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A. J. A. ... SIR A. J. ARBUTHNOT, K.C.S.I. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER. 

P. B.-A. ... P. BRUCE-AUSTIN, LL.D. 

W. E. A. A. W. E. A. AXON. 



G. V. B. . . G. VERB BENSON. 

G. T. B. . . Gr. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 


Gr. C. B. . . Gr. C. BOASE. 



J. T. B. . . . J. TAYLOR BROWN. 

E. C. B. . . E. C. BROWNE. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 

Gr. W. B. . . G. W. BURNETT. 


J. W. C. . . J. W. CLARK. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 


C. H. C. . . C. H. COOTE. 
W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 



L. F. . . 
C. H. F. 

F. B. Gr. 
E. Gr. . . 
J. W.-G. 
J. T. Gr. 
A. G-N. . 

G. G. . . 

A. Gr. . . 

A. H. G. 
E. E. G. 
W. A. G. 
N. G. . . 
J. A. H. 
E. H. . . 
T. F. H. 
W. H-H. 
J. H. 

E. H-T. . 
W. H. . . 

B. D. J. 
A. J. . . 

C. K. . . 
J. K. . . 
J. K. L. 
S. L. L. 
A. L. . 

. Louis FAGAN. 
. C. H. FIRTH. 
. J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 
. A. H. GRANT. 
. E. E. GRAVES. 

. S. L. LEE. 


List of Writers. 

A. M-L. . 

M. M. . 

W. M. . 

C. T. M. . 

J. M. . . . 

A. M. . . . 

C. M. . . . 

N. M.. . . 

H. F. M. . 

T. 0. . . . 

J. H. 0. . 
J. F. P. . 
K. L. P. . 
S. L.-P. . . 
E. K. . . . 
E. P. E. . 
J. M. E. . 
A. E. . . . 
C. J. E. . 
J. H. E. . 

. . Miss MACDONELL. 











. J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

. E. L. POOLE. 




. J. M. EIGG. 


. J. H. EOUND. 


S. J. A. S. . S. J. A. SALTER, F.E.S. 

J. M. S. . . J. M. SCOTT. 

B. C. S. . . . B. C. SKOTTOWE. 

G-. B. S. . . G-. BARNETT SMITH. 


H. M. S. . . H. M. STEPHENS. 


C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
J. H. T. . . J. H. THORPE. 

T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. Tour. 



M. G. W. . . THE EEV. M. G. WATKINS. 

F. W-T. . . . FRANCIS WATT. 

H. T. W. . . H. TRUEMAN WOOD. 






BROWN, CHARLES (d. 1753), commo- 
dore, entered the navy about 1693. Through 
the patronage of Sir George Byng, afterwards 
Lord Torrington, he was appointed captain of 
the Stromboli in 1709. He commanded the 
York in 1717, and the Advice in 1726 in the 
cruises up the Baltic. In 1727, during the 
siege of Gibraltar by the Spaniards, he com- 
manded the Oxford, and in 1731 the Buck- 
ingham in the Mediterranean. In 1738 he 
was appointed to command the Hampton 
Court, and was senior officer at this station 
until the arrival of Admiral Vernon in the 
following year. His opportunity arrived in 
1739, when, during the war with Spain, he 
served under Vernon in the attack on Porto- 
bello, in the isthmus of Darien. He led the 
squadron into Boca Chica, placing his vessel, 
the Hampton Court, alongside the strongest 
part of the fortifications. When the fortress 
surrendered, the Spanish governor presented 
his sword in token of submission. Brown 
very properly declined to receive it, saying 
he was but l second in command/ and took 
the governor in his boat to Admiral Vernon. 
But the Spaniard was obstinate, declaring 
that but for the insupportable fire of the com- 
modore he never would have yielded. There- 
upon Vernon, very handsomely turning to 
Brown, presented to him the sword, which 
is still in the possession of his descendants. 
In 1741 Brown was appointed to the office 
of commissioner of the navy at Chatham, a 
situation which he held with unblemished 
reputation until his death, 23 March 1753. 
His daughter, Lucy, became the wife of 
Admiral William Parry, commander-in-chief 
of the Leeward Islands ; and her daughter and 
namesake married Captain Locker, under 
whom Lord Nelson served in his early days, 
and who subsequently became lieutenant- 
governor of Greenwich Hospital. There is 


a portrait of Brown in the Painted Hall at 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. iv. 1 ; Beatson's Nav. 
and Mil. Memoirs, i. 49 ; E. H. Locker's Naval 
Memoirs, 1831 ; H. A. Locker's Naval Gallery of 
Greenwich Hospital, 1842.] A. L. 

(1787 P-1842 ?), writer on Shakespeare's son- 
nets and friend of Keats, went to St. Peters- 
burg at the age of eighteen to conduct the busi- 
ness of a Russia merchant started there by 
his eldest brother John. Working on very 
little capital, and hampered by political dis- 
turbances, the firm soon collapsed, and about 
1810, at the age of twenty-three, Brown re- 
turned to this country utterly ruined. For 
some years afterwards he struggled hard for a 
livelihood, but the death of another brother 
who had settled in Sumatra put him at length 
in the possession of a small competence, and 
he devoted himself to literary pursuits. In 
1814 he wrote a serio-comic opera on a Rus- 
sian subject, entitled 'Narensky, or the Road 
to Yaroslaf,' with music by Brahamand Reeve. 
It was acted at Drury Lane, under Arnold's 
management, for several nights from 11 Jan. 
1814, with Braham in the chief part (GENBST, 
viii.405). The libretto was published in 1814, 
but its literary quality is poor. Brown made 
the acquaintance of Keats and his brothers be- 
fore September 1817. At the time Brown was 
living at Wentworth Place, Hampstead, a 
double house part of which was in the occu- 
pation of Charles Wentworth Dilke, and 
Keats was living in Well Walk, near at hand. 
In July 1818 Brown and Keats made a tour 
together in the north of Scotland. Brown 
sent a number of amusing letters to Dilke 
describing the trip, some of which have been 
printed in Dilke's ' Papers of a Critic/ and in 
Buxton Forman's elaborate edition of Keats's 



works. A diary kept by Brown at the same 
time is unfortunately lost. On the return 
from Scotland in August, Brown induced 
Keats to * keep house ' with him at Went- 
worth Place, each paying his own expenses ; 
and there Brown introduced the poet to 
Fanny Brawne and her mother, who had 
hired Brown's rooms during his absence in 
the north, and had thus made his acquaint- 
ance. At Wentworth Place Keats wrote his 
play of 'Otho,' the plot of which he owed to 
Brown. In April 1819 Keats wrote some hu- 
morous Spenserian stanzas on Brown, which 
are printed in the various editions of the poet's 
works. In 1820 Keats left for Rome, with 
his health rapidly breaking. In 1822, shortly 
after Keats's death, Brown paid a long visit 
to Italy. He met Byron at Florence, and 
tried to induce him to take a just view of 
Keats's poetry and character. In 1824 Kirk- 
patrick introduced Brown to Landor, and the 
introduction led to a long intimacy. For 
many years Brown was a frequent visitor at 
Lander's villa at Fiesole. In April 1835 
Brown returned to England and lived near 
Plymouth. He busied himself in public lec- 
turing on Keats and Shakespeare, and in 
writing for newspapers and reviews. Landor 
visited him in 1837. In the middle of 1841 
he suddenly left England for New Zealand, 
in the hope partly of improving his fortune 
and partly of recovering his health, which 
had been failing for some time. He obtained 
a government grant of land at Taranaky, New 
Plymouth, but he was so dissatisfied with its 
quality and situation that he resolved to re- 
turn to England. He wrote from New Zea- 
land to Joseph Severn, under date 22 Jan. 
1842, announcing this resolve, but he appa- 
rently died before beginning the journey. In 
this, his last extant letter, he mentions that 
he was engaged on a ' Handbook of New 

A number of Keats's manuscripts came 
into Brown's possession on the poet's 'death, 
and Brown determined to publish some of 
them with a memoir by himself. He printed 
a few of Keats's unpublished works in the 
' New Monthly Magazine,' but a short bio- 
graphical sketch which he wrote of his friend 
was refused by the booksellers and by the 
' Morning Chronicle.' On leaving England, 
Brown made overall his manuscripts relating 
to Keats to R. Monckton Milnes, afterwards 
Lord Houghton, whom he first met at Fiesole 
in April 1833. In his well-known book on 
Keats, Lord Houghton made a free use of 
Brown's papers. 

Brown's best-known literary work is his 
1 Shakespeare's Autobiographical Poems, be- 
ing his Sonnets clearly developed, with his 

Character drawn chiefly from his Works/ 
London, 1838. Brown dedicated the book to 
Landor, with whom he had first discussed 
its subject at Florence in 1828. It is Brown's 
endeavour to show that Shakespeare's sonnets 
conceal a fairly complete autobiography of 
the poet, and although Boaden had suggested 
a similar theory in 1812, Brown was the first 
to treat it with adequate fulness or know- 
ledge. Brown often illustrates Shakespeare 
from Italian literature, with which he was 
widely acquainted. Lord Houghton says 
that Keats learned from Brown all that he 
knew of Ariosto, and that Brown scarcely let 
a day pass in Italy without translating from 
the Italian. His l complete and admirable 
Version of the first five Cantos of Boiardo's 
"Orlando Innamorato"' (HOUGHTON) was 
unfortunately never published. Of Brown's 
contributions to periodical literature, his pa- 
pers in the ' Liberal,' signed Carlone and Car- 
lucci, are very good reading. One called ' Les 
Charmettes and Rousseau ' has been wrongly 
assigned to Charles Lamb, and another, ' On 
Shakespeare's Fools,' equally wrongly to 
Charles Cowden Clarke. A story in the ' Ex- 
aminer ' for 1823 entitled ' La Bella Tabac- 
caia ' is also by Brown. Various references 
to Brown in the letters of his literary friends, 
among whom Hazlitt and Leigh Hunt are 
to be included, prove that he was at all 
times excellent company. Leigh Hunt is 
believed to refer to him in the ( Tatler ' for 
14 Jan. 1831, as ' one of the most genuine 
wits now living.' Joseph Severn, Keats's 
friend, maintained a fairly regular corre- 
spondence with Brown for more than twenty 
years (1820-42), and many of Brown's letters 
to Severn and other literary friends will be 
printed in the ' Severn Memoirs,' edited by 
Mr. William Sharp. 

[Information from the late W. Dilke of Chi- 
chester, from the late Lord Houghton, from Mr. 
William Sharp, and from Mr. Sidney Colvin ; 
Buxton Forman's complete edition of Keats's 
works (1883) ; Dilke's Papers of a Critic ; Lord 
Houghton's Life of Keats (1848) ; Forster's Life 
of Landor; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vii. 388, 
6th spr. viii. 392. Mr. W. Dilke was of opinion 
that Brown was never known by the second 
name of Armitage until the publication of Lord 
Houghton's Life of Keats. On the title-page of 
the opera Narensky (1814) Brown is called 
Mr. Charles Brown, but on that of his work on 
Shakespeare's sonnets he is called Charles Armi- 
tage Brown. His eldest brother's name was John 
Armitage Brown. A son Charles or Car lino, 
who settled with him in New Zealand, survived 
him.] S. L. L. 

1884), Telugu scholar, son of the Rev. David 



Brown [q. v.], provost of the college of Cal- 
cutta, entered the Madras Civil Service in 
1817, was employed for many years in revenue, 
magisterial, and judicial duties in the districts 
of Cuddapah and Masulipatam, where, in ad- 
dition to a knowledge of Persian, Sanskrit, 
and Hindustani, he acquired that mastery over 
the hitherto neglected language and literature 
of Telugu. which entitles him to a foremost 
place among South Indian scholars. He was 
appointed in 1838 Persian translator, and in 
1846 postmaster-general and Telugu trans- 
lator to the Madras government, and became 
at the same time a member of the council of 
education, a government director of the 
Madras bank, and curator of manuscripts in 
the college library. He resigned in 1855, after 
thirty-eight years of service. His principal 

and Hindustani. On his return to England 
he accepted the post of professor of Telugu 
at University College. Among his titles to 
fame must be reckoned the fine collection of 
manuscripts, including over 2,000 Sanskrit 
and Telugu works, which he presented in 
1845 to the Madras Literary Society, and 
which now form part of the government 
college library. 

[Autobiography (privately printed), with pre- 
face by D. F. Carmichael; Athenaeum, No. 2984; 
Times, 20 Dec. 1884; Ann. BeportKoyal Asiatic 
Society, 1885.] S. L.-P. 

BROWN, DAVID (Jl. 1795), landscape- 
painter, commenced his artistic career by 
painting signboards. At the age of thirty- 
five he placed himself for some time under 

works were his valuable dictionaries of Telu- George Morland, and made copies of that ar- 
gu-English (Madras, 1852), English-Telugu i tist's pictures, which are stated to have been 

(Madras, 1852), and 'Mixed Dialects and 
Foreign Words used in Telugu ' (Madras, 
1854), published at the expense of the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge. His 
other writings included : l Prosody of the 
Telugu and Sanskrit Languages explained,' 
Madras, 1827 ; ' Vemana's Verses, Moral, 
Keligious, and Satirical,' Madras, 1829 ; ' Fa- 
miliar Analysis of Sanskrit Prosody,' London, 
1837 ; ' New Telugu Version of St. Luke/ 
1838 ; ' Grammar of the Telugu Language,' 
Madras, 1840, 2nd ed. 1857 ; ' Cyclic Tables 
of Hindu and Mahomedan Chronology of the 
Telugu andKanadi Countries,' Madras, 1850 ; 
1 English and Hindustani Phraseology/ Cal- 
cutta, 1850; 'Ephemeris, showing the cor- 
responding Dates according to the English, 
Telugu, Malayalam, and Mahomedan Calen- 
dars, 1751-1850 ;' 'Telugu Reader: a Series 
of Letters, Private and on Business, and 
Revenue Matters, with English Translation/ 
Madras, 1852; 'Dialogues in Telugu and 
English/ 2nd ed. Madras, 1853; ' Vakyavali; 
or, Exercises in Idioms, English and Telugu/ 
Madras, 1852 ; ' Zillah Dictionary in the Ro- 
man Character/ Madras, 1852 ; ' The Wars 
of the Rajahs/ Madras, 1853; 'Popular 
Telugu Tales/ 1855; 'A Titular Memory/ 
London, 1861 ; ' Carnatic Chronology, the 
Hindu and Mahomedan Methods of reckon- 
ing Time, explained with Symbols and His- 
toric Records/ London, 1863 ; ' Sanskrit 
Prosody and Numerical Symbols explained/ 
London (printed), 1869. He also edited 
'Three Treatises on Mirasi Rights/ &c. ; 
translated from Mahratta the lives of Haidar 
Ali and Tippoo ; and printed in 1866 an auto- 
biography for private circulation. He was a 
frequent contributor to the ' Madras Journal 
of Literature and Science.' Some of his 
works were translated into Tamil, Canarese, 

since frequently sold as originals. Being un- 
able to endure the excesses of his master, he 
left the metropolis and obtained employment 
in the country as a drawing-master. The 
dates of his birth and death are unknown, but 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy ten land- 
scapes between 1792 and 1797. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878/1 


, DAVID (1763-1812), Bengal 
chaplain and founder of the Calcutta Bible 
Society, was born in Yorkshire, and was edu- 
cated first under private tuition at Scarbo- 
rough, and afterwards at a grammar school 
at Hull under the Rev. Joseph Milner [q. v.], 
author of the ' History of the Church/ and 
at Magdalene College, Cambridge. Having 
taken holy orders and been appointed to a 
chaplaincy in Bengal, Brown reached Cal- 
cutta in 1786, and was immediately placed 
in charge of an extensive orphanage in that 
city, being at the same time appointed chap- 
lain to the brigade at Fort William. In ad- 
dition to these duties Brown took charge of 
the mission church. In 1 794 he was appointed 
presidency chaplain, in which office he is said 
to have commanded in an unusual degree the 
respect and esteem of the English at Calcutta. 
Among his most intimate friends were Henry 
Marty n, Claudius Buchanan, and Thomas 
Thomason, all of whom were successively re- 
ceived in his house on their first arrival in 
India, and regarded him as their chief guide 
and counsellor. To the cause of Christian 
missions he devoted himself with untiring 
zeal, labouring in it himself and affording 
generous aid to missionaries, both of the church 
of England and of other denominations. 

Brown's health failing in 1 8 1 2,he embarked, 
for the benefit of sea air, in a vessel bound 




for Madras, which was wrecked on the voyage 
down the Bay of Bengal. The passengers and 
crew were rescued by another vessel and taken 
back to Calcutta, where Brown died on 14 June 
1812. Charles Philip Brown [q. v.] was his 


[Bengal Obituary ; Memoir of Rev. Claudius 
Buchanan, D.D., by Rev. Hugh Pearson, London, 
1819; Memoir of Rev. Thomas Thomason, by 
Rev. Thomas Sargent, 1833.] A. J. A. 

BROWN, GEORGE (d. 1628), an Eng- 
lish Benedictine monk, who in religion as- 
sumed the Christian name of Gregory, is 
believed to have been the translator, from 
the Italian, of the 'Life of St. Mary Magdalen 
de' Pazzi,' 1619. It is dedicated to Lady 
Mary Percy, abbess of the English convent 
of St. Benet at Brussels. Brown died at 
Celle, near Paris, on 21 Oct. 1628. 

[Oliver's Hist, of the Catholic Religion in 
Cornwall, 508 ; Weldon's Chronological Notes 
(1881), 158, Append. 6.] T. C. 

BROWN, GEORGE (1650-1730), arith- 
metician, was born in 1650, and was ap- 
pointed minister of the parish of Kilmaurs, in 
the presbytery of Irvine and county of Ayr, 
about 1680 (Scorr, Fasti, ii. pt. i. p. 178), 
having been ' translated from Stranraer ' (ibid. 
p. 384). 'About 1700 he was frequently 
charged for exercising discipline and marrying 
without proclamation' (ibid. p. 178). 'He in- 
vented an instrument called Rotula Arithme- 
tica, to teach those of very ordinary capacity 
who can but read figures to add, subtract, mul- 
tiply, and divide, on which the privy council, 
13 Dec. 1698, recommended the lords of the 
treasury " to give a reasonable allowance to 
be ane encouragement to him " ' (ibid. p. 384). 
In explanation of this instrument he published 
1 Rotula Arithmetica, with an Account there- 
of,' 12mo, Edinburgh, 1700, and in the same 
year produced 'A Specie Book serving at 
one View to turn any pure Number of any 
Pieces of Silver, current in this Kingdom, 
into Pounds Scots or Sterling,' 12mo, Edin- 
burgh, 1700. He next published ' A Com- 
pendious, but a Compleat System of Decimal 
Arithmetick, containing more Exact Rules for 
ordering Infinites than any hitherto extant,' 
4to, Edinburgh, 1701, which he dedicated to 
John Spotiswood, Baron of Spotiswood, Advo- 
cate ; ' on the title-page he described himself 
as ' minister of Killmarice.' His last work 
was ' Arithmetica Infinita ; or the Accurate 
Accomptant's Best Companion, contriv'd and 
calculated by the Reverend George Brown, 
A.M., and printed for the Author,' sq. 12mo, 
Edinburgh, 1718. This work, which was com- 
mended by Dr. Keill, F.R.S., Savilian profes- 

sor of astronomy at Oxford, was published by 
subscription. Brown died in 1730. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Sinclair's New Statistical 
Account of Scotland, 1845 ; Scott's Fasti Ecclesise 
Scoticanae, 1868.] A. H. G. 

BROWN, SIR GEORGE (1790-1865), 
general, third son of George Brown, provost 
of Elgin, was born at Linkwood, near Elgin, 
on 3 July 1790. He was educated at the 
Elgin academy, and showed an inclination 
to enter the army. His uncle, Colonel John 
Brown, procured him a commission, and he 
was gazetted an ensign in the 43rd regiment 
on 23 Jan. 1806. He joined his regiment 
in Sicily, and was promoted lieutenant on 
18 Sept. 1806, and served in the expedition 
to Copenhagen in 1807, at the battle of Vi- 
meiro, and in the retreat upon Corunna under 
Sir John Moore. In 1809 the 43rd was bri- 
gaded with the 52nd and 95th, and formed 
part of the famous light brigade. Brown was 
present in all its actions until in June 1811 
he was promoted captain into the 3rd gar- 
rison battalion, and obtained leave to join the 
staff college at Great Marlow. Brown ex- 
changed into the 85th regiment in July 1812, 
which in August 1813 was sent to the Penin- 
sula, and formed one of the regiments in the 
unattached brigade under the command of 
Major-general Lord Aylmer. The brigade was 
engaged in the battles of the Nivelle and the 
Nive, in which Brown so greatly distinguished 
himself that he was promoted major on 26 May 
1814. The 85th was then sent to ioin the 
expedition under General Ross in America, 
and at the battle of Bladensburg Brown was 
wounded so severely that his life was despaired 
of, and for his gallant conduct there he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel on 26 Sept. 1814. 

So far Brown had had a brilliant military 
career. He was now selected for various staff 
appointments at home and abroad, and while 
serving as assistant quartermaster-general at 
Malta in 1826 he married a Miss Macdonell, 
third daughter of Hugh Macdonell. In 1828 
Lord Hill, the commander-in-chief, appointed 
him deputy assistant adjutant-general at head- 
quarters. At the Horse Guards he remained 
in various staff appointments for more than 
twenty-five years, and in such capacities he 
rose to the highest ranks in the army without 
seeing any further service. In 1831 he was 
promoted colonel and made a K.H., and some 
years afterwards was appointed deputy adju- 
tant-general at the Horse Guards. In 1841 
he was promoted major-general, and in 1850 
he was appointed adjutant-general at the 
Horse Guards by the Duke of Wellington ; 
he was promoted lieutenant-general in 1851 ; 
and, in recognition of his long official services, 



lie was made a K.C.B. in April 1852. Soon 
after Lord Hardinge had succeeded Welling- 
ton as commander-in-chief Brown resigned 
his post at the Horse Guards in December 
1853. His resignation was almost certainly 
caused by the reforms introduced into the 
administration of the army by Lord Har- 
dinge, but it has been hinted that it was 
partly due to the interference of the prince 
consort with the details of military business. 
In 1854 Brown was selected for a command 
in the army intended for the East, and soon 
showed that his long official life had made him 
something of a martinet. He was the first ot 
the general officers to reach Turkey, and his 
policy of 'pipe-claying, close-shaving, and 
tight-stocking ' was strongly condemned by 
the ' Times ' correspondent. Though he kept 
his men under close discipline, he was endeared 
to them by his kindness when the cholera 
broke out at Varna. He took command of the 
light division, and on landing in the Crimea 
in advance of his soldiers was nearly taken 
prisoner by a Russian outpost. At the battle 
of the Alma his division was in the heat of 
the battle, and his horse was shot down under 
him while he was cheering on the 23rd Welsh 
fusiliers to the attack on the Russian centre. 
After the allied army took up its position be- 
fore Sebastopol, the light division was posted 
on the Victoria Ridge, and so did not bear 
the brunt of the Russian attack on 5 Nov. 
Brown was soon on the field, and seems to 
have led the opportune attack of the French 
Zouaves, who recaptured the three guns of 
Boothby's demi-battery, which the Russians 
had just taken, and in doing so he was shot 
through the left arm and wounded in the chest 
(KINGLAZE, Invasion of the Crimea, v. 325). 
He refused to go home on account of his 
wounds, and assisted Lord Raglan, to whom 
he was by seniority second in command, 
through the winter, and in May 1855 he com- 
manded the English contingent to the Sea of 
Azoff, which took Kertch and Yenikale. On 
28 June 1855, however, the day on which 
Lord Raglan died, he was invalided home by 
a medical board, and the imputation that he 
was jealous of Sir James Simpson is therefore 
unfounded (see Surgeon Watkins's letter to 
the ' Times ' on 5 Sept. 1865). He was made 
a G.C.B. in July 1855 and promoted general 
in September 1855, and was appointed colonel 
of the 1st battalion of the rifle brigade. On 
the conclusion of the war he was also made a 
knight grand cross of the Legion of Honour 
and a knight of the Medjidie. In 1860 he 
was appointed commander-in-chief in Ireland 
and sworn of the privy council there, and in 
1863 he became colonel of the 32nd regiment 
and colonel-in-chief of the rifle brigade. In 

April 1865 he resigned his command, and on 
27 Aug. he died at his brother's house of Link- 
wood, near Elgin, the house in which he was 

[Obituary notice in Times, 29 Aug. 1865; bio- 
graphy in .Nolan's Crimea (1855), and in Eyan's 
Our Heroes in the Crimea ; but, for the part he 
played there and a real account of his actions, 
see Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea and Dr. 
Eussell's letters to the Times.] H. M. S. 


(1786-1856), catholic prelate, born 13 Jan. 
1786, was educated at St. Cuthbert's College, 
Ushaw, where he became vice-president and 
professor of theology. Afterwards he was 
missioner at Lancaster. On the partition of 
the northern district he was appointed vicar- 
apostolic of the Lancashire district by Pope 
Gregory XVI, and was consecrated at Rome 
on 24 Aug. 1840 with the title of bishop of 
Tloa 'in partibus infidelium.' On the re- 
storation of the hierarchy by Pius IX in 1850 
he was translated to the newly erected see of 
Liverpool, in which town he died on 25 Jan. 

[Catholic Directory (1885), 59, 159; Weekly 
Eegister, 2 Feb. 1856.] T. C. 

BROWN, GILBERT (d. 1612), Scotch 
catholic divine, was descended from the 
ancient family of Carsluith, in the parish of 
Kirkmabreck. He entered the Cistercian 
order, and was the last abbot of Sweetheart, 
or New Abbey, in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, about seven miles from Dumfries. 
In that capacity he sat in parliament, 17 Aug. 
1560, whilst the confession of faith was 
approved. He was, however, an active op- 
ponent of the Reformation. In 1578 he was 
complained of as being zealous in instructing 
the family of Lord Herries ; and in the fol- 
lowing year he was accused before the gene- 
ral assembly of enticing people within the 
bounds of 'papistrie.' Brown laboured so 
zealously for the catholic cause in Glasgow, 
in Paisley, and in Galloway, that in 1588 
the general assembly complained of his ' busy- 
ness.' Lord Herries then expelled the pres- 
byterian ministers from Dumfries. As all 
endeavours to stop the catholic reaction 
proved unavailing, the general assembly, in 
1594, petitioned for Brown's apprehension 
by the guard. At this period he entered into 
a written controversy with John Welsche, 
minister of Ayr, and composed ' Ane Answere 
to ane certaine libell or writing, sent by Mr. 
John Welsche, to ane Catholicke, as ane 
Answer to ane Objection of the Romane 
Kirk, whereby they go about to deface the 
veritie of that onely true religion whilk we 




professe.' This elicited from Welsche 'A 
Reply against Mr. Gilbert Browne, priest,' 
Edinburgh, 1602, 4to, afterwards reprinted 
under the title of ' Popery anatomized.' At 
the time Welsche published this reply Dum- 
fries l had become the seat of excommuni- 
cated papists and Jesuits : ' and the abbot is 
described as the 'famous excommunicat, 
foirfaultit, and perverting papist, named Mr. 
Gilbert Browne, Abbot of New Abbey, quho 
evir since the reformatioun of religioune had 
conteinit in ignorance and idolatrie allmost 
the haill south-west partis of Scotland, and 
had been continowallie occupyit in practise- 
ing of heresy.' At length Abbot Brown 
was captured near New Abbey in August 
1605. The country people rose in arms to 
rescue him, but were overpowered by Lord 
Cranstoun and his guardsmen. Brown was 
first conveyed to Blackness castle, and thence 
transferred to the castle of Edinburgh, 
' where he was interteaned upon the kings 
expences till his departure out of the coun- 
trie' (CALDERWOOD, Historic of the Kirk 
of Scotland, vi. 295). Eventually he was 
banished, and he died at Paris on 14 May 

[Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Calder- 
wood's Hist, of the Kirk of Scotland (Wodrow 
Soc.), v. 39, 416, vi. 295, 367, 576, 764 ; Gordon's 
Catholic Church in Scotland, 526; Keith's Cat. 
of Scottish Bishops (1824), 425 ; McCrie's Life 
of Melville, ii. 208 ; Murray's Lit. Hist, of Gal- 
loway, 56-8, 121-3.] T. C. 

BROWN, IGNATIUS (1630-1679), Irish 
writer, was born in the county of Water- 
ford in 1630, but educated in Spain. In his 
twenty-first year he was admitted into the 
society of Jesuits at Compostella. After 
teaching belles-lettres for some time in Cas- 
tile, he was sent on a mission into his own 
country, whence removing into France, he 
became rector, in 1676, of the newly founded 
Irish seminary at Poitiers. Having been 
appointed confessor to the Queen of Spain, 
he died at Valladolid in 1679, during a 
journey to Madrid. He was the author of 
'The Unerring and Unerrable Church, in 
Answer to a Sermon of Andrew Sail, preached 
at Christ Church, Dublin, in July 1674' 
(dedicated in ironical terms to the Earl of 
Essex), 1675, and < An Unerrable Church or 
None. Being a Rejoinder to " The Unerring 
and Unerrable Church," against Dr. Andrew 
Sail's Reply, entitled "The Catholic and 
Apostolic Church of England'" (dedicated 
to the Duke of Ormonde), 1678. He is also 
the reputed author of a treatise, ' Pax Vobis.' 

[Ware's Works (Harris), ii. 186-7.] 

T. F. H. 

BROWN, JAMES (1709-1788), traveller 
and scholar, was son of James Brown, M.D., 
of Kelso in Roxburghshire, where he was 
born on 23 May 1709. He received his edu- 
cation at Westminster School, 'where he 
was well instructed in the Latin and Greek 
classics,' notwithstanding that he must have 
left school at the early age of thirteen, as in 
the year 1722 he went with his father to 
Constantinople. During the three years of 
his stay in the East on this occasion, the 
boy, ' having a great natural aptitude for the 
learning of languages, acquired a competent 
knowledge of Turkish, vulgar Greek, and 
Italian.' In 1725 he returned home, and 
'made himself master of the Spanish lan- 
guage.' About the year 1732 he conceived 
for the first time (it has been said) the idea 
of a ' Directory of the Principal Traders in 
London.' A ' Directory ' upon a similar plan 
had, however, been already published in Lon- 
don as early as 1677. After having been at 
some pains to lay the foundation of it, he gave 
it to Henry Kent, printer, in Finch Lane, Corn- 
hill, who made a fortune by the publication. In 
1741 he attempted to carry out a more ambi- 
tious project, namely, to establish a trade with 
Persia via Russia. Having entered into an 
agreement for the purpose with twenty-four 
of the principal merchants of London, mem- 
bers of the Russia Company, he sailed for 
Riga on Michaelmas day 1741, ' passed 
through Russia, down the Volga to Astra- 
chan, and sailed along the Caspian Sea to 
Reshd in Persia, where he established a 
factory, in which he continued near four 
years.' While there he was the bearer of a 
letter from George II to Nadir Shah. Dis- 
satisfied with his employers, and impressed 
with the dangers to which the factory was 
exposed from the unsettled nature of the 
Persian government, he resigned his post, 
and reached London on Christmas day 1746. 

The following year the factory at Reshd 
was plundered, and a final period put to the 
Persia trade. His old aptitude for languages 
enabled him during his four years' stay at 
Reshd to acquire such proficiency in Persian 
that on his return he compiled ' a copious 
Persian Dictionary and Grammar,' which, 
however, was never published. Lysons states 
that Brown was also the author of a trans- 
lation of two orations of Isocrates, published 
anonymously. He died of a paralytic stroke 
on 30 Nov. 1788, at his house in Stoke New- 
ington, where he had resided since 1734, and 
was buried in the parish church of St. Mary, 
where there is a tomb erected to his memory 
(LYSONS, iii. 290). 

[Gent. Mag. Iviii. pt. ii. p. 1128; Lyson.s's 
Environs of London, iii. 301-2.] G. V. B. 



BROWN, JAMES, D.D. (1812-1881), 
catholic bishop, was born on 11 Jan. 1812, at 
Wolverhampton. There, in the old chapel 
of SS. Peter and Paul in North Street, he 
often, when a child, served the mass of Bishop 
Milner. That prelate, taking a great liking 
to the boy, and observing in his little acolyte 
the signs of a vocation to the ecclesiastical 
state, sent him, in 1820, to Sedgeley Park 
Academy. There he remained until June 
1826, and in the following August was placed 
by Bishop Milner, as a clerical student, at 
St. Mary's College, Old Oscott, now known 
as Maryvale. He completed his studies as 
an Oscotian with marked success, being 
chiefly distinguished by his proficiency in 
classics. On 18 Feb. 1837 he was ordained 

Eriest by Bishop Walsh. For several years 
e remained at Old and (from 1838 onwards) 
at New Oscott as professor and prefect of 
studies until, in January 1844, he returned 
to Sedgeley Park as vice-president, being af- 
terwards, before the year was out, promoted 
to the rank of president. Six years later 
on he was still holding that position when, 
in the summer of 1851, he was advanced 
to the episcopate. He was consecrated, on 
27 July 1851, the first bishop of Shrews- 
bury in St. George's Cathedral, Southwark, 
by Cardinal Wiseman. Immediately after 
his consecration Brown went to reside at 
Salter's Hall, near Newport in Shropshire. 
His diocese comprised within it not only 
Shropshire and Cheshire, but also the six 
counties of North Wales. Such was the 
energy of his episcopal governance during 
the thirty years that elapsed between 1851 
and 1881 that within that interval he had 
increased the number of priests there from 
thirty-three to ninety-five, of churches from 
thirty to eighty-eight, of monasteries from one 
to six, and of convents from one to eleven. 
And whereas in 1851 he had found not one 
poor school at all he left flourishing, near St. 
Asaph, the fine establishment of St. Beuno's 
College, and scattered all over his diocese 
sixty-three poor schools, at which 9,273 
children were in daily attendance. Much 
of this wonderful increase was directly trace- 
able to his untiring energy and his remark- 
able power of organisation. In September 
1868 Brown left Newport and went to re- 
side at Shrewsbury. On 8 Dec. 1869 he 
took part in the inauguration of the (Ecu- 
menical Council of the Vatican. On 17 April 
1870 he was named by Pius IX one of the 
bishops assistant at the pontifical throne. 
Some weeks before the declaration of the 
dogma of papal infallibility, on 18 July 
1870, Brown was released from his attend- 
ance upon it on the score of ill-health, and 

received permission to return homewards. 
On 27 July 1876 the silver jubilee of his 
episcopate was celebrated in the cathedral 
church at Shrewsbury, memorial gifts to the 
value of 1,600^. being presented to him on 
, the occasion. His health breaking down 
three years afterwards he obtained the assist- 
| ance of an auxiliary, Edmund Knight, who 
| was consecrated on 25 July 1879. Brown 
! then went to live at St. Mary's Grange, 
I a sequestered spot near Shrewsbury, then 
! recently purchased by him as the site of his 
[ proposed seminary. His active episcopal 
I work had thenceforth to be abandoned. But 
to the close of his life he sedulously watched 
over the general administration of his diocese. 
Death came to him at last very gently, in his 
seventieth year, on 14 Oct. 1881, at St. Mary's 
Grange. He had been present at four pro- 
vincial councils (those of 1852, 1855, 1859, 
and 1873) held during the time of his episco- 
pate. He presided at his own first diocesan 
synod in December 1853, at St. Alban's, 

[Morris's Silver Jubilee Sermon at St. Beuno's, 
1876; Men of the Time, 10th ed. 153 ; Brady's 
Episcopal Succession, 445 ; Times, 15 Oct. 1881 ; 
Tablet, 22 Oct. 1881, 674; Weekly Register, 
22 Oct. 1881, 484-5.] C. K. 

(1785-1843), miscellaneous writer, was called 
| to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1816, and 
practised on the northern circuit and at the 
Lancashire quarter sessions. He was ap- 
pointed judge of the Oldham court of re- 
quests in 1840, and died in November 1843. 
Brown married a sister of the Rev. Thomas 
Raffles, D.D., and was father of the Rev. 
James Baldwin Brown [q. v.] His portrait 
has been engraved. 

He was the author of: 1. ' An Historical 
Account of the Laws enacted against the 
Catholics, both in England and Ireland,' Lon- 
don, 1813, 8vo. 2. ' An Historical Inquiry 
into the ancient Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction 
of the Crown,' 1815, 8vo. 3. f Poems ' in 
conjunction with the Rev. Thomas Raffles 
and Jeremiah Holmes Wiflen, 1815, 8vo. 
4. ' Memoirs of the Public and Private Life 
of John Howard, the Philanthropist,' London, 
1818, 4to, 2nd edit. 1823, 8vo ; dedicated to 
William Wilberforce, M.P. 

[T. S. Raines's Memoirs of Dr. Thomas Baffles, 
374 ; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors (1816), 41 ; 
Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 42 ; Gent. 
Mag. N.S. xxi. 93.] T. C. 


younger (1820-1884), nonconformist divine, 
was the eldest son of Dr. James Baldwin 
Brown the elder [q. v.] Born in 1820 at 




King's Bench Walk, Temple, he was sent 
to the London University, and at the age 
of eighteen was amongst the recipients of 
the first degrees granted by that body. 
It was intended that Brown should follow 
his father's profession, and he kept his terms 
at the Inner Temple for that purpose. He 
afterwards determined to devote himself to 
the ministry, and became a student at High- 
bury College. In 1843 he accepted the 
charge of a congregational church at Derby, 
and three years later he removed to London, 
becoming minister of Claylands Chapel, 
Clapham Road. During his ministry here 
Brown was distinguished for the breadth of 
his theological views. When the * Rivulet ' 
controversy arose in connection with the 
Rev. T. T. Lynch and his writings, Brown 
protested with other nonconformists against 
the severe attacks made upon Mr. Lynch. He 
also threw himself into the controversy on 
the doctrine of annihilation, and published a 
collection of discourses on the subject in op- 
position to the view held by the great body 
of the congregationalists. In 1870 Brown 
removed with the greater part of his congre- 
gation to a new and more commodious church 
in Brixton Road, with which his name was 
associated until his death. 

In 1878 Brown was elected to the chair of 
the Congregational Union of England and 
Wales. During his tenure of office he once 
more showed himself to be a fearless contro- 
versialist. A conference was held at Leices- 
ter, in which an effort was made by certain 
congregational ministers holding unorthodox 
views to fraternise with Unitarians and other 
advanced thinkers. Brown warmly supported 
the arguments of the advanced school, but the 
majority at the conference carried a resolution 
reaffirming the tenets expressed in the Con- 
gregational Declaration of Faith and Order. 
The enforced separation from friends on this 
and other occasions affected Brown keenly. 

Brown was a voluminous writer, as well 
as an active preacher and lecturer. In 1869 
he published a volume entitled ' The Divine 
Mysteries.' He was also the author of: 

1. * Studies of First Principles' (1848, &c.) 

2. l Competition, the Labour Market, and 
Christianity ' (1851). 3. < The Divine Life 
in Man ' (1860). 4. < Aids to the Develop- 
ment of the Divine Life ' (1862). 5. l The 
Home Life ' (1866). 6. 'The Christian Policy 
of Life ' (1870). 7. ' Buying and Selling and 
getting Gain ' (1871). 8. 'First Principles of 
Ecclesiastical Truth' (1871). 9. < Our Morals 
and Manners' (1872). 10. 'The Higher 
Life ' (1874). 11. < The Battle and Burden 
of Life ' (1875). 12. < The Doctrine of An- 
nihilation in the Light of the Gospel of Love ' 

(1875) ; and a number of other works, sermons,, 
and contributions to periodical literature. 

For some time before his death Brown had! 
been in feeble health, and laid aside from 
active work. He was contemplating a visit 
to Switzerland when he was struck down 
with apoplexy, and died on 23 June 1884. 
Brown's reputation as a preacher extended 
far beyond his own denomination. In all 
public movements he took a great interest, 
and at such crises as the Lancashire cotton 
famine, the American civil war, the Franco- 
German war, &c., his sympathies and aid 
went out towards the distressed and the suf- 
fering. He was of a sensitive and active 
temperament, taking a great delight in work. 
His discourses were marked by much fervour, 
intellectual force, and literary finish. He 
deeply lamented the exclusiveness of the es- 
tablished church, and was a warm advocate 
of the claims of dissenters at the universi- 
ties. One of the reforms for which he had 
long striven was accomplished when Brown 
lived to see his own son take a first-class at 
Oxford after a brilliant university career. 
In culture and versatility of parts he wa& 
himself justly distinguished. 

[Times, 24 June 1884; Christian World, 
26 June 1884 ; Brixton Free Press, 28 June 1 884 ; 
In Memoriam, James Baldwin Brown, by Mrs. 
Elizabeth Baldwin Brown (1884).] G-. B. S. 

BROWN, JOHN (d. 1532), sergeant 
painter to King Henry VIII, was appointed 
to the office by patent, dated 11 Jan. 1512, 
with a salary of 2d. a day, and a livery of four 
ells of woollen cloth at 6s. 8d. a yard at 
Christmas. On 12 March 1527 this salary 
was raised to 10/. a year. The work on which 
he was employed was not of a very elevated 
character. It consisted, as far as can be dis- 
covered from the records of the king's expenses, 
of painting flags for the Great Harry and other 
ships, surcoats and trappings for tournaments, 
banners and standards for the army sent into 
France under the Duke of Suffolk in 1523, 
escutcheons of arms, gilding the roofs and 
other decorations for a banqueting house at 
Greenwich, and for the castle at Guisnes in 
preparation for the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 
The only existing picture which was ever sup- 
posed to have been by his hand is a portrait 
on panel in the British Museum. It was pre- 
sented by Sir Thomas Mantel of Dover, and 
now bears the number 93. It is inscribed 
' Maria Princeps An Doni. 1531. I. B.' ' In 
some respects,' says Sir Frederick Madden, 
1 it resembles the Burghley picture, but its 
authenticity has been questioned.' The fact 
is that the face does not bear the least resem- 
blance to the features of Queen Mary, and the 



costume is some thirty years or so later than 
the date given in the inscription, which can- 
not be contemporary with the painting. In 
1522 Brown was elected alderman of London, 
but resigned the office in 1525, before he had 
served either as sheriff or mayor. During 
the last years of his life he sat on the com- 
mission of the peace in Essex and Middle- 
sex. He was a member of the companies 
of Haberdashers and Painter Stainers, and 
shortly before his death (24 Sept. 1532) con- 
veyed to the latter company his house in 
Little Trinity Lane, which has from that time 
continued to be the hall of the company. The 
house had been in his possession since 1504. 
His portrait, dated 1504, is preserved in the 
hall, but is apparently a copy painted after 
the great fire of 1666, when the hall was 
burnt. His arms were ' argent on a fess 
counter embattled, sable, 3 escallops of the 
first ; on a canton, quarterly gules and azure, 
a leopard's head caboshed, or : ' crest, ' on a 
wreath argent and sable, a crane's head azure, 
beaked gules, winged or, the neck and wings 
each charged with an escallop counterchanged, 
and holding in its beak an oak branch fructed 
proper.' This resembles the coat borne by 
the Brownes of Kent. In the British Mu- 
seum is a book (Lansdowne MS. 858) which 
once belonged to him, and has his signature. 
It is the account of banners, &c., furnished to 
the Duke of Suffolk, and contains the shields 
of arms in colours of sovereigns of Europe and 
English nobles. By his will, dated 17 Sept. 
1532, and proved 2 Dec. of the same year, it 
appears that he left a widow Anne and two 
daughters, Elizabeth and Isabel. By a pre- 
vious wife, Alice, he probably had two daugh- 
ters, married to Richard Colard and Edmund 
Lee. A house at Kingsland and lands in 
Hackney, and another house called 'The Swan 
on the Hope ' in the Strand, are mentioned, 
and certain books of arms and badges be- 
queathed to his servant. He was buried in 
St. Vedast's, Foster Lane. 

[Calendar of State Papers of Hen. VIII, vols. 
i-v. ; Chronicle of Calais ; Madden's Expenses 
of Princess Mary, p. clix ; Stow's Survey of Lon- 
don, iii. 126 ; Walpole's Anecdotes, i. 64 ; Some 
Account of the Painters' Company, 1880, p. 14 ; 
Archseologia, xxxix. 23 ; Lansd. MS. 858.] 

C. T. M. 

BROWN, JOHN (1610? -1679), of 
Wamphray, church leader, was probably born 
at Kirkcudbright ; he graduated at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh 24 July 1630. He 
was probably not settled till 1655, although 
he comes first into notice in some highly 
complimentary references to him in Samuel 
Rutherford's letters in 1637. In the year 

1655 he was ordained minister of the parish 
of Wamphray in Annandale. For many 
years he seems to have been quietly engaged 
in his pastoral duties, in which he must have- 
been very efficient, for his name still lives 
in the district in affectionate remembrance. 
After the restoration he was not only com- 
pelled by the acts of parliament of 1662 to 
leave his charge, but he was one of a few 
ministers who were arrested and banished,, 
owing to the ability and earnestness with 
which they had opposed the arbitrary conduct 
of the king in the affairs of the church. On 
6 Nov. 1662 he was sentenced to be kept a 
close prisoner in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh,, 
his crime being that he had called some 
ministers ' false knaves ' for keeping synod 
with the archbishop. The state of the prison 
causing his health to break down, he was- 
banished 11 Dec. from the king's dominions r 
and ordered not to return on pain of death. 
He went to Holland. In 1676 Charles II 
urged the States-General to banish him from 
their country, a step which they refused to 
take. For a few years he was minister of the- 
Scotch church in Rotterdam, and shortly 
before his death, which occurred in 1679, 
he took part in the ordination of Richard 
Cameron [q. v.] He was the author of 
many learned and elaborate works, among 
which were ' Apologetical Relation of the 
Sufferings of Ministers of the Church of Scot- 
land since 1660,' 1665 ; ' Libri duo contra 
Woltzogenium et Velthusium,' 1670 ; ' De- 
Causa Dei adversus anti-Sabbatarios,' 2 vols. 
4to, 1674-76 ; l Quakerism the Pathway to- 
Paganism,' 1678 ; ' An Explanation of the- 
Epistle to the Romans,' 1679 ; ' The Life of 
Justification opened,' 1695. Other treatises 
were published between 1720 and 1792, and a 
manuscript history of the church is in the uni- 
versity library at Edinburgh. Of his treatise- 
on justification a writer says : 'It is by far our 
most thorough exposition and discussion of 
the doctrine it handles ; and it is all the more 
to be prized because of the particular bearing 
it has on the new views which Baxter and 
others had begun to propagate, and which in, 
some shape are ever returning among our- 
selves' (JAMES WALKEK, D.D., Carnwath,, 
The Theology and Theologians of Scotland). 

[Wodrow's History of the Sufferings of the 
Church of Scotland from the Eestoration to the 
Revolution ; Memoir prefixed to reprint of Apolo- 
getical Relation in the Presbyterian Armoury, 
vol. iii. Edin. 1846; Scott's Fasti, ii. 663.] 

W. G. B. 

BROWN, JOHN (1627P-1685), the 

f Christian carrier,' one of the most eminent 
names in the Scottish covenanting martyro- 




logy during the stormy period known as the 
' killing time ' before the revolution of 1688, 
was born about 1627. He lived in a desolate 
place called Priestfield or Priesthill, in the 
upland parish of Muirkirk in Kyle, Ayrshire, 
where he cultivated a small piece of ground 
and acted as a carrier. Wodrow describes 
him as ' of shining piety,' and one who had 
' great measures of solid digested knowledge, 
and had a singular talent of a most plain 
and affecting way of communicating his 
knowledge to others.' He had (according 
to Claverhouse's account) fought against the 
government at the battle of Both well Bridge 
(1679); he refused to 'hear the episcopal 
ministers,' he instructed the people in the 
principles of his church, and he was on in- 
timate terms with the leaders of the perse- 
cuted party. In 1682 Alexander Peden, one 
of the chief of these, united him in marriage 
to his second wife, Marion Weir (who figures 
prominently in Brown's death-scene), and 
on this occasion Peden, according to Walker, 
foretold the husband's early and violent end. 
' Keep linen by you for his winding-sheet,' 
he added. 

Early in the morning of 1 May 1685 
Brown and his nephew were at work in the 
fields cutting peat. There was a thick mist, 
out of which Graham of Claverhouse with his 
dragoons suddenly appeared and seized the 
two men. According to that commander's re- 
port, drawn up not many hours after the event, 
what followed was this : ' They had no arms 
about them, and denied they had any. But 
being asked if they would take the abjura- 
tion, the eldest of the two, called John Brown, 
refused it. Nor would he swear not to rise in 
arms against the king, but said he knew no 
king' (according to an act of the Scottish 
privy council, 22 Nov. 1684, such refusal was 
punishable with instant death, WODROW, 
book iii. ch. viii.) ' Upon which, and there 
being found bullets and match in his house, 
and treasonable papers, I caused shoot him 
dead, which he suffered very unconcernedly ' 
(Claverhouse to Queensberry, 3 May 1685, 
quoted in Life referred to below). Many 
additional details are given by the covenant- 
ing historians. Wodrow tells us that the sol- 
diers were so moved by the manner in which 
Brown prayed before his death that they 
refused to fire at him, and that Olaverhouse 
* was forced to turn executioner himself, and 
in a fret shot him with his own hand before 
his own door, his wife with a young infant 
standing by, and she very near the time of her 
delivery of another child.' Patrick Walker's 
account was drawn up from information after- 
wards supplied to him by ' the said Marion 
Weir, sitting upon her husband's grave.' It 

contains a striking conversation between the 
widow and Claverhouse, and an affecting 
picture of the lonely woman, after the dra- 
goons were gone, performing the last rites 
to her husband's body, covering it with her 
plaid and sitting down in the solitude to 
weep over him. According to Walker's ver- 
sion it was the dragoons, and not Claver- 
house himself, who performed the execution. 
A monument was afterwards erected to mark 
the spot where Brown was buried. 

[Wodrow's History of the Sufferings of the 
Church of Scotland, Edin. 1721-2; Walker's 
Life of Peden, &c. 1727, Glasgow, 1868. Napier's 
Life and Times of John Graham, Edin. 1862, 
contains Claverhouse's Report, together with a 
defence of his conduct ; Thomson's edition of A 
Cloud of Witnesses (1713), Edin. 1871, gives 
(pp. 574-5) an account of the monument, with 
copy of inscription ; a chap-book Life of Brown 
was published at Stirling in 1828.] F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN (d. 1736), chemist, was 
elected F.R.S. in i3% and during 1723- 
1725 served on its council. He discovered 
the presence of magnesia in sea-water (Phil. 
Trans, xxxii. 348), and the nature of Prussian 
blue (Phil. Trans, xxxiii. 17). 

H. F. M. 

BROWN, JOHN (1715-1766), author of 

the * Estimate,' was born at Rothbury, North- 
umberland, where his father was curate, 
5 Nov. 1715. His father, John Brown, a 
member of the Haddington family, had been 
ordained by a Scotch bishop, and at the end 
of 1715 became vicar of Wigton. The son 
was sent to the Wigton grammar school. On 
18 June 1732 he matriculated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and took his B. A. degree 
with distinction in 1735. He took orders, 
and was appointed minor canon and lecturer 
by the dean and chapter of Carlisle. He 
showed his loyalty by serving as a volunteer 
in 1745 at the siege of Carlisle, and his sound 
whig principles in two sermons afterwards 
published. He thus obtained the notice of 
Dr. Osbaldiston, dean of York, who in 1747 
became bishop of Carlisle, and who appointed 
Brown one of his chaplains. An accidental 
omission of the Athanasian Creed at the ap- 
pointed time brought a censure ; and Brown, 
after reading the creed out of due course, to 
show his orthodoxy, resigned his canonry. 
A poem upon ' Honour ' (first published in 
1743), and an ' Essay upon Satire,' appeared 
in the third volume of Dodsley's collection. 
The last was ' occasioned by the death of Mr. 
Pope,' and contains a high compliment to 
Pope's literary executor, Warburton. War- 
burton saw it l by accident ' some time after 
its publication (NICHOLS, Anecdotes, v. 587), 




and asked Dodsley to let him know the au- 
thor's name. He published it in the collected 
edition of Pope's works before the ' Essay on 
Man.' One line survives 

And coxcombs vanquish Berkeley by a grin. 

A poem on ' Liberty/ occasioned by the peace, 
appeared in 1749. Warburton introduced 
Brown to his father-in-law, the munificent 
Halph Allen. Whilst staying at Allen's 
Brown preached a sermon at Bath against 
gambling (22 April 1750). It was published 
with a statement that the public tables were 
suppressed soon after the sermon was preached. 
Warburton now advised Brown to carry out 
Pope's design of an epic poem, ' Brute ; ' and 
when this was begun suggested an essay upon 
Shaftesbury's * Characteristics.' The essay, 
completed under Warburton's eye, appeared 
in 1751. The second part of this essay is a 
remarkably clear statement of the utilitarian 
theory as afterwards expounded by Paley, 
is highly praised in J. S. Mill's essay u 
* Bentham.' The book provoked answers from 
C. Bulkley, a dissenting minister, and an 
anonymous author, and it reached a fifth 
edition in 1764. Brown helped Avison in the 
composition of his essay upon ' Musical Ex- 
pression,' published in the same year (1751). 
He showed his versatility by writing two 
tragedies, ' Barbarossa ' (produced at Drury 
Lane 17 Dec. 1754) and l Athelstane ' (pro- 
duced 27 Feb. 1756) (GENEST, iv. 406, 453). 
The first obtained a considerable success. 
Oarrick acted in both, and wrote the prologue 
and epilogue of the first and the epilogue to 
the second. A line in the first epilogue, ' Let 
the poor devil eat,' &c., gave great offence to 
Brown. Neither has much literary value, 
though ' Athelstane ' was preferred by the 
critics to its more successful rival. Warbur- 
ton, Allen, and Hurd lamented that a clergy- 
man should compromise his dignity by 'making 
connections with players.' Warburton, how- 
ever, had introduced Brown to his friend 
Charles Yorke, and through Yorke's influence 
his brother, Lord Hardwicke, presented 
Brown in 1756 to the living of Great Horkes- 
ley, near Colchester, worth 270/. a year or 
200J. clear (NICHOLS, Anecdotes, v. 286). 

In 1757 appeared Brown's most popular 
work, 'An Estimate of the Manners and 
Principles of the Times.' A seventh edition 
appeared in 1758, a ' very large impression ' 
of a second volume, and an ' explanatory de- 
fence ' in the same year. From the identity 
of the first and seventh editions of the ' Es- 
timate ' Hill Burton seems to doubt whether 
the success was genuine (Life of Hume, ii. 23). 
There is no doubt, however, of the impression 
made at the time. ' The inestimable estimate 

of Brown,' says Cowper (Table-Talk), 'rose 
like a paper kite and charmed the town.' It 
is a well-written version of the ordinary com- 
plaints of luxury and effeminacy which gained 
popularity from the contemporary fit of na- 
tional depression. Macaulay refers to it in 
this respect in his essay on ' Chatham.' In his 
first volume Brown describes Warburton as a 
Colossus who ' bestrides the world.' A cool- 
ness, however, seems to have arisen at this 
time between the two. Walpole ascribes it to 
Warburton's jealousy of his friend's success 
in a letter (to Montagu, 4 May 1578), from 
which it also appears that Brown was sup- 
posed to have been mad. Walpole says that 
he had only seen Brown once, and then { sing- 
ing the Stabat Mater with the Mingotti behind 
a harpsichord at a great concert at my Lady 
Carlisle's ' in ' last Passion week,' a perfor- 
mance which Walpole regards as inconsistent 
with Brown's denunciations of the opera. He 
also asserts that Brown was a profane curser 
and swearer, that he tried to bully Sir 
Charles Williams, who had answered the 
1 Estimate/ and was supposed to be about to 
divulge the swearing story, and that he in- 
sulted Dodsley, who acted as go-between. 

Brown was clearly an impracticable per- 
son. He had complimented Pitt and the first 
Lord Hardwicke in his ' Estimate,' and the 
failure to obtain patronage induced him, it 
is said, to resign the living received from 
Hardwicke's son. In 1760 Warburton says 
that Brown is ' rarely without a gloom and 
sullen insolence on his countenance,' sympto- 
matic perhaps of mental disorder (Letters of 
an Eminent Prelate, pp. 300, 381). Bishop 
Osbaldiston, however, presented him to the 
living of St. Nicholas in Newcastle in 1761. 
Brown published several other works, which 
had little success : an ' Additional Dialogue 
of the Dead, between Pericles and Cosmo, 
being a sequel to a dialogue of Lord Lyttel- 
ton's between Pericles and Cosmo,' 1760 
(intended to defend Pitt against the supposed 
insinuations of Lyttelton, who is said to have 
affronted Brown in society) (NICHOLS, Anec- 
dotes, ii. 339) ; the l Curse of Saul, a sacred 
ode ' (set to music and performed as an ora- 
torio), first prefixed to a 'Dissertation on 
the Rise, Union, and Power ... of Poetry 
and Music,' 1763 ; ' History of. the Rise and 
Progress of Poetry,' &c., 1764 (the substance 
of the last, omitting music) ; ' Twelve Ser- 
mons on various Subjects,' 1764 (including 
those at Carlisle and Bath already noticed) ; 
' Thoughts on Civil Liberty, Licentiousness, 
and Fashion,' 1765, a pamphlet with some re- 
marks on education noticed by Priestley in 
his essay on ' The Course of a Liberal Edu- 
cation ; ' a sermon ' On the Female Character 




and Education,' preached 16 May 1765, with 
an appendix upon education ; and l A Letter 
to the Rev. Dr. Lowth,' &c., 1766, an answer 
to an imputation made by Lowth in his con- 
troversy with Warburton upon Brown's sy- 
cophancy to Warburton. Brown advertised 
' Principles of Christian Legislation,' in eight 
books, the manuscript of which was left to 
some friends in his will for publication. It 
never appeared. In 1765 Brown engaged in a 
curious correspondence, from which long ex- 
tracts are given in the ' Biographia Britannica.' 
Dr. Dumaresq had been consulted about the 
provision of a school system in Russia. A lady 
mentioned Brown to him as an authority upon 
such questions. Dumaresq wrote to Brown, 
and received in reply a paper proposing vague 
and magnificent plans for the civilisation of 
Russia. The paper was laid before the em- 
press, who immediately proposed that Brown 
should visit St. Petersburg, and upon his con- 
sent forwarded 1,000/. to the Russian ambas- 
sador for the expenses of the journey. Brown 
made preparations to start,bought a post-chaise 
and other necessaries, and obtained leave of 
absence as one of the king's chaplains. His 
health had been shattered by gout and rheu- 
matism, and the remonstrances of his friends 
and physicians induced him to abandon the 
plan of exposing himself to a Russian climate. 
He accounted for his expenses to the Russian 
minister, and wrote a long letter (28 Aug. 
1766) to the empress, suggesting a scheme 
for sending young Russians to be educated 
abroad. He was apparently disappointed and 
vexed by the failure of the scheme. On 
23 Sept. 1766 he committed suicide by cut- 
ting his throat. A letter from a Mr. Gilpin 
of Carlisle says that he had been subject to 
fits of ' frenzy ' for above thirty years, and 
would have killed himself long before but for 
the care of friends. "Walpole's remark, given 
above, seems to imply that his partial de- 
rangement was generally known. 

[Davies's Life of Garrick, i. 206-15 ; Life by 
Kippis, with original materials in Biog. Brit. ; 
Letters of an Eminent Prelate ; Taylor's Kecords 
of my Life, i. 85 ; T. S. Watson's Life of War- 
burton.] L. S. 

BROWN, JOHN (1722-1787), of Had- 
dington, author of the ' Self-interpreting 
Bible,' was born in 1722 at Carpow, parish 
of Abernethy, Perthshire. His father was a 
poor weaver, who could only afford to send him 
to school for a few * quarters.' During one 
month of this time he studied Latin. Even 
at this early period he learnt eagerly, getting 
up by heart 'Vincent's and Flavel's Cate- 
chisms, and the Assembly's Larger Cate- 
chism.' When he was eleven his father died. 

His mother did not long survive. He him- 
self was brought so low by ' four fevers on 
end ' that his recovery was despaired of. 
During these trials the lad thought much on 
religious matters. After his recovery, he 
began to work as a herd-boy, and his contact 
with a wider and stranger world ' seemed to 
cause,' he tells us, 'not a little practical apo- 
stasy from all my former attainments. Even 
secret prayer was not always regularly per- 
formed, but I foolishly pleased myself by 
making up the number one day which had 
been deficient another.' A new attack of 
fever in 1741 reawakened his conscience, and 
on his recovery he ' was providentially deter- 
mined, during the noontide while the sheep 
which I herded rested themselves in the fold, 
to go and hear a sermon, at the distance of 
tAvo miles, running both to and from it.' 

During his life as a herd-boy he studied 
eagerly. He acquired a good knowledge of 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. His difficulties- 
in regard to the second of those were very 
great, for he could not for some time get a 
grammar. Notwithstanding this, he man- 
aged by the exercise of patient ingenuity to 
learn the letters on a method he afterwards 
described in detail (paper of 6 Aug. 1745 
quoted in Biography). He scraped together 
the price of a Greek testament, and a well- 
known story describes how he procured it. 
A companion agreed to take charge of his 
sheep for a little, so setting out at midnight, 
he reached St. Andrews, twenty-four miles 
distant, in the morning. The bookseller 
questioned the shepherd-boy, and one of the 
university professors happened to hear the 
conversation. { Boy,' said he, pointing to a 
passage, ' read this, and you shall have the 
book for nothing.' Brown read the passage, 
got the volume, and walked home again with 
it (Memoir, p. 29 ; Dr. John Brown's Letter 
to John Cairns, D.D., p. 73). 

The herd-boy and his learning now became 
the subject of talk in the place. Some ' se- 
ceding students ' accounted for the wonder 
by explaining that Brown had got his know- 
ledge from Satan. The hypothesis was widely 
accepted, nor was it till some years had passed 
away that he was able by his blameless and 
diligent life to 'live it down.' He after- 
wards took occasion to note that just when 
he was * licensed ' his ' primary calumniator' 
was excommunicated for immoral conduct. 

Brown now became a travelling ' chapman r 
or pedlar. When the rebellion of 1745 broke 
out, he joined the ranks of the government sol- 
diers. He served throughout the affair, being 
for some time one of the garrison of Edin- 
burgh Castle. When the war was over, he 
again took up his pack for a time, but soon 



found more congenial occupation as a school- 
master. He taught at Gairney Bridge, near 
Kinross, and at the Spittal, Penicuik, near 
Edinburgh. He began teaching in 1747, 
known as the year in which the ' breach ' 
occurred in the secession church, to which 
he belonged. Two bodies were formed, called 
the Burghers and the Anti-burghers, of whom 
the first maintained that it was, and the se- 
cond that it was not, lawful to take the 
burgess oath in the Scottish towns (for full 
account see McKEKEOw's History, chap, vi.) 
Brown adhered to the more liberal view, and 
now began to prepare himself for the minis- 
try. He studied theology and philosophy 
in connection with the Associate Burgher 
Synod under Ebenezer Erskine of Stirling, 
and James Fisher of Glasgow. In 1750 he was 
licensed to preach the gospel, and next year 
was unanimously called to the associate con- 
gregation of Haddington. His congregation 
was small and poor, but though afterwards 
invited to be pastor to the Dutch church, New 
York, he never left it. His ministerial duties 
were very hard, for during most of the year he 
delivered three sermons and a lecture every 
Sunday, whilst visiting and catechising occu- 
pied many a weekday. Still he found time 
to do much other work. In 1758 he pub- 
lished ' An Help for the Ignorant. Being an 
Essay towards an Easy Explication of the 
Westminster Confession of Faith and Cate- 
chism, composed for the young ones of his 
own congregation.' This ' easy explication ' 
was a volume of about 400 pages. In it he 
liad taken occasion to affirm that Christ's 
righteousness, though in itself infinitely 
valuable, is only imparted to believers ac- 
cording to their need, and not so as to render 
them infinitely righteous. In the following 
year 'A brief Dissertation concerning the 
Righteousness of Christ' expounded the same 
view. He had branded the doctrine he op- 
posed as 'antinomian and familistic blas- 
phemy,' but notwithstanding it was defended 
by various anti-burgher divines, who retorted 
on him the charges of ' heresy,' 'blasphemy,' 
and * familism,' accused him of ' gross and 
palpable misrepresentation,' lamented the 
4 poisonous fruit,' and dwelt on the ' glaring 
absurdity ' of his doctrine (see Doctrine of the 
Unity and Uniformity of Christ's Surety- 
righteousness viewed and vindicated, fyc. By 
Rev. JOHN DALZIEL (Edin. 1760), pp. 72-4). 
This bitter controversy did not prevent Brown 
from doing acts of practical kindness to 
various anti-burgher brethren. He continued 
to write diligently, and his name became 
more widely known. In 1768 he was ap- 
pointed professor in divinity to the Associate 
Burgher Synod. A great deal of work, but 

no salary, was attached to this office; the 
students studied under Brown at Hadding- 
ton during a session of nine weeks each year 
(McKEKROw's History, p. 787). In 1778 
his best-known work, the ' Self-interpreting 
Bible,' was published at Edinburgh in two vo- 
lumes. Its design, he explains in the preface, is 
to present the labours of the best commenta- 
tors ' in a manner that might best comport 
with the ability and leisure of the poorer and 
labouring part of mankind, and especially to 
render the oracles of God their own interpre- 
ter.' Thus the work contains history, chro- 
nology, geography, summaries, explanatory 
notes, and reflections in short, everything 
that the ordinary reader might be supposed 
to want. It is a library in one volume. 
Brown is always ready to give what he be- 
lieves to be the only possible explanation of 
each verse, and to draw its only possible prac- 
tical lesson therefrom. The style throughout 
is clear and vigorous. The book at once ac- 
quired a popularity which among a large class 
it has never lost. It has been read widely 
among the English-speaking nations, as well 
as in Wales and the Scottish highlands. How 
well known it and Brown's other works were 
in Scotland some characteristic lines of Burns 
bear witness : 

For now I'm grown sae cursed douce, 
I pray an' ponder butt the house ; 
My shins, my lane, I there sit roastin' 
Perusing Bunyan, Brown, an' Boston. 

(Letter to James Tait of Glenconner, 
lines 19-220 

His numerous other works strengthened his 
reputation, but none brought him any profit. 
One of his publishers, ' of his own good will,' 
presented him with about 40, but this he 
lent and lost to another. His salary from 
his church was for a long time only 40 per 
annum, and it was never more than 50/. 
Only a very small sum came to him from 
other sources. The stern self-denial that was 
a frequent feature in the early Scottish house- 
hold enabled him to bring up a large family, 
and meet all the calls of necessity and duty 
on this income. ' Notwithstanding my eager 
desire for books, I chose rather to want them, 
and much more other things, than run into 
debt,' he says. At least one-tenth of his 
small means was set apart for works of 

Throughout his life Brown was an eager stu- 
dent, and his attainments were considerable. 
He knew most of the European and several 
oriental languages. He was well read in 
history and divinity ; his acquaintance with 
the Bible was of the most minute description. 
Although he says that ' few plays or romances 
are safely read, as they tickle the imagination, 



and are apt to infect Avith their defilement/ so 
that ' even the most pure, as Young, Thomson, 
Addison, Richardson, bewitch the soul, and 
are apt to indispose for holy meditation and 
other religious exercises,' and although he 
eagerly opposed the relaxation of the penal 
statutes against Roman catholics, he was, in 
regard to many things, not at all a narrow- 
minded man. His creed was to him a mat- 
ter of such intense conviction, that nothing 
seemed allowable that tended in any way to 
oppose it or distract attention from its so- 
lemn doctrines. His preaching was earnest, 
simple, and direct, ' as if I had never read a 
book but the Bible.' His delivery was ' sing- 
song,' yet 'this in him was singularly melting 
to serious minds.' A widely current story 
affirms that David Hume heard him preach, 
and the ' sceptic ' was so impressed that he 
said, ' That old man speaks as if the Son of 
God stood at his elbow.' The anecdote, 
though undoubtedly mythical, shows the 
popular impression as to his preaching. 

Brown's labours finally ruined his health, 
which during the last years of his life was 
very poor. He continued his work to very 
near the end. He died at Haddington on 
19 June 1787, and was interred in the church- 
yard there, where there is a monument to his 
memory. He was twice married : first to 
Janet Thomson, Musselburgh, second to 
Violet Croumbie, Stenton, East Lothian. He 
had issue by both marriages. Several of his 
descendants have made themselves names in 
science and literature. Brown's other works 
have been divided into the following classes : 
1. Of the Holy Scriptures : ' A Dictionary 
of the Bible' (1769) ; ' A brief Concordance 
to the Holy Scriptures ' (1783) ; 'The Psalms 
of David in metre, with Notes' (1775). 
2. Of Scripture subjects : ' Sacred Tropo- 
logy ' (1768) ; ' An Evangelical and a Practi- 
cal View of the Types and Figures of the Old 
Testament Dispensation ' (1781) ; ' The Har- 
mony of Scripture Prophecies ' (1784). 3. Sys- 
tematic divinity : ' A compendious View of 
Natural and Revealed Religion ' ( 1782 ). 

4. Church history : l An Historical Account 
of the Rise and Progress of the Secession ' 
(1766) ; ' A general History of the Christian 
Church/ 2 vols. (1771); 'A compendious 
History of the British Churches' (1784). 

5. Biography : ' The Christian, the Student, 
and Pastor exemplified in the lives of nine 
eminent Ministers ' (1781) ; l The Young 
Christian, or the Pleasantness of Early Piety ' 
(1782) ; ' Practical Piety exemplified in the 
lives of thirteen eminent Christians ' (1783). 

6. Catechisms : ' Two short Catechisms, mu- 
tually connected' (1764); 'The Christian 
Journal' (1765). 7. Sermons: 'Religious 

Steadfastness recommended ' (1769) ; ' The- 
fearful Shame and Contempt of those professed 
Christians who neglect to raise up spiritual 
Children in Christ ' (1780) ; ' Necessity and 
Advantage of Prayer in choice of Pastors ' 
(1783). 8. Miscellaneous pamphlets: 'Let- 
ters on the Constitution, Government, and 
Discipline of the Christian Church ' (1767) ; 
'The Oracles of Christ and the Abomina- 
tion of Antichrist compared, a brief View of 
the Errors, Impieties, and Inhumanities of 
Popery' (1779); 'The Absurdity and Per- 
fidy of all authoritative Toleration of gross 
Heresy, Blasphemy, Idolatry, and Popery in 
Great Britain' (1780); 'The Re-exhibition 
of the Testimony vindicated, in opposition 
to the unfair account of it given by the Rev. 
Adam Gib ' (1780 Gib was a prominent 
anti-burgher clergyman who in this year had 
written 'An Account of the Burgher Re- 
exhibition of the Secession Testimony ') ; 
' Thoughts on the Travelling of the Mail on 
the Lord's Day' (1785 as to this, see Cox's 
Lit, of Sabbath Question, ii. 248, Edin. 1865). 
9. Posthumous works : ' Select Remains r 
(1789) ; ' Posthumous Works ' (1797) ; 'Apo- 
logy for the more frequent Administration 
of the Lord's Supper r (1804). 

[Various short lives of Brown are prefixed to 
several of his works ; the most authentic is the 
Memoir by his son, the Rev. William Brown, 
M.D., prefixed to an edition of the Select Re- 
mains (Edin. 1856). Some additional facts, 
together with an engraving from a family por- 
trait, are given in Cooke's edition of Brown's 
Bible (Glasgow, 1855). Some of the more 
authentic of the many anecdotes about Brown 
are collected in Dr. John Brown's Letter to the 
Rev. J. Cairns, D.D. (2nd ed. Edin. 1861) ; see 
also McKerrow's History of the Secession Church 
(Glasgow, 1841).] F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN, M.D. (1735-1788), 
founder of the Brunonian system of medi- 
cine, was born at a village in the parish of 
Buncle, Berwickshire. The father was pro- 
bably a day-labourer, and he followed the 
teaching of the seceders. He died early in 
life, and his widow married another seceder, 
a weaver by trade. When Brown was twelve 
or thirteen he gave offence to the seceding 
community by going once to public worship 
in the parish church of Dunse, and, refusing 
to be admonished, he formally left the sect. 
As he grew up he began to develop a philo- 
sophical turn, after the manner of Hume, 
and continued all his life to be somewhat 
free in his thinking. His quickness induced 
his father to send him, when five years old, 
to the parish school of Dunse, then under an 
unusually good Latinist named Cruickshank, 
and attended by boys generally Brown's 



superiors in position. Before lie was ten he 
was head of the school ; but he was then 
taken away and put to his stepfather's trade. 
This made him miserable, and Cruickshaiik 
soon persuaded the parents to let him have 
the boy back to continue his schooling free 
of charge. Brown made himself generally 
useful in the school, and at thirteen he be- 
came pupil-teacher. He had fought his way 
to respect in the school no less by his superior j 
intelligence than by his physical prowess, j 
He was a stout thickset boy, with a ruddy I 
face and a strong voice, and he was among 
the foremost at wrestling, boxing, and foot- 
ball. In a note to one of his books he says 
that he once, when fifteen, walked fifty miles 
in a day. His memory was prodigious ; one 
of his old pupils tells of him that on one 
occasion, after going through two pages of 
Cicero with the class, he closed the book 
and repeated the whole passage word for 
word. The country people found out that he 
was a prodigy, and it was popularly believed 
that ' he could raise the devil.' 

When he was eighteen his master found 
him a tutorship which proved irksome, and 
he went to Edinburgh to support himself by 
private tuition, and to attend the lectures in 
philosophy and divinity. After several years 
of Edinburgh he came back to Dunse, and 
resumed his place as usher in the school. A 
year after, "being then twenty-four, he went 
again to Edinburgh, and applied fruitlessly 
for a vacant mastership in the high school. 
He then bethought himself of the medical 
profession, and obtained leave from Monro, 
the professor of anatomy, to attend his lec- 
tures free. The other professors gave him 
a like privilege, and he continued to attend 
the medical classes for five years, supporting 
himself by giving private lessons in the 
classics during the first year or two, and 
afterwards by preparing medical students 
for their examinations. He was in great re- 
quest among the students for his convivial 
qualities. Meanwhile Cullen employed him 
as tutor to his children, and afterwards as 
a kind of assistant to himself, the precise 
nature of his duties being a matter of dispute 
between Cullen's apologists and Brown's 
biographers. In 1765 he married the daugh- 
ter of an Edinburgh citizen named Lamond, 
and set up a boarding-house for students. 
Cullen encouraged him to look forward to a 
professor's chair. He took an extra course 
of dissections for nearly a year, and studied 
botany in order to qualify himself for a new 
chair in the American colonies to which 
Cullen had the presentation. However he 
remained a private tutor in Edinburgh ; and 
it became clear after a few years that he 

was somehow not likely to gain academical 
promotion. His varied powers were well 
known, and there can be no question that 
his technical knowledge of medical subjects 
was adequate. Unfortunately he had an un- 
conscious art of putting his respectable col- 
leagues irretrievably in the wrong. He had 
some venial faults ; he became involved in 
debt, and had to compound with his credi- 
tors ; high feeding gave him the gout at 
five-and-thirty. His society was mostly 
composed of admirers, and he took no pains 
to make interest with men of influence. He 
put off taking his degree of M.D. for years 
after his medical course was done. When 
he sought to graduate in 1779, the Edinburgh 
degree had become impossible, and he got 
one at St. Andrews. At an earlier period 
he might as a matter of course have joined 
the society for publishing medical essays 
and observations (afterwards the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh), but when he resolved 
to seek admission in 1778, Cullen privately 
advised him not to try: but he tried and 
was rejected. The antagonism to him had 
probably grown up in connection with his 
influence as a private tutor. Brown had to 
the last a large following of young men in 
Edinburgh. In 1776 the students had made 
him president of their Royal Medical Society, 
and they made him president again four years 
later, when the rupture between him and the 

Erofessors was complete. His divergence 
*om the teaching of Cullen had probably 
found expression in his private prelections. 
He afterwards exposed Cullen's errors in his 
trenchant criticism, ' Observations on the 
Present System of Spasm as taught in the 
University of Edinburgh ' (1787). The first 
formal indication of Brown's emendations on 
the basis of Cullen is said to have been given 
in a draft of his future ' Elementa Medicinae,' 
which he had written with a view to a vacant 
chair, and had shown to his patron. Then 
came his formal ostracism in 1778, and Brown 
at once took up the cudgels for his own doc- 
trines. He began a course of public lectures 
on the practice of physic, in which the errors 
of all former systems of medicine, and of Cul- 
len's in particular, were very freely handled. 
In two years' time he had got ready a tempe- 
rate exposition of his doctrine, the celebrated 
'Elementa Medicinae' (1780). The purity of 
his Latin style at once insured for him an 
attentive reading abroad, especially in Italy 
and Germany ; and the practical good sense 
of much of Brown's teaching at length ob- 
tained for it an enormous vogue. That the 
great majority of diseases were expressions of 
debility and not of redundant strength, and 
that consequently the time-honoured practice 




of indiscriminate lowering was a mistake, 
was a doctrine that commended itself to the 
sensible and unprejudiced. The ' Elementa 
Medicinee ' consists of ' a first or reasoning 
part,' which proceeds upon a philosophical 
conception of life and diseased life more 
fundamental than any that had ever before 
been framed, a conception which reappears 
in Erasmus Darwin's ' Zoonomia,' and in 
Spencer's 'Principles of Biology ' (' Incitatio, 
potestatum incitantium operis effectus, idonea 
prosperam ; nimia aut deficiens, adversam 
valetudinem. Nulla alia corporis humani 
vivi, rite secusve valentis ; morborum nulla 
alia origo'). In the second part he takes 
concrete diseases in systematic order, after 
the nosological fashion of the time, and ap- 
plies his doctrine to each. The sound practical 
truth running through the Brunonian system, 
that many paradoxical manifestations of 
morbid action were really evidences of de- 
bility which called for supporting treatment, 
has in the end been quietly absorbed among 
the commonplaces of modern practice. But 
it was many years before the opposing pre- 
judices were overcome. So late as 1841 
Cullen's biographer appeals triumphantly to 
'the intelligent practitioner' on behalf of 
bloodletting in inflammatory fever (Life of 
Cullen, ii. 326). 

Brown carried on the war in Edinburgh 
six years longer against the professors and 
the general body of practitioners. Hardly 
any practice came to him, and the attendance 
at his public lectures fell away. The needs 
of a large family and his own improvidence 
brought him into serious money troubles, 
and he was at one time lodged in prison for 
debt. During his last year in Edinburgh he 
published 'A Short Account of the Old 
Method of Cure, and Outlines of the New 
Doctrine.' He also founded the masonic 
lodge of the Roman Eagle, for the encourage- 
ment of Latin scholarship, and attracted to 
it a number of the best known wits and 
scholars of the place. In 1786 he removed 
with his family to London, and established 
himself in a house in Golden Square. 

In his domestic circle he had his greatest 
happiness. He had taught his three eldest 
girls and his eldest boy Latin, and had carried 
them some little way in Greek. Among his 
papers there was found a considerable frag- 
ment of a Greek grammar, written in Latin 
with rules in hexameter verse, which he had 
designed primarily for the use of his children. 
His cheerfulness never failed him. In Lon- 
don men of letters came to see him, among 
others Dr. Samuel Parr; but not many 
patients. He gave in his house courses of 
lectures on medicine, which do not appear 

to have excited much interest among London 
practitioners or students, although his name 
was well known among them. An invitation 
to him from Frederick the Great to settle at 
the court of Berlin somehow miscarried or 
was rescinded. Debts again overtook him, 
and, through a piece of sharp practice, and 
perhaps treachery, he was obliged for a time 
to become an inmate of the king's bench 
prison. One means of extricating himself, 
closely pressed upon him by a group of greedy 
speculators, was to give his name to a pill 
or other nostrum ; but the temptation was 
resisted. He now wrote more than he 
had done. He made an English translation 
of his 'Elementa Medicinse,' writing it in 
twenty-one days. He contracted with a 
publisher for 500Z. to produce a treatise on 
the gout, and he had other literary pro- 
jects which would occupy him, he said, for 
ten years to come. His prospects were cer- 
tainly brightening; he had several families 
to attend and patients were coming in, when 
he was struck down by apoplexy, and died 
on 17 Oct. 1788. He was buried in the 
churchyard of St. James's, Piccadilly. A 
portrait of him was engraved by William 
Blake, from a miniature now in the possession 
of his grandson, Mr. Ford Madox Brown. 
He left four sons and four daughters, who 
were provided for by the generosity of his 
friends, Dr. Parr among the rest. His eldest 
son, William Cullen Brown, subsequently 
studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he 
was received with much kindness by Dr. 
Gregory and other professors, and admitted 
to the lectures without fee. He, like his 
father, became president of the Royal Me- 
dical Society, and brought out an edition 
of his father's works in 3 vols. 8vo, London, 
1804, with a biography of the author. A 
life by Dr. Beddoes of Bristol, with a por- 
trait, was prefixed to the second edition 
(2 vols. 1795) of Brown's own En^ i; sh ver- 
sion of his ' Elementa Medicinae.' S 3me 250 
pages of vol. ii. of Professor John Thomson's 
* Life of Cullen ' (1832-59) are devoted to a 
laboured examination of the Brunonian epi- 
sode and the Brunonian doctrine, from the 
Edinburgh professorial point of view. 

The fortunes of the Brunonian doctrine, 
after the death of its author, occupy a con- 
siderable space in the history of medicine. 
The ' Elementa ' was reprinted at Milan in 
1792, and at Hildburgshausen in 1794. The 
English version was republished at Philadel- 
phia in 1790 by Dr. Benjamin Rush ; a Ger- 
man translation of it was made at Frank- 
furt in 1795, and again in 1798 ; another at 
Copenhagen (three editions) ; there was also 
a French translation which was laid before 



the National Convention and honourably 
commended ; and one in Italian. A very per- 
sonal book, i An Inquiry into the State of 
Medicine on the Principles of Inductive Phi- 
losophy, &c./ ostensibly by Robert Jones, 
M.D. (Edin. 1782), but probably by Brown 
himself, was brought out in Italian by Joseph 
Frank, at Pavia, in 1795. An earlier ac- 
count of the doctrines had been published 
by Rasori, at Pavia, in 1792. An exposition 
of the system, with the complete Brimonian 
literature up to date, was published by Gir- 
tanner, at Gottingen, 2 vols. 1799. As late 
as 1802, the university of Gottingen was so 
convulsed by controversy on the merits of 
the Brimonian system, that contending fac- 
tions of students in enormous numbers, not 
unaided by professors, met in combat in the 
streets on two successive days, and had to 
be dispersed by a troop of Hanoverian horse. 
The stimulant treatment of Brown was for- 
mally recommended for adoption in the 
various forms of camp sickness in the Aus- 
trian army, although the rescript was re- 
called owing to professional opposition. Scott, 
in his ' Life of Napoleon/ narrates that the 
Brunonian system was often a subject of 
inquiry by the First Consul. For some years 
there were Brunonians and anti-Brunonians 
all over Europe and in the colonies ; until 
at length the sound and valuable part of 
Brown's therapeutic practice passed imper- 
ceptibly into the common stock of medical 
maxims. 'The History of the Brunonian 
System, and the Theory of Stimulation ' was 
once more written in German by Hirschel 
in 1846. 

[Lives by W. C. Brown and Dr. Beddoes as 
above; Haser's Greschichte der Medicin, ii. 750, 
3rd ed. Jena, 1881.] C. C. 

BROWN, JOHN (d. 1829), miscellaneous 
writer, was an inhabitant of Bolton in Lan- 
eashire,isphere during the early part of this 
century he was engaged in miscellaneous lite- 
rary work. There he projected his ' History 
of Great and Little Bolton/ of which seven- 
teen numbers were published (Manchester, 
1824-5). This work begins with an ' Ancient 
History of Lancashire/ which he maintains 
was peopled by colonists of a ' German or 
Gothic' origin, and frequent visits to the 
west of Europe confirmed him, he says, in 
this belief (Introduction, pp. 9, 10). He 
became about this time very intimate with 
the inventor Samuel Crompton, also a Bolton 
man, and, laying his l History of Bolton ' 
aside, drew up The Basis of Mr. Samuel 
Crompton's Claims to a second Remuneration 
from Parliament for his Discovery of the Mule 
Spinning-machine' (1825, reprinted Man- 


Chester, 1868). Moving to London, Brown 
there prepared a memorial on this subject, 
dated May 1825, addressed to the lords of the 
treasury, and numerously signed by the in- 
habitants of Bolton, with a petition to the 
House of Commons (6 Feb. 1826) on the 
part of Crompton, which briefly narrates the 
grounds of his claim (Appendix to Cromp- 
ton's Life, p. 281). 'There is abundant 
evidence/ says French, the biographer of 
Crompton, ' that Brown was indefatigable 
in his endeavours to procure a favourable 
consideration of Crompton's case from the 
government of the day.' He was, however, 
completely unsuccessful, owing, as he wrote 
to Crompton, to secret opposition on the part 
of ' your primitive enemy/ as he called the 
first Sir Robert Peel. Further efforts were 
rendered useless by the death of the inventor 
in June 1827, and Brown did not long sur- 
vive him. His life in the metropolis was 
in all ways unsuccessful, and in despair he 
committed suicide in his London lodgings in 
1829. A posthumous work of his of sixty- 
two pages was published in 1832 at Man- 
chester. It is entitled ' A Memoir of Robert 
Blincoe, an orphan boy sent from the work- 
house of St. Pancras, London, at seven years 
of age to endure the horrors of a cotton mill.' 

[Life and Times of Samuel Crompton, by G-. J. 
French (2nd ed. Manchester, I860); Fishwick's 
Lancashire Library (1875) ; Sutton's Lancashire 
Authors (Manchester, 1876).] F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN (1754-1832), of Whit- 
burn, Scottish divine, was the eldest son of 
John Brown of Haddington [see BROWN", 
JOHX, 1722-1787], where he was born on 
24 July 1754. At fourteen he entered Edin- 
burgh University. He afterwards studied 
divinity at the theological hall of his de- 
nomination, was licensed to preach by the 
associate presbytery of Edinburgh, 21 May 
1776, and was ordained to the charge of the 
congregation at Whitburn, Linlithgowshire. 
Here, after a lengthened and laborious minis- 
try, he died on 10 Feb. 1832. Brown was 
twice married, and was survived by his se- 
cond wife and the issue of both marriages. 
His works were : 1. ' Select Remains of John 
Brown of Haddington' (1789). 2. < The 
Evangelical Preacher, a collection of Ser- 
mons chiefly by English Divines' (Edin. 
1802-6). 3. ' Memoirs of the Life and Cha- 
racter of the late Rev. James Hervey ' (Edin. 
1806 ; enlarged editions were afterwards pub- 
lished). 4. ' A Collection of Religious Letters 
from Books and Manuscripts ' (Edin. 1813 ; 
enlarged ed. 1816). 5. ' A Collection of Let- 
ters from printed Books and Manuscripts, 
suited to children and youth' (Glasgow, 



1815). 6. 'Gospel Truth accurately stated 
and illustrated ' (Edin. 1817 ; enlarged ed. 
Glasgow, 1831. This is a work on the ' Mar- 
row controversy'). 7. 'A brief Account of 
a Tour in the Highlands of Perthshire/ with 
a paper entitled ' A Loud Cry from the High- 
lands ' (Edin. 1818). 8. 'Means of doing 
Good proposed and exemplified in several 
Letters to a Friend ' (Edin. 1820). 9. ' Me- 
moirs of private Christians ' (Glasgow, 
1821 ?) 10. ' Christian Experience, or the 
spiritual exercise of eminent Christians in 
different ages and places stated in their own 
words' (Edin. 1825). 11. 'Descriptive List 
of Religious Books in the English Lan- 
guage, suited for general use' (Edin. 1827). 
12. ' Evangelical Beauties of the late Rev. 
Hugh Binning, with account of his Life' 
(Edin. 1828). 13. 'Evangelical Beauties of 
Archbishop Leighton ' (Berwick, 1828). 
14. ' Notes, Devotional and Explanatory, on 
the Translations and Paraphrases in verse of 
several passages in Scripture ' (Glasgow and 
Edin. 1831). 15. ' Memoir of Rev. Thomas 
Bradbury ' (Berwick, 1831). 16. ' Memorials 
of the Nonconformist Ministers of the seven- 
teenth century ' (Edin. 1832). Various works 
of Boston, Hervey, and others were, 'through 
his instrumentality, chiefly given to the 
public ' (List in Memoir, p. 168). 

[Memoir, with portrait, by Eev. David Smith, 
prefixed to Brown's Letters on Sanctification 
(Edin. 1834). Some interesting notices of Brown 
are given in his grandson's, Dr. John Brown, 
Letter to J. Cairns, D.D. (2nd ed. Edin. 1861).] 

F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN, D.D. (1778-1848), 
of Langton, theological writer, was born at 
Glasgow, licensed by the presbytery of Glas- 
gow 8 June 1803, ordained minister of Gart- 
more 1805, translated to Langton, Berwick- 
shire, 1810, and joined the Free church 1843. 
He received the degree of D.D. from the 
university of Glasgow in November 1815. 
He died 25 June 1848. He was one of the 
early friends and promoters of evangelical 
views in the church of Scotland, and a con- 
tributor to the ' Christian Instructor,' under 
Dr. Andrew Thomson. Besides works of a 
slighter kind, he was author of two books 
which attained considerable fame, viz. ' Vin- 
dication of Presbyterian Church Government, 
in reply to the Independents,' Edinburgh, 
1805, usually considered the standard treatise 
on its subject ; and ' The Exclusive Claims 
of Puseyite Episcopalians to the Christian 
Ministry indefensible,' Edinburgh 1842. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanse, part ii. 
pp. 419-20, part iv. p. 739 ; Catalogue of the 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh ; Letter to the 

writer from Dr. Brown's son Eev. Thomas 
Brown, Edinburgh.] W. G. B. 

BROWN, JOHN, D.D. (1784-1858), of 
Edinburgh, divine, was the eldest son of John 
Brown of Whitburn [see BROWN, JOHN, 1754- 
1832], where he was born on 12 July 1784. 
His mother, who was his father's first wife, 
was Isabella Cranston, a native of Kelso. 
He received his early education at Whit- 
burn, and then, with a view to the ministry, 
entered Edinburgh University, where he 
studied from March 1797 to April 1800. It 
is still common for Scottish students to 
maintain themselves during their ' course ; ' 
then it was almost universal. Brown, having 
received his father's blessing along with a 
guinea, set off for Elie in Fife, where he kept 
a school for three years. During the summer 
vacation he attended at Selkirk, under Dr. 
Lawson, the theological hall of the burgher 
church (August 1800 to September 1804). 
At this he was present for from one to two 
months each year. On 12 Feb. 1805 he was 
licensed to preach, and nearly a year after 
(6 Feb. 1806) was ordained to the charge 
of the burgher congregation at Biggar in 
Lanarkshire. Brown was diligent both as 
preacher and pastor, and the congregation 
prospered under his charge. In 1815 he pub- 
lished his first work, ' Strictures on Mr. 
Yates's Vindication of Unitarianism ' (Glas- 
gow, 1815. The Rev. James Yates was a 
Glasgow Unitarian divine, then engaged in a 
controversy with Dr. Wardlaw). Next year 
he was active in starting a periodical, ''The 
Christian Repository and Religious Register/ 
which served as the organ of his church. He 
edited this till five years later it was merged 
in the ' Christian Monitor,' which he also con- 
ducted till 1826. In 1817, in the 'Plans 
and Publications of Robert Owen of New 
Lanark,' he attacked the schemes of that 
thinker. Owen invited him to New Lanark, 
which is near Biggar. Here they had a con- 
ference which proved resultless. Brown was 
now much occupied with schemes for evan- 
gelising the highlands and other districts in 
Scotland where spiritual destitution pre- 
vailed. He himself preached and lectured 
in various places. His hearers approvingly 
said ' that they know almost every word, for 
that minister does not preach grammar.' This 
seemingly dubious compliment only meant 
that his manner of speaking was direct and 
simple. In 1820 the burgher and anti-burgher 
synods were united. Whilst favouring this 
union, Brown, with a few friends, attempted 
to get the severity of certain portions of the 
Westminster standards relaxed. This at- 
tempt was at the time unsuccessful, but re- 



suited in some change when the union men- 
tioned later on was accomplished. Two years 
afterwards he was called to Rose Street 
Church, Edinburgh. After labouring here 
for seven years, he was translated to Brough- 
ton Place Church. In 1830 he received the 
degree of D.D. from Jefferson College, Penn- 
sylvania; in 1834, when his church revised 
its scheme of education, he was elected pro- 
fessor of exegetical theology ; and when in 
1847 his denomination by its junction with 
the relief body formed the United Presbyte- 
rian Church, he was moved from the junior 
to the senior hall. 

During these years Brown wrote several 
works, and was actively engaged in various 
agitations and discussions. The chief of these 
was the 'voluntary controversy' (1835-43), 
during which he eagerly supported the sepa- 
ration of church and state. In Edinburgh at 
that time an impost called the annuity tax 
was levied for the support of the city minis- 
ters. This he finally refused to pay, where- 
upon in 1838 his goods were twice seized 
and sold. In connection with this he was 
engaged in a controversy with Robert Hal- 
dane, who replied to his ' Law of Christ re- 
specting civil doctrine ' (1839) by a series of 
letters (see ALEXANDER HALDANE, Memoirs 
of R. and J. A. Haldane, Lond. 1852 ; and 
BKOWN'S Remarks on certain statements in 
it, Edin. 1852). A matter which affected 
him still more directly was the ' atonement 
controversy ' (1840-5). It was supposed by 
some parties in the church that he and his 
colleague, Dr. Balmer, held unsound views 
on the nature of the atonement. Finally, in 
1845, he was tried by libel before the synod 
at the instance of two brother divines, Drs. 
Hay and Marshall. While both sides agreed 
that only the elect could be saved, Brown was 
accused of holding that in a certain and, as 
his opponents affirmed, unscriptural and er- 
roneous sense, Christ died for all men. The 
trial, which lasted four days, resulted in his 
honourable acquittal (Report of Proceedings 
in Trial by Libel of John Brown, D.D., Edin. 

During the years 1848-57 Brown was 
chiefly engaged in producing a number of 
exegetical works, which were widely read in 
this country and America. His jubilee, after 
a fifty years' ministry, was celebrated in April 
1856 (see Rev. J. Brown's Jubilee /Services, 
Edin. 1856). A considerable sum of money 
was given to him on this occasion. This, after 
adding a donation of his own, he presented 
to the aged and infirm ministers' fund of his 
church. He died at Edinburgh on 13 Oct. 
1858. Brown was twice married, and was 
survived by issue of both marriages. His 

eldest son was John Brown, M.D., author of 
' Rab ' [q. v.], who in his ' Letter to Dr. Cairns ' 
has written the most enduring literary memo- 
rial of his father. Brown was a voluminous 
writer, but his works are somewhat common- 
place in thought and expression, and without 
permanent value ; yet they prove their author 
to have been a man of great industry and 
very wide and varied reading. His plan of 
exposition was ' to make the Bible the basis 
and the test of the system,' and not l to make 
the system the principal and, in effect, sole 
means of the interpretation of the Bible ' 
(Preface to treatise on Epistle to Galatians 
quoted in i Memoir,' p. 298) . He followed this 
method as far as circumstances permitted, 
and his work undoubtedly gave a healthy 
impetus to the study of theology in Scotland. 
For many years he was the most prominent 
figure among the members of his church. 
This position was partly due to his learning 
and ability ; it was still more due to his nobility 
of character and sweetness of disposition. 

Brown wrote a large number of sermons, 
short religious treatises, biographies, and 
other occasional works. Of these the chief 
are : ' On the Duty of Pecuniary Contribution 
to Religious Purposes,' a sermon before the 
London Missionary Society (1821) ; ' On 
Religion and the Means of its Attainment' 
(Edin. 1818) ; ' What ought the Dissenters of 
Scotland to do at the present crisis ?' (Edin. 
1840) ; ' Hints to Students of Divinity ' 
(Edin. 1841) ; < Comfortable Words for Chris- 
tian Parents bereaved of little Children' 
(Edin. 1846) ; < Memorials of Rev. J. Fisher' 
(Edin. 1849). Brown's most important works 
were the following treatises : ' Expository 
Discourses on First Peter' (3 vols. Edin. 
1848) ; ' Discourses and Sayings of our Lord 
Jesus Christ ' (3 vols. Edin. 1850) ; ' An Ex- 
position of our Lord's Intercessory Prayer ' 
(Edin. 1850) ; < The Resurrection of Life ' 
(Edin. 1852) ; ' The Sufferings and Glories 
of the Messiah ' (Edin. 1853) ; < Expository 
Discourses on Galatians ' (Edin. 1853); 'Dis- 
courses suited to the Lord's Supper' (1st ed. 
1816, 3rd and enlarged ed. Edin. 1853); 
' Parting Counsels, an exposition of the first 
chapter of second epistle of Peter' (Edin. 
1856) ; 'Analytical Exposition of the Epistle 
of Paul to the Romans ' (Edin. 1857). After 
Brown's death his * Exposition of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews,' edited by David Smith, D.D., 
was published in 1862 (2 vols. Edin.) 

[Cairns's Memoir of John Brown, D.D., with 
supplementary letter by J. Brown, M.D. (Edin. 
1860). A portrait is prefixed (for notice of por- 
traits, &c., see p. 469) ; J. Brown, M.D., On the 
Death of J. Brown (Edin. 1860) ; W. Hunter's 
Biggar and the House of Fleming (2nd ed. Edin. 

c 2 



1867). For estimates of Brown from various 
points of view, see United Presbyterian Maga= 
zine, November 1858 ; North British Eeview, 
xxxiii.21 ; Scotsman, 14 Oct. 1858.] F. W-T. 

BROWN, JOHN (1797-1861), geo- : 
grapher, was born at Dover 2 Aug. 1797. 
He served for some time as a midshipman j 
in the East India Company's service. In j 
March 1819 he was forced to leave the sea j 
in consequence of a defect in his sight. He 
then became a diamond merchant and made 
a fortune. He took a keen interest in geo- 
graphical exploration, and became a fellow 
of the Geographical Society in 1837. He 
presented a portrait of his friend Weddell 
(an explorer of the Antarctic circle) to the 
society in 1839, with a letter advocating 
further expeditions. In 1843 he obtained j 
from Sir Robert Peel a pension for Weddell's 
widow. He was a founder of the Ethnologi- 
cal Society in the same year. He afterwards 
became conspicuous as an advocate of expe- 
ditions in search of Sir John Franklin. He 
defined the area which the expedition was 
ultimately found to have reached, but was 
not attended to at the time. In 1858 he pub- 
lished ' The North-west Passage and the Plans 
for the Search for Sir John Franklin : a re- 
view.' A second edition appeared in 1860. 
He was complimented on this work by Hum- 
boldt. Brown made large collections illus- 
trative of Arctic adventure. He lost his wife 
in 1859, and died 7 Feb. 1861, leaving three 
sons and two daughters. 

[Gent. Mag. 1861.] 

BROWN, JOHN, M.D. (1810-1882), 
author of ' Horae Subsecivse ' and ' Rab and 
his Friends/ was born on 22 Sept. 1810 at 
Biggar in Lanarkshire, and was the son of Dr. 
John Brown, the biblical S9holar(1784-1858) 
[q. v.], who was at that time the secession 
minister there. His education at Biggar was 
conducted by his father. in private, but on 
the removal of the latter to Edinburgh in 
1822, John entered a classical school kept by 
Mr. William Steele, and at the end of two 
years passed on to the rector's class in the 
high school, then under the charge of Dr. 
Carson. Here he spent another two years, and 
at the end of that time, in November 1826, 
became a student in the arts classes of Edin- 
burgh University. In 1828 he commenced 
the study of medicine, attending the usual 
college classes in that department, and at 
the same time becoming a pupil and appren- 
tice of the eminent surgeon, Mr. Syme. In 
1833 he graduated as doctor of medicine, 
and immediately after commenced practice 
in Edinburgh, where he spent the whole of 
his after life in the active exercise of his 

profession. As it is chiefly as a writer that 
Brown is likely to be permanently remem- 
bered, it is only necessary to say that in his 
medical capacity he was remarkable for his 
close and accurate observation of symptoms, 
skill and sagacity in the treatment of his 
cases, and conscientious attention to his pa- 
tients. It may even be said that whatever 
position he may be thought to have taken in 
literature, he was first of all a physician 
thoroughly devoted to his profession, and, 
though not writing on strictly professional 
subjects, yet originally diverging into author- 
ship on what may be called medical grounds. 
Naturally unambitious, it is doubtful if, with 
all his wide culture and enthusiastic love of 
literature, he Avould ever, but for his love of 
his profession, have been induced to appear 
before the world as an author at all. It is 
observable that the whole of the first volume 
of i Horse Subsecivse ' perhaps, though not 
the most popular, yet the most substantially 
valuable of the whole series is almost exclu- 
sively devoted to subjects intimately bearing 
on the practice of medicine. The importance 
of wide general culture to a physician ; the ne- 
cessity of attending to nature's own methods 
of cure, and leaving much to her recuperative 
power rather than to medicinal prescriptions ; 
the distinction to be always kept in view be- 
tween medicine as a science and medicine as 
an art ; the necessity of constant attention 
being paid to the distinctive symptoms of each 
individual case as a means of determining 
the special treatment to be adopted ; and, in 
general, the' value of presence of mind, ' near- 
ness of the nous ' (dyxivoia) in a physician 
these and* the like points are what he is 
never tired *of inculcating and illustrating in 
almost eVery page of the volume. And even 
' Rab and his Friends ' belongs properly to 
medicine, and serves to withdraw the phy- 
sician from exclusive recognition of science 
in the exercise of his profession, and to bring 
him tenderly back to humanity. 

In the two later volumes of the ' Horae ' 
Brown's pen took a somewhat wider range. 
He had, we suppose, discovered his own 
strength in authorship, and found that he 
had other things in his mind besides medi- 
cine on which he had something to say. 
Poetry, art, the nature and ways of dogs, 
human character as displayed in men and 
women whom he had intimately known, the 
scenery of his native country with its asso- 
ciations romantic or tender all these come 
in for review, and on all of them he writes 
with a curiously naive and original humour, 
and, as it seems to us, a singularly deep and 
true insight. One great charm of his writ- 
ings is that, as with those of Montaigne and 




Charles Lamb, much of his own character is 
thrown into his books, and in reading them 
we almost feel as if we became intimately 
acquainted with the author. And in private 
he did not belie the idea which his books 
convey of him. Few men have in life been 
more generally beloved, or in death more 
sincerely lamentedc He had a singular power 
of attaching both men and animals to him- 
self, and a stranger could scarcely meet with 
him even once without remembering him 
ever afterwards with interest and affection. 
In society he was natural and unaffected, 
with pleasantry and humour ever at com- 
mand, yet no one could suspect any tinge of 
frivolity in his character. He had read very 
widely, had strong opinions on many ques- 
tions both in literature and philosophy, pos- 
sessed great knowledge of men, and had an 
unfailing interest in humanity. With all the 
tenderness of a woman, he had a powerful 
manly intellect, was full of practical sense, 
tact, and sagacity, and found himself per- 
fectly at home with all men of the best 
minds of his time who happened to come 
across him. Lord Jeffrey, Lord Cockburn, 
Mr. Thackeray, Mr. Ruskin, Sir Henry Tay- 
lor, and Mr. Erskine of Linlathen were all 
happy to number themselves among his most 
attached friends. 

There was a strong countervailing element 
of melancholy in Brown's constitution, as in 
most men largely endowed with humour. 
This, we believe, showed itself more or less 
even in boyhood; but in the last sixteen 
years of his life it became occasionally 
so distressing as to necessitate his entire 
withdrawal for a time from society, and lat- 
terly induced him to retire to a great extent 
from the general practice of his profession. 
In the last six months of his life, however, 
his convalescence seemed to be so complete 
that his friends began to hope he had finally 
thrown off this tendency, and during the 
winter immediately preceding his death all 
his old cheerfulness and intellectual vivacity 
appeared to have returned ; but in the begin- 
ning of May 1882 he caught a slight cold, 
which deepened into a severe attack of pleu- 
risy, and carried him off after a short illness 
on the llth of that month. 

The first volume of the ' Horse Subsecivse ' 
was published in 1858, the second in 1801, 
and a third in 1882, only a few weeks before 
the author's death. They have all gone 
through numerous editions both in this coun- 
try and in America ; while ' Rab and his 
Friends ' (first published in 1859) and other 
papers have appeared separately in various 
forms, and have had an immense circulation. 

[Personal knowledge.] J. T. 13. 

1867), landscape-painter, was born at Glas- 
gow in 1805, and resided in London for some 
time after travelling in Holland and Spain. 
He then removed to his native city, and 
finally settled in Edinburgh, where he died at 
10 Vincent Street 8 May 1867. He was an 
associate of the Royal Scottish Academy. His 
picture l The Last of the Clan ' was engraved 
by W. Richardson for the Royal Association 
of Fine Arts, Scotland, in 1851. In 1833 he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, No. 278, ' A 
Scene on the Ravensbourne, Kent ; ' at this 
period he resided at 10 Robert Street, Chel- 
sea. Two other landscapes he also exhibited 
in this same year at the British Institution 
and the Suffolk Street Exhibition. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.1 


BROWN, JOHN WRIGHT (1836-1863), 
botanist, was born in Edinburgh on 19 Jan. 
1836. He was of a delicate constitution, and 
early showed a great love for plants, in con- 
sequence of which he was, at the age of sixteen, 
placed in one of the Edinburgh nurseries. 
But the exposure connected with garden work 
proved too much for his health, and Professor 
Balfour appointed him to an assistantship in 
the herbarium connected with the Botanic 
Garden. Here he improved his opportunities 
and became well acquainted with botany ; 
he was much interested in the Scottish flora, 
and contributed a list of the plants of Elie, 
Fifeshire,to the Edinburgh Botanical Society, 
of which he was an associate. He died in 
Edinburgh on 23 March 1863. 

[Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vii. 519.] J. B. 

BROWN, JOSEPH (1784-1868), physi- 
cian, was born at JNorth Shields in September 
1784, and studied medicine at Edinburgh and 
also in London. Though the son of a quaker, 
and educated as such, he entered the army 
medical service, was attached to Wellington's 
staff in the Peninsular war, and was present 
at Busaco, Albuera, Vittoria, and the Pyre- 
nees, gaining high commendation for his ser- 
vices. After Waterloo he remained with the 
army of occupation in France. Subsequently 
he again studied at Edinburgh, and graduated 
M.D. in 1819. He settled at Sunderland, and 
took a leading part in local philanthropy and 
politics, being a strong liberal and a zealous 
but not bigoted Christian. He was once mayor 
of Sunderland and a borough magistrate, and 
also for many years physician to the Sunder- 
land and Bishopwearmouth Infirmary. He 
was highly cultured, of dignified manners, 
yet deeply sympathetic with the poor. He 
died on 19 Nov. 1868. Besides numerous 




contributions to medical reviews, and several 
articles in the ' Cyclopaedia of Practical Me- 
dicine/ Brown wrote: 1. 'Medical Essays 
on Fever, Inflammation, &c.,' London, 1828. 
2. 'A Defence of Revealed Religion,' 1851, 
designed to vindicate the miracles of the Old 
and New Testaments. 3. ( Memories of the 
Past and Thoughts on the Present Age,' 1863. 
4. 'The Food of the People, with a Postscript 
on the Diet of Old Age,' 1865. 

[Lancet, 5 Dec. 1868 ; Sunderland Herald, 
20 Nov. 1868.] G. T. B. 

BROWN, LANCELOT (1715-1783), 
landscape-gardener and architect, known as 
'Capability Brown,' was born in 1715 at 
Harle-Kirk, Northumberland. He was origi- 
nally a kitchen gardener in the employment 
of Lord Cobham at Stow. His remarkable 
faculty for prejudging landscape effects soon, 
however, procured him the patronage of 
persons of rank and taste. Humphrey Rep- 
ton treats Brown as the founder of the mo- 
dern or English style of landscape-gardening, 
which s uperseded the geometric style, brought 
to its perfection by Andr6 Le Nostre (b. 
12 March 1613 ; d. 15 Sept. 1700) at Ver- 
sailles. The praise of originating the new 
style is, however, due to William Kent (b. 
1684; d. 12 April 1748), but Brown worked 
independently and with greater genius. His 
leading aim was to bring out the undulating 
lines of the natural landscape. He laid out 
or remodelled the grounds at Kew, Blen- 
heim, and Nuneham Courtenay. His style 
degenerated into a mannerism which insisted 
on furnishing every landscape with the same 
set of features ; but this declension is to be 
attributed to the deficiencies of those who 
had worked under him, and took him as their 
model. Of Brown's architectural works a full 
list is given by Repton, beginning in 1751 with 
Croome, where he built the house, church, 
&c. for the Earl of Coventry. His exteriors 
were often very clumsy, but all his country 
mansions were constructed with great success 
as regards internal comfort and convenience. 
He realised a large fortune, and by his amiable 
manners and high character he supported with 
dignity the station of a country gentleman. 
In 1770 he was high sheriff of Huntingdon- 
shire. He died on 6 Feb. 1783. His son, 
Lancelot Brown, was M.P. for Huntingdon- 

[Repton's Landscape Gardening and Land- 
scape Architecture, ed. J. C. London, 1840, 
pp. 30, 266, 327, 520 ; Knight's English Cyclo- 
paedia, Biography, 1866, i. 950 ; Jal's Diet. Grit, 
de Biog. et Hist., 1867, p. 773.] A. G. 

BROWN, LEVIES IUS (1671-1764), 
Jesuit, born in Norfolk on 19 Sept. 1671, re- 

ceived his education at St. Omer and the 
English college at Rome. He entered the 
Society of Jesus in 1698, being already a 
priest, and became a professed father in 1709. 
Previously to this, in 1700, he had been ap- 
pointed to the mission of Ladyholt, Sussex. 
He was rector of the English college at 
Rome from 1723 to 1731, when he became 
master of the novices, and was chosen pro- 
vincial of his order in 1733, continuing in 
that office till 1737, and then passing to the 
rectorship of Liege college. He spent the 
last years of his life in the college of St. Omer, 
and witnessed the forcible expulsion of the 
English Jesuits from that institution by the 
parliament of Paris in 1762. Being too old 
and infirm to be removed, he was allowed to 
remain in the house until his death on 7 Nov. 

Brown was a friend of Alexander Pope's, 
and it is probable that during his residence 
as missioner of Ladyholt he induced the 
poet to compose his beautiful version of St. 
Francis Xavier's hymn ' O Deus, ego amo 
Te.' He published a translation of Bossuet's 
' History of the Variations of the Protestant 
Churches,' 2 vols., Antwerp, 1742, 8vo. 

[Oliver's Collections S. J. 61 ; Foley's Re- 
cords, iii. 541-3, vi. 442, vii. 94; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), i. 241.] T. C. 

1874), author and painter, son of Ford Ma- 
dox-Brown, the distinguished painter, was 
born at Finchley on 20 Jan. 1855. From 
early boyhood he showed remarkable ca- 
pacity, both in painting and literature. One 
of his works, a water-colour named ' Chiron 
receiving the Infant Jason from the Slave,' 
was begun when he was fourteen, and ex- 
hibited in the Dudley Gallery in the following 
year. At the same gallery in 1870 he ex- 
hibited a very spirited water-colour called 
' Obstinacy,' which represents the resistance 
of an unruly horse, whose rider is urging him 
towards the sea ; ' Exercise,' a companion 
picture to the above, appeared the same year 
on the walls of the Royal Academy. A scene 
from ' The Tempest Prospero and the Infant 
Miranda,' when sent adrift by the creatures 
of the usurping duke, found its way in 1871 
to the International Exhibition at South 
Kensington. This was followed by a water- 
colour, ' A Scene from Silas Marner,' exhibited 
in 1872 at the gallery of the Society of French 
Artists in New Bond Street. 'These two 
latter works especially showed so much grasp 
of idea, force of expression, and, with regard 
to the scene from ' Silas Marner,' so much 
beauty of execution, as to indicate that the 
lad, had he lived, would have signally dis- 



tinguished himself as a painter. His youth- 
ful successes in art, however, were over- 
shadowed by those which he achieved in 
literature, particularly in prose fiction. When 
thirteen or fourteen years old he wrote several 
.sonnets, of which only two have been pre- 
served. To these may be added another, 
written probably at a somewhat later date. 
These productions, if they do not fulfil all 
the technical conditions on which severe 
critics of the sonnet insist, have at least more 
than average correctness, and show, like his 
fragmentary blank verse poem, * To All Eter- 
nity,' written a year or two later, originality 
of design, with force and dignity of expression 
surprising in one so young. Of a few lyric 
snatches the most have individuality, while 
the stanzas beginning 

Oh, delicious sweetness that lingers 
Over the fond lips of love ! 

display, besides great wealth of imagery, the 
overflow of feeling that belongs to the genuine 
lyric. His first prose story, ' Gabriel Denver,' 
was begun in the winter of 1871, finished 
early in the following year, when he was 
seventeen, and published in 1873. The story 
was originally one of a wife's revenge upon 
her husband and the woman to whom he had 
transferred his affection. At the wish of his 
publishers the young author made important 
alterations. A spiteful cousin was substi- 
tuted for the revengeful wife, and a happy 
denouement for a tragic one. The story, as 
originally planned, was, however, published 
under the title of ' The Black Swan ' in his 
* Literary Remains.' l Gabriel Denver, though 
on occasions it leans to over-analysis and 
substitutes accounts of emotions for the em- 
bodiment of them, reveals striking power in 
its treatment both of characters and events. 
Its descriptions, moreover, which combine 
realistic accuracy with imaginative sugges- 
tiveness, are often most impressive, while 
certain passages show a vein of deep reflec- 
tion and speculation, to which perhaps no 
parallel can be cited from the works of juve- 
nile writers. At times with such strange 
weird power is some crisis of the story pre- 
sented that it seems to arrest the eye with 
its ominous significance. In 1872 the young 
novelist made considerable way in his story 
entitled * Hebditch's Legacy,' which, though 
containing many examples of his power, both 
as a narrator and a psychologist, relies for its 
plot too much upon somewhat hackneyed 
motives and incidents. This story he never 
completed. The end was supplied by his 
editors from recollections of his design. The 
tale is included in his 'Literary Remains,' 
published in 1876. So early as 1872 he had 

begun his romance, called ' The Dwale Bluth/ 
an old North Devonshire name for the plant 
known as ' the deadly nightshade.' ' The 
Dwale Blutli ' is a tragic story with a glamour 
of fate around it. It shows the writer's 
powers of description, chastened and matured, 
and his usual deep insight into character and 
motive. In this tale he also displayed a hu- 
mour peculiar to himself, and a rare aptitude 
for portraying the natures and habits of chil- 
dren and animals. The work was also left 
uncompleted, an end in accordance with his 
intentions being again supplied from memory 
by his editors. Madox-Browns ' Literary 
Remains' also contain two or three short 
stories written or dictated in the closing year 
of his life. In September 1874 he was attacked 
by gout. His seeming recovery from this was 
followed by hectic fever, and finally by blood- 
poisoning. He died on 5 Nov. 1874, the day of 
the month on which his first story, ' Gabriel 
Denver/ had been published in the preceding 
year. As to personal appearance his face was 
oval, his features were regular. In repose he 
had at times a rather weary look, but his grey 
eyes had a singularly animated and engaging 
expression in the society of those whom he 
liked. His disposition, though somewhat 
sensitive, was genial and sincere, his discern- 
ment was keen, his standard of life high, and 
his sense of its obligations deep and sympa- 
thetic. As an imaginative writer, whose 
career ended at nineteen, he was not, of 
course, faultless. His descriptions, for the 
most part daring and successful, are at times 
over-ambitious and over-elaborate ; while in 
the opinion of some there is a suggestion of 
the morbid in the general choice of his themes. 
But for the union of Defoe-like truth of de- 
scription with poetic touches that render the 
truth more vivid, and for a sympathetic 
imagination which, in dealing with human 
motives and passions, often seems to antici- 
pate experience, Oliver Madox-Brown must 
stand in the van of young writers, who not 
only surprise by the brilliancy of their work, 
but retain admiration by its solidity. The 
1 Literary Remains ' contain, besides the 
works already named as included, the writer's 

[Memoir prefixed to the Literary Kemains; 
Biographical Sketch by John H. Ingram ; Notice 
by P. B. Marston in Scribner's Magazine.] 

W. M. 

BROWN, PHILIP (d. 1779), was a 
doctor of medicine, practising in Manchester. 
His favourite pursuit towards the close of his 
life being botany, he procured living plants 
from various parts of the world through his 
interest with merchants and ship captains. 



At his death a catalogue of the collections 
was drawn up for sale, its title being 'A Cata- 
logue of very curious Plants collected by the 
late Philip Brown, M.D., lately deceased,' 
Manchester, 1779, 12mo, pp. 30. 

[Catalogue cited.] B. D. J. 


1883), is chiefly known for his researches in 
the Venetian archives. The story runs that 
about 1833, while on a holiday tour, Brown 
paid a first visit to Venice, and that the 
place exerted so powerful a charrn over him 
that he could not bring himself to leave it. 
It is a fact that he never quitted Venice 
from 1833 till his death, fifty years later. 
He acquired a unique knowledge of its his- 
tory and antiquities, and spent most of his 
life in studying its archives. He was the 
first to appreciate the importance of the 
news-letters which the Venetian ambassa- 
dors in London were in the habit of sending 
to the republic during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. After completing some 
original investigations into the life and works 
of Marino Sanuto the younger, the Venetian 
historian, he wrote an account of ' Four 
Years at the Court of Henry VIII ' (1854), 
from the despatches of Sebastian Giustiniani, 
the Venetian ambassador in London at the 
beginning of the reign of Henry VIII. The 
new light which this book threw on the rela- 
tion of the Venetian archives to English his- 
tory induced Lord Palmerston, at the instance 
of the chief literary men in England, to com- 
mission Brown in 1862 to calendar those Ve- 
netian state papers which treated of English 
history. This work engaged all Brown's at- 
tention for the rest of his life. He spared 
himself no labour, and is computed to have 
examined twelve million packets of docu- 
ments, most of them at Venice, but a few of 
them in other towns of North Italy. Brown 
was always ready to help scholars who ap- 
plied to him for information. He died at 
Venice on 25 Aug. 1883, and was buried in 
the Lido cemetery three days later. He was 
popular with all classes in Venice, and was 
very hospitable to English visitors. Robert 
Browning wrote a sonnet on Brown's death 
(dated 28 Nov. 1883), which is printed in the 
* Century Magazine' for February 1884, and 
in the ' Browning Society's Papers,' 132*-3*. 
The first volume of his ' Calendar of State 
Papers and Manuscripts relating to English 
Affairs existing in the Archives and Collec- 
tions of Venice, and in other Libraries of 
Northern Italy,' with an elaborate introduc- 
tion, was issued in 1864, and covered the years 
from 1202 to 1509. It was succeeded by vol. 
ii. (1509-19) in 1867, by vol. iii. (1520-26) in 

1869, by vol. iv. (1527-33) in 1871, by vol. v. 
(1534-54) in 1873, by vol. vi. pt. i. (1555-6) 
in 1877, by vol. vi. pt. ii. (1556-7) in 1881. 
The last volume (vol. vi. pt. iii.), issued in 
1884, dealt with tne years 1557-8, and an ap- 
pendix supplied a large number of fifteenth- 
century papers which had been omitted from 
the earlier volumes. Mr. T. D. Hardy, in a 
report on the Venetian archives addressed ta 
Sir John Romilly, master of the rolls, in 1866 r 
praises highly Brown's accuracy and industry. 
Brown presented to the Public Record Office 
126 volumes of transcripts of Venetian ar- 
chives, dating from early times to 1797. 
Brown also published : 1. ' Ragguagli sulla 
vita e sulle opere di Marino Sanuto ... in- 
titolati dall' amicizia diuno straniero alnobile 
J. V. Foscarini,' Venice, 1837-8. 2. ' Lettere 
diplomaticheinedite,' Venice, 1840. 3. 'Itine- 
rario di Marino Sanuto per la terraferma 
veneziana nell' anno 1483,' Padua, 1847. 
4. ' Four Years at the Court of King Henry 
VIII,' a translation of the despatches sent 
home by Giustiniani,the Venetian ambassador 
in London, between 1515 and 1519, London, 
1854. 5. ' Avviso di Londra,' an account of 
news-letters sent from London to Venice 
during the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, published in vol. iv. of the Philobiblon 
Society's ' Bibliographical and Historical Mis- 
cellanies,' London, 1854. 6. ' L'archivio di 
Venezia con riguardo speziale alia storia 
inglese,' forming vol. iv. of the ' Nuova Col- 
lezione di opere storiche,' Venice and Turin, 
1865. 7. ' Margaret of Austria, Duchess of 
Parma: Date of her Birth on Venetian 
Authority,' Venice, 1880. A folio sheet was 
issued at Venice in 1841 with a drawing and 
description, by Brown, of the ' Shield placed 
over the remains of Thomas Mowbray in St. 
Mark's Church,' Venice. 

[Times, 29 Aug., 8 Sept., 13 Sept. 1883; 
Athenaeum, 8 Sept, 1883; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

S. L. L. 


BROWN, ROBERT (d. 1753), historical 
and decorative painter, was a pupil of Sir James 
Thornhill, whom he assisted in painting the 
cupola of St. Paul's Cathedral. It is related 
on the authority of Highmore, that while en- 
gaged in this undertaking he and his master 
worked together on a scaffold, which was an 
open one. Thornhill had just completed the 
head of the apostle, and was retiring back- 
wards in order to survey the effect ; as he had 
just reached the edge, Brown, not having time 
to warn him, snatched up a pencil, full of 
colour, and dashed it upon the face. Thorn- 



hill enraged ran hastily forward, exclaiming, 

* Good God ! what have you done ? ' 'I have 
only saved your life/ was the reply. Brown 
was also assistant to Verrio and La Guerre, 
and then setting up for himself was employed 
to decorate several of the city churches. He 
painted the altar-piece in St. Andrew Un- 
dershaft,the 'Transfiguration' in St. Botolph, 
Aldgate, the figures of St. Andrew and St. 
John in St. Andrew's, Holhorn, and those of 
St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evan- 
gelist in the chapel of St. John, Bedford Row. 
He also painted some portraits. Brown was 
the master of Hayman, and died 26 Dec. 1753. 
A few of his works have been engraved in 
mezzotinto : ' The Annunciation,' by Valen- 
tine Green ; ' Salvator Mundi ' (two plates), 
by James McArdell ; ' Our Saviour and St. 
John the Baptist,' by Richard Earlom ; and 

* Geography/ by J. Faber. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.] 

L. F. 

BROWN, SIB ROBERT (d. 1760), diplo- 
matist, is said when a young man to have 
gone out to Venice with no other capital 
than a large second-hand wig, which he sold 
for 5Z. At Venice he amassed a fortune by 
successful trading, and for some years held 
the office of British resident in the republic. 
He received a baronetcy from George II in 
1732. Writing to the Earl of Essex, then 
ambassador at Turin, in May 1734, he says 
that he is about to be returned to parlia- 
ment, that he is glad to say that his election 
will entail little expense or trouble on him, 
though he does not know for what place he 
will be put up. Two letters from him, and 
several from Colonel Niel Brown, the consul, 
who was probably his kinsman, are in the 
British Museum. Some of these letters con- 
tain references to Turkish affairs, and to the 
progress of the Polish succession war. Brown 
came back to England, and was returned as 
one of the members for Ilchester 30 Aug. 
1734, retaining his seat during that parlia- 
ment and the succeeding one summoned in 
1741. Erom 1741 to 1743 he held the office 
of paymaster of the king's works. He married 
Margaret Cecil, granddaughter of the third 
Earl of Salisbury, and sister of Charles, 
bishop first of Bangor and then of Bristol, 
a lady of wit and fashion. ' Lady Brown/ 
Burney tells us, ' gave the first private con- 
certs under the direction of the Count of Ger- 
main ; she held them on Sunday evenings, at 
the risk of her windows. She was an enemy 
of Handel and a patroness of the Italian style.' 
Horace Walpole records a bitter retort 
she made on Lady Townshend (Memoirs of 
George II, ii. 358), and sneers at her l Sunday 


nights/ as ' the great mart for all travelling* 
and travelled calves ' (Letters, i. 229). By 
her Brown had two, or, according to Walpole, 
three daughters, who died before him. It was 
with reference to these daughters that the 
avarice for which he was notorious appears 
to have chiefly displayed itself. When the 
eldest, who at the age of eighteen fell into a 
decline, was ordered to ride for the benefit 
of her health, he made the servant who at- 
tended her carry a map he drew out marking 
all the by-lanes, so as to avoid the turnpikes ; 
and when she was dying, he bargained with 
the undertaker about her funeral, on the 
principle apparently of a wager, for he is 
said to have urged the man to name a low 
sum by representing that she might recover. 
These stories rest on the authority of H.Wal- 
pole. If they are not literally true, they at 
least serve to show Brown's character. He 
died on 5 Oct. 1760, leaving everything 
even, Walpole believes, his avarice, to his 
widow. Lady Brown died in 1782. 

[Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27732-5 (Correspon- 
dence of Lord Essex), 23797 (Correspondence 
of Thomas Robinson, first baron Grrantbam) ; 
Burney's History of Music, iv. 671, ed. 1789 ; 
Walpole's Memoirs of George II, 4to, 1822 ; 
Walpole's Letters, i. 187, 229, ii. 398, 450, iii. 
351, iv. 70, viii. 176, ix. 221 (ed. Cunningham); 
Collins's Baronetage, iv. 235 ; Betham's Baro- 
netage, iii. 219 ; Return of Members of Parlia- 
ment, ii. 78, 90.] W. H. 

BROWN, ROBERT (1757-1831), agri- 
cultural writer, born in East Linton, Had- 
dingtonshire, entered into business in his 
native village, but soon turned to agriculture, 
which he carried on first at West Fortune 
and afterwards at Markle, where he practised 
several important experiments. He was an 
intimate friend of George Rennie of Phan- 
tassie. While Rennie applied himself to 
the practice of agriculture, Brown wrote on 
the science. He published a ' View of the 
Agriculture of the West Riding of York- 
shire/ 8vo, 1799, and a ' Treatise on Rural 
Affairs/ 2 vols. 8vo, 1811, and wrote many 
articles in the Edinburgh ' Farmer's Maga- 
zine/ of which he was editor for fifteen 
years. Some of these articles have been 
translated into French and German. He 
died at Drylaw, East Lothian, on 14 Feb. 
1831, in his seventy-fourth year. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, i. 395; Irving' s 
Eminent Scotsmen, 41 ; Gent. Mag. 1831, vol. 
ci. pt. ii. p. 647.] W. H. 

BROWN, ROBERT (1773-1858), bo- 
tanist, was born in Montrose on 21 Dec. 
1773, his father, the Rev. James Brown, 
being the episcopalian minister in that town. 



His mother was the daughter of the Rev. 
Robert Taylor, who was also a presbyterian 
pastor. His earliest education was obtained 
at the Montrose grammar school, where he 
formed a friendship, which lasted through 
life, with James Mill. At the age of four- 
teen Brown was entered at Marischal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, where he obtained a Ramsay 
bursary in philosophy. In 1789 his father 
sent him to the university of Edinburgh, 
whither he had moved from Montrose. The 
boy's friends destined him for the medical 
profession. He does not appear to have dis- 
tinguished himself in either classics or the 
physical sciences. The tendency of his mind 
was towards natural history, and at an early 
age he became a member of the Natural His- 
tory Society of Edinburgh ; while his close 
attention to botanical science secured him 
the friendship of the professor, Dr. Walker, 
under whose directions he diligently made a 
collection of the Scottish flora. In 1 791 he 
contributed to the Natural History Society 
his first paper, which was a careful enumera- 
tion of such plants as he had collected in 
Scotland, with observations thereon and ex- 
planatory notes. All the specimens and ac- 
companying descriptions were used by Dr. 
Withering, who was at this time engaged in 
preparing the second edition of his ' Arrange- 
ment of British Plants,' and an intimate 
friendship thus arose between the two bo- 
tanists. In 1795 Brown obtained a double 
commission of ensign and assistant-surgeon 
in the Fifeshire regiment of fencible in- 
fantry, and proceeded to the north of Ire- 
land. In 1798 he was sent to England on 
recruiting service, and remained several 
months in London. During this time Brown 
was introduced to Sir Joseph Banks, his 
botanical reputation securing him a hearty 
reception and the free use of Sir Joseph's 
collections and library. Early in the fol- 
lowing year he returned to his regiment in 
Ireland, but soon accepted an offer from Sir 
Joseph Banks of the post of naturalist to an 
expedition then fitting out for a survey of 
the coast of New Holland. 

In the summer of 1801 Brown embarked 
at Portsmouth, under the command of Cap- 
tain Flinders. He was absent from Eng- 
land more than four years. In the interval 
he thoroughly explored the vegetable world 
on the coasts of New Holland and on the 
southern portion of Van Diemen's Land. 
He returned to England in 1805, landing at 
Liverpool in the month of October with a 
collection of nearly 4,000 species of dried 
plants, a great number of which were new to 
science. During his voyage home he devoted 
himself to a close examination of the plants 

which he had collected, and made many new 
and important observations as to the anatomy 
and physiology of plants in general. 

In 1798 Brown was elected an associate 
of the Linnean Society, and very soon after 
his return from the Antipodes the council 
appointed him their librarian. This position 
the free use of the Banksian library and 
herbarium, and the aid given by Sir Joseph 
Banks himself enabled him to work in the 
light of the most recent botanical disco- 
veries. In 1810 the first volume appeared 
of his ' Prodromus Florae Novse Hollandiaj 
et insulse Van-Diemen exhibens characteres 
plantarum quas annis 1802-5 per oras utri- 
usque insulse collegit et descripsit Robertus 
Brown. Londini, 1810.' About the same 
date Brown published two memoirs one on 
the Asclepiadese in the ' Transactions of the 
Wernerian Society of Edinburgh' (1809), 
and another on the Proteaceee in the * Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society' (1810). To 
the 'Narrative of Captain Flinders's Voyage,' 
which was published in 1814, Brown ap- 
pended ' General Remarks, Geographical 
and Systematical, on the Botany of Terra 

These contributions to botanical science, 
setting forth in the most instructive form 
the advantages of the natural system, aided 
materially in leading to its almost universal 
adoption. In the * Transactions of the Lin- 
nean Society' will be found a number of 
memoirs by Brown giving the fullest and 
most complete development of his views in 
every division of botanical science. These 
gave a high character to vegetable physiology, 
and placed upon the sure basis of exact ob- 
servation our knowledge of the vital func- 
tions of plants. 

On the death of Dryander, at the close of 
1810, Brown succeeded his friend as librarian 
to Sir Joseph Banks, and he held that ap- 
pointment until Sir Joseph's death in 1820 ; 
the use and enjoyment of this library and the 
collections being then bequeathed to him for 
life, with the house in Soho Square, in which 
for nearly sixty years Brown pursued his 
scientific labours. In 1827 Brown, however, 
acting on the provisions of the will of Sir 
Joseph Banks, assented to the transference 
of the books and specimens to the British 
Museum. He was appointed to the office of 
keeper of the botanical collections in that 
establishment, which position he held until 
his death. 

To ' Tilloch's Philosophical Magazine,' 1826, 
Brown contributed a remarkable paper on the 
' Character and Description of Kingia, a new 
genus of plants found on the south-west coast 
of New Holland, with observations on the 



structure of its unimpregnated ovulum and 
on the female flowers of Cycadeae and Coni- 
feree.' In 1828 we find in the ' Edinburgh 
NewPhilosophicalJournal' ' A brief Account 
of Microscopical Observations made in the 
months of June, July, and August 1 827 on 
the particles contained in the pollen of plants, 
and on the general existence of active mole- 
cules in organic and inorganic bodies.' These 
were speedily followed by six papers ' On the 
Organs and Mode of Fecundation in Orchideae j 
and Asclepiadeae,' and one on the ' Origin ' 
and Mode of Propagation of the Gulf-weed.' , 
These important contributions to science [ 
exhibiting the most patient research and re- ! 
fined deductions from his minute observa- | 
tions were highly appreciated by all natu- ; 
ralists, as was shown by the fact of the il- 
lustrious Humboldt dedicating his ' Synop- 
sis Plantarum Orbis Novi' to him in the 
following words : t Roberto Brownio, Bri- ' 
tanniarum glorias atque ornamento, totam j 
botanices scientiam ingenio mirifico com- ' 

In 1811 Brown became a fellow of the 
Royal Society, and he was several times j 
elected a member of the council of that body. 
In 1839 the Copley medal was presented to 
him ' for his discoveries on the subject of | 
vegetable impregnation/ he having received i 
previously (in 1832) from the university of 
Oxford the honorary degree of D.C.L. In 
1833 he was elected a foreign associate of ! 
the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of j 
France. Sir Robert Peel granted him a pen- i 
sion on the civil list of 200 per annum, and 
the King of Prussia subsequently decorated j 
him with the cross of the highest civil order 
* Pour le M6rite.' 

Beyond the works already named, Brown 
frequently contributed to the'Linnean Trans- 
actions 'and scientific periodicals. His bota- 
nical appendices to the * Voyages and Travels 
of the most celebrated Navigators and Tra- 
vellers ' should not be forgotten ; they were 
all marked by his distinguishing charac- 
teristics, minuteness of detail and compre- 
hensive generalisation. 

Especial mention is demanded of his dis- 
coveries of the nucleus of the vegetable cell ; 
of the mode of fecundation in several species 
of plants ; of the developments of the pollen 
and of the ovulum in the Conifers and Cyca- 
dece, and the bearing of these on impregnation 
in general. The relation of a flower to the 
axis from which it is derived, and of the parts 
of a flower to each other, are among the most 
striking of Brown's structural investigations. 
It must not be forgotten that fossil botany 
was also a favourite pursuit of his, and that 
in its prosecution he formed a valuable col- 

lection of fossil woods which he bequeathed 
to the British Museum. 

Brown's character in private life was ac- 
knowledged to be peculiarly attractive by all 
who knew him. This cannot be more satis- 
factorily shown than by a quotation from a 
letter written by Dr. Francis Bott on 21 June 
1863 to Dr. Sharpey, presenting to the Royal 
Society a copy of Brown's ' Prodromus Floras 
Novae Hollandiae,' which was a personal gift 
from the author : ' I never presumed to be 
able to estimate Brown's eminent merits as 
a man of science ; but I knew vaguely their 
worth. I loved him for his truth, his simple 
modesty, and, above all, for his more than 
woman's tenderness. Of all the persons I 
have known, I have never known his equal 
in kindliness of nature.' Brown died on 
10 June 1858. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Society, ix. 527 
(1859) ; Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers, vol. i. (1867); Linnean Society's Trans- 
actions, vols. x-xii. (1816-20); Ann. Sci. Nat. 
vols. viii-x. xi. xix. (1826-30) Ray Society; 
Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
ed. Bennett, 2 vols. 1866-8.] R. H-T. 

BROWN, SAMUEL (J. 1700), was a 
surgeon stationed during the last few years 
of the seventeenth century at Madras, then 
called Fort St. George. From time to time 
he sent collections of dried plants &c. to 
England, where they were described by James 
Petiver, and published in the ' Phil. Trans.' 
in a series of papers in vols. xx. (1698) and 
xxiii. (1703). Petiver's plants passed into the 
hands of Sir Hans Sloane, and now form part 
of the herbarium of the British Museum 
(Nat. History) in Cromwell Road. Particu- 
lars of his life are wanting. 

[Pulteney's Biog. Sketches of Botany (1790), 
ii. 38, 39, 62.] B. D. J. 

BROWN, SIE SAMUEL (1776-1852), 
engineer, the eldest son of William Brown 
of Borland, Galloway, by a daughter of the 
Rev. Robert Hogg of Roxburgh, was born 
in London in 1776. He served in the navy 
with some distinction during the French war 
from 1795 onwards. He became commander 
1 Aug. 1811, and retired captain 18 May 
1842. In January 1835 he was made a 
knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, 
and a knight bachelor in 1838. His principal 
reputation was gained as an engineer. He 
invented an improved method of manufac- 
turing links for chain cables, which he 
patented in 1816 conjointly with Philip 
Thomas, and the experiments which he car- 
ried out led to the introduction of chain 
cables into the navy. He also patented in 



1817 improvements in suspension bridges, 
the patent including a special sort of link 
which enabled such bridges to be constructed 
on a larger scale than had ever before been 
possible. The first large suspension bridge 
was the Union Bridge across the Tweed near 
Berwick, a picture of which, painted by 
Alexander Nasmyth before the erection of ; 
the bridge in order to show what it would be 
like when completed, is now in the posses- 
sion of the Society of Arts. His principle 
was also used by Telford in the suspension 
bridge across the Menai Straits. In 1823 he ! 
constructed the chain pier at Brighton. Be- ; 
sides those for his inventions connected with j 
chains and chain cables, he took out nume- | 
rous other patents (ten in all), most of them 
for matters connected with naval architec- , 
ture or marine engineering. Brown died at ; 
Blackheath on 15 March 1852. He married j 
Mary, daughter of John Home of Edinburgh, 
writer to the signet, 14 Aug. 1822. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 519; Eecords of the 
Patent Office.] H. T. W. 

BROWN", SAMUEL (1817-1856), che- 
mist, fourth son of Samuel Brown of Had- 
dington, founder of itinerating libraries, and 
grandson of Dr. John Brown, author of the 
' Self-interpreting Bible ' [q. v.], was born at 
Haddington on 23 Feb. 1817, and, after at- 
tending the grammar school of Haddington 
and the high school of Edinburgh, entered the 
medical classes of the university of Edinburgh 
in 1832. He graduated M.D. in 1839, but de- 
voted his chief attention to chemical research. 
An account of his experiments on ' Chemical 
Isomerism ' was published in the ' Transactions 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1840-1,' 
and during the same winter he delivered, along 
with Edward Forbes, a course of lectures on 
the philosophy of the sciences. In 1843 he 
was a candidate for the chair of chemistry 
in the university of Edinburgh, but on ac- 
count of his failure to establish the propo- 
sition of the isomerism of carbon and silicon, 
his other high qualifications were disregarded. 
From this time he retired very much from 
public life, and gave himself over to the task 
of realising experimentally his doctrine of 
the atomic constitution of bodies, only de- 
sisting when failing health rendered it im- 
perative on him to do so. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 20 Sept. 1856. His ' Lectures on 
the Atomic Theory, and Essays Scientific 
and Literary ' were published in 1858 in two 
volumes. He was also the author of a tra- 
gedy, < Galileo Galilei/ 1850, and of < Lay 
Sermons on the Theory of Christianity.' 

[Preface by his cousin, Dr. John Brown, 
author of Kab and his Friends, to Lectures on 

the Atomic Theory; Kecollections of Professor 
Masson in Macmillan's Magazine, vol. xii. ; 
North British Review, vol. li.] T. F. H. 

BROWN", SAMUEL (1810-1875), ac- 
tuary and statist, entered the office of the 
old Equitable Life in 1829 as a junior. He 
was appointed actuary of the Mutual Life 
Office in 1850, and of the Guardian Insurance 
Company in 1855. He contributed numerous 
papers to the 'Assurance Magazine,' and also 
to the ' Journal of the Statistical Society.' He 
took a very prominent part in the decimal 
coinage movement, and several times dis- 
cussed the question before the International 
Statistical Congress. He also advocated uni- 
form weights and measures throughout the 
commercial world. He took an active part in 
founding the Institute of Actuaries in 1848 r 
and became its president in 1867, holding the 
office for three consecutive years. He was also 
joint editor of the ' Journal of the Institute 
of Actuaries.' In 1868 he was president of 
the Economic section of the British Associa- 
tion at Norwich. He instituted the ' Brown 
Prize ' at the Institute of Actuaries, and the 
first award under the terms of the endow- 
ment fifty guineas for the best essay on the 
history of life insurance was made in 1884. 
He gave evidence before various parliamen- 
tary committees on insurance and kindred 
topics. He died in 1875, aged 65. 

[Walford's Insurance Cyclopaedia.] C. W. 

BROWN, STEPHEN (Jl. 1340?), theo- 
logian, a native of Aberdeen, was a doctor 
of theology and a Carmelite monk. He is 
mentioned as one of the twelve scholars of 
special reputation in Scotland whom Ed- 
ward I is said to have invited to Oxford ; and 
certain collections of sermons, theological 
treatises, expositions, and letters are attri- 
buted to him. Brown's identity is, however, 
extremely doubtful ; and the very date at 
which he is said to have flourished is hardly 
compatible with the facts related of his life. 
He has apparently been confounded with 
another Stephen Brown who was appointed 
to the see of Ross, in the province of Munster, 
by a papal provision dated 22 April 1399 
(C. DE VILLIEES, Sibliotheca Carmelitana, 
ii. 767), and who, 'having made the requisite 
declarations and renounced all clauses in 
the pope's bull which were prejudicial to the 
rights of the crown, was restored to his tem- 
poralities on May 6, 1402 ' (H. COTTON, Fasti 
JZccles. Hibern. i. 352, 2nd ed. 1851). This 
confusion of the two persons has, in fact, 
been made by the historian of the Carmelite 
order (I.e.} ; and, to add to the difficulty, 
Bale describes Brown as bishop of Ross in 



Scotland, and Tanner, by an error easily ac- 
counted for, makes him bishop of Rochester 
('Roffensis '). Since, however, the bishop of 
the Irish see is an historical personage, of 
whom even the armorial bearings are pre- 
served (COTTON, I.e.), it is perhaps most pro- 
bable that his earlier namesake is purely 

[Bale's Script. Brit. Cat. xiv. 54 (vol. ii. 215 
et seq.) ; T. Dempster's Hist. Eccles. Gent. Scot. 
ii. 198, p. 107, ed. Bologna, 1627 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. p. 131.] E. L. P. 


(d. 1445), was bishop of Rochester and Nor- 
wich. Nothing is known of his parentage 
or birthplace, nor of what university he was 
LL.D. As, however, Cardinal Repington, 
bishop of Lincoln, collated him to the sub- 
deanery of Lincoln in 1414, and as Reping- 
ton was chancellor of Oxford, it is probable 
that Brown was of that university. In 1419 
lie was made archdeacon of Stow, in 1422 pre- 
bendary of Biggies wade, in 1423 prebendary 
of Langford Manor (all in the diocese of 
Lincoln), in 1425 prebendary of Flixton in 
the diocese of Lichfield, in 1427 archdeacon 
of Berkshire, and in 1431 dean of Salisbury. 
He held all these preferments together till 
his promotion to the see of Rochester in 
1435, being at the same time vicar-general 
to Chichele, archbishop of Canterbury. Can 
Thomas Gascoigne be referring to " Brown 
when he says, in his usually extravagant 
manner, ' Novi unum fatuum qui habuit 
unum magnum archidiaconatum et xij. prse- 
bendas magnas ' ? (Loci e Libro Verltatutn, 
Clarendon Press, 4to, 1881, p. 43). In 1429 
he was elected to the bishopric of Chichester, 
and was approved by the king ; but the pope, 
Martin V, quashed the election, and he had 
to wait four years before he was raised to the 
episcopate. He was consecrated bishop of 
Rochester at Canterbury on 1 May 1435, 
and next year, while attending at the coun- 
cil of Basle, was translated by Eugenius IV 
to the bishopric of Norwich. Henry VI 
taking offence at this, Brown submitted him- 
self to the king's pleasure, and with so good 
a grace that his apology was accepted, and 
he was allowed to take possession of his see. 
In 1439 he was sent as ambassador to nego- 
tiate a peace with France, and to make a 
commercial treaty with the Flemings. His 
episcopate is uneventful, except, that he was 
a peacemaker on the occasion of a serious 
dispute between the citizens of Norwich and 
the priory. Possibly his award may have been 
displeasing to the convent, for soon after this 
the prior behaved with exceeding disrespect 
to the bishop, and the quarrel ended in an 

appeal to Rome, when the prior was com- 
pelled to submit to his diocesan. Brown died 
at Hoxne on 6 Dec. 1445, and was buried in 
the cathedral. His will has been preserved. 
In it, besides other legacies, he leaves money 
for the support of poor scholars at both uni- 

[Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 40, 79, 567, 634 (Hardy); 
Rymer's Fcedera, x. 433, 608, 724, 728, 730; 
Rolls of Parliament, v. 13; Blomefield's Norfolk, 
iii. 533 ; Stubbs's Reg. Sac. Anglic. ; Brown's 
will, Lambeth Reg. Stafford, 131 b; Genealogist, 
v. 324.] A. J. 

BROWN, THOMAS (/. 1570), trans- 
lator, of Lincoln's Inn, translated into Eng- 
lish 'A ritch Storehouse or Treasurie for 
Nobilitye and Gentlemen, which in Latine 
is called Nobilitas literata, written by a 
famous and excellent man, John Sturmius, 
and translated into English by T. B., gent., 
. . . Imprinted at London by Henri e Den- 
ham .... 1570.' This volume is in the 
Grenville Library in the British Museum. 
In a note appended to it Mr. Grenville says 
that it does not appear who T. B. was. A 
Thomas Brown who wrote some verses pre- 
fixed to the ' Galateo of maister John Delia 
Case (Casa) archbishop of Beneventa,' trans- 
lated by Robert Peterson of Lincoln's Inn, 
gentleman, a work printed in 1576, and de- 
scribed in Herbert's edition of Ames's ' Typo- 
graphical Antiquities,' is probably Thomas 
Browne (d. 1585) [q. v.] 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 131 ; manuscript note of 
Mr. T. Grenville ; Herbert's Ames's Typographi- 
cal Antiquities, ii. 903.] W. H. 

BROWN, THOMAS (1663-1704), mis- 
cellaneous Avriter, son of a farmer, was born 
in 1663 at Shifnal in Shropshire. He was 
educated at Newport school, in the same 
.county, whence he proceeded in 1678 to Christ 
Church, Oxford. Here his irregular habits 
brought him into trouble. The story goes 
that the dean of Christ Church, Dr. Fell, 
threatened to expel him, but, on receipt of a 
submissive letter, promised to forgive him if 
he would translate extempore the epigram of 
Martial (i. 32), ' Non amo te, Sabidi,' &c., 
which Brown promptly rendered by 

I do not love thee, Dr. Fell, 

The reason why I cannot tell ; 

But this I know, and know full well, 

I do not love thee, Dr. Fell. 
Brown afterwards made amends by writing 
the doctor's epitaph. Some English verses 
by Brown are prefixed to Creech's translation 
of Lucretius, 1682, and there is a copy of his 
Latin verses, entitled ' Soteria Ormondiana/ 
in ' Musse Oxonienses.' He contributed some 
translations from Horace to l Miscellany 




Poems by Oxford Hands,' 1685. Leaving 
the university without a degree, he came to 
London, and endeavoured to support himself 
by his pen ; but, finding it difficult to pro- 
cure employment, he reluctantly accepted the 
post of usher in a school at Kingston-on- 
Thames. Writing to a friend at this date, 
he says : ' I ventured once or twice to launch 
my little bark amongst the adventurous rovers 
of the pen, but with such little success that 
for the present 1 have abandoned all hopes 
of doing anything that way. . . . The pro- 
digal son, when he was pressed by hunger 
and thirst, joined himself to a swineherd ; and 
I have been driven by the same stimuli to 
join myself to a swine, an ignorant peda- 
gogue about twelve miles out of town.' He 
was afterwards appointed head-master of the 
grammar school at Kingstoii-on-Thames. 
Having spent three years in school work, he 
settled in London, and devoted himself to 
the production of satirical poems and pamph- 
lets, varying this employment with transla- 
tions from Greek, Latin, French, and Spanish 
authors. In 1687 he contributed supple- 
mentary * Reflections on the Hind and the 
Panther ' to Matthew Clifford's 'Four Letters ' 
on Dryden ; and in the following years, as- 
suming the pseudonym Dudley Tomkinson, 
he assailed Dryden in a spiteful, though not 
unamusing, pamphlet, entitled ' The Reasons 
of Mr. Bays' changing his religion, considered 
in a dialogue between Crites, Eugenius, and 
Mr. Bays,' 4to, of which a second part was 
published in 1690 under the title of 'The 
Reasons of the New Convert's taking the 
Oaths,' 4to, and a third part, ' The Reason 
of Mr. Hains the Player's Conversion and 
Reconversion,' in 1691,"4to. In 1691 he pub- 
lished l The Weesils. A satyrical Fable giving 
the account of some argumental passages 
happening in the lion's court about Weesi- 
lion's taking the oaths,' London, 1691, 4to, 
an attack on Dr. Sherlock. An anonymous 
satire on Durfey, ' Wit for Money, or Poet 
Stutter, a Dialogue,' 1691, 4to, may probably 
be assigned to Brown, who, in the same year, 
assailed two prominent clergymen in an ano- 
nymous pamphlet entitled, 'Novus Refor- 
mator Vapulans, or the Welsh Levite tossed 
in a blanket. In a dialogue between Hick- 
[eringill] of Colchester, David J[o]nes and 
the Ghost of Wil. Pryn,' 4to. About this 
time Brown started the ' Lacedaemonian Mer- 
cury/ in opposition to Dunton's 'Athenian 
Mercury ; ' but the paper had only a short run. 
In August 1693 he wrote a copy of satirical 
verses on the occasion of the marriage of 
Titus Oates (' The Salamancan Wedding ; or 
a true Account of a swearing Doctor's Mar- 
riage with a Muggletonian Widow,' half sheet), 

for which performance he is said to have been 
apprehended and punished. Many of Brown's 
humorous and satirical verses were published 
in { A Collection of Miscellany Poems, Let- 
ters, &c., by Mr. Brown, &c.,' London, 1699, 
8vo. On p. 49 of this collection is a bitter 
attack by Brown on Tom Durfey, beginning 

Thou cur, half French, half English breed, 

Thou mongrel of Parnassus. 

Elsewhere ( Works, ed. 1719-21, v. 65) he 
has some amusing verses on a duel fought at 
Epsom in 1689 between Durfey and Bell, 
a musician. In a ' Session of the Poets ' 
there is a mock trial of Durfey and Brown, 
held at the foot of Parnassus on 9 July 1696. 
Brown's satirical writings are more remark- 
able for coarseness than for wit. In worry- 
ing an adversary he was strangely pertina- 
cious; he never would let a quarrel drop, 
but returned to the attack again and again. 
Sir Richard Blackmore was one of the special 
objects of his aversion ; he edited in 1700 
a collection of mock ' Commendatory Verses 
on the Author of the Two Arthurs and the 
Satyr against Wit by some of his particular 
Friends,' fol. For writing a 'Satyr upon 
the French King on the Peace of Reswick r 
( Works, i. 89, ed. 1707) he was committed 
to prison ; and the story goes that he pro- 
cured his release by addressing to the lords 
in council a Pindaric petition, which con- 
cludes thus : 

The pulpit alone 

Can never preach down 

The fops of the town. 

Then pardon Tom Brown 
And let him write on : 

But if you had rather convert the poor sinner, 
His fast writing mouth may be stopped with a 

Give him clothes to his back, some meat and 

much drink, 

Then clap him close prisoner without pen and ink, 
And your petitioner shall neither pray, write, 

nor think. 

Tom Brown's life was as licentious as his 
writings. Much of his time was spent in a 
low tavern in Gower's Row in the Minories. 
His knowledge of London was certainly t ex- 
tensive and peculiar,' and his humorous 
sketches of low life are both entertaining and 
valuable. An anonymous biographer says : 
1 Tom Brown had less the spirit of a gentle- 
man than the rest of the wits, and more of a 
scholar. . . . As of his mistresses, so he was 
very negligent in the choice of his companions, 
who were sometimes mean and despicable/ 
Brown died in Aldersgate Street on 16 June 
1704, and was buried in the cloisters of 
Westminster Abbey, near his friend Mrs. 
Aphra Behn. The inscription (which has 



been lately recut) on his tombstone is, 
'Thomas Brown, Author of "The London 
Spy," born 1663, died 1704,' but the author of 
< The London Spy ' was Ned Ward. Shortly 
after his death appeared a ' Collection of all 
the Dialogues of Mr. Thomas Brown,' 1704, 
8vo, to which was appended a letter (the 
genuineness of which was attested by Thomas 
Wotton, curate of St. Lawrence Jewry) pur- 
porting to have been written by Brown on 
his deathbed. In this letter Brown, after 
expressing regret for having written any- 
thing that would be likely to have a perni- 
cious influence, protests against being respon- 
sible for ' lampoons, trips, London Spies,' in 
which he had no hand. He was too lazy, he 
tells us, to write much, and yet pamphlets 
good and bad of every kind had been fathered 
upon him. A whimsical description of 
Brown's experiences on his arrival in Hades 
was published under the title of ' A Letter 
from the dead Thomas Brown to the living 
Herodotus,' 1704, 8vo. An epitaph, written 
shortly after his death, contains the lines 

Each merry wag throughout the town 
Will toast the memory of Brown, 
Who laugh 'd a race of rascals down. 

Addison, in his essay on the 'Potency of 
Mystery and Innuendo' (Spectator, No. 567), 
after mentioning that some writers, 'when 
they would be more satirical than ordinary, 
omit only the vowels of a great man's name, 
and fall most mercifully upon all the con- 
sonants,' adds that Tom Brown, ' of facetious 
memory,' was the first to bring the practice 
into fashion. 

A collected edition of Brown's works in 
three volumes, with a character of the author 
by James Drake, M.D., was published in 
1707-8, 8vo. Vol. I. contains essays, poems, 
sat ires, and epigrams ; original letters ; trans- 
lations of Aristgenetus's letters, and of letters 
from Latin and French. Vol. II. is entirely 
occupied with ' Letters from the Dead to the 
Living' (which had been previously published 
in 1702). These are partly original and 
partly translated from the French. Brown 
wrote only a portion of the collection. The 
contents of vol. iii. are : ' Amusements Se- 
rious and Comical, calculated for the Me- 
ridian of London ' (separately published in 
1700) ; ' Letters Serious and Comical ; ' 
' Pocket-book of Common Places ; ' ' A Walk 
round London and Westminster ; ' l The Dis- 
pensary, a Farce ; ' ' The London and Lace- 
daemonian Oracles.' The fourth edition, in 
four volumes 8vo, is dated 1719 ; a supple- 
mentary volume of ' Remains ' (incorporated 
in later editions) followed in 1721. The 
eighth and final edition was published in 

1760, 4 vols. 8vo. Two (unacted) comedies 
are not included in the collected editions: 

1. 'Physic lies a-bleeding, or the Apothe- 
cary turned Doctor,' 1697, 4to. 2. 'The 
Stage-Beaux tossed in a Blanket, or Hypo- 
crisy a-la-mode/ 1704, 4to, a comedy in three 
acts, satirising Jeremy Collier. Among 
Brown's scattered writings are : 1. ' Lives of 
all the Princes of Orange, from the French 
of Baron Mourier ; to which is added the Life 
of King William the Third,' 1693, 8vo. 

2. ' Life of the famous Duke de Richelieu, 
from the French of Du Plessis,' 1695. 

3. 'France and Spain naturally Enemies, 
from the Spanish of C. Garcia.' 4. ' Miscel- 
lanea Aulica ; or a Collection of State 
Treatises,' 1702, with a preface of ten pages 
by Brown. 5. ' Short Dissertation about the 
Mona in Caesar and Tacitus,' appended to 
Sacheverell's ' Account of the Isle of Man/ 
1702, 12mo. 6. ' Marriage Ceremonies as 
now used in all Parts of the World.' Written 
originally in Italian by Signor Gaya, third 
edition, 1704. 7. ' Justin's History of the 
World made English by Mr. T. Brown/ 
second edition, 1712, 12mo. Brown's name 
is found on the list of contributors to the 
variorum translations of Petronius (1708), 
Lucian (1711), and Scarron (1772). A col- 
lection of ' Beauties of Tom Brown/ with a 
preface by C. H. Wilson, and a coloured 
folding frontispiece by Thomas Rowlandson, 
was published in 1808, 8vo. 

[Memoir by James Drake, prefixed to Brown's 
Collected Works; Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, iv. 
662-4 ; Gibber's Lives of the Poets, vol. iii. ; 
Biographia Dramatica, ed. Stephen Jones ; Scott's 
Swift, 2nded., ix. 375; Scott's Dry den, x. 102-3; 
Ebsworth's Bagford Ballads, i. 88 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. i. 316, 337, ii. 158, 210, 228 ; 
Works.] A. H. B. 

, THOMAS (1778-1820), meta- 
physician, was born at the manse of Kilma- 
breck 9 Jan. 1778. His father, minister of 
Kilmabreck and Kirkdale, died eighteen 
months later, and his mother removed to 
Edinburgh. Thomas was a very precocious 
child. His biographer asserts, 'upon the 
most satisfactory evidence,' that when four 
years old he was found comparing the gospels 
to see in what respects the narratives dif- 
fered. In his seventh year he was sent to a 
school at Camberwell by a maternal uncle, 
Captain Smith. Thence, in a year, he was 
moved to Chiswick, and afterwards to schools 
at Bromley and Kensington. On his re- 
moval from Chiswick, the other pupils drew 
up a round-robin asking for his return. A 
poem on Charles I, written at Chiswick, was 
inserted by one of the masters in a magazine. 



In 1792, on the death of his uncle, he re- 
turned to Edinburgh, and was much grieved 
by the loss of his books at sea. He entered 
the university at Edinburgh, and studied 
logic under Dr. Finlayson. In 1793 he spent 
part of the vacation at Liverpool. Here he 
made the acquaintance of Dr. Currie, the 
biographer of Burns, who put into his hands 
the recently published first volume of Dugald 
Stewart's ' Elements.' Next winter he at- 
tended Stewart's lectures, and attracted the 
professor's notice by submitting to him an 
acute criticism. If, as Stewart held, memory 
depends upon voluntary attention, how, asked 
Brown, do we remember dreams ? The same 
objection had been urged in a letter which 
Stewart had just received from Prevost of 
Geneva (1755-1819), afterwards professor at 
Montauban. (Prevost's letter is given in 
Stewart's ' Works, 7 ii. 491.) Darwin's < Zoo- 
nomia ' was at this time attracting attention, 
and Brown wrote some remarks upon it, 
which, by Stewart's advice, he communicated 
to Darwin. A correspondence took place 
(October 1796 to January 1797), in which 
Darwin showed some annoyance at the sharp 
treatment of his theories. The remarks were 
put together by the boyish critic, and pub- 
lished in 1798. They were highly praised 
by the critics in the literary circles of 
Edinburgh. Brown had become intimate 
with young men of promise. He joined the 
Literary Society in 1796, and a smaller so- 
ciety, formed by some of the members in 
1797, which called itself the Academy of 
Physics, and included Brougham, Jeffrey, 
Horner, Sydney Smith, Ley den, and others. 
It nourished for about three years, and helped 
to bring together the founders of the ( Edin- 
burgh Review.' Brown was one of the first 
reviewers. He wrote an article upon Kant 
in the second number, which is at least a 
proof of courage, as it is founded entirely 
upon Villers's French account of Kant. 
Some editorial interference with an article 
in the third number led him to withdraw 
from the review. He never afterwards wrote 
in a periodical. He began to study law in 
1796, but finding that it did not suit his health 
became a medical student from 1798 to 1803. 
His thesis upon taking his degree, entitled 
1 De Somno,' is praised for the purity of the 
Latin, in which language, it is said, he could 
talk as fluently as in English. 

In 1804 he published poems in two volumes, 
and in the same year took part in a famous 
controversy. The claims of Leslie to the 
mathematical chair at Edinburgh had been 
opposed on the ground that he had spoken 
favourably of Hume's theory of causation. 
Brown undertook to prove that Hume's 

theory did not lead to the sceptical conse- 
quences ascribed to it. He published ' Ob- 
servations on the Nature and Tendency of 
! the Doctrine of Mr. Hume concerning the 
Relation of Cause and Effect ' in 1804 ; a 
second and enlarged edition of which ap- 
peared in 1806 ; and a third, called ' An In- 
| quiry into the Relation of Cause and Effect,' 
: in 1818. In 1806 Brown became a partner 
of Dr. Gregory. In spite of fair professional 
prospects, his tastes were still philosophical. 
Attempts had been made in 1799 to obtain 
his appointment to the chair of rhetoric, and 
in 1808 to the chair of logic. The tory and 
church interest was too strong for him. 
Dugald Stewart's health was now declining, 
and he obtained the assistance of Brown in 
lecturing the moral philosophy class in the 
winter of 1808-9. In the next winter Brown 
acted for a longer time as Stewart's substi- 
tute. His lectures attracted the attendance 
of professors as well as students, and a com- 
mittee was formed upon Stewart's reappear- 
ance to congratulate him and express admi- 
ration for his assistant. In the following 
May (1810), after an earnest canvass by- 
Stewart himself, and many letters from emi- 
nent men, Brown was elected by the town 
council as Stewart's colleague. He held this 
position for the rest of his life. His lectures 
were written at high pressure. He began to 
write each on the evening before its delivery, 
sat up late several times all night in the 
first winter and did not finish till the clock 
struck twelve, the hour of lecturing. Three 
volumes were thus written in his first session, 
and the fourth in the second. He lived 
quietly with his mother and sisters, hospi- 
tably entertaining visitors to Edinburgh. 
His chief amusement was walking, and he 
had a passion for hill climbing. He also found 
time to compose a quantity of indifferent 
poetry, which he alone preferred to his philo- 
sophy. In 1814 he finished and published 
anonymously his 'Paradise of Coquettes,' 
begun six years before. In 1815 he published 
the ' Wanderer in Norway,' an elaboration of 
some verses in his first volumes, suggested 
by Mary Wollstonecraft's l Letters from 
Norway.' In 1816 he published the ' War- 
fiend,' in 1817 the < Bower of Spring.' in 1818 
' Agnes,' and in 1819 ' Emily.' A collected 
edition in 1820, in four volumes, includes 
these and a second edition of a poem called 
the ( Renovation of India,' originally written 
for a college prize, and published when, after 
three years, no award was made. He was 
much grieved by the death, in 1817, of his 
mother, to whom he had been most tenderly 
attached. In 1819 he began to prepare a 
text-book of his lectures. He fell ill, and 




upon meeting his class broke down in giving 
a lecture (No. 35 in the collected edition), 
which always affected him. He never lec- 
tured again. His health was injured by 
worry about providing a substitute, and 
afterwards by severe weather. His physi- 
cians recommended a voyage to London. 
He died at Brompton on 2 April 1820. He 
had left to his friend and biographer, Dr. 
"Welsh, the superintendence of the last sheets 
of his text-book, called the l Physiology of 
the Human Mind,' which was already in the 
press ; and his lectures were published under 
the care of John Stewart (who had under- 
taken to supply his place on his final break- 
down), and on Stewart's death of the Rev. 
E. Milroy. 

Brown was a man of simple habits and 
strong domestic affections. He read all his 
works before publication to his mother and 
sisters. He was specially fond of animals ; 
he held that some of them had a moral sense 
and immortal souls, arid meant to write a 
treatise on our duties to them. He was a 
patriotic Scotchman, and a strong liberal, 
and credited, though not accurately, with re- 
publicanism. Except in the period of first 
preparing his lectures, he confined his hours 
of composition to the morning, after break- 
fast, and the evening from seven till ten or 
eleven. His knowledge of modern languages 
was considerable, and his memory extraor- 
dinary ; he could remember twenty or thirty 
lines of French or Italian after a single read- 
ing. Brown's poetry, modelled chiefly upon 
Pope and Akenside, never made much im- 
pression. His lectures excited the utmost 
enthusiasm amongst the students ; and his 
fame lasted till the rise of a new school, cul- 
minating about 1830 to 1835. A 19th edi- 
tion of his lectures appeared in 1851. The 
inquiry into the relation of cause and effect 
is one of the most vigorous statements of the 
doctrine first made prominent by Hume, and 
since maintained by the Mills. Like them, 
Brown reduces causation to invariable se- 
quence, and especially labours the point that 
'power' is a word expressive of nothing eke. 
He denies the distinction between ' physical ' 
and ' efficient ' causes. He differs, however, 
from Hume (upon whose writings he makes 
some interesting criticisms) in inferring that 
we have an intuitive conception, underlying 
all experience, that the same antecedents will 
produce the same consequences. This takes 
the place of Hume's ' custom,' and enables 
Brown to avoid Hume's theological scepti- 
cism. He infers God as the cause of an 
orderly universe. The lectures, hurriedly 
written, are injured by the sentimental rhe- 
toric and frequent quotations from Akenside, 


by which they are overlaid and expanded. 
This is due probably to haste and tov^he 
desire to catch a youthful audience. They 
show, however, remarkable powers of psycho- 
logical analysis. The most valuable teach- 
ing is considered to be the exposition (lec- 
tures 22 to 27) of the part played by touch 
and the muscular sense in revealing an ex- 
ternal world. Professor Bain's writings upon 
the same topic partly embody Brown's theo- 
ries. Hamilton (REID'S Works, p. 868) ac- 
cuses Brown of borrowing in this direction 
from Condillac and De Tracy. His philo- 
sophy, as Dr. M'Cosh says, is a combination 
of Reid and Stewart with the French sen- 
sationalists. A peculiarity of Brown is, that 
he suppresses the will, as Reid had suppressed 
the feelings in the more generally accepted 
classification of intellect, will, and feeling. 
By the subordination of the will to desire, 
Hamilton (ib. p. 531) says that he virtually 
abolished all freedom, responsibility, and 
morality. Hamilton everywhere shows a 
strong dislike to Brown, whose influence was 
supplanted by his own. In an article in 
I the 'Edinburgh Review' (October 1830), re- 
I printed in his ' Dissertations/ he accuses 
; Brown of totally misunderstanding the his- 
| tory of previous theories of perception, and 
I of grossly misrepresenting Reid. Brown 
speaks with some severity of Reid, and 
Stewart had protested against this, and con- 
! demned the general hastiness of Brown's 
j work in a note to the third volume of his 
1 Elements ' (published in 1826) (STEWAKT'S 
Works, iv. 377). He had been unconscious 
of his colleague's sentiments till the publica- 
tion of the lectures in Welsh's 'Life/ Hamil- 
ton's dislike is obvious, and his charges of 
plagiarism seem to be unfair as against lec- 
tures intended for learners, and published 
after the author's death, and without his ex- 
planations. Whatever Brown's originality, he 
was the last and a very vigorous representa- 
tive of the Scotch school, modified by French 
influence, but not affected by the German phi- 
losophy, which, under the influence of Hamil- 
! ton and his followers, has since so deeply af- 
j fected philosophical speculation in Scotland. 

[Welsh's Account of the Life and Writings, 
I &c., 1825 (an abridgment is prefixed to the later 
i editions of the lectures) ; M'Cosh's Scottish Phi- 
; losophy, pp. 317-37.] L. S. 


(1798-1880), catholic bishop, was born at 
Bath on 2 May 1798. His education began 
at a small protestant school in that city, 
while his religious instruction was entrusted 
by his catholic parents to the care of Ralph 
Ainsworth, then the priest in charge of the 





Bath mission. At Ainsworth's instance he 
was sent in 1807 to Acton Burnell, near 
Shrewsbury, where the Benedictine monks 
had opened a college. There he remained 
for seven years, towards the end of which 
time he received the Benedictine habit, on 
19 April 1813. Early in 1814 he accompanied 
the community on their migration to their 
new home at Downside in Somersetshire. 
At the new college of St. Gregory's, Down- 
side, Brown remained in residence for more 
than a quarter of a century. He was or- 
dained to the priesthood on 7 April 1823 in 
London, and almost immediately appointed 
professor of theology at Downside. That 
office he held for upwards of seventeen years. ' 
Throughout that period he conducted the 
dogmatic course invariably in Latin. As 
Bishop Hedley says, in his funeral sermon 
(p. 5), ' Unwearying study, extreme pains in 
collating author with author and passage 
with passage, and unfailing accuracy of 
memory these, in his best days, were the 
characteristics of his class lessons.' In 1829 
he was sent to Rome as socius with Fr. 
Richard Marsh, then president-general, to 
conduct a most delicate case before the Ro- 
man Curia. Three years before this Brown , 
had published ' A Letter to the Very Rev. { 
Archdeacon Daubeny, LL.D., exposing the ' 
Misrepresentations of his Third Chapter on 
Transubstantiation,' 1826. On his return to 
England, Brown attained a position of great j 
eminence, both on the platform and in the I 
press. For five days together, in 1830, he, \ 
with five of his coreligionists, confronted three ! 
members of the Protestant Reformation So- \ 
ciety in the riding school at Cheltenham, in j 
the presence of four thousand people. The 
fifth day's controversy closed with a scene of 
riotous confusion. Soon afterwards appeared 
' Substance of the Arguments adopted by the j 
Roman Catholic Advocates in the Recent Dis- 
cussion at Cheltenham on the Rule of Faith, 
collected from Notes taken during the Discus- 
sion by the Rev. T. J. Brown, S.T.P.,' 1830. 
In 1833 a controversy sprang up between 
Brown and two protestant clergymen, the 
Rev. Messrs. Batchellor and Newnham. 
Brown's argument was published as ' Catho- 
lic Truth vindicated against the Misrepre- 
sentations and Calumnies of " Popery Un- 
masked," ' 1833. Before the close of that 
year Brown was appointed cathedral prior of 
Winchester. Early in 1834 he took part in j 
the controversy long afterwards memorable 
as ' The Downside Discussion.' It arose, on | 
10 Jan. 1834, at the Old Down inn, out of a 
meeting of the Protestant Reformation So- ', 
ciety, at which the two principal speakers , 
were the Rev. John Lyons and the Rev. Ed- | 

ward Tottenham. A friend of Brown's hav- 
ing formally challenged those gentlemen to 
a disputation, six meetings were soon after- 
wards arranged to take place in the college 
chapel at Downside. These meetings came 
off in 1834, and in 1836 appeared the 
' Authentic Report of the Discussion which 
took place in the Chapel of the Roman Ca- 
tholic College of Downside, near Bath. Sub- 
jects : the Rule of Faith and the Sacrifice of 
the Mass.' Soon afterwards, in the same 
year, was published ' Supplement to the 
Downside Discussion, by the Rev. T. J. 
Brown, D.D.' Brown had been elected, 
18 July 1834, prior of Downside, and had 
received six days afterwards, 24 July, his cap 
as doctor of divinity. Immediately after his 
election to the priorship he resumed with 
unabated energy his teaching labours as pro- 
fessor of theology. In July 1840 the vicars 
apostolic in England were increased from 
four to eight, Wales, until then included in 
the western district, being formed into a 
separate vicariate. Gregory XVI, who as 
Cardinal Cappellari had years before then 
learned to appreciate his capacities, named 
Brown at once the first bishop of the 
Welsh district. He accepted the dignity at 
last with profound reluctance. His episco- 
pal consecration by Bishop Griffith took 
place on 28 Oct. 1840, in St. John's Chapel, 
Pierrepoint Place, Bath, the title assumed 
by him being Bishop of Apollonia in the 
Archdiocese of Thessalonica. The newly 
created diocese embraced the twelve counties 
of Wales, with Herefordshire and Mon- 
mouthshire. His vicariate was very exten- 
sive and extremely impoverished. It in- 
cluded within it only nineteen chapels. 
Eleven of these belonging to Hereford and 
Monmouth, no more than eight in all apper- 
tained to the dozen Welsh counties. On the 
formation of the catholic hierarchy Brown 
was translated, on 29 Sept. 1850, to the 
newly constituted see of Newport and Me- 
nevia. His jurisdiction was thenceforth re- 
stricted to the six counties of South Wales, 
with the shires of Hereford and Monmouth. 
Towards the close of that year he was drawn 
into the last of his more noteworthy theo- 
logical discussions. It began on 3 Dec. 1850, 
in a correspondence which was not completed 
until 13 Jan. 1852. Immediately upon its 
conclusion it appeared as ' A Controversy on 
the Infallibility of the Church of Rome and 
the Doctrine of Article VI of the Church of 
England, between Bishop Brown and the Rev. 
Joseph Baylee, M.A., Principal of St. Aidan's 
College, Birkenhead,' 1852. Besides this 
and the works already enumerated, Brown 
published l Monita Confessariorum,' and in 




the ' Orthodox Journal ' very many articles 
and letters signed with his then well-known 
initials, S[acree] T [neologise] P[rofessor]. In 
1858 he obtained permission from the holy see 
that his cathedral chapter should be formed ex- 
clusively of Benedictine monks. He thus suc- 
ceeded in reviving under the new hierarchy 
one of the most remarkable and distinctive 
features of the pre-reformation hierarchy of 
England. On 29 Sept. 1873 John Cuthbert 
Hedley was consecrated bishop auxiliary, and 
seven years later was his successor in the 
see of Newport and Menevia. Before the 
close of his life Brown was for many years 
the senior member of the English catholic 
episcopate. For forty years together he was 
in a very literal and primitive sense a bishop 
in poverty. Kising all through his long life 
invariably at 5 A.M., he persistently tra- 
velled, preached, wrote, saved, and begged 
for his flock. And with such good effect did 
he spend himself in their interests that, in- 
stead of the nineteen chapels and nineteen 
priests he had found in his huge vicariate of 
the Welsh district, he left in his compara- 
tively much smaller diocese of Newport and 
Menevia fifty-eight churches and sixty-two 
priests. Brown died on 12 April 1880, 
shortly before the completion of his eighty- 
second year, at his residence in Bullingham, 

[Snow's Necrology of the English Benedic- 
tines from 1600 to 1883, p. 174; Men of the 
Time, 10th ed., p. 153 ; Maziere Brady's Epi- 
scopal Succession, pp. 337, 354, 424-6 ; Oliver's 
Collections illustrating the History of the Ca- 
tholic Eeligion, &c., pp. 252, 253 ; The Downside 
Review, No. 1, July 1880, Memoir, pp. 4-16; 
Annual Register for 1880, p 160; Tablet, 
17 April 1880, p. 498 ; Weekly Register, 17 April 
1880, pp. 241, 246.] C. K. 

MAXIMILIAN VON (1705-1757), count of 
the holy Roman empire, baron de Camus 
and Mountany, and field-marshal in the im- 
perialist armies, was son of Ulysses, baron 
Brown, an Irish colonel of cavalry in the 
Austrian army ennobled for his military ser- 
vices by the emperor Charles V, and was 
born at Basle on 23 Oct. 1705. He entered 
the imperial service at an early age and dis- 
tinguished himself on several occasions. At 
the age of twenty-one he married the young 
Countess Marie Philippine von Martinez, 
daughter of George Adam Martinez, who for 
a short time was imperial vicegerent in the 
kingdom of Naples. Brown's influential con- 
nections, as well as his personal merits, se- 
cured his rapid advancement. At twenty-nine 
he commanded an Austrian infantry regi- 
ment in Italy, and a few years later, on the 

accession of the empress Maria Theresa, he 
was advanced to the rank of field-marshal 
lieutenant and appointed to command in 
Silesia. In the campaigns in Italy in 1743-8 
he greatly distinguished himself, particularly 
at the battle of Piacenza, where he com- 
manded the Austrian left, and mainly con- 
tributed to the success of the day. When 
the Austrians moved southward the city of 
Genoa opened its gates to him, and he sub- 
sequently commanded the imperialist troops 
that crossed the Var and entered France, 
establishing their outposts a few miles from 
Toulon. His withdrawal from Genoa was 
considered a masterly operation. After the 
convention of Nizza in 1749 he returned to 
Vienna, and held commands in Transylvania 
and Bohemia. He became a field-marshal 
in 1753. At the outbreak of the seven years' 
war he was in Silesia, and commanded the 
Austrians at the battle of Lobositz. Be- 
lieving a dual command, as proposed by Maria 
Theresa, to be prejudicial to public interests, 
Brown offered to serve under the orders of 
Prince Charles of Lorraine, the empress's fa- 
vourite, in Bohemia, and there, while head- 
ing a bayonet-charge of grenadiers on the 
Prussian line before the walls of Prague, on 
6 May 1757, was struck by a cannon-shot, 
which shattered one of his legs. He was 
carried from the field, and died of his wound 
at Prague on 26 June following, leaving be- 
hind him the reputation of a consummate 
general and an able and successful nego- 
tiator. His biography was published in Ger- 
man and in French in 1757. 

[Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Leipzig, 
1876), iii. 369-73, the particulars in which are 
taken from Zuverlassige Lebensbeschreibung von 
U. M. Count von Brown (Leipzig and Frankfort, 
1757) ; Baron 0' Cabin's Geschichte der grossten 
Heerfuhrer der neueren Zeit (Rastadt, 1785), ii. 
264-316. English readers will find compendious 
notices of Count Brown's military operations in 
Sir E. Gust's Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth 
Century (London, 1860-1); Carlyle's Frederick 
the Great.] H. M. C. 

BROWN, WILLIAM (d. 1814), rear- 
admiral, of an old Leicestershire family, was 
made a lieutenant in the navy in 1788, and 
a commander in 1792, when he came home 
from the Mediterranean in command of the 
Zebra sloop. After sixteen months' unevent- 
ful service on the home station, in command 
of the Kingfisher and Fly sloops, he was 
advanced to post rank on 29 Oct. 1793. In 

1794 he commanded the Venus frigate in the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe, and in her 
was present at the action of 1 June, but 
without any opportunity of distinction. In 

1795 he commanded the Alcmene, and, 




though in feeble health, continued in her on 
the home station and the coast of Portugal 
till November 1797, when he was discharged 
to sick quarters at Lisbon. On his recovery, 
he was in March 1798 appointed by Lord St. 
Vincent to the Defence, of 74 guns, and on 
her being paid off in the following January 
he commissioned the Santa Dorothea. 

In 1805 Brown commanded the Ajax, 
of 74 guns, and in her was present in the 
action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July ; but 
by bearing up at the critical moment of 
the attack, in order to communicate with 
the admiral, during the prevalence of a fog, 
he weakened the English van, and must be 
considered as to . some extent a cause of the 
unsatisfactory result of the action (JAMES, 
Naval History, 1860, iii. 361). He after- 
wards, at the request of Sir Robert Calder, 
left the Ajax in command of the first lieu- 
tenant, and returned to England in order to 
give evidence at Calder's court-martial [see 
CA.LDER, SIR ROBERT]. He was thus absent 
from Trafalgar, where the Ajax was com- 
manded by Lieutenant Pilfold. Brown was 
afterwards for some time commissioner of 
the dockyards at Malta and at Sheerness. 
He attained his flag rank in 1812, and in 
June 1813 was appointed commander-in- 
chief at Jamaica, where he died, 20 Sept. 
1814, after an illness of five days. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Mr. John Travers, a 
director of the East India Company, by 
whom he had several children. 

[0' Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet, under ' Charles 
Foreman Brown ' and ' "William Cheselden 
Browne ;' Official Correspondence in the Public 
Kecord Office.] J. K. L. 

BROWN, WILLIAM, D.D. (1766- 
1835), historical writer, was born in 1766. 
He was licensed by the presbytery of Stir- 
ling in 1791, was presented to the parish of 
Eskdalemuir by the Duke of Buccleuch in 
1792, and fulfilled there the duties of mini- 
ster for forty-three years. In 1 797 he married 
Margaret Moffat, by whom he had three 
children. He received the degree of D.D. 
from the university of Aberdeen in 1816, and 
died on 21 Sept. 1835. He was the author of 
the < Antiquities of the Jews ' (2nd ed. 1826, 
'2 vols.), and wrote the 'Account of the Pa- 
rish of Eskdalemuir ' in the ' Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland.' His work on the Jews 
enters with great detail into their customs- 
and religious ceremonials, but barely touches 
upon their political history or ethnical 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanse, vol. i. 
part ii. 635; Gent. Mag. new series, iv. 554; 
Chambers's Historical Newspaper.] N. Gr. 

BROWN, WILLIAM (1777-1857), ad- 
miral in the navy of Buenos Ayres, a native 
of Ireland, accompanied his family to Ame- 
rica in 1786, and, being there left destitute 
by the death of his father, obtained employ- 
ment as cabin-boy on board a merchant ship. 
In 1796 he was pressed into an English 
man-of-war, and served for several years in 
the navy. Afterwards, having obtained the 
command of an English merchant ship, he 
came, in 1812, to Buenos Ayres, where he 
settled with his family. In 1814 he ac- 
cepted a naval command in the service of 
the republic. He engaged a Spanish flo- 
tilla at the mouth of the Uruguay, and he 
fought another and more decisive action off 
Monte Video, capturing four of the Spanish 
vessels and dispersing the rest. He received 
the title of admiral, and fitted out a privateer, 
in which he cruised against the Spaniards in 
the Pacific. His ship was visited by an Eng- 
lish man-of-war, sent to Antigua, and there 
condemned, but was afterwards restored on 
appeal to the home government. Brown 
lived in retirement at Buenos Ayres till 
December 1825, when Brazil declared war 
against the republic and blockaded the River 
Plate. On 4 Feb. 1826 Brown attacked the 
enemy of more than four times his material 
force, and drove them eight leagues down 
the coast. In February 1827 Brown engaged 
and almost totally destroyed a squadron of 
nineteen small vessels at the mouth of the 
Uruguay. On 9 April he put to sea with a 
few brigs, and was at once brought to action 
by a superior force of the enemy. Some of 
the brigs seem to have got back without 
much loss ; Brown, though badly wounded, 
succeeded in running one ashore and setting 
fire to her ; the other was reduced to a wreck 
and captured. The loss obliged the republic 
to enter on negotiations which resulted in a 
peace. In the civil war of 1842-5 Brown 
was again in command of the fleet of Buenos 
Ayres, and with a very inefficient force kept 
up the blockade of Monte Video, notwith- 
standing an order from the English commo- 
dore to throw up his command. In 1845, 
when the English and French squadrons 
were directed to intervene and restore peace 
to the river, their first step was to take pos- 
session of Brown's ships, thus reducing him 
to compulsory inactivity. He had no further 
service, but passed the rest of his life on his 
small estate in the neighbourhood of Buenos 
Ayres. He died on 3 May 1857. A power- 
ful ironclad, named the Almirante Brown, 
still keeps his memory living in the navy of 
the Argentine republic. 

[Mulhall's English in South America, p. 144 
(with a portrait) ; Drake's Diet, of American 




Biography; Memoirs of General Miller (1829); 
Armitage's History of Brazil, vol. i. ; Chevalier 
de Saint-Eoberts's Le General Eosas et la Ques- 
tion de la Plata (1848, 8vo), p. 41 ; Mallalieu's 
Buenos Ayres, Monte Video, and Affairs in the 
Eiver Plate (1844, 8vo), p. 27.] J. K. L. 


1864), benefactor to Liverpool, eldest son of 
Alexander Brown of Ballymena, county An- 
trim, and Grace, daughter of John Davison 
of Drumnasole, was born at Ballymena on 
30 May 1784. At twelve years of age he was 
placed under the care of the Rev. J. Bradley 
at Catterick, Yorkshire, whence in 1800 he 
returned to Ireland. Soon afterwards he 
sailed with his father and mother for the 
United States of America, and at Baltimore, 
where his father continued the linen trade in 
which he had been engaged in Ireland, re- 
ceived in the counting-house his commercial 
education. In a few years the house at Bal- 
timore became the firm of Alexander Brown 
& Sons, consisting of the father and his sons, 
William, John, George, and James. In 1809 
William returned to the United Kingdom, 
established a branch of the firm in Liverpool, 
and they shortly afterwards abandoned the 
exclusive linen business and became general 
merchants. The transactions of the firm soon 
extended so as to require further branches. 
James established himself at New York 
and John at Philadelphia, and on the death 
of their father the business, then the most 
extensive in the American trade, was con- 
tinued by the four brothers, George remain- 
ing in Baltimore. The disastrous aspect of 
affairs in 1839 induced the brothers George 
and John, who had by this time realised 
ample fortunes, to retire from the firm, 
leaving William the eldest and James the 
youngest to continue the concern. They 
now became bankers in the sense of conduct- 
ing transmissions of money on public account 
between the two hemispheres, and in this 
pursuit and the business of merchants they 
acquired immense wealth. In 1825 William 
took an active part in the agitation for the 
reform in the management of the Liver- 
pool docks. He was elected an alderman of 
Liverpool in 1831, and held that office until 
1838. He was the unsuccessful Anti-Cornlaw 
League candidate for South Lancashire in 
1844. He was, however, returned in 1846, and 
continued to represent South Lancashire until 
23 April 1859. He was the founder of the 
firm of Brown, Shipley, & Co., Liverpool and 
London merchants, arid at one time was the 
chairman of the Atlantic Telegraph Company. 
His name is probably best known by the mu- 
nificent gift which he bestowed on his adopted 
town. He erected the Free Public Library 

and Derby Museum at Liverpool, which was 
opened on 8 Oct. 1860, at a cost to himself of 
40,000/., the corporation providing the site and 
foundation and furnishing the building. At 
the inauguration of the volunteer movement 
in 1859 he raised and equipped at his own ex- 
pense a corps of artillery, which ranked as the 
1st brigade of Lancashire artillery volun- 
teers. He was created a baronet on 24 Jan. 

1863, and in the same year he served as sheriff 
for the county of Lancashire. He did not, 
however, live long to enjoy his honours, as he 
died at Richmond Hill, Liverpool, on 3 March 

1864. He was always an advocate of free 
trade, and particularly favoured the idea of a 
decimal currency. On the proving of his will 
on 21 May 1864 the personalty was sworn 
under 900,000/. 

He married, on 1 Jan. 1810, Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Andrew Gibson of Ballymena; she 
died on 5 March 1858. The eldest son, Alex- 
ander Brown, having died on 8 Oct. 1849, 
the grandson, Lieutenant-colonel William 
Richmond Brown, succeeded to the baronetcy 
in 1864. Sir W. Brown was the author of 
a pamphlet entitled ' Decimal Coinage. A 
Letter from W. Brown, Esq., M.P., to Francis 
Shand, Esq., Chairman of the Liverpool 
Chamber of Commerce/ 1854. 

[Gent. Mag. xvi. 657-8 (1864); Illustrated 
London News, xix. 70 (1851), with portrait; 
H. E. Fox Bourne's English Merchants (1866), 
ii. 299-301, 306-20.] G. C. B. 


(1755-1830), theological writer, was born at 
Utrecht in Holland, where his father was 
minister of the English church, 7 Jan. 1755. 
His father having been appointed professor 
of ecclesiastical history at St. Andrews, 
Scotland, the son studied at the university ; 
but afterwards he proceeded to Utrecht, 
where, after completing his theological 
studies, he was in 1778 ordained minister of 
the English church. He obtained in 1783 
the Stolpian prize at Leyden for an essay on 
the origin of evil, and various prizes from the 
Teylerian Society at Haarlem, the subject of 
one being ' On the natural Equality of Man.' 
In 1784 the university of St. Andrews con- 
ferred on him the degree of D.D. In 1788 he 
was appointed professor of moral philosophy 
and ecclesiastical history at Utrecht, and two 
years after he became rector of the university. 
Thereafter there was added to his duties the 
professorship of the law of nature. 

Driven from Holland in 1795 by the 
French invasion, Brown with his wife and 
five children crossed the Channel in mid 
winter in an open boat, and after a stormy 
passage landed at London. The magistrates 



of Aberdeen appointed him to the chair of 
divinity in Marischal College on the resigna- 
tion of Dr. George Campbell, and in 1796 he 
also succeeded Campbell as principal of the 

Brown soon became a conspicuous and 
influential member of the general assembly, 
sympathising mainly with the reforming 
party in the church. He made several 
contributions to literature after his arrival 
in Scotland, the most important being ( An 
Essay on the Existence of a Supreme Creator,' 
written in response to the offer of valuable 
prizes by the trustees of the late Mr. Burnett 
of Dens, Aberdeen, 2 vols. 8vo, 1816. Brown's 
essay obtained the first prize, amounting to 
1,250/., the second being awarded to the Rev. 
John Bird Sumner, afterwards archbishop 
of Canterbury. Another elaborate work 
was entitled ' A Comparative View of Chris- 
tianity, and of the other forms of religion 
which have existed, and still exist, in the 
world, particularly with regard to their moral 
tendency,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1826. He died 11 May 

Brown's works were written from the 

int of view of the time, and were marked 
considerable ability ; but the standpoint 
discussion has altered so completely that 
now they have little more than an antiquarian 

[Catalogue of the Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh ; Hew Scott's Fasti, iii. 475 ; E. Cham- 
bers's Eminent Scotsmen.] W. Gr. B. 


[See ROBSON.] 

BROWNE. [See also BKOTJN and 

miniature painter, engraver, and printseller, 
who lived in the reign of Charles II, painted 
the portrait of that monarch and that of the 
Prince of Orange. In 1675 he published ' Ars 
Pictoria, or an Academy treating of Drawing, 
Painting, Limning, and Etching,' fol., Lon- 
don. The designs are after foreign artists, 
and chiefly copied from Bloemart's drawing- 
book. Mr. J. Chaloner Smith, in his * Cata- 
logue of British Mezzotint Portraits,' enu- 
merates forty-four plates after A. van Dyck 
and Sir Peter Lely, which were published 
by Browne ' at the blew balcony in Little 
Queen Street,' but do not bear any engraver's 
name. It has been conjectured, but on in- 
sufficient grounds, that these may be the work 
of Browne himself. 

[Eedgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.] 

L. F. 

politician, only son of Sir Anthony Browne, 
standard-bearer of England and constable 
of Calais, and of his wife Lady Lucy Nevill, 
daughter and coheiress of John Nevill, mar- 
quis Montacute, and niece of Richard, earl of 
Warwick, was knighted in 1523 after the suc- 
cessful siege of Morlaix. In 1524 he was made 
esquire of the body to King Henry VIII, and 
from that time until the death of Henry he 
became more and more the friend of his sove- 
reign. In 1526 he was created lieutenant 
of the Isle of Man during the minority of 
Edward, earl of Derby. In 1528, and again 
in 1533, Browne was sent into France ; on 
the first occasion to invest Francis I with 
the order of the Garter, and on the second to 
attend that king to Nice for the conference 
with the pope respecting the divorce of 
Henry VIII and Catherine of Arragon. In 
1539 Browne was made master of the horse, 
and in 1540 he was created a knight of the 

Battle Abbey was granted to Browne in 
1538 ; he occupied the abbot's lodging, and 
razed to the ground the church, the cloisters, 
and the chapter-house. At the same time 
he received the priory of St. Mary Overy in 
Southwark, and the house which he built 
there was for generations the London re- 
sidence of his descendants the Viscounts 
Montague. The manors of Godstow, of 
Send in Sussex, and of Brede, which in- 
cluded a considerable part of the town of 
Hastings, were also granted to Browne; and 
in 1543, on the death of his half-brother, Sir 
William Fitzwilliam, K.G., earl of South- 
ampton, he inherited the Cistercian abbey 
of Waverley, the monasteries of Bayham 
near Lamberhurst and of Calceto near 
Arundel, the priory of Easebourne, and the 
estate of Cowdray, both close to Midhurst. 
Part of the magnificent mansion of Cow- 
dray had already been built by the Earl of 
Southampton, but much was added to it by 

In 1540 Browne was sent to the court ot 
John of Cleves to act as proxy at the mar- 
riage of Henry VIII with Anne of Cleves. 
In 1543 he accompanied the Duke of Norfolk 
in an expedition against the Scots, and in 
the following year, as master of the horse, 
he attended Henry VIII at the siege of 
Boulogne. In 1545 he was made justice 
in eyre of all the king's forests north of the 
Trent, and in the same year he was consti- 
tuted standard-bearer to Henry VIII as his 
father had been to Henry VII. During the 
last illness of Henry VIII Browne, with 
' good courage and conscience,' undertook to 
tell the king of his approaching end. Henry 




appointed him guardian to Prince Edward 
.and to Princess Elizabeth, made him one of 
his executors, and left him a legacy of 300Z. 
On the king's death Browne went to Hert- 
ford in order to tell the news to the young 
prince ; and when Edward VI made his 
public entry into London, Browne, as master 
of the horse, rode next to him. But Browne 
survived Henry VIII only one year. On 
6 May 1548 he died at a house which he 
had built at Byfleet in Surrey. He was 
buried with great pomp at Battle, under a 
splendid altar-tomb which he had himself 

Browne was twice married. His first 
wife, whose effigy lies on the tomb at 
Battle beside his own, was Alys, daughter 
of Sir John Gage, K.G., constable of the 
Tower. By her he had seven sons and three 
daughters; the eldest son, Anthony, suc- 
ceeded to his father's estates, and was created 
in 1554 Viscount Montague. Browne's se- 
cond wife was Lady Elizabeth Fitzgerald, 
daughter of Gerald, ninth earl of Kildare, 
and better known as Hhe fair Geraldine.' 
At the time of this marriage Browne was 
.sixty, and the bride only fifteen years of age. 
Her two sons died in infancy. After the 
death of Browne his young widow married 
Sir Edward Clinton, first earl of Lincoln, 
and was buried with him in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. 

[Collins's Peerage ; Baronagium Genealogi- 
cum, 1732; Sussex Archaeological Collections; 
Dallaway's History of Sussex.] J. A. E. B. 

BROWNE, ANTHONY (1510 P-1567), 
judge, son of Sir Wistan Browne of Abbes- 
roding and Langenhoo in Essex, knight, and 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Mordaunt 
of Turvey in Bedfordshire, was born in Essex 
about 1510 and studied at Oxford, but left 
the university without taking any degree 
.and entered at the Middle Temple, where he 
was appointed reader in the autumn of 1553, 
but did not read until Lent of the following 
year. In 1553 (28 June) he purchased of 
the Lady Anne of Cleves the reversion of 
the manor of Costedhall near Brentwood 
in Essex, which had formerly belonged to 
Thomas Cromwell. Being one of the mag- 
nates of Essex, he was commissioned with 
Lord Rich and others in 1554 to enforce the 
Statute of Heretics (2 & 3 Ph. & M. c. 6) 
against the puritans in that part of the 
-country. He would seem to have been a 
person of no fixed religious opinions, at least 
if the evidence of Watts, a protestant, burned 
at Chelmsford in 1555, is to be credited. The 
story which is told both by Foxe and Strype 
is to the effect that Watts being asked by 

Browne whence he got his religious views, 
replied ' Even of you, sir ; you taught it me, 
and none more than you. For in King Ed- 
ward's days in open sessions you spoke against 
this religion now used no preacher more. 
You then said the mass was abominable and 
all their trumpery besides, wishing and ear- 
i nestly exhorting that none should believe 
j therein, and that our belief should be only 
: in Christ ; and you then said that whosoever 
j should bring in any strange nation to rule 
here it were treason and not to be suffered.' 
The same year Browne was active in bringing 
one William Hunter to the stake at Brent- 
wood ; and in the following year he received 
the thanks of the privy council ' for his dili- 
gent proceedings against ' one George Eagles, 
alias Trudge-over-the-world, whom he had 
executed as a traitor, and was authorised ' to 
distribute his head and quarters according to 
his and his colleagues' former determination, 
and to proceed with his accomplices accord- 
ing to the qualities of their offences.' This 
Eagles was a tailor and itinerant preacher, 
who was convicted of treason for holding 
religious meetings, and hanged, drawn, and 
quartered. The earliest mention of Browne 
in the reports is under date Michaelmas term 
1554, when he argued an important case in 
the common pleas. In 1555 (16 Oct.) he 
took the degrees of serjeant-at-law and king 
and queen's serjeant together. In 1558 
(5 Oct.) he was appointed chief justice of 
the common bench, and at once had an op- 
portunity of showing that he was capable of 
maintaining the prerogatives of that office 
with due tenacity. The office of exigenter 
of London and other counties having become 
vacant during the lifetime of Browne's pre- 
decessor, Sir R. Brooke, the queen, by letters 
patent of the same date as Browne's appoint- 
ment, granted the office to a nominee of her 
own, one Coleshill. Browne refusing to ad- 
mit Coleshill, and admitting his own nephew 
Scroggs, Elizabeth (who had acceded in the 
interim) in Michaelmas term 1559 directed 
the lord-keeper, Nicholas Bacon, to examine 
Coleshill's case. In the result the judges of 
the queen's bench were assembled, and unani- 
mously decided that the action of Mary in 
granting the office was illegal, the right to 
do so being an integral part of the preroga- 
tive of the chief justice, and that, therefore, 
the title of Coleshill was null and void. 
Browne's patent had at first been renewed 
on Elizabeth's accession, but in consequence 
of his energetic conduct in enforcing the 
laws against heresy it was deemed advisable 
to degrade him, and accordingly (22 Jan.) 
Dyer was made chief justice and Browne re- 
duced to the level of a puisne judge. In 



1564 it is said that the queen offered the 
office of clerk of the hanaper to Browne, and 
that he refused it. In 1566 he was knighted 
by the queen at the Parliament House. He 
died on 16 May 1567 at his house in Essex. 
His wife, Joan, only daughter of W. Faring- ' 
ton, died in the same year. Browne is credited ' 
by Doleman with having furnished Morgan j 
Philipps with the legal authorities cited in 
his treatise in support of the title of the 
Queen of Scots to the succession to the Eng- ' 
lish throne, of which the bishop of Ross 
(John Leslie) made considerable use in his 
work on the same subject. On the strength 
of this somewhat doubtful connection with 
literature, Wood accorded him a niche in 
the ' Athense Oxonienses.' Plowden speaks 
in very high terms of his legal learning and 
eloquence, quoting some barbarous elegiacs 
to the like effect. 

[Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta, 462 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 356, 405, 433 ; Morant's 
Essex, i. 118, 120 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges ; 
Strype's Memorials (fol.), ii. (pt. ii.) 509, iii. 
(pt. i.) 51, 196, 265, 340, (pt. ii.) 400; Narra- 
tives of the Keformation (Camden Society), 212, 
237; Foxe's Martyrs (ed. 1684), iii. 157-9, 222, 
700-2; Dugdale's Orig. 217; Dugdale's Chron. 
Ser. 90, 91 ; Wynne's Serj.-at-Law; Dyer's Re- 
ports, 175 a; Plowden's Reports, 249, 356, 376.] 

J. M. E. 

MONTAGUE (1526-1592), was the eldest son of 
Sir Anthony Browne (d. 1548) [q. v.] and 
Alys his wife, daughter of Sir John Gage. He 
succeeded his father in 1548, inheriting with 
other property the estates of Battle Abbey and 
Cowdray in Sussex. Like his father he was a 
staunch Roman catholic, yet his loyalty to the 
crown was above suspicion, and he enjoyed the 
confidence and favour alike of Edward VI, 
Mary, and Elizabeth. He was knighted (with 
forty other gentlemen) at the coronation of 
Edward VI, and although he was sent to the 
Fleet in 1551 for hearing mass his imprison- 
ment did not last long, for in 1552 he enter- 
tained the king in sumptuous style at Cow- 
dray House. In the following year his wife, 
Lady Jane, daughter of Robert Ratcliff, earl 
of Sussex, died in giving birth to a son. He 
afterwards married Magdalen, a daughter of 
William, lord Dacre of Graystock and Gyles- 
land, and by her had five sons and three 
daughters. In 1554, on the occasion of Mary's 
marriage with Philip of Spain, he was created 
a viscount, and chose the title of Montague, 
probably because his grandmother, Lady Lucy, 
hadbeen daughter and coheiress of JohnNevill, 
marquis Montacute. In the same year he was 
made master of the horse, and was sent to 
Rome on an embassy with Thirlby, bishop of 

Ely, and Sir Edward Carne (the three am- 
bassadors representing the three estates of the 
realm), to treat with the pope concerning the 
reconciliation of the church of England to the 
papal see. In 1555 he was made a member 
of the privy council and a knight of the Garter, 
and in 1557 he acted as lieutenant-general of 
the English forces at the siege of St. Quentin 
in Picardy. 

On the accession of Elizabeth, Montague 
lost his seat in the privy council, and he 
boldly expressed his dissent in the House 
of Lords from the Acts of Supremacy and 
Uniformity. Nevertheless he was employed 
two years afterwards, in 1561, on a special 
mission to the court of Spain, as one whom 
the queen ' highly esteemed for his great pru- 
dence and wisdom, though earnestly devoted 
to the Romish religion.' In 1562 he made a 
forcible and courageous speech in the House 
of Lords against the act entitled i for the as- 
surance of the queen's royal power over all 
estates and subjects within her dominions/ 
by which all persons were bound to take the 
oath of supremacy if required to do so by a 
bishop or by commissioners, incurring the 
penalties of prsemunire for refusing to take 
it, and of high treason if the refusal was per- 
sisted in. Montague opposed the measure, not 
only on the ground that the queen's Roman 
catholic subjects were peaceably and loyally 
disposed, but also as being in itself ' a thing 
unjust and repugnant to the natural liberty 
of men's understanding . . . for what man is 
| there so without courage and stomach, or void 
i of all honour, that can consent or agree to re- 
ceive an opinion and new religion by force 
and compulsion ? ' 

He did not, however, forfeit the favour of 
Elizabeth. He was one of the forty-seven 
commissioners who sat on the trial of Mary 
Queen of Scots in 1587, and in 1588, when the 
queen reviewed her army at Tilbury Fort, 
Montague was the first to appear on the 
ground, leading a troop of two hundred horse- 
men, and accompanied by his son and grand- 
son. Three years after the defeat of the 
Spanish Armada in August 1591 the queen 
paid a visit to Cowdray, where she was most 
magnificently entertained for nearly a week. 
In October of the following year Montague 
died, and was buried in Midhurst Church. 
A splendid table tomb of marble and alabas- 
ter, surmounted by a kneeling figure of him- 
self and recumbent effigies of his two wives, 
was erected over his remains, but has since 
been removed to Easebourne Church, close to 
the entrance of Cowdray Park. 

[Burnet's History of the Keformation (Pocook's 
edition), vols. ii. iii. and v. ; Hallam's Constitu- 
tional Hist. i. 116,117, 162; Nichols's Progresses 



of Queen Elizabeth, vol. iii. ; Mrs. Roundell's 
History of Cowdray, ch. iv.] W. E. W. S. 

BROWNE, ARTHUR (1756 P-1805), an 
Irish lawyer, born about 1756, was the son 
of Marmaduke Browne, rector of Trinity 
Church, Newport, Rhode Island, who in 1764 
was appointed one of the original fellows of 
Rhode Island College, known from 1804 as 
Brown University. His grandfather, the 
Rev. Arthur Browne, born at Drogheda 1699, 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, be- 
coming B.A. 1726 and M.A. 1729. In 1729 
he emigrated, at Berkeley's persuasion, to 
Rhode Island, and was for six years the 
minister of King's Chapel, Providence, and in 
1736 he became episcopal minister at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, and died 10 June 
1773. Arthur Browne, the grandson, was 
educated at a school established in Newport 
by Dr. Berkeley. His father died from the 
privations of the voyage almost immediately 
after his return to Rhode Island from Ireland, 
whither he had repaired in order to enter 
his son at Trinity College, Dublin. Arthur 
Browne had previously been entered at Har- 
vard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 
1771. At Trinity College he gained a scholar- 
ship in 1774, and took his B.A. degree in 1776. 
He was elected a junior fellow in 1777, pro- 
ceeded M.A. 1779, and was called to the 
bar of Ireland. He graduated LL.B. (1780) 
and LL.D. (1784), and in 1784 became an 
advocate in the courts of delegates, preroga- 
tive, admiralty, and consistory, and for a long 
time held the vicar-generalship of the diocese 
of Kildare. He served as junior proctor of 
the university in 1784, and as senior proctor 
having become a senior fellow in 1795 
from 1801 to the time of his death. In 1783 
he was returned to the Irish House of Com- 
mons as member for the university of Dublin, 
which he continued to represent in three par- 
liaments until 1800. In 1785 Browne became 
regius professor of civil and canon laws, and 
afterwards published ' A Compendious View 
of the Civil Law,' &c. (1798), and < A Com- 
pendious View of the Ecclesiastical Law, 
being the Substance of a Course of Lectures 
read in the University of Dublin,' &c., 8vo, 
Dublin, 1799, &c. A second edition, ' with 
great additions/ was published as ' A Com- 
pendious View of the Ecclesiastical Law of 
Ireland,' &c., 8vo, Dublin, 1803 ; and a < first 
American edition from the second London 
edition, with great additions,' was published 
as ' A Compendious View of the Civil Law, 
and of the Law of the Admiralty,' &c., 2 vols. 
8vo, New York, 1840. In addition to his 
chair of law Browne thrice held the regius 
professorship of Greek at Dublin (from 1792 

to 1795, from 1797 to 1799, and from 1801 
to 1805). 

Browne was made king's counsel in 1795 r 
became prime serjeant in 1802, and in 1803 
was admitted a bencher of the Society of the 
King's Inns, Dublin. Browne was the last 
to hold the office of prime serjeant. He 
died on Saturday morning, 8 June 1805, in 
Clare Street, Dublin. He was twice married,, 
and had by his first wife a daughter, and a 
family by his second wife, who, with five 
children, survived him. 
. When a college corps of yeomanry was 
formed on the appearance of the French in 
Bantry Bay in December 1796, Browne was 
unanimously elected to the command. In 
1787 he defended the church of Ireland in 
spite of much abuse, and was a conscientious 
supporter of the union. Browne published, 
in imitation of Montaigne, two volumes of 
1 Miscellaneous Sketches, or Hints for Essays/ 
8vo, London, 1798, the first of which was in- 
scribed ' to his daughter, M. T. B. ; ' the second 
1 to the memory of Marianne/ his first wife. 
Browne also published, as a study in fancy 
and philology, l Hussen O Dil. Beauty and 
the Heart, an Allegory ; translated from the 
Persian Language/ &c., 4to, Dublin, 1801.; 
and he was also the author of ' A Brief Re- 
view of the Question, Whether the Articles 
of Limerick have been violated ? ' 8vo, Dub- 
lin, 1788, a defence of the legislature against 
the calumnies with which it had been as- 
sailed during the session preceding its pub- 

[Dublin University Calendar, 1833 ; Catalogue 
of Dublin Graduates, 1869 ; Smyth's Chronicle 
of the Law Officers of Ireland, 1839 ; Members of 
Parliament: Parliaments of Ireland, 1559-1800, 
1877; Kecords of the State of Khode Island, 
1856-65; Faulkner's Dublin Journal, 11 and 
13 June 1805; Walker's Hibernian Magazine, 
October 1805; Monthly Anthology, 1805 ; Kipley 
and Dana's American Cyclopaedia, 1873-78 ; 
Duykinck's Cyclopaedia of American Literature, 
1877.] A. H. G, 

BROWNE, DAVID (fl. 1638), a learned 
Scotchman, is known only by indications in 
his curious books on calligraphy. His first- 
work was 'The New Invention, intituled Cal- 
ligraphia or the Art of Fair Writing ... by 
His Majesties Scribe, Master David Browne. 
Sainct Andrewes, 1 622,' 1 2mo. It gives a copy 
of King James's letter granting the author 
1 the only licence and priviledge . . . under 
paine of 1000 pounds monie to be paid by the 
contraveners.' It is dedicated to the king, 
whose ' scribe ' he calls himself. Its 270 pages 
comprise arguments and instructions full of 
heavy learning, wise saws, puerile illustra- 
tions, and the most common matters having 



reference to writing. King James, when at 
Holyrood House, appears to have seen and ap- 
proved of his wonderful exercises, illustrated 
by certain l rare practices of a disciple,' a child 
only nine years old. His book gives spaces 
here and there to be filled up by his clerks for 
the various pupils or purchasers, but existing 
copies are without these necessary illustra- 
tions of the art. His second work, entitled 
' The Introduction to the true understanding 
of the whole arte of expedition in teaching 
to write . . . Anno Dom. 1638,' 8vo, is more 
-extraordinary than the other, as on the title- 
page he claims to teach his art in six hours, 
parades his own excellence beyond all others, 
-and asserts that ' a Scotishman is more in- 
genious than one of another nation ; ' yet the 
book itself has little to do with calligraphy, 
and teaches nothing. There is one plate at 
the end of the book, a specimen of ' The new, 
swift, current, or speedy Italian writting,' 
very inferior in style and execution to the 
handiwork of other penmen of the century. 
At the time this book was published the 
author taught his art at ' the Cat and Fiddle 
in Fleet Street,' where ' Mary Stewart and 
her daughters also instructed young, noble, 
and gentlewomen in good manners,languages,' 
&c., by his direction. He afterwards removed 
to a country-house at Kemmington (sic), near 
the Newington Butts. The dates of his birth 
.and death are not known. 

[Browne's "Works ; Massey's Origin of Letters.] 

J. W.-G. 

BROWNE, EDWARD(1644-1708),phy- 
sician, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Browne of Norwich [q. v.], and was born in 
that city in 1644. He was educated at the 
Norwich grammar school and at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He graduated M.B. at Cam- 
bridge 1663, and then returned to Norwich. 
A journal of this period of his life is extant, 
.and gives an amusing picture of his diversions 
and occupations, and of life in Norwich. 
Browne often went to dances at the duke's 
palace, admired the gems preserved there, 
and learnt to play ombre from the duke's 
brother. He dissected nearly every day, 
sometimes a dog, sometimes a monkey, a calf's 
leg, a turkey's heart. He studied botany, 
read medicine and literature and theology 
in his father's library, and saw at least one 
patient. ' 16 Feb. Mrs. Anne Ward gave me 
my first fee, ten shillings.' A week after this 
important event Browne went to London. 
He attended the lectures of Dr. Terne, phy- 
sician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, whose 
daughter Henrietta he married in 1672. His 
notes of Dr. Terne's lectures exist in manu- 
script in the British Museum. When the 

lectures were ended, Browne returned to Nor- 
wich, and soon after started on his travels. 
He went to Italy and came home through 
France, and it is by his description of this and 
of several subsequent journeys that he is best 
known. In 1668 he sailed to Rotterdam from 
Yarmouth and went to Leyden, Amsterdam, 
and Utrecht, visiting museums, libraries, and 
churches, attending lectures, and conversing 
with the learned. He went on to Antwerp, 
and ended his journey at Cologne on 10 Oct. 
1668. His next journey was to Vienna, where 
be made friends with the imperial librarian 
Lambecius, and enjoyed many excursions and 
much learned conversation. He seems to 
have studied Greek colloquially, and brought 
back letters from a learned Greek in his own 
tongue to Dr. Pearson, the bishop of Chester, 
and to Dr. Barrow, the master of Trinity. 
From Vienna Browne made three long jour- 
neys, one to the mines of Hungary, one into 
Thessaly, and one into Styria and Carinthia. 
Wherever he went he observed all objects 
natural and historical, as well as everything 
bearing on his profession. He sketched in a 
stiff manner, and some of his drawings are 
preserved (British Museum). At Buda he 
came into the oriental world, and at Larissa 
he saw the Grand Seigneur. Here he studied 
Greek remains, and followed in imagination 
the practice of Hippocrates. He returned to 
England in 1669, but made one more tour in 
1673 in company with Sir Joseph Williamson, 
Sir Leoline Jenkins, and Lord Peterborough. 
He visited Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, 
Louvain, Ghent, Bruges, and other towns of 
the Low Countries, and saw all that was to 
be seen. He published in London in 1673 a 
small quarto volume called ' A Brief Account 
of some Travels in Hungaria, Styria, Bulga- 
ria, Thessaly, Austria, Servia, Carynthia, Car- 
niola, and Friuli ; ' another volume appeared 
in 1677, and in 1685 a collection of all his 
travels in one volume folio. It contains some 
small alterations and some additions. In 1672 
he published in 12mo a translation of a ' His- 
tory of the Cossacks,' and he wrote the lives 
of Themistocles and Sertorius in Dryden's 
< Plutarch,' published in 1700. 

In 1667 Browne had been elected F.R.S., 
and in 1675 was admitted a fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians. He lived in Salisbury 
Court, Fleet Street (College of Physicians 
Lists], and became physician to the king. He 
was elected physician to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital 7 Sept. 1682 (MS. Journal, St. Earth. 
Hosp.) ; was treasurer of the College of 
Physicians 1694-1704, and president 1704- 
1708. He had a large practice, and enjoyed 
the friendship of many men in power. A 
Grub Street writer attributes part of his good 




fortune to the favour of one of Charles II' a 
mistresses ; but the statement has no founda- 
tion in fact. Browne's professional success 
was due to his general capacity and interest- 
ing conversation. His note-books show that 
he laboured hard at his profession, and that 
through good introductions he early became 
known to many physicians, surgeons, and 
apothecaries. In 1673 he had already met in 
consultation thirteen physicians and ten sur- 
geons (Sloane MS. 1895). A great many let- 
ters and notes in his handwriting are to be 
found among the Sloane MSS. Amongst them 
is the earliest known copy of the ' Pharmaco- 
poeia ' of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. It is 
dated 1670, and some of its prescriptions were 
the subject of correspondence between Browne 
and his father. Browne died at Northfleet, 
Kent (MuNK, Coll ofPhys. i. 375), on 28 Aug. 
1708, andleft a son Thomas (1672-1710) [q.v.] 
and a daughter. He is buried at Northfleet. 
Browne's travels are spoken of by Dr. John- 
son with small respect, and their style cannot 
'be commended. The best that can be said of 
them is that they contain many interesting 
facts, and that their information is exact. 
They may be read with pleasure if viewed 
as a table of contents of the mind of a well- 
read Englishman of King Charles II's days. 
Browne had read a good deal of Greek as 
well as of Latin, the fathers as well as the 
classical authors. He was also well versed 
in new books ; he had read Ashmole's ' Or- 
der of the Garter,' La Martiniere's ' Arctic 
Travels,' and did not even despise the last 
new novel, but quotes the Duchess of New- 
castle's 'New Blazing World' (Travels, ed. 
1685, pp. 97, 99, 123) in the year of its pub- 
lication. He loved his father, and inherited 
his tastes, and, if practice had not engrossed 
too much of his time, might have written 
books as good as the' Vulgar Errors' or 
the l Hydriotaphia.' Deeper meditations like 
those of the l Religio Medici ' were probably 
foreign to his nature. In a taste for every 
kind of information, in regard for his pro- 
fession, in warm family affections, and in up- | 
right principles and conduct, he resembled 
his father ; but the deeper strain of thought 
which is to be found in Sir Thomas Browne 
is nowhere to be traced in the writings of his 
eldest son. 

[Sloane MSS. in British Museum, 1895-7; 
Wilkins's Works of Sir Thomas Browne ; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. 1878 ; Works.] N. M. 

BROWNE, EDW^ARD (d. 1730), an 
eminent quaker, son of James Browne of 
Cork, was a native of that city. He was 
long an inhabitant of Sunderland, where he 
-served his apprenticeship and afterwards rose 

to considerable opulence. In 1727 he built 
himself a commodious mansion, with several 
other dwelling-houses adjoining, intended for 
the residences of the captains of his ships and 
other persons in his employment. The man- 
sion-house afterwards became the custom- 
house for the port of Sunderland. Browne 
died at Cork 27 Aug. 1730. ' Some Account of 
Edward Browne of Sunderland, with copies 
of manuscripts respecting him,' was printed 
for private circulation at Sunderland, 1821, 
12mo, and reprinted for sale London, 1842, 

[Joseph Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, i. 329 ; 
Richardson's Local Historian's Table Book (Hist. 
Div.), i. 329.] T. C. 


[See HEMANS.] 

BROWNE, GEORGE, D.D. (d. 1556), 
archbishop of Dublin, the chief instrument 
of Henry VIII in the Irish reformation, was 
originally a friar, and first emerges into 
notice in 1534, when, as provincial of the 
whole order of Austin Friars, he was em- 
ployed, in conjunction with Hilsey, the pro- 
vincial of the Dominicans, to minister the 
oath of succession to all the friars of London 
and the south of England (Dixox, Hist, of 
the Church of England, i. 214). He- is said 
to have recommended himself to the king by 
advising the poor, who were beginning to 
feel the distress caused by the religious re- 
volution, to make their applications solely to 
Christ. Within a year he was nominated to 
the see of Dublin, vacant by the murder of 
Archbishop Allen in the rising of Kildare 
in 1534 ; but it was not until another year 
bad elapsed that he arrived in Ireland on 
6 July 1536 (HAMILTON, Cal of State Pa- 
pers for Ireland, p. 21 ; the life of Browne in 
the Harleian Misc. vol. v. places his arrival 
in December 1535). The Irish parliament, 
which had been sitting for two months, ac- 
cepted all the principal acts by which Eng- 
land had declared herself independent of 
Rome. The only opposition to these sweep- 
ing measures was offered by the clergy, 
who claimed the power of voting in their 
own house upon bills which had passed the 
Irish commons, and carried this obstructive 
policy so far, under the leadership of their 
primate Cromer, the archbishop of Armagh, 
that it was found necessary to deprive them 
of their privilege (Dixox, ii. 179). A speech 
made by Browne on this occasion, declar- 
ing his vote for the king as supreme head of 
the Irish church, has been preserved (Harl. 
Misc. v. 559) ; and it was through him, 
as he boasted, that a separate act was passed 




granting the first-fruits of all abbeys to the 
king, thus paving the way for the suppression 
of the Irish monasteries, which quickly fol- 
lowed. By these enactments the English 
reformation ready made was flung in a mass 
into the midst of a semi-barbarous and de- 
caying country. Browne held a commission 
from Thomas Cromwell, the minister and 
vicegerent of Henry, to further ' the king's 
advantage ; ' and in this cause he laboured 
with diligence, journeying into various parts, 
preaching, publishing the royal articles and 
injunctions, and collecting the first-fruits and 
twentieths of the spiritualties which had 
been decreed to the king. He put forth a 
form of bidding bedes, or prayers, which is 
the earliest document in which the church 
of Ireland is conjoined with the church of 
England under royal supremacy ( Col, of State 
Papers, ii. 504 : COLLIEE, Eccl. Hist. Records, 
No. 40). Browne encountered not only the 
open hostility of many of his brethren, and 
especially of Staples, the bishop of Meath, 
but the detractions and suspicions of the rest 
of the Irish council. The lord-deputy Grey 
was his enemy, and treated him with con- 
tempt, calling him a ' polshorn friar,' and on 
one occasion putting him in prison. The 
king entertained the complaints that were 
sent to England against him of arrogance and 
inefficiency, and wrote him a severe letter, 
menacing him with disgrace ; but Browne 
contrived to explain all accusations, except 
perhaps the one of receiving bribes. He must 
have been a man of some sagacity, for he 
predicted that the alteration of religion would 
cause ' the English and Irish race to lay aside 
their national old quarrels, and a foreigner to 
invade the nation ' (Letters to Cromwell, May 
1538, Harl Misc. v. 561). 

In the first years of Edward VI the reforma- 
tion languished. Browne lay at the moment 
under the cloud of certain accusations of ne- 
glect of duty, alienation of leases, and * un- 
decent' conduct in preaching, which were 
preferred against him by another member of 
the Irish council, and seem never to have been 
fully explained (DixoN, iii. 406). It was not 
until 1550, after the full publication of the first 

religion. By 
lingham had been succeeded by the second 
administration of Santleger, a man of easy 
temper, secretly attached to the old system. 
His instructions were to order the clergy to use 
the English service. Accordingly he some- 
what incautiously summoned a convention of 
the bishops and clergy at Dublin, and thus 
brought about the curious scene which was the 
final protestation of the ancient independent 

Hibernian church before she assumed her 
English livery. The lord-deputy read the royal 
order for the service to be in English. ' Then/ 
exclaimed the primate Dowdall indignantly, 
' any illiterate layman may say mass !' and after 
a warm altercation he left the meeting, fol- 
lowed by the greater number of his suffra- 
gans. Santleger then handed the order to 
Browne, who now assumed his natural posi- 
tion as head of the conforming party. ' This 
order, good brethren,' said he to the remaining 
clergy, ' is from the king and from our bre- 
thren the fathers and clergy of England ; to 
him I submit, as Jesus did to Csesar, in all 
things lawful, asking no questions why or 
wherefore, as owning him our true and law- 
ful king.' On the Easter day following the 
English service was used for the first time 
in the cathedral church of Dublin, Browne 
preaching the sermon. To the Irish people 
the change from Latin to English was a 
change from one unknown tongue to another, 
for English maintained itself with difficulty 
even in the pale, though the use of it was 
commanded by penal statutes. The churches 
were emptier than ever, and the malcontent 
clergy were aided by papal emissaries, and 
the Jesuit missionaries gained ground (MAC- 
GEOGHAN, Hist, of Ireland). The prelates, 
however, who followed Dowdall gradually 
conformed ; and when, in the middle of the 
same year, 1550, Dowdall went from his see, 
declaring that he would not be bishop where 
there was no mass, none of his brethren 
imitated his example. His place, after a 
vacancy of two years, was filled by Goodacre,. 
an Englishman sent by Cranmer, who was 
consecrated by Browne at Christ Church. At 
the same time the primacy of all Ireland, the 
ancient dignity of the see of Armagh, was 
claimed by Browne, and transferred by royal 
patent to Dublin. 

Browne had complained to the authorities 
in England of the remissness of Santleger in 
the reformation (Browne to Warwick, August 
1551 ; HAMILTON, Irish Cal. p. 115). But 
to John Bale, who arrived in Ireland at the- 
same time as Goodacre, Browne himself ap- 
peared remiss. The Bishop of Ossory has 
given him the character of an avaricious dis- 
sembler, hints that he was a drunkard and 
a profligate, and affirms that his complaints 
against Santleger were a device to get the 
primacy. ' As for his learning,' says Bale, 
' he knows none so well as the practices of" 
Sardanapalus ; for his preachings twice in 
the year, of the ploughman in the winter, by 
" Exit qui seminat," and of the shepherd in 
the summer, by " Ego sum bonus pastor,"' 
they are so well known in Dublin that when 
he cometh into the pulpit they can tell the- 




sermon.' Bale was consecrated by Browne ; 
and the bitterness between them began at the 
ceremony, which Bale affirmed that Browne 
performed very awkwardly, and desired to 
have deferred, in order to get the revenue 
for the see for the year. Their differences 
were renewed when, on the accession of 
Queen Mary, Bale was forced to quit Ossory 
and fly for his life to Dublin. Browne re- 
fused to allow him to preach there. ' Sitting 
on his ale-bench, with his cup in his hand, 
he made boast that I should not preach in 
his city' (BALE, Vocation, in Harl. Misc. 
vol. vi.) Browne's triumph was short. In 
the revolution under Mary his primacy was 
revoked, and, Goodacre being expelled from 
Armagh, Dowdall was reinstated in his see 
and title of primate of all Ireland, and the 
superior style afterwards stood firm in Ar- 
magh without revocation. By Dowdall 
Browne was extruded from Dublin as being 
a married man (WARE, De Prcesulib. Hib. 
120), and in two years his successor, Hugh 
Carwin, was appointed, September 1555. 
The death of Browne followed shortly after- 
wards. His character, which seems to have 
been insignificant, has been described by the 
Irish historians merely in accordance with 
their own prejudices. 

[Besides the authorities above mentioned, see 
Mant's Hist, of Ireland ; Mosheim gives a long 
account of Browne in his Ch. Hist. ; the Life 
in the Harleian Misc. is also in the Phoenix, a 
series of scarce tracts in 2 vols., London, 1707; 
Christian Biography, 2 vols., London, 1835.] 

K. W. D. 

1792), Irish soldier of fortune, was descended 
from a family which could trace its descent 
to the time of the Conqueror, and had settled 
in Ireland at a very early period. His im- 
mediate ancestors were the Brownes of Camas, 
Limerick, where he was born 15 June 1698. 
He was educated at Limerick diocesan school. 
A catholic and a Jacobite, he, like several of 
his other relations, sought scope for his am- 
bition in a foreign military career. In his 
twenty-seventh year he entered the service 
of the elector palatine, from which he passed 
in 1730 to that of Russia. He distinguished 
himself in the Polish, French, and Turkish 
wars, and had risen to the rank of general, 
with the command of 30,000 men, when he 
was taken prisoner by the Turks. After 
being three times sold as a slave, he obtained 
his freedom through the intervention of the 
French ambassador Villeneuve, at the in- 
stance of the Russian court, and, remaining 
for some time at Constantinople in his slave's 
costume, succeeded in discovering important 

state secrets which he carried to St. Peters- 
burg. In recognition of this special service 
he was raised by Anna to the rank of major- 
general, and in this capacity accompanied 
General Lacy on his first expedition to Fin- 
land. On the outbreak of the Swedish war 
his tactical skill was displayed to great ad- 
vantage in checking Swedish attacks on Li- 
vonia. In the seven years' war he rendered 
important assistance as lieutenant-general 
under his cousin Ulysses Maximilian, count 
von Browne [q. v.] His fortunate diversion 
of the enemy's attacks at Kollin, 18 June 1757, 
contributed materially to the allied victory, 
and in token of her appreciation of his con- 
duct on the occasion Maria Theresa presented 
him with a snuff-box set with brilliants and 
adorned with her portrait. At Zorndorf, 
25 Aug. 1758, he again distinguished himself 
in a similar manner, his opportune assistance 
of the right wing at the most critical moment 
of the battle changing almost inevitable de- 
feat into victory. By Peter III he was named 
field-marshal, and appointed to the chief com- 
mand in the Danish war. On his addressing 
a remonstrance to the czar against the war as 
impolitic, he was deprived of his honours and 
commanded to leave the country, but the 
czar repenting of his hasty decision recalled 
him three days afterwards and appointed him 
governor of Livonia. He was confirmed in 
the office under Catherine II, and for thirty 
years to the close of his life administered its 
affairs with remarkable practical sagacity, 
and with great advantage both to the su- 
preme government and to the varied in- 
terests of the inhabitants. He died 18 Feb. 

[Histoire de la Vie de G. de Browne, Eiga, 
1794; Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Ency- 
clopadie, sect. i. vol. xiii. pt. i. pp. 112-13; 
Ferrar's History of Limerick.] T. F. H. 


1882), artist and book-illustrator, who as- 
sumed the pseudonym of PHIZ, was born 
at Kennington, Surrey, on 15 June 1815, 
being the ninth son of Mr. William Loder 
Browne, a merchant, who came originally 
from Norfolk. The child was christened 
Hablot in memory of Captain Hablot, a 
French officer, to whom one of his sisters was 
betrothed, and who fell at Waterloo. Young 
Browne received his first education at a pri- 
vate school in Botesdale, Suffolk, kept by the 
Rev. William Haddock. In his earliest years 
he displayed so strong a bias for drawing 
that he was apprenticed to Finden the en- 
graver. In London he found a congenial home 
in the house of an elder sister, who was mar- 
ried to Elhanan Bicknell [q. v.], afterwards 


4 6 


well known as a collector of Turner's and 
other pictures. Painting in water-colour 
soon became a passion with young Browne, 
who, having obtained his release from the 
monotonous work at Finden's, set up as a 
painter with a young friend of similar tastes. 
The rent of the attic which they shared was 
paid by the produce of their artistic labours. 
About this time Browne attended a 'life' 
school in St. Martin's Lane, where Etty was 
a fellow-student. 

In 1832 Browne gained the silver Isis 
medal offered by the Society of Arts for 
the best illustration of an historical subject 
( Trans, xlix. pt. i. 24) ; and later another 
prize from the same society for an etching 
of ' John Gilpin's Race.' 

In 1836 Browne first became associated 
with Charles Dickens, his senior by three 
years, in the illustration of Dickens's little 
work, ' Sunday as it is by Timothy Sparks.' 
This book was levelled at the fanatical Sab- 
batarians, and it gave the artist an oppor- 
tunity of revealing his truly comical genius. 
In the same year began the publication of 
the ' Pickwick Papers,' the early portion of 
which was written to elucidate the drawings 
of cockney sporting life by Robert Seymour. 
On Seymour's death Dickens resolved to 
subordinate the plates to his text, and look- 
ing out for a sympathetic illustrator after 
Mr. Buss's unsuccessful attempt to follow 
Seymour, he negotiated with Browne and 
Thackeray, who both sent drawings to him. 
Browne was chosen, and was not long in 
conquering a world- wide reputation under the 
signature of ' Phiz.' For the first two plates 
he assumed the modest pseudonym ' Nemo,' 
but afterwards adopted that of ' Phiz ' as 
more consonant to the novelist's ' Boz.' A 
1 verbal description ' (see preface to Pickwick) 
of the scene to be depicted was frequently 
all that Browne received from Dickens. In 
some instances the conception of the artist 
unquestionably bettered that of the author. 
Those who in the days of his public readings 
in England and America heard Dickens re- 
present the immortal Sam Weller as a loutish 
drawling humorist, were unable to recognise 
the brisk, saucy, ready cockney ostler sketched 
so cleverly by Phiz. 

The association of Browne and Dickens 
continued throughout the publication of 
many novels. ' Martin Chuzzlewit ' and 
' David Copperfield ' contain perhaps the 
etcher's most vigorous work. Occasionally 
differences of opinion would arise between 
author and artist. ' Paul and Mrs. Pipchin,' 
in 'Dombey and Son,' 'really distressed' 
Dickens, ' it was so frightfully and wildly 
wide of the mark.' On the other hand Mi- 

cawber in * David Copperfield ' 'was capital/ 
and Skimpole was ' made singularly unlike 
the great original,' a result which the author 
doubtless very much desired. 

In 1837 Browne made a trip to Flanders, 
accompanied by Dickens, and in the follow- 
ing year they went together into Yorkshire 
and made studies for 'Nicholas Nickleby/ 
The sketch of Squeers was taken from the 
life. The 'Tale of Two Cities' was tie- 
last work by Dickens that Browne illus- 

For many years the artist kept up the 
practice of sending water-colour drawings 
to the exhibitions at the British Institution 
and the Society of British Artists. To the 
exhibition of cartoons in Westminster Hall 
in 1843 he sent a large design of ' A Forag- 
ing Party of Caesar's Forces surprised by the 
Britons,' and No. 65 in the same exhibition, 
' Henry II defied by a Welsh Mountaineer/ 
is attributed to him. His oil paintings were 
imperfect in their technical execution. Two 
large oil pictures, however, in the Loan Ex- 
hibition of his works in 1883 attracted much 
attention : No. 81, ' Les trois vifs et les trois 
morts,' painted in 1867 ; and No. 128, ' Sin- 
tram and Death descending into the Dark 
Valley,' painted in 1862. He had had no 
regular training except for a short period in 
the ' life ' school in St. Martin's Lane. He 
never worked after that from a model either 
of man or horse. He took great delight in 
horses and horsemanship, and at the height 
of his fortunes, when living at Croydon and 
Banstead, he regularly followed the hounds. 
In his illustrations of Lever's novels the 
staple is almost invariably the description of 
wild feats of horsemanship. ' I wish I could 
draw horses like Browne,' Leech was once 
heard to say. ' Harry Lorrequer,' ' Charles 
O'Malley,' 'Jack Hinton,' and ' Tom Burke' 
bear witness to 'Phiz's' versatility in his 
graphic treatment of the horse, while ' The 
O'Donoghue,' ' The Barringtons,' and ' Con 
Cregan ' contain some of his best designs. 
Browne went over to Brussels to confer with 
Lever on the designs for ' Jack Hinton/ and 
the two men became intimate. Lover, who 
was of the party, wrote that ' they did nothing 
all day, or, in some instances, all night, but 
eat, drink, and laugh.' Occasionally Lever 
had his grumble over Browne's plates : ' The 
supper scene in No. 2 of " Lorrequer " showed 
the hero as another "Nicholas Nickleby," and 
plagiarisms, he begged to say, were the au- 
thor's prerogative.' Again, in a moment of 
severe respect for the proprieties of life, he 
wrote, ' The character of my books for up- 
roarious people and incident I owe mainly to 
master Phiz.' In the Irish scenes he thought 




Browne was not familiar enough with the 
national physiognomy, and begged him to go 
and study O'Connell's ' Tail ' in the House 
of Commons (Lever's Life, i. 225, 228, 237, 

In the illustrations to Smedley's * Frank 
Fairleigh' and 'Lewis Arundel' the horse 
frequently plays a part. Browne's power in 
producing strong effects of black and white 
are well shown in the illustrations to some 
of Ainsworth's romances, particularly in 
' Old St. Paul's.' 

For thirty years Browne laboured with 
few intervals of rest save the hunting season 
and occasional travels. His principal recrea- 
tion was painting, and in 1867 he had just 
finishe^ on a broad canvas the ' Three Living 
and th4 Three Dead,' when he was struck 
with paralysis, the immediate cause of which 
was exposure to a strong draught in his bed- 
room at the seaside. He survived fifteen 
years, and with characteristic tenacity con- 
tinued to work at plates. His mind was 
clear and well stored with anecdotes of the 
eminent men he had known. But his hand 
had lost its cunning. For a few of his latter j 
years he received a small pension from the ' 
Royal Academy, which had previously been 
held by George Cruikshank. In 1880 he re- 
moved with his family from London to West 
Brighton, and there died on 8 July 1882. 
He was buried on the summit of the hill at 
the north side of the Extramural Cemetery, 

In person Browne was handsome and 
strongly built. His disposition was modest 
and retiring, but he had a fund of quiet 
humour and was a charming companion with 
intimates. When he was about to leave his 
residence at Croydon for another, he made a 
bonfire of all the letters he had received from 
Dickens, Lever, Ainsworth, and others, be- 
cause they were almost solely about illus- 
trations (Lever's Life, ii. 51 note). He was 
happily married in 1840 to Miss Reynolds, 
and at his death left five sons and four 

[Thompson's Life and Labours of H. K. 
Browne, 1884 ; Phiz, a Memoir by F. G-. Kitton, 
1882; Forster's Life of Charles Dickens, iii., 
1874; Fitzpatrick's Life of Charles Lever, 
1879.] E. H. 

BROWNE, HENRY (1804-1875), classi- 
cal and biblical scholar, son of the Rev. Henry 
John Browne, rector of Crownthorpe, Nor- 
folk, was born in 1804. He was educated 
at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where 
he gained Bell's university scholarship in 
1823 ; he graduated B.A. in 1826, and M.A. 
in 1830. From 1842 to 1847 he was princi- 

pal of the theological college, Chichester ; oa 
9 Dec. 1842 he was collated to the prebendal 
stall of Waltham in Chichester cathedral ; 
in 1843 he was appointed examining chaplain 
to the bishop of Chichester ; and in 1854 
he was preferred to the rectory of Pevensey 
in the same diocese. Here he remained 
till his death, 19 June 1875. Besides edi- 
tions and translations of the classics, Browne- 
applied himself chiefly to the elucidation 
of sacred chronology. His published works 
are numerous : 1. ' Ordo Sseclorum, a trea- 
tise on the Chronology of Holy Scripture/ 
The argument, which is subtle, is mainly on 
the same lines as Clinton's, and the latest 
contemporary knowledge of oriental archaeo- 
logy is brought to bear on the biblical 
statements (1844). 2. ' Examination of the 
Ancient Egyptian Chronographies,' com- 
menced in 1852 in Arnold's ' Theological 
Critic.' 3. 'Remarks on Mr. Greswell's 
"Fasti Catholic! " ' (1852). This is a criticism 
which aims at completely annihilating the- 
conclusions of Greswell. 4. He translated 
for the l Library of the Fathers ' seventeen 
short treatises of St. Augustine, in con- 
junction with C. L. Cornish, and also St. 
Augustine's Homilies on the Gospel and First 
Epistle of St. John (1838, &c.) 5. Several 
volumes of Greek and Latin classics for Ar- 
nold's < School and College Series' (1851, &c.) 
6. A translation of Madvig's ' Greek Syn- 
tax ' (1847). 7. ' A Handbook of Hebrew 
Antiquities ' (1851). 8. ' An English-Greek 
Lexicon,' conjointly with Radersdorf (1856)_ 
9. ' Hierogrammata ' (1848). The aim is to 
show that Egyptian discoveries do not inva- 
lidate the Mosaic account. He was also the 
author of several articles in the last edition 
(1862-6) of Kitto's ' Cyclopedia of Biblical 

[Men of the Time, ninth edition ; Le Neve's- 
Fasti (Hardy), i. 285; British Museum Cata- 
logue.] A. G-N. 

elder (1705-1760), poet, was born on 21 Jan. 
1705 at Burton-on-Trent, of which parish hi& 
father a man of private fortune and the- 
holder of other ecclesiastical preferments 
was vicar. Receiving his first education at 
Lichfield, he passed to Westminster School,, 
and thence in 1721 to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he obtained a scholarship and 
took the degree of M.A. About 1727 he 
began the study of law at Lincoln's Inn, but 
though called to the bar he did not seriously 
prosecute the practice of his profession. 
Through the influence of the Forester family 
he was twice returned (1744, 1747) to the 
House of Commons for the borough of Wen- 


4 8 


lock, Shropshire, near to which was his own 
estate. He was during his parliamentary ca- 
reer (1744-54) a supporter of Pelham's whig 
ministry. Before this time he had written a 
poem of some length on ' Design and Beauty,' 
addressed to Highmore the painter, and among 
his other productions ' A Pipe of Tobacco,' an 
ode in imitation of Pope, Swift, Thomson, 
and other poets then living, had gained a con- 
siderable measure of popularity. His prin- 
cipal work, published in 1754, was a Latin 
poem on the immortality of the soul ' De 
Animi Immortalitate ' which received high 
-commendation from the scholars of his time. 
Of this there have been several English trans- 
lations, the best known of which is by Soame 
Jenyns. After a lingering illness he died in 
London on 14 Feb. 1760. An edition of his 
poems was published by his son [see BROWNE, 
ISAAC HAWKINS, the younger] in 1768. 
Browne had little aptitude for professional or 
public life, but he was a man of lively talents 
and varied accomplishments. The humour of 
some of his lighter pieces has not wholly 
evaporated, and the gaiety of his genius is 
vouched by contemporaries of much wider 
celebrity. Warburton, praising the poem on 
the soul, adds that it ' gives me the more 
pleasure as it seems to be a mark of the 
author getting serious ' (NiCHOLS, Illustr. of 
Lit. ii. 33). Mrs. Piozzi reports Dr. Johnson 
as saying of Browne that he was ' of all con- 
versers the most delightful with whom I ever 
was in company ; his talk was at once so ele- 
gant, so apparently artless, so pure and so 
pleasing, it seemed a perpetual stream of sen- 
timent, enlivened by gaiety and sparkling 
with images' (MRS. PIOZZI, Anecdotes of 
Dr. Johnson, 1786). And fifteen years after 
Browne's death Johnson is found thus illus- 
trating the proposition that a man's powers 
are not to be judged by his capacity for pub- 
lic speech : ' Isaac Hawkins Browne, one of 
the first wits of this country, got into par- 
liament and never opened his mouth ' (Bos- 
WELL, Johnson, 5 April 1775). In the 'Tour 
to the Hebrides,' two years earlier, Boswell 
writes (5 Sept. 1773) : ' After supper Dr. 
Johnson told us that Isaac Hawkins Browne 
drank freely for thirty years, and that he 
wrote his poem " De Animi Immortalitate " 
in some of the last of these years. I listened 
to this with the eagerness of one who, con- 
scious of being himself fond of wine, is glad 
to hear that a man of so much genius and 
good thinking as Browne had the same pro- 
pensity.' This story is confirmed to some 
extent by Bishop Newton, who speaks of 
Browne's * failings,' and draws a parallel be- 
tween him and Addison : ' They were both 
excellent companions, but neither of them 

could open well without having a glass of 
wine, and then the vein flowed to admira- 
tion.' According to the same authority, 
Browne died of consumption {Life of Thomas 
Newton, D.D., Bishop of Bristol Written 
by himself, 1782). 

[Biog. Brit. (Kippis), ii. 647 ; Return of Mem- 
bers ; authorities quoted in the text.] 

J. M. S. 


younger (1745-1818), only child of Isaac 
Hawkins Browne the elder [q.'v.], was born 
7 Dec. 1745. He was educated at West- 
minster School and Hertford College, Ox- 
ford. Long after taking his M.A. in 1767, 
| he kept his rooms at Oxford and frequently 
resided there ; in 1773 he received the de- 
gree of D.C.L. Having made a tour on 
the continent, he settled on his property in 
Shropshire, and in 1783 served as sheriff for 
the county. In 1784 he entered the House 
of Commons as member for Bridgnorth, 
which he represented for twenty-eight years 
(1784-1812) ; he was a supporter of Pitt. 
Like his father, he seems to have had no gift 
for oratory, but when he spoke 'his esta- 
blished reputation for superior knowledge 
and judgment secured to him that attention 
which might have been wanting to him on 
other accounts.' In 1815 he published, anony- 
mously, ' Essays, Religious and Moral ; ' 
this work he afterwards acknowledged, and 
an edition published two years later bears 
his name. His i Essays on Subjects of im- 
portant Inquiry in Metaphysics, Morals, and 
Religion' (1822) were not published till 
after his death; if the seriousness of his 
mind is shown by the spirit of this volume, 
his exactness and capacity for taking pains 
are illustrated by the array of authorities 
by which the text is supported. Bishop New- 
ton (Life of Thomas Newton, D.D., Bishop 
of Bristol, 1782) speaks of him as ' a very 
worthy, good young man, possessed of many 
of his father's excellencies without his fail- 
ings,' and this portrait is completed by a 
contemporary biographer, who, mentioning 
that Charles James Fox was a fellow-student 
with Browne and of the same college, is 
careful to add that they formed no intimacy, 
' their pursuits, habits, and connections being 
of a widely different character.' In 1768 
he edited his father's poems in two editions, 
the best of which, with plates by Sterne, was 
not for sale. This edition, it "may be pre- 
sumed, contained the memoir of his father, 
which he is said to have issued with his 
works ; in any case there is no memoir in 
the edition offered to the public, which 
is the only one generally accessible, though 




the material facts in the life of Browne the 
elder in the l Biographia Britannica' were, as 
appears from an acknowledgment in that 
work, supplied by his son. Browne was 
twice married (1788 and 1805), his first wife 
being the daughter of the Hon. Edward Hay, 
son of the seventh earl of Kinnoul. Browne 
died in London 30 May 1818. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxxviii. part ii. 179.] 

J. M. S. 

1685), theologian, son of a father of the 
same names, of Mangotsfield, Gloucestershire, 
matriculated at Oxford as a student of Oriel 
in 1634, and took his B.A. degree in 1638. 
He then left the university, and is said to 
have become a chaplain in the parliamenta- 
rian army and to have been an eager dispu- 
tant. On the Restoration he conformed. 
He wrote: 1. ' Antichrist in Spirit,' a work 
answered by George Fox in his l Great 
Mystery of the Great Whore,' pp. 259, 260, 
where the author's name is spelt Brown. 

2. ' Scripture Redemption freed from Men's 
Restrictions,' 1673, and printed with it. 

3. ' The Substance of several Conferences and 
Disputes . . . about the Death of our Re- 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (ed. Bliss), iv. 504 ; 
Fox's Great Mystery (ed. 1659), 259.] W. H. 

BROWNE, JAMES, LL.D. (1793-1841), 
journalist and author, was the son of a manu- 
facturer at Coupar Angus, and was born at 
Whitefield, parish of Cargill, Perthshire, in 
1793. He was educated for the ministry of 
the church of Scotland at the university of 
St. Andrews, where he specially distinguished 
liimself in classics. After obtaining license 
to preach he spent some time on the conti- 
nent as tutor -in a private family. On his 
return to Scotland he acted as assistant clas- 
sical master in Perth Academy, officiating at 
the same time as interim assistant to the 
minister of Kinnoul, Perthshire. About this 
time he published anonymously a ' History 
of the Inquisition/ which obtained a large 
circulation, and in 1817 he printed a sermon 

E reached on the death of the Princess Char- 
)tte. Either because he found his work un- 
congenial, or because he saw little prospect 
of obtaining a parish, he resolved to study for 
the bar. He passed advocate in 1826, and 
received the degree of LL.D. from the uni- 
versity of St. Andrews ; but failing to obtain 
a practice at the bar he gradually turned his 
attention wholly to literature. For some time 
he acted as editor of the ' Scots Magazine,' and 
in 1827 he became editor of the ' Caledonian 
Mercury/ to which in the same year he con- 


tributed certain articles which assisted to 
bring to light the Burke and Hare murders. 
During his editorship of the ' Mercury ' he 
became involved in a dispute with Mr. Charles 
Maclaren, editor of the ' Scotsman/ with the 
result that they fought a duel, in which 
neither was injured. In 1830 he resigned the 
editorship of the ' Mercury/ and started the 
' North Britain ; ' but after the discontinu- 
ance of that paper he resumed the editorship 
of the ' Mercury.' When the issue of the 
seventh edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica ' was resolved upon, he was appointed 
assistant editor. In his books and in his 
newspaper articles the excitability of his 
temperament was mirrored in a boisterous and 
blustering mode of expression, cleverly cari- 
catured in an article in ' Blackwood ' (vol. 
xviii.), entitled ' Some Passages in the Life 
of Colonel Cloud.' 

He was the author of: 1. 'A Sketch of 
the History of Edinburgh/ attached to Ew- 
bank's ' Picturesque Views of Edinburgh/ 
1823-5. 2. < Critical Examination of Mac- 
culloch's Work on the Highlands and Islands 
of Scotland/ 1826. 3. ' Apercu sur les Hiero- 
glyphes d'Egypte/ Paris, 1827; a French 
translation of articles contributed to the 
1 Edinburgh Review.' 4. ' Remarks on the 
Study of the Civil Law, occasioned by Mr. 
Brougham's late attack on the Scottish Bar/ 
1828. 5. A popular and interesting 'History 
of the Highlands and of the Highland Clans/ 
in four volumes, 1st ed. 1835-8, 2nd ed. 1845. 
By his excessive literary labours he over- 
tasked his strength and induced a severe at- 
tack of paralysis, from which his recovery 
was never more than partial. He died April 
1841 at Woodbine Cottage, Trinity, near 
Edinburgh, and was buried in Duddingstone 
churchyard. In his later years he became 
a convert to the Roman catholic faith, and 
he wrote a tractate, entitled ' Examination 
of Sir Walter Scott's Opinions regarding 
Popery/ which was published posthumously 
in 1845. 

[Caledonian Mercury, 10 April 1841 ; Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xv. 662 ; Anderson's Scottish Na- 
tion, ii. 400-1 ; Encyc. Brit. 9th ed. iv. 389.] 

T. F. H. 

BROWNE, JOHN (1642-1700?), sur- 
geon, was born in 1642, probably at Norwich, 
where he lived in the early part of his life. 
He was of a surgical family, being, as he 
says, 'conversant with chirurgery almost 
from my cradle, being the sixth generation of 
my own relations, all eminent masters of our 
profession.' Among these relations was one 
William Crop, an eminent surgeon in Nor- 
folk. He was acquainted with the celebrated 



Sir Thomas Browne of Norwich [q. v.], who 
wrote commendatory letters prefixed to two 
of his namesake's books, but there is no men- 
tion of any kinship between them. Browne 
studied at St. Thomas's Hospital, London, 
under Thomas Hollyer, but after serving as a 
surgeon in the navy settled down at Norwich. [ 
In 1677 he published his book on tumours, 
and in the following year migrated to Lon- 
don, being about the' same time made sur- 
geon in ordinary to King Charles II. On the 
occasion of a vacancy for a surgeon at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, the king sent a letter 
recommending him for the appointment, and 
he was elected by the governors on 21 June 
1683, ' in all humble submission to his ma- I 
jesty's letter/ though the claims of another ! 
surgeon, Edward Rice, who had taken charge 
of the hospital during the plague of 1665, 
when all the surgeons deserted their posts, [ 
were manifestly superior. This royal inter- j 
ference did not in the end prove a happy 
circumstance for Browne. In 1691 com- 
plaints arose that the surgeons did not obey 
the regulations of the hospital, and pretended 
that being appointed by royal mandamus 
they were not responsible to the governors. 
In the changed state of politics, and under 
the guidance of their able president, Sir 
Robert Clayton, the governors were deter- ; 
mined to maintain their authority, and on ; 
7 July 1691 they 'put out' the whole of 
their surgical staff, including Browne, and 
appointed other surgeons in their place. 
Browne appealed to the lords commissioners 
of the great seal, and the governors were | 
called upon to defend their proceedings. The 
decision apparently went in their favour, for 
in 1698 Browne humbly petitioned the go- 
vernors to be reinstated, though without 
success. Browne managed to continue in 
court favour after the revolution, and was 
surgeon to William III. He died probably 
early in the eighteenth century. 

Browne was a well-educated man, and in 
all likelihood a good surgeon, as he was cer- 
tainly a well-trained anatomist according to 
the standard of the day. His books show 
no lack of professional knowledge, though 
they are wanting in originality. The most 
notable perhaps is ' Charisma Basilicon, or 
an Account of the Royal Gift of Healing,' 
where he describes the method pursued by 
Charles II in touching for the < king's evil,' 
with which as the king's surgeon he was 
officially concerned. Though full of gross 
adulation and a credulity which it is difficult 
to believe sincere, it is the best contemporary 
account of this curious rite as practised by 
the Stuart kings, and gives statistics of the 
numbers of persons touched (amounting be- 

tween 1660 and 1682 to 92,107). His trea- 
tise on the muscles consists of six lectures, 
illustrated by elaborate copper-plates, of 
which the engraving is better than the draw- 
ing. It is probably the first of such books in 
which the names of the muscles are printed 
on the figures. Browne's portrait, engraved 
by R. White, is prefixed in different states to 
each of his books. 

He wrote: 1. 'A Treatise of Preternatural 
Tumours,' 8vo, London, 1678 (with plates). 
2. ' A Complete Discourse of Wounds,' 4to, 
London, 1678 (plates). 3. < Adeno-Choira- 
delogia, or an Anatomick-Chirurgical Trea- 
tise,' &c., 8vo, London, 1684 ; in three parts 
with separate titles, viz. (1) ' Adenographia, 
or an Anatomical Treatise of the Glandules ; ' 

(2) * Chreradelogia, or an exact Discourse 
of Strumaes or King's Evil Swellings ; ' 

(3) ' Charisma Basilicon, or the Royal Gift 
of Healing Strumaes, &c., by Contact or Im- 
position of the Sacred Hands of our Kings 
of England and of France.' 4. ' Myographia 
Nova, or a graphical description of all the 
Muscles in the Human Body ; with one and 
forty copper-plates,' London, 1684 ; 2nd ed. 
Lugd. Batavorum, 1687; 3rd ed. London, 
1697 ; 4th ed. London, 1698. 5. ' The Sur- 
geon's Assistant,' 8vo, London, 1703. 

[Browne's Works; Archives of St. Thomas's 
Hospital.] J. F. P. 

BROWNE, JOHN (1741-1801), en- 
graver, was born at Finchfield, Essex, 
26 April 1741. He was the posthumous son 
of the rector of Boston, Norfolk, and was edu- 
cated at Norwich. In 1756 he was appren- 
ticed to John Tinney, the engraver, who was 
also William Woollett's master. With Tin- 
ney he remained till 1761, and then placed 
himself under Woollett, many of whose plates 
were commenced by Browne. On leaving 
W T oollett he engraved a series of plates after 
N. Poussin, P. P. Rubens, Claude Lorraine, 
and other eminent masters. Browne practised 
exclusively as an engraver of landscape, and 
attained to a high degree of excellence in that 
department. He was elected an associate en- 
graver of the Royal Academy in 1770, and 
exhibited thirteen plates between 1767 and 
1801. He died in West Lane, Walworth, 
2 Oct. 1801. The following are some of his 
most important works, which are to be seen 
in our national collection of prints : ' The 
Watering Place,' after Rubens ; ' The Forest/ 
after Sir George Beaumont ; ' St. John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness/ after S. Rosa; 
' A View of the Gate of the Emperor Akbar 
at Secundrii/ after Hodges ; ' The Cascade/ 
after G. Poussin ; and four plates from his 
own designs, ' Morning/ ( Evening/ ' After 



Sunset,' and ' Moonlight ; ' also several large 
plates after Claude Lorraine. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.] 

L. R 

BROWNE, JOSEPH (/?. 1706), physi- 
cian, has been generally described as a char- 
latan. His origin is unknown, and the par- 
ticulars of his personal history are scanty, 
but it is probable that he was the Joseph 
Browne of Jesus College, Cambridge, who 
proceeded M.B. 1695 ; that he took the 
degree of M.D. does not appear, though 
he assumed the title. In 1706 he was 
twice convicted for libelling Queen Anne's 
administration. The first of these occasions, 
when he was fined forty marks and ordered to 
stand in the pillory, was for the publication 
of ' The Country Parson's Honest Advice to 
that judicious and worthy Minister of State 
my Lord Keeper.' In a letter addressed to 
Secretary Harley, l occasioned by his late 
committment to Newgate,' he denies the 
authorship of this pamphlet, of which at the 
same time he gives a professedly disinterested 
explanation. He also speaks of Harley as 
having ' not only treated him like a patriot, 
but given him friendly advice.' For thus 
undertaking the office of political interpreter 
he was again fined forty marks and ordered 
to stand in the pillory twice. He has been 
described ' as a mere tool of the booksellers 
and always needy ' (GKANGEK, Biog. Hist, of 
England (Noble's continuation), ii. 232). It 
is at any rate certain that he was an indus- 
trious writer, and that his effrontery may be 
discerned through an obscure and rambling 
style. He wrote and lectured against Har- 
vey's theory of the circulation of the blood, 
and he continued the ' Examiner ' after it 
had been dropped by Mrs. Manley, who had 
succeeded Swift and others ; ' consequently 
it became as inferior to what it had been as 
his abilities were to theirs' (ib.) Following 
the fashion of the time, he sought the patron- 
age of great people, and was bold and impor- 
tunate in his applications. Thus his ' Modern 
Practice of Physick vindicated ' (two parts, 
1703-4) is dedicated to the Duke of Leeds 
without permission, for he was 'jealous it 
might be denied him.' He hopes, however, 
the duke will ' pardon the ambition I have of 
publishing to the world that I am known to 
your grace.' A similar motive led him to 
dedicate his ' Lecture of Anatomy against 
the Circulation of the Blood ' (1701) to ' His 
Excellency Heer Vrybergen, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary from the States-General.' His 
'Practical Treatise of the Plague' (1720) 
has a prefatory epistle to an eminent medical 
authority of that day, Dr. Mead, and his last 

known publication, also on the plague, was 
addressed to the president and members of 
the Royal College of Physicians, with which 
body he was not affiliated. Beyond the date 
of this publication (1721) there is no trace 
of him. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat.; Granger's Biog. Hist, of 
England, continuation by "Noble, ii. 232 ; Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 465, ii. 13.] J. M. S. 

BROWNE, JOSEPH (1700-1767), pro- 
vost of Queen's College, Oxford, son of 
George Browne, yeoman, was born at a place 
called the Tongue in Watermillock, Cum- 
berland, educated at Barton school, and ad- 
mitted commoner of Queen's College, Oxford, 
on 21 March 1716-17, the expense of his 
education being, it is said, partly defrayed 
by a private benefactor. He was elected 
tabarder on the foundation of his college, 
and, having graduated M.A. on 4 Nov. 1724, 
became a chaplain there. He was elected 
fellow 1 April 1731, and became a successful 
tutor ; took the degree of D.D. 9 July 1743, 
and was presented by the college with the 
living of Bramshot, Hampshire, 1746. In that 
year he was appointed professor of natural 
philosophy, and held that office until his 
death. He was instituted prebendary of 
Hereford on 9 June of the same year (he 
was afterwards called into residence), and 
on 13 Feb. 1752 was collated to the chan- 
cellorship of the cathedral. On 3 Dec. 1756 
he was elected provost of Queen's College. 
From 1759 to 1765 he held the office of vice- 
chancellor of the university. He had a severe 
stroke of palsy 25 March 1765, and died on 
17 June 1767. He edited l Maffei S. R. E, 
Card. Barberini postea Urbani VII Poemata/ 

[Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, i. 426, 
427 ; Wood's History and Antiquities of the 
Colleges and Halls (Ghitch), 149, app. 172, 173 ; 
History of the University, ii. 871 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy), i. 494, 496. The lives of Dr. 
Browne in Chalmers's and Eose's Biographical 
Dictionaries are taken from Hutchinson's Cum- 
berland.] W. H. 

BROWNE, LANCELOT (d.1605), physi- 
cian, was a native of York. He matriculated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, in May 
1559, graduated B.A. in 1562-3, and M.A. in 
1566. In 1567 he was elected fellow of Pem- 
broke Hall ; in 1570 received the license of 
the university to practise physic. He took a 
leading part in the opposition to the new 
statutes of the university promulgated in 
1572, and in 1573 was made proctor. He was 
created M.D. in 1576, and after this would 
appear to have moved to London, as on 
10 June 1584 he was elected fellow of the 

E 2 



College of Physicians. He was censor in 
1587, and several times afterwards ; an elect 
in 1599; and a member of the council of the 
college in 1604-5; but died in 1605, probably 
shortly before 11 Dec. Browne was physi- 
cian to Queen Elizabeth, to James I, and to 
his queen. He is not known to have written 
anything except a commendatory letter in 
Latin prefixed to Gerarde's 'Herbal' (first 
edition, 1597). He was one of those en- 
trusted by the College of Physicians in 1589 
with the preparation of a pharmacopoeia, and 
in 1594 was on a committee appointed for the 
same object, but for some reason the work 
was stopped, and not resumed till twenty 
years afterwards, when Browne was no longer 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses, ii. 421 ; 
Hunk's Coll. of Phys. (2nd ed.) ii. 86.] 

J. F. P. 

BROWNE, LYDE (d. 1787), the elder, 
virtuoso, was a director of the Bank of Eng- 
land, having a town house in Foster Lane, 
City, and a country house at Wimbledon. 
He commenced the antique-art collections for 
which he was distinguished about 1747. He 
became F.S.A. on 5 April 1752 ; he resigned 
the fellowship in 1772. In April 1768 he 
was elected director of the Bank of England. 
By that year he had gathered together at his 
Wimbledon house as many as eighty-one rare 
statues and other precious examples of Greek 
and Roman art. Browne's art treasures were 
described in a Latin catalogue, 8vo, published 
in 1768, together with the sources whence 
some of them were obtained. By 1779 
Browne had largely increased his collection. 
An Italian catalogue of it (4to, Rivingtons) 
was published in that year, and this speaks 
of 236 pieces as being the choicest of Browne's 
possessions, and comprising some said to be 
* d' uno stile il piu sublime ' and in perfect 
preservation. About 1786 Browne arranged 
to sell the whole of these treasures (or a 
portion, it is not clear) to the Empress of 
Russia, and the price he was to be paid was 
22,000/. Choosing a merchant in St. Peters- 
burg, on the recommendation of some friends, 
to receive and transmit this sum of money, 
Browne had 10,000/. of it duly forwarded, 
but the balance was never sent, owing to the 
merchant's bankruptcy. The loss caused 
Browne much depression, and he soon after- 
wards (10 Sept. 1787) died of apoplexy. 

His Wimbledon mansion was tenanted 
after his death by Henry Dundas (Lord 
Melville), and subsequently by the Earl of 
Aberdeen and by Lord Lovaine (LrsoNS, 
Environs, Supplement, p. 96). 

[Gent. Mag. 1787, vol. Ivii. pt. ii. p. 840, under 

Brown ; ' Bibliotheca Typographic^ Britannica, 
x. 64 ; Catalogus Veteris ^Evi varii, &c. ; Cata- 
pgo dei piu scelti e preziosi Marmi, &c. ; 
L/ysons's Environs, i. 540, Supplement, 96 ; 
private information.] J. H. 

BROWNE, LYDE (d. 1803), the younger, 
Lieutenant-colonel 21st royal Scots fusiliers, 
who was killed by Emmett's mob in Dublin in 
1803, entered the army as cornet in the 3rd 
dragoons 11 June 1777, and obtained his troop 
in the 20th light dragoons, a corps formed 
during the American war out of the light 
troops of some other cavalry regiments, and 
which was disbanded in 1783, when he was 
placed on half pay. He was brought on full 
pay in the 40th foot in May 1794, and served 
with that regiment in the West Indies, and 
became major in the 4th (Nicholl's) West 
Indiaregiment in 1797. His subsequent com- 
missions were major 90th foot, 1798 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel 35thfoot, with which he served 
at Malta, 1800 ; lieutenant-colonel 85th foot, 
1801 ; and lieutenant-colonel 21st fusiliers, 
25 Jan. 1802. The latter regiment was sta- 
tioned in Cork Street, Thomas Street, and 
Coombe Barracks in July 1803, and Browne 
was repairing thither to join his men on 
the alarm being given at dusk on 23 July, 
when he was shot dead by some of the same 
mob which immediately afterwards murdered 
the aged Lord Kilwarden in an adjoining 

[Annual Army Lists ; Trimen's Hist. Rec. 
35th Foot (Southampton, 1874) ; H. Stooks- 
Smith's Alph. List Officers, 85th Lt. Inf. (Lon- 
don, 1850) : Cannon's Hist. Kec. 21st Fusiliers.] 

H. M. C. 

BROWNE, MOSES (1704-1787), poet, 
born in 1704, was originally a pen-cutter. 
His earliest production in print was a weak 
tragedy called ' Polidus, or Distress'd Love,' 
and an equally weak farce ' All Bedevil'd, or 
the House in a Hurry,' neither of which was 
ever performed by regular actors or in a 
licensed theatre. His earliest studies were 
patronised by Robert, viscount Molesworth, 
and his poems of ' Piscatory Eclogues,' 1729, 
were dedicated to Dodington, afterwards Lord 
Melcombe. They were reissued with other 
works in 1739 under the title of ' Poems on 
various Subjects,' and again in 1773 as 
' Angling Sports, in nine Piscatory Eclogues.' 
Browne found a kind friend in Cave, the pro- 
prietor of the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' and for 
a long time he was the principal poetical con- 
tributor to that periodical. The prize of 50/. 
offered by Cave for the best theological poem 
was awarded to Browne by Dr. Birch ; it is 
printed, with other prize poems of his ^ com- 
position, in the ' Poems on various Subjects.' 




Browne was an enthusiastic angler, and 
in 1750, at the suggestion of Dr. Johnson, 
brought out an edition of Walton and Cot- 
ton's ' Compleat Angler,' adding to it 'a 
number of occasional notes.' These were of 
value, but unfortunately the original text 
was altered to suit the taste of the age. 
Other editions appeared in 1759 and 1772, 
the former giving rise to a controversy with 
Sir John Hawkins, who was also an editor of 
that work. Browne's volume, * Works and 
Rest of the Creation, containing (1) an Essay 
on the Universe, (2) Sunday Thoughts,' was 
published in 1752, and was several times 
reprinted, the last edition being in 1806. 
Through the encouragement of the Rev. 
James Hervey he took orders in the English 
church and became curate to Hervey at Col- 
lingtree in 1753. The small living of Olney 
was given to Browne by Lord Dartmouth 
in the same year, but as the poet had a large 
family Cowper says ' ten or a dozen ' chil- 
dren, Hervey with greater precision ' thirteen ' 
he was forced to accept in 1763 the chap- 
laincy of Morden College, and to be non- 
resident at Olney. At a still later date he 
became the vicar of Sutton in Lincolnshire. 
Browne died at Morden College 13 Sept. 
1787, his wife, Ann, having predeceased him 
on 24 March 1783, aged 65. A tablet to his 
memory is in Olney Church. John Newton 
was his curate there from 1764 to 1780, when 
Thomas Scott succeeded him. 

He was the author of several sermons and 
the translator of ' The Excellency of the 
Knowledge of Jesus Christ, by John Liborius 
Zimmermann,' which passed through three 
editions (1772, 1773, and 1801). At the 
command of the Duke and Duchess of Somer- 
set he wrote in 1749 a poem on their seat 
of ' Percy Lodge,' but it was not given to the 
world until 1755. Had they lived, this poor 
poet would have been better provided for. 

[Gent. Mag. 1736, pp. 59-60, 1787 pp. 286, 
840, 932 ; Biog. Dram. (1812), i. 75 ; Westwood's 
Bibl. Piscatoria (1883), pp. 43-4, 221-2; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 21, 436, v. 36-7, 51-3 ; 
Hawkins's Johnson, p. 46 ; Hervey's Letters, 
i. and ii. ; Southey's Cowper, i. 243-4, iv. 154; 
Abbey and Overton's English Church, ii. 331.1 

W. P. C. 

BROWNE, PATRICK (1720 ?-l 790), 
author of the ' Civil and Natural History of 
Jamaica/ was the fourth son of Edward 
Browne of Woodstock, co. Mayo, Ireland, 
and was born about 1720. In 1737 he was 
sent to reside with a relative in Antigua, but 
ill-health compelling him to return to Europe 
he went to Paris, where he commenced the 
study of physical science, especially botany. 
Afterwards he removed to Leyden, where he 

continued his studies, obtaining the degree of 
M.D. 21 Feb. 1743 (PEACOCK, English Stu- 
dents at Leyden, p. 14). At Leyden he made 
the acquaintance of Gronovius, and began 
a correspondence with Linnaeus, which con- 
tinued till his death. After practising his 
profession for two years in London he re- 
turned to the West Indies, spending some 
months in Antigua and other sugar islands, 
and thence proceeding to Jamaica. Here he 
occupied himself with the study of the geology, 
botany, and natural history of the island. In 
1755 he published a new map of Jamaica, and 
in 1756 ' Civil and Natural History of Ja- 
maica ' in folio, ornamented with forty-nine 
engravings, a map of the island, and a map 
of the harbour of Port Royal, Kingston, &c. 
All the copperplates as well as the original 
drawings used in the work were consumed 
in the great fire in Cornhill 7 Nov. 1765, and 
consequently the second edition of the book 
published in 1769, with four new Linnsean 
indexes, is without illustrations. In June 
1774 he published in * Exshaw's London Ma- 
gazine ' a ' Catalogue of the Birds of Ireland, 
whether natives, casual visitors, or birds of 
passage, taken from observation, classed and 
disposed according to Linnaeus ; ' and in Au- 
gust of the same year a t Catalogue of Fishes 
observed on our coasts, and in our lakes and 
rivers.' He left in manuscript a t Catalogue 
of the Plants now growing in the Sugar Is- 
lands,' and a ' Catalogue of such Irish Plants 
as have been observed by the author, chiefly 
those of the counties of Mayo and Galway.' 
He died at Rushbrook, co. Mayo, 29 Aug. 
1790, and was interred in the family bury ing- 
place at Crossboyne, where there is a monu- 
ment to his memory with an inscription 
written by himself. 

[Walker's Hibernian Mag. 1795, pt. ii. pp. 
195-7.] T. F. H. 

BROWNE, PETER (d. 1735), divine, was 
born in co. Dublin soon after the Restoration ; 
entered Trinity College in 1682; became 
fellow in 1692, and provost in August 1699. 
He was made bishop of Cork and Ross in 
January 1710. He became first known as a 
writer by an attack upon Toland, who had 
published in 1696 his ' Christianity not Mys- 
terious.' Browne made one of the best known 
replies to this work ; and Toland was in the 
habit of boasting that he had thus made 
Browne a bishop (ToLAND, Life prefixed to 
Collection of several Pieces, 1726, p. xx). 
Browne held that Toland was beyond the pale 
of toleration (AMOEY, Memoirs, &c., i. 85). 
He afterwards published a full elaboration 
of his argument in the ' Procedure, Extent, 
and Limits of Human Understanding,' 1728 ; 




and in ' Things Supernatural and Divine con- 
ceived by Analogy with things Natural and 
Human,' 1733. The argument in these books 
resembles one afterwards put forward by 
Dean Hansel. It is adopted from Archbishop 
King's sermon on predestination (1709, and 
republished with notes by Archbishop 
V/hately, 1821). According to Browne we 
can have no direct knowledge at all of the real 
nature of the Divine attributes, though we 
may have an ' analogical ' knowledge through 
revelation. The doctrine was intended at first 
to upset Toland's argument against mystery 
as being equivalent to nonsense. Berkeley, in 
his ' Alciphron' (third dialogue, 1732), urged 
that it really led to atheism. Browne replies 
to Berkeley at great length in the ' Analogy.' 
Berkeley says (4 April 1734) that he did not 
answer the last attack, as the book had excited 
little notice in Ireland. Browne also took part 
in a controversy about the practice of drinking 
to the ' glorious and immortal memory.' He 
maintained it to be a superstitious rite in va- 
rious pamphlets : l Drinking in Remembrance 
of the Dead, being the substance of a discourse 
delivered to the clergy of the diocese of Cork,' 
1713 ; second part, 1714 ; ' An Answer to a 
Rt. Rev. Prelate's Defence of, &c.,' 1715 ; a 
' Discourse of Drinking Healths, wherein the 
great evil of the custom is shown,' 1716 ; and 
1 A Letter to a Gentleman in Oxford on the 
subject of Health-drinking,' 1722. Swift 
refers to this in his letters to Sheridan (28 
and 29 June 1725), and says that the bishop 
is a 'whimsical gentleman.' Browne died 
25 Aug. 1735, and was buried at Ballinaspic, 
near Cork, where he had spent 2,000/. on a 
house which he left to his successors in the 
bishopric. His body was exhumed 12 Jan. 
1861, in consequence of a report that it had 
been stolen, and found so perfect that the 
resemblance to his portrait in the palace at 
Cork was recognisable. It was reinterred 
under the new cathedral church of St. Fin- 
bar, Cork. He is described as a man of aus- 
tere and simple habits, lavish and secret in 
his charities, and a very impressive preacher. 
His sermons, in two volumes, were published 
in 1742. He left various writings in manu- 
script, including a third volume of the 
' Analogy,' a tract ' On the Use and Abuse of 
Metaphysicks in Religion,' and some other 
tracts and sermons. 

[Eraser's Berkeley, iv. 18, 222, 234 ; Mant's 
Church of Ireland, ii. 193 ; Amory's Memoirs of 
several Ladies, &c., i. 85; Ware's Bishops of 
Ireland (Harris), 571, 572; Ware's Writers of 
Ireland (Harris), 296, 297.] L. S. 

parliamentary general, a citizen of London, 

is described as a ' woodmonger' in the list of 
i adventurers for the reconquest of Ireland, to 
\ which enterprise he subscribed 600A He 
| took up arms for the parliament, and obtained 
1 a command in the trained bands. In Sep- 
tember 1642 he disarmed the royalist gen- 
try of Kent (ViCARS, i. 163). In December 

1642 he served under Waller, and his regi- 
ment was the first to enter the breach at the 
capture of Winchester (ib. i. 229). In July 

1643 he was charged with the suppression of 
! the rising which took place in Kent in con- 
nection with Waller's plot, and crushed the 
insurgents in a fight at Tunbridge (16 July 
1643, ib. iii. 12). On 23 Dec. 1643 the par- 
liament appointed Browne to the command 
of the two regiments (the white and the 
yellow) sent to reinforce Waller's army, and 
he shared the command at the victory of 
Alresford (29 March 1644). In the follow- 
ing summer, by an ordinance dated 8 June, 

: he was constituted major-general of the 
forces raised for the subduing of Oxford, and 
commander-in-chief of the forces of the three 
; associated counties of Berkshire, Bucking- 
I hamshire, and Oxfordshire (RTISHWORTH, iii. 
pt. ii. 673). With three regiments of auxili- 
aries raised in London he took up his head- 
quarters at Abingdon, where l he was a con- 
tinual thorn in the eyes and goad in the sides 
of Oxford and the adjacent royal garrisons ' 
(ViCARS, England's Worthies, 101). The par- 
liamentary ( Diurnals ' are full of his exploits, 
while the royalist tracts and papers continu- 
ally accuse him of plundering the country and 
ill-treating his prisoners. An attempt was 
made by Lord Digby to induce him to betray 
his charge, but it met with signal failure 
(September to December 1644, RTJSHWORTH 
| iii. pt. ii. 808-16). 

In May 1645 Browne was employed for a 
short time in following the king's movements, 
but was recalled to take part in the first 
siege of Oxford (June 1645). He took part 
in the final siege of that city in the summer of 
1646. On the conclusion of the war he was 
appointed one of the commissioners to receive 
Charles from the Scots (5 Jan. 1647, RUSH- 
WORTH, iv. pt. i. 394). While at Holmby he 
was, according to Anthony Wood, ' converted 
by the king's discourses' (Annals, ii. 474). 
He was at Holmby when the king was seized 
by Cornet Joyce, and told the soldiers ' that 
if he had had strength we should have had 
| his life before we brought the king away. 
j " Indeed," said the cornet, " you speak like 
a gallant and faithful man ; " but he knew 
well enough he had not the strength, and 
therefore spake so boldly' (RUSHWORTH, 
iv. 516). Browne was elected member for 
Wycombe amongst the recruiters, and in 




1647 was also chosen sheriff of London. 
Clarendon describes him as having * a great 
name and interest in the city, and with all 
the presbyterian party ' (Rebellion, x. 70). 
With the majority of his party he changed 
sides in 1648, was accused by the army of 
confederating with the Scots and the secluded 
members for the invasion of England (6 Dec.), ! 
arrested (12 Dec.), expelled from the House j 
of Commons, and deprived of his sherifFdom | 
and other posts (WALKER, History of Inde- \ 
pendency, ii. 39 ; RTJSHWORTH, iv. pt. ii. 
1354-61). For several years he remained in 
prison at Windsor, Wallingford, Warwick, 
Ludlow, and other places. In the account 
of his sufferings which he gave in parliament 
in March 1659 he says : * I was used worse 
than a cavalier ; taken and sent away prisoner 
to Wales ; used with more cruelty than if in 
Newgate ; in a worse prison than common 
prisoners. My wife and children could not 
come under roof to see me. My letters 
could not pass. The governor demanded my 
letters ; I said he should have my life as 
soon. I defended them with my weapon ' 
(BURTON, Diary, iv. 263). This imprison- 
ment lasted for five years. In 1656 Browne 
was one of the members excluded from par- 
liament for refusing to take the engagement 
demanded by the Protector (see Protest of 
22 Sept. in WHITELOCKE). In Richard 
Cromwell's parliament he was one of the 
members for London, and found at length, 
in March 1659, an opportunity for securing 
redress. On 26 March 1659 the House of 
Commons annulled the vote of 4 Dec. 1649 
disabling him from the office of alderman, 
and ordered the payment of 9,016/. still 
owing to him from the state. In the summer 
of 1659 he was implicated in Sir George 
Booth's rising, and his arrest ordered, but 
he succeeded in lying hid at Stationers' 
Hall, ' by the faithful secrecy of Captain 
Burroughes' (HEATH'S Chronicle, p. 737). The 
votes then passed against him were annulled 
on 22 Feb. 1660 (Journals ; and PEPTS, 
Diary], Browne was one of the persons with 
whom Whitelocke took counsel for the fur- 
therance of his scheme of persuading Fleet- 
wood to recall the king (WHITELOCKE, 22 Dec. 
1659). Browne was chosen by the city as one 
of the deputation to Charles II, and headed 
the triumphal procession which brought the 
king back to London with a troop of gentle- 
men in cloth of silver doublets. His services 
were liberally rewarded by the king, who con- 
ferred the honour of knighthood on both him 
and his eldest son. He was also elected lord 
mayor on 3 Oct. 1660. During his mayoralty 
Venner's insurrection took place, and the 
vigour he showed in suppressing it gained 

him fresh advancement. The city rewarded 
him with a pension of 500/. a year (7 Aug. 
1662, KENNET, p. 739), and the king created 
him a baronet. He died on 24 Sept. 1669, 
1 at his house in Essex, near Saffron Waldeii ' 
(Obituary of Richard Smyth, p. 83). He was 
a brave soldier, and the charges of rapacity 
and cruelty brought against him by the royalist 
pamphleteers can hardly be regarded as proved. 
A greater blot on his fame is his conduct at 
the trial of the regicides. Browne repeated 
against Adrian Scroop words tending to justify 
the king's execution which Scroop had spoken 
in a casual conversation, and this testimony 
excited a feeling in the high court and the 
parliament which cost Scroop his life (WOOD, 
Athena, ii. 74, ed. 1721 ; KEBTNET, Register, 
p. 276). 

[Vicars's Parliamentary Chronicle; Itushworth's 
Historical Collections; Keimet's Kegister. 
Vicars's England's Worthies (1647) contains a 
sketch of Browne's career and a portrait. The 
correspondence with Lord Digby was printed in 
a pamphlet entitled The Lord Digby's Design 
on Abingdon (4to, 1644), and several of Browne's 
relations of different battles and skirmishes were 
published contemporaneously.] , C. H. F. 


(fl. 1674-1694), physician, was educated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, but graduated at 
Leyden, where he was admitted 20 Sept. 
1675, being then fifty years old. He became 
a licentiate of the College of Physicians on 
30 Sept. 1676. His principal writings, some 
of which bear on the title-page ' by Richard 
Browne, Apothecary of Oakham,' are : 1. 'Me- 
dicina Musica ; or a Mechanical Essay on the 
Effects of Singing, Music, and Dancing on 
Human Bodies ; with an Essay on the Nature 
and Cure of the Spleen and Vapours,' London, 
1674, new edition 1729. 2. ' Ilepl 'Kpx&v, 
Liber in quo Principia Veterum evertuntur, 
et nova stabiliuntur,' London, 1678. 3. t Pro- 
sodia Pharmacopo3orum, or the Apothecary's 
Prosody,' London, 1685. 4. ' English Gram- 
mar,' London, 1692. 5. 'General History of 
Earthquakes,' London, 1694. A small book 
entitled ' Coral and Steel, a most Compendious 
Method of Preserving and Restoring Health, 
byR. B., M.D.,'nodate, is doubtfully assigned 
to the same R. Brown. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), i. 391.] 

G. T. B. 

1683), diplomatist, born in 1605, was the 
only son of Christopher Browne of Sayes 
Court, Deptford, and Thomasine Gonson, 
whose father and grandfather, Benjamin and 
William Gonson, had been treasurers of the 
navy. The father of Christopher, Sir Richard 



Browne, knight, was in the service of the 
Earl of Leicester while governor of the 
Netherlands, and held the appointment of , 
clerk of the green cloth under Elizabeth and 
James I. Richard Browne was educated at | 
Merton College, Oxford. After travelling 
on the continent, ancl especially, as it would 
seem, in France, he returned to England, and ! 
was sworn clerk of the council to King 
Charles I on 27 Jan. 1640-1. In the same ; 
year he was sent on two diplomatic missions, ! 
to the Queen of Bohemia and the Elector ! 
Palatine, and to Henry Frederick, prince of | 
Orange. In July 1641 Browne entered on 
the chief occupation of his life, being at 
that date appointed king's resident at the ' 
court of France, in succession to the Earl of 
Leicester. This appointment he held for no 
less than nineteen years, acting as the repre- \ 
sentative both of Charles I and of his exiled 
son. Browne was a staunch royalist, and his j 
loyalty was thoroughly tried. During the j 
whole of his diplomatic career in France he 
seems to have been practically obliged to give | 
his services gratuitously. More than once he 
is found writing anxiously for some payment ! 
of his allowances, Avhile on one occasion he I 
complained bitterly that he had not even 
1 the wherewithal to provide himself out of 
mourning a new coat and liveries.' The 
sum due to him for his allowance as resi- 
dent was stated, after the Restoration, to 
amount to 19,732/., of which only 7,668 J. ; 
had been paid or deducted as a fine on the 
lease to him of Sayes Court. An attempt 
made in 1649 by Augier, ' the agent for the 
rebels,' to bribe the king's resident if he 
would ' serve the new state, and discover 
what came to his knowledge of the Louvre 
councils,' was, however, indignantly repelled. 
' I replied,' wrote Browne at the time, ' that 
I took it very ill that he or any should 
dare to make any such overture to me . . . 
that I held his masters the most execrable 
villains that were ever upon the face of the 
earth, and that if his majesty now that I 
had spent my whole estate in this my last 
eight years' service were neither able nor 
willing to use me, I would retire into some 
remote, cheap corner of the world, where, 
feeding only upon bread and water, I and 
mine would hourly pray for his majesty's 
re-establishment.' But probably Browne's 
greatest service, in the eyes of the royalists 
was his maintenance of the public service 
and liturgy of the church of England during 
the exile of the English king. In his large 
house in Paris, Browne erected a chapel 
which was much frequented by many well- 
known English divines and other exiles. On 
the Trinity Sunday of 1650 John Evelyn was 

present at a service in this chapel, when the 
ordination took place of two Englishmen 
Durell, afterwards dean of Windsor, and 
Brevint, afterwards dean of Durham ; the 
Bishop of Galloway officiated, and the ser- 
mon was preached by the Dean of Peter- 
borough. It is recorded that divers bishops, 
doctors of the church, and others who found 
an asylum in Browne's house at Paris, were 
accustomed, in their disputes with papists 
and sectaries, at a time when the church 
of England seemed utterly lost, ' to argue 
for the visibility of the church,' solely from 
the existence of Browne's chapel and con- 
gregation. About 1652-3 Browne also pur- 
chased a piece of ground for the inter- 
ment of protestants who died in or near 

A selection from Browne's correspondence- 
has been published in the appendix to Bray's 
edition of Evelyn's ' Diary and Correspon- 
dence ; ' the most important portion of it con- 
sists of the letters which passed privately 
between himself and Sir Edward Hyde (after- 
wards Earl of Clarendon), principally from 
February 1652 to August 1659. In the corre- 
spondence very frequent mention is made of the 
'prizes' captured, after the death of Charles I, 
by the privateers of Scilly and Jersey. Those 
islands being then in the hands of the parlia- 
mentary forces, the freebooters were com- 
pelled to bring their prizes into the ports of 
France, and, in return for the sanction of the 
royal commission, were called upon to pay 

i certain dues into the exchequer of the exiled 
English king (see Bray's notes to the Hyde 

| and Browne Correspondence in vol. iv. of 
EVELYN). In the collection of these dues 
Charles experienced great difficulties, and 
from the close of 1652 to 1654 Browne was 
actively engaged in Brittany, at Brest and 
Nantes, endeavouring to collect the sums 
owing to the king. On 1 Sept. 1649 Browne 
had been created a baronet by Charles II, in 
virtue of a dormant warrant sent to him by 

I Charles I in February 1643. On 19 Sept. 
1649 he had also received from Charles II the 
honour of knighthood. 

At the Restoration the king's resident re- 
turned to England, landing at Dover 4 June 
1660. He continued to hold office as clerk 
of the council until January 1671-2. The re- 
mainder of his life was spent (according to 
WOOD, Fasti Oxon.} at Charlton in Kent, 
where he passed his time l in a pleasant re- 
tiredness and studious recess.' For some few 
months before his decease he suffered from 
gout and dropsy, and died on 12 Feb. 1682-3,, 
at Sayes Court, Deptford. He was buried 
in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, Deptford, 
his funeral being attended by the brethren ot 




the Trinity corporation, of which he had been 
master. Browne married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Pretty-man of Dryfield in 
Gloucestershire. Their only daughter, Mary, 
became the wife of the well-known John 

The Sir Richard Browne of this article 
should be carefully distinguished from Alder- 
man Sir Richard Browne (d. 1669) [q. v.] 

[Evelyn's Diary and Correspondence (ed. Bray) 
passim and Browne's Correspondence thereto 
subjoined ; Monumental Inscriptions at Dept- 
ford, printed in Lysons's Environs of London, 
vol. iv. ; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), pt. i. pp. 439-40 ; 
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, especially 
from 1640-1 to 1663.] W. "W. 

BROWNE, ROBERT (1550 P-1633 ?), 
the earliest separatist from the church of 
England after the Reformation, and no-re- 
claimed as the first exponent of their prin- 
ciple of church government by the modern 
congregationalists in England and America, 
was born at Tolethorpe in Rutland about 
the middle of the sixteenth century, though 
the exact date of his birth is unknown. The 
family from which he sprang had been settled 
at Stamford in Lincolnshire since the four- 
teenth century. They had amassed con- 
siderable wealth, filled positions of trust and 
importance, and were recognised county mag- 
nates before the fifteenth century had closed. 
One of them, John Browne, a merchant of 
the staple, and a rich alderman of Stamford, 
built the church of All Saints in that town 
at his sole expense, and a brass in memory of 
him and his wife still exists in the church he 
erected. This man's son, Christopher Browne 
of Tolethorpe, was high sheriff for the county 
of Rutland in the reign of Henry VII, and his 
son, grandfather of the subject of this article, 
received a curious patent from Henry VIII, 
allowing him to wear his hat in the royal 
presence when he pleased. Robert was the 
third child of Mr. Anthony Browne of Tole- 
thorpe, by Dorothy, daughter of Sir Philip 
Boteler of Watton Woodhall, Hertford- 
shire, and was connected more or less closely 
through both parents with some of the most 
wealthy and influential families in England. 
In Cecil, lord Burghley, whose family had 
been connected with Stamford for genera- 
tions, and who on more than one occasion 
acknowledged Browne as a kinsman, he found 
a friend indeed when he most needed his pro- 
tection and support. 

Browne is said to have entered at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, in 1570, and to 
have taken his B.A. degree in 1572. Both 
statements can hardly be true, and as he cer- 
tainly did take the B.A. degree in 1572, when 

his name was placed eightieth on the list it is 
I probable that he matriculated first at some 
other college and migrated to Corpus for some 
! reason which must remain unknown to us. 
| Thomas Aldrich, one of the leaders of the 
I puritan party at Cambridge, was master of 
j Corpus at this time, having been elected, on 
the recommendation of Archbishop Parker,. 
1 3 Feb. 1569-70. The college was in a 
flourishing condition, due in a great measure 
' to the favour shown to it by the primate, 
who had himself held the mastership from 
1544 to 1553. It is hardly conceivable that 
Browne between the time of his entry at 
| Corpus and the taking of his degree should! 
i have been admitted to the household of the 
I unfortunate Thomas Howard, fourth duke of" 
I Norfolk, still less that he should in any sense 
i have been the duke's domestic chaplain in 
June 1571, as Strype asserts he was. The 
duke at this time was deeply pledged to the 
papal party, of which he was soon to be ac- 
knowledged as the ostensible leader, and he 
was the last man just at this time to have 
extended his patronage to a young firebrand 
like Browne, whose violent denunciation of 
all that was ' popish ' was quite ungovernable 
and at any rate unrestrained. It is far more 
probable that Strype has confused Robert 
Browne with another man of the same name 
upon whom Cecil doubtless had his eye 
the man who two months later was impli- 
cated when the Ridolfi conspiracy was dis- 
covered, and who was to be the bearer of the 
bag of money which was intended for Lord 
Herries but never reached his hands. After 
taking his degree Browne appears to have 
gone to London, where he supported himself 
as a schoolmaster, and delivered his soul on 
Sundays by preaching in the open air in de- 
fiance of the rector of Islington, in whose 
parish it was that his auditors assembled. 
About 1578, the plague being more than 
usually violent in London, his father ordered 
him to return to Tolethorpe ; but unable to- 
remain long without active employment, h& 
grew tired of the quiet home, and again went 
up to Cambridge, probably with a view to 
taking the higher degrees, or on the chance of 
a fellowship falling to him. At this time ha 
came under the influence of Richard Green- 
ham, rector of Dry Drayton, six or seven miles 
from Cambridge, a clergyman of great ear- 
nestness and conspicuous ability, who had 
remarkable influence upon the more devout 
and ardent young men in the university then 
preparing for holy orders. Browne was pro- 
bably placed for a while under Greenham as 
a pupil in his family, and the elder man soon 
perceived that the younger one had gifts of 
no ordinary kind. Beginning by allowing 



him to take a prominent part in the religious 
exercises of his household, which was a large 
one, he went on to encourage him to preach 
in the villages round, without taking the 
trouble to get the bishop's license, though it 
is almost certain that he must have been 
previously ordained. Soon the fame of his 
eloquence and enthusiasm extended itself, 
and he was invited to accept the cure of a 
parish in Cambridge, probably St. Benet's, 
adjoining his own college, where he preached 
fervently and effectively for some months ; 
. at the end of that time he ' sent back the 
money they would have given him, and also 
gave them warning of his departure. 7 His 
congregation were not ' as yet so rightly 
grounded in church government' as they 
should be. In other words, he could not 
persuade them to follow him as far as he 
desired to go. It was at this point in his 
career that he first became possessed with the 
notion that the whole constitution of eccle- 
siastical government was faulty and needed 
a radical reform. Ordination, whether epi- 
.scopal or presbyterian, was to his mind an 
.abominable institution: to be authorised, li- 
censed, or ordained, by any human being was 
hateful. When his brother obtained for him 
the necessary license from Cox, bishop of Ely, 
and paid the fees, Browne lost one of the neces- 
sary documents, threw the other into the fire, 
and proceeded openly to preach in Cambridge, 
wherever he had the opportunity, ' against 
the calling and authorising of preachers by 
bishops,' protesting that though he had been 
fortified with the episcopal license, he cared 
not one whit for it and would have preached 
whether he had been provided with it or not. 
If the ecclesiastical government of the bishops 
in their several sees was bad, not less objec- 
tionable did the whole structure of the paro- 
chial system seem to him, harmful to religion 
and a bondage from which it was high time 
that the true believers should be set free. 
* The kingdom of God,' he proclaimed, ' was 
not to be begun by whole parishes, but rather 
by the worthiest, were they never so few.' 
Already he had persuaded himself distinctly 
that the Christian church, so far from being 
a corporation comprehensive, all-embracing, 
and catholic, was to be of all conceivable as- 
sociations the most narrow, exclusive, and 
confined in its influence and its aims. It 
was to be a society for a privileged and mira- 
culously gifted few, a witness immeasurably 
less for divine truth than against the world, 
which was lying in wickedness, and which 
Browne seems to have considered he had 
little concern with, little call to convert 
from the errors of its ways. 

While vehemently and incessantly pro- 

claiming this new theory of ecclesiastical 
polity and at this time it was a very new 
theory his health broke down, and while 
still suffering from illness he was formally 
inhibited from preaching by the bishop. 
Browne, with characteristic perversity, told 
the bishop's officer that he was not in a 
position to preach just then ; if the circum- 
stances had been different, ' he would no whit 
less cease preaching ' for the episcopal inhi- 
bition. Soon after this he heard that there 
were certain people in Norfolk who were 
' very forward ' in their zeal for a new refor- 
mation, and consumed by his desire to spread 
his views of the importance of a separation of 
the godly from the ungodly, he felt called to 
go down to East Anglia. It was just at this 
time that a former acquaintance and fellow- 
collegian of his, one Robert Harrison, re- 
turned to Cambridge, or paid a brief visit to 
the university. Harrison, who was Browne's 
senior by some years, had recently been dis- 
missed from the mastership of Aylsham school 
in Norfolk for some irregularity or noncon- 
formity, but had been fortunate enough to 
obtain another resting-place as master of St. 
Giles's [?] Hospital in the city of Norwich. 
Harrison's visit to Cambridge resulted in a 
renewal of an old intimacy and in a closer 
union between two enthusiasts who had 
much in common. It ended by Browne 
leaving Cambridge and taking up his resi- 
dence for a time in Harrison's house at 
Norwich. Gradually Browne, gaining ascen- 
dency over his friend, used him as a coadjutor, 
the two working together pretty much as 
Reeve and Muggleton did a century later 
and round them there soon gathered a small 
company of believers who, accepting Browne 
as their pastor, called themselves 'the church,' 
as others have done before and since, and 
separated from all other professing Christians, 
who f were held in bondage by anti-christian 
power, as were those parishes in Cambridge 
by the bishops.' The disciples became gene- 
rally known as Brownists. Edmund Freake 
was bishop of Norwich at this time, and it was 
not long before he took action against the new 
sect. On 19 April 1581 he forwarded certain 
articles of complaint ' against one Robert 
Browne ' to Lord Burghley, in which he set 
forth that ' the said party had been lately 
apprehended on complaint of many godly 
preachers, for delivering unto the people 
corrupt and contentious doctrine,' and further 
that he was seducing ' the vulgar sort of 
people, who greatly depended on him, as- 
sembling themselves together to the number 
of one hundred at a time in private houses 
and conventicles to hear him, not without 
danger of some evil effect.' It was not at 




Norwich but at Bury St. Edmunds that 
Browne had produced this effect, and it is 

grobable that he had been led to move into 
uffolk by finding that at Norwich the 
power of the bishop was too strong for him, 
or that the clergy of the city, then deeply 
effected with Genevan proclivities and as a 
body very zealous in their ministerial duties, 
were by no means willing to befriend or co- 
operate with a sectary who began by assuming 
that they were all in the bonds of iniquity. 
Lord Burghley returned a prompt reply to 
the bishop's letter of complaint, but as 
promptly sent back his kinsman to Bury 
with a kindly excuse for him, and a sug- 
gestion that his indiscretions proceeded ' of 
zeal rather than malice.' Browne was no 
sooner released than he returned to the old 
course, and the bishop every day received 
some fresh complaint and became more and 
more irritated. In the following August he 
again wrote a strong letter to the lord trea- 
surer, in which he said that his duty ' en- 
forced him most earnestly to crave his lord- 
ship's help in suppressing ' this disturber of 
his diocese. Again Burghley stood his friend, 
and when, a little after, Browne was brought 
before the archbishop, even the primate could 
not keep his prisoner, and he was set at 
liberty only to return to his followers with 
his influence over them increased tenfold. 
The truth is that the time was hardly fa- 
vourable for exercising exceptional severity 
against a zealot of this character, who was 
for ever declaiming against papistry and 
Roman errors. The Jesuit mission to Eng- 
land had only just collapsed by the appre- 
hension of Campion on 10 July. Parsons 
was still at large, and the rack was being 
employed pretty freely in the Tower upon 
the wretched men who, if they had succeeded 
in nothing else, had succeeded in rousing the 
anti-papal feelings of the masses and the 
alarm of such statesmen as looked with 
apprehension upon a revival of catholic 
sentiment. Nevertheless it became evident 
that the little congregation, the * church ' 
which prized above all things human the 
privilege of having their 'pastor' present 
with them, could hardly continue -its assembly 
if Browne were to be continually worried 
by citations and imprisonment at the will 
of one after another of the stiff sticklers 
for uniformity ; and when they had sought 
about for some time for a retreat where 
they might enjoy liberty of worship un- 
molested, they emigrated at last in a body 
to Middleburg in the autumn of 1581. 
Cartwright and Dudley Fenner were the 
accredited ministers of the English puritan 
colony at Middleburg, but Browne and his 

! exclusive congregation were in no mood to 
ally themselves with their fellow-exiles. 

! All other professing Christians might come 

I to him, he certainly would not go to them. 
To the amazement and grief of Cartwright 

1 he found in the newcomers no friends but 
aggressive opponents, and a paper war was 

1 carried on, Browne writing diligently and 
printing what he wrote as fast as the funds 
could be found. Harrison too rushed into 
print, and the books of the two men were 
sent over to England and circulated by 
their followers so sedulously for not all 

1 the Norwich congregation had emigrated 
that a royal proclamation was actually issued 
against them in 1583, and two men were 
hanged for dispersing the books and one for 

! the crime of binding them ! 

Meanwhile the violent and imperious cha- 
racter of Browne led him into acts and 
words which were not favourable to har- 
mony even in his own little company of de- 

| voted followers, and that which any outsider 

| who watched the movement must have fore- 
seen to be inevitable happened at last ; the 
Middleburg ' church ' broke up, and Browne 
towards the close of 1583 turned his back 
upon Harrison and the rest, and set sail for 
Scotland accompanied by ' four or five Eng- 
lishmen with their wives and families,' so 
much already had the ' church ' shrunk 
from its earlier proportions. 

Arrived in Scotland Browne began in the 
old way, denouncing everything and every- 
body concerned in matters religious or eccle- 
siastical, and he had scarcely been a month 
in the country before he was cited to appear 
before the kirk of Edinburgh, and on his be- 
having himself with his usual arrogance and 
treating the court with an insolent defiance 
he was thrown into the common gaol till time 
should be given to two theologians who were 
appointed to examine and report upon his 
books. Meanwhile some secre b influences had 
been brought to bear in his favour, and just 
when it was confidently expected that this 
mischievous troubler would be condemned and 
silenced, to the surprise of all he was set at 
liberty, why, none could explain. Browne ap- 
pears to have remained some months or even 
longer in Scotland, but he made no way, left 
no mark, and gained no converts. In disgust 
at his reception he delivered his testimony 
against the Scotch in no measured terms, 
shook off the dust of his feet against them, 
and setting his face southwards was once more 
printing and publishing books in the summer 
of 1584. Once more he was thrown into 
prison and kept there for some months, and 
once more Burghley interposed, became se- 
curity for his good conduct, effected his 



release, and actually interceded for him in 
a letter to his father, who was still alive. 
Browne returned to Tolethorpe much broken 
in health by his long imprisonment. On re- 
covering his strength his former habits and 
temper returned, and old 1 Anthony Browne, 
vexed and provoked by his son's contumacy, 
applied toBurghley and obtained his sanction 
for his son's removal to Stamford, possibly 
under the eye of some relatives, members 
of the Browne or Cecil families. But such 
men as this are incorrigible. In the spring 
of 1586 he had left Stamford and was preach- 
ing as diligently as ever at Northampton as 
diligently and as offensively and on being 
cited by Howland, bishop of Peterborough, 
to appear before him, Browne took no notice 
of the citation, and was excommunicated 
for contempt accordingly. 

This seems to have been the turning-point 
of his strange career. Whether it was that 
Browne was prepared to suffer in his per- 
son all sorts of hardships, but had never 
thought of being cast out of the church 
from which he gloried in urging others to 
go out, and thus was startled and con- 
fused by the suddenness and unexpected 
form of the sentence that had been pro- 
nounced ; whether his disordered imagina- 
tion began to conjure up some vague, mys- 
terious consequences which might possibly 
ensue, and on which he had never reflected 
before ; or whether his fifteen years of rest- 
less onslaught upon all religions and all reli- 
gious men who would not follow nor be led 
by him, had almost come to be regarded by 
himself as a conspicuous failure, and he had 
given up hope and lost heart, it is impossible 
to say. Certain it is that from this time he 
ceased to be a disturber of the order of things 
established, and his ' church ' or ' churches ' 
were compelled to seek elsewhere for their 
' pastors ' and guides. In November 1586 
Browne was elected to be master of, Stam- 
ford grammar school, certain pledges being 
exacted from him for good behaviour and 
certain conditions being extorted for the re- 
straining him from troubling the world with 
the expression of his peculiar views. To 
these conditions he affixed his signature, and 
he began at once to discharge his new duties. 
He continued master of Stamford school for 
five years, and resigned his mastership only 
on his being presented to the rectory of 
Achurch in Northamptonshire, a benefice 
which was in the gift of Lord Burghley, 
who two years before had made interest, 
but to no purpose, with the Bishop of Peter- 
borough to obtain some preferment for his 
kinsman. At Achurch Browne continued 
to reside for more than forty years, doing 

his duty in his parish with scrupulous fidelity 
and preaching frequently and earnestly to- 
his people ; and though doubtless many un- 
friendly eyes were watching him, he never 
again brought upon himself the charge of non- 
conformity or of being a disturber of the 
peace of the church. His end was a sad 
one ; it must be read in the words of Thomas 
Fuller, the facts of the narrative having 
never been disputed or disproved : ( . . . As I 
am credibly informed, being by the constable 
of the parish (who chanced also to be his 
godson) somewhat roughly and rudely re- 
quired the payment of a rate, he happened 
in passion to strike him. The constable (not 
taking it patiently as a castigation from a 
godfather, but in anger as an affront to his 
office) complained to Sir Howland St. John, 
a neighbouring justice of the peace, and 
Browne is brought before him. The knight,, 
of himself, was prone rather to pity and par- 
don, than punish his passion ; but Browne's 
behaviour was so stubborn, that he appeared 
obstinately ambitious of a prison, as desirous, 
(after long absence) to renew his familiarity 
with his ancient acquaintance. His mitti- 
mus is made ; and a cart with a feather-bed 
provided to carry him, he himself being too 
infirm (above eighty) to go, too unwieldy to 
ride, and no friend so favourable as to pur- 
chase for him a more comely conveyance. 
To Northampton gaol he is sent, where, soon 
after, he sickened, died, and was buried in a 
neighbouring churchyard ; and it is no hurt 
to wish that his bad opinions had been in- 
terred with him ' (FULLER, Church History, 
bk. ix. sect, vi.) Fuller is wrong in the 
date of Browne's death : an entry in his hand 
is still to be seen in the parish register of 
Achurch made on 2 June 1631, arid his suc- 
cessor in the living was not instituted till 
8 Nov. 1633. His burial-place is unknown. 

Browne's wife was Alice Allen, a Yorkshire 
lady ; by her he had four sons and three 
daughters. The hateful story that he ill- 
used his wife in her old age is in all proba- 
bility an infamous slander. Browne was 
very fond of music, and besides being him- 
self ' a singular good lutenist,' he taught his 
children to become performers. On Sundays 
' he made his son Timothy bring his viol to 
church and play the bass to the psalms that 
were sung.' Browne's issue eventually in- 
herited the paternal estate at Tolethorpe, 
and his last descendant died on 17 Sept. 
1839, as widow of George, third earl Pomfret. 

That so powerful and intelligent a body as 
thecongregationalists should desire to affiliate 
themselves on to so eccentric a person as 
Browne, and to claim him as the first enun- 
ciator of the principles which are distinctive 




of their organisation, will always appear some- 
what strange to outsiders. Into discussions 
on church polity, however, it is not our in- 
tention to enter. The last three works quoted 
among the authorities at the end of this 
article will give the reader as full a view as 
he can desire of the congregationalist stand- 
point. Mr. Dexter's most able and learned 
volume contains an exhaustive account of 
the literature and bibliography of the whole 
subject, and his elaborate monograph on 
Browne's life has materially added to our 
knowledge of the man's curious career. Here 
too will be found by far the most complete 
list of his writings and some valuable ex- 
tracts from hitherto unknown works which 
prove him to have been a man of burning 
enthusiasm and one who, as we might have 
expected, could at times burst forth into pas- 
sages of fiery and impetuous eloquence which 
must have been extraordinarily effective in 
their day, however much they may appear 
to us no more than vehement rhetoric. 

[Blore's Hist, and Antiq. of the County of 
Eutland, 1813, p. 93, &c. ; Fuller's Worthies 
(Eutland) ; Lamb's Masters's Hist, of Corpus 
Christi Coll. Cambridge, pp. 123 et seq., 460; 
-communication from Dr. Luard, Eegistrar of 
Camb. Univ. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547- 
1580, p. 421 ; Froude's Hist. Engl. x. 289-90 ; 
Strype's Parker, ii. 68 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab, 
ii. 177, 178; Fuller's Church Hist. bk. ix., cent. 
xvi., sect, vi., 1-7, 64-9 ; Lansdowne MSS., 
quoted by all modern writers, No. xxxiii. 13, 20 ; 
Hanbury's Historical Memorials relating to the 
Independents, 1839, vol. ; John Browne's 
Hist, of Congregationalism in Norfolk and Suf- 
folk (1877), chs. i-iii. ; Dexter's Congregation- 
alism of the last Three Hundred Years, as 
seen in its Literature, New York, 1880.1 


BROWNE, SAMUEL (1575 P-1682), 

'divine, born at or near Shrewsbury, became 
a servitor or clerk of All Souls College, Ox- 
ford, in 1594, at the age of nineteen, gra- 
duated B.A. 3 Nov. 1601, and M.A. 3 July 
1605, took orders, and in 1618 was appointed 
minister of St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury, 
' where he was much resorted to by precise 
people for his edifying and frequent preach- 
ing ' (WOOD). In spite, however, of this 
notice of his ministry in the ' Athense Oxon.,' 
Browne can scarcely have been a puritan, for 
in the curious little book entitled l The Look- 
ing-glasse of Schisme, wherein by a briefe 
and true Narration of the execrable Murders 
done by Enoch ap Evan, a downe-right Non- 
conformist . . . the Disobedience of that Sect 
... is plainly set forth ' (1635), the author, 
Peter Studley, minister of St. Chad's, Shrews- 
bury, speaks of him with great respect, and 

says that during the thirteen years of his 
ministry he was e rudely and unchristianly 
handled' by the disloyal and schismatical 
party in the town, and that finally, * by an 
invective and bitter Libell, consisting of four- 
teene leaves in quarto cast into his garden, 
they disquieted his painefull and peaceable 
soule, and shortened the date of his trouble- 
some pilgrimage.' Browne died in 1632, and 
was buried at St. Mary's on 6 May. He pub- 
lished ' The Sum of Christian Religion by 
way of Catechism,' 1630, 1637, 8vo, and l Cer- 
tain Prayers,' and left at his death several 
sermons which he wished printed. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 531 ; Fasti 
(Bliss), i. 290, 306 ; Studley's Looking-glasse of 
Schisme, 180-1 ; Phillips's History and Anti- 
quities of Shrewsbury, 100 ; Some Account of the 
Ancient and Present State of Shrewsbury (ed. 
1810), 216, 217.] W. H. 

BROWNE, SAMUEL (d. 1668), judge, 
was the son of Nicholas Browne of Polebrooke, 
Northamptonshire, by Frances, daughter of 
Thomas St. John, third son of Oliver, lord 
St. John. He was thus first cousin to Oliver 
St. John, chief justice of the common pleas 
during the protectorate. He was admitted 
pensioner of Queens' College, Cambridge, 
24 Feb. 1614, entered as a student at Lin- 
coln's Inn 28 Oct. 1616, where he was 
called to the bar 16 Oct. 1623, and elected 
reader in Michaelmas term 1642. Two years 
previously he had been returned to parlia- 
ment as member for the united boroughs of 
Clifton, Dartmouth, and Hardness in Devon- 
shire. In the articles laid before the king at 
Oxford in 1642, with a view to negotiations 
for peace, the appointment of Browne to a 
seat on the exchequer bench was suggested. 
In November of the same year he was made 
one of the commissioners of the great seal. In 
March 1643-4 he was appointed one of the 
committee to which the management of the 
impeachment of Laud was entrusted. His 
speech on this occasion has not been preserved, 
but from the constant references which Laud 
makes to it he appears to have put the case 
against the archbishop in a very effective way. 
After the trial was ended (2 Jan. 1644-5) 
he was deputed, with Serjeants Wilde and 
Nicolas, to lay before the House of Lords 
the reasons which, in the opinion of the 
commons, justified an ordinance of attainder 
against the archbishop. This had already 
been passed by the commons, and the upper 
house immediately followed suit. In July 
1645 a paper was introduced to the House of 
Commons, emanating from Lord Savile, and 
containing what was in substance an im- 
peachment of Denzil Hollis and Whitelocke, 



of high treason in betraying the trust reposed 
in them in connection with the recent nego- 
tiations at Oxford, of which they had had the 
conduct. After some discussion the matter 
was referred to a committee, of which Browne 
was nominated chairman. The affair is frankly 
described by Whitelocke as a machination 
of the independents, designed to discredit the 
presbyterian party, of which both Hollis and 
himself were members ; and as he accuses 
Browne of displaying a strong bias in favour 
of the impeachment, it may be inferred that 
at this time he had the reputation of belong- 
ing to the advanced faction. The charge was 
ultimately dismissed. In October of the fol- 
lowing year Browne delivered the great seal 
to the new commissioners then appointed, the 
speakers of the two houses. In September 
1648 he was one of ten commissioners nomi- 
nated by the parliament to treat with the 
king in the Isle of Wight. On the receipt of 
letters from the commissioners containing the 
king's ultimatum, the House of Commons, 
after voting the king's terms unsatisfactory, 
resolved ' that notice be taken of the extra- 
ordinary wise management of this treaty by 
the commissioners.' Next day Browne was 
made a serjeant-at-law and justice of the 
king's bench by accumulation. The latter dig- 
nity, however, he refused to accept, whether 
out of timidity or on principle it is impossible 
to determine. After this no more is heard of 
him until the Restoration, when he was re- 
admitted serjeant-at-law (Trinity term 1600), 
and shortly after (Michaelmas term) raised 
to the bench as justice of the common pleas, 
and knighted 4 Dec. He died in 1668, and 
was buried at Arlesey in Bedfordshire, where 
he had a house. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Meade of Nortofts, Finch- 
ingfield, Essex. 

[Wotton's Baronetage, iv. 178; Dugdale's Orig. 
256, 324; Willis's Not. Parl. iii. 243; Dugdale's 
Chron.Ser. 114, 115 ; Parl. Hist. ii. 606, iii. 70, 
182; Cobbett's State Trials, iv. 347, 443,449,464- 
470, 509, 554-7, 599 ; Whitelocke's Mem. 154, 
156, 160, 226, 334, 342, 378; Commons' Journ. 
iii. 734 ; Siderfin's Eep. i. 3, 4, 365 ; Le Neve's 
Pedigrees of Knights (Harleian Society, vol. viii.), 
122 ; Gal. State Papers, Dom. (1640), 103 ; Mo- 
rant's Essex, ii. 366 ; Lysons's Bedfordshire, 40 ; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

BROWNE, SIMON (1680-1732), divine, 
was born at Shepton Mallet, Somersetshire ; 
educated under Mr. Gumming, and at the 
academy of Mr. Moor at Bridgewater. He 
began to preach before he was twenty, and 
after being a minister at Portsmouth became, 
in 1716, pastor of the important congregation 
in the Old Jewry, London. In 1720 he pub- 
lished l Hymns and Spiritual Songs,' and in 

1722 a volume of sermons. In the Salters'' 
Hall controversy (1719) Browne had taken 
the side of the non-subscribers, who resisted 
the imposition of a Trinitarian test. This 
led to a rather sharp controversy in 1723 with 
the Rev. Mr. Thomas Reynolds in regard to 
the dismissal of a preacher. About the same 
time the simultaneous loss of his wife and 
only son (or, according to another story, the 
accidental strangling of a highwayman) un- 
hinged his mind ; and though his faculties 
remained perfect in other respects he became 
persuaded that God had { annihilated in him 
the thinking substance,' and that his words 
had no more sense than a parrot's. He tried 
by earnest reasoning to persuade his friends 
that he was ' a mere beast.' He gave up his 
ministry, retired to Shepton Mallet, and 
amused himself by translating classical au- 
thors, writing books for children, and com- 
posing a dictionary. ' I am doing nothing/ 
he said, ' that requires a reasonable soul. I 
am making a dictionary; but you know thanks 
should be returned to God for everything, and 
therefore for dictionary-makers.' He took 
part, however, in the controversies of the 
time, as an opponent of the deists from a ra- 
tionalist point of view. In 1732 he published 
1 a sober and charitable disquisition concern- 
ing the importance of the doctrine of the 
Trinity,' &c., < A Fit Rebuke to a Ludicrous 
Infidel, in some remarks on Mr. Woolston's 
fifth discourse,' &c., with a preface protesting 
against the punishment of freethinkers by the- 
magistrate ; and a ' Defence of the Religion 
of Nature and the Christian Revelation,' &c., 
in answer to Tindal's ' Christianity as old as 
the Creation,' a concluding part of which ap- 
peared in 1733 posthumously. To the last 
of these works he had prefixed a dedication 
to Queen Caroline, asking for her prayers in 
his singular case. He was t once a man,' but 
* his very thinking substance has for more 
than seven years been continually wasting 
away, till it is wholly perished out of him.' 
This was suppressed at the time by his friends,, 
but afterwards published by Hawkesworth in 
the f Adventurer,' No. 88. Browne died at 
the end of 1732, leaving several daughters. 

[Biog. Britannica ; Atkey's Funeral Sermon ; 
Town and Country Magazine for 1770, p. 689; 
Adventurer, No. 88 ; G-ent. Mag. xxxii. 453 ; 
Protestant Dissenters' Magazine, iv. 433, v. Ill ; 
Leland's View, i. 110, 130; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches, i. 165, iii. 338-57, where is a full list 
of his works.] L. S. 

1835), Unitarian clergyman, born at Derby in 
1763, entered as a student at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, graduated B.A. and M.A., took 



orders, and was admitted a fellow of Peter- 
house on 15 July 1785. In December 1793 
he was presented to the college living of 
Cherry Hinton, Cambridgeshire. While vicar 
of this country parish he adopted the posi- 
tions of the Priestley school of Unitarians, 
and resigned his living. In 1800 he became 
minister of the presbyterian congregation at 
Warminster. In 1807 he left Warminster 
for the post of classical and mathematical 
tutor at Manchester College, York. At mid- 
summer, 1809, Browne left York to become 
minister of the Octagon Chapel, Norwich. 
He had preached at Norwich as a candidate 
in the previous January, and appears to have 
dissatisfied the college authorities by doing 
so without notice to them. His ministry at 
Norwich was unhappy ; he is said to have 
' magnified his office/ and not to have under- 
stood the dislike of his congregation to any- 
thing in the shape of a dogmatic creed. He 
took his stand upon his vested right to a 
small endowment, and was paid for his re- 
signation at the end of 1810. He did not at 
once leave Norwich. A letter from him, dated 
Colgate, Norwich, 10 March 1812, appears in 
the * Monthly Repository,' in which he says 
he will be at liberty to take a congregation 
at the end of March, and offers to go on six j 
months' trial. He was minister at Congle- j 
ton from 1812 to 1814. For a short time he 
acted as a supply at Chester, but removed to ' 
Barton Street Chapel, Gloucester, in 1815. j 
He established a fellowship fund at Glouces- ' 
ter on 1 Nov. 1818, and a year or two after- j 
wards created some consternation by propos- 
ing that Unitarian fellowship funds should 
invest in state lotteries, with a view to gain- 
ing windfalls for denominational purposes. 
He remained at Gloucester till the close of 
1823. ^ From this time he resided at Bath, 
preaching only occasionally. He took great 
interest in education, and was president of 
the Bath Mechanics' Institution. His friend 
Brock speaks of him as 'conscientious almost 
to a fault,' and very generous to the poor. 
He lost his wife Anne, three years his senior, 
on Christmas day, 1834, and died, after a 
short illness, on 20 May 1835. He was 
buried at Lyncomb Vale, near Bath. There 
is a tablet to his memory in Trim Street 
Chapel, Bath. He published: 1. < Eight 
Forms of Prayer for Public Social Worship,' 
Bath, 1803, 12mo. 2. 'Plain and Useful 
Selections from the Books of the Old and 
New Testament,' 1805, 8vo (intended as a 
lectionary, but not much esteemed ; Browne 
projected a sequel to be taken from the 
apocrypha). 3. ' Religious Liberty and the 
Rights of Conscience and Private Judgment 
grossly violated,' &c., 1819, 12mo, and a ser- 

mon. The terms in which he dedicated this 
pamphlet to the Rev. T. Belsham, < to whom, 
if to any, may be justly applied the title Head 
of the Unitarian Church,' gave great offence 
to his co-religionists. Besides these he 
edited: 1. Select parts of William Melmoth's 
' Great Importance of a Religious Life ' (ori- 
ginally published in 1711). 2. A selection 
of 'Sermons '(1818, 12mo) by Joshua Toulmin, 
D.D. 3. ' Devotional Addresses ajid Hymns ' 
(1818, 12mo), by William Russell of Birm- 

[G. B. B. (George Browne Brock) in Chr. Re- 
former, 1835, pp. 507 seq., see also p. 806 ; 
Monthly Repos. 1812, pp. 64, 272, 1818, p. 750, 
1819, pp. 18, 300, 1820, p. 392; Murch's Hist, of 
Presb. and Gen. Bapt. Churches in W. of Eng. 
1835, pp. 13, 16, 92; Taylor's Hist, of Octagon 
Chapel, Norwich, 1848, p. 55 ; Roll of Students, 
Manch. New Coll. 1868 ; Pickford's Brief Hist, of 
Congleton Unit. Chapel, 1883, p. 12; manuscript 
correspondence of Rev. C. Wellbeloved, in posses- 
sion of G. W. R. Wood, Manchester ; information 
from Rev. J. K. Montgomery, Chester.] 

A. G. 

BROWNE, THOMAS (d. 1585), head- 
master of Westminster, was born about 1535, 
and educated at Eton, whence he proceeded 
to King's College, Cambridge, in 1550. He 
graduated B.A. in 1554-5, M.A. in 1558, 
and B.D. in 1559. In the ' Alumni Eto- 
nenses ' (p. 166) he is styled S.T.P. Wood 
(Athence, iii. 1004) also calls him a doctor of 
divinity. He was presented by the provost 
and scholars of King's College to the rectory 
of Dunton-Waylett in Essex, which he held 
from 18 April 1564 till his death (NEWCOTJRT, 
ii. 231). In 1564 he was appointed to the 
head-mastership of Westminster School. In 
the following year he was made a canon of 
the church of Westminster, and acted for 
some time as sub-dean (LE NEVE, iii. 350 ; 
WIDMORE, Antiq. of West. p. 219). Browne 
was next promoted to the rectory of St. 
Leonard, Foster Lane, on the presentation 
of the dean and chapter of Westminster, 
11 July 1567 (NEWCOTJRT, i. 394). This pre- 
ferment he resigned when presented, 7 June 
1574, to the rectory of Chelsea, by Anne, 
duchess dowager of Somerset and Francis 
Newdigate (NEWCOTTRT, i. 586). He had 
meanwhile resigned the mastership of West- 
minster in 1570 (so WELCH, Alumni West. ; 
WIDMORE, p. 227, gives 1569 as the date). 
In 1584, when it was proposed to translate 
Aylmer to the vacant see of Ely, and pro- 
mote Day, the provost of Eton, to London, 
the names of Mr. Browne and Mr. Blithe 
were submitted for the provostship in a 
scheme sent by Whitgift to the queen 
(STRYPE, Whityift, i. 337), but the scheme 


6 4 


storation lie recovered his benefices. In 
1661 he was recommended for the provost- 
ship of Eton, but the king passed him by. 
He died in 1673 and was buried at Windsor. 
He published ' Tomus alter et idem, a History 
of the Life and Reign of that famous Prin- 

fell through, and Browne died in the follow- 
ing year (1585) on 2 May (LE NEVE, iii. 350). 
He was buried in the north transept of the 
abbey (WIDMORE, 219, 227), or according to 
Faulkner in the cloisters (Chelsea, i. 179). 
In the register of Chelsea parish for 3 April 

1576 is found the baptism of Gabriel, son of cess Elizabeth,' a translation of vol. ii. of 
'Thomas Browne, Pars. (FAULKNER, ii. 119). Camden's ' Annals,' to which he added an 
Browne was the author of occasional poems ' Appendix containing animadversions upon 
in Latin and English verse. 1. A Latin ; several passages,' 1629; a sermon preached 
poem, prefixed to Edward Grant's ' Spicile- before the University of Oxford, 1634 ; ' Con- 
gium Graecse Linguae ' (1577). 2. A similar cio ad Clerum,' or ' A Discourse of the 
poem in John Prise's ' Defensio Historige Bri- j Revenues of the Clergy ... in a sermon 
tannicae ' (1573). 3. A Latin poem on the j preached . . . before the university upon 
death of the two Dukes of Suffolk (1552). ; taking a B.D. degree 8 June 1637,' pre- 
4. i Thebais, a tragedy.' 5. A poem in Eng- | served in 'The Present State of Letters,' 
lishon Peterson's 'Galateo' (1576) (v. AMES, i where it is described as 'a notable specimen 
ii. 903). 6. Wood (Athence, ii. 130) mentions . of the learning, wit, and pulpit oratory of 

that time ; ' ' A Key to the King's Cabinet, 
or Animadversions upon the three printed 
Speeches of Mr. L'Isle, Mr. Tate, and Mr. 
Browne, spoken at a Common Hall in Lon- 
don, 3 July 1645,' Oxford, 1645 ; ' A Treatise 
in defence of Hugo Grotius,' Hague, 1646 ; 
' The Royal Charter granted unto Kings by 
God Himself,' London, 1649 (HEARNE) ; 
' Dissertatio de Therapeuticis Philonis,' pub- 
lished with ' The Interpretation of the Two 
Books of Clement by other writers,' 1689. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon: (ed. Bliss) iii. 1003 ; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. ii. 93 ; 
Present State of Letters (ed. Andrew Eeid), 
vi. art. 21, 199-219 ; Hearne's Collections (ed. 
Doble), 102, 363 (Oxford Hist. Soc.)] W. H. 

BROWNE, SIR THOMAS (1605-1682), 
physician and author, was born in London, 
in the parish of St. Michael, Cheapside, on 
19 Oct. 1605. His father was a mercer at 
(1604 P-1673), divine, a native of Middlesex, ! Upton, Cheshire, but came of a good family, 
was elected student of Christ Church, Ox- | From a pedigree (printed by Wilkin) in the 
ford, in 1620, took the degree of M.A. in College of Arms, we learn that his mother was 
1627, was proctor of the university in 1636, | Anna, daughter of Paul Garraway of Lewes, 
and took the degree of B.D. and was ap- Sussex. His father died prematurely ; his 
pointed domestic chaplain to Archbishop j mother, who had received 3,000/. as a thisd 
Laud in 1637. A sermon of his on John part of her husband's property, married Sir 
xi. 4 was highly offensive to the puritans, and Thomas Dutton, and left her young son com- 
they were indignant at his appointment to a pletely under the care of rapacious guardians, 
canonry at Windsor in 1639. This sermon ! Having been educated at Winchester College, 
was found in manuscript in Laud's study ' Browne was sent at the beginning of 1623 

verses by a Thomas Browne, prebendary of 
Westminster, in Twyne's translation of 
Humphrey Lloyd's ' Breviary of Britain.' 
7. Prefixed to a sermon by Richard Curteys, 
bishop of Chichester, preached before the 
queen at Greenwich in 1573-4, there is a 
1 Preface,' written according to the title-page 
by one T. B., and signed ' Thomas Browne 
B.D. at Westminster.' This is probably the 
work of the man under notice. 

[Cooper's A thense Cantab, i 5 1 ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 9 ; Har- 
wood's Alumni Eton. p. 166 ; Newcourt's Reper- 
torium, i. 394, 586, 923, ii. 231 ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 231, iii. 1004 ; Faulkner's Chel- 
sea, i. 179, ii. 119 ; Widmore's Antiquities of 
Westminster, pp. 219, 227 ; Strype's Whitgift, 
i. 337 ; Ames (Herbert), ii. 903 ; Curteys's Ser- 
mon before the Queen at Greenwich, 1573-4 ; 
Le Neve, iii. 350.] A. G--N. 


when the archbishop's papers were seized, 
and appears not to have been printed. 
Browne held the rectories of St. Mary 
Aldermary and Oddington in Oxfordshire. 
Being forced by the puritans to leave his 
cure in London, he joined the king at Oxford, 
was made his chaplain, and received the 
-degree of D.D. by letters patent 2 Feb. 1642. 
On the overthrow of the royal cause he took 
shelter in Holland, and was appointed chap- 
lain to the Princess of Orange. At the Re- 

a fellow-commoner to Broadgate Hall 
(now Pembroke College), Oxford. He was 
admitted to the degree of B.A. on 31 June 
1626, and proceeded M.A. on 11 June 1629. 
Turning his attention to the study of medi- 
cine, he practised for some time in Oxford- 
shire ; afterwards, throwing up his practice, 
he accompanied his stepfather (who held 
some official position) to Ireland on a visi- 
tation of the forts and castles. From Ireland 
he passed to France and Italy; stayed at 



Montpellier and Padua, where were flourish- 
ing schools of medicine ; and on his return 
through Holland was created doctor of medi- 
cine at Leyden circ. 1633. His name is not 
found in the list of Leyden students, for the 
Thomas Browne who graduated on 22 Aug. 
1644 (see PEACOCK'S Leyden Students} must 
certainly have been another person ; but the 
register is in a faulty state. Having con- 
cluded his travels, he established himself as 
a physician at Shipden Hall, near Halifax. 
In 1637 he removed to Norwich. Wood 
states that he was induced to take this step 
by the persuasions of Dr. Thomas Lushing- 
ton, formerly his tutor, then rector of Burn- 
ham Westgate, Norfolk ; but, according to 
the author of the life prefixed to ' Posthu- 
mous Works/ 1712, he migrated at the soli- 
citations of Sir Nicholas Bacon of Gilling- 
ham, Sir [or Dr.] Justinian Lewyn, and Sir 
Charles le Gros of Crostwick. Probably 
both statements are correct. A few months 
after he had settled at Norwich, Browne was 
incorporated doctor of medicine at Oxford on 
10 July 1637. His fame was now established, 
and ' he was much resorted to for his skill in 
physic' (WHITEFOOT). In 1641 he married 
Dorothy, fourth daughter of Edward Mile- 
ham of Burlingham St. Peter. She bore 
twelve children (of whom one son and three 
daughters survived their parents), and died 
three years after her husband. Whitefoot 
describes her as l a lady of such symmetrical 
proportion to her worthy husband, both in 
the graces of her body and mind, that they 
seemed to come together by a kind of natural 

The famous treatise ' Eeligio Medici ' was 
surreptitiously published in 1642. It was 
probably written in 1635, during Browne's 
residence at Shipden Hall. He states, in 
the preface to the first authorised edition, 
published in 1643 : < This, I confess, about 
seven years past, with some others of affinity 
thereto, for my private exercise and satisfac- 
tion, I had at leisurable hours composed.' 
In pt. i. xli. he says : ' As yet I have not 
seen one revolution of Saturn, nor hath my 
pulse beat thirty years ; ' and again, in pt. ii. 
xi., we find : ' Now for my life it is a 
miracle of thirty years.' The author's manu- 
script was passed among his private friends, 
by whom frequent transcripts were made 
with more or less inaccuracy, and at length 
two surreptitious editions in octavo were 
printed in 1642 by Andrew Crooke. There 
is some doubt as to which of these editions 
is to be entitled the editio princeps (see 
Greenhill's Introduction to the facsimile of 
the first edition of ' Religio Medici,' 1883). 
In 1643 appeared the first authorised edition, 


with a preface, in which Browne informs us 
that he had * represented into the world a 
full and intended copy of that piece which 
was most imperfectly and surreptitiously 
published before.' By transcription the 
work had become 'successively corrupted, 
until it arrived in a most depraved copy at 
the press.' The alterations in the authorised 
edition mainly consist of corrections of tex- 
tual errors ; but Browne also took occasion 
to modify various positive assertions. The 
treatise, on its appearance in 1642, immedi- 
ately secured attention. It was commended 
by the Earl of Dorset to the notice of Sir 
Kenelm Digby, who reviewed it in a lengthy 
paper of ' Observations.' Hearing that these 
' Observations ' had been put to press, Browne 
sent Digby a courteous letter (dated 3 March 
1642-3), in which he stated that the treatise 
was unworthy of such notice, that it had 
been intended as a private exercise, and that 
the surreptitious edition was corrupt ; and 
he concluded with a request that the * Ob- 
servations ' should not be published until 
the authorised edition appeared. On 20 March 
Digby replied that on the receipt of Browne's 
letter he had at once sent instructions to the 
printer not to proceed with the ' Observa- 
tions,' which were hastily put together in 
one sitting the reading of the treatise and 
the composition of the ' Observations ' hav- 
ing occupied only the space of twenty-four 
hours. Notwithstanding Digby's instructions 
to the printer, the animadversions (pp. 124, 
8vo) Avere published without delay. When 
the authorised edition of ' Religio Medici ' 
appeared there was prefixed an admonition 
(signed 'A. B.') : ' To such as have or shall per- 
use the " Observations" upon a former corrupt 
copy of this book,' in which Digby is severely 
reprehended. The admonition is written 
much in Browne's style, and there is reason 
to doubt whether it was prefixed (as ' A. B.' 
professes) ' without the author's knowledge.' 
In the preface Browne endeavours to secure 
himself against criticism by observing that 
' many things are delivered rhetorically, 
many expressions merely tropical, and there- 
fore many things to be taken in a soft and 
flexible sense, and not to be called unto the 
rigid test of reason.' It is clear that he 
was not without misgivings as to how his 
treatise would be received. Wilkin protests 
against the view favoured by Dr. Johnson, 
that Browne procured the anonymous publi- 
cation of the treatise in 1642 in order to try 
its success with the public before openly 
acknowledging the authorship. The autho- 
rised edition, in any case, was issued by the 
publisher of the surreptitious edition. The 
probability is that, though Browne did not 




personally procure the publication of the J 
anonymous editions, he took no active steps | 
to hinder it. A Latin translation of ' Religio 
Medici ' (from the edition of 1643), by John 
Merry weather, was published in 1644. x It i 
immediately passed through two editions at ! 
Leyden, and was twice reprinted in the same 
year at Paris. From an interesting letter ! 
(dated 1 Oct. 1649) of Merryweather to 
Browne it appears that there was consider- j 
able difficulty in finding a publisher for the : 
translation. In the first instance Merry- | 
weather offered it to a Leyden bookseller \ 
named Haye, who submitted it to Salmasius j 
for approbation. Salmasius kept it for three j 
months, and then returned it with the remark ' 
that ' there were indeed in it many things 
well said, but that it contained many exor- 
bitant conceptions in religion, and would 
probably find but frowning entertainment, 
especially amongst the ministers ; ' so Haye 
refused to undertake the publication. Finally, 
after it had been offered in two other quarters, 
it was accepted by Hackius. In 1645 Alex- 
ander Ross published ' Medicus Medicatus : 
or the Physician's Religion cured by a Leni- 
tive or Gentle Potion,' in which he attacked 
both Browne and Digby the former for his 
application of ' rhetorical phrase ' to religious 
subjects, for his leaning towards judicial 
astrology, and generally on the score of 
heresy ; the latter for his Romanism and 
metaphysics. Browne did not reply to this 
attack, but issued in the same year a new 
edition of his treatise. A Latin edition, 
with prolix notes by ' L. N. M. E. M.,' i.e. 
Levinus Nicolaus Moltkius (or Moltkenius) 
Eques Misniensis (or Mecklenbergensis or 
Megalopolitanus), was published in 1652. 
To an English edition, published in 1656, 
were appended annotations by Thomas Keck. 
The title-page of the annotations has the 
date 1659, but the preface is dated March 
1654. Dutch, French, and German transla- 
tions appeared respectively in 1665, 1668, 
and 1680. Merry weather's version contri- 
buted to make the book widely known 
among continental scholars. Guy Patin 
(Lettres, 1683, Frankfort, p. 12), in a letter 
dated from Paris 7 April 1645, writes : ' On 
fait icy grand 6tat du livre intitule " Religio 
Medici." Get auteur a de 1'esprit. II y a 
de gentilles choses dans ce livre,' &c. Browne's 
orthodoxy was vigorously assailed abroad 
for many years, and vigorously defended. 
The editor 'of the Paris edition (1644) of 
Merryweather's translation was convinced 
that Browne, though nominally a protestant, 
was in reality a Roman catholic; but the 
papal authorities judged otherwise, and 
placed the treatise ' in the ' Index Expurga- 

torius.' Samuel Duncon, a quaker residing 
at Norwich, conceived the hope of inducing 
Browne to join the Society of Friends. It 
is not surprising that such divergence of 
opinion should have existed in regard to the 
purport of Browne's speculations ; for the 
treatise appears to have been composed as 
a tour de force of intellectual agility, an 
attempt to combine daring scepticism with 
implicit faith in revelation. At the begin- 
ning of the treatise the author tells us that 
he was ' naturally inclined to that which 
misguided zeal terms superstition,' and that 
he 'could never hear the Ave Mary bell with- 
out an elevation.' After stating that he 
subscribes to the articles and observes the 
constitutions of the church of England, he 
adds : ' In brief, where the Scripture is 
silent the church is my text ; where that 
speaks, 'tis but my comment ; where there is 
a joint silence of both, I borrow not the rules 
of my religion from Rome or Geneva, but 
the dictates of my own reason.' He depre- 
cates controversies in matters of religion, 
asserting that he has l no taint or tincture J 
of heresy ; after which announcement he 
proceeds with evident relish to discuss seem- 
ing absurdities in the scriptural narrative. In 
the course of the treatise he tells us much 
about himself. He professes to be absolutely 
free from national prejudices : ' all places, all 
airs, make unto me one country ; I am in 
England everywhere and under any meridian.' 
The one object that excites his derision is 
the multitude, 'that numerous piece of 
monstrosity, which, taken asunder, seem men 
and the reasonable creatures of God, but, 
confused together, make but one great beast 
j and a monstrosity more prodigious than 
Hydra.' For the sorrows of others he has 
quick sympathy, while he is so little afflicted 
by his own sufferings that he ' could lose an 
arm without a tear, and with a few groans 
be quartered into pieces.' He understands 
j six languages, besides the patois of several 
provinces ; he has seen many countries, and 
has studied their customs and polities ; he is 
well versed in astronomy and botany; he 
has run through all systems of philosophy, 
i but has found no rest in any. As ' death 
! gives every fool gratis ' the knowledge which 
j is won in this life with sweat and vexation, 
I he counts it absurd to take pride in his 
j achievements. Like other great men of his 
j time, Browne believed in planetary influ- 
ence : ' Art my nativity my ascendant was 
the watery sign of Scorpius ; I was born in 
the planetary hour of Saturn, and I think I 
have a piece of that leaden planet in me.' 
He is not < disposed for the mirth and gal- 
liardise of company,' yet in one dream he 



can compose a whole comedy. Discoursing 
leisurely in this vein of whimsical semi- 
seriousness, from time to time he allows his 
imagination free scope, and embodies the 
loftiest thought in language of surpassing 

At the outbreak of the civil wars Browne's 
sympathies were entirely with the royalists. 
He was among the 432 principal citizens who 
in 1643 refused to contribute to the fund for 
regaining the town of Newcastle, but there 
is no evidence to show that he gave any 
active assistance to the king's cause. His 
great work, f Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or 
Enquiries into very many received tenets j 
and commonly presumed truths, which ex- 
amined prove but Vulgar and Common Er- 
rors,' appeared in 1646 (fol.) On the com- 
position of this treatise, which contains an 
extraordinary amount of learning and re- 
search, he must have been engaged for many 
years. In the preface he apologises for 
having undertaken single-handed a work 
which well deserved ' the conjunction of 
many heads.' He knows how difficult it is 
to eradicate cherished beliefs from men's 
minds ; but he does not despair of gaining a 
favourable hearing. His professional employ- 
ment has been at once a hindrance and ad- 
vantage in the pursuit of his investigations ; 
for though physicians are led in the course 
of their professional practice to the discovery 
of many truths, they have not leisure to ar- 
range their materials or make 'those infal- 
lible experiments and those assured deter- 
minations which the subject sometimes 
requireth.' He had originally determined to 
publish his treatise in Latin, but consider- 
ing that his countrymen, especially the 'in- 
genuous gentry,' had a prior claim upon his 
services, he had abandoned his intention 
and written in English. Readers, however, 
must be prepared to find the style somewhat 
difficult ; neologism is unavoidable in the con- 
duct of such inquiries besides, the writer is 
addressing not the illiterate many, but the 
discerning few. To modern readers ' Vulgar 
Errors' presents an inexhaustible store of 
entertainment. The attainment of scientific 
truth was not for Browne the sole object ; it 
is in the discussion itself that he delights, 
and the more marvellous a fable is, the more 
sedulously he applies himself to the investi- 
gation of its truth. Though he professed 
his anxiety to dispel popular superstitions, 
Browne was himself not a little imbued with 
the spirit of credulity. He believed in as- 
trology, alchemy, witchcraft, and magic, and 
he never abandoned the Ptolemaic system 
of astronomy. The subject may perhaps 
have been suggested by a hint in Bacon's 

chapter on the ' Idols of the Understanding.' 
Both at home and abroad the treatise at- 
tracted immediate attention. In 1652 Alex- 
ander Ross published 'Arcana Microcosmi 
. . . with a refutation of Dr. Browne's " Vul- 
gar Errors," the Lord Bacon's " Natural His- 
tory," and Dr. Harvey's Book " De Gene- 
ratione," " Comenius," and others, &c.,' in 
| which he shows amusing persistence in de- 
fending the absurdest of superstitions. John 
Robinson, a fellow-townsman of Browne and 
a physician, passed some not unfriendly anim- 
adversions on ' Vulgar Errors ' in his ' Venti- 
latio Tranquilla ' appended to ' Endoxa,' 1656 
(englished in 1658). Isaac Gruter proposed 
to translate Browne's treatise into Latin, and 
addressed to him five letters (preserved in 
Rawlinson MS. D. 391) on the subject, but 
the translation was never accomplished. 

Browne's fame for encyclopaedic know- 
ledge being now firmly established, his aid 
was frequently solicited by scholars engaged 
on scientific or antiquarian inquiries. The 
bulk of his correspondence has perished, but 
enough remains to show that he spared 
neither time nor trouble in answering in- 
quiries addressed to him. One of his earliest 
correspondents was Dr. Henry Power, after- 
wards a noted physician of Halifax, to whom 
he addressed in 1647 a letter of advice as to 
the method to be pursued in the study of 
medicine. There is extant a letter of Power's 
to Browne, dated 15 Sept. 1648, from Christ's 
College, Cambridge, in which he expresses a 
desire to reside for a month or two at Nor- 
wich in order to have the advantage of 
Browne's personal guidance, for at Cam- 
bridge there are ' such few helpes ' that he 
fears he will ' make but a lingering pro- 
gresse.' Another of his correspondents was 
Theodore Jonas, a Lutheran minister residing 
in Iceland, whtfcame yearly to England and, 
in gratitude for some professional directions 
against the leprosy, never failed before his 
return to visit Browne at Norwich. Sir 
Hamon L'Estrange, of Hunstanton. equally 
zealous as a naturalist and as a parliamen- 
tarian, showed his admiration of Browne 
by sending him in January 1653-4 eighty- 
five pages of manuscript 'Observations on 
the Pseudodoxia' (preserved in Sloane MS. 
1839). His advice was sought in 1655 by a 
botanist of reputation, William How, who, 
after serving as an officer in a royalist cavalry 
regiment, had established himself as a phy- 
sician, first inLawrence Lane, and afterwards 
in Milk Street. By the death of Joseph 
Hall, bishop of Norwich, in September 1656, 
Browne was deprived of a dear friend. He 
attended the bishop in his last illness. In 
1658 Browne entered into correspondence 

F 2 




with John Evelyn and William Dugdale. 
The correspondence with Evelyn was begun 
at the request of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert 
Paston, created earl of Yarmouth in 1673. 
At this time (January 1657-8) Evelyn was 
preparing for publication a work to be en- 
titled ' Elysium Britannicum/ and he was 
anxious to receive assistance from Browne. 
The tract, 'Of Garlands,' and perhaps the 
' Observations on Grafting/ were written at 
Evelyn's request. Though only a few let- 
ters have been preserved, the correspondence 
appears to have been kept up for some years. 
In ' Sylva ' Evelyn gives an extract from a 
letter which Browne addressed to him in 
1664. The correspondence with Dugdale re- 
lates to the treatise 'On Embanking and 
Draining,' which Dugdale was then prepar- 
ing for publication. 

In 1658 appeared (1 vol. 8vo) 'Hydrio- 
taphia. Urn Burial ; or a Discourse of the 
Sepulchral Urns lately found in Norfolk' 
and ' The Garden of Cyrus ; or the Quincun- 
cial Lozenge, net-work plantations of the 
Ancients, artificially, naturally, mystically 
considered.' The former treatise is dedicated 
to Thomas Le Gros of Crostwick ; the latter 
to Sir Nicholas Bacon of Gillingham. In 
* Hydriotaphia ' Browne discusses with great 
learning the burial-customs that have existed 
in various countries at various times. More 
than one quotation is made from Dante ; he 
was among the very few men of his time 
who had read the ' Inferno.' The concluding 
chapter is a solemn homily on death and 
immortality, unsurpassed in literature for 
sustained majesty of eloquence. Lamb was 
an enthusiastic admirer of l Hydriotaphia.' 
The ' Garden of Cyrus ' is the most fantastic 
of Browne's writings. Beginning with the 
garden of Eden, he traces the history of hor- 
ticulture down to the time of the Persian 
Cyrus, who is credited with having been the 
first to plant a quincunx, though Browne 
discovers the figure in the hanging gardens of 
Babylon, and supposes it to have been in 
use from the remotest antiquity. The con- 
sideration of a quincuncial arrangement in 
horticulture leads him to a disquisition on 
the mystical properties of the number five. 
He finds (in Coleridge's words) 'quincunxes 
in heaven above, quincunxes in earth below, 
quincunxes in the mind of man, quincunxes 
in tones, in optic nerves, in roots of trees, in 
leaves, in everything.' At the end of the 
1 Garden of Cyrus ' Browne inserted a note 
disclaiming the authorship of a book called 
1 Nature's Cabinet unlocked/ which had been 
impudently published under his name. 

Browne took a lively interest in the train- 
ing of his children. His eldest son was 

Edward [q. v.] Thomas, the second son, was 
sent in 1660 at the age of fourteen, unaccom- 
panied, to travel in France. Among the 
Rawlinson MSS. (D. 391) are transcripts 
made by Mrs. Elizabeth Lyttleton of letters 
written by Browne to ' honest Tom ' (as the 
address always runs) between December 
1660 and January 1661-2. The postscript of 
one letter concludes : ' You may stay your 
stomack with little pastys sometimes in cold 
mornings, for I doubt sea larks will be too 
dear a collation and drawe too much wine 
down ; be warie, for Rochelle was a place of 
too much good fellowship and a very drink- 
ing town, as I observed when I was there, 
more than other parts of France.' There 
appears to have been a perfect understand- 
ing between father and son. The youth 
joined the navy in 1664, and had a brief but 
brilliant career. He disappears from 1667. 
There are extant two of his letters to his 
father, written in May 1667, which prove him 
to have been a man of scholarly attainments 
as well as a gallant officer. Browne cherished 
the memory of his lost son, and often al- 
ludes to him in letters of later years. White- 
foot states that two of Browne's daughters 
were sent to France, but we have no account 
of their travels. In 1669 Browne's daughter 
Anne had been married to Edward Fairfax, 
grandson of Thomas, lord viscount Fairfax. 
She and her husband spent the Christmas of 
1669 under her father's roof, and the visit 
was either prolonged or repeated, for the 
registers of St. Peter's, Norwich, contain 
entries of the birth and burial of their first 
child, Barker Fairfax, on 30 Aug. and 5 Sept. 

An unfortunate practical illustration of 
Browne's credulity was given in 1664, when 
Amy Duny and Rose Cullender were ar- 
raigned for witchcraft before Sir Matthew 
Hale at Bury St. Edmunds. Browne, who 
was in court at the time of the trial, having 
been requested by the lord chief baron to 
give his opinion on the case, declared 'that 
the fits were natural, but heightened by the 
devils co-operating with the malice of the 
witches, at whose instance he did the vil- 
lainies ;' and he mentioned some similar cases 
that had lately occurred in Denmark. It 
is supposed that this expression of opinion 
helped in no slight degree to procure the poor 
women's conviction (HuTCHiNSOtf, Histori- 
cal Essay concerning Witchcraft, 118-20). 

In December 1664 Browne was admitted 
socius honorarius of the College of Physicians, 
receiving his diploma on 6 July 1665. In 
1666 he presented to the Royal Society some 
fossil bones found at Winterton in Norfolk. 
Two vears afterwards he sent some informa- 


6 9 


tion on the natural history of Norfolk to 
Dr. Christopher Merrett, who was then con- 
templating a third and enlarged edition 
(which never appeared) of his ' Pinax Rerum 
Naturalium Britannicarum.' He also lent 
a number of coloured drawings to Ray, 
who acknowledged in his editions of Wil- 
loughby's ' Ornithology ' and * Ichthyology ' 
the assistance that he had received from 
Browne, but was at no pains to return the 

On 28 Sept. 1671, Charles II paid a state 
visit to Norwich. He was anxious to confer 
the dignity of knighthood as a memorial of 
the visit on one of the leading inhabitants. 
As the mayor declined the honour, Browne 
was knighted. Early in October Evelyn, 
who was staying at Euston as the guest of 
the Earl of Arlington, drove over with Sir 
Thomas Clifford to join the royal party at 
Norwich. His chief desire was to see 
Browne, and he has left a brief but interest- 
ing account of a visit paid to l that famous 
scholar and physitian.' He found the house 
and garden ' a paradise and cabinet of 
rarities, and that of the best collections, 
especially medails, books, plants, and natu- 
ral things.' He took particular notice of 
Browne's extensive collection of birds' eggs. 
After inspecting the rarities, he was con- 
ducted round the city by Browne, who 
pointed out to him whatever was worthy of 
observation. In the following year Browne 
bore personal evidence (in a note dated 
20 July 1672) to the marvellous precocity of 
William Wotton [q. v.] He communicated 
in March 167 2-3 to Anthony a Wood through 
Aubrey some notices concerning his former 
tutor, Dr. Lushington, and others, also some 
biographical particulars about himself. In 
answer to inquiries of Elias Ashmole respect- 
ing Dr. John Dee, he sent some curious in- 
formation that he had derived from the al- 
chemist's son, Dr. Arthur Dee, himself a firm 
believer in alchemy, who had resided at Nor- 
wich for many years. 

Browne published nothing after 1658, but 
he appears to have had the intention of col- 
lecting his scattered manuscript tracts for 
publication. In the biographical notice of 
himself that he sent through Aubrey to 
Wood, he says that he had ' some " Miscel- 
laneous Tracts'' which may be published.' 
To the close of his life he continued to make 
observations and experiments. His last ex- 
tant letter to his son Edward was written 
on 16 June 1682. It is a gossipy letter, re- 
lating to his daughter Elizabeth, who had 
married Captain George Lyttleton, and was 
settled in Guernsey. Dr. Edward Browne 
wrote on 3 Oct. to ask his father to ' thinke 

of some effectuall cheape medicines for the 
hospitall.' A few days afterwards Browne 
was seized with a sharp attack of colic, to 
which he finally succumbed on 19 Oct., the 
day on which he completed his seventy- 
seventh year. He was buried in the church 
of St. Peter Mancroft at Norwich, where 
a mural monument was erected to his me- 
mory by his widow. In August 1840, while 
some workmen were digging a vault in the 
chancel of the church, his coffin-lid was 
broken open by a blow from a pickaxe. The 
bones were found to be in good preservation, 
and the fine auburn hair had not lost its 
freshness {Proceedings of the Archceological 
Institute, 1847). On the brass coffin-plate 
was found a curious inscription (perhaps 
written by his son) which supplied matter 
for antiquarian controversy. His skull is 
now kept under a glass case in the museum 
at the Norwich hospital. 

Browne left considerable property, both 
real and personal. On 2 Dec. 1679 he pre- 
pared a will, by which ample provision was 
made for his widow and his two unmarried 
daughters, Elizabeth and Frances. Elizabeth 
was married some time before his death to 
Captain Lyttleton. At the request of Dame 
Dorothy Browne ' Some Minutes for the 
Life of Sir Thomas Browne ' were drawn up 
by his old and intimate friend the Rev. John 
Whitefoot, rector of Heigham. In these 
1 Minutes' we are told that Browne's ' stature 
was moderate, and habit of body neither fat 
nor lean, but evcrapKos.' He was simple in 
his dress, and 'kept himself always very 
warm, and thought it most safe so to do.' 
His modesty ' was visible in a natural habi- 
tual blush, which was increased upon the 
least occasion, and oft discovered without 
any observable cause.' He attended church 
very regularly and read the best English 
sermons, but had no taste for controversial 
divinity. He was liberal f in his house en- 
tertainments and in his charity.' It has 
been already mentioned that he subscribed 
towards building a new library in Trinity 
College, Cambridge. Kennet (Register, p. 
345) records another instance of his gene- 
rosity that he contributed 130/. towards 
the repairs of Christ Church, Oxford. From 
Rawlinson MS. D. 391 we learn that he gave 
12. ' towards the building of a new school 
in the college near Winton.' 

Various writings of Browne were published 
posthumously. In 1684 appeared a collec- 
tion of ' Miscellany Tracts,' 8vo, under the 
editorship of Archbishop Tenison, who states 
in the preface that he ' selected them out of 
many disordered papers and disposed them 
into such a method as they were capable of.' 



These tracts chiefly consist of letters in reply 
to inquiries of correspondents. A copy that 
belonged to Wilkin contains a manuscript 
note by Evelyn : ' Most of these letters were 
addressed to Sir Nicholas Bacon.' The con- 
tents are : 1. ' Observations upon several 
Plants mentioned in Scripture.' 2. ' Of Gar- 
lands and Coronary or Garland Plants,' 
against which in Evelyn's copy is the note : 
' This letter was written to me from Dr. 
Browne ; more at large in the Coronarie 
plants.' 3. ' Of the Fishes eaten by our 
Saviour with his Disciples after his Resur- 
rection from the Dead.' 4. ' An Answer to 
certain Queries relating to Fishes, Birds, and 
Insects.' 5. ' Of Hawks and Falconry, an- 
cient and modern.' 6. 'Of Cymbals,' &c. 

7. 'Of Ropalic or Gradual Verses,' c. 

8. ' Of Languages, and particularly of the 
Saxon Tongue.' 9. 'Of Artificial Hills, 
Mounts, or Burrows in many parts of Eng- 
land,' addressed to ' E. D.,' an evident mis- 
take for 'W. D.,' i.e. William Dugdale. 
10. ' Of Troas,' &c. 11. ' Of the Answers 
of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphos to Croesus, 
King of Lydia,' from which tract (as from a 
passage of ' Religio Medici ') it appears that 
Browne believed in the satanic origin of 
oracles. 12. 'A Prophecy concerning the 
Future State of several Nations.' 13. ' Mu- 
sseum Clausum, or Bibliotheca Abscon- 
dita,' a whimsical jeu d* esprit, suggested (as 
Warburton supposed) by Rabelais' cata- 
logue of the books in the library of St. 
Victor. These tracts were republished in 
the 1686 folio of Browne's works. The fine 
and solemn ' Letter to a Friend upon occa- 
sion of the death of his intimate friend ' was 
issued in 1690 as a folio pamphlet by Dr. 
Edward Browne. It closes with a string of 
maxims which reappear with slight varia- 
tions in ' Christian Morals.' A manuscript 
copy of the ' Letter,' differing largely from 
the printed text, is preserved in Sloane MS. 
1862. In 1712 appeared < Posthumous Works 
of the learned Sir Thomas Browne, knt., 
M.D., late of Norwich : printed from his 
original manuscripts,' c. The volume opens 
with a short life of Browne, to which are 
appended Whitefoot's ' Minutes,' and the 
diploma given to Browne by the College of 
Physicians when he was chosen socius hono- 
rarius. The miscellanies embrace : 1. 'An 
Account of Island, alias Iceland, in the year 
1662.' 2. ' Repertorium, or some Account 
and Monuments in the Cathedral Church of 
Norwich,' written in 1680. In the preface 
to the 1684 collection Archbishop Tenison, 
speaking of Browne's unpublished manu- 
scripts, referred to this tract in the following 
terms : ' Amongst these manuscripts there 

is one which gives a brief account of all the 
monuments of the cathedral of Norwich. 
It was written merely for private use, and 
the relations of the author expect such justice 
from those into whose hands some imperfect 
copies of it are fallen, that, without their 
consent first obtained, they forbear the pub- 
; lishing of it. The truth is, matter equal to 
| the skill of the antiquary was not there 
afforded.' 3. ' Concerning some Urnes found 
in Brampton Field, Norfolk, ann. 1667,' a 
I supplement to ' Urn Burial.' 4. ' Some Let- 
1 ters which pass'd between Mr. Dugdale and 
Dr. Browne, ann. 1658 ; a letter " Con- 
cerning the too nice curiosity of censuring 
the Present or judging into Future Dispen- 
sations ; " a note " Upon reading Hudibras." ' 
5. 'A Letter to a Friend,' &c. (originally 
published in 1690). The first edition of 
' Christian Morals ' was published in 1716 
by Archdeacon Jeffery. It is supposed that 
this treatise was intended as a continuation 
of ' Religio Medici.' A correspondent of the 
' European Magazine ' (xi. 89) found in a 
copy of the 1686 edition of Browne's works 
a manuscript note by White Kennet stating, 
on information derived from Mrs. Lyttle- 
ton, that when Tenison returned Browne's 
manuscripts to Dr. Edward Browne the 
choicest papers, which were a continuation 
of his ' Religio Medici,' could not be found. 
This note is supported by the statement of 
Jeffery in the preface, that the reason why 
the treatise had not been printed earlier was 
' because it was unhappily lost by being mis- 
laid among other manuscripts for which 
search was lately made in the presence of 
the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, of which 
his grace, by letter, informed Mrs. Lyttleton 
when he sent the manuscript to her.' It 
may be assumed with certainty that Browne 
never intended ' Christian Morals ' for pub- 
lication in its present shape. Of all his works 
it is the weakest, and has the appearance of 
being a collection of fragmentary jottings 
from notebooks a piece of patchwork. Of 
course it contains some noble passages, but 
too often the thought is thin and the lan- 
guage turgid. 

The manuscripts of Browne and of his 
son and grandson, Dr. Edward Browne and 
Dr. Thomas Browne, were sold after the 
death of the grandson. Most of them were 
purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and are now 
preserved in Sloane MSS. 1825-1923. A 
full list of these manuscripts is given by 
Wilkin at the end of the fourth volume of 
the 1835 edition of Browne. All the pieces 
in the collection that could be shown to be 
by Browne were printed by Wilkin. Among 
these are : 1. ' Account of Birds, Fish, and 



other Animals found in Norfolk.' 2. ' Oratio 
Anniversaria Harveiana,' written to be de- 
livered by his son. 3. l On the Ostrich,' a 
paper drawn up for his son's use. 4. ' On 
Dreams/ a striking fragment. 5. i Observa- 
tions on Grafting,' probably written for 
Evelyn. 6. * Hints and Extracts ' (from 
commonplace books), set down for the use 
of his son. ' They are not trite or vulgar,' 
says Browne, ' and very few of them any- 
where to be met with. I set them not 
down in order, but as memory, fancy, or oc- 
casional observation produced them ; whereof 
you may take the pains to single out such as 
shall conduce unto your purpose.' 7. 'De 
Enecante Garrulo,' a quaint specimen of 
humorous invective. From memoranda in 
Sloane MS. 1843 it appears that Browne 
meditated writing (1) 'A Dialogue between : 
an Inhabitant of the Earth and of the Moon,' j 
and (2) ' A Dialogue between two Twins in ; 
the Womb concerning the world they were 
to come into.' In the fourth chapter of l Urn ! 
Burial ' he observes : ' A dialogue between 
two infants in the womb concerning the state 
of this world might handsomely illustrate 
our ignorance of the next, whereof methinks 
we yet discourse in Plato's den, and are but | 
embryo philosophers.' Whether the dialogues 
were ever actually written is uncertain. A 
* Conjectural Restoration of the lost Dialogue 
between two Twins, by Sir Thomas Browne,' 
was published in 1855 by B. Docray. The 
' Fragment on Mummies,' which Wilkin re- 
ceived without suspicion and printed in the 
fourth volume of Browne's Works (1835), 
was written by James Crossley. An anony- 
mous manuscript play, called l The Female I 
Rebellion,' has been ascribed to Browne, 
without the slightest show of probability, by j 
a correspondent of ' Notes and Queries ' (5th 
ser. iii. 341-4). A few unpublished letters 
of Browne on professional subjects are pre- 
served in private libraries (Hist. MSS. Comm. 

A very careful bibliography of ' Religio 
Medici ' has been drawn up by Dr. Greenhill. j 
He enumerates thirty-three English editions, j 
ranging from 1642 to 1881. Of the Latin j 
translation ten editions were published be- 
tween 1644 and 1743 ; a Dutch translation 
appeared in 1665, and was reprinted in 1668 
and 1683 ; a French translation, made from 
the Dutch, is dated 1668, and Watt mentions 
an edition in two volumes, 12mo, 1732 ; a ; 
German translation was published in 1680, 
and republished in 1746. In a letter to ' 
Aubrey, dated 14 March 1672-3, Browne 
states that the treatise had been already 
translated into high Dutch and Italian. No 
such Italian translation has been discovered. 

Five manuscript copies of ' Religio Medici ' 
are known (see GARDINER'S Preface to Eel. 
Med. 1845, p. vi note). ' Pseudodoxia Epi- 
demica ' was originally published (in pot folio) 
in 1646. The second edition, which is typo- 
graphically the best, appeared in 1650. Two 
editions are dated 1658, one in folio, and the 
other (which includes ' Hydriotaphia ' and 
1 The Garden of Cyrus ') in quarto. The fifth 
edition, 1669, 4to, has a portrait of the author 
which bears little resemblance to the other 
portraits. The sixth edition, 1672, 4to, with 
a portrait by Van Hove, was the last that 
appeared in the author's lifetime, and contains 
his final corrections. A Dutch translation 
was published in 1668 by Griindahl, and a 
German translation in 1680 by Christian 

! Knorr (Peganius). In the British Museum 

: there is an Italian translation, in 2 vols. 

j 12mo, published at Venice in 1737. The 
Italian translation was made (as we learn 
from the title-page) from the French ; but 

! the earliest French translation yet discovered- 
is dated 1738. The first collective edition 
of Browne's works was published in 1686, 
fol. It contains everything that had been 
printed in his lifetime, together with the 

I ' Miscellany Tracts ' that Tenison had edited 
in 1683. ' Hydriotaphia ' and the < Garden 
of Cyrus,' originally published in 1658, reached 
their sixth edition in the folio of 1686. In 
1736 Curll reprinted ' Hydriotaphia ' and a 
portion of the ' Garden of Cyrus,' including 
in the same collection the tract on Brampton 
urns and the ninth of the miscellany tracts. 
No new edition of l Hvdriotaphia ' appeared 
until 1822, when it was edited (with < A 

, Letter to a Friend' and ' Musseum Clausum') 
by James Crossley. The ' Garden of Cyrus ' 

; is included in Wilkin's editions of Browne's 
complete \vorks ; it has not been published in a 
separate form. Of a ' Letter to a Friend ' Dr. 
Greenhill describes eleven editions, ranging 
from 1690 to 1869 ; his own edition, accom- 
nying < Religio Medici'(1881), is the twelfth. 
Posthumous Works,' 1712, were not re- 
issued in a separate form, but are included 
in Wilkin's editions. * Christian Morals,' 
1716, was republished in 1756, with a life 
of Browne by Dr. Johnson and notes. The 
editions of 1761 and 1765 are merely the 
unsold copies (with fresh title-pages) of the 
1756 edition. ' Christian Morals ' has been 
appended to several modern editions of ' Re- 
ligio Medici.' The only complete collection 
of Browne's works is Pickering's edition in 
four volumes, 1835-6, edited by Simon Wilkin. 
This is a worthy edition of a great English 
classic. Wilkin spent twelve years in col- 
lecting and arranging his material ; he spared 
himself no trouble and left no source of 




information unexplored. The three-volume 
reprint, 1852, of Wilkin's edition is far in- 
ferior to the 1835 edition ; some of the most 
interesting portions of the correspondence 
and several miscellaneous pieces are omitted. 
Dr. Greenhill's edition of ' Religio Medici,' 
1881, displays great care and learning. 

Portraits of Browne are preserved in the 
Royal College of Physicians, in the vestry 
of St. Peter's, Norwich, and at Oxford. 

[Wood's A then* (Bliss), iv. 56-9 ; Wood's Fasti, 
i. 426, 451, 498 ; Life, and Whitefoot's Minutes, 
prefixed to Posthumous Works, 1712; Life by 
Dr. Johnson and Supplementary Memoir by Simon 
Wilkin ; Blomefield's Norfolk, iii. 414, iv. 193- 
194; Works (ed. Wilkin), 1835-6; Greenhill's 
editions of Keligio Medici, 1881 and 1883 ; Cole- 
ridge's Literary Eemains, i. 241-8, ii. 398; Pro- 
ceedings of the Archaeological Institute, 1847 ; 
The Palatine Note-book, vol. iii. No. 34.1 

A. H. B. 

BROWNE, THOMAS (1672-1710), phy- 
sician, was the son of Dr. Edward Browne 
[q. v.], president of the College of Physicians, 
and thus grandson of the author of 'Religio 
Medici.' He was born in London, and 
baptised on 21 Jan. 1672-3. His childhood 
was spent with his grandfather at Norwich, 
as is known from the numerous references 
to 'Tomey' in Sir T. Browne's correspon- 
dence with his son. He entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and proceeded M.B. in 
1695, M.D. 1700. He was admitted a candi- 
date of the College of Physicians on 30 Sept. 
1704, and a fellow on 30 Sept. 1707 (MTTNX). 
In 1698 he married his cousin Alethea, 
daughter of Henry Fairfax, but had no issue. 
He inherited his father's estate at Northfleet, 
Kent, and (according to a statement in Le 
Neve's pedigree of the Brownes, printed in 
Wilkin's < Life and Works of Sir T. Browne ') 
died in 1710, in consequence of a fall from 
his horse. Browne was not eminent as a 
physician, and what interest attaches to his 
memory is chiefly through his family con- 
nections. He wrote, however, a curious ac- 
count of an antiquarian tour through Eng- 
land in company with Dr. Robert Plot 
(historian of Oxfordshire, &c.), which exists 
in manuscript in the British Museum (Sloane 
1899), and is printed in Wilkin's work above 

[Wilkin's Life and Works of Sir Thomas 
Browne, London. 1836, i. ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
2nd ed. ii. 18.] J. F. P. 

BROWNE, THOMAS (1708 P-1780), 
Garter kiiig-of-arms, the second son of John 
Browne of Ashbourne, Derbyshire, became 
Bluemantle pursuivant in 1737, Lancaster 
herald in 1743, Norroy king-of-arms in 1761, 

and Garter in 1774. He was the most eminent 
land surveyor in the kingdom, and was called 
' Sense Browne,' to distinguish him from his- 
contemporary, Lancelot Brown [q. v.], who 
was usually called l Capability Brown.' At 
first he resided at his seat of Little Wimley y 
near Stevenage, Hertfordshire, which he re- 
ceived with his wife ; afterwards he removed 
to Camville Place, Essendon, in that county. 
But he died at his town house in St. James's- 
Street (now called Great James Street), Bed- 
ford Row, on 22 Feb. 1780. His portrait has 
been engraved by W. Dickinson, from a 
painting by N. Dance. 

[Noble's College of Arms, 394, 395, 415, 422, 
439 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 13196 ; 
Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 340 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1.103.] T. C. 

BROWNE, WILLIAM (1591-1643?), 
poet, second son of Thomas Browne, who is- 
supposed by Prince to have belonged to the 
knightly family of the Brownes of Browne 
Hash in the parish of Langtree, near Great 
Torrington, Devonshire, was born at Tavistock 
in 1591. Wood states that he was educated at 
the grammar school of his native town, and 
' about the beginning of the reign of James I * 
was sent to Exeter College, Oxford. On 
leaving Oxford (without a degree) he entered 
himself at Clifford's Inn, whence he migrated 
(November 1611) to the Inner Temple. A 
certain William Browne was granted on 
18 April 1615 the place of pursuivant of wards 
and liveries during life ; but we cannot be 
sure that it was the poet who received the 
sinecure, for at this time there were other 
William Brownes belonging to the Inner 
Temple. A William Browne of Chichester 
was admitted student in November 1588, and 
another of ' Walcott, Northants/ in November 
1579 (Students of the Inner Temple, 1571- 
1625, pp. 32, 57). Browne's earliest publica- 
tion was an elegy on Prince Henry, who died 
in November 1612. It was printed in 1613, 
with an elegy by Christopher Brooke [q.v.], in 
a small quarto, entitled Two Elegies, con- 
secrated to the never-dying memorie of the 
most worthily admyred : most hartily loued ; 
and generally bewayled Prince, Henry Prince 
of Wales,' 17 leaves. There is a manuscript 
copy of this elegy in the Bodleian. It was 
afterwards introduced, in a somewhat altered 
form, into the fifth song of the first book of 
' Britannia's Pastorals.' The first book of the 
1 Pastorals ' appears to have been composed 
before the poet had attained his twentieth 
year ; for in the fifth song he writes 
how (methinkes) the impes of Mneme bring 
Dewes of Invention from their sacred spring ! 
Here could I spend that spring of Poesie 
Which not twice ten sunnes have bestow'd on me. 




The curiously engraved title-page of the first 
edition of book i., fol., bears no date, but the 
address to the reader is dated ' From the Inner 
Temple, June the 18, 1613.' Prefixed are 
commendatory verses (in Latin, Greek, and 
English) by Drayton, Selden, Christopher | 
Brooke, and others ; and the book is dedicated \ 
to Edward, lord Zouch. In 1616 appeared ; 
the second book, with a dedicatory sonnet to | 
William, earl of Pembroke, and commenda- 
tory verses by John Glanvill, John Davies of 
Hereford, Wither, Ben Jonson, and others. 
The two books were republished in one vol. 
8vo in 1625. A copy of the edition of 1625, 
containing manuscript additional commen- 
datory verses by friends of the poet, was in 
the possession of Beloe, who printed the 
whole of the manuscript matter in the sixth 
volume of his ' Anecdotes of Literature.' 
The third book of the f Pastorals ' was not 
published in the author's lifetime ; but Beriah 
Botfield [q.v.], while engaged in collecting ma- 
terials for his work on ' Cathedral Libraries,' ; 
discovered a manuscript copy of it in the 
library of Salisbury Cathedral. In 1852 
the manuscript was printed for the Percy 
Society, and it has since been reprinted in 
Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt's collective edition of j 
Browne's works (2 vols. 1868). As the third | 
book is much inferior to the first and se- j 
cond books, doubts were cast on its authen- ! 
ticity at the time of the publication of the < 
manuscript : but this inferiority is probably \ 
due to the fact that the third book is in an un- ; 
revised state. ' Britannia's Pastorals ' were 
greatly applauded at the time of their first ap- 
pearance, and still hold a distinguished place 
in English poetry. Browne was an ardent 
admirer of Spenser, to whose memory he pays 
an eloquent tribute in the first song of the se- 
cond book. Many passages are written in close 
imitation of Spenser, and it was from the 
study of the ' Faerie Queene ' that he drew 
his fondness for allegory. The narrative is 
very vague and shadowy ; and it is doubtful j 
whether there is some real story of love trou- | 
bles, or whether the characters are wholly , 
fictitious. Browne is at his best when he I 
leaves the narrative to take care of itself and j 
indulges in pastoral descriptions. Few have j 
shown a truer appreciation for the sights and 
sounds of the country, though his descriptions 
are sometimes weakened by the introduction 
of crowded details. He is particularly fond 
of drawing similes from the homeliest objects, 
and his quaint simplicity of imagery is not 
the least of his charms. The baldness of the j 
narrative and the tediousness of the allegori- 
sing are forgotten when he sings of the trim 
hedgerows and garden walks of his native 
Devon. Browne has always been a favourite 

with the poets. Passages in Milton's ' L' Al- 
legro ' are imitated from the ' Pastorals ; ' 
Keats's early poems show clear traces of 
Browne's influence ; and Mrs. Browning took 
some lines from ' Britannia's Pastorals ' as the 
motto of her ' Vision of the Poets.' Browne 
was indeed, as Michael Drayton says of him 
in the epistle to Henry Reynolds, a l rightly 
born poet.' There is preserved (in the li- 
brary of Alfred H. Huth) a copy of the first 
edition of l Britannia's Pastorals ' containing- 
notes in the handwriting of Milton. The 
volume was submitted to the scrutiny of 
experts, and there is no reason for doubting 
the authenticity of the notes, which are 
meagre and of no great interest. In 1614 ap- 
peared * The Shepheards Pipe,' small 8vo, de- 
dicated to Edward, lord Zouch. It contains 
seven eclogues by Browne, to which are ap- 
pended eclogues by Christopher Brooke, 
Wither, and Davies of Hereford. In the first 
of Browne's eclogues is incorporated the story 
of Jonathas by Occleve, then printed for the 
first time. At the end of the eclogue Browne 
makes the following note : ' As this shall 
please I may be drawne to publish the rest of 
his workes, being all perfect in my hands.' 
Unfortunately the manuscripts were never 
published. The fourth eclogue is a smoothly 
written elegy (which may have supplied Mil 
ton with hints for ' Lycidas ') on the death of 
Thomas Manwood, son of Sir Peter Manwood. 
In the fifth eclogue the poet addresses Chris- 
topher Brooke, urging him to write poetry of a 
higher strain. After the seventh eclogue there 
is a second title-page, ( Other Eglogves : by 
Mr. Brooke, Mr. Wither, and Mr. Davies/ 
The first piece is inscribed to Browne by 
Brooke ; in the second (which is by Wither) 
Brooke and Browne are figured under the 
names of Cuttie and Willy ; the third, which 
is by Davies, is entitled 'An Eclogue be- 
tween young Willy the singer of his native 
Pastorals and old Wernocke his friend.' 
Then follows a third title-page, 'Another 
Eclogue by Mr. George Wither. Dedicated 
to his truely louing and worthy friend, Mr. 
W. Browne.' Browne's next work was the 
' Inner Temple Masque,' on the subject of 
Ulysses and Circe, written to be represented 
by the members of that society on 13 Jan. 
1614-15. As the books of the Inner Temple 
contain no mention of any expenses incurred 
by the performance, it is probable that the ar- 
rangements for the representation of the 
masque were at the last moment counter- 
manded. The piece was printed for the first 
time in Davies's edition of Browne's works 
(3 vols. 1772), from a manuscript in Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge. Warton suggests, with 
little show of plausibility, that the ' Inner 




Temple Masque ' supplied Milton with. ' the 
idea of a masque on the subject of Comus.' 

Few facts are known about Browne's per- 
sonal history. From Harleian MS. 6164 Sir 
Egerton. Brydges discovered that he married 
the daughter of Sir Thomas Eversfield of 
Den, near Horshani, and had two sons, who 
died in infancy. He survived his wife and 
wrote an epitaph on her. At the beginning 
of 1624 he returned to Exeter College and 
became tutor to the Hon. Kobert Dormer, 
afterwards earl of Carnarvon. In the ' Ma- 
triculation Book' is the entry, ' 30 Ap. 1624, 
William Browne, son of Thomas Browne, 
gentleman, of Tavistock, matriculated, age 
33.' It is possible (though improbable) that 
he did not matriculate during his earlier re- 
sidence. On 25 Aug. 1624 he received per- 
mission to be created master of arts, but 
the degree was not actually conferred until 
the 16th of the following November. In 
the public register of the university he is 
styled ' vir omni humana literarum et bona- 
rum artium cognitione instructus.' Wood 
states that he was afterwards received into 
the family of the Herberts at Wilton, where 
he l got wealth and purchased an estate.' In 
1629 Samuel Austin [q. v.] of Lostwithiel 
dedicated to Browne, jointly with Dray ton 
and Serjeant Pollexfen, the second book of 
his * Urania.' Ashmole MS. 36 contains a 
copy of verses by Abraham Holland ad- 
dressed ' To my honest father M. Michael 
Drayton and my new yet loved friend Mr. 
Will. Browne.' In November 1640 Browne 
was residing at Dorking, whence he addressed 
a letter (preserved in Ashmole MS. 830) to 
Sir Benjamin Ruddyerd. Among the Lans- 
downe MSS. (No. 777) is a collection of poems 
by Browne, first printed at the Lee Priory 
Press in 1815. The collection includes a 
series of fourteen sonnets to ' Ccelia,' in 
which the writer seems to refer to the death 
of his wife and to his second wooing ; some 
tender epistles and elegies ; six * Visions,' on 
the model of Du Bellay ; jocular and baccha- 
nalian verses ; epigrams and epitaphs. Among 
the epitaphs are found the famous lines 
1 Underneath this sable herse,' &c., which 
have been commonly attributed, on no better 
authority than Peter Whalley, to Ben Jon- 
son. In ' Notes and Queries,' 1st ser. iii. 262, 
it was pointed out that in Aubrey's * Me- 
moires of naturall remarques in Wilts ' the 
lines are stated to have been ' made by Mr. 
Willia Browne, who wrote the Pastoralls, 
and they are inserted there.' No new infor- 
mation was elicited by the recent discussion 
in the pages of the ' Academy ' (Nos. 608-10, 
and 617). The Lansdowne MS. makes the 
epitaph consist of twelve lines ; and in this 

form it is found in ' Poems written by the 
Right Honourable William, Earl of Pem- 
broke ' (1660) and Osborne's ' Traditional 
Memoirs of James I.' The epitaph certainly 
reads better as a single sextain ; and Hazlitt 
makes the plausible suggestion, that ' who- 
ever composed the original sextain . . . 
the addition is the work of another pen, 
namely, Lord Pembroke's.' Among the hu- 
morous poems in the Lansdowne MS. is the 
well-known ' Lydford Journey.' Prince in 
the ' Worthies of Devon ' makes the poem con- 
sist of sixteen verses. The manuscript gives 
seventeen verses ; and the copy in Thomas 
Westcote's 'View of Devonshire in 1630' 
(Exeter, 1845) contains nineteen verses. Com- 
paring Westcote's text with the text of the 
Lansdowne MS., we get twenty verses (vide 
Academy, No. 623, p. 262). 

After 1640 we hear no more of Browne. 
In the register of Tavistock, under date 
27 March 1643, is an entry, ' William Browne 
was buried ' ( Works, ed. Hazlitt, i. xxxviii) ; 
but, as the name is so common, we cannot be 
sure that this William Browne was the poet. 
Another William Browne died at Ottery St. 
Mary in December 1645. From a passage in 
Carpenter's ' Geographia' (1635, p. 263) it has 
been frequently asserted thatBrowne intended 
to write a history of English poetry from the 
earliest times to his own day : but Carpenter's 
words, which are usually quoted at second 
hand and without reference to the context, 
do not bear this interpretation. What he 
says is : ' Many inferiour faculties are yet 
| left, wherein our Devon hath displaied Jaer 
; abilities as well as in the former, as in Philo- 
I sophers, Historians, Oratours, and Poets, the 
blazoning of whom to the life, especially the 
last, I had rather leave to my worthy friend 
Mr. W. Browne, who, as hee hath already 
honoured his countrie in his elegant and 
sweet Pastoralls, no question will easily bee 
intreated a little farther to grace it by draw- 
ing out the line of his Poeticke Auncasters be- 
ginning in Josephus Iscanus and ending in 
himselfe.' Wood, making no reference to 
Carpenter, writes : ' So was he expected and 
also intreated, a little farther to grace it [sc. 
his country] by drawing out the line of his 
! poetic ancestors beginning in Josephus Is- 
i canius and ending in himself ; but whether 
ever published, having been all or mostly 
j written as 'twas said, I know not.' Whether 
i there is any truth or not in the italicised 
! words, it is certain that the work would have 
I been merely an account of Devonshire writers, 
not a complete survey of English poetry. 
Browne was a good antiquarian. In a mar- 
ginal note at the beginning of the first book of 
' Britannia's Pastorals ' he corrects a passage 




in the printed copy of William of Malmes- 
bury from a manuscript copy in the hands of 
his * very learned friend Mr. Selden.' Michael 
Drayton in the Epistle to Henry Reynolds 
speaks of Browne as one of his ' dear com- 
panions ' and ' bosom friends.' To the second 
edition of the ' Polyolbion ' (1622) Browne 
prefixed a copy of laudatory verses ; and Dray- 
ton showed his respect for Browne by dedi- 
cating to him an elegy. Christopher Brooke's 
' Ghost of Richard the Third/ 1614, and the 
later editions of Overbury's 'Wife,' contain 
poetical tributes by Browne, to whom may 
be safely assigned the commendatory verses, 
bearing the signature ' W. B.,' prefixed to 
Massinger's ' Duke of Millaine ' (1623) and 
* Bondman ' (1624). Browne was also a con- 
tributor to ' Epithalamia Oxoniensia,' 1625. 
Like his friend Michael Drayton, whom he 
resembled in many respects, Browne possessed 
a gentleness and simplicity of character which 
secured him the affection and admiration of 
his contemporaries. Prince tells us that ' he 
had a great mind in a little body.' Whether 
this description is to be taken merely as a 
flower of speech, or whether the poet was 
of short stature, it would be difficult to 

Browne's works were edited in 1772, 3 vols. 
12mo, by Thomas Davies the bookseller. The 
poems in Lansdowne MS. 777 were first 
printed by Sir Egerton Brydges at the Lee 
Priory Press. In 1868 a complete edition of 
Browne's works was edited for the Rox- 
burghe Club, in 2 vols. 4to, by Mr. W. Carew 

[Memoir by W. C. Hazlitt prefixed to vol. i. 
of Browne's works, ed. 1868; Wood's Athense 
(Bliss), ii. 364-7 ; Wood's Fasti, i. 419 ; Boase's 
Keg. Exeter Coll. Oxon. ; Prince's Worthies of 
Devon; Carpenter's Geographia, 1635, p. 263; 
Beloe's Anecdotes, vi. 58-85 ; Warton's Hist, of 
English Poetry, ed. 1871, iii. 321 ; Retrospective 
Review, ii. 149; Corser's Collectanea.] A. H.B. 

BROWNE, WILLIAM (1628-1678), 

botanist, was born at Oxford, and trained at i 
that university, where he graduated B.A. on j 
2 Nov. 1647, being described as of Magdalen 
College. On 2 July 1652 he was one of the 
examiners of Anthony a Wood for B.A. Con- 
jointly with Dr. P. Stephen, principal of 
Magdalen Hall, he edited a new edition of 
Bobart's ' Catalogue of the Oxford Garden.' 
This is notable as being the first botanical 
book issued in this country which cites the 
pages of authors quoted. He took the degree 
of B.D. on 8 July 1665, and preached one 
of the university ' sermons at St. Mary's on 
22 Aug. 1671. He died suddenly on 25 March 
1678, and was buried in the outer chapel 

of Magdalen College, of which he was senior 

[Wood's Fasti (Bliss), ii. 104, 282 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss) Life, xx, Ixx ; Pulteney's 
Biog. Sketches of Botany (1 790), i. 166-9.1 

B. D. J. 

BROWNE, Sm WILLIAM (1692-1774), 
physician, was born in the county of Dur- 
! ham in 1692, and was the son of a physician. 
He entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1707 ; 
graduated B.A. 1711, and M.A. 1714. In 
1716, having received a license from the uni- 
versity, he began to practise medicine at 
Lynn, Norfolk, where he lived for over 
thirty years. He was considered to be ec- 
centric, but he succeeded in making a for- 
tune, and in 1749 he moved to London, 
where he lived for the rest of his life in 
Queen Square, Bloomsbury. In 1721 he 
took his M.D. degree at Cambridge. In 
1725 he was admitted a candidate at the 
College of Physicians, and in the next year 
a fellow. On' 1 March 1738-9 he was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 
1748 he was knighted through the interest 
of the Duke of Montagu. After settling in 
London he passed through the various offices 
of the College of Physicians, and in 1765 
and 1766 was president. At this time there 
was a violent dispute between the college 
and the licentiates. Browne was a defender 
of the privileges of the universities, and had 
offended the licentiates by a pamphlet in the 
dispute with Dr. Schomberg (a ' Vindication 
of the Royal College of Physicians,' 1753). 
Foote caricatured him on the stage in his 
farce ' The Davil on Two Sticks.' Browne 
sent Foote a card complimenting him on his 
accuracy, but sending his own muff to com- 
plete the likeness. He found it difficult to 
maintain his dignity at the college, and on 
one occasion, when he was holding the 
comitia, the licentiates forced their way 
tumultuously into the room. Resolving to 
avoid such an affront in future, he deter- 
mined to resign his office instead of holding 
it for the usual term of five years. On quit- 
ting the chair he delivered a humorous ad- 
dress, which was published in Latin and 
English. In this he declared that he had 
found fortune in the country, honour in the 
college, and now proposed to find pleasure 
at the medicinal springs. He accordingly 
went to Bath, where he called upon War- 
burton at Prior Park. Warburton gives a 
ludicrous description of the old gentleman, 
with his muff, his Horace, and his spy-glass, 
who showed all the alacrity of a boy both in 
body and mind. He returned to London, 
where, on St. Luke's day 1771, he appeared 


7 6 


at Batson's coffee-house in a laced coat and 
fringed gloves to show himself to the lord 
mayor. He explained his healthy appearance 
by saying that he had neither wife nor debts. 
His wife had died 011 25 July 1763, in her 
sixty-fourth year. Browne died on 10 March 
1774. He was buried at Hillington, Nor- 
folk, under a Latin epitaph written by him- 
self. He left a will profusely interlarded 
with Greek and Latin, and directed that his 
Elzevir Horace should be placed on his 
coffin. He left three gold medals worth five 
guineas each to be given to undergraduates 
at Cambridge for Greek and Latin odes and 
epigrams. He also founded a scholarship of 
twenty guineas a year, the holder of which 
was to remove to Peterhouse. 

Browne's only daughter Mary was second 
wife of William Folkes, brother of Martin 
Folkes, president of the Eoyal Society. In 
1767 he presented his picture by Hudson to 
the College of Physicians. 

Browne's works are as follows : 1. ' Trans- 
lation of Dr. Gregory's Elements of Catop- 
trics and Dioptrics (with some additions)/ 
1715 and 1735. 2. < Two Odes in imitation 
of Horace,' 1763 and 1765; the second 
written in 1741 on Sir Eobert Walpole 
ceasing to be minister, and dedicated to the 
Earl of Orford, from whose family he had 
received many favours. 3. * Opuscula varia 
utriusque linguae,' 1765 (containing the 
Harveian oration for 1751, also published 
separately at the time). 4. 'Appendix al- 
tera ad opuscula,' his farewell oration, 
also published in English, 1768. 5. ' Frag- 
mentum Isaaci Hawkins Browne, arm., 
sive Anti-Bolingbrokius,' translated for a 
second ' Religio Medici,' 1768 (the Latin of 
I. H. Browne from the poems published by 
his son in 1768, with English by W. B.) 
6. 'Fragmentum completum,' 1769 (con- 
tinuation of the last in Latin and English 
by W. B.) 7. ' Appendix ad Opuscula ' (a 
Latin ode with English translations), 1770. 
8. ' A Proposal on our Coin, to remedy all 
Present and prevent all Future Disorders,' j 
1771 (dedicated to the memory of Speaker j 
Onslow). 9. < A New Year's Gift, a Problem ! 
and Demonstration on the Thirty-nine | 
Articles ' (explaining difficulties which had j 
occurred to him on having to sign the articles 
at Cambridge), 1772. 10. < The Pill-plot, to 
Dr. Ward, a quack of merry memory,' 1772 
(written at Lynn in 1734). 11. ' Correc- 
tions in Verse from the Father of the College 
on Son Cadogan's Gout Dissertation, contain- 
ing False Physic, False Logic, False Philo- 
sophy,' 1772. 12. ' Speech on the Royal 
Society, recommending Mathematics as the 
paramount Qualification for their Chair,' 

1772. 13. 'Elogy and Address,' 1773. 
14. ' Latin Version of the Book of Job' 

Browne's best known production is pro- 
bably the Cambridge answer to the much 
better Oxford epigram upon George I's 
present of Bishop Moore's library to the 
university of Cambridge : 

The king to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For tories own no argument but force ; 
With equal care to Cambridge books he sent, 
For whigs allow no force but argument. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 95 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 315-30; Letters from a late Eminent 
Prelate, p. 404.] L. S. 

BROWNE, WILLIAM (1748-1 825), gem 
and seal engraver, obtained the patronage of 
Catherine II, empress of Russia, who gave 
him much employment and appointed him 
her ' gem sculptor.' In 1788 he was living in 
Paris, where he worked for the royal family, 
but in the outbreak of the revolution in the 
following year returned to England. He was- 
a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy 
between 1770 and 1823 of classical heads and 
portraits. Browne's talents met with but 
little recognition in his own country, and the 
finest specimens of his art were sent to Rus- 
sia. Some of his portraits of eminent persons- 
are in the royal collection at Windsor. He 
died in John Street, Fitzroy Square, 20 July 
1825, aged 77. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists (1878) ; MS. 
Notes in British Museum.] L. F. 

1813), oriental traveller, was born in London 
on 25 July 1768, and descended from an old 
Cumberland family. He was educated pri- 
vately until entering at Oriel College, Oxford, 
where, receiving ' no encouragement and little 
assistance in his academical studies,' he dili- 
gently strove to educate himself. After 
leaving Oxford (B.A. 1789) he for a time 
pursued the study of the law, which he re- 
linquished upon becoming independent by his- 
father's death. His earnest though sedate 
temper was deeply stirred by the French 
revolution. He reprinted at his own expense 
a portion of Buchanan's treatise 'De Jure 
Regni apud Scotos,' and other political tracts, 
and seemed inclined to a public career, when 
his thoughts were diverted into a new channel 
by reading Bruce's travels and the first re- 
port of the African Association, and he re- 
solved to devote himself to the exploration 
of Africa. Among his qualifications he enu- 
merates ' a good constitution, though by no 
means robust, steadiness of purpose, much in- 
difference to personal accommodations and 




enjoyments, together with a degree of pa- 
tience which could endure reverses and dis- 
appointments without murmuring.' He also 
possessed a fair acquaintance with the classics, 
and an elementary knowledge of chemistry, 
botany, and mineralogy. He arrived at Alex- 
andria in January 1792, and after two months' 
residence proceeded westwards along the 
coast to visit the ruins at Siwah, which, 
with a candour rare among explorers, he 
pronounced not to be the remains of the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon. Eennell, who 
differed from him on this question, remarks 
that Browne's Ammonian expedition in- 
volved much more personal risk than Alex- 
ander's. He subsequently spent some time 
at Cairo, studying Arabic and investigating 
the political and social condition of the 
country, and visited the principal remains 
of Egyptian antiquity, now familiar, but in 
his time little known, to Europeans. Being 
prevented by war from entering Nubia, he 
turned aside to the vast Roman quarries at 
Cosseir on the Red Sea, which he explored 
in the disguise of an oriental. The war still 
continuing, he determined to accompany the 
great Soudan caravan to Darfur, a country 
not previously described by any European, 
from which he hoped to penetrate into 
Abyssinia. After encountering great hard- 
ships he reached Darfur in July 1793, only 
to fall sick of dysentery, to be robbed of 
most of his property, and to be detained by 
the sultan. He was not, however, imprisoned 
or personally ill-treated, and employed his 
enforced residence in examining the cha- 
racter and productions of the uninviting 
country, solacing his ennui by the education 
of two young lions. At length the sultan 
was induced to dismiss him by the fear of 
reprisals on Darfurian merchants in Egypt, 
and Browne returned with the caravan of 
1796, having made no remarkable discoveries 
of his own, but having gained much informa- 
tion, especially on the course of the Nile, 
the correctness of which has been established 
by subsequent research. Having journeyed 
over Syria and through Asia Minor to Con- 
stantinople, he arrived in England in 1798, 
and published an account of his travels in 
1800. The unfavourable reception of this 
valuable work was chiefly owing to the de- 
fects of the writer's style. As a traveller 
Browne is not only observant but intelli- 
gent and judicious, but his good sense deserts 
him when he takes the pen in hand, and he 
becomes intolerably affected and pedantic. 
His enthusiasm is unaccompanied by fancy 
or imagination, and his faithful registry of 
observations and occurrences is rarely en- 
livened by any gleam of descriptive power. 

His work was further prejudiced in the eyes 
of the public by the prominence given to 
physiological details and an eccentric en- 
comium of eastern manners and customs at 
the expense of the civilisation of Europe. 
There is, nevertheless, an element of reason 
in Browne's paradox, and his favourable 
judgment of orientals after all he had under- 
gone at their hands says much for his good 
temper and philosophic candour. 

From 1800 to 1802 Browne travelled again 
in Turkey and the Levant generally, and 
collected much valuable information, par- 
tially published after his death in Walpole's 
' Travels in various Countries of the East.' 
He spent the next ten years in England, 
' leading the life of a scholar and recluse in 
the vast metropolis,' but intimate with several 
men of similar tastes, especially Smithson 
Tennant, the Cambridge professor of che- 
mistry, who speaks of his ' soothing, romantic 
evening conversations.' In 1812 he again 
left England with the object of penetrating 
into Tartary by way of Persia. Travelling 
j through Asia Minor and visiting Armenia, 
he proceeded in safety as far as Tabriz, which 
he left for Teheran towards the end of the 
summer of 1813, accompanied by two ser- 
vants. According to one account these men 
returned a few days afterwards, declaring 
that Browne had been murdered by banditti. 
According to another, the discovery was 
made by the mehmandar, or officer charged 
to insure his safety, whom Browne had un- 
fortunately preceded. His body could not 
be recovered, but his effects, excepting his 
money, were restored to the English am- 
bassador, and after some time his bones, or 
what were represented as such, were brought 
to Tabriz and honourably interred. There 
seems no good reason for the suspicions 
entertained of the Persian government, and 
it remains a question whether the motive of 
the murder was plunder or fanaticism exas- 
perated by Browne's imprudence in wearing 
a Turkish dress. 

Browne is described as grave and saturnine, 
' with a demeanour,' says Beloe, ' precisely 
that of a Turk of the better order.' Beneath 
this reserve he concealed an ardent en- 
thusiasm, his attachments were warm and 
durable, he acted from the highest principles 
of honour, and was capable of great gene- 
rosity and kindness. In politics he was a 
1 republican, in religion a free-thinker. His 
j intellectual endowments were rather solid 
I than shining, but he possessed in an eminent 
i degree two of the traveller's most essential 
j qualifications, exactness and veracity. 

[Browne's Travels in Africa, Egypt, and 
I Syria, 1800; Walpole's Travels in various 



Countries of the East, 1820 ; Beloe's Sexagena- 
rian, vol. ii.] R. G. 


(1809-1861), poetess, was bom at Burn Hall, 
Durham, on 6 March 1809. She was the eldest 
daughter of Edward Moulton, and was chris- 
tened by the names of Elizabeth Barrett. Not 
long afterwards Mr. Moulton, himself succeed- 
ing to some property, took the name of Bar- 
rett. In after times Mrs. Browning signed 
herself at length as Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
ing. Her mother was Mary Graham, the 
daughter of a Mr. Graham, afterwards known 
as Graham Clarke of Feltham in Northum- 
berland. Soon after the child's birth her pa- 
rents brought her southwards to Hope End, 
near Ledbury in Herefordshire, where Mr.Bar- 
rett possessed a considerable estate, and had 
built himself a country house, with Moorish 
windows and turrets. l is described by one 
of his family as standing in a lovely park 
among trees and sloping hills all sprinkled 
with sheep. The house, too, was very beau- 
tiful, and this same lady remembers the great 
hall with the organ in it, and more especially 
' Elizabeth's room/ a lofty chamber with a 
stained glass window casting lights across the 
floor, and upon little Elizabeth as she used to 
sit propped against the wall with her hair 
falling all. about her face, a childlike fairy 
figure. Elizabeth was famed among the chil- 
dren for her skill with her white roses ; she 
had a bower of her own all overgrown with 
their sprays. The roses are still blooming for 
the readers of the ' Lost Bower,' ' clear as once 
beneath the sunshine.' 

Another favourite device of the child's 
was that of a man of flowers laid out in beds 
upon the lawn ; a huge giant wrought of 
spade, ' eyes of gentianella's azure, staring, 
winking at the skies ' (see ' Hector in the 
Garden '). Elizabeth's gift for learning- was 
extraordinary ; at eight years old she had a 
tutor and could read Homer in the original, 
holding her book in one hand and nursing 
,her doll on the other arm. She has said her- 
self that in those days ' the Greeks were her 
demi-gods.' ' She dreamed more of Aga- 
memnon than of Moses her black pony.' At 
the same age she too began to write poems. 
When she was about eleven or twelve her 
great epic of the ' Battle of Marathon ' was 
written in four books, and her father had it 
printed ; * papa was bent upon spoiling me,' 
she writes. A cousin remembers a certain 
ode, which the little girl recited to her father 
on his birthday about this time. This cousin 
used to pay visits to Hope End, where their 
common grandmother would also come and 
The old lady did not approve of these 

readings and writings, and used to say she 
had far rather see Elizabeth's hemming more 
carefully finished off than hear of all this 
Greek. Elizabeth was growing up mean- 
while under happy influences. She had 
brothers and sisters in her home, her life was 
not all study, she had the best of company, 
that of happy children, as well as of all 
bright and natural things. She was fond of 
riding, she loved her gardens, her woodland 
playground. As she grew older she used to 
drive a pony and go further afield. A child 
of those days flying in terror along one of 
these steep Herefordshire lanes, perhaps 
frightened by a cow's horns beyond the 
hedge, still describes being overtaken by a 
young girl in a pony carriage with a pale 
spiritual face and a profusion of dark curls, 
who suddenly caught her up into safety and 
drove rapidly away with her. All these 
scenes are turned to account in ' Aurora 
Leigh.' One day, when Elizabeth was about 
fifteen, the young girl, impatient for her ride, 
tried to saddle her pony alone, in a field, and 
fell with the saddle upon her, in some way 
injuring her spine so seriously that she was 
for years upon her back. 

She was about twenty when her mother's 
last illness began, and at the same time some 
money catastrophe (the result of other 
people's misdeeds) overtook Mr. Barrett. 
He would not allow his wife to be troubled 
or told of this crisis in his affairs, and com- 
pounded at an enormous cost with his cre- 
ditors, materially diminishing his income for 
life, so as to put off any change in the ways 
at Hope End until change could trouble the 
sick lady no more. After Mrs. Barrett's death, 
when Elizabeth was a little over twenty, 
they came away, leaving Hope End among 
the hills for ever. * Beautiful, beautiful hills/ 
Miss Barrett wrote long afterwards from her 
closed sick room in London, ' and yet not for 
the whole world's beauty would I stand among 
the sunshine and shadow of them any more : 
it would be a mockery, like the taking back 
of a broken flower to its stalk ' (see Letters 
of E, B. 'Browning to R. H. Home}. 

The family spent two years at Sidmouth 
and then came to London, where Mr. Barrett 
bought a house at 74 Gloucester Place. 
Elizabeth Barrett had published the ' Essay 
on Mind ' at seventeen years of age, < Pro- 
metheus ' and other poems at twenty-six ; she 
was twenty-seven when the ' Seraphim ' came 
out. Her continued delicacy kept her for 
months at a time a prisoner to her room, but 
she was becoming known to the world. 
1 Prometheus ' is reviewed in the ' Quarterly 
Review ' for 1840, and there Miss Barrett's 
name comes second among a list of the most 

_Brovvnino r 81 

plished women of those days. Her ] 


noble poem on Cowper's grave was repub- 
lished with the ' Seraphim/ on which (what- 
ever her later opinion may have been) she 
at the time seems to have set small count ; 
all the remaining copies of the book being , 
locked away, she writes, in the ' wardrobe j 
in her father's bedroom,' entombed as safely < 
as CEdipus among the olives. In a surviving 
copy of this book, belonging to Mr. J. Dykes 
Campbell, there is an added stanza to the | 
image of God, never yet printed, and many j 
a faint correction in her delicate hand- j 
writing. From Gloucester Place Miss Bar- \ 
rett went an unwilling exile for her health's : 
sake to. Torquay, where the tragedy occurred 
which t gave a nightmare to her life for 
ever.' Her brother had come to see her and j 
to be comforted by her for some trouble of 
his own, when he was accidentally drowned, j 
under circumstances of torturing suspense, j 
which added to the shock. All that year j 
the sea beating upon the shore sounded to j 
her as a dirge, she says, in a letter to Miss ] 
Mitford. It was long before Miss Barrett's 
health was sufficiently restored to allow of 
her being brought home to Gloucester Place, 
where many years passed away in the con- 
finement of a sick room, to which few besides 
the members of her own family were ad- 
mitted. Among these exceptions were to be 
found Miss Mitford, who would travel forty 
miles to see her for an hour, Mrs. Jameson, 
and above all Mr. Kenyon, the 'friend and 
dearest cousin ' to whom she afterwards de- 
dicated ' Aurora Leigh.' Mr. Kenyon had 
an almost fatherly affection for her, and from 
the first recognised his young relative's ge- 
nius. He was her constant visitor and link 
with the outside world. As Miss Barrett 
lay on her couch with her dog Flush at her 
feet, Miss Mitford describes her as reading 
'books in almost every language/ giving 
herself heart and soul to poetry. She also 
occupied herself with prose, writing literary 
articles for the l Athenaeum/ and contri- 
buting to a modern rendering of Chaucer, 
which was then being edited by her unknown 
friend, Mr. R. H. Home. These early letters 
of Mrs. Browning to Mr. Home, published 
after her death with her husband's sanction, 
are full of the suggestions of her fancy ; as 
for instance, l Sappho who broke off a frag- 
ment of her soul for us to guess at.' Of her- 
self she once writes (apparently in answer to 
some question of Mr. Home's) : ' My story 
amounts to the knife-grinder's, with nothing 
at all for a catastrophe ! A bird in a cage 
would have as good a story ; most of my 
events and nearly all my intense pleasure 
have passed in my thoughts.' 

In 1843 Miss Barrett wrote the ' Cry of 
the Children/ so often quoted. It was sug- 
gested by the report of the commissioners 
appointed to investigate the subject of the 
employment of young children. In the early 
part of 1846 she assisted Mrs. Jameson, who 
was preparing a volume of collected papers, 
by contributing a translation from the ' Odys- 
sey.' About this time Mr. Kenyon first 
brought Mr. Browning as a visitor to the 
house. It must have been about this time 
that Miss Barrett, writing to Mrs. Jameson, 
says, in a warm and grateful letter in the 
possession of Mrs. Oliphant : ' First I was 
drawn to you, then I was and am bound 
to you, but I do not move into the confes- 
sional notwithstanding my own heart and 

In l Lady Geraldine's Courtship ' Miss 
Barrett had written of Browning among 
other poets as of the ' pomegranate which, 
if cut deep down the middle, shows a heart 
within blood-tinctured, of a veined hu- 
manity.' Very soon after their first acquain- 
tance they became engaged, and were married 
in the autumn of the same year, 1846. The 
sonnets from the Portuguese are among the 
loveliest in the English language, and were 
I written in secret by Mrs. Browning before 
her marriage, although they were not shown 
to her husband till long afterwards. He 
himself had once called her f his Portuguese ' 
(see Mrs. Browning's ' Caterina toCamoens'), 
and she had replied by writing these son- 
nets. There is a quality in them which is 
beyond words ; an echo from afar which 
belongs to the highest human expression of 
feeling. Leigh Hunt may be quoted as ex- 
i pressing his wonder at the marvellous beauty, 
I ' the entire worthiness and loveliness ' of 
| these sonnets. Some time in 1846 the doc- 
tors had declared that Miss Barrett's life 
depended upon her leaving England for the 
winter, and immediately after their marriage 
, Mr. Browning took his wife abroad. Mrs. 
I Jameson was at Paris when Mr. and Mrs. 
' Browning arrived there. In the life of Mrs. 
Jameson, by her niece, Mrs. Macpherson, 
there is an interesting description of the 
meeting and the surprise, and of their all 
1 journeying together southwards by Avignon 
i and Vaucluse. They came to a rest at Pisa, 
! whence Mrs. Browning writes to her old 
! friend, Mr. Home, to tell him of her marriage, 
j and she adds that Mrs. Jameson calls her, 
I notwithstanding all the emotion and fatigue 
of the last six weeks, rather ' transformed ' 
I than improved. From Pisa the new married 
j pair went to Florence, where they finally 
settled, and where their boy was born in 
1849. Those among us who only knew 

Mrs. Browning as a wife and as a mother 
have found it difficult to realise her life under 
any other conditions, so vivid and complete 
is the image of her peaceful home, of its fire- 
side where the logs are burning, and the mis- 
tress established on her sofa, with her little 
boy curled up by her side, the door opening 
and shutting meanwhile to the quick step of 
the master of the house, and to the life of the 
world without, coming to find her in her 
quiet corner. We can recall the slight figure 
in its black silk dress, the writing apparatus 
by the sofa, the tiny inkstand, the quill- 
nibbed pen-holder, the unpretentious imple- 
ments of her work. ' She was a little woman ; 
she liked little things.' Her miniature edi- 
tions of the classics are still carefully pre- 
served, with her name written in each in her 
sensitive fine handwriting, and always her 
husband's name added above her own, for she 
dedicated all her books to him: it was a 
fancy that she had. Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
who visited Mrs. Browning at Florence, has 
described her as ' a pale small person scarcely 
embodied at all,' at any rate only substantial 
enough to put forth her ' slender fingers to 
be grasped, and to speak with a shrill yet 
sweet tenuity of voice.' ' It is wonderful,' 
he says, l to see how small she is, how pale 
her cheek, how bright and dark her eyes. 
There is not such another figure in the world, 
and her black ringlets cluster down into her 
neck and make her face look whiter.' There 
is another description of Mrs. Browning by 
an American (also quoted in the papers of 
the Browning Society), ' a soul of fire en- 
closed in a shell of pearl,' and, in common 
with all who knew her best, the writer 
dwells on her sweetness of temper and purity 
of spirit. 

Mrs. Browning has had readers worthy of 
her genius. The princess of poets, says George 
Macdonald, in idea she is noble, in phrase 
magnificent. When Wordsworth died, the 
' Athenseum ' urged that Mrs. Browning sho uld 
succeed him as poet laureate. Mr. Ruskin 
and George Eliot were among her readers. 
* I have lately read again with great delight 
Mrs. Browning's " Casa Guidi Windows," ' 
George Eliot writes (in the ' Memoirs' pub- 
iishedby Mr. J.W. Cross); 'it contains, among 
other admirable things, a very noble expres- 
sion of what I believe to be the true relation 
of the religious mind of the past to that of 
the present.' Hans Andersen was another of 
her devoted friends. Mrs. Browning writes 
of him to Mr. Thackeray ' as delighting us 
all, more especially the children.' The author 
of ' Vanity Fair ' had a most special feeling 
of tender, admiring respect and affection for 
Mrs. Browning. 

Among the Brownings' greatest friL_.^ - 

Italy were Mr. and Mrs. Story, with whom 
i they lived during two or three summers 
at Siena in villeggiatura. Walter Savage 
j Landor found first at Siena, and then at 
! Florence, a refuge and a home with Mr. and 
Mrs. Browning after he had been left deso- 
late ' a Lear whose own were unkind ' (CoL- 
VIN, Life of Landor). Landor finally settled 
down near the Brownings in Florence, being 
! established by their care in the house of a 
former maid of Mrs. Browning's, who had 
married an Italian, and who was living close 
| to Casa Guidi. Mr. Story has written an 
1 interesting letter about Casa Guidi prefixed 
to the American edition of Mrs. Browning's 
works. He describes the square ante-room 
with its pictures, and the pianoforte where 
1 her young Florentine ' already strikes the 
keys, the little dining-room covered with 
tapestry, the large drawing-room where she 
always sat : ' It opens iipon a balcony fitted 
with plants, and looks out upon the iron-grey 
church of Santa Felice ' (Hawthorne speaks in 
his ' Memoirs ' of listening from this room to 
the sound of the chanting from the opposite 
church). Mr. Story goes on to write of the 
| tapestry-covered Avails, and old pictures of 
! saints that stare out sadly from their carved 
| frames of black wood ; of the ' large book- 
' cases brimming over with learned-looking 
books, tables covered with more gaily bound 
j volumes, the gift of brother authors, Dante's 
grave profile, a cast of Keats's face and brow 
taken after death, a pen-and-ink sketch of 
Tennyson, the genial face of John Kenyon, 
Mrs. Browning's good friend and relative, 
little paintings of the boy Browning, all at- 
tracted the eye in turn; a quaint mirror, 
easy chairs and sofas, a hundred nothings, 
; were all massed in this room.' Mrs. Brown- 
| ing used to sit in a low armchair near the 
i door; a small writing-table, strewn with 
1 writing materials and newspapers, was always 
I by her side. It was here she wrote ' Casa 
! Guidi Windows ' and l Aurora Leigh,' which 
the authoress herself calls ' the most mature 
of my works, the one into which my highest 
convictions of work and art have entered' 
(see preface of Aurora LeigJi). The poem 
is full of beauty from the first page to the 
last. The opening scenes in Italy, the impres- 
sion of light, of silence, the beautiful Italian 
mother, the austere father with his open 
books, the death of the mother, who lies laid 
out for burial in her red silk dress, the epi- 
taph, ' Weep for an infant too young to weep 
much, when death removed this mother ; ' 
Aurora's journey to her father's old home, 
her lonely terror of England, the slow yield- 
ing of her nature to its silent beauty, her 




friendship with her cousin, Romney Leigh, 
their saddening, widening knowledge of the 
burden and sorrow of the life around, and 
the way this knowledge influences both their 
fates, all is described with that irresistible 
fervour which is the translation of the essence 
of things into words of their very soul into 
common life. When the manuscript of 
* Aurora Leigh ' was nearly finished, the 
Brownings came over to England for a time, 
and at Marseilles, by some oversight, the box 
was lost in which the manuscript had been 
packed. In this same box were also carefully 
put away certain velvet suits and lace collars, 
in which the little son was to make his ap- 
pearance among his English relatives. Mrs. 
Browning's chief concern was not for her 
manuscripts, but for the loss of her little boy's 
wardrobe, which had been devised with so 
much tender motherly care and pride. Hap- 
pily one of her brothers was at Marseilles, 
and the box was discovered stowed away 
in some cellar at the customs there. The 
happy influence of Mrs. Browning's mar- 
riage is shown in the added beauty and vivid 
flash of reality of her later poetry, although 
the husband and wife carefully abstained 
from reading each other's work while it was 
going on. In Leigh Hunt's ' Correspon- 
dence/ vol. ii., there is a joint letter from Mr. 
and Mrs. Browning, dated Bagni di Lucca, 
in which mention is made of Leigh Hunt's 
praise of f Aurora Leigh :' 1 1 am still too 
near the production of " Aurora Leigh " to be 
able to see it all.' Mr. Browning says : ' My 
wife used to write it and lay it down to hear 
our child spell, or when a visitor came in it 
was thrust under the cushions then. At 
Paris, a year ago last March, she gave me 
the first six books to read, I never having 
seen a line before. She then wrote the rest 
and transcribed them in London, where I 
read them also. I wish in one sense that I 
had written and she had read it.' 

Mrs. Browning's later poems chiefly con- 
cerned public affairs, and the interests of 
Italy so near her heart. Mrs. Kemble quotes 
with admiration the noble poem of the 
' Court Lady,' included in the 'Poems before 

Mrs. Browning's feeling for Napoleon III 
was the expression of her warm gratitude 
for the liberator of her adopted country ; 
her own enthusiasm coloured her impres- 
sions of those who appealed to her generous 

_ ' In melodiousness and splendour of poetic 
gift Mrs. Browning stands, to the best of 
my knowledge, first among women,' says a 
critic (P. BATN-B, Great Englishwomen). She 
may not, as he goes on to say, have the know- 


ledge of life, the insight into character, the 
comprehensiveness of some, but we must all 
agree that a poet's far more essential quali- 
ties are hers, usefulness, fervour, a noble as- 
piration, and, above all, tender, far-reaching 
nature, loving and beloved, and touching the 
hearts of her readers with some virtue from 
its depths. She seemed even in her life some- 
thing of a spirit, and her view of life's sor- 
row and shame, of its beauty and eternal 
hope, is something like that which one might 
imagine a spirit's to be. 

It has been said that the news of the 
death of Cavour, coming when she was very 
ill, hastened her own. Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning died at Florence 30 June 1861. 
A tablet has been placed to her memory on 
the walls of Casa Guidi. It was voted by 
the municipality of Florence, and written 
by Tommaseo ' Qui scrisse e mori E. B. B., 
che in cuore di donna conciliava scienze di 
dotto e spirito di poeta e fece del suo verso 
aureo anello fra Italia e Inghilterra. Pose 
questa memoria Firenze grata, 1861.' 

Mrs. Browning's works are as follows : 
1. 'An Essay on Mind, with other Poems,' 
12mo, 1826 ; anonymous, dropped by the 
author, but reprinted (by R. H. Shepherd) 
in 'The Earlier Poems of E. B. Brown- 
ing,' 1826-33, 12mo, 1878. 2. 'Prome- 
theus Bound : translated from the Greek of 
^Eschylus, and Miscellaneous Poems by the 
author of " An Essay on Mind," with other 
Poems,' 8vo, 1833 ; anonymous, dropped 
by the author, but the miscellaneous poems 
reprinted in ' The Earlier Poems,' &c. men- 
tioned under 1. The ' Prometheus Bound ' 
was rewritten and printed in 5. 3. 'The 
Seraphim, and other Poems/ by E. B. Bar- 
rett, author of 'A Translation of the Pro- 
metheus Bound/ &c., 12mo, 1838. 4. ' Poems 
by E. Barrett Barrett/ author of ' The Sera- 
phim/ &c., 2 vols. 12mo, 1844. Preface 
says, all written later than 3. 5. 'Poems 
by E. B. Browning/ 2nd edition, 2 vols. 
12mo, 1850, containing new poems and an 
entirely new version of the ' Prometheus.' 
3rd edition, 1853 ; 4th, 1856, &c. 6. ' Casa 
Guidi Windows/ a poem by E. B. Brown- 
ing, 12mo, 1851. 7. 'Aurora Leigh/ by 
E. B. Browning, 8vo, 1857; 2nd edition 
same year, 18th edition 1884. 8. 'Poems 
before Congress/ by E. B. Browning, 12mo, 
1860. 9. ' Last Poems/ by E. B. Browning, 
12mo, 1862. Posthumous, edited by Robert 
Browning, who states that there are included 
some translations written in early life. 
10. 'The Greek Christian Poets, and the 
English Poets/ by E. B. Browning, 12mo, 
1863. Posthumous, edited by Robert Brown- 
ing, who states these (prose essays and trans- 



lations) were published in the ' Athenaeum ' 
in 1842. 11. < Selections from Poems by 
E. B. Browning,' edited by Robert Brown- 
ing, first series, 12mo, 1866, reprinted in 
Tauchnitz series. 12. ' Selections,' &c., se- 
cond series, 12mo, 1880. 13. ' Lady Geral- 
dine's Courtship,' illustrated by Barton, 1876. 
14. ' Rhyme of the Duchess May,' illustrated 
by M. B. Morrell, 1873. There are many 
American editions and selections. 

[Personal information from Miss Browning, 
Lady Carmichael, and Mr. J. Dykes Campbell 
(secretary of the Browning Society) ; Home's 
Letters of E. B. Browning, ed. Stoddard ; Miss 
Mitford's Recollections of a Literary Life ; British 
Encyclopaedia, art. ' Browning ; ' Macmillan's 
Magazine, vol. iv. ; Quarterly Review, 1840; 
Biographie Generale, parts i. and ii. ; Bayne's 
Two Great Englishwomen ; Forster's and Col- 
vin's Lives of Landor ; Revue Litteraire, art. by 
Leo Quesnel on Mrs. Browning; Field's Yester- 
days with Authors; Ireland's Bibliography of 
Leigh Hunt; Leigh Hunt's Correspondence, ii. 
264: Mrs. Jameson's Memoirs; Browning So- 
ciety's Papers, Nos. 1 and 2.] A. R. 

BROWNING, JOHN (fl. 1584), divine, 
matriculated as a sizar at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, on 14 Nov. 1558, and was after- 
wards elected to a scholarship and a fellow- 
ship. He proceeded B.A. 1562-3, M. A. 1566, 
andB.D. 1577. He opposed the adoption of 
the new university statutes of 1572. At 
the close of the same year he was charged 
before Dr. Whitgift, deputy vice-chancellor, 
and the heads of houses, with preaching the 
Novatian heresy at St. Mary's, and was or- 
dered to abstain from preaching for a time. 
But he disobeyed the order, and was com- 
mitted by the vice-chancellor to the Tolbooth 
on 27 Jan. 1572-3. In February he was re- 
leased on giving sureties to abstain from 
preaching until he had come up for further 
examination. He afterwards sent to Lord 
Burghley (17 March 1572-3) a formal con- 
fession of his errors. Burghley forwarded the 
confession to the vice-chancellor, with a 
warning that steps should be taken to see 
that Browning acted up to his professions of 
conformity. On 8 July 1580 Browning was 
created D.D. at Oxford. Dr. Still, master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, complained to 
Lord Burghley that Browning's standing did 
not permit him to receive the degree ; but on 
8 Dec. 1581 Still signed the grace by which 
Browning was incorporated D.D. of Cam- 
bridge. On 7 Sept. 1584 Browning, as vice- 
master of the college, issued an order sus- 
pending Still, the master, from his office, on 
the ground that he had married, contrary to 
his oath, that he had broken many college 
statutes, and had wasted the college resources. 

Still replied by ejecting Browning from his 
i fellowship ; but Browning refused to leave, 
| and had to be dragged from his rooms by 
| force. Browning had been chaplain in earlier 
1 years to Francis, earl of Bedford, and the 
earl appealed to Burghley to restore Brown- 
ing to his fellowship, insisting on ' his suffi- 
ciency in the sounde prechinge of the trueth,' 
and his ' godly conversacion.' But nothing 
is known of the result of this appeal, or of 
Browning's subsequent career. 

Another JOHN BROWNING was rector of 
Easton Parva, Essex, from 22 April 1634 
till 1639, and of Easton Magna from 9 Nov. 
1639. He was the author of 'Concerning 
Publike Prayer and the Fasts of the Church : 
six sermons and tractates/ 2 parts, London, 
1636 (NEWCOUKT, Diocese of London ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.} 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantab, ii. 239 ; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), i. 216 ; Strype's Annals, IT. i. 
278-81 ; Strype's Whitgift, i. 93 ; Strype's Parker, 
ii. 195-7 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 214.1 

S. L. L. 

BROWNLOW, RICHARD (1553-1638), 
chief prothonotary of the court of common 
pleas, was the son of John Brownlow of 
High Holborn, by a daughter of Sir John 
Zouch of Stoughton Grange, Leicestershire. 
He was born 2 April 1553, and baptised 
12 April at St. Andrew's, Holborn. In 1583 
he was entered at the Inner Temple, and was 
treasurer of that society in 1606. On 9 Oct. 
1591 he was made chief prothonotary of the 
court of common pleas, which office he con- 
tinued to hold until his death, deriving from 
it an annual profit of 6,000/., with which he 
purchased the reversion of the estate of Bel- 
ton, near Grantham, and other properties in 
Lincolnshire. He married Katherine, daugh- 
ter of John Page of Wembly, Middlesex, one 
of the first governors of Harrow School, and 
by her had three sons and three daughters. 
He died at Enfield on 21 July 1638 in his 
eighty-sixth year ; his bowels were buried in 
Enfield church, but his body was carried to 
Belton, and buried 1 Aug. in the church 
there, where there is a figure of him in his 
prothonotary's gown surmounting his monu- 
ment. A portrait in similar dress is preserved 
at Belton House, and was engraved by Thomas 
Cross as frontispiece to his works. His will 
is dated 1 Jan. 1637-8, and was proved 8 Aug. 
1638 by his two sons, John and William 
Brownlow, who were both created baronets, 
the latter being the ancestor of John Brown- 
Low, viscount Tyrconnel, whose sister married 
Sir Richard Cust, bart., the ancestor of the 
present Earl Brownlow. A street in Holborn 
still bears the name. After his death various 

Brown rig 


collections from his manuscripts were pub- 
lished, including: 1. 'Reports of diverse 
Choice Cases of Law, taken by Richard 
Brownlow and John Goldesborough/ 1651. 
2. ' Reports ' (a second part of * Diverse 
Choice Cases of Law'), 1652. 3. 'Decla- 
rations and Pleadings in English,' 1652 ; 
2nd part 1654; 3rd edition 1659. 4. 'Writs 
Judicial,' 1 653. 5. ' Placita Latine Rediyiva : 
a Book of Entries collected in the Times 
and out of some of the Manuscripts of those 
famous and learned prothonotaries Richard 
Brownlow, John Gulston, Robert Moyland, 
and Thomas Cory, by R. A. of Furnival's 
Inn,' 1661 ; 2nd edition 1673. 6. ' A Second 
Book of Judgements in Real, Personal, and 
Mixt Actions and upon the Statute : all or 
most of them affirmed upon Writs of Error. 
Being the collection of Mr. George Huxley 
of Lincoln's Inn, gent., out of the choice 
manuscripts of Mr. Brownlowe and Mr. 
Moyle,' &c., 1674. 7. < Latine Redivivus : 
a Book of Entries of such Declarations, In- 
formation, Pleas in Bar, &c., contained in 
the first and second parts of the Declara- 
tions and Pleadings of Richard Brownlow, 
esq., late chief prothonotary of the Court of 
Common Pleas (unskillfully turned into 
English and) printed in the years 1653 and 
1654. Now published in Latin, their origi- 
nal language, with additions,' 1693. 

[Tumor's Collections for the History of the 
Town and Soke of G-rantham, pp. 94-5, 100 ; 
Gent. Mag. xcvi. 26 ; Barrington's Observa- 
tions on the more Ancient Statutes; Granger's 
Biographical History of England (5th edit.), iii. 
26 ; Visitations of Lincolnshire, Harl. MSS. 1190, 
1550, 1551, 3625, and Heralds' College; Brit. 
Mus. Catalogue ; family papers belonging to 
Earl Brownlow.] T. F. H. 

BROWNRIG, RALPH (1592-1659), 
bishop of Exeter, was born at Ipswich of 
parents who are described as being ' of mer- 
chantly condition, of worthy reputation, and 
of very Christian conversation.' His father 
died when he was only a few weeks old, but 
he was well brought up by a pious and ju- 
dicious mother, who sent him at an early age 
to the excellent grammar school at Ipswich. 
There he remained until his fourteenth year, 
when he was sent to Pembroke Hall, Cam- 
bridge. He was elected scholar of the ' house/ 
and then fellow sooner than the statutes 
permitted, because 'the college wanted to 
make sure of him.' He took his M.A. degree 
in 1617, B.D. in 1621, and D.D. in 1626. 
When James I was entertained at Cam- 
bridge with a ' Philosophy Act,' Brownrig 
was chosen by the university to act the joco- 
serious part of ' Prevaricator,' and greatly 

delighted the king and the rest of the audience 
by ' such luxuriancy of wit consistent with 
innocency.' Thomas Fuller, who knew him 
personally, tells us that ' he had wit at will, 
but so that he made it his page, not his privy 
counsellor, to obey, not direct his judgment.' 
In 1621 he was made rector of Barley in 
Hertfordshire, and in the same year was 
appointed to a prebend at Ely by Dr. Felton, 
the bishop of that see. He ministered to his 
rustic parishioners at Barley for some years, 
1 and fitted,' says his biographer, ' his net to 
the fish he had -to catch ; but,' he adds, ' he 
was more fit to preside in the schools of the 
prophets than to rusticate among plain people 
that follow the plough.' And he was pre- 
sently called upon to preside in a school of 
the prophets, being chosen master of St. 
Catharine's Hall, Cambridge. He appears to 
have been a very successful master, the hall 
improving both in the quality and quantity 
of its students in consequence of his care and 
the fame of his name. In 1629 he was made 
prebendary of Lichfield ; in 1631 archdeacon 
j of Coventry. He held the office of vice- 
! chancellor of the university in 1637 and 1638. 
He was presented to the eleventh stall in 
j Durham Cathedral by Bishop Morton, whose 
i chaplain he was, in 1641 ; and finally, in the 
same year, upon the translation of Bishop Hall 
to Norwich, he succeeded him in the see of 
Exeter. He was vice-chancellor again in 
j 1643-4, when the Earl of Manchester visited 
the university, and it is highly probable that 
his interposition was serviceable to the church 
party at Cambridge. But it is also probable 
that his retention of his mastership was due 
not only to ' the procerity of his parts and 
piety/ but also to the fact that his lawn 
sleeves did not altogether alienate his pres- 
byterian friends, and moreover that in some 
points he agreed with them rather than with 
their adversaries. For he was a strict Cal- 
vinist, and in other respects was opposed 
to the Laudian type of churchmanship. 
He was also nominated one of the assembly 
of divines. Yet, in his way, he was tho- 
roughly attached to the church of England, 
' which (he said) he liked better and better 
as he grew older.' In 1645 he was brave 
enough to preach a royalist sermon before 
the university, and was deprived of his 
mastership in consequence, and was obliged 
to quit Cambridge. He had previously been 
deprived of all his other preferments. He 
; found refuge among the independent laity, 
I who were still faithful to the church. He 
' divided his time between London, Bury St. 
Edmunds, Highgate, and Sunning, a village 
in Berkshire, by far the greatest part of it 
being spent in the last-named place at the 


8 4 


house of his good friend Mr. Rich. At Sun- 
ning he had the moral courage to exercise 
his episcopal functions. He ordained there, 
among others, the famous Edward Stilling- 
fleet. It is said that Oliver Cromwell asked 
his counsel about some public business, and 
that he bravely replied, l My lord, the best 
counsel I can give you is, Render unto Caesar 
the things that are Caesar's, and unto God 
the things that are God's,' with which reply 
the Protector was silenced rather than satis- 
fied. About a year before his death Brownrig 
was invited by the honourable societies of 
both Temples to come and live among them 
and be their chaplain. He accepted the in- 
vitation, and ' was provided with handsome 
lodgings and an annual honorary recom- 
pense ' (GATJDEN). This hardly amounted to 
his being appointed, as Neal says (History of 
the Puritans), master of the Temple. He 
preached in the Temple church in Easter 
term 1659, when there was so large a crowd 
that many were disappointed of hearing him. 
His last sermon was on 5 Nov. in the same 
year, and on the 7th of the following month 
he died. He was buried, at his own desire, in 
the Temple church, his funeral sermon being 
preached by Dr. Gauden, afterwards his suc- 
cessor in the see of Exeter. Dr. Gauden also 
published a ' Memorial of the Life and Death 
of Dr. Ralph Brownrig,' which is, in fact, 
merely an amplification of what he said in 
the sermon. Fuller, who was present at the 
funeral, says : ' I observed that the prime per- 
sons of all denominations were present, whose 
judgments going several ways met all in a 
general grief at his decease.' Echard says 
1 he was a great man for the anti-Arminian 
cause (for he was a rigid Calvinist), yet 
a mighty champion for the liturgy and 
ordination by bishops, and his death was 
highly lamented by all parties ; ' and Neal 
owns that * he was an excellent man, and of 
a peaceable and quiet disposition ' (History 
of the Puritans). His reputation was so great 
that Tillotson, when he first came to Lon- 
don, sought him out and made him his model, 
both for his preaching and for his mode of 

Brownrig published nothing during his 
lifetime, but at his death he ' disposed all his 
sermons, notes of sermons, papers, and paper- 
books,' to the Rev. W. Martyn, ' sometime 
preacher at the Rolls,' with liberty to print 
what he should think good. Mr. Martyn de- 
termined to print nothing without the sanc- 
tion of Dr. Gauden, whose rather exaggerated 
view of Brownrig's merits he seems to have 
adopted, for he calls him ' one of the greatest 
lights the church of England ever enjoyed.' 
He published forty sermons of Brownrig's in 

1652, which were reprinted with twenty- 
five others in 1665, making two volumes. 
They are full of matter, and, after the 
fashion of those times, they pick their texts 
to the very bone. As they are very long, 
full of quotations, and divided and sub- 
divided into innumerable heads, it is not 
surprising that they never reached the rank 
of the great classical sermons of the seven- 
teenth century. They are not, like Bishop 
Andrewes's sermons (which they resemble in 
form), of such superlative excellence as to 
overcome the repugnance which set in after the 
Restoration against -this mode of preaching. 

[Bishop Gauden's Memorial of the Life and 
Death of Dr. Ealph Brownrig; Fuller's Worthies ; 
Biog. Brit. (Kippis), ii. 674-6 ; Neal's History of 
the Puritans, iii. 112, iv. 242-3 ; Bishop Brown- 
rig's Sermons.] J. H. 0. 


murderess, was the wife of James Brownrigg, 
a house painter, who lived at Fleur de Luce 
Court, Fleet Street. For some years she 
practised midwifery, and about 1765 was ap- 
pointed by the overseers of St. Dunstan's in 
the West to act as midwife to the poor women 
of the parish workhouse. She had three 
apprentices, Mary Mitchell, Mary Jones, and 
Mary Clifford, all of whom she treated in a 
most inhuman manner. On 3 Aug. Clifford 
was found in a dying state, hidden in Brown- 
rigg's premises, and died shortly after. James, 
the husband, was committed for trial. Eliza- 
beth and her son John fled, but were appre- 
hended on the 16th. Elizabeth was tried at 
the Old Bailey, before Mr. Justice Hewitt, 
on 12 Sept. 1767, found guilty, and received 
sentence. Her husband and son were ac- 
quitted. It appears that after practising all 
sorts of diabolical cruelties upon Clifford, the 
woman Brownrigg tied her up to a hook fixed 
in one of the beams in the kitchen, and flogged 
her no less than five times on 31 July. She 
was hanged at Tyburn on 14 Sept. 1767. Her 
skeleton was exposed in a niche at Surgeons' 
Hall in the Old Bailey, < that the heinousness 
of her cruelty might make the more lasting 
impression on the minds of the spectators ' 
(Gent. Mag.) A well-known reference to 
her crime is made in some verses in the 'Anti- 

[Knapp and Bald win's New Newgate Calendar, 
iii. 216-23 ; Celebrated Trials (1825), iv. 425-31 ; 
Sessions Papers (1766-7), 257-76 ; The Ordinary 
of Newgate's Account of Elizabeth Brownrigg ; 
Bayley's Life of Elizabeth Brownrigg ; Wilson's 
Wonderful Characters (1822), iii. 321-30 ; Gent. 
Mag. (1767), xxxvii. 426-8, where a picture of 
the ill-treatment of the apprentices will be found, 
476.] G. F. E. B. 



1833), the conqueror of the kingdom of Kandy, 
was the second son of Henry Brownrigg of 
Rockingham, county Wicklow, and was born 
there in 1759. He was gazetted an ensign 
in the 14th regiment in 1775, and joined it 
in America ; but it was at once sent home. 
His family was not rich, and he had only 
himself to depend upon for rising in his pro- 
fession. He became lieutenant and adjutant 
in 1778. In 1780 and 1781 he served as a 
marine on board the fleet, and from 1782 to 
1784 he was stationed in Jamaica. In March 
1784 he was promoted captain into the 100th 
regiment ; in the October of the same year he 
exchanged into the 35th, and in June 1786 
into the 52nd ; and was promoted major in 
May 1790. In that year he was appointed 
deputy adjutant-general to the so-called 
Spanish armament, which was equipped at 
the time of the affair of Nootka Sound, and 
when the Spanish armament was broken up 
he was made commandant and paymaster at 
Chatham. In September 1793 he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel of the 88th regi- 
ment, and joined the army in the Netherlands 
as deputy quartermaster-general. He served 
throughout the campaign of 1794, and in the 
disastrous retreat to Bremen, and became the 
Duke of York's special protege and friend. 
He was military secretary to the duke, when 
he was made commander-in-chief in February 
1795, received a company in the Coldstream 
guards in June 1795, and was promoted 
colonel in May 1796. He accompanied the 
Duke of York as military secretary on the 
expedition to the Helder in 1799, and in the 
same year was made colonel-commandant of 
the 60th regiment. He was promoted major- 
general in 1802, and in 1803 exchanged his 
appointment of military secretary at the 
Horse Guards for that of quartermaster- 
general. His conduct in this office received 
the approbation of the Duke of Wellington. 

Brownrigg was made colonel of the 9th 
regiment in 1805, promoted lieutenant-general 
in 1808, served as quartermaster-general in 
the Walcheren expedition in 1809, and in 
October 1811 was appointed governor and 
commander-in-chief of the island of Ceylon. 
When he took up his command, the English 
occupied only certain towns on the coast. The 
interior of the island was ruled by the king 
of Kandy, who thoroughly despised the Eng- 
lish ever since his capture and massacre of 
Major Davie's detachment in 1803. Matters 
came to a crisis during Brownrigg's tenure ! 
of office. A chief named Eheilapola was 
ordered up to Kandy to be killed; he re- 
volted and offered his province to the English, 
whereupon the whole of his family were mas- 

sacred by the king. He fled to Colombo and 
was kindly received by General and Mrs. 
Brownrigg. The king 'of Kandy promptly 
murdered ten British subjects, and Brown- 
rigg issued a proclamation, declaring war. 
But it was not until December 1814 that 
he formed his available troops, consisting 
of the 19th and 73rd regiments and four 
Ceylon regiments, three thousand men strong, 
into three divisions, took the command in per- 
son, and occupied Kandy on 14 Feb. 1815. 
The king was taken prisoner on 18 Feb., and 
on 2 March 1815 the kingdom of Kandy 
was annexed by proclamation. Brownrigg 
had been gazetted K.C.B. in January 1815, 
and he was now created a baronet in March 
1816. He was promoted full general in 
August 1819, and returned to England in 
1820. He was given leave to bear the crown 
sceptre, and banner of the kingdom of Kand^ 
in his arms in 1821, and was made G.C.B. 
in 1822. He died at Helston House, near 
Monmouth, on 27 April 1833. 

[For the dates of General Brownrigg's promo- 
tions see the Army Lists ; for a short and incom- 
plete sketch of his life see the Annual Obituary 
I and Register for 1833, which is not at all full on 
j the Ceylon war, of which the best account extant 
is in a rare contemporary tract (numbered in the 
British Museum Library 585, f. 14) ; A Narrative 
of Events which have recently occurred in the 
Island of Ceylon, written by a Gentleman on the 
Spot, 73 pp. 1815.] H. M. S. 

BROWNRIGG, WILLIAM (1711-1800), 
physician and chemist, was born at High 
Close Hall, Cumberland, 24 March 1711. 
After studying medicine in London for two 
years, he completed his medical education at 
Leyden, graduating M.D. in 1737, and pub- 
lishing an elaborate thesis, ' De Praxi Medica 
ineunda.' Entering upon practice in White- 
haven, he commenced to investigate the 
gaseous exhalations from the neighbouring 
coal-mines. In 1741 he communicated se- 
veral papers on the subject to the Royal 
Society, and was elected F.R.S. ; but his pa- 
pers were not published, at his own request, 
as he intended to prepare a complete work- 
He had a laboratory erected in Whitehaven 
and supplied with a constant stream of fire- 
damp from the mines, and he constructed 
furnaces by which great variations of heat 
could be obtained. His papers brought him 
into communication with Sir Hans Sloane, 
Dr. Hales, and other eminent men ; and with 
their advice and aid he undertook to prepare 
a general history of damps, the outlines of 
which Hales read and submitted to the Royal 
Society in 1741. But Brownrigg, strangely 
enough, could never be induced to publish 
this research, and thus his fame has been 




much obscured. He learnt to foretell ex- 
plosions in the mines by the rapidity of fall 
of the barometer, and was often consulted | 
by proprietors of collieries. An extract from 
the essay read before the Royal Society in , 
1741, l On the Uses of a Knowledge of 
Mineral Exhalations when applied to discover j 
the Principles and Properties of Mineral 
Waters, the Nature of Burning Fountains, i 
and those Poisonous Lakes called Averni,' 
was published in * Philosophical Transac- j 
tions,' Iv. 236, as an appendix to his paper on | 
' Spa Water.' In it he endeavours to prove ! 
that the distinguishing qualities of most j 
mineral waters depend on a particular kind 
of air, which forms a considerable part of ' 
their composition ; and that this air diifers in 
no respect from choke-damp. Sulphureous j 
waters he also shows to depend for their t 
special qualities on a kind of fire-damp. He 
had a remarkable prescience of the import of | 
these gases, and came very near to being a 
chemical discoverer of the first rank. He 
was probably the first person acquainted 
with the acid nature of fixed air, or carbonic 
acid gas. A visit to Spa was subsequently 
made the occasion of some experiments on 
the air given off by Spa water. These are 
recounted in ' Philosophical Transactions,' Iv. 
218, and for them Brownrigg received the 
Copley medal of the Royal Society. He 
here showed conclusively that this gas is 
destructive to animal life. He also proved 
that the same gas is the solvent of various 
earths in the water, and that when these 
have been precipitated from it, they can be 
redissolved after again dissolving the gas in 
the water. In several particulars his re- 
searches were parallel with those of Priestley, 
Black, and Cavendish. His later observa- 
tions are given in * Philosophical Transac- 
tions,' Ixiv. 357-71. 

In 1748 Brownrigg published a valuable 
book ' On the Art of making Common Salt.' 
An abridgment of the work by W. Watson, 
F.R.S., was inserted in ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' xlv. 351-72. Brownrigg was also 
the first to give any detailed accounts of 
platina, as brought by his relative, Charles 
Wood, from the West Indies in 1741. These 
are published, with experiments by Brown- 
rigg, in * Philosophical Transactions/ xlvi. 
584-96. Brownrigg showed that no known 
body approached nearer to gold. Another 
valuable paper of Brownrigg's was one criti- 
cising Dr. Hales's method of distillation by 
the united force of air and fire (Phil. Trans, 
xlix. 334). In it he makes most original sug- 
gestions for increasing the expansion of steam 
by mechanical agitation, and by the passing 
of steam into water in th steam-engine. 

In 1771, when great alarm was excited by 
outbreaks of the plague on the continent, 
Brownrigg published ' Considerations on the 
Means of preventing the Communication of 
Pestilential Contagion, and the Methods by 
which it is conveyed from Place to Place and 
from one Person to another ; ' but this, though 
characterised both by research and good judg- 
ment, met with no great success, inasmuch as 
the threatened epidemic did not reach Britain. 
The association of Brownrigg in 1772 with 
Benjamin Franklin in the experiment of 
stilling Derwentwater during a storm by 
pouring oil upon it is interesting, and it led 
to the publication of an account of Franklin's 
experiments on the subject (ib. Ixiv. 445). 
The last communication from Brownrigg to 
the Royal Society was a description of twenty 
specimens of Epsom salts, green vitriol, &c., 
obtained from the coal-mines at Whitehaven 
(ib. Ixiv. 481 ). Previous to this he had retired 
to his paternal estate at Ormathwaite, near 
Keswick, where he spent a quiet old age, sur- 
viving till 6 Jan. 1800. His scientific as well 
as professional fame would have brought him 
into great practice if he could have been per- 
suaded to settle in London. But nothing 
could induce him to quit his native district. 
He personally knew or corresponded with 
many of the most eminent scientific men of 
his day, English and continental. He was 
undoubtedly a genuine and original experi- 
mental philosopher, simple-minded, and some- 
what too modest as to his personal claims. 
He was very conversant with classics, mathe- 
matics, and modern languages, an intelligent 
agriculturist, an active magistrate, a humane 
and benevolent man, and a firm believer in 

[Dixon's Literary Life of W. Brownrigg, 
1801.] G. T. B. 

BROWNSWERD, JOHN (1540P-1589), 
poet, was a native of Cheshire, and received 
his education partly a.t Oxford and partly at 
Cambridge, where it is said he graduated. 
He became master of the grammar school of 
Macclesfield, where he died on 15 April 1589. 
The inscription on a tablet erected to his 
memory in the parish church by his friend 
Thomas Newton describes him as 'Alpha 
poetarum, Coryphaeus grammaticorum, Flos 
psedagogcon.' He wrote ' Progymnasmata 
qusedam Poetica, sparsim collecta et in lucem 
edita studio et industria Thomse Newton 
Cestreshyrii/ London, 1589, 1590, 4to. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 131 ; Wood's Athene 
Oxon. (Bliss), i. 551 ; Brydges's Censura Literaria 
(1805-9), ix. 43; Ormerod's Cheshire, iii. 287, 
366, 367 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii.45 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq, (Herbert), 1110, 1710.] T. C. .< 



BROXHOLME, NOEL, M.D. (1689?- 
1748), physician, was, according to Dr. 
Stukeley, a native of Stamford, Lincolnshire, 
of humble origin. Born in or about 1689, 
he was admitted on the foundation at West- 
minster in 1700, and in 1704 was elected to 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He proceeded, 
however, to Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
was nominated student 23 July 1705, and 
graduated B.A. 20 May 1709, M.A. 18 April 
1711. In the former year, 1709, he had com- 
menced his medical studies, under Dr. Mead, 
at St. Thomas's Hospital, and in 1715 was 
elected to one of the first of the Radcliffe 
travelling fellowships. Upon his return he 
removed to University College, as a member 
of which he took his degrees in physic by 
accumulation, proceeding M.D. 8 July 1723. 
Broxholme then began practice in London, 
was admitted a candidate of the College of 
Physicians 23 Dec. 1723, a fellow 22 March 
1724-5, was censor in 1726, and delivered 
the Harveian oration in 1731. This, which 
was printed the same year in quarto, is re- 
markable for its elegant yet unaffected La- 
tinity. He was one of the six physicians 
appointed to St. George's Hospital at the 
first general board held 19 Oct. 1733, and 
in the following year was made first physician 
to the Prince of Wales, ' with salary an- 
nexed,' an office which he resigned in 1739. 
At Lord Hervey's suggestion he was the first 
physician summoned to assist Dr. Tessier in 
Queen Caroline's last illness. Broxholme 
had married 7 May 1730, at Knightsbridge 
Chapel, Amy, widow of William Dowdes- 
well of Pull Court, Worcestershire, and 
d'aughter of Anthony Hammond, F.R.S., the 
wit and poet. He died at his country resi- 
dence, Hampton, Middlesex, by his own hand, 
8 July 1748, and was buried on the 13th at 
Hampton. By his will he bequeathed the 
sum of 500/. for the benefit of the king's 
scholars at Westminster ' in such manner as 
the two upper masters of the said school 
shall think fit,' and a like sum to Christ 
Church ' to be applied towards finishing the 
library.' Mrs. Broxholme survived her hus- 
band six years, dying in 1754. Revert- 
ing to our former authority, Dr. Stukeley, 
his countryman and fellow-student at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, we learn that Broxholme 
' was a man of wit and gayety, lov'd poetry, 
was a good classic, . . . got much money in 
the Misisipi project in France. At length he 
came over and practised, but never had a 
great liking to it, tho' he had good en- 
couragem 1 .' ' He was always nervous and 
vapoured,' writes Horace Walpole, ' and so 
good-natured that he left off his practice 
from not being able to bear seeing so many 

melancholy objects. I remember him with 
as much wit as ever I knew.' In 1754 there 
appeared ' A Collection of Receipts in Physic, 
being the Practice of the late eminent Dr. 
Bloxam [sic] : containing a Complete Body of 
Prescriptions answering to every Disease, 
with some in Surgery. The Second Edition.' 
8vo, London. 

[Family Memoirs of Rev. W. Stukeley (Surtees 
Society, Ixxiii.), i. 46, 81, 96; Munk's Roll of 
College of Physicians, 2nd edition, ii. 89-90 ; 
Welch's Alumni Westmonasterienses, new edi- 
tion, pp. 237, 244, 245 n, 260, 537 ; Lord Hervey's 
Memoirs, ii. 493 ; Letters of Horace Walpole, 
ed. Cunningham, ii. 20, 120 ; Gent. Mag. iv. 628, 
vii. 699, ix. 328, xviii. 333; Oratio Harveiana 
anno MDCCLV. habita, auct. R. Taylor, pp. 31-3 ; 
Wills reg. in P. C. C. 205 Strahan, 188 Pinfold ; 
Hampton Register ; Collectanea Topographica et 
Genealogica, iv. 163 ; Notes and Queries, Istser. 
xii. 303, 353, 390, 2nd ser. ii. 249-50 ; Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes, i. 484 ; Life of Bp. Newton 
prefixed to his works, i. 27 ; Letters and Works 
of Lady M. W. Montagu, ed. Wharncliffe and 
Thomas, ii. 159-60 ; Lists of Koyal Coll. of Phy- 
sicians in Brit. Mus.] Or. Or. 


KINCARDINE (d. 1681), was the second son of 
Sir George Bruce of Culross, and succeeded 
his brother Edward in the earldom in 1663. 
His grandfather, Sir George Bruce, settled at 
Culross early in the century, and there esta- 
blished extensive salt and coal works, the 
latter partly under sea, which became the 
sources of great wealth to the family (DoF- 
GLAS, Scottish Peerage). What part he took 
in the transactions of the years preceding 
1657 is uncertain, but his attachment to 
presbyterianism is well known (though in 
1665 he thinks * a well ordered episcopacy 
the best of governments '), and his political 
principles at that time may be in part gathered 
from a sentence in one of Robert Moray's 
letters to him: 'By monarchy you under- 
stand tyranny, but I royal government.' He 
was obliged before 1057 to leave Scotland, 
and he settled at the White Swan inn at 
Bremen in that year. A remarkable corre- 
spondence, extant in manuscript, which was 
begun in that year between him and Moray, 
who, under similar circumstances, had settled 
at Maestricht, and which was carried on until 
the death of Moray in 1672, was left in the 
hands of Mr. David Douglas of Edinburgh in 
1864 by Professor Cosmo Innes, and in 1879 
handed by Mr. Douglas to the Earl of Elgin. 
It proves Bruce to have been a man of deep 
personal religion, of highly refined tastes, and 
of very wide attainments : medicine, chemis- 
try, classics, mathematics, mechanical appli- 
ances of every kind, especially as adapted to 




his mining enterprises, divinity, heraldry, hor- 
ticulture, forestry, pisciculture, mining, and 
the management of estates these and other 
subjects of acquired knowledge are discussed 
with evident knowledge. He was engaged 
in the Greenland whale fishery, and he pos- 
sessed quarries of superior stone and of marble, 
part of which was used at Greenwich, and part 
in the rebuilding of St. Paul's. After the 
Restoration he became, upon the introduction 
of Moray, its first president, one of the lead- 
ing members of the Royal Society. During 
1657 and 1658 Bruce was extremely ill with 
ague. In the latter year he left Bremen for 
Hamburg, where he stayed at the house of 
his countryman, William Grison. At this 
time, and for some years afterwards, he was 
engaged, in conjunction with the Dutch ma- 
thematician, Hugens de Zulichem, in per- 
fecting and in pushing a new invention for 
making pendulum clocks more serviceable at 
sea (Correspondence with Moray] . A little 
later he took up his residence at the Hague, 
where on 16 June 1659 he married the daugh- 
ter of M. Somerdyck, who brought him a 
large fortune (ibid, and DOUGLAS, Scottish 
Peerage}. In January 1660 he was in Lon- 
don, 'at the stone-cutter's house next to 
Wallingford House, Charing Cross,' but im- 
mediately returned to the Hague, where he 
remained with his father-in-law until the 
Restoration. In June he was again in London 
at Devonshire House (Correspondence with 
Moray). All being now safe in Scotland he 
returned to Culross, and busied himself with 
his coal, salt, stone, and marble works. At 
the same time Burnet's statement that he 
neglected his private affairs for public work 
seems to be borne out by one of Robert 
Moray's letters, dated 22 Aug. 1668. Ac- 
cording to Burnet, Bruce had been of great 
service to Charles while abroad by advancing 
money. It was only natural, therefore, that 
he should profit by the Restoration. He was 
at once admitted to the privy council, where 
he appears to have stood alone in his oppo- 
sition to Glencairn and the dominant faction 
by urging delay, when in 1661 the king 
sent a letter to the Scotch privy council 
intimating his intention of reintroducing 
episcopacy (DOUGLAS, Peerage). The cor- 
respondence with Moray continues, but is 
chiefly confined to purely private matters 
until August 1665, when James Sharp, who 
at that time was in opposition to Lauderdale 
(with whom, through Moray, Kincardine 
was closely connected), and who was doing 
his best to slander all connected with his 
party, informed the king that Kincardine 
had been present at an unauthorised com- 
munion at Tollialoun. Kincardine's pointed 

letters of remonstrance and Sharp's evasive 
replies are contained in the Lauderdale MSS. 
The report at first appears to have lost Kin- 
cardine favour at court, but so strongly did 
Lauderdale and Moray bestir themselves in 
his interest, that Sharp himself gained great 
disadvantage from the attempt, and in July 
1666, by way of making peace, begged the 
king to grant Kincardine a large share of the 
fines (Correspondence with Moray). During 
the Pentland rebellion, November 1666, he 
had command of a troop of horse. In 1667, 
when the treasurership was taken from Rothes 
and put in commission, Kincardine was one 
of the commissioners, and was also appointed 
extraordinary lord of session. His business 
knowledge and acquaintance with home and 
foreign trade were of great advantage to his 
colleagues. Always anxious for good go- 
vernment, he actively assisted in the con- 
ciliatory measures upon which Lauderdale 
was at that time engaged with regard to 
the covenanters, though he often strongly 
urged that toleration should be * given, not 
taken ' (Lauderdale MSS.} In 1672, when 
Lauderdale began his career of persecution, 
Kincardine was almost the only one of his 
former adherents who stayed by him, relying 
upon his engagement to return to milder 
measures. One of the chief grievances brought 
against Lauderdale was that the right of 
pre-emption of various articles had been be- 
stowed upon his friends to the public loss, 
and Kincardine helped his cause by aban- 
doning that of salt, which he had held for 
a considerable time (Lauderdale MSS.} In 
January 1674 he was for a short while Lau- 
derdale's deputy at Whitehall, during the 
absence of Lord Halton. During this year, 
however, he found it impossible to continue 
to support the duke ; his last letter to him 
is dated 4 July. In compliance with Lau- 
derdale's urgent request, Charles now ordered 
Kincardine to retire to Scotland. In 1675, 
according to Mackenzie, who, however, is the 
only evidence for this, he was expected to 
succeed Lauderdale as secretary, and came 
up to London ; but through the intrigues of 
the duchess, who induced Lauderdale to be- 
lieve that he was coming only to support 
the threatened impeachment by the House 
of Commons, and on account of his intimacy 
with Gilbert Burnet, then in disfavour, he 
was once more obliged to return to Scot- 
land, where he exerted himself on behalf of 
the covenanters. For example, he did his 
best to obtain a just trial for Kirkton, one of 
the hill preachers, and, in consequence of a 
letter of complaint from Lauderdale's party, 
was, by an autograph letter of the king, dated 
12 July 1676, dismissed from the Scotch 


8 9 


privy council. He appears after this to have 
taken no further part in politics. In 1678, 
however, he exerted himself to save the life 
of Mitchell, who some years previously had 
made an attempt upon James Sharp, and 
who was now murdered through the perjury 
of Rothes, Sharp, and others, and he en- 
deavoured in vain to save Lauderdale from 
sharing in the guilt of this crime, which was 
afterwards the chief cause of the duke's fall 
(BUKNET). In May of that year, when in 
London, he was ' scrapt out of the English 
council ' (Lauderdale MSS.} In February 
1680 he is spoken of as being * desperately 
sick,' and according to Burnet (i. 514) appears 
to have died in 1681. 

[Burnet ; Lauderdale MSS. in British Museum ; 
Mackenzie's Memoirs ; "Wodrow's Church Hist.] 


BRUCE, ARCHIBALD (1746-1816), 
theological writer, was born at Broomhall, 
Stirlingshire, and, after studying at the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, was ordained, in 1768, 
minister of the Associate (Anti-burgher) con- 
gregation of Whitburn. In 1786 he was 
appointed professor of divinity by the General 
Associate Synod, and continued to hold that 
office till 1806. Being dissatisfied with the 
action of his synod, he left it and formed, 
along with three others, the ' Constitutional 
Associate Presbytery ; ' this led to a sentence 
of deposition being passed on him by the 
former body. He died 28 Feb. 1816. He 
was a man of great theological learning, of 
earnest piety, and at the same time of a lively 
imagination, as his writings showed. The 
chief of these were 1. ' The Kirkiad, or the 
Golden Age of the Church of Scotland,' a 
satirical poem, 1774. 2. ' Free Thoughts on 
the Toleration of Popery,' 1780. 3. Annus 
Secularis/ the centenary of the revolution 
1788, a long dissertation on religious festi- 
vals. 4. ' Queries,' on the commemoration 
of the revolution, 1797. 5. ' The Catechism 
modernized,' 1791, a cutting satire on lay 
patronage, and its effects, in the form of 
a parody on the Westminster Assembly's 
Shorter Catechism. 6. ' Reflexions on the 
Freedom of Writing,' 1794, a propos of a pro- 
clamation against seditious publications, bear- 
ing the motto * What Britons dare to think, 
he dares to tell.' 7. A poem ridiculing 
the pretensions of the pope, 1797. 8. ' Lec- 
tures to Students,' 1797. 9. ' Life of James 
Hog of Carnock,' 1798. 10. < Dissertation 
on the Supremacy of the Civil Power in 
Matters of Religion,' 1798. 11. 'Poems, 
serious and amusing, by a reverend divine,' 
1812. 12. 'Life of Alex. Morns, a cele- 
brated divine in Geneva and Holland,' 1813. 

13. 'A Treatise on Earthquakes' (posthu- 

[McKerrow's History of the Secession Church; 
notice of Mr. Bruce by Rev. Thos. McCrie, D.D.', 
in Scots Magazine, April 1816; collected edition 
of Bruce's works in Library of New College 
Edinburgh.] W. G. B. 

BRUCE, DAVID (1324-1371), DAVID II, 
king of Scotland, the only son of Robert the 
Bruce, by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, 
born at Dunfermline on 5 March 1324, amidst 
the rejoicing natural to the long-wished-for 
birth of a male heir, came too late to receive 
his mother's or his father's care, and disap- 
pointed the expectations of the nation. Eliza- 
beth died in November 1327, having borne a 
second son, John, who died in infancy. One 
of the last acts of his father was the treaty 
of Northampton in 1328 with Edward III, by 
which it was agreed that a marriage should as 
soon as possible be celebrated between the 
infant David and Joanna, the sister of the 
king of England, a child scarcely older than 
himself. Her dowry was to be 2,000/. a 
year from lands in Scotland, and she was to 
be delivered to the King of Scots or his com- 
missioners at Berwick on 15 Jan. 1328. The 
marriage was solemnised on 12 July of that 
year in presence of the Earl of Moray and Sir 
James Douglas, as Bruce himself was too ill to 
attend. Within less than a year he died, on 
9 June 1329, and David peacefully succeeded 
to his father's throne. His coronation was 
delayed till 24 Nov. 1331, when he was 
crowned, and first of the Scottish kings an- 
nointed by the bishop of St. Andrews, in 
accordance with the provisions of a bull 
Bruce had procured from Pope John XXII, 
too late for his own use (13 June 1329). 
According to the customs of chivalry he was 
knighted by Randolph, the regent, and then 
knighted the regent's son, the Earl of Angus, 
and others. Details of his marriage and 
coronation preserved in the Exchequer re- 
cords show that no expense was spared to 
give the ceremonies the importance desirable 
at the commencement of a new race of in- 
dependent kings. His reign nearly coincides 
with that of Edward III, who succeeded to 
the English throne two years before, and out- 
lived David by seven years. The personal 
character of the two sovereigns reversed that 
of their fathers. David was a weak suc- 
cessor of the Bruce ; Edward inherited the 
martial and administrative talents of his 
grandfather, instead of the feeble nature of 
Edward II. 

The life of David naturally divides itself 
into five parts of unequal length, and as 
to two of which our information is very 



I. From his coronation in 1331 to the 
victory of Edward Baliol at Halidon Hill 
in 1333. 

II. His residence in France from 1334 to 
his return to Scotland in 1341. 

III. His personal reign in Scotland from 
1341 to his capture at Neville's Cross in 1346. 

IV. His captivity in England from 1346 
till his release by the treaty of Berwick in 

V. The second period of his personal reign 
from 1357 to his death in 1371. 

After the death of Robert the Bruce, Thomas 
Randolph, earl of Moray, governed the king- 
dom with vigour for three years ; but his 
death, not free from suspicion of poison, in 
July 1332, exposed Scotland to the peril of a 
disputed regency. The estates met at Perth, 
and after long discussion chose, on 2 Aug., 
Donald, earl of Mar, the nephew of Bruce. 

The choice was unfortunate, and there is 
reason to suppose the prudence of Bruce had 
foreseen the incapacity of Mar when he pre- 
ferred Douglas in the succession to the re- 
gency, which the youth of David made 
inevitably long. But Douglas had by this 
time fallen in the Moorish war in Spain. En- 
couraged by the divisions amongst the Scot- 
tish nobles, and secretly aided by Edward III, 
Edward the son of John Baliol, with many 
barons who had lost their Scotch estates 
by espousing the English side, made a descent 
on the coast of Fife. The non-fulfilment 
of one of the conditions of the treaty of 
Northampton, by which these estates were 
to be restored, gave a pretext for renewing 
the war. News of Baliol's landing at King- 
horn was brought to the parliament at Perth 
the day of the regent's election, and Baliol, 
losing no time, met the regent and barons at 
the Muir of Dupplin, near Perth, on 11 Aug., 
nine days after he landed. Though greatly 
superior in numbers, the regent was totally 
routed. He himself, along with Thomas, 
earl of Moray, the son of Randolph, the 
earl of Monteith, and many other nobles, 
were slain. In September Baliol was crowned 
at Scone. His captive, the Earl of Fife, placed 
the crown on his head ; but he had not yet 
conquered the country. Perth was almost im- 
mediately retaken by David's adherents, and 
Baliol was defeated at Annan in Dumfries by 
John Randolph, now Earl of Moray, and forced 
to leave Scotland. In 1333 Edward III came 
with a great force to assist Baliol, and routed 
at Halidon Hill, on 20 July, the Scotch army 
led by Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway, 
who succeeded to the regency after the death 
of Mar. Berwick capitulated, and Edward 
became master of Scotland south of the 
Forth. On 10 Feb. 1334 Baliol, at an as- 

sembly held at Edinburgh, surrendered Ber- 
wick absolutely to the English king, and. as 
security for an annual payment of 2,0001., 
promised to put into his hands all the 
castles of south-eastern Scotland Jedburgh, 
Selkirk, Peebles, Dumfries, Haddirigton, 
Edinburgh, and Linlithgow. Edward, like 
his grandfather, made a new ordinance for the 
Scottish government, but his officers never 
obtained complete possession of their posts. 
Meantime David and the queen had taken 
refuge at Dumbarton, one of the fortresses 
which held out under its brave governor Mal- 
colm Fleming; but, Scotland being deemed 
an unsafe residence, he took advantage of a 
ship which Philip VI, the French king, sent 
for him, and along with Joanna and his 
sisters landed at Boulogne on 14 May 1334. 

The royal exiles were splendidly received 
at Paris. Chateau Gaillard, the castle built 
by Co3ur de Lion on the Seine close to the 
town of Andelys, was assigned for their 
residence, where they were maintained by 
Philip, though Froissart's statement that 
little came from Scotland to support them 
is disproved by the exchequer records, which 
show that besides provisions 4,333Z. 18s. 7d. 
was remitted between May 1334 and January 

The course of events in Scotland during 
the next seven years is outside the life of 
David. A new race of patriotic leaders 
Murray of Bothwell, Robert the Steward, 
Douglas the Knight of Liddesdale worthily 
sustained the fame of Robert Bruce, Douglas, 
and Randolph. At first they carried on the 
war with varying success, but ultimately 
they freed the country and retook all the 
castles. The greater attraction of a French 
campaign prevented Edward from ever using 
his whole strength against the northern king- 
dom. Not much is known of David's resi- 
dence in France. He was of an age too 
young to take an active part in affairs, but 
not too young to learn the lessons of the 
extravagant and vain though splendid pomp 
of chivalry which distinguished the court of 
Philip VI. One characteristic scene at which 
he was present is described by Froissart 
the meeting of the armies of the French 
and English kings about the end of October 
1339. Three years previously a fleet, fitted 
out by David , Bruce with the aid of the 
French king, made a diversion in favour of 
the Scotch, plundered the Channel islands, 
and seized many ships near the Isle of Wight. 
Edward retaliated by claiming the crown of 
France in October 1337, and, after two years 
of preparation, in September 1339 he crossed 
the Flemish border. At Vironfosse the two 
hosts came face to face. The English under 


Edward were arrayed in three divisions, in 
all about 44,000. The French had the same 
number of divisions, but in each 15,000 men- 
at-arms and 20,000 foot. Though Edward 
was supported by the nobles of Germany, 
Brabant, and Flanders, besides his English 
vassals, Philip surpassed him in the rank as 
well as numbers of his followers ; for besides 
the full array of France, dukes, earls, and 
viscounts, too long a list for even Froissart 
to rehearse, he was supported by three kings 
John of Bohemia, the king of Navarre, 
and David king of Scotland. 'It was a j 
great beauty to behold the banners and i 
standards waving in the wynde, and horses 
barded, and knightes and squyres richly 
armed.' But no blood was shed in this first ' 
act of the war of a hundred years, which [ 
was to make the French and English, as it | 
appeared, eternal enemies, and the French ! 
and Scots perpetual allies. Philip's coun- j 
sellers were divided, but the view prevailed 
that it was better to allow the English king 
to waste his means in the maintenance of so 
great an army in a foreign country. The 
advice of Robert of Sicily, derived from 
astrology, that the French would be beaten 
in any engagement if Edward was present, 
also operated on the superstitious monarch, j 
A feint of an attack caused by the starting i 
of a hare between the camps, which led the j 
Earl of Haynault to make fourteen knights, 
called in ridicule the Knights of the Hare, 
was an incident whose memory was per- 
petuated by those who thought it cowardly 
on the part of Philip with superior forces to 
decline battle on his own soil. The recol- 
lection of this scene and the victories of Crecy 
and Poictiers were inducements to David in 
later years to cast in his lot with the Eng- 
lish king instead of with his national and 
natural allies. 

In 1341 the brilliant successes in Scot- 
land of Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell, 
Robert the Steward of Scotland, and Sir 
William Douglas the Knight of Liddesdale, 
who in the preceding year had recovered one 
by one the castles north of and including 
Edinburgh, made it safe for David to return, 
and on 4 May he landed with his wife at 
Inverbervie near Montrose. Charters were 
issued under his name and seal at a council 
held at Aberdeen in February 1342, and 
though only thirteen, he assumed the per- 
sonal government, which he retained until his 
capture at Neville's Cross in 1346. During 
the first two years after his return David was 
much at Aberdeen and Kildrummy, where his 
aunt, sister of Robert Bruce, who had married 
successively Gratney, earl of Mar, Sir Chris- 
topher Seton, and Sir Andrew Murray, lived. 

[ Bruce 

In the course of 1342 he passed through Fife, 
attending the justice-eyres at Cupar and Edin- 
burgh, to the Marches, and joined the Earl of 
Moray in a descent on the English border, 
during which Penrith was burnt, but nothing 

i of consequence was accomplished. On his re- 
turn north he visited Haddington, Ayr, and 
Kilwinning, Kirkintilloch,Inverkeithing, and 
Scone, and stopped at Banff" before his return 

| to Kildrummy in August. It was important 
that he should show himself in different 
parts of the kingdom. Hawking and hunting 
and the jousts or tournaments, the favourite 
amusements of the age, were fully shared 
in by the young king, but he did not prove 
himself an adept in the art of war, for which 
these were the appropriate training. 

Two deaths, for one of which he was in- 
directly, and for the other directly, respon- 
sible, showed that he could not attract to his 
throne, as his father had done, the leading men 
of the country. 

Sir James Ramsay of Dalwolsie, having 
taken the castle of Roxburgh, was impru- 
dently rewarded by the gift of the sheriff- 
dom of Teviotdale, then held by Douglas the 
Knight of Liddesdale, and Douglas having 
treacherously got Ramsay into his power 
starved him to death in the castle of the 
Hermitage. The other victim was William 
Bullock, an ecclesiastic who had distin- 
guished himself in the service of Baliol, but 
changing sides received the office of chamber- 
lain from David. Suspected of treason he 
was by the king's order sent prisoner to the 
castle of Lochindorb in Moray, where he also 
was starved to death. Other acts of law- 
lessness, as the rape of a lady of the Seton 
family by Alan of Seton, the execution with- 
out trial of an impostor calling himself Alex- 
ander Bruce, the son of Edward Bruce, and 
the state of the ordinary royal revenue, which 
fell from 3,774J. in 1331 to 1,1981. in 1342, 
and had to be increased by special parlia- 
mentary grants distributed with too lavish 
a hand, were signs of his incapacity as an 
administrator. * Tristia felicibus succedunt ' 
is the brief comment of Fordun. The re- 
storation of the king had not benefited the 
kingdom. A murrain which specially at- 
tacked the fowls, a forerunner of the black 
death, added to the general distress and 
feeling of impending calamity. A truce with 
England, which followed one between Ed- 
ward and Philip of France in 1343, saved 
Scotland for a short time from war, but the 
treasonable correspondence of the Knight 
of Liddesdale with the English king was 
a bad omen for its continuance. It was 
terminated early in 1346, when Philip, his 
own truce having closed, exhorted David to 



invade England. Seizing the opportunity of 
Edward's absence at Calais, David mustered 
his forces at Perth, where the defection of 
the Earl of Ross, who slew Ronald of the 
Isles at the monastery of Elcho, showed how 
little he was able to command his vassals. 
Advancing to the borders, he took the castle 
of Liddel, put to death Selby, its governor, 
and, in spite of the counsels of the Knight 
of Liddesdale not to proceed further with a 
force consisting of only 2,000 men-at-arms 
and some 13,000 light-armed troops, crossed 
the Tyne above Newcastle, and ravaged the 
bishopric of Durham. He was met near that 
town on 17 Oct. at Neville's Cross by the ' 
Archbishop of York and the northern barons, 
and totally routed. David himself was taken 
prisoner by a squire, John Copland, after a 
brave resistance, in which it is recorded he 
struck out two of his captor's teeth. The 
earls of Fife, Menteith, and Wigtown, the 
Knight of Liddesdale, and many barons 
shared his fate. The earls of Moray and 
Strathearn, the chancellor, chamberlain, and 
marshal of Scotland were slain ; the Earl of 
March and Robert the Steward alone of the 
principal nobles effected their escape. So 
great was the disaster, that l the time of the 
battle of Durham ' is used in the accounts 
and chronicles as a point of time. 

David, with the other captives, was led in 
triumph through the streets of London to 
the Tower, placed on a tall black charger 
to make him conspicuous, as John of France 
was after Poictiers on a white charger. The 
next eleven years of his life were spent in Eng- 
land, chiefly in or near London, and at Old- 
ham in Hampshire, varied with visits to the 
border or to Scotland. He was forced to 
bear his own charges, but the rigour of his 
imprisonment was soon relaxed in the hope 
that he would negotiate his ransom and even 
ally himself to England. Of David's cap- 
tivity the records are almost as scanty as of 
his exile in France. In 1347, after taking 
Calais, Edward concluded a truce with 
France, which continued by various proroga- 
tions till 1 April 1354. Scotland was to be 
admitted to the truce, and in the next year 
the negotiations for David's ransom com- 
menced. In October Joanna joined her hus- 
band in England. It was, however, Ed- 
ward's policy to have two strings to his bow, 
and Baliol, whom he addressed as ' our dear 
cousin Edward,' while his brother-in-law 
was only styled Lord David de Bruce, re- 
mained nominal ruler of Scotland. In spite 
of his protest in March 1357 a treaty was 
concluded with the Scots commissioners for 
the ransom of David, and he was permitted 
on 4 Sept. to return to Scotland to procure 

the sanction of the estates. Secret compacts 
were entered into in 1352 between Edward, 
David, and Lord Douglas, and between Ed- 
ward and the Knight of Liddesdale. The 
terms of the former were purposely obscure, 
but indicate that in the event of David fail- 
ing to persuade the estates to make peace, 
he engaged to act on his own account so that 
1 the work might be accomplished in another 
way.' The English commissioners were em- 
powered to allow him to remain at Newcastle 
or Berwick, or even to set him at large if it 
would ' promote the business.' Knyghton, 
the English chronicler, reports that David 
had consented to acknowledge Edward as his 
feudal superior. There was no ambiguity in 
the agreement with the Knight of Liddes- 
dale, who entered into a close alliance as a 
condition of his own release. In 1353 David 
had returned to England, having failed to 
obtain the consent of the Scotch estates to 
Edward's conditions, and at Newcastle con- 
ferences were renewed between the com- 
missioners of the two countries, which re- 
sulted in a treaty on 13 July 1354, by which 
the ransom was fixed at 90,000 merks, pay- 
able in nine yearly instalments. Twenty 
hostages of noble birth were to be given for 
the fulfilment of the treaty, and the king 
himself, the nobles and bishops, as well as 
the principal towns, were to undertake per- 
sonal obligations for its payment. 

In 1355 the French king, alarmed at the 
project of a nine years' truce between Eng- 
land and Scotland, sent Eugene de Garan- 
cieres with men and money to revive the war, 
and several border engagements followed; 
but early in 1356 Edward took Berwick, and 
obtained an absolute renunciation of the 
Scotch crown and kingdom from his puppet, 
Edward Baliol, on 21 Jan. Though he de- 
vastated the Lothians in the raid which re- 
ceived the name of the Burnt Candlemas, 
and issued a proclamation with regard to the 
government of Scotland, he failed to reduce 
even the southern district to subjection. In 
the north Robert the Steward maintained 
an independent power as regent, even during 
the period of the nominal reign of Baliol. 
At last the tedious negotiations for David's 
release drew near their close. At a parlia- 
ment at Perth on 17 Jan. 1356-7 commis- 
sioners were appointed, and having settled 
the preliminaries at Berwick in August, a 
parliament at Edinburgh on 26 Sept. agreed 
to Edward's terms. The ransom was raised 
to 100,000 merks in ten instalments, for 
which the nobles, clergy, and burghs bound 
themselves, and commissioners from the three 
estates concluded the treaty at Berwick on 
3 Oct. 1357. 




The condition as to hostages was also made 
more severe. Three great lords were to be 
added to the twenty youths of noble birth 
formerly stipulated for. The truce between 
the two countries was to continue until the 
ransom was paid. It was ratified by the 
king and commissioners on 5 and 6 Oct., and 
again on 6 Nov. by a parliament at Scone, 
where David was present. On 25 Dec. Queen 
Joanna, along with the Bishop of St. An- 
drews and the Earl of March, received a safe- 
conduct to England, from which the queen 
never returned, dying near London on 14 Aug. 
1362. David himself almost every year re- 
visited England during the remainder of his 
reign, and his personal sympathies were so 
thoroughly English, that it required all the 
strength of the estates, and the desire of 
Edward for the stipulated ransom, to pre- 
vent a surrender of his own kingdom more 
ignominious than that of Baliol. Though his 
personal reign lasted for fourteen years after 
his ,return, it was entirely destitute of im- 
portant events. Great difficulty was felt in 
raising from so poor a country the enormous 
ransom. It was not found enough that the 
whole wool of the kingdom should be granted 
at a low price to the king that he might 
resell it at a profit, and other severe taxes 
were imposed on the commons. The clergy 
had to contribute, and with some difficulty 
the pope was induced to allow a tenth of the 
ecclesiastical revenues for three years, on con- 
dition that they were thereafter to be ex- 
empted. But not all these resources together 
sufficed to meet the debt which the creditor 
was determined to exact to the uttermost, 
and from time to time David, like a needy 
debtor, made terms for the postponement 
of payment. There were negotiations for 
this purpose in 1363-5 and 1369, when an 
obligation was undertaken to pay off the 
balance due at the rate of 4,000 merks annu- 
ally, under a large additional penalty in case 
of failure. Edward and David had latterly 
devised several schemes for the extinction of 
the debt by another process than payment. 
This was the transfer at David's death of the 
Scottish crown to an English prince. At 
the parliament of Scone in 1363, David ven- 
tured to propose openly that it should recog- 
nise Lionel, duke of Clarence, Edward's 
second son, as his heir. An indignant re- 
fusal was accompanied with a renewed decla- 
ration of the settlement of the succession on 
Robert the Steward by Robert the Bruce. 
Throughout this part of David's reign the 
barons of Scotland were animated by the 
same spirit as that which the English had 
shown at Runnymede. Hatred of foreign 
aggression, and the weakness of the king, who 

was willing to yield to it, enabled them to 
use the opportunity to obtain guarantees for 
the law and constitution which, though not 
in precisely the same form, had a similar in- 
tention and a similar, though less complete, 
result to Magna Charta. Such was the real 
meaning of the origin of those permanent 
committees of parliament for judicial busi- 
ness called the lords auditors, and for legis- 
lation called the lords of the articles, which 
first appear in 1367; the provision for the 
more regular administration of justice and 
coinage of money; the revocation of the 
grants of the royal revenues ; the rule laid 
down that no attention was to be paid to the 
king's mandates contrary to the statutes and 
the common law. Foiled in their attempt to 
divert the order of succession, Edward and 
David had resort to secret intrigue. David, 
in November 1363, went to London and un- 
dertook a personal obligation to Edward to 
settle the kingdom of Scotland upon him 
and his issue male, failing issue male of his 
own body. On this condition the whole of 
the ransom still unpaid was released. Nomi- 
nal provisions were made in the event of an 
English heir succeeding to the Scottish throne 
for the preservation of the independence of 
Scotland similar to those of Edward I. This 
agreement was carefully concealed from the 
Scottish people, and the public negotiations 
for the payment of the ransom were still 
continued. It was in this year, and before he 
went to England, that David married his 
second wife, Margaret, widow of Sir John 
Logie. It is usually said that this was an un- 
equal marriage, into which passion rather than 
reason led the king; but Margaret is described 
by Fordun as a lady of noble birth, and she 
was honourably received at the court of Ed- 
ward. She was a daughter of Drummond, 
one of the lesser barons. No such rigid bar 
then restricted the marriage of the royal race 
as in later times. A sister of David, Matilda, 
daughter of Robert, had married a simple 
esquire. Still, it was a match which could 
bring no political strength to David, and 
alienated many of the Scottish nobility. A 
revolt of some of these was one of its con- 
sequences. David succeeded in quelling it, 
and threw the Steward and his three sons 
into prison at the instance of Margaret Logie, 
to whom and her relations he made large 
grants of land and money. Her influence 
did not last long, and after her divorce in 
1369 by the Scottish bishops, the exact 
ground of which has not been discovered, the 
Stewards were released. She was succeeded 
in the king's favour by Agnes of Dunbar. 
The year after this divorce, on 22 Feb. 1370, 
David died in Edinburgh Castle childless, 




and was succeeded by Robert the Steward. 
David was only in his forty-seventh year, but 
he had reigned forty-one years, reckoning 
from his accession. 

Fordun and Wyntoun, the writers nearest 
the time of David, who did not know the ex- 
tent of his treason to Scotland, treat his 
character more favourably than modern his- 
torians. They commend his administration 
of justice, his bravery, even his resolute as- 
sertion of the royal authority. Wyntoun, 
in a curious passage which evidently relates 
an authentic anecdote, tells how on his re- 
turn to Scotland, when he was going to his 
privy council, 

The folk, as they were wont to do, 
Pressyt rycht rudly in thare to, 
Bot he rycht suddenly gan arrace 
Out of a macer's hand a mace, 
And said rudly how do we now ? 
Stand still, or the proudest of you 
Sail on his hevyd have smyte this mace. 

This apparently trivial incident gives occa- 
sion to a general reflection by the historian, 
expressing his view of David : 

Kadure in prynce is a gud thyng, 
For but radure all governyng 
Sail all tyme bot despiysed be. 

In the same passage he mentions that David 
only brought with him from England a 
single page, not what we should expect if he 
then had the idea of bringing Scotland under 
English influence. Both Wyntoun and For- 
dun, who, it must be remembered, were 
Scottish churchmen (the English < Chronicles 
of Lanercost,' whose monastery he plun- 
dered, take a very different view of David), 
incline to the side of the king as against the 
nobles, whose oppression he is represented 
as putting down. Later writers, on the other 
hand, note his undoubted weakness, his love 
of pleasure, his passion for an English mis- 
tress Katherine Mortimer, who died during 
the life of Joanna, and was buried with 
pomp at Newbattle his impolitic marriage 
with Margaret Logie, his extravagance, his 
jealousy, and ill-treatment of Robert the 
Steward, above all his sacrifice of the inde- 
pendence his father had established. These 
inconsistent views, both of which have some 
foundation in fact, point to a character itself 
inconsistent, passionate, and headstrong, ca- 
pable at times of showing strength, at bottom 
weak, liable to be led by various influences, 
in the end yielding to the persistent policy 
and will of the English king. 

[Wyntoun, Fordun, and the Liber Plyscar- 
densis are the Scotch original authorities, but 
Knighton and Froissart supply several details. 
The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, vols. i. and ii., 

and W. Burnett's learned prefaces are specially 
valuable for the life of David.] M. M. 

BRUCE, DAVID (fi. 1660), physician, 
was the son of Andrew Bruce, D.D., principal 
(from 1630 to 1647) of St. Leonard's College 
in St. Andrews University. He was first 
educated at St. Andrews, and proceeded M. A. 
there. Later he went to France, and studied 
physic at Paris and Montpellier. He in- 
tended taking a medical degree at Padua; 
but the plague kept him from Italy, and 
he finally graduated M.D. at Valence in 
Dauphiny on 7 May 1657. On 27 March 
1660 Bruce was incorporated doctor of physic 
at Oxford. He was associated with his 
great-uncle, Sir John Wedderburne, in the 
office of physician to the Duke and Duchess 
of York. But after fulfilling, in consequence 
of Wedderburne's infirmities, all the duties 
of the post for many years, he resigned the 
office and travelled abroad. Subsequently he 
settled at Edinburgh, and was there ' in 
good repute for his practice.' Wood speaks 
of him as still living in Edinburgh in 1690. 
Bruce was admitted candidate of the College 
of Physicians on 24 Dec. 1660, and was an 
original member of the Royal Society. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ii. 225 ; Munk's Coll. of 
Phys. i. 297.] S. L. L. 

BRUCE, EDWARD (d. 1318), king of 
Ireland, was younger brother of Robert Bruce 
[q. v.], king of Scotland. In 1308 Edward 
Bruce took part in the incursion upon the 
district of Galloway by King Robert, and, 
during the indisposition of the latter, acted 
as a commander of his forces in their retreat 
from those of the Earl of Richmond, governor 
in Scotland for Edward II. Edward Bruce 
was subsequently despatched by his brother 
against Galloway, which resisted his autho- 
rity. He routed the English commander and 
his Scottish allies there, and compelled the 
inhabitants to swear allegiance and to furnish 
contributions. In this contest he succeeded 
by a stratagem in putting to flight the Eng- 
lish troops. The details of this enterprise 
were chronicled by the poet Barbour, from 
the narration of one of Bruce's associates. 
On the banks of the Dee, Edward Bruce 
defeated the forces brought against him by 
the chiefs of Galloway, and made a prisoner 
of Donall, prince of the Isles. He reduced 
a large number of castles and strongholds 
in Galloway, and brought that district under 
the dominion of King Robert. Edward 
Bruce's success in Galloway was celebrated 
in a contemporary poem. While King Robert 
was engaged on an expedition against the 
Isle of Man, Edward Bruce gained possession 
of the town of Dundee. Before the end of 




1313, lie besieged Stirling Castle, then almost 
the last fortress held in Scotland for the 
king of England. Philip de Mowbray, go- 
vernor of the castle, after a vigorous defence, 
entered into a treaty to surrender it to Ed- 
ward Bruce in the following midsummer, if 
not relieved. The terms of this treaty were 
disapproved of by King Robert, who, how- 
ever, adhered to them. The attempt of the 
English army to relieve Stirling Castle led, 
in 1314, to the battle of Bannockburn, at 
which Edward Bruce was one of the chief 
commanders, and led the right column of 
the Scottish army. In the following year 
Edward Bruce, in conjunction with Douglas, 
devastated Northumberland and Yorkshire, 
levied large contributions, and returned to 
Scotland with great spoil. In 1315, in a 
convention of the prelates, nobles, and com- 
mons of Scotland, held at Ayr, an ordinance 
was enacted that Edward Bruce should be 
recognised as king, in the event of the death 
of his brother Robert without male heirs. 
Edward Bruce is described as a valiant and 
experienced soldier, but rashly impetuous. 
He is said to have aspired to share the kingship 
of Scotland with his brother. This circum- 
stance is supposed to have induced King 
Robert to favour an expedition against the 
English in Ireland, which Edward Bruce 
was invited to undertake by some of the 
native chiefs there who regarded him as 
descended from the same ancestors as them- 
selves. Edward Bruce landed in Ulster in 
May 1315, with about six thousand men, 
accompanied by the Earl of Moray and other 
Scottish commanders. The Scots, with their 
Irish allies, took possession of the town of 
Carrickfergus, laid siege to its strong citadel, 
and Bruce was crowned as king of Ireland. 
Edward Bruce encountered and defeated on 
several occasions the forces of the English 
government in Ireland. Robert Bruce hav- 
ing arrived with reinforcements from Scot- 
land, he and his brother, early in 1317, 
marched from Ulster to the south of Ire- 
land. After the return of King Robert to 
Scotland, Edward Bruce continued at Car- 
rickfergus as king of Ireland. Bulls were 
issued by Pope John XXII for the purpose 
of detaching the Irish clergy from the cause 
of Edward Bruce. The archbishops of Dub- 
lin and Cashel and other dignitaries were 
enjoined by the pope to warn ecclesiastics 
to desist from inciting the Irish people 
against the king of England, and public 
excommunications were denounced against 
those who persisted in that course. A re- 
production of one of those papal instruments 
appears in the third part of ' Facsimiles of 
National Manuscripts of Ireland.' Barbour 

alleged that Edward Bruce defeated the 
troops of the English in Ireland in nineteen 
engagements, in which he had not more than 
one man against five, and that he was in a 
' good way to conquer the entire land, as he 
had the Irish on his side, and held possession 
of Ulster. The poet adds, however, that 
Bruce's fortunes were marred by his l out- 
rageous' pride. In the autumn of 1318, Ed- 
ward Bruce projected another descent upon 
Leinster. To prevent this movement, a 
large army was mustered by the colonists. 
Bruce's chief advisers counselled him against 
coming to an engagement with forces nume- 
rically superior to those under his command. 
He, however, declined to take their advice, 
and would not wait for reinforcements. In 
October a conflict took place near Dundalk, 
in which Bruce was slain and his forces put 
to flight. Bruce's corpse was found on the 
field, with that of John de Maupas stretched 
upon it. The quarters of Edward Bruce's 
body were set up as trophies in the chief 
towns of the English colony in Ireland, and 
his head was presented to Edward II in 
England. Barbour averred that the head 
was not Bruce's, but that of his devoted 
follower, Gilbert Harper, who wore his ar- 
mour on the day of battle. Owing to the 
death of Edward Bruce new legislative ar- 
rangements were made relative to the royal 
succession in Scotland. An instrument is 
extant by which Robert Bruce confirmed a 
grant of land which had been made by his 
brother Edward as king of Ireland. The 
most detailed account of Edward Bruce's 
proceedings in Ireland is contained in Latin 
annals of that country appended by Camden 
to his ' Britannia ' in 1607. A new edition 
of these annals, in which the oversights of 
Camden have been corrected by collation 
with the manuscript, was printed in the 
London Rolls Series in 1883. John Barbour, 
archdeacon of Aberdeen, in his poem, com- 
posed about 1375, tells little of Edward Bruce 
except in connection with his transactions in 
Ireland and death there. Many records illus- 
trative of affairs in Ireland during the pre- 
sence of the Bruces there are included among 
' Historical and Municipal Documents of Ire- 
land,' published in the London Rolls Series 
in 1870. 

[Johannis de Fordun Chronica gentis Scoto- 
rum, ed. T. Hearne 1722, W. Goodall 1775, 
and W. F. Skene 1871 ; Acts of Parliament of 
Scotland, 1814; Annals of Scotland, by Lord 
Hailes, 1819; Annals of Kingdom of Ireland, 
1848 ; Hist, of Viceroys of Ireland, 1865 ; Hist, 
of Scotland, by P. F. Tytler 1864, and J. H. 
Burton 1867; Facsimiles of National Manu- 
scripts of Scotland, part ii. 1870 ; The Bruce, 


9 6 


ed. W. Skeat, 1870; Chronicles of Edward I 
and Edward II, ed. Stubbs, 1882-3 ; Chartu- 
laries of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 1884-5.] 

J. T. G. 

(1549 ?-l 611), judge, was the second son of 
Sir Edward Bruce of Blairhall in the county 
of Clackmannan, by Alison, daughter of Wil- 
liam Reid of Aikenhead in the same county, 
sister of Robert Reid, bishop of Orkney, and 
descended from Robert de Brus, chief justice 
of the king's bench, in 1268. He appears to 
have been born about the year 1549. His 
early history is from the loss of the records 
obscure, and the date at which he became 
an advocate is not known, nor when he was 
appointed to the office of judge of the com- 
missary court of Edinburgh, though it is 
clear from the Pitmedden manuscript pre- 
served in the Advocates' Library that he 
succeeded Robert Maitland, dean of Aber- 
deen, who had been superseded in the office 
of lord of session in 1576. It does not, how- 
ever, appear whether the dean lost his posi- 
tion as commissary at that or at a subsequent 
date, but it is certain that Bruce was one of 
the commissaries in 1583. In this year he 
received a grant of the abbey of Kinloss in 
Ayrshire, to hold in commendam for his life, 
subject to an annuity payable to the abbot, 
and a rent of 500 merks payable to the 
crown. About the same date he was ap- 
pointed one of the deputes of the lord-justice- 
general of Scotland. Four years later we 
find him energetically defending the right of 
the lords spiritual to sit in parliament, on 
the occasion of a petition presented by the 
general assembly of the Scottish church pray- 
ing that they might be expelled, and in the 
result the petition was dismissed. The popish 
conspiracy of 1594 brought Bruce into con- 
siderable prominence. In 1594 Bruce was 
despatched, with James Colvill, laird of Ester 
or Easter Wemyss, to the English court to 
remonstrate with the queen upon the coun- 
tenance which she afforded to the popish 
conspiracy by harbouring Bothwell, to com- 
plain of the conduct of her ambassador, Lord 
Zouche, in carrying on secret negotiations 
with him, and to ask for a subsidy to help 
in crushing the conspiracy. His mission was 
partially successful. In 1597 Bruce was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners for the 
levying of an aid granted by parliament to 
provide funds for the diplomatic service and 
other purposes. The same year (2 Dec.) he 
was made a lord of session. On 15 March 
1598 Bruce was again sent to the English 
court to make the king's apologies for cer- 
tain offences of which Elizabeth complained, 
' and to prepare some other particulars con- 

cerning the estate of the two borders and 
two realms.' Probably he was secretly in- 
structed to sound the queen and council as 
to the real position of his master's chances 
of obtaining the succession, but if so the 
mission appears in that respect to have been 
a wholly fruitless one. Early in 1601, on 
the eve of the discovery of the Essex plot, 
James, who had for some time been in secret 
correspondence with the conspirators, deter- 
mined to send the Earl of Mar and Edward 
Bruce to London, ostensibly upon a mission 
of no special importance, but really for the 
purpose of ascertaining the precise posture 
of affairs in the country and the prospects 
of the plot, with a view to possible co-opera- 
tion. The envoys, however, did not start 
until February, and consequently did not 
arrive until after the execution of Essex. 
Accordingly the king now instructed them 
to obtain, if possible, a formal declaration 
from the queen and council that he was 
free of all complicity in any intrigues that 
had ever been set on foot against her, and 
particularly in the late conspiracy, and an 
assurance of his succession to the throne on 
her decease. They obtained an early audi- 
ence of Sir Robert Cecil, who exacted from 
them a pledge (1) that the king should aban- 
don all attempts to obtain parliamentary or 
other recognition of his title to the succession 
as the condition of holding communication 
with them, and (2) that all such communi- 
cations should be kept perfectly secret. The 
result was the celebrated correspondence be- 
tween James and Cecil, part of which was 
published by Lord Hailes in 1766, and of 
which another portion has since been edited 
for the Camden Society. Bruce accompanied 
James to England on his accession, was na- 
turalised by act of parliament, and made a 
member of the privy council in both kingdoms. 
He was also (22 Feb. 1603) raised to the peer- 
age by the title of Baron Bruce of Kinloss, 
and on 18 May following was appointed to the 
mastership of the rolls in succession to Sir 
Thomas Egerton. In 1605 the university of 
Oxford conferred upon him the degree of 
M.A. In 1608-9 his daughter Christiana 
married William Cavendish, afterwards the 
second earl of Devonshire, the king himself 
giving the bride away and making her for- 
tune up to 10,000/. He died very suddenly 
on 14 Jan. 1610-11, in his sixty-second year, 
and was buried in the Rolls Chapel in 
Chancery Lane. His eldest son, Lord Ed- 
ward Bruce, was killed in a duel with Sir 
Edward Sackville, afterwards earl of Dorset, 
near Bergen-op-Zoom in 1613. His heart 
was discovered embalmed in a silver case, 
bearing his name and arms, in the abbey 




church of Culross in Perthshire in 1808. 
His younger brother Thomas was created 
Earl of Elgin on 21 June 1633, and Baron 
Bruce of Whorlton in Yorkshire on 1 Aug. 
1641. The third son, Robert, was created 
Baron Bruce of Skelton in Yorkshire, Vis- 
count Bruce of Ampthill in Bedfordshire, 
and Earl of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire 
on 18 March 1663-4 [see BRUCE, ROBERT, 
Earl of Aylesbury]. 

[Acts Parl. of Scotland, iii. 484, iv. 143; 
Letters of John Colville (Bannatyne Club), 298 ; 
Pitcairn's Trials, i. 133 ; Spottiswoode's Hist, of 
the Church of Scotland (Bannatyne Club), ii. 322, 
329 ; Moysie's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club), 117, 
137, 139 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 311-12, 
491 ; Cal. State Papers (Scotland 1509-1603), ii. 
49, 650, 652, 708, 746, 748 ; Birch's Memoirs, i. 
175, ii. 509, ad fin. ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 
413, 414; Letters of Sir Eobert Cecil (Camden 
Society), 75; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 100, 101 ; 
Dugdale's Orig. 335 ; Correspondence of James VI 
with Sir Robert Cecil, xxv. 38, 45-9, 51, 78 ; 
Hailes's Secret Correspondence of Sir Robert 
Cecil with James VI, pp. 5, 6, et passim ; Ferrerii 
Hist. Abb. de Kinloss (Bannatyne Club), xi. ; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England (1603-42), i. 52; 
Collins's Peerage (Brydges), v. 323-4 ; Burnet's 
Own Time (Oxford edition), i. 14; Court and 
Times of James I, i. 7, 104 ; Statutes of the Realm, 
iv. 1016 ; Archseologia, xx. 515; Foss's Lives of 
the Judges; Brunton and Haig's Senators of 
the College of Justice.] J. M. R. 

ADOLPHUS (1814-1867), diplomatist, was 
the youngest of the three sons of Thomas 
Bruce, seventh earl of Elgin [q. v.], and his 
second wife Elizabeth, youngest daughter of 
James To wnshend Oswald of Dunnikier, Fife- 
shire. He was born at Broomhall, Fifeshire, 
on 14 April 1814, and on 9 Feb. 1842 was at- 
tached to Lord Ashburton's mission to Wash- 
ington, returning to England with his lord- 
ship in September of that year. On 9 Feb. 
1844 he was appointed colonial secretary at 
Hongkong, which place he held until 1846, 
when on 27 June he became lieutenant-gover- 
nor of Newfoundland. His next change was 
to Sucre, with the appointment of consul- 
general in the republic of Bolivia on 23 July 
1847, and on 14 April 1848 he was accredited 
as charge d'affaires. He was named charge 
d'affaires to the Oriental republic of the Uru- 
guay on 29 Aug. 1851, and on 3 Aug. 1853 
became agent and consul-general in Egypt in 
the place of the Hon. 0. A. Murray. On his 
brother, James Bruce, the eighth earl of 
Elgin, being appointed ambassador extraor- 
dinary to China, he accompanied him as prin- 
cipal secretary in April 1857. He brought 
home (18 Sept. 1857) the treaty with China 


signed at Tientsin on 26 June 1858, and was 
made a C.B. on 28 Sept. His diplomatic tact 
was thoroughly appreciated by the home go- 
vernment, for he was appointed on 2 Dec. 
1858 envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 

rtentiary to the emperor of China, and on 
March following chief superintendent of 
British trade in that country. His mission 
was prevented from proceeding to Pekin by 
the opposition made by the Chinese. The 
mission therefore returned to Shanghae, where 
it remained until the ratification of the treaty 
of 26 June 1858 at Pekin on 24 Oct. 1860. 
He proceeded to Pekin on 7 Nov. 1860, but 
withdrew to Tientsin for the winter, while 
arrangements Avere made for putting a resi- 
dence in order for his reception. The mission 
was established at Pekin on 26 March 1861, 
but it was not until 2 April that Sir Frede- 
rick Bruce paid a visit to Prince Kung. On 
the removal of Lord Lyons from Washington 
to Constantinople, he was selected to fill the 
important office of British representative at 
Washington on 1 March 1865. He was made 
a K.C.B. of the civil division on 12 Dec. 1862, 
and received the grand cross of the order on 
17 March 1865. He was appointed umpire by 
the commission named under the convention 
of 1864, concluded between the United States 
of America and the United States of Colom- 
bia, for the adjustment of claims of American 
citizens against the Colombian government. 
He died at Boston in the United States on 
19 Sept. 1867, when his remains were em- 
balmed, and, being conveyed to Scotland, 
were interred at Dunfermline Abbey on 8 Oct. 
The American press spoke in eulogistic terms 
of his amiable personal qualities and of the 
able manner in which he exercised his minis- 
terial functions. He died unmarried. 

[Gent. Mag. for 1867, pt. ii. 677-8; Hertslet's 
Foreign Office Lists, March 1868, p. 187 ; Boul- 
ger's History of China, vol. iii. (1884).] 

G. C. B. 

BRUCE, JAMES (1660 P-1730), Irish 
presbyterian minister, was the eldest son 
of Michael Bruce (1635-1693) [q. v.] He 
was called to Carnmoney, county Antrim, 
but preferred a settlement at Killeleagh, 
county Down (near Killinchy, his father's 
place), where he was ordained after 6 Nov. 
1684. In April 1689 occurred l the break of 
Killeleagh,' when the protestants were routed 
and Killeleagh castle deserted by its garrison. 
Bruce fled to Scotland, but returned in 1691 
or 1692, when Ulster was at peace. In 1696 
he secured, from the presbyterian proprietors 
of the Killeleagh estate endowments for the 
presbyterian minister at Killeleagh (and three 
others) in the shape of a lease of lands at a 



nominal rent. More important was his suc- 
cess in establishing at Killeleagh in 1697 a 

1 philosophical school ' for the training of the 
presbyterian ministry and gentry, which 
proved obnoxious to "the episcopalians, and 
was closed in 1714. In 1699 Bruce was 
appointed one of the synod's trustees for the 
management of the regium donum, and con- 
tinued in this office till his death. His con- 
gregation was large ; at his communion on 

2 July 1704 there were seven successive tables, 
and the services began at 7 A.M. and lasted 
till evening. A new meeting-house was built 
for him, probably in 1692. In the nonsub- 
scription controversy (1720-6) Bruce sided 
with the subscribers (himself signing the 
Westminster Confession in 1721), but was 
unwilling to cut off the nonsubscribers from 
fellowship. His presbytery (Down) was in 
1725 divided into Down and Killeleagh, 
those (including Bruce) who were against 
disowning the nonsubscribers being placed 
in the latter. Bruce died on 17 Feb. 1730. 
His will (dated in February 1725) directs 
his burial at Killeleagh, where he was in- 
terred on 24 Feb. Tradition places the spot 
eastward of the episcopal church. He mar- 
ried, 25 Sept. 1685, Margaret (died May 
1706), daughter of Lieutenant-colonel James 
Trail of Tullychin, near Killeleagh, by Mary, 
daughter of John Hamilton, brother of the 
first Lord Clandeboye. He had ten children, 
of whom three sons and three daughters 
survived him. His sons Michael [q.v.] and 
Patrick were presbyterian ministers ; Wil- 
liam [q. v.] was a publisher. From his son 
Patrick (1692-1732), minister successively 
of Drumbo, co. Down, Killallan, Renfrew- 
shire, and Killeleagh, are lineally descended 
the Hervey Bruces of Downhill, baronets 
since 1804. Bruce published nothing. In 
Daniel Mussenden's manuscript volume of 
sermon notes is an abstract of Bruce's 
sermon (Prov. viii. 17) at a communion 
in Belfast, 20 Aug. 1704, which is strongly 

[McCreery's Presb. Ministers of Killeleagh, 
1875, pp. 90 sq. ; Porter's Seven Bruces, in N". 
Whig, 16 April 1885; Eeid's Hist. Presb. 
Ireland (Killen),1867,ii.477, 519; [Kirkpatrick's] 
Historical Essay upon the Loyalty of Presby- 
terians, 1713, p. 506 ; Bruce's appendix to Tow- 
good's Diss. Gent. Letters, 1816, p. 359 ; Disciple 
(Belfast), April 1883, p. 100 ; Belfast Funeral 
Eegister (presbyterian) ; manuscript extracts 
from Minutes of General Synod ; Mussenden's 
manuscript sermon notes, 1704-20, in the posses- 
sion of a descendant of Bruce.] A. G. 

BRUCE, JAMES (1730-1794), African 
traveller, son of David Bruce of Kinnaird 
and Marion Graham of Airth, was born at 

Kinnaird, Stirlingshire, on 14 Dec. 1730. He 
was educated at Harrow, and ' inclined to the 
profession of a clergyman/ ' for which,' his 
master assured his father, ' he has sufficient 
gravity.' He nevertheless complied with 
his father's wish that he should study law, 
until it became evident that a pursuit involv- 
ing an intimate knowledge of Roman as well 
as Scotch jurisprudence was too distasteful 
to him to be prosecuted to any good purpose. 
He had in the meantime invigorated his ori- 
ginally delicate constitution by exercise and 
sport ; and noAv, athletic, daring, and six feet 
four, seemed made for a life of travel and 
adventure. While soliciting permission to 
settle as a trader in India, his ideas received 
a new direction from his marriage with 
Adriana Allan, the orphan daughter of a 
wine merchant in Portugal. To gratify her 
mother he took a share in the business ; but 
his wife's death in 1754, after a union of only 
nine months, destroyed his interest in this 
calling, and to detach himself gradually from 
it he visited Spain and Portugal under pre- 
text of inspecting the vintage. Two incidents 
arising out of this excursion aided to deter- 
mine his subsequent career. Having formed 
the project of examining the manuscripts in 
the Escurial, he was led to study Arabic, 
which incidentally directed his attention to 
the ancient classical language of Abyssinia ; 
and, having observed the unprotected condi- 
tion of Ferrol, he submitted, upon the out- 
break of hostilities with Spain, a proposition 
to the English government for an attack upon 
the place. The scheme, though not carried 
into effect, gained him the notice of Lord 
Halifax, and the offer of the consulate at 
Algiers, with a commission to examine the 
remains of ancient architecture described but 
not delineated by Dr. Shaw. According to 
his own statement, this proposal was accom- 
panied by the promise of a baronetcy when 
his mission should be completed, and the 
pledge that he should be assisted by a deputy 
to attend to consular business while he was 
engaged in archaeological research. Some 
hints as to the possibility of his extending 
his explorations to the Nile took the strongest 
hold upon his imagination, and to reach its 
source now became the main purpose of his 
life. To qualify himself yet further for his 
undertaking, he spent six months in Italy 
studying antiquities, and obtained the ser- 
vices of an accomplished draughtsman, a 
young Bolognese named Luigi Balugani. 
Before engaging him he had visited Psestum, 
and made the first accurate drawings ever 
taken of the ruins, a fortunate step for his 
own reputation, as it refuted the charge 
subsequently brought against him of entire 




dependence upon Balugani and appropriation 
of the latter's work. He arrived at Algiers 
on 15 March 1763. 

The Algerine consulate was a post of 
danger and difficulty at all times, and Baba 
Ali, the dey to whom Bruce was accredited, 
though not devoid of a certain barbaric magna- 
nimity, was even more ferocious and imprac- ; 
ticable than the generality. The injudicious i 
recall of Bruce's predecessor at the dey's de- 
mand had greatly encouraged the latter's in- 
solence. Bruce's presents were judged insum- j 
cient, and with great public spirit he advanced j 
more than 200 /. from his own pocket, ' rather 
than, in my time, his majesty should lose the 
affections of this people.' These affectionate 
corsairs, in fact, were not without grounds of 
complaint. Blank passports, intended, when 
duly filled up, to exempt English ships from 
capture as belonging to a friendly power, had 
fallen into the hands of the French, who, to 
damage their enemy's credit, had sold them 
to nations at war with Algiers. The English, 
finding their passes thus invalidated, had 
issued written papers, which the Algerines 
could not read, and of course disregarded. 
Bruce had need of all his courage and address. 
The two years and a quarter during which he 
held office passed in a series of disputes with 
the Algerine ruler, which frequently involved 
him in great danger, but in which he usually 
triumphed by his undeviating firmness. At 
length, in August 1765, finding that no as- 
sistant was likely to be given him, he re- 
signed his appointment, and departed on an 
archaeological tour through Barbary, fortified 
by the protection of the old dey, who secretly 
admired his spirit. With the aid of his 
draughtsman and a camera obscura, he made 
a great number of most elaborate and beau- 
tiful drawings of the remains of Roman 
magnificence extant in the now uninhabited 
desert. These drawings, which were exhibited 
at the Institute of British Architects in 1837, 
are partly in the possession of his descendants, 
and partly in the royal collection at Windsor. 
Colonel Playfair finds them to be for the most 
part virtually in duplicate, but taken from 
slightly different points of view ; one copy 
probably by Bruce, the other, distinguished by 
the introduction of conventional ornaments, 
probably by Balugani. Colonel Playfair's 
own elaborate work has superseded the im- 
perfect account published by Bruce himself, 
but his researches have impressed him with 
the fullest conviction of the accuracy and 
conscientiousness of his predecessor, in whose 
delineations he has discovered only one error. 
The most important ruins visited and sketched 
by Bruce were those at Tebessa, Spaitla, Ta- 
mugas, Tisdrus, and Cirta. After more than 

a year's travel through Barbary, at the close 
of which he underwent great danger from 
famine and pestilence at Bengazi, Bruce em- 
barked at Ptolemeta for Candia, was ship- 
wrecked, cast helpless on the African coast, 
beaten and plundered by the Arabs, and con- 
tracted an ague from his immersion, which he 
could never entirely shake off. His drawings 
had fortunately been placed in safety at 
Smyrna. Having, after a considerable delay 
at Bengazi, made his way to Crete, and par- 
tially got rid of his ague and fever, he 
proceeded with indomitable spirit to Syria, 
sketched the ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec, 
and, after hesitating whether he should not 
go to Tartary to observe the transit of Venus, 
arrived in Egypt in July 1768. Having con- 
ciliated Ali Bey, the chief of the Mameluke 
rulers of Egypt, by his real skill in medicine 
and supposed knowledge of astrology, and 
thus obtained recommendatory letters to the 
sheriff of Mecca, the naib of Masuah, Ras 
Michael the Abyssinian prune minister, and 
other chieftains and potentates, and being 
also provided with a monition to the Greeks 
in Abyssinia from their patriarch in Egypt, 
Bruce sailed up the Nile to Assouan, visited 
the ruins of Karnak and Luxor, and embarked 
at Cosseir for a voyage on the Red Sea. He 
proceeded to the Straits of Babelmandeb, re- 
traced his course to Jidda, and crossed from 
thence to Masuah, the port of Abyssinia, 
where he landed on 19 Sept. 1769. The place, 
inhabited by a mongrel breed of African 
savages and Turkish janissaries, was little 
better than a den of assassins. It had, how- 
ever one honest inhabitant, Achmet, the 
nephew of the naib or governor, who took 
Bruce's part and saved his life, powerfully 
aided by the fame of a salute which his 
countrymen had fired in his honour when he 
quitted Jidda, and by his credentials to the 
Abyssinian ras, whose wrath the naib had 
already provoked, and whom he feared to 
offend further. Bruce ultimately quitted the 
Red Sea coast on 15 Nov., bound for Gondar, 
the capital of Abyssinia. He reached his 
destination on 14 Feb. 1770, after a toilsome 
march, in which he experienced great diffi- 
culties from scantiness of provisions, from 
the transport of his heavy instruments, and 
| from altercations with petty chiefs on the 
road. In his march he witnessed the bar- 
barous Abyssinian custom of eating raw meat 
cut from the living animal, which he brought 
such undeserved discredit upon himself by 
relating ; and visited the ruins of Axum, his 
imperfect description of which is more justly 
open to criticism. It was nearly 150 years 
since any European had visited Abyssinia, 
except Poncet, the French surgeon, towards 





the end of the seventeenth century, and three [ 
Franciscan monks who had found their way 
about 1750, but had published no account of , 
their travels, and probably never returned. 

The name Abyssinia is derived from an 
Arabic word signifying confusion ; and the 
term intended to denote the mixture of races j 
in the population of the country was, in j 
Bruce's time as now, accurately descriptive of j 
its political condition. Although the throne ' 
was still filled by a reputed descendant of 
Solomon, the prestige of royalty had well- j 
nigh disappeared, and the country was vir- j 
tually divided among a number of provincial j 
governors, whose revolts against the nominal j 
sovereign and contentions among themselves ! 
kept it in a state of utter anarchy. At the j 
time of Bruce's arrival the post of ras or j 
vizier was filled by the aged Michael, governor { 
of Tigre, the Warwick of Abyssinia, who, 
having assassinated one king and poisoned 
another, was at the age of seventy-two rul- 
ing in the name of a third. It was Bruce's 
business to conciliate this cruel but straight- 
forward and highly intelligent personage, as 
well as the titular king and royal family, 
and Fasil, the chieftain in whose jurisdiction 
lay the springs of the Blue Nile, which Bruce, 
mistaking for the actual source of the river, 
had made the goal of his efforts. This indi- 
vidual happened to be in rebellion at the 
time, which increased the difficulties of the 
situation. But Bruce, by physical strength 
and adroitness in manly exercises, by presence 
of mind, by long experience of the East, by 
his very foibles of excessive self-assertion and 
warmth of temper, was fitted beyond most 
men to overawe a barbarous people. When 
he arrived at Gondar, King Tecla Haimanout 
and Ras Michael were engaged in a military 
expedition, and the Greeks and Moors to whom 
he had letters of introduction were likewise 
absent. Fortunately for him several persons 
of distinction were sick of small-pox, which 
procured him access to the queen mother ; 
and perhaps still more fortunately he was not 
at first allowed to prescribe for them, greater 
confidence being reposed in a cross and a 
picture of the Virgin Mary. The speedy death 
of two of the patients insured him his own 
way with the remainder, and their recovery 
won him the gratitude of the queen mother 
and of Michael's wife, the young and beauti- 
ful Ozoro Esther. The favour thus gained 
was confirmed by his feat of firing a tallow 
candle through a table, which Salt found 
talked of forty years afterwards. Bruce re- 
ceived an office about the king's person, and, 
according to his own statement, was made 
governor of the district of Ras-el-Feel. This 
circumstance was contradicted by Dofter 

Esther, a priest, from whom Salt subsequently 
obtained information, and who cannot have 
been actuated by any animosity to Bruce, as 
the general tenor of his communications was 
highly favourable to him. The appointment, 
however, may not have been generally known 
in Abyssinia, or Bruce himself, who at the 
time could not speak Amharic, may have been 
under a misapprehension as to the extent of 
his authority. In the spring of 1770 he accom- 
panied the king and Michael on an expedition 
into Maitsha, which gave him an opportunity 
of obtaining from the king the investiture of 
the district of Geesh, where the fountains of 
the Blue Nile are situated, and of propitiat- 
ing the rebel chief, Fasil, by sending medicine 
to one of his generals. The expedition was 
unsuccessful ; the king and ras sought refuge 
in the latter's government of Tigre, and Bruce 
returned to Gondar, where he spent several 
months, living in the queen mother's palace 
under her protection, but exposed to consider- 
able danger from the hostility of a usurper 
who had been elevated to the nominal throne. 
On 28 Oct. 1770 Bruce left Gondar to take 
possession of his fief, and after two days' 
march fell in with the army of Fasil, who 
had returned to his allegiance, and was 
favouring the king's return to Gondar. Fasil 
gave Bruce at first a very ambiguous recep- 
tion ; but, overcome by his intrepid bearing, 
and captivated by his feats in subduing savage 
horses and shooting kites upon the wing, al- 
tered his demeanour entirely, accepted Bruce 
as his feudatory, naturalised him among his 
Galla followers, and dismissed him with a 
favourite horse of his own, and instructions 
to drive the animal before him ready saddled 
and bridled wherever he went. The steed 
certainly brought the party security, for every 
one fled at the sight of him, and Bruce was 
finally obliged to mount. Thus sped, he ar- 
rived at the village of Geesh, and struck upon 
the mighty Nile, l not four yards over, and 
not above four inches deep,' and here his guide 
pointed out to him ' the hillock of green sod ' 
which he has made so famous. Trampling 
down the flowers which mantled the hillside, 
and receiving two severe falls in his eager 
haste, Bruce ' stood in rapture over the prin- 
cipal fountain.' l It is easier to guess than to 
describe the situation of my mind at that 
moment standing on that spot which had 
baffled the genius, industry, and inquiry of 
both ancients and moderns for the course of 
near three thousand years.' 

Bruce, however, was mistaken. He had 
not reached the source of the true Nile, but 
only that of its most considerable tributary. 
With a frankness which does him honour, 
he virtually admits the fact by pointing out 




that, if the branch by whose spring he stood 
at Geesh did not encounter the larger stream 
of the White Nile, it would be lost in the 
sands. He maintains, indeed, that the Blue 
Nile is the Nile of the ancients, who be- 
queathed the problem of its source to us ; but 
this is inconsistent with the fact that the 
expedition sent by Nero evidently ascended 
not the Blue Nile but the White. He was 
also in error less excusable because in a 
certain measure wilful in regarding himself 
as the first European who had reached these 
fountains. Pedro Paez the Jesuit had un- 
doubtedly done so in 1615, and Bruce's un- 
handsome attempt to throw doubt on the 
fact only proves that love of fame is not 
literally the last infirmity of noble minds, 
but may bring much more unlovely symptoms 
in its train. There is a sense, however, in 
which Bruce may be more justly esteemed 
the discoverer of the fount of the Blue Nile 
than Paez, who stumbled upon it by accident, 
and, absorbed by missionary zeal, thought 
little of the exploit to which Bruce had de- 
dicated his life. 

During Bruce's absence from Gondar, King 
Tecla Haimanout had recovered his capital. 
Twenty thousand of Has Michael's Tigre 
warriors occupied the city, and Bruce was in 
time to witness the vengeance of the victors. 
For weeks Gondar reeked with massacre, and 
swarmed with hyaenas lured by the scent of 
carrion. Bruce's remonstrances were regarded 
as childish weakness. His draughtsman, 
Balugani, died, an event which he himself 
misdates by a year, and he ardently longed 
to quit the country. With much difficulty 
he obtained permission, but the general anar- 
chy prevented his departure. The queen 
mother had always been unfriendly to Ras 
Michael. Two leading provincial governors, 
Gusho and Powussen, espoused her cause, and 
interposed their troops between Michael in 
the capital and his province of Tigre. After 
much indecisive fighting in the spring of 
1771, the royal army was cut off from its 
supplies, and became completely disorganised 
in its retreat upon Gondar. The old ras, 
victor in forty-three battles, arrayed himself 
in cloth of gold, and sat calmly in his house 
awaiting his fate. He was carried away 
prisoner to a remote province, but was yet to 
rise again and rule Tigr6 seven years until 
his death. The king, though not dethroned, 
remained in virtual captivity, but was destined 
to experience many more changes of fortune 
ere he died a monk. Bruce spent a miserable 
autumn, prostrated with fever, harassed with 
debt, and in constant danger of his life from 
the wild Galla. On 26 Dec. 1771 he finally 
quitted Gondar, amid the benedictions and 

tears of his many friends, bearing with other 
treasures the chronicles of the Abyssinian 
kings and the apocryphal book of Enoch in 
the Ethiopic version, in which alone it is 
preserved. The next stage of his journey was 
to be Sennaar, the capital of Nubia, which 
he reached after four months' march through 
a densely wooded country infested with wild 
beasts, narrowly escaping assassination at the 
hands of the treacherous sheikh of Atbara. 
After five months' disagreeable detention at 
Sennaar among ' a horrid people, whose only 
occupations seem war and treason,' he struck 
into the desert, and after incurring dreadful 
perils, most graphically described, from hun- 
ger, thirst, robbers, the simoom, and moving 
pillars of sand, on 29 Nov. 1772 reached 
Assouan, the frontier town of Egypt. He 
had been compelled to leave his journals, 
drawings, and instruments behind him in 
the desert, but they were recovered, and in 
March 1773 he brought the hard-won trea- 
sures safely to Marseilles. 

Bruce spent a year and a half on the con- 
tinent, enjoying the compliments of the 
French savants, recruiting his constitution at 
the baths of Poretta, and calling to account 
an Italian marquis who had presumed during 
his absence to marry a lady to whom he had 
been engaged. On his arrival in England he 
at first received great attention, but a re- 
action against him soon set in. People were 
scandalised by his stories, especially such as 
were really in no way improbable. As Sir 
Francis Head puts it, the devourers of putrid 
venison could not digest the devourers of 
raw beef. Bruce's dictatorial manner and 
disdain of self-vindication also told against 
him. * Mr. Bruce's grand air, gigantic height, 
and forbidding brow awed everybody into 
silence,' says Fanny Burney in her lively 
sketch of him at this time in a letter to Samuel 
Crisp, adding, ' He is the tallest man you ever 
saw gratis.' No honour was conferred upon 
him, except the personal notice of the king. 
Deeply wounded, he retired to his patrimonial 
estate in Scotland, which had greatly increased 
in value from the discovery of coal ; he post- 
poned the publication of his travels, and might 
have finally abandoned it but for the depres- 
sion of spirits caused by the death of his 
second wife in 1785. The need of occupation 
and the instances of his friend, Dailies Bar- 
rington, incited him to composition, and five 
massive, ill-arranged, ill-digested, but most 
fascinating volumes made their appearance 
in 1790. They included a full narrative of 
his travels from the beginning; a valuable 
history of Abyssinia, ' neglecting,' however, 
according to Murray, ' very interesting traits 
of character and manners that appear in the 




original chronicles ; ' and disquisitions on the 
history and religion of Egypt, Indian trade, 
the invention of the alphabet, and other sub- 
jects, evincing that the great traveller was 
not a great scholar or a judicious critic. 
With all their faults, few books of equal com- 
pass are equally entertaining ; and few such 
monuments exist of the energy and enterprise 
of a single traveller. Yet all their merits and 
all the popularity they speedily obtained 
among general readers did not effect the re- 
versal of the verdict already passed upon 
Bruce by literary coteries. With sorrow and 
scorn he left the vindication of his name 
to posterity. He shot, entertained visitors, 
played with his children, and, ' having grown 
exceedingly heavy and lusty, rode slowly over 
his estate to his collieries, mounted on a 
charger of great power and size.' Occasionally 
he would assume Abyssinian costume, and sit 
meditating upon the past and the departed, 
especially, it is surmised, his beautiful pro- 
tectress, Ozoro Esther. At last, on 27 April 
1794, hastening to the head of his staircase to 
hand a lady to her carriage, he missed his 
footing, pitched on his head, and never spoke 

Bruce's character is depicted with incom- 
parable liveliness by himself. It is that of 
a brave, magnanimous, and merciful man, 
endowed with excellent abilities, though not 
with first-rate intellectual powers, but swayed 
to an undue degree by self-esteem and the 
thirst for fame. The exaggeration of these 
qualities, without which even his enterprise 
would have shrunk from his perils, made him 
uncandid to those whom he regarded as ri- 
vals, and brought imputations, not wholly 
undeserved, upon his veracity. As regards 
the bulk and general tenor of his narrative, 
his truthfulness has been sufficiently esta- 
blished ; but vanity and the passion for the 
picturesque led him to embellish minor par- 
ticulars, and perhaps in some few instances 
to invent them. The circumstances under 
which his work was produced were highly 
unfavourable to strict accuracy. Instead of 
addressing himself to his task immediately 
upon his return, with the incidents of his 
travels fresh in his mind and his journals 
open before him, Bruce delayed for twelve 
years, and then dictated to an amanuensis, 
indolently omitting to refer to the original 
journals, and hence frequently making a 
lamentable confusion of facts and dates, 
which only came to light upon the examina- 
tion of his original manuscripts. 'In the 
latter part of his days/ says his biographer, 
Murray, ' he seems to have viewed the nu- 
merous adventures of his active life as in a 
dream, not in their natural state as to time 

and place, but under the pleasing and arbi- 
trary change of memory melting into imagi- 
nation.' These inaccuracies of detail, how- 
ever, relating exclusively to things personal 
to Bruce himself, in no way impair the truth 
and value of his splendid picture of Abyssinia ; 
nor do they mar the effect of his own great 
figure as the representative of British frank- 
ness and manliness amid the weltering chaos 
of African cruelty, treachery, and supersti- 
tion. His method of composition, moreover, 
if unfavourable to the strictly historical, was 
advantageous to the other literary qualities 
of his work. Fresh from the author's lips, 
the tale comes with more vividness than if 
it had been compiled from journals; and 
scenes, characters, and situations are repre- 
sented with more warmth and distinctness. 
Bruce's character portraits are masterly ; and 
although the long conversations he records 
are evidently highly idealised, the essential 
truth is probably conveyed with as much 
precision as could have been attained by a 
verbatim report. Not the least of his gifts is 
an eminently robust and racy humour. He 
will always remain the poet, and his work 
the epic, of African travel. 

[The principal authority for Bruce's life is his 
own Travels, which have appeared in three edi- 
tions, in 1790, 1805, and 1813. He left an un- 
finished autobiography, part of which is printed 
in the later editions of the Travels. They are 
also accompanied by a biography by the editor, 
Alexander Murray; an exceedingly well-written 
and in the main a very satisfactory book. Some 
slight coldness towards Bruce's memory may be 
explained by the uneasy relations between Mur- 
ray and Bruce's son, who quarrelled with him 
during the progress of the work. Sir Francis 
Head's delightful volume in the Family Library 
goes into the other extreme. It is a mere com- 
pilation from the Travels, but executed con amore 
bv a kindred spirit, and highly original in manner 
if not in matter. Crichton's memoir in Jardine's 
Naturalists' Library is an audacious plagiarism 
from Head. Bruce's Travels in Barbary have 
been most fully illustrated by Colonel Playfair 
(Travels in the Footsteps of Bruce, 1877). See 
also the Travels of Lord Valentia and Salt, 
Bruce's principal detractors; Asiatic Researches, 
vol. i. ; Madame d'Arblay's Memoir of Dr. Bur- 
ney, i. 298-329 ; Beloe's Sexagenarian, ii. 45-9 ; 
and the chapter on Alexander Murray in Archi- 
bald Constable and his Literary Correspondents, 
vol. i. The excellent article in the Penny Cyclo- 
paedia is by Andre Vieusseux.] R. Or. 

BRUCE, JAMES (1765 P-1806), essay- 
ist, was born in the county of Forfar, in 
or about 1765. After an honourable career 
at the university of St. Andrews, he went 
thence to Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
He graduated B.A. in 1789, and took orders 




in the English church. About 1800 he was 
again in Scotland, where for a short time he 
officiated as a clergyman in the Scottish 
episcopal church. Towards the end of this 
period, in 1803, was published his only sepa- 
rate literary work, ' The Regard which is 
due to the Memory of Good Men,' a sermon 
preached at Dundee on the death of George 

In 1803 he came to London to devote 
himself to literature, and was soon a prolific 
contributor to the ' British Critic ' and the 
'Anti-Jacobin Magazine and Review,' the 
latter a weekly journal started almost con- 
temporaneously with, and conducted on the 
same principles as, its more famous namesake 
the ' Anti-Jacobin ' of Canning celebrity. A 
large proportion of the articles published in 
this review from 1803 to 1806 are from 
Bruce's pen. These articles, written with 
considerable ability, are chiefly on theologi- 
cal and literary subjects. The former are 
characterised by a keen spirit of partisanship, 
and are aimed especially against the Calvin- 
istic and evangelical parties in the church. 
His contempt for the whole tendency of the 
thought of revolutionary France was most 
hearty, and helped to keep up the 'Anti- 
Jacobin' tradition. For a list of the titles 
of the most important, see Anderson's ' Scot- 
tish Nation.' 

Bruce's life in London was obscure, and 
probably unfortunate. He was found dead 
in the passage of the house in which he lodged 
in Fetter Lane, 24 March 1806. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Irving's Book 
of Scotsmen ; Annual Register, 1806, p. 524.] 

A. M-L. 

BRUCE, JAMES (1808-1861), journalist 
and author, was born at Aberdeen in 1808. 
He began his journalistic career in his native 
town, and there he published, in 1840, l The 
Black Kalendar of Aberdeen,' an account of 
the most remarkable trials before the criminal 
courts of that city, and of the cases sent up 
from that district to the high court of jus- 
ticiary, from 1745 to 1830, with personal 
details concerning the prisoners. In the fol- 
lowing year appeared his { Lives of Eminent 
Men of Aberdeen,' which contains, among 
other biographies, those of John Barbour, 
Bishop Elphinstone, chancellor of Scotland 
under James III, Jamieson the painter, and 
the poet Beattie. 

While resident in Cupar, and editor of the 
^Fifeshire Journal,' he published in 1845, 
under the name of ' Table Talk,' a series of 
short papers on miscellaneous subjects, which 
show a minute acquaintance with the by ways 
and obscure corners of history and literature, 

and, two years later, a descriptive ' Guide to 
the Edinburgh and Northern Railway.' 

In 1847 Bruce was appointed commis- 
sioner to the ' Scotsman ' newspaper to make 
inquiries into the destitution in the high- 
lands. The results of his observations during 
a three months' tour appeared in the ' Scots- 
man' from January to March 1847, and were 
afterwards published in the form of a pam- 
phlet, bearing the title of ' Letters on the 
Present Condition of the Highlands and 
Islands of Scotland.' The emigration of great 
numbers seems to him an immediate neces- 
sity, in order to narrow the field of operation 
before attempting relief. He advocates also 
the establishment of a compulsory poor law, 
and the joining of potato patches into small 
farms ; and he pleads earnestly for the spread 
of education to rouse the people from their 
lethargy to a sense of new wants. On the 
whole, though he blames the neglect and 
selfishness of the proprietors, and quotes the 
verdict of one of the witnesses he examined, 
that ' the ruin of the poor people in Skye 
is that there are whole miles of the country 
with nothing but sheep and gentlemen upon 
them,' yet he finds the real cause of the dis- 
tress in the indolence and lack of energy of 
the highlanders themselves. He was after- 
wards employed by the ( Scotsman ' on another 
commission, to report on the moral and sani- 
tary condition of Edinburgh. 

Bruce subsequently undertook in succes- 
sion the editorship of the i Madras Athe- 
naeum/ the ' Newcastle Chronicle,' and, dur- 
ing the latter years of his life, the Belfast 
1 Northern AVhig.' He was an occasional 
contributor to the ' Athenaeum,' and at the 
time of his death he was engaged on a series 
of papers for the ' Cornhill Magazine.' His 
restless mind was ever finding interests too 
much out of the beaten track to allow him 
to be sufficiently absorbed in the events of 
the day ; and his success as a journalist was, 
therefore, hardly proportionate to his abili- 

The two best known of Bruce's books are 
1 Classic and Historic Portraits ' (1853), and 
'Scenes and Sights in the East' (1856). 
The former is a series of sketches descriptive 
of ' the personal appearance, the dress, the 
private habits and tastes of some of the 
most distinguished persons whose names 
figure in history, interspersed but sparingly 
with criticism on their moral and intellectual 
character.' ' Scenes and Sights in the East ' 
is not a continuous book of travels, but a 
collection of picturesque views of life and 
scenery in Southern India and Egypt, with 
quaint observations on manners and men. 
Bruce died at Belfast, 19 Aug. 1861. 




[Scotsman, 22 Aug. 1861 ; Belfast Northern 
Whig, 21 Aug. 1861 ; Athenaeum, 24 Aug. 
1861.] A. M-L. 

and twelfth EARL OF KINCARDINE (1811- 
1863), governor-general of India, second son 
of the seventh earl of Elgin [q. v.], was edu- 
cated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where in 1832 he took a first class in classics, 
and was shortly afterwards elected a fellow 
of Merton. It is a curious coincidence that 
one of the examiners on the latter occasion 
was Sir Edmund Head, who many years after- 
wards succeeded Elgin as governor-general 
of Canada. Among Elgin's contemporaries 
at Christ Church w r ere Lord Dalhousie and 
Lord Canning, his two immediate predecessors 
in the office of governor-general of India, 
the fifth Duke of Newcastle, the first Lord 
Herbert of Lea, and Mr. Gladstone. In a 
contest for the Eldon law scholarship he was 
defeated by Roundell Palmer, now Earl of Sel- 
borne. In April 1841 he married a daughter of 
Mr. C. L. Cumming Bruce, and at the gene- 
ral election in July of the same year he was 
elected member for Southampton, his political 
views being those which were afterwards 
called liberal-conservative. "When parliament 
met, he seconded the amendment to the ad- 
dress, which, being carried by a large majority, 
was followed by the resignation of Lord Mel- 
bourne's government. Shortly afterwards, on 
the death of his father, his elder brother 
having died in the previous year, he succeeded 
to the Scotch earldom, and ceased to be a 
member of the House of Commons. In March 
1842 he was appointed governor of Jamaica. 

Jamaica, at the time of Elgin's appoint- 
ment, was in some respects in a depressed 
condition. The landed proprietary, which 
was mainly represented in the island by paid 
agents, had suffered considerably from the 
abolition of the slave trade. The finances 
required careful management, and the moral 
and intellectual condition of the negro popu- 
lation was very low. In all these matters 
progress had been made under the adminis- 
tration of Elgin's distinguished predecessor, 
Sir Charles Metcalfe; but much still remained 
to be accomplished, especially in the matter 
of educating the negroes. In this, and in 
the important object of encouraging the ap- 
plication of mechanical contrivances to agri- 
culture, Elgin's efforts were very successful, 
and his administration generally was so satis- 
factory that very shortly after leaving Ja- 
maica he was offered by the whig government, 
which had acceded to office in 1846, the im- 
portant post of governor-general of Canada. 
His first wife had died shortly after his ar- 
rival in Jamaica, and in 1847 he married 

, Lady Louisa Mary Lambton, daughter of the 
first Earl of Durham. 

In Canada, as in Jamaica, Elgin again 
succeeded to an office which very recently 
had been filled by Metcalfe, but the diffi- 
culties of the position were far greater than 
* those which had met him in the West Indian 
colony. The rebellion which had taken place 
in Lower Canada in 1837 and 1838 had left 
behind it feelings of bitter animosity between 
the British party, which was most numerous 
in the upper province, and the French Cana- 
dians, who preponderated in Lower Canada. 
1 Pursuant to the recommendations made in 
Lord Durham's celebrated report, Upper and 
i Lower Canada had been united under a single 
I government, and under Sir Charles Bagot, 
j Metcalfe's predecessor as governor-general, 
! constitutional government had been esta- 
! Wished. During the earlier part of Metcalfe's- 
I government the French Canadians and the 
party that sympathised with them had been 
in office ; but a difference of opinion between 
Metcalfe and his council as to his power to 
j make appointments, even to his personal 
! staff, without the assent of the council, 
had led to the resignation of the majority of 
the council, and had been followed by the 
dissolution of the assembly and an election 
i which gave a small majority to the British 
party. Elgin found this party in power, but 
before he had been a year in office another 
general election gave a majority to the other 
! side, and during the remainder of his stay 
in Canada his ministry was composed of 
persons belonging to what may be called 
the liberal party, the chief element in that 
ministry being French Canadian. From the 
first Elgin had very serious difficulties to 
contend with. The famine in Ireland, which 
commenced in the first year of his govern- 
ment, flooded Canada with diseased and 
starving emigrants, whose support had in 
the first instance to be borne by the Cana- 
dians ; the Free Trade Act of 1846 inflicted 
heavy losses upon Canadian millowners and 
merchants ; and last, but not least, the Bri- 
tish party regarded with the keenest resent- 
ment the admission into the government of 
the country of persons some of whom they 
looked upon as rebels. This resentment, on 
the occasion of a bill being passed granting 
compensation for losses incurred in Lower 
Canada during the rebellion, culminated in 
riots and outrages of a grave character. The 
measure in question was the outcome of the 
report of a commission appointed by Met- 
calfe's conservative government in 1845. It 
was denounced both in Canada and in Eng- 
land, and in the latter country, among other 
persons, by Mr. Gladstone, as a measure for 





rewarding rebels for rebellion, and on the 
occasion of the governor-general giving his 
assent to it, his carriage, as he left the House 
of Parliament, was pelted with stones, and 
the House of Parliament was burnt to the 
ground. A few days later, on his going into 
Montreal to receive an address which had been 
passed by the House of Assembly condemning 
the recent outrages and expressing confidence 
in his administration, he was again attacked 
by the mob, some of his staff were struck by 
stones, and it was only by rapid driving that 
he escaped unhurt. The result of these dis- 
turbances was that Montreal was abandoned 
as the seat of government, and for some years 
the sittings of the legislature were held al- 
ternately at Toronto and Quebec. Later on 
the situation was embarrassed by a cry for 
annexation to the United States, caused 
mainly by the commercial depression conse- 
quent upon free trade and the absence of a 
reciprocity treaty with the States. The latter 
was at last concluded in 1854, after negotia- 
tions conducted by Elgin in person. Another 
source of considerable anxiety at this period 
was the practice in vogue among certain 
English statesmen of denouncing the colonies 
as a needless burden upon the mother country. 
But all these difficulties were gradually over- 
come, and when Elgin relinquished the govern- 
ment at the end of 1854, it was generally re- 
cognised that his administration had been a 
complete success. 

For two years after leaving Canada Elgin 
abstained from taking any active part in 
public affairs. On the breaking up of Lord 
Aberdeen's government in the spring of 1855, 
he was offered by Lord Palmerston the chan- 
cellorship of the Duchy of Lancaster with a 
seat in the cabinet ; but wishing to maintain 
an independent position in parliament, while 
according a general support to the govern- 
ment of the day, he declined the offer. 

In 1857, on differences arising with China 
in connection with the seizure of the lorcha 
Arrow, Elgin was sent as envoy to China. 
On reaching Singapore he was met by letters 
from Lord Canning informing him of the 
spread of the Indian mutiny, and urging him 
to send troops to Calcutta from the force 
which was to accompany him to China. With 
this requisition he at once complied, sending 
in fact the whole of the force, but he pro- 
ceeded himself to Hongkong in the expecta- 
tion that the troops would speedily follow. 
Finding that this expectation was not likely 
to be fulfilled, and that the French ambas- 
V sador, who was to be associated with him in 
\his mission, had been delayed, he repaired to 
'Calcutta in H.M.S. Shannon, which he left 
with Lord Canning for the protection of that 

city. Later in the year he returned to China, 
fresh troops having been sent out to replace 
those which had been diverted to India. 
Canton was speedily taken, and some months 
later a treaty was made at Tientsin, providing 
among other matters for the appointment of 
a British minister, for additional facilities 
for British trade, for protection to protestants 
and to Roman catholics, and for a war in- 
demnity. He subsequently proceeded to 
i Japan, where he made a treaty with the go- 
vernment of that country, under which cer- 
tain ports were opened to British trade, and 
foreigners were admitted into the country. 

On his return to England in the spring of 
1859 Elgin was again offered office by Lord 
Palmerston, and accepted that of postmaster- 
general. He was elected lord rector of Glas- 
gow University, and received the freedom of 
the city of London. In the following year 
he was again sent to China, the emperor 
I having failed to ratify the treaty of Tientsin, 
: and committed other unfriendly acts. On the 
voyage out the steamer in which Elgin was 
a passenger was wrecked in Galle harbour. 
The mission was not accomplished without 
fighting. The military opposition was slight, 
but the Chinese resorted to treachery, and 
after having, as was supposed, accepted the 
terms offered by the two envoys (Baron Gros, 
on the part of the French, was again asso- 
ciated with Elgin), carried off some officers 
aud soldiers whom Elgin had sent with a 
letter to the Chinese plenipotentiary, and also 
the ' Times ' correspondent, Mr. Bowlby [q.v.]> 
who had accompanied them. The latter and 
one or two other members of the party were 
murdered. In retribution for this treacherous 
act, the summer palace, the favourite resi- 
dence of the emperor at Pekin, was destroyed. 
A few days later the treaty of Tientsin was 
formally ratified, and a convention was con- 
cluded, containing certain additional stipu- 
lations favourable to the British government. 
Visiting Java on his voyage home, Elgin re- 
turned to England on 11 April 1861, after an 
absence of about a year. 

Elgin had hardly been a month in England 
when he was offered the appointment of 
viceroy and governor-general of India, which 
Lord Canning was about to vacate. It was 
the last public situation which he was destined 
to fill, and he appears to have accepted it 
with some forebodings. In a speech which 
he made to his neighbours at Dunfermline 
shortly before his departure, he observed that 
' the vast amount of labour devolving upon 
the governor-general of India, the insalu- 
brity of the climate, and the advance of 
years, all tended to render the prospect of 
their again meeting remote and uncertain/ 




He left England at the end of January 1862, 
arriving at Calcutta on 12 March. During 
the twenty months which followed, he devoted 
himself with unremitting industry to the 
business of his high office, bringing to bear 
upon it experience acquired in other and 
widely different spheres of duty, but fully 
conscious of the necessity of careful study ; 
of the new set of facts with which he was ' 
brought into contact. < The first virtue,' he 
said to one of his colleagues, l which you and 
I have to practise here at present is self- 
denial. We must, for a time at least, walk 
in paths traced out for us by others.' The 
first eleven months were spent in Calcutta, i 
where, without encountering any serious ill- i 
ness, he suffered a good deal of discomfort 
from the heat. In February 1863 he moved 
to Simla, halting at Benares, Agra, Delhi, 
and other places, and holding durbars, at 
which he made the acquaintance of numerous 
native chiefs and nobles. Spending the sum- 
mer at Simla, on 26 Sept. he started for 
Sealkote, en route to Peshawur, with the in- ! 
tention of then proceeding to Lahore, where, i 
in pursuance of the Indian Councils Act, \ 
passed two years before, the legislative council 
was to assemble. The earlier part of the route 
lay over the Himalayas and the upper valleys 
of the Beas, the Ravi, and the Chenab rivers. 
In the course of it he crossed the twig bridge 
over the river Chandra, an affluent of the 
Chenab. The crossing of this bridge, con- 
structed as it was of a rude texture of birch 
branches, much rent and battered by the wear j 
and tear of the rainy season, involved very 
great physical exertion, and brought on a | 
fatal attack of heart complaint, to which he j 
succumbed at Dharmsala on 20 Nov. 1863. 
Lady Elgin and his youngest daughter were 
with him. A very interesting account of 
his last days, written by his brother-in-law, 
A. P. Stanley, dean of Westminster, is given 
in Mr. Walrond's memoir. 

Of Elgin's character as a public man, the 
most prominent features were the thoroughly j 
practical manner in which he habitually dealt j 
with public questions ; his readiness to as- 
sume responsibility, and the strong sense of < 
duty which enabled him to suppress personal ! 
considerations whenever they appeared to con- j 
flict with the public interests. Of the two ; 
last-mentioned qualities striking evidence i 
was furnished by his prompt resolve to send \ 
the troops destined for China to the aid of I 
the Indian government. Of the first an ex- 
ample was afforded at an early period in his j 
official life. Shortly after his arrival in Ja- 
maica he came into collision with the home 
government on a question of taxation, regard- 
ing which the legislation of the local assembly 

was disapproved in England. Fully recog- 
nising the advantages of free trade/and the 
principles upon which the free-trade policy 
was based, he was not prepared to admit that 
those principles, however sound in the ab- 
stract, ought to be suddenly enforced in a 
colony just emerging from grave financial 
difficulties, and by a temperate representation 
he induced the government to recall an order 
which would otherwise have caused serious 
embarrassment. A few years later, in Ca- 
nada, influenced by similar considerations, 
he brought about, not without delay and 
difficulty, and mainly by his own persistent 
advocacy, the reciprocity treaty with the 
United States. He was charged in some 
quarters with having shown timidity in deal- 
ing with the disturbances at Montreal, but 
the charge was discredited by successive go- 
vernments at home, whose confidence in his 
judgment and firmness was to the last unim- 
paired. The vigour and diplomatic ability 
displayed by him in China in getting his own 
way, both with the Chinese authorities and 
with his French colleague, were very remark- 
able. In China and in India, where he was 
brought into contact with Englishmen and 
other Europeans settled among Asiatic popu- 
lations, he seems to have formed a strong, 
and some persons thought an exaggerated, 
impression of the tendency of Europeans to 
ill-use the inferior races, his letters, both 
public and private, containing frequent and 
indignant allusions to this subject. 

In India his tenure of office was too short 
to admit of any trustworthy estimate being 
formed of his capacity to administer with 
success a system so different from those to 
which he had been accustomed in his previous 
career ; but, had his life been spared, he 
would probably have taken a high place on 
the roll of Indian administrators. In private 
life he was much beloved. His letters show 
that he was a man of warm affections, emi- 
nently domestic, with very decided convic- 
tions on the subject of religion. He was a 
full and facile writer, and a fluent and effec- 
tive speaker, with a style remarkably clear, 
abounding in illustrations from the varied 
stores of a well-furnished and retentive 

[Letters and Journals of James, eighth earl of 
Elgin, ed. Theodore Walrond, 1872; Kaye's Life 
of Lord Metcalfe, 1858 ; personal information.] 

A. J. A. 


(1791-1866), judge, was the youngest son of 
John Knight of Fairlinch, Devonshire, by 
Margaret, daughter and afterwards heiress of 
William Bruce of Llanblethian, Glamorgan- 




shire. He was born at Barnstaple on 15 Feb. 
1791, and was educated at King Edward's 
grammar school, Bath, and the King's school, 
Sherborne. He left Sherborne in 1805, and, 
after spending two years with a mathematical 
tutor, was articled to a solicitor in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. His articles having expired, he 
was, on 21 July 1812, admitted a student 
of Lincoln's Inn. On 21 Nov. 1817 he 
was called to the bar, and for a short time 
went the Welsh circuit. The increase of 
his chancery practice soon caused him to 
abandon the common law bar, and he con- 
fined himself to practising in the equity 
courts. In Michaelmas term 1829 he was 
appointed a king's counsel, and on 6 Nov. in 
the same year was elected a bencher of Lin- 
coln's Inn. Upon taking silk he selected the 
vice-chancellor's court, where Sir Edward 
Sugden, afterwards Lord St. Leonards, was 
the leader. With him Knight had daily con- 
tests until Sugden's appointment as lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland in 1834. In politics Knight 
was a conservative, and in April 1831 he was 
returned for Bishop's Castle, a pocket borough 
belonging to the Earl of Powis. His parlia- 
mentary career, however, was short, for the 
borough was disfranchised by the Reform Bill. 
In 1834 he received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. from the university of Oxford. In 
1835 he was one of the counsel heard at the 
bar of the House of Lords on behalf of the 
municipal corporations against the Municipal 
Reform Bill, and in 1851 on behalf of the 
deans and chapters against the Ecclesiastical 
Duties and Revenues Bill. In August 1837 
he unsuccessfully contested the borough of 
Cambridge, and in September following as- 
sumed the additional surname of Bruce by 
royal license. Upon the abolition of the court 
of exchequer in equity and the transfer of its 
jurisdiction to the court of chancery, he was 
'on 28 Oct. 1841 appointed by Sir Robert Peel 
one of the two additional vice-chancellors 
under 5 Viet. c. 5. He was subsequently 
knighted, and on 15 Jan. 1842 was sworn a 
member of the privy council. In Michaelmas 
term 1842 he undertook the further duties 
of chief judge in bankruptcy, and seven years 
later the exercise of the jurisdiction of the 
old court of review was entrusted to him. 
In 1842-3 he held the yearly office of treasurer 
of Lincoln's Inn, and in virtue of that office 
laid the foundation-stone of the new hall 
-and library of the inn on 20 April 1843. 
Upon the creation of the court of appeal 
in chancery Lord John Russell appointed 
Knight-Bruce and Lord Cranworth the first 
lords justices on 8 Oct. 1851. In this court 
Knight-Bruce sat for nearly sixteen years. 
He died at Roehampton Priory, Surrey, on 

7 Nov. 1866, within a fortnight after his re- 
tirement from the bench, which had been 
occasioned by the gradual failure of his sight 
and the shock which he had sustained by the 
sudden death of his wife in the previous year. 
He was buried in Cheriton churchyard, near 
Folkestone, on the 14th of the same month. 
At the bar he was remarkable for the rapidity 
with which he was always able to make himself 
master of the facts of any case, and for his 
extraordinary memory (see report of ' Hilton 
v. Lord Granville,' Cr. and Ph. 284, and Law 
Mag. and Review, xxii. 281). As a judge he 
showed a wonderful aptitude for business 
and a profound knowledge of law, and so 
anxious was he to shorten procedure and save 
time in the discussion of technicalities, that 
in some of his decisions, which were over- 
ruled by Lord Cottenham, he anticipated re- 
forms which were subsequently made. His 
language was always terse and lucid, and his 
judgments, especially the earlier ones, were 
models of composition (see the case of ' Rey- 
nell v. Sprye,' 1 De Gex, Macnaghten, fy Gor- 
don, 660-711 ; of 'Thomas v. Roberts,' better 
known as the ' Agapemone Case,' 3 De Gex 
8f Smale, 758-81 ; and of ' Burgess v. Burgess,' 
3 De Gex, Macnaghten, $ Gordon, 896-905). 
He frequently sat on the judicial committee 
of the privy council, where his familiarity 
with the civil law and the foreign systems 
of jurisprudence was especially valuable. 
In the celebrated ( Gorham case ' he differed 
from the judgment of the majority of the 
court, which was pronounced by Lord Lang- 
dale, M.R., on 8 March 1850. On 20 Aug. 
1812 he married Eliza, the daughter of Thomas 
Newte of Duvale, Devonshire, by whom he 
had several children. Two portraits were 
| taken of him, by George Richmond, R.A., 
I and Woolnoth respectively, both of which 
! have been engraved. 

[Foss (1864), ix. 151-4; Law Mag. and Eev. 
xxii. 278-93; Law Journal, i. 564-5, 607-8; 
I Solicitors' Journal, xi. 25, 53-4, 79 ; Law Times, 
! xlii. 21, 48, 57, 303 ; Gent. Mag. 1866, new ser. 
: ii. 681,' 818, 833-5; Annual Register (1866), 
i Chron. 218-19.] G-. F. E. B. 

BRUCE, JOHN (1745-1826), historian, 
| was heir male of the ancient family of Bruce 
of Earlshall, one of the oldest cadets of the 
i illustrious house of Bruce; but he did not suc- 
1 ceed to the estate of his ancestors, which was 
transferred by marriage into another family. 
He inherited from his father only the small 
property of Grangehill, near Kinghorn, Fife- 
shire, the remains of a larger estate which his 
family acquired by marriage with a grand- 
daughter of the renowned Kirkcaldy of 
Grange. He received his education at the 


1 08 


university of Edinburgh, where he was ap- 
pointed professor of logic. Having acquitted 
himself to the satisfaction of Viscount Mel- 
ville in the education of his son, that noble- 
man obtained for him a gTant of the rever- 
sion, conjointly with Sir James Hunter Blair, 
of the patent of king's printer and stationer 
for Scotland, an office which did not open 
to them until fifteen or sixteen years later. 
Through the influence of Lord Melville, Bruce 
was likewise appointed keeper of the state 
paper office, and secretary for the Latin lan- 
guage and historiographer to the East India 
Company. He was M.P. for the borough of 
Michael or Midshall, Cornwall, from February 
1809 till July 1814, and for a short time se- 
cretary to the board of control. He was a 
fellow of the Royal Societies of London, Edin- 
burgh, and Gottingen. His death occurred 
at his seat of Nuthill, Fifeshire, on 16 April 

Bruce was an accurate historian and an 
elegant scholar, and produced several valuable 
works, some of which were privately printed 
for confidential use by members of the go- 
vernment. Their titles are: 1. ' First Princi- 
ples of Philosophy,' Edinburgh, 1780, 1781, 
1785, 8vo. 2. ' Elements of the Science of 
Ethics, or the Principles of Natural Philo- 
sophy,' London, 1786, 8vo. 3. * Historical 
View of Plans for the Government of British 
India,' 1793, 4to. 4. ' Review of the Events 
and Treaties Avhich established the Balance 
of Power in Europe, and the Balance of 
Trade in favour of Great Britain,' London, 
1796, 8vo. 5. ' Report on the Arrangements 
which were made for the internal Defence 
of these Kingdoms when Spain by its Armada 
projected the Invasion and Conquest of Eng- 
land,' London, 1798, 8vo, privately printed 
for the use of ministers at the time of Bona- 
parte's threatened invasion. On this report 
Pitt grounded his measures of the provisional 
cavalry and army of reserve. 6. 'Report 
on the Events and Circumstances which 
produced the Union of the Kingdoms of 
England and Scotland ; on the effects of this 
great National Event on the reciprocal in- 
terests of both Kingdoms : and on the poli- 
tical and commercial influence of Great 
Britain in the Balance of Power in Europe,' 
2 vols., London [1799], 8vo. These papers 
were collected by the desire of the fourth 
Duke of Portland, then secretary of state, 
when the question of union between Great 
Britain and Ireland came under the con- 
sideration of the government. 7. ' Report on 
the Arrangements which have been adopted 
in former periods, when France threatened 
Invasions of Britain or Ireland, to frustrate 
the designs of the enemy by attacks on his 

foreign possessions or European ports, by 
annoying his coasts, and by destroying his 
equipments,' London [1801], 8vo, privately 
printed for the government. 8. ' Annals of 
the East India Company from their establish- 
ment by the Charter of Queen Elizabeth, 
1600, to the union of the London and Eng- 
lish East India Company, 1707-8,' 3 vols., 
London, 1810, 4to. 9. ' Report on the Re- 
newal of the Company's Exclusive Privileges 
of Trade for twenty years from March 1794/ 
London, 1811, 4to. 10. ' Speech in the Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons on India 
Affairs,' London, 1813, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. xcvi. (ii.) 87, '(new series) iv. 
327 ; Martin's Privately Printed Books, 133, 
138, 142, 149, 156; Biog. Diet, of Living 
Authors (1816), 42; Beloe's Anecdotes, ii. 432; 
Smith's Bibl. Cantiana, 85 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 293 ; McCulloch's 
Lit. Pol. Econ. 106; Lists of Members of Par- 
liament (official return), ii. 243, 258; Cat. of 
Printed Books in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

BRUCE, JOHN (1802-1869), antiquary,, 
a native of London, though of a Scotch 
family, was educated partly at private 
schools in England, and partly at the gram- 
mar school of Aberdeen. Although brought 
up to the law, he did not practise after 1840, 
and from that time gave himself wholly to 
historical and antiquarian pursuits, to which 
he had already devoted much attention. H& 
took a prominent part in the foundation of the 
Camden Society, held office in it as treasurer 
[ and director, and contributed to its publica- 
! tions : ' The Historie of the Arrivall of 
i Edward IV,' 1838, the first volume of the 
j society's works ; ' Annals of the First Four 
Years of Queen Elizabeth,' 1840 ; ' Corre- 
spondence of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leyces- 
| ter,' 1844 ; < Verney Papers,' 1845 ; ' Letters 
| of Queen Elizabeth and James VI,' 1849 ; a 
I preface to ' Chronicon Petroburgense,' 1849 ; 
j ' Letters and Papers of the Verney Family/ 
| 1853 ; ' Charles I in 1646,' 1856 ; ' Liber 
; Famelicus ' of Sir James Whitelocke, 1858 ; 
I ' Correspondence of James VI with Cecil, r 
I 1861 ; a preface to ' Proceedings principally 
i in the County of Kent . . . from the collec- 
tions of Sir E. Dering,' 1861 ; conjointly with 
J. G. Nichols's < Wills from Doctors 5 Com- 
! mons,' 1863 ; an ' Inquiry into the Genuine- 
' ness of a. Letter dated 3 Feb. 1613,' 1864, in 
the ' Miscellany,' v. 7 ; ' Accounts and Papers- 
relating to Mary Queen of Scots,' conjointly 
with A. J. Crosby, 1867; 'Journal of a 
Voyage ... by Sir Kenelm Digby,' 1868 ; 
< Notes of the Treaty of Ripon,' 1869. He 
was for some time treasurer and vice-presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
contributed many papers to the 'Archaeo- 




logia,' among which his ' Inquiry into the | 
Authenticity of the Paston Letters,' xli. 15, ' 
may be especially mentioned. He also printed 
two letters relating to the affairs of the society j 
in 1852. He wrote occasionally in the , 
' Edinburgh Review ' and other periodicals, i 
and was for some years editor of the ' Gentle- ( 
man's Magazine.' For the Berkshire Ash- ! 
molean Society he edited a volume of ' Origi- ' 
nal Letters relating to Archbishop Laud's 
Benefactions/ 1841, and for the Parker So- 
ciety the ' Works of R. Hutchinson,' 1842, 
and conjointly with the Rev. T. Perowne | 
the ' Correspondence of Archbishop Parker,' 
1853. In 1857? he contributed an edition of 
Cowper's poems to the Aldine edition of i 
poets. He edited the Calendars of State 
Papers, Domestic Series, Charles I, 1625- 
1639, 12 vols. published under the direction 
of the master of the rolls, 1858-1871, the 
last volume being completed by Mr. W. D. 
Hamilton, and in 1867 printed privately j 
papers relating to William, first earl of i 
Gowrie. In 1861 he was appointed by 
the Society of Antiquaries a trustee of , 
Sir John Soane's Museum. He was a man j 
of a noble simplicity of character, and was 
much beloved by all who worked with him. 
He had been a widower for some years 
before his death, which occurred very sud- 
denly at London, 28 Oct. 1869. His manu- 
scripts deposited in the British Museum are : 
Catalogue of State Papers in the State ' 
Paper Office and the British Museum, and j 
class catalogues of manuscripts in the Bri- 
tish Museum, Add. MSS. 28197-28202, and ; 
a classified list of the letters of William j 
Cowper, Add. MS. 29716. 

[The Times, 3 and 4 Nov. 1869; J. G. 
Nichols's Catalogue of the Works of the Camden 
Society, 2nd edit. 1872; Thompson Cooper's 
Biog. Diet., supplement; Men of the Time, ed. 
1868; Notes and Queries, 4th series, iv. 443; 
Catalogue of Additional MSS. in the British 
Museum.] W. H. 

BRUCE, SIR JOHNHOPE (1684P-1766), 
of Kinross, soldier and statesman, and reputed 
author of the ballad ' Hardyknute,' was the 
third son of Sir Thomas Hope, bart., of Craig- 
hall, Fife. His mother was the sole heir of Sir 
William Bruce, bart., of Kinross, and hence 
comes the name of the son, which in the family 
records stands as Sir John Bruce Hope. On 
the death of his elder brothers without heirs 
he succeeded to the estates, and came to be 
popularly known as Sir John Bruce of Kin- 
ross. Besides serving in the Swedish army, 
Bruce gained distinction as a soldier at home, 
rising to the rank of lieutenant-general. His 
public career likewise includes the governor- 

ship of the Bermudas and the representation 
of Kinross-shire in Parliament. He died at the 
age of eighty-two, and was buried at Kinross. 
His first wife was Catherine Halket of Pit- 
ferran, near Dimfermline, and it is her sister, 
Lady Wardlaw, who divides with Bruce the 
honour of having written ' Hardyknute.' It is 
extremely difficult with the existing evidence 
to decide which of the two wrote the poem 
if indeed it was not their joint composition 
but the best critics incline to give the credit 
to Bruce. Pinkerton, who wrote a sequel to 
the vigorous fragment, is quite decided in that 
view, restinghis conclusion on a letter to Lord 
Binning, in which Bruce says he found the 
manuscript in a vault at Dunfermline. Percy 
accepts Pinkerton's argument and inference, 
and Irving, the most competent judge since 
their day, while acknowledging the difficulties 
of the case, is clearly inclined to agree with 
them. Unfortunately neither Lady Wardlaw 
nor Bruce left any authentic poetical compo- 
sition, though Pinkerton would have little 
hesitation in attributing to Bruce not only 
' Hardyknute ' but other members of Ram- 
say's ' Evergreen ' as well. There exists, how- 
ever, testimony of various friends as to the 
exceptional accomplishments of Lady Ward- 
law, and as to the probability, amounting al- 
most to a certainty, that she was the sole and 
unaided author of the ballad [see WARDLAW, 

[Burke's Peerage ; Pinkerton's Ancient Scottish 
Poems; Percy's Reliques ; Chalmers's Life of 
Allan Ramsay ; Chalmers's History of Dunferm- 
line ; Irving's Scottish Poets.] T. B. 

BRUCE, MICHAEL (1635-1693), pres- 
byterian minister, was the first of a line of 
seven Bruces, presbyterian ministers in Ire- 
land in six successive generations. He was 
the third and youngest son of Patrick Bruce 
of Newtown, Stirlingshire, by Janet, second 
daughter of John Jackson, merchant of Edin- 
burgh. Robert Bruce [q. v.], who anointed 
Anne of Denmark at Holy rood, 17 May 1590, 
was his grand-uncle. Bruce graduated at 
Edinburgh in 1654. He is said to have begun 
to preach in 1656. In that year John Liv- 
ingstone of Ancrum, formerly minister of 
Killinchy, co. Down, paid a visit to his old 
charge, with a view to settle there again. 
This he did not do, but on returning to Scot- 
land he looked out for a likely man for Kil- 
linchy, and at length sent Bruce with a let- 
ter (dated 3 July 1657) to Captain James 
Moore of Ballybregah ' to be communicated 
to the congregation.' Bruce was ordained at 
Killinchy by the Down presbytery in October 
1657. At the Restoration Bruce's position 
was very precarious, but he refused a call 




to Bothkennar, Stirlingshire, in 1660, and 
though deprived for nonconformity by Bishop 
Jeremy Taylor, he continued to preach and 
administer the sacraments ' at different places 
in the parish, in kilns, barns, or woods, and 
often in the night.' Patrick Adair [q. v.], 
though he pays a high tribute to Bruce's ' in- 
tegrity and good intentions/ yet intimates 
that he and other young ministers did more 
harm than good, affixing the stigma of law- 
lessness on the whole presbyterian party in 
Ulster. On 23 June 1664 he was outlawed, 
along with John Crookshanks of Raphoe, and 
ordered to give himself up to the authorities 
on 27 July. At length, in 1665 or 1666, 
Bruce returned to Scotland, not to keep 
quiet there, for in June 1666 his field preach- 
ings procured him a citation before the lords 
of the privy council in Edinburgh as ' a pre- 
tended minister and a fugitive from Ireland.' 
He did not answer the summons, but per- 
sisted in his ' seditious and factious doctrine 
and practice.' Early in June 1668 he was 
arrested, in his own hired house near Stir- 
ling, by Captain George Erskine, governor of 
Stirling Castle. He made every effort to es- 
cape, wounding one of his captors, and being 
himself badly wounded. He was lodged in 
the castle, and the privy council on 4 June 
directed that no one should have access to 
him, ' except it be physicians or chirurgeons.' 
On 18 June order was given to transfer him 
to the Edinburgh Tolbooth, and on 2 July 
he was charged before the council by the 
king's advocate. Admitting and defending 
his practice of preaching and baptising in 
houses and the fields, he was banished out 
of his majesty's dominions of Scotland, Eng- 
land, and Ireland, under the penalty of 
death. He signed a bond of compliance. 
From the print of his sermon, preached in 
the Tolbooth on the following Sunday, it ap- 
pears that Virginia was to be the place of his 
exile. But an order from Whitehall (dated 
9 July) directed the privy council to send 
him up to London ' by the first conveniency 
by sea.' On 13 Sept. he was conveyed to 
Prestonpans, and thence in the ship John 
to London. A royal warrant committed him 
to the Gatehouse at Westminster. It is said 
that he was to have been transported to Tan- 
gier. His wife in vain presented his petition 
for ' sustenance or release.' He was allowed 
to preach at the Gatehouse, and among his 
audience was Lady Castlemaine, one of 
Charles IFs favourites. Through her influ- 
ence a second petition (still extant) was more 
successful. The king declined to remit the 
sentence of banishment, but allowed Bruce 
to select his place of transportation. With 
much quickness he at once asked to be sent 

to ' Killinchy in the woods.' The end was 
that his kinsman, the Earl of Elgin, pro- 
cured for him a writ quashing all past sen- 
tences, and he got back to Killinchy with his 
family in April 1670. In the summer of 
that year his people set about building him 
a meeting-house (rebuilt 1714). Though 
Roger Boyle, who had succeeded Jeremy 
Taylor as bishop of Down and Connor, insti- 
tuted proceedings against him and others for 
preaching without license, Berkeley, the lord- 
lieutenant, and James Margetson, the pri- 
mate, intervened, and the presbyterians were 
left unmolested. In 1679 Bruce signed an ad- 
dress presented by the Down presbytery to the 
Irish government, disclaiming any complicity 
with the rising of the Scottish covenanters- 
put down at Bothwell Bridge. He was fre- 
quently over in Scotland during this period ; 
we find him in 1672 at Carluke, and in 1685 
in Galloway. His final retreat to Scotland 
was in 1689, when the war broke out, and he 
was ' forced over from Ireland to Galloway 
by the Irishes.' He had several offers of a 
charge, but went of his own accord to An- 
woth, Wigtonshire, a parish made famous by 
the ministry of Samuel Rutherford. The late 
incumbent, James Shaw, had been ousted by 
the people. Bruce was a member of the 
general assembly of 1690. He was called to- 
Jedburgh, but decided to remain at Anwoth. 
Some curious stories are told of his predic- 
tions ; the most remarkable is, that on 27 July 
1689, the day of the battle of Killiecrankie, 
he was preaching at Anwoth, and declared 
that Claverhouse ' shall be cut short this day. 
I see him killed and lying a corpse.' At 
Anwoth he died in 1693, and was buried in 
the church. He was in his fifty-ninth year, 
and the thirty-seventh of his ministry. He 
married (contract dated 30 May 1659) his 
cousin Jean, daughter of Robert Bruce of 
Kinnaird, and granddaughter of the Robert 
Bruce mentioned above. In his second peti- 
tion from the Gatehouse he speaks of his 
' family of young and helpless children left 
behind him ' in Scotland. Three of his chil- 
dren died young, and were buried at Kil- 
linchy. His eldest son was James [q. v.] 
Bruce published nothing himself, and the 
rough quaint sermons issued as . his were 
taken from the notes of his" hearers. 1. 'A 
Sermon preached by Master Michael Bruice, 
in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, the immediate 
Sabbath after he received the sentence of 
exile for Virginia,' 4to, n.d. (text, Ps. cxl. 
12, 13). 2. ' The Rattling of the Dry Bones ; 
or, a sermon preached in the night-time at 
Chapel-yard in the parish of Carluke, Clyds- 
dale, May 1672,' 4to, n.d. (text, Ezek. xxxvii. 
7, 8). 3. ' Six Dreadful Alarms in order to 




the right improving of the Gospel ; or the 
substance of a sermon, &c.,' 4to, n.d. (text, 
Matt. vii. 24; printed about 1700). 4. ' Soul 
Confirmation ; or a sermon preached in the 
parish of Cambusnethen in Olyds-dail,' &c. 
1709, 4to (text, Acts xiv. 22). 5. 'A Col- 
lection of Lectures and Sermons, preached 
mostly in the time of the late persecution,' 
&c., Glasgow, 1779, 8vo (edited by J. H., 
i.e. John Howie ; reprinted as i Sermons de- 
livered in times of persecution in Scotland,' 
Edin. 1880, 8vo, with biographical notices by 
the Rev. James Kerr, Greenock; contains 
three sermons by Bruce on Gen. xlii. 25, Ps. 
cxix. 133, and Mark ix. 13). 6. A manu- 
script collection by Daniel Mussenden, mer- 
chant of Belfast, 1704, contains a sermon on 
Matt, xxviii. 1-4, ' preached in Scotland ' by 
' Mr. Mihail Bruce.' 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot.; Woclrow's 
Hist. vol. ii. and Analecta ; Eeid's Formal Chris- 
tians, Belf. 1729, pref. ; Original Letters to 
E. Bruce, Dublin, 1828 ; J. S. Eeid, in Orthod. 
Presbyterian, February 1831 ; Grub's Eccl. Hist, 
of Scotland, 1861, ii. 247; Adair's True Narrative 
(Killen), 1866, pp. 258 sq. ; Eeid's Hist. Presb. Ireland (Killen), 1867, ii. 219 sq. ; Withe- 
row's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presbyterianism in 
Ireland, 1st ser. 1879, pp. 46 sq. ; Cuming-Bruce's 
Fam. Eecords of the Bruces and the Cumyns, 
1870, pp. 362, 384 ; Kerr's biog. notice, 1880 ut 
sup. ; Porter's Seven Bruces, in N. Whig, 6 April 
1885; information from a descendant.] A. Or. 

BRUCE, MICHAEL (1686-1735), Irish 
presbyterian minister, eldest son of James 
Bruce, minister of Killeleagh [q. v.], born 
27 July 1686, was licensed by the Down pres- 
bytery at Downpatrick on 27 Oct. 1708, after 
subscribing the Westminster Confession, and 
promising not to ' follow any divisive courses 
all the days of my life.' He was ordained 
minister of Holywood, co. Down, on 10 Oct. 
1711, and acquired the reputation of a quiet, 
solid preacher. He was a member of the 
ministerial club, founded in 1705, and subse- 
quently known as the Belfast Society. This 
body, of which the mainspring was John 
Abernethy of Antrim [q. v.], exercised a 
powerful influence in liberalising the pres- 
byterian theology of Ulster. When, in 1720, 
the nonsubscription controversy broke out, 
his father, James Bruce, became a subscriber. 
Bruce, who broke with Calvinistic orthodoxy, 
became a decided nonsubscriber, and in 1723 
was one of the four ministers accused by 
Colonel Upton at the Belfast sub-synod as 
1 holding principles which opened a door to 
let all heresy and error into the church.' 
In 1724 he protested against the exclusion 
of Thomas Nevin of Downpatrick for alleged 
heresy. He preached what was intended as 

a healing sermon, on 5 Jan. 1725, before the 
sub-synod. That same year he was placed 
with the other nonsubscribers by the general 
synod of Ulster in a separate presbytery 
(Antrim), and in 1726 the Antrim presbytery, 
of which Bruce was clerk, was excluded from 
the general synod, and became a distinct 
ecclesiastical body. A subscribing congre- 
gation was soon formed at Holywood, under 
William Smith, and most of Bruce's hearers 
deserted him. Wodrow says he had only 
ten or twelve families left, yielding a stipend 
of scarcely 4/. To improve his position, a 
fortnightly evening lecture was established 
in First Belfast, and Bruce was appointed 
lecturer, at 20/. a year. His reputation as 
a minister was high, but he wrote so little 
that it is difficult to form a judgment of his 
merits. He is believed to have had a prin- 
cipal hand in the nonsubscribers' historical 
statement, ' A Narrative of the Proceedings 
of Seven General Synods of the Northern 
Presbyterians in Ireland,' &c., Belfast, 1727, 
8vo (the preface is signed by Samuel Hali- 
day, moderator, and Michael Bruce, clerk). 
He died 1 Dec. 1735, and was buried at Holy- 
wood, where Haliday preached his funeral 
sermon (Ps. xxxvii. 37) on 7 Dec. In 1716 
he married Mary Ker, and had four children. 
Samuel Bruce [q. v.] was his son. He pub- 
lished only, l The Duty of Christians to live 
together in religious communion, recom- 
mended in a sermon,' &c., Belfast, 1725, 8vo. 

[Haliday's Funeral Sermon, 1735 ; Appendix to 
Duchal's Sermon for Abernethy, 1741, pp. 36 sq. ; 
Bible Christian, 1841, p. Ill ; Witherow's Hist, 
and Lit. Memorials of Presbyterianism in Ire- 
land, 1st series, 1879, pp. 295 sq. ; Porter's Seven 
Bruces, in N. Whig, 16 April 1885.] A. G-. 

BRUCE, MICHAEL (1746-1767), poet, 
the fifth of eight children of Alexander 
Bruce, weaver, was born at Kinnesswood, a 
hamlet in the parish of Portmoak, on the 
eastern shore of Lochleven, Kinross-shire, on 
27 March 1746. His father was an elder of 
the seceding church which adhered to Tho- 
mas Mair of Orwell, Kinross-shire, ejected 
from the anti-burgher synod for holding that 
1 there is a sense in which Christ died for 
all men.' Bruce, who was a quick and deli- 
cate boy, was early taught to read and write, 
and was made useful as a * wee herd loon ' in 
tending sheep. At the village school his 
great companion was William Arnot, to 
whose memory he wrote ' Daphnis ' in May 
1765. At the age of eleven he had resolved 
to be a minister. When he was about six- 
teen his father received a bequest of 200 
merks Scots (III. 2s. 2d.\ which he devoted 
to his son's education. Bruce was enrolled 




in the Greek class at Edinburgh University, 
under Robert Hunter, on 17 Dec. 1762. He 
attended three sessions at Edinburgh, not 
confining himself to the arts course (for in 
1763 he took Hebrew along with natural 
philosophy), and taking pleasure in belles 
lettres and poetry. He acquired, as his 
letters show, an admirable prose style, and 
contributed some poems to the Literary So- 
ciety. Leaving the university in 1765, he 
became schoolmaster at Gairney Bridge, in 
the parish of Cleish, Kinross-shire, on the j 
western side of Lochleven. He had twenty- 
eight pupils, at the rate of 2s. a quarter, and 
free board with their parents in rotation. 
He wrote a poetical appeal to the managers 
for a new table, and contemplated the pub- 
lication of a volume of poems. While 
boarding in the house of one Grieve of 
Classlochie he fell in love with his pupil, 
his host's daughter Magdalene. He cele- 
brates her in his ' Alexis ' (under the name 
of Eumelia) and in two songs. She married 
David Low. Still eager for the ministry, 
Bruce found that the anti-burgher synod 
would not receive him as a student, owing 
to his connection with Mair. Accordingly 
he applied, to the burgher synod, and was 
enrolled in the classes of John Swanston, 
minister at Kinross. In 1766 he looked out 
for a new school, and found one at Forrest 
Mill, near Tillicoultry, Clackmannanshire. 
To this period belongs his correspondence 
with his father's apprentice, David Pearson, 
who had settled at Easter Balgedie, near 
Kinnesswood. He fell ill, being in fact 
seized with consumption, but was for the 
time restored through the skill of .John Mil- 
lar, M.D., to whom he addressed some grate- 
ful lines, enclosed to Pearson on 20 Nov. 
1766. On 7 Dec. he mentions his 'Loch- 
leven ' as being ' now finished.' David Arnot 
(with whom Bruce had kept up a literary 
correspondence, often in Latin) is portrayed 
in it as Agricola ; Lselius is thought to be 
George Henderson, a college friend, who died 
in 1793. At length ill-health forced him to 
resign his school in the course of the winter, 
and he made his way home on foot. In the 
spring he penned his touching ' Elegy ' on his 
own approaching death. On 5 July (6 July, 
ANDERSON) 1767 he was found dead in his bed. 
His father (of whom there is a memoir by Pear- 
son in the Edinburgh ' Missionary Chronicle,' 
1797) followed him on 19 July 1772. 

During Bruce's life his ballad of l Sir 
James the Ross ' was printed in a newspaper. 
His ' Lochleven,' his ' Pastoral Song/ and 
his song 'Lochleven no more' (in both of 
which Peggy is Magdalene Grieve) appeared 
in the ' Edinburgh Magazine.' At the time 

of his death, John Logan, his class-fellow, 
then tutor in the family of Sir John Sin- 
clair, undertook to bring out a volume of 
his friend's poems, and for this purpose got 
possession of most of Bruce's manuscripts, 
consisting of poems and letters, and espe- 
cially a quarto volume into which, in his 
last illness, he had transcribed his poems. 
Not till 1770 did Logan issue the small 
volume of ' Poems on several Occasions, by 
Michael Bruce,' Edinburgh, 12mo, prefixing a 
very well-written biographical preface. It 
contains but seventeen pieces, including some 
by different authors ; l the only other author 
ever specified by Logan was Sir John Foulis, 
bart., to whom the Vernal Ode is ascribed by 
Dr. Anderson ' (GROS ART) . Pearson maintains 
that the whole contents of the volume were 
known to him as Bruce's except this ode, the 
' Ode to the Fountain,' ' Ode to Paoli,' t Chorus 
of Elysian Bards,' and ' Danish Odes.' More- 
over, to Bruce's companions the volume ap- 
peared strangely defective. His father at 
once said, ' Where are my son's Gospel son- 
nets ? ' He went to Edinburgh for the manu- 
scripts, and got some of the papers, but 
never recovered the aforesaid quarto. The 
chagrin hastened the old man's death. In 
the ' Weekly Magazine, or Edinburgh Amuse- 
ment ' of 5 May 1774 the 'Ode to the 
Cuckoo/ from the 1770 book, appears as a 
contribution signed ' R. D. : ' in the next num- 
ber the piracy is exposed, and the real 
initials of the thief are said to be 'B. M.' 
A charming paper in the ' Mirror ' (No. 36, 
Saturday, 29 May 1779, signed < P./ and as- 
cribed to William Craig, one of the lords of 
session) drew public attention to Bruce's 
genius, as exhibited in the 1770 volume. 
Two years later Logan published ' Poems, by 
the Rev. Mr. Logan, one of the ministers of 
Leith/ 1781, 8vo. The first piece in this 
volume is the ' Ode to the Cuckoo/ with a 
few verbal changes from the 1770 issue ; at 
the end are nine hymns, the first and fifth 
being revisions of hymns already in print. 
All these hymns and adaptations are claimed 
for Bruce by his brother James, who says he 
had heard them repeated. The Scottish 
kirk adopted them into its ' Paraphrases ' in 
1781, and from this source they have been 
introduced into innumerable hymn-books. 
With regard to the / Ode to the Cuckoo/ on 
which the controversy mainly turns, there 
is an accumulation of evidence. Bruce 
writes that he had composed a ' poem about 
a gowk.' A copy of the ode in Bruce's 
handwriting is said to have been seen by 
Dr. Davidson of Kinross, and by Principal 
Baird of Edinburgh. Pearson affirms that 
Alexander Bruce read the poem aloud from 



his son's quarto book, a few days after 
Michael's death. It was never seen in Lo- 
gan's handwriting before 1767, the year in 
which he obtained Bruce's manuscripts. 
After publishing his own volume, Logan in 
1781-2 tried to prevent by law a reprint of 
the 1770 book ; but it was reprinted at Edin- 
burgh for a Stirling bookseller in 1782. It 
was reprinted in 1784, 1796, and 1807. 
Against Logan it is urged that his posthu- 
mously published sermons (1790-1) show 
plagiarisms ; and that he claimed as his own 
(using them as candidate for a chair at Edin- 
burgh) a course of lectures afterwards pub- 
lished in his lifetime by Dr. W. Rutherford. 
The vindication of Bruce's authorship of the 
contested poems and hymns was ably under- 
taken by William Mackelvie, D.D., of Bal- 
gedie, in his ' Lochleven and other Poems, 
by Michael Bruce ; with Life of the Author 
from original sources,' Edinburgh, 1837, 8vo, 
and has been further pursued by the Rev. Dr. 
Grosart, in his edition of Bruce's ' Works,' 
1865, 8vo, with memoir and notes. On the 
other hand, the claim of Logan is advocated 
in David Laing's ' Ode to the Cuckoo, with 
remarks on its authorship, &c.,' 1873 (pri- 
vately printed). A strong point is that the 
Rev. Dr. Thomas Robertson, minister of Dal- 
meny, writes to Baird on 22 Feb. 1791, say- 
ing that he and Logan had looked over the 
manuscripts of Bruce together; and the 
cuckoo ode is not among those he identifies 
as Bruce's. In the article ' Michael Bruce ' 
in the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica' (ninth 
edition, 1876, iv. 393) stress is laid on the 
admission of Logan's authorship of the l Ode 
to the Cuckoo ' by Isaac D'Israeli, Thomas 
Campbell, Robert Chambers, and David 
Laing. The writer erroneously supposes 
that Bruce's title to this ode was first (after 
Logan's claim) brought forward by Mac- 
kelvie. The letters of Pearson (29 Aug. 
1795) and Joseph Birrel (31 Aug. 1795), 
claiming the ode for Bruce, are given by 
Anderson in his life of Logan (1795). Later 
defences of Logan's claim will be found in 
the 'Brit, and For. Evangelical Review,' 
1877 and 1878, articles by John Small, M.A. 
(reprinted separately) and Rev. R. Small. 
It is not easy to relieve Logan of the charge 
of having appropriated Bruce's poem ; at the 
same time his alterations, so far as they can 
be traced, appear to be improvements on the 
original work. 

[Life, by Robert Anderson, M.D., in his 
British Poets, vol. ix. 1795, pp. 273 sq., 1029 sq., 
1221 sq. ; Miller's Our Hymns, their Authors 
and Origin, 1866, pp. 242 sq., 247 sq. ; Shairp, 
in Good Words, November 1873 ; authorities 
cited above.] A. G. 


BRUCE, PETER HENRY (1692-1757), 
military adventurer, was born at Detring 
Castle in Westphalia, his mother's home, in 
1692. He was descended from the Bruces of 
Airth, Stirlingshire. His grandfather, John 
Bruce, took refuge from the Cromwellian 
troubles in the service of the Elector of Bran- 
denburg, and his father was born in Prussia, 
and obtained a commission in a Scotch regi- 
ment in the same service. The father accom- 
panied his regiment on its return to Scotland 
in 1698, and took his wife and child with him. 
The boy was now sent to school at Cupar in 
Fife for three years, after which he remained 
three years more with his father at Fort Wil- 
liam. In 1704 his father took him to Germany, 
and left him with his mother's family, by 
whom he was sent to a military academy to 
learn fortification. Soon after his uncle Re- 
beur, who was colonel of a regiment serving 
in Flanders, took charge of him, and entered 
him in the Prussian service (1706). He got 
his commission in his sixteenth year (1708), 
in consequence of distinguished conduct at 
the siege of Lille, and he appears to have 
been present at a considerable number of the 
battles and sieges in which Prince Eugene's 
troops took part. In 1711 he quitted the 
Prussian service, and entered that of Peter the 
Great of Russia, on the invitation of a distant 
cousin of his own name, who held high rank 
in the Russian army at that time. He was sent 
with despatches to Constantinople in 1711, 
and his ' Memoirs ' give an interesting account 
of that city as he saw it. His ' Memoirs ' also 
contain many interesting anecdotes of Peter 
the Great and his court during the years 
1711-24, for the greater part of which period 
Bruce appears to have lived at St. Peters- 
burg when not following the czar on his 
expeditions. In 1722 he accompanied the 
Persian expedition led by the czar. They 
sailed down the Volga from Nischnei-Novgo- 
rod to Astrachan, and then coasted along the 
western shore of the Caspian as far'as Derbent, 
passing through the countries of several 
Tartar tribes, of whose manners and habits 
he gives a very good account. 

After this expedition he at last succeeded 
in obtaining leave of absence for a year, and 
quitted Russia in 1724, determined never to 
see it again. He now returned to Cupar 
after an absence of twenty years, and settling 
down on a small estate left him by his grand- 
uncle, he married, and turned farmer for six- 
teen years, during which time he had several 
children. In 1740, desiring to increase his 
income, he again took military service, and 
was sent by the British government to the 
Bahamas to carry out some fortifications 
there. Five years later he again returned 





to England, and was immediately employed 
in the north, fortifying Berwick and other 
towns against the Pretender. Here his ' Me- 
moirs ' abruptly break off; but we learn from 
the 'advertisement' prefixed to the edition 
of 1782, that he retired the same year (1745) 
to his house in the country, where he died 
in 1757. His ' Memoirs,' his only literary 
work, were originally written, as he tells us, 
in German, his native language, and were 
translated by him into English in 1755. 
They were printed at London in 1782 for his 
widow, and are favourably noticed in the 
' Monthly Review' for that year. They are 
pleasantly written, and show very close and 
intelligent observation. 

[Bruce's Memoirs ; Monthly Review, 1782.1 

G. V. B. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE I (d. 1094 ?), was 
an ancestor of the king of Scotland who made 
the name of Bruce or Brus famous. The family 
is a singular example of direct male descent in 
the Norman baronage, and it is necessary to 
distinguish with care the different individuals 
who bore the same surname, and during eight 
generations the Christian name of Robert. 
The surname has been traced by some genea- 
logists beyond Normandy to a Norse follower 
of its conqueror Rollo, a descendant of whose 
brother, Einar, earl of Orkney, called Brusi 
(which means in old Norse a goat), is said 
to have accompanied Rollo and built a castle 
in the diocese of Coutances. A later Brusi, 
son of Sigurd the Stout, was Earl of Orkney, 
and died 1031. But the genealogy cannot 
be accepted. The name is certainly terri- 
torial, and is most probably derived from 
the lands and castle of Brin or Bruis, of 
which a few remains in the shape of vaults 
and foundations can still be traced between 
Cherbourg and Vallonges. More than one 
de Bruce came with the Conqueror to Eng- 
land, and the contingent of ' li sires de 
Bre'aux ' is stated at two hundred men (LE- 
LAND, Collectanea, i. 202). Their services 
were rewarded by forty-three manors in the 
East and West, and fifty-one in the North 
Riding of Yorkshire upwards of 40,000 
acres of land, which fell to the lot of Robert 
de Bruce I, the head of the family. Of the 
Yorkshire manors the chief was Skelton in 
Cleveland, not far from Whitby, the seat of 
the elder English branch of the Braces after 
the younger migrated to Scotland and be- 
came lords of Annandale. 

[Orkneyinga Saga; Ord's History of Cleve- 
land, p. 198; Domesday, Yorkshire, 332 b, 333, 
and Kelham's Illustrations, p. 121 ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 44-7. Registry m Honoris de Rich- 
mond, p. 98, gives the seal of Robert,] JE. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE II (1078 P-1141), 
was son of Robert I, and companion of David I 
of Scotland at the court of Henry I. He re- 
ceived from David I a grant of Annandale, 
then called Strath Annent, by a charter c. 
1124 (A. P. Scot. i. 92, from the original in 
Brit. Mus. Cartes Antiques, xviii. 45). It 
was bounded by the lands of Dunegal, of 
Strathnith (Nithsdale), and those of Ranulf 
de Meschines,earl of Chester, in Cumberland, 
and embraced the largest part of the county 
of Dumfries. Like David, a benefactor of the 
church, Robert de Bruce founded a monastery 
of canons regular at Guisburn in Cleveland, 
with the consent of his wife Agnes and Adam 
his eldest son. The church of Middleburgh, 
with certain lands attached to it, was given 
by him to the monks of Whitby as a cell of 
Guisburn, and his manors of Appleton and 
Hornby to the monks of St. Mary at York. 
Along with Bernard de Baliol of Barnard 
Castle he tried to make terms between David 
and the English barons before the battle of 
the Standard in 1138 ; but failing in this at- 
tempt he renounced his Scotch fief of An- 
nandale, and, notwithstanding his affection 
for David, fought with zeal on the side of 
Stephen. He died in 1141, and left by Agnes, 
daughter of Fulk Pagnel of Carlton, two sons. 
The elder, Adam, succeeded to Skelton and 
his other English lands, which continued in 
the family till 1271, when, on the death of 
Peter Bruce, constable of Scarborough, with- 
out issue, they were parted between his four 
sisters. His second son, Robert de Bruce III, 
saved the Scotch fief of Annandale either by 
ioining David I, if a tradition that he was 
taken prisoner by his father at the battle 
of the Standard can be relied on, or by ob- 
taining its subsequent restoration from David 
or Malcolm IV. 

[Aelred de Rievaux's Descriptio de bello apud 
Standardum juxta Albertonam ; Dugdale's Mo- 
nasticon, i. 388-412, and ii. 147.] M. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE III (fi. 1138- 
1189?), second son of Robert II, and so called 
Le Meschin or the Cadet, was the founder of 
the Scottish branch. He held the Annandale 
fief, with Lochmaben as its chief messuage, for 
the service of a hundred knights during the 
reigns of David I, Malcolm IV, and William 
the Lion, who confirmed it by a charter in 
1166. He paid escuage for the manor of Hert 
in the bishopric of Durham in 1170, which he 
is said to have received from his father to 
supply him with wheat, which did not grow 
in Annandale. The date of his death is un- 
certain, but he must have survived the year 
1189, when he settled a long-pending dis- 
pute with the see of Glasgow by an agree- 

Bruce i 

ment with Bishop Jocelyn, under which he 
mortified the churches of Moffat and Kirk- 
patric, and granted the patronage of Drives- 
dale, Hoddam, and Castlemilk, in return ap- 
parently for a cession by the bishop of his 
claim to certain lands in Annandale. 

[Charter of William the Lion in Ayloffe's 
Charters ; Madox's History of Exchequer ; Re- 
gistrum G-lasguense, pp. 64-5 ; Calendar of 
Documents relating to Scotland, i. No. 197.] 

M. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE IV (d. before 
1191), son of Robert III, was married in 
1183 to Isabel, daughter of William the 
Lion, by a daughter of Robert Avenel, when 
he was given the manor of Haltwhistle in 
Tyndale as her dowry. He must have sur- 
vived his father, if at all, only a short time, 
as his widow married Robert de Ros in 1191, 
and the date of his father's death being un- 
certain it may be doubted whether he suc- 
ceeded to Annandale. He was succeeded by 
William de Bruce, his brother, in that fief, 
who was the only exception to the line of 
Roberts. William held Annandale along 
with the English manors of Hert and Halt- 
whistle till his death in 1215. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 449 ; Graham's Loch- 
maben, pp. 16 and 17.] JE. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE V (d. 1245), son 

of William de Bruce, married Isabel, second 
daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, 
younger brother of William the Lion, and thus 
founded the claim of his descendants to the 
crown. In 1215-16 he obtained from King 
John a confirmation of a grant of a market 
and fair at Hartlepool. He was a witness 
at York in 1221 of Alexander II's charter 
of jointure to his wife Joanna, sister of 
Henry III. During this reign his own great 
estate and royal connection by marriage made 
the lord of Annandale one of the chief barons 
of southern Scotland. Like his ancestors he 
was liberal to the church, confirming and in- 
creasing their grants. He died in 1245, and 
was buried at the abbey of Saltrey in Hun- 

[Eymer's Fcedera, i. 252 ; Dugdale's Baronage, 
i. 449; Monasticon, ii. 151. Several charters by 
or to him are amongst the Duchy of Lancaster 
Charters, and notes of them are printed, Calen- 
dars of Documents relating to Scotland, i. Nos. 
1680-5.] M. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE VI (1210-1295), 
sometimes called the COMPETITOR, from his 
claim to the crown against John Baliol [q.v.], 
succeeded to the lordship of Annandale on 
his father's death in 1245, and on that of his 
mother in 1251 to ten knights' fees in Eng- 

5 Bruce 

land, her share of the earldom of Huntingdon. 
He married, the year bofojo hio father died, 'i 
Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, earl of 
Gloucester. His active career was distributed 
between the two kingdoms, in each of which 
he was a powerful subject. 

In 1238 Alexander II, on the eve of an 
expedition to the Western Isles, despairing 
of issue, recognised the claim of Bruce to the 
succession ; but the birth of Alexander III 
in 1241 frustrated his hopes. In 1250 he 
acted as one of the justices of Henry III, but 
during the next seven years he appears to have 
transferred his field of action to Scotland. 
On the death of Alexander II in 1255 he was 
one of the fifteen regents named in the con- 
vocation of Roxburgh to act during the mi- 
nority of the young king, and he formed the 
head of the party favourable to the English 
alliance cemented by the king's marriage to 
Margaret, daughter of Henry III. That king 
appointed him sheriff of Cumberland and 
| governor of Carlisle. Between 1257 and 1271 
| he again frequently served on the English 
i king's bench, and in 1268 he was appointed 
I capitalis justiciarius, being the first chief 
justice of England, with a salary of 100 
marks. In 1260 he accompanied the king 
and queen of Scotland to London. In the 
Barons' war he fought for Henry, and was 
taken prisoner at Lewes in 1264, but was 
released after the victory of Evesham (1265) 
turned the tide in favour of the king, when 
he resumed his office as sheriff of Cumber- 
land. On the accession of Edward I he was 
not reappointed to the bench, and appears 
again to have returned to Scotland. He was 
present at the convention of Scone, 5 Feb. 
1283-4, by which the right of succession of 
Margaret, the Maid of Norway, was recog- 
nised ; but on the death of Alexander III in 
1286 a powerful party of nobles met at Turn- 
berry Castle, belonging to his son Robert, earl 
of Carrick, in right of his wife, and pledged 
themselves to support each other and vindi- 
cate the claims of whoever should gain the 
kingdom by right of blood, according to the 
ancient customs of Scotland. They assumed 
as allies Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster, 
and Thomas de Clare, to whom authority 
was given to proceed with arms against any 
one who broke the conditions of the bond, 
I 20 Sept. 1286 (Documents illustrative of the 
l History of Scotland, edited by Rev. J. Ste- 
venson, i. 22). The nobles who j oined in this 
league were Patrick, earl of Dunbar, his three 
sons, and his son-in-law James the Steward 
of Scotland, and his brother John, Walter 
Stewart earl of Menteith, Angus, son of 
Donald lord of the Isles, his son Alexander, 
and the two Bruces, the lord of Annandale, 

I 2 




and his son, the Earl of Carrick. They united j 
the chief influence of the south and west of 
Scotland against the party of John de Baliol, 
lord of Galloway, and the Comyns. A period 
of civil war ensued, during which Robert de 
Bruce, lord of Annandale, asserted his title 
to the crown. Unable to secure his aim, 
Bruce took part in the negotiations at Salis- 
bury, which resulted in the treaty of Brig- 
ham in 1290, with the view of uniting Scot- 
land to England, subject to guarantees for 
its independence by the marriage of Margaret 
to Prince Edward. The death of Margaret 
reopened the question of the succession, and 
one of the regents, William Eraser, bishop of 
St. Andrews, made the appeal to Edward I 
as arbiter, which led to the famous com- 
petition at Norham in 1291-2, decided in 
favour of John de Baliol on 17 Nov. 1292. 
According to Sir F. Palgrave, Bruce had also 
some years before appealed to Edward, but 
the documents adduced to prove this are 
without date, and the ascription of at least 
one of them to Bruce is conjectural. The 
course of litigation at Norham, where Bruce, 
as well as Baliol, recognised Edward's title 
as lord paramount to decide the cause, 
and the grounds upon which the claim of 
Bruce was rejected, have been stated in the 
life of Baliol [q. v.] A protest by Bruce 
amongst the documents carried off by Ed- 
ward from Scotland, afterwards delivered to 
Baliol (ActsParl. Scot. i. 116), and an agree- 
ment for mutual defence between Bruce and 
Florence, count of Holland, another of the 
competitors, entered into on 14 June 1292 
(Documents illustrative of the History of 
Scotland, edited by Rev. J. Stevenson, i. 318), 
show that Bruce was not disposed to ac- 
quiesce in the adverse decision. His great 
age prevented him from any active measures 
to overturn it, and he resigned his rights 
and claims in favour of his son, the Earl of 
Carrick. He retired to his castle of Loch- 
maben, where he died on Good Friday, 1294- 
1295, at the age of eighty-five, and was in- 
terred at Guisburn in Cleveland, the family 
burial-place, where his stately tomb may still 
be seen. His character is well drawn in 
"Walter of Hemingford : ' Toto tempore vitse 
suae gloriosus extitit ; facetus, dives, et largus, 
et habundavit in omnibus in vita et in morte.' 
He had three sons : Robert, earl of Carrick, 
Barnard, and John. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 450 ; Rymer's Foedera, 
i. 698 ; Documents illustrating the History of 
Scotland, ed. Sir F. Palgrave ; Ord's History of 
Cleveland; Foss's Judges of England, ii. 269.] 


KICK (J258KL304), son of the Competitor, 


Robert de Bruce VI, is said to have accom- 
panied Edward, afterwards Edward I, in the 
crusade of 1269. On his return he married 
Marjory, countess of Carrick, and became by 
the courtesy of Scotland Earl of Carrick. 

A romantic story handed down by the 
Scottish historians, that Bruce was carried off 
by the heiress when hunting near her castle 
of Turnberry, is probably an invention to ex- 
cuse his marriage with a royal ward without 
the king's consent. In 1278 he did homage 
to Edward on behalf of Alexander III for 
his English fiefs. In 1281 he borrowed 40/. 
from his old comrade Edward I, a debt which 
played a part in the fortunes of his son. He 
was present at Scone in 1284, when the 
right of succession of the Maid of Norway 
was recognised, but took part with his father 
and the other nobles in the league of Turn- 
berry, on 20 Sept. 1286, intended to defeat it. 
Like his father, however, he joined in the 
treaty of Brigham (14 March 1290), rendered 
abortive by Margaret's death. The agree- 
ment between Florence, count of Holland, 
and his father on 14 June 1292, to which the 
earl was a party, shows that Bruce anticipated 
an adverse decision. About this time he went 
to Norway with his eldest daughter Isabel, 
possibly on account of her marriage to King 
Eirik, the widower of Margaret, the daughter 
of Alexander III, which took place on 
15 Nov. 1293, but also perhaps to avoid 
attendance at Baliol's parliament, to which 
he was summoned. It may have been with 
the same motive that after the death of his 
wife in 1292 he resigned the earldom of Car- 
rick to his son, afterwards king (A. P. Scot. 
i. 449 a b). On the death of his father he 
did homage to Edward for his English fiefs 
on 4 June 1295. On 6 Oct. following he 
was given the custody of the castle of Car- 
lisle during the king's pleasure, and three 
days after he took before the bishop of Dur- 
ham and barons of the exchequer an oath to 
hold it faithfully and render it to no one but 
the king. When Baliol attempted to assert 
his independence, as was natural, his rivals 
the Bruces sided with Edward, and in 1296, 
after that monarch had taken Dunbar, Bruce 
the elder, according to the Scotch chroniclers, 
claimed the fulfilment of a promise, by which 
he was to be made king of Scotland. The 
answer, in Norman-French, of Edward, as 
given by Wyntoun (B. viii. 1927) and For- 
dun, though it has been doubted, suits his 
character : 

Ne avons ren autres chos a fere 

Q,ue a vous reamgs (i.e. reaulmes) ganere 

Ha we I nought ellys to do nowe 
But wyn a kynryk to gyve yhowe ? 




Baliol, in revenge for Bruce's aid to Ed- 
ward, seized Annandale, and gave it, with 
the castle of Lochmaben, to John Comyn ; 
but his possession was brief, for Clifford, the 
English warden, retook it in the same year. 
The elder Bruce retired from Scotland and 
lived on his English estates till his death in 
1304, when he was buried at Holmecultram 
in Cumberland. Besides his eldest son 
Robert the king, he left Edward, lord of 
Galloway [see BRUCE, EDWARD], killed at 
Dundalk in 1318 ; Thomas and Alexander, 
taken in Galloway, and executed at Carlisle 
by Edward's order in 1307 ; and Nigel, who 
suffered the same fate at Berwick in 1306. 
His daughters, Isabel, Mary, Christian, Ma- 
tilda, and Margaret, all married Scotch nobles 
or landed men in the life of their brother, 
whose hands were strengthened by these 
alliances in his contest for the crown. A 
sixth daughter Elizabeth, and a seventh 
whose name is unknown, are of doubtful 

[Rymer's Fcedera, ii. 266, 471, 558, 605, 612; 
Stevenson's Documents illustrative of History of 
Scotland. See Index under Kobert Bruce, Earl 
of Carrick, but the references after 1295 are to 
his son Eobert, afterwards king ; Acts Parl. Scot. 
i. 424 a, 441 a, 4476, 448 a. There are many 
errors in the early Scottish writers as to the Bruce 
genealogy, and the repetition of the same name 
led to frequent confusion of different persons ; but 
these are now corrected by the more accurate 
examination of the records due to Chalmers's 
Caledonia, Lord Hailes, and Kerr in his History 
of the Eeign of Eobert the Bruce.] M. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT DE VIII (1274-1329), 
king of Scotland, son of Robert de Bruce VII, 
earl of Carrick, and Marjory, daughter and 
heiress of Nigel, second earl of Carrick, by 
Marjory, daughter of Walter the Steward of 
Scotland , born on 1 1 July 1 274, was descended 
on the father's side from a Norman baron 
who came with William the Conqueror to 
England ; and on his mother's from the Cel- 
tic chiefs of Galloway, as the names of her 
grandfather Duncan, created earl of Carrick 
by William the Lion, and her father, Niel or 
Nigel, show. Soon after the death of her 
first husband, Adam de Kilconquhar, in 1271, 
his mother married Robert de Bruce (VII), 
son of the Competitor Robert de Bruce (VI), 
who assumed, according to Scottish custom, 
the title of Earl of Carrick. On the decision 
of the disputed succession in 1292 in favour 
of Baliol, and the death of his wife in the 
same year, the earl resigned that title to his 
son, and three years later acquiring, through 
the death of his father, the lordship of An- 
nandale, he was afterwards known as Domi- 

nus de Annandale, while his son, the future 
king, was styled Earl of Carrick until his 
coronation in 1306. On 4 June 1295 Ed- 
ward I records by a writ under his privy seal 
that Robert, son and heir of Robert de 
Bruce, senior, now deceased, had done homage 
for lands held of the king, and this Robert, 
earl of Carrick, is by another writ nomi- 
nating him keeper of the castle of Carlisle 
called Lord of Annandale on 6 Oct. 1295, 
having resigned the earldom three years 
before. The deed of resignation, dated at 
Berwick on Sunday after the feast of St. 
Leonard (6 Nov.) 1292, was presented to 
Baliol at the parliament of Stirling on 3 Aug. 
1293. As it was necessary that sasine of 
the lands should be taken by the king be- 
fore he could receive the homage of the 
new vassal, the sheriff of Ayr was directed 
to take it and ascertain their extent, after 
which Bruce was to return and do homage. 
It is uncertain whether homage was ever 
rendered, for the disputes between Baliol 
and Edward had commenced, and from the 
first both the young Bruce and his father 
took Edward's side. On 24 Aug. 1296, along 
with the Earls of March and Angus, Robert 
de Brus ' le veil ' (the elder) and Robert de 
Brus * le jovene' (the younger), earl of 
Carrick, took the oaths of homage and fealty 
to Edward at Berwick {Ragman Rolls, 176 a). 
A series of writs in favour of the earl shows 
one means by which their support was gained. 
A debt due by him to Edward, perhaps the 
old debt contracted by his father in 1281, 
was respited on 23 July 1293, and again on 
11 Feb. and 15 Oct. 1296. By the second 
letter of respite it appears that the earl was 
about to proceed to Scotland, and by the 
third that he had rendered such good service 
that the king granted him the delay needed 
to admit of easy payment. His father had 
meantime been made keeper of the castle of 
Carlisle, and Baliol had retaliated by seiz- 
ing Annandale, which he conferred on John 
Comyn, earl of Buchan. In the same year 
BalioFs renunciation of allegiance to the Eng- 
lish king led to the brief campaign in which 
Berwick, Dunbar, Roxburgh, Edinburgh, 
and Stirling were taken, and on 2 Jan. 1296 
the abject Baliol surrendered at Kincardine 
or Brechin his crown and realm to Edward. 
In the following year the Earl of Carrick, 
with other Scottish nobles, received a sum- 
mons to accompany Edward to Flanders as 
his direct vassals. The Scotch, like many 
English barons, declined to obey a summons 
in excess of feudal obligation, and Wallace, 
during Edward's absence abroad, having 
raised the standard of re volt, Bruce, although, 
according to Hemingford, he had sworn alle- 




glance to Edward at Carlisle on the host and 
the sword of Thomas a Becket, joined for a 
brief space the army of the popular leader. 
Urgent letters had been sent to him to aid 
the Earl of Warenne, Edward's commander, 
then advancing towards Scotland, with as 
many men as he could muster, and at least a 
thousand foot from Kyle, Cunningham, Cum- 
nock, and Carrick. Instead of complying, in 
June 1297, along with Wishart, bishop of 
Glasgow, James the Steward of Scotland, 
and Sir William Douglas, he laid waste the 
country of the adherents of Edward. Wa- 
renne, an inactive general, sent in advance 
Henry de Percy and Robert de Clifford, who 
succeeded on 9 July 1297 in making terms 
with Bruce and his friends by the treaty 
called the capitulation of Irvine. The Scot- 
tish barons were not to be called to serve 
beyond the sea against their will, and were 
to be pardoned for their recent violence, while 
they in turn came into the peace, or, in other 
words, acknowledged their allegiance to Ed- 
ward. The Bishop of Glasgow, the Steward, 
and Alexander de Lindesay became sureties 
for Bruce until he should deliver his daughter 
Marjory as hostage for his fidelity, which 
might well be doubted. The treaty appears 
to have been confirmed by Bruce at Berwick 
early in August. Wallace was at this time 
in the forest of Selkirk, along with Sir An- 
drew Murray of Bothwell, gathering together 
the Scottish commons, who, with less division 
of interest than the nobles, were determined 
to deliver their country from the English. 
On 11 Sept. he defeated Earl Warenne and 
Cressingham the treasurer at Stirling Bridge. 
Dundee and other castles surrendered in con- 
sequence of this victory, and the English 
evacuated Berwick. Wallace and Sir Andrew 
Murray, son of the elder Sir Andrew, assum- 
ing the title of leaders of the Scottish army 
in the name of John (i.e. Baliol), by God's 
grace illustrious king of Scotland, with con- 
sent of the community carried the war into 
Northumberland and Cumberland. At this 
time Baliol, and not Bruce, was the name 
under which the standard of Scottish in- 
dependence was borne, but its bearer was 
Wallace, and its defenders the Scottish com- 
mons. In 1298, Edward returning from 
Flanders conducted in person the Scottish 
war with larger forces and better general- 
ship, and his defeat of Wallace at Falkirk 
on 22 July wrested from the Scotch the 
fruits of the victory of Stirling Bridge. At 
this time Bruce again sided with his country- 
men. Annandale was wasted and Loch- 
maben Castle taken by Clifford, and Bruce 
himself, to use the words of the contem- 
porary Hemingford, 'when he heard of the 

king's coming fled from his face and burnt 
the castle of Ayr, which he held.' Edward's 
campaign was a single victory, not a con- 
quest. Pressing affairs, especially the con- 
test with his own subjects, whose desire 
for the confirmation of the charters he was 
reluctant to concede, recalled him to Eng- 
land, and he was obliged to trust the settle- 
ment of Scotland to the nobles, to whom 
he assigned earldoms and baronies, or, as the . 
chronicler expresses it, the hope of them. An- 
nandale and Galloway and certain earldoms, 
a term which includes Carrick, he assigned 
to no one, that he might not irritate those 
earls who had only recently seceded and had 
j not finally cast in their lot with their country- 
j men. As regards Bruce this conciliatory 
i policy, so characteristic of Edward until the 
I time for conciliation Avas past, had its effect, 
and from 1298 to 1304 he was at least not 
actively engaged against the English king. 
A truce was effected by the mediation of 
! Philip IV of France in 1298. Baliol being 
1 now the pensioned prisoner of Edward, and 
I Wallace an exile, a regency was appointed, 
| which consisted of William of Lamberton, 
bishop of St. Andrews, John Comyn the 
younger, and Robert Bruce earl of Carrick, 
with whom for a time John de Soulis was 
conjoined. The only document which names 
Bruce is a letter of 13 Nov. 1299, by which 
the regents propose to Edward a suspension 
of hostilities on both sides. Comyn was the 
active regent representing the interest of 
Baliol and his own, as heir through his 
mother Ada, Baliol's sister. In 1300 the 
truce was renewed till Whitsunday 1301, and 
though Edward made an abortive attempt 
to resume the war on 26 Jan. 1302, the truce 
was again, at the instance of the French king, 
prolonged till November. It was during this 
period of intermittent war and truce, for in 
1300 Ed ward took Caerlaverock, and in 1301 
wintered at Linlithgow, that Pope Boni- 
face VIII intervened in the dispute as to the 
succession to the Scottish crown, and claimed 
a right to decide it as lord paramount. On 
27 June 1300 he despatched a bull to Ed- 
ward demanding the withdrawal of his troops 
and the release of the Scotch ecclesiastics in 
his custody, which was presented by Arch- 
bishop Winchelsey to Edward at New Abbey 
in Galloway in October. Edward immedi- 
ately summoned a parliament at Lincoln on 
20 Jan. 1301, when the memorable answer 
denying the pope's claim to interfere in the 
temporal affairs of England, and asserting 
the feudal dependence of Scotland, was 
drawn up and confirmed by the seals of 
seven earls and ninety-seven barons for them- 
selves and the whole community. Langtoft, 

Bruce i 

a contemporary, states that Bruce was pre- 
sent at this parliament. 

At the Broadgate lay the Bruce, erle was he 
that day. 

But his name is not in the list of those sum- 
moned, or of those who agreed to the reply 
to the pope. It is improbable that he was 
there or actively engaged in the controversy 
which was carried on by a memorial pre- 
sented to the pope on behalf of Edward in 
favour of the English supremacy, and replies 
by the Scotch in the ' Processus Baldredi 
contra figmenta Regis Anglise,' drawn by 
Baldred de Bisset, rector of Kinghorn, one 
of the Scottish commissioners at Rome. It 
was the policy of Bruce at this time to remain 
in the background, but events were hasten- 
ing which brought him forward as the first 
actor on the stage. Scottish history at this 
juncture was involved with the relations of 
the English king to the court of France and 
the see of Rome. Edward made up his 
quarrel with Philip the Fair, whose sister 
Margaret he married in 1299, and with whom 
an alliance was completed on 20 May 1303. 
.Gascony was restored to France, and Scot- 
land, up to this time supported by the 
French king, was abandoned. The pope also, 
anxious to stir up Edward against Philip, 
with whom he had a nearer and more dan- 
gerous controversy as to the rights of church 
and state, though unsuccessful in his object, 
temporised to gain it, and withdrew his 
protection from the Scotch. Edward, who 
had reconciled his own subjects by tardy 
concessions, to procure the necessary sup- 
plies of men and money for the invasion of 
Scotland, commenced the war in earnest in 
1303. In September of the previous year 
he ordered Sir John de Segrave to make a 
foray by Stirling and Kirkintilloch, but it 
was delayed till the following spring, and 
on 24 Feb. Segrave was defeated by Comyn, 
the regent, at Roslin. Edward himself then 
took the command, and in a brilliant cam- 
paign traversed the whole country from the 
border to Elgin, perhaps to Caithness, re- 
ducing every place of strength and wintering 
at Dunfermline. On 24 Jan. of the follow- 
ing year (1304) the capitulation of Stirling, 
the only castle which held out, completed 
his conquest. The evidence is slight, but 
sufficient to show that in this campaign Bruce 
still supported Edward. On 3 March Edward 
writes to Bruce : ' If you complete that 
which you have begun, we shall hold the 
war ended by your deed and all the land of 
Scotland gained,' and on the 5th of the same 
month to his son, referring to the Earl of 
Carrick and the other good people who 

9 Bruce 

were advancing to the parts near Stirling to 
pursue his enemies ; on the 30th to the earl 
himself, a letter sent by John de Bottetourt 
[q. v.], who was to receive supplies for his 
service ; and on 15 April there is an urgent 
i letter requesting him to spare no pains to 
cause the siege engines he was preparing 
with stones and timber to be forwarded, and 
j on no account to delay because of the want 
of lead. 

But while Bruce was thus openly sup- 
porting Edward, a secret alliance into which 
he entered with Lamberton, bishop of St. 
Andrews, the friend of Wallace, proves he 
had other designs, and though its terms are 
! general, it was the first overt act which com- 
1 mitted Bruce to the cause called patriotic 
in Scotland and treason in England. On 
11 June, more than a month before the fall 
i of Stirling, the earl and the bishop met 
| at Cambuskenneth and subscribed a bond 
which bound them to support each other 
against all adversaries at all times and in 
all affairs, and to undertake nothing of diffi- 
culty without communication. When Lam- 
berton was taken prisoner in 1306 he admitted 
the genuineness of the document, and his 
connection with Bruce was one charge pre- 
ferred against him by Edward before the 
pope. Lamberton is an important link in 
the history of the war of independence, 
bringing into contact its first period under 
Wallace with its second under Bruce, and 
proving the continuity of the resistance to 
Edward though the leaders were different. 
In 1305 Wallace was betrayed and carried 
prisoner to London, where he was executed 
as a traitor, though he denied with truth 
that he had ever taken any oath to Edward. 
He was the only victim at this time. To- 
wards the nobles and the country generally 
a contrary course was pursued. The one 
thing unpardonable was stubborn resistance, 
and the king evidently thought that clemency 
and organised government would reconcile 
Scotland to his rule. With this view, in a 
parliament held at London in Lent 1305, 
Edward ordered that the community of Scot- 
land should meet at Perth on the day after 
the Ascension to elect representatives to 
come to London to a parliament to be held 
three weeks after the feast of St. John the 
Baptist (24 June) to treat of the secure 
custody of Scotland. His advisers in this 
were the Bishop of Glasgow, the Earl of 
Carrick (Bruce), Sir John Segrave, his lieu- 
tenant in Lothian, and Sir John de Landale, 
the chamberlain of Scotland. Representa- 
tives were accordingly chosen, and the Eng- 
lish parliament to which they were summoned 
finally met on 16 Sept. Bruce was not one of 




the representatives, but other Scotch nobles 
were specially summoned, and he is assumed 
to have been of their number. An ordinance, 
on the model of similar ordinances for Wales 
and Ireland, was drawn up for the govern- 
ment of Scotland, by which Johnde Bretagne, 
the king's nephew, was named his lieutenant 
in Scotland ; Sir William de Beacote, chan- 
cellor ; and Sir John de Landale, chamber- 
lain. Two justices were appointed for Lothian, 
Galloway, the district between the Forth 
and the mountains, and the district beyond 
the mountains respectively. Sheriffs either 
Scotchmen or Englishmen removable at 
the discretion of the lieutenant and chamber- 
lain, were named for the counties. Coroners 
were to be also appointed, unless those who 
held the office were deemed sufficient. The 
custody of the castles was committed to cer- 
tain persons, and as regards the castle of 
Kildrummy in Aberdeenshire, he was to place 
it in charge of a person for whom he should 
answer. This shows, it has been said, how 
much Bruce was favoured ; but it is perhaps 
rather a proof of the attitude of half confi- 
dence, half distrust in Edward's dealings 
with him during the earlier period of his 
career, and for which the warrant was soon 
to appear. The provision of the ordinance 
as regards the laws was to prohibit the use 
of the customs of the Scots and of the Britons 
(Brets), the Celts of the highlands and Gal- 
loway. It is not known how long Bruce 
remained in London. On 10 Feb. 1306 he 
suddenly appeared in Dumfries, and in the 
church of the Friars Minor slew John Comyn, 
the late regent, and his uncle Robert. The 
English contemporary writers and the Scotch, 
the earliest of whom (Barbour) wrote at least 
half a century later, assign a different train 
of incidents as leading to this act of violence. 
They agree that its proximate cause was the 
refusal of Comyn to join Bruce in opposing 
Edward, but the former ascribe the treachery 
to Bruce, who, concealing his designs, had 
lured Comyn to a place where he could fear 
no danger, while the latter relate that Comyn 
had revealed to Edward the scheme of Bruce 
to which he had been privy having formed 
a similar bond with him to that of Lam- 
berton and so palliate the act of Bruce by 
the plea of self-defence. Records fail us, 
and both classes of historians wrote with a 
bias which has descended to most modern 
writers, according to the side of the border 
to which they belong. The hereditary enmity 
of the families of Bruce and Comyn, and the 
place of the deed, support the English view, 
which, in the absence of further evidence, 
must be accepted as more probable. Hailes 
suggests that the death of Comyn was due 

to hot words and a chance medley, but 
Brace's subsequent conduct proves a design 
which can scarcely have been devised on the 
spot, though its execution may have been 
hastened by the death of Comyn, his pos- 
sible rival for the crown. Bruce had now 
abandoned his former indecision, and acted 
with a promptness which proved he knew 
his opponent and the hazards on which he 
staked his life. He had seen the head of 
Wallace on London Bridge, and at West- 
minster the stone of destiny, on which the 
Scottish kings had been crowned at Scone. 
Which was to be his fate ? It was in his 
favour that he numbered only about half the- 
years of the greatest of the Plantagenets, 
but against him that the Scottish nobles- 
were still divided into factions, though the 
popular feeling created by Wallace was 
gaining ground, while the church, in the 
persons of its two chiefs the Bishops of St. 
Andrews and Glasgow was on his side. 
What determined the issue was that in Scot- 
land a great noble now placed himself at the 
head of the people, while in England the 
sceptre and the sword, to which Edward 
clung with the tenacity of a dying man,, 
were about to pass into the hands of a son 
incapable of wielding them. After the death 
of Comyn, Bruce, collecting his adherents 
chiefly in the south-west of Scotland, passed 
from Lochmaben to Glasgow and thence to 
Scone, where, on 27 March 1306, he was 
crowned by the Bishop of St. Andrews, the 
Bishops of Glasgow and Moray being also 
present, and the Earls of Lennox, Athole, 
and Errol. Two days later Isabella, countess 
of Buchan, sister of Duncan, earl of Fife, 
claimed the right of her family, the MacdufFs, 
Celtic chiefs of Fife, to place the king upon 
the throne, and the ceremony Avas repeated 
with a circumstance likely to conciliate the 
Celtic highlanders. Though crowned Bruce 
had still to win his kingdom, and his first 
efforts were failures. On 19 June he was 
defeated at Methven near Perth by the Earl 
of Pembroke, and forced to seek safety in 
the mountains, first of Athole and then of 
Breadalbane, where on 11 Aug., at Dairy in 
Strathfillan, Lord Lome, the husband of 
an aunt of Comyn, surprised and dispersed 
his followers, notwithstanding his personal 
prowess. His wife and other ladies of his 
family were sent to Kildrummy for safety, 
and her saying, whether historical or not, 
proved true, that he had been a summer 
but would not be a winter king. It is 
a curious circumstance that this lady, the 
sister of De Burgh, earl of Ulster, whom he 
married after the death of his first wife, 
Isabella, daughter of Donald, earl of Mar, 




appears to have been a lukewarm supporter 
of her husband. After wandering as a fugi- 
tive in the west highlands, Bruce took refuge 
in Rachrine, an island on the Antrim coast. 
Meanwhile Edward, despite his years, having 
heard at Winchester of the death of Comyn 
and rising of Bruce, came north with all the 
speed his health allowed, and displayed an 
energy which showed he knew he had to 
cope not with a single foe but a nation. In 
April, at Westminster, he knighted his son 
Edward and three hundred others to serve 
in the wars, and swore by God and the Swan 
that he would take vengeance on Bruce, and 
devote the remainder of his life to the 
crusades. The prince added that he would 
not sleep two nights in one place till he 
reached Scotland. Before he started, and in 
the course of his journey, Edward made grants 
of the Scotch estates of Bruce and his adhe- 
rents. Annandale was given to the Earl of 
Hereford. A parliament was summoned to 
meet at Carlisle on 12 March, when a bull 
was published excommunicating Bruce, along 
with another releasing Edward from his obli- 
gations t o observe the chart ers . The att empt 
to crush the liberty of Scotland went hand 
in hand with an endeavour to violate the 
nascent constitution of England. Edward's 
constant aim was to reduce the whole island 
to a centralised empire under a single head, 
untrammelled by the bonds of a constitutional 
monarchy. His oaths and vows were un- 
availing, and he died at Burgh-on-the-Sands 
on 7 July 1307, without touching the soil of 
Scotland. Before his death he showed what 
his vengeance would have been. Elizabeth 
the wife, Marjory the daughter, and Chris- 
tina the sister of Bruce were surprised in the 
sanctuary of St. Duthac at Tain and sent 
prisoners to England, where they remained 
till after Bannockburn. The Countess of 
Buchan and Mary, another of his sisters, 
were confined in cages, the one at Berwick, 
the other at Roxburgh. The Bishops of St. 
Andrews and Glasgow and the Abbot of Scone 
were sent to England and suspended from 
their benefices ; but the pope declined to 
bestow them on Edward's nominees. Nigel, 
Brace's youngest brother, was beheaded at 
Berwick ; Christopher Seton, his brother-in- 
law, at Dumfries ; Alexander Seton at New- 
castle. The Earl of Athole was sent to 
London and, being a cousin of the king, 
hanged on a gallows thirty feet higher than 
the pole on which the head of Wallace 
still stood and that of Sir Simon Fraser, 
executed at this time. The other brothers of 
Bruce, Thomas and Alexander dean of Glas- 
gow, having been taken in Galloway, were 
sent to Edward at Carlisle and there executed. 

their heads being exposed on the gates and 
the tower. A little before this, John, a brother 
of William Wallace, was captured and sent 
to London, where he met his brother's fate. 
There were many victims of minor note. 
But, says the chronicler of Lanercost, the 
number of those who wished Bruce to be 
confirmed in the kingdom increased daily r 
notwithstanding this severity. He might 
have said because of it, for now every class, 
nobles and gentry, clergy and commons, 
with only one or two exceptions, as the Earl 
of Strathearn and Randolph, Bruce's nephew, 
saw what Edward meant. Life and limb, 
land and liberty, were all in peril, and com- 
mon danger taught the necessity, not felt 
in the time of Wallace, of making common 

Edward's hatred of Scotland passed be- 
yond the grave. On his tomb, by his order, 
was inscribed ' Edwardus Primus, Scotorum 
Malleus : Pactum serva.' One of his last re- 
quests was that his bones should be carried 
with the army whenever the Scotch rebelled, 
and only reinterred after they were subdued. 
This dying wish was disregarded by his weak 
heir, who wasted in the pomp of his funeral, 
followed by the dissipations of a youthful 
court, the critical moment of the war, 
fancying that, with Bruce an exile and his 
chief supporters in prison or on the gallows, 
it was over before it had really begun. Bruce 
meanwhile, like Alfred, was learning in ad- 
versity. The spider, according to the well- 
known story, taught him perseverance. After 
spending the winter in Rachrine he ventured 
in early spring to Arran in Scotland, and 
thence to Carrick, his own country, where he 
had many brave adventures and hair-breadth 
escapes, which should be read in the verses 
of Barbour or the tales of Scott. Scarcely 
certain history, they represent the popular 
conception of his character in the next and 
succeeding generations. On 10 May he de- 
feated the Earl of Pembroke at London Hill, 
but failed to take Ayr. Edward, in the end 
of August, roused himself ; but a march to 
and back from Cumnock without an action 
was the whole inglorious campaign. His 
favour for Piers Gaveston and consequent 
quarrels with the chief barons of England, 
as well as his approaching marriage to Isa- 
3ella, daughter of Philip the Fair, led him 
:o quit Scotland. In his absence Bruce and 
lis brother Edward reduced Galloway, and 
Bruce, leaving his brother in the south, 
;ransferred his own operations to Aberdeen- 
shire. It was rumoured that Edward would 
lave made peace on condition of getting aid 
gainst his own barons. The feeble conduct 
f the war on the English side, and frequent 




changes of generals, indicate distracted 
counsels, which in part account for the 
uninterrupted success that now attended 
Bruce's arms. 

In the end of 1307, and again in May 1308, 
unless the chroniclers have made two expe- 
ditions of one, he overran Buchan, and on 
22 May defeated its earl, one of his chief 
Scotch opponents, at Inverury a soldier's 
medicine for the illness his hardships had 
brought on. Fifty years after, when Barbour 
wrote, men still talked of the * harrying of 
Buchan.' In the same year Edward Bruce 
again conquered the Galwegians, and Sir 
James Douglas took Randolph, the king's 
nephew, prisoner, who afterwards atoned for 
this apostasy to the national cause by good 
service. Bruce next turned to Argyll, where 
the lord of Lome, his principal opponent in 
the west, met the same fate as the Earl of 
Buchan, his troops being defeated at the pass 
of Brander, and Dunstaffnage taken. 

In March 1309 a truce with England was 
made through the mediation of Philip of 
France and the pope, and Lamberton, bishop 
of St. Andrews, was released by Edward and 
allowed to return home, after receiving ho- 
mage and pledges, which gave hope that he 
would act in Edward's interest. Further 
negotiations were carried on for the whole 
of the following year ; but mutual surprises 
and breaches of the truce rendered it certain 
that the war was only interrupted. 

On 24 Feb. 1310, at a general council in 
Dundee, the clergy solemnly recognised Bruce 
as rightful king of Scotland. It was a sign 
of the progress he had made that all the 
bishops joined in this declaration. 

In the autumn of this year Edward, with 
a large force, made an expedition into Scot- 
land as far as Linlithgow ; but Bruce evaded 
him, and he returned without any material 
success, though a famine followed the ravages 
of his troops. A second projected expedition 
in 1311 did not take place. The next three 
years were signalised by the reduction of the 
castles still held by the English in Scotland. 
Linlithgow had been surprised by the strata- 
gem of a peasant called Binney, in .the end of 
1310; Dumbarton was surrendered by Sir 
John Menteith in October 1311 ; Perth was 
taken by Bruce himself on 8 Jan. 1312. It 
marked his position that he concluded on 
29 Oct. at Inverness with Hakon V a con- 
firmation of the treaty of 1266 between 
Alexander III and Magnus IV, by which 
the Norwegian king ceded to Scotland the 
Isle of Man, the Sucheys, and all the other 
islands ' on the west and south of the great 
Haf,' except the isles of Orkney and Shet- 
land (Acts Par I. Scot. i. 481). Encouraged 

by his success, he made a raid into the 
north of England. On his return he re- 
duced Butel in Galloway, Dumfries, and 
Dalswinton, and threatened Berwick, where 
Edward himself was. In March 1313 
Douglas surprised Roxburgh, and Randolph 
Edinburgh ; in May Bruce made another 
English raid, failed to take Carlisle, but sub- 
dued the Isle of Man. Edward Bruce had 
about the same time taken Rutherglen and 
Dundee, and laid siege to Stirling, whose 
governor, Mowbray, agreed to surrender if 
not relieved before 24 June 1314. All the 
castles were dismantled or destroyed ; for 
experience had shown they were the points 
which the English invaders were able longest 
to hold. By the close of 1313 Berwick, the 
key to the borders, and Stirling, the key to 
the highlands, alone remained in English 
hands. The disputes between Edward and 
his barons were now in some degree allayed 
by the institution of the lords ordainers 
and the execution of his favourite Gaveston, 
and it was felt if Scotland was not to be 
lost a great effort must be made. Accord- 
ingly, on 11 June, the whole available forces 
of England, with a contingent from Ireland, 
numbering in all about 100,000 men, of 
whom 50,000 were archers and 40,000 
cavalry, were mustered at Berwick, the Earls 
of Lancaster, Warenne, Arundel, and War- 
wick alone of the great feudatories declining 
to attend in person, but sending the bare 
contingent to which their feudal obligations 
bound them. They at once marched to the 
relief of Stirling, and punctual to the day 
reached Falkirk on 22 June. A preliminary 
skirmish on Sunday with the advanced guard, 
which attempted to throw itself into the 
town, was distinguished by the personal 
combat of Bruce, who, raising himself in his 
stirrups from the pony he rode, felled Henry 
de Bohun with a single blow of his battleaxe. 
When blamed for exposing himself to danger, 
he turned the subject by lamenting that the 
axe was broken. 

It was the first stroke of the battle, with a 
direct effect on its issue as well as in history 
and drama. Bruce's troops were one-third of 
the English, but his generalship reduced the 
inequality. He had chosen and knew his 
ground the New Park, between the village 
of St. Ninian and the Bannock Burn, a petty 
stream, yet sufficient to produce marshes 
dangerous for horses, while the rising ground 
on his right gave points of observation of 
the advance of the English. He divided his 
troops into four divisions, of which his brother 
Edward commanded the right, Randolph the 
centre, Douglas the left ; Bruce himself with 
the reserve planted his standard at the Bore 




Stone (still remaining on this spot), and a 
good point to survey the field. The camp 
followers were stationed on the Gillies' Hill, 
ready at the critical moment to appear as a 
reinforcement. The plain on the right, over 
which the cavalry, to avoid the marshy 
ground, had to pass, was prepared with con- 
cealed pits and spikes. But what made the 
battle famous in the annals of the military 
art as in those of Scotland was that the 
Scottish troops, taught by Wallace's tactics, 
fought on foot not in single line, but in 
battalions, apparently of round form, with 
their weapons pointed outwards to receive 
on any side the charge of the enemy. A 
momentary success of the English archers 
commenced the battle. It was reversed by 
a well-directed charge on their flank of a 
small body of light horse under the marshal 
Sir Robert Keith. The Scottish bowmen 
followed up this advantage, and the engage- 
ment then became general between the Eng- 
lish heavy-armed horsemen, crowded into 
too narrow a space, and the whole Scottish 
force, Bruce with the reserve uniting with 
the three divisions and receiving the attack 
with their spears, which the chronicler de- 
scribes as a single dense wood. The rear of 
the English either was unable to come up 
or was entangled in the broken ranks of the 
van or first line, and at a critical moment 
the camp followers, who had been hidden 
behind the Gillies' Hill, crossed its crest as 
if a new army. A panic ensued. Edward 
and his immediate followers sought safety 
in flight, and the rout became general one 
knight, Sir Giles d' Argentine, alone had 
courage to continue the onset, and fell 
bravely. The number of the English suffo- 
cated or drowned in the Bannock or the 
Forth was calculated at 30,000. Edward, 
pursued by Douglas, with difficulty reached 
Dunbar, and thence by sea Bamborough. 

No battle of the middle ages has been more 
minutely recorded, but space forbids further 
detail. A Carmelite friar, Barton, brought 
to celebrate the victory, was made by his 
captors to recount the defeat of the English. 
The Chronicle of Lanercost gives the narra- 
tive of an eye-witness. Barbour, who fifty 
years after enlarged the description, had 
known some who fought, and subsequent in- 
quiries confirm the accuracy of his plain but 
vivid verse. It was a day never forgotten 
by those who took part in it, and to be re- 
membered by distant posterity. It decided 
the independence of Scotland, and, like Mor- 
garten and Courtray, it was the beginning 
of the end of feudal warfare. The knights 
in armour, whose personal prowess often 
gained the field, gave place to the common 

| soldiers, disciplined, marshalled, and led by 

skilful generals, as the arbiters of the destiny 

' of nations. In the career of Bruce it was 

j the turning point. The effects of the victory 

were permanent, and it was never reversed. 

Many English kings invaded Scotland, but 

none after Edward I conquered it. 

The most important result as regards Bruce 
was the settlement of the succession at the 
parliament of Ayr on 26 April 1315. By a 
j unanimous resolution the crown was settled 
on Robert and the heirs male of his body, 
whom failing, his brother Edward and the 
heirs male of his body, whom failing, on 
Robert's daughter Marjory and her heirs, 
upon condition that she married with his 
consent, or, after his death, with the consent 
of the estates. Provision was made for a 
regency in case of a minority by the king's 
nephew, Randolph, earl of Moray. In the 
event of a failure in the whole line of the 
Bruces, Randolph was to act as a guardian 
of the kingdom until the estates determined 
the right of succession. The bishops and 
prelates were declared to have jurisdiction 
to enforce the Act of Settlement. Soon after 
it passed Marjory married Walter the he- 
reditary Steward of Scotland. Their son, 
Robert II, was the first king of the race 
of Stewart, succeeding after the long reign 
of his uncle, David II, son of Bruce by 
his second marriage, who was not yet born. 
This settlement showed the prudence of 
Bruce, and the anxiety of the Scottish na- 
tion to avoid at all hazards another dis- 
puted succession, or the appeal to external 
authority in case it should occur. Edward 
Bruce, described in the act as ' vir strenuus et 
in actis bellicis pro defensione juris et liber- 
tatis regni Scotise quamplurimum expertus,' 
had stood by his brother in the struggle for 
independence, and deserved the preference 
which ancient, though not unbroken custom, 
gave to the nearest male over a nearer female 
heir. But his active and ambitious spirit was 
not satisfied with the hope of succeeding to 
the Scottish crown. The defeat of Edward at 
Bannockburn, and his incapacity as a leader, 
encouraged the Irish Celts to attempt to 
throw off the English yoke. 'All the kings 
of lesser Scotland (Scotia Minor) have drawn 
their blood from greater Scotland (Scotia 
Major, i.e. Ireland), and retain in some degree 
our language and customs, wrote Donald 
O'Neil, a Celtic chief of Ulster, to the pope, 
! and it was natural that they should summon 
[ to their aid the victor of Bannockburn. 
! Robert declined the offer of the Irish crown 
1 for himself, but in May 1315 Edward Bruce 
! landed at Carrickfergus with 6,000 men. The 
i brilliant campaign of this year, which for a 




moment made it seem possible that the line 
of Bruce might supplant that of Plantagenet, 
ending disastrously in the death of Edward 
Bruce at Dundalk, belongs chiefly to his life, 
and not to that of Robert. But in the spring 
of 1317 Robert Bruce, who had in the previous 
year subdued the Hebrides, and taken his old 
enemy John of Lome, went to his brother's 
assistance. His engagement when surprised 
by the English at Slane in Louth is said 
by Barbour to have been the greatest of the 
nineteen victories of the Irish war. The 
odds were eight to one, and Edward, who 
marched in the van, had hurried on out 
of sight of his brother's troops, so that 
the honour was undivided, and Robert re- 
proached Edward for neglect of good gene- 
ralship. The Scotch army after this met 
with little resistance in its progress to the 
south of Ireland. Limerick was taken, but 
Dublin saved by its inhabitants committing 
it to the flames. An incident too slight to 
have been invented marks the humanity of 
Bruce in the midst of the horrors of war. 
Hearing a woman cry in the pangs of child- 
birth, he halted his troops and made provi- 
sion for her delivery. 

For certis, I trow there is na man 
That he ne will rew a woman than, 

is Barbour's expression of the speech or 
thought of the gentle heart of the brave 
warrior. The arrival of Roger Mortimer as 
deputy infused new vigour into the English, 
and the Bruces, their success too rapid to be 
permanent, were forced to retreat to Ulster. 
Before the disaster of Dundalk Robert re- 
turned to Scotland, where the English had 
taken advantage of his absence to resume 
the war. The eastern and midland marches 
had been gallantly defended by Sir James 
Douglas against the Earl of Arundel and 
Lord Neville, and Sir John Soulis had pro- 
tected Galloway from an inroad of Hartcla, 
warden of the English march. Berwick still 
remained in the hands of Edward II, a source 
of danger, as well as a standing memorial of 
the former subjection of Scotland. To its 
reduction Bruce on his return at once ad- 
dressed himself. 

In the autumn of 1317, while he was en- 
gaged in preparations for the siege, two car- 
dinals, Jocelin and Luke, arrived in Eng- 
land with bulls from Pope John XXII ' to his 
beloved son the nobleman Robert de Bruce, 
at present governing the kingdom of Scot- 
land,' commanding him to consent to a truce 
of two years with England. They had secret 
instructions to excommunicate him if he 
disobeyed. The cardinals did not venture 
across "the border, and their messengers were 

received by Bruce with a pleasant counte- 
nance, showing due reverence to the pope 
and the church, but declining to receive the 
bulls because not addressed to him as king.. 
They urged in vain the desire of the pope not 
to prejudice the dispute bet ween England and 
Scotland, for Bruce had the answer ready : 
* Since my father the pope and my mother 
the church are unwilling to prejudice either 
party by giving me the title of king, they 
ought not to prejudice me during the contro- 
versy by refusing that title, as I both hold 
the kingdom, receive the title from all its 
people, and am addressed under it by other 
princes.' Another attempt to proclaim the 
bull by Adam Newton, guardian of the Friars 
Minor in Berwick, had no better result. 
Newton saw Bruce at Aid-Camus (Old Cam- 
bus), where he was at work day and night 
in the construction of siege engines, and, 
having got a safe-conduct for himself and 
his papers, returned, in hopes of being al- 
lowed to deliver them. But Bruce was 
firm, and would not receive the bulls unless 
addressed to him as king, and, as he now 
added, until he had possession of Berwick. 
Newton had the daring to proclaim the truce, 
but on his way home he was robbed of his 
papers and clothes. 'It is rumoured,' he 
adds to his report, ' that the Lord Robert and 
his accomplices, who instigated the outrage, 
now have the papers.' Care had been taken 
that another mission of John XXII sent 
to proclaim his accession to the papal see 
should not enter Scotland, so that the prelates 
and clergy of the Scottish province remained 
now, as in the former period of the war, free 
from a divided allegiance, and the church of 
Scotland was virtually independent. 

In March 1318 the town of Berwick, which 
had stood the siege during the winter, was 
taken by a surprise contrived by Spalding, 
one of the citizens, and a few days after the 
castle capitulated. Entrusting it to the 
custody of Walter the Steward, Bruce in- 
vaded and wasted the north of England. 
The death of his only remaining brother 
and his daughter rendered a new settlement 
of the crown expedient, and a parliament 
met at Scone in December. By one of its 
statutes Robert, son of the Steward, and 
Marjory, the king's daughter, were recog- 
nised as next of kin ; failing next issue of the 
king should he succeed while a minor, Ran- 
dolph, and failing him James, lord Douglas, 
was to be regent. Substantially this was a 
re-enactment of the statute of Ayr. An im- 
portant declaration was added that doubts 
without sufficient cause had been raised in 
the past as to the rule of succession, and it 
was now defined that the crown ought not 




to follow the rules of inferior fiefs, but that 
the male nearest in descent in the direct line, 
-whom failing the female in the same line, 
whom failing the nearest male collateral, 
should succeed, an order sufficiently conform- 
able to the imperial, that is the Roman law. 
In this parliament Bruce established his 
title to be deemed as wise and practical a legis- 
lator as he had proved himself a general. The 
most important acts related to the national 
defence and the administration of justice. 
Every layman worth ten pounds was to be 
bound to provide himself with armour, and 
every one who had the value of a cow with 
a spear or bow and twenty-four arrows. A 
yearly weapon schaw was to be held by the 
sheriffs every Easter. While provision was 
thus made for the equipment and training of 
an armed nation, the excesses attendant on 
such a condition were restrained by a law 
that if any crime was committed by those 
coming to the army, they were to be tried 
before the justiciar. Stringent acts forbade 
the export of goods during war, or of arms 
at any time. As regards justice the usual 
proclamation was made with emphasis : ' The 
Idng wills and commands that common law 
and right be done to puir and riche after the 
auld lawes and freedomes.' The privilege of 
repledging, by which a person was removed 
from the jurisdiction of the king's officers, was 
restricted by the provision that it was to 
apply only when the accused was the liege- 
man of the lord or held land of him, or was 
in his service or of his kin, and if this was 
doubtful, a verdict of average was to decide. 
A new law was made against leasing making, 
a quaint Scotch term for treasonable lan- 
guage. ' The kynghes' statute and defendyt 
that none be conspirators nor fynders of taylis 
or of tidingis thruch the quhilkis mater of 
discord may spryng betwixt the kyng and his 
pepull,' under penalty of imprisonment at the 
king's will. A hortatory statute recommended 
the people to nourish love and friendship with 
ach other, forbade the nobles to do injury 
to any of the people, and promised redress 
to any one injured. This was aimed at 
the oppressions of the feudal lords, and ex- 
hibits the side of Bruce's character which 
gained him the name of the good king Robert 
from the commons. With regard to the 
civil law, the feudal actions commenced by 
the brieves of novel disseisin and mort d'an- 
cester, as well as the procedure in actions 
of debt and damage, were carefully regulated. 
The unreasonable delays (essoigns) which im- 
peded justice were no longer to be allowed. 
No defender was to be called on to plead 
until the complainer had fully stated his 
case. Bruce, like Cromwell, Frederick the 

Great, and Napoleon, was a law-reformer. 
The man of action cannot tolerate the abuses 
by which law ceases to be justice. 

A statute identical with the ' Quia Emp- 
tores' of 17 Edward I is ascribed to Bruce in 
the Harleian and other later manuscripts, and 
is included in the ' Statuta Secunda Roberti 
Primi,' by Sir J. Skene. But while tran- 
scripts of English law were not unknown in 
Scotland, they are little likely to have been 
made by Bruce, and this statute, which by 
preventing subinfeudation would have com- 
pletely altered the whole system of Scottish 
land rights, is certainly spurious. In 1319 
Edward tried to cut off the trade of Scotland 
with Flanders, but the count and the towns 
of Bruges and Ypres rejected his overtures. 
A vigorous effort to recover Berwick was 
repelled by Walter Stewart, its governor, 
aided by the skill of Crab, a Flemish engi- 
neer, and Douglas and Randolph invaded Eng- 
land, when the Archbishop of York was de- 
feated in the engagement called the Chapter 
of Mytton, from the number of clergy slain. 
This diversion and the lukewarmness, if not 
absolute abstention, of the Earl of Lancaster 
and the northern barons, led to the raising 
of the siege. When Bruce visited Berwick 
he complimented his son-in-law on the suc- 
cess of his defence, and raised the walls ten 
feet all round. The pope somewhat tardily 
excommunicated Bruce and his adherents 
for his contumacy, but the English king felt 
unable to continue the war, and on 21 Dec. 
a truce was concluded for two years. 

On 6 April 1320 a Scottish parliament at 
Arbroath addressed a letter to the pope as- 
serting the independence of their country 
and promising aid in a crusade if the pope 
recognised that independence. Part of this 
manifesto which relates to Bruce deserves 
to be quoted. After referring to the tyranny 
! of Edward I, it proceeds : ' Through His 
favour who woundeth and maketh whole we 
have been preserved from so great and num- 
j berless calamities by the valour of our lord 
and sovereign Robert. He, like another Joshua 
or Judas Maccabeus, gladly endured trials, 
I distresses, the extremities of want, and every 
' peril to rescue his people and inheritance out 
of the hands of the enemy. The divine proyi- 
i dence, that legal succession which we will 
j constantly maintain, and our due and unani- 
j mous consent have made him our chief and 
i king. To him in defence of our liberty we 
! are bound to adhere, as well of right as by 
I reason of his deserts ... for through him 
salvation has been wrought to our people. 
I ... While there exist a hundred of us we 
| will never submit to England. We fight 
not for glory, wealth, or honour, but for that 




liberty which no virtuous man will survive. 
Wherefore we most earnestly request your 
holiness, as His vicegerent who gives equal 
measure to all and with whom there is no 
distinction of persons or nations, that you 
would behold with a fatherly eye the tribu- 
lations and distresses brought upon us by 
the English, and that you would admonish 
Edward to content himself with his own 
dominions, esteemed in former times suffi- 
cient for seven kings, and allow us Scotsmen 
who dwell in a poor and remote corner, and 
who seek for nought but our own, to remain 
in peace.' A duplicate of the letter in the 
Register House is printed in the ' National 
MSS. of Scotland,' vol. i. Moved by this 
appeal, fearing to lose a province of the 
church, and knowing probably the weak- 
ness of Edward, the pope issued a bull 
recommending him to make peace with Scot- 

A conspiracy against Bruce, headed by 
Sir William Soulis, grandson of one of the 
competitors for the crown, at which he pro- 
bably aimed, and taken part in by some of 
the landed gentry but none of the nobility, 
was betrayed by the Countess of Strathearn 
and easily put down, though the parliament 
of Scone, at which some of the offenders were 
condemned and executed for treason, got the 
name of the Black Parliament to mark its 
difference from the other parliaments of the 
reign. This, the only rising against Bruce, 
proves his firm hold of all classes. It was 
different with Edward. The party amongst 
his nobles who opposed him ibrmed not a 
casual conspiracy but a chronic rebellion. 
Headed at first by Lancaster, and after his 
death by the queen mother and Mortimer, it 
made his whole reign a period of dissension 
which would have weakened a more powerful i 
monarch, and told largely in favour of Scot- 
land and Bruce. In December 1321 Lan- ; 
caster entered into a correspondence with 
the Scotch leader Douglas, who invaded 
Northumberland and Durham simultaneously | 
with the rising of Lancaster; but his defeat 
by Sir Andrew Hartcla at Boroughbridge 
on 16 March 1322, followed by his execu- 
tion, put down for a time the English rebel- 
lion. Edward in premature confidence wrote 
to the pope that he would no longer make 
terms with the Scots except by force, and 
invaded Scotland in August, penetrating as 
far as Edinburgh and wasting the country 
with fire and sword. The prudence of 
Bruce, by which everything of value on i 
the line of the invasion was removed, his 
own camp being fixed at Culross, north of ! 
the Forth, baffled as completely as a victory ! 
the last attempt of Edward II to subdue | 

Scotland. The opposite evils of want of 
food and intemperance forced him to with- 
draw, and the sarcasm of Earl Warenne on 
a bull taken at Tranent, ' Caro cara fuit/ 
indicates at once the disaffection of his barons 
and his own contemptible generalship. In 
the autumn Bruce, at the head of a very 
large force, estimated at 80,000, retaliated 
by invading Yorkshire, defeating Edward 
near Biland Abbey, where John de Bretagne, 
earl of Eichmond, and Henry de Sully, 
Butler of France, and many other prisoners 
were taken. The English king narrowly 
escaped being himself captured at York. 
The commencement of 1323 afforded still 
stronger evidence of Edward's incapacity to 
rule his own subjects. Sir Andrew Hartcla, 
although created Earl of Carlisle and re- 
warded with a large pension and the warden- 
ship of the marches, met Bruce and entered 
into a secret treaty to maintain him and his 
heirs in possession of Scotland. On the dis- 
covery of this, Hartcla was tried and executed 
on 2 "March 1323, and the Earl of Kent 
appointed warden in his place. But though 
able so far to assert his authority, the defeat 
at Biland had taught Edward that he could 
not cope with Bruce, and in March 1323 a 
truce gave time for negotiations at Newcastle 
and Thorpe, where, on 30 May, a peace for 
thirteen years was concluded, which was 
ratified by Bruce as king of Scotland at 
Berwick on 7 June. The continued favour 
shown by Edward to the Despensers, which 
had been the cause of Lancaster's rebellion, 
led to a new conspiracy in the family of the 
ill-fated king. His queen Isabella, and 
Roger Mortimer her paramour, carried it on 
in the name of his son, and in 1325 his 
brother, the Earl of Kent, joined it. Ed- 
ward, deserted by almost all his barons, was 
taken prisoner in 1326, deposed early in the 
following year, and murdered on 21 Sept. 

Bruce naturally took advantage of the- 
distracted state of England to strengthen 
his title to the Scottish crown. In 1323 the 
skilful diplomacy of Randolph obtained from 
the pope the recognition of the title of kingf 
of Scotland by a promise to aid in a crusade^ 
and three years later, by the treaty of Cor- 
beil, the French king made a similar acknow- 
ledgment. At a parliament held at Cambus- 
kenneth in 1326 the young prince David, 
born two years before, was solemnly recog- 
nised as heir to the crown, which in case of 
his death was to go to Robert the son of 
Marjory and the Steward. This is the first 
Scottish parliament in which there is clear 
evidence of representatives of the burghs, 
and the grant made by it to Bruce for his 
life of a tenth of the rents of the lands, as- 




well wood and domain lands as other lands, 
and both within and without burgh, sup- 
plies one reason for their presence. The 
clergy probably made a grant in a separate 
assembly of their own. Although the peace 
between England and Scotland was ratified 
by Edward III on 8 March 1327, both sides 
made preparations for the renewal of the war, 
so that it is difficult to support the accusa- 
tions of breach of faith against either. On 
18 May Edward contracted with John of 
Hainault for a large force of mercenary 
cavalry, a sign that he was unable to rely 
on his own feudal levy. 

On 15 June Randolph and Douglas crossed 
the border with 20,000 men, and Edward 
with more than double that number advanced 
to Durham. The Hainault mercenaries could 
not be relied on to co-operate with the Eng- 
lish troops, and their dissensions, of which 
Froissart has left a lively picture, had pro- 
bably much to do with the English discom- 
fiture. A series of manoeuvres and counter- 
manoeuvres on the Tyne and Wear showed 
that neither side was willing to try the issue 
of a battle. Randolph declined a challenge 
to leave a favourable position on the north 
of the Wear and fight on the open ground 
at Stanhope Park. Douglas with a small 
band made a daring night attack on Ed- 
ward's camp on 4 Aug., when his chaplain 
was slain and the young king with difficulty 
escaped. The Scotch under cover of night 
abandoned their camp and retreated home- 
wards, and on 15 Aug. Edward disbanded 
his army at York, dismissing the Hainaulters, 
who had been found too costly or too dan- 
gerous allies. 

Bruce himself now assumed the command, 
but his sudden attack on the eastern marches 
failed. Alnwick repulsed an assault of 
Douglas, and Randolph and Bruce were not 
more successful in the siege of Norham. 
While still engaged in it he was approached 
by English commissioners with overtures of 
peace. The preliminaries were debated at 
Newcastle, and at a parliament in York on 
8 Feb. 1328 the most essential article was 
accepted. It was agreed that Scotland, ' ac- 
cording to its ancient bounds in the days of 
Alexander III, should remain to Robert king 
of Scots and his heirs and successors free 
and divided from the kingdom of England, 
without any subjection, right of service, 
claim, or demand, and that all writs executed 
at any time to the contrary should be held 

The parliament of Northampton in April 
1328 concluded the final treaty by which 
(1) peace was made between the two king- 
doms ; (2) the coronation-stone of Scone was 

to be restored ; (3) the English king promised 
to ask the pope to recall all spiritual pro- 
cesses against the Scots ; (4) the Scots agreed 
to pay thirty thousand marks ; (5, 6, and 7) 
ecclesiastical property which had changed 
hands in the course of the war was to be 
restored, but not lay fiefs, with an excep- 
tion in favour of three barons, Lord Wake, 
the Earl of Buchan, and Henry de Percy ; 
(8) Johanna, Edward's sister, was to be given 
in marriage to David, the son and heir of 
Bruce, and to receive a jointure of 2,000/. a 
year; (9) the party failing to observe the 
articles of the treaty was to pay 2,000/. of 
silver to the papal treasury. 

On 12 July 1328 the marriage of the infant 
prince and bride was celebrated at Berwick. 
The English and Edward, when he attained 
his independence from the guardianship of the 
queen mother and Mortimer, denounced this 
treaty as shameful, and ascribed it to the de- 
parture of the Hainaulters, the treachery of 
Mortimer, and the bribery used by the Scots. 
But it was the necessary result of the situa- 
tion at the commencement of his reign, and 
the bloody war of two centuries failed to re- 
verse its main provisions. Scotland remained 
an independent monarchy. The chief author 
of its independence barely survived the ac- 
complishment of his work. On 7 June 1329 
Bruce died at Cardross of leprosy, a disease 
contracted during the hard life of his earlier 
struggles. There are frequent, and towards 
the close increasing, references to his physical 
sufferings, which made his moral courage more 
conspicuous. He was buried by his wife, who 
had died in 1327, at Dunfermline, but his 
heart was, by a dying wish, entrusted to Dou- 
glas, to fulfil the vow he had been unable to 
execute in person of visiting the holy sepul- 
chre. His great adversary Edward I had 
made a similar request, not so faithfully exe- 
cuted, and his grandson granted a passport to 
Douglas on 1 Sept. to proceed to the Holy 
Land, to aid the Christians against the Sara- 
cens, with the heart of Lord Robert, king of 
Scotland. The death of Douglas fighting 
against the Moors in Spain, and the recovery 
of the heart of Bruce by Sir William Keith, 
who brought it to Scotland and buried it 
along with the bones of Douglas in Melrose 
Abbey, may be accepted as authentic; but 
the words with which Douglas is said to 
have parted with it, 

Now passe thou forth before 

As thou was wont in field to bee, 

And I shall follow or else die, 

are an addition to the original verses of Bar- 
bour. When the remains of Bruce were dis- 
interred at Dunfermline in 1819, the breast- 




bone was found sawn through to permit of 
the removal of the heart. 

Some interesting particulars as to the 
last years of Bruce are furnished by the Ex- 
chequer Kolls of Scotland. Enfeebled by 
disease he had to trust the chief conduct of 
the war to the young leaders he had trained, 
Randolph and Douglas, and he spent most of 
his time at Cardross, which he had acquired 
in 1326. He employed it in enlarging the 
castle, repairing the park walls, and orna- 
menting the garden, in the amusement of 
hawking, and the exercise of the royal vir- 
tues of hospitality and charity. Like other 
kings he kept a fool. A lion was his fa- 
vourite pet, shipbuilding his favourite di- 
version. His foresight had discerned the 
importance of this art to the future strength 
and wealth of Scotland. Before his death he 
made preparations for his tomb, and commis- 
sioned in Paris the marble monument, after- 
wards erected at Dunfermline, which was 
surrounded with an iron-gilt railing, covered 
by a painted chapel of Baltic timber. The 
offerings to the abbot of Dunfermline and the 
rector of Cardross, as well as the annual pay- 
ment to the chaplains at Ayr for masses for 
his soul, appear also to have been by his orders. 

By his first marriage with Isabella of Mar 
he had an only daughter, Marjory, the wife of 
the Steward and ancestor of the last line of j 
Scottish kings. By his second marriage with 
Elizabeth de Burgh, which he contracted 
about 1304, he had two daughters Matilda, 
who married Thomas Ysaak, a simple esquire, 
and Margaret, the wife of William, earl of 
Sutherland as well as his late-born son and 
successor, David II, and another, John, who 
died in infancy. Of several children not 
born in wedlock, Sir Robert, who fell at 
Dupplin, Walter, who died before him, 
Nigel Stewart of Carrick, Margaret, wife of 
Robert Glen, Elizabeth, wife of Walter Oli- 
phant, and Christian are traced in the records. 

[If the character of Bruce is not understood 
from his acts, of which a singularly complete 
narrative, here condensed, has descended from so 
distant a time, no words could avail. Any such 
attempt, which might become easily mere pane- 
gyric, is better omitted, and the space left de- 
voted to a notice of the authorities upon which 
this life has been based. Barbour's Bruce, the 
Scottish epic, is a poetical, but in the main a 
true, account of his whole career. Wyntoun's and 
Fordun's chronicles are not so full as might have 
been anticipated ; and the former confines him- 
self, in many important facts of the reign, to 
giving a reference to the Archdeacon Barbour. 
The English chroniclers and the Chronicle of 
Lanercost may be referred to with advantage. 
The success of Bruce and the weakness of Ed- 
ward II were too conspicuous to be hidden by 

a national bias. The slender historical mate- 
s for the life of Wallace leant themselves on 
the one side to the legendary narrative of Blind 
! Harry, and on the other to the fictions of the 
j English writers, such as Hemingford and Ris- 
| hanger, as to the real character of Wallace and 
i the policy of Edward ; but the acts of Bruce are 
too fully contained in authentic records and per- 
| manent results to leave room for misinterpre- 
j tation. He was not originally a Scottish patriot, 
, and may be described, as Wallace cannot, as an 
; English rebel ; but after he once assumed the 
| leadership of the Scottish cause he never faltered 
j under any danger or made a false step in policy 
until he secured its success. The records chiefly 
to be consulted are in Rymer's Foedera, Riley's 
Placita, the Documents illustrative of Scottish 
History, published by Mr. Joseph Stevenson and 
Mr. Bain for the Record Series ; the Scottish 
Exchequer Rolls ; and the Acts of the Scottish 
Parliament. Kerr's Life and Reign of Robert 
the Bruce and Lord Hailes's Annals are both very 
accurate and full collections of the facts. The 
History of England down to the death of Ed- 
ward I, by Mr. Pearson, and Longman's Reign of 
Edward II are the most trustworthy modern au- 
thorities as to the war with England written 
by Englishmen. Tytler's and Hill Burton's His- 
tories of Scotland require both to be read. As 
an independent historian Pauli's GreschichteEng- 
lands is of great value, and probably the best single 
account of the war of independence.] ^E. M. 

BRUCE, ROBERT (1554-1631), theo- 
logical writer, second son of Sir Alexander 
Bruce of Airth, who claimed descent from 
the royal family of Bruce, studied jurispru- 
dence at Paris, and on his return practised 
law, and was on the way to becoming a 
judge. But a very remarkable inward ex- 
perience constrained him to give himself to 
the church. He went to St. Andrews to 
study, and on becoming a preacher (1587) 
was forthwith called to be a minister in 
Edinburgh. On 6 Feb. 1587-8 he was chosen 
moderator of the general assembly a rare 
and singular testimony to the wisdom, the 
stability, and the business capacity of one 
so young. In 1589, when the king went to 
Norway to fetch his bride, and parties in 
Edinburgh were somewhat excited, the king 
appointed Bruce an extraordinary privy- 
councillor, and such was his influence that 
he kept all quiet, and on the king's return 
received from his majesty a cordial letter of 
thanks (19 Feb. 1589-90). The queen was 
crowned at Holyrood and anointed by Bruce 
on 17 March following. He again became 
moderator of the general assembly 22 May 
1592. His power and success as a preacher 
were very remarkable, and he continued to 
enjoy the king's favour till 1596, when, giv- 
ing offence to his majesty by his opposition 
to certain arbitrary proceedings, he, with 




others, was banished from Edinburgh. The 
king desired to introduce episcopal govern- 
ment into the church, and the disinterested 
character of Bruce's opposition is apparent, 
for had he consented, no man would have 
been more sure to benefit by the change. 
This quarrel with the king was for the time 
made up ; but soon after a new bone of con- 
tention arose. After the Gowrie conspiracy 
the king ordered the ministers to give thanks 
for his release (6 Aug. 1600), and to specify 
certain grounds of thanksgiving about which 
some of them had doubts. Bruce and others 
gave thanks, but in terms more general 
than the king desired. After much nego- 
tiation, and many efforts of friends to get 
the matter settled, the king carried his point, 
and ordered Bruce to leave Edinburgh. The 
prospect of his leaving was felt profoundly 
by the Christian community, who hung on 
his lips, and enjoyed in a rare degree his 
eloquent and powerful preaching. But the 
king was inexorable, and Bruce's ministry in 
Edinburgh came to an end. 

The last thirty years of his life were spent 
here and there. From 1 605 to 1 609 he was con- 
fined to Inverness, where he met with much 
harsh treatment from Lord Enzie and others, 
but where his preaching was a singular re- 
freshment to his friends. In 1609 he was at 
Aberdeen, the atmosphere of which was very 
uncongenial, for it was a stronghold of the 
episcopalians. Sometimes he was at his pa- 
trimonial estate of Kinnaird, near Stirling, 
where he repaired at his own expense the 
parish church of Larbert, and discharged all 
the duties of the ministry; and occasionally at 
his other estate, at Monkland, near Glasgow. 
Wherever he had an opportunity of preaching, 
great crowds attended ; he preached with re- 
markable power, and his own life being in 
full accord with his preaching, the influence 
he attained was almost without a parallel 
in the history of the Scottish church. In 
1620 he was again banished to Inverness, 
and begged very hard that, owing to his in- 
firmities and weakness, he might be allowed 
to remain at home. The king was obdurate, 
and the request was refused. In 1624 he 
was allowed to return to Kinnaird, where 
he died 13 July 1631. His remains were 
accompanied to the grave by four or five 
thousand persons of all ranks and classes, 
from the nobility downwards. From his 
very youth he had been regarded with re- 
markable esteem and affection, and the bitter 
trials that chequered the last half of hjs 
life commended him all the more to the 
esteem of those who were like-minded. It 
was this chequered mode of life, this moving 
about from place to place without any settled 


charge, that prevented him, as the like causes 
prevented Richard Baxter in England, from 
leaving on his country so deep a mark as his 
character and abilities were fitted to make. 
Andrew Melville described him as a 'hero 
adorned with every virtue, a constant con- 
fessor and almost martyr to the Lord Jesus.' 
Livingstone, another contemporary, said, 
' Mr. Robert Bruce I several times heard, and 
in my opinion never man spoke with greater 
power since the apostles' days.' 

As an author Bruce is best known by his 
' Way to True Peace and Rest : delivered at 
Edinburgh in sixteen sermons on the Lord's 
Supper, Hezekiah's sickness, and other select 
scriptures.' This book appeared in 1617, and 
bore the motto, significant of its author's 
experience, ' Dulcia non meruit, qui non gus- 
tavit amara.' The sermons are in the Scottish 
dialect, and are remarkable as a singularly 
clear and able exposition of the scriptural 
doctrine of the Lord's Supper, enforced with 
great liveliness and power. 

Bruce's conduct in his conflicts with the 
king and in some other matters has been 
placed in a somewhat less favourable light 
in Spottiswood's ' History of the Church of 
Scotland 'and inMaitland's ' History of Edin- 
burgh.' These views are controverted in 
Wodrow's ' Life of Bruce ' and in M'Crie's 
< Life of Melville.' 

[Row's, Spottiswood's, and Calderwood's His- 
tories of the Church of Scotland ; Autobiography 
and Life of Robert Blair ; Livingstone's Memo- 
rable Characteristics; Melville's Autobiography ; 
Wodrow's Collections as to the Life of Mr. Robert 
Bruce ; Wodrow Society's Life and Sermons of 
Rev. Robert Bruce, edited by Principal Cunning- 
ham, D.D. ; Scott's Fasti, i. 4, 17.] W. G. B. 

GIN and first EARL OF AILESBTTRY (d. 1685), 
was the only son of Thomas, third lord Bruce 
of Kinloss, and first earl of Elgin, and Anne, 
daughter of Sir Robert Chichester of Ra- 
leigh, Devonshire. While his father was still 
alive he was, at the Restoration, constituted, 
along with the Earl of Cleveland, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Bedfordshire, 26 July 1660. He 
was returned member for the county to the 
convention parliament in the same year, and 
also to the parliament which met in 1661. 
Succeeding to his father's estates and titles 
in December 1663, he was, on 18 March 
1663-4, created Baron Bruce of Skelton in 
the county of York, Viscount Bruce of Ampt- 
hill in Bedfordshire, and Earl of Ailesbury 
in Buckinghamshire. On 29 March 1667 
he was constituted sole lord-lieutenant of 
Bedfordshire, on the death of the Earl of 
Cleveland. The same year he was appointed 





one of the commissioners for such moneys as 
had been raised and assigned to Charles II 
during his war with the Dutch. On 18 March 
1678 he was sworn a privy councillor. He 
was also one of the gentlemen of the king's 
bed-chamber, and a commissioner for execut- 
ing the office of earl marischal of England, 
as deputy to Henry, duke of Norfolk. At 
the coronation of King James II he bore the 
sword, and on 30 July 1685 he was appointed 
lord chamberlain of the household. He died 
20 Oct. of the same year at Ampthill, and 
was buried there. By his wife, Diana, daugh- 
ter of Henry Grey, first earl of Stamford, he 
had eight sons and nine daughters. Wood 
says : ' He was a learned person, and other- j 
wise well qualified, was well versed in English i 
history and antiquities, a lover of all such I 
that were professors of those studies, and a 
curious collector of manuscripts, especially 
of those which related to England and English 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812, v. 122-3; Dou- 
glas's Peerage of Scotland, i. 515-16; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Series; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 
491.] T. F. H. 

and second EARL OF AILESBTJRY (1655?- 
1741), was the sixth and eldest surviving son 
of Robert, second earl [q. v.], and Diana, 
daughter of Henry Grey, first earl of Stam- 
ford. When the Prince of Orange landed in 
England, he was one of the noblemen who 
adhered to the cause of James, but on the 
king's withdrawal from Whitehall he signed 
the application to the Prince of Orange. He 
was one of those appointed to meet with 
the king when he was stopped by fishermen 
near the isle of Sheppey, to invite him to 
return to Whitehall. He accompanied the 
king in his barge to Rochester, previous to 
his final flight. Afterwards he returned to 
London, but he never took the oaths to Wil- 
liam and Mary. When the French threatened 
a descent on England, in 1690, during Wil- 
liam's absence in Ireland, an order was given, 
on 5 July, by Queen Mary for apprehension 
of the earl and of other Jacobite noblemen, 
but the danger having passed it was not 
deemed necessary to put the order into exe- 
cution. In 1691 King William issued an 
order to enable him and his countess to make 

E revision for paying their debts and to make 
jases of their estates. In May 1695 he was 
present at a meeting held at the Old King's 
Head tavern, Aldersgate Street, London, to 
concert measures for the restoration of King 
James, and was sent over to France to per- 
suade Louis to grant a body of troops to aid 
in the enterprise. On account of his con- 

nection with the plot he was committed to 
the Tower in February 1695-6. His wife, 
Elizabeth Seymour, sister and heiress of 
William, duke of Somerset, died in childbed 
from anxiety connected with his imprison- 
ment. He was admitted to bail on 12 Feb. 
folloAving, and obtained the king's permission 
to reside in Brussels, where he married Char- 
lotte, countess of Sannu, of the house of 
Argenteau, in the duchy of Brabant. He 
died at Brussels in November 1741, in his 
eighty-sixth year. By his first wife he had 
four sons and two daughters, and by the 
second he had an only daughter, Charlotte 
Maria, who was married in 1722 to the Prince 
of Home, one of the princes of the empire. 
One of her daughters, Elizabeth Philippina, 
married Prince Gustavus Adolphus of Stol- 
berg Guedern, and was the mother of Louisa 
Maximiliana, the wife of Prince Charles Ed- 
ward Stuart,, the pretender. The Earl of 
Elgin was succeeded by Charles, his second 
and only surviving son. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812, v. 124-6; Dou- 
glas's Peerage of Scotland, i. 516.] T. F. H. 

GIN and eleventh EARL OF KINCARDINE (1766- 
1841), was born on 20 July 1766, and suc- 
ceeded to his earldoms in 1771 on the death, 
without issue, of his elder brother, William 
Robert. He was educated at Harrow and 
Westminster, and he also studied at St. An- 
drews University and in Paris. In 1785 he 
entered the army, in which he rose to the 
rank of major-general. His diplomatic career 
began in 1790, when he was sent on a special 
mission to the Emperor Leopold. In 1792 
he was appointed envoy at Brussels, and in 
1795 envoy extraordinary at Berlin. In 1799 
he was appointed to the embassy to the Ot- 
toman Porte, and he was desirous that his 
mission to Constantinople should lead to a 
closer study and examination of the remains 
of Grecian art within the Turkish dominions. 
Acting on the advice of Sir William Hamil- 
ton, he procured at his own expense the ser- 
vices of the Neapolitan painter, Lusieri, and 
of several skilful draughtsmen and modellers. 
These artists were despatched to Athens in 
the summer of 1800, and were principally 
employed in making drawings of the ancient 
monuments, though very limited facilities 
were given them by the authorities. About 
the middle of the summer of 1801, however, 
all obstacles were overcome, and Elgin re- 
ceived a firman from the Porte which al- 
lowed his lordship's agents not only to ' fix 
scaffolding round the antient Temple of the 
Idols [the Parthenon], and to mould the orna- 
mental sculpture and visible figures thereon 



in plaster and gypsum/ but also ' to take away 
any pieces of stone with old inscriptions or 
figures thereon.' The actual removal of an- 
cient marbles from Athens formed no part of 
Elgin's original plan, but the constant in- 
juries suffered by the sculptures of the Par- 
thenon and other monuments at the hands 
of the Turks induced him to undertake it. 
The collection thus formed by operations at 
Athens, and by explorations in other parts 
of Greece, and now known by the name of 
the ' Elgin Marbles,' consists of portions of 
the frieze, metopes, and pedimental sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon, as well as of sculp- 
tured slabs from the Athenian temple of 
Nike Apteros, and of various antiquities from 
Attica and other districts of Hellas. These 
sculptures and antiquities, now in our na- 
tional collection, may be found enumerated 
and illustrated in the ' Description of the 
Collection of Ancient Marbles in the British 
Museum ' (parts vi-ix.), in Michaelis's work 
' Der Parthenon,' and in other archaeological 
books. Part of the Elgin collection was pre- 
pared for embarkation for England in 1803, 
considerable difficulties having to be en- 
countered at every stage of its transit. El- 
gin's vessel, the Mentor, was unfortunately 
wrecked near Cerigo with its cargo of marbles, 
and it was not till after the labours of three 
years, and the expenditure of a large sum of 
money, that the marbles were successfully 
recovered by the divers. On Elgin's de- 
parture from Turkey in 1803, he withdrew 
all his artists from Athens with the excep- 
tion of Lusieri, who remained to direct the 
excavations which were still carried on, 
though on a much reduced scale. Additions 
continued to be made to the Elgin collec- 
tions, and as late as 1812 eighty fresh cases 
of antiquities arrived in England. Elgin, 
who had been ' detained ' in France after 
the rupture of the peace of Amiens, returned 
to England in 1806. No inconsiderable 
outcry was raised against his conduct in 
connection with the removal of the antiqui- 
ties. The propriety of his official actions 
was called in question ; he was accused of 
vandalism, of rapacity and dishonesty, and 
in addition to these accusations, which found 
their most exaggerated expression in Byron's 
' Curse of Minerva,' an attempt was even 
made to minimise the artistic importance 
of the marbles which had been removed. 
Elgin accordingly thought it advisable to 
throw open his collections to public view, 
and arranged them in his own house in Park 
Lane, and afterwards at Burlington House, 
Piccadilly. Upon the supreme merits of 
the Parthenon sculptures all competent art 
critics were henceforth agreed. Canova, 

when he saw them, pronounced them l the 
works of the ablest artists the world has 
seen.' After some preliminary negotiations, 
a select committee of the House of Commons 
was appointed in 1816 to inquire into the 
desirability of acquiring the Elgin collection 

j for the nation. This committee recommended 
its purchase for the sum of 35,0007., and in 
July 1816 an act was passed giving effect 
to their proposal. The committee, after a 
careful examination of Elgin and other wit- 
nesses, further decided in favour of the am- 
bassador's conduct, and of his claim to the 
ownership of the antiquities. The money 
spent by Elgin in the formation, removal, 
and arrangement of his collection, and the 
sums disbursed for the salaries and board of 

I his artists at Athens, were estimated at no 

! less than 74,000/. 

Elgin was from 1790 to 1840 one of the 

i representative peers of Scotland, but after 

I his return to England he took little part in 
public affairs. He died on 14 Nov. 1841. 

[Peerages of Burke and Foster ; Douglas's 
Peerage of Scotland (ed. Wood), i. 522 f. ; Memo- 
randum on the Earl of Elgin's Pursuits in Greece, 
1810 and 1815; Report from the Select Com- 
mittee on the Earl of Elgin's Collection, 1816 ; 
Ellis's Elgin Marbles, pp. 1-10 ; Edwards's Lives 
of the Founders of the Brit. Mus., 1870, pt. i. 
pp. 380-96; Michaelis's Der Parthenon, pp. 73- 
87, 348-57 ; Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in Great 
Britain, pp. 132-51.] W. W. 

BRUCE, SIR WILLIAM (d. 1710), of 
Kinross, architect in Scotland to Charles II, 
was the second son of Robert Bruce of 
Blairhall, by his wife, Catherine, daughter 
of Sir John Preston of Valleyfield, and was 
born in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. Though too young to have played 
a part in the troublous reign of Charles I, 
no one in Scotland probably contributed 
more in a private capacity to bring about the 
restoration of the royal family, to whom he 
proved a firm and constant friend. He is 
said to have been the channel of communi- 
cation between General Monk and the young 
king, and to have had the honour of first 
conveying to the latter the inclination of the 
former to serve him. Being a man of ability 
and address, he retained the friendship of 
the monarch, who rewarded him in the very 
year of the restoration with the office of 
clerk to the bills, a very beneficial one in 
those days. Eight years after, having ac- 
quired the lands of Balcashie in Fife, he was 
created a baronet by royal letters patent 
dated 21 April 1668. He soon after ac- 
quired possession of the lands of Drumel- 
drie, in the same county, his title to which is 
dated 18 April 1670, and having afterwards 





acquired from the Earl of Morton the lands 
and barony of Kinross in that county, he 
was, says Douglas, ' ever after designed by 
that title.' His skill and taste in building 
led to his appointment, in 1671, as ' the 
king's surveyor and master of works,' and to 
his employment in the restoration of Holy- 
rood House, the ancient palace of the Stuarts 
in Edinburgh. He designed the quadrangular 
edifice as it now stands. The work was 
not completed till 1679, and latterly not alto- 
gether under Bruce's supervision. In 1681 
he was summoned as representative in par- 
liament of the county of Kinross, by royal 
letters dated at Windsor on 13 Aug. in that 
year. In 1685 he built his own house at 
Kinross, a mansion which appears to have 
been originally intended for the residence of 
the Duke of York (afterwards James II), 
should he have eventually been excluded 
from succeeding to the throne. He also 
built Harden House in Teviotdale, and in 
1698 the mansion house of Hopetoun in 
Linlithgowshire was commenced from his 
designs. It was finished four years later, and 
the design, 'given by Sir William Bruce, 
who was justly esteemed the best architect 
of his time in that kingdom (Scotland),' as 
says Colin Campbell, will be found delineated 
in his ' Vitruvius Britannicus.' The house, 
however, was at a later date considerably 
altered and modified, even in some particulars 
of the plan, by the better-known architect, 
William Adam [see ADAM, ROBEKT]. 

Bruce is also said to have designed a 
bridge over the North Loch, a sheet of water 
which formerly occupied the site of the gar- 
dens now extending from the foot of the 
Castle Rock to Princes Street in Edinburgh ; 
but it was never executed, and the works 
already enumerated (with the addition of 
Moncrieffe House in Perthshire, also designed 
by him) are the chief if not the only known 
proofs of their author's architectural skill. 
It is impossible to say that they exhibit any 
amount of originality or artistic genius ; but 
these were probably little regarded in his time, 
when the architect's merit consisted mainly 
in suiting the requirements of modern life to 
the supposed rules of ancient construction. 
At the end of two centuries, however, Holy- 
rood House is still a quaint and interesting 
enough structure. Bruce died at a very great 
age in 1710, and was succeeded by his son, 
who, according to Douglas, was ' also a man 
of parts, and, as he had got a liberal educa- 
tion, was looked upon as one of the finest gen- 
tlemen in the kingdom when he returned from 
his travels.' Neither his parts nor his educa- 
tion, however, prompted him to distinguish 
himself, and they are both useful now only 

as indices of the qualities of the ' king's master 
of works,' his father. On his death the title 
went to his cousin, with whom it became 

[Adam's Vitr. Scot., fol., 1720-40 ; Campbell's 
Vitr. Brit., fpl., 1767 (vol. ii. 1717); Kincaid's 
Hist, of Edinburgh, 12mo, 1787 ; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation, 1860; Douglas's Baronage of 
Scotland, 1798.1 G. W. B. 

BRUCE, WILLIAM (1702-1755), pub- 
lisher and author, the youngest son of James 
Bruce, minister of Killeleagh [q. v.], was born 
in 1702. He received a collegiate education, 
but entered business life. In 1730 he was at 
Dublin in partnership with John Smith, 
a publisher who had been educated for the 
ministry. In 1737 or 1738 he became tutor 
to Joseph, son of Hugh Henry, a Dublin 
banker (M.P. for Antrim 1715). With his 
pupil he visited Cambridge, Oxford, and pro- 
bably Glasgow, for purposes of study. About 
1745 he settled permanently in Dublin, and 
was an elder of Wood Street, his brother 
Samuel's congregation. He was certainly a 
nonsubscriber, most probably an Arian. In 
1750 the general synod at Dungannon accepted 
a scheme of his origination fora widows' fund, 
which came into operation next year. In 1759 
it became necessary to reduce the annuities, 
but it now yields three times more than was 
originally calculated by Bruce. In Dublin 
Bruce was distinguished as a public-spirited 
citizen. He published a pamphlet, ' Some 
Facets and Observations relative to the Fate of 
the late Linen Bill,' &c., Dublin, 1753 (anony- 
mous, third edition), to show that the linen 
manufacture of the north of Ireland was 
exposed to a double danger by the projected 
closing of the American market, and the 
proposed abolition of the protective duties on 
foreign linens and calicoes. Bruce, who was 
unmarried, died of fever on 11 July 1755, 
and was buried in the same tomb with his 
intimate friend and cousin, Francis Hutche- 
son (died July 1746), the ethical writer. 
Gabriel Cornwall (died 1786) wrote a joint 
epitaph for the two friends in Latin. Bruce 
kept no accounts, and died richer than he 
thought. All his property he bequeathed to 
his friend, Alexander Stewart of Ballylawn, 
co. Donegal, afterwards of Mount Stewart, 
near Newtownards, co. Down (born 1699, 
died 22 April 1781 ; father of the first mar- 
quis of Londonderry). Stewart divided the 
property among Bruce's relatives, in accord- 
ance with a paper of private instructions. 
Bruce was the author, in conjunction with 
John Abernethy (1680-1740) [q. v.], of 
' Reasons for the Repeal of the Sacramental 
Test/ which appeared in five weekly num- 



bers at Dublin in 1733, and was reprinted in 
1751 as the first of a collection of ' Scarce 
and Valuable Tracts and Sermons ' by Aber- 

[Essay on the Character of the late Mr. W. Bruce 
in a Letter to a Friend, Dublin, 1755 (by Gabriel 
Cornwall, dated 1 1 Aug. ; prefatory letter to 
Stewart by James Duchal, D.D.), reprinted, 
Monthly Eev. vols. xiii. xiv. ; Armstrong's Ap- 
pendix to James Martineau's Ordination Service, 
1829, pp. 64, 96 ; Hincks's Notices of W. Bruce 
and Contemporaries in Chr. Teacher, January 
1843 (also issued separately) ; Eeid's Hist. Presb. 
Ch. in Ireland (Killen), 1867, ii. 405, iii. 234, 
289 sq.] A. G-. 

BRUCE, WILLIAM (1757-1841), pres- 
byterian minister, the second son of Samuel 
Bruce, presbyterian minister, of Wood Street, 
Dublin, and Rose Rainey of Magherafelt, 
co. Derry, was born in Dublin on 30 July 
1757. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
in 1771. In 1775 he obtained a scholarship, 
and afterwards graduated A.B., supporting 
himself by private tuition. In 1776 he went 
to Glasgow for a session, and in 1777 to the 
Warrington Academy for two years. Bruce, 
in presbyterian matters, favoured the looser 
administration prevalent among his English 
brethren. His first settlement was at Lis- 
burn. He was ordained on 4 Nov. 1779 by 
the Bangor presbytery. Bruce was long 
enough at Lisburn to acquire considerable 
reputation as a public man. His father's old 
congregation at Strand Street, Dublin, called 
him on 24 March 1782 as colleague to John 
Moody, D.D., on the death of Thomas Plunket, 
great-grandfather of the present (1886) arch- 
bishop of Dublin. Bruce took part in the volun- 
teer movement of 1782, serving in the ranks, 
but declining a command. At the national 
convention which met in November 1783, in 
the Rotundo at Dublin, he sat as delegate 
for the county of the town of Carrickfergus, 
and was the last surviving member of this 
convention. In 1786 he received the degree 
of D.D. from Glasgow. His Dublin congre- 
gation was increased by the accession to it, 
on 25 or 29 March 1787, of the Cooke Street 
congregation, with its ex-minister, William 
Dunne, D.D. In October 1789 he was called 
to First Belfast, as colleague to James 
Crombie, D.D. (1730-1790). This call he did 
not accept, but on Crombie's death he was 
again called (11 March 1790) to First Belfast, 
and at the same time elected principal of the 
Belfast Academy. His Dublin congregation 
released him on 18 March. In the extra- 
synodical Antrim presbytery, to which his 
congregation belonged, he was a command- 
ing spirit ; his broad view of the liberty which 
may consist with presbyterian discipline is 

seen in the supplement ' by a member of the 
presbytery of Antrim ' to the Newry edition, 
1816,"l2mo, of Towgood's 'Dissenting Gentle- 
man's Letters.' In practice he did not favour 
the presence of lay-elders in church courts. 
His congregation, which comprised many of 
the best families of Belfast, increased rapidly, 
and it was necessary to provide additional ac- 
commodation in his meeting-house. He had 
a noble presence and a rich voice. He drew 
up for his congregation a hymn-book in 1801 
(enlarged 1818 and still in use), but while 
he paid great attention to congregational 
singing he resisted, in 1807, the introduc- 
tion of an organ, not, however, on religious 
grounds. He broke the established silence 
of presbyterian interments by originating the 
custom of addresses at the grave. The Bel- 
fast Academy chiefly owed its reputation 
to him. But though Bruce, from 1802, de- 
livered courses of lectures on history, belles 
lettres, and moral philosophy, his main work 
as principal, from 1 May 1790, when he 
entered on his duties, till he resigned his 
post in November 1822, was that of a school- 
master. He taught well, and ruled firmly, 
not forgetting the rod ; early in his career the 
famous barring out of 12 April 1792, which 
roused the whole town, tried his mettle and 
proved his mastery. In the troubles of 1797 
and 1798 Bruce enrolled himself as a pri- 
vate in the Belfast Merchants' Infantry ; he 
despatched his family to Whitehaven ; and 
regularly occupied his pulpit throughout the 
disturbances. Many of the liberal presby- 
terians had been active in urging the insur- 
rection ; hence Bruce's attitude was of signal 
importance. His influence with the govern- 
ment in 1800 was exerted to secure adequate 
consideration for the presbyterians at the 
Union. At this period Bruce's advice was 
much sought by the leaders of the general 
synod. In November 1805 there were ne- 
gotiations for the readmission of his pres- 
bytery to the synod without subscription, 
but in May following the idea was abandoned 
as inopportune. Bruce penned the address 
presented to George IV at Dublin (1821) in 
the name of the whole presbyterian body. 
He sought no personal favours ; at the death 
of Robert Black [q. v.] in 1817 the agency 
for the regium donum was open to him, but 
he forwarded the claims of another. The 
Widows' Fund, founded in 1751, through the 
exertions of his granduncle, William Bruce 
(1702-1755) [q.v.],was 
.d iudsrnent. 

his efforts and judgment. Protestants of all 
sections welcomed his presence on the com- 
mittee of the Hibernian Bible Society, an 
institution which he recommended in letters 
(signed l Zuinglius ') to the ' Newry Telegraph ' 




(reprinted in the ' Belfast Newsletter/ 16 Nov. 
1821). He had a good deal to do with the 
establishment of the Lancasterian school, 
with which was connected a protestant but 
otherwise undenominational Sunday school. 
To provide common ground for intellectual 
pursuits among men of all parties, he had 
founded (23 Oct. 1801) the Literary So- 
ciety, a centre of culture in the days when 
Belfast took to itself the title of the Ulster 

Bruce eschewed personal controversy. He 
had always owned himself a Unitarian, in the 
broad sense attached to the term at its first in- 
troduction into English literature by Firmin 
and Emlyn ; when used in the restricted sense 
of the modern Socinians, such as Lindsey 
and Belsham, he sensitively repudiated all 
connection with that school (see his letter 
in Mon. Rep. 1813, pp. 515-17). Finding his 
position ' misrepresented by the violence of 
party zeal/ Bruce, in 1824, issued his volume 
on the Bible and Christian doctrine. The book 
marks an era. Unitarianism in Ireland had 
long been a floating opinion ; it now became 
the badge of a party. In the preface (dated 
17 March) Bruce claimed that his views were 
' making extensive though silent progress 
through the general synod of Ulster.' This 
was accepted by trinitarians as a gage of 
battle ; the general synod at Moneymore, on 
2 July, agreed to an overture giving ' a public 
contradiction to said assertion.' Bruce joined 
the seceders of 1829 in the formation of the 
Unitarian Society for the Diffusion of Chris- 
tian Knowledge (9 April 1831), though he 
would have preferred as its designation the 
colourless name, ' A Tract Society.' By 1834 
he had retired from public duty, and was 
suffering from a decay of sight, which ended 
in blindness In November 1836 he removed 
to Dublin with his daughter Maria. Here he 
died on 27 Feb. 1841. He married, on 25 Jan. 
1788, Susanna Hutton (died 22 Feb. 1819, 
aged 56), and had twelve children, of whom 
six survived him. Several portraits of Bruce 
exist ; the earliest is in a large picture (1804) 
by Robinson, containing portraits of Dr. and 
Mrs. Bruce and others, now in the council- 
room of the Belfast chamber of commerce ; 
a three-quarter length, by Thompson, is in 
the Linenhall Library, Belfast, and has been 
engraved in mezzotint (1819) by Hodgetts ; 
a fine painting of head and bust is in the 
possession of a grandson, James Bruce, D.L., 
of Thorndale ; an engraving by Adcock from 
a miniature by Hawksett was executed for 
the ' Christian Moderator/ 1827. He pub- 
lished : 1. 'The Christian Soldier/ 1803, 
12mo, a sermon. 2. ' Literary Essays on the 
Influence of Political Re volutions on the Pro- 

gress of Religion and Learning ; and on the 
Advantages of Classical Education/ Belfast, 
1811, 4to, 2nd edition 1818, 4to (originally 
published in the ' Transactions of the Belfast 
Literary Society/ 1809 and 1811). 3. 'A 
Treatise on the Being and Attributes of God; 
with an Appendix on the Immateriality of 
the Soul/ Belfast, 1818, 8vo (begun in 1808, 
and finished November 1813). 4. 'Sermons 
on the Study of the Bible, and on the Doc- 
trines of Christianity/ Belfast, 1824, 2nd 
edition 1826, 8vo (not till the second edition 
did he rank his doctrines as ' anti-trinitarian ; ' 
his Arianism is evidently of a transitional 
type ; in later life he was anxious to have it 
known that he had not altered his views, and 
on 27 Sept. 1839 he signed a paper stating 
that ' the sentiments, principles, and opinions y 
contained in this volume of sermons ' coincide 
exactly with those which I entertain ') . 5. ' The 
State of Society in the Age of Homer/ Bel- 
fast, 1827, 8vo, 6. ' Brief Notes on the Gospels 
and Acts/ Belfast, 1835, 12mo. 7. ' A Para- 
phrase, with Brief Notes on St. Paul's Epistle 
to the Romans/ Belfast, 1836, 12mo. 8. ' A 
Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles and 
Apocalypse/ Liverpool, 1836, 12mo. 9. 'A 
Brief Commentary on the New Testament/ 
Belfast, 1836, 12mo. Besides these he con- 
tributed papers, scientific and historical, &c., 
to the 'Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy/ 'Belfast Literary Society/ ; Dublin 
University Magazine/ and other periodicals. 
Among these articles may be noticed a series 
of twenty-three historical papers on the ' Pro- 
gress of Nonsubscription to Creeds/ contri- 
buted to the ' Christian Moderator/ 1826-8 ; 
these are of value as giving extracts from ori- 
ginal documents. His ' Memoir of James VI/ 
in ' Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy/ 
1828, gives copies of original letters, and 
information respecting his ancestor, Rev. 
Robert Bruce of Kinnaird. 

[Armstrong's Appendix to Ordination Service, 
James Martineau, 1829, pp. 75-7, 89 ; Porter's 
Funeral Sermon, The Christian's Hope in Death, 
1841 ; Bible Christian, 1831, pp. 47, 239, 289, 
1834, p. 389, 1841, pp. Ill sq. ; Chr. Keformer, 
1821, pp. 218 sq., 1859, p. 318; Keid'sHist. Presb. 
Ch. in Ireland (Killen), 1867, iii. 389, 444 sq.; 
Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Memorials of Presby- 
terianism in Ireland, 2nd ser. 1880, pp. 187 sq. ; 
Benn's Hist, of Belfast, 1877, p. 453, vol. ii. 1880, 
pp. 48, 172; Belf. Newsletter, 26 Feb. 1819; 
Minutes of Gen. Synod, 1824, p. 31 ; Irish Unit. 
Mag. 1847, p. 357 ; Disciple (Belf.), 1883, pp. 84, 
93 seq. ; C. Porter's Seven Bruces, in Northern 
Whig, 20 May 1885 ; manuscript extracts from 
Minutes of G-en. Synod, 1780; manuscript Minutes 
of Antrim Presbytery, First Presb. Ch., Belfast, 
and Unit. Soc. Belfast; tombstones at Holy- 
wood.] A. G-. 




BRUCE, WILLIAM (1790-1868), Irish 
presbyterian minister and professor, was 
born at Belfast 16 Nov. 1790, the second son 
of William Bruce (1757-1841) [q. v.] He 
was educated first at the Belfast Academy 
under his father; entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, on 2 July 1804, where he obtained a 
scholarship and graduated A.B. on 20 July 
1809. Meantime he attended a session (1808- 
1809) at Edinburgh, where he studied moral 

ghilosophy, church history, &c., under Dugald 
tewart, Hugh Meiklejohn, and others. His 
theological studies were directed by the 
Antrim presbytery, by which body he was 
licensed on 25 June 1811. On 19 Jan. 1812 
he was called to First Belfast as colleague to 
his father, and ordained 3 March. He had 
few of his father's gifts, but his quiet firmness 
and amiability gave him a hold on the affec- 
tions of his people. Theologically he followed 
closely in his father's steps. It is believed 
that he edited the Belfast edition, 1819, 8vo, 
of ' Sermons on the Christian Doctrine,' by 
Richard Price, D.D. (originally published 
1787), which contain a mild assertion of a 
modified Arianism, as a middle way between 
Calvinism and Socinianism. In 1821 Bruce 
came forward as a candidate for the vacant 
classical and Hebrew chair in the Belfast 
Academical Institution. Two-thirds of the 
Arian vote went against Bruce, in conse- 
quence of the hostility hitherto shown to the 
institution by his family ; but Sir Robert 
Bateson, the episcopalian leader, and Edward 
Reid of Ramelton, moderator of the general 
synod, made efforts for Bruce, and he was 
elected on 27 Oct. by a large majority. The 
appointment conciliated a section which had 
stood aloof from the institution on the ground 
that it had sympathised with unconstitutional 
principles in 1798, and ultimately the govern- 
ment grant, which had been withdrawn on 
that account, was renewed (27 Feb. 1829). 
Bruce, still keeping his congregation, held 
the chair with solid repute till the establish- 
ment of the Queen's College (opened Novem- 
ber 1849) reduced the Academical Institution 
to the rank of a high school. The Hebrew 
chair was separated from that of classics 
in 1825, when Thomas Dix Hincks, LL.D., 
another Arian, was appointed to fill it. Bruce 
took no active share in the polemics of his 
time. An early and anonymous publication 
on the Trinity sufficiently defines his position. 
In later life he headed the conservative mi- 
nority in the Antrim presbytery, maintain- 
ing that nonsubscribing principles not only 
allowed but required a presbytery to satisfy 
itself as to the Christian faith of candidates 
for the ministry. The discussion was con- 
ducted with much acrimony (not on Bruce's 

part), and ended in the withdrawal of five 
congregations, since recognised by the go- 
vernment as a distinct ecclesiastical body, 
the northern presbytery of Antrim, of which, 
at its first meeting, 4 April 1862, Bruce was 
elected moderator. In the same year the 
jubilee of his ordination was marked by the 
placing of stained glass windows in his meet- 
ing-house. He retired from active duty on 
21 April 1867. From 1832 he had as colleague 
John Scott Porter, who remained sole pastor 
[see BRUCE, WILLIAM, 1757-1841]. He con- 
tinued his services to many of the charities and 
public bodies of the town. He studied agricul- 
ture, and carefully planted his own grounds 
at The Farm. His last sermon was at a com- 
munion in Larne on 28 April 1867. He died 
25 Oct. 1868, and was buried at Holywood 
28 Oct. On 20 May 1823 he married Jane 
Elizabeth (died 27 Nov. 1878, aged 79), only 
child of William Smith of Barbadoes and 
Catherine Wentworth. By her he had four 
sons and six daughters ; his first-born died in 
infancy ; William died 7 Nov. 1868, aged 43 ; 
Samuel died 6 March 1871, aged 44. 

He published : 1. ' Observations on the 
Doctrine of the Trinity, occasioned by the 
Rev. James Carlile's book, entitled " Jesus 
Christ, the Great God our Saviour," ' Belfast, 
1828, 8vo, anonymous ; Carlile was minister 
of the Scots Church, Mary's Abbey, Dublin 
(died March 1854). 2. < On the Right and 
Exercise of Private Judgment,' Belfast, 1860, 
8vo (sermon, Acts iv. 19, 20, on 8 July). 
3. ' Address delivered to the First Presbyte- 
rian Congregation, Belfast, on Sunday, 12 Jan. 
1862, in reference to the recent proceedings 
in the Presbytery of Antrim,' Belfast, 1862, 
12mo. 4. l On Christian Liberty ; its Extent 
and Limitation,' Belfast, 1862, 12mo (sermon, 
1 Cor. viii. 9, on 5 Oct., the day of the re- 
opening of his church after the erection of 
memorial window). 

[ J. S. Porter's Funeral Sermon, The New Heaven 
and New Earth, 1868; Eeid's Hist. Presb. Ch. in 
Ireland (Killen), 1867, iii. 445; J. L. Porter's Life 
and Times of H. Cooke, 1871, p. 62 sq. ; Belfast 
Newsletter, 1821 ; Benn's Hist, of Belfast, 1880, 
ii. 108; Chr. Unitarian, 1862; Nonsubscriber, 
1862; Chr. Life, 4 Dec. 1878; C. Porter's Seven 
Bruces, in Northern Whig, 25 May 1885 ; manu- 
script Minutes Antrim Presbytery, Northern 
Presbytery; Minutes and Baptismal Register, 
First Presb. Ch. Belfast ; tombstones at Holy- 
wood ; private information.] A. Gr. 

BRUCKNER, JOHN (1726-1804), 
Lutheran divine, was born on 31 Dec. 1726 
at Kadzand, a small island of Zeeland, near 
the Belgian frontier. He was educated for 
the ministry, chiefly at the university of 
Franeker, where he studied Greek under 




Valckenaer ; and held a charge at Leyden. 
In 1752 a business journey to Holland was 
made by Mr. Columbine, elder of the Nor- 
wich church of Walloons, or French-speaking 
Flemings, founded early in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, and holding the church of St. Mary the 
Less on lease from the corporation from 
March 1637. Columbine was directed to 
seek a fit successor to Valloton, late pastor 
of the Walloon church. On his introduction, 
Bruckner, who could preach in Latin, Dutch, 
French, and English, settled in Norwich in 
1753. In addition to his duties at St. Mary 
the Less, he succeeded Dr. van Sarn, about 
1766, as pastor of the Dutch church, to whose 
use the choir of St. John the Baptist (the 
nave being used as the civic hall under the 
name of St. Andrew's Hall) had been per- 
manently secured from 1661. This charge 
was scarcely more than nominal, and that of 
the French church gradually became little 
else. In both cases there were small endow- 
ments. Bruckner held the joint charge till 
his death, and was the last regular minister 
of either church. He made a good income 
by teaching French. Mrs. Opie was among 
his pupils. He was a good musician and 
organist, and a clever draughtsman, as is at- 
tested by his portrait of his favourite dog ; 
for he kept a horse and pointer, being fond of 
outdoor sports. The Norwich literary circle 
owed much to his culture and learning. He 
died by his own hand, while suffering from 
mental depression, on Saturday, 12 May 1804. 
He was buried at Guist, near Foulsham, Nor- 
folk. He had married in 1782 Miss Cooper 
of Guist, a former pupil, who predeceased 
him. Opie painted his portrait, which was 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1800. 
In Mrs. Opie's ' Life ' a curious story is told 
about the expression of the eyes in the por- 
trait reminding a visitor of the countenance 
of a person who had committed suicide. One 
of Mrs. Opie's l Lays ' is about this portrait. 
Bruckner wrote : 1. ' Theorie du Systeme 
Animal,' Leyden, 1767 (anon. ; in chaps, vii. 
and x. there is an anticipation of Malthusian 
views). 2. 'A Philosophical Survey of the 
Animal Creation; an Essay wherein the 
general devastation and carnage that reign 
among different classes of animals are con- 
sidered in a new point of view, and the vast 
increase of life and enjoyment derived to the 
whole from this necessity is clearly demon- 
strated,' Lond. 1768 (anon. ; a translation of 
the foregoing). 3. ' Criticisms on the Diver- 
sions of Purley. By John Cassander,' 1790, 
8vo (the name Cassander was suggested by 
his birthplace, and, according to Parr, recom- 
mended itself to him as a ' peacemaker be- 
tween the grammatical disputants ; ' George 

Cassander (1515-1566) being a catholic di- 
vine who laboured for union between catholics 
and protestants. Home Tooke replied in his 
edition of 1798). 4. < Thoughts on Public 
Worship,' 1792, 8vo (in reply to Gilbert 
Wakefield's 'Enquiry into the Expediency 
and Propriety of Public or Social Worship,' 
1791. In his preface Bruckner promises a 
continuation). He began a didactic poem in 
French verse, intended to popularise the 
views of his ' Th6orie.' Four pathetic lines 
on his own wrinkled and ' lugubre ' counte- 
nance are given in Mrs. Opie's ' Life.' 

[Norfolk Tour, 1829, ii. 1074 (based on ar- 
ticle by W. Taylor in the Monthly Mag.) ; Van 
der Aa's Biographisch Woordenboek der Neder- 
landen (errs respecting the date of death) ; 
Brightwell's Life of Amelia Opie, 1854, p. 29 seq.; 
Biblioth. Parriana, 1827, p. 268.] A. G. 

seventh EAKL OF CARDIGAN (1797-1868), 
general, the only son of Robert, sixth earl of 
Cardigan, was born at Hambledon in Hamp- 
shire on 16 Oct. 1797. From his childhood 
he was spoilt ; for he, as well as his seven 
sisters, possessed the proverbial good looks 
of the Brudenell family. He spent two years 
at Christ Church, Oxford, and when he came 
of age, in 1818, was returned to parliament 
by his father's cousin, the first marquis of 
Ailesbury, as M.P. for Marlborough. He 
entered the army, and purchased a cornetcy 
in the 8th hussars in May 1824, when he was 
twenty-seven years of age. He made up for 
his delay by lavish expenditure in purchasing 
his grades, and became lieutenant in January 
1825, captain in June 1826, major in August 
1830, lieutenant-colonel in December 1830, 
and lieutenant-colonel of the 15th hussars in 
1832. In 1829 he resigned his seat for Marl- 
borough on account of a difference with the 
Marquis of Ailesbury on the subject of ca- 
tholic emancipation, and at once purchased 
a seat for Fowey. In 1832 he fought a most 
expensive election for North Northampton- 
shire, and was returned with Lord Milton for 
his colleague. Lord Brudenell found himself 
soon hemmed in by troubles among his offi- 
cers. They had a natural feeling against the 
lord who had bought himself into his com- 
mand, and his unconciliating temper caused 
perpetual quarrels. At last, in 1833, he 
illegally ordered one of his officers, Captain 
Wathen, into custody at Cork. Wathen so 
thoroughly justified himself before a court- 
martial that Brudenell had a hint to resign 
the command of the 15th hussars. His 
father, however, who was an old friend of 
William IV, obtained for him the command 
of the llth hussars, which he assumed in 




India in 1836. The regiment was at once 
ordered home, and on its arrival in 1837 
Brudenell found that his father was dead, 
and that he had succeeded to the earldom 
and 40,000/. a year. 

As Lord Cardigan he was not more suc- 
cessful in getting on with his officers than 
he had been as Lord Brudenell. Yet he was 
liberal with his money, and as he spent 
10,000. a year on the regiment, the llth 
hussars soon became the smartest cavalry 
regiment in the service, and was selected after- 
wards by the queen to bear the title of Prince 
Albert's Own Hussars. The regiment on its 
return from India was stationed at Canter- 
bury, and at that place occurred what was 
known as the * Black Bottle ' riot. Cardigan 
ordered a certain Captain Keynolds under ar- 
rest for a trifling reason, and a feud arose, 
which again brought him into notoriety. 
He shortly afterwards met another Captain 
Reynolds of his regiment at Brighton, and 
ordered him under arrest for impertinence. 
A garbled account of this transaction appeared 
in the ' Morning Chronicle,' signed ' H. T.' 
Cardigan found out that the writer was a 
certain Captain Harvey Tuckett, and im- 
mediately challenged him. The duel took 
place on Wimbledon Common on 12 Sept. 
1840, and at the second shot Captain Tuckett 
was wounded. This duel created immense 
excitement, and public feeling ran strongly 
against Cardigan, who demanded his right to 
be tried by his peers. On 16 Feb. 1841 Lord 
Denman presided as lord steward, Sir John 
Campbell, the attorney-general, prosecuted, 
and Sir William Follett led for the defence. 
The trial lasted only one day ; the prosecu- 
tion had omitted to prove the identity of 
Captain Tuckett with Captain Harvey James 
Tuckett, and Cardigan was declared by all 
the peers present ' not guilty upon my honour,' 
except the Duke of Cleveland, who said ' not 
guilty legally upon my honour.' Cardigan 
retained the command of his regiment till 
his promotion to the rank of major-general 
in 1847. He lived the ordinary life of a ' 
wealthy nobleman until the Crimean war 
broke out in 1854. He was then sent out in 
command of a cavalry brigade in Major- 
general Lord Lucan's division. Lord Lucan 
and Cardigan, whose sister Lord Lucan had 
married, were old enemies. Cardigan de- 
clared that he understood his command to 
be independent of Lucan's control, and their 
hostility appeared both at Varna and the day 
before the battle of the Alma. When the 
cavalry division encamped outside Balaclava, 
Lord Lucan lived in camp with the men and 
shared their privations, while Cardigan had 
his luxurious yacht in the harbour, and 

dined and slept on board. At the attack 
on Balaclava, when the Russians had been 
driven back by the 93rd Highlanders, and 
charged in flank by the heavy cavalry, an 
order was sent down by Captain Nolan, 
aide-de-camp to Major-general Airey, that 
the light brigade was to charge along the 
southern line of heights and drive the enemy 
from the Turkish batteries. The order was 
easy of execution; Lord Lucan must have 
known along which line the light brigade 
was to charge, and Captain Nolan knew per- 
fectly whither to lead the troopers. But Car- 
digan could see nothing from his station, and 
believed he was to charge straight along the 
valley in front of him. Lord Lucan did not 
inform him of his error, and Captain Nolan 
was unfortunately killed just as he perceived 
the erroneous direction the brigade was tak- 
ing and while trying to set it right. Straight 
down the valley between the Russian bat- 
teries along one line of hills, and the cap- 
tured Turkish batteries on the other, and right 
at the Russian batteries in his front, Car- 
digan galloped many yards in front of his 
men. He was first among the Russian guns, 
receiving but one slight wound in the leg, 
and then rode slowly out of the mele"e. Un- 
fortunately for his reputation, although he 
was the first man among the Russian guns, 
he was not the last to leave them. Officers 
and men stood about looking for their general 
and waiting for orders, and then rode away 
i from the guns in tens and twenties, in twos 
! and threes. Cardigan had played the part 
of a hero, but not of a general. Great was 
the excitement in camp after the charge. 
Lord Raglan was profoundly displeased ; 
some blamed Lord Lucan, some Cardigan, 
others General Airey, who had only written 
the order, and others Captain Nolan. In 
truth, no blame could be fixed on any one. 
Cardigan faithfully obeyed the order he had 
misunderstood. His subsequent conduct was 
unfortunately indiscreet. He returned to 
England in January 1855, and was treated as 
a hero. His portrait was in every shop win- 
dow, and his biography in every newspaper. 
He was invited to a banquet by the lord 
mayor at the Mansion House on 6 Feb., and 
boasted of his prowess after the dinner. He 
was made inspector-general of cavalry in 
1855, which post he held for the usual term 
of five years, was made K.C.B., a commander 
of the Legion of Honour, and knight of the 
second class of the order of the Medjidie, and 
was promoted lieutenant-general in 1861. 
He was made colonel of the 5th dragoon 
guards in 1859, which he exchanged for the 
colonelcy of his old regiment, the llth hussars, 
in August 1860. Not satisfied with all these 




honours lie always insisted on being regarded 
as a hero, and in 1863 applied for a criminal 
information for libel against Lieutenant- 
colonel the lion. Somerset J. G. Calthorpe, 
Lord Raglan's nephew and aide-de-camp, for 
a statement in his i Letters from Head- 
quarters/ that after the charge of Balaclava 
' unfortunately Lord Cardigan was not present 
when most required ; ' but he was nonsuited. 
After the trial he lived quietly at Deene 
Park, his seat in Northamptonshire, where 
he died from injuries caused by a fall from 
his horse on 28 March 1868. He left no 
children, and his titles devolved on his second 
cousin, the second marquis of Ailesbury. Car- 
digan was the author of f Cavalry Brigade 
Movements,' 4to, 1861. 

[There is no life published of Lord Cardigan, 
and for a general sketch of his life reference must 
be made to the Times obituary notice, &c. An 
account of his trial before the House of Lords 
was published in 1841, and there is a useful 
analysis in Townsend's Modern State Trials, i. 
209 (1850). For his behaviour at Balaclava see 
above all Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea, vol. 
v. ; the Report of the Proceedings in the Queen's 
Bench taken by Lieut.-gen. the Earl of Cardigan 
on applying for a criminal information for libel 
against Lieut.-col. the Hon. S. J. G-. Calthorpe, 
1863, and a curiously abusive little work, Was 
Lord Cardigan a Hero at Balaclava? by George 
Ryan, 1855.] H. M. S. 

BRUDENELL, ROBERT (1461-1531), 
judge, was descended from William Brude- 
nell, who was settled at Dodington and 
Adderbury in Oxfordshire, and Aynhoe, 
Northamptonshire, in the reign of Henry III, 
and from an Edmund Brudenell who was 
attorney-general to Richard II. Robert, 
born in 1461, was the second son of Ed- 
mund Brudenell of Agmondesham, Buck- 
inghamshire, by his second wife, Philippa, 
daughter of Philip Englefield of Engleneld 
and Finchingfield in Essex, who brought 
him considerable property in Buckingham- 
shire. Robert was educated at Cambridge 
and ' bred to the law,' and, though his name 
occurs in the year-books as arguing at the 
bar no earlier than Hilary term 1490, he 
was in the commission of oyer and terminer 
for Buckingham in 1489. He sat in par- 
liament in 1503, and was one of the com- 
missioners for Leicestershire for raising the 
subsidy granted by parliament in that year. 
In Michaelmas term 1504 (not 1505, as Dug- 
dale has it in the ' Chronica Series ') he, with 
nine others, was raised to the rank of ser- 
jeant-at-law, and the new Serjeants held their 
inaugural feast at Lambeth Palace. On 
25 Oct. of the year following he was ap- 
pointed king's serjeant, and on the death of | 

Sir Robert Read he, on 28 April 1507, was 
made a justice of the king's bench. On the 
accession of King Henry VIII Brudenell 
was transferred to the court of common 
pleas, in which court he sat as a puisne judge 
for twelve years. In 1515 he was a com- 
missioner of sewers for Norfolk, Cambridge, 
and Leicestershire. On 13 April 1521 he 
was appointed chief justice of the common 
pleas, and held this office till he died. On 
being appointed to the chief justiceship he 
revisited Cambridge, and the university, 
with which he seems to have maintained 
his connection, made him a present. On 
another occasion it presented him and his 
wife with a pair of gloves. In 1529 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to survey the castles, 
forests, and other possessions in Leicester- 
shire belonging to the duchy of Lancaster, 
and to inquire into encroachments. He died 
30 Jan. 1531, and was buried in the south 
aisle of the church of Dene in Northampton- 
shire, in an alabaster tomb between his two 
wives. There is a full-length effigy of him in 
his judge's robes with the inscription : ' Of 
your charity pray for the souls of Sir Robert 
Brudenell, knight, late chief justice of the 
king's common bench, at Westminster, and 
of Margaret and Philippa his wives.' He 
was of a literary turn, contributing among 
other pieces a description of Stanton to Le- 
land (Itin. i. 13, 15, 18, 84, 85, 89, viii. 110). 
In the course of his life he acquired very con- 
siderable estates, chiefly in Leicestershire, 
with which he was connected as early as 1503, 
and founded a chantry at Billisden in 1511, 
and also elsewhere. His land in Leicester- 
shire was situated at Stanton Wyville, and 
was acquired through his first wife, Margaret, 
widow of William Wyville of Stanton, and 
sister and coheiress of Thomas Entwysell,high 
sheriff of Lancaster and Warwick in 1483, 
who, with his wife, Katherine (the heiress of 
the Wyville family), being childless, aliened 

the manor to Brudenell. He 

at the 

end of Henry VII's reign, purchased the 
lordship of Cranoe in the same county from 
John Cockain. His second wife was Philippa 
Powre of Bechampton. By his first wife 
he had issue four sons, Thomas, Anthony, 
Robert, and Edmund, and a daughter, Lucia ; 
by his second wife none. Of his children 
only the two eldest had issue, the former 
founding the family of the Brudenells of 
Deene, the latter that of the Brudenells of 
Stanton Wyville or Brudenell. That he had 
other lands besides those in Leicestershire is 
plain from the fact that he settled the manor 
of Deene on his eldest son, upon his marriage 
in 1520 with Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Sir William Fitzwilliam, and that to his son 




Anthony he gave the lordship of Glapthorpe 
in Northamptonshire. Both branches long 
existed. His great-grandson was one of the 
first baronets created, and was made a baron 
in 1628, and earl of Cardigan in 1661. 
Among his descendants were George, fourth 
earl, who was created Duke of Montagu in 
1776, a title which expired on his death in 
1790 : and James Thomas, seventh earl [q. v.] 
The Brudenells of Deene became extinct in 
1780. The arms of Brudenell were a chevron 
gules between three morions azure. 

(Toss's Lives of the Judges ; Dugdale s Ori- 
gines, 113; Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 554, 
808 ; Vincent's Visitation of Northamptonshire; 
Wright's Rutland (Leland), iv. pt. 2, 192 ; Parl. 
Kolls, vi. 539 ; Letters Hen. VIII, Brewer, vol.ii. 
No. 495 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 43, 528 ; 
Baker's MS. xxiv. 67 ; Brydges's Northampton- 
shire, ii. 301 ; Churton's Lives of Smyth and 
Sutton, 229, 305, 441 ; Lipscomb's Buckingham- 
shire : Campbell's Reign of Henry VII, ii. 479.] 

J. A. H. 

BRUEN, JOHN (1560-1625), puritan 
layman, was the son of a Cheshire squire whose 
family had long been settled at Bruen Staple- 
ford, and is believed to have given its name to 
the township. There had been a succession 
from the middle of the thirteenth century. 
The elder John Bruen of Bruen Stapleford was 
thrice married. His union with Anne, the 
sister of Sir John Done, was childless, but his 
second wife brought him fourteen children, of 
whom Katharine, afterwards the wife of Wil- 
liam Brettargh, and John, who, although not 
the eldest born, became by survivorship his 
heir, were remarkable for the fervour of their 
puritanism. John was in his tender years j 
sent to his uncle Dutton of Dutton, where ; 
for three years he was taught by the school- i 
master James Roe. The Dutton family had ; 
by charter the control of the minstrels of the I 
county. Young Bruen became an expert j 
dancer. ' At that time,' he said, ' the holy j 
Sabbaths of the Lord were wholly spent, in i 
all places about us, in May-games and May- I 
poles, pipings and dancings, for it was a rare 
thing to hear of a preacher, or to have one 
sermon in a year.' When about seventeen 
he and his brother Thomas were sent as j 
gentlemen-commoners to St. Alban Hall, i 
Oxford, where they remained about two years. 
He left the university in 1579, and in the 
following year was married by his parents to 
a daughter of Mr. Hardware, who had been I 
twice mayor of Chester. Bruen at this time 
keenly enjoyed the pleasures of the chase, ! 
and, in conjunction with Ralph Done, ' kept 
fourteen couple of great mouthed dogs.' On 
the death of his father in 1587 his means 
were reduced ; he cast off his dogs, killed the 

game, and disparked the land. His children 
were brought up strictly, and his choice of 
servants fell upon the sober and pious. One 
of these, Robert Pashfield, or < Old Robert/ 
though unable to read or write, had acquired 
so exact a knowledge of the Bible, that he 
could ' almost always ' tell the book and 
chapter where any particular sentence was 
to be found. The old man had a leathern 
girdle, which served him as a memoria 
technica, and was marked into portions for 
the several books of the Bible, and with 
points and knots for the smaller divisions. 
Bruen in summer rose between three and 
four, and in winter at five, and read prayers 
twice a day. His own seasons for prayer 
were seven times daily. He removed the 
stained glass in Tarvin Church, and defaced 
the sculptured images. On the Sunday he 
walked from his house, a mile distant, to the 
church, and was followed by the greater part 
of his servants, and called upon such of his 
tenants as lived on the way, so that when he 
reached the church it was at the head of a 
goodly procession. He rarely went home to 
dinner after morning prayers, but continued 
in the church till after the evening service. He 
maintained a preacher at his own house, and 
afterwards for the parish. Bruen's house be- 
came celebrated, and a number of ' gentlemen 
of rank became desirous of sojourning under 
his roof for their better information in the 
way of God, and the more effectual reclaim- 
ing of themselves and their families.' Per- 
kins, the puritan divine, called Bruen Staple- 
ford, 'for the practice and power of religion, 
the very topsail of all England.' His wife died 
suddenly, and after a time he married the ' very 
amiable and beautiful ' Ann Fox, whom he 
first met at a religious meet ing in Manchester. 
For a year they dwelt at her mother's house 
at Rhodes, near Manchester. He then re- 
turned to Stapleford, and again his house 
became the abode of many scions of gentility. 
Bruen's second wife died after ten years of 
married life, and the widower broke up his 
household with its twenty-one boarders and 
retired to Chester, where he cleared the debt 
of his estate, saw some of his children settled, 
and maintained the poor of his parish by the 
produce of two mills in Stapleford, whither 
he returned with his third wife, Margaret. 
He had an implicit belief in special provi- 
dences, 'judgments,' witchcraft, &c. He kept 
a hospitable house, and was kind and chari- 
table to the poor of his neighbourhood and of 
Chester. He refused to drink healths even 
at the high sheriff's feast. Towards the end 
of his life his prayers were twice accompanied 
by l ravishing sights.' He died after an ill- 
ness, which was seen to be mortal, in 1625, 




at the age of 65. There is a portrait of him. 
in' Clark's ' Marrow of Ecclesiastical History.' 
This has been re-engraved by Richardson. 
Among the Harleian MSS. is a compila- 
tion by him entitled 'A godly profitable 
collection of divers sentences out of Holy 
Scripture, and variety of matter out of seve- 
ral divine authors.' These are commonly 
called his cards, and are fifty-two in number. 
The same collection contains the petition of 
his son, Calvin Bruen, of Chester, mercer, 
respecting the treatment he received for visit- 
ing Prynne when he was taken through 
Chester to imprisonment at Carnarvon Castle. 
The life of John Bruen was not eventful, and 
he is chiefly notable as an embodiment of the 
puritan ideal of a pious layman. 

[A Faithful Kemonstrance of the Holy Life 
and Happy Death of John Bruen, by William 
Hinde, London, 1641 (of this scarce book an 
abridgment by William Coddington was printed 
at Chester in 1799 ; Hinde's original manuscript 
was presented to the Chetham Society) ; Clark's 
Marrow of Ecclesiastical History, pt. ii. p. 80, 
1675; Morton's Monuments of Fathers, 1706; 
Fuller's Worthies; Assheton's Journal, p. xv 
(Chetham Society); Ormerod's Cheshire, ii. 318.] 

W. E. A. A. 

BRUERNE, RICHARD (1519 P-1565), 
professor of Hebrew, fellow of Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford, and of Eton, received the de- 
gree of B.D. in 1547, and the next year was 
appointed professor of Hebrew in the uni- 
versity of Oxford. While holding this office 
he was one of the witnesses on behalf of 
Bishop Gardiner in 1551, being then about 
thirty-two years of age (FoxE), and was pre- 
sent at the disputation held with Cranmer at 
Oxford in 1554 (STRYPE). In 1553 he re- 
ceived the canonry at Christ Church for- 
merly held by Peter Martyr. His learning 
is celebrated by Leland, who, in his ' Cygnea 
Cantio,' 1. 633, calls him * Hebrsei radius 
chori,' and Bishop Cox, though one of the 
party opposed to him, says in a letter to 
Peter Martyr, ' Richard Bruerne, an excel- 
lent Hebraist, is in possession of your pre- 
bend ' (Zurich Letters'). In May 1557 he was 
installed canon of Windsor. During 1556 
his Hebrew lectures were taken by Peter de 
Soto, and others appear to have lectured in 
his place during the next two years. This 
may have been simply because he was en- 
gaged elsewhere (Wool)). On the other 
hand, the cessation of his lectures may have 
been enforced on account of his misconduct- 
He is said to have been guilty of gross im- 
morality, and consequently to have -been 
obliged to resign his professorship some time 
before March 1559, the date of a letter in 
which Jewel tells Martyr of his resignation 

and its cause (JEWEL, Works). Neverthe- 
less, the fellows of Eton, acting without the 
consent of the queen, elected him as provost 
on 25 July 1561, granting him at the same 
time the usual leave of absence. The inde- 
pendence of their action and the unfitness 
of their choice roused much indignation, and 
Bishop Grindal wrote to Cecil that ' suche a 
sorte of hedge priestes ' should not be allowed 
to act in despite of the royal prerogative 
(State Papers, Eliz. Domestic, xix. 18, 30; 
LYTE). Archbishop Parker was accordingly 
directed to hold a visitation of the college, 
and to inquire into the election of the pro- 
vost, 'of whom there is disperst very evil 
fame/ The visitation was held on 9 Sept., 
and though Bruerne at first objected to the 
commission, alleging that it had expired, he 
finally resigned the provostship, receiving 
10/. from the funds of the college to make up 
for his disappointment (LYTE). The next 
year he supplicated for the degree of D.D. at 
Oxford, but was refused. He died in April 
1565, and was buried in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor. At the time of his death he was 
1 receiver ' of Christ Church, and Dr. Samp- 
son, the dean, told Parker that he left a large 
sum of money to be accounted for (Parker 
Correspondence) . 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. (ed. Bliss), i. 87, 125, 161; 
Foxe's Acts and Monuments (ed. 1846), vi. 130, 
213 ; Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, ii. 1090 ; 
Life of Parker, i. 205-7 ; Leland's Cygnea Cantio 
(ed. 1658), p. 22; Jewel's Works, iv. 1199 (Parker 
Society) ; Zurich Letters, i. 7 (Parker Soc.) ; 
Parker Correspondence, 240 (Parker Soc.) ; 
State Papers, Eliz. Domestic, xix. 18, 30 ; Lyte's 
History of Eton College, 170-2 ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. 132 ; Le Neve's Fasti (ed. Hardy).] 

BRUGIS, THOMAS (/. 1640 ?), surgeon, 
was born probably between 1610 and 1620, 
since he practised for seven years as a sur- 
geon during the civil wars. He does not 
record upon which side he served. He ob- 
tained the degree of doctor of physic, though 
from what university does not appear, and 
settled at Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, 
where he describes himself as curing '(by 
God's help) all sorts of agues in young and 
old, and all manner of old sores that are 
curable by art.' 

Brugis wrote ' The Marrow of Physicke,' 
London, 1640, 4to ; and ' Vade Mecum, or a 
Companion for a Chirurgion/ of which the 
first edition appeared, London, 1651 , 12mo, 
and the seventh 1689, in the same size. The 
popularity of this little book shows that it- 
must have been useful, but there is nothing 
original in this or in the earlier work. Per- 
haps the only notable thing in the ' Vade 




Mecum ' is a small contribution to forensic 
medicine, in the shape of rules for the reports 
which a surgeon might have to make before a 
coroner's inquest. Even this is partly taken 
from Ambroise Pare ; but we know of nothing 
like it in any earlier English book. 

[Brugis's Works.] J. F. P. 

(1736-1809), diplomatist and astronomer, 
was the son of F. W. Graf von Briihl of 
Martinskirchen, who died in 1760, and ne- 
phew of Heinrich von Briihl, Saxon prime 
minister 1748-63. Born at Wiederau in 
Electoral Saxony on 20 Dec. 1736, he studied 
at Leipzig, and there formed a close friend- 
ship with Gellert, who addressed an ode to 
him on his fourteenth birthday, and corre- 
sponded with him for some years (see GEL- 
LERT'S Sammtl. Schriften, ii. 71, viii. 24-115, 
Leipzig, 1784). At Paris, in 1755, Briihl, 
then in his nineteenth year, took an active 
part in Saxon diplomacy ; was summoned 
to Warsaw in 1759; named, through his 
uncle's influence, chamberlain and comman- 
dant in Thuringia, and in 1764 appointed 
ambassador extraordinary to the court of 
St. James's. Save for one journey homeward 
in 1785, he never afterwards left England, 
but died at his house in Old Burlington 
Street on 9 June 1809, aged 72. He married, 
first, in 1767, Alicia Maria, dowager coun- 
tess of Egremont, who died on 1 June 1794, 
leaving him a son and daughter ; secondly, 
in 1796, Miss Cherone. From 1788 he be- 
longed to the Saxon privy council, and was 
a knight of the White Eagle. 

He loved astronomy with passion, and 
effectually promoted its interests. Through 
his influence Von Zach, who entered his 
family as tutor shortly after his arrival in 
London in November 1783, became an astro- 
nomer. With a Hadley's sextant and a 
chronometer by Emery, they together deter- 
mined, in 1785, the latitudes and longitudes 
of Brussels, Frankfort, Dresden, and Paris. 
Briihl built (probably in 1787) a small ob- 
servatory at his villa at Harefield, and set 
up there, about 1794, a two-foot astronomical 
circle by Ramsden, one of the first instru- 
ments of the kind made in England. He 
was intimate with Herschel, and diligent in 
transmitting the news of his and others' dis- 
coveries abroad through the medium of Bode's 
' Jahrbuch.' Perhaps the most signal benefit 
conferred by him upon science was his zealous 
advancement of chronometry, and patronage, 
of Mudge and Emery. The realisation of 
their improvements in watchmaking was 
largely due to his help (see Mudge's letters 
to him, 1772-87, included in A Description 

of the Timekeeper, London, 1799). He de- 
voted, moreover, considerable attention to 
political economy, and made a tour through 
the remoter parts of England early in 1783 
for the purpose of investigating the state of 
trade and agriculture. He wrote :^ 1. ' Re- 
cherches sur divers Objets de 1'Economie 
Politique,' Dresden, 1781. 2. < Three Re- 
gisters of a Pocket Chronometer,' London, 
1785. 3. 'Latitudes and Longitudes of 
several Places ascertained,' London, 1786. 
4. ' Nouveau Journal du Chronometre,' fol., 
London, 1790. 5. ' On the Investigation of 
Astronomical Circles,' London. 1794, trans- 
lated, with additions, by Von Zach in 
Hindenberg's ' Archiv der reinen und ange- 
wandten Mathematik,' i. 257, Leipzig, 1795. 
6. * A Register of Mr. Mudge's Timekeepers,' 
London, 1794. Contributions by him are to 
be found in Bode's ' Astronomisches Jahr- 
buch ' for 1790-4, 1797-9, and in suppl. 
vols. i. ii. iii., as well as in Canzler and 
Meissner's ' Quartal-Schrift ' (including es- 
says on English finance), Leipzig, 1783-5. 
Appended to T. Mudge junior's ' Reply to 
Dr. Maskelyne ' (1792) there is by him < A 
short Explanation of the most proper Me- 
thods of calculating a mean Daily Rate ; ' and 
he furnished Bergasse with a preface for his 
' Betrachtungen liber den thierischen Mag- 
netismus,' Dresden, 1790. 

[Ersch und Gruber's Allgem. Encycl. xiii. 204 ; 
Von Zach's Allgem. geogr. Ephemeriden, iv. 
184, Weimar, 1799; J. G. Meusel's Gelehrtes 
Teutschland, i. 457 (5te Ausgabe), Lemgo, 
1796; G-ent. Mag. Ixxix. 186; PoggendoriFs 
Biog.-Lit. Handwo'rterbuch ; Lalande's Bibl. 
Astr. p. 630.] A. M. C. 


(1778-1840), generally called BEATT BRUM- 
MELL, is said to have been grandson of Wil- 
liam Brummell (d. 1770), a confidential 
servant of Mr. Charles Monson, brother of 
the first Lord Monson. William Brummell 
occupied a house in Bury Street (Notes and 
Queries, 1st series, ii. 264), where apart- 
ments were taken by Charles Jenkinson, first 
earl of Liverpool. The beau's father, also 
William Brummell, an intelligent boy, acted 
for some time as Mr. Jenkinson's amanuensis ; 
was in 1763 appointed to a clerkship in the 
treasury, and during the whole administra- 
tion from 1770 to 1782 was private secretary 
to Lord North, by whose favour he received 
several lucrative appointments (Gent. Mag. 
Ixiv. 285). He further increased his means 
by his marriage with Miss Richardson, daugh- 
ter of the keeper of the lottery office. The 
younger William Brummell died in 1794, 
leaving 65,000/. to be divided equally among 




Ms three children, two sons and a daughter 
($.) George Bryan Brummell, the younger 
son, was born 7 June 1778, and baptised at 
Westminster. In 1790 he was sent to Eton, 
and while there developed the traits by which 
lie became famous social aplomb, readiness 
of repartee, and fastidious neatness in dress. 
He was very popular, and was known even 
then as l Buck Brummell.' In 1794 he was 
entered at Oriel College, Oxford, but he had 
no inclination for study, and left the uni- 
versity the same year, about the time of his 
father's death. 

Even while at Eton Brummell appears to 
have been noticed by the Prince of Wales, who 
on 17 May 1794 presented him to a cornetcy 
in his own regiment, the 10th hussars. On 
the marriage of the prince in 1795 Brummell 
was in personal attendance. He was pro- 
moted captain in 1796, and in 1798 retired 
from the service. He soon after came into his 
property of about 30,000/., and arranged with 
great elegance his bachelor establishment at 
No. 4 Chesterfield Street, Mayfair. He had 
the art of making friends, and had not ne- 
glected his opportunities at Eton and Oxford. 
'The friendship of the regent now gave him an 
assured position. He soon became acknow- 
ledged absolute monarch of the mode, having 
for subject in this domain even his friend the 
prince, who, it is said, on one occasion ' began 
to blubber when told that Brummell did not 
like the cut of his coat ' (MooRE, Memoirs, 
Journals, fyc., i. 272). The prince frequently 
came to Chesterfield Street to see the beau 
dress, and ' staid on to a dinner prolonged 
to orgie far into the night.' Brummell was 
very popular with the Duke and Duchess 
of York, was a frequent visitor at Oatlands, 
and had acquaintance with all the leaders of 
society : Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire, 
Lady Hester Stanhope, Lord Byron, Duke 
of Bedford, Lord Alvanley, Moore. By no 
means a fop, Brummell was never extrava- 
gant in his dress, which was characterised 
rather by a studied moderation. He was 
ready enough with his tongue, and had a gift 
for quaint turns of expression, but the anec- 
dotes told of him seem to indicate cool, im- 
pudent self-possession rather than wit. He 
wrote lively and graceful letters, and was 
able to find voice in sentimental verse for 
passing adorations. With the prince he at 
last had a quarrel, accounts of the cause of 
which vary ; probably it was some more than 
ordinary license of a satiric tongue. It was 
a quarrel of equals. Brummell held his own 
in society until gambling losses forced him to 
flee the country. On 16 May 1816 he retired 
to Calais, and there, with such poor means as 
could now be obtained, he recklessly renewed 

his old course of life. The Duke of Wellington 
and many of his old friends visited him when 
passing through the town. He received much 
assistance from England, but was soon in an- 
other coil of debt. In 1821 his former friend, 
now king, visited Calais on his way to Hanover, 
but no interview took place, and no help was 
proffered. On 10 Sept. 1830 he was appointed 
British consul at Caen, a sinecure abolished 
by his own advice in 1832. His creditors 
now closed around him, and he was cast into 
prison (May 1835), where degradation and 
suffering seem to have broken his spirit. He 
was soon after released and supplied by his 
friends with a small income. In 1837 he 
began to show signs of imbecility ; he held 
phantom receptions of the beauties and 
magnates of the old days. Soon all care of 
his person went, and from carelessness and 
disease his habits became so loathsome that 
an attendant could hardly be found for him. 
Admission was at last obtained for him into 
the asylum of the Bon Sauveur, Caen, where 
he died 30 March 1840. 

[Jesse's Life of G. Brummell, Esq., 1844 (new 
edit. 1885) ; Raikes's Journal, 1858; Fitzgerald's 
Life of George IV, 1881 ; Gronow's Reminiscences 
and Anecdotes ; "Revue des Deux Mondes, August 
1844 ; Brbey dAurevilly's Du Dandysme et de 
G. Brummell, Caen, 1845. Bulwer's Pelham 
embodies suggestions from the life of Brummell, 
and the character of Trebeck in Lister's novel 
Granby, 1826, is said to be a direct portrait.] 

W. H-H. 

BRTOLEUS, THOMAS (d: 1380). [See 
under BKOME, THOMAS.] 


1786), poetical writer, was son of the Rev. 
John Brundish of Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk. 
He was educated at Caius College, Cambridge, 
and was senior wrangler, senior classical 
medallist, and first Smith's prizeman in 1773. 
Only three other individuals ever obtained 
all the highest honours in the same year, 
namely, Kaye, of Christ's, in 1804 ; Alderson, 
of Cains, in 1809 ; and Smith, of Trinity, in 
1836. Brundish took holy orders, but re- 
mained in college and proceeded to the de- 
gree of M. A. in 1776. He died in college in 
February 1786. He is the author of ' An 
Elegy on a Family Tomb,' Cambridge, 1783, 
4to, accompanied by an Italian metrical 
version by a friend of the author. The ori- 
ginal English is reprinted in the ' European 
Magazine ' for January 1786, p. 49. 

[New Monthly Mag. July 1817, pp. 522, 523 ; 
Cantabrigienses Graduati (1787), 59; Cat. of 
Printed Books in Brit. Mus. under ' Elegy ; ' 
MS. Addit. 19166, f. 205 ; European Mag. ix. 49, 
210*.] T. C. 





(1806-1859), civil engineer, the only son of 
Sir Marc I. Brunei [q. v.], was born on 9 April 
1806 at Portsmouth. He was educated first [ 
at private schools, and later in the college of I 
Henri Quatre at Paris, then celebrated for ! 
its staff of mathematical teachers. At a I 
very early age he evinced decided talent for j 
drawing, and when only fourteen employed 
himself in making an accurate plan of Hove, 
near Brighton, where he was then at school. 
After two years spent at Paris he returned 
to England for his practical training. In 
1823 he entered his father's office, and at the 
age of seventeen took part in his operations 
at the Thames Tunnel, where he 'was after- 
wards appointed resident engineer, and there 
gained personal experience of all kinds of 
work. Brunei rendered his father great 
assistance in meeting the various disasters 
which occurred in the course of the tunnel- 
ling operations. At an anxious time, in 
September 1826, he was actively engaged on 
the works for ninety-six consecutive hours, 
with a few snatches of sleep in the tunnel. 
On the occasion of the first great irruption of 
the river, Brunei, to save the life of a work- 
man in danger of drowning, lowered himself 
into the shaft, then half full of water, and 
succeeded in bringing the man to the surface. 
One of Brunei's first great independent 
designs, executed in 1829, was for a suspen- 
sion bridge across the river Avon, from Durd- 
ham Downs, Clifton, to the Leigh "Woods. 
His first plan was, on the advice of Telford, 
rejected; but a second design, sent in in 
1831, was pronounced to be the most mathe- 
matically exact of all those tendered (among 
which was one by Telford himself), and was 
accepted. Brunei was appointed engineer, 
and the works were begun in 1836, but 
owing to lack of funds were not completed in 
his lifetime. After his death the bridge was 
erected nearly in accordance with his original 
designs, with chains taken from the old 
Hungerford suspension bridge, constructed 
by himself between the years 1841 and 1845, 
and removed in 1862 to make room for the 
Charing Cross railway bridge. Brunei was 
appointed engineer to the Bristol Docks, in 
which he afterwards carried out extensive 
improvements. In 1831 he designed the 
Monkwearmouth Docks, and in later years 
similar works at Plymouth, Briton Ferry, 
Brentford, and Milford Haven. In March 
1833 Brunei was appointed engineer to the 
Great Western railway, and in that capacity 
carried into effect his plans for the broad-gauge 
railway, a system which became the subject 
of much controversy among the engineers of 
the day. His work on this line established for 

him a high reputation in his profession. The 
viaducts at Hanwell and Chippenham, the 
Maidenhead and other masonry bridges, the 
Box tunnel, and the iron structures of the 
Chepstow and Saltash bridges on the Great 
Western line and its extensions, all exhibit 
boldness of conception, taste in design, and 
great skill in the use of material. He ob- 
tained a high reputation for his evidence 
given before the parliamentary committees 
on schemes of which he was engineer. He 
was employed to construct two railways in 
Italy, and to advise upon the Victorian lines 
in Australia and the Eastern Bengal railway. 
He adopted the system of atmospheric pro- 
pulsion on the South Devon railway in 1844, 
but it resulted in failure. The last and 
greatest of his railway works was the Royal 
Albert bridge of the Cornwall railway, cross- 
ing the river Tamar at Saltash. It has two 
spaces of 455 feet each, and a central pier built 
on the rock 80 feet below high-water mark. 
It was opened in 1859. 

Brunei's greatest fame was obtained in the 
construction of ocean-going steamships of 
dimensions larger than any previously known. 
The object was in each case to enable them to 
carry coal sufficient for at least the outward 
voyage. In 1836 the largest steam vessel afloat 
did not exceed 208 feet in length. The Great 
Western, constructed by him, far surpassed 
any other existing steamship in size, measuring 
236 feet in length by 35 in breadth, with a dis- 
placement of 2,300 tons. She made her first 
voyage in 1838, and achieved a great success. 
She was the first steamship employed in a 
regular ocean service between this country 
and America, and accomplished the voyage in 
the then unprecedented time of fifteen days. 
In the construction of this vessel Brunei had 
the assistance of Mr. Paterson of Bristol as 
shipwright, and Messrs. Maudslay & Field 
as makers of the engines. A series of obser- 
vations upon screw propulsion, made in the 
course of experimental voyages in the Archi- 
medes, convinced him of the practicability of 
applying the system to large steamships. In 
1841 Brunei was commissioned by the admi- 
ralty to conduct experiments which led to 
the adoption of the screw propeller in the 
navy in 1845. The Great Britain, an iron 
ship of dimensions far exceeding those of any 
vessel of the period, first designed by him for 
paddles, was the first large vessel in which 
the screw propeller was used. She made her 
first voyage from Liverpool to New York in 
1845, and abundantly demonstrated her ex- 
cellence of design and strength of hull, espe- 
cially when she was stranded on the coast of 
Ireland in 1846, and remained there a whole 
winter. After the launch of these vessels 




Brunei was, in 1851, appointed consulting 
engineer to the Australian Steam Navigation 
Company, and in this capacity recommended 
the construction of steamships of 5,000 tons 
burden, capable of making the voyage to 
Australia with only one stoppage for coaling. 
His suggestion was not then adopted. Brunei's 
crowning effort in shipbuilding was in the de- 
sign of the Great Eastern, the largest steam- 
ship yet built. The scheme for this vessel was 
adopted by the directors of the Eastern Steam 
Navigation Company in 1852. Brunei was 
appointed their engineer. The work was begun 
in December 1853, and the Great Eastern 
entered the water on 31 Jan. 1858. The 
delays and casualties attending her launch 
must be attributed to the novel and gigantic 
character of the undertaking and the imper- 
fect calculations then applied to the problems 
of friction. The experience of the Great 
Eastern proved the accuracy of Brunei's 
designs, and she affords a good example of 
the double-skin system of construction, a de- 
vice unknown in previous shipbuilding. In 
many other respects the ship was admirably 
constructed, and remains a strong and efficient 
vessel to this day, although she has been sub- 
jected to the severest strains in the work of 
laying submarine cables. Financially she 
has been a failure, except as a cable-carrying 
ship. She was popular when carrying troops 
in 1861, and when taking passengers to Ame- 
rica; but as a single and exceptional ship 
has been commercially unsuccessful. Brunei 
was restive under restraint on invention, and 
was a persistent and outspoken opponent of the 
patent laws. In addition to the works already 
mentioned, Brunei devoted much attention 
to the improvement of large guns, and de- 
signed a floating gun-carriage for the attack 
on Cronstadt in the Kussian war in 1854. 
He also designed and superintended the con- 
struction of the hospital buildings at Ren- 
kioi on the Dardanelles in 1855. The labour 
and anxiety involved in the building and 
launch of the Great Eastern proved too much 
for Brunei's physical powers, and he broke 
down on the day of her start on the trial trip. 
He was present, on 5 Sept. 1859, at the trial 
of the engines the day before she left the 
Thames, but his health had been failing him 
for some time, and on this occasion he was 
seized with an attack of paralysis. Ten days 
later, on 15 Sept. 1859, he died. He was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery on 20 Sept. 
At a meeting held in the following Novem- 
ber, under the presidency of Lord Shelburne, 
it was resolved to erect a public monument 
to Brunei, and a statue was made by the late 
Baron Marochetti. A window was also 
erected by his family to his memory in the 

nave of Westminster Abbey. Brunei's per- 
sonal character was universally esteemed. 
Though undemonstrative and overworked, 
he found time for many acts of generosity. 
Where his professional work was concerned 
he exhibited an almost excessive indifference 
to public opinion. He was a profound stu- 
dent of engineering science, and possessed, 
besides high mathematical knowledge and 
readiness in applying it, great natural me- 
chanical skill. Brunei's special objects of 
study were problems connected with railway 
traction and steam navigation. He devoted 
two years to completing the experiments of 
his father for testing the application of com- 
pressed carbonic acid gas as a motive power 
for engines. He was a zealous promoter of 
the Great Exhibition of 1851. He was a 
member of the building committee, and chair- 
man and reporter of the section of civil engi- 
neering. Brunei was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in June 1830, and became a 
member of most of the leading scientific so- 
cieties in London, and of many abroad. He 
joined the Institution of Civil Engineers as 
an associate in January 1829, became a mem- 
ber in 1837, was elected on the council 1845, 
and from 1850 to the time of his death held 
the position of vice-president. He declined 
the office of president in 1858 from ill-health. 
He frequently took part in discussions, but 
contributed no papers to the proceedings. 
Brunei received the degree of Hon. D.C.L. 
from the university of Oxford in 1857. In 
July 1836 he married, and he left a widow, 
two sons and a daughter surviving him. 

[Proceedings of Inst. of Civil Engineers, vol. 
xix. memoir ; Smiles's Life of Stephenson, p. 370 ; 
Encycl. Metropolitana ; Encycl. Britan. 9th edit. ; 
Life of I. K. Brunei, by his Son, 1870.] E. H. 


(1769-1849), civil engineer, was born on 
25 April 1769 at Hacqueville, near Gisors, in 
Normandy, where members of his family had 
farmed land for generations. He was de- 
stined by his parents for the church, and 
when only eight years old was sent to the 
college of Gisors to begin the necessary clas- 
sical studies, for which, however, he showed 
no inclination at any time. He already at 
that age evinced a marked taste for me- 
chanical pursuits and for drawing. At eleven 
years of age he was sent to the seminary of 
St. Nicaise at Rouen, connected with the 
ecclesiastical college in that city, and there 
determined to qualify himself for the navy. 
After sometime devoted to the study of draw- 
ing and hydrography, he obtained, through 
the influence of the minister of marine the 
Mar6chal de Castries a nomination to the 




corvette named after that minister. In this 
vessel Brunei sailed on a cruise to the West 
Indies, and continued to serve for six years. 
At starting he constructed a quadrant so 
accurate that he was able to use it through- 
out his naval career. In 1792 his ship was 
paid off, and early in 1793 he returned to 
Paris, which he soon had to leave in conse- 
quence of his open expressions of loyalist 
opinions. After some time spent at Rouen 
in considerable danger, he obtained a pass- 
port for America, sailed from France on 
7 July, and landed in New York on 6 Sept. 
1793. Here he first definitely adopted the 
profession of civil engineer and architect, and 
obtained his first engagement on the survey 
of a large tract of land near Lake Ontario. 
His next engagement was on the survey of a 
line for a canal to connect the river Hudson 
with Lake Champlain. The superintendence 
of these operations was first placed in the 
hands of another French refugee, but Brunei 
displayed such capacity as the difficulties of 
the undertaking increased, that the command 
was resigned to him. Brunei now obtained 
various commissions, and he competed suc- 
cessfully against several professional archi- 
tects in designs for the new House of As- 
sembly at Washington. His plan, however, 
was ultimately set aside on grounds of eco- 
nomy. His was also the selected design for 
the Bowery Theatre, New York, which he 
himself constructed. It was burnt down in 

Brunei was now appointed chief engineer 
of New York, and in that capacity was em- 
ployed to erect an arsenal and cannon foun- 
dry, in which he introduced much new and 
ingenious machinery for casting and boring 
ordnance ; and shortly afterwards furnished 
plans for the defences of the channel between 
Staten Island and Long Island. He had for 
some time been engaged in elaborating an 
idea for the application of machinery to the 
manufacture of ships' blocks on a large scale, 
and he determined upon visiting England 
with the object of submitting his plans to 
the British government. Accordingly he 
sailed from America on 20 Jan. 1799, and 
landed in England in the following March. 
Shortly after arriving in this country he was 
married to Miss Sophia Kingdom, a lady 
whose acquaintance he had made in France 
previous to his departure for America. In 
May 1799 Brunei took out his first patent for 
a writing and drawing machine similar in 
principle to the pantagraph, and about the 
same time he invented a machine for winding 
cotton thread, which was largely adopted in 
cotton factories, but of which he neglected 
to secure the benefit by patent. He also in- 


vented various other ingenious machines of 
minor importance, which brought little profit 
to himself beyond the testimony they afforded 
of his mechanical skill. In the construction 
of the 'block machinery' he was fortunate 
enough to secure the co-operation of Henry 
Maudslay, and having completed his draw- 
ings and working models, Brunei in 1801 
took out a patent for his invention. He had 
introductions to Lord Spencer at the admi- 
ralty, and through him the plans were made 
known to Sir Samuel Bentham, then inspec- 
tor-general of naval works, who forwarded to 
the authorities Brunei's application for the 
substitution of his machinery for the more 
expensive manual labour then in use. After 
long negotiations and delay the government 
ultimately, in May 1803, adopted his pro- 
posals, and he was directed to erect his ma- 
chinery at Portsmouth dockyard. In spite of 
many hindrances, the machinery was com- 
pleted in 1806. The saving of labour and 
expense effected by the adoption of Brunei's 
ingenious mechanism was enormous. The 
system consisted of forty-three machines exe- 
cuting the various processes in the block 
manufacture, and by its aid operations which 
by the old method had required the uncertain 
labour of over one hundred men, could be 
carried out with precision by ten. The blocks 
were better made than they had ever been be- 
fore, and the estimated saving to the country 
in the first year after the machinery was in 
full working order was about 24,000. Brunei 
had incurred great expense in carrying out his 
plans, but his claims received tardy recogni- 
tion from the government. In compensation, 
and as a reward for his invention, he ulti- 
mately received a sum of 17,000. Between 
the years 1805 and 1812 Brunei was occupied 
in perfecting various machines for sawing, 
cutting, and bending timber, as well as one 
for cutting staves, and in 1810 he took out a 
patent for l improvements in obtaining mo- 
tive power ' by means of an ingenious air- 
engine, but this invention appears to have 
had no practical results. About this time 
he erected sawmills of his own at Battersea, 
where many valuable operations in the work- 
ing of wood by machinery were for the first 
time introduced. In 1811 he was employed 
by the government to erect sawmills and other 
machinery of his own invention at Woolwich. 
In the following year he was entrusted 
with an order for carrying out improvements 
on a large scale in the dockyard at Chatham, 
by which immense saving was effected in 
the time and labour required for the trans- 
port and working of timber, and in which 
an iron railway laid on longitudinal sleepers 
was introduced by Brunei for the conveyance 





of the timber from one part of the yard to 
another. He also devised and erected ma- 
chinery for the manufacture of shoes, which 
were adopted by government for use in the 
army ; but the peace of 1815 involved him 
in heavy pecuniary loss on his contracts. 

In 1812 Brunei made his first experiments 
in steam navigation on the Thames with a 
double-acting marine engine, and interested 
himself greatly in establishing a line of 
steamers to ply between London and Mar- 
gate. Two years later he prevailed upon the 
navy board to accept his proposals for towing 
vessels of war to sea by the aid of steam- 
tugs, and made at his own expense a number 
of experiments directed towards the con- 
struction of steam vessels of suitable size, 
capable of heading heavy seas, and carrying 
all necessary gear. But the navy board, 
after nearly six months' deliberation, re- 
voked their acceptance and repudiated the 
indemnity which they had promised Brunei 
for the expenses he had incurred, on the 
ground that the attempt was ' too chimerical 
to be seriously entertained.' About this 
time Brunei took out patents for several in- 
ventions of minor importance, which might 
have brought considerable profit to him had 
his commercial faculties and opportunities 
been proportionate to his scientific ability. 
In 1816 he invented an ingenious knitting 
machine, and two years later patented two 
preparations of tinfoil for purposes of orna- 
mentation, which had an extensive applica- 
tion. In 1819 he took out a patent for 
improvements in stereotype plates for print- 
ing, and negotiations were entered into with 
the proprietors of the { Times ' and the 
' Courier ' for the adoption of his invention. 
An agreement was concluded with the 
* Times,' but was subsequently abandoned. In 
1820 he was invited to furnish designs for a 
bridge over the Seine at Rouen, and in the 
same year he prepared plans for a timber 
bridge of 880 feet span to be thrown across 
the Neva at St. Petersburg ; but neither of 
these projects was carried into execution. His 
designs, however, for bridges to be erected 
in the island of Bourbon, to withstand the 
violent hurricanes which prevail there, were 
accepted by the French government and 
carried into effect. 

In 1814 Brunei's sawmills at Battersea 
were nearly destroyed by fire. From this 
time, owing to financial mismanagement, the 
prosperity of the undertaking steadily de- 
clined, until, in 1821, a crisis occurred, and he 
was thrown into prison for debt. After some 
months spent in the king's bench he obtained 
from the government, at the instance of many 
influential friends, a grant of 5,000/. for the 

discharge of his debts, and was then liberated. 
During the next four years Brunei designed 
sawmills for the islands of Trinidad and 
Berbice. He effected improvements in marine 
steam-engines and paddle-wheels. In 1823 
he supplied plans for swing-bridges for the 
docks at Liverpool, where three years later 
he introduced the floating landing-piers 
which have since been so largely extended. 
His opinion was taken on many of the en- 
gineering projects of the day ; while he at 
this time was perseveringly engaged in ex- 
periments, in which he sacrificed much time 
and money, for the production of a new mo- 
tive power from the vapour of gases liquefied 
at a low temperature. He constructed and 
patented a machine to carry out this principle, 
but it had no practical success, and the plan 
was ultimately abandoned. 

Brunei's energies were now almost exclu- 
sively devoted to the construction of the 
Thames tunnel. It is said to have originated 
in a plan proposed by him in 1818 for esta- 
blishing between the banks of the Neva 
communication independent of the floating 
ice. In 1824, under the auspices of the Duke 
of Wellington, a company was formed to 
carry out the scheme proposed by Brunei for 
boring a tunnel under the Thames from 
Rotherhithe to Wapping. He suggested the 
excavation of a passage of a size to admit a 
double archway of full dimensions at once, 
without the preliminary construction of a 
driftway ; and he utilised for this purpose an 
apparatus for which he had taken out a patent 
in 1818. This consisted of a large shield 
covering the total area to be excavated, and 
composed of twelve separate frames, com- 
prising together thirty-six cells, in which the 
miners worked independently of one another ; 
the whole machine capable of being forced 
forward by screw power as the work advanced. 
The operations were begun at Rotherhithe on 
16 Feb. 1825, and, in the face of the enormous 
difficulties that were encountered, were not 
finally completed till the end of 1842. Panics 
and strikes took place among the workmen. 
In 1827 an irruption of the river occurred, 
which was stopped by bags of clay. In 1828 
there was another irruption, and in August 
of that year the works were stopped, and the 
tunnel remained bricked up for seven years. 
After the resumption of the undertaking 
there were, in August and November 1837 
and March 1838, three more irruptions, and 
it was not till March 1843 that the tunnel 
was opened to the public. Brunei met 
these disasters with characteristic fertility 
of resource, and persevered in the work with 
untiring energy. But the strain upon his 
mind produced an attack of partial paralysis, 




from which, however, he recovered suffi- 
ciently to take part in the opening ceremony. 

After this, with the exception of a plan 
for stacking timber in dockyards, which he 
submitted to the admiralty, Brunei undertook 
no more professional work. In 1845 he was 
again attacked by paralysis, but lingered on 
for four years. He died on 12 Dec. 1849, in 
his eighty-first year, and on the 17th of the 
same month was buried in Kensal Green 

Brunei was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in March 1814, and in 1832 was 
made a vice-president under the presidency 
of the Duke of Sussex. In 1841, shortly 
before the completion of the Thames tunnel, 
he was knighted. He was a corresponding 
member of the French Institute, and received 
in 1829 the order of the Legion d'Honneur. 
He was also elected a member of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, and of 
various other scientific societies abroad. In 
1823 he became a member of the Institute 
of Civil Engineers, and constantly attended 
their meetings, and gave accounts of the pro- 
gress of his works. He served some years 
on the council, and aided the advancement of 
the society by every means in his power. In 
1839 he was awarded the Telford silver 
medal for his account of the ' shield ' em- 
ployed in the construction of the Thames 
tunnel. His communications to the society 
will be found*in the published l Proceedings/ 
vols. i. ii. iii. xiii. xvii. 

[Proceedings Inst. Civil Engineers, x. 78, and 
i. 5, 23, 33, 41, 46, 48, 85, ii. 29, 80, iii. xiii. 
xvii.; Beamish's Memoir of the Life of Sir 
Marc I. Brunei.] E. H. 

BRUNING, ANTHONY (1716-1776), 
Jesuit, eldest son of George Bruning of East 
Meon and Foxfield, Hampshire, by his first 
wife, Mary, daughter of Christopher Bryon 
of Sussex, was born on 7 Dec. 1716. He 
entered the Society of Jesus in 1733 ; be- 
came a professed father in 1751; laboured 
for some years on the English mission ; and 
was afterwards appointed professor of philo- 
sophy at Liege, where he died on 8 Aug. 
1776. He wrote manuscript treatises, ' De 
Gratia,' ' De Deo,' and 'De Trinitate.' 

[Oliver's Collections S. J. 62; Foley's Records 
S. J. v. 816, vii. 99 ; Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains 
de la Compagnie de Jesus (1869), 913.] T. C. 

BRUNING, GEORGE (1738-1802), 
Jesuit, was the youngest son of George Brun- 
ing of East Meon and Foxfield, Hampshire, 
by his second wife, Anne, daughter of Thomas 
May of Ramsdale in the same county. He 
was born in Hampshire on 19 Sept. 1738 ; 

entered the Society of Jesus in 1756 ; served 
the mission of Southend, Soberton, Hamp- 
shire, for some years ; and afterwards lived 
at East Hendred, Berkshire, the seat of 
Thomas John Eyston, who had married his 
half-sister, Mary Bruning. Retiring to Isle- 
worth, he died there on 3 June 1802. Brun- 
ing published : 1. ' The Divine GEconomy of 
Christ,' London, 1791, 8vo. 2. ' Remarks on 
the Rev. Joseph Berington's Examination of 
Events termed miraculous, as reported in 
Letters from Italy, addressed to the public,' 
London, 1796, 12mo. 

[Oliver's Collections S. J. 62 ; Foley's Re- 
cords S. J. v. 817, vii. 100; Backer's Bibl. des 
Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus (1869), 
913.] T. C. 



nonconformist divine, son of the Rev. John 
Brunning, rector of Semer in Suffolk, was 
baptised on 8 Oct. 1623. He received his 
academical education at Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted to a fellow- 
ship on 5 May 1645. He was ejected in 
1662, and became a nonconformist minister 
at Ipswich. The following is the account 
given of him by Calamy (Ejected Ministers, 
ii. 645) : ' Mr. Benjamin Brunning was fel- 
low of Jesus College, Cambridge; one of 
great usefulness there, and of a general repu- 
tation in the university for his wit and learn- 
ing. He was a man of large and deep thoughts, 
and his province required it ; he having the 
most judicious persons in the town and 
country, both ministers and people, for his 
audience.' He was author of the following 
sermons : 1. ' A Sermon preached at an Elec- 
tion of Parliament Men, in a Critical Time,' 
on James iii. 17, 1660, 4to. 2. ' Against Im- 
positions and Conformity, from the Second 

[Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, iii. 321 n ; Addit. 
MS. 5863 f. 177, 19165 f. 227; Palmer's Non- 
conformists' Memorial, iii. 271.] T. C. 


BRUNTON, GEORGE (1799-1836), 
Scottish lawyer and journalist, was born on 
31 Jan. 1799, and was educated at the Canon- 
gate High School, Edinburgh. He was ad- 
mitted a solicitor in 1831; and in the fol- 
lowing year, with Mr. David Haig, brought 
out ' An Historical Account of the Senators 
of the College of Justice, from its Institu- 
tion in MDXXXII,' 8vo, Edinburgh and Lon- 
don, 1832. This volume, which was at first 

L 2 




undertaken as a republication of the ' Cata- 
logue of the Lords of Session,' prepared by 
Lord Hailes in 1767, with a continuation to 
the time of its issue, became a collection of 
short biographies. Brunton was a frequent 
contributor to periodicals, and an advanced 
liberal. He established in 1834 a weekly 
Saturday newspaper called 'The Patriot,' 
which was dropped upon his death (Taifs 
Edinburgh Magazine,^ ovember 1836). Brun- 
ton died on 2 June 1836, at Paris, whither he 
had gone in search of health. 

[Edinburgh Almanac, 1831-7; Caledonian 
Mercury, 11 June 1836; Gent. Mag. July 1836; 
Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, November 1836 ; 
Irvinsr's Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, 1881.1 

A. H. G-. 



BRUNTON, MARY (1778-1818), no- 
velist, was daughter of Colonel Thomas 
Balfour of Elwick. Her mother was the 
daughter of Colonel Ligonier. Mary Bal- 
four was born in the island of Barra, Orkney, 
on 1 Nov. 1778. Her early education was 
irregular, but the girl learned music, French, 
and Italian. From her sixteenth to her 
twentieth year she managed her father's 
household. About 1798 she married the Rev. 
Alexander Brunton, and settled in the par- 
sonage of Bolton, near Haddington. The 
young couple studied together philosophy 
and history. In 1803 they went to live in 
Edinburgh. In 1810 Mrs. Brunton's first 
novel, ' Self-Control,' was published ; it was 
dedicated to Joanna Baillie, and the circum- 
stance led to a pleasant and lifelong inter- 
course. The book had a marked success. A 
second novel, 'Discipline,' appeared in De- 
cember 1814. In a letter to her brother, 
while acknowledging that she loved ' money 
dearly/ she declares that her great purpose 
had been ' to procure admission for the reli- 
gion of a sound mind and of the Bible where 
it cannot find access in any other form.' 
The repairing of the Tron Church in 1815 
gave Dr. Brunton and his wife an opportunity 
for a visit to London and to the south-west 
of England. She now projected a series of 
domestic tales, and made considerable pro- 
gress with one called ' Emmeline.' But after 
giving birth to a stillborn son on 7 Dec., 
she was attacked by fever, and died 19 Dec. 
1818. A life of Mrs. Brunton, with selec- 
tions from her correspondence, her two novels, 
the unfinished story of ' Emmeline,' and some 
other literary remains, were published by her 
husband in 1819. ' Self-Control ' and ' Dis- 
cipline ' were republished in Bentley's Stan- 
dard Novels in 1832, and in cheap editions 

in 1837 and 1852. A French translation of 
'Self-Control' appeared in Paris in 1829. 

ALEXANDER BRUNTON, Mrs. Brunton's bio- 
grapher, was born at Edinburgh in 1772, and 
became minister of Bolton in 1797, of the 
New Greyfriars, Edinburgh, in 1803, and of 
the Tron Church in 1809. He was professor 
of oriental languages in the university of 
Edinburgh, and died 9 Feb. 1854. His works 
are : ' Sermons and Lectures,' Edinburgh, 
1818 ; ' Persian Grammar,' Edinburgh, 1822. 

[The Biographical Memoir mentioned above ; 
Querard's La Litterature Franchise Contempo- 
raine, Paris, 1846, t. 11, 461; Blackwood's 
Magazine, v. 183.] W. E. A. A. 

BRUNTON, WILLIAM (1777-1851), 
engineer and inventor, was eldest son of Ro- 
bert Brunton, a watch and clock maker at 
Dalkeith, where he was born on 26 May 1777. 
He studied mechanics in his father's shop and 
engineering under his grandfather, who was 
a colliery viewer in the neighbourhood. In 
1790 he commenced work in the fitting shops 
of the New Lanark cotton mills belonging 
to David Dale and Sir Richard Arkwright ; 
but after five years, being attracted by the 
fame of the great works at Soho, he migrated 
to the south, and obtained employment in 
1796 with Boulton and Watt. He remained 
at Soho until he was made foreman and 
superintendent of the engine manufactory. 
Leaving Soho in 1818 he joined Mr. Jessop's 
Butterley Works, and being deputed to re- 
present his master in many important mis- 
sions he made the acquaintance of John 
Rennie, Thomas Telford, and other eminent 
engineers. In 1815 he became a partner in 
and the mechanical manager of the Eagle 
Foundry, Birmingham, where he remained 
ten years, during which time he designed and 
executed a great variety of important works. 
From 1825 to 1835 he appears to have been 
practising in London as a civil engineer, but 
quitting the metropolis at the latter date he 
took a share in the Cwm Avon Tin Works, 
Glamorganshire, where he erected copper 
smelting furnaces and rolling mills. He be- 
came connected with the Maesteg Works in 
the same county, and with a brewery at 
Neath in 1838 ; here a total failure ensued, 
and the savings of his life were lost. After 
this he occasionally reappeared in his profes- 
sion, but was never again fully embarked in 
business. He was a member of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers, but the date of 
his admission has not been found. As a 
mechanical engineer his works were various 
and important ; many of them were in the 
adaptation of original and ingenious modes 
of reducing and manufacturing metals, and 
the improvement of the machinery connected 




therewith. In the introduction of steam na- 
vigation he had a large share ; he made some 
of the original engines used on the Humber and 
the Trent, and some of the earliest on the Mer- 
sey, including those for the vessel which first 
plied on the Liverpool ferries in 1814. He 
fitted out the Sir Francis Drake at Plymouth 
in 1824, the first steamer that ever took a 
man-of-war in tow. His calciner was used on 
the works of most of the tin mines in Cornwall, 
as well as at the silver ore works in Mexico, 
and his fan regulator was also found to be a 
most useful invention. At the Butterley 
works he applied the principle of a rapid ro- 
tation of the mould in casting iron pipes, and 
incurred great expense in securing a patent, 
only to find that a foreigner, who used the same 
process in casting terra cotta, had recited in 
his specifications that the same mode might 
be applied to metals. The most novel and 
ingenious of his inventions was the walking 
machine called the Steam Horse, which he 
made at Butterley in 1813, and which worked 
with a load up a gradient of 1 in 36 during all 
the winter of 1814 at the Newbottle colliery. 
Early in 1815, through some carelessness, this 
machine exploded, and most unfortunately 
killed thirteen persons (WooD, Treatise on 
Mail Roads, 1825, pp. 131-5, with a plate). 

In the course of his career he obtained 
many patents, but derived little remuneration 
from them, although several of them came 
into general use. Latterly he turned his at- 
tention to the subject of improved ventilation 
for collieries, and sent models of his inven- 
tions to the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. 
He was intimate with all the engineers of the 
older school, and was almost the last of that 
celebrated set of men. He died at the resi- 
dence of his son, William Brunton, at Cam- 
borne, Cornwall, 5 Oct. 1851, having married, 
30 Oct. 1810, Anne Elizabeth Button, adopted 
daughter of John and Rebecca Dickinson of 
Summer Hill, Birmingham. She died at 
Eaglesbush, Neath, Glamorganshire, 1845, 
leaving sons, who have become well known 
as engineers. 

[Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of Civil 
Engineers, xi. 95-99 (1852).] G. C. B. 

Dominican friar, described as the author of a 
1 Summa Theologise,' and of certain ' Distinc- 
tiones ' and l Determinationes,' is probably, as 
Echard suggested (Script. Ord. Domin. i. 
634 6), identical with the better known John 
de Bromyarde [q. v.] 

[Boston ap. Tanner's Bibl. Brit., prsef., 
pp. xxxiii, xl; Bale's Cat. Script. Brit. v. 77, 
pp. 429 seq. (see also Bale's Notebook in the 
Bodleian Library, Selden MS. supr. 64, f. 53); 
Pits's Comm. de Script. Brit. p. 479.] E. L. P. 

BRUODINE, ANTHONY (ft. 1672), 
Irish Franciscan, was a native of the county 
of Clare. He became a Recollect friar and 
jubilate lecturer of divinity in the Irish con- 
vent of the Holy Conception of the Blessed 
Virgin at Prague. He wrote : 1. * (Ecodo- 
mia Minorities Schols Salamonis, Johannis 
Duns Scoti, sive Universae Theologise Scho- 
lastics Manualis Summa,' Prague, 1663, 
8vo. 2. ' Corolla (Ecodomis Minorities 
Sehols Salamonis, Doctoris subtilis ; sive 
pars altera Manualis Summs totius Theologize 
Speculative,' Prague, 1664, 8vo. 3. ' Pro- 
pugnaculum Catholics Veritatis, Pars prima 
Historica, in quinque libros distributa,' 
Prague, 1668, 4to. In the fifth book he 
violently attacks Thomas Carve's ' Lyra/ or 
annals of Ireland, in a chapter headed ' De 
Carve seu Carrani erroribus et imposturis.' 
This provoked from Carve the ' Enchiridion 
Apologeticum,' Nuremberg, 1670, 12mo. In 
answer to this a tract called the l Anatomi- 
cum Examen Enchiridii ' was published at 
Prague in 1671, but whether this was written 
by Friar Cornelius O'Mollony, a relative of 
Bruodine's, or by Bruodine himself under 
that name, as Carve believed, is uncertain 
[see CARVE, THOMAS]. 4. ' Armamentarium 
Theologicum,' Prague, 4to. He is probably 
identical with the Antonius Prodinus whose 
* Descriptio Regni Hibernis, Sanctorum In- 
| suls, et de prima origine miseriarum & mo- 
: tuum in Anglia, Scotia, et Hibernia, regnante 
I Carolo primo rege ' was printed at Rome, 
I 1721, 4to, under the editorship of the exiled 
' son of Phelim O'Neill. 

[Ware's Writers of Ireland (Harris), 160, 161 ; 

; Kerney's Pref. to reprint of Carve's Itinerarium 

! (1859), pp. ix, x ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 

295, 383, 1979; Bibl. Grenyilliana, i. 119, 575; 

Cat. Lib. Impress, in Bibl. Col. Trin. Dubl. 

! (1864), i. 490, 491.] T. C. 

BRUTTON, NICHOLAS (1780-1843), 
lieutenant-colonel, descended from the old 
Devonshire family of Brutton or Bruteton, 
entered the army as ensign in the 75th foot 
in 1795, proceeded to India, served at the 
battle of Seedasseer in 1799, through the 
Mysore campaign as aide-de-camp to Colonel 
Hart, and led one of the storming parties 
at Seringapatam on 4 May 1799, when he 
was severely wounded. He served through 
the campaign in Canara; at the siege and 
assault of Jamalabad, and under Lord Lake 
through the campaigns of 1804-5. At Bhurt- 
pore he led a storming party, and was again 
severely wounded. He exchanged into the 
8th hussars, served in the Sikh country in 
1809 under General St. Leger, and as bri- 
gade-major to General Wood in the Pindar- 
ree campaign, 1812. 




On the breaking out of the Nepal war he 
proceeded as brevet-major in command of 
three troops of the 8th hussars, and led the 
assault on the fort of Kalunga at the head of 
one hundred dismounted troopers, and was 
again severely wounded. He served as bri- 
gade-major at the siege and capture of Hatt- 
rass, and in the Pindarree campaign of 1817 
was promoted to a majority in the 8th hussars, 
and on the return of that regiment to Europe, 
in 1821, exchanged into the llth hussars, with 
which regiment he served at the siege and 
capture of Bhurtpore. In 1830 he succeeded 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy and commanded 
the llth hussars until 1837, when he sold out, 
and was succeeded by the Earl of Cardigan. 

Brutton was present at the siege and 
capture of the six strongest fortresses in India. 
On leaving the llth hussars he was pre- 
sented by the officers with a splendid piece 
of plate in testimony of their regard. He 
had a pension for his wounds of 1001. a 
year, and died in retirement at Bordeaux on 
26 March 1843. 

[War Office Eecords ; United Service Maga- 
zine, mclxxiv. May 1843.] F. B. G. 

BRWYNLLYS, BEDO (fl. 1450-1480), 
a "Welsh poet, so named from his birthplace, 
Brwynllys in Herefordshire. Many poems 
by him, chiefly odes, are preserved in the 
Welsh School MSS. now in the British Mu- 
seum, and several short passages are printed 
in Davies's ' Flores Poetarum Britannicorum.' 
Brwynllys made the first collection of the 
poems of Dafydd ab Gwilym, but his collec- 
tion is said to have been lost in the ruin of 
Raglan Castle, where it was preserved. 

[Williams's Diet, of Eminent "Welshmen ; 
Welsh School MSS., British Museum.] A. M. 

BRYAN, AUGUSTINE (d. 1726), clas- 
sical scholar, received his education at Trinity 
College, Cambridge (B.A. 1711, MA. 1716) ; 
was instituted to the rectory of Piddlehinton, 
Dorsetshire, on 16 Jan. 1722 ; and died on 
6 April 1726. He published a sermon on 
the election of the lord mayor in 1718, and 
just before his death he had finished the 
printing of a splendid edition of Plutarch's 
' Lives,' which was completed by Moses du 
Soul, and published under the title of ' Plu- 
tarchi Chseronensis Vitse Parallels, cum 
singulis aliquot. Greece et Latine. Ad- 
duntur variantes Lectiones ex MSS. Codd. 
Veteres et Novae, Doctorum Virorum Notae 
et Emendationes, et Indices accuratissimi/ 
5 vols., London, 1723-9, 4to. This excel- 
lent edition is adorned with the heads of 
the illustrious persons engraved from gems. 
The Greek text is printed from the Paris 
edition of 1624, with a few corrections, and 

the Latin translation is also chiefly adopted 
from that edition. 

[Hutchins's Dorsetshire, 2nd edit.ii. 352, 353; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iv. 286 ; Nichols's Illustr. 
of Lit. iv. 375, viii. 629 ; Political State of Great 
Britain, xxxi. 344; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 
1890 ; Graduati Cantabrigienses (1787), 60.] 

T. C. 

BRYAN, SIE FRANCIS (d. 1550), poet, 
translator, soldier, and diplomatist, was the 
son of Sir Thomas Bryan, and .grandson of 
Sir Thomas Bryan, chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas from 1471 till his death in 1500 
(Foss, Judges). His father was knighted by 
Henry VII in 1497, was < knight of the body ' 
at the opening of Henry VIII's reign, and 
repeatedly served on the commission of the 
peace for Buckinghamshire, where the family 
property was settled. Francis Bryan's mother 
was Margaret, daughter of Humphry Bour- 
chier, and sister of John Bourchier, lord Ber- 
ners [q. v.] Lady Bryan was for a time go- 
verness to the princesses Mary and Elizabeth, 
and died in 1551-2 (cf. MADDEN, Expenses 
of the Princess Mary, 216). Anne Boleyn is 
stated to have been his cousin ; but we have 
been unable to discover the exact genealogical 
connection. Bryan's prominence in politics 
was mainly due to the lasting affection which 
Henry VIII conceived for him in early youth. 

Bryan is believed to have been educated 
at Oxford. In April 1513 he received his 
first official appointment, that of captain of 
the Margaret Bonaventure, a ship in the re- 
tinue of Sir Thomas Howard, afterwards duke 
of Norfolk, the newly appointed admiral. In 
the court entertainments held at Richmond 
(19 April 1515), at Eltham (Christmas 1516), 
and at Greenwich (7 July 1517), Bryan took a 
prominent part, and received very rich apparel 
from the king on each occasion (BREWEB, 
Henry VIII, ii. pt. ii. pp. 1503-5, 1510). He 
became the king's cupbearer in 1516. In De- 
cember 1518 he was acting as 'master of the 
Toyles,' and storing Greenwich Park with 
'quick deer.' In 1520 he attended Henry VIII 
at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and took 
part in the jousts there under the captaincy 
of the Earl of Devonshire ; and on 29 Sept. 
he received a pension from the king of 
33/. 6*. Sd. as a servant and ' a cipherer.' He 
served in Brittany under the Earl of Surrey 
in July 1522, and was knighted by his com- 
mander for his hardiness and courage (HALL, 
Chronicle}. He was one of the sheriffs of 
Essex and Hertfordshire in 1523, and accom- 
panied Wolsey on his visit to Calais (9 July 
1527), where he remained some days. A 
year later he escorted the papal envoy Cam- 
peggio, on his way to England from Orleans, 
to Calais. In November 1528 Bryan was 

Bryan i 

sent to Rome by Henry to obtain the papal 
sanction for his divorce from Catherine. 
Bryan was especially instructed to induce 
the pope to withdraw from his friendship 
with the emperor, and to discover the in- 
structions originally given to Campeggio. 
Much to his disappointment, Bryan failed in 
his mission. Soon after leaving England he 
had written to his cousin, Anne Boleyn, en- 
couraging her to look forward to the imme- 
diate removal of all obstacles between her 
and the title of queen; but he subsequently 
(5 May 1529) had to confess to the king that 
nothing would serve to gain the pope's con- 
sent to Catherine's divorce. On 10 May 1533 
Bryan, with Sir Thomas Gage and Lord Vaux, 
presented to Queen Catherine at Ampthill 
the summons bidding her appear before Arch- 
bishop Cranmer's court at Dunstable, to show 
cause why the divorce should not proceed ; 
but the queen, who felt the presence of Bryan, 
a relative of Anne Boleyn, a new insult, in- 
formed the messengers that she did not ac- 
knowledge the court's competency. In 1531 
Bryan was sent as ambassador to France, 
whither he was soon followed by Sir Nicholas 
Carew, his sister's husband, and at the time 
as zealous a champion of Anne Boleyn as 
himself. Between May and August 1533 
Bryan was travelling with the Duke of Nor- 
folk in France seeking to prevent an alliance 
or even a meeting between the pope and the 
king of France, and he was engaged in similar 
negotiations, together with Bishop Gardiner 
and Sir John Wallop, in December 1535. 

Bryan during all these years remained the 
king's permanent favourite. Throughout the 
reign almost all Henry's amusements were 
shared in by him, and he acquired on that 
account an unrivalled reputation for disso- 
luteness. Undoubtedly Bryan retained his 
place in the king's affection by very question- 
able means. When the influence of the Bo- 
leyn family was declining, Bryan entered upon 
a convenient quarrel with Lord Rochford, 
which enabled the king to break with his 
brother-in-law by openly declaring himself 
on his favourite's side. In May 1536 Anne 
Boleyn was charged with the offences for 
which she suffered on the scaffold, and Crom- 
well no doubt without the knowledge of 
Henry VIII at first suspected Bryan of 
being one of the queen's accomplices. When 
the charges were being formulated, Cromwell, 
who had no liking for Bryan, hastily sent for 
him from the country ; but no further steps 
were taken against him, and there is no ground 
for believing the suspicion to have been well 
founded. It is clear that Bryan was very 
anxious to secure the queen's conviction 
(FBOUDE, ii. 385, quotes from Cotton MS. E. 

i Bryan 

ix. the deposition of the abbot of Woburn 
relating to an important conversation with 
Bryan on this subject), and he had the base- 
ness to undertake the office of conveying to 
Jane Seymour, Anne's successor, the news of 
Anne Boleyn's condemnation (15 May 1536). 
A pension vacated by one of Anne's ac- 
complices was promptly bestowed on Bryan 
by the king. Cromwell, in writing of this 
circumstance to Gardiner and Wallop, calls 
Bryan ' the vicar of hell ' a popular nick- 
name which his cruel indifference to the fate 
of his cousin Anne Boleyn proves that he 
well deserved. Bryan conspicuously aided 
the government in repressing the rebellion 
known as the Pilgrimage of Grace in October 
of the same year. On 15 Oct. 1537 he played 
a prominent part at the christening of Prince 
Edward (STEYPE, Mem. n. i. 4). In De- 
cember 1539 he was one of the king's house- 
hold deputed to meet Anne of Cleves near 
Calais on her way to England, and Hall, the 
chronicler, notes the splendour of his dress on 
the occasion. At the funeral of Henry VIII, 
on 14 Feb. 1546-7, Bryan was assigned a 
chief place as ' master of the henchmen.' 

As a member of the privy council Bryan 
took part in public affairs until the close of 
Henry VIII's reign, and at the beginning of 
Edward VI's reign he was given a large share 
of the lands which the dissolution of the 
monasteries had handed over to the crown. 
He fought, as a captain of light horse, under 
the Duke of Somerset at Musselburgh 27 Sept. 
1547, when he was created a knight banneret. 
Soon afterwards Bryan rendered the govern- 
ment a very curious service. In 1548 James 
Butler, ninth earl of Ormonde, an Irish noble, 
whose powerful influence was obnoxious to 
the government at Dublin, although there 
were no valid grounds for suspecting his 
loyalty, died in London of poison under very 
suspicious circumstances. Thereupon his 
widow, Joan, daughter and heiress of James 
FitzJohn Fitzgerald, eleventh earl of Des- 
mond, sought to marry her relative, Gerald 
Fitzgerald, the heir of the fifteenth earl of 
Desmond. To prevent this marriage, which 
would have united the leading representatives 
of the two chief Irish noble houses, Bryan was 
induced to prefer a suit to the lady himself. 
He had previously married (after 1517) Phi- 
lippa, a rich heiress and widow of Sir John 
Fprtescue (MOEANT, Essex, ii. 117); but 
Bryan's first wife died some time after 1534, 
and in 1548 he married the widowed countess. 
He was immediately nominated lord marshal 
of Ireland, and arrived in Dublin with his wife 
in November 1548. Sir Edward Bellingham, 
the haughty lord-deputy, resented his appoint- 
ment, but Bryan's marriage gave him the com- 




mand of the Butler influence, and Bellingham 
was unable to inj ure him. On Bellingham's de- 
parture from Ireland on 16 Dec. 1549 the Irish 
council recognised Bryan's powerful position 
by electing him lord-justice, pending the ar- 
rival of a new deputy. But on 2 Feb. 1549-50 
Bryan died suddenly at Clonmel. A post- 
mortem examination was ordered to determine 
the cause of death, but the doctors came to 
no more satisfactory conclusion than that he 
died of grief, a conclusion unsupported by 
external evidence. Sir John Allen, the Irish 
chancellor, who was present at Bryan's death 
and at the autopsy, states that ' he departed 
very godly.' Koger Ascham, in the ' Schole- 
master,' 1568, writes: * Some men being never 
so old and spent by yeares will still be full of 
youthfull conditions, as was Syr F. Bryan, and 
evermore wold have bene'(ed. Mayor, p. 129). 

Bryan, like many other of Henry VIII's 
courtiers, interested himself deeply in litera- 
ture. He is probably the ' Brian ' to whom 
Erasmus frequently refers in his correspon- 
dence as one of his admirers in England, and 
he was the intimate friend of the poets Wyatt 
and Surrey. Like them he wrote poetry, but 
although Bryan had once a high reputation 
as a poet, his poetry is now unfortunately 
undiscoverable. He was an anonymous con- 
tributor to the ' Songes and Sonettes written 
by the ryght honorable Lorde Henry Howard, 
late earl of Surrey, and others,' 1557, usually 
known as ' Tottel's Miscellany ; ' but it is im- 
possible to distinguish his work there from 
that of the other anonymous writers. Of the 
high esteem in which his poetry was held in 
the sixteenth century there is abundant evi- 
dence. Wyatt dedicated a bitter satire to 
Bryan on the contemptible practices of court 
life ; and while rallying him on his restless 
activity in politics, speaks of his fine literary 
taste. Drayton, in his 'Heroicall Epistle' 
of the Earl of Surrey to the Lady Geraldine 
(first published in 1629, but written much 
earlier), refers to 

sacred Bryan (whom the Muses kept, 

And in his cradle rockt him while he slept) ; 

the poet represents Bryan as honouring Surrey 
' in sacred verses most divinely pen'd.' Simi- 
larly Drayton, in his ' Letter ... of Poets 
and Poesie,' is as enthusiastic in praise of 
Bryan as of Surrey and Wyatt, and distinctly 
states that he was a chief author 

Of those small poems -which the title beare 
Of songs and sonnets 

a reference to ' Tottel's Miscellany. Francis 
Meres, in his ' Palladis Tamia,' 1598, describes 
Bryan with many other famous poets as ' the 
most passionate among us to bewail and be- 
moan the complexities of love.' 

Bryan was also a student of foreign lan- 
guages and literature. It is clear that his 
uncle, John Bourchier, lord Berners [q. v.], 
consulted him about much of his literary 
work. It was at Bryan's desire that Lord 
Berners undertook his translation of Guevara's 
'Marcus Aurelius' (1534). Guevara, the 
founder of Euphuism, was apparently Bryan's 
favourite author. Not content with suggest- 
ing and editing his uncle's translation of one 
of the famous Spanish writer's books, he him- 
self translated another through the French. 
It first appeared anonymously in 1548 under 
the title of l A Dispraise of the Life of a 
Courtier and a Oommendacion of the Life of 
a Labouryng Man,' London (by Berthelet), 
August 1548. In this form the work is of ex- 
cessive rarity. In 1575 ' T. Tymme, minister,' 
reprinted the book as ' A Looking-glasse for 
the Courte, composed in the Castilion tongue 
by the Lorde Anthony of Guevarra, Bishop 
of Mondonent and Cronicler to the Emperor 
Charles, and out of Castilion drawne into 
Frenche by Anthony Alaygre, and out of the 
Frenche tongue into Englishe by Sir Frauncis 
Briant, Knight, one of the priuye chamber in 
the raygn of K. Henry the eyght.' The editor 
added a poem in praise of the English trans- 
lator. A great many of Bryan's letters are 
printed in Brewer and Gairdner's 'Letters 
and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII.' 
Three interesting manuscript letters are in 
the British Museum (Cotton MS. Vitell. B. 
x. 73, 77 ; and Harl. MS. 296, f. 18). 

[Nott's edition of Surrey and Wyatt's Poems ; 
Brewer and Gairdner's Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, 1509-35; Eymer's Fcedera, xiv. 
380 ; Brewer's Eeign of Henry VIII, ed. Gaird- 
ner, 1884, vol. ii. ; Archseologia, xxvi. 426 et seq. ; 
Chronicle of Calais (Camden Soc.) ; Collins's 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, ix. 98 ; Lodge's Peerage of 
Ireland, i. 71, 265; Metcalfe's Book of Knights, 
29, 220 ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum (Add. MS. 
24490, if. 104-5) ; Friedmann's Anne Boleyn ; 
Cal. State Papers (Foreign), 1509-35 ; Cal. State 
Papers (Irish), 1509-73; Hazlitt's Bibliogra- 
phical Handbook ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), 
i. 169-70; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors 
(1885).] S. L. L. 

BRYAN, JOHN (d. 1545), logician, was 
born in London, and educated at Eton, whence 
he was elected, in 1510, to King's College, 
Cambridge (B.A. 1515, M.A. 1518). He 
gained the reputation of being one of the 
most learned men of his time in the Greek 
and Latin tongues. For two years he was 
ordinary reader of logic in the public schools, 
and in his lectures he wholly disregarded the 
knotty subtleties of the realists and nomi- 
nalists who then disturbed the university 
with their frivolous altercations. This dis- 




pleased many, but recommended him to the 
notice of Erasmus, who highly extols his 
learning. He was instituted to the rectory 
of Shellow-Bo wells, Essex, in 1523, and died 
about October 1545. He wrote a history ot 
France, but it does not appear to have been 

[Add. MS. 5814,f. 156 ; Newcourt's Keperto- 
rium, ii. 522; Knight's Life of Erasmus, 146; 
Cooper's Athense Cantab, i. 87.] T. C. 

BRYAN, JOHN, D.D. (d. 1676), ejected 
minister, was educated at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, and held the rectory of Barford, 
near Warwick, worth 140/. a year, but left 
it to* go to Coventry, as vicar of Trinity 
Church, in 1644. The living was worth 80/., 
to which the city agreed to add 201. Bryan 
was appointed by ' power of the parliament,' 
and was not cordially welcomed by the 
vestry. In 1646 Bryan, assisted by Obadiah 
Grew, D.D. [q. v.], vicar of St. Michael's, 
held a public disputation on infant baptism 
in Trinity Church with Hanserd Knollys, the 
baptist. Though Coventry was a stronghold 
of puritanism, it was not so well content as 
were some of its preachers to witness the 
subversion of the monarchy. Bryan, at the 
end of 1646, touched upon this dissatisfac- 
tion with the course which events were tak- 
ing in a sermon which was printed. The 
vestry in 1647 agreed to raise his stipend. In 
1652 and 1654 his services were sought by 
' the towne of Shrewsbury,' and the church- 
wardens bestirred themselves to keep him. 
But the citizens were remiss in discharging 
their very moderate promises for the support 
of their clergy. Nevertheless, the puritan 
preachers remained at their posts until the 
Act of Uniformity ejected them in 1662. 
Bryan took very much the same view as Baxter 
on the question of conformity. To ministerial 
conformity he had ten objections, but he was 
willing to practise lay conformity and did so. 
Bishop Hacket tried to overcome his scruples, 
and offered him a month to consider, beyond 
the time allowed by the act ; but Bryan gave 
up his vicarage, and was succeeded by Na- 
thaniel Wanley, of the ' Wonders of the Little 
World ' (1678). Bryan continued to preach 
whenever and wherever he had liberty to do 
so ; and in conjunction with Grew he founded 
a presbyterian congregation, which met, from 
1672, in licensed rooms. Bryan also made him- 
self very useful in educating students for the 
ministry, and though the dissenting academy 
as a recognised institution dates from Richard 
Frankland (whose academy at Rathmel was 
opened in 1670), yet Calamy tells us of Bryan 
that 'there went out of his house more 
worthy ministers into the church of God than 
out of many colleges in the university in that 

time.' Bryan was a student to the last, very 
ready in controversy, and occasionally an 
extempore preacher. He was fond of George 
Herbert's poems, and himself wrote verse. A 
tithe of his income he distributed in charity. 
He died at an advanced age on 4 March 
1675-6. His funeral sermon, by Wanley, is 
a very generous tribute to his merits. 

He left three sons : (1) John, M. A., vicar of 
Holy Cross (the abbey church), Shrewsbury, 
1652 ; minister of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, 
27 March 1659; ejected 1662; minister of 
the presbyterian congregation meeting in 
High Street, Shrewsbury ; died on 31 Aug. 
1699 ; buried in St. Chad's churchyard. 
(2) Samuel, fellow of Peterhouse, vicar of 
Allesley, Warwickshire; ejected in 1662; 
imprisoned six months in Warwick gaol for 
preaching at Birmingham ; household chap- 
lain at Belfast Castle to Arthur, first earl of 
Donegal (who left him 50/. a year for four 
years, besides his salary, in his will, dated 
17 March 1674) ; died out of his mind, ac- 
cording to Calamy. (3) Noah, fellow of 
Peterhouse ; ejected from a living at Stafford 
in 1662 ; according to Calamy, became chap- 
lain to the Earl of Donegal, and died about 
1667, but it seems likely that Calamy has 
confused him with his brother. 

Bryan was succeeded as presbyterian mi- 
nister at Coventry by his brother Gervase 
(or Jarvis), appointed to the rectory of Old 
Swinford, Worcestershire, in 1655 ; ejected 
1662 ; lived at Birmingham till 167o, died 
at Coventry on 27 Dec. 1689, and was buried 
in Trinity Church. The liberty to meet in 
licensed rooms was withdrawn in 1682 ; but 
in 1687, after James's declaration for liberty 
of conscience, Grew and Gervase Bryan re- 
assembled their congregation in St. Nicho- 
las Hall, commonly called Leather Hall. 
Bryan published : 1. 'The Vertuous Daugh- 
ter, 7 1640, 4to (sermon, Prov. xxxi. 29, at St. 
Mary's, Warwick, at funeral, on 14 April 
1636, of Cicely, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Puckering ; at end is ' her epitaph by the 
author ' in verse). 2. ' A Discovery of the 
probable Sin causing this great ludgement 
of Rain and Waters, viz. our Discontentment 
with our present Government, and inordinate 
desire of our King/ 1647, 4to (sermon, 1 Sam. 
xii. 16-20, at Coventry, on 23 Dec, 1646, 
being the day of public humiliation ; dedica- 
tion issued ' from my study in Coventry ' on 
26 Dec. 1646). 3. ' The Warwickshire Mi- 
nisters' Testimony to the Trueth of Jesus 
Christ, and to the Solemn League and Cove- 
nant; as also against the errours, heresies, 
and blasphemies of these times, and the tole- 
ration of them ; sent in a letter to the Mi- 
nisters of London, subscribers of the former 




testimony,' 1648, 4to (signed by Bryan, Grew, 
and John Herring as ministers of Coventry). 
4. ' A Publick Disputation sundry dayes at 
Killingworth [Kenilworth] in Warwickshire 
between John Bryan, &c. and John Onley, 
pastor of a church at Lawford, upon this 
question, Whether the parishes of this nation 
generally be true churches. Wherein are 
nine arguments alleged in proof of the affirma- 
tive of the question, with the answer of I. 0. 
thereunto, together with Dr. B.'s reply, &c.' 
1655, 4to (this discussion was criticised in 
'Animadversions upon a Disputation, &c./ 
1658, 4to, by J. Ley, prebendary of Chester). 
5. ' Dwelling with God, the interest and duty 
of believers, opened in eight sermons/ 1670, 
8vo (epistle to the reader by Richard Baxter). 
6. Prefatory letter to 'Sermon/ 2 Cor. v. 20, 
by S. Gardner, 1672, 4to. 7. ' Harvest- 
Home : being the summe of certain sermons 
upon Job 5, 26, one whereof was preached 
at the funeral of Mr. Ob. Musson, an aged 
godly minister of the Gospel, in the Royally 
licensed rooms in Coventry ; the other since 
continued upon the subject. By J. B., D.D., 
late pastor of the Holy Trinity in that ancient 
and honourable city. The first part being 
a preparation of the corn for the sickle. The 
latter will be the reaping, shocking and inn- 
ing of that corn which is so fitted/ London, 
printed for the author, 1674, 4to (this little 
volume of verse is very scarce ; the British 
Museum has two copies, both with author's 
corrections : ' Ob.' on the title-page is cor- 
rected to ' Rich.' [Richard Musson was ejected 
from the rectory of Church Langton, Leices- 
tershire] ; the preface says the author has 
presumed to send his book ' to some of his 
noble and most worthy friends / he introduces, 
from 1 Pet. i. 4, three perhaps unique words : 
a kingdom that 

Is apthartal [aphthartal MS. corr.], amiantal, 

Amarantall ). 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 546, 629, 735, 
743, 771 ; Continuation, 1723, pp. 850, 893 ; 
Monthly Repos. 1819, p. 600; Sibree and Cas- 
ton's Independency in Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 
27, 29 seq.; Benn's Hist, of Belfast, 1877, pp. 719 
seq. ; Wanley's MS. Diary in British Museum ; 
manuscript extracts from corporation records, 
Coventry, also from burial register and church- 
wardens' accounts of Trinity parish, per Kev. 
F. M. Beaumont ; Cole's MS. Athense Cantab.] 


BRYAN, MARGARET (fi. 1815), 
natural philosopher, a beautiful and talented 
schoolmistress, was the wife of a Mr. Bryan. 
In 1797 she published in 4to, by subscription, 
a ' Compendious System of Astronomy/ with 
a portrait of herself and two daughters as a 
frontispiece, the whole engraved by Nutter 

from a miniature by Samuel Shelley. Mrs. 
Bryan dedicated her book to her pupils. The 
lectures of which the book consisted had been 
praised by Charles Hutton, then at Wool- 
wich (Preface, p. xi). An 8vo edition of the 
work was issued later. In 1806 Mrs. Bryan 
published, also by subscription, and in 4to, 
' Lectures on Natural Philosophy ' (thirteen 
lectures on hydrostatics, optics, pneumatics, 
acoustics), with a portrait of the authoress, 
engraved by Heath, after a painting by T. 
Kearsley; and there is a notice in it that 
' Mrs. Bryan educates young ladies at Bryan 
House, Blackheath.' In 1815 Mrs. Bryan 
produced an ' Astronomical and Geographical 
Class Book for Schools/ a thin 8vo. 

' Conversations on Chemistry/ published 
anonymously in 1806, is also ascribed to her 
by Watt (Bibl. Brit.) and in the 'Biog. Diet, 
of Living Authors ' (1816). Mrs. Bryan's 
school appears to have been situated at one 
time at Blackheath, at another at 27 Lower 
Cadogan Place, near Hyde Park Corner, and 
lastly at Margate. 

[Mrs. Bryan's Works.] J. H. 

BRYAN, MATTHEW (d. 1699), Jaco- 
bite preacher, son of Robert Bryan of Liming- 
ton, Somerset, sometime minister of St.Mary's, 
Newington, Surrey, was born at Limington, 
became a semi-commoner of Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, in 1665, and left the university with- 
out taking a degree in arts. After holding a 
benefice in the diocese of Bath and W'ells 
for about ten years, he was appointed to his 
father's old living, St. Mary's, Newington, and 
to the afternoon lectureship at St. Michael's, 
Crooked Lane. His living was sequestered 
for debt in 1684. A sermon preached by him 
at Newington and at St. Michael's (26 Oct. 
and 2 Nov. of the same year) on 2 Cor. v. 11 
was said to contain reflections on the king's 
courts of justice, and an accusation was laid 
against him before the dean of arches. In 
order to vindicate himself he printed this 
sermon, which certainly does not appear to 
contain any such reflections, with a dedica- 
tion, dated 10 Dec. 1684, to Dr. Peter Mews, 
bishop of Winchester, formerly his diocesan 
in Somerset. The archbishop was satisfied 
that the charge against him was groundless, 
and it was quashed accordingly. In July 
1685 Bryan accumulated the degrees of civil 
law at Oxford. Refusing to take the oaths 
on the accession of William and Mary, he lost 
his preferment, and became the minister of 
a Jacobite congregation meeting in St. Dun- 
stan's Court, Fleet Street. This brought him 
into trouble several times. On 1 Jan. 1693 
his meeting was discovered, the names of his 
congregation, consisting of about a hundred 




persons, were taken, and he was arrested. 
He died on 10 March 1699, and was buried 
in St. Dunstan's-in-the-West. His works 
are : ' The Certainty of the future Judgment ' 
(the sermon referred to above), 1685: 'A 
Persuasion to the stricter Observance of the 
Lord's Day,' a sermon, 1686; 'St. Paul's 
Triumph in his Sufferings,' a sermon, 1692. 
In the dedication of this discourse he de- 
scribes himself as M. B. IndignuseV rfj 6\fyei 
ddc\(f)6s Kai o-vyKoivw vo s, probably in reference 
to his sufferings as a Jacobite preacher, the 
sermon itself being on Eph. iv. 1. He also 
wrote two copies of verses printed in Ellis 
Waller's translation of the 'Encheiridion'of 
Epictetus into English verse, 1702, and re- 
published Sir Humphrey Lynd's ' Account of 
Bertram the Priest/ 1686. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 602, iv. 779, 
Life, cxiv ; Luttrell's Relation, ii. 398, iii. 1 ; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath, ii. 81 ; Bryan's 
Certainty of the future Judgment and his St. 
Paul's Triumph.] W. H. 

BRYAN, MICHAEL (1757-1821), con- 
noisseur, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 
9 April 1757, and was educated at the gram- 
mar school of that town under Dr. Moyce. 
In 1781 he first visited London, whence he 
accompanied his elder brother to Flanders, 
where he became acquainted with, and after- 
wards married, the sister of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury. In Flanders he continued to 
reside, with the exception of occasional visits 
to England, until 1790, when he finally left 
the Low Countries and settled in London. In 
1793 or 1794 Bryan again went to the con- 
tinent in search of fine pictures. Among 
other places he visited Holland, and re- 
mained there until an order arrived from the 
French government to stop all the English 
then resident there. He was, among many 
others, detained at Rotterdam. It was here 
that he met M. L'Abord. In 1798 Bryan 
was applied to by L'Abord for his advice and 
assistance in disposing of the Italian part of 
the Orleans collection of pictures. He com- 
municated the circumstance to the Duke of 
Bridgewater, and his grace authorised him to 
treat for their purchase. After a negotiation 
of three weeks, the duke, with the Marquis 
of Stafford, then Lord Gower, and the Earl 
of Carlisle, became the purchasers, at the 
price of 43,5007. In 1801 Bryan obtained, 
through the medium of the Duke of Bridge- 
water, the king's permission to visit Paris 
for the purpose of selecting from the cabi- 
net of M. Robit such objects of art as he 
might deem worthy of bringing to England. 
Among other fine pictures, he brought from 
Paris two by Murillo, the one representing 
the infant Christ as the Good Shepherd, and 

the other the infant St. John with a lamb. 
In 1804 Bryan left the picture world, and 
retired to his brother's in Yorkshire, where 
he remained until 1811. In 1812 Bryan 
again visited London, and commenced his 
'Biographical and Critical Dictionary of 
Painters and Engravers,' 2 vols. 4to. The 
first part appeared in May 1813, and con- 
cluded in 1816. Another editipn appeared 
in 1849, and Mr. R. E. Graves is bringing 
out in parts a new and thoroughly revised 
edition (1886). In 1818 he connected him- 
self in some picture speculations, which 
proved a failure. On 14 Feb. 1821 he was 
seized with a severe paralytic stroke, and 
died on 21 March following. 

[Literary Gazette, 1821, p. 187; Magazine of 
the Fine Arts, i. 37 ; MS. notes in British Mu- 
seum.] L. F. 

BRYANT, HENRY (1721-1799), bota- 
nist, was born in 1721, educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, graduated B.A. in 1749, 
and proceeded M. A. in 1753. He entered the 
church, but took up botany about 1764, after 
the death of his wife. He is said to have been 
a man of great acuteness and attainments in 
mathematics. From Norwich he was pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Langham in 1758, 
removing afterwards to Heydon, and thence 
to the rectory of Colby, where he died on 
4 June 1799. He was a brother of Charles 
Bryant, author of 'Flora disetetica,' &c., who 
died shortly before him. He was the author 
of 'A particular Enquiry into the Cause 
of that Disease in Wheat commonly called 
Brand,' Norwich, 1784, 8vo. 

[Sir J. E. Smith in Trans. Linn. Soc". vii. 
(1804), 297-300; Gent. Mag. Ixix. (1799), pt. i. 
532.] B. D. J. 

BRYANT, JACOB (1715-1804), anti- 
quary, was born in 1715 at Plymouth, where 
his father was an officer in the customs, but 
before his seventh year was removed to 
Chatham. The Rev. Samuel Thornton of 
Luddesdon, near Rochester, was his first 
schoolmaster, and in 1730 he was at Eton. 
Elected to King's College, Cambridge, in 1736, 
he took his degrees, B.A. in 1740, M. A. in 1744, 
and he became a fellow of his college. He was 
first private tutor to Sir Thomas Stapylton, 
and then to the Marquis of Blandford, after- 
wards duke of Marlborough, and his brother, 
Lord Charles Spencer. In 1756 he was ap- 
pointed secretary to the Duke of Marlborough, 
master-general of ordnance, and went with 
him to Germany, where the latter died while 
commander-in-chief. At the same time Bry- 
ant held an office in the ordnance department 
worth 1,400/. a year. Mr. Hetherington made 
him his executor with a legacy of 3,000, and 




the Marlborough family allowed him 1,000/. 
a year, gave him rooms at Blenheim, and the 
use of the famous library. He twice refused 
the mastership of the Charterhouse, although 
once actually elected. His first work was ' Ob- 
servations and Enquiries relating to various 
parts of Ancient History, . . . the Wind 
Euroclydon, the island Melite, the Shepherd 
Kings,' &c. (Cambridge, 1767, 4to), in which 
he attacked the opinions of Bochart, Beza, 
Grotius, and Bentley. He next published 
the work with which his name is chiefly as- 
sociated, ' A New System or an Analysis of 
Ancient Mythology,' with plates, London, 

1774, two vols. 4to; second edition, 1775, 
4to; and vol. iii. 1776, 4to. His research is 
remarkable, but he had no knowledge of 
oriental languages, and his system of etymo- 
logy was puerile and misleading. The third 
edition, in six vols. 8vo, was published in 1807. 
John Wesley published an abbreviation of the 
first two vols. of the 4to edition. Richardson, 
assisted by Sir William Jones, was Bryant's 
chief opponent in the preface to his ' Persian 
Dictionary.' In an anonymous pamphlet, f An 
Apology,' &c., of which only a few copies were 
printed for literary friends, Bryant sustained 
his opinions, whereupon Richardson revised 
the dissertation on languages prefixed to the 
dictionary, and added a second part : ' Fur- 
ther Remarks on the New Analysis of An- 
cient Mythology,' &c., Oxford, 1778, 8vo. 
Bryant also wrote a pamphlet in answer 
to Wyttenbach, his Amsterdam antagonist, 
about the same time. His account of the 
Apamean medal being disputed in the ' Gen- 
tleman's Magazine,' he defended himself by 
publishing ' A Vindication of the Apamsean 
Medal, and of the Inscription NCOJJ,' London, 

1775, 4to. Eckhel, the great medallist, up- 
held his views, but Daines Barrington and 
others strongly opposed him at the Society 
of Antiquaries (Archceologia, ii.) In 1775, 
four years after the death of his friend, Mr. 
Robert Wood, he edited, ' with his improved 
thoughts,' ' An Essay on the Original Genius 
and Writings of Homer, with a Comparative 
View of the Troade,' London, 4to. The 
first edition, of seven copies only, was a 
superb folio, privately printed in 1769. 
Bryant published in 1777, without his name, 
t Vindiciae Flavianse : a Vindication of the 
Testimony of Josephus concerning Jesus 
Christ,' London, 8vo; second edition, with 
author's name, London, 1780, 8vo. This work 
converted even Dr. Priestley to his opinions. 
In 1778 he published ' A Farther Illustration 
of the Analysis . . . ,' pp. 100, 8vo (no place). 
He next published 'An Address to Dr .Priestley 
. . . upon Philosophical Necessity,' London, 
1780, 8vo, to which Priestley printed a re- 

joinder the same year. WhenTyrwhitt issued 
his work ' The Poems supposed to have been 
written at Bristol by Thomas Rowley and 
others,' Bryant, assisted by Dr. Glynn of 
King's College, Cambridge, followed with his 
' Observations on the Poems of Thomas Row- 
ley in which the Authenticity of those Poems 
is ascertained,' 2 vols., London, 1781, 8vo, 
a work that did not add to his reputation. 
In 1783, at the expense of the Duke of 
Marlborough, the splendid folio work on the 
Marlborough gems, ' Gemmarum Antiquarum 
Delectus,' was privately printed, with ex- 
quisite engravings by Bartolozzi. The first 
volume was written in Latin by Bryant, and 
translated into French by Dr. Maty ; the 
second by Dr. Cole, prebendary of West- 
minster, and the French by Dr. Dutens. In 
1785 a paper ' On the Zingara or Gypsey Lan- 
guage' was read by Bryant to the Royal 
Society, and printed in the seventh volume of 
' Archaeologia.' He next published, without 
his name, * A Treatise on the Authenticity of 
the Scriptures,' London, 1791, 8vo ; second 
edition, with author's name, Cambridge, 1793, 
8vo ; third edition, Cambridge, 1810, 8vo. 
This work was written at the instigation of the 
Dowager Countess Pembroke, daughter of his 
patron, and the profits were given to the hos- 
pital for smallpox and inoculation. Then fol- 
lowed ' Observations on a controverted pas- 
sage in Justyn Martyr; also upon the Worship 
of Angels,' London, 1793, 4to ; ' Observations 
upon the Plagues inflicted upon the Egyp- 
tians,' with maps, London, 1794, 8vo, pp. 440. 
Professor Dalzel's publication in 1794 of M. 
Chevalier's 'Description of the Plain of Troy' 
elicited Bryant's fearless work, ' Observations 
upon a Treatise . . . (on) the Plain of Troy,' 
Eton, 1795, 4to, and 'A Dissertation con- 
cerning the War of Troy ' (? 1796), 4to, pp. 
196 ; second edition, corrected, with his name, 
London, 1799, 4to. Bryant contended that 
no such war was ever undertaken, and no such 
city as the Phrygian Troy ever existed ; but he 
won no converts, and was attacked on all sides 
by such men as Dr. Vincent, Gilbert Wake- 
field, Falconer, and Morritt. In 1799 he pub- 
lished 'An Expostulation addressed to the 
British Critic,' Eton, 4to, mistaking his an- 
tagonist Vincent for Wakefield, and for the 
first time losing his temper and using strong 
and unjustifiable language. His next work, 
' The Sentiments of Philo-Judaeus concerning 
the Logos or Word of God,' Cambridge, 1797, 
8vo, pp. 290, is full of fanciful speculation 
which detracted from his fame. In addition 
to these numerous works he published a trea- 
tise against the doctrines of Thomas Paine, 
and a disquisition ' On the Land of Goshen,' 
written about 1767, was published in Mr. 




Bowyer's 'Miscellaneous Tracts,' 1785, 4to ; 
and his literary labours closed with ' Obser- 
vations upon some Passages in Scripture' 
(relating to Balaam, Joshua, Samson, and 
Jonah), London, 1803, 4to. It is apparent, 
however, from the preface to Faber's ' Mys- 
teries of the Cabiri,' 1803, 8vo, that Bryant 
had written a kind of supplement to his * Ana- 
lysis of Ancient Mythology,' a work on the 
Gods of Greece and Home, which, in a letter 
to Faber, he said, l may possibly be published 
after his death,' but his executors have never 
produced the work. Some of his humorous 
poems are found in periodicals of his time, 
but are of little interest except as examples 
of elegant Latin and Greek verse. 

Bryant, who was never married, had re- 
sided a long time before his death at Cypen- 
ham, in Farnham Royal, near Windsor. There 
the king and queen often visited him, and the 
former passed hours alone with him enjoying ; 
his conversation. A few months before his ; 
end came he said to his nephew, ' All I have 
written was with one view to the promulga- j 
tion of truth, and all I have contended for I : 
myself have believed.' While reaching a book 
from a shelf he hurt his leg, mortification set 
in, and he died 14 Nov. 1804. His remains 
were interred in his own parish church, be- 
neath the seat he had occupied there, and a 
monument was erected to his memory near 
the same. 

In person he was a delicately formed man | 
of low stature ; late in life he was of seden- 
tary habits, but in his younger days he was 
very agile and fond of field sports, and once 
by swimming saved the life of Barnard, after- 
wards provost of Eton. To the last he was 
attached to his dogs, and kept thirteen spaniels 
at a time. He was temperate, courteous, and 
generous. His conversation was very pleas- 
ing and instructive, with a vein of quiet hu- 
mour. There are many pleasant anecdotes 
of him in Madame d'Arblay's ' Diary and Let- 
ters.' In his lifetime his curious collection 
of Caxtons went to the Marquis of Blandford, 
and many valuable books were sent from his 
library to King George III. The classical 
part of his library was bequeathed to King's 
College, Cambridge; 2,000/. to the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel, 1,0001. to super- 
annuated collegers of Eton School, 500/. to 
the poor of Farnham Royal, &c. 

The English portrait prefixed to the octavo 
edition of his work on ancient mythology is 
from a drawing by the Rev. J. Bearblock, 
taken in 1801. All literary authorities, and 
his monument, give the year of his birth as 
above, but in the Eton register-book he is 
entered as ' 12 years old in 1730.' 

[Bryant's Works ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 672, 

iii. 7, 42, 84, 148, 515, iv. 348, 608, 667, v. 231 
viii. 112, 129, 216, 249, 427, 508, 531, 540, 552, 
614, 685, ix. 198, 290, 577, 714 ; Nichols's Lit 
Illust. ii. 661, iii. 132, 218, 772, vi. 36, 249, 670, 
vii. 401, 404, 469; Grent. Mag. xlviii. 210, 625; 
New Monthly Mag. i. 327 ; Archseologia, iv. 315, 
331, 347, vii. 387; Cole's MSS., Brit. Mus. 
vols. xx. xxiii. ; Martin's Privately Printed 
Books, 85; Mme. d'Arblay's Diary, 1846 iii. 
117, 228, 323, 375, 401.] J. W.-G. 

major-general and colonel-commandant 
royal engineers, entered the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy, Woolwich, as a cadet on 
7 Oct. 1782, and passed out as a second 
lieutenant, royal artillery, on 25 Aug. 1787. 
In the autumn of that year he was employed 
with Captain (afterwards Major-general) 
W. Mudge in carrying out General Roy's 
system of triangulation for connecting the 
meridians of Greenwich and Paris, and in 
the measurement of a ' base of verification ' 
in Romney Marsh, particulars of which will 
be found in 'Phil. Trans.' 1790. Bryce was 
transferred from the royal artillery to the 
royal engineers in March 1789, and became 
a captain in the latter corps in 1794. After 
serving some years in North America and 
the Mediterranean, he found himself senior 
engineer officer with the army sent to Egypt 
under Sir Ralph Abercromby, in which posi- 
tion he was present at the landing, in the 
battles before Alexandria, and at the sur- 
render of Cairo, and directed the siege opera- 
tions at Aboukir, Fort Marabout, and Alex- 
andria. For his services in Egypt he received 
the brevet rank of major and permission to 
wear the insignia of the Ottoman order of 
the Crescent. Subsequently, as colonel, he 
served some years in Sicily. In the descent 
on Calabria he commanded a detachment of 
Sir John Stuart's army that captured Dami- 
enti, and was commanding engineer in the 
expedition to the bay of Naples in 1809 
and in the defence of Sicily against Murat 
(BTJNBUKY, Narrative). In 1814 he received 
the rank of brigadier-general, and was ap- 
pointed president of a commission to report 
on the restoration of the fortresses in the 
Netherlands. He became a major-general 
in 1825, and in 1829 was appointed inspector- 
general of fortifications, a post he was hold- 
ing at the time of his decease. Bryce, who 
was much esteemed in private life as well 
as professionally, died, after a few hours' 
illness, at his residence, Hanover Terrace, 
Regent's Park, on 4 Oct. 1832. 

[Kane's List of Officers R. Art. (Woolwich, 
1869); Phil. Trans. 1790; Annual Army Lists ; 
Wilson's Expedition to Egypt (London, 1802); 
Bunbury's Narrative of certain Passages in the 




late War (London, 1852), pp. 329 et seq. ; Papers 
on subjects connected with the corps of E. En- 
gineers, iii. 41 1 ; Gent. Mag. (cii.) ii. 474.] 

H. M. C. 

BRYCE, DAVID (1803-1876), architect, 
born on 3 April 1803, was the son of a builder 
in good business in Edinburgh. Educated at 
the high school there, the aptitude for draw- 
ing which he early displayed induced his 
father to devote him to the profession of 
architecture, and to give him a thorough 
practical training in his own office, from which 
he passed to that of William Burn, then the 
leading architect in Edinburgh, whose partner 
he soon afterwards became. The partner- 
ship was dissolved on Burn's removal to 
London in 1844, and Bryce succeeded to a 
very large and increasing practice, to which 
he devoted himself with the enthusiasm of 
an artistic temperament and untiring energy 
and perseverance. In the course of a busy 
and successful career, which was actively 
continued almost down to his death, he at- 
tained the foremost place in his profession in 
Scotland, and designed important works in 
most of the principal towns of that country. 
Bryce worked in all styles, and at first chiefly 
in the so-called Palladian and Italian Renais- 
sance, but he soon devoted himself more ex- 
clusively to the Gothic, particularly that 
variety of it known as Scottish Baronial, 
of which he became latterly the most dis- 
tinguished and the ablest exponent. .It was 
in this style that his greatest successes were 
achieved, particularly in the erection and 
alteration of mansion houses throughout the 
country, of which at least fifty testify to 
his sound judgment in planning, as well as 
to his appreciation of its opportunities for 
picturesque effects. The best of his public 
buildings in this style are probably Fettes 
College and the Royal Infirmary in Edin- 
burgh ; while the buildings of the Bank of 
Scotland, which so largely contribute to 
the beauty of the outline of the Old Town 
of Edinburgh, exhibit him at his best in 
the Italian style. His fame is, however, 
mainly due to his ability in reviving the 
picturesque French Gothic, now naturalised 
in Scotland under the name of Baronial ; and, 
to quote from the annual report of the 
Royal Scottish Academy in the year of his 
death, ' there is no doubt that his name will 
long be honourably associated with much 
that is best and most characteristic in the 
domestic architecture of later times.' Bryce 
was a man of varied accomplishments, and, 
though somewhat rough in manner, of a genial 
and warm nature, which procured him the 
esteem of a large circle of friends. In the 
year 1835 he was elected an associate of the 

Royal Scottish Academy, and in the follow- 
ing year became an academician. He was 
also a fellow of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, of the Architectural Institute of 
Scotland, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and officiated for several years as grand archi- 
tect to the Grand Lodge of Masons in Scotland. 
At his death, which occurred on 7 May 1876, 
after a short illness from bronchitis, he left 
many important works in course of erection, 
which have since been completed under the 
superintendence of his nephew, who had been 
for some years his partner, and who suc- 
ceeded to his business. He died unmarried. 
Bryce attained a large and lucrative practice 
long before the days of competitions, and he 
is only known to have produced one compe- 
titive design for the Albert Memorial in 
Edinburgh. His idea was to erect a sort of 
peel tower or keep in the castle, containing 
a large vaulted chamber, in which a statue 
of the prince should be placed. Perhaps if 
he had been the successful candidate he might 
have added another attraction to the town he 
has done so much to adorn. A full list of 
his works is given in the ' Builder,' 27 May 
1876, p. 508. 

[Builder, vol. xxxiv. (1876); Architect, vol. 
xv. (1876); Scotsman (12 May 1876); Forty- 
ninth Annual Keport of Council of the Koyal 
Scottish Academy (1876).] G-. W. B. 

BRYCE, JAMES, the elder (1767-1857), 
divine, was born at Airdrie in Lanarkshire 
5 Dec. 1767. He was the son of John Bryce, 
descended from a family of small landowners 
settled at Dechmont in that county, and of 
Robina Allan, whose family, originally pos- 
sessed of considerable property near Airdrie, 
had lost most of it in the troubles of the 
seventeenth century, in which they had es- 
poused the covenanting cause. 

The son was educated at the university of 
Glasgow, and in 1795 was ordained minister 
of the Scottish Antiburgher Secession Church. 
He was accused before the synod of latitudi- 
narianism because he had minimised the dif- 
ference between his own and other denomi- 
nations of Christians, had condemned the 
extreme assumption of power by the clergy, 
and had argued that the dogmatic creeds of 
the church received too much respect as com- 
pared with the scriptures. He was suspended 
tor two years, and when restored to his func- 
tions, feeling some indignation at the intole- 
rant spirit which then reigned in Scotland, 
he accepted an invitation to visit Ireland, 
where he ultimately settled in 1805 as minis- 
ter of the antiburgher congregation at Killaig 
in county Londonderry. At this time the 
ministers of the antiburgher and burgher 
bodies in Ulster had been offered a share in 




the reyium donum, an annual endowment paid 
by the lord-lieutenant to the presbyterian mi- 
nisters (abolished in 1869). This had been 
distributed as a free gift without conditions ; it 
was now for political reasons proposed greatly 
to increase its amount, but to require the 
recipient to first take the oath ( of allegiance, 
and to give the lord-lieutenant an absolute 
veto on its bestowal. The ministers of Bryce's 
denomination vehemently denounced these 
terms, but when they found that the stipend 
could not be otherwise obtained, they sub- 
mitted and took it. He alone stood firm, hold- 
ing that the requirements were dishonouring 
to Christ as the supreme head of the church, 
and tended to enslave a minister of religion 
and to degrade his office. Although separated 
thereby from his fellow-ministers, and unsup- 
ported by the parent church in Scotland, he 
maintained his principles, and thus, as others 
gradually gathered round him, became the 
founder of a branch of the presbyterian church 
which took the name of the Associate Pres- 
bytery of Ireland. This body was ultimately 
united with the Scottish united presbyterian 
church, which had by that time come to adopt 
similar views of spiritual independence. Mr. 
Bryce was a man of originality and literary 
culture, but he published little except several 
statements of his case and position in the ques- 
tion just described. He died at Killaig, at the 
age of ninety, 24 April 1857, having preached 
twice on the sabbath preceding his death. 
[Information from the family.] 

BRYCE, JAMES, the younger (1806- 
1877), schoolmaster and geologist, was the 
third son of James Bryce (1767-1857) [q.v.] 
and of Catherine Annan of Auchtermuchty 
in Fifeshire, and was born at Killaig, near 
Coleraine, 22 Oct. 1806. He was educated 
first by his father and eldest brother (the Rev. 
Dr. Bryce, still living), and afterwards at the 
university of Glasgow, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1828, having highly distinguished 
himself in classical studies. He had intended 
to study for the bar, but, finding this beyond 
his means, adopted the profession of teaching, 
and became mathematical master in the Bel- 
fast Academy, a foundation school of consider- 
able note in Ulster. In 1836 he married 
Margaret, daughter of James Young of Abbey- 
ville, county Antrim, and in 1846 was ap- 
pointed to the high school of Glasgow, the 
ancient public grammar school of that city, 
and held this office till his resignation in 
1874. He was a brilliant and successful 
teacher both of mathematics and geography, 
but his special interest lay in the study of 
natural history. He devoted himself to geo- 
logical researches, first in the north of Ire- 

land, and afterwards in Scotland and northern 
England. He began in 1834 to write and pub- 
lish articles on the fossils of the lias, greensand, 
and chalk beds in Antrim (the first appeared in 
the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for that year), 
and these having attracted the notice of Sir 
R. Murchison and Sir C. Lyell led to his 
election as a fellow of the Geological Societies 
of London and Dublin. His more important 
papers (among which may be found the first 
complete investigation and description of the 
structure of the Giant's Causeway) appeared 
in the l Transactions ' of the London society, 
others in the ' Proceedings ' of the Natural 
History Society of Belfast and of the Philo- 
sophical Society of Glasgow, of which he 
was more than once president. He also 
wrote ' A Treatise on Algebra/ which went 
through several editions, an introduction to 
' Mathematical Astronomy and Geography,' 
' A Cyclopaedia of Geography,' and a book on 
' Arran and the other Clyde Islands,' with 
special reference to their geology and anti- 
quities. He was a warm advocate of the 
more general introduction into schools of the 
teaching of natural history as well as natural 
science, and set the example of giving teaching 
voluntarily in these subjects, for which there 
was in his day no regular provision in the high 
schools of Scotland. In 1858 he received 
from his university, in the reform of which 
he had borne a leading part, the honorary 
degree of LL.D. After resigning his post 
at Glasgow, he settled in Edinburgh, and 
published his later contributions to geology 
in the * Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh.' He was a keen and accurate 
observer, and, having an ardent love of nature 
and great physical activity, continued his 
field work in the highlands of Scotland with 
unflagging zeal to the end of his life. While 
examining a remarkable mass of eruptive 
granite at Inverfarigaig, on the shores of Loch 
Ness, he disturbed some loose stones by the 
strokes of his hammer, and caused the blocks 
above to fall on him, killing him instanta- 
neously, 11 July 1877. He was then past 
seventy, but in the full enjoyment of his 
mental as well as physical powers. 
[Information from the family.] 

BRYDALL, JOHN (b. 1635?), law- 
writer, son of John Brydall, of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, and of St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, 
and of the Rolls, a captain in the regiment 
of foot raised for the king's service by the 
Inns of Court, and a famous master of pike- 
exercise, was a native of Somerset. He en- 
tered Queen's College, Oxford, as a commoner 
in 1651, proceeded B.A., entered Lincoln's 
Inn, and became secretary to Sir Harbottle 


1 60 


Grimston, master of the rolls. He published 
thirty-six treatises, chiefly on law, among 
which are : 1. ' Speculum Juris Anglicani, 
or a View of the Laws of England,' 1673. 
2. ' Jus Sigilli, or the Law of England touch- 
ing the Four Principal Seals/ 1673. 3. 'Jus 
Imaginis, or the Law of England relating 
to the Nobility and Gentry,' 1673, 1675. 
4. ' Jus Criminis, or the Law touching cer- 
tain Pleas of the Crown,' 1676. 5. < Camera 
Regis, or a Short View of London . . . 
collected out of Law and History,' 1677. 
6. ' Decus et Tutamen, or a Prospect of the 
Laws of England,' 1679. 7. ' A Letter to a 
Friend,' on the royal authority, 1679. 8. l The 
Clergy vindicated/ 1679. 9. f Summus An- 
gliae Seneschallus, a Survey of the Lord High 
Steward/ 1680. 10. < Jura Coronse, His Ma- 
jesty's Royal Rights asserted against Papal 
Usurpations . . .' 1680. 11. <A Letter to 
a Friend on Sovereignty/ 1681. 12. < A New 
Year's Gift for the Anti-Prerogative Men 
. . . wherein ... is discussed . . . the 
Earl of Danbigh's pardon/ 1682. 13. 'An 
Appeal to the Conscience of a Fanatick.' 
14. 'Ars transferendi, or a sure Guide to 
the Conveyancer/ 1697. 15. ' Non Compos 
Mentis, or the Law relating to Natural Fools, 
Mad Folks, and Lunatic Persons/ 1700. 
16. l Lex Spuriorum, or the Law relating to 
Bastardy/ 1703. 17. ' A Declaration of the 
Divers Preheminences . . . allowed . . . 
unto the Firstborn among His Majesty's Sub- 
jects the Temporal Lords in Parliament/ 
1704. He also left thirty other treatises in 
manuscript. He gave several of his own 
law treatises and some books to the libraries 
of Lincoln's Inn and the Middle Temple. 

[Wood's Athenae (ed. Bliss), iv. 519 ; Collier's 
Hist. Diet. vol. i. ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. vii. 
211 ; Cat. of the Tracts of Law ... by John 
Brydall (1711), ap. Rawlinson MSS. 4to. 3 ; 367; 
Marvin's Legal Bibliography, 145; Sweet's Law 
Catalogue (1883), 39.] W. H. 

(1579 P-1621), born about 1579, was the son 
of William, the fourth lord, by his wife, 
Mary, daughter of Sir Owen Hopton, lieu- 
tenant of the Tower [see BRYDGES, SIR JOHN]. 
His father died on 18 Nov. 1602, and his 
mother on 23 Oct. 1624 (LYSONS, Environs, 
iii. 450). He and his family were friendly 
with the Earl of Essex. A cousin, Elizabeth, 
the daughter of his uncle Giles, third lord, 
has been identified with the fair Mrs. Bridges 
to whom Essex showed so much attention 
as to offend the queen (Sidney Papers). His 
father visited Essex at Essex House on the 
Sunday morning (8 Feb. 1600-1) of Essex's 
insurrection, but he was not deemed by the 

government far enough implicated in the 
conspiracy to prevent his sitting on the com- 
mission appointed to try the earl. His son, 
Grey Brydges, was, however, suspected of 
immediate complicity, and was sent to the 
Fleet prison with Cuffe and others after the 
insurrection (LODGE, Illustrations, iii. 120), 
but he was soon released. He succeeded his 
father in the barony(18 Nov. 1602), attended 
James I's parliament (19 March 1603-4), was 
made knight of the Bath when Prince Charles 
was created duke of York (January 1604-5), 
visited Oxford with James I and was granted 
the degree of M.A. (30 Aug. 1605), and at- 
tended Prince Henry's funeral in 1612. In 
all the court masques and tournaments 
Chandos took an active part. It was reported 
at court on 9 Sept. 1613 that a duel was to 
be fought by Chandos and the king's fa- 
vourite, Lord Hay, afterwards Viscount Don- 
caster and Earl of Carlisle. On 2 July 1609 
he was appointed keeper of Ditton Park, 
Buckinghamshire, for life. In 1610 he was 
appointed one of the officers under Sir Ed- 
ward Cecil in command of an expedition to 
the Low Countries (News from Cleaveland, 
1611). The emperor's forces were besieging 
Juliers, and the English had combined with 
Holland and France to protect the town. 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury was Chandos's 
companion through this campaign. Chandos 
lodged at Juliers with Sir Horace Vere, but 
does not seem to have taken much part in 
the fighting (LORD HERBERT, Autobiography, 
ed. S. L. Lee, pp. 112-13). On 27 April 1612 
Lord Salisbury (Sir Robert Cecil) stayed with 
Chandos at Ditton on his journey to Bath, 
where he died on 24 May following. On 
23 July of the same year Chandos visited 
Spa for his health. On 14 July 1616 there 
was some talk of making him president of 
Wales, and on 8 Nov. 1617 he was appointed 
to receive the Muscovite ambassadors then in 
England. His health was still failing, and 
after a trial in 1618 of the waters of Newen- 
ham Mills in Warwickshire, he returned to 
Spa, where he died suddenly on 10 Aug. 1621. 
His body was brought to Sudeley and there 
buried. Lucy, countess of Bedford, writing 
on 30 Aug. 1621, states that his death was 
hastened by the Spa waters. An elegy was 
written by Sir John Beaumont. A few 
years before his death he married Anne, 
daughter of Ferdinando Stanley, earl of 
Derby, by whom he had two sons, George 
and William. His widow afterwards be- 
came the second wife of the infamous Earl 
of Castlehaven. 

Chandos lived sumptuously at Sudeley 
Castle j thrice a week his house was open to 
his neighbours ; he was lavish in his gene- 




rosity to the poor, and came up to London 
with an extraordinarily elaborate retinue. 
His liberality gained for him the title of j 
<king of the Cotswolds.' There are very I 
many references in the ' State Papers ' to a { 
family quarrel which Chandos inherited from 
his father, and which reflects little credit on ! 
his character. His first cousin, Elizabeth, 
to whom reference has already been made, 
appears to have claimed Sudeley and other 
parts of the Chandos property as the daughter 
and coheiress of Giles, the third lord. In 
his father's lifetime Grey Brydges assaulted 
the lady's representative at a conference 
held to settle the dispute (June 1602). In 
the following October it was proposed that 
Grey should marry Elizabeth, but finally, in 
December, when he had become fifth lord 
Chandos, it was stated that the controversy 
had been otherwise 'compounded.' Imme- 
diately after James I's accession Elizabeth 
married Sir John Kennedy, one of the king's 
Scotch attendants. Chandos appears to have 
opposed the match, and it was rumoured 
early in 1604 that Kennedy had a wife living 
in Scotland. But James I wrote to Chandos 
(19 Feb. 1603-4) entreating him to overlook 
Sir John's errors because of his own love for 
his attendant. Elizabeth apparently left her 
husband and desired to have the matter legally 
examined, but as late as 1609 the lawfulness 
of the marriage had not been decided upon. 
Lord Chandos declined to aid his cousin, and 
she died deserted and in poverty in October 

Horace Walpole credits Chandos with the 
authorship of an anonymous collection of 
highly interesting essays, entitled ' Horae 
Subsecivae,' 1620, published by Edward 
Blount [q. v.] Anthony a Wood (Athena, 
iii. 1196) and Bishop Kennett (Memoirs of 
the Cavendish Family, 1708) state, however, 
that Gilbert Cavendish, eldest son of the 
first earl of Devonshire, was the author of 
the work. From some topical references the 
book would appear to have been written 
about 1615. Several copies are extant with 
the name of Lord Chandos inscribed on 
the title-page in seventeenth-century hand- 
writing. Wood states that Gilbert Caven- 
dish died young, and the general style of 
the essays precludes the supposition that 
they were the production of a young man. 
Malone and Park, the editor of Walpole, 
attributed thejbook on this ground toWilliam, 
a brother of Gilbert, but Dr. Michael Lort 
and Sir S. E. Brydges adhered to Horace 
Walpole's opinion that Grey Brydges was the 
author. The opposite opinion of Wood and 
Kennett, the earliest writers on the subject, 
deserves great weight, but it seems impossible 


to decide the question finally with the scanty 
evidence at our disposal. 

Grey Brydges's eldest son, GEORGE, who 
became sixth LORD CHANDOS, was a sturdy 
royalist, fought bravely at the first battle of 
Newbury, and afterwards in the west of Eng- 
land (see WASHBOTJRKE'S Bibliotheca Gloces- 
trensis} . He paid a large fine to the parliament 
at the close of the war, killed Henry Compton 
in a duel at Putney on 13 May 1652, was 
tried and found guilty of manslaughter after 
a long imprisonment, 17 May 1654. He died 
of smallpox in February 1654-5, and was 
buried at Sudeley. He married first Susan, 
daughter of Henry, earl of Manchester, by 
whom he had three daughters, and secondly 
Jane, daughter of John Savage, earl Rivers, 
by whom he had three daughters. His 
brother William succeeded him as seventh 
lord Chandos. 

[State Paper Calendars (Dom.), 1600-21 ; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I ; Burke's Extinct 
Peerage ; Dugdale's Baronage ; Brydges's Peers 
of the Reign of James I, vol. i. ; Wood's Fasti 
(Bliss); Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 13, 
5th ser. v. 303, 352 ; Walpole's Koyal and Noble 
Authors (Park); Cooper Willyams's Hist, of 
Sudeley Castle.] S. L. L. 


(1764-1847), diplomatist and author, was 
the son of Harford Jones of Presteign, by 
Winifred, daughter of Richard Hooper of 
the Whittern, Herefordshire, and was born 
on 12 Jan. 1764. In commemoration of his 
descent, through his maternal grandmother, 
from the family of Brydges of Old Colwall, 
Herefordshire, he assumed, by royal sign 
manual dated 4 May 1826, the additional 
name of Brydges. Early in life he entered 
the service of the East India Company, and, 
acquiring great proficiency in the oriental 
languages, he was appointed envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the 
court of Persia, where he remained four years, 
from 1807 to 1811. On 9 Oct. 1807 he was 
created a baronet. On his return from Persia 
he was disappointed of immediate prospect of 
promotion in the service of the East India 
Company, and resigned his connection with it. 
Throughout life he cherished a warm interest 
in the welfare both of the Persians and the 
natives of India. In 1833 he published < The 
Dynasty of the Kajars, translated from the 
original Persian manuscript ; ' in the follow- 
ing year 'An Account of His Majesty's 
Mission to the Court of Persia in the years 
1807-11, to which is added a brief history 
of the Wahanby ; ' and in 1838 a l Letter on 
the Present State of British Interests and 
Affairs in Persia,' addressed to the Marquis 
of Wellesley. In 1843 he pleaded the cause 




of the ameers of Scinde in a letter to the 
court of directors of the East India Company, 
denouncing the policy of annexation and con- 
quest. In politics a decided whig, he took 
an active interest in the election contests of 
Radnorshire, where he founded a political 
association known as the Grey Coat Club. 
On 15 June 1831 he received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford. 
In 1832 he was sworn a privy councillor, and 
in 1841 was appointed deputy-lieutenant of 
the county of Hereford. He died at his seat 
at Boultibrook, near Presteign, on 17 March 
1847. By his marriage with Sarah, eldest 
daughter of Sir Henry Gott, knight, of New- 
land Park, Buckinghamshire, and widow of 
Robert Whitcomb, of the Whittern, Here- 
fordshire, he had one son and two daughters. 

[Gent. Mag. new series, xxviii. 86 ; Annual 
Kegister, Ixxxix. 219 ; Morier's Journey through 
Persia (1812).] T. F. H. 

CHANDOS (1673-1744), eldest son of James, 
eighth lord Chandos (of Sudeley), was born 
6 Jan. 1673. His father was sent as ambas- 
sador at Constantinople in 1680, and died 
16 Oct. 1714. The son was elected member 
for the city of Hereford in 1698, and sat for 
the same place until the accession of George I, 
when (19 Oct. 1714) he was created Viscount 
Wilton and Earl of Carnarvon. On 30 April 
1719 he was created Marquis of Carnarvon 
and Duke of Chandos. In 1707 he was ap- 
pointed paymaster-general of forces abroad, 
a lucrative office which he held until 1712. 
He employed his wealth in building a splen- 
did house at Canons, near Edgware, and 
began another, of which only two ' pavilions ' 
were finished, in Cavendish Square. The 
last was discontinued upon his buying the 
Duke of Ormonde's house in St. James's 
Square. Three architects were employed and 
the Italian painters Purgotti and Paolucci. 
One of ' the ablest accountants in England ' 
was appointed to superintend the expenses, 
which are said to have amounted to 200,000/. 
Alexander Blackwell [q. v.^ laid out the gar- 
dens. There was a magnificent chapel, in 
which was maintained a full choir. Handel 
spent two years at Canons ; he composed 
twenty anthems for the service, and there 
produced his first English oratorio, ' Esther.' 
In December 1731 Pope published his ' Epistle 
to Lord Burlington,' in which occurs the 
famous description of Timon's villa, and 
Timon was at once identified with the Duke 
of Chandos. It was added that Chandos 
had made a present of 500/. to Pope. In the 
year 1732 appeared a spurious edition of the 
epistle, to which Hogarth prefixed a carica- 

ture representing Pope bespattering the duke's 
coach. Pope indignantly denied the report in 
a letter to Gay, signed by his friend William 
Cleland [q. v.], and published in the news- 
papers of the day. He denied it also in his 
private correspondence to Lord Oxford,Caryll, 
and Aaron Hill (see ELWIN'S Pope, vi. 330, 
vii. 444, viii. 292 ; AAEON HILL'S Works, i. 
67 ; and Epistle to Arbuthnot, v. 375). He 
inserted a compliment to Chandos in the 
epistle on the l Characters of Men,' first pub- 
lished in February 1733 : 

Thus gracious Chandos is beloved at sight- 
In spite of certain inapplicable details, there 
can be no doubt that Pope took some hints 
from Canons, and should have anticipated the 
application. There is, however, no reason to 
suppose that he had received any favours 
from Chandos. A refusal to answer the charge 
would have been better than a denial which 
rather strengthened the general belief. The 
point is discussed in Mr. Courthope's intro- 
duction to the ' Epistle to Burlington ' (PoPE, 
Poetical Works, iii. 161-6). Warburton, in 
a note to the edition of 1751, stated that 
some of Pope's lines were fulfilled by the 
speedy disappearance of Canons thus, by 
an odd oversight, confirming the application 
which he denied. 

Defoe, in his ' Tour through Great Britain ' 
(1725), describes the splendours of Canons 
in terms which recall Timon's villa. He 
says that there were 120 persons in family 
(though Pope tells Hill that there were not 
100 servants), and says that the choir enter- 
tained them every day at dinner. A poem 
called * Chandos ; or, the Vision ' (by Gildon), 
was published in 1717, and another, on the 
same subject, by S. Humphreys, in 1728. 
Chandos got into difficulties by speculative 
investments, and in 1734 Swift, in his verses 
on ' the duke and the dean,' says that * all 
he got by fraud is lost by stocks.' He ac- 
cuses Chandos of neglecting an old friend on 
becoming 'beduked.' He had asked Chandos 
(31 Aug. 1734) to present some Irish records 
formerly belonging to Lord Clarendon (lord- 
lieutenant in 1685) to the university of 
Dublin. The failure of the request probably 
annoyed him. Swift, in his ' Characters of 
the Court of Queen Anne/ had called Ckandos 
* a very worthy gentleman, but a great com- 
plier with every court.' 

In April 1721 the duke was appointed 
governor of the Charterhouse, and on 25 Aug. 
lord-lieutenant of Herefordshire and Radnor- 
shire, offices to which he was again appointed 
in 1727 on the accession of George II. He 
was chancellor of the university of St. An- 
drews. He was thrice married : first, on 27 Feb. 




1697, to Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Lake 
of Canons ; secondly, to Cassandra, daughter 
of Sir F. Willoughby ; and thirdly, to Lydia 
Catharine, daughter of John Vanhattem, 
widow of Sir Thomas Davall, M.P. He died 
9 Aug. 1744. He was buried under a gor- 
geous monument at Stanmore Parva, in the 
church which he had rebuilt in 1715. 

The house was sold by auction for the ma- 
terials on the duke's death. One William 
Hallet (Gent. Mag. Hi. 45) built a house 
with some of them on the vaults of the old 
one. The staircase was re-erected in Chester- 
field House, and the statue of George I helped, 
till 1873, to make Leicester Square hideous. 

Chandos was succeeded in the dukedom by 
his second son, Henry, five sons having died 
before him. The second duke married Mary 
Bruce, who died 14 Aug. 1738, and in 1744 
Anne Wells. The story is told that he 
bought her from her former husband, a bru- 
tal ostler at Newbury, who happened to be 
offering her for sale as the duke was passing 
through the town (Notes and Queries. 4th 
ser. vi. 179). 

[Collins's Peerage (1779), ii. 137-9; Haw- 
kins's History of Music, p. 832 ; Lysons's Envi- 
rons of London, ii. 670-3 ; Thome's Environs 
of London (1876), pp. 72-4.] L. S. 

CHANDOS (1490 P-1556), eldest son of Sir 
Giles Brydges or Brugges (d. 1511) of Cober- 
ley, Gloucestershire, by Isabel Baynham, is 
stated to have been born about 1490, but the 
date was probably earlier. He was descended 
from the Giles Bridges who married Alice, the 
daughter and coheiress of Sir John Chandos 
(d. 1430), the last male representative in the 
direct line of the ancient Chandos family. He 
was knighted in France in 1513 ; accompanied 
Henry VIII to Calais in October 1532, when 
Henry visited Francis I ; was with Henry VIII 
at Boulogne in 1533 ; was appointed constable 
of Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire, in 1538 ; 
attended Henry VIII as a groom of the 
privy chamber when the king received Anne 
of Cleves in 1539; was at Boulogne in 1544, 
when he was appointed deputy-governor of 
the city ; and in 1549 was fighting there 
against the French. He was a rigid catho- 
lic, and on Mary's accession became lieute- 
nant of the Tower of London. Through the 
first half of Mary's reign he took an active 
part in public affairs. In February 1553-4 
he was engaged in repressing Wyatt's rebel- 
lion, and, after vainly attempting to obtain 
an order from the queen to fire the Tower 
guns on the insurgents who had gathered 
on the Southwark side of the river, himself 
directed the gunners to begin the attack. It 

was thus that Wyatt was induced to leave 
his position and march on London by way of 
Kingston. On 8 Feb. Wyatt was placed in the 
custody of Brydges, who handled him some- 
what roughly. Brydges attended his pri- 
soner Lady Jane Grey to the scaffold on 
12 Feb., and was so charmed by her gentle- 
ness as to beg her to give him some memorial 
of her in writing. She granted the request 
by inscribing a very pathetic farewell to him 
in an English prayer-book, which is now in 
the British Museum (Harl. MS. 2342). On 

18 March the Princess Elizabeth was placed 
in his keeping, but she was removed on 

19 May in consequence of the lenience which 
he displayed towards her (BuRNET, Reforma- 
tion, ed. Pocock, ii. 580). On 8 April 1554 
Brydges was created lord Chandos of Sudeley. 
Ten days later he made arrangements for the 
execution of Wyatt, and in the following 
June resigned the lieutenancy of the Tower 
to his brother Sir Thomas, whom Bishop Rid- 
ley and other prisoners of the time mention 
as frequenting Sir John's table and aiding 
him in his duties during the previous months 
of the year. In February 1554-5 Mary ad- 
dressed an autograph order to Chandos to 
superintend the execution of Bishop Hooper 
at Gloucester (WooD, Letters of Illustrious 
Ladies, iii. 282-5), and on 21 March 1555-6 
he is stated by Foxe to have been present at 
Oxford at the death of Cranmer, but the evi- 
dence of an eyewitness of the execution makes 
it clear that Chandos's brother Sir Thomas 
took his place there. Chandos died at Sude- 
ley Castle 12 April 1556, and was buried 
with heraldic ceremony on 3 May in Sudeley 
Church (MACHYN, Diary, Camd. Soc. pp. 133, 
356). He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward, lord Grey of Wilton, who died 
29 Dec. 1559, and was buried (3 Jan. 1559- 
1560) in Jesus Chapel, afterwards St. Faith's, 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. An-epitaph in Eng- 
lish verse, printed by Stow, was engraved on 
her tomb (Slow, Survey, ed. Strype, iii. 145). 

EDMUND, the eldest surviving son, suc- 
ceeded to the title ; married Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of Lord Bray; served in France in 
Henry VIII's reign ; fought at Musselburgh 
under Somerset 27 Sept. 1547, when he was 
created a knight banneret, and at St. Quentin 
in 1556; became K.G. 17 June 1572, and 
died 11 Sept. 1573. George Gascoigne wrote 
a poem in praise of his eldest daughter, 
Katherine (Percy Ballad's, 1765, ii. 150). 
GILES, son of Edmund, born in 1547, became 
third lord Chandos ; was M.P. for Gloucester- 
shire in 1572 ; entertained Queen Elizabeth in 
1592 at Sudeley, where the queen had visited 
his wife 4 Aug. 1574; married Lady Frances 
Clinton, and died 21 Feb. 1593-4. His wife 

M 2 




lived till 1623, and was buried at Cheyneys. 
Giles died without issue, and was succeeded 
as fourth lord Chandos by his brother Wil- 
liam, the father of Grey Brydges [q. v.] 

SIR THOMAS BRYDGES, the first lord Chan- 
dos's brother, and his successor in the lieute- 
nancy of the Tower, was in 1548 steward 
of the hundred of Chadlington and of the 
royal manors of Burford and Minster Lovell, 
and keeper of the forest of Whichwood and 
of the parks of Longley and Cornbury. Ed- 
ward VI granted him many abbey lands. 
He resided at Cornbury, and was buried at 
Chadlington in 1559. His son Thomas was 
drowned off London Bridge on 10 Aug. 1553 
(MACHYN, Diary, p. 41 ; STOW, Chronicle). 
RICHA.RD, another brother of the first lord 
Chandos, was knighted at Mary's coronation 
(2 Oct. 1553) ; was sheriff of Berkshire in 
1555-6, and, as one of the commissioners for 
the trial of Julius or Josceline Palmer at 
Newbury (16 July 1556), made ' a gentle 
offer ' to the prisoner of meat, drink, books, 
and 10/. yearly if he would live with him 
and renounce his errors. Palmer declined the 
offer, and suffered at the stake. Sir Richard 
died in September 1558. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, ed. Brewer and G-airdner ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-90 ; Sir S. E. Brydges's 
Stemmata Illustrata, p. 99 ; Cooper Willyams's 
History of Sudeley Castle, 1790; Chronicle of 
Calais (Camd. Soc.), pp. 42, 176, 177; Machyn's 
Diary (Carad. Soc.), passim ; Chronicle of Queen 
Jane and Queen Mary, pp. 18, 53, 57, 76 ; Wrio- 
thesley's Chron. (Camd. Soc.); Froude's History 
of England ; Nichols's Progresses of Eliz. i. 543, 
iii. 136.] S. L. L. 

(1762-1837), editor of early English litera- 
ture and genealogist, was born at the manor- 
house of Wootton, situated between Canter- 
bury and Dover, on 30 Nov. 1762, and was 
the second son of Edward Brydges (or 
Bridges) of Wootton, by Jemima, daughter of 
William Egerton, LL.D., prebendary of Can- 
terbury and chancellor of Hereford. He was 
educated at Maidstone School, at the King's 
School, Canterbury, and (from October 1780 
till Christmas 1782) at Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge. On leaving the university he was 
entered of the Middle Temple, and was called 
to the bar in November 1787. He never, 
however, practised, and retired in 1792 to 
Denton Court, a seat which he had purchased 
near his birthplace in Kent. From his boy- 
hood Brydges had had a passion for reading, 
and had sacrificed his degree at college by 
* giving himself up to English poetry.' His 
first literary venture was made in March 
1785, when he published a volume of poems, 

among which the earliest pieces are some 
sonnets dated 1782. A fourth and much en- 
larged edition of his miscellaneous poetry 
appeared in 1807. The volume of 1785 was 
coldly received, and Brydges continued to be 
much disheartened, even though his novels, 
< Mary de Clifford ' (1792) and ' Arthur Fitz- 
albini' (1798), obtained some popularity. He 
was by nature shy and proud, yet morbidly 
sensitive and egotistic, and being tormented 
by an extraordinary thirst for literary fame, 
he was unhappily led to mistake his delight 
in reading great works of literature for an 
evidence of his capacity to produce similar 
works himself. From the extremely naive 
self-portraiture of his rambling but interest- 
ing * Autobiography,' there can be no doubt 
that he imagined himself a poet and a man 
of genius. His poetry, however, is of the 
most mediocre description, recalling the dull- 
est efforts of Bowles or Thomas Warton. Of 
his useful labours as a bibliographer and 
editor he is inclined to speak with contempt : 
' These were unworthy pursuits . . . they 
overlaid the fire of my bosom . . . they sup- 
pressed in me that self-confidence without 
which nothing great can be done, and bound 
my enthusiastic spirits in chains. The fire 
smouldered within, and made me discon- 
tented and unhappy.' Indulging in this ama- 
bilis insania, he easily persuaded himself that 
his failure as an author was due to the mis- 
direction of his own energies, and especially 
to the jealous machinations of enemies hos- 
tile to his fame. At Denton he got on badly 
with his neighbours, e the book-hating squires,' 
and was embarrassed in his money affairs ; 
yet his life there between the years 1797 and 
1810 was not altogether unhappy, and was 
productive of much literary work. He pro- 
duced, among other books, an edition of Ed- 
ward Phillips's ' Theatrum Poetarum Angli- 
canorum' (1800), with large additions; and 
began in 1806 a new and augmented edition 
of Collins's ' Peerage of England,' a work 
which was eventually published in 1812 in 
nine volumes, 8vo. In 1805-9 he published 
the ten volumes of his l Censura Literaria, 
containing Titles, Abstracts, and Opinions of 
old English Books, with original Disquisi- 
tions, Articles of Biography, and other Lite- 
rary Antiquities.' 

In 1789 Brydges's taste for genealogy was 
turned to practical account, for in October of 
that year he persuaded his elder brother, the 
Rev. Edward Tymewell Brydges, to put for- 
ward his claim to the barony of Chandos. 
The case came on for hearing before the com- 
mittee of privileges of the House of Lords 
on 1 June 1790, and more than twenty-six 
hearings took place at intervals. New evi- 




dence was brought forward from time to 
time, and the matter was not finally settled 
till June 1803, when a majority of the lords 
resolved that the claim to the title and 
dignity of Baron Chandos had not been 
made out. Brydges, who was the moving 
spirit on the claimant's side, was greatly 
mortified, and never ceased to maintain in 
his writings that the claim was just. He in- 
serted a special account of the Chandos case 
in his edition of Collins's ' Peerage,' and in 
1831 wrote his ' Lex Teme, a Discussion of 
the Law of England regarding Claims of in- 
heritable Rights of Peerage,' to prove that 
by the common law he was not bound to 
abide by the peers' decision, which did not 
take from him the right to resort to a legal 
trial by jury. The Brydges, however, never 
actually appealed to the law courts, though 
Egerton, after the death of his brother, was 
accustomed to style himself ' Per legem 
terrse, Baron Chandos of Sudeley.' The 
Chandos case was in 1834 made the subject 
of a thorough investigation by Mr. G. F. 
Beltz, Lancaster herald, who in his book 
relating to it conclusively proves that the 
claim was not well founded. John Brydges, 
first baron Chandos [q. v. J (created by patent 
N in 1554), had three sons, Edmund, Charles, 
Xand Anthony. After his death the barony 
descended to his eldest son, Edmund, and then 
to the heirs male of Edmund. On the failure 
of that line, the barony passed to the heirs 
male of Charles, second son of the first Lord 
Chandos, and this line became extinct in 
1789. Edward Tymewell Brydges, who then 
came forward, claimed the barony as the 
descendant of Anthony, the third son of the 
first baron Chandos. He traced back his 
descent through the Bridges of Wootton to a 
certain Edward Bridges of Maidstone (bap- 
tised 25 March 1603), who was, according to 
the claimant's contention, the grandson of 
Anthony Brydges, the third son of the original 
Baron Chandos. The connection of Edward 
Bridges of Maidstone with Anthony Brydges 
was,however, strenuously denied by the claim- 
ant's opponents, and was certainly not satis- 
factorily proved by him. The counsel for the 
crown showed, moreover, that there were good 
grounds for believing that the claimant was 
really descended from an obscure family of yeo- 
men of the name of Bridges who had lived at 
Harbledown, near Canterbury, and who were 
quite unconnected with the Chandos family. 
It was further suggested by the crown and, 
according to Mr. Beltz, not without good 
reason that there had been foul play with 
parish registers and other documents in order 
to support the claim. No distinct attempt, 
however, seems to have been made to bring 

home the charge of falsification to any par- 
ticular person. In 1808, five years after 
the decision of the Chandos case, Egerton 
Brydges accepted with considerable gratifi- 
cation the knighthood of the Swedish order 
of St. Joachim. He henceforward wrote 
after his name the letters K. J., styling him- 
self ' Sir,' though of course without heraldic 
propriety. He was not created an English 
baronet till 1814. 

In October 1810 Brydges removed from 
Denton to Lee Priory at Ickham, near Can- 
terbury, the residence of his eldest son. In 
1812 he was elected M.P. for Maidstone, and 
sat in parliament till 1818. He seldom 
spoke in the house, though he took an active 
part in connection with the poor laws and 
the Copyright Bill. During this period he 
managed to find time for a good deal of lite- 
rary work. In 1813 a private printing press 
had been established at Lee Priory by a com- 
positor and a pressman (Johnson and War- 
wick). Brydges engaged to provide 'copy' 
gratuitously, and the printers undertook to 
pay all expenses, making what profits they 
could. The editions of the various works 
issued from the press were purposely limited 
to a small number of copies, and were sold 
by the printers to book-collectors at high 
prices. In spite of these arrangements, con- 
siderable expenses were incurred by Brydges 
and his son, though the press was not finally 
given up till about December 1822. A list 
of the books printed at Lee Priory Press 
will be found in Lowndes's l Bibliographer's 
Manual' (vi. 218-25). By the works 
chiefly reprints produced at the press under 
his editorship, Brydges justly claims to have 
rendered a service to the students of old 
English literature, particularly literature of 
the Elizabethan period. Among his produc- 
tions were many rare and interesting tracts, 
especially poetical, which had hitherto been 
unknown, or only accessible to rich collec- 
tors, 'such as poems of Nicholas Breton 
and William Browne, Raleigh and Margaret, 
duchess of Newcastle, Davison's " Rhapsody," 
Robert Greene's " Groatsworth of Wit," Lord 
Brook's " Life of Sir Philip Sydney," and the 
Duchess of Newcastle's "Autobiography."' 
Brydges's chief bibliographical works at this 
period of his life were the four volumes of 
the 'British Bibliographer' (1810-14), in 
which he was assisted by Mr. J. Haslewood, 
and the ' Restituta, or Titles, Extracts, and 
Characters of Old Books in English Lite- 
rature revived ' (4 vols. 1814-16). He also 
compiled f Excerpta Tudoriana, or Extracts 
from Elizabethan Literature with a criti- 
cal Preface' (2 vols. 1814-18), and wrote a 
series of original essays called ' The Sylvan 




Wanderer ' (2 vols. 1813-17), and a poem 
called Bertram.' 

From June 1818 Brydges lived entirely 
abroad till the time of his death, with the 
sole exception of a visit to England from 
June 1826 to October 1828. In his < Recol- 
lections of Foreign Travel' (2 vols. 1825) he 
has given an account of his movements and 
opinions till about November 1824. He lived 
principally at Geneva, apparently in greater 
peace of mind, and was still actively engaged 
in writing. Among his bibliographical works 
of this period are his ' Res Literariae ' (3 vols. 
Naples, Rome, Geneva, 1821-2), his ' Poly- 
antheaLibroruna Vetustiorum,' Geneva, 1822, 
and ' Cimelia,' Geneva, 1823. Later on, in 
1831, he published the 'Lake of Geneva,' a 
blank verse poem in seven books ; the ' Anglo- 
Genevan Critical Journal ' for 1831 ; f Lex 
Terrae ' (1831), and his book entitled ' The 
Autobiography, Times, Opinions, and Con- 
temporaries of Sir Egerton Brydges ' (2 vols. 
1834). He died at Campagne, Gros Jean, 
near Geneva, on 8 Sept. 1837. 

Brydges was twice married : first to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the Rev. William Dejovas 
Byrche, of the Black Friars, Canterbury, by 
whom he had two sons and three daughters ; 
and secondly to Mary, daughter of the Rev. 
William Robinson, rector of Burfield, Berk- 
shire, by whom he had several sons and 
daughters. His eldest son, Thomas Barrett 
Brydges (of Lee Priory), entered the army, 
and died before his father, who was succeeded 
in his title by his second son (by his first 
wife), John William Egerton Brydges, who 
served in the Peninsular war, and died 15 Feb. 
1858, aged 87. He was unmarried, and his 
half-brother, F. Hanley Head Brydges, be- 
came the third baronet (Ann. Reg. 1858, c. 
389 ; Gent. Mag. March 1858, p. 342). 

[Brydges's Autobiography, 2 vols. 1834 (each 
vol. contains a portrait of the author) ; Collins's 
Peerage of England (ed. Brydges), vi. 704-40 ; 
Beltz's A Review of the Chandos Peerage Case 
(1834); Gent. Mag. November 1837. For the 
titles of Brydges's very numerous writings/several 
of which are necessarily excluded from this 
article, see Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual, i. 
and vi. (Appendix), 218-25, and the Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] W. W. 

BRYDON, WILLIAM (1811-1873), a 
surgeon in the Bengal army, was descended 
from a Scotch border family, one member of 
which had distinguished himself as provost 
of Dumfries during a siege of that town, while 
another, who farmed his own land, had horsed 
a troop of cavalry for the Pretender. He was 
born in London 9 Oct. 1811, and entered 
the service of the East India Company as 
an assistant-surgeon in October 1835. After 

serving in India with various regiments, 
British and native, in the course of which 
service he was sent on escort duty, first with 
the commander-in-chief, Sir Henry Fane, and 
a few months afterwards with the governor- 
general, Lord Auckland, to the court of Ran- 
jit Singh at Lahore, he was despatched in 
1839 in medical charge of a regiment of native 
infantry to Afghanistan. 

On the fatal retreat from Cabul, Brydon, 
with five other British officers, managed to 
escape as far as Fattehabad. In the neigh- 
bourhood of this place his companions were 
all slain, and he alone, wounded, and wellnigh 
exhausted by hunger and fatigue, reached Jel- 
lalabad, then held by a British and native 
force under the command of Sir Robert Sale. 
He served in the subsequent defence of Jella- 
labad during its siege by the army of Akhbar 
Khan, and, returning to Cabul with Sir George 
Pollock's army of retribution, accompanied it 
back to India. Fifteen years later the mu- 
tiny of the Bengal army found Brydon at 
Lucknow, where it was his lot again to serve 
with a beleaguered garrison, and where he 
was severely wounded in the course of the 
siege. In a general order issued by Lord 
Canning on the defence of Lucknow, Brydon 
was referred to in terms of special laudation. 
In the following year he was appointed a 
companion of the Bath, and retired from the 
Indian service in 1859. The latter years of 
his life were passed in Scotland, where in 
1862 he joined the Highland rifles militia 
regiment, now called the 3rd battalion Sea- 
forth (Duke of Albany's) Highlanders. He 
died at Westfield, in the county of Ross, on 
20 March 1873, his health having been pre- 
viously much impaired by the results of the 
wound received at Lucknow. 

[Kayo's History of the War in Afghanistan, 
3rd edit. 1874, p. 389 ; Calcutta Gazette, 8 Dec. 
1857 ; family papers.] A. J. A. 

BRYDONE, PATRICK (1741 P-1818), 
traveller and author, was born in Berwick- 
shire about 1741. He ' received an excellent 
education at one of the universities,' and 
appears to have been for a short time in 
the army. The study of electricity, to 
which the discoveries of Dr. Franklin had 
recently attracted attention, occupied him 
as a young man, and he travelled through 
Switzerland, making experiments in con- 
nection with this branch of science. In 
1767 or 1768, soon after his return from 
Switzerland, he went abroad again with Mr. 
Beckford of Somerly and two others as tra- 
velling preceptor. In 1770 he made a tour 
with these gentlemen through Sicily and 
Malta, the former island being but little 




known to travellers of that time. This tour 
forms the subject of his book, 'A Tour 
through Sicily and Malta, in a Series of 
Letters to William Beckford, Esq., of So- 
merly in Suffolk,' published in 1773. It was 
favourably reviewed (Monthly Review, xlix.), 
and so well received by the reading public, 
that it went through seven or eight editions 
in England in his lifetime, and was also trans- 
lated into French and German (Brit. Mus. 
Cat.} In Italy, nine years after its publica- 
tion, Count Borch published a volume of 
* Letters to serve as Supplement to the Voyage 
in Sicily and Malta of Mr. Brydone.' And 
the writer of his biography in the ' Annual 
Biography' says : * It may be fairly doubted, 
after the lapse of near fifty eventful years, 
whether there be any publication of a similar 
kind so deserving of notice as the one now 
under consideration.' Having returned to 
England in 1771, he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society in the end of 1772 or 
beginning of 1773 (Phil. Trans.} He was 
also a F.R.S. of Edinburgh and a F.S.A. 
Besides his book, he wrote occasional papers, 
chiefly on electricity, which were published 
in the l Philosophical Transactions.' He held 
the appointment of comptroller of the stamp 
office. The latter part of his life was spent 
in retirement, and he died, on 19 June 1818, 
at Lennel House, Berwickshire. 

[Annual Biog. iv. 85-1 1 1 ; Gent. Mag. Ixxxviii. 
pt. i. p. 643.] G. V. B. 

BRYDSON, THOMAS (1806-1 855), poet, 
was born in Glasgow in 1806. After com- 
pleting courses of study at the universities of 
Glasgow and Edinburgh he became a licen- 
tiate of the established church of Scotland. 
He officiated as assistant successively in the 
Middle Church, Greenock, in Oban, and in Kil- 
malcolm, and in 1839 was ordained minister of 
Levern Chapel, near Paisley. In 1842 he was 
presented to the parish of Kilmalcolm, where 
he remained till his death, which, after some 
years of impaired health, took place suddenly, 
28 Jan. 1855. He was the author of two 
volumes of verse, the one, under the title of 
' Poems,' published in 1829, and the other, en- 
titled ' Pictures of the Past,' in 1832. He also 
contributed to the ' Edinburgh Literary Jour- 
nal,' the 'Republic of Letters,' a Glasgow 
publication, and several of the London an- 
nuals. His verses manifest true appreciation 
of the varied beauties of pastoral scenery, and, 
though simple and unpretentious, have the 
charm of sincerity. 

[Greenock Advertiser, 30 Jan. 1855 ; Rogers's 
Modern Scottish Minstrel, iv. 172; Grant-Wil- 
son's Poets and Poetry of Scotland, ii. 285.] 

T. F. H. 

BRYER, HENRY (A 1799), engraver, 
was a pupil of William Wynne Ryland, in 
partnership with whom he for some years 
carried on an extensive printselling business 
in Cornhill; but, owing chiefly to Ryland's 
extravagance, the firm became bankrupt. In 
1762 Bryer gained the Society of Arts pre- 
mium for a large plate representing ' Mars 
and Venus discovered by Vulcan.' He ex- 
hibited at the Society of Artists between 
1765 and 1774, and engraved several plates 
after Angelica Kauffmann. In 1778, when 
living in St. Martin's Lane, Bryer published 
1 Aglaia bound by Cupid,' from the original 
picture by Angelica Kauffmann. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists (1878) ; 
MS. notes in British Museum.] L. F. 


THOMAS, D.D. (d. 1390), fellow of Merton 
College, Oxford, is chiefly known in connec- 
tion with the proceedings against Wycliffe's 
followers taken at the council of Blackfriars 
in London in 1382. He appeared before the 
council at its second session, 12 June, in 
company with Rygge, the chancellor of the 
university, to answer, as it seems, certain 
charges which were to be brought against 
Rygge by Peter Stokes, the archbishop's agent 
at Oxford. The charge in which Bryghtwell 
was implicated was one of favouring Repyng- 
don, a notorious Wycliffite ; but his action was 
in all probability due rather to jealousy of the 
archbishop's intrusion into academical affairs 
than to personal sympathy with Repyngdon's 
opinions. Bryghtwell gave his assent to the 
condemnation of Wycliffe's doctrine as de- 
clared by the council, and does not appear 
to have again exposed himself to any similar 
accusation. Indeed, in this very year (1382) 
he was appointed dean of the college of 
Newark at Leicester (NICHOLS, History of 
the County of Leicester, i. 338). In 1386 he 
was granted the prebend of Holborn in St. 
Paul's Cathedral (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, 
ii. 392), and perhaps before this date he 
possessed the prebend of Leicester St. Mar- 
garet in Lincoln Cathedral, which he held 
at the time of his death (NICHOLS, i. 561). 
Nor had he at all relinquished his connec- 
tion with Oxford ; he was elected chancellor 
of the university in May 1388 (WooD, Fasti 
Oxon. p. 33; cf. ANSTEY, Munimenta Acade- 
mica, ii. 795) in succession to his old friend 
Robert Rygge, and retained the office in the 
following year. He died in 1390. 

[Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of the Univ. of 
Oxford, i. 493 ; Fasciculi Zizaniorum, ed. Shirley 
pp. 288, 297-308.] R. L. P. 




BRYNE, ALBERTUS (1621 P-1669 ?) 
organist and composer, was born about th( 
year 1621, and was educated by John Tom- 
kins, organist of St. Paul's. It was pro- 
bably on the death of the latter that Brynt 
succeeded him as organist of the cathedral 
a post he seems to have held throughout 
the reign of Charles I. At the restoration 
Bryne petitioned Charles II for the post o 
organist at Whitehall Chapel. In this docu- 
ment he stated that ' yo r Ma ties late Royal 
ffather of blessed memory was pleased in 
his life time to make choyce of yo r peticon 1 
to bee Organist of the Cathedrall Church o: 
S* Paule, London, in which said place hee 
was by yo r said late Royall ffather confirmee 
when yo r pet r was but about the age of 17 
yeares, And since then hath soe industriously 
practised that science that hee hath very 
much augmented his skill and knowledge 
therein.' This petition seems to have been 
answered by his being reinstated as organist 
at St. Paul's, where he remained until the 
fire of London. After this Bryne was or- 
ganist of Westminster Abbey. There are no 
records of these appointments extant at either 
the cathedral or the abbey, but it is believed 
that Bryne remained organist at the latter 
church until 1669, when he was succeeded 
by Dr. John Blow [q.v.] It has been stated 
that he died in this year, and was buried in 
the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, but the 
burial registers do not contain his name. A 
morning and evening service (in G major) by 
Bryne is found in several manuscript col- 
lections ; the words of anthems by him are 
in Clifford's ' Divine Services and Anthems 
usually sung in His Majesties Chappell,' and 
in the Oxford Music School Collection are 
several dances, &c., by him, besides two 
' grounds/ one for the organ, and the other 
for the organ or harpsichord. The Christ 
Church Collection contains a copy of his ser- 
vice, and an instrumental saraband and air. 
His name is sometimes spelt Brian, Bryan, 
Brine, or Breyn. 

[Harl. MS. 7338; Bingley's Musical Bio- 
graphy, i. 187; Clifford's Divine Services, &c. 
(1664 ed.) ; Bodl. Lib., Wood, 19 D (4), No. 106 ; 
Catalogues of Music School and Ch. Ch. Collec- 
tions; State Papers (Chas. II. Dom. ii. 91); in- 
formation from Miss Bradley and the Rev. W. 
Sparrow Simpson.] W. B. S. 


(ft. 1571-1611), poet, translator, and Irish 
official, is stated to have been the son of ' a 
natural Italian,' but of his early life nothing 
definite is known. He was generally believed 
to have relations in Florence, where he cer- 

tainly had many correspondents. He matri- 
culated as a pensioner of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 27 April 1559, but left the uni- 
versity without proceeding to a degree. On 
7 April 1571 Burghley was informed that 
Bryskett was temporarily filling the office of 
clerk of the council in Ireland under Sir 
Henry Sidney. Before 1572 he had become 
the intimate friend of Sir Henry Sidney's 
son, Philip Sidney, and he was young Sidney's 
companion on a three years' continental tour 
through Germany, Italy, and Poland (1572- 
1575). In 1577 he became clerk of the chan- 
cery for the faculties in Ireland, an office in 
which he was succeeded by Spenser. After- 
wards (1582) he received from Lord Grey de 
Wilton the appointment of secretary of the 
Munster council. About the same time he 
made the acquaintance of the poet Spenser, 
Lord Grey's secretary, and Spenser relieved 
the tedium of official life by teaching his 
new friend Greek. Bryskett remained in 
Munster for many years. In 1594 he sought 
to be reappointed clerk of the Irish council, 
but failing to obtain that post he was granted 
the l clerkship of the casualties ' in the fol- 
lowing year. In 1600 Sir Robert Cecil wrote 
to Sir George Carew in his behalf, and de- 
scribed him as i an ancient servitor of the 
realm of Ireland, and now employed by her 
majesty beyond the seas.' He had an in- 
terest in the abbey of Bridgetown, which 
Cecil asked Carew to secure to him. In 1606 
he was reputed to hold large estates in Dublin, 
Cavan, and Cork. He is stated to have been 
alive in 1611. 

Bryskett is more interesting as the friend 
of Sidney and Spenser than as an Irish 
official. His chief original literary work 
was a translation from the Italian of Bap- 
tista Giraldo's philosophical treatise, which 
he entitled, 'A Discourse of Civill Life, con- 
taining the Ethike Part of Morall Philoso- 
phic.' It was not published till 1606, but 
was certainly written full twenty years 
earlier. (There are two editions, both dated 
1606 one printed for W. Aspley and the 
other for Ed. Blount.) The book is dedicated 
to Lord Grey, and opens with an introduc- 
tion which is of unique interest in English 
Literature. Bryskett describes a party of 
friends met at his cottage near Dublin, among 
rhom were Dr. Long, archbishop of Armagh, 
'aptain Christopher Caiieil, Captain Thomas 
Norris, Captain Warham St. Leger, and 
Vlr. Edmund Spenser, ' once your lordship's 
secretary.' In the course of conversation 
Bryskett says that he envies ' the happinesse 
of the Italians ' who have popularised moral 
)hilosophy by translating and explaining 
Plato and Aristotle in their own language. 




He expresses a wish that English writers 
would follow the Italian example. Address- 
ing Spenser, Bryskett entreats the poet to 
turn his great knowledge of philosophy to 
such account, and as a beginning to give 
them a philosophical lecture on the spot. 
Spenser declines to comply with the request 
on the ground that he had already under- 
taken the ' Faerie Queene/ ' a work tending 
to the same effect ; ' and finally the poet in- 
vites Bryskett to read to the company his 
own translation of Giraldo, which Bryskett 
willingly consents to do. Bryskett includes 
in the published work a few remarks made 
by Spenser in the course of the reading on 
various philosophical problems discussed in 
the book. 

Soon after Sidney's death, in 1586, Spenser 
collected a series of elegies under the title of 
' Astrophel.' To this collection, which was 
published with ' Colin Clout come home 
again ' in 1595, Bryskett contributed two 
elegies. One of his poems is entitled 'A 
Pastorall ^Eclogue,' and is signed with his 
initials ; the other is called * The Mourning 
Muse of Thestylis.' These two pieces were 
entered in the Stationers' Register as ' The 
Mourning Muses of Lod. Bryskett vpon the 
deathe of the most noble sir Philip Sydney, 
knight,' and licensed to the printer, John 
Wolfe, on 22 Aug. 1587. But they do not 
appear to have been published separately. 

In Spenser's collected sonnets, ' Amoretti 
and Epithalamion' (1595), the one numbered 
33 is addressed to Bryskett. Spenser here 
apologises to his friend for his delay in com- 
pleting the ' Faerie Queene.' 

J3ir Eobert Cecil's Letters (Camd. Soc.), 160 
note ; Fox Bourne's Life of Sir Philip 
Sidney; Todd's Spenser; Eitson's English Poets; 
Spenser's Works (ed. Grosart), 1882; Cole MS. 
Athense Cantab. ; Cal. Irish State Papers.] 

S. L. L. 

1869), medical writer, began his professional 
studies at Edinburgh and continued them at 
Glasgow, where he took his doctor's degree 
and was admitted a member of the Faculty 
of Physicians and Surgeons. He also be- 
came a fellow o the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, London. He entered the navy as 
assistant-surgeon in 1827, and was promoted 
to the rank of surgeon in 1836, deputy in- 
spector-general in 1854, and inspector-general 
in 1855. In January 1864, on the retire- 
ment of Sir John Liddell, he was appointed 
director-general of the medical department of 
the navy, from which post he retired on 
15 April 1869. He was appointed honorary 
physician to the queen in 1859, and subse- 
quently he was made a companion of the 

order of the Bath. He was also a fellow of 
the Royal Society. His death took place at 
Barnes, Surrey, on 12 Dec. 1869. He was 
the author of a treatise on 'The Climate 
and Diseases of the African Station,' and 
of ' An Account of the Origin, Spread, and 
Decline of the Epidemic Fevers of Sierra 
Leone,' London, 1849, 8vo. For a long time 
he was the head of the department of naval 
medical statistics, and he compiled the 
'Statistical Reports on the Health of the 
Navy.' He also contributed a valuable 
article ' On Medicine and Medical Statis- 
tics ' to the ' Admiralty Manual of Scientific 

[Lancet, 18 Dec. 1869, p. 860 ; British Medi- 
cal Journal, 18 Dec. 1869, p. 670 ; Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mus.; Times, 15 Dec. 1869.] 

T. C. 

BRYSON, JAMES (1730 P-1796), Irish 
presbyterian minister, son of John Bryson, 
who died at Holywood, co. Down, on 23 Nov. 
1788, aged (according to his tombstone) 103 
years, is said to have belonged to a family 
originally connected with co. Donegal. His 
first sermon was preached at Newtownards, 
co. Down, 26 April 1760. He was licensed 
by the Armagh presbytery at Clare, co. Ar- 
magh, 1 June 1762. After preaching for 
over a year at Banbridge in 1763-4 he was 
ordained minister of Lisburn by Bangor pres- 
bytery on 7 June 1764, subscribing a cautious 
formulary, in general approval of the West- 
minster Confession. He soon acquired the 
repute of an able preacher. A new meeting- 
house, built for him, was opened 18 May 
1766. While it was building the use of the 
cathedral church was granted to his congre- 
gation between church hours. In 1773 he 
accepted a call to the second congregation 
of Belfast, stipulating that the congregation 
should retain its connection with the general 
synod, a tie which then demanded no express 
dogmatic bond. In 1778 he was elected 
moderator of the general synod which met 
at Lurgan. Bryson was a freemason, and 
frequently preached before lodges, both in 
bis own and other meeting-houses, and in 
churches of the establishment. His printed 
sermon of 24 June 1782 was preached before 
1 the Orange Lodge of Belfast, No. 257.' The 
xisting Orange Society, an offshoot of ma- 
sonry, first appears as a distinct institution 
n 1795. Some scandal arose respecting Bry- 
son's private life. It does not appear that 
the matter came before the church courts, 
Dut Bryson retired from the second congre- 
gation, taking with him a following. His 
riends set about building a small meet- 
ing-house for him in Donegal Street, and 




during its erection, for about two years and 
eight months, he was allowed to preach in 
the parish church. It does not appear that 
his ministry continued to flourish, for on 
29 Nov. 1795 he notes: 'A regiment of 
Highlanders present, and very few more.' 
He died on Monday, 3 Oct. 1796. His por- 
trait was bequeathed by his last surviving 
daughter to the fourth congregation. He 
was twice married. 

Bryson published 'Sermons on several 
important subjects,' Belfast, 1778, 8vo (de- 
dicated to his cousin, William Bryson [q. v.] 
(the subscription list is of muchlocalinterest); 
and some other single sermons. Thirteen 
volumes of his manuscript sermons (vol. x. 
is missing) were deposited by his grandson 
Joseph (son of an apothecary) in the Antrim 
Presbytery Library, now at Queen's College, 

[Belfast Newsletter, 22 Jan. 1790, 3 Oct. 
1796, 3 Jan. 1800; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. 
Memorials of Presby terianism in Ireland, 2nd ser. 
1880, pp. 141 sq. ; Christian Unitarian, 1866, p. 
337; Disciple (Belfast), 1883, p. 114; parish 
register, Belfast ; memoranda on fly-leaves of 
Bry son's Sermons; manuscript minutes of Antrim 
Presbytery ; tombstone at Holy wood ; informa- 
tion from Bev. C. J. M'Alester, Holywood.] 

A. G. 

BRYSON, WILLIAM (1730-1815), Irish 
presbyterian minister, said to have come of 
a Donegal family, became minister of the 
nonsubscribing congregation at Antrim in 
August 1764. Without the pulpit reputation 
of his cousin James [q. v.], he was a man of 
more influence in matters theological. He 
adopted Arian Christology and rejected the 
tenets of original sin and imputed righteous- 
ness. The ground he took was that of a 
strong scripturalist, and he upheld sabbath 
observance, eternal punishments, and Satanic 
agency. Bryson, though a member of the 
outcast Antrim presbytery, was, as his manu- 
scripts show, a frequent preacher in neigh- 
bouring congregations of the general synod. 
His first publication was a funeral discourse 
for a distinguished minister of the synod. At 
the time of the rebellion in 1798 Bryson was 
a staunch loyalist, in this, as in other matters, 
following the lead of his co-presbyter, Bruce 
of Belfast. In September 1809 his age and 
infirmities rendered him desirous of resign- 
ing his pastorate, but as his people could not 
agree upon a successor, he did not do so till 
November 1810. He died on 6 May 1815, 
in his eighty-sixth year. He is said to have 
been buried at Antrim, but his name is not on 
the family tombstone. In the vestry of the 
First Presbyterian Church, Belfast, hangs a 
likeness of Bryson, copied by his son Patrick 

from a silhouette taken in his forty-sixth 
year. When about that age he married a 
daughter of Alexander Maclaine, M. A., minis- 
ter at Antrim, 1742-59, and granddaughter 
of John Abernethy [q. v.], by whom he had 
six children. His daughters kept school at 
Antrim for many years. 

Bryson published : 1. t The Practice of 
Righteousness, productive of happiness both 
at present and for ever,' Belfast, 1782, 8vo 
(funeral sermon, Isaiah xxxii. 17, at Orumlin, 
28 July, for Thomas Crawford, ordained at 
Crumlin, 1723, or early in 1724). 2. ' The 
Duty of Searching the Scriptures,' &c., Bel- 
fast, 1786, 8vo (sermon, John v. 39, at ordi- 
nation in Ballyclare, 9 Feb. 1785, of Futt 
Marshall, died 23 Oct. 1813, aged 58). 
3. 'Funeral Sermon for Rev. Robert Sin- 
clair of Larne ' (said to have been published, 
but not known; Sinclair died on 20 Feb. 
1795, aged 70). 

[Belfast Newsletter, 9 May 1815; Witherow's 
Hist, and Lit. Memorials of Presbyterianism in 
Ireland, 2nd ser. 1880, pp. 256 sq. ; Christian 
Unitarian, September 1864, p. 275 ; Disciple 
(Belfast), January 1881, pp. 14 sq., 1883, p. 39; 
Bryson's manuscript sermons, in the possession 
of the present writer ; manuscript minutes of 
Antrim Presbytery ; tombstone at Antrim ; pri- 
vate information.] A. G. 

BUG or BUCK, SIB GEORGE (d. 1623), 

historian, poet, and master of the revels, was 
descended from a good family which had for- 
merly held large estates in Yorkshire and Suf- 
folk. For taking the side of King Richard III 
at the battle of Bosworth Field his ancestors 
were deprived of most of their possessions, and, 
had not a powerful member of the Howard 
family interceded on their behalf, would have 
lost everything. These facts we learn from the 
dedicatory epistle to King James I prefixed 
to 'AA*NI2 nOAY2TE$ANO2 : an Eclog 
treating of Crownes and of Garlandes, and 
to whom of right they appertaine. Addressed 
and consecrated to the King's Maiestie. By 
G. B., Knight,' 1605, 4to. The dedicatory 
epistle is followed by an engraved genealo- 
gical table (dated 1602) of the royal line of 
England from Egbert to the Empress Ma- 
tilda, mother of Henry II. After the epistle 
comes a ' Preface or Argument of this poesy,' 
consisting of seven leaves. The ' Eclog,' con- 
taining fifty-seven eight-line stanzas, written 
in the form of a dialogue between Damaetas, 
a woodman, and Silenus, the prophet of the 
shepherds, is an explanation of the nature 
and properties of trees. Collier, in his ' Bi- 
bliographical Catalogue ' (i. 93-5), describes 
a copy of this poem containing a poetical in- 
scription to Lord Ellesmere, from which in- 
scription it would appear that Lord Ellesmere 




had decided a chancery suit in Buc's favour. 
A second edition, with numerous alterations 
and a dedication to Sir John Finch, lord chief 
justice of the common pleas, was published 
in 1635 under the title of ' The Great Plan- 
tagenet. Or a Continved Svccession of that 
Koyall Name from Henry the Second to our 
Sacred Soveraigne King Charles. By Geo. 
Buck, Gent.' After the preface comes a second 
title-page, ' An Eclog treating of Crownes,' 
&c. Whoever this ' Geo. Buck, Gent.,' may 
have been, he did not scruple to claim the 
authorship of the t Eclog,' and afterwards of 
the ' History of the Life and Reign of Richard 
the Third,' written by Sir George Buc. Corser 
says that at the time of the publication of the 
1 Eclogue ' the author was twenty-three years 
of age ; but there appears to be no foundation 
for this statement. The ' G. Bucke ' who pre- 
fixed a complimentary quatorzain to Watson's 
1 'EKaTOfjLTradia ' about 1582 was not impro- 
bably Sir George Buc. Two persons of the 
name of Bucke accompanied the Cadiz expe- 
dition in 1596 ; one a Captain John Bucke, 
and the other a gentleman adventurer, George 
Bucke, whom it would be safe to identify 
with Sir George Buc. In Howes's ' Stow ' 
(1615), p. 776, col. 2, we read that ' George 
Bucke was despatched by the lords generals 
to her majestic to make relation of that which 
had passed in the armie since the fleetes de- 
parture from the bay of Cadiz.' The instruc- 
tions given him on that occasion are contained 
in < Otho,' E. ix. 319 (Cottonian MSS.) In 
1601 Buc was sent to Sir Francis Vere at 
Middleburgh, with instructions from Sir Ro- 
bert Cecil. Two copies of these instructions 
are in ' Cotton. MS. Galba,' D. xii. 322, and 
the second copy is signed ' Vera Copia, G. 
Buc/ in the unmistakable handwriting of 
Sir George Buc. On 13 July 1603, the day 
before the coronation, Buc was knighted by 
James. On 21 June 1603 he received the 
reversionary grant of the mastership of the 
revels (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Series, 1603- 
1610, p. 16). Collier states that in 1610 he | 
assumed the office as successor to Edmund I 
Tylney, who died in the October of that year 
(Engl. Dram. Lit. 2nd ed. i. 360). For some 
time previously he had acted as Tylney's de- 
puty. On 21 Nov. 1606 he licensed Sharpham's j 
' Fleire ' for publication : but on 29 June ' 
1607 we find Tylney licensing l Cupid's Whir- 
ligig' (ARBEK, Transcripts, iii. 333, 354). 
In spite of Collier's statement (for which no 
authority is given) it would seem that Tylney 
had been superseded by Buc in the autumn 
of 1608, for on 4 Oct. of that year Middleton's 
' A Mad World, my Masters,' was licensed 
for publication by Buc's deputy (ibid. p. 391). 
It is improbable that there would have been 

two deputies. From Sir Henry Herbert's 

* Register ' we learn that Buc's office books, 
which would have had the deepest interest 
for students of the drama, were consumed by 
fire. Chalmers, in his ' Supplemental Apology ' 
(198-207), gives a list of the plays licensed 
for publication by Buc. Among the ' State 
Papers,' under date 6 Sept. 1610, is a docu- 
ment signed by Buc, licensing three men to 

* shew a strange lion brought to do strange 
things, as turning an ox to be roasted,' &c. 
There is also preserved among the ' State Pa- 
pers ' a letter of Buc's, dated 10 July 1615, 
to John Packer, secretary to Lord-chamber- 
lain Somerset, allowing Samuel Daniel to ap- 
point a company of youths to perform come- 
dies and tragedies at Bristol. The writer ends 
by saying that he has received no stipend since 
13 Dec., and begs for payment of arrears. In a 
letter to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated 30 March 
1620, Chamberlain writes : ' Old Sir George 
Buck, master of the revels, has gone mad ' 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Series, 1619-23, p. 
364) . Two years afterwards Buc had become 
too infirm to discharge his duties, and on 
2 May 1622 a patent was made out appoint- 
ing Sir John Astley master of the revels. On 
22 May he was formally superseded in a privy 
seal (extant in the Chapter-house, Westmin- 
ster), which directed that as Buc, ' by reason 
of sickness and indisposition of body where- 
with it had pleased God to visit him, was be- 
come disabled and insufficient to undergo and 
perform ' his duties, the office had been con- 
ferred on Sir John Astley. From Sir Henry 
Herbert's ' Register ' it appears that Buc died 
on 22 Sept. 1623. 

Sir George Buc is the author of ' The Third 
Universitie of England, or a Treatise of the 
Foundations of all the Colledges, Avncient 
Schooles of Priviledge, and of Hovses of 
Learning and Liberall Arts, within and abovt 
the most famovs Cittie of London,' a treatise 
appended to Howes's edition of Stow's ' An- 
nales ' (1615). In this work the author men- 
tions a treatise which he had written on ' The 
Art of Revels,' of which no copy is now known. 
The < History of the Life and Reign of Richard 
the Third. * Composed in five Bookes,' was 
issued in 1646, fol., as the work of ' George 
Buck, Esq.' A charred fragment of a manu- 
script copy of this work, in the handwriting 
of Sir George Buc, is preserved among the 
Cottonian MSS. (Tib. E. x.) In this manu- 
script the history was described as ' gathered 
and written by Sir George Buc, Knight, master 
of the King's office of the Revels and one of 
the gentlemen of his majestie's privy chamber, 
corrected and amended in every page.' The 
leaf containing this passage is not now in the 
manuscript ; but so the title is given in Smith's 




' Catalogue of the Cotton. MSS.' There is 
preserved in the manuscript a portion of the 
dedication to ' the most illustrious Lord, pre- 
mier coute of this realme, erl of Arundale,' 
&c., dated from ' the king's office of the Revels, 
Peter's Hill, the ... of ... 1619.' An ad- 
vertisement to the reader (in the manuscript 
copy) informs us that the ' argument and sub- 
ject of this discours or story was at the first 
but a chapter, sc. the thirteenth chapter of 
the third book of a rude work of myne en- 
titled "The Baron, or the Magazin of Honour." ' 
^ No copy of ' The Baron ' is known to exist. 
It is not improbable that many of Buc's works 
perished in the flames which consumed his 
office books, and that Tib. E. x. was scorched 
on that occasion. The history attempts to 
prove that Richard III was a virtuous prince 
and innocent of the crimes imputed to him, 
and must be regarded to some extent as an 
anticipation of Horace Walpole's " Historic 
Doubts." ' Early in the present century a 
certain Charles Yarnold announced his in- 
tention of issuing a new edition of the his- 
tory ' from the original manuscript of Sir 
George Buck.' The manuscript referred to 
by Yarnold, and Yarn old's collections towards 
the new edition (of which only a few sheets 
were printed), are in the British Museum, 
numbered Eg. MSS. 2216-2220. Yarnold's 
collections are of little value, and it is cer- 
tain that his manuscript is not in the hand- 
writing of Sir George Buc. Additional MS. 
27422 contains the first two books of the his- 
tory. The George Buck who had the impu- 
dence to issue the work as his own dedicated 
the printed copy to Philip, earl of Pembroke. 
In 1710 Buc's history was included in the 
first volume of Rennet's ' Complete History 
of England.' Camden, in his ' Britannia ' 
(ed. 1607, p. 668), speaks of Buc as a man of 
distinguished learning ' qui multa in historiis 
observavit et candide impertiit.' Some letters 
of Buc's to Sir Robert Cotton are preserved 
in ' Cottonian MS. Jul. Cajsar,' iii. 33, 128. 
Among Heber's manuscripts was sold an un- 
dated quarto, pp. 524, which was described in 
' Biblioth. Heber.' (pt. xi. No. 98) as a poem 
of Sir George Buc. The title is ' The famous 
History of Saint George, England's Brave 
Champion. Translated into verse and en- 
lardged . . . By G. B.' Corser gives a full 
description of this work, and clearly shows 
that it could not have been written by Buc, 
as it contains allusions to events which hap- 
pened long after his death. 

[Chalmers's Supplemental Apology, pp. 198- 
207; Ritson's Bibliog. Poet. pp. 146-7; Collier's 
English Dramatic Lit. (2nd ed.), i. 360, 402-5 ; 
Corser's Collectanea ; Cottonian MSS., Galba D. 
xii. 322, Otho E. ix. 319, Tib. E. x. ; Stow's An- 

A manuscript volume, very 
probably a copy of 4 The Baron,' is in the 
possession of Major G. Halswell, of Wyl- 
mington Hayes, Honiton, Devon (Times 
Lit. Supp. IQ27,P. 

nales (ed. Howes), 1615, p. 776 ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. Series, 1603-10, pp. 16, 631, 1619- 
1623, p. 364 ; Arber's Transcripts, iii. 333, 354, 
391 ; Nichols's Progresses of James I. i. 215.1 

A. H. B. 

BUCER, MARTIN (1491-1551), protes- 
tant divine, was born of humble parents at 
Schlettstadt in Lower Alsace. The proper 
spelling of his name is undoubtedly Butzer ; 
this form is employed by himself, and ordi- 
narily by his German contemporaries, except 
when they latinise his name into Bucerus 
(cf. the jest related by MELCHIOE ADAM, Vita 
JBuceri, 105, which also explains the Latin 
equivalents Emimctor and Aretinus Felinus ; 
in Greek he called himself Bov/ojpos). In his 
fifteenth year he was, against his will, placed 
as a novice in the Dominican monastery in his 
native town, and he remained a monk till 1521. 
At Heidelberg, where he studied Greek and 
Hebrew, he in April 1518 had an opportunity 
of hearing Luther dispute on the dogma of 
free-will ; a correspondence ensued, and Bucer 
began to long for emancipation. He became 
acquainted with several leading humanists, 
and was more especially patronised by Capito. 
Soon he thought it prudent to take refuge, 
first in some other sequestered spot, and then 
in Franz von Sickingen's castle, the Ebern- 
burg, near Creuznach, where at this time 
Hutten and many other fugitives enjoyed 
the knight's hospitality. But through skilful 
aid he ultimately found no great difficulty 
in obtaining a papal brief, in consequence of 
which he was on 29 April 1521 declared free 
from his monastic vows, though of course he 
still remained a priest. In. an interview at 
Oppenheim on 13 April 1521 he had tried to 
induce Luther to divert his course from the 
diet of Worms to the Ebernburg, but failed, 
and Bucer had thereupon loyally accompanied 
the reformer on his dangerous journey. Im- 
mediately after (possibly even before) his libe- 
ration from his vows, Bucer entered the service 
of the Count (afterwards Elector) Palatine 
Frederick (II) ; but he soon felt ill at ease, 
especially among the dissipations of Niirnberg. 
In May 1522 he obtained his dismissal, and 
entered upon the incumbency of Landstuhl, 
Sickingen's barony, near Kaiserslautern (Mel- 
chior Adam's account of this part of Bucer's 
life is confused). Soon after his establishment 
here he was married to Elisabeth Pallass 
(SCHENKEL), or Silbereisen (BAUM), who had 
for twelve years been the inmate of a nunnery, 
but who made him an excellent wife. Bucer's 
marriage is memorable as one of the earliest 
marriages of ordained priests among the re- 
formers ; it was followed by Bugenhagen's in 
1522, Zwingli's in 1524, and Luther's in 1525. 

From Landstuhl Bucer, at Sickingen's sug- 




gestion, undertook one or two journeys in 
the interests of the reformation, falling into 
peril in the Netherlands. Soon, however, he 
was generously dismissed by his patron, and 
on passing through Weissenburg in Lower 
Alsace accepted an invitation from Motherer, 
parson in that town, to fill the post of 
preacher at his church. Here he in a series 
of sermons advanced Lutheran views, and 
recommended the study of the German Bible. 
Great excitement ensued, and both Motherer 
and Bucer, having declined to appear before 
the Bishop of Speier, were excommunicated 
by him. Bucer hereupon made a public pro- 
fession of his doctrine, but finally both he 
and his friend, with their wives, were obliged 
to fly to Strassburg, where they arrived at 
the end of April 1523, and at first took refuge 
in the house of Bucer's father, now a citizen 
of the town. 

In Strassburg the reformation had many 
sympathisers, and Matthew Zell was already 
preaching ' the gospel ' to the people in the 
nave of the minster. Capito, who had recently 
assumed a dignified ecclesiastical position in 
the city, still observed a hesitating attitude. 
Bucer's arrival and bold announcement of his 
marriage to the spiritual authorities therefore 
created much interest, and he was at first only 
allowed to lecture, as it were, privately in 
Zell's house. As a citizen's son, however, he 
was protected by the town council against the 
bishop, who demanded his surrender, and was 
allowed to plead his cause both by word of 
mouth and in writing. His lectures on the 
New Testament, some of which he gave in the 
cathedral, were numerously attended, and in 
December 1523 he was appointed a salaried 
daily lecturer on the scriptures. He was 
now one of the seven preachers recognised at 
Strassburg as the representatives of the cause 
of the reformation. Jacob Sturm, in the 
town council, and Capito, who had by this 
time declared for the reformation, were, with 
Bucer and Zell, its chief promoters. In March 
1524 the bishop excommunicated several mar- 
ried priests, among whom, however, there is 
no mention of Bucer ; and in the same month 
the guild of gardeners, whose religious views 
were of an advanced character, elected him 
priest at St. Aurelia's, a parsonage in Capito's 
provostship. Though much drawn to Zwingli, 
he continued for a time to maintain an inde- 
pendent attitude as to the use of images and 
pictures, and his view of the eucharist was 
not as yet wholly divergent from Luther's. 
But the difficulties of the Strassburg re- 
formers increased as the city became the re- 
fuge of victims of religious persecution. Both 
Capito and Bucer showed hospitality toFrench 
and Italian refugees, through whom Bucer in 

particular set on foot schemes for the propaga- 
tion of protestantism. Less welcome to him 
were the anabaptists who took refuge in the 
city and Carlstadt, whose dispute with Luther 
was already notorious. In October 1524 the 
images were removed out of Bucer's church, 
and St. Aurelia's wonder-working grave was 
closed ; and in the following month Bucer, 
while giving an account to Luther of the 
simple reformed worship in use at Strass- 
burg, requested in the name of his brethren 
a more explicit statement of Luther's dogma 
concerning the eucharist. Probably Bucer 
had been alienated from the Lutheran view 
on this head through the influence of Rodius 
(Rode, of Utrecht), who visited him about 
this time (KosTLisr, i. 717 ; cf. BATJM, 304-5). 
Luther's reply was his 'Address to all Chris- 
tians in Strassburg/ warning them against 
the errors of Carlstadt. Soon after this Bucer, 
with Capito and Zell, bravely attempted in 
a personal interview to persuade a large band 
of insurrectionary peasants to abstain from 

The hardest and most thankless task of 
Bucer's life began when in 1525 the conflict 
between Luther and Zwingli which turned 
mainly, though not altogether, on the eucha- 
rist, declared itself. The Strassburg preachers, 
who distinctly placed themselves on the side 
of the Swiss reformer, were roughly handled 
byMelanchthon, and sarcastically criticised by 
the Erasmians, against whom Bucer did his 
best to defend his position. Luther, having 
in November declined a friendly overture 
from the Strassburgers, was further irritated 
by observations on the eucharist introduced 
by Bucer into his Latin translation of Luther's 
1 Church Postil ' (1525), and Luther's follower, 
Bugenhagen, had a similar grievance against 
the same translator's version of his ' Commen- 
tary on the Psalms.' Meanwhile, the friend- 
liness between the Strassburg and the Swiss 
reformers increased, Bucer also placing him- 
self decisively on Zwingli's side against ana- 
baptism, with certain milder phases of which 
his friend Capito was not altogether out of 
sympathy (1527). At the great Bern dispu- 
tation (January 1528) he distinctly declared 
in favour of the Zwinglian doctrine. Soon 
afterwards he dedicated to the Bern town 
council his ' Commentary on the Gospel of 
St. John,' prefaced by a summary of the pro- 
ceedings at the disputation. In March 1528 
appeared the amplest ' Confession ' ever put 
forth by Luther concerning the eucharist, 
and in June Bucer published a reply in dia- 
logue form, in which he proposed a personal 
conference between the leaders of the two 
parties. He had already entreated Zwingli 
to adopt as conciliatory as possible a tone 




towards Luther, but as yet no sounds except 
of ire came from Wittenberg. Meanwhile, 
Strassburg consummated her revolt from 
Rome by the abolition of the mass (20 Feb. 
1529 ; see l Rede me and be nott Wrothe,' by 
Roy and Barlow, ARBER'S English Reprints, 
1871, where 'Butzer' is mentioned among 
the chief adversaries of the mass). Bucer's 
activity was of great service in liturgical 
reform, not only at Strassburg, but also at 
numerous places in Suabia and Hesse. 

The position of affairs in 1529 was so full 
of danger for the estates, including Strass- 
burg, which had protested at Speier, that a 
close cohesion among them seemed impera- 
tive ; this, however, it seemed clear to Philip 
of Hesse, Jacob Sturm, and others, must be 
preceded by a theological agreement, the pro- 
motion of which now became the main object 
of Bucer's endeavours. In these he was 
greatly aided by CEcolampadius. Bucer's own 
views were substantially Zwinglian, but his 
plan was if possible to formulate the cardinal 
doctrine of the eucharist after a fashion 
which, without offending against the laws of 
logic, might prove acceptable to both Luther 
and Zwingli. At last the conference was 
brought about which opened at Marburg in 
1529 between Luther and Zwingli, with 
Bucer and others intervening (1 and 3 Oct. 
1529). Notwithstanding Bucer's efforts and 
concessions (Luther is said to have wel- 
comed him with the humorous reproach ' tu 
es nequam'), the one subject on which no 
agreement was arrived at was the crucial 
subject of the eucharist. Probably, however, 
some impression in favour of union had been 
made on Melanchthon ; and, at all events, 
Bucer was more than ever marked out as the 
man most likely to conduct further negotia- 
tions to a successful issue. That he could 
hold his own when he chose is shown by his 
celebrated ' Apologetic Letter' published 
shortly afterwards (1530), in answer to Eras- 
mus. Bucer was concerned ' in the drawing 
up of the ' Confessio Tetrapolitana ' presented 
at the diet of Augsburg in July 1530 by 
Strassburg, Constance, Memmingen, and Lin- 
dau, which differed most essentially from the 
' Augustana ' in the article on the eucharist, 
though going as far as possible in the Lutheran 
direction (when he published it after an inten- 
tional delay, in August 1531, he accompanied 
it by a most conciliatory ' Apology '). An in- 
terview with Melanchthon, followed by a let- 
ter to Luther, having led to no result, Bucer 
on 25 Sept. 1530 courageously presented him- 
self in person before Luther at Coburg, and 
had the satisfaction of bringing him to ex- 
press a distinct hope of reconciliation with 
the ' sacramentarians,' or, at all events, with 

the Strassburgers. Henceforth his plan of 
action was so to put the desired agreement 
that Luther might appear to have yielded 
nothing (cf. KOSTLIN, ii. 248-9). Soon after- 
wards Bucer journeyed in the interest of 
union through a series of towns in the south- 
west of Germany and in Switzerland, from 
which he returned to Strassburg in October. 
Here we find him seeking to facilitate a 
union with the Waldensian communities, but 
his more important scheme still remained 
unaccomplished. While the Wittenbergers 
were now hoping through him to detach the 
South German toAvns from the Swiss, the 
i Ziirichers, with the men of Bern and Con- 
stance, and even his own Strassburgers, began 
to suspect his intentions. Among other 
things which helped to hamper his endea- 
vours was the publication at Hagenau in 
Alsace of Servetus's book about the Trinity 
(1531), which, after he had in vain attempted 
to suppress its circulation, and after Serve- 
tus had left Strassburg, Bucer censured in a 
confutation supposed to be still extant (ToL- 
LIN, 236). His efforts for union were by no 
means furthered by the death of Zwingli at 
Cappel (October 1531), but an almost heavier 
blow for him was the death of CEcolampadius 
(November), although he thereby became the 
acknowledged head of the South German di- 
vines. At Strassburg he now presided over 
the weekly clerical board of the * servants of 
the Word.' He used his authority to induce 
the Strassburgers at a meeting of the protes- 
tant estates held at Schweinfurt (April 1532) 
to subscribe the Augustana without aban- 
doning the Tetrapolitana, and to accept the 
articles of agreement drawn up by him, with 
a proviso safeguarding the maintenance of 
their simple ritual for ten years. This step 
was very ill received in Switzerland and 
elsewhere, and he was left with few sup- 
porters of his union policy, while at this very 
time he was blamed at Strassburg for draw- 
ing too tight the reins of ecclesiastical disci- 
pline against the ' prophets.' He succeeded, 
however, both in introducing during another 
tour a considerable measure of uniformity 
among the South German and Swiss churches, 
and at home in bringing about the establish- 
ment of an ecclesiastical constitution through 
a synod (1533) which may have averted from 
Strassburg the fate of Miinster. The errors 
of the church there was one among the many 
subjects which about this time employed his 
pen. The continuation of his lectures on 
the New Testament (published in their first 
edition, 1530, and second, 1536), with Capito's 
on the Old, was the beginning of systematic 
courses of higher instruction which after- 
wards developed into the university of Strass- 




burg; and it was he who in 1538 brought 
John Sturm into the city which owed so 
much to his labours. Bucer's interests were 
not confined to Strassburg or Alsace, though 
nothing came of his efforts to further the 
design of a reformation in France, in which I 
both he and Melanchthon were to some extent 
involved (KosTLi^, ii. 371, 462 ; cf. MICHELET, 
Histoire de France (2nd ed. 1857), viii. 406- 
417). Nearer at home he successfully exerted 
himself for the institution of the church at 
Augsburg (1534-5). 

Meanwhile, he continued intent upon his 
scheme of finding a basis for a formulated 
agreement/or concordia, between the Luthe- 
rans and the South Germans and Swiss ; and 
after holding a preliminary conference at 
Constance, he met Melanchthon at Cassel 
(Christmas 1534). Their meeting was cor- 
dial, but led to no definite result, and Bucer's 
labours continued at Augsburg and elsewhere. 
In April 1536, soon after his return from 
Basel, where he had aided in drawing up the ! 
eucharistic portion of the so-called First 
Helvetic Confession, he learned that Luther 
was prepared to discuss in person the ques- 
tion of a concordia. The meeting, which was 
to have taken place at Eisenach, was actually 
held at Wittenberg 22-29 May. The con- 
cession on the part of Bucer and his com- 
panions that the body in the eucharist is 
received by the unworthy brought matters to 
a conclusion; Luther saluted them as his 
'dear brethren in the Lord,' and articles 
drawn up by Melanchthon were signed by 
all (or nearly all) present. Bucer's work was 
accomplished, though he well knew what 
bitterness was to follow. His ' Retractatio 
de Coena Domini' was in the same year 
appended to the new edition of his Gospel 
' Commentaries.' The concordia was not ap- 
proved at Zurich, and in February 1537 
Bucer presented to Luther at Smalcald a 
statement of doctrine which had been drawn 
up at Basel. Though it is said (BATIM, 518) 
that Luther, whom a most dangerous illness 
obliged to take his departure to Gotha, 
whither Bucer afterwards followed him, com- 
mitted to the latter the general care of the 
poor church, in the event of his own death, 
his ' Smalcald Articles ' again went beyond 
the Wittenberg concordia, and Bucer's work 
seemed nearly lost again. A conference at 
Zurich in April 1538 proved to him that he 
had alienated the Swiss, while he only with 
difficulty obtained the adhesion of the South 
German towns, and all this in order that 
Luther in some of his last writings might 
inveigh more vehemently than ever against 
the ' sacramentarians.' At least, however, 
Melanchthon's views had been materially 

modified, and the Calvinistic development of 
Zwinglian doctrine had been prepared. With 
Calvin himself Bucer first came into friendly 
contact at a synod held in Bern May 1537, 
and again during the stay of the former at 
Strassburg, 1538-41. There was much sym- 
pathy between them on the subject of church 
discipline. Among the German reformers 
Bucer now took a leading position. His sig- 
nature is appended to the memorable opinion 
furnished by Luther and others in justifica- 
tion of resistance to the emperor on the ques- 
tion of religion (KosiLiN, ii. 411). And in a 
similar capacity he became involved in the 
scandal of the Landgrave Philip of Hesse's 
1 second' marriage (March 1540), which he 
promoted, witnessed, and even helped to de- 
fend. A far nobler, though an ineffectual 
work, was his share in the endeavours to 
bring about a reunion between the contend- 
ing religions in the empire. Bucer's inter- 
view with Witzel was followed in 1540 by 
the meeting of princes at Hagenau, at which 
he and other protestant theologians attended,, 
and of which he published an account. An- 
other meeting at Worms was likewise broken 
up by the catholic side ; but the most impor- 
tant of the series was held at Ratisbon on 
the occasion of the diet of 1541, where on 
the catholic side the legate Contarini and 
Julius Pflug, with Eck and Gropper, on the 
protestant Melanchthon, Bucer, and the Hes- 
sian Pistorius, were the leading representa- 
tives. Of this interesting and, as it seemed, 
not wholly fruitless meeting, Bucer likewise 
put forth a narrative. On his return he found 
the plague raging at Strassburg ; among its 
victims were several (three ?) of his children, 
his wife, and his faithful associate Capito. 
A twelvemonth later he married Capito's 

In 1541 and the following years Bucer was 
much occupied in assisting the archbishop- 
elector of Cologne (Hermann von Wied) in 
his attempt to introduce reformed doctrines 
and worship into his territories. With Me- 
lanchthon he drew up a ' Book of Reformation ' 
(1543), to which Luther made objections. 
From this work, of which an English version 
was printed in London in 1547 (see STRTPE, 
Ecclesiastical Memorials, n. i. 41-4), and 
which itself largely borrowed from a liturgy 
previously established in Niirnberg and Ans- 
pach, the services of the church of England 
are occasionally derived. Bucer defended 
his proceedings in the Cologne electorate 
in two treatises published in 1543, but the 
collapse of Hermann von Wied's attempt is 
well known. Before the catastrophe of the 
Smalcaldic war Bucer attended one more 
conference on reunion held at Ratisbon in 




1546, where the main discussion was carried 
on between himself and the Spaniard Mal- 
venda. After all was over, and when early 
in 1548 the Interim was about to be laid be- 
fore the diet, he was summoned to Augsburg 
by the elector, Joachim II of Brandenburg, 
who, being desirous for peace at any price, 
wished to obtain an authoritative opinion in 
favour of the proposed settlement. He was 
detained in something like imprisonment for 
twenty-two days, but proved less pliable than 
had been expected, and Strassburg, though 
all but alone in her resolution, declined to 
sign the Interim. In the resistance against 
the necessity of accepting it which Strass- 
burg maintained for more than a year and a 
half the preachers unanimously took part, 
with Bucer and Fagius, Capito's successor, 
at their head. But it gradually became evi- 
dent that the city must give way, and that 
its spiritual leaders must take their depar- 
ture. After preparing, as a species of pas- 
toral legacy, a ' Summary of the religion 
taught at Strassburg during the last twenty- 
eight years,' Bucer, together with Fagius, 
applied for t leave of absence,' and a tempo- 
rary pension having been granted them, and 
generous provision made for Bucer's family 
during his peregrination, they quitted Strass- 
burg on 6 April 1549. Bucer had been offered 
hospitality by Melanchthon, Myconius, and 
Calvin, and hardly had he and his companions 
departed when they were invited to profes- 
sorial chairs at Copenhagen ; but they had 
already bent their course to England. With 
England Bucer had a connection of long stand- 
ing, having been consulted by Henry VIII 
about his divorce, and more lately, in par- 
tial consequence perhaps of the hospitality 
shown to so many English protestant fugi- 
tives at Strassburg, having been in frequent 
correspondence with Cranmer. The primate, 
who had already bestowed the regius profes- 
sorship of divinity at Oxford upon Bucer's 
former colleague, Peter Martyr, now invited 
Bucer himself to England, doubtless with a 
view to his receiving a similar appointment 
at Cambridge (see Miscellaneous Writings 
and Letters of Cranmer, ed. J. E. Cox, Parker 
Society, 1846, 423-4). The travellers set sail 
from Calais on 23 April, and on the same day 
reached hardly Cambridge, as Baum says, 
but Canterbury (cf., as to Bucer's visiting 
Canterbury about this time, STRYPE, u.s. n. 
i. 123). Thence they proceeded to London, 
where they found Cranmer surrounded by 
foreign refugees (see Bucer's letter, noting 
the want of good preachers and teachers in 
England, cited by BAUM, 551). On 1 May 
they were most graciously received by the 
young king Edward VI and the great person- 

ages around him, among whom the Duchess 
of Suffolk soon showed special favour to 
Bucer. In the first instance he and his com- 
panion were, by desire of the king and Somer- 
set, employed upon a Latin version of the 
Scriptures, with explanations and doctrinal 
notes, the whole to be afterwards translated 
into English. Bucer also warmly interested 
himself in the affairs of the London congre- 
gations of French and German refugees, and 
corresponded with Peter Martyr, whose pro- 
positions concerning the eucharist he thought 
too Zwinglian (cf. the plain-spoken note in 
HALLAM, Constitutional History, 10th ed. 
i. 90). His opinion was constantly asked by 
Cranmer, notably on the controversy about 
ecclesiastical vestments raised by Hooper on 
his appointment to the see of Gloucester (see 
CRANMER, Miscellaneous Writings, 428, and 
note ; cf. also FROUDE, History of England, 
12mo, iv. 558-60. Bucer's conciliatory reply, 
*De re vestiaria in sacris,' is printed in 
' Scripta Anglicana,' 705-10). At last the 
arrangements were complete which made 
it possible to summon Bucer and Fagius to 
Cambridge, the former as regius professor of 
divinity, the salary having been raised to 
100/. per annum, and Madew having retired 
in his favour. Fagius, who had arrived at 
Cambridge in advance, died there on 11 Nov. 
in the arms of Bucer, who, though himself 
suffering, had followed his friend as soon as 
possible. He thus had to begin his new life 
alone. He was treated with great respect, 
and soon afterwards created D.D., having 
been specially recommended by royal letter 
to the university (MULLINGER, ii. 119). It was 
on this occasion that he delivered a species 
of inaugural lecture, in which he modestly 
preferred a seasonable plea in favour of de- 
grees and examinations (Scripta Anglicana, 
184-90). On 10 Jan. 1550 he opened a course 
of lectures on the Epistle to the Ephesians. 
Before the end of the winter he was joined 
by his wife and some of his children and 
servants. He was frequently visited by Par- 
ker, Haddon, Bradford, and others. He con- 
tinued to be frequently consulted by Cranmer, 
and was specially commissioned with the re- 
vision of the first English book of common 
prayer, though but a small part of the im- 
provements suggested by him was actually 
carried out (see the ' Censura,' &c., in Scripta 
Anglicana, 456-503, to which is prefixed the 
Latin version of the prayer book by Alesius, 
erroneously described by Strype in a passage 
cited in this dictionary [art. ALESIUS], which 
should be corrected accordingly ; cf. LAU- 
RENCE, Hampton Lectures, 221 ; see ib. 246- 
247 as to the slightness of Bucer's influence 
upon the English liturgy. His share in the 




forty-two Articles of 1553 must necessarily 
remain a matter of conjecture). In August 
1550 he took part in a disputation on the 
Lutheran doctrine of justification to which 
he had been challenged by John Young, An- 
drew Perne, and Thomas Sedgwick, and 
which excited much bitter controversy in the 
university. On his return to Cambridge from 
a visit to Peter Martyr, he found that Young 
had begun a series of lectures against his 
teaching, and, as his opponents would not 
carry on the discussion in writing, sought 
leave for another and final disputation, with 
what result is not known (his account of the 
' Controversy ' is in 'Scripta Anglicana,' 797- 
862 ; cf. MULLINGEB, ii. 122). 

The winter of 1550-1 found Bucer better 
prepared for meeting its rigour, and various 
special gifts were sent to him by the young 
king ; his salary was raised, and he was told 
to spare himself, and not hold himself bound 
to lecture. He was thus encouraged to de- 
vote himself to the composition of a work 
desired by Edward VI as a new year's greet- 
ing the both comprehensive and practical 
* De Regno Christi ' (in f Scripta Anglicana,' 
1-170. It seems to have been first published 
in 1557, and was soon translated into French 
and German). Scarcely had he completed and 
presented this work, and recommenced his 
lectures (the ' Commentary on the Epistle to 
the Ephesians ' published at Basel in 1561 by 
Trewellius only reaches the fifth chapter), 
when ill-health, from which he had more or 
less suffered since his arrival in England, 
again overtook him. He soon perceived that 
his end was at hand. The sick man's house 
speedily filled with friends, among them the 
Duchess of Suffolk, whose two young sons 
were studying at Cambridge under his tuition, 
and John Bradford tended him to the last. 
He died on 28 Feb. 1550-1, after expressing 
anxiety on his deathbed lest for lack of dis- 
cipline the English church should fall into 
the errors which had distracted that of his 
native land (see N. CARE'S epistle, ' De Obitu 
Buceri,' in Scripta Anglicana , 867-76). He 
was buried in Great St. Mary's Church, the 
whole university and large numbers of bur- 
gesses, some three thousand persons in all, 
attending his funeral. Parker's funeral ser- 
mon and Walter Haddon's speech as public I 
orator are in ' Scripta Anglicana ' (882-99), j 
followed by a flow of epitaphs and other j 
testimonies in his honour; and the utmost 
kindness was shown to his family. 

During the visitation of the university 
under Queen Mary on 6 Feb. 1557, the bodies 
of Bucer and Fagius were exhumed, and, with 
an elaborate mockery of a real trial and exe- 
cution, publicly burnt on Market Hill at Cam- 


I bridge (see the lengthy account in Scripta 
\ Anglicana, 915-35). But three years after- 
I wards, in July 1560, under the same vice- 
! chancellor (Perne), who had, it was said, un- 
willingly figured in this ghastly farce, the 
university was instructed to make amends 
by restoring all their honours to Bucer and 
; Fagius (see the narrative, ib. 935-45). Queen 
' Elizabeth appears to have renewed the let- 
! ters patent by which her brother had granted 
to any descendant of Bucer the privilege of 
settling in England with all the rights of an 
English subject ; and in 1593 a grandson of 
his, afterwards pastor at Basel, was main- 
| tained at Trinity, Cambridge, by the com- 
bined liberality of the college and the crown 

(MULLItfGER, ii. 182). 

[The worst of the charges brought against 
'the dear politicus and fanaticus of union,' as 
Bucer was called by his friend Margaret Blaurer, 
will be found arrayed in the dedicatory epistle 
prefixed to the so-called Scripta Anglicana, or 
Tomus Anglicanus (fol. Basel 1577), edited by 
Bucer's friend, and for some time regular secre- 
tary and companion, Conrad Hubert. This 
volume, though intended to form part of a col- 
lective edition of all his works, was not followed 
by any other. It contains all those of his works 
which were published in England, together with 
some of his earlier writings and various memo- 
rials of him. A complete list of his works, 
ninety-six in number, is given in the appendix to 
the extremely full and learned biography of him 
and his chief Strassburg associate published by 
the late Professor J. W. Baum under the title of 
' Capito und Butzer, Strassburg's Eeformatoren,' 
as pt. iii. of Hagenbach's Leben und ausgewahlte 
Schriften der Vater und Begriinder der reformir- 
ten Kirche (Elberfeld, 1860). Among older bio- 
graphical sketches Melchior Adam's, in his Vitae 
Eruditorum, is useful ; among modern, Schenkel's 
in Herzog's Real-Encyclopadie, &c. vol. i., and 
Herzog's in Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, 
vol. iv. See also, for the transactions between 
Luther and Bucer, Kostlin's Martin Luther (here 
cited in the third German edition, 2 vols. Elber- 
feld, 1883) ; for the controversy with Erasmus, 
Drummond, Life of Erasmus (1873), ii. 322; 
A. Miiller, Leben des Erasmus (1828), 349-54, 
and note; and Erasmi Opera (1703-6), x. 1573 
seqq. ; for the relations with Servetus, and a 
very remarkable examination of the develop- 
ment of Bucer's views concerning the Trinity, 
Tollin's Michael Servet und Martin Butzer (Ber- 
lin, 1880); for educational affairs at Strassburg, 
Smith's La Vie et les Travaux de Jean Sturm 
(Strassburg, 1855); for the question of Philip of 
Hesse's bigamy, C. von Eommel's Geschichte von 
Hessen (Cassel, 1830), iv. 230-5, and appendix, 
209-19, with Kostlin; for Bucer's Cambridge 
life, Mullinger's University of Cambridge from 
the Royal Injunctions of 1535 to the Accession 
of Charles I (Cambridge, 1884), and Cooper's 
Atheme Cantab, i. 101.] A. W. W. 








(1764-1824), physician, was born at Ack- 
werth, near Pontefract, in 1764, being the son 
of Dr. William Buchan, author of l Domestic 
Medicine' [q. v.] He was educated at the 
high school and university of Edinburgh, 
studied anatomy and medicine also in London 
under the Hunters and Dr. George Fordyce, 
and proceeded to Leyden, where he graduated 
M.D. on 11 July 1793. Settling in London, 
he became physician to the Westminster Hos- 
pital in 1813, but resigned that office in 1818. 
He was re-elected in 1820, and died on 5 Dec. 

Buchan's works include ' Enchiridion Sy- 
philiticum,' 1797 ; * Treatise on Sea Bathing, 
with Remarks on the Use of the Warm 
Bath,' 1801 ; ' Bionomia, or Opinions con- 
cerning Life and Health,' 1811 ; * Symptoma- 
tology,' 1824 ; besides a translation of Dau- 
benton's ' Observations on Indigestion,' 1807 ; 
an edition of Dr. Armstrong's ' Diseases of 
Children,' 1808 ; and the twenty-first edition 
of his father's ' Domestic Medicine,' 1813. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), iii. 5.] 

G. T. B. 

BUCHAN, ANDREW OP (d. 1309 ?), 
bishop of Caithness, was, previous to his eleva- 
tion to the bishopric, abbot of the Cistercian 
abbey of Cupar (Coupar) Angus, to which 
he had been preferred in 1272. In the Rag- 
man roll his name appears as paying homage 
to Edward at the church of Perth 24 July 
1291, and atBerwick-on-Tweed 28 Aug. 1296. 
He was nominated to the bishopric of Caith- 
ness by Pope Boniface VIII, 17 Dec. 1296 
(THEINEK, Vet. Mon. ed. 1864, No. ccclix. 
pp. 163-4). Spotiswood affirms that he 
lived as bishop thirteen years, but wrongly 
gives the date of his consecration as 1288. 
The date of his death is usually given as 
1301, but this appears to be mere conjecture, 
and there is no evidence to show that his 
successor Ferquhard was bishop before 1309. 

[Rental Book of Cupar-Angus, ed. Charles 
Rogers (Grampian Club), i. 15-29; Anderson's 
Orkneyinga Saga, lxxxv-vi.] T. F. H. 


(1738-1791), the head of a religious sect 
generally known as ' Buchanites,' was the 
daughter of John Simpson and Margaret 
Gordon, who kept a wayside inn at Fat- 
macken, between Banff and Portsoy. She 
was born in 1738. In early life she was 
employed in herding cows, and afterwards 

entered the house of a relation, by whom 
she was taught reading and sewing. During* 
a visit to Greenock she made the acquaintance 
of Robert Buchan, a working potter, whom* 
she married. They quarrelled and separated, 
! and in 1781 she removed with the children 
I to Glasgow. Having heard Hugh White, of 
the Relief church at Irvine, preach in Glas- 
! gow at the April sacrament of 1783, she wrote 
him a letter expressing her high approval of 
his sermons, and stating that no preacher she 
had ever previously listened to had so fully 
! satisfied her spiritual needs. The result was 
{ that she removed to Irvine to enjoy the pri- 
: vilege of his ministry, and converted both 
< him and his wife to the belief that she was 
| a saint specially endowed and privileged by 
heaven, White's final conclusion being that 
she was the woman mentioned in the Reve- 
lation of St. John, while she declared him 
; to be the man child she had brought forth. 
! On account of his proclamation of these- 
peculiar doctrines White was deposed from 
i the ministry by the presbytery. In May 1784 
! the magistrates banished the sect from the- 
i burgh, and following the supposed guidance- 
j of the star which led the wise men to Beth- 
i lehem, they settled on the farm of New 
Cample, in the parish of Closeburn, Dum- 
friesshire. They were joined here by one or- 
two persons in good positions in life, and 
their numbers ultimately reached forty-six. 
Mrs. Buchan, whom they named their ' spi- 
ritual mother,' professed to have the power 
of conferring the Holy Ghost by breathing, 
and also laid claim to certain prophetic gifts. 
They believed in the millennium as close at 
hand, and were persuaded that they would 
not taste of death, but would be taken up to- 
meet Christ in the air. The following ac- 
count of them by Robert Burns, the poet, 
may be accepted as strictly accurate : ' Their 
tenets are a strange jumble of enthusiastic- 
jargon ; among others she pretends to give 
them the Holy Ghost by breathing on them,, 
which she does with postures and gestures- 
that are scandalously indecent. They have 
likewise a community of goods, and liv& 
nearly an idle life, carrying on a great farc& 
of pretended devotion in barns and woods,, 
where they lodge and lie together, and hold 
likewise a community of women, as it is 
another of their tenets that they can com- 
mit no mortal sin' (Burns to J. Burness, 
August 1784). It is affirmed that Burns 
had an attachment to a young woman who> 
joined the Buchanites, and that he spent a 
whole night and day in vainly endeavouring 
to persuade her to return. His song * As I 
was a walking ' was set to an air to which,, 
according to him, the ' Buchanites had set 


i 79 


some of their nonsensical rhymes,' for the 
composition of hymns was one of the gifts 
of Mrs. Buchan. In 1785 White issued 
' The Divine Dictionary,' written by him- 
self and 'revised and approver! by Elspeth 
Simpson/ The death of Mrs. Buchan in 
May 1791 dissipated the faith of most of her 
followers. White pretended that she was only 
in a trance, and had her buried clandestinely, 
but he afterwards renounced his belief in her 
promise to return and conduct them to the 
New Jerusalem. The last survivor of the 
sect was Andrew Innes, who died in 1848. 

[Four Letters between the people called Bu- 
ehanites and a teacher near Edinburgh, together 
with two letters from Mrs. Buchan and one from 
Mr. White to a clergyman in England, 1785; 
Train's The Buchanites fromFirst to Last, 1846 ; 
Works of Eobert Burns.] T. F. H. 

BUCHAN, PETER (1790-1854), collec- 
tor of Scottish ballads, born at Peterhead in 
1790, traced his descent from the Comyns, 
earls of Buchan. His parents discouraged 
his desire to enter the navy, and an early 
marriage completely estranged his father. 
In 1814 he published an original volume of 
verse ('The Recreation of Leisure Hours, 
being Songs and Verses in the Scottish 
Dialect,' Peterhead, 1814), taught himself 
copper-plate engraving, and resolved to open 
a printing-office for the first time at Peter- 
. head. Early in 1816 he went to Edinburgh 
with an empty purse and 'a pocketful of 
flattering introductory letters.' His kinsman, 
the Earl of Buchan, sent him to Dr. Charles 
Wingate at Stirling, where he learnt the art 
of printing in the short space of ten days. 
On his return to Edinburgh, a gift of 50/. 
from a friend of the Earl of Buchan enabled 
him to purchase the business plant of a print- 
ing-office, and on 24 March 1816 he set up 
his press at Peterhead. In 1819 he con- 
structed a new press on an original plan. 
It was worked with the feet instead of with 
the hands, and printed as well from stone, 
copper, and wood as from ordinary type. Bu- 
chan also invented an index-machine showing 
the number of sheets worked off by the press, 
but an Edinburgh press-maker borroAved this 
invention, and, taking it to America, never re- 
turned it to the inventor. About 1822 Buchan 
temporarily removed to London, but in 1824 
he resettled as a printer at Peterhead. His 
chief publications were of his own compila- 
tion, and the business was prosperous enough 
to enable Buchan to retire on his capital, 
and to purchase a small property near Denny- 
loanhead, Stirlingshire, which he called Bu- 
chanstone. A harassing and expensive law- 
suit, however, with the superior landlord, who 

claimed the minerals on the estate, compelled 
him to sell the property in 1852. For the 
next two years he lived in Ireland with a 
younger son at Stroudhill House, Leitrim. 
In 1854 he came to London on business, and 
died there suddenly on 19 Sept. He was 
buried at Norwood. His eldest son, Charles 
Forbes Buchan ; D.D., became minister of 
Fordoun, Kincardinesbire, in 1846. 

Buchan owes his reputation to his success 
as a collector and editor of Scottish ballads, 
and in this work he spent large sums of money. 
In 1828 appeared in two volumes his 'Ancient 
Ballads and Songs of the North of Scotland, 
hitherto unpublished, with explanatory notes.' 
The book was printed and published for him 
in Edinburgh. More than forty ballads were 
printed there for the first time, and many 
others were published in newly discovered 
versions. Scott interested himself from the 
first in Buchan's labours, and speaks highly 
of their value (' Introductory Remarks on 
Popular Poetry' (1830), prefixed to later 
editions of the Border Minstrelsy}. In 1834 
was advertised a second collection of Buchan's 
'North Countrie Minstrelsy,' but Mr. Jerdan 
apparently purchased Buchan's manuscript for 
the Percy Society, and in 1845 James Henrj 
Dixon edited it for that society under the 
title of ' Scottish Traditional Versions of 
Ancient Ballads.' 

Buchan's other works were very numerous. 
The chief of them were : 1. ' Annals of 
Peterhead,' Peterhead, 1819, 12mo. 2. < An 
Historical Account of the Ancient and Noble 
Families of Keiths, Earls Marischals of Scot- 
land,' n. d., Peterhead. 3. ' Treatise proving 
that Brutes have souls and are immortal/ 
Peterhead, 1824. 4. ' The Peterhead Smug- 
glers of the Last Century ; or, William and 
Annie, an original melodrama, in three acts/ 
Edinburgh, 1834. 5. 'The Eglinton Tour- 
nament and Gentlemen Unmasked/ Glasgow, 
1839 (republished as ' Britain's Boast, her 
Glory and her Shame ; or, a Mirror for all 
Ranks '). 6. ' An Account of the Chivalry 
of the Ancients/ Glasgow, 1 840. 7. ' Man- 
Body and Soul as he was, as he is, and as 
he shall be/ 1849. Buchan was also the 
author of many detached poems and stories, 
and of anti-radical political pamphlets, and 
was a contributor to George Chalmers's ' Ca- 
ledonia.' Two unpublished volumes of his 
collection of ballads passed shortly before his 
death to Herbert Ingram, and afterwards to- 
Dr. Charles Mackay. They are now in the 
British Museum (Add. MSS. 29408-9). 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, iii. 691-3 ; Scott's 
Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; information from Dr. Charles Mackay.l 

S. L. L. 


1 80 


BUCHAN, THOMAS (d. 1720), general I 
of the Jacobite forces in Scotland, was de- ! 
scended from a family which claimed con- 
nection with the earls of Buchan, and which 
had been proprietors of Auchmacoy in the 
parish of Logie-Buchan, Aberdeenshire, as 
early as 1318. He was the third son of 
James Buchan of Auchmacoy and Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander Seton of Pitmedden. 
Entering the army at an early age he served 
with subordinate rank in France and Hol- 
land, and in 1682 was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel in the Earl of Mar's regiment of foot 
in Scotland. From letters of thanks addressed 
to him by the privy council it would appear 
that in 1684 and 1685 he was actively en- 
gaged against the covenanters. In 1686 he 
was made colonel of the regiment. While 
serving in Ireland in 1689 he was promoted by 
King James to the rank of major-general, and 
after the death of Dundee at Killiecrankie 
was appointed commander-in-chief of the j 
Jacobite forces in Scotland. At a meeting j 
of the highland chiefs held after his arrival j 
from Ireland, it was resolved to continue the j 
war with renewed vigour ; and meanwhile, j 
till the muster of the clans was completed, I 
it was arranged that Buchan, at the head of j 
1,200 men, should employ himself in harass- 
ing the enemy along the lowland border, i 
On 1 May 1690 he was surprised and totally I 
defeated by Sir Thomas Livingstone at Crom- 
dale, as many as four hundred of his troops 
being taken prisoners. The catastrophe forms 
the subject of the humorous ballad, 'The 
Haughs o' Cromdale,' the imaginary narrative 
of a fugitive highlander, who gives the result 
of the battle in the terse lines 

Quo' he, the highland army rues 
That e'er we came to Cromdale. 

After being reinforced by a body of six hundred 
Braemar highlanders, Buchan entered Aber- 
deenshire, and presented so formidable an 
attitude to the Master of Forbes that the 
latter hastily fell back on Aberdeen. This 
was the last effective effort of Buchan in 
behalf of the Jacobite cause. He made no 
attempt to enter the city, but marched south- 
ward till threatened by the advance of Gene- 
ral Mackay. He then retreated northwards, 
with the purpose of attacking Inverness ; but I 
the surrender of the Earl of Seaforth to the 
government rendered further active hostilities j 
impossible. For a time he retained a number 
of followers with him in Lochaber, but finally 
dismissed them and retired, along with Sir 
George Barclay and other officers, to Mac- 
donald of Glengarry. After the submission 
of the highland chiefs, he and other officers 
were, on 23 March 1692, transported to France. | 

Notwithstanding the failure of his efforts in 
behalf of the Stuarts, he retained their con- 
fidence, and did not cease to take an active 
interest in schemes to promote their restora- 
tion. He continued a correspondence with 
Mary of Modena after the death of James II, 
and in a letter dated 3 Sept. 1705 expressed 
his readiness to raise the highlands as soon 
as troops were sent to his assistance (HOOKE'S 
Correspondence, Roxburghe Club, 1870-1, i. 
302). In 1707 he was commissioned by a 
person in the service of the Pretender to 
visit Inverness and report on its defences, 
and his letter to Hooke in June of that year 
reporting his visit, with plans of Inverlochy 
fort and Inverness, will be found in Hooke's 
'Correspondence' (ii. 328). At the rising 
in 1715 he appears to have offered his ser- 
vices in the highlands, for the Marquis of 
Huntly, in a letter to him dated 22 Sept. 
1715, commends his ' frankness to go with 
me in our king and country's cause,' and ex- 
presses himself as ready ' to yield to your 
command, conduct, and experience.' On this 
account he is supposed to have been present 
at the battle of Sheriffmuir, 13 Nov. fol- 
lowing; but it is not improbable that cir- 
cumstances prevented him joining the rebels, 
as had he been present he would in all like- 
lihood have held a prominent command. 
He died at Ardlogie in Fy vie, and was 
buried in Logie-Buchan, in 1720. 

[Buchan's View of the Diocese of Aberdeen, 
1730, pp. 361-2 ; New Statist. Ace. of Scot. xii. 
806-7 ; Smith's New History of Aberdeenshire, 
903-5 ; Memoirs touching the Scots War car- 
ried on for their Majesties by Major-general 
Mackay against the Viscount Dundee, and after 
him Cannon, and at last Major-general Buchan, 
for the late King James (Bannatyne Club, 1833) ; 
Macpher son's Original Papers ; Colonel Hooke's 
Correspondence (Roxburghe Club, 1870-1).] 

T. F. H. 

BIJCHAN, WILLIAM (1729-1805), 
physician, was born at Ancrani in Roxburgh- 
shire, where his father had a small estate, 
besides renting a farm. When yet a boy at 
school young Buchan was amateur doctor to 
the village ; yet he was sent to Edinburgh 
to study divinity. But he supported himself 
to a considerable extent by teaching mathe- 
matics to his fellow-students, and gave up 
divinity for medicine, the elder Gregory show- 
ing him much countenance. After a nine 
years' residence at Edinburgh Buchan began 
practice in Yorkshire, and before long settled 
at Ackworth, being appointed physician to 
the foundling hospital, supported by parlia- 
ment. Here he gained great skill in treating 
diseases of children ; but his stay was abruptly 
terminated on parliament discontinuing the 




vote of 60,000/. for foundling hospitals. 
After this he practised some time at Sheffield, 
but returned to Edinburgh about 1766, and 
practised for some years with success. Fer- 
guson, the well-known popular lecturer on 
natural philosophy, at his death left Buchan 
his valuable apparatus. Buchan thereupon 
began to lecture on the subject, and drew large 
classes for some years. In 1769 appeared, at 
the low price of six shillings, the first edition 
of his ' Domestic Medicine ; or the Family 
Physician,' the first work of its kind in this 
country. Its success was immediate and 
great. Nineteen large editions, amounting 
to at least eighty thousand copies, were sold 
in Great Britain in the author's lifetime ; and 
the book continues to be re-edited, as well 
as largely copied in similar works. It was 
translated into all the principal European 
languages, including Kussian, and was more 
universally popular on the continent and in 
America than even in England. The Em- 
press of Russia sent Buchan a gold medal 
and a commendatory letter. It is said that 
Buchan sold the copyright for 700/., and that 
the publishers made as much profit yearly 
by it. Having unsuccessfully sought to suc- 
ceed the elder Gregory on his death, Buchan 
in 1778 removed to London, where he gained 
a considerable practice ; less, however, than 
his fame might have brought him but for his 
convivial and social habits. He regularly 
practised at the Chapter Coffee-house, near 
St. Paul's, to which literary men were then 
wont to resort. Full of anecdote, of agree- 
able manners, benevolent and compassionate, 
he was unsuited to make or keep a fortune : 
a tale of woe always drew tears from his 
eyes and money from his pocket. About a 
year before his death his excellent constitu- 
tion began to give way, and he died at his 
son's house in Percy Street, Rathbone Place, 
on 25 Feb. 1805, in his seventy-sixth year. 
He was buried in the cloisters at Westminster 

Among his minor works are l Cautions 
concerning Cold Bathing and Drinking Mi- 
neral Waters,' 1786 ; ' Observations con- 
cerning the Prevention and Cure of the 
Venereal Disease,' 1796 ; ' Observations con- 
cerning the Diet of the Common People,' 
1797 ; ' On the Offices and Duties of a 
Mother,' 1800. 

[New Catalogue of Living English Authors 
(1799), i. 352; Gent. Mag. Ixxv. pt. i. 286-8, 
378-80; European Mag. xlvii. 167.] G-. T. B. 

BUCHANAN, ANDREW (1690-1759), 
of Drumpellier, lord provost of Glasgow, was 
descended from a branch of the old family 
of Buchanan of Buchanan and Leny. He 

was the second of four sons of George 
Buchanan, maltster, Glasgow, one of the 
covenanters who fought at Bothwell Bridge, 
and Mary, daughter of Gabriel Maxwell, 
merchant, and was born in 1690. His name 
appears in M' lire's list of the ' First Merchant 
Adventurers at Sea ' ( View of the City of Glas- 
gow, p. 209), and by his trade Avith Virginia, 

I where he had a tobacco plantation, he be- 

' came one of the wealthiest citizens of his day. 

| In 1735 he purchased the estate of Drum- 
pellier, Lanarkshire, and the older portion of 
Drumpellier house was built by him in 1736. 
Adjoining Glasgow he purchased three small 
properties in what was then known as the 
' Long Croft,' the first purchase being made in 
1719, the second in 1732, and the third in 

! 1740 (Glasgow, Past and Present, ii. 196). 
Through his grounds he opened an avenue 
for gentlemen's houses, which he named 

1 Virginia Street, and he planned a town 
house for himself called Virginia Mansion, 
which he did not live to complete. Along 
with his three brothers he founded in 1725 
the Buchanan Society for the assistance of ap- 
prentices and the support of widows of the 
name of Buchanan. He was also one of the 
original partners of the Ship Bank, founded 
in 1750. He was elected dean of guild in 
1728, and lord provost in 1740. When after 
the battle of Prestonpans John Hay, quarter- 
master of the Pretender, arrived at Glasgow 
with a letter demanding a loan of 15,000/., 
Buchanan and five others were chosen com- 
missioners to treat with him, and succeeded in 
obtaining a reduction to 5,500/. (Memorabilia 
of Glasgow, p. 361). On account of his zeal 
in raising new levies on behalf of the govern- 
ment, Buchanan made himself so obnoxious 
to the rebels that in December 1745 a special 
levy of 500/. was made on him under threats 
of plundering his house, to which he replied 
1 they might plunder his house if they pleased, 
but he would not pay one farthing' (Scots 
Mag. viii. 30). He died 20 Dec. 1759. By 
his wife, Marion Montgomery, he left two 
sons and four daughters. 

[Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow 
Gentry, 2nd ed. pp. 186-8 ; Cochrane Correspon- 
dence, pp. 107, 114, 132 ; Glasgow, Past and Pre- 
sent, ii. 196; Scots Mag. viii. 30, xxi. 663.] 

T. F. H. 

1882), diplomatist, only son of James Bucha- 
nan of Blairvadoch, Ardinconnal, Dumbar- 
tonshire, and Janet, eldest daughter of James 
Sinclair, twelfth earl of Caithness, was born 
7 May 1807, entered the diplomatic service 
10 Oct. 1825, and was attached to the em- 
bassy at Constantinople. On 13 Nov. 1830 




he was named paid attache at Rio de Janeiro, 
but he did not remain long in South Ame- 
rica, as he served temporarily with Sir Strat- 
ford Canning's special embassy to Constan- 
tinople from 31 Oct. 1831 till 18 Sept. 1832, 
after which he became paid attach^ at Wash- 
ington on 9 Nov. He was with Sir Charles 
Vaughan's special mission to Constantinople 
from March 1837 to September 1838, and then 
proceeded to St. Petersburg as paid attach^ 
6 Oct. of the same year. Few men seem to 
have gone through a greater number of changes 
in the diplomatic service ; he was secretary 
of legation at Florence 24 Aug. 1841, and 
charge d'affaires from July 1842 to October 
1843, and from March to May 1844. At St. 
Petersburg he was secretary of legation 1844, 
and between that time and 1851 several times 
acted as charg6 d'affaires. He was then re- 
warded for his various services by the appoint- 
ment, 12 Feb. 1852, of minister plenipoten- 
tiary to the Swiss Confederation. In the 
following year, 9 Feb., he was named envoy 
extraordinary to the king of Denmark, and he 
acted as her majesty's representative at the 
conference of Copenhagen in November 1855 
for the definite arrangement of the Sound 
dues question. He was transferred to Madrid 
31 March 1858, and then to the Hague 11 Dec. 
1860. He became ambassador extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary to the king of Prussia 
28 Oct. 1862, ambassador extraordinary to 
Russia 15 Sept. 1864, and ambassador to Aus- 
tria from 16 Oct. 1871 to 16 Feb. 1878, when 
he retired on a pension. Previously to this 
he had been made C.B. 23 May 1857, K.C.B. 
25 Feb. 1860, G.C.B. 6 July 1866, and a privy 
councillor 3 Feb. 1863, He was created a 
baronet 14 Dec. 1878, and died at Craigend 
Castle, Milngavie, near Glasgow, 12 Nov. 
1882. He married first, 4 April 1839, Fran- 
ces Katharine, daughter of the Very Rev. 
Edward Mellish, dean of Hereford (she died 
4 Dec. 1854); and secondly, 27 May 1857, 
Georgiana Eliza, third daughter of Robert 
Walter Stuart, eleventh baron Blantyre. 

[Hertslet's Foreign Office List, 1882, p. 211 ; 
Times, 15 Nov. 1882, p. 8.] G. C. B. 

1815), Bengal chaplain and vice-provost of 
the college of Fort William, was born on 
12 March 1766 at Cambuslang, a village near 
Glasgow. His father, Alexander Buchanan, 
was a schoolmaster at Inverary, and here 
Claudius commenced his education. At the 
age of fourteen he became tutor in a gentle- 
man's family, and two years later entered the 
university of Glasgow, where he spent the 
two following years, leaving the university 
again to engage in private tuition. He had 

been intended for the ministry in the Scotch 
church, but at the age of twenty-one he 
abandoned the idea of taking holy orders, and 
left Scotland with the intention of travelling 
through Europe on foot, supporting himself 
by playing on the violin. In forming this wild 
scheme, which he carefully withheld from the 
knowledge of his parents, telling them that he 
had been engaged by a gentleman to travel 
on the continent with his son, he appears to 
have been fired by the example of Goldsmith ; 
but Buchanan did not get beyond London, 
where, after undergoing great privations for 
some months, he eventually obtained employ- 
ment, on a very small salary, in a solicitor's 
office. After a residence of nearly four years 
in London, he made the acquaintance of a 
young man whose conversation revived the 
religious feelings which he had imbibed earlier 
in life, and shortly afterwards he introduced 
himself to the Rev. John Newt on, then rector 
of St. Mary Woolnoth, in the city, under 
whose influence a complete change in his 
character speedily took place. The intimacy 
with Mr. Newton led to his becoming ac- 
quainted with Mr. Henry Thornton, by whose 
liberality he was provided with funds, repaid 
a few years afterwards, which enabled him 
to go to Cambridge and to qualify for ordina- 
tion. Entering Queens' College in 1791, 
Buchanan speedily formed an intimacy with 
Charles Simeon. Buchanan's studies at Cam- 
bridge were chiefly theological. He did not 
compete for university honours, but won 
college prizes both in mathematics and in 
classics. He took his degree in 1795, and in 
the same year was ordained a deacon of the 
church of England, commencing his clerical 
life as a curate of Mr. Newton. In the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed to a chaplaincy 
in Bengal, and, having taken priest's orders, 
sailed for Calcutta shortly afterwards. 

On his arrival at Calcutta early in 1797 
Buchanan was hospitably received by the 
Rev. David Brown [see BEOWN, DAVID, 1763- 
1812], then presidency chaplain, and after- 
wards Buchanan's chief and colleague in the 
college of Fort William. The provision exist- 
ing at that time in India for ministering to the 
religious wants of the British community was 
extremely scanty. There was no episcopate, 
few chaplains, and fewer churches. Bu- 
chanan was sent to Barrackpur, where there 
was no church, and, there being no British 
regiment quartered there, very little occupa- 
tion for a chaplain. He remained at Barrack- 
pur for two years, passing much of his time 
in studying the scriptures in the original 
tongues, and also the Persian and Hindustani 
languages. He seems to have felt a good 
deal the want of congenial friends and the 




effects of the depressing climate. In 1799 
he was transferred to a presidency chaplaincy, 
.and shortly afterwards was appointed vice- 
provost of the college established by Lord 
Wellesley at Fort William. One of the 
earliest duties which Buchanan w r as called 
upon to discharge as presidency chaplain was 
that of preaching a sermon before the go- 
vernor-general and the principal officers of 
the government on the occasion of a general 
thanksgiving for the successes achieved in 
the late war in Mysore. For this sermon 
Buchanan received the thanks of the gover- 
nor-general in council, and it was directed to 
. be printed and circulated throughout India. 
During the next few years Buchanan was 
much occupied with his duties as vice-provost 
of the college, and with the question of pro- 
moting the formation of a more adequate ec- 
clesiastical establishment for India. Regard- 
ing the college he appears to have entertained 
views assigning to it a wider scope than was 
.generally ascribed to it, although not more 
comprehensive than that indicated in the 
minute of Lord Wellesley on the establish- 
ment of the college. His opinion was that 
it had been founded to ' enlighten the ori- 
ental world, to give science, religion, and 
pure morals to Asia, and to confirm in it the 
British power and dominion ; ' and this was 
the aim he continually set before him. The 
'College continued in existence for many years, 
but in 1807 the appointment of vice-provost 
was discontinued, and the staff of teachers, 
-and also the work, were reduced within 
narrower limits than Lord Wellesley had con- 
templated. Although, as a chaplain of the 
company, Buchanan was in a great measure 
debarred from engaging directly in mission- 
ary operations, he laboured zealously and in 
various ways for the promotion of Christianity 
;and education among the natives of India. 
Out of his own means, which his emoluments 
as vice-provost of the college for a time 
rendered comparatively easy, he offered liberal 
money prizes to the universities and to some 
of the public schools of the United Kingdom 
for essays and poetical compositions in Greek, 
Latin, and English, on l the restoration of 
learning in the East,' on ' the best means of 
civilising the subjects of the British empire 
in India, and of diffusing the light of the 
Christian religion throughout the Eastern 
world,' and on other similar topics. The 
college had originally comprised a depart- 
ment for translating the scriptures into the 
languages of India, and the first version of 
the gospels into the Persian and Hindustani 
languages, which was printed in India, had 
issued from the college press. When this 
department was abolished, Buchanan, from 

his private purse, paid the salary of an Ar- 
menian Christian, a native of China, who was 
employed for three years at the missionary 
establishment at Serampore in translating the 
! scriptures into Chinese. But perhaps the 
| most important services in connection with 
the propagation of Christianity in India in 
which Buchanan was engaged were his tours 
! through the south and west of India, under- 
taken for the purpose of investigating the state 
of superstition at the most celebrated temples 
| of the Hindus, examining the churches and 
| libraries of the Romish, Syrian, and protes- 
tant Christians, ascertaining the present state 
'' and recent history of the Eastern Jews, and 
discovering what persons might be fit instru- 
1 ments for the promotion of learning in their 
! respective countries, and for maintaining a 
future correspondence on the subject of dis- 
seminating the scriptures in India (Christian 
Researches in Asia, by the Rev. CLAUDIUS 
' BUCHANAN, D.D., ed. 1840, p. 4). The first 
of these tours received the sanction of the 
Marquis of Wellesley just before his depar- 
j ture from India, and an account of it and 
also of the second tour was embodied in the 
I above-mentioned work, which Buchanan pub- 
. lished shortly after his return to England in 
! 1811. In the first tour he visited the cele- 
i brated temple of Jagannath, some of the 
temples in the northern districts of Madras, 
.! Madras itself, and the missions in Tanjore, 
. Trichinopoly, Madura, Ceylon, Travancore, 
and Cochin, from which latter place he re- 
| turned to Calcutta in March 1807. At the 
! end of that year he started on a second tour, 
in the course of which he revisited Ceylon 
and Cochin, and touched at Goa and several 
other places between Cochin and Bombay, 
whence he embarked for England in March 
1808, after a residence in India of eleven 

His account of these tours is extremely 
interesting, especially those parts of it which 
relate to his intercourse with the Syrian 
Christians in Travancore and Cochin, and the 
narrative of his visit to the inquisition at 
Goa. The result of his visit to this part of 
India, in addition to the information which 
it enabled him to supply, was a translation 
of the New Testament into Malayalam, the 
language of the British district of Malabar 
and of the native states of Travancore and 

The remaining years of Buchanan's life, 
after his return to England in 1808, were 
spent in active efforts to promote the objects 
upon which he had been chiefly engaged 
while in India. He took a prominent part 
in the struggle in 1813 which resulted in 
the establishment of the Indian episcopacy. 




Among other writings which he published 
on this subject was a volume entitled ' Co- 
lonial Ecclesiastical Establishment, being a 
brief view of the state of the Colonies of 
Great Britain and of her Asiatic Empire in 
respect to Religious Instruction, prefaced by 
some considerations on the national duty of 
affording it.' While the contest was pro- 
ceeding he Avas vehemently attacked in par- 
liament as a calumniator of the Hindus, and 
as having given to the world an exaggerated 
statement of the cruelty and immorality of 
their superstitions ; but he was defended with 
A'igour by Mr. Wilberforce and other pro- 
moters of the new legislation. Another work 
which he published about this time was f An 
Apology for promoting Christianity in India, 
containing two letters addressed to the Honor- 
able East India Company concerning the idol 
Jagannath, and a memorial presented to the 
Bengal Government in 1807 in defence of the 
Christian Missions in India. To which are 
now added, Remarks on the Letter addressed 
by the Bengal Government to the Court of 
Directors in reply to the Memorial with an 
appendix containing various official papers, 
chiefly extracted from the Parliamentary 
Records relating to the promulgation of 
Christianity in India.' 

Buchanan received the degree of D.D. from 
the university of Glasgow, and also from that 
of Cambridge. He died in 1815 at Brox- 
bourne in Hertfordshire, where he was en- 
gaged in revising a Syriac translation of the 
New Testament. He was twice married, and 
left two daughters by his first wife. 

[Pearson's Memoirs of the Life and "Writings 
of the Kev. Claudius Buchanan, D.D., 3rd ed., 
London, 1819 ; Christian Kesearches in Asia, with 
notices of the Translation of the Scriptures into 
the Oriental Languages, by the Rev. Claudius 
Buchanan, D.D., new edition, London, 1840 ; 
Memorandum on the Syrian Church in Malabar, 
19 Feb. 187S, India Office Records.] A. J. A. 

BUCHANAN, DAVID (1595?-! 652?), 

Scotch writer, was, Sibbald says, descended 
from the same family as the famous George 
Buchanan. This statement is confirmed by 
William Buchanan of Auchmar (Historical 
and Genealogical Essay upon the Family and 
Surname of Buchanan, 1723), who asserts 
that David was the second son of William 
Buchanan, son of the first Buchanan of 
Arnprior, who was second cousin to George 
Buchanan. A David Buchanan was ad- 
mitted to St. Leonard's College at St. An- 
drews in 1610 (IRVING, preface to Davidis 
Buchanani de Scriptonbus Scotis). He ap- 
pears to have resided some time in France, 
for in 1636 he published at Paris a work 

of about seven hundred pages, entitled ( His- 
toria Humanse Animse.' In 1638 he followed 
this up with ' L'Histoire de la Conscience, 
par David Buchanan,' which was probably 
printed also at Paris, though the place of 
publication is not mentioned. Between 1638 
and 1644 he appears to have returned to> 
his native land, and in 1644 issued an edi- 
tion of John Knox's 'Historie of the Re- 
formation in Scotland,' to which he prefixed 
a life of the author and a preface. In both 
the ' Historic ' and the ' Life ' he took un- 
usual liberties, and interpolated in the former 
a great deal of original matter, apparently 
with the view of adapting it to the times. 
The preface, which professes to be a sketch 
of the previous history, is historically worth- 
less. In 1645 a second edition was published 
at Edinburgh. In the same year he pub- 
lished at London ' Truth its Manifest ; or a 
short and true Relation of divers main pas- 
sages of things in some whereof the Scots are 
particularly concerned.' This work was an 
account of the conduct of the Scotch nation 
during the civil war. It provoked consider- 
able ire in England, was voted by both 
houses of parliament false and scandalous,, 
and ordered to be burnt by the hangman. 
A scurrilous refutation appeared entitled 
' Manifest Truths, or an Inversion of Truths 
Manifest,' London, 1646. Buchanan's pam- 
phlet, according to Baillie's letters (to Wil- 
liam Spang, 24 April 1646), was really a 
collection of authentic state papers edited 
by him, with an introduction and a preface. 
Parliament, not being able to deny the au- 
thenticity of the papers, attacked the intro- 
duction, and declared the editor to be an 
incendiary. The next notice of him is to be 
found in the ' Scottish Historical Library/ 
London, 1702. Here Bishop Nicolson. men- 
tions that a great deal of the work in the 
' Atlas of Scotland,' published in 1655, was 
really done by Buchanan, and that he died 
before he had finished all he had projected. 
Nicolson also says that he wrote 'several 
short discourses concerning the antiquities- 
and chorography of Scotland, which in bundles- 
of loose papers, Latin and English, are still 
in safe custody ; ' and that these ' discover 
their author's skill in the Hebrew and Celtic 
languages.' Perhaps these are what Bu- 
chanan of Auchmar refers to when he says 
that David wrote a large ' Etymologicon ' of 
all the shires, cities, rivers, and mountains- 
in Scotland, from which Sir Robert Sibbald 
quotes some passages in his ' History of the 
Shires of Stirling and Fife.' Sibbald also 
states, in the ' Memoirs of the College of 
Physicians,' that he received the greatest 
assistance from some manuscripts of Mr. 




David Buchanan, who has written on the 
learned men of Scotland in excellent Latin. 
Here he probably refers to the manuscript 
entitled l De Scriptoribus Scotis,' preserved 
in the university library at Edinburgh, and 
attributed to David Buchanan, which was for 
the first time edited by Dr. David Irving, 
and printed for the Bannatyne Club in 1837. 
In the appendix to this work there is inserted 
the last testament of a David Buchanan. 
Among the ' Miscellanies ' of the Bannatyne 
Club (vol. ii.) is to be found a Latin ' Urbis 
Edinburgi Descriptio per Davidem Bucha- 
nanum,' dated circa 1648. The date of his 
death can be more nearly fixed than that of 
his birth, for it appears to lie between 1652 
and 1653. Most of the authorities agree in 
assigning the first year ; but in a note to the 
' Descriptio Edinburgi ' it is stated that ac- 
cording to the registers of wills he must have 
died in 1653. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation (articles ' Bu- 
chanan,' ' David Buchanan,' ' Sir Robert Gordon 
of Straloch'); Bannatyne Club Publications, notes 
and prefaces (Descriptio Urbis Edinburgi; De 
Scriptoribus Scotis) ; Scottish Historical Library ; 
William Buchanan's Essay on the Family and Sur- 
name of Buchanan ; Baillie's Letters.] B. C. S. 

BUCHANAN, DAVID, the elder (1745- 
1812), printer and publisher, a descendant of 
the ancient family of Buchanan of Buchanan, 
was born at Montrose in 1745, and studied at 
the university of Aberdeen, where he gra- 
duated M. A. He began the business of print- 
ing in his native town at a time when the art 
was practised in few of the provincial towns 
of Scotland, and his enterprise as a publisher 
was. also shown by the issue of good editions 
of the dictionaries of Johnson, Boyer, and 
Ainsworth. He abridged Johnson's dictionary 
for the earliest pocket edition ever printed. 
Among his other publications special mention 
may be made of his miniature series of Eng- 
lish classics, also revised and corrected by 
himself. He died in 1812. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation.] T. F. H. 

BUCHANAN, DAVID, the younger 
(1779-1848), journalist and author, son of 
David Buchanan, printer and publisher [q.v*], 
was born at Montrose in 1779. He learned 
the business of his father, and, like him, also 
possessed intellectual tastes and sympathies. 
At an early period of his life he contributed 
to Cobbett's ' Political Register ' a reply to 
the editor on a question of political economy. 
He also became a contributor to the ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' shortly after its commence- 
ment. In 1807 he published a pamphlet on 
the volunteer system originated by Pitt, 

which attracted considerable attention. The 
following year he accepted an invitation to 
start in Edinburgh a liberal newspaper, the 
' Weekly Register.' The paper did not live 
above a year, and on its discontinuance he 
transferred his services to the ' Caledonian 
Mercury,' which he continued to edit from 
1810 to 1827, when he accepted the editor- 
ship of the ' Edinburgh Courant.' This paper 
he edited until his death at Glasgow, 13 Aug. 

Amidst his editorial duties Buchanan found 
time to devote his attention to a variety of 
literary projects. He made political economy 
his special study, and in 1814 he brought out 
an edition of Adam Smith's works, with life, 
notes, and a volume of additional matter, in 
which some of the more important subjects 
treated of by Smith were examined in the light 
of further progress and experience. A con- 
siderable portion of the volume was after- 
wards utilised by him in ( Inquiry into the 
Taxation and Commercial Policy of Great 
Britain, with Observations on the Principles 
of Currency and of Exchangeable Value,' 
published in 1844. Of this book the more 
noticeable features are its arguments against 
taxes on manufactured goods, its opposition 
to the income-tax as inconsistent with the 
spirit of freedom, and its attempted refuta- 
tion of Ricardo's theory of rent. Buchanan 
also brought out an edition of the 'Edinburgh 
'Gazetteer,' in six volumes, contributed nu- 
merous geographical and statistical articles 
to the seventh edition of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' and supplied a large portion of 
the letterpress for the ' Edinburgh Geogra- 
phical Atlas,' published in 1835. 

[Montrose Standard, 18 Aug. 1848 ; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation.] T. F. H. 

BUCHANAN, DUGALD (1716-1768), 
Gaelic poet, was born at the mill of Ardoch 
in the valley of Strathtyre and parish of 
Balquhidder, Perthshire, in 1716. After con- 
ducting a small school in a hamlet in his 
native county, he procured, in 1755, the 
situation of schoolmaster and catechist at 
Kinloch Rannoch in the parish of Fortingale, 
on the establishment of the Society for Pro- 
pagating Christian Knowledge in Scotland. 
His accurate acquaintance with the Gaelic 
language enabled him to render essential 
service to the Rev. James Stewart of Killin 
in translating the New Testament. He died 
on 2 July 1768, and was interred at Little 
Leny in the parish of Callander, the burial- 
place of the Buchanans of Leny and Cam- 

His i Laoidhibh Spioradail ' (Spiritual 
Hymns) were first published in 1767, and 




"have been often reprinted in Gaelic. They 
have been translated into English by A. 
McGregor (Glasgow, 1849, 12mo), and by 
L. Maclean (Edinburgh, 1884, 8vo). An 
English translation of his 'Day of Judg- 
ment,' by J. Sinclair, appeared at Aberdeen 
in 1880, 8vo. 

Keid says that Buchanan's poetical genius 
-was of the first order, and that he may be 
called ' the Cowper of the highlands.' His 
poems are admitted to be equal to any in 
the Gaelic language for style, matter, and 
the harmony of their versification. ' Latha 
a' Bhreitheanis ' (The Day of Judgment), ' An 
Claigeann ' (The Skull)/' Am Bruadar ' (The 
Dream), and ' An Geamhradh ' (The Winter) 
are the most celebrated, and are read with 
enthusiasm by all highlanders. 

Besides his 'Hymns' Buchanan left a 
* Diary,' which was published at Edinburgh 
in 1836, with a memoir of the author pre- 

[Memoir prefixed to Diary; Beatha agus 
lompachadh Dhugaill Bochannain (Edinb. 1844) ; 
Eeid's Bibl. Scotp-Celtica, 63 ; Mackenzie's Sar- 
Obair namBardGaelach(1872), 167-81 ; Kogers's 
Modern Scottish Minstrel, i. 323 ; Eogers's 
Monuments and Monumental Inscriptions in 
Scotland, ii. 151.] T. C. 

M.D. (1762-1829), a medical officer in the 
service of the East India Company, author 
of 'A .Journey from Madras through the 
countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar,' 
of a ' History of Nepal,' and of other works 
on Indian subjects, Avas the third son of 
Thomas Buchanan of Spittal and Elizabeth 
Hamilton, heiress of Bardowie. He was born 
at Branziet in the parish of Callander, Perth- 
shire, on 15 Feb. 1762. Having been educated 
for the medical profession, he took his degree 
at Edinburgh in 1783, and was shortly after- 
wards appointed a surgeon on board a man-of- 
war, but was compelled by ill-health to relin- 
quish this appointment. Eventually, in 1794, 
he entered the East India Company's service 
as a surgeon on the Bengal establishment. 
Shortly after reaching India he accompanied 
a mission to the court of Ava, and devoted 
himself to botanical researches in Ava, Pegu, 
and the Andaman islands. On the return of 
the mission, being stationed at Lakkipur, near 
the mouth of the Brahmaputra, he wrote an 
admirable description of the fishes of that 
river, \vhich was published in 1822. In 1800 
lie was deputed by Lord Wellesley, then 
governor-general of India, ' to travel through 
and report upon the countries of Mysore, 
Canara, and Malabar, investigating the state 
of agriculture, arts, and commerce ; the re- 
ligion, manners and customs; the history, 

natural and civil, and antiquities in the do- 
minions of the Raja of Mysore, and the 
countries acquired by the Honorable East 
India Company in the late and former wars 
from Tippoo Sultan.' This report, which is 
very voluminous and cast in the form of a 
journal, was published in England in 1807 
by order of the court of directors, in three 
quarto volumes. A second edition, in two 
octavo volumes, was published at Madras in 
1870. It is full of valuable information on 
all the points which Buchanan was ordered 
to investigate, and is illustrated by explana- 
tory engravings, but it would have been far 
more useful if the matter contained in it had 
been entirely recast and condensed previous 
to publication. Buchanan's tour in southern 
India was followed by a visit to Nepal, in 
company with another British mission, in 
i 1802, which resulted in his writing a history 
of Nepal, and making large additions to his 
j botanical collections. On his return he was 
appointed surgeon to the governor-general, 
| and accompanied Lord Wellesley on his 
j voyage to England in 1806. Shortly after- 
j wards he was deputed by the court of di- 
rectors to make a statistical survey of the 
presidency of Bengal, an enormous work upon 
which he was employed for seven years, and 
which then was only partially accomplished. 
The results of this survey, which were for- 
warded to the East India House in 1816, do 
not appear to have been published, if we except 
a geographical and statistical description of 
Dinajpur, published at Calcutta after Bu- 
chanan's death. In 1814 Buchanan was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Botanical Gar- 
den at Calcutta, but returned to England in 
the following year. His latter years were 
spent principally in Scotland, where, on the 
death of his eldest brother, he succeeded to 
the estate which had been the property of his 
mother, and took the additional name of 
Hamilton. He was a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and a member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. In 1826 he was appointed deputy- 
lieutenant of Perthshire. The same year he 
made good his claims to be regarded the chief 
of the clan Buchanan. He died on 15 June 
1829, in his sixty-seventh year. 

[Buchanan's Mysore, Canara, and Malabar 
(Madras, 1870); Men whom India has known 
(Madras, 1871).] A. J. A. 

BUCHANAN, GEORGE (1506-1582), 
historian and scholar, third son of Thomas 
Buchanan, a son of Buchanan of Druinnakill, 
a poor laird, and Agnes Heriot, was born at 
the farm of Mid Leowen, or the Moss, in the 
parish of Killearn in Stirlingshire, in February 
1506. At an early age he lost his father. 




Giving promise of scholarship, he was at the 
age of fourteen sent by his uncle, James 
Heriot, from the parish school of Killearn 
to Paris, where he studied chiefly Latin. In 
less than two years he was forced to come 
home by the death of his uncle and the 
poverty of his mother. His health was restored 
by residence in the country, and when only 
seventeen he served with the French troops 
brought by Albany to Scotland, and was 
present at the siege of Werk in October 1523.