
any end for the pains bestowed upon them ; 
' we know them only to know them ' (ibid. v. 

Yet his services to science were unique. 
The condition of his birth, the elevation of 
his character, the unflagging enthusiasm of 
his researches, combined to lend dignity and 
currency to their results. These were coex- 
tensive with the whole range, then accessible, 
of experimental investigation. He personi- 
fied, it might be said, in a manner at once 




impressive and conciliatory, the victorious 
revolt against scientific dogmatism then in 
progress. Hence his unrivalled popularity 
and privileged position, which even the most 
rancorous felt compelled to respect. No 
stranger of note visited England without 
seeking an interview, which he regarded it as 
an obligation of Christian charity to grant. 
Three successive kings of England conversed 
familiarly with him, and he was considered 
to have inherited, nay outshone, the fame of 
the great Verulam. 'The excellent Mr. 
Boyle,' Hughes wrote in the 'Spectator' 
(No. 554), ' was the person who seems to have 
been designed by nature to succeed to the 
labours and inquiries of that extraordinary 
genius. By innumerable experiments he, in 
a great measure, filled up those plans and 
outlines of science which his predecessor had 
sketched out.' Addison styled him (No. 531) 
' an honour to his country, and a more dili- 
gent as well as successful inquirer into the 
works of nature than any other one nation 
has ever produced.' 'To him,' Boerhaave 
wrote, ' we owe the secrets of fire, air, water, 
animals, vegetables, fossils ; so that from his 
works may be deduced the whole system of 
natural knowledge ' (Methodus discendi Ar- 
tem Medicam, p. 152). 

It must be admitted that Boyle's achieve- 
ments are scarcely commensurate to praises 
of which these are but a sample. His name 
is identified with no great discovery ; he pur- 
sued no subject far beyond the merely illus- 
trative stage ; his performance supplied a 
general introduction to modern science rather 
than entered into the body of the work. But 
such an introduction was indispensable, and 
was admirably executed. It implied an ' ad- 
vance all along the line.' Subjects of inquiry 
were suggested, stripped of manifold obscuri- 
ties, and set in approximately true mutual 
relations. Above all, the fruitfulness of the 
experimental method was vividly exhibited, 
and its use rendered easy and familiar. Boyle 
was the true precursor of the modern chemist. 
Besides clearing away a jungle of perplexed 
notions, he collected a number of highly sug- 
gestive facts and observations. He was the 
first to distinguish definitely a mixture from 
a compound ; with him originated the defi- 
nition of an ' element ' as a hitherto unde- 
composed constituent of a compound; he 
introduced the use of vegetable colour-tests 
of acidity and alkalinity. From a bare hint 
as to the method of preparing phosphorus 
(discovered by Brandt in 1669) he arrived at 
it independently, communicated it 14 Oct. 
1680 in a sealed packet to the Royal Society, 
and published it for the first time in 1682 
(Works iv. 37). In a tract printed the same 

year he accurately described the qualities 
of the new substance under the title of the 
' Icy Noctiluca.' He, moreover, actually pre- 
pared hydrogen, and collected it in a receiver 
placed over water, but failed to .distinguish 
it from what he called 'air generated de 
novo' (ibid. i. 35). 

In physics, besides the great merit of having 
rendered the air-pump available for experi- 
ment and discovered the law of gaseous 
elasticity, he invented a compressed-air 
pump, and directed the construction of the 
first hermetically sealed thermometers made 
in England. He sought to measure the ex- 
pansive force of freezing water, first used 
freezing mixtures, observed the effects of 
atmospheric pressure on ebullition, added 
considerably to the store of facts collected 
about electricity and magnetism, determined 
the specific gravities and refractive powers 
of various substances, and made a notable 
attempt to weigh light. He further ascer- 
tained the unvarying high temperature of 
human blood, and performed a variety of 
curious experiments on respiration. He aimed 
at being the disciple only of nature. Down 
to 1657 he purposely refrained from ' seriously 
or orderly ' reading the works of Gassendi, 
Descartes, or 'so much as Sir F. Bacon's 
" Novum Organum," in order not to be pos- 
sessed with any theory or principles till he 
had found what things themselves should 
induce him to think ' (ibid. 194). And, al- 
though he professed a special reverence for 
Descartes, as the true author of the ' tenets 
of mechanical philosophy' (ibid. iv. 521), 
we find, nine years later, that he had not yet 
carried out his intention of thoroughly study- 
ing his writings (ibid. ii. 458). Yet he was 
no true Cartesian ; the whole course of his 
scientific efforts bore the broad Baconian 
stamp ; nor was the general voice widely in 
error which declared him to have (at least 
in part) executed what Verulam designed. 

The style of his writings, which had the 
character rather of occasional essays than of 
systematic treatises, is free from rhetorical 
affectations; it is lucid, fluent, but intole- 
rably prolix, its not rare felicities of phrase 
being, as it were, smothered in verbosity. He 
endeavoured to remedy this defect by pro- 
cesses of compulsory concentration. Boulton's 
first epitome of his writings appeared in 
1699-1700 (London, 3 vols. 8vo) ; a second, 
of his theological works, in 1715 (3 vols. 
8vo) ; and Dr. Peter Shaw's abridgment of. 
his philosophical works in 1725 (3 vols. 8vo). 
The first complete edition of his writings 
was published by Birch in 1744 in five folio 
volumes (2nd edition in 6 vols. 4to, London, 
1772). It included his posthumous remains 




and correspondence, with a life of the author 
founded on materials collected with abortive 
biographical designs by Burnet and Wotton, 
and embracing Boyle's unfinished narrative 
of his early years entitled ' An Account of 
Philaretus during his Minority.' More or 
less complete Latin editions of his works 
were issued at Geneva in 1677, 1680, and 
1714; at Cologne in 1680-95; and at Venice 
in 1695. A French collection, with the title 
' Recueil d'Exp^riences,' appeared at Paris in 
1679. Of his separate treatises the follow- 
ing, besides those already mentioned, deserve 
to be particularised: 1. '.Some Considera- 
tions touching the Usefulness of Experimental 
Natural Philosophy' (Oxford, 1663, 2nd part 
1671). 2. ' Some Considerations touching 
the Style of the Holy Scriptures' (1663), 
extracted from an 'Essay on Scripture,' 
begun 1652, and published, after the writer's 
death, by Sir Peter Pett. 3. ' Occasional 
Reflections upon several Subjects' (1664, 
reprinted 1808), an early production satirised 
by Butler in his ' Occasional Reflection on 
Dr. Charlton's feeling a Dog's Pulse at Gres- 
ham College,' and by Swift in his ' Medita- 
tion on a Broom Stick,' who nevertheless was 
probably indebted for the first idea of * Gul- 
liver's Travels ' to one of the little pieces thus 
caricatured (' Upon the Eating of Oysters,' 
Works , ii. 219). 4. ' New Experiments and 
Observations touching Cold, or an Experi- 
mental History of Cold begun ' (1665), con- 
taining a refutation of the vulgar doctrine 
of ' antiperistasis ' (in full credit with Bacon) 
and of Hobttjs's theory of cold. 5. ' A Con- 
tinuation of New Experiments Physico- 
Mechanical touching the Spring and Weight 
of the Air and their Effects ' (1669, a third 
series appeared in 1682). 6. ' Tracts about 
the Cosmical Qualities of Things' (1670). 
7. ' An Essay about the Origin and Virtues 
of Gems' (1672). 8. 'The Excellency of 
Theology compared with Natural Philosophy ' 
(1673). 9. ' Some Considerations about the 
Reconcilableness of Reason and Religion' 
(1675). 10. ' The Aerial Noctiluca ' (1680). 
11. 'Memoirs for the Natural History of 
Human Blood' (1684). 12. ' Of the High 
Veneration Man's Intellect owes to God' 
(1685). 13. ' A Free Enquiry into the vul- 
garly received Notion of Nature' (1686). 
14. 'The General History of the Air de- 
signed and begun' (1692). 15. ' Medicinal 
Experiments' (1692, 3rd vol. 1698), both 

Catalogues of Boyle's works were pub- 
lished at London in 1688 and subsequent 
years. He bequeathed his mineralogical col- 
lections to the Royal Society, and his portrait 
by Kerseboorn, the property of the same 

body, formed part of the National Portrait 
Exhibition in 1866. 

[Life by Birch ; Biog. Brit. ; "Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
(Bliss), ii. 286 ; Burnet's Funeral Sermon ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Hoefer's Hist, de la Chimie, ii. 155 ; 
Poggendorff's Gesch. d. Physik, p. 466 ; Libes's 
Hist. Phil, des Progres de la Physique, ii. 134 ; 
A. Crum Brown's Development of the Idea of 
Chemical Composition, pp. 9-14.] A. M. C. 

first EAKL OF ORRERY (162] -1679), states- 
man, soldier, and dramatist, the third son of 
Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork, and Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Fenton, was 
born at Lismore 25 April 1621. In recogni- 
tion of his father's services he was on 28 Feb. 
1627 created Baron Broghill. At the age 
of fifteen he entered Trinity College, Dublin 
(BTJDGELL, Memoirs of the Boyles, p. 34), and 
according to Wood (Athena, ed. Bliss, iii. 
1200) he also 'received some of his academical 
education in Oxon.' After concluding his 
university career he spent some years on the 
continent, chiefly in France and Italy, under 
a governor, Mr. Markham. Soon after his 
return to England, he was entrusted by the 
Earl of Northumberland with the command 
of his troop in the Scotch expedition. On 
his marriage to Lady Margaret Howard, 
third daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, he set 
out for Ireland, arriving 23 Oct. 1641, on 
the very day that the great rebellion broke 
out. When the Earl of Cork summoned his 
retainers, Lord Broghill was appointed to a 
troop of horse, with which he joined the Lord 
President St. Leger. It was only Broghill's 
acuteness that prevented St. Leger from be- 
lieving the representations of Lord Muskerry, 
the leader of the Irish rebels, that he was act- 
ing on the authority of a commission from the 
king. Under the Earl of Cork he took part 
in the defence of Lismore, and he held a com- 
mand at the battle of Liscarrol, 3 Sept. 1642. 
When the Marquis of Ormonde resigned his 
authority to the parliamentary commissioners 
in 1647, Lord Broghill, though a zealous 
royalist, continued to serve under them until 
the execution of the king. Immediately on 
receipt of the news he went over to Eng- 
land, where he lived for some time in strict 
retirement at Marston, Somersetshire. At 
last, however, he determined to make a stre- 
nuous attempt to retrieve his own fortunes and 
the royal cause, and, on the pretence of visiting 
a German spa for the sake of his health, re- 
solved to seek an interview with Charles II 
on the continent, with a view to concoct 
measures to aid in his restoration. With 
this purpose he arrived in London, having 
meanwhile made application to the Earl of 




Warwick for a pass, only communicating his I 
real design to certain royalists in whom he 
had perfect confidence. While waiting the ' 
result of his application, he was surprised by 
a message from Oliver Cromwell of his in- 
tention to call on him at his lodgings. Crom- 
well at once informed him that the council 
were completely cognisant of the real charac- 
ter of his designs, and that but for his inter- 
position he would already have been l clapped 
up in the Tower ' (MoEBiCE, Memoirs of the \ 
Earl of Orrery, p. 11). Broghill thanked 
Cromwell warmly for his kindness, and asked j 
his advice as to what he should do, whereupon ; 
Cromwell offered him a general's command 
in the war against the Irish. No oaths or 
obligations were to be laid on him except a 
promise on his word of honour faithfully to 
assist to the best of his power in subduing 
Ireland. Broghill, according to his biographer, 
asked for time to consider ' this large offer,' 
but Cromwell brusquely answered that he 
must decide on the instant ; and, finding that 
' no subterfuges could any longer be made 
use of,' he gave his consent. 

The extraordinary bargain is a striking 
proof both of Cromwell's knowledge of men 
and of his consciousness of the immense diffi- 
culty of the task he had in hand in Ireland. 
The trust placed by him in Broghill's stead- 
fastness and abilities was fully justified by 
the result. By whatever motives he may have 
been actuated, there can be no doubt that 
Broghill strained every nerve to make the 
cause of the parliament in Ireland triumph- 
ant. Indeed but for his assistance Cromwell's 
enterprise might have been attended with 
almost fatal disasters. With the commission 
of master of ordnance, Broghill immediately 
proceeded to Bristol, where he embarked for 
Ireland. Such was his influence in Munster 
that he soon found himself at the head of a 
troop of horse manned by gentlemen of pro- 
perty, and 1,500 well-appointed infantry, 
many of whom had deserted from Lord Inchi- 
quin. After joining Cromwell at Wexford, 
he was left by him ' at Mallow, with about 
six or seven hundred horse and four or five 
hundred foot,' to protect the interests of the 
parliament in Munster, and distinguished 
himself by the capture of two strong garri- 
sons (CAKLYLE, Cromwell, Letter cxix.) This 
vigorous procedure greatly contributed to 
drive the enemy into Kilkenny, where they 
shortly afterwards surrendered. Cromwell 
then proceeded to Clonmel, and Broghill 
was ordered to attack a body of Irish under 
the titular bishop of Ross, who were march- 
ing to its relief. This force he met at Ma- 
croom 10 May 1650, and totally defeated, 
taking the bishop prisoner. While prepar- 

ing to pursue the defeated enemy he received 
a message from Cromwell, whose troops had 
been decimated by sickness and the sallies 
of the enemy, to join him with the utmost 
haste ; and on his arrival Clonmel was taken 
after a desperate struggle. Cromwell, whose 
presence in Scotland had been for some time 
urgently required, now left the task of com- 
pleting the subjugation of Ireland in the 
hands of Ireton, whom Broghill joined at 
the siege of Limerick. News having reached 
the besiegers that preparations were being 
made for its relief, Broghill was sent with a 
strong detachment to disperse any bodies of 
troops that might be gathering for this purpose. 
By a rapid march he intercepted a strong force 
under Lord Muskerry, advancing to join the 
army raised by the pope's nuncio, and so 
completely routed them that all attempts to 
relieve Limerick were abandoned. 

On the conclusion of the war Broghill re- 
mained in Munster to keep the province in 
subjection, with Youghal for his headquarters 
(MoEKiCE, 19). While the war was proceed- 
ing he had been put in possession of as much 
of Lord Muskerry 's estates as amounted to 
1,000/. a year, until the country in which his 
estate was situated was freed from the enemy 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1649-50, p. 473), 
and at its close Blarney Castle, with lands 
adjoining it to the annual value of 1,000/., 
was bestowed upon him, the bill after long 
delay in parliament receiving the assent of 
Cromwell in 1657 (Commons' Journal). Ire- 
ton, who had been so suspicious of Broghill's 
intentions as to advise that he should ' be 
cut off,' died from exposure at Limerick, and 
Cromwell, who throughout the war had relied 
implicitly on Broghill's good faith, gradually 
received him into his special confidence. 
Broghill, on his part, realising that the royal 
cause was for the time hopeless, devoted all 
his energies to make the rule of Cromwell a 
success. Actuated at first by motives of self- 
interest, he latterly conceived for Cromwell 
strong admiration and esteem. In Crom- 
well's parliament which met in 1654 he sat 
as member for Cork, and on the list of the 
parliament of 1656 his name appears as 
member both for Cork and Edinburgh. His 
representation of the latter city is accounted 
for by the fact that this year he was sent as 
lord president of the council to Scotland. 
That he remained in Scotland only one year 
was due not to any failure to satisfy either 
the Scots or Cromwell, but simply to the 
condition he made on accepting office, that he 
should not be required to hold it for more 
than a year. According to Robert Baillie 
he 'gained more on the affections of the 
people than all the English that ever were 


among us ' (Journals, iii. 315). After his 
return to England he formed one of a special 
council whom the Protector was in the habit 
of consulting on matters of prime importance 
(WHITELOCKE, Memorials, 656). He was 
also a member of the House of Lords, nomi- 
nated by Cromwell in December 1657 (Par I. 
Hist. iii. 1518). It was chiefly at his in- 
stance that the parliament resolved to recom- 
mend Cromwell to adopt the title of king 
(LUDLOW, Memoirs, 247), and he was one 
of the committee appointed to discuss the 
matter with Cromwell (Monarchy asserted \ 
to be the best, most ancient, and legall form 
of government, in a conference held at White- 
hall with Oliver Lord Cromwell and a Com- 
mittee of Parliament, 1660, reprinted in 
the State Letters of the Earl of Orrery, 
1742). Probably it was after the failure of ! 
this negotiation that he brought before Crom- 
well the remarkable proposal for a marriage 
between Cromwell's daughter Frances and 
Charles II (MoKRiCE, Memoirs of the Earl 
of Orrery, 21). After the death of Oliver he 
did his utmost to consolidate the government 
of his son Richard, who consulted him in his 
chief difficulties, but failed to profit suffi- 
ciently by his advice. Convinced at last 
that the cause of Richard was hopeless, he 
passed over to Ireland, and obtaining from 
the commissioners the command in Munster, 
he, along with Sir Charles Coote, president 
of Connaught, secured Ireland for the king. 
His letter inviting Charles to land at Cork 
actually reached him before the first commu- 
nication of Monk, but the steps taken by 
Monk in England rendered the landing of 
Charles in Ireland unnecessary. In the Con- 
vention parliament Broghill sat as member 
for Arundel, and on 5 Sept. 1660 he was 
created Earl of Orrery. About the close of 
the year he was appointed one of the lord 
justices of Ireland, and it was he who drew 
up the act of settlement for that kingdom. 
On the retirement of Lord Clarendon, the lord 
high chancellor, he was offered the great 
seals, but, from considerations of health, de- 
clined them. He continued for the most 
part to reside in Ireland in discharge of his 
duties as lord president of Munster, and 
in this capacity was successful in defeating 
the attempt of the Duke of Beaufort, admiral 
of France, to land at Kinsale. The presi- 
dency of Munster he, however, resigned in 
1668 on account of disagreements with the 
Duke of Ormonde, lord-lieutenant. Shortly 
afterwards he was on 25 Nov. impeached in 
the House of Commons for ' raising of moneys 
by his own authority upon his majesty's sub- 
jects ; defrauding the king's subjects of their 
estates/ but the king by commission on 11 Dec. 

5 Boyle 

suddenly put a stop to the proceedings by 
proroguing both houses to 14 Feb. (Impeach- 
ment of the Earl of Orrery, Parl. Hist. iv. 
434-40), and no further attempt was made 
against him. He died from an attack of gout 
16 Oct. 1679. He was buried at Youghal. 
He left two sons and five daughters. 

The Earl of Orrery was the reputed author 
of an anonymous pamphlet l Irish Colours 
displayed, in a reply of an English Protes- 
tant to a letter of an Irish Roman Catholic/ 
1662. The ' Irish Roman Catholic' was 
Father Peter Welsh, who replied to it by 
' Irish Colours folded.' Both were addressed 
to the Duke of Ormonde. That Orrery was 
the author of the pamphlet is not impossible, 
but the statement is unsupported by proof. 
It is probable, therefore, that it has been con- 
founded with another reply to the same letter 
professedly written by him and entitled ' An 
Answer to a scandalous letter lately printed 
and subscribed by Peter Welsh, Procurator 
to the Sec. and Reg. Popish Priests of Ire- 
land.' This pamphlet has for sub-title ' A 
full Discovery of the Treachery of the Irish 
rebels and the beginning of the rebellion 
there. Necessary to be considered by all 
adventurers and other persons estated in that 
kingdom.' Both the letter of Welsh and this, 
reply to it have been reprinted in the l State 
Letters of Roger Boyle, Earl of Orrery/ 1742. 
In 1654 he published in six volumes the first 
part of a romance, ' Parthenissa/ a complete 
edition of which appeared in three volumes 
in 1665 and in 1677. The writer of the 
notice of Orrery in the ' Biographia Britan- 
nica ' attributes the neglect of the romance 
to its remaining unfinished, but 
certainly was, and if it had not been, its tedi- 
ousness would not have been relieved by 
adding to its length. More substantial merit 
attaches to his ' Treatise of the Art of War/ 
1677, dedicated to the king. He claims for 
it the distinction of being the first l Entire 
Treatise on the Art of War written in our 
language/ and the quality of comprehensive- 
ness cannot be denied to it, treating as it does 
of the ' choice and educating of the soldiery ; 
the arming of the soldiery ; the disciplining 
of the soldiery ; the ordering of the garrisons ; 
the marching of an army ; the camping of 
an army within a line or intrenchment ; and 
battles.' The treatise is of undoubted inte- 
rest as indicating the condition of the art at 
the close of the Cromwellian wars, and, like 
his political pamphlet, is written in a terse 
and effective style. 

Not content to excel as a statesman and 
a general, Orrery devoted some of his leisure 
to the cultivation of poetry ; but if Dryden 
is to be believed, the hours he chose for the 




recreation were not the most auspicious. 
' The muses,' he says, ' have seldom employed 
your thoughts but when some violent fit of 
gout has snatched you from affairs of state, 
and, like the priestess of Apollo, you never 
come to deliver your oracles but unwillingly 
and in torment ' (Dedication prefixed to The 
Rivals). Commenting on this, Walpole re- 
marked that the gout was a ' very impotent 
muse.' Like his relative Eichard, second 
earl of Burlington, Orrery was on terms of 
intimate friendship with many eminent men 
of letters among others Davenant, Dryden, 
and Cowley. Besides several dramas he was 
the author of ' A Poem on his Majesty's 
happy Restoration,' which he presented to 
the king, but which was never printed ; ' A 
Poem on the Death of Abraham Cowley,' 
1677, printed in a ' Collection of Poems ' by 
various authors, 1701, 3rd edition, 1716, re- 
published in Budgell's ' Memoirs of the 
Family of the Boyles,' and prefixed by Dr. 
Sprat to his edition of Cowley's works ; ' The 
Dream ' in which the genius of France is in- 
troduced endeavouring to persuade Charles II 
to become dependent on Louis XIV pre- 
sented to the king, but never printed, and 
now lost ; and ' Poems on most of the Festi- 
vals of the Church,' 1681. Several of the 
tragedies of Orrery attained a certain success 
in their day. They are written in rhyme 
with an easy flowing diction, and, if some- 
what bombastic and extravagant in sentiment, 
are not without effective situations, and mani- 
fest considerable command of pathos. The 
earliest of his plays performed was ' Henry V,' 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields, as is proved by the 
reference of Pepys, under date 13 Aug. 1664. 
He then saw it acted, and he makes a 
later reference, under date 28 Sept. of the 
same year, to ' The General ' as ' Lord Brog- 
hill's second play.' Downes asserts that 
< Henry V ' was not brought out till 1667, 
when the theatre was reopened, but it was 
then only revived, and was performed ten 
nights successively. The play was published 
in 1668. It is doubtful if Orrery was the 
author of' The General ' at least there is no 
proof of his having acknowledged it. ' Mus- 
tapha, the Son of Solyman the Magnificent,' 
was brought out at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
3 April 1665, and played before their majes- 
ties at court 20 Oct. 1666 (EVELYN). ' The 
Black Prince,' published 1669, and played for 
the first time at the king's house 19 Oct. 1667 
(PEPYS), was not very successful, the read- 
ing of a letter actually causing the audience 
to hiss. ' Tryphon,' a tragedy, published in 
1672, and acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
8 Dec. 1668, met with some applause, but 
showed a lack of invention, resembling his 

other tragedies too closely in its construction. 
These four tragedies were published together 
in 1690, and now form vol. i. of his 'Dramatic 
Works.' Of Orrery's two comedies, ' Guzman ' 
and ' Mr. Anthony,' * the former,' according 
to Downes, 'took very well, the latter but 
indifferent.' Pepys, who pronounced ' Guz- 
man ' to be ' very ordinary,' mentions it as 
produced anonymously 16 April 1669. It 
was published posthumously in 1693. ' Mr. 
Anthony ' was published in 1690, but is not 
included in the ' Dramatic Works.' Two 
tragedies of Orrery's were published posthu- 
mously, ' Herod the Great,' in 1694, along 
with his four early tragedies and the comedy 
' Guzman ;' and ' Altemira ' in 1702, in which 
year it was put upon the stage by his grand- 
son Charles Boyle. The ' Complete Drama- 
tic Works of the Earl of Orrery,' including 
all his plays with the exception of 'Mr. 
Anthony,' appeared in 1743. The Earl of 
Orrery is the reputed author of ' English 
Adventures, by a Person of Honour,' 1676, 
entered in the catalogue of the Huth Li- 

[State Letters of Eoger Boyle, 1st Earl of 
Orrery, containing a series of correspondence 
between the Duke of Ormonde and his lordship, 
from the Kestoration to the year 1668, together 
with some other letters and pieces of a different 
kind, particularly the Life of the Earl of Orrery by 
the Eev. Mr. ThomasMorrice, his lordship's chap- 
lain, 1742 ; Budgell's Memoirs of the Boyles, 34- 
93 ; Earl of Orrery's Letter Book whilst Governor 
of Minister (1644-49), Add. MS. 25287 ; Letters 
to Sir John Malet, Add. MS. 32095, ff. 109-188; 
Ludlow's Memoirs ; Whitelocke's Memorials ; 
Clarendon's History of the Rebellion; Old- 
mixon's History of the Stuarts ; Carte's Life of 
Ormonde ; Cal. State Papers (Dom.), especially 
during the Protectorate ; Pepys's Diary; Evelyn's 
Diary ; Ware's Writers of Ireland (Harris), iii. 
177 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1200-1; 
Walpole's Eoyal and Noble Authors (Park), v. 
191-7; Genest's History of the .Stage; Biog. 
Brit. (Kippis), ii. 4 7 9-92; Lodge's Irish Peerage 
(1789), i. 178-192.] T. F. H. 

BOYLE, ROGER (1617 P-1687), bishop of 
Clogher, was educated at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, where he was elected a fellow. On the out- 
break of the rebellion in 1641 he became tutor 
to Lord Paulet, in whose family he remained 
until the Restoration, when in 1660-1 he 
became rector of Carrigaline and of Ringrone 
in the diocese of Cork. Thence he was 
advanced to the deanery of Cork, and on 
12 Sept. 1667 he was promoted to the see of 
Down and Connor. On 21 Sept. 1672 he 
was translated to the see of Clogher. He died 
at Clones on 26 Nov. 1687, in the seventieth 
year of his age, and was buried in the church 




at Clones. He was the author of ' Inquisitio 
in fidem Christianorum hujus Saeculi,' Dub- 
lin, 1665, and 'Summa Theologies Chris- 
tianas,' Dublin, 1681. His commonplace book 
on various subjects, together with an abstract 
of Sir Kenelm Digby's ' Treatise of Bodies,' is 
in manuscript in Trinity College Library, 

[Cotton's Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae, iii. 80, 
207-8; Ware's Works (Harris), i. 190, 213, ii. 
203.] T. F. H. 


BOYNE, JOHN (d. 1810), water-colour 
painter, caricaturist, and engraver, was born 
in county Down, Ireland, between 1750 and 
1759. His father was originally a joiner by 
trade, but afterwards held for many years 
an appointment at the victualling office at 
Deptford. Boyne was brought to England 
when about nine years of age, and subse- 
quently articled to William Byrne, the land- 
scape-engraver. His master dying just at 
the expiration of his apprenticeship, he made 
an attempt to carry on the business himself, 
but being idle and dissipated in his habits, 
he was unsuccessful. He then joined a com- 
pany of strolling actors near Chelmsford, 
where he enacted some of Shakespeare's 
characters, and assisted in a farce called 
' Christmas ; ' but soon wearying of this mode 
of life, he returned to London in 1781, and 
took to the business of pearl-setting, being 
employed by a Mr. Flower, of Chichester 
Rents, Chancery Lane. Later on we find 
him in the capacity of a master in a draw- 
ing school, first in Holborn, and afterwards 
in Gloucester Street, Queen Square, where 
Holmes and Heaphy were his pupils. Boyne 
died at his house in Pentonville on 22 June 
1810. His most important artistic produc- 
tions were heads from Shakespeare's plays, 
spiritedly drawn and tinted ; also ' Assigna- 
tion, a Sketch to the Memory of the Duke of 
Bedford ;' < The Muck Worm,' and ' The Glow 
Worm.' His ' Meeting of Connoisseurs,' now 
in the South Kensington Museum, was en- 
graved in stipple by T.Williamson. He pub- 
lished ' A Letter to Richard Brinsley Sheri- 
dan, Esq., on his late proceedings as a 
Member of the Society of the Freedom of the 

[Magazine of the Fine Arts, iii. 222 ; Red- 
grave's Dictionary of Artists of the English 
School, London, 1878, 8vo.] L. F. 

BOYS or BOSCHUS, DAVID (rf.1461), 
Carmelite, was educated at Oxford, and lec- 
tured in theology at that university ; he also 
visited for purposes of study the university of 

Cambridge and several foreign universities. 
He became head of the Carmelite community 
at Gloucester, and died there in the year 1451. 
The following are the titles of works written 
by Boys : 1. ' De duplici hominis immorta- 
litate.' 2. ' Adversus Agarenos.' 3. ' Contra 
varies Gentilium Ritus.' 4. 'De Spiritus 
Doctrina.' 5. ' De vera Innocentia.' 

[Leland's Comm. de Scriptoribus Britannicis, 
p. 454 ; Villiers de St. Etienne, Bibliotheca Car- 
melitana.] A. M. 

BOYS, EDWARD (1599-1667), divine, a 
nephew of Dr. John Boys (1571-1625), dean 
of Canterbury [q. v.], and the son of Thomas 
Boys of Hoad Court, in the parish of Blean, 
Kent, by his first wife, Sarah, daughter 
of Richard Rogers, dean of Canterbury, and 
lord suffragan of Dover, was born in 1599 
(W. BERET, County Genealogies, Kent, p. 
445). Educated at Eton, he was elected 
a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, in May 1620, and as a member of 
that house graduated B.A. in 1623, M.A. 
in 1627, and obtained a fellowship in 1631. 
He proceeded B.D., was appointed one of 
the university preachers in 1634, and in 
1639, on the presentation of William Pas- 
ton, his friend and contemporary at college, 
became rector of the tiny village of Maut- 
boy in Norfolk. He is said, but on doubtful 
authority, to have been one of the chap- 
lains to Charles I (R. MASTERS, Hist. Cor- 
pus Christi College, pp. 242-3). After an 
incumbency of twenty-eight years Boys died 
at Mautboy on 10 March 1666-7, and was 
buried in the chancel (BLOMEFIELD, Nor- 
folk, ed. Parkin, xi. 229-30). An admired 
scholar, of exceptional powers as a preacher, 
and in great favour with his bishop, Hall, 
Boys was deterred from seeking higher pre- 
ferment by an exceeding modesty. After 
his death appeared his only known pub- 
lication, a volume of 'Sixteen Sermons, 
preached upon several occasions,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1672. The editor, Roger Flynt, a fellow- 
collegian, tells us in his preface that it was 
with difficulty he obtained leave of the dying 
author to make them public, and gained it 
only upon condition 'that he should say 
nothing of him.' From which he leaves the 
reader to judge 'how great this man was, 
that made so little of himself.' He speaks, 
nevertheless, of the great loss to the church 
' that such a one should expire in a country 
village consisting onely of four farmers.' In 
1640 Boys had married Mary Herne, who 
was descended from a family of that name 
long seated in Norfolk. His portrait by W. 
Faithorne, at the age of sixty-six, is prefixed 
to his sermons. 




[Chalmers's Biog. Diet. vi. 374-5; Masters's 
Hist. Corpus Chr. Coll. (Lamb), p. 353 ; Granger's 
Biog. Hist, of England, 2nd ed. iii. 295-6 ; 
General Hist, of Norfolk, ed. J. Chambers, i. 
249, ii. 1336.] G-. G. 

BOYS, EDWARD (1785-1866), captain, 
son of John Boys (1749-1824) [q. v.], entered 
the navy in 1796, and after serving in the 
North Sea, on the coast of Ireland, and in the 
Channel, was in June 1802 appointed to the 
Phoebe frigate. On 4 Aug. 1803, Boys, when 
in charge of a prize, was made prisoner by the 
French, and continued so for six years, when 
after many daring and ingenious attempts he 
succeeded in effecting his escape. On his re- 
turn to England he was made lieutenant, 
and served mostly in the West Indies till the 
peace. On 8 July 1814 he became commander ; 
but, consequent on the reduction of the navy 
from its war strength, had no further em- 
ployment afloat, though from 1837 to 1841 he 
was superintendent of the dockyard at Deal. 
On 1 July 1851 he retired with the rank of 
captain, and died in London on 6 July 1866. 
Immediately after his escape, and whilst in 
the West Indies, he wrote for his family 
an account of his adventures in France ; the 
risk of getting some of his French friends into 
trouble had, however, made him keep this 
account private, and though abstracts from it 
had found their way into the papers it was 
not till 1827 that he was persuaded to pub- 
lish it, under the title of ' Narrative of a Cap- 
tivity and Adventures in France and Flanders 
between the years 1803-9,' post 8vo. It is a 
book of surpassing interest, and the source 
from which the author of ' Peter Simple ' 
drew much of his account of that hero's es- 
cape, more perhaps than from the previously 
published narrative of Mr. Ashworth's ad- 
ventures [see ASHWORTH, HEBTRY]. Captain 
Boys also published in 1831 ' Remarks on the 
Practicability and Advantages of a Sandwich 
or Downs Harbour.' One of his sons, the 
present (1886) Admiral Henry Boys, was 
captain of the Excellent and superintendent 
of the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth 
1869-74, director of naval ordnance from 
1874-8, and second in command of the Chan- 
nel fleet in 1878-9. 

[O'Byrne's Diet, of Nav. Biog. ; Berry's Kentish 
Genealogies.] J. K. L. 

BOYS, JOHN (1571-1625), dean of 
Canterbury, was descended from an old 
Kentish family who boasted that their ances- 
tor came into England with the Conqueror, 
and who at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century had no less than eight branches, 
each with its capital mansion, in the county 
of Kent. The dean was the son of Thomas 

Boys of Eythorn, by Christian, daughter 
and coheiress of John Searles of Wye. He 
was born at Eythorn in 1571, and pro- 
bably was educated at the King's School in 
Canterbury, for in 1585 he entered at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, where Arch- 
bishop Parker had founded some scholarships 
appropriated to scholars of that school. He 
took his M. A. degree in the usual course, but 
migrated to Clare Hall in 1593, apparently 
on his failing to succeed to a Kentish fellow- 
ship vacated by the resignation of Mr. Cold- 
well, and which was filled up by the election 
of Dr. Willan, a Norfolk man. Boys was 
forthwith chosen fellow of Clare Hall. His 
first preferment was the small rectory of 
Betshanger in his native county, which he 
tells us was procured for him by his uncle 
Sir John Boys of Canterbury, whom he calls 
' my best patron in Cambridge.' He appears 
to have resided upon this benefice and to have 
at once begun to cultivate the art of preach- 
ing. Archbishop Whitgift gave him the 
mastership of Eastbridge Hospital, and soon 
afterwards the vicarage of Tilmanstone, but 
the aggregate value of these preferments was 
quite inconsiderable, and when he married 
Angela Bargrave of Bridge, near Canterbury, 
in 1599, he must have had other means of 
subsistence than his clerical income. The 
dearth of competent preachers to supply the 
London pulpits appears to have been severely 
felt about this time, and in January 1593 
Whitgift had written to the vice-chancellor 
and heads of the university of Cambridge 
complaining of the refusal of the Cambridge 
divines to take their part in this duty. The 
same year that the primate appointed Boys 
to Tilmanstone we find him preaching at 
St. Paul's Cross, though he was then only 
twenty-seven years of age. Two years after 
he was called upon to preach at the Cross 
again, and it was actually while he was in 
the pulpit that Robert, earl of Essex, made 
his mad attempt at rebellion (8 Feb. 1600-1). 
Next year we find him preaching at St. 
Mary's, Cambridge, possibly while keeping 
his acts for the B.D. degree, for he proceeded 
D.D. in the ordinary course in 1605; the 
Latin sermon he then delivered is among his 
printed works. Whitgift's death (February 
1604) made little alteration in his circum- 
stances ; Archbishop Bancroft soon took him 
into his favour, and he preached at Asliford, 
on the occasion of the primate holding his 
primary visitation there on 11 Sept. 1607. 

Two years after this Boys published his 
first work, * The Minister's Invitatorie, being 
An Exposition of all the Principall Scrip- 
tures used in our English Liturgie : together 
with a reason why the Church did chuse 




the same.' The work was dedicated to Ban- 
croft, who had lately been made chancellor 
of the university of Oxford, and in the * dedi- 
catorie epistle ' Boys speaks of his ' larger 
exposition of the Gospels and Epistles ' as 
shortly about to appear. It appeared accord- 
ingly next year in 4to, under the title of 
' An Exposition of the Dominical Epistles 
and Gospels used in our English Liturgie 
throughout the whole yeere,' and was dedi- 
cated to his 'very dear uncle/ Sir John 
Boys of Canterbury. In his dedication Boys 
takes the opportunity of mentioning his 
obligations to Sir John and to Archbishop 
Whitgift for having watered what 'that 
vertuous and worthy knight ' had planted. 
The work supplied a great need and had a 
very large and rapid sale ; new editions fol- 
lowed one another in quick succession, and 
it would be a difficult task to draw up an 
exhaustive bibliographical account of Boys's 

Archbishop Bancroft died in November 
1610, and Abbot was promoted to the pri- 
macy in the spring of 1611. Boys dedicated 
to him his next work, ' An Exposition of the 
Festival Epistles and Gospels used in our 
English Liturgie,' which, like its predeces- 
sors, was published in 4to, the first part in 
1614, the second in the following year. 
Hitherto he had received but scant recogni- 
tion of his services to the church, but prer 
ferment now began to fall upon him liberally. 
Abbot presented him with the sinecure rec- 
tory of Hollingbourne, then with the rectory 
of Monaghan in 1618, and finally, on the 
death of Dr. Fotherby, he was promoted by 
the king, James I, to the deanery of Canter- 
bury, and installed on 3 May 1619. Mean- 
while in 1616 he had put forth his ' Exposi- 
tion of the proper Psalms used in our English 
Liturgie,' and dedicated it to Sir Thomas 
Wotton, son and heir of Edward, lord Wot- 
ton of Marleigh. In 1620 he was made a 
member of the high commission court, and 
in 1622 he collected his works into a folio 
volume, adding to those previously published 
five miscellaneous sermons which he calls 
lectures, and which are by no means good 
specimens of his method or his style. These 
were dedicated to Sir Dudley Digges of 
Chilham Castle, and appear to have been 
added for no other reason than to give occa- 
sion for paying a compliment to a Kentish 

On 12 June 1625 Henrietta Maria landed 
at Dover. Charles I saw her for the first 
time on the 13th, and next day the king at- 
tended service in Canterbury Cathedral, when 
Boys preached a sermon, which has been pre- 
served. It is a poor performance, stilted and 


unreal as such sermons usually were ; but it 
has the merit of being short. 

Boys held the deanery of Canterbury for 

I little more than six years, and died among 
his books, suddenly, in September 1625. 
There is a monument to him in the lady 

i chapel of the cathedral. He left no chil- 
dren ; his widow died during the rebellion. 
Boys's works continued to be read and used 

I very extensively till the troublous times set 

! in ; but the dean was far too uncompromising 
an A.nglican, and too unsparing in his denun- 
ciation of those whom he calls the novelists, 
to be regarded with any favour or toleration 
by presbyterians, or independents, or indeed 
by any who sympathised with the puritan 
theology. When he began to be almost for- 
gotten in England, his works were translated 
into German and published at Strasburg in 
1683, and again in two vols. 4to in 1685. It 
may safely be affirmed that no writer of the 
seventeenth century quotes so widely and 
so frequently from contemporary literature 
as Boys, and that not only from polemical 
or exegetical theology, but from the whole 
range of popular writers of the day. Bacon's 
1 Essays' and 'The Advancement of Learn- 
ing,' Sandys's 'Travels,' Owen's, More's, and 
Parkhurst's ' Epigrams,' ' The Vision of Piers 
Plowman,' and Verstegan's 'Restitution,' 
with Boys's favourite book, Sylvester's trans- 
lation of Du Bartas's ' Divine Weeks,' must 
have been bought as soon as they were pub- 
lished. Indeed Boys must have been one 
of the great book collectors of his time. 
Boys's works are full to overflowing of homely 
proverbs, of allusions to the manners and 
customs of the time, of curious words and 

[The works of John Boys, D.D., and Dean of 
Canterbury, folio, 1622, pp. 122,491,508, 530, 
972, &c. ; Remains of the Reverend and Famous 
Postiller, John Boys, Doctor in Divinitie, and 
late Dean of Canterburie .... 4to, 1631 (this 
contains ' A Briefe View of the Life and Vertues of 
the Authour,' by R. T.) ; Fuller's Worthies, Kent ; 
Masters's History of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, 334, 459; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), 
ii. 860; Fasti, ii. 276, 345 ; Nasmith's Catalogue 
of Corpus MSS. Nos. 215, 216 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; 
Camb. Met. Soc. Proc. ii. 141 ; Fuller's Church 
Hist B. x. cent. xvi. sec. 19-24.] A. J. 

BOYS, JOHN (1561-1644). [See Bois.] 

JOHN (1614P-1661), translator 
of Virgil, was the son of John Boys (b. 1690) 
of Hoad Court, Blean, Kent, and nephew of 
Edward Boys, 1599-1677 [q. v.] His mother 
was Mary, daughter of Martin Fotherby, 
bishop of Salisbury. He was born about 
1614. His grandfather, Thomas Boys (d. 




1625), brother of the dean, John Boys [q. v.], 
inherited the estate of Hoad Court from his 
uncle, Sir John Boys, an eminent lawyer, who 
died without issue in 1612. On 24 Jan. 1659- 
1660 Boys presented to the mayor of Canter- 
bury a declaration in favour of the assembly 
of a free parliament, drawn up by himself in 
behalf (as he asserted) ( of the nobility, gentry, 
ministry, and commonalty of the county of 
Kent.' But the declaration gave offence to 
the magistrates, and the author, as he ex- 
plained in his 'Vindication of the Kentish 
Declaration,' only escaped imprisonment by 
retiring to a hiding-place. Several of his 
friends were less successful. In February 
1659-60 he went to London with his kins- 
man, Sir John Boys [q. v.] of Bonnington, 
and presented to Monk, at Whitehall, a 
letter of thanks, drawn up by himself ' ac- 
cording to the order and advice of the 
gentlemen of East Kent.' He also prepared 
a speech for delivery to Charles II on his 
landing at Dover on 25 May 1660 ; but < he 
was prevented therein by reason his majesty 
made no stay at all in that town,' and he 
therefore sent Charles a copy of it. 

Boys chiefly prided himself on his clas- 
sical attainments. In 1661 he published two 
translations from Virgil's ' JEneid.' The first 
is entitled, t JEneas, his Descent into Hell: 
as it is inimitably described by the Prince 
of Poets in the Sixth of his JEneis,' Lon- 
don, 1661. The dedication is addressed to 
Sir Edward Hyde, and congratulates him on 
succeeding to the office of lord chancellor. 
His cousin, Charles Fotherby, and his friend, 
Thomas Philipott, contribute commendatory 
verses. The translation in heroic verse is 
of very mediocre character, and is followed 
by 181 pages of annotations. At their close 
Boys mentions that he has just heard of the 
death of Henry, duke of Gloucester (13 Sept. 
1660), and proceeds to pen an elegy sug- 
gested by Virgil's lament for Marcellus. The 
volume concludes with ' certain pieces relat- 
ing to the publick,' i.e. on the political mat- 
ters referred to above, and with a congratu- 
latory poem (dated Canterbury, 30 Sept. 
1656) addressed to Boys's friend, William 
Somner, on the completion of his ' Dictiona- 
rium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum.' Boys's se- 
cond book is called '^Eneas, his Errours on 
his Voyage from Troy into Italy ; an essay 
upon the Third Book of Virgil's "^Eneis." ' 
It is dedicated to Lord Cornbury, Clarendon's 
son. A translation of the third book of the 
'^Eneid' in heroic verse occupies fifty-one 
pages, and is followed by ' some few hasty 
reflections upon the precedent poem.' Boys's 
enthusiasm for Virgil is boundless, but his 
criticism is rather childish. 

Boys married Anne, daughter of Dr. Wil- 
liam Kingsley, archdeacon of Canterbury, by 
whom he had three sons Thomas, who died 
without issue ; John, a colonel in the army, 
who died 4 Sept. 1710; and Sir William Boys, 
M.D., who is stated to have died in 1744. Boys 
himself died in 1660-1, and was buried in the 
chancel of the church of Hoad. 

[Hasted's Kent, i. 565 ; Corser's Anglo-Poet. 
Collect, ii. 323-5; Brit. Mus. Cat; Berry's 
Kentish Genealogies, p. 445.] S. L. L. 

BOYS, SIR JOHN (1607-1664), royalist 
military commander, was the eldest son and 
heir of Edward Boys of Bonnington, Kent, 
by Jane, daughter of Edward Sanders of 
Northborne. He was baptised at Chillen- 
don, Kent, on 5 April 1607. In the civil 
war he became a captain in the royal army 
and governor of Donnington Castle in Berk- 
shire. This castle, which is within a mile of 
Newbury, was garrisoned in 1643 for King 
Charles I, and commanded the road from 
Oxford to Newbury and the great road from 
London to Bath and the west. Boys, by 
the bravery with which he defended the castle 
during a long siege, showed himself well 
worthy of the trust reposed in him. It was 
first attacked by the parliamentary army, 
consisting of 3,000 horse and foot, under 
the command of Major-general Middleton, 
who attempted to take the castle by assault, 
but was repulsed with considerable loss. 
Middleton lost at least 300 officers and men in 
this fruitless attempt. Not long afterwards, 
on 29 Sept. 1644, Colonel Horton began a 
blockade, having raised a battery at the foot 
of the hill near Newbury, from which he 
plied the castle so incessantly during a period 
of twelve days that he reduced it to a heap 
of ruins, having beaten down three of the 
towers and a part of the wall. Nearly 1,000 
great shot are said to have been expended 
during this time. Horton having received 
reinforcements sent a summons to the go- 
vernor, who refused to listen to any terms. 
Soon afterwards the Earl of Manchester came 
to the siege with his army, but their united 
attempts proved unavailing ; and after two 
or three days more of ineffectual battering 
the whole army rose up from before the walls 
and marched in different directions. When 
the king came to Newbury (21 Oct. 1644) 
he knighted the governor for his good ser- 
vices, made him colonel of the regiment 
which he had before commanded as lieu- 
tenant-colonel to Earl Rivers, the nominal 
governor of Donnington, and to his coat 
armour gave the augmentation of a crown 
imperial or, on a canton azure. During the 
second battle of Newbury Boys secured the 



king's artillery under the castle walls. After 
the battle, when the king had gone with 
his army to Oxford, the Earl of Essex with 
his whole force besieged Donnington Castle 
with no better success than the others had 
done. He abandoned the attempt before the 
king returned from Oxford for the purpose o 
relieving Donnington on 4 Nov. 1644. Th 
place was then re victualled, and his majest 
slept in the castle that night with his arm 
around him. In August 1648 Boys mad 
a.' fruitless attempt to raise the siege o 
Deal Castle. A resolution put in the Sous 
of Commons at the same time to banis 
him as one of the seven royalists who ha 
been in arms against the parliament sine 
1 Jan. 1647-8 was negatived. In 1659 h 
was a prisoner in Dover Castle for petition 
ing for a free parliament, but was released o 
23 Feb. 1659-60. He apparently received th 
office of receiver of customs at Dover from 
Charles II. 

Sir John Boys died at his house at Bon 
nington on 8 Oct. 1664, and was buried in 
the parish church of Goodnestone-next 
Wingham, Kent. The inscription describe 
his achievements in the wars. By his first 
wife, Lucy, he had five daughters. He hac 
no children by his second marriage wit] 
Lady Elizabeth Finch, widow of Sir Nathanie 
Finch, serjeant-at-law, and daughter of Si 
John Fotherby of Barham, Kent. 

There is a portrait of Boys engraved by 
Stow, and reproduced by Mr. Walter Money 
in his ' Battles of Newbury ' (1884). 

[Clarendon's Hist, of the Kebellion (1843) 
429, 499 ; Heath's Chronicle of the Civil Wars 
62; Walter Money's Battles of Newbury (1884) 
Hasted's Kent, iii. 705; Lysons's Berkshire, 356 
357 ; Berry's Pedigrees of Families in Kent, 441 
Granger's Biog. Hist, of England (1824), iii. 51 
52.] T. C. 

BOYS, JOHN (1749-1824), agriculturist, 
only son of William Boys and Ann, daughter 
of William Cooper of Ripple, was born in 
November 1749. At Betshanger and after- 
wards at Each, Kent, he farmed with skill 
and success, and as a grazier was well known 
for his breed of South Down sheep. He was 
one of the commissioners of sewers for East 
Kent, and did much to promote the drainage 
of the Finglesham and Eastry Brooks. At 
the request of the board of agriculture he 
wrote f A General View of the Agriculture of 
the County of Kent,' 1796, and an ' Essay on 
Paring and Burning,' 1805. He died on 
16 Dec. 1824. By his wife Mary, daughter of 
the Rev. Richard Harvey, vicar of Eastry- 
cum-Word, he had thirteen children, eight 
sons and five daughters. 

[Berry's Pedigrees of the County of Kent, 
p. 446; Gent. Mag. xcv. (pt. i.) 86-7.] 

T. F. H. 

BO YS,THOMAS (1792-1880), theologian 
and antiquary, son of Rear-admiral Thomas 
Boys of Kent, was born at Sandwich, Kent, 
and educated at Tonbridge grammar school 
and Trinity College, Cambridge. The failure 
of his health from over-study prevented his 
taking more than the ordinary degrees (B.A. 
1813, M.A. 1817), and, finding an active life 
necessary to him, he entered the army with 
a view to becoming a military chaplain, was 
attached to the military chest in the Peninsula 
under Wellington in 1813, and was wounded 
at the battle of Toulouse in three places, gain- 
ing the Peninsular medal. He was ordained 
deacon in 1816, and priest in 1822. While in 
the Peninsula he employed his leisure time in 
translating the Bible into Portuguese, a task 
he performed so well, that his version has 
been adopted both by catholics and protes- 
tants, and Don Pedro I of Portugal publicly 
thanked him for his gift to the nation. In 
1848 he was appointed incumbent of Holy 
Trinity, Hoxton ; but before that he had es- 
tablished his reputation as a Hebrew scholar, 
being teacher of Hebrew to Jews at the col- 
lege, Hackney, from 1830 to 1832, and pro- 
fessor of Hebrew at the Missionary College, 
Islington, in 1836. While holding this last 
post, he revised Deodati's Italian Bible, and 
also the Arabic Bible. His pen was rarely 
idle. In 1825 he published a key to the 
Psalms, and in 1827 a * Plain Exposition of 
the New Testament.' Already in 1821 he 
had issued a volume of sermons, and in 1824 
a book entitled l Tactica Sacra,' expounding a 
theory that in the arrangement of the New 
Testament writings a parallelism could be 
detected similar to that used in the writings 
of the Jewish prophets. In 1832 he pub- 
lished ' The Suppressed Evidence, or Proofs 
of the Miraculous Faith and Experience of 
the Church of Christ in all ages, from authen- 
;ic records of the Fathers, Waldenses, Huss- 
tes . . . an historical sketch suggested by 
3. W. Noel's " Remarks on the Revival of 
Miraculous Powers in the Church." ' The same 
year produced a plea for verbal inspiration 
mder the title 'A Word for the Bible,' and 
1834 ' A Help to Hebrew.' He was also a fre- 
uent contributor to 'Blackwood 'of sketches 
nd papers, for the most part descriptive of 
his Peninsular experiences. The most im- 
>ortant of these was ' My Peninsular Medal, 
vhich ran from November 1849 to July 1850. 
rlis acquaintance with the literature and an- 
iquities of the Jews was very thorough, but 
>erhaps the best proofs of his extensive learn- 




ing are to be found in the numerous letters 
and papers, sometimes under his own name, 
and sometimes under the assumed name of 
'Vedette/ contributed to the second series of 
'Notes and Queries.' Of these the twelve 
papers on Chaucer difficulties are a most 
valuable contribution to the study of early 
English literature. He died 2 Sept. 1880, 
aged 88. 

[Times, 14 Sept. 1880; Men of the Time, 
1872 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] E. B. 

1874), water-colour painter and lithographer, 
was born at Pentonville on 2 Jan. 1803. He 
was articled to George Cooke, the engraver, 
with the view of following that profession, 
but when, on the expiration of his appren- 
ticeship, he visited Paris, he was induced by 
Bonington, under whom he studied, to de- 
vote himself to painting. He exhibited at 
the Royal Academy for the first time in 1824, 
and in Paris in 1827. In 1830 he proceeded 
to Brussels, but on the outbreak of the revo- 
lution there returned to England. Paying 
another visit to Paris, he remained there until 
1837, and then again came to England for the 
purpose of lithographing the works of David 
Roberts and Clarkson Stanfield. Boys's great 
work, 'Picturesque Architecture in Paris, 
Ghent, Antwerp, Rouen,' &c., appeared in 
1839, and created much admiration. King 
Louis-Philippe sent the artist a ring in re- 
cognition of its merits. He also published 
' Original Views of London as it is,' drawn 
and lithographed by himself, London, 1843. 
He drew the illustrations to Blackie's ( His- 
tory of England,' and etched some plates for 
Ruskin's 'Stones of Venice.' Boys was a 
member of the Institute of Painters in Water 
Colours, and of several foreign artistic so- 
cieties. He died in 1874. The British Mu- 
seum possesses two fine views of Paris by 
him, drawn in water-colours, and another is 
in the South Kensington Museum. 

[Ottley's Biographical and Critical Dictionary 
of Recent and Living Painters and Engravers, 
London, 1866, 8vo; MS. notes in the British 
Museum.] L. F. 

BOYS, WILLIAM (1735-1803), surgeon 
and topographer, was born at Deal on 7 Sept. 
1735. He was of an old Kent family (HAS- 
TED, History of Kent, iii. 109), being the 
eldest son of Commodore William Boys, 
R.N., lieutenant-governor of Greenwich Hos- 
pital, by his wife, Elizabeth Pearson of Deal 
( Gent. Mag. Ixxiii. pt. i. 421-3). About 1755 
he was a surgeon at Sandwich, where he was 
noted for his untiring explorations of Rich- 
borough Castle, for skill in deciphering anciert 

manuscripts and inscriptions, for his zeal in 
collecting antiquities connected with Sand- 
wich, and for his studies in astronomy, natural 
history, and mathematics. In 1759 he married 
Elizabeth Wise, a daughter of Henry Wise, 
one of the Sandwich jurats (ib.\ and by her 
he had two children. In 1761 he was elected 
jurat, acting with his wife's father. In the 
same year, 1761, she died, and in the next 
year, 1762, he married Jane Fuller, coheiress 
of her uncle, one John Paramor of Staten- 
borough ($.) In 1767 Boys was mayor of 
Sandwich. In 1774 his father died atGreen- 
i wich (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ix. 24 n.} In 1775 
i appeared his first publication a memorial 
i to resist a scheme for draining a large tract 
I of the neighbouring land, which it was thought 
i would destroy Sandwich harbour. Boys drew 
it up as one of the commissioners of sewers, 
on behalf of the corporation, and it was pub- 
| lished at Canterbury in 1775 anonymously 
i (Gent. Mag. Ixxiii. pt. i. 421-3). In 1776 
Boys was elected F.S.A. In 1782 he again 
served as mayor. In 1783 his second wife 
died, having borne him eight or nine children 
(ib., and HASTED, Hist, of Kent, iv. 222 n.} 
In the same year Boys furnished the Rev. John 
Duncombe with much matter relating to the 
Reculvers, printed in Duncombe's ' Antiqui- 
ties of Reculver.' In 1784 was published 
' Testacea Minuta Rariora,' 4to, being plates 
and description of the tiny shells found on 
the seashore near Sandwich, by Boys, ' that 
inquisitive naturalist ' (Introd. p. i). The book 
was put together by George Walker, Boys 
himself being too much occupied by his pro- 
fession. In 1786 Boys issued proposals for 
publishing his ' Collections for a History of 
Sandwich ' at a price which should only cover 
its expenses, and placed his materials in the 
hands of the printers (NICHOLS, Lit. III. vi. 
613). In 1787 Boys published an < Account 
of the Loss of the Luxborough,' 4to (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 24), a case of cannibalism, in 
which his father (Commodore Boys) had been 
one of the men compelled to resort to this 
horrible means of preserving life. Boys had 
a series of pictures hung up in his parlour 
portraying the whole of the terrible circum- 
stances (Pennant, in his Journey from Lon- 
don to the Isle of Wight, quoted in NICHOLS'S 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 24 n.} Of this ' Account/ as 
a separate publication, there is now no trace ; 
but it appears in full in the 'History of 
Greenwich Hospital,' by John Cooke and 
John Maule, 1789, pp. 110 et seq.; it is also 
stated there that six small paintings in the 
council room of the hospital (presumably 
replicas of those seen by Pennant in the 
possession of William Boys) represent this 
passage in the history of the late gallant 




lieutenant-governor. In 1788 appeared the 
first part of * Sandwich,' and in 1789 Boys was 
appointed surgeon to the sick and wounded 
seamen at Deal. Over the second part of 
' Sandwich ' there was considerable delay and 
anxiety (Letter from Denne, NICHOLS'S 
Lit. III. vi. 613) ; but in 1792 the volume 
was issued at much pecuniary loss to Boys. 
In 1792 Boys also sent Dr. Simmons some 
* Observations on Kit's Coity House/ which 
were read at the Society of Antiquaries, and 
appeared in vol. xi. of ' Archaeologia.' In 
1796 he gave up his Sandwich practice and 
went to reside at Walmer, but returned to 
Sandwich at the end of three years, in 1799. 
His health had now declined. He had apo- 
plectic attacks in 1799, and died of apoplexy 
on 15 March 1803, aged 68. 

Boys was buried in St. Clement's Church, 
Sandwich, where there is a Latin epitaph to 
his memory, a suggestion for a monument with 
some doggerel verses, from a correspondent to 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (Ixxiii. pt. ii. 
612), having fallen through. He was a 
member of the Linnean Society, and a con- 
tributor to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (In- 
dex, vol. iii. preface, p. Ixxiv). A new fern 
found by him at Sandwich was named Sterna 
Boysii, after him, by Latham in his ' Index 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit., where 'Sandwich 5 is said, 
wrongly, to have consisted of three parts, and to 
have been published in London ; Grent. Mag. 
Ixxiii. pt. i. 293, 421-3; Hasted's Kent, iii. 109, 
557 n. u, iv. 222 n. i ; Nichols's Lit. 111. iv. 676, 
vi. 613, 653, 685, 687 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 
24-27 nn.] J. H. 

r BOYSE, JOSEPH (1660-1728), presby- 
terian minister, born at Leeds on 14 Jan. 1660, 
was one of sixteen children of Matthew Boyse, 
a puritan, formerly elder of the church at Row- 
ley, New England, and afterwards a resident 
for about eighteen years at Boston, Mass. He 
was admitted into the academy of Richard 
Frankland, M.A., at Natland,near Kendal, on 
16 April 1675, and went thence in 1678 to 
the academy at Stepney under Edward Veal, 
B.D. (ejected from the senior fellowship at 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1661 ; died 6 June 
1708, aged 76). Boyse's first ministerial en- 
gagement was at Glassenbury, near Cran- 
brook, Kent, where he preached nearly a year 
(from the autumn of 1679). He was next 
domestic chaplain, during the latter half of 
1681 and spring of 1682, to the Dowager 
Countess of Donegal (Letitia, daughter of Sir 
William Hickes) in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
For six months in 1682 he ministered to the 
Brownist church at Amsterdam, in the ab- 
sence of the regular minister, but he did not 

swerve from his presbyterianism. He would 
have settled in England but for the penal 
Laws against dissent. On the death of his 
friend T. Haliday in 1683, he succeeded him 
at Dublin, and there pursued a popular 
ministry for forty-five years. His ordination 
sermon was preached by John Pinney, ejected 
from Broad winsor, Dorsetshire. The pres- 
byterianism of Dublin and the south of Ireland 
was of the English type ; that of the north 
was chiefly Scottish in origin and discipline. 
But there was occasional co-operation, and 
there were from time to time congregations 
in Dublin adhering to the northern body. 
Boyse did his part in promoting a community 
of spirit between the northern and southern 
presbyterians of Ireland. Naturally he kept 
up a good deal of communication with Eng- 
lish brethren. From May 1691 to June 1702 
Boyse had Emlyn as his colleague at Wood 
Street. Meanwhile Boyse came forward as a 
controversialist on behalf of presbyterian dis- 
sent. In this capacity he proved himself cau- 
tious, candid, and powerful ; ' vindication,' the 
leading word on many of his polemical title- 
pages, well describes his constant aim. First of 
his works is the ' Vindicise Calvinisticse,' 1688, 
4to, an able epistle (with the pseudo-signa- 
ture W. B., D.D.), in reply to William King 
(1650-1712), then chancellor of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, who had attacked the presbyterians 
in his f Answer ' to the ' Considerations ' of 
Peter Manby (d. 1697), ex-dean of Derry, 
who had turned catholic. Again, when Go- 
vernor Walker of Derry described Alexander 
Osborne (a presbyterian minister, originally 
from co. Tyrone, who had been called to 
Newmarket, Dublin, 6 Dec. 1687) as ' a spy 
of Tyrconnel,' Boyse put forth a ' Vindica- 
tion/ 1690, 4to, a tract of historical value. 
He was a second time in the field against 
King, now bishop of Derry (who had fulmi- 
nated against presbyterian forms of worship), 
in l Remarks,' 1694, and l Vindication of the 
Remarks,' 1695. Early in the latter year he 
had printed anonymously a folio tract, f The 
Case of the Protestant Dissenters in Ireland 
in reference to a Bill of Indulgence,' &c., to 
which Tobias Pullen, bishop of Dromore, 
wrote an anonymous answer, and Anthony 
Dopping, bishop of Meath, another reply, like- 
wise anonymous. Both prelates were against 
a legal toleration for Irish dissent. Boyse re- 
torted on them in ' The Case . . . Vindicated,' 
1695. But the day for a toleration was not yet 
come. The Irish parliament rejected bill after 
bill brought forward in the interest of dis- 
senters. The harmony of Boyse's ministerial 
relations was broken in 1702 by the episode 
of his colleague's deposition, and subsequent 
trial, for a blasphemous libel on the ground 




of an anti-trinitarian publication [see EMLYN, 
THOMAS]. Boyse (who had himself been under 
some suspicion of Pelagianism) moved in the 
matter with manifest reluctance, had no hand 
in the public prosecution, and made strenuous, 
and at length successful, efforts to free Emlyn 
from incarceration. Boyse drew up, with much 
moderation, ' The Difference between Mr. E. 
and the Dissenting Ministers of D. truly re- 
presented ; ' and published ' A Vindication 
of the True Deity of our Blessed Saviour,' 
1703, 8vo (2nd ed. 1710, 8vo), in answer to 
Emlyn's * Humble Inquiry.' Emlyn thinks 
that Boyse might have abstained from writing 
against him while the trial was pending ; but 
it is probable that Boyse's able defence of the j 
doctrine in dispute gave weight to his inter- I 
cession. Boyse at this early date takes note j 
that ' the Unitarians are coming over to the 
deists in point of doctrine.' Emlyn's place as 
Boyse's colleague was supplied by Richard 
Choppin, a Dublin man (licensed 1702, or- 
dained 1704, died 1741). In 1708 Boyse issued 
a volume of fifteen sermons, of which the last 
was an ordination discourse on 'The Office of a 
Scriptural Bishop,' with a polemical appendix. 
This received answers from Edward Drury 
and Matthew French, curates in Dublin, and 
the discourse itself was, without Boyse's con- 
sent, reprinted separately in 1709, 8vo. He 
had, however, the opportunity of adding a vo- 
luminous postscript, in which he replied to the 
above answers, and he continued the contro- 
versy in * A Clear Account of the Ancient 
Episcopacy,' 1712. Meantime the reprint of 
his sermon, with postscript, was burned by 
the common hangman, by order of the Irish 
House of Lords, in November 1711. This 
was King's last argument against Boyse ; now 
the archbishop of Dublin writes to Swift, 
' we burned Mr. Boyse's book of a scriptural 
bishop.' Once more Boyse came forward in 
defence of dissent, in ' Remarks,' 1716, on a 
pamphlet by William Tisdall, D.D., vicar of 
Belfast, respecting the sacramental test. Boyse 
had been one of tliepatroni of the academy at 
Whitehaveri (1708-19), under Thomas Dixon, 
M.D., and on its cessation he had to do with 
the settlement in Dublin of Francis Hutche- 
son, the ethical writer, as head (till 1729) of 
a somewhat similar institution, in which 
Boyse taught divinity. He soon became in- 
volved in the nonsubscription controversy. 
At the synod in Belfast, 1721, he was present 
as a commissioner from Dublin ; protested with 
his colleague, in the name of the Dublin pres- 
bytery, against the vote allowing a voluntary 
subscription to the Westminster Confession ; 
and succeeded in carrying a ' charitable decla- 
ration,' freeing nonsubscribers from censure 
and recommending mutual forbearance. The 

preface to Abernethy's ' Seasonable Advice/ 
1722, and the postscript to his ' Defence ' of 
the same, 1724, are included among Boyse's 
collected works, though signed also by his 
Dublin brethren, Nathaniel Weld and Chop- 
pin. In the same year he preached (24 June) 
at Londonderry during the sitting of the 
general synod of Ulster. His text was John 
viii. 34, 35, and the publication of the dis- 
course, which strongly deprecated disunion, 
was urged by men of both parties. Next year, 
being unable through illness to offer peaceful 
counsels in person, he printed the sermon. 
Perhaps his pacific endeavours were dis- 
counted by the awkward circumstance that 
at this synod (1723) a letter was received from 
him announcing a proposed change in the 
management of the regium donum, viz. that 
it be distributed by a body of trustees in Lon- 
don, with the express view of checking the 
high-handed party in the synod. The rupture 
j between the southern and northern presby- 
i terians was completed by the installation of 
! a nonsubscriber, Alexander Colville, M.D., 
1 on 25 Oct. 1725 at Dromore, co. Down, by the 
! Dublin presbytery ; Boyse was not one of the 
i installers. He published in 1726 a lengthy 
letter to the presbyterian ministers of the 
north, in ' vindication ' of a private commu- 
nication on their disputes, which had been 
| printed without his knowledge. Writing to 
i the Rev. Thomas Steward of Bury St. Ed- 
i munds (d. 10 Sept. 1753, aged 84) on 1 Nov. 
I 1726, Boyse speaks of the exclusion of the 
! nonsubscribers as 'the late shameful rup- 
! ture,' and gives an account of the new presby- 
j tery which the general synod, in pursuance 
j of its separative policy, had erected for Dub- 
lin. Controversies crowded rather thickly 
on Boyse, considering the moderation of his 
views and temper. He always wrote like a 
gentleman. He published several sermons 
against Romanists, and a letter (with appen- 
dix) 'Concerning the Pretended Infallibility of 
the Romish Church,' addressed to a protestant 
divine who had written against Rome. His 
' Some Queries offered to the Consideration 
of the People called Quakers, &c.,' called 
forth, shortly before Boyse's death, a reply 
| by Samuel Fuller, a Dublin schoolmaster. It 
is possible that in polemics Boyse sought a re- 
( lief from domestic sorrow, due to his son's 
career. He died in straitened circumstances 
on 22 Nov. 1728, leaving a son, Samuel [q. v.] 
(the biographers of this son have not usually 
mentioned that he was one of the deputation 
to present the address from the general synod 
of Ulster on the accession of George I), and a 
daughter, married to Mr. Waddington. He 
was succeeded in his ministry by Abernethy 
(in 1730). Boyse's works were collected by 


himself in two huge folios, London, 
(usually bound in one ; they are the earliest ii 
not the only folios published by a presbyterian 
minister of Ireland). Prefixed is a recom- 
mendation (dated 23 April 1728) signed by 
Calamy and five other London ministers. 
The first volume contains seventy-one ser- 
mons (several being funeral, ordination, and 
anniversary discourses ; many had already 
been collected in two volumes, 1708-10, 8vo), 
and several tracts on justification. Embedded 
among the sermons (at p. 326) is a very cu- 
rious piece of puritan autobiography, ' Some 
Remarkable Passages in the Life and Death of 
Mr. Edmund Trench.' The second volume is 
wholly controversial. Not included in these 
volumes are : 1. ' Vindication of Osborne ' (see 
above). 2. 'Sacramental Hymns collected 
(chiefly) out of such Passages of the New Tes- 
tament as contain the most suitable matter of 
Divine Praises in the Celebration of the Lord's 
Supper, &c.,' Dublin, 1693, small 8vo, with 
another title-page, London, 1693. (This 
little book, overlooked by his biographers, is 
valuable as illustrating Boyse's theology : it 
nominally contains twenty-three hymns, but 
reckoning doublets in different metres there 
are forty-one pieces by Boyse, one from George 
Herbert, and two from Mr. Patrick, i.e. Simon 
Patrick, bishop of Ely. In a very curious 
preface Boyse disclaims the possession of any 
poetic genius ; but his verses, published thir- 
teen years before Isaac Watts came into the 
field, are not without merit. To the volume is 
prefixed the approval of six Dublin ministers, 
headed by ' Tho. Toy,' and including ' Tho. 
Emlin.') 3. 'Case of the Protestant Dis- 
senters ' (see above. The tract is so rare that 
Reid knows only of the copy at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. The vindication of it is in the 
' Works '). 4. ' Family Hymns for Morning 
and Evening Worship. With some for the 
Lord's Days. . . . All taken out of the Psalms 
of David,' Dublin, 1701, 16mo. (Unknown 
to bibliographers. Contains preface, recom- 
mendation by six Dublin ministers, and 
seventy-six hymns, in three parts, with music. 
Boyse admits ' borrowing a few expressions 
from some former versions.' The poetry is 
superior to his former effort. A copy, un- 
catalogued, is in the Antrim Presbytery 
Library at Queen's College, Belfast.) 5. 'The 
Difference between Mr. E. and the Dissenting 
Ministers of D., &c.' (see above. Emlyn re- '[ 
prints it in the appendix to his ' Narrative,' 
1719, and says Boyse drew it up). Of his 
separate publications an incomplete list is 
furnished by Witherow. The bibliography 
of the earlier ones is better given in Reid. 
Boyse wrote the Latin inscription on the 
original pedestal (1701) of the equestrian 


statue of William III in College Green, 

[Choppin's Funeral Sermon, 1728 ; Towers, in 
Biog. Brit. ii. (1780), 531 ; Calamy's Hist. Ace. 
of my own Life, 2nd ed. 1830, ii. 515; Thorn's 
Liverpool Churches and Chapels, 1864, 68 ; 
Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presbyte- 
rianism in Ireland, 1st ser. 1879, p. 79, 2nd ser. 
1880, p. 74 ; Keid's Hist. Presb. Ch. in Ireland 
(ed. Killen), 1867,vols.ii. iii. ; Anderson's British 
Poets, 1794,x. 327 ; Monthly Kepos. 1811, pp.204, 
261; Christian Moderator, 1826, p. 34; Arm- 
strong's Appendix to Ordination Service (James 
Martineau), 1829, p. 70 ; Lodge's Peerage of Ire- 
Ian d(ed. A rchdall), 1789 (re Countess Donegal); 
Winder's MSS. in Kenshaw Street Chapel Li- 
brary, Liverpool (re Whitehaven) ; Narrative of 
the Proceedings of Seven General Synods of the 
Northern Presbyterians in Ireland, 1727, p. 47 ; 
manuscript extracts from Minutes of General 
Synod, 1721 ; Smith's Biblioth. Anti-Quak. 1782, 
p. 82.] A. G. 

BOYSE, SAMUEL (1708-1749), poet, 
was the son of Joseph Boyse [q. v.], a dissent- 
ing minister, and was born in Dublin in 1708. 
He was educated at a private school in Dub- 
lin and at the university of Glasgow. His 
studies were interrupted by his marriage when 
twenty with a Miss Atchenson. He returned 
to Dublin with his wife, and lived in his 
father's house without adopting any profes- 
sion. His father died in 1728, and in 1730 
Boyse went to Edinburgh. He had printed 
a letter on Liberty in the ' Dublin Journal,' 
No. xcvii., in 1726, but his regular commence- 
ment as an author dates from 1731, when he 
printed his first book, 'Translations and 
Poems/ in Edinburgh. He was patronised 
by the Scottish nobility, and in this volume 
and in some later poems wrote in praise of his 
patrons. An elegy on the death of Viscountess 
stormont, called ' The Tears of the Muses/ 
1736, procured for Boyse a valuable reward 
Torn her husband, and the Duchess of Gordon 
*uve the poet an introduction for a post in 
jhe customs. The day on which he ought to 
lave applied was stormy, and Boyse chose to 
.ose the place rather than face the rain. Debts 
at length compelled him to fly from Edin- 
burgh. His patrons gave him introductions 
:o the chief poet of the day, Mr. Pope, to the 
.ord chancellor, and to Mr. Murray, after- 
wards Lord Mansfield, and then solicitor- 
general. Boyse had, however, not sufficient 
steadiness to improve advantages, and wasted 
the opportunities which these introductions 
might have given him of procuring a start in 
the world of letters or a settlement in life. 
Pope happened to be from home, and Boyse 
never called again. The phrases of Johnson 
may be recognised in a description of him at 




this time, which relates that l he had no power 
of maintaining the dignity of wit, and though 
his understanding was very extensive, yet but 
a few could discover that he had any genius 
above the common rank. He had so strong a 
propension to groveling that his acquaintance 
were generally of such a cast as could be of 
no service to him ' (CiBBER, Lives of the Poets, 
1753, v. 167). In 1739 Boyse published < The 
Deity : a Poem ; ' in 1742 The Praise ot 
Peace, a poem in three cantos from the Dutch 
of Mr. Van Haren.' He translated Fenelon 
on the demonstration of the existence of God, 
and modernised the ' Squire's Tale ' and the 
1 Coke's Tale ' from Chaucer. These, with se- 
veral papers in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
signed Alcseus, were his chief publications in 
London. At Reading, in 1747, he published, 
in two volumes, ' An Historical Review of the 
Transactions of Europe, 1739-45.' When 
the payments of the booksellers did not satisfy 
his wants, Boyse begged from sectaries, to 
whom his father's theological reputation was 
known, and when their patience was exhausted 
from any one likely to give. Two of his begging 
letters are preserved in the British Museum 
(Sloane MS. 4033 B). A sentence in one 
of these shows how abject a beggar the poet 
had become. * You were pleased,' he writes 
to Sir Hans Sloane, l to give my wife the en- 
closed shilling last night. I doubt not but 
you thought it a good one, but as it happened 
otherwise you will forgive the trouble occa- 
sioned by the mistake.' The letter is dated 
14 Feb. 1738. Two years later he was re- 
duced to greater straits. ' It was about the 
year 1740 that Mr. Boyse, reduced to the last 
extremity of human wretchedness, had not a 
shirt, a coat, or any kind of apparel to put 
on ; the sheets in which he lay were carried 
to the pawnbrokers, and he was obliged to be 
confined to bed with no other covering than 
a blanket. Daring this time he had some 
employment in writing verses for the maga- 
zines, and whoever had seen him in his study 
must have thought the object singular enough. 
He sat up in bed with a blanket wrapped 
about him, through which he had cut a hole 
large enough to admit his arm, and placing 
the paper upon his knee scribbled, in the best 
manner he could, the verses he was obliged 
to make ' (CiBBER, Lives of the Poets, v. 169). 
Necessity is the mother of invention, and 
Boyse's indigence led him to the discovery of 
paper collars. ' Whenever his distresses so 
pressed as to induce him to dispose of his 
shirt, he fell upon an artificial method of sup- 
plying one. He cut some white paper in 
slips, which he tyed round his wrists, and in 
the same manner supplied his neck. In this 
plight he frequently appeared abroad, with 

the additional inconvenience of want of 
breeches ' (CiBBER, v. 169). In the midst of 
this deserved squalor, and with vicious pro- 
pensities and ridiculous affectations, Boyse 
had some knowledge of literature and some 
interesting, if untrustworthy, conversation. 
It was this and his miseries, and some traces 
which he now and then showed of a religious 
education, not quite obliterated by a neglect 
of all its precepts, which obtained for him the 
acquaintance of Johnson. Shiel's ' Life of 
Boyse ' (CIBBER, v. 160) contains Johnson's 
recollections. Mrs. Boyse died in 1745 at 
Reading, where Boyse had gone to live. On 
his return to London two years later he mar- 
ried again. His second wife seems to have 
been an uneducated woman, but she induced 
him to live more regularly and to dress de- 
cently. His last illness had, however, begun, 
and after a lingering phthisis he died in 
lodgings near Shoe Lane in May 1749. John- 
son could not collect money enough to pay 
for a funeral, but he obtained the distinction 
from other paupers for Boyse, that the ser- 
vice of the church was separately performed 
over his corpse. 

Besides his literary attainments, Boyse is 
said to have had a taste for painting and for 
music,and an extensive knowledge of heraldry. 
' The Deity, a Poem,' is the best known of his 
works. It appeared in 1729, went through 
two editions in the author's lifetime, and has 
been since printed in several collections of the 
English poets (' The British Poets,' Chiswick, 
1822, vol. lix.; Park's 'British Poets,' London, 
1808, vol. xxxiii.) Fielding quotes some lines 
from it on the theatre of time in the com- 
parison between the world and the stage, 
which is the introduction to book vii. of 
1 Tom Jones.' He praises the lines, and says 
that the quotation f is taken from a poem 
called the Deity, published about nine years 
ago, and long since buried in oblivion. A 
proof that good books no more than good men 
ido always survive the bad.' It was perhaps 
a knowledge of Boyse's miseries which made 
Fielding praise him. The poem was obviously 
suggested by the ' Essay on Man,' and the 
arrangement of its parts is that common in 
theological treatises on the attributes of God. 
The edition of 1749 contains some alterations. 
These are unimportant, as ' celestial wisdom ' 
(1739) altered to 'celestial spirit' (1749); 
' doubtful gloom ' (1739) to ' dubious gloom ' 
(1749) ; while the few added lines can neither 
raise nor depress the quality of the poem. In 
some of Boyse's minor poems recollections of 
Spenser, of Milton, of Cowley, and of Prior 
may be traced. False rhymes are not un- 
common in his verse, but the lines are usually 
tolerable. Some of his best are in a poem on 




Loch Kian, in which Lord Stair's character is 
compared to the steadfast rock of Ailsa, with 
a coincident allusion to the Stair crest and 
the family motto ' Firm.' Four six-line verses 
entitled ' Stanzas to a Candle/ in which the 
author compares his fading career to the nick- 
ering and burning out of the candle on his 
table, are the most original of all Boyse's 
poems. They are free from affectation, and 
show Boyse for once in a true poetic mood, 
neither racking his brains for imagery nor 
using his memory to help out the verse ; not 
writing at threepence a line for the bookseller, 
but recording a poetic association clearly de- 
rived from the object before him. 

[Gibber's Lives of the Poets, 1753, vol. v. ; 
Boswell's Life of Johnson, 1791; Sloane MS. 
4033 B ; Boyse's Works.] N. M. 

BRABAZON, ROGER LE (d. 1||17), 

judge, descended from an ancient family of 
Normandy, the founder of which, Jacques le 
Brabazon of Brabazon Castle, came over with 
William the Conqueror, his name occurring 
in the Roll of Battle Abbey. The name is 
variously spelt Brabacon, Brabancon, and 
Brabanson, and was originally given to one of 
the roving bands of mercenaries common in 
the middle ages. His great-grandson Thomas 
acquired the estate of Moseley in Leicester- 
shire, by marriage with Amicia, heiress of 
John de Moseley. Their son, Sir Roger, who 
further acquired Eastwill in the same county, 
married Beatrix, the eldest of the three sisters, 
and coheirs of Hansel de Bisset, and by her 
had two sons, of whom the elder was Roger, 
the judge. Roger was a lawyer of consider- 
able learning, and practised before the great 
judge De Hengham. His first legal office was 
as justice itinerant of pleas of the forest in 
Lancashire, which he held in 1287. In 1289, 
when almost all the existing judges were re- 
moved for extortion and-corrupt practices, 
Brabazon was made a justice of the king's 
bench, receiving a salary of 331. 6s. 8d. per 
annum, being as much greater (viz. 61. 13s. 4rf.) 
than the salaries of the other puisne justices as 
it was less than the salary of the chief justice. 
"When Edward I, though acting as arbitrator 
between the rival claimants to the crown of 
Scotland, resolved to claim the suzerainty for 
himself, Brabazon (though not then chief jus- 
ticiary as one account has it, the office then 
no longer existing) was employed to search 
for some legal justification for the claim. By 
warping the facts he succeeded in making out 
some shadow of a title, and accordingly at- 
tended Edward and his parliament at Nor- 
ham. The Scottish nobles and clergy assem- 
bled there on 10 May 1291, and Brabazon, 
speaking in French, the then court language of 

Scotland, announced the king's determination, 
and stated the grounds for it. A notary and 
witnesses were at hand, and he called on the 
nobles to do homage to Edward as lord para- 
mount of Scotland. To this the Scotch de- 
murred, and asked time for deliberation. Bra- 
bazon referred to the king, and appointed the 
day following for their decision ; but the time 
was eventually extended to 1 June. Brabazon, 
however, did not remain in Scotland till then, 
but returned south to the business of his court, 
acting as justice itinerant in the west of Eng- 
land in this year. After the Scottish crown 
had been adjudged to Baliol, Brabazon con- 
tinued to be employed upon a plan for the 
subjection of Scotland. He was one of a body 
of commissioners to whom Edward referred a 
complaint of Roger Bartholomew, a burgess 
of Berwick, that English judges were exer- 
cising jurisdiction north of the Tweed ; and 
when the Scottish king presented a petition, 
alleging that Edward had promised to observe 
the Scottish law and customs, Brabazon re- 
jected it, and held that if the king had made 
any promises, while the Scottish throne was 
vacant, in derogation of his just suzerainty, 
such promises were temporary only and not 
binding; and as to the conduct of the judges 
they were deputed by the king as superior and 
direct lord of Scotland, and represented his 
person. Encouraged by this decision, Mac- 
Duff, earl of Fife, appealed against the Scottish 
king to the English House of Lords, and on 
the advice of Brabazon and other judges it 
was held that the king must come as a vassal 
to the bar and plead, and upon his contumacy 
three of his castles were seized. He is found 
in 1293 sitting in Westchepe, and with other 
judges sentencing three men to mutilation by 
loss of the right hand. But, although sitting 
as a puisne judge, Brabazon, owing to the 
political events in which he was engaged, had 
completely overshadowed Gilbert de Thorn- 
ton, the chief justice of his court. The time 
was now arrived to reward him. In 1295 
Gilbert de Thornton was removed and Bra- 
bazon succeeded him, and being reappointed 
immediately upon the accession of Edward II, 
6 Sept. 1307, continued in that office until his 
retirement in 1316. He had been a commis- 
sioner of array for the counties of Nottingham, 
Derby, Lancaster, Cumberland, Westmore- 
land, and York, in 1296, and was constantly 
summoned to the parliaments which met at 
Westminster, Salisbury, Lincoln, Carlisle, 
Northampton, Stamford, and York up to 
1314. In 1297 Brabazon's position pointed 
to him naturally as a member of the council 
of Edward, the king's son, when left by his 
father in England as lieutenant of the king- 
dom. On 1 April 1300 he was appointed to 




perambulate the royal forests in Salop, Staf- 
fordshire, and Derby, and call the officers to 
account. In 1305 he is named with John de j 
Lisle as an additional justice in case of need j 
in Sussex, Surrey, Kent, and Middlesex, pur- 
suant to an ordinance of trailbaston, and al- 
though the writ is cancelled, he certainly 
acted, for he sat at Guildhall ' ad recipiendas 
billas super articulis de trailbaston.' In 
the same year, being present at the parlia- 
ment held at Westminster, he was appointed 
and sworn in as a commissioner to treat with 
the Scotch representatives concerning the 
government of Scotland. On 29 Oct. 1307 he 
sat at the Tower of London on the trial of the 
Earl of Athole and convicted him. In 1308, 
having been appointed to try certain com- 
plaints against the bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, Brabazon was ordered (19 Feb.) to 
adjourn the hearing, in order to attend the 
coronation of Edward II. He was twice as- 
signed to hold pleas at York in 1309 and 
1312, was detained specially in London in the 
summer of 1313 to advise the king on matters 
of high importance, and was still invested 
with the office of commissioner of forests in 
Stafford, Huntingdon, Rutland, Salop, and 
Oxon, as late as 1316. 

All these labours told severely on his health. 
Broken by age and infirmity he, on 23 Feb. 

1316, asked leave to resign his office of chief 
justice. Leave was granted in a very lauda- 
tory patent of discharge ; but he remained a 
member of the privy council, and was to at- 
tend in parliament whenever his health per- 
mitted. He was succeeded by William Inge, 
but did not long survive. He died on 13 June 

1317, and his executor, John de Brabazon, 
had masses said for him at Dunstable Abbey. 
He was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. He 
appears to have had a high character for learn- 
ing. To his abilities his honours and offices 
bear testimony, whatever blame may attach 
to him for his course in politics. He was 
a landowner in several counties. In 1296 he 
is enrolled, pursuant to an ordinance for the 
defence of the sea-coast, as a knight holding 
lands in Essex, but non-resident, and in the 
year following he was summoned as a land- 
owner in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire to 
attend in person at the muster at Nottingham 
for military service in Scotland with arms and 
horses. In 1310 he had lands in Leicester- 
shire, and in 1316 at Silbertoft and Sulby in 
Northamptonshire, at East Bridgeford and 
Hawkesworth in Nottinghamshire, and at 
Rollright in Oxfordshire. The property at 
East Bridgeford came to him through his wife 
Beatrix, daughter of Sir John de Sproxton, 
with the advowson of the church appurtenant 
to the manor. As to this he was long engaged 

in a dispute, for after he had presented a clerk 
to the living and the ordinary had instituted 
him, one Bonifacius de Saluce or Saluciis, 
claiming apparently through some right con- 
nected with the chapel of Trykehull, intruded 
upon the living and got possession, and 
though Brabazon petitioned for his removal 
as early as 1300, the intruding priest was 
still unousted in 1315. Brabazon left no issue, 
his one son having died young ; he had a 
daughter, Albreda, who married William le 
Graunt ; his property passed to his brother 
Matthew, from whom descend the present 
earls of Meath, barons Brabazon of Ardee, in 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Campbell's Lives 
of the Chief Justices, i. 78 ; Dugdale's Origines ; 
Tytler's Scotland, i. 80 ; History of the Family 
of Brabazon ; Kot. Pat. 9 Edw. II ; Thurston's 
Notts, i. 294 ; Biographical Peerage, iv. 30 ; 
Boberts's Calend. Genealogicum, 461 ; Parlia- 
mentary Bolls, i. 138, 218, 267, 301 ; Palgrave's 
Parliamentary Writs, i. 490, ii. 581; Luard's 
Annales Monastic!, iii. 410, iv. 506; Stubbs's 
Chronicles Edw. I and II, i. 102, 137, 149, 280.] 

J. A. H. 

BRABAZON, Sm WILLIAM (d. 1552), 
vice- treasurer and lord justice of Ireland, 
was descended from the family of Roger le 
Brabazon [q. v.], and was the son of John 
Brabazon of Eastwell, Leicestershire, and a 
daughter of Chaworth. After succeeding 
his father he was knighted on 20 Aug. 1534, 
and appointed vice-treasurer and general 
receiver of Ireland. In a letter from Chief- 
justice Aylmer to Lord Cromwell in August 
1535 he is styled ' the man that prevented 
the total ruin and desolation of the king- 
dom.' In 1536 he prevented the ravages 
of O'Connor in Carberry by burning several 
villages in Offaly and carrying away great 

tive a speech in support of establishing the 

popo that ho ponDuadod tno pajiiamont to 
paoo tho bill fog that pujpooo. Ao a i-eoult >*& 
of thio; many poligiouo hotieoo wore in 1539 
anrronflQrod tn thp king For these and 

other services he was, on 1 Oct. 1543, con- 
stituted lord justice of Ireland, and he was 
again appointed to the same office on 1 April 
1546. In the same year he drove Patrick 
O'More and Brian O'Connor from Kildare. 
In April 1547 he was elected a member of 
the privy council of Ireland. In the spring 
of 1548 he assisted the lord deputy in sub- 
duing a sedition raised in Kildare by the 
sons of Viscount Baltinglass. He was a 
third time made lord justice on 2 Feb. 1549. 
In August 1550, with the aid of 8,000/. and 
400 men from England, he subdued Charles 




Mac-Art-Cavenagh, who, after making sub- 
mission and renouncing his name, received 
pardon. Brabazon died on 9 July 1552 (as 
is proved by the inquisitions taken in the 
year of his death), not in 1548 as recorded 
on his tombstone. His heart was buried 
with his ancestors at Eastwell, and his body 
in the chancel of St. Catherine's Church, 
Dublin. By his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
and coheir to Nicholas Clifford of Holme, 
he left two sons and three daughters. 

[Lodge's Peerage (Archdall), i. 265-70 ; Genea- 
logical History of the Family of Brabazon ; Gal. 
State Papers, Irish Series; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Series, Henry VIII; Cal. Carew MSS. 
vol. i. ; Cox's History of Ireland ; Bagwell's 
Ireland under the Tudors, vol. i.] T. F. H. 


1590), writer on the Sabbath question, was 
a native of Norwich. The date of his birth 
is fixed by his own statement in 1654 : ' I am 
64 yeares of age ' (Answer to Cawdry, p. 75). 
His father was a puritan hosier, who edu- 
cated his son at the free school of Norwich till 
he was fifteen years of age, and designed him 
for the church. Incidentally he mentions 
some curious particulars of Sunday trading 
in Norwich during his schoolboy days, and 
says that the city waits played regularly at 
the market cross { on the latter part of the 
Lord's day,' in the presence of thousands of 
people. When the lad should have gone to 
Cambridge, the silencing of many puritan 
ministers for non-compliance with the cere- 
monies induced the father to take him into 
his own business, and send him to London, 
as factor for selling stockings wholesale. He 
remained in London till his marriage to 
Abigail, daughter of Koger and Joane Gal- 
liard. He was thus brother-in-law of Ben- 
jamin Fairfax who married Sarah Galliard. 
After his marriage, Brabourne lived for two or 
three years at Norwich with his father, and 
resuming his intention of entering the minis- 
try, he studied privately under ' three able 
divines.' He seems to have been episcopally 
ordained before 1628, and it is probable that 
he officiated (Collings says he got a curacy 
of 40/. a year) in Norwich ; there is no in- 
dication of his having been connected with 
any other place after he left London, though 
Wood, probably by a clerical error, calls 
him a Suffolk minister. In 1628 appeared 
his 'Discourse upon the Sabbath Day/ in 
which he impugns the received doctrine of 
the sabbatical character of the Lord's day, 
and maintains that Saturday is still the 
sabbath. Hence Robert Cox regards him 
as ' the founder in England of the sect at 
first known as Sabbatarians, but now calling 

themselves seventh-day baptists.' This is 
quite incorrect ; Brabourne was no baptist, 
founded no sect, and, true to the original 
puritan standpoint [see BKADSHAW, WIL- 
LIAM], wrote vehemently against all separa- 
tists from the national church, and in fa- 
vour of the supremacy of the civil power in 
matters ecclesiastical. His attention had 
been drawn to the Sabbath question (' Dis- 
course,' p. 59) by a work published at Ox- 
ford in 1621 by Thomas Broad, a Glouces- 
tershire clergyman, 'Three Questions con- 
cerning the obligations of the Fourth Com- 
' mandment.' Broad rests the authority of 
I the Lord's day on the custom of the early 
church and the constitution of the church of 
j England. Brabourne leaves it to every 
i man's conscience whether he will keep the 
sabbath or the Lord's day, but decides that 
those who prefer the former are on the safe 
side. He took stronger Sabbatarian ground 
1 in his ' Defence ... of the Sabbath Day,' 
1632, a work which he had the boldness to 
dedicate to Charles I. Prior to this publica- 
| tion he appears to have held discussions on 
i the subject with several puritan ministers in 
' his neighbourhood, and claimed to have al- 
ways come off victorious. He tells us that 
he held a conference, lasting ' many days, an 
houre or two in a day,' at Ely House, Hoi- 
born, with Francis White (bishop of Nor- 
wich 1629-31, of Ely 1631-8). This was 
the beginning of his troubles ; in his own 
words, he was l tossed in the high commis- 
sion court near three years.' He lay in the 
Gatehouse at Westminster for nine weeks, 
and was then publicly examined before the 
high commission, ' near a hundred ministers 
present (besides hundreds of other people).' 
The king's advocate pleaded against him, 
and Bishop White ' read a discourse of near 
an hour long ' on his errors. Sir H. Martin, 
one of the judges of the court, moved to sue 
the king to issue his writ de hceretico combu- 
rendo, but Laud interposed. Brabourne was 
censured, and sent to Newgate, where he 
remained eighteen months. When he had 
been a year in prison, he was again exa- 
mined before Laud, who told him that if he 
had stopped with what he said of the Lord's 
day, namely that it is not a sabbath of 
divine institution, but a holy day of the 
church, ' we should not have troubled you.' 
Ultimately, he made his submission to the 
high commission court. The Document is 
called a recantation, but when safe from the 
clutches of the court, Brabourne explained 
that all he had actually retracted was the 
word 'necessarily.' He had affirmed 'that 
Saturday ought necessarily to be our sab- 
bath j ' this he admitted to be a ' rash and 




of God's, the Sabbath Day. . . . Under- 
taken against all Anti-Sabbatharians, both of 
Protestants, Papists, Antinomians, and Ana- 
baptists ; and by name and especially against 
these X Ministers, M. Greenwood, M. Hut- 
chinson, M. Furnace, M. Benton, M. Gallard, 
M. Yates, M. Clmppel, M. Stinnet, M. John- 
son, and M. Wade. The second edition, 
corrected and amended; with a supply of 
many things formerly omitted. . . .' 1632, 
4to (according to Watt, the first edition was 

presumptuous error,' for his opinion, though 

true, was not ' a necessary truth.' Bra- 

bourne's book was one of the reasons which 

moved Charles I to reissue on 18 Oct. 1633 

the declaration commonly known as the 

Book of Sports ; it was by the king's com- 

mand that Bishop White wrote his ' Treatise 

of the Sabbath Day,' 1635, 4to, in the dedi- 

cation of which (to Laud) is a short account 

of Brabourne. Returning to Norwich in 

1635, Brabourne probably resumed his minis- 

try; but he got some property on the death of ! in 1631, 4to, and there was another edition 

a brother, and thenceforth gave up preach- I in 1660, 8vo. * M. Stinnet ' is Edward Sten- 

ing 1 . In 1654 he writes in his reply to John j net of Abingdon, the first English seventh- 


A ----- the 

Collings was a bitter antagonist of j Change of Church-Discipline. . . . Also a 

his non-presbyterian neighbours. Brabourne | Reply to Mr. Collins his answer made to 

had written in 1653 l The Change of Church- j Mr. Brabourne's first part of the Change of 

Discipline,' a tract against sectaries of all Church-Discipline . . .' 1654, 4to (the reply 

sorts. This stirred Collings to attack him | has a separate title-page and pagination, ' A 

in ' Indoctus Doctor Edoctus,' &c. 1654, 4to. 
A second part of Brabourne's tract pro- 

Reply to the " Indoctus Doctor Edoctus/' ' 
1654, 4to). 5. ' The Second Vindication of 

voked ' A New Lesson for the Indoctus my first Book of the Change of Discipline ; 
Doctor,' &c., 1654, 4to, to which Brabourne | being a Reply to Mr. Collings his second 
wrote a f Second Vindication ' in reply. This ; Answer to it. Also a Dispute between Mr. 
pamphlet war is marked by personalities, in \ Collings and T. Brabourne touching the 
which Collings excels. Collings tells us | Sabbath Day,' 1654, 4to (not seen). 6. ' An 
that Brabourne, after leaving the ministry, Answer to M. Cawdry's two books of the 
had tried several employments. He had Sabbath lately come forth,' &c, 1654, 12mo. 
been bolt-poake, weaver, hosier, maltster (in 6. l Answers to two books on the Sabbath : 
St. Augustine's parish), and was now ' a j the one by Mr. Ives, entitled Saturday no 
nonsensical scribbler,' who was forced to j Sabbath Day ; the other by Mr. Warren, the 
publish his books at his own expense. While Jews' Sabbath antiquated,' 1659, 8vo (not 
this dispute with Collings was going on, seen ; Jeremy Ives's book was published 1659, 
Brabourne brought out an ' Answer ' to 4to ; Edmund Warren's (of Colchester) was 
the ' Sabbatum Redivivum,' &c., of Daniel i also published 1659, 4to). 7. ' God save 

1 ' and his Parlia 


Brabourn unto the hon. Parliament, that, as 
all magistrates in the Kingdome doe in their 
office, so Bishops may be required in their 
office to own the King's supremacy,' &c. 1661, 
4to (published 5 March ; there is ; A Post- 
script, (sic) i Of many evils' (sic) which follow 

of the quest 

to Brabourne, and of course Brabourne was 
unconvinced by Cawdrey. Five years later 
he wrote on liis favourite theme against 
Ives and Warren. Nothing further is heard 
of Brabourne till after the Restoration, when 
he put out pamphlets rejoicing in liberty of 
conscience, and defending the royal supre- 
macy in ecclesiastical matters. In these 
pamphlets he spells his name Brabourn. The 
last of them was issued 18 March 1661. 
Nothing is known of Brabourne later. 

He published : 1. ' A Discourse upon the 
Sabbath Day . . . Printed the 23th (sic) of 
Decemb. anno dom. 1628,' 16mo (Brabourne 
maintains that the duration of the sabbath is 
' that space of time and light from day-peep 
or day-break in the morning, until day be 
quite off the sky at night). 2. ' A Defence 
of that most ancient and sacred Ordinance 

upon the King's grant to Bishops of a coer- 
cive power in their courts for ceremonies '). 
9. ' Of the Lavvfnluess (sic) of the Oath of 
allegiance to the King, and of the other 
oath to his supremacy. Written for the 
benefit of Quakers and others, who out of 
scruple of conscience, refuse the oath of 
allegiance and supremacy,' 1661, 4to (pub- 
lished 18 March, not included in Smith's 
' Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana,' 1872). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. i. (1691), 333 ; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 362 ; Barham's 
Collier's Eccl. Hist. 1841, viii. 76 ; Hunt's Eel. 




Thought in England, 1870, i. 135 seq. ; Hook's 
Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, xi. 
1875 (Laud), 237 seq. ; Cox's Literature of the 
Sabbath Question, 1875, i. 443, &c. ; Browne's 
Hist, of Congregationalism in Norfolk and Suf- 
folk, 1877, 494 n ; works cited above.] A. G. 

BRACEGIRDLE, ANNE (1663 P-1748), 
one of the most popular and brilliant of Eng- 
lish actresses, was born about 1663, presu- 
mably in one of the midland counties. Curll 
(History of the English Stage) calls her the 
daughter of Justinian Bracegirdle, of North- 
^mptonshire (? Northampton), esq., says 'she 

Rtifl the good fortune to be well placed when 
j aii infant under the care of Mr. Betterton and 

his wife/ and adds that ' she performed the 
page in "The Orphan," at the Duke's Theatre 
in Dorset Garden, before she was six years old.' 
' The Orphan ' was first played, at Dorset 
Garden, in 1680. With the addition of a de- 
cade to Mrs. Bracegirdle's age, which this 
date renders imperative, this story, though 
without authority and not undisputed, is re- 
concilable with facts. Downes (JRoscius An- 
glicanus) first mentions Mrs. Bracegirdle in 
connection with the Theatre Royal in 1688, 
in which year she played Lucia in Shadwell's 
' Squire of Alsatia.' Maria in Mountfort's 
' Edward III,' Emmeline in Dryden's ' King 
Arthur,' Tamira in D'Urfey's alteration of 
Chapman's 'Bussy d'Ambois,' and other 
similar parts followed. In 1693 Mrs. Brace- 
girdle made, as Araminta in the ' Old Bache- 
lor,' her first appearance in a comedy of 
Congreve, the man in whose works her chief 
triumphs were obtained, and whose name 
has subsequently, for good or ill, been most 
closely associated with her own. In the 
memorable opening, by Betterton, of the 
little theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields, in 1695, 
with 'Love for Love,' Mrs. Bracegirdle 
played Angelica. Two years later she enacted 
Belinda in the ' Provoked Wife ' of Van- 
brugh, and Almeria in Congreve's l Mourning 
Bride.' To these, which may rank' as her 
principal ' creations,' may be added the he- 
roines of some of Rowe's tragedies, Selina in 
1 Tamerlane,' Lavinia in the ' Fair Penitent,' 
and in such alterations of Shakespeare as 
were then customary ; Isabella (' Measure for 
Measure '), Portia (' Merchant of Venice '), 
Desdemona, Ophelia, Cordelia, and Mrs. Ford, 
with other characters from plays of the epoch, 
showing that her range included both comedy 
and tragedy. In the season of 1706-7 Mrs. 
Bracegirdle at the Haymarket came first into 
competition with Mrs. Oldfield, before whose 
star, then rising, her own went down. Accord- 
ing to an anonymous life of Mrs. Oldfield, 
published in 1730, the year of her death, and 
quoted by Genest (vol. ii. p. 375), the question 

whether Mrs. Oldfield or Mrs. Bracegirdle 
was the better actress in comedy was left to 
the town to settle. ' Mrs. Bracegirdle accord- 
ingly acted Mrs. Brittle ' (in Betterton's 
t Amorous Widow ') f on one night, and Mrs. 
Oldfield acted the same part on the next 
night ; the preference was adjudged to Mrs. 
Oldfield, at which Mrs. Bracegirdle was very 
much disgusted, and Mrs. Oldfield's benefit, 
being allowed by Swiney to be in the season 
before Mrs. Bracegirdle's, added so much to 
the affront that she quitted the stage imme- 
diately.' That from this time (1707) she re- 
fused all offers to rejoin the stage is certain. 
Once again she appeared upon the scene of 
her past triumphs. This was on the occasion 
of the memorable benefit to Betterton, 7 and 
13 April 1709, when, with her companion 
Mrs. Barry, she came from her retirement, 
and played in ' Love for Love ' her favourite 
role of Angelica [see BETTEETON, THOMAS]. 
After this date no more is publicly heard 
of her until 18 Sept. 1748, when her body 
was removed from her house in Howard 
Street, Strand, and interred in the east 
cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Of her 
long life less than a third was directly con- 
nected with the stage. An amount of pub- 
licity unusual even in the case of women of 
her profession was thrust upon her during 
her early life. To this the murder of 
Mountfort by Captain Hill and Lord Mohun, 
due to the passion of the former for Mrs. 
Bracegirdle and his jealousy of his victim, 
contributed. An assumption of virtue, any- 
thing but common in those of her position 
in the days in which she lived, was, however, 
a principal cause. Into the inquiry how far 
the merit of 'not being unguarded in her 
private character,' which, without a hint of 
a sneer, is conceded her by Colley Gibber, is her 
due, it is useless now to inquire. Evidence 
will be judged differently by different minds. 
Macaulay, with characteristic confidence, de- 
clares ' She seems to have been a cold, vain, 
and interested coquette, who perfectly under- 
stood how much the influence of her charms 
was increased by the fame of a severity 
which cost her nothing, and who could ven- 
ture to flirt with a succession of admirers 
in the just confidence that no flame which 
she might kindle in them would thaw her 
own ice ' (History of England, iii. 380, ed. 
1864). For this statement, to say the least 
rash, the authorities Macaulay quotes, un- 
friendly as they are, furnish no justification. 
Tom Brown, of infamous memory, utters 
sneers concerning her Abigail being ' brought 
to bed,' but imputes nothing directly to 
her; and Gildon, in that rare and curious 
though atrocious publication, ( A Comparison 




between Two Stages,' expresses his want of 
faith in the story of her innocence, concern- 
ing which, without arraigning it, he says (p. 
18), 'I believe no more on't than I believe 
of John Mandevil.' Wholly valueless is the 
evidence of these two indirect assailants 
against the general verdict of a time known 
to be censorious. Mrs. Bracegirdle may at 
least claim to have had the highest reputa- 
tion for virtue of any woman of her age ; and 
her benevolence to the unemployed poor of 
Clare Market and adjacent districts, l so that 
she could not pass that neighbourhood with- 
out the thankful acclamations of people of 
all degrees, so that, if any one affronted her, 
they would have been in danger of being 
killed directly ' (TONY ASTON), is a pleasing 
trait in her character. The story is worth 
repeating that ' Lord Halifax, overhearing 
the praise of Mrs. Bracegirdle's virtuous be- 
haviour by the Dukes of Dorset and Devon- 
shire and other nobles, said, " You all com- 
mend her virtue, &c., but why do we not 
present this incomparable woman with some- 
thing worthy her acceptance ?" His lordship 
deposited 200 guineas, which the rest made 
up to 800 and sent to her ' (Tour ASTON). 
Whether, as is insinuated in some quarters, 
she yielded to the advances of Congreve, 
whose devotion to her, like the similar de- 
votion of Howe, seemed augmented by her 
success in his pieces, and whose testimony 
in his poems appears, like all other testimony, 
to establish her virtue, remains undeter- 
mined. In her own time she was suspected, 
though her biographers ignore the fact, of 
being married to Congreve. In a poem 
called 'The Benefits of a Theatre,' which 
appears in ' The State 'Poems,' vol. iv. p. 49, 
and is no more capable of being quoted than 
are the other contents of that valuable but 
unsavoury receptacle, Congreve and Mrs. 
Bracegirdle, unmistakably associated under 
the names of Valentine and Angelica, are 
distinctly, though doubtless wrongly, stated 
to be married. Congreve left her in his will 
a legacy of 200/. Grarrick, who met Mrs. 
Bracegirdle after she had quitted the stage, 
and heard her repeat some lines from Shake- 
speare, is said to have expressed an opinion 
that her reputation was undeserved. Colley 
Gibber denied her any 'greater claim to 
beauty than what the most desirable brunette 
might pretend to,' but states that 'it was 
even a fashion among the gay and young to 
have a taste or tendre for Mrs. Bracegirdle.' 
She inspired the best authors to write for 
her, and two of them, Congreve and Howe, 
1 when they gave her a lover, in her play, 
seemed palpably to plead their own passion, 
and made their private court to her in ficti- 

tious character.' Aston, bitter in tongue as 
he ordinarily is, shared his father's belief in 
her purity, and has left a sufficiently tempting 
picture of her. ' She was of a lovely height, 
with dark-brown hair and eyebrows, black 
sparkling eyes and a fresh blushy complexion, 
and, whenever she exerted herself, had an 
involuntary flushing in her breast, neck, and 
face, having continually a cheerful aspect, and 
a fine set of even white teeth, never making 
an exit but that she left the audience in an 
imitation of her pleasant countenance ' (Brief 
Supplement, pp. 9-10). 

[G-enest's History of the Stage ; Gibber's Apo- 
logy, by Bellchambers ; Egerton's Life of Ann 
Oldfield, 1731 ; Stanley's Historical Memorials 
of Westminster Abbey; W. Clark Eussell's 
Representative Actors ; A Comparison between 
the Two Stages, 1702 ; Tony Aston's Brief Sup- 
plement to Colley Gibber, n. d. ; Downe's Roscius 
Anglicanus.] J. K 

BRACEGIRDLE, JOHN (d. 1613-14), 

poet, is supposed to have been a son of John 
Bracegirdle, who was vicar of Stratford-upon- 
Avon from 1560 to 1569. He was matricu- 
lated as a sizar of Queens' College, Cambridge, 
in December 1588, proceeded B.A. in 1591- 
1592, commenced M.A. in 1595, and pro- 
ceeded B.D. in 1602. He was inducted to 
the vicarage of Rye in Sussex, on the pre- 
sentation of Thomas Sackville, lord Buck- 
hurst, 12 July 1602, and was buried there on 
8 Feb. 1613-14. 

He is author of ' Psychopharmacon, the 
Mindes Medicine ; or the Phisicke of Philo- 
sophie, contained, in five bookes, called the 
Consolation of Philosophic, compiled by 
Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boe- 
thius,' translated into English blank verse, 
except the metres, which are in many dif- 
ferent kinds of rhyme, Addit. MS. 11401. 
It is dedicated to Thomas Sackville, earl of 

[Wheler's Stratford -upon- A von, 31 ; Cooper's 
Athenae Cantab, ii. 430; Sussex Archaeological 
Collections, xiii. 274.] T. C. 

BRACKEN, HENRY, M.D. (1697-1764), 
writer on farriery, was the son of Henry 
Bracken of Lancaster, and was baptised 
there 31 Oct. 1697. His early education 
was gained at Lancaster under Mr. Bordley 
and the Rev. Thomas Holmes, and he was 
afterwards apprenticed to Dr. Thomas Worth- 
ington, a physician in extensive practice at 
Wigan. At the expiration of his appren- 
ticeship, about 1717, he went to London, 
and passed a few months as a pupil at St. 
Thomas's Hospital. Thence he went over to 


143 Brackenbury 

Paris to attend the Hotel-Dieu, and subse- 
quently to Leyden, where he studied under 
Herman Boerhaave, and took his degree of 
M.D., but his name is omitted from the 'Al- 
bum Studiosorum Academiae Lugd. Bat./ 
printed in 1875. On his return to London he 
attended the practice of Drs. Wadsworth and 
Plumtree, and soon began to practise on his 
own account at Lancaster, and before long be- 
came widely known as a surgeon and author. 
About 1746 he was charged with abetting the 
Jacobite rebels and thrown into prison, but 
was discharged without trial, there appearing 
to have been no ground for his arrest ; indeed, 
he had previously rendered a service to the 
king by intercepting a messenger to the 
rebels, and sending the letters to the general 
of the king's forces, and for this act he had 
been obliged to keep out of the way of the 
Pretender's followers. He received much 
honour in his native town, and was twice 
elected mayor in 1747-8 and 1757-8. In 
his method of practice as a medical man he 
was remarkably simple, discarding many of 
the usual nostrums. In private life he was 
liberal, generous, charitable, and popular ; 
but his love of horse-racing, of conviviality, 
and of smuggling, which he called gambling 
with the king, prevented him from reaping 
or retaining the full fruits of his success. 
He published several books on horses, writ- 
ten in a rough, unpolished style, but abound- 
ing in such sterling sense as to cause him to 
be placed by John Lawrence at the head of all 
veterinary writers, ancient or modern. Their 
dates and titles are as follows : in 1735, an 
edition of Captain William Burdon's ' Gentle- 
man's Pocket Farrier,' with notes ; in 1738, 
1 Farriery Improved, or a Oompleat Treatise 
upon the Art of Farriery,' 2 vols., which 
went through ten or more editions ; in 1742, 
1 The Traveller's Pocket Farrier ; ' in 1751, 
' A Treatise on the True Seat of Glanders in 
Horses, together with the Method of Cure, 
from the French of De la Fosse.' He wrote 
also ' The Midwife's Companion,' 1737, which 
he dedicated to Boerhaave (it was issued 
with a fresh title-page in 1751) ; ' Lithiasis 
Anglicana ; or, a Philosophical Enquiry into 
the Nature and Origin of the Stone and 
Gravel in Human Bodies,' 1739 ; a transla- 
tion from the French of Maitre-Jan on the 
eye ; and some papers on small-pox, &c. 
On the establishment of the London Medical 
Society, Dr. Fothergill wrote to request the 
literary assistance of Bracken, 'for whose 
abilities,' he observed, 'I have long had a 
great esteem, and who has laboured more 
successfully for the improvement of medicine 
than most of his contemporaries.' Bracken 
died at Lancaster, 13 Nov. 1764. 

[Prefaces to Bracken's writings ; Letter to Dr. 
Preston Christopherson, printed in the Preston 
Guardian, 4 Sept. 1880 ; Georgian Era, ii. 561 ; 
John Lawrence's Treatise on Horses, 2nd ed. 1802, 
i. 29-32 ; information furnished by Alderman W. 
Roper of Lancaster.] C. W. S. 


(1785-1864), lieutenant-colonel, a direct 
descendant from Sir Robert Brackenbury, 
lieutenant of the Tower of London in the 
time of Richard III, was second son of 
Richard Brackenbury of Aswardby, Lin- 
colnshire, by his wife Janetta, daughter of 
George Gunn of Edinburgh, and was born 
in 1785. Having entered the army as an 
ensign in the 61st regiment in 1803, and be- 
come a lieutenant on 8 Dec. in the same 
year, he served in Sicily, in Calabria, at 
Scylla Castle and at Gibraltar, 1807-8, and 
in the Peninsula from 1809 to the end of the 
war in 1814. At the battle of Salamanca he 
took a piece of artillery from the enemy, 
guarded by four soldiers, close to their re- 
tiring column, without any near or imme- 
diate support, and in many other important 
engagements conducted himself with distin- 
guished valour. As a reward for his nume- 
rous services he received the war medal with 
nine clasps. 

On 22 July 1812 he was promoted to a 
captaincy, and after the conclusion of the 
war was attached to the Portuguese and 
Spanish army from 25 Oct. 1814 to 25 Dec. 
1816, when he was placed on half-pay. He 
served as a major in the 28th foot from 
1 Nov. 1827 to 31 Jan. 1828, when he was 
again placed on half-pay. His foreign services 
were further recognised by his being made a 
knight of the Portuguese order of the Tower 
and Sword in 1824, a knight of the Spanish 
order of St. Ferdinand, and a commander of 
the Portuguese order of St. Bento d'Avis. 

Brackenbury, who was knighted by the 
king at Windsor Castle on 26 Aug. 1836, 
was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for 
the county of Lincoln. He attained to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel on 10 Jan. 1837, 
and ten years afterwards sold out of the 
army. He died at Skendleby Hall, Lincoln- 
shire, on 1 June 1864. 

He was twice married : first, on 9 June 
1827, to Maria, daughter of the Rev. Edward 
Bromhead of Reepham near Lincoln, and, 
secondly, in March 1847, to Eleanor, daughter 
of Addison Fenwick of Bishopwearmouth, 
Durham, and widow of W. Brown Clark of 
Belford Hall, Northumberland. She died in 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, part ii. 123 ; Cannon's The 
Sixty-first Regiment (1837), pp. 24, 31, 67.] 

G. C. B. 





1864), poet, was born in 1788 at Langton, 
probably Lincolnshire, where he spent his 
early years. On 28 Oct. 1808 he was a stu- 
dent at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 
In 1810 he published his 'Natale Solum and 
other Poetical Pieces ' by subscription. In 
1811 he proceeded B.A. (ROMILLY, Grad. 
Cant. p. 45) ; in 1812 he became chaplain to 
the Madras establishment, and returning after 
some years' service proceeded M.A. in 1819. 
From 1828 to 1856 he was chaplain and secre- 
tary to the Magdalen Hospital, Blackfriars 
Road, London. In 1862 he became rector of 
Quendon, Essex, and died there, of heart- 
disease, on 31 March 1864, aged 76. 

[Brackenbury 's Natale Solum, &c. pp. 2, 10, 
28, 58, 120 ; Gent. Mag. 1864, p. 668; Brayley's 
Surrey, v. 321 ; private information.] J. H. 



HENRY DE (d. 1268), ecclesiastic and judge, 
was author of a comprehensive treatise on the 
law of England. Three places have been con- 
jecturally assigned as the birthplace of this 
distinguished jurist, viz. Bratton Clovelly, 
near Okehampton in Devonshire, Bratton 
Fleming, near Barnstaple in the same county, 
and Bratton Court, near Minehead in Somer- 
setshire. The pretensions of Bratton Clovelly 
seem to rest entirely upon the fact that an- 
ciently it was known as Bracton. Sir Travers 
Iwiss, in his edition of Bracton's great work, 
' De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Anglise/ in- 
clines in favour of Bratton Fleming on the 
ground that one Odo de Bratton was per- 
petual vicar of the church there in 1212 
(Rot . Lit. Pat. i. 93 b), when the rectory was 
conferred on William de Ralegh, a justice 
itinerant, whose roll, with that of Martin de 
Pateshull, Bracton is known to have had in 
his possession almost certainly for the pur- 
poses of his work. Bracton cites Ralegh's 
decisions less frequently indeed than those 
of Pateshull, whom he sometimes refers to 
with a familiarity which seems to imply per- 
sonal intimacy, as ' dominus Martinus,' or 
simply Martinus (lib. iv., tract i., cap. xxvii., 
fol. 205 b, xxviii. fol. 207 6), but more fre- 
quently than those of any other j udge. Ralegh 
was treasurer of Exeter in 1237. From these 
data, which it must be owned are rather 
slight, Sir Travers Twiss infers that Bracton 
stood to both Pateshull and Ralegh in the 
relation of a pupil, and that it was while the 
latter was rector of Bratton Fleming that he 
came into connection with him. Collinson, 
the historian of Somersetshire, is mistaken 

in affirming that Bracton, or Bratton, suc- 
ceeded one Robert de Bratton, mentioned in 
the Black Book of the Exchequer as holding 
lands at Bratton, near Minehead, under Wil- 
liam de Mohun, 12 Henry II (1166), and 
that he lies buried in the church of St. 
Michael in Minehead under a monument re- 
presenting him in his robes, since it has been 
established by Sir Travers Twiss that Bracton 
was buried in the nave of Exeter Cathedral 
before an altar dedicated to the Virgin a 
little to the south of the entrance to the 
choir, at which a daily mass was regularly 
said for the benefit of his soul for the space 
of three centuries after his decease. At the 
same time, if Bracton was really a landowner 
in the neighbourhood of Minehead, a monu- 
ment may have been put up to his memory 
by his relatives in the parish church there. 
It seems impossible to decide upon the claims 
of the three competing villages. Some un- 
certainty also exists as to the orthography 
of the judge's name, of which four principal 
varieties Bracton, Bratton, Bretton, and 
Bryckton are found. Bryckton may be dis- 
missed without hesitation as corrupt, and 
Bretton is almost certainly a dialectical 
variety either of Bracton or Bratton. Be- 
tween Bracton and Bratton it is less easy to 
decide. The form Bracton is held by Nichols 
to be a mere clerical error for Bratton, aris- 
ing from the similarity between the tt and 
the ct of the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
tury handwriting. The passage cited by Sir 
Travers Twiss (i. x-xi, iii. liv-v) as evidence 
that the judge himself considered Bracton to 
be the correct spelling of his name appears 
rather to militate against that view. The 
passage in question refers to the fatal effect 
of clerical errors in writs. According to the 
reading of a manuscript (Rawlinson, c. 160, 
in the Bodleian Library) which, in Sir Travers 
Twiss's opinion (i. xxi, Iii), has been faith- 
fully copied from a manuscript older than 
any now extant (BRACTON, ed. Twiss, iii. 
212), the writer says that if a person writes 
Broctone for Bractone, or Bractone for Brat- 
tone, the writ is equally void. If any infe- 
rence can be drawn from the passage, it 
would seem to be that, in the author's opinion, 
Brattone, and not Bractone, was the true 
form of the name. That it was so in fact 
seems to be as nearly proved as such a thing 
can be by a series of entries on the Fine Rolls 
extending from 1250 to 1267, i.e. during 
nearly the whole of Bracton's official life, and 
numbering nearly a hundred in all. While 
Bratton and Bretton occur with about equal 
frequency, no single instance of Bracton is 
discoverable in these rolls. Further, of five 
entries in Bishop Branscombe's register cited 




"by Sir Travers Twiss, four have Bratton and 
one Bracton. The deed of 1272 endowing 
a chantry for the benefit of his soul speaks 
of Henry de Bratton, and so does the deed of 
1276 with a like object. This chantry, which 
existed until the reign of Henry VIII, seems 
to have been always known as Bratton's 
chantry. The earliest extant biographical 
notice of Bracton occurs in Leland's ' Com- 
mentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis ' (i. cap. 
cclxxvi.) He says he took it l ex inscriptione 
libri Branomensis bibliothecae.' Bale, in his 
* Illustrium Majoris Britannia) Scriptorum 
Catalogus,' appropriates his account very 
much as it stands, adding only that Bracton 
was of good family, that his university was 
Oxford, and that he was one of the justices 
itinerant before he became chief justice. The 
reference to the 'Branomensis bibliotheca' 
he suppresses, probably because he could 
make nothing of it. Tanner, who also re- 
peats Leland, tries to emend the text by 
inserting ' edidit ' after ( librum,' and appends 
the following note : ' " In Bravionensis seu 
Wigorniensis bibliothecse serie quadam legi 
memoriaque retinui." Ita legit MS. Lei. 
Trin.' It is clear that in any case the passage 
is corrupt. The subsequent biographers of 
Bracton until Foss do little more than repeat 
Bale's statements, and these are only very 
partially confirmed by the records. Dugdale 
mentions him as a justice itinerant in Not- 
tinghamshire and Derbyshire in 1245, and 
places him in the commission of the follow- 
ing year for Northumberland, Westmoreland, 
Cumberland, and Lancashire. As he is de- 
scribed as a justice in the record of a fine 
levied in this year, preserved in the Register 
of Waltham Abbey (Harl MS. 391, fol. 
71), in close connection with Henry de Ba- 
thonia and Jeremiah de Caxton, both jus- 
tices of the Curia Regis, it is probable that 
he was then one of the regular justices. 
Against this, however, must be set the fact 
that the series of entries on the Fine Rolls to 
which reference has already been made does 
not begin until 1250. After 1246 Dugdale 
ignores him until 1260, from which date 
until 1267 he mentions him pretty frequently 
as a justice itinerant in the western counties. 
After 1267 all the records are silent as to his 
doings. During a portion of his career he 
seems to have stood well with the king ; for 
in 1254 he had a grant by letters patent of 
the town house of the Earl of Derby, then 
recently deceased, during the minority of the 
heir, being therein designated ' dilecto clerico 
nostro.' In 1263-4 (21 Jan.) he was ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Barnstaple, but re- 
signed the post in the following May on being 
created chancellor of the cathedral of Exeter. 


He also held a prebend in the church of 
Exeter, and another in that of Bosham in 
Sussex, a peculiar of the bishops of Exeter, 
from some date prior to 1237 until his death, 
which occurred in 1268, and probably in the 
summer or early autumn of that year, as 
Oliver de Tracy succeeded him as chancellor 
of Exeter Cathedral on 3 Sept., and Edward 
Delacron, dean of Wells, and Richard de 
Esse in the prebends of Bosham and Exeter 
respectively in the following November. He 
is known to have left some manuscripts to 
the chapter of Exeter by his will, and it may 
have been one of these that Leland saw, sup- 
posing * Exoniensis bibliothecse ' to be the 
true reading. For the statement that he dis- 
charged the duties of chief justice for twenty 
Siars no foundation is now discoverable, 
uring the earlier portion of his official life 
(1246-58) the office was in abeyance, and 
if Bracton was ever chief justice, it must 
have been either before 1258 or after 1265. 
It is possible that, while the office was in 
abeyance, the king entrusted his f dear clerk ' 
with some of the duties incident to it. It 
is also possible, as Foss has conjectured, that 
Bracton held the office during the interval 
between the death of Hugh le Despenser and 
the appointment of Robert Bruce (8 March 
1267-8) ; but it is very unlikely that, if he 
was ever regularly appointed, no record of 
the fact should have survived. Of his al- 
leged connection with Oxford it is also im- 
possible to discover any positive evidence. 
That he was an Oxford man is intrinsically 
probable from the character of his treatise, 
1 De Legibus et Coiisuetudinibus Anglise.' 
It bears such evident traces throughout of 
the influence of the civil law as to leave no 
doubt that the author was familiar not merely 
with the Summa or manual of the civil law 
compiled by the celebrated glossator, Azo 
of Bologna, but with the Institutes and 
Digest of Justinian, and Oxford was at that 
time the seat of the study of the civil law 
in this country. Moreover, Bracton's first 
two books, 'De Rerum Divisione' and 'De 
acquirendo Rerum Dominio,' have a deci- 
dedly academic air, for they are carefully 
mapped out according to logical divisions 
such as a professor writing for a society of 
students would naturally affect ; and though, 
from a reference to the candidature of Richard, 
earl of Cornwall, for the imperial crown in 
the latter book (ii. cap. xix. 4, fol. 47), it 
is clear that that passage was written as late 
as 1257, it by no means follows that the 
book as a whole does not belong to a much 
earlier date. At the same time, it cannot be 
affirmed with any confidence that Bracton 
could not have acquired the accurate and 





extensive knowledge of the Roman law which 
he undoubtedly did possess without residing 
in Oxford, and neither the title l dominus ' by 
which he is usually designated in ecclesiastical 
records, and which, as Sir Travers Twiss has 
pointed out, was the proper appellation of a 
professor of law at the university of Bologna ; 
under the privilege accorded by Frederic I at | 
the diet of Roncaglia (1158), nor that of 
' magister ' given him by Gilbert Thornton 
(chief justice), who epitomised his work in 
1292, can be relied on as necessarily importing 
an academical status. The date of the com- 
position of his work is approximately fixed 
by a reference to the Statute of Merton 
(1235) on the one hand, and the absence of 
any notice of the changes in the law intro- 
duced by the Provisions of Westminster 
(1259) on the other. The work seems never 
to have received a final revision, and it is 
probable that the order of arrangement of 
the several treatises does not in all cases 
correspond with the order of composition. 
Bracton's relation to the civil and canon law 
has been ably discussed by Professor Giiter- 
bock of Konigsberg, who agrees in the main 
with the view taken by Spence, that he did 
not so much romanise English law as syste- 
matise the results which a series of clerical 
judges, themselves familiar with the civil 
and canon codes, and using them to supple- 
ment the inadequacy of the common law, 
had already produced, a conclusion which is 
in accordance with the strictly practical 
purpose apparent throughout the treatise. 
This view is also adopted by Sir Travers 
Twiss. Bracton's position in the history 
of English law is unique. The treatise ' De 
Legibus et Consuetudinibus Anglise ' is the 
first attempt to treat the whole extent of 
the law in a manner at once systematic and 
practical. The subject-matter of the work 
is defined in the proem to be ' facta et casus, 
qui quotidie emergunt et eveniunt in regno 
Anglise,' and to this he for the most part 
strictly limits himself, citing cases in support 
of the principles he enunciates in the most 
exemplary manner. Hence the influence of 
the work was both immediate and enduring. 
Besides the abridgment by Thornton, of 
which, though none is now known to exist, 
Selden had an imperfect copy, two other sum- 
maries of it were compiled during the reign 
of Edward I by two anonymous authors, one 
in Latin, of which the title ' Fleta ' is thought 
to conceal some reference either to the Fleet 
Prison or to Fleet Street, the other in Norman- 
French known as Britten. Through Coke, 
who had a high respect for Bracton, and fre- 
quently cited him, both in his judgments and 
in his ' Commentary ' on Littleton, his influ- 

ence has been effective in moulding the exist- 
ing common law of England. Some remark- 
able passages relating to the prerogative of 
the king (i. cap. viii. 5, fol. 5 ; ii. cap. xvi. 
3, fol. 34 ; iii. tract i. cap. ix. fol. 107 b} 
were cited by Bradshaw in his judgment on 
Charles I, and by Milton in his ( Defence of 
the People of England/ as showing that the- 
doctrine of passive obedience was repugnant 
to the ancient common law of this country. 
The bibliography of Bracton may be put 
into very small compass. A considerable 
portion of the treatise found its way into 
print in 1557, in the shape of quotations 
made by Sir William Staundeford in hi& 
' Plees del Coron.' The first printed edition 
of the entire work was published by Richard 
Tot tell in 1569 (fol.), with a preface by one 
T. N. (whose identity has never been deter- 
mined), in which credit is taken for a careful 
recension of the text. The next edition (4to) 
appeared in 1640, being a mere reprint of 
that of 1569. In spite of the labours of T. N. 
the text remained in so unsatisfactory a con- 
dition that Selden never cited it without 
collation with manuscripts in his own pos- 
session. No other edition appeared until 
1878, when Sir Travers Twiss issued the first 
volume of the recension and translation un- 
dertaken by him by the direction of the 
master of the rolls. The sixth and last vo- 
lume appeared in 1883. For information 
concerning the apparatus criticus available 
for the establishment of the text reference 
may be made to vol. i. pp. xlix-lxvi of this 
edition, to the ( Law Magazine and Review,' 
N.S., i. 560-1, ii. 398, to the < Athenaeum' 
(19 July 1884), where Professor VinogradoiF,^ 
of Moscow, gives an interesting account of 
the discovery by him among the Additional 
MSS. in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 
12269) of a collection of cases evidently com- 
piled for Bracton's use, and actually used and 
annotated by him for the purpose of his work,, 
and also to an article in the ' Law Quarterly 
Review ' for April 1885, in which the same 
writer suggests one obvious and two unwar- 
rantable alterations of the text, impugns the 
authority of Rawl. MS. c. 160, on which 
Sir Travers Twiss's recension is based, on the 
ground that it contains an irrelevant disqui- 
sition on degrees of affinity, and argues from 
other passages that the text as it stands is 
the result of the gradual incorporation with 
Bracton's manuscript of the glosses of suc- 
cessive commentaries. 

[Lysons's Devonshire, ii. 66, 67 ; Domesday 
Book, fol. 96, 101 b, 105 b, 107; Collinson's 
Somersetshire, ii. 31 ; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. ii. 
82 ; Britton (ed. Nichols), i. xxiii-xxv ; Valor. 
Eccl. ii. 294, 297 ; Madox's Hist. Exch. ii. 257; 




Spence's Eqxiitable Jurisdiction of Court of 
Chancery, i. 120; Tanner's Notitia Monastica 
(ed. Nasmith), Sussex, v. ; Fourth Report of Dep. 
Keep, of Publ. Rec. 161 ; Bale, Script. Brit. Cat., 
cent. iii. art. xcviii. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Dug- 
dale's Orig. 56; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 12, 19; 
Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 405, 417; Bracton 
(ed. Twiss), i. ix-xviii, ii. vii-xiii, iii. Iv-lvii, v. 
Ixxx ad fin., vi. lix-lxiii ; Cobbett's State Trials, 
ii. 693, iv. 1009 ; Milton's Defence of the People 
of England, cap. viii. ad fin. ; Henricus de Brac- 
ton und sein Verhaltniss zum romischen Rechte 
von Dr. Carl Griiterbock, Berlin, 1862 (this work 
has been translated by Brinton Coxe, Philadel- 
phia. 1866); Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

J. M. R. 

BRADBERRY,sometimes called BRAD- 
BURY, DAVID (1736-1803), nonconfor- 
mist minister, appears to have been resident 
in London in 1766, and for a time was minis- 
ter of the congregation at Glovers' Hall, Lon- 
don, which then belonged to the baptists; 
but he went from Ramsgate to Manchester, 
where he succeeded the Rev. Timothy Priest- 
ley, brother of Joseph Priestley, 14 Aug. 1785, 
as the minister of a congregational church in 
Cannon Street. He was not very successful in 
his ministry, which was disturbed by con- 
troversy, especially with some Scotch mem- 
bers, who were anxious to import the fashion 
of 'ruling elders,' and who eventually seceded 
and erected in Mosley Street what was then 
the largest dissenting chapel in Lancashire 
(HALLEY). He resigned his position in 
1794 and left the neighbourhood. He is 
buried in Bunhill Fields, where his grave- 
stone states that he 'died 13 Jan. 1803, aged 
67 years ; having been a preacher of the 
gospel forty-two years.' 

Bradberry was the author of : 1. ' A Chal- 
lenge sent by the Lord of Hosts to the Chief 
of Sinners,' a sermon upon Amos iv. 12, Lon- 
don, printed for the author, 1766. 2. t Letter 
relative to the Test Act/ 1789. 3. ' Tete- 
lestai, the Final Close,' a poem, in six parts, 
Manchester, 1794. This poem describes the 
day of judgment from an ' evangelical ' stand- 
point, and is remarkable for its unusual 
metre. The book is also a literary curiosity 
from its long and quaint dedication, addressed 
to the Deity , who is styled, among many other 
titles, ' His most sublime, most high and 
mighty, most puissant, most sacred, most 
faithful, most gracious, most catholic, most se- 
rene, most reverend,' and ' Governor-general 
of the World, Chief Shepherd or Archbishop 
of Souls, Chief Justice of Final Appeals, 
Judge of the Last Assize, Distributor of 
Rights and Finisher of Fates, Father of 
Mercies and Friend of Men ' (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 2nd series, vols. ix. x. xi. xii.) 

[Manual of the Chorlton Road Congregational 

| Church, 1877 ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, iii. 

220 ; Halley's Lancashire, its Puritanism, &c. ; 

j British Museum General Catalogue ; Allibone's 

Dictionary; Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxviii. pt. ii. 

p. 516; Jones's Bunhill Memorials, 1849, p. 11.1 

W. E. A. A. 

WILLIAM (1501-1578), bishop of Exeter, 
sprang from a Somersetshire family now ex- 
tinct, but variously known as Bradbridge, 
: Bredbridge, or Brodbridge. William Brad- 
i bridge was born in London in 1501. From the 
j fact that he succeeded one Augustine Brad- 
bridge as chancellor of Chichester, who was 
afterwards appointed treasurer and preben- 
dary of Fordington, diocese of Sarum,inl566, 
and who died the next year, it is possible 
the latter was a brother. One Nicholas 
Bradbridge was prebend of Lincoln in 1508, 
and a Jone and George Bradbridge were 
respectively martyred during the Marian 
persecution at Maidstone and Canterbury. 
William took his B.A. degree at Magdalen 
College, Oxford, on 15 July 1528, but whether 
as demy or non-foundationer does not appear. 
In 1529 he became a fellow of his college,, 
MA. on 6 June 1532, B.D. on 17 June 1539, 
' being then arrived to some eminence in the 
theological faculty' (W T OOD). On 26 March 
1565 he supplicated the university for a D.D. 
degree, but was not admitted. Yet Strype- 
(Parker, book iv. 4) calls him D.D. He 
espoused the reformed religion, and had to- 
flee with Barlow, Coverdale, and other fugi- 
tives in 1553. He is found, however, in 
England again in 1555, when, 17 May, on 
the presentation of Ralph Henslow, he was 
appointed prebendary of Lyme and Halstock, 
Sarum. He was also a canon of Chichester, 
and in 1561 a dispensation was granted him 
on account of this as regarded part of his 
term of residence at Salisbury. He sub- 
scribed the articles of 1562 as a member of 
the lower house of convocation, and when 
the puritanical six articles of the same year 
were debated in that assembly, in common 
with all those members who had been brought 
into friendly contact with the practice of 
foreign churches during the reign of Mary, 
be signed them, but was outvoted by a 
majority of one. He also subscribed the 
articles of 1571. Bradbridge was collated 
to be chancellor of Chichester on 28 April 
1562, and was allowed to hold the chancel- 
lorship in commendam with his bishopric. 
On Low Sunday 1563 he preached the annual 
Spittal sermon, and on 23 June of the same 
year, showing himself conformable to the 
discipline which was then being established, 
was elected dean of Salisbury by letters from 





Queen Elizabeth, in the place of the Italian* 
Peter Vannes. Here he was a contemporary 
of Foxe, the martyrologist, and Harding, the 
chief opponent of Jewell. On 26 Feb. 1570-1 
the queen issued her significavit in his favour 
to the archbishop, and he was duly elected 
bishop of Exeter on 1 March. After a de- 
claration of the queen's supremacy and doing 
homage, the temporalities of the see were 
restored to him on the 14th. He is still 
termed B.D. (State Papers, Domestic, Eliz. 
vol. Ixxxii.) His election was confirmed 
the next day, and he was consecrated at 
Lambeth on the 18th by Archbishop Parker 
and Bishops Home and Bullingham of Win- 
chester and Worcester. Although Wood says 
'he laudably governed the see for about 
eight years/ his administration was some- 
what halting and void of vigour, the weak- 
ness of age probably colouring his judgment 
and prompting him to love retirement. He 
exerted himself, however, to collect 250/. 
among the ministers of Devon and Cornwall 
for the use of Exeter College, whence his 
name is inserted in its list of benefactors. 
Oliver believes that either by his predecessor, 
Bishop Alley, or by him, portions of the 
palace at Exeter were taken down as being 
superfluous and burdensome to the diminished 
resources of the see. The bishop still kept 
up his scholarship. In 1572 the Books of 
Moses were allotted to him to translate for 
the new edition of the Bishop's Bible, at 
least to one ' W. E.,' whom Strype takes 
for ' l William Exon.' Hoker, however, says 
(Antique Description of Exeter} : ' He was a 
professor of divinity, but not taken to be so 
well grounded as he persuaded himself. He 
was zealous in religion, but not so forwards 
as he was wished to be.' In 1576, when 
papists on one side and schismatics on the 
other were troubling the church, a glimpse 
is obtained of Bradbridge's administration. 
He tried to reason with some Cornish gentle- 
men who would not attend church, but 
could not induce them to conform. At 
length as he saw ' they craved ever respite 
of time and in time grew rather indurate 
than reformed,' in compliance with an order 
that such should be sent up to the privy 
council or the ecclesiastical commission held 
at Lambeth * to be dealt withal in order to 
their reducement,' he wrote on the subject to 
the lord treasurer, and sent up three, Robert 
Beckote, Richard Tremaine, and Francis 
Ermyn. He begged the treasurer to prevail 
with the archbishop or bishop of London ' to 
take some pains with them,' adding that ' the 
whole country longed to hear of their godly 
determination, viz. what success they should 
have with these gentlemen.' In the same 

year another dangerous opinion in his dio- 
cese troubled him. A certain lay preacher, 
a schoolmaster at Liskeard, affirmed that an 
oath taken on one of the gospels ( was of no 
more value than if taken upon a rush or a fly.' 
All Cornwall was greatly excited at this, and 
on the bishop proceeding' to Liskeard the man 
maintained his view in writing. As the town 
was in such confusion that no trial could 
be held with any prospect of justice, the 
bishop remanded the case to the assizes. In 
the meantime he sent for Dr. Tremayn, the 
archbishop's commissary, and other learned 
divines, and consulted on the point, saying 
'that truly the Cornishmen were, many of 
them, subtle in taking an oath,' and that if 
the reverence due to scripture were abated 
it would let in many disorders to the state. 
Unluckily Strype does not give the conclu- 
sion of these trials. 

About this time the bishop was very uneasy 
regarding an ecclesiastical commission which 
he heard would probably be granted to several 
in his diocese. Dr. Tremayn headed a party 
against him, but the bishop withstood him, 
and wrote to the treasurer that the commis- 
sion was not required, adding that ' he spake 
somewhat of experience, that his diocese was 
great, and that the sectaries did daily in- 
crease. And he persuaded himself he should 
be able easier to rule those whom he partly 
knew already than those which by this means 
might get them new friends.' Indeed he 
found the cares of his position so heavy that 
he earnestly supplicated the treasurer (11 
March 1576) that he might be suffered to 
resign the bishopric and return to his deanery 
of Sarum, urging 'the time serveth, the place 
is open.' In his latter years he delighted 
to dwell in the country, which proved very 
burdensome to all who had business with 
him. Newton Ferrers was his favourite re- 
sidence, the benefice of which, together with 
that of Lezante in Cornwall, the queen had 
allowed him to hold in commendam in con- 
sequence of the impoverished state of the see, 
as had been the case with his predecessors. 
Benefices were given to his successor also. 
At the age of seventy he embarked largely in 
agricultural speculations, which eventually 
ruined him. ' Hitherto,' says Fuller, ' the 
English bishops had been vivacious almost to 
a wonder ; only five died in the first twenty 
years of Elizabeth's reign. Now seven de-* 
ceased within the compasse of two years.' 
Among them was Bradbridge, who died 
suddenly at noon 27 June 1578, aged 77, 
no one being with him, at Newton Ferrers. 
Izacke (Memorials of Exeter} sums up the 
prevailing opinion of him, ' a man only me- 
morable for this, that nothing memorable is 




recorded of him saving that he well governed 
this church about eight years.' When he 
died he was indebted to the queen 1,4001. for 
tenths and subsidies received in her behalf 
from the clergy, so that immediately after 
his death she seized upon all his goods. The 
patent book of the see records that he ' had 
not wherewith to bury him.' He was buried 
in his own cathedral, on the north side of 
the choir near the altar, under a plain altar 
tomb, and around him lie his brother pre- 
lates, Bishops Marshal, Stapledon, Lacy, and 
Woolton. A simple Latin inscription was 
put over him, now much defaced, record- 
ing that he was 'nuper Exon. Episcopus.' 
A shield containing his arms still remains, 
1 Azure, a pheon's head argent.' His will is 
in the Prerogative Office. No portrait of him 
is known to exist. His register concludes 
his acts with the old formula, ' Cujus animse 
propitietur Deus. Amen.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 817; 
Strype's Annals of the Keformation, 8vo, Cran- 
mer, Parker, i. 377, ii. 416 ; Cardwell's Con- 
ferences, p. 119 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Jones's Fasti 
Ecclesiae ii. 1881, pp. 399, 320 ; Hoker 
and Izacke's Memorials of Exeter ; Fuller's Church 
History, 16th Century; Oliver's Lives of the 
Bishops of Exeter.] M. GK W. 

BRADBURJST, SAMUEL (1751-1816), 
methodist preacher, was an associate of Wes- 
ley, and an intimate disciple of Fletcher ot 
Madeley. He was the son of a private in the 
army, and was born at Gibraltar. On his 
father's return to England, when he was 
about twelve years old, he was apprenticed 
to a cobbler at Chester, and after a course 
of youthful profligacy became a methodist at 
the age of eighteen, entered the itinerant 
ministry about three years later, and con- 
tinued in it more than forty years till his 
death. Bradburn was, according to the testi- 
mony of all who heard him, an extraordinary 
natural orator. He had a commanding figure, 
though he grew corpulent early in life, a re- 
markably easy carriage, and a voice and in- 
tonation of wonderful power and beauty. By 
assiduous study he became perhaps the great- 
est preacher of his day, and was able constantly 
to sway and fascinate vast masses of the people. 
His natural powers manifested themselves 
from the first time that he was called upon 
to speak in public. On that occasion he was 
suddenly impelled to take the place of an 
absent preacher, and spoke for an hour with- 
out hesitation, though for months previously 
he had been trembling at the thought of 
such an ordeal. In the evening of the same 
day a large concourse came together to hear 
him again, when he preached for three hours, 

and found, at the same moment in which he 
exercised the powers, that he had obtained the 
fame of an orator. Bradburn was a man of 
great simplicity, generosity, and eccentricity. 
Of this once famous preacher nothing remains 
but a volume of a few posthumous sermons of 
no particular merit. 

[Bradburn's Life (written by his daughter in 
the same year that he died) ; a second biography 
(1871), by T. W. Blanshard, under the somewhat 
affected title of The Life of Samuel Bradburn, 
the Methodist Demosthenes.] K. W. D. 

BRADBURY, GEORGE (d. 1696), judge, 
was the eldest son of Henry Bradbury of St. 
Martin's Fields, Middlesex. Of his early years 
nothing is known. He was admitted a mem- 
ber of the Middle Temple on 28 June 1660, 
was created a master of arts by the university 
of Oxford 28 Sept, 1663, and was called to 
the bar on 17 May 1667. For some time his 
practice in court was inconsiderable. He first 
occurs as junior counsel against Lady Ivy in 
a suit in which she asserted her title to lands in 
Shadwell, 3 June 1684. The deeds upon which 
she relied were of doubtful authenticity, and 
Bradbury won commendation from Chief-jus- 
tice Jeffreys,who was try ing the case, for inge- 
niously pointing out that the date which the 
deeds bore described Philip and Mary, in 
whose reign they purported to have been exe- 
cuted, by a title which they did not assume 
till some years later. But the judge's temper 
was not to be relied upon. Bradbury repeat- 
ing his comment, Jeffreys broke out upon 
him : ' Lord, sir ! you must be cackling too ; 
we told you your objection was very inge- 
nious, but that must not make you trouble- 
some. You cannot lay an egg but you must 
be cackling over it.' Bradbury's name next 
occurs in 1681, when he was one of two trus- 
tees of the marriage settlement of one of the 
Carys of Tor Abbey. His position in his pro- 
fession must consequently have been consider- 
able, and in December 1688, when the chiefs 
of the bar were summoned to consult with 
the peers upon the political crisis, Bradbury 
was among the number. In the July of the 
year following he was assigned by the House 
of Lords as counsel to defend Sir Adam Blair, 
Dr. Elliott, and others, who were impeached 
for dispersing proclamations of King James. 
The impeachment was, however, abandoned. 
On 9 July, upon the death of Baron Carr, he 
was appointed to the bench of the court of 
exchequer, and continued in office until his 
death, which took place 12 Feb. 1696. The 
last judicial act recorded of him is a letter 
preserved in the treasury in support of a 
petition of the Earl of Scarborough, 19 April 




[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; State Trials, x 
616, 626; Luttrell's Diary, i. 490, 555, 557, iv 
117; Parliamentary History, v. 362; Pat. 1 W 
and M. p. 4 ; Nicholls's Herald and Genealogist, 
viii. 107; Eedington's Treasury Papers, i. 438; 
Cat. Oxford Graduates; Woolrych's Life of 
Jeffreys.] J. A. H. 

BRADBURY, HENRY (1831-1860), 
writer on printing, was the eldest son of 
William Bradbury, of the firm of Bradbury 
& Evans, proprietors of ' Punch/ founders of 
the 'Daily News,' the 'Field,' and other 
periodicals, and publishers for Dickens and 
Thackeray. In 1850 he entered as a pupil in 
the Imperial Printing Office at Vienna, where 
he became acquainted with the art of nature 
printing, a process whereby natural objects 
are impressed into plates, and afterwards 
printed from in the natural colours. In 1855 
he produced in folio the fine f nature-printed ' 
plates to Moore and Lindley's ' Ferns of Great 
Britain and Ireland.' These were followed by 
' British Sea Weeds,' in four volumes, royal 
octavo, and a reproduction of the i Ferns,' also 
in octavo. In the same year, and again in 1 860, 
he lectured at the Royal Institution of Great 
Britain on the subject of nature printing. 
He paid much attention to the production of 
bank notes and the security of paper money, 
on which he discoursed at the Royal Insti- 
tution. This lecture was published in 1856, 
in quarto, with plates by John Leighton, 
F.S.A. In 1860 this subject was pursued by 
the publication of ' Specimens of Bank Note 
Engraving,' &c. Another address on ' Print- 
ing : its Dawn, Day, and Destiny,' was issued 
in 1858. He died by his own hand 2 Sept. 
1860, aged 29, leaving a business he had 
founded in Fetter Lane, and afterwards 
moved to Farringdon Street, which was car- 
ried on under the name of Bradbury, Wilkin- 
son & Co. At the time of his death he thought 
of producing a large work in folio on the 
graphic arts of the nineteenth century, but 
he never got beyond the proof of a prospectus 
that was ample enough to indicate the wide 
scale of his design. 

[Information supplied by Mr. John Leighton, 
F.S.A.; JBigmore and Wyman's Bibliogr. of 
Printing, i. 23, 77-8 ; Proceedings of Royal In- 
stitution.] C. W. S. 

BRADBURY, THOMAS (1677-1759), 
congregational minister, born in Yorkshire, 
was educated for the congregational ministry 
in an academy at AtterclifFe. Of Bradbury 
as a student we have a glimpse (25 March 
1695) in the diary of Oliver Hey wood, who 
gave him books. He preached his first ser- 
mon on 14 June 1696, and went to reside as 
assistant and domestic tutor with Thomas 

Whitaker, minister of the independent con- 
gregation, Call Lane, Leeds. Bradbury speaks 
of Whitaker's ' noble latitude,' and commends 
him as being orthodox in opinion, yet no slave 
to 'the jingle of a party' (' The Faithful 
Minister's Farewell, two sermons [Acts xx. 
32] on the death of Mr. T. Whitaker,' 1712, 
8vo). From Leeds, in 1697. Bradbury went 
to Beverley, as a supply ; and in 1699 to New- 
castle-on-Tyne, first assisting Richard Gilpin, 
M.D. (ejected from Greystock, Cumber- 
land), afterwards Bennet, Gilpin's successor, 
both presbyterians. It seems that Bradbury 
expected a co-pastorate, and judging from 
Turner's account (Mon. Repos. 1811, p. 514) 
of a manuscript ' Speech delivered at Madam 
Partis' in the year 1706, by Mr. Thos. Brad- 
bury,' his after influence was not without its 
effect in causing a split in the congregation. 
It is significant that Bennet's ' Irenicum,' 
1722, did more than any other publication 
to stay the divisive effects of Bradbury's 
action at Salters' Hall. Bradbury went to 
London in 1703 as assistant to Galpine, in 
the independent congregation at Stepney. 
On 18 Sept. 1704 he was invited to become 
colleague with Samuel Wright at Great 
Yarmoutli, but declined. After the death 
of Benoni Rowe, Bradbury was appointed 
(16 March 1707) pastor of the independent 
congregation in New Street, by Fetter Lane. 
He was ordained 10 July 1707 by ministers 
of different denominations ; his confession of 
faith on the occasion (which reached a fifth 
edition in 1729) is remarkable for its uncom- 
promising Calvinism, but is expressed entirely 
in words of scripture. His brother Peter be- 
came his assistant, Bradbury took part in the 
various weekly dissenting lectureships, de- 
livering a famous series at the Weighhouse on 
the duty of singing (1708, 8vo), and a sermon 
before the Societies for Reformation of Morals 
(1708, 8vo). His political sermons attracted 
much attention, from the freedom of their style 
and the quaintness of their titles. Among 
them were ' The Son of Tabeal [Is. vii. 5-7] 
on occasion of the French invasion in favour 
of the Pretender,' 1708, 8vo (four editions) ; 
' The Divine Right of the Revolution ' 
[1 Chron. xii. 23], 1709, 8vo ; ' Theocracy ; 
the Government of the Judges applied to the 
Revolution' [Jud. ii. 18], 1712, 8vo ; ' Steadi- 
ness in Religion . . . the example of Daniel 
under the Decree of Darius,' 1712, 8vo; 
' The Ass or the Serpent ; Issachar and Dan 
compared in their regard for civil liberty' 
[Gen. xlix. 14-18], 1712, 8vo (a 5th of No- 
vember sermon, it was reprinted at Boston, 
U.S., in 1768) ; ' The Lawfulness of resist- 
ing Tyrants, &c.' [1 Chron. xii. 16-18], 1714, 
8vo (5 Nov. 1713, four editions) ; EIKO>J> 



^; a sermon [Hos. vii. 7] preached 
29 May, with Appendix of papers relating to 
the Restoration, 1660, and the present settle- 
ment,' 1715, 8vo ; ' Non-resistance without 
Priestcraft ' [Rom. xiii. 2], 1715, 8vo (5 Nov.) ; 

* The Establishment of the Kingdom in the 
hand of Solomon, applied to the Revolution 
and the Reign of King George ' [1 K. ii. 46], 
1716, 8vo (5 Nov.); 'The Divine Right of 
Kings inquired into ' [Prov. viii. 15], 1718, 
8vo; ' The Primitive Tories ; or . . . Perse- 
cution, Rebellion, and Priestcraft ' [Jude 11], 
1718, 8vo (four editions). Bradbury boasted 
of being the first to proclaim George I, which ; 
he did on Sunday, 1 Aug. 1714, being ap- 
prised, while in his pulpit, of the death of Anne 
lay the concerted signal of a handkerchief. 
The report was current that he preached from 
2 K. ix. 34, ' Go, see now this cursed woman 
and bury her, for she is a king's daughter ;' 
but perhaps he only quoted the text in con- 
versation. Another story is to the effect 
that when, on 24 Sept., the dissenting mi- 
nisters went in their black gowns with an 
address to the new king, a courtier asked, 

* Pray, sir, is this a funeral ? ' On which 
Bradbury replied, 'Yes, sir, it is the funeral 
of the Schism Act, and the resurrection of 
liberty.' Robert Winter, D.D., Bradbury's 
descendant, is responsible for the statement 
that there had been a plot to assassinate him, 
and that the spy who was sent to Fetter Lane 
was converted by Bradbury's preaching. On 
the other hand it is said that Harley had 
offered to stop his mouth with a bishopric. 
Bradbury's political harangues were some- 
times too violent for men of his own party. 
Defoe wrote ' A Friendly Epistle by way of 
reproof from one of the people called Quakers, 
to T. B., a dealer in many words,' 1715, 8vo 
{two editions in same year). With the re- 
ference of the Exeter controversy to the 
judgment of the dissenting ministers of Lon- 
don, a large part of Bradbury's vehemence 
passed from the sphere of politics to that of 
theology. The origin of the dispute belongs ! 
to the life of James Peirce (1674-1726), the ' 
leader of dissent against Wells and Nicholls. 
Peirce, the minister of James's Meeting, 
Exeter, was accused, along with others, of 
favouring Arianism. The Western Assembly 
was disposed to salve the matter over by ad- 
mitting the orthodoxy of the declarations of 
faith made by the parties in September 1718. 
But the body of thirteen trustees who held the 
property of the four Exeter meeting-houses 
appealed to London for further advice. After 
much negotiation the whole body of London 
dissenting ministers of the three denomina- 
tions was convened at Salters' Hall to con- 
sider a draft letter of advice to Exeter. Brad- 

bury put himself in the front of the conserva- 
tive party ; the real mover on the opposite 
side was the whig politician John Shute Bar- 
rington, viscount Barring-ton, a member of 
Bradbury's congregation, and afterwards the 
; Papinian of Lardner's letter on the Logos. 
The conference met on Thursday, 19 Feb. 1719 
(the day after the royal assent to the repeal 
of the Schism Act), when Bradbury proposed 
that, after days of fasting and prayer, a de- 
putation should be sent to Exeter to offer 
advice on the spot ; this was negatived. At 
the second meeting, Tuesday, 24 Feb., Brad- 
bury moved a preamble to the letter of advice, 
embodying a declaration of the orthodoxy of 
the conference, in words taken from the As- 
sembly's catechism. This was rejected by 
fifty-seven to fifty-three. Sir Joseph Jekyll, 
master of the rolls, who witnessed the scene, 
is author of the often-quoted saying, 'The 
Bible carried it by four.' At the third meet- 
ing, 3 March, the proposition was renewed, but 
the moderator, Joshua Oldfield, would not take 
a second vote. Over sixty ministers went up 
into the gallery and subscribed a declaration 
of adherence to the first Anglican article, and 
the fifth and sixth answers of the Assembly's 
catechism. They then left the place amid 
hisses, Bradbury characteristically exclaim- 
ing, ' 'Tis the voice of the serpent, and may 
be expected against a zeal for the seed of the 
woman.' Thus perished the good accord of 
English dissent. Principal Chalmers, of 
King's College, Old Aberdeen, who was pre- 
sent at the third meeting, and in strong 
sympathy with Bradbury's side, reported to 
Calamy that ' he never saw nor heard of such 
strange conduct and management before.' 
The nonsubscribing majority, to the num- 
ber of seventy-three, met again at Salters' 
Hall on 10 March, and agreed upon their ad- 
vice, which was sent to Exeter on 17 March. 
Bradbury and his subscribers (61, 63, or 69) 
met separately on 9 March, and sent off" their 
advice on 7 April. The remarkable thing is 
that the two advices (bating the preamble) are 
in substance and almost in terms identical ; 
and the letter accompanying the nonsub- 
scribers' advice not only disowns Arianism, 
but declares their ( sincere belief in the 
doctrine of the blessed Trinity and the proper 
divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, which they 
apprehend to be clearly revealed in the Holy 
Scriptures.' Both advices preach peace and 
charity, while owning the duty of congrega- 
tions to withdraw from ministers who teach 
what they deem to be serious error. Neither 
was in time to do good or harm, for the Exeter 
trustees had taken the matter into their own 
hands by formally excluding Peirce and his 
colleague from all the meeting-houses. Brad- 



bury had his share in the ensuing pamphlet 
war, which was political as well as religious, for , 
a schism in dissent was deprecated as inimical 
to the whig interest. He printed ' An Answer j 
to some Reproaches cast on those Dissenting 
Ministers who subscribed, c./ 1719, 8vo ; '. 
a sermon on ' The Necessity of contending 
for Revealed Religion' [Jude 3], 1720, 8vo 
(appended is a letter from Cotton Mather on 
the late disputes) ; and ' A Letter to John j 
Barrington Slmte, Esq.,' 1720, 8vo. Barring- | 
ton left Bradbury's congregation, and joined 
that of Jeremiah Hunt, D.D., independent 
minister and nonsubscriber, at Pinners' Hall. I 
Bradbury was brought to book by ' a Dis- 
senting Layman' in 'Christian Liberty as- 
serted, in opposition to Protestant Popery,' 
1719, 8vo, a letter addressed to him by name, 
and answered by ' a Gentleman of Exon,' 
in { A Modest Apology for Mr. T. Bradbury,' 
1719, 8vo. But most of the pamphleteers 
passed him by as ' an angry man, that makes 
some bustle among you' (Letter of Advice to 
the Prot. Diss., 1720, 8vo) to aim at Wil- 
liam Tong, Benjamin Robinson, Jeremiah 
Smith, and Thomas Reynolds, four presby- 
terian ministers who had issued a whip for 
the Salters' Hall conference in the subscrib- 
ing interest, and who subsequently published 
a joint defence of the doctrine of the Trinity. 
In 1720 an attempt was made to oust Brad- 
bury from the Pinners' Hall lectureship ; in 
the same year he started an anti-Arian Wed- 
nesday lecture at Fetter Lane. This did not 
mend matters. There appeared ' An Appeal 
to the Dissenting Ministers, occasioned by the 
Behaviour of Mr. Thomas Bradbury,' 1722, 
8vo ; and Thomas Morgan (the ' Moral Philo- 
sopher,' 1737), who had made an unusually 
orthodox confession at his ordination [see 
BOWDEN. JOHN] in 1716, but was now on 
his way to ' Christian deism,' wrote his ' Ab- 
surdity of opposing Faith to Reason ' in reply 
to Bradbury's 5th of November sermon, 1722, 
on ' The Nature of Faith.' He had previously 
attacked Bradbury in a postscript to his 
' Nature and Consequences of Enthusiasm,' 
1719, 8vo. Returning to a former topic, 
Bradbury published in 1724, 8vo, ' The Power 
of Christ over Plagues and Health,' prefix- 
ing an account of the anti-Arian lectureship. 
He published also * The Mystery of Godli- 
ness considered,' 1726, 8vo, 2 vols. (sixty-one 
sermons, reprinted Edin. 1795). In 1728 
his position at Fetter Lane became uncom- 
fortable ; he left, taking with him his brother 
Peter, now his colleague, and most of his flock. 
The presbyterian meet ing-house i n NewCourt , 
Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, was vacant 
through the removal of James Wood (a sub- 
scriber) to the Weighhouse in 1727 ; Brad- 

bury was asked, 20 Oct. 1728, to New Court, 
and accepted on condition that the congrega- 
tion would take in the Fetter Lane seceders- 
and join the independents. This arrange- 
ment, which has helped to create the false 
impression that at Salters' Hall the presby- 
terians and independents took opposite sides 
as denominations, was made 27 Nov. 1728 y 
Peter continuing as his brother's colleague 
(he probably died about 1730, as Jacob Fowler 
succeeded him in 1731 ). Bradbury now pub- 
lished ' Jesus Christ the Brightness of Glory/ 
1729, 8vo (four sermons on Heb. i. 3) ; and 
a tract ' On the Repeal of the Test Acts/ 
1732, 8vo. His last publication seems to- 
have been ' Joy in Heaven and Justice on 
Earth,' 1747, 8vo (two sermons), unless hi& 
discourses on baptism, whence Caleb Fle- 
ming drew * The Character of the Rev. Tho. 
Bradbury, taken from his own pen/ 1749, 
8vo, are later. Doubtless he was a most 
effective as well as a most unconventional 
preacher ; the lampoon (about 1730) in the 
Blackmore papers may be accepted as evi- 
dence of his 'melodious' voice, his 'head 
uplifted/ and his ' dancing hands.' The stout 
Yorkshireman reached a great age. He died 
on Sunday, 9 Sept. 1759, and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields. His wife's name was Rich- 
mond ; he left two daughters, one married 
(1744) to John Winter, brother to Richard 
Winter, who succeeded Bradbury, and father 
to Robert Winter, D.D., who succeeded 
Richard; the other daughter married (1768) 
George Welch, a banker. Besides the publi- 
cations noticed above, Bradbury printed seve- 
ral funeral and other sermons, including two 
on the death of Robert Bragge (died 1738;. 
' eternal Bragge ' of Lime Street, who preached 
for four months on Joseph's coat). His 'Works/ 
1762, 8vo, 3 vols. (second edition 1772), con- 
sist of fifty-four sermons, mainly political. 

[Memoir by John Brown, Berwick, 1831; 
Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial, 1802, ii. 367- and 
index ; Thompson's MS. List of Academies (with 
Toulmin's and Kentish's additions) in Dr. Wil- 
liams's Librnry ; Hunter's Life of 0. Heywood, 
1842, p. 385 ; Christian Reformer, 1847, p. 399 ; 
Bogue and Bennet's Hist, of Dissenters, vol. iii. 
1810, pp. 489 seq. ; Mon. Repos. 1811, pp. 514,. 
722 ; Browne's Hist, of Congregationalism in 
Norf. and Suff., 1877, p. 242 ; James's Hist. Presb. 
Chapels and Charities, 1867, pp. 23 seq., Ill seq.,. 
690, 705 seq. ; Calamy's Hist. Account of my own 
Life, 2nd ed. 1830, ii. 403 seq. ; Salmon's Chronol. 
Historian, 2nd ed. 1733, pp. 406-7; Chr. Mode- 
rator, 1826, pp. 193 seq. ; Pamphlets of 1719 on 
the Salters' Hall Conference, esp. A True Re- 
lation, &c. (the subscribers' account), An Au- 
thentick Account, &c. (nonsubscribers'), An Im- 
partial State, &c. (these give the main facts ; the- 
argumentative tracts are legion) ; Blackmore 




Papers in possession of E. D. Darbishire, Man- 
chester (the verses on the London ministers 
are given in Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 454, by 
A. B. K., i.e. Eobert Brook Aspland).] A. G. 

^BRADDOCK, EDWARD (1695-1755), 
je^' ^major-general, wag gQn ^ Major-general Ed- 

: jUtjU/- ward Braddock,regimental lieutenant-colonel 
^/ bitk of the Coldstream guards in 1703. After serv- 

'yF ve/u -YT ing with credit in Flanders and Spain the elder 
Braddock retired from the service in 1715, and 
died on 15 June 1720 at Bath, where he was 
buried in the Abbey Church. Braddock the 
younger entered the army as ensign in Colonel 
Cornelius Swann's company of his father's 
regiment on 29 Aug. 1710, and became a lieu- 
tenant in 1716. He is said to have fought 
a duel with swords and pistols with a Colonel 
Waller in Hyde Park on 26 May 1718. Both 
battalions of the Coldstreams were then en- 
camped in the park. He became lieutenant 
of the grenadier company in 1727, and cap- 
tain and lieutenant-colonel in the regiment 
in 1735. Walpole (Letters, ii. 460-2) has 
raked up some discreditable stories of him 
at this period of his life, which possibly need 
qualification; Walpole is, at any rate, dis- 
tinctly wrong in stating that Braddock was 
subsequently * governor ' of Gibraltar. He be- 
came second major in the Coldstreams in 1743, 
first major in 1745, and lieutenant-colonel 
21 Nov. of the same year. His first recorded 
war service is in September 1746, when the 
second battalion of his regiment, under his 
command, was sent to join, but did not actu- 
ally take part in Admiral Lestock's descent 
on L'Orient, after which the battalion re- 
turned to London. He embarked in com- 
mand of it again in May 1746, and proceeded 
to Holland, where he served under the Prince 
of Orange in the attempt to raise the siege 
of Bergen-op-Zoom, and was afterwards quar- 
tered at Breda and elsewhere until the bat- 
talion returned home in December 1748. On 
17 Feb. 1753 Braddock was promoted from 
the Guards to the colonelcy of the 14th foot 
at Gibraltar, where he joined his regiment, as 
then was customary ; but there is no record 
of his having exercised any higher command 
in that garrison. He became a major-general 
29 March 1754, and soon after was appointed 
to the command in America, with a view to 
driving the French from their recent encroach- 
ments. The warrant of appointment, of which 
there is a copy in the archives at Philadelphia, 
appoints Braddock to be ' general and com- 
mander-in-chief of all our troops and forces 
y l are in North America or y l shall be sent 
or rais'd there to vindicate our just rights and 
possessions.' Braddock, who must have been 
then about sixty, was a favourite with Wil- 

liam, duke of Cumberland, to whom he pro- 
bably owed the appointment, although his 
detractors alleged that his sturdy begging for 
place under pressure of his gambling debts 
was the real cause. He arrived at his resi- 
dence in Arlington Street from France on 

\ 6 Nov., and left for Cork, where his reinforce- 
ments were to rendezvous on the 30th. Before 
leaving he executed a will in favour of Mr. 

! Calcraft, the army agent, and his reputed wife, 
better known as Mrs. George Anne Bellamy 

! [q. v.] This lady, a natural daughter of an 

i old brother officer, had been petted from her 
earliest years by Braddock, whom she calls 
her second father, and who, she admits, was 

' misled as to her relations with Calcraft (BEL- 
LAMY, Apoloffy, in. 206). Delays occurring 
at Cork, Braddock returned and sailed from 
the Downs with Commodore Keppel on 
24 Dec. 1754, arriving in Hampton Roads, 
Virginia, 20 Feb. 1755. He found everything 
in the utmost confusion. The colonies were 
at variance; everywhere the pettiest jea- 
lousies were rife ; no magazines had been 
collected ; the promised provincial troops had 

| not even been raised, and the few regulars 
already there were of the worst description. 
Braddock summoned a council of provincial 
governors to concert measures for carrying 
out his instructions. Eventually it was re- 
solved to despatch four expeditions three in 
the north against Niagara, Crown Point, and 
the French posts in Nova Scotia ; one in the 
south against Fort Duquesne, on the present 
site of Pittsburg. The troops for the latter 
rendezvoused, under Braddock's command, at 
Fort Cumberland, a stockaded post on the Po- 
tomac, about halfway between the Virginian 
seaboard and Fort Duquesne, a distance of 
two hundred and twenty miles : and after de- 
lays caused by what George Washington, then 
a young officer of provincials and a volunteer 
with the expedition, termed the 'vile mis- 
management ' of the horse-transport, and the 
desertion of their Indian scouts, arrived at a 
spot known as Little Meadows on 18 June, 
where a camp was formed. Hence Braddock 
pushed on with twelve hundred chosen men, 
regulars and provincials, who reached the Mo- 
nongahela river on 8 July, in excellent order 
and spirits, and crossed the next morning with 
colours flying and music playing. During the 
advance on the afternoon, 9 July 1755, when 
about seven miles from Fort Duquesne, the 
head of the column encountered an ambuscade 
of French and Indians concealed in the long 
grass and tangled undergrowth of the forest 
openings. Flank attacks by unseen Indians 
threw the advance into wild disorder, which 
communicated itself to the main body coming 
up in support, leading to terrible slaughter, 




and ending, after (it is said) two hours' fight- 
ing, in a panic-stricken rout. Braddock, who 
strove bravely to re-form his men, after having 
several horses shot under him, was himself 
struck down by a bullet, which passed through 
his right arm and lodged in the body. His 
aide-de-camp Orme and some provincial offi- 
cers with great difficulty had him carried off i 
the field. He rallied sufficiently to give di- j 
rections for succouring the wounded, but gra- 
dually sank and died at sundown on Sunday, ! 
13 July 1755, at a halting-place called Great 
Meadows, between fifty and sixty miles from 
the battlefield. ' We shall know better how to j 
deal with them next time ' were his last words 
as he rallied momentarily before expiring. He ' 
was buried before dawn in the middle of the 
track, and the precaution was taken of passing 
the vehicles of the retreating force, now re- ; 
duced to some degree of order, over the grave, ! 
to efface whatever might lead to desecration 
by the pursuers. Long after, in 1823, the 
grave was rifled by labourers employed in the 
construction of the national road hard by, and 
some of the bones, still distinguishable by mili- 
tary trappings, were carried off. Others were 
buried at the foot of a broad spreading oak, 
which marks or marked the locality, about a 
mile to the west of Fort Necessity. 

No portrait of Braddock is known to exist, 
but he is described as rather short and stout in 
person in his later years. To failings common 
among military men of his day he added the 
unpopular defects of a hasty temper and a 
coarse, self-assertive manner, but his fidelity 
and honour as a public servant have never 
been questioned, even by those who have por- 
trayed his character in darkest colours. He was 
a severe disciplinarian, but his severity, like his 
alleged incapacity as a general, has probably 
been exaggerated. The difficulties he appears 
to have encountered at every step have been 
forgotten, as well as the fact that the ponderous 
discipline in which he had been trained from 
his youth up, and which was still associated 
with the best traditions of the English foot, 
had never before been in serious collision with 
the tactics of the backwoods. Two shrewd 
observers among those who knew him person- 
ally judged him less harshly than have most 
later critics. Wolfe, on the first tidings of 
the disaster, wrote of Braddock as ' a man of 
courage and good sense, although not a master 
of the art of war,' and added emphatic tes- 
timony to the wretched discipline of most 
line regiments at the time (WRIGHT, Life of 
Wolfe, p. 324). Benjamin Franklin said of 
him : ' He was, I think, a brave man, and 
might have made a good figure in some Eu- 
ropean war, but he had too much self-confi- 
dence, and had too high an idea of the validity 

of European troops, and too low a one of 
Americans and Indians ' (SPARKS, Franklin, 
i. 140). One of Braddock's order-books, said 
to have belonged to Washington, is preserved 
in the library of Congress, and a silken mili- 
tary sash, worked with the date 1707, and 
much stained as with blood, which is believed 
to have been Braddock's sash, is in the posses- 
sion of the family of the late General Zachary 
Taylor, United States army, into whose hands 
it came during the Mexican war. In after 
years more than one individual sought a 
shameful notoriety by claiming to have trai- 
torously given Braddock his death-wound 
during the fight. Mr. Winthrop Sargent has 
exposed the absurdity of these stories. One 
is reproduced in ' Notes and Queries/ 3rd 
ser. xii. 5. Braddock had two sisters, who 
received from their father a respectable for- 
tune of 6,000 1., and both of whom predeceased 
their brother. The unhappy fate of Fanny 
Braddock, the surviving sister, who committed 
suicide at Bath in 1739, has been recorded by 
Goldsmith (Miscellaneous Works, Prior's ed. 
iii. 294). Descendants of abrother were stated 
in 'Notes and Queries' (1st ser. xi. 72) some 
time back to be living at Martham in Norfolk, 
in humble circumstances, and to believe them- 
selves entitled to a considerable amount of 
money, the papers relating to which had been 
lost. No account has been found of moneys 
standing to the credit of Braddock or his re- 
presentatives in any public securities. 

The accounts of the Fort Duquesne expe- 
dition published at the time appear to have 
been mostly catchpenny productions; but 
two authentic narratives are in existence. Of 
these one is the manuscript journal of Brad- 
dock's favourite aide-de-camp, Captain Orme, 
Coldstream guards, who afterwards retired 
from the service and died in 1781. This is 
now No. 212 King's MSS. in British Museum. 
The other is the manuscript diary of a naval 
officer attached to Braddock's force, which is 
now in the possession of the Rev. F. O. Morris 
of Nunburnholme Rectory, Yorkshire, by 
whom it was published some years ago under 
the title, ' An Account of the Battle on the 
Monagahela River, from an original docu- 
ment by one of the survivors ' (London, 1854, 
8vo). Copies of these journals have been em- 
bodied with a mass of information from Ame- 
rican and French sources by Mr. Winthrop 
Sargent, in an exhaustive monograph forming 
vol. v. of ' Memoirs of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania' (Philadelphia, 1856). A 
map of Braddock's route was prepared from 
traces found still extant in 1846, when a rail- 
way survey was in progress in the locality, 
and first appeared in a Pittsburg periodical, 
entitled ' Olden Time ' (vol. ii.) An excel- 




lent account of Braddock's expedition and of 
the events leading up to it is given in Park- 
man's ' Montcalm and Wolfe,' vol. i. Some 
brief military criticisms were contributed by 
Colonel Malleson to the ' Army and Navy 
Magazine/ March 1885, pp. 401, 404-5. The 
Home Office and War Office Warrant and 
Military Entry Books in the Record Office in 
London contain references to the expedition, 
but none of any special note. 

[Mackinnon's Origin of Coldstream Guards 
(London, 1832), i. 388-9, vol. ii. Appendix; Home 
Office Military Entry Books, 10-27 ; Cannon's 
Hist. Eecord 14th (Buckinghamshire) Foot; 
Carter's Hist. Kecord 44th (East Essex) Foot ; 
"Walpole's Letters (eel. Cunningham, 1856), ii. 
460-2 ; Apology for the Life of G. A. Bellamy 
(5 vols., London, 1786), iii. 206 ; Beatson's Naval 
and Military Memoirs, vol. iii. ; Hume and Smol- 
lett's Hist. (1854), ix. 296 etseq. ; Memoirs Hist. 
Soc. of Pennsylvania, vol. v. ; Parkman's Mont- 
calm and Wolfe (London, 1884) ; Army and Navy 
Mag. liii. 385-405 ; American Magazine of His- 
tory, ii. 627, vi. 63, 224, 462, viii. 473, 500, 502; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Eeport, i. 226 a ; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 11, 562, xi. 72. 3rd ser. 
xii. 5.] H. M. C. 

BRADDOCKE, JOHN (1656-1719), di- 
vine, was a native of Shropshire, and received 
his education at St. Catharine's Hall, Cam- 
bridge, where he was elected to a fellowship 
(B.A. 1674, M.A. 1678). On leaving the 
university about 1689, he became chaplain 
to Sir James Oxenden, bart., of Dean, near 
Canterbury, and chaplain to Dr. John Bat- 
tely, rector of the neighbouring parish of 
Adisham. In 1694 he was nominated by 
Archbishop Tenison to the perpetual curacy 
of Folkestone, and on 1 April 1698 he was 
presented to the vicarage of St. Stephen's, 
alias Hackington, near Canterbury. On the 
promotion of Dr. Offspring Blackall, his con- 
temporary at college and intimate friend, to 
the see of Exeter in 1707, Braddocke was 
made the bishop's chaplain, though he got 
nothing by the appointment except the title. 
In 1709 he was collated by Archbishop Teni- 
son to the mastership of Eastbridge hospital 
in Kent. He died in his vicarage house on 
14 Aug. 1719, in his sixty-fourth year. 

He wrote : 1. ' The Doctrine of the Fathers 
and Schools considered, concerning the Ar- 
ticles of a Trinity of Divine Persons and the 
Unity of God. In answer to the Animad- 
versions on the Dean of St. Paul's Vindica- 
tion of the Doctrine of the Holy and ever 
Blessed Trinity, in defence of those sacred Ar- 
ticles, against the objections of the Socinians, 
and the misrepresentations of the Animad- 
verter.' Part I, 1695, 4to. 2. ' Deus unus et 
trinus,' 4to. This \vas entirely printed, except 

the title-page, but was suppressed, and never 
j published, by the desire of Archbishop Teni- 
son, who thought the controversy ought not 
to be continued. 

[MS. Addit. 5863, f. 1146; Cantabrigienses 
Graduati (1787), 49 ; Hasted's Kent, iii. 388, 601 , 
iv. 628.1 T. C. 

politician, the second son of William Brad- 
don of Treworgy, in St. Genny's, Cornwall, 
was called to the bar at the Middle Temple, 
and for some time worked hard at his pro- 
fession. When the Earl of Essex died in 
the Tower in 1683, Braddon adopted the 
belief that he had been murdered, and worked 
actively to collect sufficient evidence to prove 
the murder. He set on foot inquiries on 
the subject in London, and when a rumour 
reached him that the news of the earl's death 
was known at Marlborough on the very day 
of, if not before, the occurrence, he posted off 
thither. When his action became known at 
court, he was arrested and put under restraint. 
For a time he was let out on bail, but on 
7 Feb. 1683-4 he was tried with Mr. Hugh 
Speke at the king's bench on the accusation 
of conspiring to spread the belief that the 
Earl of Essex was murdered by some persons 
about him, and of endeavouring to suborn 
witnesses to testify the same. Braddon was 
found guilty on all the counts, but Speke 
was acquitted of the latter charge. The one 
was fined 1,000 J. and the other 2,000/., with 
sureties for good behaviour during their lives. 
Braddon remained in prison until the landing 
of William III, when he was liberated. In 
February 1695 he was appointed solicitor to 
the wine licence office, a place valued at IOQI. 
per annum. His death occurred on Sunday, 
29 Nov. 1724. 

Most of Braddon's works relate to the 
death of the Earl of Essex. The ' Enquiry 
into and Detection of the Barbarous Murther 
of the late Earl of Essex ' (1689) was probably 
from his pen, and he was undoubtedly the 
author of ' Essex's Innocency and Honour 
vindicated' (1690), 'Murther will out' 
(1692), ' True and Impartial Narrative of 
the Murder of Arthur, Earl of Essex ' (1729), 
as well as ' Bishop Burnet's late History 
charg'd with great Partiality and Misrepre- 
sentation' (1725) in the bishop's account of 
this mysterious affair. Braddon also pub- 
lished ' The Constitutions of the Company of 
Watermen and Lightermen,' and an ' Ab- 
stract of the Rules, Orders, and Constitu- 
tions ' of the same company, both of them 
issued in 1708. ' The Miseries of the Poor 
are a National Sin, Shame, and Danger ' was 
the title of a work (1717) in which he 




argued for the establishment of guardians of 
the poor and inspectors for the encourage- 
ment of arts and manufactures. Five years 
later he brought out 'Particular Answers to 
the most material Objections made to the 
Proposals for relieving the Poor.' The re- 
port of his trial was printed in 1684, and 
reprinted in ' Cobbett's State Trials,' ix. 
1127-1228, and his impeachment of Bishop 
Burnet's i History ' is reprinted in the same 
volume of Cobbett, pp. 1229-1332. 

[Hist. Kegister (1724), 51 ; Kippis's Biog. 
Brit. iii. 229-30; North's Examen, 386-8; 
Wilts Archaeological Mag. iii. 367-76 ; Notes 
and Queries (1863), 3rd ser. iv. 500; Ealph's 
Hist, of England, i. 761-5 ; Luttrell's State 
Affairs, i. 286, 299-306, iii. 441 ; Bibl. Cornub. 
i. 40, iii. 1091 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Keport, 
406-7.] W. P. C. 


BRADE, WILLIAM (ft. 1615), an Eng- 
lish musician, was violist to the Duke of 
Holstein-Gottorp and to the town of Ham- 
burg at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. He was living at Hamburg on 
19 Aug. 1609, when he dedicated a volume 
of his compositions to Johann Adolph, duke 
of Schleswig, and he probably remained at 
the same town until 14 Feb. 1619, when 
he was appointed capellmeister to Johann 
Sigismund, margrave of Brandenburg. His 
salary in this post was 500 thalers per an- 
num, besides a thaler a week for i kostgeld ' 
when at court, and when following the mar- 
grave abroad, six dinners and all other meals 
weekly, with sufficient beer, a stoup of wine 
daily, free lodgings, and all disbursements. 
He also received two suits of clothes (' Ehren- 
kleid'), and his son, Christian Brade, had 
300 thalers, with clothes, boots, shoes, and 
maintenance. Brade had full authority over 
the court band, but the care of the boys of 
the chapel was given to a vice-capellmeister. 
He does not seem to have remained long at 
Berlin, as a report on the margrave's band, 
drawn up in 1620, speaks of him as one of 
the past capellmeisters, and in the following 
year Jacob Schmidt is mentioned as occupy- 
ing his post. Nothing more is known of 
him ; but Dr. Rimbault (an untrustworthy 
guide) says (GROVE, Diet, of Music, i. 269 a) 
that he died at Frankfurt in 1647, the 
authority for which statement cannot be 

The greatest confusion exists as to the 
bibliography of Brade's works, all of which 
are extremely rare. F6tis and Rimbault 
copy Gerber's ' Lexikon der Tonkiinstler ' 
(Leipzig, 1812), i. 493, with the exception 
that Rimbault prints Frankfurt a. d. Oder as 

Frankfort, which is additionally misleading. 
The list given by these authorities differs 
materially from the following, which is taken 
from Moller's l Cimbria Literata,' 1744, ii. 
103, and is reprinted in the 'Lexikon der 
hamburgischen Schriftsteller/ 1851, i. 364: 
1. ' Musicalische Concerten,' Hamburg, 1609, 
4to. 2. ' Newe ausserlesene Paduanen, Gal- 
liarden, Canzonen, Alamanden und Couran- 
ten, auf allerlei Instrumenten zu gebrau- 
chen,' Hamburg, 1610, 4to. 3. 'Newe 
ausserlesene Paduanen und Galliarden, midt 
6 Stimmen, auf allerhand Instrumenten, in- 
sonderheit Violen, zu gebrauchen,' Hamburg, 
1614, 4to. 4. ' Newe ausserlesene liebliche 
Branden, Intraden, Masqueraden, Balletten, 
Alamanden, Couranten, Volten, Aufziige und 
frembde Tantze, samt schonen lieblichen 
Friihlings- und Sommer-Bliimlein, mit 5 
Stimmen ; auf allerlei Instrumenten, inson- 
derheit Violen, zu gebrauchen,' Liibeck, 1617, 
8vo. 5. 'Newe lustige Volten, Couranten, 
Balletten, Paduanen, Galliarden, Masquera- 
den, auch allerlei Arten newer franzosischer 
Tantze, mit 5 Stimmen, auf allerlei Instru- 
menten zu gebrauchen,' Berlin, 1621, 4to. 
Fetis omits 4 in his list, and gives the date of 
2 as 1609, and the place of publication of 5 
as Frankfurt a. d. Oder. Bohn's 'Biblio- 
graphic der Musik-Druckwerke bis 1700' 
(p. 74) describes a copy of 2, and quotes the 
title-page, by which it would seem that 1609 
is the right date. A manuscript ' Fancy ' by 
Brade is in the library of the Royal College 
of Music. 

[The authorities quoted above ; Fetis's Bio- 
graphie desMusiciens (1837), ii. 293 a ; Mendel's 
Musikalisches Lexicon, i. 162 ; Brand's Biblio- 
theca Librorum German icorum Classica (1611), 
555; L. Schneider's Geschichte derChurfurstlich- 
Brandenburgischen und Koniglich-Preussischen 
Capelle, pp. 29, 30, 31.] W. B. S. 

STEELE (1805-1852), surgeon and author, 
was born on 18 May 1805 in Derby Street, 
Westminster, where his father, Thomas Brad- 
field, was a coal merchant. Whilst still under 
age he published in 1825 ' Waterloo, or the 
British Minstrel, a poem.' He was bred to- 
the art of surgery, and on 26 April 1826 left 
England in the schooner Unicorn in Lord 
Cochrane's expedition to Greece, during 
which he was present in several engagements- 
by land and sea. After his return he pub- 
lished ' The Athenaid, or Modern Grecians, 
a poem,' 1830 ; ' Tales of the Cyclades, poems/ 
1830: and in 1839 edited a work entitled 'A 
Russian's Reply to the Marquis de Custine's- 
" Russia.'" On 1 Sept. 1832 he received from 
the King of the Belgians a commission as 
sous-lieutenant in the Bataillon Etranger 




of Belgium, and was appointed to the 1st 
regiment of lancers. At one time he held a 
commission in the Royal West Middlesex 
Militia. He was appointed on 31 Dec. 1835 
stipendiary magistrate in Tobago, from which 
he was removed to Trinidad on 13 May 
1836. He was reappointed to the southern 
or Cedros district on 13 April 1839, but 
soon returned to England, having been su- 
perseded in consequence of a quarrel with 
some other colonial officer. In 1841 he 
again went to the West Indies in the capa- 
city of private secretary to Colonel Mac- 
donald, lieutenant-governor of Dominica, and 
in 184:2 he acted for some time as colonial 
secretary in Barbados. The charges which 
had occasioned his previous return were, 
however, renewed, and the government can- 
celled his appointment. From that period 
he lived very precariously, and for many 
years solicited in vain a reversal of his sen- 
tence at the colonial office. He turned his 
moderate literary talents to account, and 
among some communications he made to 
the * Gentleman's Magazine ' were articles on 
1 The Last of the Paleologi ' in January 1843, 
and a ' Memoir of Major-general Thomas 
Dundas and the Expedition to Guadaloupe' 
in August, September, and October in the 
same year. Latterly he practised all the arts 
of the professional mendicant. He com- 
mitted suicide by drinking a bottle of prussic 
acid in the coffee-room of the St. Alban's 
Hotel, 12 Charles Street, St. James's Square, 
London, on 11 Oct. 1852. 

[Cochrane's Wanderings in Greece (1837), p. 
SO; Gent. Mag. (1853), xxxix. 102; Morning 
Post, 13 Oct. 1852, p. 4, and 15 Oct. p. 6.1 

G. C. B. 

BRADFORD, JOHN (1510 P-1555), pro- 
testant martyr, was born of gentle parents 
about 1510 in the parish of Manchester. A 
local tradition claims him as a native of the 
chapelry of Blackley. He was educated at 
the grammar school, Manchester. In his 
' Meditations on the Commandments,' written 
during his imprisonment in the reign of Queen 
Mary, he speaks of the ' particular benefits ' 
that he had received from his parents and 
tutors. Foxe records that Bradford entered 
the service of Sir John Harrington of Exton, 
Rutlandshire, who was treasurer at various 
times of the king's camps and buildings in 
Boulogne. At the siege of Montreuil in 
1544 Bradford acted as deputy-paymaster 
under Sir John Harrington. On 8 April 1547 
he entered the Inner Temple as a student of 
common law. Here, at the instance of a fel- 
low-student, Thomas Sampson, afterwards 
dean of Christ Church, he turned his attention 

to the study of divinity. A marked change 
now came over his character. He sold his 
' chains, rings, brooches, and jewels of gold,' 
and gave the money to the poor. Moved by 
a sermon of Latimer, he caused restitution to 
be made to the crown of a sum of money 
which he or Sir John Harrington had frau- 
dulently appropriated. The facts are not 
very clear. Sampson in his address * To the 
Christian Reader,' prefixed to Bradford's 
' Two Notable Sermons,' 1574, states that the 
fraud was committed by Bradford and with- 
out the knowledge of his master ; but Brad- 
ford's own words, in his last examination 
before Bishop Gardiner, are : ' My lord, I set 
my foot to his foot, whosoever he be, that can 
come forth and justly vouch to my face that 
ever I deceived 'my master. And as you are 
chief justice by office in England, I desire 
justice upon them that so slander me, because 
they cannot proA r e it ' (Examination of Brad- 
ford, London, 1561, sig. a vi.) In May 1548 
he published translations from Artopoaus 
and Chrysostom, and in or about the follow- 
ing August entered St. Catharine's Hall, 
Cambridge, where his * diligence in study and 
profiting in knowledge and godly conversa- 
tion ' were such, that on 19 Oct. 1549 the 
university bestowed on him, by special grace, 
the degree of master of arts. The entry in 
the grace book describes him as a man of 
mature age and approved life, who had for 
eight years been diligently employed in the 
study of literature, the arts, and holy scrip- 
tures. He was shortly afterwards elected to 
a fellowship at Pembroke Hall. In a letter 
to Traves, written about November 1549, he 
says: 'My fellowship here is worth seven 
pound a year, for I have allowed me eighteen- 
pence a week, and as good as thirty-three 
shillings fourpence a year in money, besides 
my chamber, launder, barber, &c. ; and I am 
bound to nothing but once or twice a year to 
keep a problem. Thus you see what a good 
Lord God is unto me.' Among his pupils at 
Pembroke Hall was John Whitgift, after- 
wards Archbishop of Canterbury. One of his 
intimate friends was Martin Bucer, whom he 
accompanied on a visit to Oxford in July 
1550. On 10 Aug. of the same year he was 
ordained deacon by Bishop Ridley at Fulham, 
and received a license to preach. The bishop 
made him one of his chaplains, received him 
into his own house, and held him in the 
highest esteem. 1 1 thank God heartily,' wrote 
Ridley to Bernhere [q. v.] after Bradford's 
martyrdom, ' that ever I was acquainted with 
our dear brother Bradford, and that ever I 
had such a one in my house.' On 24 Aug. 
1551 Bradford received the prebend of 
Kentish Town, in the church of St. Paul. A 




few months later he was appointed one of the 
king's six chaplains in ordinary. Two of the 
chaplains remained with the king, and four 
preached throughout the country. Bradford 
preached in many towns of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, also in London and Saffron Wai- 
den. Foxe says that ' sharply he opened and 
reproved sin ; sweetly he preached Christ 
crucified ; pithily he impugned heresies and 
errors ; earnestly he persuaded to godly life.' 
John Knox, in his ' Godly Letter,' 1554, 
speaks with admiration of his intrepidity in 
the pulpit. Bradford's sermons ring with 
passionate earnestness. He takes the first 
words that come to hand, and makes no at- 
tempt to construct elaborate periods. ' Let 
us, even to the wearing of our tongue to the 
stumps, preach and pray,' he exclaims in the 
'Sermon on Repentance;' and not for a 
moment did he slacken his energy. He spoke 
out boldly and never shrank from denouncing 
the vices of the great. In a sermon preached 
before Edward VI he rebuked the worldliness 
of the courtiers, declaring that God's ven- 
geance would come upon the ungodly among 
them, and bidding them take example by the 
sudden fate that had befallen the late Duke 
of Somerset. At the close of his sermon, 
with weeping eyes and in a voice of lamen- 
tation, he cried out aloud : ' God punished 
him ; and shall He spare you that be double 
more wicked ? No, He shall not. Will ye 
or will ye not, ye shall drink the cup of the 
Lord's wrath. Judicium Domini, .Indicium 
Domini ! The judgment of the Lord, the 
judgment of the Lord ! ' 

On 13 Aug. 1553, shortly after the acces- 
sion of Queen Mary, a sermon in defence of 
Bonner and against Edward VI was preached 
at St. Paul's Cross by Gilbert Bourne [q. v.], 
rector of High Ongar in Essex, and afterwards 
bishop of Bath and Wells. The sermon gave 
great offence to the hearers, who would have 
pulled him out of the pulpit and torn him to 
pieces if Bradford and John Rogers, vicar of 
St. Sepulchre's, had not interposed. On the 
same day in the afternoon Bradford preached 
at Bow Church, Cheapside, and reproved the 
people for the violence that had been offered 
in the morning to Bourne. Within three 
days after this occurrence Bradford was sum- 
moned before the privy council on the charge 
of preaching seditious sermons, and was com- 
mitted to the Tower, where he wrote his 
treatise on * The Hurt of Hearing Mass.' At 
first he was permitted to see no man but his 
keeper ; afterwards this severity was relaxed, 
and he was allowed the society of his fellow- 
prisoner, Dr. Sandys. On 6 Feb. 1553-4 
Bradford and Sandys were separated; the 
latter was sent to the Marshalsea, and the 

former was lodged in the same room as Cran- 
mer, Latimer, and Ridley, the Tower being- 
then very full owing to the imprisonment of 
; Wyatt and his followers. Latimer, in his 
protest addressed to the queen's commis- 
sioners at Oxford ( Works, ii. 258-9, Parker 
Society), tells how he and his fellow-prisoners- 
* did together read over the New Testament 
1 with great deliberation and painful study/ 
On 24 March Bradford was transferred to the 
King's Bench prison. Here, probably by the 
favour of Sir William Fitzwilliam, the knight- 
I marshal of the prison, he was occasionally 
j allowed at large on his parole, and was suf- 
fered to receive visitors and administer the 
1 sacrament. Once a week he used to visit 
the criminals in the prison, distributing 
charity among them and exhorting them to 
amend their lives. On 22 Jan. 1554-5 he was 
brought up for examination before Bishops 
Gardiner, Bonner, and other prelates. There 
is an account (first published in 1561) in his 
own words of his three separate examinations 
before the commissioners on 22, 29, and 
30 Jan. The commissioners questioned him 
closely on subtle points of doctrine, and en- 
deavoured to convince him that his views 
were heretical ; but he answered their argu- 
ments with imperturbable calmness, and re- 
fused to be convinced. Accordingly he was 
condemned as an obstinate heretic, and was 
committed to the Compter in the Poultry. 
It was at first determined to have him burned 
at his native town, Manchester ; but, whether 
in the hope of making him recant or from 
fear of enraging the people of Manchester, 
the authorities finally kept him in London 
and waited some months before carrying 
out the sentence. At the Compter he was 
visited by several catholic divines, who en- 
deavoured unsuccessfully to effect his conver- 
sion. Among these were Archbishop Heath, 
Bishop Day, Alphonsus a Castro, afterwards 
archbishop of Compostella, and Bartholomew 
Carranza, confessor to King Philip, and after- 
wards archbishop of Toledo. At length, as 
he refused to recant, a day was fixed for car- 
rying out the sentence. On Sunday, 30 June 
1555, he was taken late at night from the 
Compter to Newgate, all the prisoners in 
tears bidding him farewell. In spite of the 
lateness of the hour great crowds were abroad, 
and as he passed along Cheapside the people 
wept and prayed for him. A rumour spread 
that he was to be burned at four o'clock the 
next morning, and by that hour a great con- 
course of people had assembled ; but it was 
not until nine o'clock that he was brought to . 
the stake. ' Then,' says Foxe, l was he led 
forth to Smithfield with a great company of 
weaponed men to conduct him thither, as the- 



like was not seen at no man's burning ; for 
in every corner of Smithfield there were some, 
besides those who stood about the stake.' A 
young man named John Leaf was his fellow- 
martyr. After taking a faggot in his hand 
and kissing it, Bradford desired of the sheriffs 
that his servant might have his raiment. 
Consent being given, he put off his raiment 
and went to the stake. Then holding up his 
hands, and looking up to heaven, he cried : 
' England, England, repent thee of thy 
sins, repent thee of thy sins. Beware of 
idolatry, beware ,of false antichrists ; take 
heed they do not deceive you.' As he was 
speaking the sheriff ordered his hands to be 
tied if he would not keep silence. ' O master 
sheriff,' said Bradford, * I am quiet. God for- 
give you this, master sheriff.' Then having 
asked the people to pray for him he turned 
to John Leaf and said : ' Be of good comfort, 
brother, for we shall have a merry supper 
with the Lord this night.' His last words 
were : ' Strait is the way and narrow is the 
gate that leadeth to salvation, and few there 
be that find it.' 

Bradford was a man of singularly gentle 
character. Parsons, the Jesuit, allowed that 
he was ' of a more soft and mild nature than 
many of his fellows.' There is a tradition 
that on seeing some criminals going to exe- 
cution ht> xclaimed : ' But for the grace of 
God there goes John Bradford.' Often when 
engaged in conversation he would suddenly 
fall into a deep reverie, during which his eyes 
would fill with tears or be radiant with smiles. 
In all companies he would reprove sin and 
misbehaviour in any person, ' especially 
swearers, filthy talkers, and popish praters ; ' 
but the manner of his reproof was at once so 
earnest and so kindly that none could take 
offence. His life was passed in prayer and 
study. He seldom slept more than four hours, 
and he ate only one meal a day. In person 
he was tall and slender, of a somewhat san- 
guine complexion, and with an auburn beard. 
A portrait of him (which is engraved in 
Baines's ' History of Lancashire, ii. 243) is 
preserved in the Chetham Library at Man- 
chester. A more modern portrait is in Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

The following is a list of Bradford's wri- 
tings : 1. * The Divisyon of the Places of the 
Lawe and of the Gospell, gathered owt of the 
hooly scriptures by Petrum Artopceum . . . 
Translated into English,' London, 1548, 8vo. 
2. ' A Godlye Treatise of Prayer [by Me- 
lanchthon], translated into English,' London, 
n. d. 8vo. 3. ' Two Notable Sermons, the one 
of Repentance, and the other of the Lorde's 
Supper,' London, 1574, 1581, 1599, 1617 ; the 
* Sermon on Repentance ' had been issued se- 

parately in 1553 and 1558. 4. ' Complaint of 
I Verity e,' 1559 ; a short metrical piece printed 
I in a collection issued by William Copland. 
j 5. 'A Godlye Medytacyon,' London, 1559. 
' 6. ' Godlie Meditations upon the Lordes. 
Prayer, the Beleefe, and Ten Commande- 
ments ... whereunto is annexed a defence 
of the doctrine of God's eternal election and 
j predestination,' London, 1562,1578, 1604, &c. 
7. ' Meditations ; ' from his autograph in a 
! copy of Tyndale's New Testament. 8. ' Medi- 
tations and Prayers from manuscripts in Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, and elsewhere/ 
9. ' All the Examinacions of the Constante 
Martir of God, M. John Bradforde, before 
the Lord Chancellour, B. of Winchester, 
the B. of London, and other comissioners ; 
whereunto ar annexed his priuate talk and 
conflictes in prison after his condemnacion, r 
' &c. 1561. 10. ' Hurte of hering Masse,' n. d. 
I (printed by Copland), 1580, 1596. 11. 'A 
' FruitefulT Treatise and full of heavenly con- 
| solation against the feare of death,' n. d. 
12. Five treatises, namely (1) ' The Old Man 
and the New;' (2) ' The Flesh and the Spirit ; * 
(3) 'Defence of Election;' (4) 'Against the 
Fear of Death ; ' (5) ' The Restoration of all 
Things.' 13. ' Ten Declarations and Ad- 
dresses.' 14. 'An Exhortation to the Brethren 
in England, and four farewells to London, 
Cambridge, Lancashire, and Cheshire, and 
Saffron Walden ; ' from Coverdale's ' Letters 
of the Martyrs ' and Foxe's ' Acts and Monu- 
ments.' 15. 'Sweet Meditations of the 
Kingdom of Christ,' n. d. 16. Letters from 
Foxe's 'Acts and Monuments,' 1563, 1570, 
and 1583 ; Coverdale's ' Letters of the Mar- 
tyrs,' Strype's 'Ecclesiastical Memorials,' and 
manuscripts in Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, and British Museum. It is probable 
that Bradford contributed to 'A Confuta- 
cion of Four Romish Doctrines,' a treatise en- 
titled 'An Exhortacion to the Carienge of 
Chryste's crosse, with a true and briefe confu- 
tacion of false and papistical! doctryne,' n. d., 
printed abroad. A complete collection of 
Bradford's writings, very carefully edited 
by Rev. Aubrey Townsend, was published at 
Cambridge for the Parker Society, 2 vols. 
8vo, 1848-53. 

[Life by Rev. Aubrey Townsend ; Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments ; Strype ; Holling worth's Man- 
cuniensis, ed. 1839, pp. 67-76; Baines's Lanca- 
shire, ii. 243-54; Fuller's Worthies; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser, i. 125; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses.] A. H. B. 


BRADFORD, JOHN (d. 1780), Welsh 
poet, was born early in the eighteenth cen- 




tury. In 1730, while still a boy, be was ad- 
mitted a * disciple ' of the bardic chair of 
Glamorgan, in which chair he himself pre- 
sided in 1750. Some of his poems, ' moral 
pieces of great merit,' according to Dr. Owen 
Pughe, were printed in a contemporary Welsh 
periodical entitled the ' Eurgrawn.' 

[Owen Pughe's Cambrian Biography.] 

A. M. 

BRADFORD, JOHN (1750-1805), dis- 
senting minister, was born at Hereford in 
1750, the son of a clothier, educated at Here- 
ford grammar school, and at Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he took the degree of 
B.A. On leaving college he accepted a 
curacy at Frelsham in Berkshire, where he 
married when twenty-eight years of age, and 
had a family of twelve children. About this 
time his religious opinions became decidedly 
Calvinistic, and he preached in several of 
Lady Huntingdon's chapels. On account of 
this irregularity the rector discharged him 
from his curacy. He then joined the Countess 
of Huntingdon's connection, and, after spend- 
ing some time in South Wales, removed to 
Birmingham, and preached with great popu- 
larity in the old playhouse, which the countess 
had purchased and made into a chapel for 
him. Subsequently he left the connection 
of the countess for a new chapel in Bar- 
tholomew Street, supplementing his small 
income by making watch-chains. Not being 
successful, he removed to London in 1797, 
and preached till his death in the City Chapel, 
Grub Street. He died 16 July 1805, and 
was buried in Bunhill Fields. Some account 
of his life is given in an octavo volume, chiefly 
controversial, by his successor, William Wales 
Home. Bradford published : 1 . ' The Law 
of Faith opposed to the Law of Works,' Bir- 
mingham, 1787 (being an answer to the bap- 
tist circular letter signed Joshua Thomas). 
2. * An Address to the Inhabitants of New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, on the Mission of 
two Ministers sent by the Countess of Hunt- 
ingdon,' 1788. 3. ' A Collection of Hymns ' 
(some of them composed by himself), 1792. 
4, 'The Difference between True and False 
Holiness.' 5. 'A Christian's Meetness for 
Glory.' 6. ' Comfort for the Feeble-minded.' 
7. 'The Gospel spiritually discerned.' 8. 'One 
Baptism.' A fine octavo edition of ' Bun- 
van's Pilgrim's Progress, with Notes by John 
Bradford,' was published in 1792. Mr. Offor 
says, ' These notes are very valuable.' 

[Bunjan's Works (ed. Offor), with notes to 
the Pilgrim by Bradford ; Gadsby's Memoirs of 
Hymn Writers ; Home's Life of the Rev. John 
Bradford, 1806.] J. H. T. 

1731), bishop successively of Carlisle and 
Rochester, was the son of William Bradford, 
a citizen of London, who distinguished him- 
self as a parish officer at the time of the plague, 
and was born in St. Anne's, Blackfriars, on 

20 Dec. 1652. He was educated at St. Paul's 
School ; and when the school was closed, owing 
to the plague and the fire of London, he at- 
tended the Charterhouse. He was admitted 
to Corpus Christi, Cambridge, in 1669, but 
left without a degree in consequence of re- 
ligious scruples. He devoted himself for a 
time to the study of medicine ; but, his former 
scruples being removed, he was admitted in 
1680, through the favour of Archbishop San- 
croft, to the degree of M. A. by royal mandate, 
and was incorporated at Oxford on 13 July 
1697. He shrank from taking orders until 
after the Revolution, and acted as private 
tutor in the families of several country gen- 
tlemen. Bradford was ordained deacon and 
priest in 1690, and in the spring of the follow- 
ing year was elected by the governors of St. 
Thomas's Hospital the minister of their church 
in Southwark. He soon received the lecture- 
ship of St. Mary-le-Bow, and was tutor to the 
two grandsons of Archbishop Tillotson, with 
whom he resided at Carlisle House, Lambeth. 
In November 1693 Dr. Tillotson collated 
Bradford to the rectory of St. Mary-le-Bow ; 
he then resigned his minor ecclesiastical pre- 
ferments, but soon after accepted the lecture- 
ship of All Hallows, in Bread Street. 

Bradford was a frequent preacher before 
the corporation of London, and was a staunch 
whig and protestant. On 30 Jan. 1698 he 
preached before William III, who was so 
much pleased that in March following he ap- 
pointed Bradford one of the royal chaplains 
in ordinary. The appointment was continued 
by Queen Anne, by whose command he was 
created D.D. on the occasion of her visit to 
the university of Cambridge, 16 April 1705 ; 
and on 23 Feb. 1708 was made a prebendary 
of Westminster. 

In 1699 Bradford delivered the Boyle lec- 
ture in St. Paul's Cathedral, and preached 
eight sermons on ' The Credibility of the 
Christian Revelation, from its Intrinsick Evi- 
dence.' These, with a ninth sermon preached 
in his own church in January 1700, were is- 
sued with other Boyle lectures delivered 
between 1691 and 1732, in 'A Defence of Na- 
tural and Revealed Religion,' &c. 3 vols. fol., 
London, 1739. 

Bradford was elected master of Corpus 
Christi College on 17 May 1716; and on 

21 April 1718 was nominated to the bishop- 
ric of Carlisle, to which he was consecrated 
on 1 June following. In 1723 he was trans- 




lated to the see of Rochester, and was also 
appointed to the deanery of Westminster, 
which he held in commendam with the bi- 
shopric of Rochester. In 1724 Bradford re- 
signed the mastership of Corpus Christi, and 
in 1725 became the first dean of the revived 
order of the Bath. He died on 17 May 1731, 
at the deanery of Westminster, and was buried 

In the abbey. JWWjflWS'SWISJ &. 

Bradford s wife, who survived him, was 
a daughter of Captain Ellis of Medbourne 
in Leicestershire, and bore him one son 
and two daughters. One of the latter was 
married to Dr. Reuben Clarke, archdeacon 
of Essex, and the other to Dr. John Denne, 
archdeacon of Rochester. His son, the Rev. 
William Bradford, died on 15 July 1728, 
aged thirty-two, when he was archdeacon of 
Rochester and vicar of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Bradford published more than a score of 
separate sermons. One of these a ' Discourse 
concerning Baptismal and Spiritual Regenera- 
tion,' 2nd ed., 8vo, London, 1709 attained a 
singular popularity. A ninth edition was pub- 
lished in 1819 by the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. 

[Graduati Cantab. 1787; Gent. Mag. May 
1731; Chronological Diary, 1731; Birch's Life 
of Archbishop Tillotson, 1752 ; History and An- 
tiquities of Rochester, &c., 1817; R. Masters's 
Hist. Corpus Christi Coll. (Lamb), 1831 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, 1851.] A. H. G. 

1853), general, was the eldest son of Thomas 
Bradford of Woodlands, near Doncaster, and 
Ashdown Park in Sussex, and was born on 
1 Dec. 1777. He entered the army as ensign 
In the 4th regiment on 20 Oct. 1793. He was 
promoted major into the Nottinghamshire 
Fencibles, then stationed in Ireland, in 1795. 
He gave proof of military ability during the 
Irish rebellion, and in 1801 was promoted 
"brevet lieutenant-colonel, and appointed as- 
sistant adj utant-general in Scotland. He was 
again brought on to the strength of the army 
as major in 1805, and served with Auchmuty 
as deputy adjutant-general in 1806 in the 
expedition to South America. In June 1808 
he accompanied the force under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley to Portugal, and was present at 
the battles of Vimeiro and Corunna. On his 
return to England he became assistant adju- 
tant-general at Canterbury, and lieutenant- 
colonel in succession of the 34th and 82nd 
regiments in 1809. In 1810 he was promoted 
colonel, and took the command of a brigade 
in the Portuguese army. He proved himself 
one of the most successful Portuguese briga- 
diers, and at the attack on the Arapiles in 
the battle of Salamanca Bradford's brigade 

VOL. 71. 

showed itself worthy of a place beside the 
British army. In 1813 he was promoted 
major-general, and made a mariscal de campo 
in the Portuguese service, receiving the com- 
mand of a Portuguese division. He com- 
manded this division at Vittoria, at the siege 
of San Sebastian, and in the battle of the 
Nive. At the battle before Bayonne he was 
so severely wounded that he had to return to 

In 1814 he was placed on the staff of the 
northern district, and made K.C.B. and 
K.T.S. ; but he missed the battle of Water- 
loo, at which his younger brother, Lieutenant- 
colonel Sir Henry Holies Bradford, K.C.B., 
who had also been a staff officer in the 
Peninsula, was killed. He commanded the 
seventh division of the army of occupation 
in France from 1815 to 1817, and the troops 
in Scotland from 1819 till he was promoted 
lieutenant-general in May 1825, and was thei* 
appointed commander-in-chief of the troops 
in the Bombay presidency. He held this 
command for four years, and on his return to 
England in 1829 received the colonelcy of 
the 38th regiment. In 1831 he was made 
G.C.H., in 1838 G.C.B., in 1841 he was pro- 
moted general, and in 1846 exchanged the 
colonelcy of the 38th for that of the 4th regi- 
ment. He died in London on 28 Nov. 1853, 
aged 75. 

[Royal Military Calendar ; obituary notices 
in the Times, Gent. Mag., and Colburn's United 
Service Magazine.] H. M. S. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM (1590-1657), 
second governor of Plymouth, New England, 
and one of the founders of the colony, was 
born in a small village on the southern border 
of Yorkshire. The name of the village is in 
Mather's ' Magnalia,' the chief authority on 
his early life, wrongly printed Ansterfield, 
and was first identified as Austerfield by 
Joseph Hunter (Collections concerning the 
Early History of the Founders of New Eng- 
land). William was the eldest son and third 
child of William Bradford and Alice, daughter 
of John Hanson, and according to the entry 
still to be found in the parish register was 
baptised 19 March 1589-90. The family held 
the rank of yeomen, and in 1575 his two 
grandfathers, William Bradford and John 
Hanson, were the only persons of property in 
the township. On the death of his father, 
on 15 July 1591, he was left, according to 
Mather, with 'a comfortable inheritance/ 
and ' was cast on the education, first of his 
grandparents and then of his uncles, who de- 
voted him, like his ancestors, unto the affairs 
of husbandry.' He is said to have had serious 
impressions of religion at the age of twelve 




or thirteen, and shortly afterwards began to 
attend the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Clifton, i 
puritan rector of Babworth. Notwithstand- ! 
ing the strong opposition of his relations and i 
the scoffs of his neighbours, he joined the com- 
pany of puritan separatists, or Brownists,who 
first met at the house of William Brewster 
[q.v.] at Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, in 1606, 
and were presided over by Clifton. The com- i 
munity within a short period obtained con- 
siderable accessions, but, being threatened 
with persecution, resolved to remove to Hol- 
land. Bradford, along with the principal 
members of the party, entered into negotia- 
tions with a Dutch captain who agreed to 
embark them at Boston, but betrayed their 
intention to the magistrates, who sent some 
of them to prison, and compelled others to 
return to their homes. Bradford after seve- 
ral months' imprisonment succeeded, in the 
spring of the following year, in reaching 
Zealand, and joining his friends in Amster- 
dam, he became apprenticed to a French 
protest ant who was engaged in the manufac- 
ture of silk. On coming of age he converted 
his estate in England into money, and entered 
into business on his own account, in which 
he is said to have been somewhat unsuccess- 
ful. About 1609 he removed with the com- 
munity to Leyden, and when, actuated by a 
desire to live as Englishmen under English 
rule, they resolved to emigrate to some Eng- \ 
lish colony, he was among the most zealous 
and active in the promotion of the enterprise. 
Their choice lay between Guinea and New 
England, and was finally decided in favour 
of the latter. By the assistance of Sir Edwin 
Sandys, treasurer, and afterwards governor 
of Virginia, a patent was granted them for 
a tract of country within that colony, and on 
5 Sept. 1620 Bradford, with the first com- 
pany of ( Pilgrim Fathers,' numbering in all 
a hundred men, women, and children, em- 
barked for their destination in the Mayflower 
at Southampton. By stress of weather they 
were prevented landing within the territory of 
the Virginia Company, and finding themselves 
in a region beyond the patent, they drew up 
and signed a compact of government before 
landing at the harbour of Plymouth already 
so named in Smith's map of 1616. Under 
this compact Carver was chosen the first 
governor, and on his death on 21 April 1621 
the choice fell upon Bradford, who was elected 
every year continuously, with the exception 
of two intervals respectively of three years 
and two years at his own special request. 
This fact sufficiently indicates his paramount 
influence in the colony, an influence due both 
to the unselfishness and gentleness of his 
nature, and to his great practical abilities as 

a governor. Indeed, it was chiefly owing to* 
his energy and forethought that the colony 
at the most critical period of its history was 
not visited by overwhelming disaster. Among 
the earliest acts of his administration was to- 
send an embassy to confirm a league with the 
Indian sachem of Masassoit, who was revered 
by all the natives from Narragansett Bay to 
that of Massachusetts. Notwithstanding his. 
friendship it was found necessary in 1622, on 
account of the threats of the sachem of Narra- 
gansett, to fortify the town, but no attack was 
made. Another plot entered into among cer- 
tain chiefs to exterminate the English was, 
through the sachem of Masassoit, disclosed to 
Bradford, and on the advice of the sachem 
the ringleaders were seized and put to death. 
The friendship of the Indians, necessary as it 
was in itself, was also of the highest advan- 
tage on account of the threatened extinction 
of the colony by famine. The constant ar- 
rival of new colonists frequently reduced 
them almost to the starving point. The 
scarcity was increased by the early attempts 
at communism, and it was not till after an 
agreement that each family should plant for 
themselves on such ground as should be as- 
signed them by lot, that they were relieved 
from the necessity of increasing their supplies 
of provisions by traffic with the Indians. 

In 1629 a patent was obtained from the 
council of New England, vesting the colony 
in trust in William Bradford, his heirs, asso- 
ciates, and assigns, confirming their title to 
a certain tract of land, and conferring the 
power to frame a constitution and laws. In 
framing their laws, the model adopted by 
the colonists was primarily and principally 
the ' ancient platform of God's law, and 
secondly the laws of England. At first the 
whole body of freemen assembled for legis- 
lative, executive, and judicial business, but 
in 1634 the governor and his assistants were 
constituted a judicial court, and afterwards 
the supreme judiciary. The first assembly of 
representatives met in 1639, and in the fol- 
lowing year Governor Bradford, at their re- 
quest, surrendered the patent into the hands 
of the general court, reserving to himself 
only his proportion as settler by previous 
agreement. He died on 9 May 1657. His 
first wife, Dorothy May, whom he married at 
Leyden on 20 Nov. 1613, was drowned at 
Cape Cod harbour on 7 Dec. 1620, and on 
14 Aug. 1623 he married Alice Carpenter, 
widow of Edward Southworth, a lady with 
whom he had been previously acquainted in 
England, and who, at his request, had arrived 
in the colony with the view of being mar- 
ried to him. By his first marriage he had 
one son, and by his second two sons and a 




daughter. His son William, by the second 
marriage (born on 17 June 1624, died on 
20 Feb. 1703-4), was deputy-governor of the 
colony, and attained high distinction during 
the wars with the Indians. 

Though not enj oy ing special educational ad- 
vantages in early life, Bradford possessed 
more literary culture than was common 
among those of similar occupation to him- 
self. He had some knowledge of Latin and 
Greek, and knew sufficient Hebrew to enable 
him to l see with his own eyes the ancient 
oracles of God in their native beauty.' He 
was also well read in history and philosophy, 
and an adept in the theological discussion 
peculiar to the time. He employed much of 
his leisure in literary composition, but the 
only work of his which appeared in his life- 
time was ' A Diary of Occurrences ' during 
the first year of the colony, from their land- 
ing at Cape Cod on 9 Nov. 1620 to 18 Dec. 
1621. This book, written in conjunction 
with Edward Winslow, was printed at 
London in 1622, with a preface signed by 
G. Mourt. The manuscripts he left behind 
him are thus referred to in a clause of his 
will : ' I commend unto your wisdom and 
discretion some small books written by my 
own hand, to be improved as you shall see 
meet. In special I commend to you a little 
book with a black cover, wherein there is a 
word to Plymouth, a word to Boston, and a 
word to New England.' These books are all 
written in verse, and in the Cabinet of the 
Historical Society of Massachusetts there is a 
transcript copy of these verses which bears date 
1657. It contains (1) * Some observations 
of God's merciful dealings with us in this 
wilderness,' published first in a fragmentary 
form in 1794 in vol. iii. 1st series, pp. 77-84, 
of the ' Collections of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society,' by Belknap, among whose 
papers the fragment of the original manu- 
script was found, and in 1858 presented 
to the society ; published in complete form 
in the ' Proceedings ' of the society, 1869-70, 
pp. 465-78; (2) 'A Word to Plymouth,' 
first published in 'Proceedings,' 1869-70, 
pp. 478-82 ; (3) and (4) Of Boston in New 
England,' and ' A Word to New England,' 
published in 1838 in vol. vii., 3rd series of the 
' Collections ;' (5) * Epitaphium Meum,' pub- 
lished in Morton's ' Memorial,' pp. 264-5 of 
Davis's edition ; and (6) a long piece in verse 
on the religious sects of New England, which 
has never been published. In 1841 Alexander 
Young published * Chronicles of the Pilgrim 
Fathers of the Colony of Plymouth from 1602 
to 1625,' containing, in addition to other 
tracts, the following writings belonging to 
Bradford: (1) A fragment of his 'History of 

the Plymouth Plantation,' including the his- 
tory of the community before its removal to 
Holland down to 1620, when it set sail for 
America, printed from a manuscript in the 
records of the First Church, Plymouth, in 
the handwriting of Secretary Morton, with 
the inscription, ' This was originally penned 
by Mr. Wm. Bradford, governor of New 
Plymouth ; ' (2) the ' Diary of Occurrences r 
referred to above, first printed 1622, again 
in an abridged form by Purchas 1625, in 
the fourth volume of his ' Pilgrims,' thus re- 
printed 1802 in vol. viii. of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society ' Collections,' and the 
portions omitted in the abridgment reprinted 
with a number of errors in vol. xix. of the 
' Collections,' from a manuscript copy of the 
original made at Philadelphia ; (3) ' A. Dia- 
logue or the Sum of a Conference between 
some young men born in New England and 
sundry ancient men that came out of Hol- 
land and Old England,' 1648, printed from 
a complete copy in the records of the First 
Church, Plymouth, into which it was copied 
by Secretary Morton, but existing also in 
a fragmentary form in the handwriting of 
Bradford in the Cabinet of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society ; (4) a ' Memoir of 
Elder Brewster,' also copied by Morton from 
the original manuscript into the church re- 
cords ; (5) a fragment of Bradford's letter- 
book, containing letters to him, rescued from a 
grocer's shop in Halifax, the earlier and more 
valuable part having been destroyed. Brad- 
ford was the author of two other dialogues 
or conferences, of which the second has ap- 
parently perished, but the third, l concerning 
the church and government thereof,' having 
the date 1652, was found in 1826 among some 
old papers taken from the remains of Mr. 
Prince's collection, belonging to the old South 
Church of Boston, and published in the i Pro- 
ceedings ' of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, 1869-70, pp. 406-64. Copies of several 
of his letters were published in the ' Collec- 
tions ' of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
vol. iii. 1st series, pp. 27-77, and his letters to 
JohnWinthrop in 4th series, pp. 156-61. 
The manuscripts of Bradford were made use 
of by Morton, Prince, and Hutchinson for 
their historical works, and are the principal 
authorities for the early history of the colony. 
Besides the manuscripts already mentioned, 
they had access to a connected ' History of 
the Plymouth Plantation,' by Bradford, which 
at one time existed in Bradford's own hand- 
writing in the New England Library, but 
was supposed to have been lost during the war 
with England. In Anderson's 'History of 
the Colonial Church,' published in 1848, the 
manuscript was referred to as ' now in the 





possession of the Bishop of London,' but 
the statement not having come under the 
notice of any one in New England interested 
in the matter, it was not till 1855 that cer- 
tain paragraphs in a ' History of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church of America,' by 
Samuel Wilberforce, published in 1846, pro- 
fessedly quoted from a l MS. History of Ply- 
mouth in the Fulham Library,' led to its 
identification. These paragraphs were shown 
by J. W. Thornton to the Rev. Mr. Barry, 
author of ' The History of Massachusetts,' 
who brought them under the notice of Sam. 
G. Drake, by whom they were at once iden- 
tified with certain passages from Bradford's 
* History,' quoted by the earlier historians. 
On inquiry in England the surmise was con- 
firmed, and a copy having been made from 
the manuscript in Bradford's handwriting in 
the Fulham Library, it was published in 
vol. iii. (1856) of the 4th series of the < Col- 
lections ' of the Mass. Hist. Soc. The manu- 
script is supposed to have been taken to Eng- 
land in 1774 by Governor Hutchinson, who 
is the last person in America known to have 
had it in his possession. The printed book- 
plate of the New England Library is pasted 
on one of the blank leaves. 

[The chief original sources for the life of Brad- 
ford are his own writings ; Mather's Magnalia, 
vol. ii. chap. i. ; ShurtlefFs Eecollections of the 
Pilgrims in Russell's Guide to Plymouth ; Mor- 
ton's Memorial ; Hunter's Collections concerning 
the Early History of the Founders of New Ply- 
mouth, 1849. See also Belknap's American Bio- 
graphy, ii. 217-51 ; Young's Chronicles of the 
Pilgrims ; Fessenden's Genealogy of the Bradford 
Family ; .Savage's Genealogical Dictionary of the 
First Settlers of New England, i. 231 ; Raine's 
History of the Parish of Blyth; Hutchinson's 
History of Massachusetts; Collections of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th series, 
vol. iii. ; Winsor's Governor Bradford's Manu- 
script History of Plymouth Plantation and its 
Transmission to our Times, 1881 ; Dean's Who 
identified Bradford's Manuscript? 1883.] 

T. F. H. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM (1663-1752), 
the first printer in Pennsylvania, was the 
son of William and Anne Bradford of Lei- 
cestershire, where the family had held a good 
position for several generations. He is usually 
said to have been born in 1658, and on his 
tombstone the date is 1660, but both dates 
are contradicted by the ' American Almanac' 
for 1739, printed by himself, where, under the 
month of May, the following entry appears : 
< The printer born the 20th, 1663.' He learned 
his art in the office of Andrew Sowles, Grace- 
church Street, London. Sowles was an inti- 
mate friend of William Penn and George Fox, 

and his daughter Elizabeth married Bradford. 
It says much for the enlightened forethought 
i of Penn that he induced Bradford to ac- 
j company him in his first voyage to Penn- 
j sylvania, on which he sailed 1 Sept. 1682. 
| Bradford returned to London, but he set out 
again in 1685, hoping to embrace within his 
operations the whole of the middle colonies. 
In 1692 he was printing for Pennsylvania, 
New York, New Jersey, and Rhode Island, 
and in 1702 also for Maryland. The earliest 
issue from his press is an almanac for 1686 
(printed in 1685), entitled ' America's Mes- 
senger/ of which there is a copy in the 
Quakers' Library, London. In 1686, aloi 
with some Germans of the name of Ritten"! 
house, he erected on the Wissahickon, near 
Philadelphia, the first paper-mill ever esta' 
blished in America. Apart from almanac^ 
his first publication was in 1688, a volumf 
entitled ' The Temple of Wisdom/ which in' 
eluded the essays and religious meditation) 
of Francis Bacon. Of this book there ij 
a copy in the Quakers' Library, London 
The honour of being the first to propose th 
printing of the Bible in America is usuallf 
assigned to Cotton Mather, but in 1688, seveL 
years before Mather, Bradford had entered 
upon the project of printing a copy of the Holy 
Scriptures with marginal notes, and with the 
Book of Common Prayer. In 1689 he was 
summoned before the governor and council 
of Pennsylvania for printing the charter. 
During the disputes in the colony caused by 
the proceedings of George Keith, Bradford, 
who sided with Keith, was arrested for pub- 
lishing the writings of Keith and Budd, and 
his press, type, and instruments were seized. 
Not only, however, were they restored to him 
by Fletcher, governor of New York, during his 
temporary administration of Pennsylvania, 
but at the instance of Fletcher he went to 
New York, where, on 12 Oct. 1693, he was 
appointed royal printer at a salary of 40, 
which was raised in 1696 to 60/., and in 
1702 to 75/. In 1703 he was chosen deacon 
of Trinity Church, New York, from which 
he received 30/. on bond, to enable him to 
print the Common Prayer and version of the 
Psalms, and when the enterprise did not pay 
the bond was returned to him. In 1725 he 
began the publication of the 'New York 
Gazette/the first newspaper published in New 
York, which he edited until his eightieth 
year. He was also appointed king's printer 
for New Jersey, as appears from the earliest 
copy of the laws of that state printed in 1717. 
He died on 22 May 1752 at the age of eighty- 
nine. He was buried in the grounds of 
Trinity Church, New York, where there is 
a monument to his memory. His character 




is thus summed up in the ' New York Ga- 
zette ' of 25 May 1752 : ' He was a man of 
great sobriety and industry, a real friend to 
the poor and needy, and kind and affable to 
all. He was a true Englishman. His tem- 
perance was exceedingly conspicuous, and he 
was a stranger to sickness all his life.' 

[New York Gazette, 25 May 1752 ; New York 
Historical Magazine, iii. 171-76 (containing ca- 
talogue of works printed by him), vii. 201-11 ; 
Simpson's Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, 
1859, pp. 124-9 ; Penington's An Apostate ex- 
posed, or George Keith contradicting himself 
and his brother Bradford, 1695; the Tryals of 
Peter Boss, George Keith, Thomas Budd, and 
Wm. Bradford, Quakers, for several great mis- 
demeanours (as was pretended by their adver- 
saries) before a Court of Quakers, at the Session 
held at Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania, 9th, 10th, 
and 12th day of December 1692, printed first 
beyond the sea, and now reprinted in London 
for Rich. Baldwin, in Warwick Lane, 1693.1 

T. F. H. 

BRADICK, WALTER (1706-1794), a 
merchant at Lisbon, was ruined by the earth- 
quake which destroyed that city in 1755. 
Returning to England he had the further 
misfortune to lose his eyesight, and in 1774, 
on the nomination of the queen, he was ad- 
mitted to the Charterhouse, where he died 
on 19 Dec. 1794. He published, 1765, ' Cho- 
heleth, or the Royal Preacher,' a poem, and he 
was the author of ' several detached publica- 
tions.' A contemporary record of his death 
affirms that i Choheleth ' ' will be a lasting 
testimony to his abilities,' but it may be 
doubted whether the work is now extant. 

[Information from Master of Charterhouse ; 
Gent. Mag. Ixv. pt. i. 83.] J. M. S. 

BRADLEY, CHARLES (1789-1871), 
eminent as a preacher and writer of sermons 
published between 1818 and 1853, belonged 
to the evangelical school of the church of 
England. He was born at Halstead, Essex, 
in February 1789. His parents, Thomas and 
Ann Bradley, were both of Yorkshire origin, 
but settled in "Wallingford, where their son 
Charles, the elder of two sons, passed the 
greater part of the first twenty-five years of 
his life. He married, in 1810, Catherine Shep- 
herd of Yattenden, took pupils and edited 
several school books, one or two of which are 
still in use. He was, for a time after his mar- 
riage, a member of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 
but was ordained on reaching the age of 23, 
without proceeding to a degree, and in 1812 
became curate of High "Wycombe. Here for 
many years he combined the work of a 
private tutor with the sole charge of a large 
parish. Among his pupils were the late 

Mr. Smith O'Brien, the leader for a short 
time of the so-called national party in Ire- 
land ; Mr. Bonamy Price, professor of poli- 
tical economy in the university of Oxford ; 
and Archdeacon Jacob, well known for more 
than half a century in the diocese and city 
of Winchester. His powers as a preacher 
soon attracted attention. He formed the ac- 
quaintance of William Wilberforce, Thomas 
Scott, the commentator, Daniel Wilson, and 
others ; and a volume of sermons, published 
in 1818 with a singularly felicitous dedica- 
tion to Lord Liverpool, followed by a second 
edition in 1820, had a wide circulation. The 
sixth edition was published in 1824, the 
eleventh in 1854. 

In the year 1825 he was presented by 
Bishop Ryder (then bishop of St. Davids, 
afterwards of Lichfield) to the vicarage of 
Glasbury in Brecknockshire. Here a volume 
of sermons was published in 1825, which 
reached a ninth edition in 1854. He retained 
the living of Glasbury till his death, but in 
the year 1829 became the first incumbent of 
St. James's Chapel at Clapham in Surrey, 
where he resided, with some periods of absence, 
till 1852. 

By this time his reputation as a preacher 
was fully established. His striking face and 
figure and dignified and impressive delivery 
added to the effect produced by the substance 
and style of his sermons, which were pre- 
pared and written with unusual care and 
thought. A volume of sermons published in 
1831, followed by two volumes of 'Practical 
Sermons' in 1836 and 1838, by ' Sacramental 
Sermons ' in 1842, and ' Sermons on the Chris- 
tian Life ' in 1853, had for many years an 
exceedingly large circulation, and were widely 
preached in other pulpits than his own, not 
only in England and Wales, but in Scotland 
and America. Of late years their sale greatly 
declined, but the interest taken in them has 
revived, and a volume of selections was pub- 
lished in 1884. 

Quite apart from the character of their 
contents, as enforcing the practical and spe- 
culative side of Christianity from the point 
of view of the earlier leaders of the evange- 
lical party in the church of England, the 
literary merits of Bradley's sermons will 
probably give them a lasting place in litera- 
ture of the kind. No one can read them 
without being struck by their singular sim- 
plicity and force, and at the same time by 
the sustained dignity and purity of the lan- 

Bradley was the father of a numerous 
family. By his first wife, who died in 1831, 
he had thirteen children, of whom twelve 
survived him. The eldest of six sons was 




the late Rev. C. Bradley of Soutligate, well 
known in educational circles. The fourth is 
the present dean of Westminster (late master 
of University College, Oxford, and formerly of 
Marlborough College). By his second mar- 
riage in 1840 with Emma, daughter of Mr. 
John Linton, he also left a large family, one 
of whom is Herbert Bradley, fellow of Mer- 
ton College, Oxford, author of a work on 
ethics and another on logic ; another, Andrew 
Cecil, fellow of Balliol, is professor of English 
literature at Liverpool. 

Bradley spent the last period of his life at 
Cheltenham, where he died in August 1871. 

[Personal knowledge.] 

G. G. B. 

BRADLEY, GEORGE (1816-1863), 
journalist, was born at Whitby in Yorkshire 
in 1816, and apprenticed to a firm of printers 
in his native town. After being for several 
years a reporter on the ' York Herald ' he 
was appointed editor of the ' Sunderland and 
Durham County Herald,' and about 1848 he 
became editor and one of the proprietors of 
the ' Newcastle Guardian.' He resided at 
Newcastle until his death on 14 Oct. 1863, 
being greatly respected, and for a consider- 
able period an influential member of the 
town council. Bradley published ' A Con- 
cise and Practical System of Short -hand 
Writing, with a brief History of the Progress 
of the Art. Illustrated by sixteen engraved 
lessons and exercises,' London, 1843, 12mo. 
The system is a variation of Dr. Mayor's. 

[Whitby Times, 23 Oct. 1863; Rockwell's 
Teaching, Practice, and Literature of Shorthand, 
70.] T. C. 

BRADLEY, JAMES (1693-1762), as- 
tronomer-royal, was the third son of William 
Bradley, a descendant of a family seated at 
Bradley Castle, county Durham, from the 
fourteenth century, by his marriage, in 1678, 
with Jane Pound of Bishop's Canning in 
Wiltshire. He was born at Sherbourn in 
Gloucestershire, probably in the end of March 
1693, but the date is not precisely ascertain- 
able. He was educated at the Northleach 
grammar school, and was admitted as a com- 
moner to Balliol College, Oxford, 15 March 
1711, when in his eighteenth year, proceeding 
B.A. 15 Oct. 1714, and M.A. 21 June 1717. 
His university career had little share in 
moulding his genius. His uncle, the Rev. 
James Pound, rector of Wanstead in Essex, 
was at that time one of the best astronomical 
observers in England. A warm attachment 
sprang up between him and his nephew. He 
nursed him through the small-pox in 1717 ; 
he reinforced the scanty supplies drawn from 
a somewhat straitened home ; above all, he 

discerned and cultivated his extraordinary 
talents. Bradley quickly acquired all his 
instructor's skill and more than his ardour. 
Every spare moment was devoted to co- 
operation with him. His handwriting ap- 
pears in the W T anstead books from 1715, and 
the journals of the Royal Society notice 
a communication from him. regarding the 
aurora of 6 March 1716. He was formally 
introduced to the learned world by Halley, 
who, in publishing his observation of an ap- 
pulse of Palilicium to the moon, 5 Dec. 1717, 
prophetically described him as ' eruditus 
juvenis,qui simul industria et ingenio pollens 
his studiis promovendis aptissimus natus 
est ' (Phil Trans, xxx. 853). The skill with 
which he and Pound together deduced from 
the opposition of Mars in 1719 a solar paral- 
lax between 9" and 12", was praised by the 
same authority (ib. xxxi. 114), who again 
imparted to the Royal Society ' some very 
curious observations' made by Bradley on 
Mars in October 1721, implying a parallax for 
the sun of less than 10" ( Journal Books R. 
Soc. 16 Nov. 1721). The entry of one of 
these states that 'the 15-feet tube was moved 
by a machine that made it to keep pace with 
the stars' (BRADLEY, Miscellaneous Works, 
p. 350), a remarkably early attempt at giving 
automatic movement to a telescope. 

Doubtless with the view of investigating 
annual parallax, Bradley noted the relative 
positions of the component stars of y Virginis, 
12 March 1718, and of Castor, 30 March 1719 
and 1 Oct. 1722. A repetition of this latter 
observation about 1759 brought the discovery 
of their orbital revolution almost within his 
grasp, and, transmitted by Maskelyne to 
Herschel, served to confirm and correct its 
theory (Phil Tram, xciii. 363). 

Bradley's first sustained research, however, 
was concerned with the Jovian system. He 
early began to calculate the tabular errors of 
each eclipse observed, and the collation of older 
observations with his own afforded him the 
discovery that the irregularities of the three 
inner satellites (rightly attributed to their 
mutual attraction) recur in the same order 
after 437 days. His ' Corrected Tables ' were 
finished in 1718, but, though printed in the 
following year with Halley's i Planetary 
Tables,' remained unpublished until 1749, by 
which time they had become obsolete. The 
appended 'Remarks' ( Works, p. 81), de- 
scribing the 437-day cycle, are stated by the 
minutes to have been read before the Royal 
Society 2 July 1719. Bradley was then 
already a fellow ; he was elected 6 Nov. 1718, 
on the motion of Halley, and under the pre- 
sidential sanction of Newton. 

The choice of a profession meantime be- 




came imperative. He had been brought up 
to the church, and in 1719 Hoadly, bishop 
of Hereford, presented him to the vicarage of 
Bridstow. On this title, accordingly, he was 
ordained deacon at St. Paul's, 24 May, and 
priest, 25 July, 1719. Early in 1720 the sine- 
cure rectory of Llandewi-Velfry in Pem- 
brokeshire was procured for him by his friend 
Samuel Molyneux, secretary to the Prince of 
Wales, and he also became chaplain to the 
bishop of Hereford. His prospects of promo- 
tion were thus considerable, but he continued 
to frequent Wanstead, and took an early op- 
portunity of extricating himself from a posi- ! 
tion in which his duties were at variance with | 
his inclinations. The Savilian chair of as- ! 
tronomy at Oxford became vacant by the 
death of Keill in August 1721. Bradley was 
elected to fill it 31 Oct., and, immediately re- 
signing his preferments, found himself free to 
follow his bent on an income which amounted 
in 1724 to 138/. 5s. 9d. He read his in- 
augural lecture 26 April 1722. 

In 1723 we find him assisting his uncle 
in experiments upon Hadlev's new reflector 
(Phil. Trans, xxxii. 382) ; and Hadley's ex- 
ample and instructions encouraged him, about 
the same time, to attempt the grinding of 
specula (SMITH, A Compleat System of Op- 
ticks, ii. 302). In this he was only partially 
successful, though his mechanical skill sufficed 
at all times for the repair and adjustment of 
his instruments. His observations and ele- 
ments of a comet discovered by Halley 9 Oct. 
1723 formed the subject of his first paper in 
' Philosophical Transactions ' (xxxiii. 41 ; see 
NEWTON'S Principia, 3rd edit. lib. iii. prop. 42, 
3>. 523, 1726). Bradley was the first successor 
of Halley in the then laborious task of com- 
puting the orbits of comets. He published 
parabolic elements for those of 1737 and 1757 
(Phil. Trans, xl. iii, 1. 408), and by his com- 
munication to Lemonnier of the orbit of, and 
process of calculation applied to, the comet 
of 1742, knowledge of his method became 
diffused abroad. 

By the death of Pound, which took place 
16 Nov. 1724, he lost 'a relation to whom he 
was dear, even more than by the ties of blood.' 
He continued, however, to observe with his 
instruments, and to reside with his widow 
(visiting Oxford only for the delivery of his 
lectures) in a small house in the town of 
Wanstead memorable as the scene of his chief 
discoveries. On 26 Nov. 1725, a 24|-foot te- 
lescope by Graham was fixed in the direction 
of the zenith at the house of Mr. Samuel Moly- 
neux on Kew Green. It had been resolved by 
him and Bradley to subject Hooke's supposed 
detection of a large parallax for y Draconis to 
& searching inquiry, and the first observation 

for the purpose was made by Molyneux at 
noon 3 Dec. 1725. It was repeated by Bradley, 
' chiefly through curiosity,' 17 Dec., when, to 
his surprise, he found the star pass a little more 
to the southward. This unexpected change, 
which was in the opposite direction to what 
could have been produced by parallax, con- 
tinued, in spite of every precaution against 
error, at the rate of about \" in three days ; 
and at the end of a year's observation the star 
had completed an oscillation 39" in extent. 

Meanwhile an explanation was vainly 
sought of this enigmatical movement, per- 
ceived to be shared, in degrees varying with 
their latitude, by other stars. A nutation of 
the earth's axis was first thought of, and a test 
star, or ' anti-Draco,' on the opposite side of 
the pole (35 Camelopardi) was watched from 
7 Jan. 1726; but the quantity of its motion was 
insufficient to support that hypothesis. The 
friends next considered 'what refraction 
might do,' on the supposition of an annual 
change of figure in the earth's atmosphere 
through the action of a resisting medium; 
this too was discarded on closer examination. 
Bradley now resolved to procure an instru- 
ment of his own, and, 19 Aug. 1727, a zenith- 
sector of 12 feet radius, and 12 range, was 
mounted for him by Graham in the upper 
part of his aunt's house. Thenceforth he 
trusted entirely to the Wanstead results. A 
year's assiduous use of this instrument gave 
him a set of empirical rules for the annual 
apparent motions of stars in various parts of 
the sky ; but he had almost despaired of being 
able to account for them, when an unex- 
pected illumination fell upon him. Accom- 
panying a pleasure party in a sail on the 
Thames one day about September 1728, he 
noticed that the wind seemed to shift each 
time that the boat put about, and a question 
put to the boatman brought the (to him) signi- 
ficant reply that the changes in direction of 
the vane at the top of the mast were merely 
due to changes in the boat's course, the wind 
remaining steady throughout. This was the 
clue he needed. He divined at once that the 
progressive transmission of light, combined 
with the advance of the earth in its orbit, must 
cause an annual shifting of the direction in 
which the heavenly bodies are seen, by an 
amount depending upon the ratio of the two 
velocities. Working out the problem in de- 
tail, he found that the consequences agreed 
perfectly with the rules already deduced from 
observation, and announced his memorable 
discovery of the * aberration of light ' in the 
form of a letter to Halley, read before the 
Royal Society 9 and 16 Jan. 1729 (Phil. 
Trans, xxxv. 637). 

Never was a more minutely satisfactory 




explanation offered of a highly complex phe- 
nomenon. It was never disputed, and has 
scarcely been corrected. Bradley found the 
< constant' of aberration to be 20-25" (reduc- 
ing it, however, in 1748 to 20"). Struve fixed 
it at 20-445". Bradley concluded, from the 
amount of aberration, the velocity of light to 
be such as to bring it from the sun to the 
earth in 8 m 13 s , although Roemer had, from 
actual observation, estimated the interval at 
ll m . The best recent determination (Glase- 
napp's) of the 'light equation' is 8 m 21 s . 
Bradley's demonstration of his rules for 
aberration remained unpublished till 1832 
( Works, p. 287). He observed only the effects 
in declination ; but his theory was verified as 
regards right ascension also, by Eustachio 
Manfredi at Bologna in 1729. The subject 
was fully investigated by Clairaut in 1737 
(Mem. de FAc. 1737, p. 205). An important 
secondary inference from the Wanstead ob- 
servations was that of the vast distances of 
even the brighter stars. Bradley stated deci- 
sively that the parallax neither of y Draconis 
nor of r) Ursse Majoris reached V, and be- 
lieved that he should have detected half that 
quantity (Phil. Trans, xxxv. 660. Double 
parallaxes are there spoken of). This well- 
grounded assurance shows an extraordinary 
advance in exactness of observation. 

Bradley succeeded Whiteside as lecturer 
on experimental philosophy at Oxford in 1729, 
and resigned the post in 1760, after the close 
of his seventy-ninth course. There was no 
endowment, Lord Crewe's benefaction of 30/. 
per annum becoming payable only in 1749 ; 
but fees of three guineas a course, with an 
average attendance of fifty-seven, produced 
emoluments sufficient for his wants. His 
lectures were delivered in the Ashmolean 
Museum, of which he vainly sought the 
keepership in 1731. In 17^32 he took a share 
in a trial at sea of Hadley's sextants, and wrote 
a letter warmly commendatory of the inven- 
tion ( Works, p. 505). His removal to Oxford 
occurred in May of the same year, when he oc- 
cupied a house in New College Lane attached 
to his professorship. His aunt, Mrs. Pound, 
accompanied him, with two of her nephews, 
and lived with him there five years. He trans- 
ported thither most of his instruments, but 
left Graham's sector undisturbed. An im- 
portant investigation was in progress by its 
means, for the purposes of which he made dur- 
ing the next fifteen years periodical visits to 

It is certain that Halley desired to have 
Bradley for his successor, and it is even said 
that he offered to resign in -his favour. But 
death anticipated his project, 14 Jan. 1742. 
Through the urgent representations of George, 

earl of Macclesfield, who quoted to Lord- 
chancellor Hardwicke Newton's dictum that 
he was ' the best astronomer in Europe,' Brad- 
ley was appointed astronomer-royal 3 Feb. 
1742. The honour of a degree of D.D. was 
conferred upon him by diploma at Oxford 
22 Feb., and in June he went to live at 
Greenwich. His first care was to remedy, so 
far as possible, the miserable state of the in- 
struments, and to procure an assistant in- the 
person of John Bradley, son of his eldest 
brother, who, at a stipend of 26/., diligently 
carried out his instructions during fourteen 
years, and Avas replaced successively by Mason 
and Green. 

With untiring and well-directed zeal Brad- 
ley laboured at the duties of his new office. 
He took his first transit at Greenwich 
25 July 1742, and by the end of the year 1500 
had been entered. The work done in 1743 
was enormous. The records of observations- 
with the transit instrument fill 177, with 
the quadrant 148 folio pages. On 8 Aug. 
255 determinations of the former, 181 of 
the latter kind were made. His efforts to- 
wards a higher degree of accuracy were un- 
ceasing and successful ; yet he never pos- 
sessed an achromatic telescope. He recognised 
it as the first duty of an astronomer to make 
himself acquainted with the peculiar defects, 
of his instruments, and was indefatigable in 
I testing and improving them. By the addi- 
! tion of a finer micrometer screw, 18 July 1745, 
he succeeded in measuring intervals of half a 
\ second with the eight-foot quadrant erected 
by Graham for Halley, but was deterred from 
attempting further refinements by discover- 
j ing it a year later to be sensibly eccentric. 
At various times between 1743 and 1749 he 
made experiments on the length of the seconds 
pendulum, giving the most accurate result 
i previous to Kater's in 1818. The great comet 
! of 1743 was first seen at Greenwich 26 Dec., 
and was observed there until 17 Feb. 1744. 
i Bradley roughly computed its trajectory, but 
| went no further, it is conjectured, out of kind- 
ness towards young Betts, who had the ambi- 
tion to try his hand on it. He also observed 
the first comet of 1748, and calculated that of 
1707. His observations of Halley's comet 
in 1759 have for the most part perished. 

The time was now ripe for the publication 
of his second great discovery. From the first 
the Wanstead observations had shown the 
displacements due to aberration to be at- 
tended by a ' residual phenomenon.' A slight 
progressive inequality was detected, occasion- 
ing in stars near the equinoctial colures an 
excess, in those near the solstitial colures a 
defect of movement in declination, as com- 
pared with that required by a precession of 




50". The true explanation in a ' nodding ' 
movement of the axis, due to the moon's 
unequal action upon the equatorial parts of 
the earth, was more than suspected early in 
1732 ; but Bradley did not consider the proof 
complete until he had tracked each star 
through an entire revolution of the moon's 
nodes (18*6 years) back to its mean place (al- 
lowance being made for annual precession). 
In 'September 1747 he was at length fully 
satisfied of the correspondence of his hypo- 
thesis with facts ; and 14 Feb. 1748 a letter 
to the Earl of Macclesfield, in which he set 
forth the upshot of his twenty years' watch- 
ing and waiting, was read before the Royal 
Society (Phil. Trans, xlv. 1). The idea of a 
possible nutation of the earth's axis was not 
unfamiliar to astronomers ; and Newton had 
predicted the occurrence of a semi-annual, 
but scarcely sensible, effect of the kind. A 
phenomenon such as Bradley detected, how- 
ever, depending on the position of the lunar 
orbit, was unthought of until its necessity 
became evident with the fact of its existence. 
The complete development of its theory went 
beyond his mathematical powers, and he 
invited assistance, promptly rendered by 
D'Alembert in 1749. Bradley 's coefficient 
of nutation (9") has proved nearly a quarter 
of a second too small. He might probably 
have gone even nearer to the truth had he 
trusted more implicitly to his own observa- 
tions. His confidence was, however, em- 
barrassed by the proper motions of the stars, 
the ascertainment of which he, with his 
usual clear insight into the conditions of exact 
astronomy, urged upon well-provided obser- 
vers ; while his sagacious hint that they 
might be mere optical effects of a real trans- 
lation of the solar system (Phil. Trans, xlv. 
40) gave the first opening for a scientific 
treatment of that remarkable subject. 

As regards nutation, the novelty of his an- 
nouncement had been somewhat taken off by 
previous disclosures. On his return from Lap- 
land, Maupertuis consulted him as to the re- 
duction of his observations, when Bradley 
imparted to him, 27 Oct. 1737, his incipient 
discovery. Maupertuis was not bound to 
secrecy, nor did he observe it. He trans- 
mitted the information to the Paris Academy 
(Mem. de TAc. 1737, p. 411), while Lalande 
published in 1745 (ib. 1745, p. 512) the con- 
firmatory results of observations undertaken 
at Bradley 's suggestion. 

The discovery of aberration earned for its 
author, 14 Dec. 1730, exemption on the part 
of the Royal Society from all future pay- 
ments ; that of nutation was honoured in 
1748 with the Copley medal. His heightened 
reputation further enabled him to ask and 

obtain a new instrumental outfit for the Royal 
Observatory. He took advantage of the annual 
visitation by members of the Royal Society 
to represent its absolute necessity ; and a 
petition drawn up by him and signed by the 
president and members of council in August 
1748 produced an order for 1,000/. under the 
! sign-manual, paid, as a note in Bradley's 
handwriting informs us, by the treasurer of 
the navy out of the proceeds of the sale of 
old stores. The wise expenditure of this 
paltry sum laid the firm foundation of modern 
practical astronomy. Bradley was fortunate 
in the co-operation of John Bird. The eight- 
foot mural quadrant, for which he paid him 
300 /., was an instrument not unworthy the 
eye and hand that were to use it. He had 
also from him a movable quadrant forty 
inches in radius, and a transit-instrument of 
eight-feet focal length. From Short a six- 
foot reflector was ordered, but not delivered 
until much later ; and 20/. was paid for a 
magnetic apparatus, changes in dip and va- 
riation having been objects of attention to 
Bradley as early as 1729. For the Wanstead 
sector, removed to Greenwich in July 1749, 
45/. was allowed to him. 

The first employment of Bird's quadrant 
was in a series of observations, 10 Aug. 1750 
to 31 July 1753, for the purpose of deter- 
mining the latitude of the observatory and 
the laws of refraction. Simultaneously with 
Lacaille and Mayer, Bradley introduced the 
improvement of correcting these for barome- 
trical and thermometrical fluctuations. His 
formula for computing mean refraction at 
any altitude closely represented the actual 
amounts down to within 10 of the horizon 
(GRANT, Hist. Phys. Astr. pp. 329-30). After 
its publication by Maskelyne in 1763, it was 
generally adopted in England, and was in 
use at Greenwich down to 1833. 

In 1751 Bradley made observations for 
determining the distances of the sun and 
moon in concert with those of Lacaille at 
the Cape of Good Hope (Mem. de VAc. 1752, 
p. 424). From the combined results for 
Mars, Delisle deduced a solar parallax of 
10-3" (BRADLEY, Misc. Works, p. 481). A 
series of 230 comparisons with the heavens- 
of Tobias Mayer's ' Lunar Tables,' between 
December 1755 and February 1756, enabled 
Bradley to report them to the admiralty as- 
accurate generally within V. His hopes of 
bringing the lunar method of longitudes into 
actual use were thus revived ; and he under- 
took, aided by Mason, a laborious correction 
of the remaining errors founded on 1,220 
observations. The particulars of these were 
inserted in the 'Nautical Almanac' for 1774^ 
but the amended tables, completed from 




them in 1760, never saw the light, and were | 
superseded by Mayer's own improvements in 
1770. The regular work of the observatory, ! 
consisting in meridian observations of the 
sun, moon, planets, and stars, was meanwhile 
carried on with unremitting diligence and j 
unrivalled skill. 

The salary of astronomer-royal was then, 
as in Flamsteed's time, 100/. a year, reduced j 
to 907. by fees at public offices. This pit- j 
tance was designed to be supplemented by i 
Mr. Pelham's offer to Bradley, in the king's 
name, of the vicarage of Greenwich ; which 
was, however, refused on the honourable 
ground of incompatibility of clerical with 
official obligations. His disinterestedness 
was compensated by a crown pension of 
2501. per annum, granted under the privy 
seal 15 Feb. 1752, and continued to his suc- 
cessors. Honours now fell thickly upon him. 
From 1725 he had frequently been chosen a 
member of the council of the Royal Society, 
and he occupied that position uninterruptedly 
from 1752 until his death. In July 1746 
Euler wrote to announce his admission to 
the Berlin Academy of Sciences ; he was as- 
sociated to those of Paris and St. Petersburg 
respectively in 1748 and 1750, and, probably 
in acknowledgment of his services in super- 
intending the construction of a quadrant by 
Bird for the latter body, complimented with 
its full membership in 1754 ; while the in- 
stitute of Bologna enrolled his name 16 June 
1757. Scarcely an astronomer in Europe 
but sought a correspondence with him, 
which he usually declined, being averse to 
writing, and leaving many letters unan- 

No direct descendant of Bradley survives. 
He married, 25 June 1744, Susannah,daughter 
of Mr. Samuel Peach of Chalford in Glouces- 
tershire. She died in 1757, leaving a daugh- 
ter, Susannah, born at Greenwich in 1745, 
who married in 1771 her first cousin, the 
Rev. Samuel Peach, and had in turn an 
only daughter, who died childless in 1806. 
Bradley's intimacy with the Earl of Mac- 
clesfield grew closer after his removal to 
Oxford in 1732. He co-operated with him 
in the establishment (about 1739) of an ob- 
servatory at Shirburn Castle, and in the 
reform of the calendar, calculating the tables 
appended to the bill for that purpose. Until 
near the close of his life he continued to re- 
side about three months of each year at Ox- 
ford, but resigned his readership through ill- 
health in 1760. For several years he had 
felt the approach of an obscure malady in 
occasional attacks of severe pain. His labours 
in correcting the lunar tables overtasked his 
hitherto robust strength, and from 1760 a 

heavy cloud of depression settled over his 
spirits, inducing the grievous apprehension 
of surviving his mental faculties, which re- 
mained nevertheless clear to the end. He 
attended, for the last time, a meeting of the 
Royal Society 31 Jan. 1761, and drew up a 
paper of instructions for Mason, on his de- 
parture to observe the transit of Venus, the 
latest astronomical event in which he took 
an active interest. But already in May he 
was obliged to ask Bliss to replace him, and 
when the day of the transit, 6 June 1761, 
arrived, he was unable to use the telescope. 
He, however, took a final observation with the 
transit-instrument in September, after which 
his handwriting disappears from the Green- 
wich registers. The few months that remained 
he spent at Chalford, being much attached 
to his wife's relations, and there died, in the 
house of his father-in-law, after a fortnight's 
acute suffering, 13 July 1762, in his seventieth 
year, and was buried with his wife and mother 
at Minchinhampton. His disease proved on 
examination to be a chronic inflammation 
of the abdominal viscera. The case was 
described by Daniel Lysons, M.D., in the 
1 Philosophical Transactions ' (lii. 635). 

In character Bradley is described as ' hu- 
mane, benevolent, and kind ; a dutiful son, 
an indulgent husband, a tender father, and a 
steady friend ' (Suppl. to New Biog. Diet., 
1767, p. 58). Many of his poorer relatives 
experienced his generosity. His life was 
blameless, his habits abstemious, his temper 
mild and placid. He was habitually taci- 
turn, but was clear, ready, and open in ex- 
plaining his opinions to others. No homage 
could overthrow his modesty or disturb his 
caution. He was always more apprehen- 
sive of injuring his reputation than san- 
guine of enhancing it, and thus shrank from 
publicity; polished composition, moreover, 
was irksome to him. His only elaborate 
pieces were the accounts of his two leading 
discoveries ; and the preservation of several 
unfinished drafts of that on aberration affords 
evidence of toil unrewarded by felicity of 
expression. Nor had he any taste for ab- 
stract mathematics. His great powers were 
those of sagacity and persistence. He pos- 
sessed l a most extraordinary clearness of 
perception, both mental and "organic ; great 
accuracy in the combination of his ideas ; 
and an inexhaustible fund of that " industry 
and patient thought " to which Newton as- 
cribed his own discoveries ' (RiGAUD, Me- 
moirs of Bradley, p. cv). Less inventive 
than Kepler, he surpassed him in sobriety and 
precision. No discrepancy was too minute 
for his consideration ; his scrutiny of possible 
causes and their consequences was keen, dis- 




passionate, and complete ; his mental grasp 
was close and unrelaxing. He ranks as the 
founder of modern observational astronomy ; 
nor by the example of his ' solicitous accu- 
racy' alone or chiefly, though this was much. 
But his discoveries of aberration and nuta- 
tion first rendered possible exact knowledge 
of the places of the fixed stars, and thereby 
of the movements of the other celestial bodies. 
Moreover, he bequeathed to posterity, in his 
diligent and faithful record of the state of 
the heavens in his time, a mass of docu- 
mentary evidence invaluable for the testing 
of theory, or the elucidation of change. 

The publication, for the benefit of his 
daughter, of his observations, contained in 
thirteen folio and two quarto volumes, was 
interrupted by official demands for their pos- 
session, followed up by a lawsuit commenced 
by the crown in 1767, but abandoned in 1776. 
The Rev. Mr. Peach, Bradley's son-in-law, 
thereupon offered them to Lord North, to be 
printed by the Clarendon Press, and after 
many delays the first of two volumes ap- 
peared in 1798, under the editorship of Dr. 
Hornsby, with the title ' Astronomical Ob- 
servations made at the Royal Observatory 
at Greenwich, from the year 1750 to the year 
1762;' the second, edited by Dr. Abram 
Robertson, in 1805. They number about 
60,000, and fill close upon 1,000 large folio 
pages. A sequel to Bradley's work, in the 
observations of Bliss and Green down to 
15 March 1765, was included in the second 
volume. A catalogue of 387 stars, computed 
by Mason fromBradley's original manuscripts, 
and appended to the 'Nautical Almanac' 
for 1773, formed the basis of a similar work 
inserted by Hornsby in vol. i. (p. xxxviii); and 
1,041 of Bradley's stars, reduced by Pilati, 
were added toPiazzi's second catalogue (1814). 
In the hands of Bessel, however, his obser- 
vations assumed a new value. With extra- 
ordinary skill and labour he deduced from 
them in 1818 a catalogue of 3,222 stars for 
the epoch 1755, so authentically determined 
as to afford, by comparison with their later 
places, a sure criterion of their proper mo- 
tions. The title of ' Fundamenta Astrono- 
mise ' fitly expressed the importance of this 
work. More accurate values for precession 
and refraction were similarly obtained. Brad- 
ley's observations of the moon and planets, 
when reduced by Airy, supplied valuable 
data for the correction of the theories of 
those bodies. 

Portraits of him are preserved at Oxford 
{by Hudson), at Shirburn Castle, at Green- 
wich, and in the rooms of the Royal Society. 
A dial, erected in 1831 by command of 
William IV, marks the spot at Kew where 

he began the observations which led to the 
discoveries of aberration and nutation. His 
communications to the Royal Society, besides 
those already adverted to, were on ' The Longi- 
tude of Lisbon and the Fort of New York, 
from Wanstead and London, determined by 
Eclipses of the First Satellite of Jupiter ' 
(Phil. Trans, xxxiv. 85) ; and ' An Account 
of some Observations made in London by 
Mr. George Graham, and at Black River in 
Jamaica by Colin Campbell, Esq., concern- 
ing the going of a Clock ; in order to deter- 
mine the Difference between the Lengths of 
Isochronal Pendulums in those Places ' (ib. 
xxxviii. 302). His ' Directions for using 
the Common Micrometer ' were published by 
Maskelyne in 1772 (ib. Ixii. 46). The origi- 
nals of Bradley's Greenwich observations 
having been deposited in the Bodleian, the 
confused mass of his remaining papers, dis- 
interred by Professor S. P. Rigaud, afforded 
materials for a large quarto volume, pub- 
lished by him in 1832 at Oxford, with the 
title ' Miscellaneous Works and Correspon- 
dence of James Bradley, D.D., Astronomer- 
Royal.' It includes, besides the Kew and Wan- 
stead journals, every record of the slightest 
value in his handwriting, not omitting papers 
already printed in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' with many letters addressed to him 
by persons of eminence in England and abroad, 
and in some cases his replies. The prefixed 
memoir embodies all that the closest inquiry 
could gather concerning him. The investi- 
gation of his early observations, thus brought 
to light after nearly a century's oblivion, 
was made the subject of a prize by the Royal 
Society of Copenhagen in 1832 ; whence the 
publication by Dr. Busch of Konigsberg of 
' Reduction of the Observations made by 
Bradley at Kew and Wanstead to determine 
the Quantities of Aberration and Nutation ' 
(Oxford, 1838). 

[Rigaud's Memoirs of Bradley ; New and Gen. 
Biog. Diet. xii. 54, 1767; Biog. Brit. (Kippis); 
Fouchy's Eloge, Mem. de 1'Ac. des Sciences, 
1762, p. 231 (Hist.) ; same trans, in Annual Keg. 
1765, p. 23, and Gent. Mag. xxxv. 361; Delambre's 
Hist, de 1'Astronomie au xviii* siecle, p. 413 ; 
Thomson's Hist, of K. Soc. p. 344 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.] A. M. C. 

BRADLEY, RALPH (1717-1788), con- 
veyancing barrister, was a contemporary of 
James Booth [q. v.], who has been called the 
patriarch of modern conveyancing. Bradley- 
was called to the bar by the society, of Gray's 
Inn, and practised at Stockton-on-Tees with 

geat success for upwards of half a century, 
e is said to have managed the concerns of 
almost the whole county of Durham, and, 




though & provincial counsel, his opinions were 
everywhere received with the greatest respect. 
His drafts, like Booth's, were prolix to excess, 
but some of them were, to a very recent period, 
in use as precedents in the northern counties. 
He published (London, 1779) ' An Enquiry 
into the Nature of Property and Estates as 
defined by English Law, in which are con- 
sidered the opinions of Mr. Justice Black- 
stone and Lord Coke concerning Real Pro- 
perty.' There was also published in 1804 
in London ' Practical Points, or Maxims in 
Conveyancing, drawn from the daily experi- 
ence of a late eminent conveyancer (Brad- 
ley), with critical observations on the various 
parts of a Deed by J. Ritson.' This was 
a collection of Bradley's notes on points of 
practice, and the technical minutiae of con- 
veyancing as they were suggested in the 
course of his professional life. Ritson was 
a contemporary and fellow-townsman of 
Bradley. The latter by his will left a con- 
siderable sum (40,000/.) on trust for the 
purchase of books calculated to promote the 
interests of religion and virtue in Great Bri- 
tain and the happiness of mankind. Lord 
Thurlow, by a decree in chancery, set aside 
the charitable disposition of Bradley in favour 
of his next of kin. Bradley died at Stockton- 
on-Tees on 28 Dec. 1788, and was buried in 
the parish church of Greatham, where a 
mural monument was erected to his memory 
on the north side of the chancel. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. Iviii. pt. ii. p. 1184; David- 
son's Conveyancing, 4th ed. i. 7 ; Marvin's Legal 
Bibliograph, p. 141 ; Surtees's Hist, of Durham, 
iii. 140.] E. H. 

BRADLEY, RICHARD (d. 1732), bo- 
tanist and horticultural writer, was a very 
popular and voluminous author. His first 
essays in print were two papers published in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1716, 
on mouldiness in melons, and the motions of 
;7*X the sap. He was elected F.R.S. in 17D3; 
and professor of botany at Cambridge on 
10 Nov. 1724, the latter by means of a pre- 
tended verbal recommendation from Dr. Wil- 
liam Sherard to Dr. Bentley, with pompous 
assurances that he would found a public bo- 
tanic garden in the university by his private 
purse and interest. Very soon after his elec- 
tion the vanity of his promises was seen, and 
his entire ignorance of Latin and Greek ex- 
cited great scandal : Dr. Martyn, who after- 
wards succeeded him, was appointed to read 
the prescribed courses of lectures, in conse- 
quence of Bradley's neglect to do so. In 
1729 he gave a course of lectures on ' Ma- 
teria Medica,' which he afterwards published. 
In 1731 it is stated that ' he was grown so 

scandalous that it was in agitation to turn 
him out of his professorship,' though the 
details of his delinquency do not appear to 
be given. He died at Cambridge 5 Nov. 

The use of Bradley's name was paid for 
by the publishers of a translation of Xeno- 
phon's ' Economics ' solely on account of his 
popularity, as he knew nothing of the ori- 
ginal language. His botanical publications 
show acuteness and diligence, and contain 
indications of much observation in advance 
of his time. 

Adanson, Necker, and Banks, in succes- 
sion, named genera to commemorate Bradley, 
but they have not been maintained distinct 
by succeeding botanists. 

His works include : 1. ( Historia planta- 
rum succulentarum, &c.,' London, 1716-27, 
5 decades, 4to, reissued together in 1734. 
2. ' New Improvements of Planting and 
Gardening,' London, 1717 (two editions), 8vo, 
1731. 3. ' Gentleman's and Farmer's Calen- 
dar,' London, 1718, 8vo ; French translations 
(1723, 1743, 1756). 4. < Virtue and Use of 
Coffee with regard to the Plague and Con- 
tagious Distempers,' London, 1721, 8vo. 

5. ' Philosophical Account of the Works of 
Nature,' London (1721 and 1739), 8vo. 

6. ' Plague of Marseilles considered,' London, 
1721, 8vo. 7. ' New Experiments and Ob- 
servations on the Generation of Plants,' 1724, 
8vo. 8. ' Treatise of Fallowing,' Edinburgh, 
1724, 8vo. 9. 'Survey of Ancient Hus- 
bandry and Gardening collected from Cato, 
Varro, Columella, &c.,' London, 1725, 8vo r 
and several small treatises on gardening and 
agriculture. Part II. of Co-well's ' Curious 
and Profitable Gardener, concerning the great 
American Aloe,' has been attributed with 
little reason to Bradley. 

[Pulteney's Biog. Sketches of Botany (1790), 
| ii. 129-33; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 444-51, 
j 709 ; Chalmers's Gen. Biog Diet., new ed. vi. 
1 (1812), 415-16; Kees's Cyclop, v. art. 'Bradley'; 

Seguier's Bibl. Bot. 343-6; Haller's Bibl. Bot. 

ii. 133-7 ; Pritzel's Thesaurus, p. 31, id. ed. 2, 
| p. 38.] B. D. J. 

BRADLEY, THOMAS (1597-1670), 
divine, a native of Berkshire, states that he 
was 72 years old in 1669, and was therefore 
born in 1597. He became a battler of Exeter 
College, Oxford, in 1616, and proceeded B.A. 
on 21 July 1620. He was chaplain to the 
Duke of Buckingham for several years, and 
accompanied him in the expedition to Ro- 
chelle and the Isle of Rhe in 1627. After 
Buckingham's murder in the following year he 
became chaplain to Charles I, and on 16 June 
1629 a captain in the expedition to France ap- 




plied to the council to take Bradley with him 
as chaplain of his ship ( CaL State Papers, Dom. 
1628-9, p. 579). Soon afterwards (5 Mayl631) 
Bradley married Frances, the daughter of Sir 
John Savile, baron Savile of Pontefract, and 
he was presented by his father-in-law about 
the same time to the livings of Castleford 
and Ackworth, near Pontefract. As a staunch 
royalist, he was created D.D. at Oxford on 
20 Dec. 1642, and was expelled a few years 
later by the parliamentary committee from 
both his Yorkshire livings. ' His lady and 
all his children/ writes Walker, ' were turned 
out of doors to seek their bread in desolate 
places,' and his library at Castleford fell 
into the hands of his oppressors. He pub- 
lished in London in 1658 a curious pamph- 
let entitled < A Present for Csesar of 100,000/. 
in hand and 50,000/. a year,' in which he re- 
commended the extortion of first-fruits and 
tithes according to their true value. The 
work is respectfully dedicated to Oliver ' 
Cromwell. At the Restoration he was re- I 
stored to Ackworth, but he found it necessary j 
to vindicate his 'pamphlet in another tract 
entitled < Appello Csesarem ' (York, 1661). | 
But his conduct did not satisfy the govern- 
ment, and in an assize sermon preached at 
York in 1663 and published as ' Caesar's Due ' 
and the Subject's Duty,' he said that the ' 
king had bidden him ' preach conscience to 
the people and not to meddle with state j 
affairs,' and that he had to apologise for his 
sermons preached against the excise and the 
excisemen, the Westminster lawyers, and 
*the rack-renting landlords and depopula- j 
tors.' He also expressed regret for having 
suggested the restoration of the council of 
the north. In 1666 he was made a pre- 
bendary of York. He died in 1670. 

His publications consist entirely of ser- 
mons. The earliest, entitled ' Comfort from 
the Cradle,' was preached at Winchester and 
published at Oxford in 1650; four others, 

? -eached at York Minster, were published at 
ork between 1661 and 1670, and six occa- 
sional sermons appear to have been issued col- 
lectively in London in 1667. Walker de- 
scribes Bradley as ' an excellent preacher ' 
and ' a ready and acute wit.' 

A son, Savile, was at one time fellow of 
New College, Oxford, and afterwards fellow of 
Magdalen. Wood, in his autobiography, tells 
a curious story about his ordination in 1661. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon., ed. Bliss, i. xliii, iii. 
719 ; Fasti Oxon. i. 392, ii. 52 ; Walker's Suffer- 
ings, ii. 85 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

S. L. L. 

1813), physician, was a native of Worcester, 

where for some time he conducted a school 
in which mathematics formed a prominent 
study. About 1786 he withdrew from edu- 
cation, and, devoting himself to medical 
studies, went to Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.D. in 1791, his dissertation, which 
was published, being <De Epispasticorum 
Usu in variis morbis tractandis.' He settled 
in London, and on 22 Dec. 1791 was admitted 
licentiate of the College of Physicians. From 
1794 to 1811 he was physician to the West- 
minster Hospital. For many years he acted 
as editor of the ' Medical and Physical Jour- 
nal.' He published a revised and enlarged 
edition of Fox's ' Medical Dictionary,' 1803, 
and also a 'Treatise on Worms and other 
Animals which infest the Human Body,' 
1813. In the practice of his profession he 
was not very successful. He died in St. 
George's Fields at the close of 1813. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), ii. 419-20; 
Gent. Mag. Ixxxiv. (pt. L) 97-8.] 

BRADLEY, WILLIAM (1801-1857), 
portrait painter, was born at Manchester on 
16 Jan. 1801. He was left an orphan when 
three years old, and commenced life as an 
errand-boy ; but having a natural talent for 
art, he at the age of sixteen advertised him- 
self as a i portrait, miniature, and animal 
painter, and teacher of drawing,' and drew 
portraits at a shilling apiece. Having re- 
ceived some lessons from Mather Brown, 
who was then living at Manchester, he came 
to London when about twenty-one, and, ob- 
taining an introduction to Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, established himself in the metropolis, 
where he enjoyed some practice as a por- 
trait painter. Between 1823 and 1846 he 
exhibited thirteen portraits at the Royal 
Academy, twenty-one at the Free Society of 
Artists, and eight at the British Institution. 
He returned in 1847 to his native city, broken 
down in health, and he died in poverty on 
4 July 1857. Bradley 's portraits were suc- 
cessful as likenesses, and well drawn. Among 
his sitters were Lords Beresford, Sandon, 
Bagot, and Ellesmere, Sheridan Knowles, 
W. C. Macready, and the Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone. His portrait of the last-men- 
tioned has been engraved in mezzotinto by 
W. Walker. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, Painters, &c., London, 1878, 8vo ; 
MS. notes in the British Museum.] L. F. 

BRADOCK, THOMAS (f,. 1576-1604), 
translator, was educated at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, proceeded B.A. 1576, and was 
elected fellow of his college in 1578. In 1579 
his name appears in a protest against the 




action of Dr. Hawford, the master, in with- 
holding his fellowship from Hugh Broughton. 
In 1580 he proceeded M.A., and was incor- 
porated M.A. at Oxford in 1584. In 1588 
he was elected head-master of the grammar 
school at Reading, and in 1591 was presented 
to the vicarage of Stanstead Abbots in Hert- 
fordshire, which he resigned in 1593. The 
advowson of Great Munden in Hertford- 
shire was granted 11 July 1604 to a certain 
Thomas Nicholson upon trust to present it to 
Bradock. Bradock never obtained the pre- 
sentation, which did not fall vacant till 1616 ; 
he probably died before that date. Bradock 
translated into Latin Bishop Jewell's confu- 
tation, in six parts, of the attack of Thomas 
Harding on Jewell's ' Apologia Ecclesise An- 
glicanse.' The translation, taking up 637 folio 
pages, was published at Geneva in 1600, and 
was undertaken that foreign scholars and di- 
vines might be able to follow the controversy 
which the ' Apologia ' had occasioned. It is 
dedicated to John Whitgift, archbishop of 

[Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 395; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 394 ; Fasti i. 228 ; Clut- 
terbuck's Hertfordshire iii. 247 ; Coate's Read- 
ing, 335 ; Strype's Annals, ii. App. 136, iii. 490, 
App. 201 ; Cal. State Papers (Dom. 1603-10).] 

K. B. 



1862), actress and vocalist, was born in 
London in August 1801. Her maiden name 
was Tree, and her father, who lived in Lan- 
caster Buildings, St. Martin's Lane, was in 
the East India House. After a training in 
the chorus at Drury Lane, and a short ex- 
perience in Bath, she appeared in 1818 at 
Covent Garden as Rosina in ' The Barber of 
Seville.' Subsequently she played, princi- 
pally as a substitute for Miss Foote or Miss 
Stephens, Patty in < The Maid of the Mill,' 
Susannah in i The Marriage of Figaro,' and 
other similar characters. Her first recorded 
appearance in ah original role seems to have 
been as Princess Stella in the ' Gnome King,' 
a spectacular piece produced on 6 Oct. 1819 
at Covent Garden. On 11 Dec. of the same 
year she appeared as Luciana in an opera 
founded by Reynolds on ' The Comedy of 
Errors.' This led to the series of Shake- 
spearean performances on which her fame 
rests. In various renderings, musical and 
otherwise, of Shakespearean comedy, she 

?layed with success Ariel, Viola, Imogen, 
ulia (in the ' Two Gentlemen of Verona '), 
Ophelia, and Rosalind. With the exception 
of a solitary appearance at Drury Lane on 

19 April 1823, when she was lent by her own 
management, she appears to have remained 
at Covent Garden till her retirement. This 
took place on 15 June 1825 in two of her 
original characters, Mary Copp in ' Charles II/ 
by Howard Payne, and Clari in the opera of 
that name, by the same author. Shortly 
afterwards she married, under passably ro- 
mantic circumstances, and after, it is said, an 
attempt at suicide, James Bradshaw, a man 
of property. She died on 18 Feb. 1862. Of 
medium stature and pleasing figure, and with 
no special claim to beauty, she owed her 
popularity to the pathos in her voice. Though 
inferior to her singing, her acting won com- 
mendation. She was much praised for the 
modesty of her performance in male attire. 
Her sister, Ellen Tree, became the wife of 
Mr. Charles Kean. 

[Genest's History of the Stage; Oxberry's 
Dramatic Biography ; The Drama or Theatrical 
Pocket Magazine ; Era Almanack.") J. K. 

BRADSHAW, GEORGE (1801-1853), 
originator of railway guides, only son of 
Thomas Bradshaw, by his wife, Mary Rogers, 
was born at Windsor Bridge, Pendleton, 
Salford, on 29 July 1801. His parents taxed 
their limited means to give a good education 
to their only child by placing him under the 
care of Mr. Coward, a Swedenborgian minis- 
ter ; thence he removed to a school kept 
by Mr. Scott at Overton, Lancashire. On 
leaving school he was apprenticed to Mr. J. 
Beale, an engraver, who had acquired some 
reputation by the execution of the plates of 
1 The Art of Penmanship Improved,' by 
Duncan Smith, 1817. In 1820 he accom- 
panied his parents to Belfast, and there esta- 
blished himself as an engraver and printer, 
but, not finding adequate occupation, returned 
to Manchester in the following year. His 
attention had been for some time directed to 
the engraving of maps, and in 3827 he de- 
termined to devote himself more especially 
to that branch of art. The first map pro- 
jected, engraved, and published by him was 
one of Lancashire, his native county. This 
was followed in 1830 by his map of the 
canals of Lancashire, Yorkshire, &c. This 
map eventually became one of a set of three 
known as ' Bradshaw's Maps of Inland Navi- 
gation.' Soon after the commencement of 
the railway system, Bradshaw, the originator 
of railway guides, produced 'Bradshaw's 
Railway Time Tables ' in 1839, a small 18mo 
book, bound in cloth, price 6d. In 1840 the 
name was changed to ' Bradshaw's Railway 
Companion/ which contained more matter, 
with sectional maps, and was sold at 1*. It 
was not published periodically, but appeared 




occasionally, and was supplemented by a 
monthly time-sheet. The agent in London 
for the sale of this work was Mr. William 
Jones Adams, who, it would appear, was 
the first to suggest the idea of a regular 
monthly book at a lower price, as an im- 
provement on ' The Companion.' This idea 
was taken up by Bradshaw, and the result 
was the appearance in December 1841 of ; 
No. 1 of * Bradshaw's Monthly Railway 
Guide,' in the well-known yellow wrapper, 
a work which has gained for itself a world- 
wide fame. Another undertaking was ' Brad- 
shaw's Railway Map,' produced in 1838. 
Among his other publications may be men- ; 
tioned 'Bradshaw's Continental Railway 
Guide,' printed in Manchester, but of which 
the first number was published in Paris in 
June 1847 ; and 'Bradshaw's General Rail- 
way Directory and Shareholder's Guide,' 
which first appeared in 1849. 

Bradshaw when a young man joined the 
Society of Friends, and was an active co- 
adjutor of Cobden, Pease, Sturge, Scoble, ' 
Elihu Burritt, and others in holding peace i 
conferences, in the attempts to establish an ! 
ocean penny postage, and other philanthropic 
labours. Part of his time he devoted to the 
establishment of schools for the poorer classes. 
Bradshaw joined the Institution of Civil En- j 
gineers as an associate in February 1842. In ; 
August 1853 he went to Norway on a tour I 
combining business and recreation, and on 
6 Sept., while on a visit to a friend in the 
neighbourhood of Christiania, he was seized 
by Asiatic cholera, and died in a few hours. 
He was buried in the cemetery belonging to , 
the cathedral of Christiania. 

He married, on 16 May 1839, Martha, I 
daughter of William Darbyshire of Stretton, j 
near Warrington, and left a son, Christopher. ! 

[Manchester Guardian, 17 Sept. 1853, p. 7; 
Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of Civil 
Engineers (1 854), xiii. 145-9; Athenaeum, 27 Dec. 
1873, p. 872, 17 Jan. 1874, p. 95, 24 Jan. p. 126 ; 
Notes and Queries, 6th ser., viii. 45, 92, 338, 
xi, 15.] GK C. B. 

; BRADSHAW, HENRY (d. 1513), Be- 
nedictine monk and poet, was a native of 
j Chester. Being from childhood much ad- 
'' dieted to religion and learning, he was, while 
young, received among the monks of St. Wer- 
burgh's. Thence he was sent to Gloucester 
College, Oxford, and there passed his course 
in theology. He then returned to his monas- 
tery. He wrote ' De Antiquitate et magnifi- 
centiallrbis Cestrise;' f Chronicon and a Life 
of St. Werburgh,' in English verse, includ- 
ing the ' Foundation of the City of Chester,' 
the ' Chronicle of the Kings,' &c. The date 

of his death is fixed at 1513, by ' A Balade 
to the Auctour,' printed with this poem. A 
full description of this rare volume is given 
by Dibdin ( Typographical Antiquities, ii. 491). 
The title is, ' Here begynneth the Holy Lyfe 
and History of Saynt Werburge, very frute- 
full for all christen people to rede. Imprinted 
by Richarde Pynson . . . A MDXXI.' 4to. 
Three ballads follow ; at the end of these 
is the colophon, 'And thus endeth the 
lyfe and history e of Saynt Werburge. Im- 
printed, &c.' Herbert (Typographical An- 
tiquities, i. 270) says that a few years before 
he wrote, the very existence of this book 
was questioned. Five copies are, however, 
known to be in existence, one in the Minster 
Library at York, two in the Bodleian Li- 
brary (Catal iii. 802), one, the copy described 
by Dibdin as Heber's, in the British Mu- 
seum, and the fifth in Mr. Miller's collec- 
tion (Remains, Sfc. Chetham Soc. xv.) It 
was reprinted for the Chetham Society in 
1848, being edited by E. Hawkins. Copious 
extracts are given, not always exactly, by 
Warton. The main body of the poem is a 
translation from a Latin work then in the 
library of St. Werburgh's, called the l True 
or Third Passionary,' by an author of whom 
Bradshaw says ' uncertayne was his name/ 
Warton's conjecture, then, that this writer 
was Goscelin, is, as Hawkins points out (In- 
tro d. Chetham Soc. xv. 5), unlikely to be 
correct. The ' prologes ' and some other 
parts of the volume are original. Bradshaw 
wrote, he says, for the people 
Go forth litell boke, Jesu be thy spede, 
And saue the alway from mysreportyng, 
Whiche art compiled for no clerk e indede 
But for marchaunt men, hauyng litell lernyng, 
And that rude people thereby may haue knowyng 
Of this holy virgin and redolent rose 
Whiche hath been kept full longe tyme in close. 
Warton speaks slightingly of Bradshaw's 
powers. Dibdin, who also gives some long 
extracts, rates them more highly. Many 
passages are vigorous, and some are certainly 
picturesque. In his concluding stanza he 
speaks of Chaucer and Lydgate, of 'preig- 
naunt Barkley,' and of i inventive Skelton.' 
Herbert also attributes to Bradshaw a book 
beginning < Here begynneth the lyfe of saynt 
Radegunde,' also in seven-line stanzas, printed 
by Pinson, n. d., without the name of the 
author or translator. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Dibdin), ii. 491-9, 
Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), i. 269, 294 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. i. col. 18, ed. Bliss; Warton's 
History of English Poetry, ii. 371-80 ; The 
Holy Lyfe and History, &c. Chetham Soc. xv. 
ed. E. Hawkins, with introd. ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Prit. 121.] W. H. 




BRADSHAW, JAMES (1636 P-1702), i. 391, 473, ii. 97, 105, 108, 185, 238; Cat. Dr. 
ejected minister, of the Bradshaws of Haigh, Williams's Library, 184 1, ii. 432 ; Fisher's Comp. 
near Wigan, the elder and royalist branch of ' and Ke J to Hist, of Eng. 1832. pp. 535, 757 ; 
the family, was born at Hacken. in the parish Calamy's Hist. Ace. of my own Life.. 2nd ed. 1830, 
of Bolton, Lancashire, about 1636. He was Pi. 349 '> information from Rev. P. Vance-Smith, 
educated at the Bolton grammar school and : Hmdle y-J A. G. 

Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, but did not j BRADSHAW, JAMES (1717-1746), 
graduate. This was due to the influence of j Jacobite rebel, born in 1717, was the only 
his uncle Holmes, then a minister in North- j child of a well-to-do Roman catholic in trade 
amptonshire, under whom he studied divinity, j ft t Manchester. He was educated at the free 
Returning to Lancashire, he was ordained school, and learned some classics there. About 
minister of Hindley. With other Lancashire | 1734 he was bound apprentice to Mr. Charles 
ministers, he was concerned in the royalist j Worral, a Manchester factor, trading at the 
rising under Sir George Booth [q. v.] He i Golden Ball, Lawrence Lane, London. In 
was ejected in 1662, but, continuing to preach, I 1740 Bradshaw was called back to Man- 
he suffered some months' imprisonment at the | Chester through the illness of his father, and 
instance of his relative Sir Roger Bradshaw, I after his father's death he found himself in 
an episcopalian magistrate. On the indulgence possession of a thriving trade and several 
of 1672 he got possession of Rainford Chapel, ' thousand pounds. Very quickly (about 1741) 
in the parish of Prescot. The neighbouring j he took a London partner, Mr. James Daw- 
clergy now and then preached for him, read- son, near the Axe Inn, Aldermanbury, and 
ing the prayer-book ; hence the churchwarden i he married a Miss Waggstaff of Manchester, 
was able to say ' yes ' to the question at visi- She and an only child both died in 1743. 
tations : ' Have you common prayer read , Bradshaw thereupon threw in his lot with 
yearly in your chapel ? ' Pearson, the bishop the Pretender. He was one of the rebel cour- 
of Chester, would not sustain informations , tiers assembled at Carlisle on 10 Nov. 1745. 
against peaceable ministers, so Bradshaw was J He visited his own city on 29 Nov., where he 
not disturbed. He was also one of the Monday j busied himself in recruiting at the Bell Inn. 
lecturers at Bolton. He died at Rainford in He was a member of the council of war, and 
1702, in his sixty-seventh year, his death being received his fellow-rebels in his own house, 
the result of a mishap while riding to preach, j Having accepted a captaincy in Colonel 
His son Ebenezer, presbyterian minister at I Towneley's regiment he marched to Derby, 
Ramsgate, was ordained 22 June 1694 in Dr. | paying his men out of his own purse; he 
Annesley's meeting-house, Bishopsgate With- j headed his company on horseback in the skir- 
in, near Little St. Helen's (this was at the j mish at Clifton Moor ; he attended the Pre- 
tender's levSe on the retreat through Carlisle 

first public ordination among presbvterians 
after the Restoration). Bradshaw published : 
1. ' The Sleepy Spouse of Christ alarm'd,' &c., 
1677, 12mo (sermons on Cant, v., preface by 
Nathaniel Vincent, M.A., who died 21 June 
1697, aged 52). 2. < The Trial and Triumph 
of Faith.' Halley confuses him (ii. 184) with 
another James Bradshaw, born at Darcy 
Lever, near Bolton, Lancashire, educated at 
Brasenose College, Oxford, presbyterian rector 
of Wigan, who in 1644 encouraged the siege 
of Lathom House by sermons from Jerem. 
xv. 14, in which he compared Lathom's seven 
towers to the seven heads of the beast. He 
was superseded at Wigan by Charles Hotham 
for not observing the parliamentary fast, but 
called to Macclesfield, whence he was ejected 
in 1662. He preached at Houghton Chapel, 
and subsequently at Bradshaw Chapel,reading 
some of the prayers, but not subscribing. He 
died in May 1683, aged 73. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 16, 123; Cala- 
my's Continuation, 1727, pp. 17, 140 ; Palmer's 
Nonconf. Memorial, 1802, i. 337, ii. 364; Hat- 
field's Manch. Socin. Controversy, 1825, p. 140; 
Halley's Lane., its Puritanism and Nonconf., 1 869, 

in December ; and preferring to be in Lord 
Elcho's troop of horse when the rebels were 
striving to keep together in Scotland in the 
early weeks of 1746, he fought at Falkirk. 
He was at Stirling, Perth, Strathbogie, and 
finally at Culloden, on 16 April in the same 
year, where in the rout he was taken prisoner. 
His passage to London was by ship, with forty- 
two fellow-prisoners. He was taken to the 
New Gaol, Southwark ; his trial took place 
at St. Margaret's Hill on 27 Oct. On that 
occasion he was dressed in new green cloth, 
and bore himself somewhat gaily. His counsel 
urged that he had always had 'lunatick 
pranks,' and had been driven entirely mad by 
the death of his wife and child. He was 
found guilty, and having been kept in gaol 
nearly a month more, he was executed on 
Kennington Common, 28 Nov. 1746, aged 
only 29. 

[Ho well's State Trials, xviii. 415-24.1 


BRADSHAW, JOHN (1602-1659), regi- 
cide, was the second surviving son of Henry 
Bradshaw, a well-to-do country gentleman, 




of Marple and Wibersley halls, Stockport, 
Cheshire, who died in 1654. His mother 
was Catherine, daughter of Ralph Winning- 
ton of Offerton in the same county, who 
was married at Stockport on 4 Feb. 1593, 
and died in January 1603-4. The eldest 
surviving son, Henry, the heir to the family 
property, was born in 1600. Francis, the 
youngest son, was baptised on 13 Jan. 1603-4. 
John was born at Wibersley Hall in 1602, 
and baptised at Stockport Church on 10 Dec. 
in that year. Educated first at the free school 
of Stockport, he afterwards attended schools 
at Bunbury, Cheshire, and Middleton, Lan- 
cashire. There is a doubtful tradition that he 
spent some time in his youth at Macclesfield, 
and there wrote on a gravestone the lines : 

My brother Henry must heir the land, 
My brother Frank must be at his command ; 
Whilst I, poor Jack, will do that 
That all the world will wonder at. 

He studied law in London, and was called 
to the bar at Gray's Inn on 23 April 1627. 
He had previously served for several years 
as clerk to an attorney at Congleton, an'd ap- 
parently practised as a provincial barrister. 
He was mayor of Congleton in 1637, and 
high steward of the borough several years 
later (Gent. Mag. Ixxxviii. i. 328). He 
formally resigned the office in May 1656. 
At Congleton he maintained no little state, 
and possessed much influence in the neigh- 
bourhood. He was steward of the manor of 
Glossop, Derbyshire, in 1630. 

' All his early life,' writes Bradshaw's 
friend, Milton, in the l Second Defence of the 
People of England '(1654), ' he was sedulously 
employed in making himself acquainted with 
the laws of his country; he then practised 
with singular success and reputation at the 
bar.' Before 1643 he had removed from 
Congleton to Basinghall Street, London, 
and in that year was a candidate for the 
post of judge of the sheriffs' court in Lon- 
don. The right of appointment was claimed 
by both the court of aldermen and the court 
of common council, and the latter elected 
Bradshaw on 21 Sept. About the same time 
the aldermen nominated Richard Proctor, a 
rival candidate. Bradshaw entered at once 
upon the duties of the office, and continued 
in it till 1649, when other employment com- 
pelled him to apply for permission to nominate 
a deputy. Proctor meanwhile brought an 
action against him in the king's bench. The 
suit lingered till February 1654-5, when the 
claim of the court of common council to the 
appointment was established. 

In October 1644 Bradshaw was one of the 
counsel employed in the prosecution of Lord 


Macguire of Fermanagh and HughMacmahon 
for their part in the Irish rebellion of 1641. 
Bradshaw acted with William Prynne, and 
the latter received much assistance from Brad- 
shaw in his elaborate argument proving that 
Irish peers were amenable to English juries. 
The trial resulted in the conviction of Mac- 
guire. In 1645 Bradshaw was counsel for 
John Lilburne in his successful appeal to 
the House of Lords against the sentence 
pronounced on him in the Star-chamber for 
publishing seditious books eight years before. 
The commons nominated Bradshaw one of 
the commissioners of the great seal on 8 Oct. 
1646, but the lords declined to confirm this 
arrangement. On 22 Feb. 1646-7 he was ap- 
pointed chief justice of Chester, and on 
18 March following a judge in Wales. In 
June he was one of the counsel retained 
(with Oliver St. John, Jermin, and William 
Prynne) for the prosecution of Judge Jenkins 
on the charge of passing judgment of death 
on men who had fought for the parliament. 
In a letter to the mayor of Chester (1 Aug. 
1648) he promises to resume his practice of 
holding 'the grand sessions' at Chester after 
1 the sad impediment ' of the wars, but only 
promises attention to the city's welfare on 
condition of its inhabitants' constant com- 
pliance with the directions of parliament 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 344). On 
12 Oct. 1648 the parliament created Brad- 
shaw and several other lawyers of their party 

On 2 Jan. 1648-9 the lords rejected the 
ordinance of the commons for bringing the 
king to trial before a parliamentary com- 
mission. The commons straightway re- 
solved to proceed on their sole authority. 
Certain peers and judges had been nominated 
members of the commission ; but the names 
of the former were now removed (3 Jan.), 
and those of Bradshaw, Nicholas, and Steele, 
all lawyers without seats in the house, sub- 
stituted. On 6 Jan. the ordinance for the 
trial passed its final stage. On 8 Jan. the 
commission held its first private meeting in 
the Painted Chamber at Westminster to dis- 
cuss the procedure at the trial, but Bradshaw 
did not put in an appearance. A second 
meeting took place two days later, from 
which Bradshaw was also absent. The com- 
missioners then proceeded to elect a presi- 
dent, and the choice fell upon the absent 
lawyer. Mr. Say filled the post for the 
rest of that day's sitting, but a special sum- 
mons was sent to Bradshaw to be present at 
the meeting to be held on 12 Jan. He then 
appeared and ' enlarged upon his own want 
of abilities to undergo so important a charge. 
. . . And when he was pressed ... he re- 




quired time to consider it.' The next day 
he formally accepted the office, with (it is 
said) every sign of humility. It was re- 
solved by the court that he should hence- 
forward bear the title of lord president. 

Clarendon is probably right in describing 
Bradshaw as 'not much known [at this 
time] in Westminster Hall, though of good 
practice in the chamber.' There were cer- 
tainly many lawyers having a higher reputa- 
tion both in parliament and at the bar who 
might have been expected to be chosen be- 
fore Bradshaw president of the great com- 
mission. But there were obvious reasons 
for appointing a lawyer of comparatively 
little prominence. The proceedings demanded 
a very precise observance of legal formali- 
ties, and a lawyer was indispensable. But 
the anti-royalists had very few lawyers among 
them who believed in the justice or legality 
of the latest development of their policy. 
Whitelocke and Widdrington both refused to 
serve on the commission ; Serjeant Nicholas, 
who had been nominated to the commission 
at the same time as Bradshaw, declined to 
take part in the trial ; the parliamentary 
judges Rolle, St. John, and "Wilde deemed 
the proceedings irregular from first to last ; 
Edward Prideaux, an able lawyer, whom the 
commons had appointed solicitor-general on 
12 Oct. 1648, was unwilling to appear against 
the king, and his place was filled for the 
occasion by John Cook, a man of far smaller 
ability. But the commissioners, whether or 
no they had any misgivings, were resolved 
to prove their confidence in the man of their 
choice. Everything was done to lend dignity 
to the newly elected president. The deanery 
at Westminster was handed over to him as 
his residence for the future, but during the 
trial it was arranged that he should lodge at 
Sir Abraham Williams's house in Palace Yard 
to be near Westminster Hall. He was given 
scarlet robes and a numerous body-guard. 
Although his stout-heartedness is repeatedly 
insisted on by his admirers, Bradshaw had 
some fear of personal violence at this time. 
' Besides other defence,' saysKennett, 'he had 
a high-crowned beaver hat lined with plated 
steel to ward off blows/ The hat is now in 
the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford (Complete 
Hist. iii. 181 n. ; GKANGEK, Biog. Hist. ii. 397). 

Private meetings of the commission, at- 
tended by less than half the full number of 
members, were held under Bradshaw's presi- 
dency in the Painted Chamber at Westmin- 
ster almost every day of the week preceding 
the trial, and on the morning of each day of 
the trial itself. The trial opened at West- 
minster Hall on Saturday, 20 Jan. 1648-9. 
Bradshaw's name was read out by a clerk, 

and he took his seat, a crimson velvet chair, 
' having a desk with a crimson velvet cushion 
before him.' He was surrounded by atten- 
dants, and placed in the midst of his colleagues. 
The president addressed the prisoner as soon 
as he was brought into court as ( Charles 
Stuart, king of England,' and invited him to 
plead, but the king persistently declined the 
invitation on the ground of the court's in- 
competency, and Bradshaw's frequent and 
impatient appeals had no effect upon him. 
Finally Bradshaw adjourned the proceed- 
ings to the following Monday. The same 
scene was repeated on that and the next two 
days. The president repeatedly rebuked the 
prisoner for his freedom of language, and abso- 
lutely refused to allow him to make a speech. 
On 25 Jan. twenty-nine witnesses were hur- 
riedly examined ; on 26 Jan. Bradshaw and 
the commissioners framed a sentence of death 
at a private sitting in the Painted Chamber. 
It was read over by them on the morning of 
the next day (27 Jan.), after which Brad- 
shaw proceeded to Westminster Hall and 
pronounced judgment in a long-winded and 
strongly worded oration. Before Bradshaw 
spoke, Charles made an earnest appeal to 
be heard in his defence. Some of the com- 
missioners were anxious to grant him this 
request, but Bradshaw finally disallowed it. 
After the sentence was pronounced, the king 
renewed his demand, but Bradshaw roughly 
told him to be quiet, and ordered the guards 
to remove him. On 30 Jan., the day of the 
execution, the commission held its last meet- 
ing in private ; the death-warrant was duly 
engrossed and signed by fifty-eight members. 
Bradshaw's signature headed the list. 

Bradshaw was censured by crowds of 
pamphleteers for his overbearing and brutal 
behaviour towards the king at the trial (cf. 
Reason against Treason, or a Bone for Brad- 
shaw to pick, 9 July 1649). His friends 
professed to admire his self-confidence and 
dignity, and spoke as if he had had no previous 
judicial experience. On the whole it appears 
that he behaved very much as might be ex- 
pected of a commonplace barrister suddenly 
called from the bench of a city sheriffs' court 
to fill a high and exceptionally dignified 
judicial office. 

The lord president's court was re-esta- 
blished, with Bradshaw at its head, on 2 Feb. 
1648-9, and throughout the month it was 
engaged in trying leading royalists for high 
treason. The chief prisoners were the Duke 
of Hamilton, Lord Capel, and Henry Rich, 
earl of Holland. Bradshaw, arrayed in his 
scarlet robes, pronounced sentence of death 
upon them all in very lengthy judgments. 
He showed none of these prisoners any 




mercy, but he appeared to least advantage 
as the judge of Eusebius Andrews [q. v.], a 
royalist charged with conspiracy against the 
Commonwealth. He sought by repeated 
cross-examinations to convict Andrews out 
of his own mouth, and kept him in prison for 
very many months. Finally Bradshaw con- 
demned him to death on 6 Aug. 1650 (F. 
BUCKLEY'S account of the trial, 1660, re- 
printed in State Trials, v. 1-42). Bradshaw 
did not continue, however, to perform work of 
this kind. His place was filled by Serjeant 
Keeble in 1651, and by Serjeant 1'Isle in 1654. 

Bradshaw found other occupation in the 
council of state, to which he was elected by 
a vote of the commons on its formation 
(14 Feb. 1648-9), and chosen its permanent 
president (10 March). He did not attend 
its sittings till 12 March, after which he was 
rarely absent. No other member was so re- 
gular in his attendance. He was in frequent 
correspondence with Oliver Cromwell during 
the campaigns of 1649 and 1650 in Ireland 
and Scotland, and during those years offices 
and honours were heaped upon him. On 
20 July 1649 parliament nominated him at- 
torney-general of Cheshire and North Wales, 
and eight days later chancellor of the duchy 
of Lancaster, a post in which he was con- 
tinued by a special vote of the house on 
18 July 1650. On 19 June 1649 parliament, 
having taken his great merit into considera- 
tion, paid him a sum of 1,000/., and on 15 Aug. 
1649 formally handed over to him lands worth 
2,0001. a year. The estates assigned him were 
those of the Earl of St. Albans and Lord Cot- 
tington. He was re-elected by parliament a 
member of the council of state (12 Feb. 
1649-50, 7 Feb. 1650-1, 24 Nov. 1651, and 24 
Nov. 1652), and presided regularly at its sit- 
tings, signing nearly all the official correspon- 
dence. He was not very popular with his col- 
leagues there. He seemed ' not much versed in 
suchbusinesses/writesWhitelocke/ and spent 
much of their time by his own long speeches.' 

Cromwell's gradual assumption of arbi- 
trary power did not meet with Bradshaw's 
approval. On 20 April 1653 Cromwell, who 
had first dissolved the Long parliament, pre- 
sented himself later in the day before the 
council of state, and declared it at an end. 
Bradshaw, as president, rose and addressed 
the intruder in the words : ' Sir, we have 
heard what you did at the house in the 
morning, and before many hours all Eng- 
land will hear it ; but, sir, you are mis- 
taken to think the parliament is dissolved, 
for no power under heaven can dissolve them 
but themselves ; therefore take you notice of 
that '(LuDLOW, Memoirs, 195) . Bradshaw did 
not sit in Barebones's parliament, which met 

on 4 July 1653, but an act was passed (16 Sept. ) 
by the assembly continuing him in the chan- 
cellorship of the duchy of Lancaster. He was 
I elected to the next parliament, which assem- 
bled on 4 Sept. 1654, but declined on 12 Sept. 
to sign the ' recognition ' pledging members 
to maintain the government ' as it is settled 
in a single person and a parliament.' He was 
summoned by Cromwell before the council 
of state formed by him on becoming pro- 
tector, together with Vane, Rich, and Lud- 
low, and was bidden by Cromwell to take 
out a new commission as chief justice of 
Chester. He refused to submit to the order. 
He declared that he had been appointed 
during his good behaviour, and had done 
nothing to forfeit his right to the place, as 
he would prove before any twelve j urymen. 
Cromwell did not press the point, and Brad- 
shaw immediately afterwards went his circuit 
as usual. But Cromwell revenged himself 
by seeking to diminish Bradshaw's influence 
in Cheshire. In the parliament which met 
17 Sept. 1656 Bradshaw failed to obtain a seat, 
owing to the machinations of Tobias Bridges, 
Cromwell's major-general for the county 
(THTTBLOE, vi. 313) . There had been a proposal 
to nominate him for the city of London, but 
that came to nothing. * Serjeant Bradshaw/ 
writes Thurloe jubilantly to Henry Crom- 
well in Ireland (26 Aug. 1656), 'hath missed 
it in Cheshire, and is chosen nowhere else.' 

Bradshaw was now an open opponent of 
the government. According to an anony- 
mous letter sent to Monk he entered early in 
1655 into conspiracy with Haslerig, Pride, 
and others, to seize Monk as a first step 
towards the army's overthrow (THUELOE, 
Papers, iii. 185). He was also suspected, 
on no very valid ground, of encouraging 
the fifth-monarchy men in the following 
year. In August 1656 an attempt was made 
by Cromwell to deprive him of his office of 
chief justice of Chester (THUKLOE). In private 
and public Bradshaw vigorously denounced 
Cromwell's usurpation of power, and he is 
credited with having asserted that if such 
conduct ended in the Protector's assumption 
of full regal power, he and Cromwell ' had 
committed the most horrid treason [in their 
treatment of Charles I] that ever was heard 
of (^Bradshaw's Ghost, being a Dialogue be- 
tween the said Ghost and an apparition of the 
late King, 1659). Under date 3 Dec. 1657 
Whitelocke writes of the relations between 
Cromwell and Bradshaw that ' the distaste 
between them' was perceived to increase. 
During the last years of the protectorate 
Bradshaw took no part in politics. 

The death of the great Protector (3 Sept. 
1658), and the abdication of Richard Crom- 



1 80 


well (25 May 1659), restored to Bradshaw 
some of his lost influence. The reassembled 
Long parliament nominated him on 13 May 
one of the ten members of the reestablished 
council of state who were not to be members 
of parliament. On 3 June 1659 he was 
appointed a commissioner of the great seal 
for five months with Serjeants Fountaine 
and Tyrrel. But Bradshaw's health was ra- 
pidly failing, and on 9 June he wrote to the 
parliament asking to be temporarily relieved 
during indisposition of the duties of commis- 
sioner of the seal. On 22 July he took the 
necessary oath in the house to be faithful to 
the Commonwealth, but was still unable to 
attend to the work of the office. Matters went 
badly in his absence. The Long parliament 
again fell a victim to the army, and on hearing 
of the speaker's (Lenthall) arrest, 13 Oct., by 
Lieutenant-colonel Duckenfield on his way 
to Westminster, Bradshaw rose from his sick 
bed, and presented himself at the sitting of the 
council of state. Colonel Sydenham endea- 
voured to justify the army's action, but Brad- 
shaw, { weak and extenuated as he was,' says 
Ludlow, ( yet animated by ardent zeal and 
constant affection to the common cause, stood 
up and interrupted him, declared his abhor- 
rence of this detestable action ; and telling 
the council, that being now going to his God, 
he had not patience to sit there to hear His 
great name so openly blasphemed.' According 
to George Bate, his royalist biographer, he 
raved like a madman, and flung out of the room 
in a fury ( The Lives . . . of the prime actors 
. . . of that horrid murder of . . . King 
Charles, 1661). On arriving home at the 
deanery of Westminster, which he had con- 
tinued to occupy since his appointment as 
lord president, he became dangerously ill, and 
' died of a quartan ague, which had held him 
for a year,' on 31 Oct. 1659 (Mercurius Poli- 
ticus, 31 Oct.) 'He declared a little be- 
fore he left the world that if the king were 
to be tried and condemned again, he would 
be the first man that would do it ' (PECK, 
Desiderata Ouriosa, xiv. 32). He was buried 
with great ceremony in Westminster Abbey 
(22 Nov.), and his funeral sermon an ela- 
borate eulogy was preached by John Howe, 
preacher at the abbey since 1654 (Merc. 
Pol. 22 Nov.) Whitelocke describes him 
as 'a strict man, and learned in his pro- 
fession ; no friend of monarchy.' Clarendon 
writes of him with great asperity, while 
Milton's stately panegyric, written in Brad- 
shaw's lifetime (1654), applauded his honest 
devotion to the cause of liberty. He was not 
a great man, but there is no reason to doubt 
his sincere faith in the republican principles 
which he consistently upheld. He was ap- 

parently well read in history and law. Ac- 
cording to the pamphleteers, he had built a 
study for himself on the roof of Westminster 
Abbey, which was well stocked with books. 
Charles II, in a letter to the mayor of Bris- 
tol (8 March 1661-2), states that Bradshaw's 
gipers, which were then in the hands of one 
eorge Bishop, included ' divers papers and 
writings ' taken by Bradshaw ' out of the 
office of the King's Library at Whitehall, 
which could not yet be recovered' (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 328). Bradshaw is 
stated to have supplied ' evidences ' to March- 
mont Needham, when translating Selden's 
' Mare Clausum ' (NICOLSON, Hist. Libr. 
iii. 124). He fully shared the piety of the 
leaders of the parliament, and, in spite of his 
high-handed conduct as lord president of the 
commission, does not seem to have been of 
an unkindly nature. Mr. Edward Peacock 
found a document a few years ago which 
proved that Bradshaw, after obtaining the 

^ant of the estates of a royalist named Richard 
reene at Stapeley, heard of the destitute 
condition of Greene's three daughters ; where- 
upon he ordered (20 Sept. 1650) his steward 
to collect the rent and pay it to them (Athe- 
nceum, 23 Nov. 1878). Similarly, on receiving 
the tithes of Feltham, Middlesex, he issued 
an address (4 Oct. 1651) to the inhabitants of 
the parish, stating that his anxiety l touching 
spyritualls ' had led him to provide and endow 
a minister for them without putting them to 
any charge (Athenceum for 1878, p. 689). 

On 15 May 1660 it was resolved that 
Bradshaw, although dead, should be attainted 
by act of parliament, together with Crom- 
well, Ireton, and Pride, all of whom died 
before the Restoration. As early as 3 May 
1654 Bradshaw had been specially excepted 
from any future pardon in a proclamation 
issued by Charles II. On 12 July 1660 the 
sergeant-at-arms was ordered to deliver to 
the house Bradshaw's goods (Commons Jour- 
nal, viii. 88). On 4 Dec. 1660 parliament 
directed that the bodies of Bradshaw, Crom- 
well, and Ireton ' should be taken up from 
Westminster ' and hanged in their coffins at 
Tyburn. This indignity was duly perpetrated 
30 Jan. 1660-1. The regicides' heads were 
subsequently exposed in Westminster Hall 
and their bodies reburied beneath the gallows 
(PEPTS'S Diary, 4 Feb. 1660-1). 

Bradshaw married Mary (b. 1596), daughter 
of Thomas Marbury of Marbury, Cheshire, but 
had no children. She died between 1655 and 
1659, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
On 9 Sept. 1661 directions were given for the 
removal of her body to the churchyard outside 
the abbey ( Westminster Abbey Register, Harl. 
Soc. p. 522). By his will, made in 1655 and 




proved in London 16 Dec. 1659 (printed by 
Earwaker), Bradshaw bequeathed most of his 
property, which consisted of estates in Berk- 
shire, Southampton, Wiltshire, Somerset, and 
Middlesex, to his wife, if she survived him, 
for her life, with reversion to Henry (d. 1698), 
his brother Henry's son. He also made chari- 
table bequests for establishing a free school 
at Marple, his birthplace ; for increasing the 
schoolmasters' stipends at Bunbury and Mid- 
dleton, where he had been educated ; and for 
maintaining good ministers at Feltham and 
Hatch (Wiltshire), where he had been granted 
property by parliament. By one codicil he 
left his houses and lodgings at Westminster 
to the governors of the school and alrnshouses 
there, and added a legacy of 10/. to John 
Milton, the poet. After the .Restoration, how- 
ever, all Bradshaw's property was confiscated 
to the crown under the act of attainder. 

Two engraved portraits of Bradshaw are 
mentioned by Granger (ii. 397, iii. 71) one 
in his iron hat by Vandergucht, for Claren- 
don's ' History,' and another in 4to, ' partly 
scraped and partly stippled.' 

HENRY BRADSHAAV, the president's elder 
brother, signed a petition for the establish- 
ment of the presbyterian religion in Cheshire 
on 6 July 1646 ; acted as magistrate under 
the Commonwealth; held a commission of 
sergeant-major under Fairfax, and subse- 
quently one of lieutenant-colonel in Colonel 
Ashton's regiment of foot; commanded the 
militia of the Macclesfield hundred at the 
battle of Worcester (1651), where he was 
wounded; sat on the court-martial which 
tried the Earl of Derby and other loyalists at 
Chester in 1652 ; was charged with this offence 
at the Restoration ; was imprisoned by order 
of parliament from 17 July to 14 Aug. 1660 ; 
was pardoned on 23 Feb. 1660-1 ; and, dying 
at Marple, was buried at Stockport on 15 
March 1660-1 (EARWAKER'S East Cheshire, 
ii. 62-9; ORMEROD, Cheshire, pp. 408-11). 

[Noble's Lives of the Eegicides, i. 47-66; 
Foss's Judges, vi. 418 et seq. ; Earwaker's East 
Cheshire, ii. 69-77 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, iii. 
408-9 ; Brayley and Britton's Beauties of Eng- 
land, ii. 264-8 ; Clarendon's Rebellion ; White- 
locke's Memorials ; Ludlow's Memoirs; Thurloe's 
State Papers; Cal. State Papers (Dom.), 1649- 
1658; Carlyle's Cromwell; Commons' Journal, 
vi. vii. viii. ; State Trials, iii. iv. v. Many attacks 
on Bradshaw were published after his death. 
The chief of them, besides those mentioned above, 
are The Arraignment of the Divel for stealing 
away President Bradshaw, 7 Nov. 1659 (fol. sh.) ; 
The President of Presidents, or an Elogie on the 
death of John Bradshaw, 1659 ; Bradshaw's 
Ultimum Vale, being the last words that were 
ever intended to be spoke of him, as they were 
delivered in a sermon Preach'd at his Interment 

by J. 0. D. D., Time-Server General of England, 
Oxf. 1660; The Lamentations of a Sinner; or, 
Bradshaw's Horrid Farewell, together with his 
last will and testament, Lond. 1659. Marchmont 
Needham published, 6 Feb. 1660-1, a speech 'in- 
tended to have been spoken ' at his execution at 
Tyburn, but ' for very weightie reasons omitted.' 
The Impudent Babbler Baffled ; or, the Falsity 
of that assertion uttered by Bradshaw in Crom- 
well's new-erected Slaughter-House, a bitter at- 
tack on Bradshaw's judicial conduct, appeared in 
1705.] S. L. L. 

BRADSHAW, JOHN (Jl. 1679), poli- 
tical writer, son of Alban Bradshaw, an at- 
torney, of Maidstone, Kent, was born in that 
town in 1659. He was admitted a scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1674, and 
was expelled from that society in 1677 for 
robbing and attempting to murder one of 
the senior fellows. He was tried and con- 
demned to death, but after a year's imprison- 
ment was released. Wood says that Bradshaw, 
' who was a perfect atheist and a debauchee 
ad omnia, retir'd afterwards to his own 
country, taught a petty school, turn'd quaker, 
was a preacher among them, and wrote and 
published "The Jesuits Countermin'd ; or, 
an Account of a new Plot, &c.," London, 
1679, 4to.' When James II came to the 
throne, Bradshaw ' turned papist.' 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 619.] 

T. C. 

diplomatist, and a merchant of Chester, ap- 
pears in December 1642 as one of the col- 
lectors of the contribution raised for the 
defence of that city (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th 
Rep. p. 365). During the civil war he served 
as quartermaster-general of the horse under 
the command of Sir William Brereton [q. v.] 
(Petition in Commons Journals, 23 Jan. 1651). 
In the year 1649 he was mayor of Chester, 
and in January 1650 was appointed by par- 
liament resident at Hamburg. In Novem- 
ber 1652 he was for a short time employed 
as envoy to the king of Denmark, and in 
April 1657 was sent on a similar mission to 
Russia. He returned to England in 1659, 
and was in January 1660 one of the commis- 
sioners of the navy (Mercurius Politicus, 
28 Jan. 1660). He is said by Heath to have 
been the kinsman of President Bradshaw; 
and from the tone of his letters, and his 
attendance at Bradshaw's funeral, this ap- 
pears to have been the case. Mr. Horwood 
states that he was the nephew of John 
Bradshaw ; but the pedigree of the latter's 
family given in Earwaker's ' History of 
Cheshire ' does not confirm this statement. 

[Bradshaw has left a large correspondence. The 
Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian contain several let- 




ters of 1649-51 . In the Sixth Eeport of the Koyal 
Commission on Historical Manuscripts, 426-44, 
is a report by Mr. Horwood on a collection of 
letters to and from Bradshaw in the possession of 
Miss Ffarington. His official correspondence is 
contained in the Thurloe State Papers. Some 
other letters may be found in the Calendar of 
Domestic State Papers. Mercurius Politicus, Nos. 
135 to 144, contains a full account of Bradshaw's 
Mission to Copenhagen (18 Dec. 1652 to 10 Feb. 
1653). Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, pp. 485-90, 
contains depositions relative to the plot for his 
murder formed during his stay there. Peck terms 
him the nephew of President Bradshaw.] 

C. H. F. 

BRADSHAW, THOMAS (fi. 1591), 
poet, was the author of 'The Shepherd's 
Starre, now of late scene and at this hower 
to be obserued, merueilous orient in the East : 
which bringeth glad tydings to all that may 
behold her brightnes, having the foure ele- 
ments with the foure capital! vertues in her, 
which makes her elementall and a van- 
quishor of all earthly humors. Described 
by a Gentleman late of the Right worthie 
and honorable the Lord Burgh, his companie 
retinue in the Briell in North-holland/ 
London, 1591. The dedication is addressed 
to the well-known Earl of Essex and to 
' Thomas Lord Burgh, baron of Gaynsburgh, 
Lord Gouernour of the towne of Bryell and 
the fortes of Newmanton and Cleyborow in 
North Holland for her Maiestie.' Alexander 
Bradshaw prefixes a letter to his brother the 
author (dated ' from the court of Greenewich 
upon Saint George's day, 1591, Aprill 23') 
in which he says that he has taken the liberty 
of publishing this book in its author's ab- 
sence abroad. The preliminary poems by 
I. M. and Thomas Groos deal with Brad- 
shaw's departure from England. The volume 
consists of ' A Paraphrase upon the third of 
the Canticles of Theocritus/ in both verse 
and prose. The author's style in the preface 
is highly affected and euphuistic, but the 
Theocritean paraphrase reads pleasantly. The 
book is of great rarity. A copy is in the 
British Museum. A Thomas Bradshaw pro- 
ceeded B.A. at Oxford in 1547, and suppli- 
cated for the degree of M.A. early in 1549 
(Or/. Univ. JReg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 212). 

[Corser's Collectanea (Chetham Soc.), i. 328 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] S. L. L. 

BRADSHAW, WILLIAM (1571-1618), 
puritan divine, son of Nicholas Bradshaw, 
of a Lancashire family, was born at Market 
Bosworth, Leicestershire, in 1571. His early 
schooling at Worcester was paid for by an 
uncle, on whose death his education was 
gratuitously continued by George Ainsworth, 
master of the grammar school at Ashby-de- 

la-Zouch. In 1589 Bradshaw went to Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. and MA., but was unsuccessful 
in competing for a fellowship (1595) with 
Joseph Hall, afterwards bishop of Norwich. 
Through the influence of Laurence Chaderton 
[q. v.], the first master of Emmanuel, he ob- 
tained a tutorship in the family of Sir Thomas 
Leighton, governor of Guernsey. Here he 
came under the direct influence of the puritan 
leader, Thomas Cartwright [q. v.], who had 
framed (1576) the ecclesiastical discipline of 
the Channel Islands on the continental model, 
and was now preaching at Castle-cornet. 
Between Cartwright and Bradshaw a strong 
and lasting affection- was formed. Here also 
he met James Montague (afterwards bishop 
of Winchester). In 1599, when Montague 
was made first master of Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge, Bradshaw was appointed 
one of the first fellows. He had a near es- 
cape from drowning (being no swimmer) at 
Harston Mills, near Cambridge, while jour- 
neying on horseback to the university. He 
took orders, some things at which he scrupled 
being dispensed with, and preached occasion- 
ally at Abington, Bassingbourne, and Steeple- 
Morden, villages near Cambridge. He left 
Cambridge, having got into trouble by dis- 
tributing the writings of John Darrel [q. v.], 
tried for practising exorcism. In July 1601, 
through Chaderton's influence, he was invited 
to settle as a lecturer at Chatham, in the 
diocese of Rochester. He was very popular, 
and the parishioners applied (25 April 1602), 
through Sir Francis Hastings, for the arch- 
bishop's confirmation of his appointment to 
the living. A report that he held unsound 
doctrine had, however, reached London ; and 
Bradshaw was cited on 26 May to appear 
next morning before Archbishop Whitgift, 
and Bancroft, bishop of London, at Shorne, 
near Chatham. He was accused of teaching 
' that man is not bound to love God, unless 
he be sure that God loves him.' Bradshaw 
repudiated this heresy, and offered to produce 
testimony that he had taught no such thing. 
However, he was simply called upon to sub- 
scribe ; he declined, was suspended, and bound 
to appear again when summoned. The vicar, 
John Philips, stood his friend, and the pa- 
rishioners applied to John Young, bishop of 
Rochester, for his restoration, but without 
effect. Under this disappointment, Bradshaw 
found a retreat in the family of Alexander 
Redich, of Newhall, close to Stapenhill, Der- 
byshire. Redich procured him a license from 
William Overton, bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, to preach in any part of his diocese. 
Accordingly he preached at a private chapel 
in Redich's park, and subsequently (from 




1604) in Stapenhill Church. Although he 
drew no emolument from his public work, 
the hospitality of his patron was liberally 
extended to him. Soon after his marriage 
he settled at Stanton Ward, in Stapenhill 
parish, and his wife made something by 
needlework and by teaching a few children. 
Bradshaw was one of a little knot of puritan 
divines who met periodically at Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch, Repton, Burton-on-Trent, and Sta- 
penhill. Neither in form nor in aim was this 
association a presbyterian classis. Whether 
Bradshaw ever held Cartwright's views of ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction is not clear ; it is plain 
that he did not adhere to them. Neal places 
both him and his neighbour Hildersham, of 
Ashby , among the beneficed clergy who inl 586 
declared their approbation of Cartwright's 
1 Book of Discipline ; ' but the chronology in 
both cases is manifestly wrong. Even Cart- 
wright and his immediate coadjutors declared 
in April 1592 that they never had exercised 
any ecclesiastical jurisdiction, or so much as 
proposed to do so, till authorised by law. 
The exercises of the association with which 
Bradshaw was connected were limited to a 
public sermon and a private conference. In 
these discussions Bradshaw's balanced judg- 
ment gave him a superiority over his brethren, 
who called him ' the weighing divine.' He 
was strongly averse to ceremonies, both as 
unlawful in themselves and imposed by the 
undue authority of prelates. Bradshaw was 
in London, probably on a publishing errand, 
in 1605 ; he had been chosen lecturer at 
Christ Church, Newgate ; but the bishop 
would not authorise him. He had already 
published against ceremonies, and though 
his tracts were anonymous, their paternity 
was well understood. He now put forth his 
most important piece, ' English Puritanisme,' 
1605, 4to, which professed to embody the 
views of the most rigid section of the party. 
His views of doctrine would have satisfied 
Henry Ainsworth [q. v.] ; he was at one with 
Ainsworth as regards the independence of 
congregations, differing only as to the ma- 
chinery of their internal government ; he was 
no separatist, but he wanted to see the church 
purified. Moreover, he entertained a much 
stronger feeling than Ainsworth of the duty 
of submission to the civil authority. Let the 
king be a ' very infidel ' and persecutor of the 
truth, or openly defy every law of God, he 
held that he still retained, as ' archbishop and 
general overseer of all the churches within 
his dominions,' the right to rule all churches 
within his realm, and must not be resisted in 
the name of conscience ; those who cannot 
obey must passively take what punishment 
he allots. The key to Bradshaw's own scheme 

of church polity is the complete autonomy of 
individual congregations. He would have 
them disciplined inwardly on the presbyterian 
plan, the worshippers delegating their spi- 
ritual government to an oligarchy of pastors 
and elders, power of excommunication being 
reserved to ( the whole congregation itself.' 
But he would subject no congregation to any 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction save ' that which is 
within itself.' To prevent as far as possible 
the action of the state from being warped by 
ecclesiastical control, he would enact that 
no clergyman should hold any office of civil 
authority. Liberty of conscience is a prin- 
ciple which his view of the royal supremacy 
precludes him from directly stating ; but he 
very carefully guards against the possible 
abuse of church censures, and holds it a sin 
for any church officers to exercise authority 
over the body, goods, lives, liberty of any man. 
In spite of the safeguard provided by the auto- 
cratic control which he proposed to vest in the 
civil power, the system of which Bradshaw was 
the spokesman was not unnaturally viewed 
as abandoning every recognised security for 
the maintenance of protestant uniformity. 
That on his principle congregations might set 
up the mass was doubtless what was most 
feared ; ' puritan-papist ' is the significant title 
jiven in 1605 to a writer on Bradshaw's side, 
who would ' persuade the permission of the 
promiscuous use and profession of all sorts 
of heresies.' But before very long the ap- 
pearance of anabaptist enthusiasts such as 
Wightman confirmed the impression that the 
scheme of Bradshaw and his friends would 
never do. Bradshaw's exposition of puritanism 
bore no name, but its authorship was never 
any secret. It was not enough to answer 
him by the pen of the Bishop of London's 
Welsh chaplain ; his London lodgings were 
searched by two pursuivants, deputed to seize 
him and his pamphlets. His wife had sent 
him out of the way, and, not half an hour 
before the domiciliary visit, had succeeded in 
cleverly hiding the books behind the fireplace. 
They carried this spirited lady before the high 
commission, but could extract nothing from 
her under examination, so they bound her to 
appear again when summoned, and let her go. 
Ames's Latin version of the ' English Puri- 
tanisme ' carried Bradshaw's views far and 
wide (see AMES, WILLIAM, 1576-1633, and 
BBOWHB'Sj5i0. of Congregationalism in Norf. 
and Suff. 1877, p. 66 seq.) His Derbyshire re- 
treat was Bradshaw's safe sanctuary ; thither 
he returned from many a journey in the cause 
he loved ; his friends there were influential ; 
and there was much in his personal address 
which, when his surface austerity yielded to 
the natural play of a bright and companionable 




disposition, attached to him the affectionate ' 
regard of men who did not share his views. ! 
No encomium from his own party gives so | 
sympathetic a picture of his character as we 
find in the graphic touches of his compeer, 
Bishop Hall, who puts the living man before I 
us, ' very strong and eager in argument, hearty 
in friendship, regardless of the world, a de- 
spiser of compliment, a lover of reality.' In 
the year before his death Bradshaw got back 
to Derbyshire from one of his journeys, and 
the chancellor of Overall, the bishop of Co- 
ventry and Lichfield, ' welcomed him home 
with a suspension from preaching.' But ' the 
mediation of a couple of good angels ' (not 
'two persons of some influence,' as Rose 
suggests, but coins of the realm) procured the 
withdrawal of the inhibition, and Bradshaw 
was left to pursue his work in peace. On 
a visit to Chelsea he was stricken with ma- 
lignant fever, which carried him off in 1618. 
A large company of ministers attended him 
to his burial in Chelsea Church on 16 May. 
The funeral sermon was preached by Thomas 
Gataker [q. v.], who subsequently became his 
biographer. Bradshaw married a widow at 
Chatham ; but the marriage did not take place 
till a short time prior to his election by the 
vestry as afternoon lecturer at Christ Church. 
He left three sons and a daughter ; the eldest 
son, John, was born in Threadneedle Street, 
and 'baptized in the church near thereto 
adjoyning, where the minister of the place, 
somewhat thick of hearing, by a mistake, 
instead of Jonathan, nam'd him John.' He 
became rector of Etchingham, Sussex. Brad- 
shaw published : 1. ' A Triall of Subscription 
by way of a Preface unto certaine Subscribers, 
and reasons for lesse rigour against Nonsub- 
scribers,' 1599, 8vo (anon.) 2. ' Humble 
Motives for Association to maintain religion 
established,' 1601, 8vo (anon.) 3. * A con- 
sideration of Certaine Positions Archiepisco- 
pall,' 1604, 12mo (anon. ; the positions at- 
tacked are four, viz. that religion needs 
ceremonies, that they are lawful when their 
doctrine is lawful, that the doctrine of the 
Anglican ceremonies is part of the gospel, 
that nonconformists are schismatics). 4. 'A 
shorte Treatise of the Crosse in Baptisme 
. . . the use of the crosse in baptisme is not 
indifferent, but utterly unlawful,' 1604, 8vo 
(anon.) 5. ' A Treatise of Divine Worship, 
tending to prove that the Ceremonies imposed 
. . . are in their use unlawful,' 1604, 8vo 
(anon.); reprinted 1703, 8vo, with preface 
and postscript, signed D. M. (Daniel Mayo), 
t in defence of a book entitled " Thomas 
against Bennet" ' [see BENTSTET, THOMAS, D.D.] 
6. ' A Proposition concerning kneeling in the 
very act of receiving, . . .' 1605, 8vo (anon.) 

7. 'A Treatise of the nature and use of things 
indifferent, tending to prove that the Ceremo- 
nies in present controversie . . . are neither 
in nature or use indifferent,' 1605, 8vo (anon. ; 
a note prefixed implies that it was circu- 
lated anonymously in manuscript and pub- 
lished by an admirer of the unknown author). 

8. l Twelve generall arguments, proving that 
the Ceremonies imposed ... are unlawful!, 
and therefore that the Ministers of the Gos- 
pell, for the . . . omission of them in church 
service are most unjustly charg'd of dis- 
loyaltie to his Majestie,' 1605, 12mo (anon.) 

9. l English Puritanisme : containeing the 
maine opinions of the rigidest sort of those 
that are called Puritanes . . .' 1605, 8vo 
(anon. ; reprinted as if by Ames, 1641, 4to : 
the article AMES, WILLIAM, speaks of this as 
the earliest edition of the original ; it was 
translated into Latin for foreign use, with 
preface by William Ames, D.D., and title 
' Puritanismus Anglicanus,' 1610, 8vo. Neal 
gives an abstract of this work and No. 10, 
carefully done ; but the main fault to be found 
with Neal is his introduction of the phrase 
* liberty of conscience, which implies rather 
more than Bradshaw expressly contends for). 

10. ' A Protestation of the King's Supremacie : 
made in the name of the afflicted Ministers, 
. . .' 1605, 8vo (anon. ; it was in explanation 
of the statement of the church's attitude 
towards civil governors, contained in the fore- 
going, and concludes with an earnest plea 
for permission openly and peacefully to exer- 
cise worship and ecclesiastical discipline, sub- 
ject only to the laws of the civil authority). 

11. 'A myld and just Defence of certeyne 
Arguments ... in behalf of the silenced 
Ministers, against Mr. G. Powell's Answer to 
them,' 1606, 4to (anon. ; Gabriel Powell was 
chaplain to Vaughan, bishop of London, and 
had published against toleration (1605). In 
reply to 9, Powell wrote 'A Consideration of 
the deprived and silenced Ministers' Argu- 
ments, . . .' 1606, 4to ; and in reply to 
Bradshaw's defence he wrote 'A Rejoinder 
to the mild Defence, justifying the Con- 
sideration,' &c., 1606, 4to). 12. < The Un- 
reasonablenesse of the Separation made appa- 
rant, by an Examination of Mr. Johnson's 
pretended Reasons,published in 1608, whereby 
heelaboureth to justifie his Schisme from the 
Church Assemblies of England,' Dort, 1614, 
4to. (Francis Johnson's < Certayne Reasons 
and Arguments ' was written while Johnson 
was at one with Ainsworth in advocating a 
separatist congregational polity. John Canne, 
who subsequently became pastor of Johnson's 
Amsterdam church, and who lived to dis- 
tinguish himself as a fifth-monarchy man, 
published ' A Necessitie of Separation from 




the Church of England, proved from the 
Nonconformists' Principles/ 1634, 4to, in 
reply to Bradshaw and Alexander Leighton, 
M.D., a non-separatist presbyterian. Gataker 
then brought out a supplemented edition 
of Bradshaw's book, 'The Unreasonable- 
ness of the Separation made apparent, in 
Answere to Mr. Francis Johnson ; together 
with a Defence of the said Answere against the 
Keply of Mr. John Canne,' 1640, 4to.) 13. 
1 A Treatise of Justification,' 1615, 8vo ; trans- 
lated into Latin, 'Dissertatio de Justifica- 
tionis Doctrina/ Leyden, 1618, 12mo ; Oxford, 
1658, 8vo. (Gataker says that John Prideaux, 
D.D., a strong opponent of Arminianism, after- 
wards bishop of Worcester, expressed pleasure 
at meeting Bradshaw's son, l for the old ac- 
quaintance I had, not with your father, but 
with his book of justification.') 14. The 2nd 
edition of Cartwright's ' A Treatise of the 
Christian Religion, . . .' 1616, 4to, has an 
address ' to the Christian reader,' signed W.B. 
(Bradshaw). Probably posthumous was 15, 
*A Preparation to the receiving of Christ's 
Body and Bloud, . . .' 8th edit., 1627, 12mo. 
Certainly posthumous were 16, 'A Plaine 
and Pithie Exposition of the Second Epistle 
to the Thessalonians,' 1620, 4to (edited by 
Gataker). 17. 'A Marriage Feast/ 1620, 4to 
(edited by Gataker). 18. t An Exposition of 
the XC. Psalm, and a Sermon/ 1621, 4to. 
(The first of these seems to have been sepa- 
rately published as * A Meditation on Man s 
Mortality ; ' the other is the same as 14.) In ad- 
dition to the above, Brook gives the following, 
without dates : 19. ' A Treatise of Christian 
Reproof.' 20. < A Treatise of the Sin against 
the Holy Ghost/ 21. < A Twofold Catechism.' 
22. < An Answer to Mr. G. Powell ' (probably 
the same as 11, but possibly a reply to one of 
Powell's earlier tracts). 23. ' A Defence of 
the Baptism of Infants.' A collection of 
Bradshaw's tracts was published with the 
title, ' Several Treatises of Worship & Cere- 
monies/ printed for Cambridge and Oxford, 
1660, 4to ; it contains Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 
(which is dated 1604) and 10. From a fly- 
leaf at the end, it seems to have been printed 
in Aug. 1660 by J. Rothwell, at the Foun- 
tain, in Goldsmith's Row, Cheapside. All 
the tracts, except 3 and 4, have separate title- 
pages, though the paging runs on, and are 
sometimes quoted as distinct issues. 

[Life, by Gataker, in Clark's Martyrology, 
1677 ; Neal'sHist. of the Puritans, Dublin, 1759, 
i. 381, 418; ii. 62 seq., 106; Brook's Lives of 
the Puritans, 1813, ii. 212, 264 seq., 376 seq.; 
Brook's Memoirs of Cart-wright, 1845, pp. 434, 
462 ; Fisher's Companion and Key to the Hist, 
of England, 1832, pp. 728, 747; Rose, Biog. 
Diet. 1857, v. 1; Cooper's Athense Cantab. 1861, 

1 ii. 236, 405 seq. ; Barclay's Inner Life of the Eel. 

: Societies of the Commonwealth, 1876, pp. 67, 99, 
101 ; Wallace's Antitrin. Biog. 1850, ii. 534 seq., 

, iii. 565 seq. ; extracts from Stapenhill Registers, 
per Rev. E. Warbreck. The list of Bradshaw's 

; tracts has been compiled by help of the libraries 

; of the Brit. Museum and Dr. Williams, the Cata- 
logue of the Advocates' Library, Edin., and a 
private collection. Further search would pro- 
bably bring others to light. They are not easy 
to find, owing to their anonymity.] A. G-. 

hack writer, was originally educated for the 
church. The eccentric bookseller John Dun- 
I ton, from whom our only knowledge of him 
is derived, has left a flattering account of his 
abilities. ' His genius was quite above the 
common order, and his style was incompa- 
rably fine. . . . He wrote for me the parable of 
the magpies, and many thousands of them 
sold.' Bradshaw lived in poverty and debt, 
and under the additional burden of a melan- 
i choly temperament. Dunton's last experi- 
ence of him was in connection with a 
j literary project for which he furnished cer- 
i tain material equipments ; possessed of these, 
I Bradshaw disappeared. The passage in which 
' Dunton records this transaction has all his 
j characteristic nai'vetS, though it may be 
j doubted whether, if Bradshaw lived to read 
| it, he derived much satisfaction from the 
j plenary dispensation which was granted him 
' If Mr. Bradshaw be yet alive, I here de- 
: clare to the world and to him that I freely 
forgive him what he owes both in money and 
books if he will only be so kind as to make 
! me a visit.' Dunton believed Bradshaw to 
be the author of the ' Turkish Spy/ but this 
conjecture is negatived by counter claims 
supported on better authority (Gent. Mag. 
Ivi. pt. i. p. 33 : NICHOLS, Literary Anecdotes, 
. i. 413 ; D'ISEAELI, Curiosities of Literature, 
5th ed. ii. 134). 

[Life and Errors of John Dunton, 1705, ed. 
! 1818.] J. M. S. 


1 1732), bishop of Bristol, was born at Aberga- 
1 venny in Monmouthshire on 10 April 1671 
(CooPER, Biographical Dictionary}. He was 
educated at New College, Oxford, taking his 
degree of B. A. 14 April 1697, and proceeding 
M. A. 14 Jan. 1700. He was ordained deacon 
4 June 1699, and priest 26 May 1700, and 
was senior preacher of the university in 
1711- On 5 Nov. 1714, when he was chap- 
lain to Dr. Charles Trimnell, bishop of Nor- 
wich, he published a sermon preached in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. After having been for some 
time incumbent of Fawley, near Wantage, 
in Berkshire, he was appointed on 21 March 
1717 to a prebend of Canterbury, which he 



Brad street 

resigned on his appointment as canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 24 May 1723. He received 
the degree of D.D. on 27 Aug. of the same 
year ; and on 29 Aug. 1724 was nominated 
to both the deanery of Christ Church and 
the bishopric of Bristol, receiving the two 

Preferments in commendam. He published in 
730 a ' Sermon preached before the House of 
Lords on 30 Jan. 1729-30.' Bradshaw died at 
Bath on 16 Dec. 1732. He was buried in 
Bristol Cathedral, where a plain flat stone, 
about two feet beyond the bishop's stall to- 
wards the chancel, was inscribed : ' William 
Bradshaw, D.D., Bishop of Bristol and Dean 
of Christ Church, in Oxford ; died 16 Dec. 
1732, aged 62 ' (Rawlinson MSS. 4to, i. 267). 
It is also erroneously said that Bradshaw was 
buried at Bath (LE NEVE, Fasti) ; ' ibique 
jacet sepultus' (GODWIN, De Prcesulibus). 
Bradshaw left 300/. to Christ Church. 

[Catalogue of Oxford Graduates, 1851 ; Cooper's 
Biog. Diet. 1873; History of the University of 
Oxford, 1814; Godwin, De Prsesulibus, ed. Ri- 
chardson, 1743; Le Neve's Fasti, 1854; Daily 
Journal, 19 Dec. 1732 ; Britton's Abbey and Ca- 
thedral Church of Bristol, 1830 ; Pryce's Popular 
History of Bristol, 1861.] A. H. G. 

fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, was the 
author of ' Canticvm Evangelicvm Summam 
Sacri Evangelii contin ens,' London, 1635, 8vo, 
dedicated to Sir Arthur Mainwaring, knight. 
This book is unnoticed by all bibliographers. 

[Notes and Queries, 3rd series, vi, 143.] 

T. C. 

BRADSTKEET, ANNE (1612-1672), 
poetess, was born in 1612, probably at North- 
ampton, and was the second of the six children 
of Thomas Dudley, by Dorothy, his first wife 
( Works in Prose and Verse, Introd. p. xiv). 
Her father was once page to Lord Compton, 
then, steward to the Earl of Lincoln, and 
finally governor of Massachusetts. In 1628 
Anne had the small-pox. Later in the same 
year she married Simon Bradstreet, son of 
Simon Bradstreet, a nonconformist minister 
in Lincolnshire : the younger Simon had been 
eight years in the Earl of Lincoln's family 
under Anne's father (Magnolia Christi Ame- 
ricana, bk. ii. p. 19), and in 1628 was steward 
to the Countess of Warwick (Worlds, &c., 
Introd. p. xxii). On 29 March 1630 the Brad- 
streets, the Dudleys, and Arbella (the Earl of 
Lincoln's sister, wife of Isaac Johnson), with 
many others, set sail for New England, and 
on 12 June landed at Salem, whence they re- 
moved at once to Charlestown (ib. p. xxxi). 
In 1632 Anne had a ' fit of sickness,' and in 
1634 the party settled at Ipswich, Massa- 
chusetts (Works, Introd. p. xxxv). Simon 

Bradstreet formed a plantation at Merrimac 
in 1638, the year in which Anne wrote her 
' Elogie on Sir Philip Sidney.' At Ipswich, 
on Monday, 28 Sept. 1640, she at last be- 
came a mother, and she could eventually 
write, 23 June 1659 (Poems, p. 245) : 

I had eight birds hatcht in one nest, 
Four cocks there were and hens the rest. 

In 1641 Anne Bradstreet wrote a poem in 
honour of Du Bartas, and she shortly made a 
collection of her poems. The chief of them 
was entitled ' The Four Elements ; ' she dedi- 
cated the volume in verse to her father, under 
date 20 March 1642. These poems were dis- 
tributed in manuscript, and gained her great 
celebrity. Cotton Mather spoke of her as ' a 
crown to her father ' (Magnalia, bk. ii. p. 17), 
whilst Griswold calls her ' the most celebrated 
poet of her time in America' (Poets and Poetry 
of America, p. 92). The book was at last pub- 
lished, in London, 1650, under the title ' The 
Tenth Muse,' . . . ' By a Gentlewoman in 
Those Parts (i.e. New England).' In 1643, on 
27 Dec., Dorothy Dudley, Anne Bradstreet's 
mother, died (Poems, p. 220) ; in 1644 her 
father married again (having three more 
children by this marriage). In 1653 Anne's 
father died. In 1661 she had a further long 
and serious illness, and her husband, then 
secretary to the colony, had to proceed to 
England on state business. Anne wrote 
1 Poetical Epistles' to him. By 3 Sept. 
1662 he had returned. Anne Bradstreet 
wrote poems in 1665 and 1669 commemo- 
rating the deaths of three grandchildren ; and 
on 31 Aug. 1669 Anne wrote her last poem, 

As weary pilgrim, now at rest. 
After this Anne Bradstreet's health failed 
entirely, and she died of consumption, at An- 
dover, Massachusetts, 16 Sept. 1672, aged 60. 
It is not known where Anne Bradstreet 
was buried. Her poems, says Cotton Mather, 
are a ' monument for her memory beyond the 
stateliest marbles ; ' and these ' Poems ' were 
issued in a second edition, printed by John 
Foster, at Boston (America), in 1678. Anne 
Bradstreet also left a small manuscript book 
of ' Meditations,' designed for the use of her 
children. Extracts from this book appeared, 
with the title of ' The Puritan Mother,' in the 
American ' Congregational Visitor,' 1844 ; in 
Dr. Budington's * History of the First Church 
in Charlestown,' and in many American 
newspapers to which they were contributed 
by Mr. Dean Dudley ( Works, Introd. p. x). In 
1867 Mr. John Harvard Ellis edited Anne 
Bradstreet's ' Works,' and there these ' Medi- 
tations,' together with all that Anne Brad- 
street ever wrote, are given in their entirety. 

Brad street 



Simon Bradstreet (a portrait of whom is 
in the senate chamber of the State House, 
Massachusetts) married again after Anne's 
death, and became governor of Massachusetts 
in 1679, not dying till 1697, aged 94. Amongst 
Anne's descendants are Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, Dana, and Dr. Channing, besides 
many other of the best-known Americans. 

[Works of Anne Bradstreet, in Prose and 
Verse (ed. Ellis), U.S. A. 1867; Anne Bradstreet's 
Poems, 2nd ed. Boston, 1678 ; Mather's Magnalia 
Christi Americana, bk. ii. pp. 17, 19.] J. H. 

BRADSTREET, DUDLEY (1711-1763), 
adventurer, was born in 1711 in Tipperary, 
where his father had obtained considerable 
property under the Cromwellian grants, 
which, however, was much reduced by debts. 
Dudley, his youngest son, was left in his 
early years in charge of a foster father in 
Tipperary. While a youth he became a 
trooper, but soon quitted the army and traded 
unsuccessfully as a linen merchant, and sub- 
sequently as a brewer. For several years, in 
Ireland and England, Bradstreet led an er- 
ratic life, occupied mainly in pecuniary pro- 
jects. During the rising of 1745, Bradstreet 
was employed by government officials to act 
as a spy among suspected persons. He was 
also engaged and equipped by the Dukes of 
Newcastle and Cumberland to furnish them 
with information on the movements of Prince 
Charles Edward and his army. Bradstreet as- 
sumed the character of a devoted adherent to 
the Stuart cause, and, under the name of ' Cap- 
tain Oliver Williams,' obtained access to the 
prince and his council at Derby. There he 
acted successfully as a spy for the Duke of 
Cumberland, and, without being suspected 
by the Jacobites, continued on good terms 
with them, and took his leave as a friend 
when they commenced their return march to 
Scotland. Bradstrefct's notices of Prince 
Charles and his associates are graphic. He 
describes circumstantially the executions, in 
August 1746, of the Earl of Kilmarnock and 
Lord Balmerino, at which he states he was 
present. Although Bradstreet's services as 
a secret agent were admitted by the govern- 
ment officials, he was unable to obtain from 
them either money or a commission in the 
army, which he considered had been promised 
to him. He, however, succeeded in bringing 
his case under the notice of the king, from 
whom he consequently received the sum of 
one hundred and twenty pounds. Bradstreet 
subsequently subsisted for a time on the re- 
sults of schemes, his success in which he 
ascribed to the l superstition ' of the English 
people, and ' their credulity and faith in 
wondrous things.' The last of his devices 

at London appears to have been that styled 
the ' bottle conjurer,' which, with the assist- 
ance of several confederates, he carried out 
with great gains in January 1747-8. On his 
adventures in connection with the affair Brad- 
street wrote a play, in five acts, styled l The 
Magician, or the Bottle Conjurer,' which he 
states was revised for him by some of the 
best judges and actors in England, including 
Mrs. Woffington, who gave him ' the best 
advice she could about it.' This play was 
four times performed with great success at 
London, but on the fifth night, when Brad- 
street was to have taken the part of ' Spy,' 
the principal character, it was suppressed by 
the magistrates of Westminster. ' The Bottle 
Conjurer' was printed by Bradstreet with his 
' Life.' After other adventures, Bradstreet 
returned to Ireland, where he owned a small 
property in land. He attempted unsuccess- 
fully to carry on trade as a brewer in West- 
meath, and became involved in contests with 
officials of the excise. To raise funds, he 
printed an account of his life and adventures. 
The work is written with vivacity and de- 
scriptive power. Bradstreet died at Multi- 
farnham, Westmeath, in 1763. His brother, 
Simon Bradstreet, was called to the bar in 
Ireland in 1758, created a baronet in 1759, 
and died in 1762. Sir Samuel Bradstreet 
[q. v.], third baronet, was a younger brother 
of Sir Simon, the first baronet's son and 

[The Life and Uncommon Adventures of Cap- 
tain Dudley Bradstreet, 1755; Dublin Journal, 
1763; Memoirs of H. Grattan, 1839.] 

J. T. G. 


1836), poet, son of Robert Bradstreet, was 
born at Highana, Suffolk, in 1766, and edu- 
cated under the care of the Rev. T. Foster, 
rector of Halesworth in that county. On 
4 June 1782 he was admitted a pensioner of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, and he became 
a fellow-commoner of that society on 23 Jan. 
1786. The dates of his degrees are B.A. 
1786, M.A. 1789. Bradstreet was the pos- 
sessor of an estate at Bentley in Suffolk, 
with a mansion called Bentley Grove, which, 
it is believed, he inherited from his father. 
He resided for several years abroad, and 
witnessed many of the scenes of the French 
revolution, of which he was at one time an 
advocate. He married in France, but took 
advantage of the facility with which the 
marriage tie could there be dissolved, and on 
his return to England he married, in 1800, 
Miss Adham of Mason's Bridge, near Had- 
leigh, Suffolk, by whom he had a numerous 
family. For some time he lived at Higham 




Hall, Raydon, but removing thence, lie re- 
sided at various places, and at length died at 
Southampton on 13 May 1836. 

He was the author of ' The Sabine Farm, 
a poem : into which is interwoven a series 
of translations, chiefly descriptive of the 
Villa and Life of Horace, occasioned by an 
excursion from Rome to Licenza,' London, 
1810, 8vo. There are seven engraved plates 
in the work, and an appendix contains * Mis- 
cellaneous Odes from Horace.' 

[London Packet, 20-23 May 1836, p. 1, col. 1 ; 
Addit. MS. 19167, f. 237; Gent. Mag. ciii. (ii) 
420, N.S., vi. 108.] T. C.