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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

BURTON CANTWELL 



VY' 




DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



LESLIE STEPHEN 



VOL. VIII. 
BURTON CANTWELL 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1886 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE EIGHTH VOLUME. 



0. A OSMUND AIRY. 

A. J. A. . . SIB A. J. ARBUTHNOT, K.C.S.I. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER. 

W.E.A.A. W. E. A. AXON. 

G. F. E. B. G-. F. EUSSELL BARKER. 

T. B THOMAS BAYNE. 

G. V. B. . G. VERB BENSON. 

G. T. B. . . G. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 

W. G. B. . THE REV. PROFESSOR BLAIKIE, D.D. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 

H. B HENRY BRADLEY. 

E. C. B. . . E. C. BROWNE. 

A. H. B. . A. H. BULLEN. 

G. W. B. . G. W. BURNETT. 

H. M. C. . H. MANNERS CHICHESTER. 

A. M. C. . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

T. C THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

C. H. C. . . C. H. COOTE. 
W. P. C. . W. P. COURTNEY. 

M. C THE EEV. PROFESSOR CREIOHTON. 

J. D JAMES DIXON, M.D. 

A. D AUSTIN DOBSON. 

E. D PROFESSOR DOWDEN, LL.D. 

F. E FRANCIS ESPINASSE. 

L. F Louis FAGAN. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 
J. G JAMES GAIRDNER. 



E. G EICHARD GARNETT, LL.D. 

J. W.-G. . . J. WESTBY-GIBSON, LL.D. 
J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 

G. G GORDON GOODWIN. 

A. G THE EEV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

E. G EDMUND GOSSE. 

A. H. G. . . A. H. GRANT. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

J. H Miss JENNETT HUMPHREYS. 

E. H-T. . . EGBERT HUNT, F.E.S. 
W. H. ... THE EEV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 

A. J THE EEV. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D. 

T. E. K. . . T. E. KEBBEL. 

C. K CHARLES KENT. 

J. K JOSEPH KNIGHT. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

S. L. L. . . S. L. LEE. 

W. B. L. . THE EEV. W. B. LOWTHER. 

H. E. L. . . THE EEV. H. E. LUARD, D.D. 

M. M'A. . . Miss MARGARET MACARTHUR. 

N. McC. . . NORMAN MACCOLL. 

G. P. M. . . G. P. MACDONELL. 

W. D. M. . THE EEV. W. D. MACRAY, F.S.A. 

C. T. M. . . C. TRICE MARTIN, F.S.A. 

J. M JAMES MEW. 

A. M. . . . ARTHUR MILLER. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



C. M COSMO MONKHOUSB. 

N. M NOEMAN MOORE, M.D. 

J. B. M. . . J. BASS MULLINGEB. 

T. THE REV. THOMAS OLDEN. 

J. H. 0. . . THE REV. CANON OVEBTON. 

R. L. P. . . R. L. POOLE. 

S. L.-P. . . STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 

J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 

C. J. R. . . THE REV. C. J. ROBINSON. 

J. H. R. . . J. H. ROUND. 

B. C. S. . . B. C. SKOTTOWE. 

G. B. S. . . G. BABNETT SMITH. 

W. B. S. . . W. BARCLAY SQUIRE. 

J. P. S. . . MBS. LESLIE STEPHEN. 



L. S LESLIE STEPHEN. 

H. M. S. . . H. M. STEPHENS. 

W.R.W.S. THE REV. W. R. W. STEPHENS. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 

E. M. T. . E. MAUNDE THOMPSON. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER. 

T. F. T. . . PBOFESSOB T. F. Tour. 

W. H. T. . W. H. TREGELLAS. 

E. V THE REV. CANON VENABLES. 

A. W. W. . PROFESSOR A. W. WABD, LL.D. 

F. W-T. . . FRANCIS WATT. 

H. T. W. . H. TRUEMAN WOOD. 
W. W. . . . WARWICK WROTH. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Burton 



Burton 



BURTON, CASSIBELAN (1609-1682), 
translator, was the only son of William Bur- 
ton, the historian of Leicestershire [q. v.], 
by his wife Jane, daughter of Humfrey Ad- 
derley of Weddington, Warwickshire (Ni- 
CHOLS, Hist, of Leicestershire). He was bom 
on 19 Nov. 1609, but nothing is known of 
his education. He translated Martial into 
English verse, but the translation remained in 
manuscript. His friend Sir Aston Cokaine 
thought highly of it. He inherited his father's 
collections in 1645, and handed them over to 
Walter Chetwynd [q. v.], ' to be used by him 
in writing " The Antiquities of Staffordshire." ' 
Wood states that he was ' extravagant, and 
consumed the most or better part of the estate 
which his father had left him.' He died on 
28 Feb. 1681-2. 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, iii. 134; Nichols's 
History of Leicestershire ; Cokaine's Choice 
Poems, 1658.] 

BURTON, CATHARINE (1668-1714), 
Carmelite nun, was born at Bayton, near 
Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, on 4 Nov. 
1668. She made her religious profession in 
the convent of the English Teresian nuns at 
Antwerp in 1694, being known in that com- 
munity as Mother Mary Xaveria of the 
Angels. She acquired a high reputation for 
sanctity, was several times elected superior 
of her convent, and died on 9 Feb. 1713-14. 
A ' Life ' of her, collected from her own 
writings and other sources by Father Thomas 
Hunter, a Jesuit, remained in manuscript 
till 1876, when it was printed, with the title 
of 'An English Carmelite' (London, 8vo), 
under the editorial supervision of the Rev. 
Henry James Coleridge, S. J. 

[Life by Hunter ; Poley's Kecords, vii. 104.] 

T. C. 
VOL. VIII. 



BURTON, CHARLES (1793-1866), 
theologian, was born in 1793 at Rhodes Hall, 
Middleton, Lancashire, the seat of his father, 
Mr. Daniel Burton, a cotton manufacturer, 
of whom he was the youngest son. He was 
educated at the university of Glasgow and 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated LL.B. in 1822. In 1829 he was in- 
corporated B.C.L. at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, on 14 Oct., and received the degree of 
D.C.L. on the following day. 

His family were Wesleyans, and he was 
for a time a minister of that denomination, 
but was ordained in 1816, and the church 
of All Saints, Manchester, was built by him 
at a cost of 18,000/., and consecrated in 
1820, when he became rector, after serving 
for a short time as curate of St. James's in 
the same town. The greater part of the 
church was destroyed by fire on 6 Feb. 1850. 
He had considerable reputation as a preacher. 
His writings are : 1. ' Horae Poeticse,' 1815. 
2. 'Middleton, an elegiac poem,' Glasgow, 
1820 (printed for private circulation). 3. 'A 
Selection of Psalms and Hymns, including 
original compositions,' Manchester, 1820. 
4. 'The Bardiad, a poem in two cantos,' 
London (Manchester), 1823. This came to 
a second edition in the same year. 5. 'A 
Sermon on the Parable of the Barren Fig- 
tree,' London (Manchester), 1823. 6. ' Three 
Discourses adapted to the opening of the 
Nineteenth Century ; exhibiting the por- 
tentous and auspicious signs and cardinal 
duties of the times,' Manchester, 1825. 
7. ' The Day of Judgment, a Sermon on the 
death of Ann, wife of Rev. John Morton,' 
Manchester, 1826. 8. ' The Servant's Monitor ' 
(? Manchester, 1829). This was originally 
published at the expense of the Manchester 
Society for the Encouragement of Faithful 
Female Servants. 9. ' Sentiments appro- 
is 



Burton 



Burton 



priate to the present Crisis of unexampled 
Distress ; a Sermon,' Manchester, 1826. 
10. ' Discourses suited to these Eventful and 
Critical Times,' London, 1832 (preached at 
the Episcopal Chapel, Broad Court, Drury 
Lane, London, of which Burton is said, on 
the title-page, to be minister). 11. 'A Dis- 
course on Protestantism, delivered on the 
occasion of admitting two Roman Catholics 
to the Protestant Communion ' (? Manchester, 
1840). 12. ' The Church and Dissent : an 
appeal to Independents, Presbyterians, Me- 
thodists, and other Sects, &c.,' Manchester, 
1840. 13. < The Watchman's Cry, or Pro- 
testant England roused from her Slumber ; 
a Discourse,' Manchester, 1840. 14. 'Lec- 
tures on the Millennium,' London, 1 841 . The 
millennium is to begin in 1868. 15. ' Lectures 
on the World before the Flood,' London 
(Manchester), 1844. An attempt to har- 
monise the literal narrative of Genesis with 
the discoveries of science. 16. ' Lectures on 
the Deluge and the World after the Flood,' 
London (Manchester), 1845. 17. ' Lectures 
on Popery,' Manchester, 1851. 18. ' A De- 
monstration of Catholic Truth by a plain 
and final Argument against the Socinian 
Heresy, a discourse,' Manchester, 1853. 
19. ' The Comet,' ' The World on Fire,' The 
World after the Fire,' ' The New Heaven 
and the New Earth,' are titles of single 
sermons issued in 1858. 20. ' The Antiquity 
of the British Church, a lecture,' Manchester, 
1861. This is a pamphlet on the Liberation 
Society controversy. 

In addition to his theological studies Bur- 
ton had a great fondness for botanical pur- 
suits, and his discovery in Anglesea of a 
plant new to science led to his election as 
fellow of the Linnean Society. While on 
a visit at Western Lodge, Durham, he was 
attacked by typhus fever of a virulent nature, 
and died after three weeks' illness on 6 Sept. 
1866. 

[Manchester Courier, 8 Sept. 1866; British 
Museum General Catalogue ; Illustrated London 
News, 16 Feb. 1850; private information.] 

W. E. A. A. 

BURTON, CHARLES EDWARD 

(1846-1882), astronomer, was born on 16 Sept. 
1846, at Barnton, Cheshire, of which bene- 
fice his father, the Rev. Edward W. Bur- 
ton, was then incumbent. He showed from 
childhood a marked taste for astronomy, and 
entered Lord Rosse's observatory as assistant 
in February 1868, some months before taking 
a degree of B. A. at the university of Dublin. 
Compelled by constitutional delicacy to re- 
sign the post in March 1869, he joined the 
Sicilian expedition to observe the total solar 



eclipse of 22 Dec. 1870, and read a paper on 
its results before the Royal Irish Academy, 
13 Feb. 1871 (Proc. new ser. i. 113). The 
observations and drawings made by him at 
Agosta (Sicily) were included in Mr. Ran- 
yard's valuable ' eclipse volume ' (Mem. R. A. 
Soc. xli.) Attached as photographer to the 
transit of Venus expedition in 1874, he pro- 
fited by his stay at Rodriguez to observe 
southern nebulae (30 Doradus and that sur- 
rounding TJ Argus) with a 12-inch silvered 
glass reflector of his own construction (Month. 
Not. xxxvi. 69). On his return he spent 
nearly twelve months at Greenwich mea- 
suring photographs of the transit, then worked 
for two years at the observatory of Dunsink, 
near Dublin, and retired in August 1878, 
once more through ill-health, to his father's 
parsonage at Loughlinstown, county Dublin, 
where he made diligent use of his own ad- 
mirable specula. His observations on Mars, 
during the opposition of 1879, were of espe- 
cial value as confirming the existence, and 
adding to the numbers, of the ' canals ' dis- 
covered by Schiaparelli two years previously. 
A communication to the Royal Dublin So- 
ciety descriptive of them was printed in their 
'Scientific Transactions' under the title of 
'Physical Observations of Mars, 1879-80' 
(i. 151, ser. ii.) From twenty-four accom- 
panying drawings (two of them executed by 
Dr. Dreyerwith theDunsink refractor) a chart 
on Mercator's projection was constructed, 
which Mr. Webb adopted in the fourth edi- 
tion of his ' Celestial Objects ' (1881). Bur- 
ton's experiments on lunar photography were 
interrupted by preparations for the second 
transit of Venus. But within a few weeks 
of starting for his assigned post at Aberdeen 
Road, Cape Colony, he died suddenly of 
heart-disease in Castle Knock church, on 
Sunday, 9 July 1882, aged 35. ' 

The loss to science by the premature close 
of his useful and blameless life was consider- 
able. He was equally keen in observing, and 
skilful in improving the means of observing. 
With Mr. Howard Grubb he devised the 
' ghost micrometer,' described before the Royal 
Dublin Society, 15 Nov. 1880 (Proc. iii. 1 ; 
Month. Not. xli. 59), and alluded to hope- 
fully by Dr. Gill in his treatise on micro- 
meters (Encycl. Brit., 9th ed, xvi. 256). 
Among his communications to scientific 
periodicals may be mentioned ' Note on the 
Appearance presented by the fourth Satellite 
of Jupiter in Transit in the years 1871-3 ' 
(Month. Not. xxxiii. 472), in which he con- 
cluded, independently of Engelmann, an iden- 
tity in times of rotation and revolution ; ' On 
the Present Dimensions of the White Spot 
Linne ' (ib. xxxiv. 107) ; ' On Certain Pheno- 



Burton 



Burton 



mena presented by the Shadows of Jupiter's 
Satellites while in Transit, and on a possible 
Method of deducing the Depth of the Planet's 
Atmosphere from such Observations' (ib. 
xxxv. 65) ; ' On the possible Existence of 
Perturbations in Cometic Orbits during the 
Formation of Nuclear Jets, with Suggestions 
for their Detection ' (ib. xlii. 422) ; ' On the 
Aspect of Mars at the Oppositions of 1871 
and 1873 ' (Trans. R. I. Ac. xxvi. 427) ; 'On 
recent Researches respecting the Minimum 
visible in the Microscope ' (Proc. R. I. Ac. 
ser. ii. iii. 248) ; ' Note on the Aspect of 
Mars in 1881-2 '(Copernicus, ii. 91) ; ' Notes 
on the Aspect of Mars in 1882 ' (Sc. Trans. 
R. Dub. Soc. i. 301, 2nd ser.) He was a mem- 
ber of the Royal Irish Academy and of the 
Royal Astronomical Society. 

[Copernicus, ii. 158; Astr. Eeg. xx. 173; 
R. Soc. Cat. Sc. Papers, vii. 309.] A. M. C. 

V BURTON, DECIMUS (1800-1881), 
' architect, was the son of James Burton, a 
well-known and successful builder in Lon- 
don in the beginning of the present century. 
After receiving a thorough practical training 
in the office of his father and in that of Mr. 
George Maddox, he began business as an 
architect on his own account, and met with 
early and signal success in the practice of 
his profession. Among his first large works 
was the Colosseum erected by Mr. Homer in 
Regent's Park as a panorama and place of 
public entertainment. As such it proved a 
failure, and its site is now occupied by the 
terrace of private residences known as Cam- 
bridge Gate, a much more lucrative invest- 
ment. But from the architectural point of 
view it was regarded as a successful example 
of the then fashionable classic style, and its 
dome, a few feet larger than that of St. Paul's, 
was looked upon as a remarkable constructive 
effort, especially for an architect at the time 
only twenty-three years old. In 1825 Bur- 
ton was employed by the government to 
carry out the Hyde Park improvements, 
which included the laying out of the roads 
in and around the park and the erection of 
the fa$ade and triumphal arch at Hyde Park 
Corner. In Burton's design the arch was 
destined to support a quadriga, and the dis- 
figurement of the structure by the equestrian 
statue of the Duke of Wellington, which 
elicited from a French officer the cutting 
ejaculation, ' Nous sommes veng6s ! ' was a 
keen disappointment to him. For many 
years after its erection, indeed, Burton's will 
provided to the nation the sum of 2,0001. if 
it would agree to remove the statue from 
its unsuitable position. He eventually with- 
drew the legacy, without, however, relin- 



quishing the hope of the ultimate removal 
of the statue to a suitable pedestal of its 
own, and the completion of his design, with 
the bas-reliefs and triumphal car which it 
originally included. (The statue was moved 
to Aldershot in 1885.) In 1828 Burton 
accepted a special retainer from Mr. Ward 
of Tunbridge Wells, for the laying out of 
the Calverley Park estate there, and but for 
this engrossing employment, which occupied 
his time for over twenty years, his public 
works would no doubt have been more nu- 
merous and important. His practice after- 
wards, however, lay chiefly in the erection of 
country houses and villas and the laying 
out of estates for building purposes. The 
numerous mansions and villas designed by 
him are distinguished by suitability of in- 
ternal arrangement and simplicity and purity 
of style, and many thriving localities in some 
of the chief towns of the country still evi- 
dence his skill in the laying out of building 
estates. In his day Greek was the fashion- 
able, and indeed almost only, style, and in 
that he worked ; but he used it with effect 
and judgment, never sacrificing the require- 
ments of modern life to mere archaeological 
accuracy. And although many of his de- 
signs may appear, and sometimes are, anti- 
quated and unsuitable revivals of ancient 
buildings, it must be remembered that most 
of them date from before the Gothic, or 
indeed any, revival of architecture as now 
understood and practised. Judged by the 
standard of his time, no little credit is due 
to him for honest and independent regard 
for the practical objects of his profession. 
He was a traveller when travelling was the 
exception, visiting and studying the classic 
remains of Italy and Greece, and later ex- 
tending his observations to Canada and the 
United States of America. He was a man 
of wide culture and refinement, amiable and 
considerate to all with whom he came in con- 
tact, and had a wide circle of friends. He 
was proprietor of a pleasant bachelor residence 
at St. Leonards-on-Sea, a watering-place 
which his father had almost entirely built, 
and where he spent the greater part of the 
later years of his life. He died, 14 Dec. 1881, 
unmarried, at the advanced age of eighty- 
one. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and of many other learned societies, including 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, of 
which he was one of the earliest members 
and at one time vice-president. 

[Builder, xli. 780, where a list of his principal 
works will be found.] G-. W. B. 

BURTON, EDWARD. [See CATCHEB, 
EDWAED.] 

B 2 



Burton 



Burton 



BURTON, EDWARD (1794-1836), re- 
gius professor of divinity at Oxford, the son 
of Major Edward Burton, was born at Shrews- 
bury on 13 Feb. 1794. He was educated at 
Westminster, matriculated as a commoner 
of Christ Church, Oxford, on 15 May 1812, 
gaining a studentship the next year, and in 
1815 obtained a first class both in classics 
and mathematics. Having taken his B.A. 
degree on 29 Oct. 1815, he was ordained to 
the curacy of Pettenhall, Staffordshire. On 
28 May 1818 he proceeded M.A., and paid a 
long visit to the continent, chiefly occupy- 
ing himself in work at the public libraries of 
France and Italy. In 1824 he was select 
preacher. On 12 May 1825 he married Helen, 
daughter of Archdeacon Corbett, of Longnor 
Hall, Shropshire. After his marriage he re- 
sided at Oxford. In 1827 he was made 
examining chaplain to the bishop, and in 
1828 preached the Bampton lectures. On 
the death of Dr. Lloyd, bishop of Oxford and 
regius professor of divinity, Burton was ap- 
pointed to succeed him in the professorship, 
and took the degree of D.D. the same year. 
As professor he was also canon of Christ 
Church and rector of Ewelme, where, at a 
time when such arrangement was somewhat 
rare, he introduced open seats into the church 
in the place of pews. He died at Ewelme 
on 19 Jan. 1836, in his forty-second year. 
Among his works are : 1. ' An Introduction 
to the Metre of the Greek Tragedians,' 1814. 
2. ' A Description of the Antiquities ... of 
Rome,' 1821, 1828. 3. ' The Power of the 
Keys,' 1823. 4. ' Testimonies of the Ante- 
Nicene Fathers to the Divinity of Christ,' 
1826, 1829. 5. ' An edition of the Works 
of Bishop Bull,' 1827. 6. ' The Greek Tes- 
tament, with English notes,' 1830, 1835. 
7. ' Testimonies of the Ante-Nicene Fathers 
to the Doctrine of Trinity,' 1831. 8. 'Ad- 
vice for the Proper Observance of the Sun- 
day,' 1831, 1852. 9. 'The Three Primers 
... of Henry VHI,' 1834. 10. ' Lectures on 
Ecclesiastical History,' 1831, 1833. 11. ' An 
edition of Pearson on the Creed,' 1833. 
12. 'Thoughts on the Separation of Church 
and State,' 1834, 1868. He also superin- 
tended the publication of Dr. Elmsley's edi- 
tion of the ' Medea ' and ' Heraclidse,' 1828, 
and of some posthumous works of Bishop 
Lloyd. Among the works on which he was 
engaged at the time of his death was an edi- 
tion of Eusebius, published 1838, 1856 ; the 
notes of this volume were separately edited 
by Heinichen, 1840; the text was used in 
the edition of Eusebius of 1872. Burton was 
also the author of other smaller works. 



* .' , Mag< 1836 ' P fc - i- 31 ; Catalogue of 

the British Museum Library.] W. H. 



BURTON, GEORGE (1717-1791), chro- 
nologer, was the second son of George Burton 
of Burton Lazars, Leicestershire, and the 
younger brother of Philip Burton, the father 
of Mrs. Horne, wife of George Home, bishop 
of Norwich. He was born in 1717, and re- 
ceived his education at Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1736 and 
M.A. in 1740, being at the latter date a 
member of King's College. In 1740 he was 
presented to the rectory of Eldon, or Elveden, 
and in 1751 to that of Heringswell, both in 
Suffolk. Burton received pupils, and gene- 
rally had three or four boarding in his house for 
instruction. He died at Bath on 3 Nov. 1791, 
and was interred in the church of Walcot. 

He published : 1. ' An Essay towards 
reconciling the Numbers of Daniel and St. 
John, determining the Birth of our Saviour, 
and fixing a precise time for the continuance 
of the present Desolation of the Jews ; with 
some conjectures and calculations pointing 
out the year 1764 to have been one of the 
most remarkable epochas in history,' Norwich, 
1766, 8vo. 2. ' A Supplement to the Essay 
upon the Numbers of Daniel and St. John, 
confirming those of 2436 and 3430, men- 
tioned in the Essay ; from two numerical 
prophecies of Moses and our Saviour,' Lon- 
don, 1769, 8vo. 3. ' The Analysis of Two 
Chronological Tables, submitted to the can- 
dour of the public : The one being a Table 
to associate Scripturally the different Chro- 
nologies of all Ages and Nations ; the other 
to settle the Paschal Feast from the begin- 
ning to the end of time,' London, 1787, 4to. 
4. ' History of the Hundred of Elvedon, 
Suffolk,' MS. in the library of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps. 

The Rev. George Ashby (1724-1808) [q.v.], 
the well-known antiquary and rector of Bar- 
row, gives him the character of a person of 
great industry in his favourite study of chro- 
nology, but adds : ' I could never perceive 
what his principles or foundations were, 
though I have attended in hopes of learning 
them. Mr. Burton would often repeat, turn- 
ing over the leaves of his MSS., " All this is 
quite certain and indisputable ; figures can- 
not deceive ; you know 50 and 50 make 100." 
But when I asked him, " Why do you as- 
sume 50 and 50 ? " I never could get any 
answer from him ; nor does he seem to have 
settled a single aera, or cleared up one point 
of the many doubtful ones in this branch of 
the science ; nor could he ever make himself 
intelligible to, or convince, a single person. 
He was, however, the friend of Dr. Stuke- 
ley, who made him a present of Bertram's 
" Richard of Cirencester," ' an ingenious for- 
gery [see BERTRAM, CHARLES]. 



Burton 



Burton 



[Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 228, 268, Append. 
325 ; Nichols's Illustrations of Literature, vi. 
880-7; Addit. MS. 5864 f. 36, 19166 f. 216 ; 
Stukeley's Carausius, 116; Cantabrigienses Gra- 
duati (1787), 66.] T. C. 

BURTON, HENRY (1578-1648), puri- 
tan divine, was born at Birdsall, a small 
parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, ' which 
never had a preaching minister time out of 
mind.' In his own ' Narration ' of his life, 
sixty-four is stated as his age in the latter 
part of 1642 ; in his ' Conformities Defor- 
mity,' 1646, it is stated as sixty-seven ; the 
inference is that he was born in the latter part 
of 1578. The record of his baptism is not re- 
coverable, but his father, William Burton, was 
married to Maryanne Homle [Humble] on 
24 June 1577. His mother, he tells us, care- 
fully kept a New Testament which had been 
his grandmother's in Queen Mary's time. 
He was educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1602. 
His favourite preachers were Laurence Cha- 
derton and William Perkins. On leaving 
the university he became tutor to two sons 
of ' a noble knight,' Sir Robert Carey, after- 
wards (1626-1639) earl of Monmouth. He 
relates that one Mrs. Bowes, of Aske, pre- 
dicted ' this young man will one day be the 
overthrow of the bishops.' Through the Carey 
interest, Burton obtained the post of clerk of 
the closet to Prince Henry ; while acting in this 
capacity he composed a treatise on Antichrist, 
the manuscript of which was placed by the 
prince in his library at St. James's. He com- 
plains that the bishop (Richard Neile of 
Durham), who was clerk of the closet to 
King James, ' depressed him ; ' however, on 
Prince Henry's death (6 Nov. 1612) Burton 
was appointed clerk of the closet to Prince 
Charles. On 14 July 1612 he had been in- 
corporated M.A. at Oxford, and was again 
incorporated on 15 July 1617. He tells us 
that at the age of thirty (i.e. in 1618) he re- 
solved to enter the ministry. Fuller says 
that he was to have attended Prince Charles 
to Spain (17 Feb. 1623), and that for some 
unknown reason the appointment was coun- 
termanded, after some of his goods had been 
shipped. Burton does not mention this, but 
says (which perhaps explains it) that he 
could not get a license for a book which he 
wrote in 1623 against the ' Converted Jew,' 
by Fisher (i.e. Piercy) the Jesuit, to refute 
Arminianism and prove the pope to be Anti- 
christ. He had, in fact, thrust himself into 
a discussion then going on between Fisher 
and George Walker, puritan minister of St. 
John's, Watling Street. On the accession 
of Charles, Burton took it as a matter of 
course that he would become clerk of the 



royal closet, but Neile was continued in that 
office. Burton lost the appointment through 
a characteristic indiscretion. On 23 April 
1625, before James had been dead a month, 
Burton presented a letter to Charles, inveigh- 
ing against the popish tendencies of Neile 
and Laud (who in Neile's illness was act- 
ing as clerk of the closet). Charles read the 
letter partly through, and told Burton ' not 
to attend more in his office till he should 
send for him.' He was not sent for, and did 
not reappear at court. Clarendon says that 
Burton complained of being 'despoiled of 
his right.' He deplored the death of James, 
but not through any love for that sovereign ; 
indeed he speaks of the influence of James 
in retarding the high-church movement as 
the only thing which ' made his life desir- 
able.' fie was almost immediately presented 
to the rectory of St. Matthew's, Friday 
Street, and used his city pulpit as a vantage 
from which to conduct an aggressive warfare 
against episcopal practices. He began to 
' fall off from the ceremonies/ and was cited 
before the high commission as early as 1626, 
but the proceedings were stopped. Bishop 
after bishop became the subject of his attack. 
For a publication with the cheerful title 
'The Baiting of the Popes Bvll,' &c., 1627, 
4to, which bore a frontispiece representing 
Charles in the act of assailing the pope's 
triple crown, he was summoned, in 1627, 
before the privy council, but again got off, 
in spite of Laud. His 'Babel no Bethel,' 
1629, in reply to the 'MaschiP of Robert 
Butterfield [q.v.], procured him a temporary 
suspension from his benefice, and a sojourn 
in the Fleet. More serious troubles were to 
come. On 5 Nov. 1636 he preached two 
sermons in his own church from Prov. xxiv. 
21, 22, in which he charged the bishops with 
innovations amounting to a popish plot. His 
pulpit style was perhaps effective, but cer- 
tainly not refined ; he calls the bishops cater- 
pillars instead of pillars, and ' antichristian 
mushrumps.' Next month he was summoned 
before Dr. Duck, a commissioner for causes 
ecclesiastical, to answer on oath to articles 
charging him with sedition. He refused the 
oath, and appealed to the king. Fifteen days 
afterwards he was cited before a special 
high commission at Doctors' Commons, did 
not appear, and was in his absence suspended 
ab officio et beneficio, and ordered to be appre- 
hended. He shut himself up in his house, and 
published his sermons, with the title, ' For 
God and the King,' &c., 1636, 4to, where- 
upon (on 1 Feb. 1636-7) his doors were forced, 
his study ransacked, and himself taken into 
custody and sent next day to the Fleet (the 
warrants will be found reprinted in BROOK). 



Burton 



Burton 



Peter Heylyn wrote a ' Briefe Answer ' to 
Burton's sermons. In prison Burton was 
soon joined by William Prynne and John 
Bastwick, a parishioner [q. v.], who had also 
written 'libellous books against the hie- 
rarchy,' and the three were proceeded against 
in the Star-chamber (11 March) and included 
in a common indictment. An attempt was 
indeed made on 6 June to get the judges 
to treat the publications of Bastwick and 
Burton (he had added to his offence by pub- 
lishing, from his prison, ' An Apology for an 
Appeale,' 1636, 4to, consisting of epistles 
to the king, the judges, and ' the true-hearted 
nobility ') as presenting a primd facie case 
of treason, but this fell to the ground. The 
defendants prepared answers to the indict- 
ment, but it was necessary that these should 
be signed by two counsel. No counsel could 
be found who would risk the odium of this 
office, and the defendants applied in vain to 
have their own signatures accepted, accord- 
ing to ancient precedents. Burton was the 
only one who got at length the signature of 
a counsel, one Holt, an aged bencher of 
Gray's Inn, and Holt, finding he was to be 
alone, drew back, until the court agreed to 
accept his single signature. Burton's answer, 
thus made regular, lay in court about three 
weeks, when on 19 May the attorney-general, 
denouncing it as scandalous, referred it to 
the chief justices, Sir John Bramston and 
Sir John Finch. They made short work of 
it, striking out sixty-four sheets, and leaving 
no more than six lines at the beginning and 
twenty-four at the end. Thus mutilated, 
Burton, would not own it ; he was not al- 
lowed to frame a new answer, and on 2 June 
it was ordered that he, like the rest, should 
be proceeded against pro confesso. Sentence 
was passed on 14 June, the defendants crying 
out for justice, and vainly demanding that 
they should not be condemned without ex- 
amination of their answers. Burton, when 
interrogated as to his plea by the lord keeper 
(Baron Coventry), briefly and with dignity 
defended his position, maintaining that ' a 
minister hath a larger liberty than always to 
go in a mild strain,' but his defence was 
stopped. He was condemned to be deprived 
of his benefice, to be degraded from the 
ministry and from his academical degrees, 
to be fined 5,OOOZ., to be set in the pillory at 
Westminster and his ears to be cut off, and 
to be perpetually imprisoned in Lancaster 
Castle, without access of his wife or any 
friends, or use of pen, ink, and paper. For 
this sentence Laud gave the court his ' hearty 
thanks.' Burton's parishioners signed a peti- 
tion to the king for his pardon ; the two who 
presented it were instantly committed to 



prison. Burton took his punishment with 
enthusiastic fortitude. 'All the while I 
stood in the pillory,' he says, ' I thought my- 
self to be in heaven and in a state of glory and 
triumph.' His address to the mob ran : ' I 
never was in such a pulpit before. Little do 
you know what fruit God is able to produce 
from this dry tree. Through these holes God 
can bring light to his church.' His ears were 
pared so close, says Fuller, that the temporal 
artery was cut. When his wounds were 
healed, and he was conveyed northward on 
28 July, fully 100,000 people lined the road 
at Highgate to take leave of him. His wife 
followed in a coach, and 500 'loving friends' 
on horseback accompanied him as far as St. 
Albans. The whole journey to Lancaster, 
reached on 3 Aug., resembled a triumphal 
progress rather than the convoy of a criminal. 
Laud (see his letter to Wentworth on 28 Aug.) 
was very angry about it. At Lancaster, Burton 
was confined in ' a vast desolate room,' with- 
out furniture ; if a fire was lighted, the place 
was filled with smoke ; the spaces between 
the planks of the floor made it dangerous to 
walk, and underneath was a dark chamber 
in which were immured five witches, who 
kept up ' a hellish noise ' night and day. The 
allowance for diet was not paid. Dr. Augus- 
tine Wildbore, vicar of Lancaster, kept a 
watchful eye over Burton's reading, to see 
that the order confining him to the bible, 
prayer-book, and ' such other canonical books ' 
as were of sound church principles, was 
strictly obeyed. Many sympathisers came 
about the place, and, notwithstanding all 
precautions, Clarendon says that papers ema- 
nating from Burton were circulated in Lon- 
don. A pamphlet giving an account of his 
censure in the Star-chamber was published 
in 1637. Accordingly on 1 Nov. he was sent, 
by way of Preston and Liverpool, to Guern- 
sey, where he arrived on 15 Dec., and was 
shut up in a stifling cell at Castle-Cornet. 
Here he had no books but his bibles in He- 
brew, Greek, Latin, and French, and an ec- 
clesiastical history in Greek, but he contrived 
to get pen, ink, and paper, and wrote two 
treatises, which however were not printed. 
His wife was not allowed to see him, though 
his only daughter died during his imprison- 
ment. On 7 Nov. 1640 his wife presented 
a petition to the House of Commons for his 
release, and on 10 Nov. the house ordered 
him to be forthwith sent for to London. 
The order arrived at Guernsey on Sunday, 
15 Nov. ; Burton embarked on the 21st. At 
Dartmouth, on the 22nd, he met Prynne, 
and their journey to London was again a 
triumphal progress. Ten thousand people 
escorted them from Charing Cross to the 



Burton 



Burton 



city with every demonstration of joy. On I 
30 Nov. Burton appeared before the house, 
and on 5 Dec. presented a petition setting i 
forth his sufferings. The house on 12 March 
1640-1 declared the proceedings against him | 
illegal, and cast Laud and others in damages. [ 
On 24 March his sentence was reversed, and i 
his benefice ordered to be restored; on20 April j 
a sum of Q,QOOL was voted to him ; on 8 June 
a further order for his restoration to his 
benefice was made out. He recovered his de- 
grees, and received that of B.D. in addition. 
The money was not paid, nor did he get his 
benefice, to which Robert Chestlin had been 
regularly presented. But on 5 Oct. 1642 
his old parishioners petitioned the house that 
he might be appointed Sunday afternoon 
lecturer, and this was done. Chestlin, who 
resisted the appointment, was somewhat 
hardly used, being imprisoned at Colchester 
for a seditious sermon ; he escaped to the 
king at Oxford. Left thus in possession at 
St. Matthew's, Friday Street, Burton orga- 
nised a church on the independent model. 
Gardiner says of Burton's ' Protestation Pro- 
tested,' published in July 1641, that it 
' sketched out that plan of a national church, 
surrounded by voluntary churches, which was 
accepted at the revolution of 1688.' He pub- 
lished a ' Vindication of Churches commonly 
called Independent,' 1644 (in answer to 
Prynne), and exercised a very strict ecclesi- 
astical discipline within his congregation. 
Marsden says ' it was not in the power of 
malice to desire, or of ingenuity to suggest, 
a weekly spectacle so hurtful to the royal 
cause ' as that of Burton preaching in Friday 
Street without his ears. He had enjoyed the 
honour of preaching before parliament, but 
did not approve the course which events sub- 
sequently took. He was for some time al- 
lowed to hold a catechetical lecture every 
Tuesday fortnight at St. Mary's, Alderman- 
bury, but on his introducing his independent 
views the churchwardens locked him out in 
September 1645. This led to an angry 
pamphlet war with the elder Calamy, rector 
of the parish [see CALA.MY, EDMUND, 1600- 
1666]. Wood, who remarks that he ' grew 
more moderate,' thought he lived to witness 
the execution of Charles, but he died a year 
before that event. During his imprisonment 
he had contracted the disease of the stone, 
which was probably the cause of his death. 
He was buried on 7 Jan. 1647-8. By his first 
wife, Anne, he had two children: 1. Anne, 
bapt, 21 Sept. 1621. 2. Henry, bapt. 13 May 
1 624, who married Ursula Maisters on 30 Nov. 
1647, and is described as a merchant. His 
second wife, Sarah, and son, Henry, survived 
him, and on 17 Feb. 1652 petitioned the house 



for maintenance ; the son got lands of 200/. 
yearly value from the estate of certain delin- 
quents, out of Avhich the widow was to have 
100/. a year for life. Granger describes a 
rare print of Laud and Burton, in which the 
archbishop vomits his works while the puri- 
tan holds his head. 

Burton's chief publications in addition to 
those mentioned are : 1. ' A Censvre of 
Simonie,' 1624, 4to. 2. ' A Plea to an Ap- 
peale,' 1626. 3. ' The Seven Vials ; or a 
briefe Exposition upon the 15 and 16 chapters 
of the Revelation,' 1628. 4. ' A Tryall of 
Private Devotion,' 1628. 5. 'England's 
Bondage and Hope of Deliverance,' 1641, 
4to (sermon from Psalm liii. 7, 8, before the 
parliament on 20 June). 6. ' Truth still 
Truth, though shut out of doors,' 1645, 4to 
(distinct from ' Truth shut out of doores,' a 
previous pamphlet of the same year) ; and, 
from the catalogue of the Advocates' Li- 
brary, Edinburgh, 7. ' The Grand Impostor 
Unmasked, or a detection of the notorious 
hypocrisie and desperate impiety of the late 
Archbishop (so styled) of Canterbury, cun- 
ningly couched in that written copy which 
he read on the scaffold,' &c. 4to, n.d. 
8. ' Conformities Deformity,' 1646, 4to. 

[Narration of the Life, &c., 1643 (portrait); 
Biog. Brit. 1748, ii. 1045, ed. Kippis, iii. 43; 
Wood's Ath. Ox. 1691, i. 814, 828, &c. ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 165 ; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, 1813, iii. 40; Fisher's 
Companion and Key to Hist, of Eng. 1832, 
pp. 515, 610 ; Marsden's Later Puritans, 1872, 
pp. 122 sq. : Gardiner's Hist. England, vii. viii. 
ix. x. ; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, xi. 1875 (Laud), 292 sq. ; extracts from 
parish registers of Birdsall, per Rev. L. S. 
Gresley, and of St. Matthew's, Friday Street, 
per Eev. Dr. Simpson.] A. G. 

BURTON, HEZEKIAH (d. 1681), di- 
vine, was a fellow of Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, and eminent as a tutor. He was 
entered as a pensioner in 1647, was elected 
Wray fellow 1651, graduated as M.A. 1654, 
was incorporated at Oxford the same year, was 
B.D. 1661, and D.D. by royal mandate 1669. 
He was known to Samuel Pepys, Richard 
Cumberland, and Orlando Bridgeman, all of 
his college, and to Henry More, the Platonist. 
More sent him a queer story of a ghost, as 
circumstantial as Mrs. Veal's, which appeared 
in Yorkshire about 1661 (LIGHTFOOT, Remains, 
Ii; KENNET, Register, 763). Bridgeman, on 
becoming chancellor in 1667, gave a chap- 
laincy to his college friend, and appointed 
him to a prebendal stall at Norwich. He was 
intimate with Tillotson and Stillingfleet, and 
had been associated with them and Bishop 
Wilkins in an abortive proposal for a com- 



Burton 



8 



Burton 



prehension communicated by Bridgeman to 
Baxter and others in the beginning of 1668. 
Wood says that a club formed by Wilkins 
to promote comprehension used to meet at 
the 'chambers of that great trimmer and 
latitudinarian, Dr. Hezekiah Burton.' He 
afterwards became minister of St. George's, 
Southwark, where he was especially chari- 
table to imprisoned debtors, and in 1680 was' 
appointed, through Tillotson's influence, vicar 
oi Barnes in Surrey, by the dean and chapter 
of St. Paul's. He died there of a fever, which 
carried off several of his family, in August or 
September 1681. His only writings were an 
' Alloquium ad lectorem ' prefixed to his 
friend Bishop Cumberland's book, ' De Legi- 
bus Naturae ; ' and two posthumous volumes 
of 'Discourses' (1684 and 1685), to the first 
of which is prefixed a notice by Tillotson, 
speaking warmly of his friendliness and sweet- 
ness of temper. A portrait is engraved in the 
same volume. 

[Tillotson's Preface to Discourses ; Birch's Life 
of Tillotson, 42,77, 93, 124-126; Knight's Life 
of Dean Colet (1823), 366; Sylvester's Baxter, 
iii. 24 ; Neal's Puritans, iv. 432 ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 513; Fasti, ii. 184; Pepys's 
Diary (24 April 1659-60, and 1 Feb. 1661-62), 
where is also a letter to Pepys of 9 April 1677.] 

L. S. 

BURTON, JAMES. [See HALIBUKTON, 
JAMES.] 

BURTON, JAMES DANIEL (1784- 
1817), Wesleyan minister, was the son of 
Daniel Burton, of Rhodes, near Manchester, 
and was born at Manchester 25 July 1791. 
He received a good education, but one not 
purposely intended to fit him for the office of 
minister. At the age of sixteen he was in 
the habit of attending the theatre at Man- 
chester, but was soon turned from 'the 
snares connected with that place of gay re- 
sort and destructive pastime,' and, as the 
result of his ' effectual awakening,' prepared 
himself for the Wesleyan ministry, and de- 
voted a considerable portion of his time 
among the poor in the neighbourhood of 
Middleton. He became a methodist itine- 
rant preacher at the age of twenty-one. In 
the tenth year of his ministry his health 
failed, and he died, 24 March 1817, in his 
thirty-third year. In 1814 he published, at 
Bury, in Lancashire, ' A Guide for Youth, 
recommending to their serious consideration 
Vital Piety, as the only rational way to 
Present Happiness and Future Glory,' 12mo. 

[Methodist Mag. 1817, pp. 708, 881; Os- 
born s Methodist Literature, p. 78.] 

c. w. s. 



BURTON, JOHN, D.D. (1696-1771), 
theological and classical scholar, was born 
at Wembworthy, Devonshire, of which parish 
his father, Samuel Burton, was rector, in 
1696, and was educated partly at Okehamp- 
ton and Tiverton in his native county and 
partly at Ely, where he was placed on his 
father's death by the Rev. Samuel Bentham, 
the first cousin of his mother. In 1713 he was 
elected as a scholar of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and took his degree of B. A. on 27 June 
1717, shortly after which he became the col- 
lege tutor. He proceeded M.A. 24 March 
1720-1, was elected probationary fellow 
6 April following, and admitted actual fellow 
4 April 1723. As college tutor he acted with 
great zeal, and acquired a greater reputation 
than any of the Oxford 'dons' of his day, but 
in consequence of an incurable recklessness 
in money matters he was little richer at the 
end than at the beginning of his collegiate 
career. The particulars of his teaching are set 
out in his friend Edward Bentham's ' De Vita 
et Moribus Johannis Burtoni . . . epistola ad 
Robert um Lowth,' 1771. In logic and meta- 
physics he passed from Sanderson and Le 
Clerc to Locke ; in ethics from Aristotle to 
Puffendorf s abridgment and Sanderson's lec- 
tures. Twice a week he lectured on Xeno- 
phon and Demosthenes, and occasionally he 
taught on some Latin author. It was through 
Burton that the study of Locke was intro- 
duced into the schools, and he printed for 
the use of the younger students a double 
series of philosophical questions, with refe- 
rences to the authors to be consulted under 
each head. This is probably lost, but a set 
of exercises which he gave the undergra- 
duates of his college for employment during 
the long vacation was printed under the title 
of ' Sacrse Scripturse locorum quorundam 
versio metrica,' 1736, and a copy is at the 
British Museum. In the progress of the 
university press he took great interest, and 
obtained for it a gift of 1001. from Mr. (after- 
wards Lord) Rolle, and a legacy of 200/. from 
Dr. Hodges, the provost of Oriel. Through 
the circumstance that Burton had been tutor 
to a son of Dr. Bland, a fellowship at Eton 
College was bestowed upon him on 17 Aug. 
1733, and when the valuable vicarage of 
Mapledurham, on the Oxfordshire bank of 
the Thames, became vacant by the death of 
Dr. Edward Littleton on 16 Nov. 1733, 
Burton was nominated thereto by the col- 
lege and inducted on 9 March 1734. Dr. 
Littleton had married a daughter of Barn- 
ham Goode, under-master of Eton School, 
and left her a widow 'with three infant 
daughters, without a home, without a for- 
tune.' The new vicar, in his pity for their 



Burton 



Burton 



destitute condition, allowed the family to re- 
main for a time in their old home, and the 
story runs that ' some time after a neigh- 
bouring clergyman happened to call and 
found Mrs. Littleton shaving John Burton.' 
At this sight the visitor remonstrated with 
his clerical friend, and the result was that 
' Burton proposed marriage and was ac- 
cepted.' In this delicious retreat Burton 
characteristically sacrificed much of his in- 
come in improving the parsonage and the 
glebe lands. When the settling of Georgia 
was in agitation he took an active part in 
furtherance of the colony's interests, and pub- 
lished in 1764 ' An Account of the Designs of 
the late Dr. Bray, with an Account of their 
Proceedings,'a tract often reprinted [see BRAY, 
THOMAS, 1656-1730]. His other university 
degrees were M.A. in 1720, B.D. in 1729, 
and D.D. in 1752. On 1 Feb. 1766, towards 
the close of his life, he quitted the vicarage 
of Mapledurham for the rectory of Worples- 
don in Surrey, and here he was instrumental 
in the formation of a causeway over the Wey, 
so that his parishioners might travel to Guild- 
ford at all seasons. A year or two later he 
was seized by fever, but he still lingered on, 
His death occurred on 11 Feb. 1771, and he 
was buried at the entrance to the inner 
chapel at Eton, precisely in the centre under 
the organ-loft. His epitaph styles him : ' Vir 
inter primes doctus, ingeniosus, pius, opum 
contemptor, ingenuse juventutis fautor exi- 
mius.' Among the manuscripts which Bur- 
ton left behind him was ' An Essay on Pro- 
jected Improvements in Eton School,' but it 
was never printed and has since been lost. 
His mother took as her second husband Dr. 
John Bear, rector of Shermanbury, Sussex. 
She died on 23 April 1755, aged 80; her 
husband on 9 March 1762, aged 88 ; and in 
1767 her son erected a monument to their 
memory. Dr. Burton's wife died in 1748. 

Throughout his life Burton poured forth 
a vast number of tracts and sermons. His 
reading was varied, and he composed with 
remarkable facility, but the possession of 
this latter quality led to his wasting his 
efforts in productions of ephemeral interest. 
Most of his sermons are reprinted in ' Occa- 
sional Sermons preached before the Univer- 
sity of Oxford/ 1764-6. Many of his Latin 
tracts and addresses are embodied in his 
' Opuscula Miscellanea Theologica,' 1748-61, 
or in the kindred volume ' Opuscula Miscel- 
lanea Metrico-Prosaica,' 1771. He contri- 
buted to the ' Weekly Miscellany ' a series of 
papers on ' The Genuineness of Lord Claren- 
don's History of the Kebellion Mr. Old- 
mixon's Slander confuted,' which was sub- 
sequently enlarged and printed separately at 



Oxford in 1744. The circumstances which 
led to their production are set out in John- 
son's ' Poets ' in the life of Edward Smith. 
A Latin letter by Burton to a friend, or a 
' commentariolus ' of Archbishop Seeker, at- 
tracted much attention, and was severely 
criticised by Archdeacon Blackburne on be- 
half of the latitudinarians ( Works, ii. 92-9), 
and by Dr. Philip Furneaux for the noncon- 
formists in his ' Letters to Blackstone,' pp. 
190-7. In 1758 he issued a volume, ' lievra- 
\oyia, sive tragcediarum Grsecarum Delectus,' 
which was reissued with additional observa- 
tions by Thomas (afterwards Bishop) Bur- 
gess in 1779. Two copies of this latter edi- 
tion, now in the library of the British Mu- 
seum, contain copious manuscript notes by 
Dr. Charles Burney. Burton made frequent 
visits to his mother in Sussex, and in 1752 
described his journey thither in an amusing 
tract, ''OftonropovvTos MeXe&j/zara, sive iter 
Surriense et Sussexiense.' Numerous extracts 
from this tour were printed in the ' Sussex 
Archaeological Collections,' viii. 250-65. His 
Latin poem, ' Sacerdos Parcecialis Rusticus,' 
was issued in 1757, and a translation by 
Dawson Warren of Edmonton came out in 
1800. Though Burton was a tory in poli- 
tics, he was not so strict in his views as 
Dr. William King of St. Mary Hall, and he 
criticised, under the disguise of 'Phileleu- 
therus Londinensis,' the celebrated speech 
which King delivered at the dedication of 
the Radcliffe Library, 13 April 1749. King 
thereupon retorted with a fierce ' Elogium 
famse inserviens Jacci Etonensis; or the 
praises of Jack of Eton, commonly called 
Jack the Giant,' with a dissertation on ' the 
Burtonic style,' and left behind him in his 
' Anecdotes of his own Times ' several sting- 
ing references to Burton. An oration which 
Burton delivered at Oxford in 1763 gave 
him the opportunity for an attack on Wilkes, 
whereupon Churchill, in the ' Candidate ' 
(verse 716 et seq.), retaliated with sneers at 
his 'new Latin and new Greek,' and his 
' pantomime thoughts and style so full of 
trick.' Burton was fond of jests. One or 
two of them can be found in [S. Pegge's] 
'Anonymiana' (1809, pp. 384-5), and an 
unlucky jocose allusion to Ralph Allen pro- 
voked Warburton to insert in the 1749 edi- 
tion of the ' Dunciad ' (book iv., verse 443) a 
caustic note on Burton, which was subse- 
quently omitted at the request of Bishop 
Hayter. While at Mapledurham he wrote 
' The present State of the Navigation of the 
River Thames considered, with certain regu- 
lations proposed,' 1765 ; second edition 1767. 
Several of his letters are in 'Addit. MS.' 
British Museum, 21428. 



Burton 



Burton 



[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes and his Illustrations 
of Lit. passim ; Manning and Bray's Surrey, iii. 
100-102, where is portrait; Gent, Mag. (1771), , 
pp. 95, 305-8 ; Bentham, De Vita J. Burtoni ; 
Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; Lyte's Eton College, 308- \ 
309 ; Eawlinson MSS. fol. 16348.] W. P. C. 

BURTON, JOHN, M.D. (1697-1771), 
antiquary and physician, was born at Ripon 
in 1697, and is said to have received part of 
his education at Christ Church, Oxford, but 
he himself speaks only of the time which he 
spent in study at Leyden and Cambridge, i 
He graduated M.B. at the latter university in j 
1733, and before 1738, when he published a 
' Treatise of the Non-naturals,' he had taken 
the degree of M.D. at Rheims. He was a i 
good Greek and Latin scholar, and attained 
no little eminence in his profession both in 
the city and county of York. It is said that 
in 1745 he had some intention of joining the 
Pretender, but by his own account (British l 
Liberty Endangered, 1749) he was taken pri- 
soner by the rebels and detained unwillingly 
for three months. It seems, however, that 
he incurred much censure from those in power, 
and that his political opinions rendered him 
obnoxious to Sterne, who satirised him in 
' Tristram Shandy ' under the name of ' Dr. 
Slop.' The satire betrayed either great igno- 
rance or gross unfairness, for Dr. Burton's 
reputation as an accoucheur was deservedly 
high, and his ' Essay on Midwifery ' has been 
styled ' a most learned and masterly work ' 
(AxzitfSON, Med. Bibliography, 1834). In 
later years he became widely known as an 
antiquarian, and in 1758 published the first 
volume of the ' Monasticon Eboracense, and 
Ecclesiastical History of Yorkshire,' a most 
important contribution to the archaeology of 
his native county. Ample materials for a 
second volume were got together by him, but 
these and his other antiquarian collections 
have never been printed. In 1769 he was in 
correspondence with Dr. Ducarel and others 
about their sale to the British Museum, but 
shortly before his death, which occurred 
21 Feb. 1771, he disposed of them to Mr. Wil- 
liam Constable, of Constable Burton. His 
printed works are : 1. 'Essay on Midwifery,' 
1751 and 1753. 2. ' Monasticon Eboracense,' 
vol. i. 1758 (the copy in the King's Library, 
British Museum, has the first eight pages of 
the intended second volume, entitled 'The 
Appendix, containing Charters, Grants, and 
other Original Writings referred to in the pre- 
ceding volume, never published before,' York. 
N. Nickson, 1759). 3. Two Tracts on Yorkshire , 
Antiquities in the ' Archaeologia,' 1768-1771. j 

[Nichols's Illust. of Literature, iii. 375-99; 
Gough's Brit. Top. ii. 407-415; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd series, v. 414.] C. J. E. 



BURTON, JOHX HILL (1809-1881), 
historiographer of Scotland, was born at Aber- 
deen 22 Aug. 1809. His father, of whose 
family connections nothing is known, was a 
lieutenant in the army, whose feeble health 
compelled him to retire on half-pay shortly 
after his son's birth. His mother was the 
daughter of John Paton, laird of Grandholm, 
a moody, eccentric man driven into seclusion 
by frantic sorrow for the death of his wife, 
and possessed by an insane animosity towards 
his own children. The family circumstances 
were thus by no means promising. Burton, 
however, obtained a fair education after his 
father's death in 1819, and gained a bursary, 
which enabled him to matriculate at the uni- 
versity of his native city. On the completion 
of his college course he was articled to a 
writer, but, assuredly from no want of in- 
dustry, found the confinement of an office in- 
tolerable. His articles were cancelled, and 
he repaired to Edinburgh to qualify himself 
for the bar, accompanied by his devoted 
mother, who had disposed of her little pro- 
perty at Aberdeen to provide him with the 
means of study. He in due time became an 
advocate, but his practice was never large, and 
for a long time he found it necessary to earn 
his livelihood by literature. His beginnings 
were humble. Much that he wrote cannot 
now be identified, but he is known to have 
composed elementary histories under the name 
of White, to have shared in the compilation 
of Oliver & Boyd's ' Edinburgh Almanack,' 
and to have furnished the letterpress of Bil- 
lings's 'Ecclesiastical and Baronial Anti- 
quities.' His ardent adoption of Bentham's 
philosophy probably served to introduce him 
to the ' Westminster Review,' from which he 
subsequently migrated to the 'Edinburgh.' 
He also contributed to the 'Cyclopaedia of 
Universal Biography' and Waterston's ' Cy- 
clopaedia of Commerce;' prepared (1839) a 
useful ' Manual of the Law of Scotland,' after- 
wards divided into distinct treatises on civil 
and criminal jurisprudence ; edited the works 
of Bentham in' conjunction with Sir John 
Bo wring; and compiled (1843) 'Benthami- 
ana,' a selection from Bentham's writings, de- 
signed as an introduction to the utilitarian 
philosophy. About this time he acted for a 
season as editor of the ' Scotsman,' and com- 
mitted the journal to the supportof free trade. 
He also edited the 'At hole Papers' for the 
Abbotsford, and the ' Darien Papers ' for the 
Bannatyne Club. In 1844 he married, and in 
1846 achieved solid literary distinction by his 
biography of Hume, assisted by the extensive 
stores of unpublished matter bequeathed by 
Hume's nephew to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh. It was a great opportunity, and if 



Burton 



Burton 



Burton's deficiency in imagination impaired 
the vigour of his portrait of Hume as a man, 
he has shown an adequate comprehension of 
him as a thinker, and is entitled to especial 
credit for his recognition of Hume's origi- 
nality as an economist. A supplementary 
volume of letters from Hume's distinguished 
correspondents, one half at least French, fol- 
lowed in 1849. In 1847 Burton had pro- 
duced his entertaining biographies of Lord 
Lovat and Duncan Forbes ; and in 1849 he 
wrote for Messrs. Chambers a ''Manual of 
Political and Social Economy,' with a com- 
panion volume on emigration, admirable 
works, containing within a narrow compass 
clear and intelligent expositions of the mutual 
relations and duties of property, labour, and 
government. In the same year the death of his 
wife prostrated him with grief, and although 
he to a great extent recovered the elasticity 
of his spirits, he was ever afterwards afflicted 
with an invincible aversion to society. Seek- 
ing relief in literary toil, he produced in 1852 
his ' Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scot- 
land ; ' in 1853 his ' Treatise on the Law of 
Bankruptcy in Scotland;' and in the same 
year the first portion of his ' History of Scot- 
land,' comprising the period from the Revolu- 
tion to the rebellion of 1745. Like Hume, 
he executed his task in instalments, and with- 
out strict adherence to chronological order, a 
method prompted in his case by a delicate 
reluctance to enter into manifest competition 
with his predecessor Tytler during the latter's 
lifetime. The work was eventually com- 
pleted in 1870 ; and a new edition with con- 
siderable improvements, especially in the pre- 
historic and Roman periods, appeared in 1873. 
In 1854 Burton obtained pecuniary indepen- 
dence by his appointment as secretary to 
the prison board, and in 1855 married the 
daughter of Cosmo Innes. Though no longer 
necessary to his support, his literary labours 
continued without remission ; he wrote largely 
for the ' Scotsman,' became a constant contri- 
butor to ' Blackwood's Magazine,' and edited 
(1860) the valuable autobiography of Alex- 
ander Car lyle. His essays in 'Blackwood' 
formed the substance of two very delightful 
works, 'The Book Hunter' (1860), contain- 
ing a vivid personal sketch of De Quincey, 
and < The Scot Abroad ' (1862). Burton, who 
had always been a great pedestrian at home, 
had now imbibed a taste for solitary tours on 
the continent, which formed the theme of 
his latest contributions to 'Blackwood.' After 
the completion of his ' History,' he undertook 
the editorship of the ' Scottish Registers,' a 
work of great national importance, and pub- 
lished two volumes. The task has since his 
death been continued by Professor Masson. 



His last independent work of much compass 
| was his ' History of the Reign of Queen 
Anne,' published in 1880. Ere this date his 
extraordinary power of concentrated applica- 
tion had become impaired by a serious illness, 
and the book, dry without exactness, and de- 
sultory without liveliness, hardly deserves 
to be ranked among histories. The most va- 
luable part is his account of Marlborough's 
j battles, the localities of which he had visited 
I expressly. From this time Burton suffered 
] from frequent attacks of illness, and indicated 
the change which had come over his spirit by 
| disposing of his library, weighing eleven tons, 
| as he informed the writer of this memoir. 
; He continued, however, to write for ' Black- 
. wood,' performed his official duties with un- 
' diminished efficiency, rallied surprisingly in 
health and spirits after every fit of illness, 
and was preparing to edit the remains of his 
friend Edward Ellice, when he succumbed 
to a sudden attack of bronchitis on 10 Aug. 
; 1881. 

Burton's biographies and his ' Book Hunter ' 
secure him a more than respectable rank as 
a man of letters; and his legal and econo- 
mical works entitle him to high credit as a 
jurist and an investigator of social science. 
His historical labours are more important, 
and yet his claims to historical eminence are 
more questionable. His 'History of Scot- 
land ' has, indeed, the field to itself at present, 
being as yet the only one composed with the 
accurate research which the modern standard 
of history demands. By complying with 
this peremptory condition, Burton has dis- 
tanced all competitors, but must in turn give 
way when one shall arise who, emulating or 
borrowing his closeness of investigation, shall 
add the beauty and grandeur due to the his- 
tory of a great and romantic country. Bur- 
ton indeed is by no means dry ; his narrative 
is on the contrary highly entertaining. But 
this animation is purchased by an entire 
sacrifice of dignity. His style is always below 
the subject ; there is a total lack of harmony 
and unity ; and the work altogether produces 
the impression of a series of clever and meri- 
torious magazine articles. Possessing in per- 
fection all the ordinary and indispensable 
qualities of the historian, he is devoid of all 
those which exalt historical composition to 
the sphere of poetry and drama. His place 
is rather that of a sagacious critic of history, 
and in this character his companionship will 
always be found invaluable. To render due 
justice to Scottish history would indeed re- 
quire the epic and dramatic genius of Scott, 
united with the research of a Burton and the 
intuition of a Carlyle ; and until such a com- 
bination arises, Burton may probably remain 



Burton 



Burton 



Scotland's chief historian. As a man, he was 
loved and valued in proportion as he was truly 
known. With a dry critical intellect he 
combined an intense sensitiveness, evinced in 
a painful shrinking from deficient sympathy, 
the real and pathetic cause of his unfortunate 
irascibility and impatience of contradiction. 
His private affections were deep and constant, 
his philanthropy embraced mankind, his gra- 
cious and charitable actions were endless, and 
it is mournful to think that the mere exag- 
geration of tender feeling, combined with his 
aversion to display and neglect of his personal 
appearance, should have obstructed the gene- 
ral recognition of qualities as beautiful as un- 
common. His main defect was, as remarked 
by his widow, an absence of imagination, 
rendering it difficult for him to put himself 
in another's place. In an historian such a 
deficiency is most serious, and could be but 
imperfectly supplied by the acuteness of his 
critical faculty. In biography it was to a 
certain extent counteracted by the strength 
of the sympathy which originally attracted 
him to his theme ; and hence his biographical 
writings are perhaps the most truly and per- 
manently valuable. 

[Memoir by Mrs. Burton, prefixed to the large- 
paper edition of the Book Hunter, 1882 ; Black- 
wood's Mag. September 1881.] E. Gr. 

BURTON, ROBERT (1577-1640), author 
of the ' Anatomy of Melancholy,' and one of 
the most fantastic figures in literature, was 
the second son of Ralph Burton of Lindley 
in Leicestershire. In the calculation of his 
nativity, on the right hand of his monument 
in Christ Church Cathedral, the date of his 
birth is given as 8 Feb. 1576-7. He tells us 
in the ' Anatomy of Melancholy ' (chapter on 
' Aire Rectified, with a digression of the 
Aire,' part ii., sect. 2, memb. 3) that his birth- 
place was Lindley in Leicestershire. There 
is a tradition that he was born at Falde 
in Staffordshire, and Plot, in. his 'Natural 
History of Staffordshire,' 1686 (p. 276), states 
that he was shown the house of Robert Bur- 
ton's nativity; but the tradition probably 
arose from the fact that William Burton [q.v.] 
resided at Falde . We learn from his will that 
he passed some time at the grammar school, 
Nuneaton ; and in the ' Digression of the 
Aire ' he mentions that he had been a scholar 
at the free school of Sutton Coldfield, War- 
wickshire. In the long vacation of 1593 he 
was sent as a commoner to Brasenose College, 
Oxford, and in 1599 was elected student of 
Christ Church, where, ' for form sake, tho' he 
wanted not a tutor,' he was placed under the 
tuition of Dr. John Bancroft. He took the 
degree of B.D. in 1614, and was admitted to 



the reading of the sentences. On 29 Nov. 
1616 he was presented by the dean and 
chapter of Christ Church to the vicarage of 
St. Thomas, in the west suburbs of Oxford ; 
and it is recorded that he always gave his 
parishioners the sacrament in wafers, and 
that he built the south porch of the church. 
About 1630 he received from George, Lord 
Berkeley, the rectory of Segrave in Leicester- 
shire, which, with his Oxford living, he 
kept ' with much ado to his dying day.' In 
1606 Burton wrote a Latin comedy, which 
was acted at Christ Church on Shrove Mon- 
day, 16 Feb. 1617-18. It was not printed in 
the author's, lifetime, and was long supposed 
to be irretrievably lost ; but two manuscript 
copies had fortunately been preserved. One 
of these belonged to Dean Milles (who died 
in 1784), and is now in the possession of the 
Rev JI JfiaIliam^E > dwar.d Buckley, of Middleton 
Cheney, by whom it was privately printed in 
handsome quarto for presentation to the Rox- 
burghe Club in 1862. , On the title-page is 
written ' Inchoata A Domini 1606, alterata, 
renovata, perfecta Anno Domini 1615.' Over 
inchoata is written in the same hand scripta, 
and over renovata, revisa. The other manu- 
script, a presentation copy from the author 
to his brother, William Burton, is in Lord 
Mostyn's library (Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th 
Rep. 356). ' Philosophaster ' bears a certain 
resemblance to Tomkis's ' Albumazar,' acted 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1614, and 
to Ben Jonson's ' Alchemist,' acted in 1610, 
and published in 1612. In the prologue the 
author anticipates criticism on this point : 

Emendicatuni e nupera scena aut quis putet, 
Sciat quod undecim abhinc annis scripta fuit. 

Burton's comedy is a witty exposure of the 
practices of professors in the art of chicanery. 
The manners of a fraternity of vagabonds 
are portrayed with considerable humour and 
skill, and the lyrical portions of the play 
are written with a light hand. At the end 
of the volume Mr. Buckley has collected, 
at the cost of considerable research, all Bur- 
ton's contributions to various academic col- 
lections of Latin verse. 

In 1621 appeared the first edition of Bur- 
ton's ' Anatomy of Melancholy,' one of the 
most fascinating books in literature. The 
full title is ' The Anatomy of Melancholy, 
What it is. With all the Kindes, Cavses, 
Symptomes, Prognostickes, and severall Cvres 
of it. In Three Maine Partitions with their 
seuerall Sections, Members, and Svbsections. 
Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically 
opened and cvt vp. By Democritus lunior. 
With a Satyricall Preface conducing to the 
following Discourse. Macrob. Omne meum, 



Burton 



Burton 



Nihil meum. At Oxford, Printed by lohn 
Lichfield and lames Short, for Henry Cripps, 
Anno Dom. 1621,' 4to. The first edition con- 
tains at the end an ' Apologetical Appendix ' 
(not found in later editions), signed ' Robert 
Bvrton,' and dated ' From my Studie in 
Christ-Church, Oxon. December 5, 1620.' 
Later editions, in folio, appeared in 1624, 1628, 
1632, 1638, 1651-2, 1660, 1676 ; an edition in 
2 vols. 8vo was published in 1800, and again 
in 1806 ; and several abridgments of the great 
work have been published in the present 
century. In the third edition (1628) first 
appeared the famous frontispiece, engraved 
by C. Le Blond. The sides are illustrated 
with figures representing the effects of Me- 
lancholy from Love, Hypochondriasis, Super- 
stition and Madness. At the top is Demo- 
critus, emblematically represented, and at 
the foot a portrait of the author. In the 
corners at the top are emblems of Jealousy 
and Solitude, and in the corners at the 
bottom are the herbs Borage and Hellebore. 
Burton was continually altering and adding 
to his treatise. In the preface to the third 
edition he announced that he intended to 
make no more changes : ' I am now resolved 
never to put this treatise out again. Ne 
quid nimis. I will not hereafter add, alter, 
or retract ; I have done.' But when the fourth 
edition appeared it was found that he had 
not been able to resist the temptation of 
making a further revision. The sixth edition 
was printed from an annotated copy which 
was handed to the publisher shortly before 
Burton's death. Wood states that the pub- 
lisher, Henry Cripps, made a fortune by the 
sale of the 'Anatomy;' and Fuller in his 
' Worthies ' remarked that ' scarce any book 
of philology in our land hath in so short a 
time passed so many editions.' The treatise 
was dedicated to George, Lord Berkeley. In 
the long preface, ' Democritus to the Reader,' 
which is one of the most interesting parts 
of the book, the author gives us an account 
of his style of life at Oxford : ' I have lived 
a silent, sedentary, solitary, private life, mihi 
et musis, in the university, as long almost 
as Xenocrates in Athens, ad senectam fere, 
to learn wisdom as he did, penned up most 
part in my study. For I have been brought 
up a student in the most flourishing colledge 
of Europe [Christ Church in Oxford marg. 
note], Augustissimo Collegia, and can brag 
with lovius almost, in ea luce dotnicilii Vati- 
cani, totius orbis celeberrimi, per 37 annos 
multa opportunaque didici : for thirty years I 
have continued (having the use of as good 
libraries as ever he had) a scholar, and would 
be, therefore, loth either by living as a drone 
to be an unprofitable or unworthy a member 



of so learned and noble a societie, or to write 
that which should be any way dishonourable 
to such a royal and ample foundation.' He 
then proceeds to speak of the desultory cha- 
racter of his studies : ' I have read many books 
but to little purpose, for want of good method ; 
I have confusedly tumbled over divers au- 
thors in our libraries with small profit for 
want of art, order, memory, judgment.' 
For preferment he was not anxious : ' I am 
not poor, I am not rich : nihil est, nihil deest, 
I have little, I want nothing ; all my treasure 
is in Minerva's tower.' He anticipates the 
objections of hostile critics who may urge 
that his time would have been better spent 
in publishing books of divinity. He saw ' no 
such need ' for that class of works, as there 
existed already more commentaries, treatises, 
pamphlets, expositions, and sermons than 
whole teams of oxen could draw. Why did 
he choose such a subject as melancholy? 'I 
write of melancholy,' is the answer, ' by 
being busy to avoid melancholy.' He apolo- 
gises for the rudeness of his style, on the 
ground that he could not afford to employ 
an amanuensis or assistants. After relating 
the story of Pancrates (in Lucian), who by 
magic turned a door-bar into a serving-man, 
he proceeds in this strain : ' I have no such 
skill to make new men at my pleasure, or 
means to hire them, no whistle to call like 
the master of a ship, and bid them run, &c. 
I have no such authority ; no such bene- 
factors as that noble Ambrosius was to Origen, 
allowing him six or seven Amanuenses to 
write out his Dictats. I must for that cause 
do my businesse my self, and was therefore 
enforced, as a Bear doth her whelps, to bring 
forth this confused lump.' To some slight 
extent Burton was indebted to ' A Treatise 
of Melancholy,' by T. Bright, 1586. The 

* Anatomy ' is divided into three partitions, 
which are subdivided into sections, members, 
and subsections. Prefixed to each partition 
is an elaborate synopsis as a sort of index, 
in humorous imitation of the practice so com- 
mon in books of scholastic divinity. Part i. 
deals with the causes and symptoms of melan- 
choly ; part ii. with the cure of melancholy ; 
and part iii. with love melancholy and re- 
ligious melancholy. On every page quota- 
tions abound from authors of all ages and 
countries, classics, fathers of the church, 
medical writers, poets, historians, scholars, 
travellers, &c. There is a unique charm in 
Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy.' Dr. 
Johnson said that it was the only book that 
ever took him out of his bed two hours sooner 
than he intended to rise. Ferriar in his 

* Illustrations of Sterne ' showed how ' Tris- 
tram Shandy ' was permeated with Burton's 



Burton 



Burton 



influence. Charles Lamb was an enthusiastic 
admirer of the 'fantastic old great man/ and to 
some extent modelled his style on the ' Ana- 
tomy.' In ' Curious Fragments extracted 
from the Commonplace Book of Robert Bur- 
ton' (appended to the tragedy of 'Woodvil,' 
1802) Lamb imitated with marvellous fidelity 
Burton's charming mannerisms. Milton, as 
Warton was the first to point out, gathered 
hints for ' L' Allegro ' and ' II Penseroso' from i 
the verses (' The Author's Abstract of Me- ; 
lancholy ') prefixed to the ' Anatomy.' There ; 
is no keener delight to an appreciative student ; 
than to shut himself in his study and be im- 
mersed ' from morn to noon, from noon to 
dewy eve,' in Burton's far-off world of for- 
gotten lore. Commonplace writers have 
described the ' Anatomy ' as a mere collec- 
tion of quotations, a piece of patchwork. 
The description is utterly untrue. On every 
page is the impress of a singularly deep and 
original genius. As a humorist Burton bears 
some resemblance to Sir Thomas Browne ; 
this vein of semi-serious humour is, to his 
admirers, one of the chief attractions of his 
style. When he chooses to write smoothly 
his language is strangely musical. 

Little is recorded of Burton's life. Bishop 
Kennet (in his Register and Chronicle, p. 320) 
says that after writing the 'Anatomy' to 
suppress his own melancholy, he did but im- 
prove it. 'In an interval of vapours ' he 
would be extremely cheerful, and then he 
would fall into such a state of despondency 
that he could only get relief by going to the 
bridge-foot at Oxford and hearing the barge- 
men swear at one another, ' at which he 
would set his hands to his sides and laugh 
most profusely.' Kennet's story recalls a 
passage about Democritus in Burton's pre- 
face :. ' He lived at last in a garden in the 
suburbs, wholly betaking himself to his 
studies and a private life, saving that some- 
times he would walk down to the haven and 
laugh heartily at such variety of ridiculous 
objects which there he saw.' It would appear 
that when he adopted the title of Democritus 
Junior, Burton seriously set himself to imi- 
tate the eccentricities recorded of the old 
philosopher. Anecdotes about Burton are 
very scarce. It is related in ' Reliquiae 
Hearnianse ' that one day when Burton was 
in a book-shop the Earl of Southampton en- 
tered and inquired for a copy of the ' Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy ;' whereupon ' says the 
bookseller " My lord, if you please I can show 
you the author." He did so. " Mr. Burton," 
says the earl, " your sen-ant." " Mr. South- 
ampton," says Mr. Burton, " your servant," 
and away he went.' Wood gives the follow- 
ing character of Burton : ' He was an exact 



mathematician, a curious calculator of nati- 
vities, a general read scholar, a thorough- 
paced philologist, and one that understood 
the surveying of lands well. As he was by 
many accounted a severe student, a devourer 
of authors, a melancholy and humorous per- 
son, so by others who knew him well a person 
of great honesty, plain dealing and charity. 
I have heard some of the antients of Christ 
Church often say that his company was very 
merry, facete and juvenile, and no man of his 
time did surpass him for his ready and dex- 
terous interlarding his common discourses 
among them with verses from the poets or 
sentences from classical authors.' Burton died 
at Christ Church on 25 Jan. 1639-40, at or 
very near the time that he had foretold some 
years before by the calculation of his nativity. 
Wood says there was a report among the 
students that he had ' sent up his soul to 
heaven thro' a noose about his neck ' in order 
that his calculation might be verified. He 
was buried in the north aisle of Christ Church 
Cathedral, and over his grave was erected, at 
the expense of his brother William Burton, 
a comely monument, on the upper pillar of 
the aisle, with his bust in colour ; on the right 
hand above the bust is the calculation of his 
nativity, and beneath the bust is the epitaph 
which he had composed for himself ' Faucis 
notus, paucioribus ignotus, hie jacet Demo- 
critus Junior, cui vitam dedit et mortem 
Melancholia.' His portrait hangs in the hall 
of Brasenose College. He left behind him a 
choice library of books, many of which he 
bequeathed to the Bodleian. The collection 
included a number of rare Elizabethan tracts. 
There is an elegy on Burton in Martin 
Llewellyn's poems, 1646. 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, ii. 652-3 ; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt i. 415-19; Preface to 
the Anatomy of Melancholy, ed. 6 ; Philoso- 
phaster, Comoedia, ed. Rev. W. E. Buckley, 1 862 ; 
Kennet's Register and Chronicle, 1728, p. 320; 
Ferriar's Illustrations of Sterne, 1799 ; Hearne's 
Reliquiae, ed. Bliss, i. 288 ; Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, September 1861 ; Lamb's Detached Thoughts 
on Books and Reading ; Stephen Jones's Memoir 
prefixed to the Anatomy, ed. 1800.] A. H. B. 

BURTON, ROBERT or RICHARD 

( 1632 P-1725?), miscellaneous author, whose 
real name was NATHANIEL CKOTTCH, was the 
author of many books, attributed on the 
title-page to R. B., to Richard Burton, and 
(after his death) to Robert Burton. He 
was born about_ 1632, and was the son of 
a tailor at Lewes. Nathaniel was appren- 
ticed on 5 May 1656 for seven years to Live- 
well Chapman, and at the close of his ap- 
prenticeship became a freeman of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. He was a publisher, and 



Burton 



Burton 



compiled a number of small books, which, 
issued at a shilling each, had a great popu- 
larity. ' Burton's books ' so they were called 
attracted the notice of Dr. Johnson, who in 
1784 asked Mr. Dilly to procure them for 
him, ' as they seem very proper to allure back- 
ward readers.' John Dunton says of him : 
' I think I have given you the very soul of 
his character when I have told you that his 
talent lies at collection. He has melted down 
the best of our English histories into twelve 
penny books, which are filled with wonders, 
rarities, and curiosities ; for, you must know, 
his title-pages are a little swelling.' Dun- 
ton professed a * hearty friendship ' for him, 
but objects that Crouch ' has got a habit of 
leering under his hat, and once made it a 
great part of his business to bring down the 
reputation of" Second Spira" ' (a book said to 
be by Thomas Sewell, published by Dunton). 
Crouch was also, according to Dunton, 'the 
author of the "English Post," and of that 
useful Journal intituled "The Marrow of 
History." ' ' Crouch prints nothing,' says 
Dunton, ' but what is very useful and very 
diverting.' Dunton praises his instructive 
conversation, and says that he is a ' phoenix 
author (I mean the only man that gets an 
estate by writing of books).' A collected 
edition in quarto of his ' historical works ' 
was issued in 1810-14, chiefly intended for 
collectors who 'illustrate' books by the in- 
sertion of additional engravings. His ori- 
ginal publications are : 1. ' A Journey to 
Jerusalem ... in a letter from T. B. in 
Aleppo, &c.,' with a ' brief account of ... 
those countries,' added apparently by Crouch. 
In 1683 it was augmented and reprinted as 
' Two Journies to Jerusalem, containing first 
a strange and true Account of the Travels 
of two English Pilgrims (Henry Timberlake 
and John Burrell) ; secondly, the Travels of 
fourteen Englishmen, by T. B. To which 
are prefixed memorable Remarks upon the 
ancient and modern State of the Jewish 
Nation ; together with a Relation of the great 
Council of the Jews in Hungaria in 1650 by 
S. B.[rett], with an Account of the wonderful 
Delusion of the Jews by a False Christ at 
Smyrna in 1666 ; lastly, the final Extinction 
and Destruction of the Jews in Persia.' There 
were editions with various modifications of 
title, such as ' Memorable Remarks,' ' Judee- 
orum Memorabilia,' &c., in 1685, 1730, 1738, 
1759. It was reprinted at Bolton in 1786. 
The latest reissue, entitled ' Judseorum Me- 
morabilia,' was edited and published at Bris- 
tol by W. Matthews iir 1796. A Welsh 
translation, published about 1690 at Shrews- 
bury, is in the British Museum. 2. ' Miracles 
of Art and Nature, or a Brief Description of 



the several varieties of Birds, Beasts, Fishes, 
Plants, and Fruits of other Countrys, to- 
gether with several other Remarkable Things 
in the World. By R. B. Gent., London, 
printed for William Bowtil at the Sign of 
the Golden Key near Miter Court in Fleet 
Street,' 1678. A tenth edition appeared in 
1737. 3. ' The Wars in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland from 1625 to 1660,' London, 
1681. The preface is signed Richard Burton. 
The fourth edition appeared in 1683 ; issues 
in 1684, 1697, 1706, and 1737. 4. 'The 
Apprentice's Companion,' London, 1681. 
5. ' Historical Remarques on London and 
Westminster,' London, 1681 ; reprints in 1684 
(when a second part was added), 1703, 1722, 
and 1730, with some modifications. 6. ' Won- 
derful Prodigies of Judgment and Mercy, 
discovered in Three Hundred Histories,' 1681 ; 
other editions in 1682, 1685, 1699, Edinburgh 
1762. 7. ' Wonderful Curiosities, Rarities, and 
Wonders in England, Scotland, and Ireland,' 
London, 1682. ; reprinted in 1685, 1697, 1728, 
and 1737. 8. ' The Extraordinary Adventures 
and Discoveries of Several Famous Men,' 
London, 1683, 1685, 1728. 9. ' Strange and 
Prodigious Religious Customs and Manners of 
sundry Nations,' London, 1683. 10. 'Delights 
for the Ingenious in above fifty select and 
choice Emblems, divine and moral, curiously 
ingraven upon copper plates, with fifty de- 
lightful Poems and Lots for the more lively 
illustration of each Emblem, to which is pre- 
fixed an incomparable Poem intituledMajesty 
in Misery, an Imploration to the King of 
Kings, written by his late Majesty K. Charles 
the First. Collected by R. B.' London, 1684. 

11. ' English Empire in America. By R. B.,' 
London, 1685; 3rd edit. 1698, 5th edit. 
1711, 6th edit. 1728, 1735, 7th edit. 1739 ; 
there was also a 7th edit. Dublin, 1739. 

12. 'A View of the English Acquisitions in 
Guinea and the East Indies. By R. B.,' Lon- 
don, 1686, 1726, 1728. 13. ' Winter Evening 
Entertainments, containing : I. Ten pleasant 
and delightful Relations. II. Fifty ingenious 
Riddles,' 6th edit. 1737. 14. ' Female Excel- 
lency, or the Ladies' Glory ; worthy Lives 
and memorable Actions of nine famous 
Women. By R.B.,' London, 1688. 15. 'Eng- 
land's Monarchs from the Invasion of Romans 
to this Time, &c. By R. B.,' 1685, 1691, 
1694. 16. ' History of Scotland and Ireland. 
By R. B.,' London, 1685, 1696. 17. ' History 
of the Kingdom of Ireland,' London, 1685, 
1692. In the seventh edition, Dublin, 1731, 
it is said to be an abridgment of Dean Story's 
' Late Wars in Ireland.' 18. ' The Vanity 
of the Life of Man represented in the 
seven several Stages from his Birth to his 
Death, with Pictures and Poems exposing the 



Burton 



16 



Burton 



Follies of every Age, to which is added Poem 
upon divers Subjects and Occasions. B 1 
R. B.,' London, 1688, 3rd edit, 1708. 19. ' Thi 
Young Man's Calling, or the whole Duty o 
Youth,' 1685. 20. 'Delightful Fables in 
Prose and Verse,' London, 1691. 21. 'His 
tory of the Nine Worthies of the World, 
London, 1687; other editions 1713, 1727 
4th edit. 1738, Dublin, 1759. 22. ' History 
of Oliver Cromwell,' London, 1692, 1698 
1706, 1728. 23. ' History of the House o: 
Orange,' London, 1693. 24. ' History of th< 
two late Kings, James the Second and Charles 
the Second. By R. B.,' London, Crouch 
1693, 12mo. 25. < Epitome of all the Lives 
of the Kings of France,' London, 1693 
26. ' The General History of Earthquakes, 
London, 1694, 1734, 1736. 27. ' England's 
Monarchs, with Poems and the Pictures ol 
every Monarch, and a List of the present 
Nobility of this Kingdom,' London, 1694. 
28. ' The English Hero, or Sir Francis Drake 
revived,' London, 1687, 4th edit, enlarged 
1695; there were editions in 1710, 1716, 
1739, 1750, 1756, 1769. 29. 'Martyrs in 
Flames, or History of Popery,' London, 1695, 
1713, 1729. 30. ' The History of the Prin- 
cipality of Wales,' in three parts, London, 
1695, 2nd edit. 1730. 31. ' Unfortunate Court 
Favourites of England,' London, 1695, 1706 ; 
6th edit. 1729. 32. ' Unparalleled Varieties, 
or the matchless Actions and Passions dis- 
played in near four hundred notable Instances 
and Examples,' 3rd edit. London, 1697, 4th 
edit. 1728. 33. ' Wonderful Prodigies of Judg- 
ment and Mercy discovered in near three 
hundred Memorable Histories.' The 5th 
edition enlarged, London, 1699. 34. ' Ex- 
traordinary Adventures, Revolutions, and 
Events,' 3rd edit. London, 1704. 35. 'Devout 
Souls' Daily Exercise in Prayer, Contempla- 
tions, and Praise,' London, 1706. 36. ' Di- 
vine Banquets, or Sacramental Devotions,' 
London, 1706, 1707. 37. 'Surpri/ing Mi- 
racles of Nature and Art,' 4th edit. London, 
1708. 38. ' History of the Lives of English 
Divines who were most zealous in Promoting 
the Reformation. By R. B.,' London, 1709. 

39. 'The Unhappy Princess, or the Secret 
History of Anne Boleyn; and the History 
of Lady Jane Grey,' London, 1710, 1733. 

40. 'History of Virginia,' London, 1712. 

41. '^Esop's Fables in Prose and Verse,' 1712. 

42. ' Kingdom of Darkness, or the History 
of Demons, Spectres, Witches, Apparitions, 
Possessions, Disturbances, and other Super- 
natural Delusions and malicious Impostures 
of the Devil.' The first edition appeared as 
early as 1706. 43. 'Memorable Accidents 
and unheard-of Transactions, containing an 
Account of several strange Events. Trans- 



lated from the French [of T. Leonard], and 
printed at Brussels in 1691. By R. B.,' Lon- 
don, 1733. The first edition appeared in 1693. 
44. ' Youth's Divine Pastime, Part II., con- 
taining near forty more remarkable Scripture 
Histories, with Spiritual Songs and Hymns 
of Prayer and Praise. By R. Burton, author 
of the first part.' The 6th edition, London, 
C. Hitch, 1749. 45. 'Triumphs of Love, con- 
taining Fifteen Histories,' London, 1750. In 
the Grenville Collection the following is 
attributed to Burton, but apparently by mis- 
take : ' The Accomplished Ladies' Rich Closet 
of Rarities, &c.' The last official communi- 
cation with him from the Stationers' Com- 
pany was in 1717, and his name ceases to be 
recorded in 1728. As the name of Thomas 
Crouch, presumably his son, appears on the 
title-page of one of Burton's books in 1725, 
it may be assumed that he died before that 
date. 

[Records of the Stationers' Company, obligi ngly 
examined for this article by Mr. C. E. Bivington, 
the clerk ; John Dunton's Life and Errors ; 
Catalogue of the Grenville Collection ; Lowndes's 
Bibliographer's Manual ; Hawkins's History of 
Music, xi. 171; Chalmers's Biog. Diet.; Book- 
Lore, 1885.] W. E. A. A. 

BURTON, SIMON, M.D. (1690P-1744), 
physician, was born in Warwickshire about 
1690, being the eldest son of Humphrey 
Burton, of Caresly, near Coventry. His 
mother was Judith, daughter of the Rev. 
Abraham Bohun. He was educated at Rugby, 
and at New College, Oxford, where he pro- 
ceeded B.A. 29 Nov. 1710 ; M.A. 26 May 
1714 ; M.B. 20 April 1716 ; and M.D. 21 July 
1720. After practising for some years at 
Warwick, he removed to London, where he 
established himself in Savile Row, and ob- 
tained a large practice. He was admitted, 
12 April 1731, a candidate of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians, of which he became a fel- 
low on 3 April 1732. On 19 Oct. in the 
following year Burton was appointed phy- 
sician to St. George's Hospital, and subse- 
quently royal physician in ordinary (General 
Advertiser, 13 June 1744). He was one of 
;he physicians who attended Pope in his last 
llness, and had a dispute upon that occasion 
with Dr. Thompson, a well-known quack, to 
which reference is made in a satire entitled 
One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty- 
Four, a Poem, by a Great Poet lately de- 
ceased.' Burton survived Pope somewhat less 
,han a fortnight, and died, after a few days' 
llness, 11 June 1744, at his house in Savile 
low.' 

[General Advertiser, 13 June 1744; Penny 
Condon Morning Advertiser, 13-15 June 1744 ; 



Burton 



Burton 



Gent. Mag. June 1744; Catalogue of Oxford 
Graduates, 1851 ; Carruthers's Life of Alexander 
Pope, 1857.] A. H. G. 

BURTON, THOMAS (fi. 1656-1659), 
reputed parliamentary diarist, was a justice 
of the peace for AVestmoreland. He was re- 
turned to parliament as member for the county 
on 20 Aug. 1656. On 16 Oct. 1656 he was 
called upon by the parliament to answer a 
charge of disaffection towards the existing 
government, which he did to the satisfaction 
of the house (Parl. Hist. pp. 439-40). The 
Westmoreland returns for Richard Crom- 
well's parliament (27 Jan. 1658-9 to 22 April 
1659) are missing, but probably Burton was 
re-elected to it. He did not sit in parliament 
after the Restoration. Although he spoke 
seldom, he is assumed to have been a regular 
attendant in the house, and has been identi- 
fied as the author of a diary of all its pro- 
ceedings from 1656 to 1659. In this record 
the speeches are given in the oratio recta, and 
it is therefore to be inferred that the writer 
prepared his report in the house itself. The 
' Diary,' in the form in which it is now known, 
opens abruptly on Wednesday, 3 Dec. 1656. 
It is continued uninterruptedly till 26 June 
1657. A second section deals with the period 
between 20 Jan. 1657-8 and 4 Feb. 1657-8, and 
a third with that between 27 Jan. 1658-9 and 
22 April 1659. The ' Diary ' was first printed 
in 1828, by J. T. Rutt,from the author's note- 
books, which had come into the possession of 
Mr. Upcot, librarian of the London Institu- 
tion. These manuscripts, which form six ob- 
long 12mo volumes, are now in the British 
Museum (Addit. MSS. 15859-64), and bear 
no author's name. The editor prefixed extracts 
from the ' Journal ' of Guibon Goddard, M.P. 
(Addit. MS. 5138, ff. 285 et seq.), dealing 
with the parliament of 1654. The identity 
of the author of the ' Diary ' can only be dis- 
covered by internal evidence. At vol. ii. p. 159 
he writes (30 May 1657), 'Sir William Strick- 
land and /moved that the report for the bill 
for York River be now made.' On 1 June 
Sir William Strickland's colleague is stated 
to be 'Mr. Burton,' and the only member of 
the name in the house at the time was 
Thomas Burton, M.P. for Westmoreland. But 
Carlyle (Cromwell, iv. 239-40) has pointed 
out that the writer speaks of himself in the 
first person as sitting on two parliamentary 
committees (ii. 346, 347, 404) in the list of 
whose members given in the ' Commons Jour- 
nals ',(vii. 450, 580, 588) Barton's name is 
not found. The evidence of authorship is 
very conflicting, and suggests that more than 
one member of parliament was concerned in 
it. Carlyle asserts that Nathaniel Bacon, 
1593-1660 [q. v.J, has a better claim to the 

VOL. VIII. 



work than Burton, but this assertion is con- 
trovertible. The diarist was a mere reporter, 
and Carlyle, whilst frequently quoting him, 
treats his lack of imagination with the bit- 
terest disdain. 'A book filled . . . with 
mere dim inanity and moaning wind.' 

[Burton's Parliamentary Diary (1828), vols. 
i-iv.; Names of M.P.s, pt. i. pp. 504-6; Carlyle's 
Cromwell, iv. 240.] S. L. L. 

BURTON, WILLIAM (d. 1616), puri- 
tan divine, was born at Winchester, but in 
what year is not known. He was educated 
at Winchester School and New College, Ox- 
ford, of which, after graduating B.A., he 
was admitted perpetual fellow on 5 April 
1563. He left the university in 1565. He 
was minister at Norwich (he tells us) for ' fiue 
yeares,' presumably the period 1584-9. But 
he seems to have been in Norwich or the im- 
mediate neighbourhood at least as early as 
1576, perhaps as assistant in the free school. 
His name appears in 1583 among the Norfolk 
divines (over sixty in number) who scrupled 
subscription to Whitgift's three articles. 
He has left a very interesting account of the 
puritan ascendency in Norwich during his 
time. The leaders of the party were John 
More, vicar of St. Andrew's (buried on 
16 Jan. 1592), and Thomas Roberts, rector 
of St. Clements (d. 1576). For many years 
there was daily preaching, attended by 
the magistrates and over twenty of the city 
clergy, besides those of the cathedral, it 
was the custom each day for one or other of 
the magistrates to keep open house for the 
clergy, without whose advice 'no matter was 
usually concluded ' in the city council. Very 
interesting also is his account, as an eye- 
witness, of the burning at Norwich, on 14 Jan. 
1589, of Francis Ket [q. v.] as an ' Arrian 
heretique.' Burton bears the strongest testi- 
mony to the excellence and apparent godli- 
ness of Ket's life and conversation, but glories 
in his fate, and is quite certain of his damna- 
tion. Burton, while rejecting the ceremonies, 
was firm against separation from the na- 
tional church ; he writes bitterly respecting 
' our English Donatists, our schismaticall 
Brownists.' He left Norwich owing to 
troubles which befell him about some matters 
of his ministry. In after years it was re- 
ported that the civic authorities had driven 
him away; his enemies wrote to Norwich 
for copies of records which they expected 
would tell against him ; but it seems that 
the mayor and council had d-one their best 
to retain him. On leaving Norwich he 
found a friend in Lord Wentworth, as we 
learn from the dedication prefixed to his 
' Dauid's Euidence,' &c., 1592, 8vo. Went- 

c 



Burton 



18 



Burton 



worth took him into his house, gave him 
books, and was the means of his resuming the 
work of the ministry. Richard Fletcher, 
bishop of Bristol (consecrated 3 Jan. 1590), 
gave him some appointment in Bristol, not 
upon conditions, ' as some haue vntruely re- 
ported.' Complaints were made about his 
teaching, whereupon he published his ' Cate- 
chism,' 1591, which is a very workmanlike 
presentation of Calvinism. In it he argues 
against bowing at the name of Jesus, and de- 
scribes the right way of solemnising 'the 
natiuitie of the Sonne of God.' He subse- 
quently published several sets of sermons 
which had been delivered in Bristol. He be- 
came vicar of St. Giles, Reading, on 25 Nov. 
1591. At some unknown date (after 1608) 
he came to London. He died intestate in 
the parish of St. Sepulchre, apparently in 
1616 ; whether he held the vicarage or not 
does not appear ; the registers of St. Sepul- 
chre were burned in the great fire of 1666. 
His age at death must have been upwards of 
seventy. His wife, Dorothy, survived him ; 
his son Daniel administered to his effects on 
17 May 1616. 

Of Burton's publications, the earliest 
written was a single sermon preached at 
Norwich on 21 Dec. 1589 from Jer. iii. 14, 
but it was probably not published till later, 
for he calls his 'Catechism,' 1591, 16mo, his 
* first fruites.' Wood enumerates eight subse- 
quent collections of sermons and seven trea- 
tises, including ' An Abstract of the Doctrine 
of the Sabbath,' 1606, 8vo, which has escaped 
the researches of Robert Cox. The little vo- 
lume of ' seauen sermons/ bearing the title 
' Dauids Evidence,' above referred to, was re- 
printed in 1596, 16mo, and in 1602, 4to. 
Burton translated seven dialogues of Erasmus, 
published to prove ' how little cause the papists 
haue to boast of Erasmus, as a man of their 
side.' This wasissued in 1606, sm. 4to ; some 
copies have the title ' Seven dialogves Both 
pithie and profitable,' &c., others bear the title 
' Utile-Dulce : or, Trueths Libertie. Seuen 
wittie-wise Dialogues,' &c. ; but the two 
issues (both dated 1606) correspond in every 
respect except the title-pages. 

[Burton's dedications in Catechism, 1591, 
Dauids Euidence, 1596, and Seven Dialogues, 
1606; Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. ii. 1745 (Nor- 
wich) ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 1 ; 
Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 230 ; 
Christian Moderator, 1826, p. 37; Leversage's 
Hist, of Bristol Cathedral, 1853, 66.] A. G. 

BURTON, WILLIAM (1575-1645), 
author of ' Description of Leicestershire,' son 
of Ralph Burton, and elder brother of Robert 
Burton (' Democritus Junior ') [q. v.], was 



born at Lindley in Leicestershire on 24 Aug. 
1575. At the age of nine years he was sent 
to school at Nuneaton, and on 29 Sept. 1591 
entered Brasenose College, Oxford, where he 
took the degree of B. A. on 22 June 1594. Be- 
fore taking his degree he had been admitted, 
on 20 May 1593, to the Inner Temple. In 
his manuscript ' Antiquitates de Lindley' (an 
epitome of which is given in Nichols's 'Leices- 
tershire,' iv. 651-6), he states that on apply- 
ing himself to the study of law he still con- 
tinued to cultivate literature, and he mentions 
that he wrote in 1596 an unpublished Latin 
comedy, ' De A moribus Perinthii et Tyanthes,' 
and in 1597 a translation (also unpublished) 
of ' Achilles Tatius.' He had a close know- 
ledge, both literary and colloquial, of Spanish 
and Italian, and found much pleasure in the 
study of the emblem-writers, but his interest 
lay chiefly in heraldry and topography. In 
1602 he issued a corrected copy, printed at 
Antwerp, of Saxton's map of the county of 
Leicester. On 20 May 1603 he was called 
to the bar, but soon afterwards, his health 
being too weak to allow him to practise, he 
retired to the village of Falde in Stafford- 
shire, where he owned an estate. He now 
began to devote himself seriously to his ' De- 
scription of Leicestershire.' From a manu- 
script ' Valediction to the Reader ' (dated 
from Lindley in 1641), in an interleaved copy 
which he had revised and enlarged for a se- 
cond edition, we learn that the book was 
begun so far back as 1597, ' not with an in- 
tendment that it should ever come to the 
public view, but for my own private use, 
which after it had slept a long time was on 
a sudden raised out of the dust, and by force 
of an higher power drawn to the press, hav- 
ing scarce an allowance of time for the fur- 
bishing and putting on a mantle ' (NICHOLS, 
Leicestershire, iii. xvi). The 'higher power' 
was his patron, George, marquis of Bucking- 
ham, to whom the work was dedicated on 
its publication (in folio) in 1662. Nichols 
(ibtd. p. Ixv) prints a manuscript preface to 
the 'Description' dated 7 April 1604, and 
hence it may be assumed that the publica- 
tion was delayed for many years. Burton 
was one of the earliest of our topographical 
writers, and his work must be compared, not 
with the elaborate performances of a later 
age, but with such books as Lambarde's 
' Kent,' Carew's ' Cornwall,' and Norden's 
' Surveys.' Dugdale, in the ' Address to the 
Gentrie of Warwickshire' prefixed to his 
' Warwickshire,' says that Burton, as well as 
Lambarde and Carew, ' performed but briefly ; ' 
and Nichols observes that ' the printed volume, 
though a folio of above 300 pages, if the un- 
necessary digressions were struck out and the 



Burton 



Burton 



pedigrees reduced into less compass, would 
shrink into a small work.' The author was 
well aware of the imperfections of his work, 
and spent many years in making large addi- 
tions and corrections towards a new edition. 
In the summer of 1638 he had advanced so 
far in the revision that the copy of the in- 
tended second edition was sent to London 
for press, as appears from two letters to Sir 
Simonds d'Ewes (NICHOLS, Leicestershire, ii. 
843). Gascoigne says that Sir Thomas Cave, 
in the year 1640, ' had in his custody a copy 
of Burton's that should have been reprinted, 
but the war breaking out prevented it ' (ibid. 
p. 844) ; and he adds, from personal inspec- 
tion, that the work had been augmented to 
three times the original size. After Bur- 
ton's death his son Cassibelan presented, with 
several of his father's manuscripts, to Walter 
Chetwynd, of Ingestree, Staffordshire, a copy 
of the ' Description ' containing large manu- 
script additions by the author. In 1798 Shaw 
discovered this copy at Ingestree {Gent. Mag. 
Ixviii. 921), and it was utilised by Nichols in 
the third and fourth volumes of his ' Leicester- 
shire.' Doubtless this was the copy which 
Gascoigne saw in 1640. Several copies of 
Burton's work, with manuscript annotations 
by various antiquaries, are preserved in pri- 
vate libraries (see the long list in NICHOLS'S 
Leicestershire, ii. 843-5). In 1777 there 
was published by subscription a folio edition 
which claimed to be 'enlarged and corrected,' 
but the editorial work was performed in a 
very slovenly manner. All the information 
contained in the ' Description ' was incorpo- 
rated in Nichols's ' Leicestershire.' 

In 1607 Burton married Jane, daughter of 
Humfrey Adderley of Weddington in "War- 
wickshire, by whom he had a son Cassibelan 
[q. v.] Among his particular friends were 
Sir Robert Cotton and William Somner. In 
his account of Fenny-Drayton he speaks with 
affection and respect of his ' old acquaint- 
ance ' Michael Drayton. Dugdale in his ' Au- 
tobiography ' acknowledges the assistance 
which he had received from Burton. In 1612 
Thomas Purefoy of Barwell in Warwickshire 
bequeathed at his death to Burton the origi- 
nal manuscript of Leland's ' Collectanea.' 
Wood (Athena, ed. Bliss, i. 200) charges 
Burton with introducing ' needless additions 
and illustrations ' into this work ; but Hearne, 
in the preface to his edition of the ' Col- 
lectanea,' denies the truth of the charge. In 
1631 Burton caused part of Leland's ' Itine- 
rary ' to be transcribed, and in the following 
year he gave five quarto volumes of Leland's 
autograph manuscripts to the Bodleian. When 
the civil wars broke out, Burton sided with 
the royalists, and endured persecution. He 



died at Falde on 6 April 1645, and was 
buried in the parish church at Hanbury. 
Among the manuscripts that he left Avere : 
1. ' Antiquitates de Lindley,' which was after- 
wards in the possession of Samuel Lysons, 
who lent it to Nichols (Leicestershire, iv. 651). 
2. ' Antiquitates de Dadlington Manerio, com. 
Leic.,' which in Nichols's time belonged to 
Nicholas Hurst of Hinckley. 3. Collections 
towards a history of Thedingworth, as ap- 
pears from a letter to Sir Robert Cotton, in 
which Burton asks that antiquary's assist- 
ance (ibid. ii. 842). He also left some col- 
lections of arms, genealogies, &c. About 
1735 Francis Peck announced his intention 
of writing Burton's life, but the project does 
not seem to have been carried out. 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 843-5, iii. xvi, 
Ixr, iv. 651-6 ; Wood's Athenae (ed. Bliss), i. 200, 
iii. 153-6; Oldys's British Librarian (1737), 
pp. 287-99 ; Gent. Mag. Ixviii. 921 ; Dugdale's 
Autobiography, appended to Dallaway's He- 
raldry, 1793.] A. H. B. 

BURTON, WILLIAM (1609-1657), an- 
tiquary, son of William Burton, sometime of 
Atcham, in Shropshire, was born in Austin 
Friars, London, and educated in St. Paul's 
school. He became a student in Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1625 ; but as he had not suffi- 
cient means to maintain himself, the learned 
Thomas Allen, perceiving his merit, induced 
him to migrate to Gloucester Hall, and con- 
ferred on him a Greek lectureship there. He 
was a Pauline exhibitioner from 1624 to 1632. 
In 1630 he graduated B.C.L., but, indigence 
forcing him to leave the university, he became 
the assistant or usher of Thomas Farnaby, 
the famous schoolmaster of Kent. Some 
years later he was appointed master of the 
free school at Kingston-upon-Thames, in 
Surrey, where he continued till two years 
before his death, ' at which time, being taken 
with the dead palsy, he retired to London.' 
He died on 28 Dec. 1657, and was buried 
in a vault under the church of St. Clement 
Danes, in the Strand. Bishop Kennett calls 
'this now-neglected author the best topo- 
grapher since Camden,' while Wood tells us 
that ' he was an excellent Latinist, noted 
philologist, was well skill'd in the tongues, 
was an excellent critic and antiquary, and 
therefore beloved of all learned men of his 
time, especially of the famous Usher, arch- 
bishop of Armagh.' 

His works are : 1. ' InTlaudem] doctissimi, 
clarissimi, optimi senis, Thomae Alleni ultimo 
Septembris MDCXXXII Oxoniis demortui, exe- 
quiarum justis ab alma Academiapostridie so- 
lutis, orationes binse ' (the first by Burton, the 
second by George Bathurst), London, 1632, 
4to. 2. ' Nobilissimi herois Dn. C. Howardi 

C2 



Burton 



Burton 



comitis NottinghamiaeaTro&'wo-ir ad illustris- 
simum V. Dn. 0. Howardum, comitem Not- 
tinghamife, fratrem superstitem ' (London, 

1 April 1643), on a small sheet, fol. 3. ; The 
beloved City : or, the Saints' Reign on Earth 
a Thousand Years, asserted and illustrated 
from 65 places of Holy Scripture,' Lond. 
1643, 4to, translated from the Latin of John 
Henry Alstedius. 4. ' Clement, the blessed 
Paul's fellow-labourer in the Gospel, his 
First Epistle to the Corinthians ; being an 
effectuall Suasory to Peace, and Brotherly 
Condescension, after an unhappy Schism and 
Separation in that Church,' London, 1647, 
1652, 4to, translated from Patrick Yong's 
Latin version, who has added ' Certaine An- 
notations upon Clement.' 5. ' Graecae Linguae 
Historia (Veteris Linguae Persicae \efyava) ' 

2 parts, London, 1657, 8vo. 6. ' A Comment- 
ary on Antoninus his Itinerary, or Journies 
of the Roman Empire, so far as it concerneth 
Britain,' Lond. 1658, fol. With portrait en- 
graved by Hollar, and a ' Chorographicall 
Map of the severall Stations.' At pp. 136, 
137, Burton gives some account of his family, 
and relates that his great-grandfather ex- 
pired from excess of joy on being informed of 
the death of Queen Mary. 

[Biog. Brit. (Kippis), iii. 42; Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mus. ; Gardiner's Registers of 
St. Paul's School, 34,400 ; Gough's British To- 
pography, i. 5 ; Knight's Life of Dr. John Colet, 
402; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England (1824), 
iv. 56 ; Kennett's Life of Somner, 19 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 330, 478 ; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 438.] T. C. 

BURTON, WILLIAM EVANS (1802- 
1860), actor and dramatist, was the son of 
William Burton, sometimes called William 
George Burton (1774-1825), printer and 
bookseller, and author of 'Researches into 
the Religion of the Eastern Nations as illus- 
trative of the Scriptures,' 2 vols. 1805. He 
was born in London September 1802, received 
a classical education at St. Paul's School, 
and is said to have matriculated at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, with the intention of 
entering the church ; but at the age of eigh- 
teen he was obliged to undertake the charge 
of his father's printing business. His success 
in some amateur performances led him to 
adopt the stage as a profession, and he joined 
the Norwich circuit, where he remained seven 
years. In February 1831 he made his first 
appearance in London at the Pavilion Theatre 
as Wormwood in the ' Lottery Ticket,' and 
in 1833 was engaged at the Haymarket as the 
successor of Liston ; but on Listen's unex- 
pected return to the boards he went to Ame- 
rica, where he came out at the Arch Street 



Theatre, Philadelphia, 3 Sept. 1834, as Doctor 
Ollapod in the ' Poor Gentleman.' His first 
engagement in New York was at the National, 
4 Feb. 1839, as Billy Lackaday. Burton was 
subsequently lessee and manager of theatres in 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, and on 13 April 
1841 essayed management in New York at 
the National Theatre, which was consumed 
by fire on 29 May following. In 1848 he 
leased Palmo's Opera House, New York, 
which he renamed Burton's Theatre. Here 
he produced, with extraordinary success, John 
Brougham's version of ' Dombey and Son,' in 
which he personated Captain Cuttle. The 
Metropolitan Theatre, Broadway, New York, 
came under his management September 1856, 
with the title of Burton's New Theatre. 
Little satisfied with his success in this new 
house, he gave up its direction in 1858, and 
commenced starring engagements, his name 
and fame being familiar in every quarter of 
the Union. His humour was broad and 
deep, and sometimes approached coarseness, 
but at the same time was always genial and 
hearty, and generally truthfully natural ; 
while in homely pathos and the earnest ex- 
pression of blunt, uncultivated feeling, he has 
never been excelled. His power of altering 
the expressions of his face was also much 
greater than that possessed by any other actor 
of modern times. His name was almost ex- 
clusively identified with the characters of 
Captain Cuttle, Mr. Toodle, Ebenezer Sudden, 
Mr. Micawber, Poor Pillicoddy, Aminadab 
Sleek, Paul Pry, Tony Lumpkin, Bob Acres, 
and many others. In literature he was almost 
as industrious as in acting. He wrote several 
plays, the best known being ' Ellen Ware- 
ham, a domestic drama,' produced in May 
1833, and which held the stage at five Lon- 
don theatres at the same time. He was 
editor of the ' Cambridge Quarterly Review,' 
editor of and entire prose contributor to the 
'Philadelphia Literary Souvenir,' 1838-40, 
proprietor of the ' Philadelphia Gentleman's 
Magazine,' seven volumes, of which Edgar A. 
Poe was sometime the editor, contributor to 
many periodicals, and author of ' The Yankee 
among the Mermaids,' 12mo, ' Waggeries and 
Vagaries, a series of sketches humorous and 
descriptive,' Philadelphia, 1848, 12mo, and 
' Cyclopaedia of Wit and Humour of America, 
Ireland, Scotland, and England,' New York, 
1857, 2 vols. 8vo. His library, the largest 
and best in New York, especially rich in 
Shakespearean and other dramatic literature, 
was sold in the autumn after his death in 
upwards of six thousand lots, ten to twenty 
volumes often forming a lot. A large col- 
lection of paintings, including some rare works 
of the Italian and Flemish school, adorned his 



Burton 

two residences. His health was failing many 
months prior to his decease, which took place 
at 174 Hudson Street, New York, 9 Feb. 
18GO, from a fatty degeneration of the heart, 
in the fifty-eighth year of his age. As an 
actor he held the first rank, and in his pecu- 
liar line the present generation cannot hope 
to witness his equal. He was twice married, 
the second time, in April 1853, to Miss Jane 
Livingston Hill, an actress, who, after suf- 
fering from mental derangement, died at New 
York on 22 April 1863, aged 39. His large 
fortune was ultimately divided between his 
three daughters, Cecilia, Virginia, and Rosine 
Burton. 

[Ireland's Kecords of the New York Stage 
(1867), ii. 235-38 ; Eipley and Dana's American 
Cyclopaedia (1873), iii. 479; Drake's American 
Biography (1872), p. 147; The Era, London, 
4 March 1860, p. 14; Willis's Current Notes, 
1852, p. 38 ; Cyclopaedia of Wit and Humour 
(1857), with Portrait.] G. C. B. 

BURTON, WILLIAM PATON (1828- 
1883), water-colour painter, son of Captain 
William Paton Burton, of the Indian army, 
was born at Madras in 1828 and educated at 
Edinburgh. After studying for a short time 
in the office of David Bryce, the architect, 
he turned to landscape painting, and was a 
frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy 
and in Suffolk Street between 1862 and 
1880. His works consisted of views in Eng- 
land, Holland, France, Italy, and Egypt. 
He died suddenly at Aberdeen on 31 Dec. 
1883. 



[Athenaeum, January 1884.] 



L. F. 



BURTT, JOSEPH (1818-1876), archjeo- 
logist and assistant-keeper in the national 
Record Office, was born in the parish of St. 
Pancras, London, on 7 Nov. 1818. He was 
educated by his father, who was a private 
tutor, known as a Greek scholar, and author 
of a Latin grammar. He entered the public 
service as a lad of fourteen in 1832 under 
Sir Francis Palgrave, by whom he was em- 
ployed on work connected with the Record 
Commission at the chapter-house of West- 
minster Abbey. Here he continued his 
labours for many years, arranging and mak- 
ing inventories of the national records then 
housed in that building. In August 1851 he 
was promoted to be assistant-keeper of the 
records of the second class, and was raised 
to be a first-class assistant-keeper in June 
1859, a position which he enjoyed to his 
death. About this time Burtt superintended 
the removal from the old chapter-house to 
the newly erected record office in Fetter 
Lane of the vast mass of documents which 
had been lying, many of them unsorted and 



i Bury 

uncatalogued, in that most unsuitable deposi- 
tory. The calendaring of the chancery records 
of Durham was a task which Burtt undertook 
in addition to his ordinary official duties. 
He was also employed in his private capa- 
city by Dean Stanley and the chapter of 
Westminster in sorting and arranging the 
muniments of the abbey, and he was the 
first to commence the work of examining 
and bringing into order the muniments of 
the dean and chapter of Lincoln. In 1862 
he became secretary of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute, to which he subsequently 
added the editorship of the 'Archaeological 
Journal.' He was for many years the prime 
mover of all the operations of the institute, 
especially in connection with its annual con- 
gresses, which were ably organised by him. 
As a private friend Burtt was much and de- 
servedly valued. He died after a protracted 
illness at his residence at Tulse Hill on 
15 Dec. 1876, and was buried in Nunhead 
Cemetery. Burtt contributed a large number 
of archaeological and historical papers to the 
'Journal of the Archaeological Institute,' 
the 'Gentleman's Magazine,' the ' Athenaeum,' 
' Archaeologia Cantiana,' and other kindred 
periodicals. He also edited the ' Household 
Expenses of John of Brabant and of Thomas 
and Henry of Lancaster ' for the ' Miscellany ' 
of the Camden Society. 

[Journal of the Archaeological Institute, xxxiv. 
90-2 ; private information.] E. V. 

BURY, ARTHUR, D.D. (1624-1714?), 
theologian, was the son of the Rev. John 
Bury (1580-1667) [q. v.], and matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, on 5 April 1639, aged 
15. He took his degree of B.A. on 29 Nov. 
1642, was elected a Petreian fellow of his col- 
lege on 30 June 1643, and became full fellow 
on 6 May 1645. When Oxford was garrisoned 
for the king, Bury laboured at the works of 
defence and took his turn among the guards 
who watched over its safety. Like most of 
his associates, he refused to submit to the 
parliamentary visitors of the university, and 
was driven from the city to take refuge with 
'his sequestered father in Devonshire. At 
the Restoration he was restored to his fel- 
lowship, and was offered, according to his 
own statement in after life, preferment 
' more than eight times the value ' of the 
rectorship of his college, but declined the 
offer. In 1666 the rectorship at Exeter Col- 
lege became vacant, and Bury was elected 
(27 May), partly on the recommendation of 
Archbishop Sheldon and partly under instruc- 
tions from Charles II (which were somewhat 
resented by the college) that he should be 
elected, ' notwithstanding any statute or 



Bury 



22 



Bury 



custom thereof to the contrary, with which 
we are graciously pleased to dispense in this 
behalf.' On 22 June in the same year he 
took the degree of B.D. and five days later 
became D.D. Bury claimed to have intro- 
duced some improvements in the college 
rules, and to have expended over 7001. in 
the erection of college buildings and in the 
enlargement of the rector's lodgings; but 
there were disputes in 1669 over the election 
of fellows, when he suspended five of them 
at a stroke, and the visitor in 1675 com- 
plained of his management of the college 
property and of the laxity of the internal 
discipline. Against this it is only fair to 
state that Dean Prideaux, when speaking of 
the ' drinking and duncery ' at Exeter Col- 
lege, referred to Bury as ' a . man that very 
well understands businesse and is always 
very vigorous and diligent in it.' In 1689 a 
still more serious trouble arose. Bury had 
expelled one of the fellows on, as it seems, a 
groundless charge of incontinence, and the 
visitor ordered the restoration of the ' socius 
ejectus.' The rector was contumacious, and, 
when the bishop held a formal visitation, 
tried to shut the gates against him. Bury 
and his backers among the fellows were 
thereupon expelled, and a new rector was 
elected in his stead. The legality of Bury's 
deprivation was tried in the king's bench 
and carried to the House of Lords, with the 
result that on 10 Dec. 1694 the latter tri- 
bunal gave its decision against Bury. By 
his ejection his numerous family were re- 
duced to great distress. 

A treatise issued in 1690, under the title 
of ' The Naked Gospel, by a true son of the 
Church of England,' was discovered to be 
the work of Bury, and for some passages in 
it a charge of Socinianism was brought 
against him by his enemies. His object was 
to free the gospel from the additions and 
corruptions of later ages, and he sums up its 
doctrines ' in two precepts believe and re- 
pent.' An answer to it was published in 
1690 by William Nicholls, fellow of Merton 
College. Another reply came out in the 
next year from Thomas Long, B.D., and a 
third appeared in 1725, the latter being the 
work of Henry Felton, D.D. In spite of the 
publication by Le Clerc of ' An Historical 
Vindication of the Naked Gospel,' the treatise 
was condemned by a decree of convocation of 
Oxford (19 Aug. 1690) and was publicly burnt 
in the area of the schools. On 30 Aug. there 
was issued from the press a letter of fifteen 
pages, evidently the composition of Bury, with 
the title of ' The Fires continued at Oxford,' in 
defence of his conduct, and in 1691 he brought 
out, under his own name, a second edition 



of ' The Naked Gospel.' Twelve years later 
(1703) he published an enlarged work, ' The 
rational Deist satisfy'dbyajust account of the 
Gospel. In two parts ; second edition.' Bury 
was also the author of several sermons and of 
a tract called ' The Constant Communicant,' 
1681. The titles of the pamphlets provoked 
by his controversies may be read in Boase 
and Courtney's ' Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' 
ii. 772. He was one of the vicars of Bamp- 
ton, Oxford, but resigned the charge in 
1707. The date of his death is not known 
with certainty, but is believed to have been 
about 1714. 

[Boase's Keg. of Exeter College, pp. xxxiii, 
Ixv, 68-83, 212, 229; Luttrell's Eelation of 
State Affairs (1857), ii. 227, iii. 410-11 ; Hunt's 
Keligious Thoughts, ii. 195-201 ; Account Ex- 
amined, or a Vindication of Dr. Arthur Bury, 
18-20; Prideaux Letters (Camden Soc.), p. Ill ; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 473, 502, 3rd ser. 
i. 264 ; "Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 483 ; 
Visitation of Oxford (Camdeii Soc.) p. 13.] 

W. P. C. 

BURY, LADY CHARLOTTE SUSAN 
MARIA (1775-1861), novelist, youngest 
child of John Campbell, fifth duke of Ar- 
gyll, by Elizabeth, second daughter of John 
Gunning of Castle Coot in Roscommon, and 
widow of James Hamilton, sixth duke of 
Hamilton, was born at Argyll House, Oxford 
Street, London, 28 Jan. 1775. In her youth 
she was remarkable for her personal beauty, 
and the charm of her manners rendered her 
one of the most popular persons in society, 
while the sweetness and excellence of her 
character endeared her more especially to 
those who knew her in the intimacy of private 
life. She was always distinguished by her 
passion for the belles-lettres, and was accus- 
tomed to do the honours of Scotland to the 
literary celebrities of the day. It was at one 
of her parties that Sir Walter Scott became 
personally acquainted with Monk Lewis. 
When aged twenty-two she produced a vo- 
lume of poems, to which, however, she did not 
affix her name. She married, 14 June 1796, 
Colonel John Campbell (eldest son of Wal- 
ter Campbell of Schawfield, by his first wife 
Eleanora Kerr), who, at the time of his de- 
cease in Edinburgh 15 March 1809, was 
member of parliament for the Ayr burghs. 
By this marriage she had nine children, 
of whom, however, only two survived her, 
Lady A. Lennox and Mrs. William Russell. 
Lady Charlotte Campbell married secondly, 
17 March 1818, the Rev. Edward John 
Bury (only son of Edward Bury of Taun- 
ton) ; he was of University College, Oxford, 
B.A. 1811, M.A. 1817, became rector of Lich- 
field, Hampshire, in 1814, and died at Arden- 



Bury 



Bury 



ample Castle, Dumbartonshire, May 1832, 
aged 42, having had issue two daughters. 
On Lady Charlotte hecoming a widow in 
1809 she was appointed lady-in-waiting in 
the household of the Princess of Wales, after- 
wards Queen Caroline, when it is believed 
that she kept a diary, in which she recorded 
the foibles and failings of the unfortunate 
princess and other members of the court. 
After her marriage with Mr. Bury she was 
the author of various contributions to light 
literature, and some of her novels were once 
very popular, although now almost forgotten. 
When the ' Diary illustrative of the Times 
of George IV ' appeared in two volumes in 
1838, it was thought to bear evidence of a 
familiarity with the scenes depicted which 
could only be attributed to Lady Charlotte. 
It was reviewed with much severity, and at- 
tributed to her ladyship by both the ' Edin- 
burgh ' and ' Quarterly ' Reviews. The vo- 
lumes, hoAvever, sold rapidly, and several 
editions were disposed of in a few weeks. 
The charge of the authorship was not at the 
time denied, and as no one has since arisen 
claiming to have written the diary the public 
libraries now catalogue the work under Lady 
Charlotte's name. She died at 91 Sloane 
Street, Chelsea, 31 March 1861. The once 
celebrated beauty, the delight of the highest 
circles of London society, died quite forgotten 
among strangers in a lodging-house, and her 
death certificate at Somerset House curiously 
says, ' daughter of a duke and wife of the 
Rev. E. J. Bury, holding no benefice.' 

The following is believed to be a complete 
list of Lady Bury's writings ; many of them 
originally appeared without her name, but 
even at that time there does not seem to have 
been any secret as to the identity of the 
writer : 1. ' Poems on several Occasions, by 
a Lady,' 1797. 2. ' Alia Giornata, or To the 
Day,' anonymous, 1826. 3. 'Flirtation,' 
anonymous, 1828, which went to three 
editions. 4. ' Separation,' by the author of 
' Flirtation,' 1830. 5. ' A Marriage in High 
Life,' edited by the author of ' Flirtation,' 
1828. 6. ' Journal of the Heart,' edited by 
the author of ' Flirtation,' 1830. 7. ' The 
Disinterested and the Ensnared,' anonymous, 

1834. 8. ' Journal of the Heart,' second se- 
ries, edited by the author of 'Flirtation/ 

1835. 9. 'The Devoted,' by the author of 
' The Disinherited,' 1836. 10. ' Love,' anony- 
mous, 1837 ; second edition 1860. 11. ' Me- 
moirs of a Peeress, or the days of Fox,' by 
Mrs. C. F. Gore, edited by Lady C. Bury, 
1837. 12. 'The Three Great Sanctuaries of 
Tuscany : Valambrosa, Camaldoli, Lavernas,' 
a poem historical and legendary, with en- 
gravings from drawings by the Rev. E. Bury, 



1833. 13. ' Diary illustrative of the Times of 
George the Fourth/ anonymous, 1838, 2 vols. 
14. ' The Divorced,' by Lady C. S. M. Bury, 
1837 ; another edition 1858. 15. ' Family 
Records, or the Two Sisters/ by Lady C. S. M. 
Bury, 1841. And 16, a posthumous work en- 
titled ' The Two Baronets/ a novel of fashion- 
able life, by the late Lady C. S. M. Bury, 
1864. She is also said to have been the 
writer of two volumes of prayers, ' Suspirium 
Sanctorum/ which were dedicated to Dr. 
Goodenough, bishop of Carlisle. 

[Colburn's New Monthly Magazine, xlix. 76- 
77 (1837), portrait; Burke's Portrait Gallery of 
Females (1833), i. 103-5 ; Allibone's Dictionary 
of English Literature (1859), i. 308.] G. C. B. 

BURY, EDWARD (1616-1700), ejected 
minister, born in Worcestershire in 1616, ac- 
cording to Walker was originally a tailor, 
and was put into the living of Great Bolas, 
Shropshire, in place of a deprived rector. 
Calamy says that Bury was a man of learn- 
ing, educated at Coventry grammar school 
and at Oxford, and that before obtaining 
the rectory of Great Bolas he had been chap- 
lain in a gentleman's family and assistant to 
an aged minister. He received presbyterian 
ordination. The date at which he began his 
ministry at Great Bolas was before 1654. 
In the parish records he signs himself 
'minister and register' till 1661, when, in 
consequence of the act for confirming pos- 
session of benefices, he signs ' rector.' His 
entries show that he was somewhat given to 
astrology. Ejected in 1662, Bury, who re- 
mained at Great Bolas in a house he had 
built, was subjected to great privations. On 
2 June 1680, Philip Henry gives him II. from 
a sum left at his disposal by William Probyn 
of Wem. Henry's diary, 22 July 1681, has 
an account of the distraint of Bury's goods 
(he is here called Berry) for taking part at a 
private fast on 14 June. After this he was 
a good deal hunted about from place to place. 
In later life his circumstances were improved 
by bequests. He became blind some years 
before his death, which occurred on 5 May 
1700, owing to a mortification in one foot. 
By his wife Mary, he had at least five chil- 
dren: 1. Edward, b. 1654 ; 2. Margarit (sic), 
b. 12 Feb. 1655 ; 3. John, b. 14 March 1657 ; 
4. Mary, b. 13 Aug. 1660; 5. Samuel [q.v.] 
The following is Calamy's list of his publi- 
cations : 1. ' The Soul's Looking-glass, or a 
Spiritual Touchstone/ &c., 1660. 2. 'A 
Short Catechism, containing the Funda- 
mental Points of Religion/ 1660. 3. ' Re- 
lative Duties.' 4. 'Death Improv'd, and 
Immoderate Sorrow for Deceased Friends 
and Relatives Reprov'd/ 1675; 2nd edit. 



Bury 



Bury 



1693. 5. ' The Husbandman's Companion, 
containing an 100 occasional meditations, 
&c., suited to men of that employment,' 1677. 
6. ' England's Bane, or the Deadly Danger 
of Drunkenness.' 7. ' A Sovereign Antidote 
against the Fear of Death,' 1681, 8vo (in Dr. 
Williams's library). 8. ' An Help to Holy 
Walking, or a Guide to Glory,' 1705. 

[Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, 
pt. ii. pp. 310, 368; Calamy's Account, 1713, 
p. 557 seq. ; Continuation, 1727, p. 723 seq.; Lee's 
Diaries and Letters of P. Henry, 1882, pp. 289, 
301 ; Extracts from the Eegisters of Bolas 
Magna by Eev. E. S. Turner.] A. G-. 

BURY, EDWARD (1794-1858), engi- 
neer, was born at Salford, near Manchester, 
on 22 Oct. 1794. His early education was 
received at a school in the city of Chester, 
and his youth was remarkable for the fond- 
ness which he displayed for machinery, and 
for the ingenuity which he exhibited in the 
construction of models. His scholastic edu- j 
cation being finished, he went through the | 
usual course of mechanical engineering, and 
he eventually established himself at Liver- 
pool as a manufacturer of engines. 

In 1830 the Liverpool and Manchester 
railway was opened, and for several years 
after this period Bury devoted his attention 
to the construction of engines for railways. 
He supplied many of the first engines used 
on the Liverpool and Manchester and on 
the London and Birmingham railways. In 
the ' Transactions of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers ' for 17 March 1840 will be found 
a valuable paper by him, ' On the Locomotive 
Engines of the London and Birmingham 
Railway,' in which he discusses the relative 
advantages of four and six wheels, and con- 
tributes a series of tables which are of the 
greatest importance in the history of loco- 
motive traction, and of considerable interest 
in the theory of steam-drawing engines. 
Bury about this time introduced a series of j 
improved engines for the steamboats employed i 
on the Rhone, which attracted much atten- j 
tion on the continent, and led to his being 
consulted by the directors of most of the 
railways then being constructed in Europe. 

For some years after the openingof the Lon- 
don and Birmingham railway, in September 
1838, Bury had the entire charge of the loco- 
motive department of that line. He subse- 
quently undertook the management of the 
whole of the rolling stock for the Great 
Northern railway. In each case his admi- 
nistrative services were duly recognised by 
the directors, and his engineering capabilities, 
his mechanical knowledge, his good judg- 
ment, and his tact, secured for him, in an 



unusual degree, the confidence of those who 
were employed under him. 

On 1 Feb. 1844 Bury was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society, his claim being founded 
on the great improvements which he had in- 
troduced, especially in adjusting, the dimen- 
sions of the cylinder and driving wheels, and 
the effective pressure of the steam. 

In the ' Annual Report of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers ' for the session 1856-7 
we find Bury tendering his resignation. The 
council of the Institution permitted him to 
retire under exceedingly gratifying circum- 
stances. During his later years he lived at 
Crofton Lodge, Windermere. He died at 
Scarborough on 25 Nov. 1858. 

[Proceedings of the Eoyal Society, 1859-60, 
vol. x. ; Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of 
Civil Engineers, 1859.] E. H-T. 

BURY, MRS. ELIZABETH (1644-1 720), 
diarist, was baptised 12 March 1644 at Clare, 
Suffolk, the day of her birth having probably 
been 2 March (Account of the Life and Death 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Bui-y, p. 1). Her father 
was Captain Adams Lawrence of Linton, 
Cambridgeshire ; her mother was Elizabeth 
Cutts of Clare, and besides Elizabeth there 
were three other children. In 1648, when 
Elizabeth was four years old, Captain Law- 
rence died, and in 1651 Mrs. Lawrence re- 
married (ib. 3), her second husband being Mr. 
Nathaniel Bradshaw, B.D., minister of a 
church in the neighbourhood. About 1654 
Elizabeth described herself as ' converted,' 
and she commenced that searching method 
of introspection with the evidence of which 
her ' Diary ' abounds. Her studies, begun 
rigidly at four in the morning, in spite of 
delicate health, embraced Hebrew (ib. 5), 
French, music, heraldry, mathematics, philo- 
sophy, philology, anatomy, medicine, and di- 
vinity. Her stepfather, Mr. Bradshaw, be- 
ing one of the ejected ministers in 1662, the 
family moved to Wivelingham, Cambridge- 
shire. Elizabeth in 1 664 began writing down 
her ' experiences ' in her ' Diary,' ' concealing 
her accounts' at the onset 'in shorthand.' 
In 16G7, on 1 Feb., she married Mr. Griffith 
Lloyd of Hemmingford-Grey, Huntingdon- 
shire, who died on 13 April 1682. In her 
widowhood, which lasted another fifteen years, 
Mrs. Lloyd passed part of her time in Norwich. 
She was married at Bury to Samuel Bury 
[q. v.], nonconformist minister, on 29 May 
1697, having previously refused to marry 
three several churchmen, whose initials are 
given, because ' she could not be easy in their 
communion.' 

Mrs. Bury was mistress of a good estate, and 
was described as 'a great benefactrix' (ib, 6). 






Bury 

She kept a stock of bibles and practical books 
to be distributed as she should see occasion 
(BALLARD'S British Ladies, p. 425) ; her 
knowledge of the materia medica was sur- 
prising (ib. 424) ; ' her gift in prayer was very 
extraordinary ' (Account, 36) ; and she had 'a 
motto written up in her closet in Hebrew 
"Thou, Lord, seest me," ... to keep her 
heart from trifling.' She became infirm after 
1712, and died 8 May 1720, aged 76. Mr 
Bury gave the fullest testimony to his wife's 
deep learning and unfailing excellences. Dr 
Watts described her as ' a pattern for the 
sex in ages yet unborn.' Her funeral sermon 
was preached at Bristol on 22 May 1720 by 
the Rev. William Tong, and was printed al 
Bristol the same year ; a third edition was 
reached the next year, 1721. ' The Account 
of the Life and Death of Mrs. Bury,' Bristol 
1720, included the extant portions of her 
diary, the funeral sermon, a life by her hus- 
band, and an elegy by Dr. Watts. 

[Account of the Life and Death of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Bury, chiefly collected out of her own Diary, 
with Funeral Sermon, &c., Bristol, 1720; Bal- 
lard's British Ladies, pp. 262, 321, 424 et seq.] 

J. H. 

BURY, HENRY DE. [See BEDERIC.] 

BURY, JOHN (/. 1557), translator, 
graduated at Cambridge B.A. 1553, and 
M.A. 1555 ; he translated from Greek into 
English ' Isocratis ad Demonicum oratio pa- 
reenetica' or 'Admonysion to Demonicus,' 
with a dedication to his uncle, Sir W. Chester, 
1557. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 143 ; Ames's Typogr. 
Antiq. (Herbert), 358 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab, 
i. 174.] W. H. 

BURY, JOHN (1580-1667), divine, the 
eon of a descendant of the Devonshire family 
of Bury, long resident at Colyton, who was in 
business at Tiverton, was born there in 1580. 
On 9 Feb. 1597 he was elected a scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and in 1603, 
shortly after he had taken his degree ofB.A., 
he became the first fellow of Balliol College 
under the bequest of Peter Blundell. After 
remaining for several years at the university 
he returned to his native county, where he 
obtained the vicarage of Heavitree and a 
canonry in Exeter Cathedral, his collation to 
the latter preferment dating 20 March 1637. 
The presentment of Bury and the other pre- 
bendaries at Laud's visitation, 19 June 1634, 
is printed in Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
p. 138. A fewyears later he resigned his bene- 
fice in favour of a relation, and accepted the 
rectory of Widworthy in the same county. 
The latter preferment he retained until his 



Bury 



death, and after the Restoration (2 March 
1662) the rectory of St. Mary Major, Exeter, 
was conferred upon him. He died 011 5 July 
1667, and was buried in the ' middle area ' 
of Exeter Cathedral, ' a little below the 
pulpit.' His literary works were few in 
number two sermons (1615 and 1631) and 
a catechism for the use of his parishioners at 
Widworthy (1661). He endowed a school 
in St. Sidwell's, Exeter, left funds for the 
maintenance of thirteen poor persons in St. 
Catherine's Almshouse in the same city and 
for the poor of his native town of Tiverton, 
and largely added to the resources of the 
public workhouse at St. Sidwell's. Canon 
Bury had two sons, Arthur [q. v.],the rector 
of Exeter College, Oxford, and John, a colonel 
in the parliamentary army. Portraits of all 
three are in the present workhouse at Exeter. 

[Prince's Worthies, 152-4; Harding's Tiverton, 
book iii. 276, iv. 113; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 777 ; Oliver's Exeter, 152.] 

W. P. C. 



BURY, RICHARD DE (1281-1345)/**" * 
bishop of Durham, was the son of Sir Richard ^ ' 
Aungerville, and is known as Richard de s<?e 
Bury from his birthplace of Bury St. Ed- ^+ b 
munds. His father died when he was a child, v.-l( 
leaving him to the charge of his uncle, John 
de Willoughby, a priest. Richard studied 
at Oxford, where he gained distinction as a 
scholar. On leaving Oxford he became a 
Benedictine monk at Durham. He was chosen 
on account of his learning to be tutor to 
Edward of Windsor, son of Edward II, and 
afterwards Edward III. He was also trea- 
surer of Guienne on behalf of his pupil. When 
Queen Isabella left her husband, taking her 
son with her, Richard supplied her with 
money from the revenues of Guienne. The 
king sent to seize him, but he fled to Paris. 
Thither he was pursued and had to take 
sanctuary. Isabella prospered in her oppo- 
sition to her husband, and the young Ed- 
ward III heaped honours on his former tutor, 
for whom he had a great regard. Richard 
was made successively cofferer, treasurer of 
;he wardrobe, archdeacon of Northampton, 
irebendary of Lincoln, Sarum, and Lichfield, 
ind keeper of the privy seal. He was twice 
sent as ambassador to Pope John XXII, 
who made him a chaplain of the papal chapel 
and allowed him to appear attended by 
twenty chaplains and thirty-six knights. In 
L333 he was made dean of Wells, and at the 
nd of the same year was appointed bishop 
'f Durham by papal provision at the king's 
request. This appointment was in opposition 
o the wishes of the monks of Durham, who 
lad elected their learned sub-prior, Robert de 



Bury 2 

Graystanes. They were, however, unable to 
withstand the pope and king combined, and 
accepted Richard de Bury with a good grace. 

Richard was consecrated bishop of Durham 
at Chertsey on the Sunday before Christmas 
Day 1333, in the presence of the king and 
queen, the king of Scots, and all the magnates 
this side the Trent. Rarely had a bishop 
met with such signal marks of favour. Next 
year he was made high chancellor of Eng- 
land, and treasurer in 1336. In 1335 he 
resigned the office of chancellor that he might 
serve the king as ambassador in Paris, Hai- 
nault, and Germany. In this capacity his 
coolness and clearness of judgment made him 
most valuable to the king, and he was again 
employed in 1337 as a commissioner for the 
affairs of Scotland. On the outbreak of the 
French war his diplomatic services came to 
an end, and he retired with satisfaction from 
public work to the duties of his own diocese. 
In 1342 he was again employed in the con- 
genial task of making a truce with the Scot- 
tish king. 

The lands of the bishopric were undisturbed 
during Richard's episcopate, and he was not 
called upon to engage in warfare which was 
entirely abhorrent to him. In the affairs of 
his diocese he was a capable official and a 
good administrator, as is shown by his chan- 
cery rolls, which are the earliest preserved 
in the archives of Durham. He was also an 
admirable ecclesiastic, beloved for his kind- 
liness and charity. He was always ready to 
do the business of his office, and his progress 
through his diocese was marked by an or- 
ganised distribution of alms to the poor, 
amounting in the case of journeys between 
Durham and Newcastle to eight pounds ster- 
ling. But Richard de Bury was above all 
things a scholar and a promoter of learning. 
He surrounded himself with learned men ; 
Thomas Bradwardin, Richard Fitzralph, and 
other less known scholars were among his 
chaplains. Some book was always read aloud 
to him when he sat at table, and afterwards 
he used to discuss with his attendants what 
had been read. He possessed more books 
than all the other bishops put together. 
Wherever he went his room was filled with 
books, which were piled upon the floor so 
that, his visitors found some difficulty in 
steering a clear course. He had passionate 
enthusiasm for the discovery of manuscripts. 
He tells us himself (Philobiblon, ch. viii.) 
that he used his high offices of state as a 
means of collecting books. He let it be 
known that books were the most acceptable 
presents which could be made to him. He 
searched the monastic libraries and rescued 
precious manuscripts from destruction. His 



Bury 



account of the state of English libraries is 
exactly parallel to that given by Boccaccio of 
the libraries of Italy. The manuscripts lay 
neglected, 'murium fcetibus cooperti et ver- 
mium morsibus terebrati.' Moreover Richard 
had agents in Paris and in Germany who were 
charged to gather books for his library. He 
deserves to rank among the first bibliophiles 
of England. Nor was he selfish in his pur- 
suit. His aim was to raise the intellectual 
standard and to provide the necessary ma- 
terial for students. For this end he founded 
during his lifetime a library at Oxford in 
connection with Durham College, and made 
rules for its management. Five scholars 
were to be appointed librarians, three of 
whom were to be present and to assent to 
the loan of every book. He was anxious 
that all should be taught to use books care- 
fully and respect them as they merited. He 
deplored the prevailing ignorance of Greek, 
and provided his library with Greek and 
Hebrew grammars. His literary sympathies 
were wide, and his library was by no means 
confined to theology. He declares his pre- 
ference of liberal studies to the study of 
law, and urges that the works of the poets 
ought not to be omitted from any one's read- 
ing. While thus actively engaged in fostering 
learning he died at Auckland in 1345, and 
was buried in Durham cathedral. 

Richard de Bury can scarcely claim to be 
regarded as himself a scholar ; he was rather 
a patron and an encourager of learning. He 
corresponds in England to the early human- 
ists in Italy, men who collected manuscripts 
and saw the possibilities of learning, though 
they were unable to attain to it themselves. 
He was recognised as a member of the new 
literary fraternity of Europe, and was pene- 
trated by the chief ideas of humanism, as 
the ' Philobiblon ' sufficiently shows. Petrarch, 
who met him at Avignon, describes him as 
*vir ardentis ingenii nee literarum inscius, 
abditarum rerum ab adolescentia supra fidem 
curiosus ' (Epist. de Rebus Fam. iii. 1). 
Petrarch's account of his own relations with 
him harmonises with this description of an 
ardent amateur. Petrarch wished for some 
information about the geography of Thule, 
and applied to Richard, who answered that 
he had not his books with him, but would 
write to him on his return home. Though 
Petrarch more than once reminded him of 
his promise, he never received an answer. 
Richard was not so learned that he could 
afford to confess ignorance. His merit lies 
in his love for books, his desire to promote 
learning, and his readiness to learn from 
others. His rules for his library at Dur- 
ham College were founded on those already 



Bury 

adopted for the library of the Sorbonne, which 
he saw on his visit to Paris. 

Bale, following Leland, speaks of a collec- 
tion of Richard de Bury's ' Epistolse Fami- 
liares.' This, however, seems to be a mistake. 
A manuscript 'Liber Epistolaris quondam 
Ricardi de Bury/ is in the possession of 
Mr. Ormsby-Gore, but it is a formal ' letter 
writer,' made for one engaged in business of 
various kinds ; to this are appended a number 
of official letters, some of Ricard's own and 
many royal letters of importance {Historical 
MSS. Commission, 4th Rep. 85, 5th Rep. 379, 
&c.) Richard's great work is the 'Philo- 
biblon,' which was written as a sort of hand- 
book to his library at Durham College. It 
is an admirable treatise in praise of learn- 
ing, at times rhetorical, but full of genuine 
fervour. ' No one can serve books and Mam- 
mon,' he exclaims, and he urges the refining 
influence of study. He gives an interesting 
description of the means by which he col- 
lected his library ; he examines the state of 
learning in England and France. He speaks 
of books as one who loved them, and gives 
directions for their careful use. Finally, he 
explains his rules for the management of the 
library which he founded. The work is an 
admirable exhibition of the temper of a book- 
lover and librarian. The ' Philobiblon ' was 
first printed at Cologne (1473) ; then by Hust, 
at Spires (1483) ; at Paris by Badius, Ascen- 
sius, and also by Jean Petit (1500) ; at Oxford, 
edited by Thomas James (1599) ; at Leipzig 
(1574), at the end of ' Philologicarum Episto- 
larum Centuria una ; ' and, edited by Cocheris, 
again at Paris (Aubry), 1856. It was trans- 
lated by J. Bellingham Inglis, London, 1832, 
and there is also an American edition of this 
translation (Albany, 1861). Professor Henry 
Morley gives an epitome of the book in his 
' English Writers,' ii. 43, &c. It Avas edited and 
translated again by Mr. E. C.Thomas in 1885. 

Richard de Bury's library at Oxford was 
dispersed at the dissolution of the monasteries, 
when Durham College shared the fate of the 
monastic foundation to which it was annexed. 
Some of the books went to the Bodleian, 
some to Balliol College, and some to Dr. 
George Owen of Godstow, who purchased 
Durham College from Edward VI (CAMDEN, 
Brit. 1772, p. 310). 

[Extracts from the Chancery Eolls of Kichard 
de Bury are given in Hutchinson's Durham, i. 
288, &c. The authority for the life of Kichard 
de Bury is William de Chambre in Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, i. 765 ; also Historic Dunelmensis 
Scriptores (Surtees Soc.), 1839, p. 139, &c., the 
documents in Eymer's Fcedera, vol. ii. ; see, too, 
Bale's Script. Brit. Cat. (1548), p. 151 ; God- 
win, De Praesulibus (1743), p. 747; Hutchin- 



27 



Bury 



son's Durham, i. 284 ; Kippis's Biog. Brit. i. 370, 
under the name Aungervyle ; Cocheris' preface 
to his Philobiblon ; J. Bass Mullinger's University 
of Cambridge, i. 201, &c.] M. C. 

BURY, SAMUEL (1663-1730), presby- 
terian minister, son of Edward Bury (1616- 
1700) [q. v.], was born at Great Bolas, Shrop- 
shire, where he was baptised on 21 April 1663. 
He was educated at Thomas Doolittle's aca- 
demy, then at Islington. Here he was contem- 
porary with Matthew Henry, who entered in 
1680, and remained long enough to contract a 
strongfriendship with Bury. Edmund Calamy 
(1671-1732) [q. v.], who entered in 1682, 
speaks of Bury as a student of philosophy, not 
divinity. Bury's first settlement was at Bury 
St. Edmunds, prior to the date of the Tolera- 
tion Act, 1689. In 1690ahousein Churchgate 
Street was bought, and converted into a place 
of worship. The congregation was conside- 
rable, and Bury became a recognised leader of 
Suffolk dissent. In Tymms's ' Handbook of 
Bury St. Edmunds ' it is stated that Daniel 
Defoe was an attendant on his ministry. 

In 1696 we find Bury engaged in collect- 
ing a list of the nonconforming ministers ; 
Oliver Heywood supplied him (14 Aug.) 
with the names in Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
through Samuel Angier. On 11 Aug. 1700, 
John Fairfax, ejected from Barking-cum- 
Needham, Suffolk, died (aged seventy-six) 
at his house in that parish ; Bury preached 
two funeral sermons for him, and Palmer 
rightly infers, from expressions in the one at 
the actual funeral at Barking, that, by an 
unusual concession, it was delivered in the 
parish church. 

The still existing chapel in Churchgate 
Street was built in 1711, and opened 30 Dec. 
Bury preached the opening sermon. Bury, 
who was tortured with stone, went with 
his wife to Bath in the autumn of 1719, on 
a journey of health. Just before he set out 
on his return home, he received overtures 
from Lewin's Mead, Bristol. This was the 
larger of the two presbyterian congregations 
in Bristol, and it had been vacant since the 
death of Michael Pope in 1718. It counted 
1,600 adherents. Some of its members had 
been sheriffs of the city ; others were ' persons 
of condition ; divers very rich, many more very 
substantial, few poor. The whole congrega- 
tion computed worth near 400,000^.' Bury 
agreed to go to Bristol for six months ' to 
make a tryal of the waters there.' He ar- 
rived there on 8 April 1720. In little more 
than a month he lost his wife. His stay at 
Bristol was permanent ; he got as assistant 
(probably in 1721) John Diaper, who suc- 
ceeded him as pastor, and resigned in 1751. 
Under Bury's ministry the congregation 



Bury 



Bury 



increased both in numbers and in wealth. In 
the Hewley suit, 1830-42 [see BOWLES, ED- 
WARD], great pains were taken by the uni- 
tarian defendants to collect indications of 
concession to heterodox opinion on the part 
of Bury, as a representative presbyterian of 
his time. James has shown that the ' Ex- 
hortation ' at Savage's ordination, quoted 
to prove (which it does not) opposition to 
the Calvinistic doctrine of election, was not 
by Bury, but by John Rastrick, M.A., of 
Lynn (d. 18 Aug. 1727, aged seventy-eight). 
The strength of the Unitarian case is in a 
farewell letter from Bury to his Lewin's 
Mead congregation. He here says, ' I never 
was prostituted to any party, but have en- 
deavoured to serve God as a catholic Chris- 
tian,' and speaks of requirements which have 
no good Scripture warrant, as making ' apo- 
cryphal sins and duties.' The address is 
essentially practical, avoiding controversy, 
and the strain is fervently evangelical. Bury 
died 10 March 1730, and was buried in St. 
James's churchyard, where formerly was an 
altar tomb with Latin epitaphs to Bury 
and his wife (given in COERT and EVANS'S 
Bristol, 1816, ii. 181). The parish register 
has the entry, 'Burialls 1729, March 15. 
Mr. Samll. Bury. Tom [i.e. tomb] a techer 
lewends mead meating.' His portrait hangs 
in the vestry at Bury St. Edmunds. He 
married, on 29 May 1697, Elizabeth [q. v.], 
second daughter of Captain Adams Lawrence, 
of Linton, Cambridgeshire. 

Bury published: 1. 'A Scriptural Cate- 
chism, being an Abridgment of Mr. 0. Stock- 
ton's, design'd especially for the use of charity 
schools in Edmund's-Bury,' 1699 (not seen). 

2. 'A Collection of Psalms, Hymns, &c.,' 
for private use, 3rd ed. 1713 (not seen). 

3. ' GpTjj/wSi'a. The People's Lamentation for 
the Loss of their Dead Ministers, or Three 
Sermons occasioned by the death of the late 
Reverend and Learned Divines, Mr. John 
Fairfax and Mr. Timothy Wright,' 1702, 8vo. 

4. 'A Funeral Sermon for the Rev. Mr. 
Samuel Cradock,' &c. 1707, 8vo. 5. ' Two 
sermons preach'd at the opening of a new 
erected Chappel in St. Edmunds-Bury,' &c., 
1712, 8vo. 6. ' A Funeral Sermon for Robert 
Baker, Esq.,' &c., 1714, 8vo. 7. ' The Ques- 
tions ' at the ordination of S. Savage, printed 
with John Rastrick's ' Sermon ' on the occa- 
sion, 1714, 8vo. 8. 'An Account of the Life 
and Death of Mrs. Elizabeth Bury, &c., 
chiefly collected out of her own Diary,' 
Bristol, 1720, 8vo, 4th edit. 1725, 8vo. 

[Tong's Life of Matthew Henry, 1716, p. 27 ; 
Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial, 1803, iii. 250; 
Toulmin's Histor. View of Prot. Diss., 1814, 
p. 584 ; Calamy's Histor. Account of My Own 



Time, 1830, i. 106; Prot, Diss. Mag. 1794, 
p. 235; Murch's Hist, of Presb. and Gen. Bapt. 
Churches in W. of Eng., 1835, p. 107 sq.; 
Historical Illustrations and Proofs, in Shore v. 
Attorney-Gen, [by Joseph Hunter], 1839, p. 
17; Hunter's Life of 0. Heywood, 1842, p. 389; 
James's Hist. Presb. Chapels and Charities, 1867, 
pp. 165 sq., 634 sq., 675, 679; Browne's Hist, of 
Congregationalism in Norf. and Suffi, 1877, pp. 
420, 498, 518; Bristol Times and Mirror, 13 
April 1885; extract from Register of Bolas 
Magna, per Eev. R. S. Turner ; Evans's MS. List 
of Congregations, in Dr. Williams's Library; 
manuscript minute-book of Churchgate Street 
Chapel, Bury St. Edmunds ; and Bury's publica- 
tions, noted above.] A. G. 

BURY, THOMAS (1655-1722), judge, 
youngest son of Sir William Bury, knight, 
of Linwood in Lincolnshire, was born in 
1655, took a bachelor's degree at Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford, in February 1667, and in 1668 
was entered a student at Gray's Inn. He 
was called to the bar in 1676, and after some 
years' practice became a serjeant-at-law in 
1700, and on 26 Jan. 1701, when Sir Littel- 
ton Powys was removed to the king's bench, 
he was created a baron of the exchequer. Of 
this his epitaph says that he ' by his Great 
Application to the Study of the Law, raised 
himself to one of the highest Degrees in that 
Profession,' but Mr. Speaker Onslow, in his 
notes to Bishop Burnet's 'History,' affirms 
that it appeared from Bury's book of accounts 
(a most unlikely place for such a revelation) 
that he gave Lord-keeper Wright a bribe of 
1,0001. for elevating him to the bench. For 
fifteen years he continued to discharge the 
duties of a puisne judge. In 1704, when 
corrupt practices had extensively prevailed 
at the Aylesbury election, the whigs, who 
were then defeated, knowing that proceeding 
by a petition to the House of Commons would 
be useless, caused actions to be brought in 
the queen's bench by some of the electors 
against the returning officers. One of these 
actions, the leading case of Ashby v. White, 
after judgment for the defendants in the 
queen's bench, from which Lord Chief Justice 
Holt dissented, was taken to the House of 
Lords upon a writ of error, and the judges 
were summoned to advise the house. Of 
these judges Bury was one, and his opinion 
was given in support of that of the lord chief 
justice in the court below ; and Lord Somers 
being of the same opinion, the decision of the 
queen's bench was reversed by fifty to six- 
teen. On 20 and 22 April 1710 he, with 
Chief-justice Parker and Mr. Justice Tracy, 
at the Old Bailey, tried one Damary for riot 
and being ringleader of a mob. There is a 
letter of his (25 June 1713) preserved among 



Bury 2 

the treasury papers to the lord high treasurer, 
about offering a reward for the apprehension 
of one Robert Mann. On the death of Sir 
Samuel Dodd, Bury was raised by King 
George I to be chief baron of the exchequer 
10 June 1716. He died on 4 May 1722, sud- 
denly, having been engaged in the discharge 
of his judicial duties until within a few hours 
of his death ; and was buried, with a hand- 
some tomb, in the parish church of Grant- 
ham, Lincolnshire. He left no issue, and 
his estates at Irby, near Wainfleet, passed 
to his grandnephew, William Bury, of Lynd- 
wood Grange, Lincolnshire. There is a 
portrait of him, engraved in mezzotint by 
J. Smith, after a picture by J. Richardson 
dated 1720 (NOBLE, Granger, iii. 198). 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Campbell's Lives 
of the Chief Justices, ii. 160; Patents, William 
III, p. 5 ; Burnet, v. 219 note ; Luttrell, 6, 572, 
573 ; Wotton's Baronetage, iv. 99 ; Epitaph Grant- 
ham church; Tumor's Grantham. 18; Collins's 
English Baronetage, iv. 99 ; Cal. Treas. Papers, 
1708-U ; Kedington, p. 492 ; Catalogue Oxford 
Graduates.] J. A. H. 

BURY, THOMAS TALBOT (1811- 
1877), architect, was descended from a 
Worcestershire family, afterwards settled in 
the city of London. He was born on 26 Sept. 
1811, and was articled in 1824 te Augustus 
Pugin. Among his fellow-pupils were Messrs. 
Ferrey, Dollman, Shaw, Lake Price, Nash, 
Walker, and Charles Mathews the actor. He 
commenced practice in Gerrard Street, Soho, 
in 1830 ; and, in addition to his architec- 
tural practice, was often engaged in engrav- 
ing and lithographing his own and other 
architects' drawings, notably those of Pugin 
and Owen Jones. He was particularly skilful 
in colouring architectural studies, and his aid 
in this respect was often sought by the most 
eminent architects of the day when they were 
engaged in preparing designs for competition. 
In 1847 he published his ' Remains of Eccle- 
siastical Woodwork,' illustrated by himself; 
and in 1849, his ' History and Description 
of the Styles of Architecture of various 
Countries, from the Earliest to the Present 
Period.' He was engaged with Pugin in 
designing the details of the houses of parlia- 
ment under Sir Charles Barry. He frequently 
exhibited his works at the Royal Academy 
bet ween 1846 and 1872; and sent to the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862 a large picture 
representing, at one view, all the churches, 
schools, public and other buildings erected 
toy him. This fine drawing is now preserved 
as a record at the Institute of British Ar- 
chitects. Among his principal works were 
35 churches and chapels, 15 parsonages, 12 



Busby 



schools, and 20 other large public buildings 
and private residences in various parts of 
England and Wales. He was elected an 
associate of the Institute of British Archi- 
tects in 1839, and a fellow in 1843. In 1876 
he was elected a vice-president. He was in 
1863 made a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and was also a member of the council 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland, a member of the Cam- 
brian Archaeological Association, and an as- 
sociate of the Society of Civil Engineers. His 
collections of architectural and antiquarian 
books, his pictures, drawings, cabinets, and 
armour, were sold at Christie's in the 
autumn of 1877. On 23 Feb. 1877 he died, 
a widower and childless, and was buried at 
Norwood Cemetery. 

[Kedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School ; Journal of the Archaeological Insti- 
tute ; Archseologia Cambrensis ; Transactions of 
the Institute of British Architects : Builder, 
1877.] W. H. T. 

BUSBY, RICHARD (1606-1695), head- 
master of Westminster School, was the second 
son of Mr. Richard Busby, a citizen of West- 
minster, but was born, 22 Sept. 1606, at Lut- 
ton, otherwise called Sutton St. Nicholas, in 
Lincolnshire. He obtained a king's scholar- 
ship at Westminster, and was educated at 
that school, whence he was elected, in 1624, 
to a studentship at Christ Church, Oxford,, 
where he took his B.A. degree in 1628 and 
his M.A. in 1631. He was for some time a 
tutor at Christ Church, and in 1639 was ad- 
mitted to the prebend and rectory of Cud- 
worth, with the chapel of Knowle annexed, 
in Somersetshire. He was appointed master 
of Westminster School provisionally when 
Osbolston was deprived of that office in 
1638, but was not confirmed in it till 23 Dec. 
1640. In the civil war he lost the profits of 
his rectory and prebend, but in spite of his 
staunch loyalty and churchmanship managed 
to retain both his studentship and his mas- 
tership. His only trouble during this period 
was of a local character. The second master, 
Edward Bagshaw the younger [q. v.], tried 
to supplant him, but ' was removed out of 
his place for his insolence' in May 1658. 
Bagshaw published in 1659 an account of 
the transaction from his own point of view. 
Upon the restoration Dr. Busby's services to 
the royal cause were immediately recognised. 
In July 1660 he was made by the king pre- 
bendary of Westminster, and in the follow- 
ing month canon residentiary and treasurer 
at Wells. At the coronation of Charles II 
he had the high honour of carrying the am- 
pulla. He was elected proctor for the chapter 



Busby 



Busby 



of Bath and Wells, and in the convocation 
of 1661 was, of course, among the number 
of those who approved and subscribed to the 
Book of Common Prayer. Busby's name has 
become proverbial as a type of the severest 
of severe pedagogues ; and though this cha- 
racter of him only rests upon general tradi- 
tion, there appears to be little doubt that 
during his extraordinarily long reign at 
Westminster he ruled the school with a rod 
of iron, or rather of birch. But it is also 
clear that his rule was as successful as it was 
severe. He gained the veneration and even 
love of his pupils, among whom were num- 
bered a vast majority of the most distin- 
guished men in a distinguished era. John 
Dryden, John Locke, Robert South, Francis 
Atterbury, Philip Henry, and George Hooper 
were among his pupils. He is said to have 
boasted that at one time sixteen out of the 
whole bench of bishops had been educated 
by him ; and, it may be added, at a time 
when the bench contained more brilliant 
men than it has perhaps ever contained before 
or since. His favourite pupil among those 
who afterwards became bishops was the 
friend and ultimately the successor of the 
saintly Ken, George Hooper, of whom he 
said : ' Hooper is the best scholar, the finest 
gentleman, and will make the compleatest 
bishop that ever was educated at Westmin- 
ster.' It has been hinted that Busby's repu- 
tation for extreme severity arose from the 
malignity of party spirit. But it is remark- 
able that one of the strongest and most 
definite testimonies to the merits of Dr. 
Busby as a master comes from the mouth of 
a puritan. ' Dr. Busby,' writes Sir J. B. 
Williams in his ' Life of Philip Henry,' ' was 
noted as a very stern schoolmaster, especially 
in the beginning of his time. But Mr. 
Henry would say sometimes that as in so 
great a school there was need of a strict 
discipline, so for his own part, of the four 
years he was in the school, he never felt the 
weight of his hand but once, and then, saith he, 
I deserved it. ... Dr. Busby took a particular 
kindness to him, called him his child, and 
would sometimes tell him he should be his 
heir; and there was no love lost betwixt 
them. . . . He often spoke of the great pains 
which Dr. Busby took to prepare, for several 
weeks before, all king's scholars who stood 
candidates for election to the university, and 
who, according to the ancient custom of 
Westminster, were to receive the Lord's 
Supper the Easter before. He himself was 
most deeply impressed with Dr. Busby's pre- 
paration. In fact, he dates his own conver- 
sion from that preparation ; and ' he frequently 
referred with the deepest gratitude to the 



earnest solicitude and care of his old master 
for his instruction in the best of all know- 
ledge.' Other old pupils were equally grate- 
ful. Atterbury describes him as ' a man to 
be reverenced very highly,' and speaks of 
leaving his school for college ' loaded with 
his counsels, his warnings, and his gifts.' 
Dryden all through his life retained a deep 
respect for him. Dr. William King, one of 
the brilliant scholars whom he trained, re- 
ferred to him many years later as ' the grave 
Busby, whose memory to me shall be for 
ever sacred.' Dr. Basire's letters, when he 
was in exile, evidently show that it was 
a real comfort to him to feel that his son 
was under the care of Dr. Busby. The tra- 
ditions of his excessive severity are of rather 
a vague character. Dr. Johnson's saying, 
for instance, that Busby used to declare that 
his rod was his sieve, and that whosoever 
could not pass through that was not the boy 
for him, is often quoted. The unfavourable 
impression of public schools given in Locke's 
' Thoughts upon Education ' is thought to 
have been derived from his own experience 
under Dr. Busby. The story of "his thrash- 
ing the sulkiness out of Robert South is not 
referred to by South's earliest biographer, 
who merely states that 'he was under the 
care of Dr. Richard Busby, who cultivated 
and improved so promising a genius with in- 
dustry and encouragement.' The report, 
again, has been perpetuated by an epigram 
' on Dr. Freind's appointment to AA r estmin- 
ster ' to the following effect : 

Ye sons of Westminster who still retain 
Your antient dread of Busby's awful reign, 
Forget at length your fears, your panic end, 
The monarch of the place is now a Freind. 

But too much importance must not be at- 
tached to suchjetix d? esprit, nor yet to such 
stories as that of Dr. Busby refusing to take 
his hat off before Charles II in the presence 
of his scholars, lest they should think there 
was any man greater than himself. At any 
rate he was the most pious and benevolent 
of men. He took the deepest interest in 
the church life of the period, and was most 
intimate with other leading churchmen be- 
sides his old pupils. His neighbour Peter 
Barwick found his great solace in his later 

Sjars, when his eyesight failed him, in 
usby's society ; Isaac Basire cultivated the 
closest friendship with him ; Busby's letters 
to Basire breathe a spirit of the most ardent 
piety. Anthony a Wood rightly describes 
him as being ' a person eminent and exem- 
plary for piety and justice.' His liberality to 
the church, both in his lifetime and by his 
bequests, was not only most munificent, but 



Busby 



3 1 



Busby 



also shows a most thoughtful consideration 
for the special wants of the age. He built 
in his lifetime a handsome church at Willan, 
and a library within the church filled with 
books, and gave 2(M. a year for the vicar if 
he would perform the services in the church 
every Wednesday, Friday, and holy day 
throughout the year (WHITE KENNET). He 
gave 2501. towards the ' repairing and beau- 
tifying of Christ Church and the cathedral ' 
at Oxford. He offered to found ' two cate- 
chistical lectures, one in each university, 
for instructing undergraduates in the rudi- 
ments of religion, provided the undergra- 
duates should be obliged to attend those 
lectures, and not receive the B.A. degree 
till they had been examined and approved 
by the catechist.' The offer was rejected by 
both universities, and Wood may be right in 
saying that they could not accept them con- 
sistently with their statutes. He died on 
6 April 1695, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, where there is a curious monument 
to his memory. His portrait by Biley is in 
the hall at Christ Church, and there are 
also portraits of him in the chapter-house 
and in the common room, where there is a 
bust by Rysbrac. All, however, are copied 
from a cast taken after death. By his will 
he left 520/. a year in trust for non-clergy- 
men, who were to deliver thirty lectures, 
which are still known as the 'Busby Lec- 
tures.' Among numerous other bequests 
(see WHITE KEIWET'S Case of Impropria- 
tions and Augmentation of Poor Benefices), 
he remembered his native place, leaving a 
sum of money for the erection of an elabo- 
rate pulpit in Sutton Church, and for the 
education of poor boys in Sutton and Gedney. 
Dr. Busby's literary works are not very im- 
portant, or at any rate are now out of date ; 
but they too show the high moral character 
of the man. They consist for the most part 
of expurgated editions of the classics, and 
were published solely for the pious purpose of 
enabling his own pupils to imbibe the beau- 
ties without being polluted by the impurities 
of the ancients. The titles and dates are as 
follows : 1. ' A Short Institution of Gram- 
mar,' 1647. 2. ' Juvenalis et Persii Satirse,' 
purged of all indecent passages, 1656. 
3. ' An English Introduction to the Latin 
Tongue,' 1659. 4. ' Martialis Epigrammata 
selecta,' 1661. 5. ' Grsecae Grammaticse Ru- 
dimenta,' 1663. 6. ' Nomenclatura Brevis 
Eeformata,' and appended to this 'Duplex 
Centenarius Proverbiorum Anglo-Latino- 
Grsecorum,' 1667. 7. ' 'AvdoXoyia fevrepa, 
sive Grsecorum Epigrammatum Florilegium 
novum,' 1673. 8. 'Rudimentum Latinum, 
Grammatica literalis et numeralis,' 1688. 



9. ' Rudimentum Grammaticae Groeco-Latinse 
Metricum,' 1689. 

[Wood's Athenae (Bliss), iv. 417-20 ; Fasti, i. 
438, 460, 464, ii. 242, 258, 260, 360 ; Colleges 
and Halls (Gutch), 436, 448, app. 292, 301, 302 ; 
Biog. Brit. (Kippis), iii. 52-6 ; Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Grainger, i. 98-9 ; Gent. Mag. Ixv. 
15-17 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iv. 398 ; Evelyn's 
Memoirs, iii. 415 ; Seward's Anecdotes of Dis- 
tinguished Persons ; Basire's Correspondence ; 
Williams's Life of Philip Henry ; Warton's edi- 
tion of Pope's Works ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
(1852) pp. 95-7.] J. H. 0. 

BUSBY, THOMAS (1755-1838), musical 
composer, was the son of a coach-painter. 
He was born at Westminster in December 
1755, and though as a boy he received but 
little education, yet at an early age he was 
distinguished by his cleverness. Busby's 
father was fond of music, and sang himself 
with good taste. When his son developed a 
fine treble voice, he determined to bring him 
up as a musician. With this view, applica- 
tion was made to Dr. Cooke, the organist of 
Westminster Abbey, to take young Busby 
(who was then between twelve and thirteen) 
as a chorister ; but Cooke thinking him too 
old, he was placed under Champness for sing- 
ing, and Knyvett for the harpsichord. Sub- 
sequently he studied under Battishill, and 
made so much progress that in the summer 
of 1769 he was engaged to sing at Vauxhall 
at a salary of ten guineas a week. On his 
voice breaking, he was articled to Battishill 
for three years, during which time both his 
musical and general education rapidly im- 
proved, though more by his own efforts than 
by those of his master. On the expiration of 
his articles he returned to his father's house, 
and set himself to earn his living by music 
and literature. His first venture was the 
composition of music to a play by Dr. Ken- 
rick, ' The Man the Master,' but this was never 
finished. He then turned his attention to 
oratorio, and began a setting of Pope's ' Mes- 
siah,' at which he worked intermittently for 
several years. Busby was more successful 
with literary pursuits than with musical. 
He was for some time parliamentary reporter 
of the ' London Courant,' and assisted in edit- 
ing the 'Morning Post,' besides acting as 
musical critic to the 'European Magazine' 
and Johnson's ' Analytical Review,' and con- 
tributing to the 'Celtic Miscellany' and 
' Whitehall Evening Post.' In 1785 he wrote 
j a poem called ' The Age of Genius,' a satire 
in the style of Churchill, containing nearly 
1,000 lines. About five years after the ex- 
piration of his articles Busby was elected 
organist of St. Mary, Newington. Shortly 
afterwards (July 1786) he married a Miss 



Busby 2 

Angier, daughter of Mr. Charles Angier of 
Earl's Court, Kensington. After his marriage 
he lived in Poland Street, where he was much 
in request as a teacher of Latin, French, and 
music. A few years later he moved to Bat- 
tersea. In 1786 Busby and Arnold brought 
out a 'Musical Dictionary/ the success of 
which induced the former to issue a serial 
entitled ' The Divine Harmonist/ consisting 
of twelve folio numbers of music, partly se- 
lected and partly original. In this work are 
included some fragments of an oratorio by 
the editor, 'The Creation.' The 'Divine 
Harmonist' was followed by 'Melodia Bri- 
tannica/ which was to be a collection of Eng- 
lish music, but the work was unsuccessful, 
and was never completed. About the same 
time Busby completed a translation of Lu- 
cretius into rhymed verse. In 1798 he was 
elected organist of St. Mary Woolnoth. In 
the spring of 1799 his efforts to get an impor- 
tant musical work performed were crowned 
with success, and his early oratorio was pro- 
duced by Cramer under the name of ' The 
Prophecy/ probably in order not to provoke 
comparison with Handel's ' Messiah.' The 
oratorio seems to have been well received, and 
Busby set to work upon settings of Gray's 
' Progress of Poesy/ Pope's ' Ode on St. Ce- 
cilia's Day/ and a cantata from Ossian, ' Co- 
mala ; ' but it is doubtful whether any of these 
were performed. A so-called ' Secular Ora- 
torio/ ' Britannia ' (words by John Gretton), 
was more fortunate, as it was sung at Covent 
Garden in 1801 with Mara as the principal 
soprano. In the preceding year Busby wrote 
music for Cumberland's version of Kotzebue's 
' Joanna/ which was produced at Covent 
Garden 16 Jan. 1800, without much success. 
Shortly afterwards he brought out ' A New 
and Complete Musical Dictionary/ and started 
the first musical periodical in England, ' The 
Monthly Musical Journal/ of which four 
numbers only saw the light. In June 1801 
Busby obtained the degree of Mus. Doc. at 
Cambridge, for which purpose he entered at 
Magdalen College. His exercise on this occa- 
sion was ' A Thanksgiving Ode on the Naval 
Victories/ the words of which were written 
by Mrs. Crespigny. In 1802 he wrote music 
to Holcroft's melodrama, ' A Tale of Mystery/ 
the first play of this description which ap- 
peared on the English stage. It was pro- 
duced at Covent Garden 13 Nov. 1802, and 
was very successful. In the following year 
Busby wrote music for Miss Porter's musical 
entertainment, 'The Fair Fugitives' (Covent 
Garden, 16 May 1803), but this was a failure. 
His connection with the stage ceased with 
Lewis's 'Rugantino' (Covent Garden, 18 Oct. 
1805). The music to all these plays was pub- 



2 Bush 

lished, and shows Busby to have been but a 
poor composer, even for his day, when Eng- 
lish music was at a very low ebb. From this 
time until his death he devoted himself more 
to literature. The translation of Lucretius 
was published in 1813, and was followed by 
an attempt to prove that the Letters of Ju- 
nius were written by J. L. de Lolme (1816), 
' A Grammar of Music' (1818), 'A Dictionary 
of Musical Terms/ 'A History of Music/ 
2 vols. (1819) a work which was successful 
in its day, though it is entirely a compilation 
from the Histories of Burney and Hawkins, 
' Concert-room Anecdotes/ 3 vols. (1825), 
an amusing and useful collection, and a 
' Musical Manual ' ( 1 828). In his latter years 
Busby lived with a married daughter at 
Queen's Row, Pentonville, where he died, 
aged eighty-four, on Monday, 28 May 1838. 
He was not an original genius, but a clever, 
hard-working man of letters. According to 
an obituary notice of him he was eccentric, 
and held ' loose notions on religious subjects.' 

[Public Characters for 1802-3, 371 ; Concert- 
room Anecdotes, i. 93 ; Musical World for 1838, 
80; Genest'sHist.of the Stage, vii. ; Times, SOMay 
1838 ; British Museum Catalogue; Graduati Can- 
tab. 1760-1856.] W. B. S. 

BUSH, PAUL(1490-1558), bishop of Bris- 
tol, according to Wood, was born in Somer- 
set,' of honest and sufficient parents/ in 1490. 
He studied at the university of Oxford, taking 
his degree of B.A. about 1517, by which time 
he was ' numbered among the celebrated poets 
of the university' (WOOD). He subsequently 
read divinity, studying among the 'Bon- 
hommes ' (a reformed order of Austin Friars 
introduced into England from France by the 
Black Prince), whose house stood on the site 
of Wadham College. He also applied himself 
to the study of medicine, and gained the repu- 
tation of ' a wise and grave man, well versed 
both in divinity and physic, and not only a 
grave orator, but a good poet' (Cole MSS. 
x. 76). He took the degrees of B.D. and D.D., 
and having become a friar of the order, ' su- 
perstitiosus monachus/ according to Bale, he 
' displayed his varied learning in the publi- 
cation of many books/ ' superstitiose satis.' 
He rose to be provincial of the Bonhommes, 
and became provost of the house of this order 
at Edington, near Westbury, Wiltshire. He 
held the prebendal stall of Bishopston in Salis- 
bury Cathedral, about 1539, and became one of 
the residentiary canons (JoifES, Fasti Eccl. 
Sarisb. p. 446). He obtained royal favour and 
was made chaplain to Henry VIII, who, on the 
foundation of the bishopric of Bristol, selected 
Bush as the first bishop of the new see (Rot. 
Par 1. 34 Hen. VIII, p. 2). His consecration 



Bush 



33 



Bush 



took place in the parish church of Hampton, 
Middlesex, on Sunday, 25 June 1542(SiRYPE's 
Cranmer, lib. i. c. 24). His consecration is 
erroneously placed both by Bale and Pits in 
the reign of Edward VI. The latter writer 
maliciously adds that he was appointed bishop 
by the protestant monarch, 'though of an 
adverse creed, in consequence of the dearth 
of learned divines among the sectaries,' and 
also with the hope that promotion would in- 
duce him to desert the old faith for the new. 
In this, says Pits, those who chose him were 
disappointed, inasmuch as Bush kept firm to 
the creed of Rome, and ' never by word or 
writing professes heresy ' (Pixs, De Illust. 
Angl. Script, setat. xvi. No. 997). Pits is so 
far correct in his last statement, that in Bush's 
replies to certain questions relative to ' the 
abuses of the mass,' proposed in 1548, he dis- 
plays a strong leaning to the old faith, and 
in opposition to Cranmer allows of solitary 
masses, and masses for departed souls sung 
for hire. He also lays down that while every 
Christian man ought to communicate, and 
no one can receive the Eucharist for another, 
yet one man may be spiritually benefited 
by others partaking. The bread and wine 
after consecration are ' the very body and 
blood of Christ.' He does not regard it as 
contrary to God's word that the gospel should 
be expounded to the people at the time of 
mass, but is wholly opposed to discarding 
the Latin tongue. His answer on this point 
is remarkable : ' If the mass should be wholly 
in English, I think we should differ from 
the custom and manner of all other regions ; 
therefore if it may stand with the king's 
majesty's pleasure, I think it not good to 
be said all in English. Per me Paullum 
Episcopum Bristollensem ' (BuKNET, Hist, of 
Reform, vol. ii. appendix No. 25, pp. 133, 147, 
ed. 1681, fol.) In one point, however, that 
of marriage, Bush showed no repugnance to 
the practice of the reformers. He took to 
wife Edith Ashley, scurrilously called by 
Pits his 'concubine.' She died, somewhat 
opportunely, three months after the accession 
of Mary, 8 Oct. 1553 ; but the fact of her 
death did not prevent proceedings being taken 
against him as a married priest. The follow- 
ing year, 20 March 1554, a commission, of 
which Gardiner and Bonner were the chief 
members, passed sentence of deprivation on 
him, the execution of which he forestalled 
by a voluntary resignation in the following 
June, when the dean and chapter of Canter- 
bury assumed the spiritual jurisdiction of the 
see, 21 June 1554. He is accused of having 
impoverished the see by granting the manor 
of Leigh to Edward VI in 1549. At that 
time, however, bishops had little option in 

VOL. VIII. 



such matters. On his resignation Bush retired 
to the rectory of Winterbourne, near Bristol, 
which he held till his death, which occurred at 
the age of 68, a few days before Mary's death, 
11 Oct. 1558. He was buried near the grave 
of his wife, on the north side of the choir of 
Bristol Cathedral, where his mutilated re- 
naissance monument, bearing his effigy as a 
ghastly decaying corpse with a tonsured head, 
still stands. The inscription ends after the 
old fashion, ' cujus animse propitietur Chris- 
tus.' A long epitaph, now decayed, bristling 
with plays upon his name, is preserved by 
Wood and Davies, and more correctly by Cole. 
In his will, dated 25 Sept. 1558, and proved 
1 Dec., he styles himself ' late bishop of Bris- 
tol, parson of Winterbourne.' 

Bush was the author of the following 
works : 1. ' A Lyttell Treatyse in Englyshe 
called the Exposycyon of Miserere mei Deus,' 
London, 1525 (the date 1501 of a supposed 
earlier edition is impossible, as Bush was then 
only a boy of eleven). 2. ' Certayne Gostly 
Medycynes necessary to be used among wel 
disposed peple,to eschew and avoid the comen 
plage of pestilence '(Redman; no date). This 
is a small tract of twelve leaves containing 
prayers and conjurations against the plague, 
with some stanzas addressed to the reader at 
the end ; the whole ' collecte and sette forth 
in order by the diligent labour of the religious 
brother, Syr Paull Bushe, prest and bon- 
homme of the good house Edynden.' 3. ' A 
Lyttell Treatyse in Englyshe called the Ex- 
tripacion (sic) of Ignorancy, and it treateth 
and speketh of the ignorance of people, shew- 
yng them how they are bounde to feare God 
. . . compyled by Sir Paull Bushe, prest and 
bonhome of Edyndon ' (Pynson, 4to, no date). 
This is a little poetical tract ' dedicated unto 
the yong and most hye renomed Lady Mary, 
prinses and daughter unto the noble progeny- 
tour and worthy souerayne Kyng Henry 
Eight.' 4. ' De laudibus Crucis ' (no date). 

5. ' Dialogus inter Christum et Mariam,' 1525. 

6. ' An Exhortacyon to Margaret, wyf of 
John Burgess, clothier of Kingswood, in 
the county of Wilts, by Paul Bush, bishop 
of Bristol ' (London, Cawood, 1554, 8vo). 

7. ' Carminum diversorum liber unus.' 

[Wood's Athen. Oxon. i. 269, 270 ; Burnet's 
Hist, of Eeform. vol. ii. App. 25 ; Pits, De 
Illust. Angl. Script, setat. xvi. No. 997 ; Bale's 
Script. Bryt. p. 723, ed. Basel; Wharton's Speci- 
men of Errors, p. 133 ; Strype's Cranmer, lib. i. 
c. 29 ; Browne-Willis's Account of Bristol Ca- 
thedral, ii. 777 ; Davies's Athen. Brit. ii. 294 ; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Dibdin, ii. 562, iii. 
242, iv. 393 ; Cole MSS. x. 76 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Britan. i. 177; Lowndes's Bibliogr. Manual ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, i. 214.] E. V. 

D 



Bushe 



34 



Bushell 



BUSHE, CHARLES KENDAL (1767- 
1843), chief justice of the king's bench, 
Ireland, was the only son of the Rev. Thomas 
Bushe, of Kilmurry, co. Kilkenny, rector of 
Mitchelstown, co. Cork, and was born at 
Kilmurry on 13 Jan. 1767. His mother was 
Katherine Doyle, daughter of Charles Doyle, 
of Bramblestown, co. Kilkenny. Bushe re- 
ceived his early education at a private school 
in Dublin, and entered Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, in his sixteenth year July 1782. His 
university career was distinguished. He 
won high honours both in classics and in 
mathematics, was a scholar and a gold me- 
dallist. But his greatest triumphs were won 
in the famous ' College Historical Society,' 
founded by Grattan as a debating society 
for the students of Trinity College, and at 
that time numbering among its youthful 
orators Plunket (afterwards Lord Plunket), 
Magee, Curran, Shiel, and others. Here 
Grattan heard him, and declared that ' Bushe 
spoke with the lips of an angel.' He was 
called to the Irish bar in 1790, and soon 
acquired a good practice, a considerable por- 
tion of the proceeds of which he voluntarily 
devoted to the payment of the debts left by 
his father, and said to have amounted to 
40,000/. In 1797 Bushe entered the Irish par- 
liament as member for Callan. The struggle 
on the question of the union was just be- 
ginning, and Bushe joined the opponents of 
the measure. So anxious was Lord Corn- 
wallis to silence the young barrister that he 
offered him the post of master of the rolls. 
Bushe declined the offer, and remained stead- 
fast to his party. In the list of members of 
the last Irish House of Commons given by 
Sir Jonah Barrington in the appendix to his 
' Historic Memoirs of Ireland,' the single 
word ' incorruptible ' is placed after Bushe's 
name. He wrote as well as spoke against 
the union, and Lord Brougham says of one of 
his pamphlets on this question ' Cease your 
Funning ' that it reminded him of the best 
of the satires of Swift. For his efforts in 
defence of the legislative independence of his 
country, Bushe received among other honours 
the freedom of the city of Dublin. 

On the dissolution of the Grenville ad- 
ministration in 1803, Bushe, though differing 
from the government on the question of 
catholic emancipation a measure which he 
steadily advocated accepted the office of 
solicitor-general for Ireland, and he appears 
to have held it uninterruptedly until 1822, 
when, on the retirement of Lord Downes, 
he was appointed lord chief justice of the 
king's bench. This high position he re- 
signed in 1841, having filled it for nearly 
twenty years 'with a character the purest 



and most unsullied that ever shed lustre on 
the ermine ' (Legal Reporter, 6 Nov. 1841). 
Bushe died at his son's residence, Furry Park, 
near Dublin, and was buried in Mount Jerome 
cemetery, where there is a monument erected 
to him with the simple inscription, ' Charles 
Kendal Bushe, July 10th, 1843.' He mar- 
ried, in 1793, Miss Crampton, daughter of John 
Crampton, of Dublin, and had a large family. 

[Irish Quarterly Review, March 1853 ; 
Brougham's Historical Sketches of Statesmen 
who flourished in the Time of George III, 3rd 
ser. ; Nation, 22 July 1843; Legal Reporter, 
6 Nov. 1841.] a. V. B. 

BUSHELL, BROWN (d. 1651), sea 
captain, son of Nicholas Bushell of Rus- 
warpe, near Whitby, and Dorothy, daughter 
of Sir Henry Cholmley (or Cholmondley) of 
Rooksby, Yorkshire, knight (Harleian MSS. 
1487, fol. 464), was one of the garrison that, 
under the command of his cousin, Sir Hugh 
Cholmley, held Scarborough for the parlia- 
ment in 1643. In the March of that year 
Cholmley determined to give up the castle to 
the queen, who was then at York. Before 
he did so, however, he wished to secure some 
valuable goods he had at Hull, and on 
24 March sent his kinsman Bushell thither 
in a small vessel armed with seven pieces of 
ordnance. Hotham, who was in command 
at Hull, took Bushell prisoner, but two days 
afterwards allowed him to return to Scar- 
borough on his promising to deliver the castle 
again into the hands of the parliamentarians. 
When Cholmley, having made his surrender, 
left for York, Bushell and his brother Henry 
conspired with the soldiers, who were highly 
dissatisfied with Cholmley's conduct, and 
with little difficulty seized the castle for the 
parliament. Before long, however, Bushell 
entered into correspondence with the royalists 
and handed the castle over to them. It was 
probably in consequence of this action that 
Sir T. Fairfax on 19 April 1645 was ordered 
to send him to London to answer a charge 
made against him. Bushell again joined the 
parliamentarian party, and received the com- 
mand of a fine ship under Admiral Batten 
[q. v.] When, early in 1648, the fleet lay in 
the Downs, Bushell, like divers other captains, 
delivered his ship to the Prince of Wales. 
He was apprehended by two men, to whom, 
on 25 April, the council awarded 201. for the 
good service they had done, resolving at the 
same time to lodge the prisoner in Windsor 
Castle. As late, however, as 27 Dec. 1649, 
it is evident that Bushell had not such good 
quarters, for on that day the council, in con- 
sequence of a petition received from him, or- 
dered his removal to Windsor, directing the 



Bushell 



35 



Bushell 



governor ' to provide for him as necessary for 
one of his quality.' On 26 June 1650 it was 
determined to allow him os. a day for his 
maintenance. The council at first resolved 
that he should be tried as a pirate by the ad- 
miralty court. Now, however, the attorney- 
general was ordered to consider his offences, ! 
with a view to his trial by the high court of 
justice, and on 7 Sept. witnesses against him ' 
were sent for from Scarborough. He was 
found guilty, and was executed on 29 April ! 
1651. A small medallion portrait of him is 
given in the frontispiece of Winstanley's 
' Loyall Martyrology,' published in 1665. 

[Harleian MSS. 1487, fol. 464; Rushworth's ! 
Collection, pt. iii. vol. ii. 264, pt. iv. vol. ii. 1070; j 
Cal. State Papers, Com., 1649-50, 455, 1650 
passim, 1651, 5; Whitelocke's Memorials, fols. 
143, 302 ; Winstanley's Loyall Martyrology, 32 ; 
Markham's Life of the great Lord Fairfax, 94, 
95 ; Sir Hugh Cholmley's Memoirs, 1 ; Granger's 
Biog. Hist, of England (5th ed.), iv. 9.] W. H. 

BUSHELL, SETH, D.D. (1621-1684), 
divine, the only son of Adam Bushell, of 
Kuerden, near Preston, by his wife Alice, 
daughter of John Loggan, of Garstang, was 
born in the year 1621. At the age of eighteen 
he became a commoner of St. Mary Hall, 
Oxford, and lived at the university until 
Oxford was garrisoned by King Charles's 
forces, when he returned to Lancashire. In 
1654 he is mentioned as minister of Whitley, 
in Yorkshire, a living which has not been 
identified. In that year he was at Oxford, 
and took his B.A. and M.A. His further de- 
grees of B.D. and D.D. were conferred in 1665 
and 1672. In 1664 he was vicar of Preston, 
and continued there until 1682. He was also 
incumbent of Euxton before 27 Nov. 1649, 
to which place he succeeded by an order from 
the committee for plundered ministers. In 
1682 he was appointed vicar of Lancaster, 
where he died 6 Nov. 1684, aged 63. He 
was a loyal, pious, and charitable man, 
courteous to the dissenters and respected by 
them. ' He discouraged persecution for re- 
ligion, or prosecution of any of his parish 
for what was customary due,' as one of his 
quaker parishioners records. He was twice 
married first to Mary, daughter of Roger 
Farrington, and secondly to Mary, daughter 
of William Stansfield, of Euxton and was 
father of the Rev. William Bushell, in- 
cumbent of Goosnargh 1715-1721, and rector 
of Hey sham, and grandfather of William 
Bushell, M.D., founder of the Goosnargh 
Hospital. There is a Latin epitaph to the 
memory of Dr. Seth Bushell in Lancaster 
parish church. 

His published writings are : 1. 'A Warn- 
ing-piece for the Unruly ; in two Discourses, 



at the Metropolitical Visitation of Richard, 
Lord Archbishop of York, held at Preston, 
in Lancashire, and there preached May 8,' 
London, 1673 (4to). 2. 'The Believer's Groan 
for Heaven ; in a Sermon at the Funeral of 
the Honourable Sir Rich. Hoghton, of Hogh- 
ton, Baronet, preached at Preston in Amoun- 
derness,' London, 1678 (4to). 3. A sermon 
preached on 25 Jan. 1658, which George 
Fox answered in his book, 'The Great Mys- 
tery of the Great Whore Unfolded,' 1659. 
4. ' Cosmo-Meros, the AVorldly Portion ; or 
the best Portion of the Wicked and their 
Misery in the Enjoyment of it Opened and 
Applied. Together with some Directions and 
Helps in order to a Heavenly and Better 
Portion, enforced with many useful and di- 
vine considerations,' London, 1682 (12mo). 
He also wrote the preface to R. Towne's ' Re- 
assertion of Grace,' &c. 1654, 4to. Bliss 
mentions a Latin dissertation, ' De Redemp- 
tione,' by him in the Cole MSS. in the British 
Museum. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon., ed. Bliss, iv. 161-2; 
Raines's Notitia Cestriensis (Chetham Society), 
xxii. 384, 428, 442 ; Lancashire and Cheshire 
Church Surveys (Record Society), p. 102 : Fish- 
wick's Hist, of Goosnargh, pp. 122-4 ; Fishwick's 
Lancashire Library, pp. 385-6; Autob. of William 
Stout, ed. Harland, p. 12.] C. W. S. 

BUSHELL, THOMAS (1594-1674), spe- 
culator and farmer of the royal mines, was 
born about 1594, and was a younger son of a 
family of that name living at Cleve Prior in 
Worcestershire. At the age of fifteen he en- 
tered the service of the great Sir Francis 
Bacon, and afterwards acted as his master's 
seal-bearer. When Bacon became lord chan- 
cellor, Bushell accompanied him to court, and 
attracted the notice of James I by the gor- 
geousness of his attire ( BIRCH, Court of 
James I, ii. 242). Anthony a Wood supposes 
that he received some education at Oxford, 
especially at Balliol College ; but in any case 
his principal instructor was Bacon himself, 
who, observing the natural bent of his in- 
genious servant, imparted to him 'many se- 
crets in discovering and extracting minerals.' 
Bacon's instruction was always gratefully ac- 
knowledged by Bushell, who admitted that his 
own mining processes were the outcome of his 
master's theories, of which, later on in life, he 
gave an account in a treatise entitled ' Mr. 
Bushell's Abridgment of the Lord Chancellor 
Bacon's Philosophical Theory in Mineral Pro- 
secutions ' (London, 1650), andin the ' Extract 
by Mr. Bushell of the Abridgment [of Bacon's 
Theory], printed for the Satisfaction of his 
Noble Friends that importunately desired it ' 
(London, 1660). Bacon further earned his 
prot6g's gratitude ' by paying all my debts 

D 2 



Bushell 



Bushell 



several times,' for Bushell's various specula- 
tions and experiments more than once in his 
career involved him in money difficulties. On 
the occasion of Bacon's disgrace Bushell 
thought it prudent to retire to the Isle of 
Wight, where he lived for some time disguised 
as a fisherman. He afterwards returned to 
London ; but on his master's death in 1626 
went again into retirement, and lived for 
three years in a hut constructed 470 feet 
above the sea in ' the desolated isle called the 
Calf of Man, where, in obedience to my dead 
lord's philosophical advice, I resolved to make 
a perfect experiment upon myself for the ob- 
taining of a long and healthy life, most ne- 
cessary for such a repentance as my former 
debauchedness required, by a parsimonious 
diet of herbs, oil, mustard, and honey, with 
water sufficient, most like to that [of] our 
long-lived fathers before the flood.' On leaving 
this retreat he came to live in Oxfordshire, 
where he had an estate at Road Enstone, near 
Woodstock. At this place he had the fortune 
to discover a spring and a rock of curious for- 
mation, with which, we are told, he at once 
proceeded to make ' all the curious fine water- 
works and artificial conclusions that could be 
imagined,' constructing cisterns, laying ' di- 
vers pipes between the rocks,' and building ' a 
house over them, containing one fair room for 
banquetting, and several other small closets for 
divers uses.' Charles I, when in the neigh- 
bourhood, heard of the fame of the ' rock,' 
and paid Bushell an unexpected visit ; his in- 
genious host managed to improvise an enter- 
tainment of artificial thunders and lightnings, 
rain, hail-showers, drums beating, organs 
playing, birds singing, waters murmuring all 
sorts of tunes,' &c. On a subsequent royal 
visit in 1636 the rock was presented to Queen 
Henrietta in a kind of masque, for which 
Bushell himself provided some passable verse 
(see The Several Speeches and Songs at the Pre- 
sentment of the Rock at Enston, Oxon. 1636). 
In 1635 we find Bushell's name occurring 
in a list of persons to whom was granted the 
exclusive right of manufacturing soap in a 
particular manner ; but his acquaintance with 
the king soon led to his obtaining (in January 
1636-7) the more important grant of the royal 
mines in Wales. The mines of Cardiganshire, 
as containing silver mixed with their lead, 
formed crown property. They had formerly 
been farmed by Sir Hugh Middleton, who 
sent up the silver which he extracted to be 
. coined at the mint in the Tower of London. 
After the death of Middleton the mines were 
reported to be inundated and ' like to decay.' 
Bushell in purchasing the lease proposed not 
only to recover the inundated mines, but also j 
to employ new and more expeditious methods 



of mining ; he also proposed the more conve- 
nient plan of erecting a mint on the spot, in 
the castle at Aberystwith, taking care that 
the lead ore which in former times had been 
recklessly sent out of the country without the 
extraction of its silver should now be refined 
at home for the benefit of the king of England 
and his subjects. The mint was established 
in July 1637 with Bushell as warden and 
master-worker, and English silver coins of 
various denominations were issued from it. 
Bushell's mining schemes seem to have been 
fairly successful, at any rate so far as con- 
i cerned the mines in Wales. He was certainly 
l more than a mere adventurer, and always pro- 
I fessed, probably not without sincerity, that 
, he carried on his mining operations with a 
view to the enrichment of his king and coun- 
j try, and in order to give employment to the 
| poorest classes as miners (see especially Mr. 
Bushell's Invitation by Letter to Condemned 
Men for Petty Felonies, to work in the Mines 
of their own Country rather than be banished 
\ to Slavery in Foreign Parts, and his curious 
1 composition, The Miner's Contemplative 
Prayer in his solitary Delves, which is con- 
ceived requisite to be published that the Header 
may know his heart implores Providence for 
his Mineral Increase). In any case his labours 
were indefatigable. Shortly after his connec- 
tion with the Welsh mines began, ' a great 
deluge of water ' occurred, which necessitated 
a very considerable expenditure. He was 
laughed at by his enemies and pitied by his 
friends ; but ' after nigh four years night and 
day ' spent in recovering the decayed mines 
of the principality, and 'by the continued 
maintenance and industry of 500 families and 
the expense of about 7,0001., as a reward of 
my hazard . . . [God] brought me to reap 
the harvest of my hope. ' He recovered ' several 
drowned mines,' and discovered other ' new 
branches of the old mines wrought by the 
Romans (viz.) at the mountains called Talli- 
bont, Broomfloid, Cambmervin, Geginan, 
Commustwith, Comsum Lock, and the Beacon 
Hill of the Daren.' ' I contrived,' he says, 
t & way of adits, cutting through the lowest 
part of the mountain (and not beginning at 
the top and sinking downward), whereby the 
work was made . . . less subject to the casu- 
alties of damp and drowning . . . also avoid- 
ing the tedious and chargeable sinking of 
air-shafts, by conveying air through the moun- 
tain many hundred fathoms with pipe and 
bellows, a way before never used by any un- 
dertakers, but now approved by all.' He fur- 
ther prevented the waste of wood by refining 
his lead-ore with ' turf and sea-coal chark.' 

During the progress of the civil war Bushell 
proved himself a devoted royalist, and a letter 



Bushell 



37 



Bushnan 



addressed to him by Charles himself in Jane 
1643 enumerates the ' manie true services you 
have actually* done us in these times of trying 
a subject's loyalty : as in raiseing us the Dar- 
byshire minors for our life guard at our first 
entrance to this warr for our owne defence, 
when the lord-lieutenant of that countie re- 
fused to appear in the service : supplyinge us 
at Shrewsbury and Oxford with your mint 
for the payement of our armye, when all the 
officers in the mint of our Tower of London 
forsook their attendance, except S r William 
Parkhurst : your changing the dollars with 
w ch wee paid our soldiers at six shillings a 
piece, when the malignant partie cried them 
down at ffive : your stopping the mutinie in 
Shropshire . . . your providing us one hun- 
dred tonnes of leadshot for our army without 
mony, when we paid before twentie pounds 
per tonne ; and your helpinge us to twenty- 
six pieces of ordinance . . . your cloathing 
of our liefe guard and three regiments more, 
w th suites, stockings, shoes, and mounterees, 
when wee were readie to march in the ffeild 
. . . [your invention of badges of silver for 
rewarding the forlorne hope] ; your contract- 
inge with merchants beyond the seas, for 
providing good quantities of powder, pistol, 
carabine, muskett, and bullen, in exchange 
for your owne commodities, when wee were 
wantinge of such ammunition : with diverse 
other severall services.' Besides all this 
Bushell held Lundy Island for the king ; but, 
with the royal sanction, surrendered it on 
24 Feb. 1647. He now found it necessary to 
go into hiding ; but at last, in August 1652, 
gave securities to the council of state for his 
future good behaviour. He obtained from 
the Protector a renewal of his lease of the 
mines royal, and a confirmation of his grant 
for coining the silver thence extracted. These 
privileges were confirmed in February 1658 
by Richard Cromwell, who also protected and 
encouraged Bushell in his operations in con- 
nection with the lead mines in the forest of 
Mendip. Bushell's mining schemes in Somer- 
setshire likewise received the sanction of 
Charles II ; but little is known of the last 
few years of his life. It is probable that he 
was much embarrassed by pecuniary difficul- 
ties. The pet it ion of ' Thomas Bushell, master 
workman of the royal mines,' dated March (?) 
1663, prays the king ' for a royal protection 
from arrests for two years (on account of his) 
having contracted great debts in the service 
of the late king, which he hopes to repay in 
time from his mineral proceeds.' Bushell died 
in April 1674, and was buried in the cloisters 
of Westminster Abbey. His wife was Anne, 
widow of Sir William Waad, lieutenant of 
the Tower. 



[The Case of Thomas Bushell, of Enston, in the 
County of Oxford, Esquire, truly stated. To- 
( gether with his progress in Minerals, London, 
; 1 649 ; A Just and True Remonstrance of His Ma- 
! jesty's Mines Royal . . . Presented by Thomas 
j Bushell, Esq., London and Shrewsbury, 16-12 ; 
i Bushell's Tracts cited in the text and various 
printed documents relating to his mining schemes 
(see Brit. Mus. Catalogue) ; Calendar of State Pa- 
pers, Domestic, especially 3 Sept. 1635, November 
1635, 22 Oct. 1636, 3 Dec. 1636, 25 Jan. 1636-7, 
9 July (?) 1637, 3 Oct. 1638, 16 April 1650, 
16 Aug. 1652, 28 June 1653, August (?), Novem- 
ber (?) 1660, 18 Nov. 1661, March (?) 1663; Ellis's 
Orig. Letters, 2nd ser. iii. 309 ; Memoirs of T. 
Bushell by Eev. A. de la Pryme (1878), printed 
in Manx Miscellanies, vol. ii. (1880) ; Wood's 
Ath. Oxon. iii. 1007-10, s. v. ' Thomas Bushell ; ' 
Spedding's Life of Bacon, vii. 199, 200, 235; 
Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, ii. 237-39 ; 
Hawkins's Silver Coins, ed. Kenyon ; Hawkins's 
Medallic Illustrations, ed. Franks and Grueber 
(Charles II, Nos. 67-69 : Bushell's ' Mining Share 
Ticket ') ; Walpole (Anecdotes of Painting) is in 
error as to there being a medallist named 
Bushell.] W. W. 

BUSHNAN, JOHN STEVENSON 

(1808 P-1884), medical writer, was born 
about 1808. After studying at Heidelberg, 
where he graduated M.D., he passed at Edin- 
burgh in 1830 the examinations of the Royal 
College of Surgeons and of the Royal College 
of Physicians. Eventually he settled in 
London, where he filled the post of editor of 
the ' Medical Times and Gazette ' from 1849 
to 1852. He published ' A History of a 
Case of Animals in the Blood of a Boy,' 
1833 ; and in the same year, from the Ger- 
man, Dieflenbach's ' Surgical Observations on 
the Restoration of the Nose,' and an ' Intro- 
duction to the Study of Nature.' This was 
followed in 1837 by the ' Philosophy of In- 
stinct and Reason.' In 1840 he contributed 
to the Naturalist's Library an article on 
' Ichthyology ; ' ' Observations on Hydro- 
pathy,' 1846 ; and ' Cholera and its Cures,' 
1850. In the same year he published an ' Ad- 
dress to the Medical Students of London ; ' 
and ' The Moral and Sanitary Aspects of the 
New Central Cattle-market,'1851 . In this year 
he engaged in a controversy with Miss Mar- 
tineau, in ' Miss Martineau and her Master.' 
He wrote ' Homoeopathy and the Homoeo- 
paths ' in 1852 ; ' Household Medicine and 
Surgery ' in 1854 ; and in the same year he 
contributed to Orr's ' Circle of the Sciences.' 
In 1860 he wrote ' Religious Revivals ' and 
' Our Holiday at Laverstock House Asylum ; ' 
and in 1861-2 two reviews in the ' Journal 
of Mental Science.' 

Ultimately he became unfortunate in his 
affairs, his sight failed, and he ended his 



Bushnell 



Bushnell 



days as a ' poor brother ' of the Charter House, 
where he died on 17 Feb. 1884, aged 76. 
[Medical Times and Gazette, 8 March 1 884.1 

J. D. 

BUSHNELL, MBS. CATHERINE. [See 
HAYES-BTTSHNELL, MADAME CATHEKINE, 
1825-1861.] 

BUSHNELL, JOHN (d. 1701), sculptor, 
was a pupil of Thomas Burman, who, having 
seduced his servant girl, forced Bushnell into 
marrying her. Bushnell thereupon quitted 
England in disgust, and, after studying his 
profession for two years in France, travelled 
thence into Italy, where he stayed in the first 
instance at Rome, but latterly at Venice. In 
Venice he carved a sumptuous monument for 
a procuratore di San Marco, representing the 
siege of Candia and a naval engagement 
between the Venetians and Turks. Having 
now attained considerable proficiency in his 
art, he returned home, and among his first 
commissions were the statues of Charles I, 
Charles II, and Sir Thomas Gresham for the 
Royal Exchange. Probably his best works 
were the kings which formerly adorned 
Temple Bar, and the statue of John, lord 
Mordaunt, in Roman costume at Fulham 
church. The monuments of Cowley and 
Sir Palmer Fairbourn in Westminster Abbey 
are also by him. Bushnell was a man of 
a wayward and jealous temper, and various 
tales are told of his eccentricities by Walpole 
and other authors. He had agreed to com- 
plete the set of kings at the Royal Exchange, 
but hearing that Caius Cibber [q. v.], his rival, 
was also engaged, he would not proceed, al- 
though he had begun six or seven. To disprove 
the assertion of some of his brother sculptors 
that he could not model undraped figures, 
he undertook a nude statue of Alexander 
the Great, but failed conspicuously. He 
next attempted to demonstrate the possi- j 
bility of the Trojan horse, and began to 
make one upon the same principles, of wood 
covered with stucco ; the head was capable 
of containing twelve men sitting round a 
table, the eyes were to serve as windows. 
Before it was half completed, a storm of 
wind demolished this unwieldy machine. 
The two publicans, who had contracted to 
use his horse as a drinking-booth, offered to 
be at the expense of erecting it again, but 
Bushnell was too greatly discouraged to re- 
commence, although his whim had cost him 
500/. A still heavier failure was a project 
for bringing coals to London in vessels of 
his own construction. The collapse of these 
and other schemes, together with the loss by 
a lawsuit of an estate that he had bought 
in Kent, totally upset his already disordered 



brain, and he died insane in 1701. He was 
buried in Paddington church, but the entry 
does not occur in the register, which is im- 
perfect during that year (LYSONS'S Environs 
of London, iii. 340). He left issue two sons 
and a daughter, to whom, despite his losses, 
he was able to bequeath a sufficient main- 
tenance. 

The sons were as eccentric as their father, 
for they shut themselves up in a large house 
in Piccadilly, fronting Hyde Park, which 
had been built but left unfinished by Bush- 
nell, having neither staircase nor floors. 
' Here,' relates Walpole (Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing, Wornum, ii. 623-4), ' they dwelt like 
hermits, recluse from all mankind, sordid 
and unpracticable, and saying the world had 
not been worthy of their father.' To this 
strange residence, Vertue, the engraver, after 
many previous attempts, gained admission 
during the owners' absence in 1725, and has 
related what he saw. Among other curiosities 
he was shown a bar of iron, ' thicker than a 
man's wrist,' which was alleged to have been 
broken by one of Bushnell's many inventions. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists ( 1 8 7 8 ), p. 65 .] 

G. a. 

BUSHNELL, WALTER (1609-1667), 
ejected clergyman under the Commonwealth, 
was the son of William Bushnell of Corsham, 
Wiltshire. He became a batler of Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, in 1628, at the age of nineteen. 
He proceeded B.A. 20 Oct. 1631, and M.A. 
11 June 1634. He afterwards was appointed 
vicar of Box in his native county. He ap- 
pears to have escaped disturbance through 
the civil wars, but he suffered much perse- 
cution at the hands of the commissioners ap- 
pointed in August 1654 to eject ' scandalous, 
ignorant, and insufficient ministers and school- 
masters.' According to his own account he 
was summoned before the commissioners at 
Marlborough on 21 Jan. 1655-6, and charged 
with profaning the sabbath, gambling, drunk- 
enness, a specific act of immorality, with 
using the common prayer and baptising with 
the sign of the cross, and with general dis- 
affection to the existing government. The 
charges were preferred against Bushnell by a 
professional informer named John Travers, 
and Bushnell insisted on a public trial. On 
28 April 1656 a court was held for the pur- 
pose at Market Lavington. A large number 
of parishioners were called as witnesses to 
support the case for the prosecution, but their 
testimony, even if genuine, merely proved 
that Bushnell conducted much parish busi- 
ness in alehouses, but was not known to drink 
to excess. The commissioners adjourned till 
4 June, when they met at Calne. 'More testi- 



Busk 



39 



Busk 



mony of the vaguest character was there ad- 
duced against Bushnell, and at the defendant's 
request a further adjournment took place. 
On 1 July the court met at Marlborough, 
and Bushnell called witnesses for the defence, 
but their testimony was refused on the ground 
that they were ' against the Commonwealth 
and present government/ and their places 
were taken by more witnesses on the other 
side. On 14 July at Lavington the scene 
was repeated ; on 23 July at Salisbury Bush- 
nell was privately examined ' touching his 
sufficiency,' and was finally ejected from his 
living. Under a recent ordinance Bushnell 
could claim ' the fifths ' of his living, and this 
pittance he obtained with some difficulty. 
His case does not differ from that of many 
other beneficed clergymen, but it is regarded 
as a typical one because Bushnell described 
his experience at full length in ' A Narrative 
of the Proceedings of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by Oliver Cromwell for ejecting 
scandalous and ignorant Ministers in the case 
of Walt. Bushnell, clerk, vicar of Box in the 
county of Wiltshire.' Under the Common- 
wealth the publication of this work was pro- 
hibited, but in 1660 it was printed and be- 
came popular. Humphrey Chambers, the 
chief commissioner concerned, answered the 
charge somewhat lamely in a pamphlet pub- 
lished in the same year. To this answer was 
also appended a ' Vindication of the Commis- 
sioners/ by an anonymous writer. At the 
Restoration Bushnell was restored to his 
living. He died at the beginning of 1667, 
and was buried in the church at Box, ' having 
then/ says Wood, ' lying by him more things 
fit to be printed, as I have been informed by 
some of the neighbourhood.' 

[Wood's Athense (Bliss), iii. 760, and Fasti 
(Bliss), i. 460, 474 ; Walker's Sufferings of Clergy, 
pt. i. 189-94, where Bushnell's pamphlet is sum- 
marised at length.] S. L. L. 

BUSK, HANS, the elder (1772-1862), 
scholar and poet, was descended from the 
family Du Busc of Normandy, one of whom 
was created Marquis de Fresney in 1668. The 
great-grandson of the marquis was naturalised 
in England in 1723. From his eldest son Lord 
Houghton was descended, and his youngest 
son was Sir Wordsworth Busk, treasurer of 
the Inner Temple. Hans Busk, the youngest 
son of Sir Wordsworth Busk and Alice, 
daughter and co-heiress of Edward Parish of 
Ipswich and Walthamstow, was born on 
28 May 1772. Possessing an estate at Glen- 
alder, Radnorshire, he took an active interest 
in county business, was a justice of the peace, 
and for some time high sheriff. His leisure 
was devoted to classical studies and general 



literature, and he published several volumes 
of verse, including 'Fugitive Pieces in Verse/ 
1814 ; ' The Vestriad or the Opera, a Mock 
Epic Poem, in Five Cantos/ 1819; 'The 
Banquet, in Three Cantos/ 1819; 'The 
Dessert, to which is added the Tea/ 1820 ; 
' The Lay of Life/ 1834. He died at Great 
Cumberland Place, Hyde Park, on 8 Feb. 
1862. By his wife, Maria, daughter and 
heiress of Joseph Green, he left two sons 
(the eldest of whom was Hans Busk, born 
1815 [q. v.]), and five daughters. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, i. 242-3 ; Annual 
Register, civ. 336 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

BUSK, HANS, the younger (1815-1882), 
one of the principal originators of the volun- 
teer movement in England, son of Hans Busk, 
born 1772 [q. v.],was born on 11 May 1815. 
He was educated at King's College, London, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1839, and M.A. in 1844. He 
was called to the bar at the Middle Temple 
in 1841. While still an undergraduate, he 
represented to the government the advisability 
of forming rifle clubs in the different districts 
of the kingdom for defence against invasion, 
and on receiving a discouraging reply from 
Lord Melbourne, he instituted a model rifle 
club in the university, and published a popular 
treatise on ' The Rifle and how to use it.' In 
1858 he restored vitality to the Victoria Rifles, 
the only volunteer corps then existing, and the 
lectures he delivered throughout the country- 
were instrumental in extending the movement 
over the whole kingdom. He also published 
a number of treatises and pamphlets, which 
proved to be of great practical value in the 
development of the movement, and have 
passed through numerous editions. They 
include ' The Rifleman's Manual/ ' Tabular 
Arrangement of Company Drill/ 'Hand- 
book for Hythe/ 'Rifle Target Registers/ 
and ' Rifle Volunteers, how to organise and 
drill them.' He took an equal interest in the 
navy. Originally it was his intention to 
adopt a naval career, and, being forced to 
abandon it, he devoted much of his leisure 
to yachting. He mastered the principles of 
naval construction, and made designs for 
several yachts which were very successful. 
He was the first to advocate life-ship sta- 
tions, and fitted out a model life-ship at his 
own expense. In 1859 he published 'The 
Navies of the World, their Present State 
and Future Capabilities/ a comprehensive 
description of the condition of the principal 
navies of Europe, with suggestions for the 
improvement of the navy of England. By 
his friends he was held in high repute as a 
gastronome, and characteristically turned his 



Buss 



Butchell 



special knowledge to practical account for 
the general good, by assisting to establish, 
the school of cookery at South Kensington. 
Besides the technical works above referred 
to, he was the author of a number of minor 
pamphlets, including ' The Education Craze,' 
' Horse Viaticse,' and ' Golden Truths.' In 
1847 he was chosen high sheriff of Radnor- 
shire. He died at Ashley Place, Westminster, 
on 11 March 1882. By his wife, Miss Dun- 
bar, who died not long after her marriage, he 
left a daughter, well known as an authoress. 

[Annual Register, cxxiv. 119-20 ; Men of the 
Time, 9th ed. ; Burke's Landed Gentry, i. 242 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

BUSS, ROBERT WILLIAM (1804- 
1875), subject painter, was born in London 
on 4 Aug. 1804. He served an apprentice- 
ship with his father, who was an engraver 
and enameller, and then studied painting 
under George Clint, A.R.A. For some years 
he confined himself to painting theatrical 
portraits, and many of the leading actors of 
the day sat to him, including Macready, 
Harley, Buckstone, Miss Tree, and Mrs. 
Nisbet. Later he essayed historical and 
humorous subjects, and was a frequent exhi- 
bitor of pictures of this class at the Royal 
Academy, British Institution, and Suffolk 
Street between 1826 and 1859. Among his 
principal works were ' Watt's First Experi- 
ments on Steam,' engraved by James Scott ; 
' Soliciting a Vote,' engraved by Lupton, 
1834; 'The Stingy Traveller,' engraved by 
J. Brown, 1845 ; and ' The Bitter Morning,' 
lithographed by T. Fairland, 1834. He also 
contributed to the Westminster competition 
a cartoon of ' Prince Henry and Judge Gas- 
coigne.' Buss illustrated Knight's editions 
of ' London,' Chaucer, Shakespeare, and ' Old 
England.' He published lectures on ' Comic 
and Satiric Art,' 'Fresco,' 'The Beautiful 
Picturesques,' and printed privately in 1874 
' English Graphic Satire,' with etchings by 
himself. He at one time edited ' The Fine 
Art Almanack.' He died at Camden Town 
on 26 Feb. 1875. 

[Eedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 8vo, 1878; Athenaeum, 1875, p. 366.1 

L. F. 

BUSSY, SIB JOHN (d. 1399), speaker of 
the House of Commons, was sheriff of Lincoln 
in 1379, 1381, and 1391. He was first chosen 
a knight of the shire for Lincoln in 1388, and 
continued to sit for that county during the 
remaining parliaments of Richard II's reign. 
He was three times elected speaker, first by 
the parliament of 1393-4, and afterwards by 
the two parliaments of 1397. Though at 
first he showed some signs of a spirit of in- 



dependence, he soon became a servile sup- 
porter of Richard's arbitrary and unconsti- 
tutional action. In the second parliament of 
1397, which met at Westminster on 17 Sept., 
Sir John Bussy, Sir William Bagot, and Sir 
Thomas Green acted as prolocutors of the 
king's grievances, and Fitzalan, archbishop of 
Canterbury, the Duke of Gloucester, and the 
Earls of Arundel and Warwick were con- 
victed of high treason. Bussy gained the 
favour of the king by grossly flattering his 
vanity. Holinshed, in his account of the trial 
of these nobles, says that ' Sir John Bushie in 
all his talke, when he proponed any matter 
vnto the king, did not attribute to him titles 
of honour due and accustomed, but inuented 
vnused termes and such strange names as 
were father agreeable to the diuine rnaiestie 
of God than to any earthlie potentate. The 
prince, being desirous of all honour, and more 
ambitious than was requisite, seemed to like 
well of his speech and gave good eare to his 
talke' (ii. 340). This parliament was ad- 
journed to Shrewsbury, where it met on 
28 Jan. 1398, and Bussy was again formally 
presented as speaker. It sat there only three 
days, and by its last act delegated its autho- 
rity to a committee of eighteen members 
twelve lords and six members of the House 
of Commons of whom Bussy was one. By 
his manipulation of this parliament Richard 
had contrived to become an absolute king, 
and every man of this committee was be- 
lieved by him to be devoted to his interests. 
Upon the landing of Henry, duke of Lan- 
caster, in England during the absence of 
Richard in Ireland, Bussy fled to Bristol. 
The Duke of York joined his nephew ; they 
marched with their combined armies to Bris- 
tol, which quickly surrendered to them, and 
Bussy, the Earl of Wiltshire, and Sir Henry 
Green, three of the parliamentary committee, 
were put to death without trial on 29 July 
1399. Shakespeare has introduced Bussy into 
the play of 'Richard II' (i. 4, ii. 2, iii. 1). 

[Manning's Lives of the Speakers (1851), 14- 
21 ; Hot. Parl. iii. 310-85; Parliamentary Papers, 
1878, Ixii. (pt. i.) 235-56; Holinshed's Chro- 
nicles (1807), ii. 839-54: Stubbs's Constitutional 
History of England (1875), ii. 491-502]. 

G. F. K. B. 

BUTCHELL, MARTIN VAN (1785- 
1812 ?), empiric, son of Martin van Butchell, 
tapestry maker to George II, was born in 
Eagle Street, near Red Lion Square, Lon- 
don, in February 1735. Having shown an 
aptitude for the study of medicine and ana- 
tomy, he, became a pupil of John Hunter, and 
after successfully practising as a dentist for 
many years, he became eminent as a maker 
of trusses, and acquired celebrity by his skill 



Butcher 



Butcher 



in treating cases of fistula. He was still 
more noted for the eccentricity of his man- 
ners. His long beard and extraordinary cos- 
tume astonished all beholders, and it was his 
custom to ride about in Hyde Park and the 
streets on a white pony, which he sometimes 
painted all purple, sometimes with purple or 
black spots. To defend himself against rude 
molestation, he carried a large white bone, 
which was said to have been used as q. 
weapon of war in the island of Otaheite. 
For many years he resided in Mount Street, 
Berkeley Square, and attracted numerous 
patients by his quaintly worded advertise- 
ments in the newspapers. 

On the death of his first wife in 1775 he 
applied to Dr. William Hunter and Mr. 
Cruickshank to exert their skill in preventing, 
if possible, the changes of form after the ces- 
sation of life. The mode pursued in this em- 
balmment was principally that of injecting 
the vascular system with oil of turpentine and 
camphorated spirit of wine, coloured, so that 
the minute vessels of the cheeks and lips 
were filled, and exhibited their original hue, 
the body in general having its cavities filled 
with powdered nitre and camphor, so that it 
remained free from corruption ; glass eyes 
were also inserted. The corpse was then 
deposited in a bed of thin plaster of Paris in 
a box with a glass lid that could be with- 
drawn at pleasure. For many years Van 
Butchell kept the mummy of his wife in his 
parlour, and frequently exhibited the corpse 
to his friends and visitors. On his second 
marriage it was found expedient to remove 
the body to the museum of the College of 
Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, where it 
is still preserved. At the present time it is 
a repulsive-looking object. 

Van Butchell appears to have been alive 
in 1812. There is an engraved portrait of 
him on his spotted pony in Kirby's ' Won- 
derful and Scientific Museum,' 1803. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixiii. 5, 6, 165, Ixxvi. 681, Ixxxii. 
(i.) 326 ; Kirby's Wonderful Museum, i. 191 ; 
Eccentric Magazine (1812), i. 109; Malcolm's 
Curiosities of Biography, 333 ; Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mus. ; Lysons's Suppl. to 1st. edit, 
of Environs of London, 113; Timbs's Doctors 
and Patients, i. 129 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, 10664 ; Burning the Dead, by a mem- 
ber of the Royal Coll. of Surgeons (1857), 13.] 

T. C. 

BUTCHER, EDMUND (1757-1822), uni- 
tarian minister, was born on 28 April 1757, 
at Colchester. He was descended from John 
Butcher, vicar of Peering, Essex, about 1667. 
The only son of an unsuccessful builder, he 
had early to struggle for a living. His pri- 
mary education was given him by Dr. Tho- 



mas Stanton, presbyterian minister at Col- 
chester. At fourteen years of age he gave 
sign of precocious talent in an heroic poem, 
the ' Brutseis,' illustrated with pen-and-ink 
drawings (not printed). He was soon ap- 
prenticed to a London linendraper, and at 
this early age wrote for periodicals, sending 
the profits to his parents and sister. Subse- 
quently the family inherited the small estate 
of their ancestor above mentioned. Butcher 
attended the ministry of Hugh Worthing- 
ton, the eloquent Arian of Salters' Hall, who 
prepared him for the ministry. He entered 
Daventry academy, under Thomas Belsham, 
in 1783, having previously received some clas- 
sical training from Richard Wright, presby- 
terian minister at Atherstone. He had been 
taught the assembly's catechism, but he says 
he never gave credence to the trinitarian 
doctrine, and his studies confirmed him in 
Arian views. His first settlement was at 
Sowerby, near Halifax, but he soon removed 
to London, where Worthington got him 
temporary engagements at Monkwell Street 
and Carter Lane. He was ordained 19 March 
1789 as successor to Thomas Pope at Leather 
Lane, Holborn. In this ordination Bel- 
sham, who was still reputed orthodox, was 
associated, for the first time, with Lindsey, 
the only humanitarian minister in London, 
and five Arian ministers. While at Leather 
Lane Butcher took part with others in the 
Wednesday evening lecture established by 
Worthington (after 1792) at Salters' Hall. 
His feebleness of voice precluded him from 
popularity, and compelled his retirement 
from active duty in 1797. Butcher's lungs 
recovered tone, and in 1798 he became mi- 
nister at Sidmouth. Here he remained 
till 1820, building a house on a piece of 
ground presented to him by a member of a 
wealthy Jewish family, who attended his 
services. Relinquishing all belief in a pro- 
pitiatory atonement, his views gradually 
passed from the Arian to the humanitarian 
form of unitarianism. A paralytic stroke 
weakened the later years of his ministry, 
but did not prevent him from preaching. 
Early in 1821 he went to reside with his son 
at Bristol, and removed thence in November 
to Bath. A fall, which dislocated his hip, 
confined him to bed. He died on Sunday 
(his own wish), 14 April 1822, and was 
buried at Lyncomb Vale, near Bath. A 
tablet to his memory was placed in the Old 
Meeting House, Sidmouth. One who knew 
him describes him as ' a most lovable man in 
all respects.' He married, 6 July 1790, Eliza- 
beth, eldest daughter of John Lawrence, a 
Shropshire landowner, and widow of Samuel 
Lowe ; she died at Bath 25 Nov. 1831. By 



Butcher 



Butcher 



her he had one son, Edmund, and a daughter, 
Emma. Butcher is known among topo- 
graphers by his account of Sidmouth, and 
among poets by a few hymns of great merit, j 
His hymn ' From north and south ' won the 
warm commendation of Mrs. Barbauld. He I 
published : 1 .' Sermons, to which are subjoined j 
suitable Hymns,' 1798, 8vo (the hymns are J 
original, and intended as ' poetical epitomes ' 
of the twenty-one sermons ; the second edi- j 
tion, 1805, 8vo, has title ' Sermons for the j 
use of Families,' contains twenty-two ser- j 
mons and no hymns). 2. ' Moral Tales,' i 
1801, 12mo. 3. The Substance of the ; 
Holy Scriptures methodised,' 1801, 4to, 2nd 
ed. 1813, 4to (intended as a sort of family 
Bible ; Butcher assisted Worthington and 
others in its preparation, and contributed a 
hymn to each lesson). 4. 'An Excursion 
from Sidmouth to Chester in the Summer of 
1803,' 2 vols. 1805, 12mo. 5. ' A Picture of 
Sidmouth ; ' the fourth edition, Exeter [1830], 
12mo, has title ' A new Guide, descriptive of 
the Beauties of Sidmouth.' 6. ' Sermons for 
the use of Families,' vol. ii. 1806, 8vo. 
7. 'Unitarian Claims described and vindi- 
cated,' 1809, 12mo (sermon on 2 Cor. x. 7, at 
Bridgwater, Wednesday, 5 July, before the 
Western Unitarian Society, of biographical 
interest as giving the process by which he 
reached his latest views). 8. ' Sermons for 
the use of Families,' vol. iii. 1819, 8vo (twenty- 
eight sermons printed at the Chiswick Press; 
the preface, 1 May, reproduces the autobiogra- 
phical details of No. 7). 9. ' Prayers for the 
use of Families and Individuals,' 1822, 8vo 
(one for each sermon in his three volumes, and 
some for special occasions) ; and single ser- 
mons. Posthumous were 10. ' Discourses 
on our Lord's Sermon on the Mount/ Bath 
and London, 1825, 12mo (twenty-one ser- 
mons edited by his widow ; the preface says 
he had selected the materials for another 
volume). 11. 'A Poetical Version of the 
Chronological History of the Kings of Eng- 
land,' 1827, 12mo. Besides these, Butcher 
contributed to the ' Protestant Dissenters' 
Magazine,' 1794-9 (see especially vol. i. pp 
120, 204, 246, 330, 373, 417, 460, for poetical 
pieces), and edited the later volumes. 

[Evans, in Monthly Kepos. 1822, p. 309 seq. 
(revised in Christian Moderator, 1827, p. 347 
seq.); Monthly Eepos. 1821, p. 345 ; 1822, pp. 
285, 332, 471 ; 1832, p. 70 ; Belsham's Mem. of 
Lindsey, 1812, p. 292 ; Murch's Hist, of Presb. 
and Gen. Bapt. Churches in W. of Eng. 1835, 
p. 349 seq. ; Lawrence's Descendants of Philip 
Henry, 1844, p. 21 seq. ; Miller's Our Hymns, 
1866, p. 265 seq. ; Spears's Becord of Unit. 
Worthies (1877), p. 211 ; private information.] 

A. G. ' 



BUTCHER, RICHARD (1583-1665?), 
antiquary, was a native of Stamford, and be- 
came town clerk of that borough. He com- 
piled ' The Survey and Antiquitie of the 
Towne of Stamforde, in the county of Lin- 
colne,' Lond. 1646, 4to, reprinted Lond. 1717, 
8vo, and also with additions by Francis Peck, 
at the end of his 'Academia tertia Angli- 
cana ; or the Antiquarian Annals of Stanford,' 
Lond. 1727, fol. A manuscript by him, in 
two volumes, entitled 'Antiquity revived,' 
is preserved in the library of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. It is a translation from 
Camden. Butcher's portrait has been en- 
graved by Clamp. 

[Gough's British Topography, ii. 29, 523 ; 
Granger's Biog.Hist. of England (1824), iii. 152; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. 573; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. (Bonn), 352.] T. C. 

BUTCHER, SAMUEL, D.D. (1811- 
1876), bishop of Meath, eldest son of Vice- 
admiral Samuel Butcher, was born in 1811 
at his father's residence, Danesfort, near Kil- 
larney, co. Kerry. His mother was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Richard Townsend Herbert, 
of Cahirnane, in the same county. He was 
educated at home until his sixteenth or 
seventeenth year, when his father removed 
to Cork, and he was sent to the school of 
Drs. Hamblin and Porter. In 1829 he en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, where he won 
high honours in classics and mathematics, 
and obtained a foundation scholarship for 
classics in 1832. He graduated in 1834, 
obtained a fellowship in 1837, and was soon 
after appointed tutor and lecturer. The im- 
provement in classical taste and scholar- 
ship which was observable about this time 
in the university of Dublin has been with 
justice attributed in no small degree to But- 
cher's lectures. In 1849 the degree of D.D. 
was conferred on him. In 1850 he was ap- 
pointed to the professorship of ecclesiastical 
history, and two years later to the important 
office of regius professor of divinity, on which 
occasion he vacated his fellowship. In 1854 
he accepted the college living of Ballymoney, 
co. Cork, which he continued to hold along 
with his professorship until, on the recom- 
mendation of Lord Derby, he was appointed 
in August 1866 to the vacant see of Meath, 
the premier bishopric of Ireland. Butcher 
ably supported the Irish church against ex- 
ternal assailants, and his wise and moderate 
counsels contributed not a little to avert 
the dangers of disruption which threatened 
it after its disestablishment. He laboured 
unsparingly to reorganise the affairs of the 
church throughout Ireland, and especially 
in his own diocese. He took an active part 
in promoting the movement for securing 



Bute 



Butler 



an endowment for the divinity school in j 
Trinity College. On the important question [ 
of the revision of the prayer book ' Dr. ' 
Butcher rather sided with the revision party, 
to which undoubtedly his character, position, j 
and learning contributed very considerable ', 
weight ' (Freeman's Journal, 31 July 1876). 

In the midst of these labours, and while still 
in the enjoyment of a remarkably vigorous 
constitution, he was suddenly prostrated by a 
severe attack of congestion of the lungs and 
bronchitis. In a moment of delirium he in- 
flicted on himself a wound from which he 
expired almost immediately. He died on 
29 July 1876, at his episcopal residence, Ard- 
braccan House, Navan. His public life was 
a solid and unbroken success, no less honour- 
able to himself than useful to the university 
and the church to which he belonged. Within 
the private circle of his own family he was ! 
peculiarly happy and fortunate, and he pos- 
sessed in the fullest degree the affection of his 
friends and the respect of the public. He was j 
buried in the churchyard of Ardbraccan. He | 
married, in 1847, Mary, second daughter of j 
John Leahy, of South Hill, Killarney, by i 
whom he had two sons and four daughters, j 
His eldest son (S. H. Butcher) is now (1886) j 
professor of Greek at Edinburgh. 

His published works consist chiefly of oc- 
casional addresses, sermons, and charges to 
his clergy, and a treatise (published after his 
death) on the ' Theory and Construction of 
the Ecclesiastical Calendar,' London, 1877. 
Of his charges perhaps the one which ex- 
cited most attention was that of October 1874 
(Dublin), in which he dealt exhaustively with 
Professor Tyndall's address to the British 
Association, delivered in Belfast in 1874. 

[Cork Examiner ; Saunders's Newsletter, 
8 Aug. 1866 ; Irish Times, 7 Aug. 1866; Daily 
Express, 31 July 1876.] G. V. B. 

BUTE, EAKLS and MAKQTTISES OF. [See 
STUAKT.] 

BUTLER, ALBAN (1711-1773), hagio- 
grapher, was descended from the ancient 
family of the Butlers of Aston-le- Walls, in 
Northamptonshire. Towards the close of the 
seventeenth century that family was repre- 
sented by two brothers, Alban and Simon. 
Albau, the elder, had issue only one daughter, 
who married Mr. Edward Plowden, of Plow- 
den, Shropshire. She inherited the estate 
at Aston-le-Walls, and from her it descended 
to the Plowden family. The Appletree estate 
devolved to Simon, the younger brother. His 
son, also named Simon, married Ann,daughter 
of Thomas Birch, of Garscott, Staffordshire. 
They had issue three sons, Charles, Alban, 
and James. At a very early age Alban 



Butler was sent to a school in Lancashire, 
where he distinguished himself by his intense 
application to literature, sacred biography 
being, even then, his favourite pursuit. 
When eight years old he was transferred to 
the English college at Douay, and about this 
time lost both his parents. After the usual 
course of study he was admitted an alumnus 
of the college, and appointed professor, first 
of philosophy, and then of divinity. He was 
ordained priest in 1735. The solicitude with 
which he tended the wounded English 
soldiers who were conveyed as prisoners to 
Douay, after the battle of Fontenoy, was 
brought under the notice of the Duke of 
Cumberland, who promised Butler a special 
protection whenever he should come over to 
England. While he remained at Douay his 
first publication made its appearance : ' Letters 
on the History of the Popes published by 
Mr. Archibald Bower ' [q. v.] In 1745-6 he 
accompanied the Earl of Shrewsbury and the 
Hon. James Talbot and Thomas Talbot on 
their travels through France and Italy. He 
wrote a full account of the tour, which was 
published at Edinburgh in 1803 by his 
nephew, Charles Butler. On his return from 
his travels he was sent to the English mis- 
sion. He had long been engaged in com- 
posing the ' Lives of the Saints,' and he 
naturally wished to be stationed in London 
for its literary resources ; but the vicar apo- 
stolic of the midland district claimed him as 
belonging to that district, and appointed him 
to a mission in Staffordshire. Thence he re- 
moved to Warkworth, the seat of Mr. Francis 
Eyre, and next he was appointed chaplain 
to Edward, duke of Norfolk, and charged 
with superintending the education of Edward, 
the duke's nephew, and presumptive heir to 
the title. His first residence, after he was ap- 
pointed to this situation, was at Norwich, in 
a house generally called the Duke's palace. 
Thither some large boxes of books belonging 
to him were directed, but by mistake were 
sent to the bishop's palace. The bishop 
opened them, and, finding that they contained 
catholic books, refused to deliver them. In 
this difficulty Butler appealed to the Duke of 
i Cumberland, who immediately wrote to the 
j bishop, and the books were sent to the owner. 
Butler accompanied his pupil, Mr. Edward 
Howard, to Paris, where that young noble- 
man, who was the Marcellus of the English 
I catholics, was suddenly taken ill and died a 
\ few days afterwards. During his residence 
j in the French capital he completed his ' Lives 
I of the Saints,' a monument of erudition on 
, which he had been engaged for thirty years. 
I The work was published anonymously in 
j London, the full title being ' The Lives of 



Butler 



44 



Butler 



the Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal 
Saints ; compiled from original monuments 
and other authentick records; illustrated 
with the remarks of judicious modern criticks 
and historians.' The original edition, bearing 
the imprint of London, but without the 
printer's name, appeared in four bulky octavo 
volumes, the first two in 1756 ; the third, 
consisting of two parts, in 1757 and 1758 ; 
and the fourth in 1759. The notes were 
omitted from this edition on the suggestion 
of Bishop Challoner. The second edition 
was undertaken after Butler's death by Dr. 
Carpenter, archbishop of Dublin, and pub- 
lished in that city in 12 vols. 8vo, 1779-80. 
It contains all the notes omitted from the 
previous edition, and other matter prepared 
by the author. The third edition, also in 
12 vols., appeared at Edinburgh in 1798- 
1800. Other editions were published at Lon- j 
don, 12 vols., 1812 ; and at Dublin, 2 vols., J 
1833-6, 8vo. Dr. Husenbeth's edition was 
begun in 1857. A 'free' translation into | 
French, by the Abb6 Godescard, and Marie j 
Villefranche, in 12 vols. 8vo, was published | 
in 1763 and subsequent years ; a new edition, 
in 10 vols., appeared at Besancon in 1843. : 
The work has been translated into Italian by . 
G. Brunati. 

Soon after his return to England he was 
chosen president of the English college at 
Saint-Omer. This office he continued to hold 
during the remainder of his life. He was 
also appointed vicar-general to the bishops of 
Arras, Saint-Omer, Ypres, and Boulogne-sur- 
Mer. He died at Saint-Omer on 15 May 1773. 

He projected many works besides the 
' Lives of the Saints.' His ' Life of Mary of 
the Cross,' a nun in the English convent of 
Poor Clares at Rouen, appeared in his life- 
time ; but his treatise on the ' Moveable 
Feasts and Fasts, and other Annual Obser- 
vances of the Catholic Church/ was left in- 
complete, and was published after his death 
by Bishop Challoner in 1774. He made large 
collections for lives of Bishop Fisher and 
Sir Thomas More ; and he began a treatise 
to explain the evidence and truths of natural 
and revealed religion, being dissatisfied with 
what Bergier had published on those subjects. 
He composed many sermons and an immense 
number of pious discourses. From what re- 
mained of the latter the 'Meditations and 
Discourses on the sublime Truths and impor- 
tant Duties of Christianity,' published by his 
nephew Charles Butler (1750-1832) [q. v.] 
(3 vols., London, 1791-3), were collected. He 
was also the author of ' The Life of Sir Tobie 
Matthews,' published at London in 1795 by 
his nephew, who also edited his uncle's ' Tra- 
vels through France and Italy, and part of 



Austrian, French, and Dutch Netherlands, 
during the years 1745 and 1746 ' (Edinburgh. 
1803). 

His portrait has been engraved by Finden. 

[Life of his nephew, Charles Butler (Edin. 
1800, with portrait) ; Catholicon, iv. 184; Ca- 
tholic Magazine and Review (Birmingham, 1832), 
ii.451 ; Edinburgh Catholic Magazine (1832-3), 
i. 166; Notes and Queries (1st series), viii. 387, 
ix. 360, (2nd series) ix. 502, x. 79, (3rd series) 
vi. 538, (5th series) vi. 409, vii. 35 ; Evans's 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, ii. 65 ; The True 
State of the Case of John Butler, B.C., a Minister 
of the True Church of England ; in answer to 
the Libel of Martha, his sometimes wife (Lond. 
1697) ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 332 ; Cat. 
of Printed Books in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

BUTLER, CHARLES (d. 1647), philolo- 
gist and author of ' The Feminine Monarchic,' 
was born at one of the Wycombes (' Great 
Wycomb, I suppose,' says Wood) in Bucking- 
h,amshire. He entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
in 1579, and afterwards became a bible-clerk 
at Magdalen College, where he took the degree 
of B. A. on 6 Feb. 1583-4, and proceeded M.A. 
on 28 June 1587. On leaving the university 
he received the mastership of the free school 
in Basingstoke, Hampshire, which appoint- 
ment, together with the cure of a small 
church 'named Skewres, he held for seven 
years. Afterwards he was advanced to the 
poor vicarage of Laurence- Wotton (three 
miles from Basingstoke), where he continued 
to officiate for forty-eight years. He died on 
29 March 1647, and was buried in the chan- 
cel of Laurence- Wotton church. 

Butler is the author of 'The Feminine 
Monarchic, or a Treatise concerning Bees 
and the due ordering of Bees,' 1609, 8vo. Pre- 
fixed to the treatise are some commendatory 
verses by Warner, South, and H. Crosby ; the 
preface to the reader is dated from Wotton, 
11 July 1609. A second edition, with com- 
mendatory verses by Wither, and a frontis- 
piece, appeared in 1623. The third edition 
(1634) is printed in phonetic spelling, under 
the title of ' The Feminin' Monarch!', or the 
Histori of Bees.' A Latin translation by 
Richard Richardson, of Emmanuel College, 
was published in 1673. The most curious part 
of this entertaining book is the bees' song, a 
stave of musical notes, arranged in triple 
time, to represent the humming of bees at 
swarming. Butler had previously written a 
Latin treatise on rhetoric, ' Rhetorics Libri 
Duo. Quorum Prior de Tropis & Figuris, Pos- 
terior de Voce & Gestu praecipit,' 4to, which 
is not known to have been published before 
1629, although the dedicatory epistle to Lord 
Keeper Egerton is dated from Basingstoke 
' 5 Idus Martii 1600.' In 1625 Butler pub- 



Butler 



45 



Butler 



lished a treatise displaying considerable learn- 
ing on affinity as a bar to marriage. The title 
of the work is ' SuyyeVeia. De Propinquitate 
Matrimonium impediente Regula, quse una 
omnes qutestionis hujus difficultates facile 
expediat,' Oxford, 4to. In 1633 appeared 
' The English Grammar, or the Institution 
of Letters, Syllables, and Words in the Eng- 
lish Tongue. Whereunto is annexed an index 
of words like and unlike,' Oxford, 4to ; 2nd ed. 
1634, Oxford, 4to. The author dwells upon 
the capriciousness of English orthography 
(' neither our new writers agreeing with the 
old, nor either new nor old among them- 
selves '), and proposes the adoption of a sys- 
tem whereby men should ' write altogether 
according to the sound now generally re- 
ceived.' Butler's last work was ' The Prin- 
ciples of Musik in Singing and Setting. With 
the two-fold vse thereof, Ecclesiasticall and 
Civil,' London, 1636, 4to, dedicated to Prince 
Charles. Hawkins commends this treatise as 
learned and valuable. 

[Wood's Athense (ed. Bliss), iii. 209-10, Fasti, 
i. 223, 240 ; Hist, of Hampshire by Woodward, 
Willis, and Lockhart, iii. 230-2 ; Fuller's Wor- 
thies; Hawkins's History of Music, ed. 1853, 
p. 574.] A. H. B. 

BUTLER, CHARLES (1750-1832), ca- 
tholic and legal writer, was the son of James 
Butler, brother of the Rev. Alban Butler 
[q. v.], author of the ' Lives of the Saints,' 
and was descended from the ancient family 
of the Butlers of Aston-le- Walls, North- 
amptonshire. James Butler settled in Lon- 
don and carried on the business of a linen- 
draper at the sign of the Golden Ball in 
Pall Mall. There Charles Butler was born 
on 14 Aug. 1750. In his sixth year he was 
sent to a catholic school at Hammersmith, 
kept by a Mr. Plunkett. He remained there 
three years, and was then sent to Esquerchin, 
a school dependent on the English college 
at Douay, to which college, after three years, 
he was removed. He continued his studies 
to the end of rhetoric. About 1766 he re- 
turned to England, and in 1769 began the 
study of the law under Mr. Maire, a catho- 
lic conveyancer. On the decease of that 
gentleman he was placed under the care of 
Mr. Duane, a catholic conveyancer of much 
greater eminence. Here he formed a close 
friendship with John Scott, afterwards Lord 
Eldon, who, after attaining to legal emi- 
nence, did not forget his old fellow-student. 
In 177o Butler set up in business for him- 
self, and entered at Lincoln's Inn. At this 
period a catholic could not be called to the 
bar nor hold any official position. In these 
circumstances Butler commenced practice 



under the bar as a conveyancer, which de- 
partment of the profession was then be- 
coming particularly celebrated, and counted 
among its members Fearne, Booth, Duane, 
Shadwell, and others nearly as famous. For 
many years he was in the full swing of prac- 
tice, and he was at the head of his profession 
as a landed property lawyer and a convey- 
ancer until his seventy-fifth year, when he 
experienced a decay in his sight, and his 
business considerably declined. He had nu- 
merous pupils, and he took delight in making 
the fortunes of all the young barristers who 
studied under him. While he was drawing 
deeds, writing opinions, and delivering c^icta 
to his pupils, he was editing ' Coke upon 
Littleton,' in conjunction with Mr. Hargrave, 
or composing some literary work. He would 
steal from his home, even in midwinter, at 
four in the morning, taking his lantern, light- 
ing the fire in his chamber, and setting dog- 
gedly to work till breakfast-time. The whole 
of the day afterwards was given to the ordi- 
nary routine of business. 

In the 31st George III, c. 32, an act passed 
for the relief of the catholics, a clause was 
inserted ( 6), as it was understood by the 
instrumentality of Lord Eldon, then solicitor- 
general, for dispensing with the necessity of 
a barrister taking the oath of supremacy or 
the declaration against transubstantiation. 
Soon after the passing of this statute Butler 
availed himself of its provisions, and in 1791 
he was called to the bar, being the first ca- 
tholic barrister since the revolution of 1688. 
He took this degree rather for the sake of 
the rank than with any intention of going 
into court, and he never argued any case at 
the bar, except the celebrated one of ' Chol- 
mondeley v. Clinton ' before Sir Thomas Plu- 
mer and the House of Lords. His argument 
is printed at great length in the reports of 
Merivale and of Jacob and Walker. In 1832 
the lord chancellor (Brougham) informed 
him that, if he chose to accept a silk gown, he 
was desirous of giving it to him, and he was 
accordingly called within the bar and made 
a bencher of Lincoln's Inn. He took the 
honour, however, without any view to prac- 
tice, and he never appeared in court except 
on the day on which he received his rank, 
when the lord chancellor departed from the 
common rule and complimented him on his 
advancement. This honour was thrown open 
to him by the catholic relief act. 

Butler acted as secretary to the committees 
formed for promoting the abolition of the 
penal laws. The first of these committees 
was appointed in 1782 at a general meeting 
of the English catholics. It consisted of 
five members, all laymen ; it was to continue 



Butler 



4 6 



Butler 



for five years, and its object was to promote 
and attend to the affairs of the catholic body 
in England. Dr. (afterwards bishop) Milner, 
who was Butler's constant and uncompro- 
mising antagonist, writing in 1820, says that 
' here probably begins that system of lay 
interference in the ecclesiastical affairs of 
English catholics which .... has perpetu- 
ated disorder, divisions, and irreligion among 
too many of them for nearly the last forty 
years.' The only measure which engaged 
the attention of the committee was an abor- 
tive scheme for the establishment of a regu- 
lar hierarchy by the appointment of bishops 
in ordinary instead of vicars apostolic. This 
first committee was succeeded by another, 
formed in 1787, consisting of ten lay mem- 
bers, to whom were added, in the year follow- 
ing, three ecclesiastics. In 1788 the com- 
mittee resolved that Butler, their secretary, 
should prepare a bill for the repeal of the 
laws against the catholics. This was accom- 
panied by a declaration of catholic princi* 
pies, known as the 'Protestation/ which 
was transmitted to the vicars-apostolic, and 
eventually, but very reluctantly, signed by 
them. The committee soon framed an oath 
containing a new profession of faith, in which 
they adopted the extraordinary name of Pro- 
testing Catholic Dissenters. The oath was 
formally condemned by the unanimous deci- 
sion of the four vicars-apostolic (October 
1789), but in spite of this Butler wrote an 
' Appeal ' addressed to the catholics of Eng- 
land, in defence of the ' protestation ' and 
' oath,' which appeal was signed by two cle- 
rical and five lay members of the committee, 
who also signed a long letter to the vicars- 
apostolic, remonstrating against their cen- 
sure. These papers form the contents of the 
first of the three famous ' blue books,' so 
called from their being stitched up in blue, 
or rather purple covers. Two of the vicars- 
apostolic died soon after the condemnation 
of the oath, and these deaths led to active 
intrigues on the part of the committee to 
procure the appointment of two successors 
who might favour their views. Various pub- 
lications appeared, the object of which was 
to persuade the clergy and laity that they 
had a right to choose their own bishops and 
to procure their consecration by any bishop 
without reference to the pope. This scheme 
fell through, and two new vicars-apostolic 
having been appointed by the holy see, they 
joined with Dr. Walmesley, the vicar-apo- 
stolic of the western district, in an encycli- 
cal letter, condemning the proposed oath 
and disapproving the appellation of protest- 
ing catholic dissenters. Instead of submit- 
ting, however, the committee published a 



' protest,' drawn up by Butler, against the 
encyclical, and pressed forward the bill con- 
taining the condemned oath. At this junc- 
ture Dr. Milner was appointed by the two 
new vicars-apostolic to act as their agent, 
and he exerted himself to the utmost to cir- 
cumvent the designs of the committee. His 
efforts were crowned with success. Soon 
after the bill was introduced the ministry 
obliged the committee to drop their new ap- 
pellation, and they resumed their proper 
name of Roman catholics. The condemned 
oath was discarded by parliament, and the 
Irish oath of 1778 was substituted for it, as 
the bishops had petitioned. 

After the passing of the bill on 7 June 
1791 the services of the committee were no 
longer required, but the members determined 
to preserve its principles and spirit in another 
association. Accordingly the Cis- Alpine Club 
was established (12 April 1792), its avowed 
object being ' to resist any ecclesiastical in- 
terference which may militate against the 
freedom of English catholics.' Eventually 
a reconciliation was effected between the 
members of the club and the vicars-apostolic, 
by means of what was called at the time 
' the mediation,' and the catholic board was 
founded in 1808. At a later period Butler 
was strongly in favour of giving the govern- 
ment a veto on the appointment of catholic 
bishops, and this led him into another fierce 
conflict with Milner, who again achieved a 
triumph. Butler was, in fact, an ultra-Galli- 
can in regard to his religious views, while 
his political opinions coincided with those of 
his distinguished friend, Charles James Fox, 
and his sympathy was with the French revo- 
lution in its civil, though not in its religious, 
aspect. Towards the close of his life he re- 
tracted some of the opinions contained in his 
writings, and, to quote the words of a per- 
sonal friend of his, 'he then became a Gallican 
within the limits of orthodoxy.' He died at 
his house in Great Ormond Street, London, 
on 2 June 1832, aged 82. He married Mary, 
daughter of John Eyston, of East Hen- 
dred, in Berkshire, and left two surviving 
daughters. The elder, Mary, married Lieut.- 
colonel Charles Stonor, and Theresia, the 
younger, became the wife of Andrew Lynch, 
of Lynch Castle, in the town of Galway. 
His portrait has been engraved by Sievier 
from a painting by Barry. 

As a lawyer he will be remembered chiefly 
on account of his having continued and com- 
pleted Hargrave's edition of ' Coke upon Lit- 
tleton.' In 1785 Hargrave relinquished his 
part of this arduous undertaking, having an- 
notated to folio 190, being nearly one half 
of the work, which consists of 393 folios. 



Butler 



47 



Butler 



The other half was undertaken by Butler, 
and published in 1787. The merits of this 
edition of Lord Coke's first institute have 
been proved by numerous reprints, and But- 
ler's notes have been universally considered 
the most valuable part of the work. In 1809 
he brought out the sixth edition of Fearne's 
' Essay on Contingent Remainders.' 

His ' Philological and Biographical Works,' 
published in 5 vols. in 1817, comprise : In 
vol. i. ' Horse Biblicse,' being a connected 
series of notes on the text and literary his- 
tory of the bibles or sacred books of the Jews 
and Christians ; and on the bibles or books 
accounted sacred by the Mahometans, Hin- 
dus, Parsees, Chinese, and Scandinavians. 
This work, published first in 1797, has been 
translated into French. In vol. ii., ' History 
of the Geographical and Political Revolutions 
of the Empire of Germany,' originally pub- 
lished in 1806. ' Horse Juridicse Subsecivse,' 
or notes on the Grecian, Roman, Feudal, and 
Canon Law, published first in 1804. In vol. 
iii., ' Lives of Fenelon, Bossuet, Boudon, De 
Ranee", Kempis, and Alban Butler. In vol. 
iv., ' An Historical and Literary Account of 
the Formularies, Confessions of Faith, or 
Symbolic Books of the Roman Catholic, 
Greek, and principal Protestant Churches,' 
published originally in 1816; and various 
essays. In vol. v., ' Historical Memoirs of 
the Church of France.' 

Among his works not included in the above 
collection are: 1. ' Biographical Account of 
the Chancellor 1'Hopital and of the Chancel- 
lor d'Aguesseau, with a short historical no- 
tice of the Mississippi scheme,' 1814. 2. ' His- 
torical Memoirs of the English, Irish, and 
Scottish Catholics since the Reformation ; 
with a succinct account of the principal events 
in the ecclesiastical history of this country 
antecedent to that period, and in the histories 
of the established church and the dissenting 
congregations,'4vols., London, 1819-21, 8vo; 
3rd edit., considerably augmented, 4 vols., 
London, 1822, 8vo. This book contains much 
useful information, but Butler's statements 
should be received with caution. Some of 
them are corrected in Bishop Milner's ' Sup- 
plementary Memoirs of English Catholics,' 
1820. 3. ' Continuation of the Rev. Alban 
Butler's Lives of the Saints to the Present 
Time,' with some biographical accounts of 
the Holy Family, Pope Pius VI, Cardinal 
Ximenes, Cardinal Bellarmine, Bartholomew 
de Martyribus, and St. Vincent of Paul ; with 
a republication of his historical memoirs of 
the Society of Jesus, 1823. 4. ' Reminis- 
cences,' 4th ed., 2 vols., 1824. 5. ' The 
Book of the Roman Catholic Church,' in a 
series of letters addressed to Robert Southey, 



Esq., on his 'Book of the Church,' 1825. 
Southey's rejoinder was entitled ' Vindiciae 
EcclesiaeAnglicanae,' 1826, and Dr. Phillpotts, 
afterwards bishop of Exeter, answered the 
theological part of Butler's book. Altogether 
ten replies appeared on the protestant side ; 
another reply was composed by the Rev. 
Richard Garnett, but this still remains in 
manuscript. To these Butler rejoined in the 
two following publications : 6. ' A Letter 
to the Right Rev. C. J. Blomfield, bishop of 
Chester, in vindication of a passage in the 
Book of the Roman Catholic Church, censured 
in a Letter addressed to the Author, by his 
lordship,' 1825. 7. ' Vindication of the Book 
of the Roman Catholic Church,' 1826. After 
the appearance of the ' Vindication,' six ad- 
ditional replies were published by the writers 
on the protestant side of the question, in re- 
ference to which Butler added an Appendix 
to his ' Vindication.' 8. ' The Life of Eras- 
mus, with Historical Remarks on the state 
of Literature between the tenth and six- 
teenth Centuries,' 1825. 9. 'The Life of 
Hugo Grotius, with brief Minutes of the 
Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Literary History of 
the Netherlands,' 1826. 10. 'Memoir of the 
Life of Henry Francis d'Aguesseau, with an 
account of the Roman and Canon Law,' 1830. 

His letter-books, containing transcripts of 
his correspondence between 1808 and 1818, 
are preserved in the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 25127-25129). These valuable vo- 
lumes were presented to the museum by Mr. 
William Heslop, who rescued them from de- 
struction as waste paper. 

[Rev. W. J. Amherst on the Jubilee of Eman - 
cipation in Catholic Progress, 1879-84; C. But- 
ler's Reminiscences, and his Memoirs of English 
Catholics ; Catholic Magazine and Review (Bir- 
mingham, 1831-4), i. 571, ii. 262, 448, 451, v. 
206 ; Catholicon, iv. 184 ; Dibdin's Literary Re- 
miniscences, i. 129 ; Edinburgh Catholic Maga- 
zine (1832-3), i. 101, 166; Evans's Cat. of En- 
graved Portraits, ii. 65 ; Gent. Mag., N.S., cii. 
(ii.), 269, 661; Georgian Era, iii. 568 ; Prefaces 
to Hargrave and Butler's edition of Coke upon 
Littleton; Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 257; 
Home and Foreign Review, ii. 536 ; Husen- 
beth's Life of Bishop Milner ; Legal Observer, 
iv. 113; Addit. MSS. 25127-25129, 28167 ff. 
85-87; Martineau's Hist, of England (1850), ii. 
190 ; Milner's Supplementary Memoirs of Eng- 
lish Catholics ; Moore's Journals and Corrresp. 
iv. 261, v. 19; Nichols's Illust. of Lit. v. 615, 
618, 680, 692, viii. 333; Notes and Queries 
(2nd series), viii. 494 ; Pamphleteer, Nos. 2, 14, 
45, 49 ; Parr's Life and Works, viii. 505-12 ; 
Southey's Life and Corresp. v. 204, 207, 234 ; 
Tablet, 17 April, 1875, p. 493.] T. C. 

BUTLER, EDMUND (d. 1551), arch- 
bishop of Cashel, illegitimate son of Piers, 



Butler 



4 8 



Butler 



eighth Earl of Ormonde, studied at Oxford, 
became a canon regular of St. Augustine, and 
was appointed prior of the abbey of that order 
at Athassel in the county of Tipperary. In 
1524 Butler was nominated by the pope to the 
archbishopric of Cashel, with permission to 
retain the priory of Athassel. The consecra- 
tion of Butler took place in 1527. He was 
a member of the privy council in Ireland, 
held a provincial synod at Limerick in 1529, 
and, on the dissolution of religious houses 
in Ireland, surrendered the abbey of Athas- 
sel to the crown. 

Butler was present in the parliament at 
Dublin in 1541 which enacted the statute 
conferring the title of ' King of Ireland ' on 
Henry VIII and his heirs. The communica- 
tion addressed to the king on this subject, 
bearing the signature of the Archbishop of 
Cashel, has been reproduced on plate Ixxi 
in the third part of ' Facsimiles of National 
Manuscripts of Ireland.' Butler's autograph 
and archiepiscopal seal were attached to the 
' Complaint ' addressed to Henry VIII in 
1542 by 'the Gentlemen, Inheritors, and 
Freeholders of the county of Tipperary.' 
This document also appears in the same 
' Facsimiles.' A letter from Butler to the 
Protector, Somerset, in 1548, is preserved 
among the state papers in the Public Record 
Office, London. In 1549-50 Butler took part 
at Limerick with James, Earl of Desmond, and 
the king's commissioners, in the enactment 
of ordinances for the government of Munster. 
References to Butler and his proceedings 
concerning public affairs in the districts of 
Ireland with which he was connected occur 
in the English governmental correspondence 
of his time. Butler died in March 1550-1, 
and was buried in the cathedral, Cashel, 
under an elaborate marble monument which 
he had erected, but which does not now exist. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 757 ; Archie- 
piscoporum Casselliensium Vitse, 1626; Ware's 
Bishops of Ireland, i. 482-3 ; Hibernia Sacra, 
1717; State Papers, Ireland; Annals of the King- 
dom of Ireland, 1 848 ; Shirley's Original Letters, 
1851 ; Brady's Episcopal Succession, 1876.] 

j. T. a. 

BUTLER, SIK EDWARD GERARD 

(1770-1825), one of the heroes of the affair 
at Villiers-en-Couche, entered the army by 
purchasing a cornetcy in the 15th light dra- 
goons in 1792. He was at once sent to Flanders 
on the outbreak of the war in 1793, and on 
24 April 1794 was one of the officers of the two 
companies of his regiment which overthrew 
a French army and saved the life of the em- 
peror. Landrecy was closely invested by the 
Austrian and English armies, when a corps 
of 10,000 Frenchmen moved from Caesar's 



camp to raise the siege. Their march Avas 
so rapid that they were close to the allied 
lines, and on the point of taking the emperor 
himself prisoner as he was riding along the 
road almost unattended, when General Otto 
perceived the danger, and ordered the only 
cavalry he had at hand, namely, 160 of the 
15th light dragoons and 112 Austrian hus- 
sars, to charge the French, in order rather to 
save the emperor than to defeat the enemy. 
They charged, and the French were seized 
with an unaccountable panic and fled, leav- 
ing three guns behind them. For this gallant 
charge the emperor conferred upon every one 
of the eight English officers who were present 
the order of Maria Theresa, and the king of 
England, at the emperor's request, knighted 
them all. Butler had been promoted lieutenant 
in the llth light dragoons in May 1794, and he 
was in 1796 gazetted major without purchase 
in the newly raised 87th regiment. With it he 
served in the West Indies in 1797 at Trinidad 
and Porto Rico, and remained in garrison 
there till 1802. In 1804 he was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, and in 1806 the 87th was 
ordered to form part of the expedition under 
Sir Samuel Auchmuty to Monte Video. In 
the attack on Monte Video Butler especially 
distinguished himself, and also in White- 
locke's attempt on Buenos Ayres, where the 
87th had 17 officers and 400 men killed and 
wounded. From 1807 to 1810, while the 
2nd battalion, under Colonel Hugh Gough, 
was distinguishing itself in the Peninsula, 
the 1st battalion of the 87th, under Butler, 
garrisoned the Cape of Good Hope. In 1810 
he was second in command of a force ordered 
from the Cape to assist Major-general Aber- 
cromby in the reduction of the Mauritius, but 
the island was already taken when the contin- 
gent arrived. , Nevertheless, though he saw 
no more service; Butler was promoted colonel 
in 1811 and majors-general in 1814, and made 
a C.B. in the latter year. He died in Nor- 
mandy in June 1825. 

[Royal Military Calendar, ed. 1820, for the affair 
of Villiers-en-Couche, and contemporary journals ; 
Eecords of 87th Eegiment.] H. M. S. 

BUTLER, LADY ELEANOR (1745?- 
1829), recluse of Llangollen, was the youngest 
daughter of Walter Butler, by Ellen, daughter 
of Nicholas Morres of Latargh,Tipperary. Her 
father was a collateral descendant and only 
lineal representative of James Butler, second 
duke of Ormonde, who had been attainted in 
1715. Her brother John (1740-1795) claimed 
the Irish titles of his family, which had been 
forfeited by the act of attainder, and in 1791 
he was acknowledged seventeenth earl of Or- 
monde by the Irish House of Lords. The rank 



Butler 



49 



Butler 



of an earl's daughter was at the same time 
bestowed on Eleanor and her sisters. Some 
years previously in 1774 according to one 
account, and in 1779 according to another 
Lady Eleanor and a friend, Sarah Ponsonby, 
daughter of Chambre Brabazon Ponsonby, 
cousin of theEarl of Bessborough, had resolved 
to live together in complete isolation from so- 
ciety. According to a writer in ' Notes and 
Queries,' 4th ser. iv. 12, they were both born 
on the same day of the same year at Dublin, 
and lost their parents at the same time. But 
the obituary notice of Miss Ponsonby in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1831, pt. i. 272, is 
probably correct in making her ten years 
younger than her companion. Their relatives 
dissuaded them from their plan, and, when 
they first left their homes, brought them 
back. Soon afterwards, however, they made 
their way to a cottage at Plasnewydd in the 
vale of Llangollen, accompanied by a maid- 
servant, Mary Caryll. Their names were not 
known in the neighbourhood, and they were 
called ' the ladies of the vale.' Here they 
lived in complete seclusion for some fifty 
years, and neither left the cottage for a single 
night until their deaths. Their devotion to 
each other and their eccentric manners gave 
them wide notoriety. All tourists in Wales 
sought introduction to them, and many made 
the journey to Llangollen for the special pur- 
pose of visiting them. Foreigners of distinc- 
tion figured largely among their visitors, and 
they received a number of orders from mem- 
bers of the Bourbon family. In 1796 Miss 
Anna Seward wrote a poem, ' Llangollen 
Vale,' in their honour. In September 1802 
she addressed a poetical farewell to them. 
Madame de Genlis, another visitor, has given 
an account of them in her ' Souvenirs de 
Felicie.' De Quincey saw them during his 
Welsh ramble (Confessions, 1856, p. 121). In 
1828 Prince Piickler-Muskau saw them at 
their cottage, and wrote a very elaborate de- 
scription of them. He says that his grand- 
father had visited them half a century before, 
that ' the two celebrated virgins ' were ' cer- 
tainly the most celebrated in Europe.' Ac- 
cording to the prince they were invariably 
dressed in a semi-masculine costume. Lady 
Eleanor Butler died 2 June 1829, and her 
companion, Miss Ponsonby, died 8 Dec. 1831. 
With their servant, Mary Caryll, who died 
before either of them, they lie buried in Plas- 
newydd churchyard under a triangular pyra- 
mid inscribed with their names. Portraits of 
them and their cottage are often met with. A 
painting of them by Lady Leighton has been 
engraved by Lane. 

[Gent. Mag. 1829, ii. 175-6, and 1832, i. 274 ; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iv. 12, 220 (where 
VOL. VIII. 



Prince Piickler's account is translated from his 
Briefe eines Verstorbenen, Stuttgart, 1831, i. 18- 
22) ; Burke's Patrician (1841), v. 485; Brit. Mag. 
(ed. S. C. Hall), 1830, p. 8 ; Burke's Peerage, s.v. 
' Ormonde '; Seward's Letters, iii. 70-80, 345.1 

S. L. L. 

BUTLER, GEORGE, D.D. (1774-1853), 
head master of Harrow and dean of Peter- 
borough, was born in Pimlico, London, 5 July 
1774, being the second son of the Rev. Wee- 
den Butler, the elder [q. v.l, by Anne, daughter 
of Isaac Louis Giberne. He was educated in 
his father's school, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, and 
then became a foundation scholar of Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, where he was 
senior wrangler and senior Smith's prizeman, 
January 1794, graduated B.A. in the same 

Sjar, took his M.A. 1797, and his B.D. and 
.D. in 1804 and 1805. His college elected 
him a fellow, and for some years he acted as 
mathematical lecturer, and then as classical 
tutor. It was also probably during this period 
that he commenced keeping his terms at Lin- 
coln's Inn. He was elected a public ex- 
aminer at Cambridge in 1804, and in 1805 was 
nominated one of the eight select preachers 
before the university. In April 1805 he 
became head-master of Harrow School in 
succession to Dr. Joseph Drury. In 1814 he 
was presented by his college to the rectory 
of Gayton, Northamptonshire. He continued 
in his arduous office at Harrow until 1829, 
when, after a head-mastership of four and 
twenty years, he retired to the living of Gay- 
ton, and devoted himself with the same un- 
wearied zeal to the duties of a parish priest. 
In November 1836 he was named chancellor 
of the diocese of Peterborough, and he was 
appointed by Sir Robert Peel to the deanery 
of Peterborough 3 Nov. 1842. Few men 
could compete with Butler in versatility of 
mind, and in the variety of his accomplish- 
ments. Besides his great mathematical at- 
tainments he was also a distinguished clas- 
sical scholar, and spoke German, French, 
and Italian with correctness and fluency. 
He was practically versed in chemistry and 
other branches of physical science. He was 
a good physician and draughtsman, and he 
excelled in all athletic exercises. His affec- 
tion for Harrow School, in the service of 
which so many of the most active years 
of his life had been passed, amounted to a 
passion, and he maintained with his suc- 
cessors a constant and most friendly inter- 
course. On leaving Harrow he was pre- 
sented by his pupils and others who had left 
the school with a piece of plate of the value 
of nearly 5001. His latter years were years 
of suffering ; in 1849 disease of the heart de- 
clared itself, and a gradual failure of sight 



Butler 



Butler 



ensued, ending in almost total blindness. 
His death was quite sudden; while seated 
at table with his family he became rapidly 
insensible, and in the course of ten minutes 
passed away, almost without a struggle, at 
the Deanery, Peterborough, 30 April 1853. 
He was buried at Gayton church. A mo- 
nument by Richard Westmacott, R.A., to 
the memory of Butler was erected in Har- 
row Church in July 1854. He married, 
18 March 1818, Sarah Maria, eldest daughter 
of John Gray of Wembley Park, Middlesex. 
He lived to see four sons obtain distin- 
guished honours at the universities. His 
youngest son, Henry Montagu, was also head- 
master of Harrow from 1859 to 1885. He 
wrote or compiled : 1. ' Extracts from the 
Communion Service of the Church,' 1839; 
second edition 1842. 2. ' Statutes of Peter- 
borough Cathedral, translated by G. Butler,' 
1853. 3. ' Harrow, a selection of the Lists 
of the School, 1770-1828, with annotations 
upon the later fortunes of the scholars,' 1849. 
The addition of two sermons preached in 
1830 and 1843 completes the short list of his 
publications. 

[Gent. Mag. xxxix. 662-64 (1853), and xlii. 
153-54 (1854); Illustrated London News, xxii. 
343, 483 (1853), and XXT. 257 (1854).] G. C. B. 

BUTLER, GEORGE SLADE (1821- 
1882), antiquary, was the son of Richard 
Weeden Butler, a surgeon in large practice 
at Rye, Sussex, by his third wife, Rhoda 
Jane, only daughter of Daniel Slade, of Lon- 
don and Rye. Born at Rye, 4 March 1821, 
he was educated at a private school at Brigh- 
ton, and, adopting the law as his future pro- 
fession, was admitted a solicitor in Hilary 
term, 1843. He soon attained considerable 
business in his native town, where, among 
other valuable appointments, he held the 
town-clerkship and the registrarship of the 
county court. His ' Topographica Sussexiana,' 
which originally appeared in the ' Collections ' 
of the Sussex Archaeological Society, and was 
afterwards reprinted in one volume, is a cre- 
ditable attempt towards forming a list of the 
various publications relating to the county. 
Butler also contributed to the same serial 
many papers on the antiquities of Rye, where 
he died, 11 April 1882. He had been elected 
a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in March 
1862. 

[Information from Mr. Slade Butler ; Hastings 
and St. Leonards Ne-ws, 21 April 1882 ; Hast- 
ings and St. Leonards Independent, 13 April 
1882; Law List.] G. G. 

BUTLER, JAMES, second EARL OF OR- 
MONDE (1331-1382), was descended from the 
same family as Theobald Butler [q. v.] The 



grandfather of the second earl of Ormonde 
was created earl of Carrick, but this title, 
according to Mr. J. H. Round, was not in- 
I herited by the son, who was created earl of 
Ormonde after his marriage to Eleanor de 
Bohun, granddaughter of Edward I. The se- 
cond earl, surnamed the 'noble earl' (because 
the son of a princess), was born at Kilkenny 
on 4 Oct. 1331. On his father's death in 1377 
he was given in ward to Maurice, earl of Des- 
mond, and afterwards to Sir John d'Arcy, 
whose daughter he married during his mino- 
rity. His royal descent, as well as his per- 
sonal services, commended him to the favour 
of Edward III and Richard II, from whom he 
received many grants of lands. On 18 April 
1359 he was made viceroy of Ireland as lord 
justice, and after a short absence in England, 
during which the office was held by Maurice 
FitzThomas, earl of Kildare, he was again ap- 
pointed on 15 March 1360. When Lionel, 
duke of Clarence, was sent to Ireland as vice- 
roy in 1361 in order to take more energetic 
measures for its reduction, he was appointed 
one of the three chief officers of his army at 
the pay of 4s. a day. He did great service 
in assisting the prince, and, according to re- 
cords preserved in the corporation books of 
Kilkenny, slew at Teagstoffin, in the county 
of Kilkenny, 600 of MacMorrogh's men on 
the feast of St. Kenelm, 1362. During 
Lionel's absence in 1364-6 he was appointed 
deputy along with Sir Thomas Dale. He 
was again made lord justice in 1376, and con- 
tinued in this office till the first of Richard II. 
He died on 18 Oct. 1382 in his castle of Knoc- 
topher, and was buried in the cathedral of 
St. Canice, Kilkenny. He left one son, James, 
who succeeded him as third earl. 

[Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormonde (Oxford 
ed. 1851), i. Ixx-i ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, 
iv. pp. 8, 9 ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland; Genea- 
logist, new ser. vol. ii. (1885), p. 188.] T. F. H. 

BUTLER, JAMES, fourth EARL OF OR- 
MONDE (d. 1452), commonly called the 
' white earl,' son of the third earl of Ormonde 
[see under BUTLER, JAMES, second earl], and 
Anne, daughter of John, Lord Welles, suc- 
ceeded his father in September 1405, not 
being at that time of full age. Owing to the 
care his father had taken in his education, he 
excelled in learning most of the noblemen of 
his time. While still under age, he was in 
1407 appointed deputy during the absence of 
Sir Stephen Scrope in England. After the 
arrival soon afterwards of Thomas of Lan- 
caster, the lord-lieutenant, he contracted 
with him an intimate friendship, and in 1412 
accompanied him on his travels in France. 
Having attended Henry V in his French 
wars, he was on his return appointed in 1420 



Butler 



5 1 



Butler 



lord-lieutenant. In 1422 lie invaded the ter- 
ritory of the O'Mores, and pursued his army 
through the red bog of Athy, when, accord- 
ing to the chroniclers, the sun favoured him 
by miraculously standing still for three 
hours. Violent feuds had long existed be- 
tween the Butlers and the Talbots, and in 
1422 Sir John Talbot arraigned the Earl of 
Ormonde for treason, but the crown and 
council in 1423 ordered the annulment of 
all proceedings connected with the dispute. 
After the death of Henry V, the Earl of Or- 
monde was replaced in the government of 
Ireland by Edmund Mortimer, but on several 
occasions he acted as deputy before he was 
again appointed viceroy in 1440. Attempts 
were again made by the Talbots to overthrow 
his influence, and Richard Talbot, archbishop 
of Dublin, having been delegated in Novem- 
ber 1441 to lay various requests before the 
king, took the opportunity of representing 
the advantages that would accrue to Ireland 
by his removal from office ; but notwith- 
standing this he was appointed lord-lieu- 
tenant in 1443. Owing, however, to repre- 
sentations that he was old and feeble, he was 
dismissed in 1446. In 1447 John Talbot, 
earl of Shrewsbury, who had succeeded him 
as lord-lieutenant, accused him of high trea- 
son, but the king dismissed the complaint, 
and by patent, 20 Sept. 1448, declared that 
' no one should dare, on pain of his indigna- 
tion, to revive the accusation or reproach of 
his conduct.' He died at Atherdee in the 
county of Louth, on 23 Aug. 1452. He spe- 
cially interested himself in history and anti- 
quities, and bequeathed lands to the College 
of Heralds. By his first wife, Johan, daughter 
of Gerald, fifth earl of Kildare, he had three 
sons successively earls of Ormonde and 
two daughters ; but by his second wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Bergavenny and 
widow of Lord Grey, he had no issue. 

[Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormonde (Oxford 
ed. 1851), i. Ixxiv-viii; Lodge's Peerage of Ire- 
land, iv. 11-14; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland.] 

T. F. H. 

BUTLER, JAMES, fifth EARL OP OR- 
MONDE and EARL OF WILTSHIRE (1420-1461), 
was the eldest son of James Butler, the fourth 
earl [q. v.l, by Johan, daughter of Gerald, 
fifth earl of Kildare, and was born on 24 Nov. 
1420. He was knighted when very young by 
Henry VI, and he attended Richard, duke of 
York, regent of France, in his expedition into 
that kingdom. On account of his zealous sup- 
port of the Lancastrian interest, he was on 
8 July 1449, during the lifetime of his father, 
created a peer of England by the title of earl 
of Wiltshire. In the following year he was 



constituted a commissioner, to whom the 
town and castle of Calais, with other French 
fortresses, were committed for five years. In 
1451 he was appointed lord-deputy of Ireland 
in the absence of the Duke of York, and on 
the death of his father he was in 1453 ap- 
pointed viceroy for ten years. In the same 
year, along with the Earl of Salisbury and 
other great lords, he undertook the guarding 
of the seas for three years, receiving the ton- 
nage and poundage to support the charge 
thereof. On 13 March 1455 he was appointed 
lord high treasurer of England, and shortly 
afterwards fought for the king at the battle 
of St. Albans, when, the Yorkists prevailing, 
he fled, casting his armour into a ditch. He 
was superseded as lord-lieutenant of Ireland 
by the Duke of York, but in 37 Henry VI 
was restored to the post of lord-treasurer, and 
next year made a knight of the Garter. Soon 
afterwards he fitted out a fleet of five ships 
at Genoa, with which he sailed to the 
Netherlands against the Earl of Warwick, 
but returned before the battle of Wakefield 
on 31 Dec. 1460, in which he commanded a 
wing of the army which enclosed and slew 
the Duke of York. On 2 Feb. 1461, along 
with the Earl of Pembroke, he suffered a dis- 
astrous defeat from Edward, earl of March, 
at Mortimer's Cross, and on 29 March was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Towton, York- 
shire. He is said to have been beheaded at 
Newcastle on 1 May following. In the first 
parliament of Edward IV he was attainted, 
along with his brothers John and Thomas, 
and his estates forfeited and resumed. As 
he left no issue, the earldom of Wiltshire 
lapsed with him, but he was succeeded in 
the earldom of Ormonde by his brother, Sir 
John de Ormonde. 

[Stow's Annals ; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 235 ; 
Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, iv. 14-16; Carte's 
Life of the Duke of Ormonde (Oxford ed. 1851), 
i. Ixxix-lxxxi ; The Ormonde Attainders, by 
Hubert Hall, in the Genealogist, new ser. i. 76-9 ; 
The Barony of Arklow, by J. H. Eound, in 
vol. i. of Foster's Collectanea Genealogica.] 

T. F. H. 

BUTLER, JAMES (fl. 1631-1634), mili- 
tary adventurer, was one of the many mem- 
bers of the Irish house of Butler who in the 
seventeenth century gained reputation as 
soldiers. Not less than six officers of the 
name appear to be distinguishable in the im- 
perial service during the thirty years' war. 
The James Butler in question is said to have 
belonged to the branch of his house which 
traced its origin to the first viscount Mount- 
garret, the second son of Pierce, eighth earl of 
Ormonde and Ossory [q. v.] He is first met 
with in Poland, where he levied at his own 

E2 



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expense a regiment of not less than fifteen 
companies (ten being the usual number in the 
imperial army) . Very possibly, since Gustavus 
Adolphus is said to have cherished a deadly 
hatred against him, he was the Butler who, 
after having in 1627 shared in a defeat of 
the Poles near Danzig, in the following year 
contributed to the Polish success against 
the Swedes at Osterode. It was certainly he 
who early in 1631 opportunely brought up | 
his regiment, which was largely officered I 
by Irishmen, including his kinsman Walter i 
Butler [q. v.], to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, in 1 
Silesia, where the imperialists under Tiefen- j 
bach were awaiting the approach of Gustavus j 
Adolphus at the head of a much superior force. 
Before the arrival of the Swedes, James Butler, 
in order if possible to obtain more soldiers 
and supplies for Frankfort, proceeded to the 
camp of Tilly, who was marching upon Mag- 
deburg. Butler came too late, but he appears 
to have taken part in the siege of Magdeburg, 
the result of which terribly avenged the fall 
of Frankfort. After the capture of Magde- 
burg and before the battle of Breitenfeld he 
appears to have rejoined Tiefenbach, who had 
invaded Lusatia with such forces as he could 
command, but whom the news of the great 
defeat of Tilly obliged to retreat into Bohemia, 
where he occupied Nimburg on the Elbe, No- 
vember 1631. A Saxon army under Arnim 
having taken position on the other side of 
the river, Butler was with his Irish regiment, 
as it is now called, sent across a wooden 
bridge to fortify and hold the tete de pont 
on the enemy's side ; and his 1 defence, ending 
with the burning down of the bridge, was 
so vigorous that finally Arnim returned to 
Prague. 

Not long afterwards, however, the Irish 
colonel, who had many adversaries or rivals, 
quitted the imperial service, and, making use 
of the liberty which he had reserved to him- 
self, returned into Poland, where he fought 
against the Muscovites in the war which 
lasted from 1632 to 1634. He was at least 
in so far consistent in his choice of side, that 
he served against an enemy who on principle 
excluded mercenaries professing the faith of 
Rome (HERRMANN, Geschichte des russischen 
Reiches, iii. 54). After this nothing certain 
is known of him, for there seems no reason 
for accepting a conjecture which identifies 
him with a Butler said to have fallen at 
Ross in March 1642, fighting on the side of 
the Irish catholics under General Preston 
against the royal troops under the head of 
his house James Butler, earl (afterwards mar- 
quis and twelfth duke) of Ormonde. 

[Carve's Itinerarium, pars i. (1st ed. 1639), 
and the Series Butlerianse Prosapise in pars ii. 



(1st ed. 1641); La Roche's Der dreissigjahrige 
Krieg vom militarischen Standpunkte,&c.,vol. ii. 
(1851); Hess's Biographieen &c. zu Schillers 
AVallenstein (1859) pp. 392, 396.] A. W. W. 

BUTLER, JAMES, twelfth EARL and 
first DUKE OF ORMOSTDE (1610-1688), was the 
eldest son of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, and 
Elizabeth Poyntz, and grandson of Walter 
Butler of Kilcash, eleventh Earl of Ormonde 
in 1614 [q. v.] He was born on 19 Oct. 
1610 at Clerkenwell. His pedigree reaches 
back to Theobald Butler [q. v.], hereditary 
butler of Ireland. His earliest infancy was 
spent at Hatfield under the care of a car- 
penter's wife, during his parents' absence, but 
in 1613 they sent for him to Ireland. In 1619 
his father was drowned at sea, and his mother 
then took him back to England and placed 
him at school under a Roman catholic tutor 
at Finchley. On his father's death he be- 
came, by some legal subtlety, a royal ward, 
although holding no lands in chief of the 
crown. The king, anxious to bring up the 
head of so powerful a family as a protestant, 
placed him at Lambeth under the tutelage 
of Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, where, 
however, he appears to have received a very 
meagre education, and where, the whole estate 
of his family being in sequestration, he was 
in great want of money, 40Z. a year being all 
that was allowed him. His grandfather [see 
BUTLER, WALTER] was released from the 
Fleet prison in 1625, and the youth, who was 
termed by courtesy Lord Thurles, went to 
reside with him in Drury Lane. Here he con- 
tinued for two years in the enjoyment of 
town life, and in constant attendance on the 
court. Upon the occasion of the Duke of 
Buckingham's projected expedition to Ro- 
chelle, he went to Portsmouth in the hope 
of being allowed to volunteer for service, but 
the duke refused permission on finding that 
he had not secured his grandfather's consent. 
Six months later he fell in love with his 
cousin, Elizabeth Preston, the sole daughter 
and heir of Richard, earl of Desmond, and 
Elizabeth Butler, the daughter of his grand- 
father's brother, Earl Thomas. She was her- 
self a ward of the crown, or rather of the 
Earl of Holland, upon whom Charles I had 
bestowed the wardship. A marriage between 
them appeared a convenient way of putting 
an end to the lawsuits between the families, 
and of uniting the Ormonde and Desmond 
estates. The opportune deaths of the Duke 
of Buckingham, who had warmly espoused 
the cause of the Desmond family, and of the 
Earl of Desmond, the lad's guardian since 
1624, removed the chief obstacles to this 
step ; while Lord Holland's approval was 
purchased for 15,000^. Charles gave his con- 



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53 



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sent by letters patent of 8 Sept. 1629, and 
the marriage took place at Christmas of the 
same year. The following year Lord Thurles 
spent with his wife at his uncle's, Sir Robert 
Poyntz, at Acton in Gloucestershire, where 
he studied Latin for the first time, and at 
the end of 1630 they went to live with his 
grandfather, Earl Walter, at Carrick, until 
his death in 1632, when James succeeded to 
the earldom of Ormonde and Ossory. In 1631 
he made a journey to England, travelling 
through Scotland, and showed his activity 
by riding from Edinburgh to Ware in three 
days. In the beginning of 1633, his grand- 
mother too having died, he returned to Ire- 
land, accomplishing the whole journey to 
Carrick between four in the morning of Satur- 
day and three o'clock on Monday afternoon. 
Throughout his life he was distinguished for 
his physical strength and comeliness, for his 
attention to dress, and for the dignity of his 
carriage. His own tastes were simple it 
is recorded that his favourite dinner was a 
boiled leg of mutton (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th 
Rep. 486 b) but he was careful always to 
observe an almost regal display in the con- 
duct of his household. Upon the arrival of 
Wentworth in Ireland as deputy in July 
1633, Ormonde at once attracted his atten- 
tion, as much by his distinguished appearance 
as by his readiness to assist in raising the 
supplies of which Charles was in need. On 
14 July 1634, at the opening of parliament, 
he carried the sword before Wentworth. 
There shortly occurred a characteristic in- 
stance of his independence of spirit. Went- 
worth, fearing scenes of violence in the par- 
liament, had ordered that none should enter 
wearing their swords. Ormonde refusing to 
give up his sword, and the usher insisting, 
' the earl told him that if he had his sword it 
should be in his guts, and so marched on to 
his seat, and was the only peer who sat with 
a sword that day in the house.' When sent 
for by Wentworth he replied that he had 
seen the proclamation, but was only obeying 
a higher order, inasmuch as his writ sum- 
moned him to come to parliament cumgladio 
cinctits. It was clear to Wentworth that he 
must either crush so independent a man or 
make a friend of him ; wisely enough he 
determined to take the latter course, and 
shortly reported most highly of him to the 
king, finishing the eulogium with ' He is 
young, but take it from me, a very staid head.' 
Ormonde and Wentworth lived on the best 
terms until the latter's death. Ormonde ac- 
tively supported the deputy in the parliament 
of 1640; and when Wentworth left the 
country in April to join Charles, he com- 
mitted to Ormonde the entire care of levy- 



ing and raising the new army. Since 1631 
he had been in command of a troop of horse, 
and in 1638 had raised a second troop of 
cuirassiers. A regiment of cavalry was now 
given to him ; he was made lieutenant-general 
of the horse, and commander-in-chief of all 
the forces in the kingdom during Strafford's 
absence. So active was he in his charge 
that by the middle of July the troops came 
to the rendezvous at Carrickfergus in com- 
plete readiness for action. Ormonde was, 
however, unable himself to join them in con- 
sequence of his wife's illness. 

Towards the end of 1640 a remonstrance 
against Strafford's government was passed by 
the Irish House of Commons and published 
in England, but Ormonde successfully opposed 
a similar remonstrance in the House of Lords. 
On the death of Wandesford, Strafford urged 
Charles to make Ormonde deputy ; the oppo- 
sition, however, in the Irish Commons, who 
were now acting in a great degree under the 
inspiration of the English parliament, was 
too strong. He supported Strafford against 
the attacks made upon him in the parliament 
of 1641, and, as chairman of the lords' com- 
mittee on privileges, strongly opposed the 
commons in the dispute which arose in the 
Fitzgerald case (CARTE, Ormond, i. 250, Clar. 
Press edit.) Strafford had, it is stated, urged 
the king, as one of his last requests, that the 
garter which his death left vacant might be 
bestowed upon Ormonde. The latter, how- 
ever, declined it on the ground that such a 
gift might possibly, engage some other person 
to the crown, and desired that rewards to 
himself might be reserved until all danger 
was over. This story is vouched for by Sir 
Robert Southwell in his manuscripts, p. 18. 

Upon the news of the outbreak of the re- 
bellion in Ireland in 1641 reaching Charles, 
he at once appointed Ormonde lieutenant- 
general of his army. Twice also he sent him 
private instructions to gather into one body 
the Irish army which was being disbanded, 
and to seize Dublin Castle in his name by 
the authority of the Irish parliament, hoping 
to win the Irish to his cause by the grant of 
religious liberty (GARDINER, Hist. Eng. x. 7, 
ed. 1884). He does not, however, appear 
to have moved in this direction. His pro- 
posal to collect immediately all available 
forces and march against the rebels was 
overruled by the lords justices, who appear 
to have been jealous of his power, and who 
were in correspondence with the English 
commons. Their policy, indeed, appears to 
have been to employ him as little as possible 
in his military capacity, and the jealousy 
with which they regarded him was of tha 
greatest disadvantage at the time of the dis- 



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54 



Butler 



affection of the English pale and the insur- 
rection of Munster. In January 1641-2, 
however, Ormonde made a short expedition 
to drive the rebels out of the Naas, and, 
fresh forces having arrived from England, 
attacked and defeated a body of 3,000 rebels 
at Killsalghen, and in March he received 
orders from the lords justices to march with 
fire and sword into the pale, after the re- 
bellion had drawn in the catholic gentry of 
English descent. He raised the siege of 
Drogheda, but from the further march on 
Newry which he proposed he was stopped 
by letters of recall from the lords justices. 
The success of the expedition was recognised 
by the English parliament in a letter written 
by the speaker on 9 April. He received their 
approbation a second time in a letter drawn 
up by Hollis on 20 July, accompanied by a 
jewel of the value of 620/., and it is stated that 
on 10 May the House of Commons moved 
the lords to join in an address to the king 
that he should offer Ormonde the garter (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 147). On 15 March 
he had fought and won the bloody battle of 
Kilrush with great slaughter of the rebels, 
displaying sound generalship and personal 
courage. In June of the same year he was 
employed in quieting Connaught. A dispute 
with Lord Leicester, the lord-lieutenant, on 
the subject of the power of appointment in the 
army, was ruled by the king in Ormonde's 
favour, and a warrant was shortly afterwards 
signed under the great seal, 16 Sept., whereby 
he was appointed to the lieutenant-general- 
ship immediately under the crown instead 
of, as heretofore, under the lord-lieutenant. 
At the same time he was created a marquis 
by the king. His appointment to the inde- 
pendent command of the army was of great 
importance at this juncture, as endeavours 
\vere being made to engage the Irish forces 
for the parliament. The continued obstruc- 
tions, however, from the lords justices, and 
a violent illness which threatened his life, 
prevented him from taking an active part in 
suppressing the rebellion during the autumn 
of 1642. Meantime Thomas Preston had 
landed at Wexford with abundant supplies 
for the rebel army, a general assembly had 
been held at Kilkenny, and a complete politi- 
cal organisation established by the rebels. 
The catholic nobility and gentry having de- 
sired to lay their grievances before Charles, 
Ormonde sent their request to the king, and 
in January 1642-3 was appointed with others 
by him to receive and transmit their state- 
ment of grievances. He therefore on 3 Feb. 
sent to Kilkenny to request the discontented 
lords and gentry to send a deputation to 
meet himself and his fellow-commissioners 



at Drogheda on the 23rd. The meeting took 
place at Trim on 17 March. Meanwhile, 
much against the desire of the lords justices, 
he insisted upon leading the expedition to 
Ross, leaving Dublin on 2 March with 3,000 
men. He reached Ross, in which the rebels 
were entrenched, on the 12th, but in an as- 
sault was beaten off, and through want of 
provisions was compelled to raise the siege 
on the 17th, and give battle on the 18th to 
Preston, who had under his command nearly 
7,000 men. In this battle Ormonde showed 
considerable generalship, and won an im- 
portant victory with slight loss. He returned 
to Dublin, where he received from the meet- 
ing at Trim the remonstrance of the rebels, 
which he at once transmitted to Charles. 
The lords justices had taken advantage of his 
absence to write a letter to the king urging 
him on no account to consent to a peace, but 
they refused to accept Ormonde's motion for 
sending also an account of the present state 
of the country, and Ormonde, to counteract 
them, drew up, in conjunction with other 
leading loyalists, an account of the desperate 
condition of the army and the immediate 
need of further help. Charles, however, was 
not capable of sending the required assistance, 
nor could it be obtained from the English 
parliament. On 23 April, therefore, the king 
sent Ormonde a commission, ' with all secresy 
and convenient expedition,' to treat with the 
rebels a^id agree to a cessation of arms. 
Meantime, in Leinster, Munster, and Con- 
naught the rebels had been carrying all be- 
fore them, and it was only in Ulster that 
they were severely checked in the rout of 
Owen O'Neile by the Scotch forces under 
Stewart. The treaty for the cessation began 
in June, but, through Ormonde's refusal to 
accept the conditions of the rebels, was broken 
off" in July. The Scotch had now declared 
for the parliament and raised an army against 
the king ; peace in Ireland became more than 
ever necessary, and on 2 July Ormonde re- 
ceived fresh instructions to conclude the 
cessation for a year. He reopened the ne- 
gotiations at once on 26 Aug., and the 
cessation was signed on 15 Sept. The king 
now required all the Irish troops that could 
be spared for England, and in November, 
having first extracted from his officers an 
oath of loyalty to the king and the church, 
which only two of them, Monck being one, 
declined to take, Ormonde managed to send 
over some 5,000 men under Lord Byron, 
who did good service in Cheshire until routed 
by Fairfax, at Nantwich, in January 1644. At 
the same time, in obedience to special instruc- 
tions, he exerted himself to keep the Scotch 
army from joining their fellows in Scotland. 



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55 



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An attempt by Ormonde to induce the Irish 
catholics also to carry out the articles of the 
cessation and furnish the king with an army 
was entirely futile. Meanwhile the king called 
for Lord Leicester's resignation, and made Or- 
monde lord-lieutenant by a commission which 
he received in January 1643-4. In pursuance 
of his instructions he vigorously forwarded 
the expedition of the Irish forces, prepared 
by the Earl of Antrim, to assist Montrose in 
Scotland ; and to prevent a renewal of the war 
gave favourable terms to the catholics. He 
was not, however, able to prevent many of the 
English troops from joining the Scotch forces 
in Ulster in taking the covenant, or wholly to 
keep the latter, a point much pressed by 
Charles, from joining their fellows in Scotland. 
In April, Monroe, who commanded in Ulster, 
received a commission from the English par- 
liament to command in chief all the forces 
in Ulster, both Scotch and English. He at 
once seized Belfast, and in breach of the ces- 
sation marched against the Irish. Ormonde 
knew that Monroe was acting in the par- 
liament's interest. At the same time the 
council of Kilkenny urged him to declare 
the Scots rebels, and the council offered him 
the command of all their forces. It appeared 
therefore that he must either assist the par- 
liamentary party or that of the catholic rebels. 
He refused to listen to the suggestion of the 
Irish, and contented himself with assisting 
them to send agents to the king at Oxford 
to represent them at the treaty then being 
carried on. The demands, both of protestants 
and catholics, were referred by the English 
council to him for settlement on 26 July, 
and negotiations for a definite peace, the 
cessation having been renewed, were opened 
on 6 Sept. at Dublin. So irreconcilable, how- 
ever, were the rival demands, that they were 
broken off in October, and not again renewed 
until April 1645. Ormonde meanwhile had, 
in despair of any favourable settlement, ur- 
gently requested to be relieved of his govern- 
ment. Charles refused to comply with this 
request, and not only appointed a commis- 
sion to inquire into the amount of his per- 
sonal sacrifices in his service and to arrange 
for their repayment, but sent him full dis- 
cretionary powers for concluding a peace, 
even to the restoring of the rebels, who should 
submit, to their estates and possessions ; the 
entire repeal of the penal statutes was alone 
denied him. Meantime his government was 
much harassed by frequent plots among dis- 
contented officers. He succeeded, however, 
in making a temporary arrangement with 
Monroe, the commander of the Scotch forces, 
whereby union was established until the ar- 
rival in October of Sir R. King and Arthur 



Annesley, who came as a commission from 
the English parliament. Through great diffi- 
culties the treaty of peace gradually drew to 
a conclusion. As the weakness of the king 
became more apparent the demands of the 
rebels increased. On the subject of the penal 
laws they insisted upon entire freedom being 
granted, and they refused Ormonde's demand 
for the restoration of the churches to the 
protestant clergy ; while they further insisted 
upon the maintenance of their provisional 
government until every article had been con- 
firmed by act of parliament. These demands 
Charles utterly refused, and Ormonde then 
drew up a list of the 'concessions' which 
he thought proper for the king's considera- 
tion. There were exemptions from penalties 
and incapacities on the score of religion, 
concessions of places of command, honour, 
and trust, and the removal of many minor 
grievances. It was at this point that the 
Glamorgan episode occurred which cut the 
ground from Ormonde's feet. On 25 Aug., 
representing himself as empowered by the 
king, who had given him merely a roving com- 
mission, Glamorgan signed a private treaty 
with the Irish agents, by which the catholics 
obtained the entire repeal of the penal laws, 
the possession of all the churches which they 
had seized since 23 Oct. 1641, exemption 
from all jurisdiction of protestant clergy, and 
the enjoyment of the tithes, glebes, and church 
revenues then in their possession. In return 
they promised a force of 10,000 men for Eng- 
land under Glamorgan's leadership. The 
warrant which Glamorgan produced was 
utterly repudiated by Charles and his mi- 
nisters as a forgery, and Glamorgan was im- 
prisoned at Dublin. This naturally excited 
the Irish to the utmost, and the difficulties 
in the way of the treaty were rendered still 
greater by the indefatigable efforts of the 
pope's nuncio to defeat it. Nevertheless 
Ormonde succeeded in bringing it to a con- 
clusion on 28 March 1646, upon the basis of 
the above-mentioned ' concessions,' with the 
condition that it should not be held of force 
until the Irish had despatched 10,000 men 
to England by 1 May. Meantime Charles, 
now in the hands of the Scots, sent to Or- 
monde, through the Prince of Wales, private 
assurances of his full confidence; and Digby, 
on the king's part, declared that the imme- 
diate conclusion of the peace was absolutely 
necessary. The peace was therefore pub- 
lished, although the conditions had not been 
fulfilled, on 29 July. Supported, however, by 
the pope's nuncio, the Irish rebels strongly 
opposed it, and it seemed probable that Dublin 
would fall into their hands. In this extre- 
mity Ormonde determined to apply to the 



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English parliament for help. By 2 Nov. 
Dublin was for a few days besieged by Preston 
and O'Neile. On the 14th the parliamentary 
commissioners arrived, and a treaty with 
them was immediately begun, but conditions 
could not be arranged, and the commissioners 
were forced to retire to Ulster. The agree- 
ment between Preston and the nuncio, how- 
ever, and the rejection of the peace by the 
general assembly of the catholics at Kilkenny 
in February 1646-7, on the nuncio's advice, 
determined Ormonde again to approach the 
parliament. Dublin was relieved by an English 
force in the spring, and on 7 June the com- 
missioners of the parliament again arrived. 
On the 19th the treaty was concluded. Or- 
monde was to give up the sword on 28 July 
or sooner, on four days' notice. The pro- 
testants were to be secured in their estates ; 
all who had paid contributions were to be 
protected in person and estate ; all noblemen, 

fentlemen, and officers who wished to leave 
reland with Ormonde were to have free 
passes; popish recusants who had remained 
loyal were to be in all respects favourably re- 
garded by the parliament ; and the debts he 
had incurred in the defence of Dublin were to 
be paid. This last condition was very imper- 
fectly fulfilled. On the 28th Ormonde de- 
livered up the regalia and sailed for England, 
landing at Bristol on 2 Aug. Having reached 
London, he had an interview with Charles 
at Hampton Court, when he received a full 
approval of his conduct in Ireland, and where 
he had directions to agree, if possible, upon 
measures with the Scotch commissioners, 
who had just arrived in London. Warned 
in February 1647-8 that the parliament in- 
tended to seize his person, he escaped to 
France, and at Paris found the Irish agents 
who had been sent by the Kilkenny assembly 
to treat with the queen and Prince of Wales, 
with the particular object of inducing the 
latter to come over with arms and money, 
but also with wide demands for the restora- 
tion of the native Irish to their estates. 
Under Ormonde's advice an answer was re- 
turned that the queen and the prince would 
send a representative to treat with the as- 
sembly on the spot, and in August he himself 
began his journey thither. On leaving Havre 
he was shipwrecked and had to wait in that 
port for some weeks ; but at the end of Sep- 
tember he again embarked, arriving at Cork 
on the 29th. At the end of October he re- 
ceived full instructions from Charles, who 
was in the Isle of Wight. He was ordered 
to obey the queen's commands, and to dis- 
obey all issued by the king publicly till he 
should give him notice that he was free from 
restraint. On 6 Oct. Ormonde had published 



a declaration against both the rebels and the 
independents, promising equal favour to all 
who remained loyal. Having pacified the 
mutiny which had broken out in the army 
under Inchiquin, he succeeded in bringing 
about a general peace between the royalists 
and the Irish rebels on 17 Jan. 1649. 

Upon the death of the king Ormonde at once 
proclaimed Charles II, and strongly urged the 
young king to come to Ireland. With the 
utmost difficulty he collected forces to attack 
Dublin. He took Drogheda, and in July 
blockaded the capital, but was defeated at 
Rathmines, with the loss of all his artillery, 
by Jones, who commanded in Dublin, and 
who made a determined sally. He there- 
upon managed to conclude a treaty with 
O'Neile, who had kept aloof from the general 
pacification ; but all dreams of reconquering 
the country were finally ended by the land- 
ing of Cromwell on 15 Aug. On 9 Sept. 
Drogheda, which Ormonde had strongly gar- 
risoned, was stormed by Cromwell, Ulster 
was overrun, Wexford betrayed, and Ross 
surrendered. So hopeless were the king's 
affairs, that in December Ormonde requested 
to be recalled. Charles, meanwhile, had 
come to terms with the Scots at Breda, and 
Ormonde was commanded to remain until it 
was seen whether the alliance would not 
bring about a more favourable state of things 
in England. Cromwell's uninterrupted suc- 
cesses again brought Ormonde to the neces- 
sity of leaving the kingdom. To the last, 
however, he held haughty language. To 
Cromwell, who had sent a pass to him to 
leave the kingdom through Dean Boyle, he 
replied : ' I have by this trumpeter returned 
your papers, and for your unsought courtesy 
do assure you that when you shall desire a 
pass from me, and I think fit to grant it, I 
shall not make use of it to corrupt any that 
commands under you ' ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. 1650, p. 236). The bishops in 
August 1650 requested Ormonde to give 
up the government, and raised forces inde- 
pendently of him. Under the pressure of 
the extreme covenanting party in Scotland, 
moreover, Charles had on 16 Aug. unwil- 
lingly annulled the Irish peace of 1648 (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. 695 a), and in his 
letter announcing this step urged Ormonde to 
mind his own safety and withdraw to Hol- 
land or France. This advice he repeated in 
November. Leaving Clanricarde therefore 
as his deputy, Ormonde set sail on 6 Dec., 
and, after delaying to consider some proposals 
made by a number of nobles and bishops as- 
sembled at Loughreagh, arrived, after a three 
weeks' voyage, at Perose in Brittany. He 
had left his family at Caen on his return to 



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Ireland, and after a short stay with them 
joined the queen at Paris on 21 Jan. 1650-1. 
In June he was again at Paris waiting upon 
the Duke of York. After settling the duke's 
household he returned to Caen, and remained 
there until the young king's arrival at Paris 
after the battle of Worcester (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1-11 Nov. 1651), when, 
being at once placed on the privy council 
and consulted on all important business, he 
took up his permanent residence there. He 
was at this time in such dire straits for money 
that his wife went over in August 1652 to 
England to endeavour to claim Cromwell's 
promise of reserving to her that portion of 
their estate which had been her inheritance. 
After many delays (ib. 1652, 25 May, 1 June, 
1 Aug.) she succeeded in getting 500. in 
hand and an allowance of 2,0001. a year from 
estates around Dunmore House (ib. 1653, p. 
145). Ormonde meanwhile had been in con- 
stant attendance on Charles, and accompanied 
him to Cologne when driven from France by 
Mazarin's treaty with Cromwell in 1655. 
He probably incurred at this time the queen 
mother's enmity by frustrating, at Charles's 
request, the attempts which she made to in- 
duce the Duke of Gloucester to become a 
catholic. During his absence at Paris on this 
mission he was reduced to such straits for 
money as to be compelled to pawn both his 
garter and the jewel presented him by par- 
liament (CARTE, but cf. LODGE'S Portraits). 
He was employed also in negotiating a treaty 
with the Duke of Neuburg. In May he was 
at Antwerp (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 
1656, p. 319). In the end of 1656, when 
the king was residing at Brussels, he had the 
command of one of the six regiments formed 
out of the English and Irish on the continent 
for the service of Spain (ib. 1657, p. 5), and in 
October 1657 was quartered at Fumes. He 
attended Charles when the latter accom- 
panied Don John in a reconnaissance on the 
works at Mardyke, and had his horse killed 
under him by a cannon-shot {Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 5th Rep. 149). In 1658, after being 
employed in Germany (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. 1658, p. 259), he volunteered to 
go in disguise to England to collect informa- 
tion, and landed at Westmarsh in Essex in the 
beginning of January (EVELYN, 8 June 1658). 
Finding the chances of success in a rising 
very small, he persuaded the royalists to risk 
nothing at present, and after a month's stay 
in London succeeded in reaching Dieppe in 
March; thence he went to Paris, where he 
lay in strict concealment from Mazarin from 
February to April. "With great difficulty 
he finally succeeded in joining Charles once 
more at Brussels in May. He was con- 



tinually employed in all important transac- 
tions, such as the correspondence with Mont- 
ague, the reconciliation of Charles with his 
mother, and the conference with Mazarin in 
1659. He afterwards attended Charles at 
the treaty of Fontarabia. It was at this time 
that Ormonde discovered Charles's change of 
religion, and it was his revelation of the fact 
to Clarendon and Southampton that led to 
the insertion in the act for the security of 
the king's person of a clause making it trea- 
son to assert that the king was a catholic. 
He was actively engaged in all the secret 
transactions with the English royalists and 
Monck immediately before the Restoration, 
upon which event he went in the king's 
train to England. 

In the distribution of honours which fol- 
lowed he had a considerable share ; he was 
at once placed on the commission for the 
treasury and navy, made lord steward of the 
household, a privy councillor, lord-lieutenant 
of Somerset, high steward of Westminster, 
Kingston, and Bristol, chancellor of Dublin 
University, Baron Butler of Llanthony, and 
Earl of Brecknock in the English peerage, and 
on 30 March 1661 he was created Duke of 
Ormonde in the Irish peerage, and lord high 
steward of England, carrying the crown in 
that capacity at the coronation (see PEPYS, 
23 April 1661). At the same time the county 
palatine of Tipperary, seized by James I from 
his grandfather Walter, was restored to him, 
and he recovered his own Irish estates, which 
had been parcelled out amongthe adventurers, 
as well as those which he had mortgaged, and 
the prisage of wines, hereditary in the family, 
while large grants in recompense of the for- 
tune he had spent in the royal service were 
made by the king. In the following year the 
Irish parliament presented him with 30,0001. 
His losses, however, according to Carte, ex- 
ceeded his gains by nearly a million, a sum 
incredibly large (CARTE, iv. 418, Clar. Press). 
As lord steward he was present at the birth 
of the Duchess of York's child. He was 
at once engaged in Irish affairs ; the re- 
storation of episcopacy was of course a fore- 
most aim, and in August he secured the ap- 
pointment of the four archbishoprics and 
twelve bishoprics, while he did much to im- 
prove the condition of the inferior clergy. He 
appointed Jeremy Taylor to the vice-chancel- 
lorship of the Dublin University to carry out 
useful reforms, and aided its prosperity in 
every way. He refused, however, to be mixed 
up in the disputes over the Bill of Settle- 
ment in 1661, until on 4 Nov. he was again 
made lord-lieutenant of Ireland . His j ourney 
thither was delayed by the king's marriage, 
when, as lord steward, he was sent to Ply- 



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mouth to meet the infanta, and it was not 
until 27 July 1662 that he landed at Dublin 
after a journey characterised by the utmost 
pomp. He was at once occupied in dealing 
with the grievances caused by the Act of 
Settlement, in purging the army of its dan- 
gerous elements, and in quieting the pres- 
byterians after the blow of the Act of Uni- 
formity. His office was a most responsible 
one. Plots of various kinds were formed 
during 1663 for seizing Dublin Castle and 
for a general insurrection, but were crushed 
with firmness, though without undue severity. 

Ormonde had now become the mark of 
much jealous intrigue in England. Sir Henry 
Bennet plotted against him from private 
pique and as the friend of Clarendon ; Lady 
Castlemaine hated him for having stopped 
the king's grant to her of the Phoenix Park ; 
Buckingham was irritated at his backward- 
ness in forwarding his ambitious schemes; 
and the queen mother was angered at the 
firmness of his refusal to regard the case of 
her prot6g6 Antrim with favour. Ormonde's 
character made him the natural object of the 
attacks of all that was base in the court. He 
had been noted for purity of life and purpose, 
and for unswerving devotion, even when 
such qualities were not rare in the court of 
Charles I. But in that of Charles II he 
was almost the sole representative of the 
high-toned virtues of a nobler generation. 
By force of what is emphatically called 
' character,' far more than by marked ability, 
he stood alone. The comrade of Strafford, 
one who had willingly sacrificed a princely 
fortune for a great cause, he held aloof while 
persons like Bennet intrigued and lied for 
office, money, or spite. His strict purity of 
life was a living rebuke to the Sedleys and 
Castlemaines, who turned the court into a 
brothel. Compelled to see the councils of 
the king guided by dishonour or greed, he 
acquired over him the influence which Charles 
was always ready to concede to nobility 
of character (PEPYS, Diary, 19 May 1668). 
Proud of the loyalty of his race, unspotted 
through five centuries, he bore in after years 
calumny, envy, and his seven years' loss of 
court favour, waiting until his master should 
be shamed into an acknowledgment of the 
wrong. In investigating the careers of other 
men of this time we are always face to face 
with intrigue and mystery. Ormonde's and 
his son Ossory's are unique in their freedom 
from any suspicion of double dealing. 

Meantime Ormonde was sorely puzzled 
how to frame an explanation of the Act of 
Settlement which should soothe the prevail- 
ing discontent. With this purpose he went 
to London in June 1664, and from 29 July 



until 26 May 1665 was busily engaged with 
a committee of council on the work, in the 
course of which he appears (CARTE, iv. 211, 
Clar. Press) to have exhibited much self- 
sacrifice. This ' explanation ' having received 
the seal, he returned to Ireland in August, 
but did not make his solemn entry, which 
was the occasion of excessive display, until 
17 Oct. He succeeded in passing the Act of 
Explanation through parliament on 23 Dec., 
which fixed the general rights of the several 
parties in Ireland. Ormonde's heart was 
thoroughly in his government and the wel- 
fare of his country. He vehemently opposed 
the bill passed in England prohibiting the 
importation of Irish cattle ; and, when it 
was passed, he prohibited the import of Scotch 
linen, and further obtained leave for a cer- 
tain number of Irish vessels to trade with 
the foreign enemies of England. In every 
way he encouraged native manufactures and 
learning, and it was to his efforts that the 
Irish College of Physicians owed its incorpo- 
ration. He watched carefully over its in- 
ternal peace, and promptly suppressed the 
disturbance at Carrickfergus, where the garri- 
son had mutinied for arrears of pay. 

In 1667 and 1668 Buckingham put him- 
self at the head of all those who had griev- 
ances against Ormonde, and proceeded to 
find matter in the few arbitrary acts for 
which evidence was forthcoming whereon to 
frame an impeachment. In his almost ir- 
responsible government of Ireland during 
troublous times Ormonde had no doubt acted 
now and then in a way which offered ad- 
vantages to men eager for his overthrow. 
He had, for instance, billeted soldiers on 
civilians and executed martial law (PEPTS, 
4 Nov. 1667). Ormonde was urgently pressed 
to return to England, whence he had in- 
telligence that Orrery was secretly plotting 
against him. He therefore left Dublin on 
24 April, arriving in London amid general 
respect on 6 May. An inquiry into the 
management of the Irish revenues was at 
once set on foot, and Buckingham, probably 
with Arlington's assistance, caballed vigo- 
rously for Ormonde's removal from the lord- 
lieutenancy (ib. 4 Nov. 1668, and 1 Feb. 
1669). To this constant insistence Charles 
at length unwillingly gave way, and on 
14 March 1669 appointed Lord Robarts 
in his room. Ormonde received the dis- 
missal, which was made with every public 
expression of trust and satisfaction in his 
services by Charles, with perfect dignity, 
and earnestly enjoined all his sons and 
friends on no account to quit their posts in 
the army or elsewhere, while he continued 
to fulfil with dignified persistence all the 



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duties of his other offices. He speedily re- 
ceived every possible consolation from the 
public. He was chosen chancellor of Oxford 
on 4 Aug., while in January 1669-70 the city 
of Dublin, ignoring the lord-lieutenant, con- 
ferred the freedom of the city upon Ossory, 
his eldest son, with an address composed 
chiefly of compliments to himself. This fol- 
lowed immediately upon the publication of 
various libellous pamphlets and of a series of 
charges, similar to those brought by Buck- 
ingham the year before. In 1670 Peter Tal- 
bot, the titular archbishop of Dublin, having 
come over to oppose the remonstrants, or 
loyal catholic gentry and clergy, who were 
being persecuted by the ultramontane party, 
Ormonde was active in their favour, though 
to little avail in the face of the opposition of 
Buckingham and Berkeley, who had suc- 
ceeded Robarts in the lord-lieutenancy. 

In the same year occurred the remarkable 
attempt upon his life by the notorious ruffian 
Blood [see BLOOD, THOJIAS]. On the night 
of 6 Dec. Blood with five accomplices stopped 
Ormonde's coach in St. James's Street, dragged 
the duke from it, placed him on horseback 
behind one of his companions, and rode off 
By whom Blood was instigated is not known, 
though Ossory publicly before the king laid 
the blame on Buckingham, and there de- 
clared aloud that should his father come to 
his end by violence or poison he would pistol 
Buckingham though he stood behind the 
king's chair. Nothing appears to have saved 
Ormonde's life but the whim of Blood to 
hang him at Tyburn. The delay thus caused 
and Ormonde's vigorous resistance gave time 
to rescue him (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. 
4866). What was the mysterious connec- 
tion between Blood and the court has never 
been known ; but it is certain that when 
Blood was captured Charles himself asked 
Ormonde to pardon him. 

In January 1670-1 Richard Talbot was 
sent by the discontented Irish gentry to 
obtain if possible the repeal of the Act of 
Settlement. Ormonde was at first placed 
on a committee for investigating the petition 
which Talbot brought ; but his opposition to 
the petitioners led to a second committee 
being formed in February for a full revision 
of the settlement, from which he was ex- 
cluded. This was, of course, at the time 
when Charles, by the Declaration of Indul- 
gence, was endeavouring to dispense with the 
penal laws, and it is noticed that whereas 
Ormonde would never permit a papist to be 
a justice of the peace, such an appointment 
was now allowed. The committee was su- 
perseded in July 1673, and the attempt to 
upset the settlement fell to the ground. 



During the seven years which elapsed be- 
tween his dismissal from office and his second 
appointment seven years of coldness on the 
king's part and enmity from the courtiers 
Ormonde bore himself without reproach. At 
the end of June, however, tired of his dis- 
agreeable position, he returned for a while to 
Ireland, and on 14 July waited upon Essex, 
the lord-lieutenant, at Dublin, where he was 
received with enthusiasm. In April 1675 
he returned to London at the special request 
of Charles, who wished to consult him about 
the course to be pursued in parliament. 
During the next two years he was occupied 
almost exclusively with refuting the charges 
brought against his government by Rane- 
lagh, the mischiefs of whose ' undertaking ' 
he had strongly represented to the king. 
For nearly a year Charles had not spoken 
to Ormonde, when suddenly he received a 
message that his majesty would sup with 
him that night. Charles then declared his 
intention of again appointing him to Ireland, 
saying next day : ' Yonder comes Ormonde ; 
I have done all I can to disoblige that man, 
and to make him as discontented as others ; 
but he will not be out of humour with me ; 
he will be loyal in spite of my teeth ; I must 
even take him in again, and he is the fittest 
person to govern Ireland.' How far this re- 
storation was due to the desire of James to 
keep Monmouth from obtaining the post is 
uncertain. 

In the beginning of August 1677 Ormonde 
set out for Ireland, passing through Oxford, 
where he held a convocation with great cere- 
mony, and entering Dublin with royal dis- 
play. His first and most important work 
was to get the revenue into some sort of 
order. On the subject of limiting the royal 
grants he seems to have made his own terms 
with Charles (CARTE, iv. 532, Clar. Press), 
and he took a bold step in insisting that 
when the revenue ran short it should be 
the pensions and not the civil or military 
lists that suffered. He was enabled, more- 
over, shortly to increase the army, build a 
military hospital at Kilmainham and a fort 
at Kinsale, and put many others in repair. 
It was now too that he formed the magnifi- 
cent collection of manuscripts at his house 
of Kilkenny {Hist. MSS. Comm. Rep. passim). 
Upon the breaking out of the popish terror 
in England Ormonde took energetic measures. 
On 7 Oct. he was informed that the plot 
had extended to Ireland. On the 14th the 
council met. A proclamation was issued 
banishing all ecclesiastics whose authority 
was derived from Rome, dissolving all popish 
societies, convents, and schools, requiring 
catholics to bring in their arms within twenty 



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days, and all merchants and shopkeepers, 
both protestants and papists, to make a 
return of the amount of powder in their 
possession. The militia was put on guard, 
arms were sent from England, and Dublin 
Castle was jealously guarded. Ormonde was 
urged to measures still more severe, and re- 
fused to use them, thus raising the bitterest 
disappointment among those who hoped to 
profit by confiscations, and drawing upon 
himself the attacks of Shaftesbury and the 
other patrons of the plot. Ossory defended 
his father in the Lords with spirit, and 
Charles refused to consent to the removal of 
his old and tried servant. Ireland kept per- 
fectly quiet, and the credit of the plot in Eng- 
land suffered in consequence, but a fictitious 
plot was concocted to give it support. In 
the midst of the trouble that ensued Or- 
monde heard of the death of his pure and 
gallant son Ossory, between whom and him- 
self there had always existed the utmost 
affection and confidence. He shortly lost 
both his sister and his wife, the latter on 
21 July 1685 (ib. vii. 498), and, later, several 
of his grandchildren. In the beginning of 
May 1682, the country having quieted down 
as soon as the king had mastered the exclu- 
sionists, Ormonde went to court, where he 
was at once employed in furnishing an an- 
swer to Anglesey's letter on Castlehaven's 
memoirs, in which the memory of Charles I 
was reflected on. He was now in constant 
attendance on the king, and was particu- 
larly active in securing the election of tory 
sheriffs for London, which compelled Shaftes- 
bury to leave the country. On 9 Nov. an 
English dukedom, being vacant by the death 
of Lauderdale, was conferred upon Ormonde. 
In the following February he was danger- 
ously ill (ib. vii. 376 a), but recovered suffi- 
ciently to set out again for Ireland in August. 
Scarcely had he reached Dublin, however, 
before he was recalled to make way for the 
Earl of Rochester. This was in October. 
The causes of this sudden decision are not 
clear, though it is probable that Charles had 
made up his mind to favour the catholics 
in a manner which he thought Ormonde 
would not approve. Before he had time to 
hand over his government, however, the king 
died, and Ormonde's last act was to cause 
James II to be proclaimed in Dublin. His 
arrival in London on 31 March 1685 was 
signalised by a show of popular respect even 
more remarkable than on former occasions. 
At the coronation of James he carried the 
crown as lord steward, but otherwise lived 
as retired a life as possible. In January 
1685-6 his second son, Richard, the earl of 
Arran, died, and in February Ormonde re- 



tired to Cornbury in Oxfordshire, leaving it 
only to attend James in August on his pro- 
gress in the west. He signalised his loyalty 
to protestantism and the church of England 
in 1687 by opposing the attempt of James to 
assume the dispensing power in the case of 
the Charterhouse, and it is to the credit of 
James that in spite of Ormonde's refusal to 
yield to his solicitation in this matter, or to 
listen to endeavours now made to induce 
him to turn catholic (CARTE, iv. 685, Clar. 
Press), he retained the duke in all his offices 
and held him in respect and favour to the 
last. The king paid Ormonde two per- 
sonal visits when laid up with gout at Bad- 
minton. In 1688 he was taken for change 
of air to Kingston Hall in Dorsetshire, where 
in March he had a violent attack of fever 
from which he recovered with difficulty. On 
22 June he was seized with ague, and on 
Saturday, 21 July, the anniversary of his 
wife's death four years before, died quietly 
of decay, not having, as he rejoiced to know, 
' outlived his intellectuals.' He was buried 
in Westminster Abbey on the night of Satur- 
day, 4 Aug. He had eight sons and two 
daughters, of whom only the two daughters 
Elizabeth, married to Philip Stanhope, the 
earl of Chesterfield, and Mary, married to 
Lord Cavendish, the first duke of Devonshire 
survived him. His grandson, James Butler 
(1665-1745) [q. v.], son of Thomas Butler, 
earl of Ossory [a. v.], his second child, suc- 
ceeded him in the title. 

[The chief authorities for Ormonde's life are 
Carte, especially the letters in the Appendix, 
and the Carte Papers in the Bodleian ; Cox's 
and Leland's Histories of Ireland ; Pepys's and 
Evelyn's Diaries, and the other diaries and me- 
moirs of the period ; the article in the Bio- 
graphia Britannica ; Burke's Peerage and Lodge's 
Portraits ; while Mr. J. T. Gilbert's description 
and analysis of the Ormonde manuscripts at Kil- 
kenny (which had previously neither been cata- 
logued nor arranged), in the Hist. MSS. Comm. 
8th Eep., are of the utmost value.] 0. A. 

BUTLER, JAMES, second DTJXE OP 
ORMONDE (1665-1745), was born in Dublin 
Castle, 29 April 1665, the second but eldest 
living son of Thomas, Earl of Ossory [q. v.], 
and of his wife Emilia, daughter of de Bever- 
weert, governor of Sluys. In 1675 he was 
sent to France 'to learn the French air and 
language, the two things which ' the first 
duke his grandfather ' thought the best worth 
acquiring in that country' (CARTE). But 
his tutor, one de 1'Ange, having ' in a manner 
buried ' the boy among the tutor's relations 
at Orange, and having otherwise proved un- 
satisfactory, the duke summoned his grand- 
son home and entered him at Christ Church, 



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Oxford, where he resided till Lord Ossory's 
death in 1680. From his father he seems to 
have inherited some of the personal qualities 
which afterwards helped to make him one of 
the most popular men of his age. The young 
Earl of Ossory now resided with his grand- 
father in Ireland till the duke's return to 
England in 1682. After this various matches 
were proposed for him, and he was married 
15 July 1682 to Anne, daughter of Law- 
rence, Lord Hyde, afterwards Earl of Ro- 
chester. Her premature death, 25 Jan. 1684, 
no doubt helped to determine him in April 
of the same year to betake himself to the 
siege of Luxemburg, of which he witnessed 
the surrender in June. In July he was 
again summoned home by his grandfather, 
whom he accompanied to Ireland, where he 
had been appointed colonel of a regiment of 
horse. The duke was, however, recalled after 
a few months, and on his way back had to 
leave his grandson, who had been seized with 
small-pox at sea, to recover at Knowsley. 
Although the new king James II had treated 
the Duke of Ormonde with studied disrespect, 
Lord Ossory was soon after his recovery ap- 
pointed a lord of the bedchamber, and served 
in the army despatched against Monmouth in 
the west. In the same year, 3 Aug. 1685, he 
married his second wife, Mary, eldest surviv- 
ing daughter of the first Duke of Beaufort, 
by whom he had a son, who died in infancy, 
and five daughters. The death of the Duke of 
Ormonde, 21 July 1688, raised his grandson 
to the dukedom at a very critical moment ; 
for three weeks previously the seven bishops 
had been acquitted, and the invitation to 
William of Orange despatched. In order at 
once to secure a chief whose loyalty to the 
church of England could be absolutely de- 
pended upon, the convocation at Oxford 
without delay elected by a majority the 
young Duke of Ormonde successor to his 
grandfather in the chancellorship of the uni- 
versity. As it proved, they only escaped 
Jeffreys by a couple of hours (MACATTLAY ; 
and cf. the correspondence in Appendix to 
Diary of Henry, earl of Clarendon (1828), ii. 
489-92). 

Ormonde, who had no reason for loving 
James II, and was connected by family 
ties with the United Provinces, pursued an 
independent course during the brief re- 
mainder of the reign. After the landing of 
the Prince of Orange he joined in the petition 
of 17 Nov. which called upon King James 
to summon a free parliament. The king's 
ungracious answer may have finally deter- 
mined his course. Together with Prince 
George he supped at King James's table at 
Andover 25 Nov., and then with Lord Drum- 



lanrig accompanied the prince in his ride to 
the quarters of the Prince of Orange. In the 
House of Lords Ormonde afterwards voted in 
the minority which approved the proposal of a 
regency : but he must have readily acquiesced 
in the decision actually arrived at, for at 
the coronation of William and Mary he 
acted as lord high constable, and declared 
defiance against all who should deny the 
title of the new sovereigns. In return, he 
was gratified by a garter, together with the 
offices of gentleman of the bedchamber and 
colonel of the second troop of life guards. 
His support was above all valuable on ac- 
count of the position held by him in Ireland; 
and it was in his house in London that the 
Irish proprietors met to discuss the situation 
and to request King William if possible to 
come to terms with Tyrconnel. When the 
decision of arms was resorted to, Ormonde 
showed no hesitation. His name had been 
included in the great Act of Attainder 
passed at Dublin in May 1689, and his vast 
Irish estates, of which the annual income 
was valued at 25,0007., had been declared 
confiscate to the crown. In the following 
year he served in King William's army at 
the head of his life guards, and was present 
at the battle of the Boyne. Immediately 
afterwards he was despatched with his uncle 
Lord Auverquerque to secure Dublin ; and 
19 July he had the satisfaction of entertain- 
ing King William in his ancestral castle at 
Kilkenny, which he had been sent forward 
to recover. In January 1691 he accompanied 
William to the Hague, and in 1692 took 
part, though not as active a part as he de- 
sired, in the battle of Steinkirk. At the 
battle of Landen, 29 July 1693, after nearly 
losing his life amidst the terrible carnage of 
the day, he was taken prisoner by the French ; 
but after a brief captivity at Namur, where 
he found opportunities of munificence to- 
wards his fellow-prisoners, he was exchanged 
for the Duke of Berwick. His name headed 
the list of those specially excepted from the 
hope of any future pardon in the declaration 
issued by King James in April 1692, on the 
eve of the battle of La Hogue (CzAKKE, 
Life of James II, ii. 485). 

He had thus been consistently loyal to- 
wards William III, though, in accordance 
with the traditions of his house, he was 
reckoned among the tories. A certain inde- 
pendence of action marked his conduct on 
the occasion of the debates about Fenwick's 
attainder in 1696 (MACAULAY, iv. 759-762) ; 
and he was in some measure identified with 
the popular sentiment of aversion to the 
foreigners in the service of the king. In 
1699 William promoted his Dutch favourite 



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Albemarle over the heads of Ormonde and 
Rivers to the command of the first troop 
of life guards. Ormonde then resigned his 
command of the second troop ; whereupon 
not only did fifty members of parliament 
join in expressing to him their sympathy, 
but there was talk of bringing in a bill to 
exclude all foreigners from official employ- 
ment. The affair was, however, arranged 
by a compromise, and Ormonde magnani- 
mously withdrew his resignation (Exopp, 
viii. 341-2). It had been further hoped 
that of the Irish forfeitures resumed by par- 
liament those in Tipperary would be bestowed 
upon him ; but instead of this a proviso for- 
giving him the debts owed by him to persons 
whose property had been confiscated by the 
crown was introduced into the abnormal ar- 
rangements forced upon both king and lords 
by the spleen of the commons. These trans- 
actions, however, seem to have occasioned no 
personal estrangement between William HI 
and Ormonde ; for in March 1702 the latter 
was among the Englishmen who stood by 
the deathbed of the king. 

Such was the popularity of Ormonde, that 
when in the new reign war had been actually 
declared, general satisfaction was caused by 
his appointment, 20 April 1702, to the com- 
mand of the English and Dutch land forces 
which accompanied Sir George Rooke's fleet 
on the expedition against Cadiz (August). 
In June he was further gratified by being 
made lord-lieutenant of Somersetshire. His 
hope to prevail by pleasant words upon the 
governor of Cadiz, his former companion in 
arms in Flanders, proved as futile as his 
grandiloquent proclamation to the inhabi- 
tants. His plan for seizing the city by a coup 
de main having been outvoted, he assented to 
a counter-proposal that the troops should be 
landed midway between the towns of Rota 
and Puerto de Santa Maria. The former fell 
at once into the hands of the allies, and Santa 
Maria too was easily taken. Ormonde, whose 
headquarters were at Rota, failed to repress 
the excesses which followed on the part of his 
soldiery, though he held a court of inquiry 
into the conduct of his lieutenants. The at- 
tempt to capture Fort Matagorda failed, and 
discretionary powers having arrived, leaving 
it open to Rooke and Ormonde either to winter 
in Spain or to send part of the ships and 
troops to the West Indies and return home 
with the rest, a long series of bickerings en- 
sued, which ended in the defeat of the gene- 
ral's wish to effect another landing in Spain. 
On 30 Sept. the fleet ingloriously weighed 
anchor; but a fortunate accident enabled 
the commanders before their return home to 
cover their discomfiture by a brilliant success. 



The land forces under Ormonde had a share 
in the operations, which, after the taking of 
the batteries at Redondela, ended in the de- 
struction of many Spanish and French ships, 
and the capture of part of the treasure of the 
Plate fleet, in Vigo harbour (12 Oct.) After 
this victory Ormonde would gladly have 
attempted to seize Vigo and hold it during 
the winter, but Rooke refused his co-opera- 
tion, and both returned to England. Here 
they were most warmly received, and their 
achievements joined with Marlborough's in 
the vote of thanks from the two houses, and 
in the thanksgiving ceremony at St. Paul's, 
where Ormonde was hailed with special accla- 
mations. He, however, notwithstanding the 
objections raised by his friends, insisted upon 
and ultimately obtained a parliamentary in- 
quiry into the Cadiz miscarriage. It ended 
honourably for Rooke, Ormonde generously 
abstaining from taking any part in the final 
decision. The queen had sought to soothe 
him by naming him a privy councillor ; and 
in 1703 he was appointed to the government 
of Ireland, which his father-in-law, Rochester, 
the queen's uncle,had j ust wrathfully resigned. 
Ormonde had a kind of ancestral claim to the 
lord-lieutenancy, and the history of his house 
was closely bound up with the protestant 
and loyal interest in Ireland. It is therefore 
not wonderful that he should have been en- 
thusiastically received by the Irish parlia- 
ment, which he opened 21 Sept. and which 
speedily voted the necessary supplies. But 
the session after all proved an unfortunate 
one. The cruel intolerance of the act against 
popery was little to the taste of the lord- 
lieutenant, though he promised to do his 
best for it in England ; here, however, much 
to the vexation of the Irish parliament, a 
clause devised on the principle of the Test 
Act was added which bore hardly upon the 
presbyterians. Furthermore, some of Or- 
monde's subordinates were believed to have 
cooked the public accounts, and he was sup- 
posed to have held but a slack rein over the 
cupidity of those who surrounded him. The 
parliament, which had become violently in- 
censed against him, was abruptly prorogued. 
In 1705, when a dispute raged between the 
commons and the lower house of convoca- 
tion, he twice resorted to the same expe- 
dient, and in June he embarked for England. 
He was in the following year superseded in 
the government of Ireland by the Earl of 
Pembroke. On the overthrow of the whigs 
in 1710 he was reappointed to the same post, 
recently held Jby Wharton, but within less 
than two years he was called away from the 
exercise of its duties. In December 1711 
Marlborough had been dismissed from all 



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his offices, and soon afterwards Ormonde, 
besides being appointed colonel of the first 
regiment of foot guards, was appointed to 
succeed him in the post of captain-general 
and in the conduct of the campaign in 
Flanders, for which he took his departure in 
April 1712. Burnet declares that he was 
' well satisfied both with his instructions 
and his appointments ; for he had the same 
allowances that had been voted criminal in 
the Duke of Marlborough.' His instructions 
were to inform the States-General and Prince 
Eugene that the queen intended vigorously 
to push the war. The coldness of the recep- 
tion, however, which he met with from Pen- 
sionary Heinsius, was speedily justified by 
the conduct of the government, which had 
selected an honourable man for the perfor- 
mance of a more than dubious task. Within 
a fortnight of his landing he was warned by 
St. John to be extremely cautious about en- 
gaging in any action, and at the end of May, 
just after he and Prince Eugene had reviewed 
the allied forces near Douai, arrived the 
orders, which were afterwards notorious as 
the restraining orders, but which he was in- 
structed to keep secret, forbidding his join- 
ing in any siege or engaging in any action 
without further commands. The allies 
crossed the Scheldt, while Villars, whose 
position had seemed nearly desperate, at 
once found a pretext for entering into com- 
munications with Ormonde. They greatly 
embarrassed the British general, who, in 
reply to a pressing invitation from Prince 
Eugene, felt himself constrained to avow 
that he could not join in any operation be- 
fore receiving further instructions from home. 
The true nature of his position was now an 
open secret, and as such was hotly discussed 
both at the Hague and in the houses of 
parliament at Westminster. When in June 
Prince Eugene gave orders for the siege of 
Quesnoy, Ormonde, in accordance with the 
declaration of ministers in parliament that 
such an operation was within his powers, 
consented to cover the siege in conjunction 
with the imperialist commander ; but no 
sooner had the fall of the place become im- 
minent than he informed Prince Eugene 
(25 June) that he was instructed to proclaim 
a cessation of arms for two months. Ques- 
noy, however, capitulated (10 July), and 
Ormonde failed to induce the commanders of 
the German troops in the queen's pay, headed 
by the hereditary Prince of Hesse-Cassel, to 
follow him to Dunkirk, which Louis XIV 
had agreed provisionally to give up to Great 
Britain. Instead of half the allied army, 
only the native British troops, 12,000 in 
number, now obeyed Ormonde's orders. Hav- 



ing proclaimed a cessation of arms, he with- 
drew at the head of these troops (16 July) 
and marched upon Ghent and Bruges, which 
were already in British occupation, and 
which nearly alone among the places in Flan- 
ders opened their gates to our forces. Here 
and hereabouts they spent the winter, while 
Dunkirk was also nominally in British oc- 
cupation. When the spring came, peace had 
been made. 

Humiliating as Ormonde's experiences 
had been during his command for his own 
officers and soldiers had expressed their 
share in the indignation excited by the policy 
which he was doomed to carry out it does 
not seem as if his personal credit had per- 
manently suffered from these proceedings. 
A general impression, more complimentary 
to his integrity than to his intelligence, pre- 
vailed that he had been employed because he 
did not at first penetrate the motives of his 
employers. The government rewarded him for 
his services by conferring on him the warden- 
ship and admiralty of the Cinque Ports and 
the constableship of Dover Castle, together 
with a pension of 5,000/. a year upon the Irish 
revenues, this last in compensation of the 
recent restoration to the crown of some royal- 
ties in Tipperary which had formerly been for 
a time in his family. Inasmuch as he still held 
both the lord-lieutenancy and the captain- 
generalship, he was during the last part of 
Queen Anne's reign one of the most impor- 
tant personages in the state, and one on 
whom a large share of responsibility rested 
as to the conduct and policy of its govern- 
ment. As lord-lieutenant he at least found 
occasion for an act creditable both to his 
sense of justice and to his moral courage ; 
for it was to 'his brother ' Ormonde, in whose 
gift the preferment lay, that Swift primarily 
owed his appointment to the deanery of 
St. Patrick by an arrangement concerted, as 
he relates, between the queen, the duke, and 
the lord treasurer Oxford (Journal to Stella, 
18 April 1713). It is less easy to determine 
the more important question, to what extent 
Ormonde was prepared to further the Jacobite 
designs rife in the last years of the reign. He 
was not a man usually capable of acting for 
himself, and he seems to have followed the 
lead of Bolingbroke rather than that of the 
more cautious Oxford, though the former 
afterwards explicitly denied having been at 
any time ' in his secret ' (Letter to Wind- 
ham). As captain-general he co-operated in 
the purification of the army from the leaven 
of Marlborough ; and though as lord warden 
of the Cinque Ports he was specially re- 
sponsible for the safety of the south coast, 
he was actually engaged in correspondence 



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6 4 



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with the Duke of Berwick (Memoires du 
Marechal de Berwick, cited in MACKNTGHT'S 
Life of Bolingbroke, 392). When Boling- 
broke had at last succeeded in ousting 
Oxford from office and intended to form an 
essentially Jacobite administration of his 
own, Ormonde was to have been included in 
it (STANHOPE). Instead of this, his name 
together with Bolingbroke's figured among 
the signatures under the proclamation noti- 
fying the death of Queen Anne and the ac- 
cession of King George. It was noticed 
that at the proclamation of the king, when 
Oxford was hissed and Bolingbroke met 
with a dubious reception, Ormonde was 
lustily cheered by the crowd {Ford to Swift, 
5 Aug. 1714, cited by WYON, ii. 529-530). 

On the arrival in England of the new 
king, it seemed at first as if Ormonde were 
to be received into the royal favour. But 
18 Sept. he was deprived of the captain- 
generalship ; and though 9 Oct. he was named 
of the privy council in Ireland and confirmed 
in the lord-lieutenancy, he was a few days 
afterwards dismissed from both offices, being 
however apprised through Lord Townshend 
that the king would be glad to see him at 
court. When parliament met in March 1715, 
Stanhope, who in the debate on the address 
hinted at the willingness of ministers to 
call their predecessors to account, spoke of 
' a certain English general who had acted 
in concert with, if not received orders from, 
Marshal Villars.' But Ormonde continued 
to maintain an attitude of dignity and even 
of defiance, holding receptions at Richmond 
to which Jacobites were openly admitted, 
and enjoying the huzzas of the London mob. 
To what extent he was at this time involved 
with the Pretender, who, according to Bo- 
lingbroke, had conferred upon Ormonde a 
commission ' with the most ample powers 
that could be given' for the conduct of a 
rising in England, will probably never be 
known. There seems even now to have existed 
among the whigs a wish to avoid prosecuting 
him with the other late tory leaders, and to 
induce him to recant his errors instead (see 
the letter from Cardonnel to Marlborough 
cited by STANHOPE, History, i. 122 note). 
But it was ultimately determined otherwise. 
On 21 June Stanhope moved his impeach- 
ment, and after a protracted debate, in which 
several known friends of the protestant suc- 
cession spoke in his favour, the motion was 
carried by a majority of forty-nine. Yet it 
was still hoped that an audience with the 
king might set matters right, and many of 
his Jacobite friends urged him to take a 
conciliatory course, which still seemed open 
to him. Others wished him to co-operate in 



the scheme for an insurrection in the west, to 
which he was already privy. But he refused to 
accept either advice, and once more following 
Bolingbroke's lead fled to France on 8 Aug. 
(for the story of his parting interview with 
Oxford in the Tower see STANHOPE, i. 127). 
He arrived, if Bolingbroke is to be believed, 
' almost literally alone,' and for a time the 
two exiles lived together in the same house. 
On 20 Aug. he was attainted, his estates 
were declared forfeited, and his honours ex- 
tinguished, and on 26 June followed an act 
vesting his estates in the crown. Another 
act, however, passed in 1721, enabled his 
brother the Earl of Arran to purchase them, 
and this was done. 

Ormonde, who had not yet lost heart, and 
was still, in Bolingbroke's phrase, ' the bubble 
of his own popularity,' took a prominent part 
in the unfortunate enterprise of 1715. Trust- 
ing in the promises of the Jacobites in Eng- 
land and in the pretences of the regent 
Orleans or his agents, he embarked in Nor- 
mandy for the neighbourhood of Plymouth, 
where the country was to rise for King 
James. But on his arrival he was soon con- 
vinced of the futility of his expectations, and 
speedily sailed back to France. He never 
again returned to this country. In 1719, 
when Alberoni had resolved to assist the 
Pretender with a Spanish armada sailing 
from Cadiz, the conduct of it was offered 
to Ormonde, who was to join the fleet at 
Corunna, and there assume its command, 
with the title of captain-general of the 
King of Spain. In Ireland a reward of 
10,000/. and in England one of 5,0001. were 
proclaimed for his apprehension on landing, 
and about the same time his house in St. 
James's Square was sold by auction by the 
crown. He was himself altogether distrust- 
ful of the success of the expedition, which 
numbered not more than 5,000 soldiers 
(partly Irish), and wrote from Corunna to 
Alberoni requesting that it might be post- 
poned, which was tantamount to its being 
abandoned. But the fleet was dissipated off 
Cape Finisterre by a hurricane which lasted 
twelve days, and only two frigates reached 
the Scottish shore. In 1721, St. Simon found 
him resident at Madrid, and in favour with 
the queen and the court ; and either there or 
later the Spanish government acknowledged 
his services, or his distinction, by a pension 
of 2,000 pistoles. Many years afterwards 
in 1740 he was again in the Spanish capital, 
where he and Earl Marischal hoped to take ad- 
vantage for the Jacobite cause of the breach 
between Spain and England. He was once 
more disappointed ; nor could he well have 
now participated in any military enterprise. 



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The latter years of his life were spent chiefly 
at Avignon, where Lady Mary Wortley Mon- 
tagu saw him in 1733, the year of his second 
wife's death. He died himself 16 Nov. 1745. 
His remains were brought to England and 
buried in the family vault in King Henry V II's 
chapel in Westminster Abbey. With the 
death of his brother Charles, earl of Arran, in 
1758 the titles of the family became extinct. 

The second Duke of Ormonde, though in a 
sense born to greatness, certainly did not con- 
trive to achieve it. The exceptional popularity 
which he enjoyed in England in the earlier 
half of his life is easily accounted for. 
Swift, describing the French ambassador to 
Stella, says that 'he is a fine gentleman, 
something like the Duke of Ormonde, and 
just such an expensive man.' He was not 
less munificent than he was wealthy, gracious 
in manner, and high-church in opinions. In 
other respects, too, he fell in with the then 
popular ideal of a patriotic English statesman, 
though really as little capable in the cabinet 
as on the battle-field, where, according to 
Prior ( Carmen Seculars), his glory paled nei- 
ther before that of his ancestors nor before 
that of King William himself. His lofti- 
ness of spirit was, however, not altogether 
for show, if St. Simon's anecdote be true, 
that he refused large domains offered to him 
in Spain as the price of conversion to the 
church of Rome, while we know that he de- 
clined to follow Bolingbroke in attempting 
to persuade the Pretender to abandon this 
faith. Except by virtue of his rank and 
position, he was as a politician throughout 
his life what Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 
says he was in 1733, quite insignificant. He 
never accomplished anything of importance 
except when by separating the British troops 
from those of the allies in Flanders he enabled 
his tory colleagues to conclude peace with 
dishonour. 

There is a half-length portrait of the duke 
by Michael Dahl in the National Portrait 
Gallery. 

[A useful biographical sketch of the second 
Duke of Ormonde is given in Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, ed. Archdall, 1789, iv. 59-64 note. 
Several facts concerning his early days and 
family connections will be found in Carte's Life 
of [the first] James, Duke of Ormonde, vol. iv. 
ed. 1851. Of his proceedings immediately before 
and after his flight to France, Bolingbroke gives 
an untrustworthy account in the Letter to Sir 
William Windham. Other modern authorities 
are Lord Macaulay's History of England ; Lord 
Stanhope's Reign of Queen Anne (1870), and 
History of England from the Peace of Utrecht 
(1858); Smollett's History of England; O.Klopp's 
Falldes Hauses Stuart (1875-1881); Coxe'sLife 
of Marlborough; and, more especially, F. W. 

VOL. VIII. 



Wyon's History of Great Britain during the 
reign of Queen Anne (2 vols. 1876).] 

A. W. W. 

BUTLER, JAMES ARMAR (1827- 
1854), captain in the army, born in 1827, was 
the fourth son of Lieutenant-general the Hon. 
Henry Edward Butler, who had served in the 
27th regiment in Egypt, and afterwards as a 
colonel in the Portuguese army at Busaco, 
where he was wounded. He was nephew of 
Somerset Richard Butler, third earl of Car- 
rick. He was educated on the continent and 
at Sandhurst, and received his commission as 
an ensign in the 90th regiment in 1843. He 
served in the Caffre war of 1846-7, was pro- 
moted lieutenant in 1847, and purchased his 
captaincy in the Ceylon rifle regiment in May 
1853. He was in England on furlough in 
the summer of 1854, when the war between 
Russia and Turkey had just broken out, and 
since he could not hope to be ordered with 
the expeditionary force, he set out with a 
friend, Lieutenant Charles Nasmyth, of the 
Bombay artillery, to see the fighting. The two 
friends went first to Omar Pasha's camp at 
Shumla ; but as he did not seem inclined to 
advance, they asked leave to join the garrison 
at Silistria, to which the Russian army had 
laid siege on 19 May. Butler and Nasmyth 
soon obtained over the garrison the same 
absolute power that Eldred Pottinger ac- 
quired at Herat. The key to the fortress was 
believed to be the earthwork known as the 
Arab Tabia, and this work was perpetually 
bombarded and mined by the Russians, and 
attacked by heavy columns at all hours of 
the day and night. Mussa Pasha, the Turkish 
commandant, was killed, and so was the 
Russian commanding engineer ; but still 
Omar Pasha would not send help, and when 
General Cannon (Behram Pasha) did intro- 
duce his brigade, he dared not keep it there, 
and retired within two days. On 13 June 
Butler had been slightly wounded in the 
forehead ; privation and hard work made 
the wound dangerous, and on 22 June, two 
hours before the Russians retired, the hero 
of Silistria who deserves the credit, though 
but a young English captain of twenty-seven, 
of defeating a whole Russian army died 
peacefully without knowing of his triumph. 
On 14 July, before the news of his untimely 
death arrived, he had been gazetted a major 
in the army, and lieutenant and captain in 
the Coldstream guards. 

[For the siege of Silistria see Nasmyth's letters 
to the Times in 1854 ; for a short memoir, 
Nolan's Illustrated History of the War against 
Russia, 2 vols. 1855-7 ; and generally, for the 
effect of the defence, Kinglake's Invasion of the 
Crimea, chap. 30.] H. M. S. 



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66 



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BUTLER, JOHN, sixth EARL OF OE- 
MOXDE (d. 1-478), brother of James, fifth earl 
[q. v.], was with his brother attainted by the 
first parliament of Edward TV, but was soon 
afterwards pardoned and restored in blood 
by Edward, and to all his estate except his 
lands in Essex, which had been granted by 
the king to his sister Anne. The attainder 
by the Irish parliament at Dublin, 2 Ed- 
ward IV, was not however repealed till 
16 Edward IV. Previous to succeeding to 
the earldom he was known as Sir John de 
Ormonde, having been knighted at Leicester 
by the Duke of Bedford, the king's uncle, 
for adherence to Henry VI. Edward IV 
used to say of him that he was ' the good- 
liest knight he ever beheld and the finest 
gentleman in Christendom ; and that if good 
breeding, nurture, and liberal qualities were 
lost in the world, they might all be found in 
John, earl of Ormonde.' He had a thorough 
mastery of every European language, and 
had been an ambassador to nearly every 
European court. He died in the Holy Land 
during a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1478. 
He was unmarried, and was succeeded in 
the earldom by his brother Thomas. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, iv. 14-16 ; Carte's 
Life of the Duke of Ormonde (Oxford ed. 1851), 
i. Ixxxi ; The Ormonde Attainders, by Hubert 
Hall, in the Genealogist, new ser., i. 769 ; 
The Barony of Arklow, by J. H. Round, in vol. i. 
of Foster's Collectanea Genealogica.] T. F. H. 

BUTLER, JOHN, D.D. (d. 1800), catho- 
lic bishop of Cork, styled by courtesy Lord 
Dunboyne, was the third son of Edmond 
Butler, of Dunboyne, co. Meath, by courtesy 
eighth Baron Dunboyne (he died in 1732), 
and Anne, daughter of Oliver Grace, of 
Shanganagh, co. Tipperary. In his early 
days he devoted himself to the service of 
the church, but in consequence of his having 
lost an eye his ordination was delayed till 
the consequent canonical impediment had 
been dispensed with at Rome. The dignity 
of his birth and the interest of powerful 
friends procured his appointment to the see 
of Cork by brief of Pope Clement XIII, 
dated 16 April 1763, and he was consecrated 
in June the same year. After having occu- 
pied that see for twenty-three years he re- 
signed his position and renounced his creed 
under very peculiar circumstances. On the 
death in December 1785 of his nephew, Pearce 
Edmond Creagh Butler, styled the eleventh 
Baron Dunboyne, the title and estates de- 
volved on him. He expected from Rome a 
dispensation from the obligations of his epi- 
scopal character and permission to marry, 
"but his application to the Holy See was an- 



swered by Pius VI. in language of stern 
rebuke. With the hope of perpetuating his 
name and family he violated his vow of 
celibacy and married at Clonmel a protes- 
tant young lady, a cousin of his own, and 
daughter of Theobald Butler, of Wilford, 
co. Tipperary. On the intelligence being 
conveyed to Rome of the bishop's mar- 
riage the pope addressed to him a letter 
couched in severe terms. The original of 
this document, dated 9 June 1787, and an 
English translation are printed in England's 
1 Life of the Rev. Arthur O'Leary ' (pp. 227, 
332). Dr. Butler paid no heed to this docu- 
ment, but read his recantation of the distinc- 
tive doctrines of Catholicism in the parish 
church of Clonmel on 19 Aug. 1787. He 
never officiated, however, in the protestant 
church. After his apostasy he frequented the 
services of the established religion on Sun- 
days ; and on one or two occasions, when or- 
dinations were held in the chapel of Trinity 
College, during his residence in Dublin, he 
was invited to assist at the imposition of 
hands, but he anxiously declined to do so 
(Life of O'Leary, 226). No issue came of his 
marriage. Lord Dunboyne, as he was called, 
being by courtesy the twelfth baron, died 
at his residence, Dunboyne Castle, on 7 May 
1800, having been a few days previously 
reconciled to the catholic church by William 
Gahan, D.D., a celebrated Augustinian friar. 
His widow survived him sixty years. She 
afterwards married J. Hubert Moore, of 
Shannon Grove, King's County, barrister-at- 
law, but died without issue in August 1860, 



By his will he bequeathed the Dunboyne 
estate to Maynooth College for the educa- 
tion of youths intended for the priesthood, 
devising his other estates to his heir-at-law 
and family. The bequest was disputed in 
December 1801, in a suit against the trustees 
of Maynooth, on the ground that any one 
'relapsing into popery from the protestant 
religion was deprived of the benefit of the 
laws made in favour of Roman catholics, 
and was therefore incapable of making a 
will of landed property under the penal 
laws.' Dr. Gahan was examined at the 
assizes at Trim, on 24 Aug. 1802, to elicit 
from him whether he administered the last 
sacraments to Lord Dunboyne, and, on his 
refusing to reveal the secrets of the confes- 
sional, was sentenced to imprisonment in 
the gaol of Trim for contempt of court by 
Lord Kilwarden; but the jury having found, 
on a separate issue submitted to them, that 
the deceased had died a catholic, the judge 
directed the witness's release after a week's 
confinement. 



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The title of Dunboyne in the peerage of 
Ireland was created by Henry VIII in 1541, 
but was forfeited in the person of James, 
fourth baron, for his implication in the re- 
bellion of 1641 ; he was outlawed in 1691 
for adherence to the cause of King James II. 
The attainder was not reversed till 26 Oct. 
1827, when James, thirteenth baron, was 
restored by the reversal of the outlawries 
affecting the title. 

[England's Life of Arthur O'Leary ; Brady's 
Episcopal Succession, ii. 95 ; Notes and Queries, 
5th series, xi. 8,31, 69 ; Universe, 20 Jan. 1866, 
p. 5; Burke's Peerage (1885), 444; Foster's 
Peerage (1882), 233; Madden's Kevelations of 
Ireland, 61.1 T. C. 

BUTLER, JOHN (1717-1802), bishop 
of Hereford, was born at Hamburg. As a 
young man he was a tutor in the family of 
Mr. Child, the banker (CHALMERS). He was 
not a member of either university, though 
in later life he received the degree of LL.D. 
from Cambridge. He married for his first 
wife a lady who kept a school at Westmin- 
ster ; his second was the sister and coheiress 
of Sir Charles Vernon, of Farnham in Surrey, 
and this marriage considerably improved his 
social standing. Having taken orders he 
became a popular preacher in London, and 
in 1754 he published a sermon, preached 
at St. Paul's before the Sons of the Clergy. 
In the title-page he is described as chaplain 
to the Princess Dowager of Wales. In the 
same year he also published a sermon preached 
before the trustees of the Public Infirmary. 
He was installed as a prebendary of Win- 
chester in 1760. In the title-page of a ser- 
mon preached before the House of Commons 
at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on the occa- 
sion of a general fast in 1758, he is described 
as minister of Great Yarmouth and chaplain 
to the Princess Dowager. In spite of this 
relation to the princess's household, in 1762 
he issued a political pamphlet addressed to 
the ' Cocoa Tree ' and signed ' A Whig.' In 
this pamphlet, which ran to three editions, he 
bitterly attacked Bute and the conduct of the 
ministry since the a ccession of George III. He 
was appointed chaplain to the Bishop of Lon- 
don (Dr. Hayter), received the living of Ever- 
ley, Wiltshire, and on the recommendation 
of Lord Onslow was made one of the king's 
chaplains. In 1769 he was made archdeacon 
of Surrey. During the American war he 
issued a number of political pamphlets, under 
the signature of ' Vindex,' in which he strongly 
supports the policy of Lord North . He reaped 
the reward of his services in 1777, when he 
was appointed bishop of Oxford, being con- 
secrated at Lambeth on 25 May. Butler had 
now adopted strong tory principles, and on 



30 Jan. 1787 preached before the House of 
Lords on the death of Charles I. While 
bishop of Oxford he helped Dr. Woide to 
transcribe the Alexandrine MS. of the Bible. 
In 1788 he was translated to the bishopric 
of Hereford. He died in 1802, in the eighty- 
fifth year of his age, leaving no children. At 
the advanced age of sixty he had undergone 
the operation of cutting for the stone. His 
published works are : 1. ' An Answerto the 
Cocoa Tree, by a Whig,' 1762. 2. 'A Con- 
sultation on the Subject of a Standing Army,' 
1763. 3. ' Serious Consideration on the 
Character of the Present Administration.' 
4. ' Account of the Character of the Rt. Hon. 
H. B. Legge.' 5. Sermons and charges of 
various dates, republished in a collective 
edition, 1801. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxii. pt. i. 233, ii. 1170 ; Letter 
to the Cocoa Tree, by a Whig, in Collected Pam- 
phlets B. (Brit. Mus.) ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet, 
vii. 455; Watt's Bibl. Brit. i. 177; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccl. Angl. ; Nichols's Lit. Anec. ix. 10.] 

B. C. S. 

BUTLER, JOSEPH (1692-1752), bishop 
of Durham, was born at Wantage 18 May 
1692. He was the youngest of the eight 
children of a well-to-do draper who had 
retired from business, and occupied a house 
called ' The Priory,' on the outskirts of the 
town. The room in which the bishop was 
born is still shown. He was first sent to the 
Latin school under the Rev. Philip Barton. 
Long afterwards, on becoming dean of St. 
Paul's, he bestowed one of his first pieces 
of patronage, the rectory of Hutton, in Essex, 
upon his old schoolmaster. (According to a 
statement by G. Lavington in the ' Rawlin- 
son MSS.' he was educated at St. Paul's 
School. The statement is made on behalf of 
Butler, who ' doth not care to fill up ' Raw- 
linson's form. He 'likes not to have his life 
wrote while he is living.') Butler's father 
intended him for the presbyterian ministry. 
He therefore sent the boy to a dissenting 
academy kept by Samuel Jones at Gloucester, 
and afterwards at Tewkesbury. Among 
Butler's fellow-pupils were Seeker, after- 
wards archbishop, with whom he formed 
a lifelong friendship ; Maddox, afterwards 
bishop of Worcester ; and a well-known dis- 
senting divine, Samuel Chandler. Jones's 
academy is described in a letter from Seeker 
to Dr. Watts (GIBBONS, Memoirs of Isaac 
Watts (1780), p. 346). There were sixteen 
pupils who studied logic, Hebrew, mathe- 
matics, and classics. Butler's intellectual 
development is proved by the correspondence 
which he carried on while still at Tewkesbury 
with Samuel Clarke, a philosopher frequently 
consulted by youthful inquirers. Butler in his 



Butler 



68 



Butler 



first letter (4 Nov. 1713) advances two objec- 
tions to the arguments by which Clarke in the 
Boyle Lectures of 1704-5 sought to demon- 
strate the existence and attributes of God. 
Butler doubts whether it is a contradiction to 
assert the ' self-existence of a finite being,' but 
declares himself convinced (in his fourth let- 
ter) by Clarke's arguments. He also doubts 
whether it is a contradiction to suppose the 
existence of two independent self-existing 
beings. This latter difficulty, after some dis- 
cussion, resolves itself into a question as to the 
nature of time and space ; and at the close of 
the correspondence Butler is still in doubt. 
At a later period he professed himself to be 
fully satisfied upon this point also (SxEERE's 
Remains, p. 18). Butler did not give his 
name, and sent his letters to the post through 
his friend Seeker, describing himself to Clarke 
as ' a gentleman from Gloucestershire.' [The 
letters are given in Butler's 'Works' and 
in Clarke's 'Works,' vol. ii. 1738.] He 
declares in the fourth that he designs ' the 
search after truth as the business of his life,' 
and his obvious candour and ability made 
a favourable impression upon Clarke, with 
whom he soon afterwards corresponded under 
his own name. He had decided to conform 
to the church of England, and persuaded his 
father, after a little trouble, to allow him to 
enter at Oriel, March 1714-15, to pursue the 
necessary studies. He expresses to Clarke 
his dissatisfaction with Oxford. He regrets 
that he is obliged to quit his divinity studies 
by the want of encouragement to independent 
thinkers (STEEEE'S Remains, p. 12). He has 
made up his mind (30 Sept. 1717) to migrate 
to Cambridge to avoid the 'frivolous lectures ' 
and 'unintelligible disputations' by which he 
is ' quite tired out ' at Oxford (European 
Magazine, xli. 9). Meanwhile he had become 
intimate with Edward Talbot, son of the 
bishop of Salisbury. In 1717 Talbot became 
vicar of East Hendred, near Wantage ; and 
from entries in the parish registers it ap- 
pears that Butler helped him in some of his 
duties. Butler took hisB.A. degree on 16 Oct. 
1718, and the B.C.L. on 10 June 1721. He 
was ordained deacon and priest by Bishop 
Talbot at Salisbury in October and December 
1718 (Rawlinson MSS. fol. 16, 144), and 
was appointed in July, through the influ- 
ence of Clarke and Talbot, to the preacher- 
ship at the Rolls Chapel. His friend Talbot 
died in December 1720, leaving a widow and 
a posthumous daughter, who became the in- 
timate friend of Mrs. Carter, and speaks with 
warmth of Butler's continued courtesy and 
kindness to her through his life (Memoirs of 
Mrs. Carter, i. 128). Mrs. Talbot and her 
daughter became inmates of Seeker's family 



after his marriage in 1725. Talbot had on 
his deathbed recommended Butler and Seeker 
(known to him through Butler) to his father, 
the bishop. In 1721 Butler became prebendary 
of Salisbury. In the same year Bishop Talbot 
was translated to Durham, and in 1722 gave 
Butler the rectory of Houghton-le-Skerne, 
near Darlington. Butler was still a poor man, 
and received money at times from an elder bro- 
ther, the last sum paid being 100Z. in January 
1725. A taste for building, which he showed 
through life, led him to spend more than he 
could afford upon repairing the Houghton 
parsonage. Meanwhile Bishop Talbot had 
ordained Seeker in 1722, and in 1724 pre- 
sented him to the rectory of Houghton-le- 
Spring. Seeker, we are told, now used his 
influence with the bishop, due in the first 
instance to Butler's friendship, by inducing 
him to bestow upon Butler, in 1725, the 
rectory of Stanhope in Weardale, known in 
the north as the ' golden rectory.' Butler 
then became independent for the first time ; 
and in the autumn of 1726 he resigned his 
preachership, and published the celebrated 
' Fifteen Sermons.' In the preface to the 
second edition, dated 6 Sept. 1729, he says 
that the selection of these from many others 
preached in the same place was ' in great 
measure accidental.' Butler led a secluded 
life at Stanhope, and little is known of his 
pursuits. A tradition, collected by Bishop 
Phillpotts, a successor in the living, tells us 
that he ' rode a black pony, and rode very 
fast' (BAKTLETT'S Sutler, p. 76), though 
a remoter tradition adds that he fell into 
reveries, and allowed his pony to graze at 
will (EGGLESTOKTE). We are also told that 
he found it hard to resist the importunity 
of beggars, and would try to escape them by 
shutting himself up in his house. His main 
occupation must have been the composition of 
the 'Analogy,' which was published in 1736. 
The ' Analogy ' is dedicated to Charles, lord 
Talbot, who became chancellor in 1733, ' in 
acknowledgment of the highest obligations 
to the late Lord Bishop of Durham' (Talbot's 
father) ' and himself.' Talbot, on becoming 
chancellor, had appointed Butler his chaplain, 
and upon this occasion Butler took the D.C.L. 
degree at Oxford in December 1733. Talbot 
further made him a prebendary of Rochester 
(July 1736), and the same month he had 
become clerk of the closet to Queen Caroline. 
The old connection with the Talbots might 
well account for these preferments, to which, 
however, we are told that Seeker again con- 
tributed. Queen Caroline took great interest 
in philosophical discussions. The controversy 
between Clarke and Leibnitz had been carried 
on through her, and Clarke, Berkeley, Hoad- 



Butler 



6 9 



Butler 



ly, and Sherlock had held conversations in 
her presence. Butler, as a friend of Clarke's, 
may have been introduced at these during 
his preachership at the Rolls. Seeker, who in 
1733 had become chaplain to the king, men- 
tioned his friend soon afterwards to the queen, 
who said that she thought he had been dead. 
She repeated this to Archbishop Blackburne 
of York, who replied, ' No, madame, he is not 
dead, but he is buried.' However this may 
be, the queen became interested in Butler, 
and commanded his attendance, we are told, 
every evening from seven till nine. The 
queen died next year (20 Nov. 1737), and 
just before her death commended Butler to 
Potter, the new archbishop of Canterbury. 
Butler, according to Lord Hervey (Memoirs, 
ii. 529), was the only person whom she re- 
commended ' particularly and by name ' 
during her illness. A month later, as Seeker 
told Jekyll, who told Dr. Thomas Wilson, 
son of the bishop of Man, he preached a ser- 
mon before the king upon profiting by afflic- 
tion ; his hearer was much affected, and 
promised to ' do something very good for him' 
(STEERE'S Remains, p. 5). 

George II, in any case, desired to carry out 
the queen's wishes. Butler received next 
year an offer from Walpole of the bishopric 
of Bristol, from which Dr. Gooch was trans- 
lated to Norwich. In a letter to Walpole 
(dated Stanhope, 28 Aug. 1738) Butler ac- 
cepts the offer, but says that it was ' not 
very suitable either to the condition of my 
fortune or the circumstances of my prefer- 
ment, nor, as I should have thought, to the 
recommendation ' (that is the queen's) ' with 
which I was honoured.' The bishopric was 
in fact the poorest in England. Butler was al- 
lowed to hold his prebend at Rochester (re- 
signing that at Salisbury) and his rectory at 
Stanhope in commendam, until 1740, when 
he was appointed dean of St. Paul's. He was 
installed 24 May, and resigned his other pre- 
ferments. Butler spent considerable sums 
in improving the bishop's palace at Bris- 
tol ; some reports mention from three to five 
thousand pounds, others the whole income 
of the see for twelve years (BARTLETT'S 
Sutler, -p. 89 ; STEERE'S Remains}. The mer- 
chants of the town offered a large gift of 
cedar, part of which he carried afterwards to 
Durham. The few glimpses of Butler's private 
life belong to this period. In March 1737 
John Byrom was introduced to him by the 
famous David Hartley, at whose house they 
met. A long argument took place, in which 
Butler supported the claims of reason, while 
Byrom defended the claims of authority. 
Byrom ends by wishing that he had ' Dr. 
Butler's temper and calmness, yet not quite, 



because I thought he was a little too little 
vigorous' (BYROM'S Remains (Chetham Soc.), 
ii. 96-9). Byrom dined with Butler 14 Feb. 
1749, when the bishop entertained a party of 
fifteen, and was ' very civil and courteous ' 
(ib. p. 486). In August 1739 Wesley had an 
interview with Butler. Wesley was at the 
beginning of his career as a preacher, and his 
sermons had caused some of those phenomena 
which to Wesley appeared to be proofs of di- 
vine power, while Butler would regard them 
with suspicion as symptoms of ' enthusiasm ' in 
the bad sense of the word. They had caused 
scandal, and the bishop probably felt it a 
duty to remonstrate. After some argument 
about faith and works, Butler spoke with 
horror of claims to 'extraordinary revelations 
and gifts of the Holy Spirit ;' he spoke of 
people falling into fits at the meetings of the 
society, and ended by advising Wesley to 
leave his diocese. Wesley declined to give 
any promise (TYERMAN'S Life of Wesley, i. 
247). At Bristol, Butler made the acquaint- 
ance of Josiah Tucker, afterwards the well- 
known dean of Gloucester. Butler made 
Tucker his domestic chaplain, and gave him 
a prebend in the cathedral. Tucker tells us 
that Butler used to walk for hours in the 
garden behind his palace at night, and upon 
one such occasion suddenly asked his chaplain 
whether public bodies might not go mad as 
well as individuals, adding that nothing else 
could account for most of the transactions 
in history (TUCKER'S Humble Address and 
earnest Appeal to the Landed Interest, p. 20, 
note). 

On the death of Archbishop Potter in 1747 
an offer of the primacy was made to Butler, 
who had in 1746 been made clerk of the closet 
to the king (on the death of Egerton, bishop 
of Hereford). Butler is said to have declined 
it on the ground that ' it was too late for him 
to try to support a falling church ' (BART- 
LETT, p. 96). One of his nephews, John Butler, 
a rich bachelor, had previously shown his 
appreciation of the ' Analogy ' by exchanging 
a presentation copy from his uncle for an iron 
vice belonging to a ' shrewd Scotch solicitor ' 
named Thomson. Hearing, however, that 
his uncle had a chance of the archbishopric, 
he came up to town prepared to advance 
20,000/. to meet his first expenses. In 1741 
the bishopric of Durham was offered to Butler. 
It was proposed to him that the lord-lieu- 
tenancy of the county, previously attached 
to the bishopric, should be given to a lay- 
man, and that the deanery of St. Paul's to 
be vacated by him should be conferred upon 
Seeker on condition that Butler should give 
the stall at Durham vacated by Seeker to 
Dr. Chapman (master of Magdalene, Cam- 



Butler 



Butler 



bridge). Butler declined to allow the dignity 
of the see to be diminished by the separation 
of the lord-lieutenancy, or to agree to a con- 
tract which he thought simoniacal. He was 
accordingly appointed to the bishopric un- 
conditionally. The arrangement, however, 
as to Chapman and Seeker was carried into 
effect. The lord-lieutenancy was not sepa- 
rated from the bishopric till the next vacancy. 
A plan for establishing bishops in the Ame- 
rican colonies was suggested at this time by 
Butler (Annual Register, 1765, p. 108). It 
came to nothing, but was noticed in a later 
controversy between Seeker and a Dr. May- 
hew, of Boston, in 1763. A contemporary 
reference is made in R. Baron's ' Cordial for 
Low Spirits ' (1751, preface to vol. iii.) [see 
BARON, R.] Butler was translated to Durham 
in July 1750, succeeding E. Chandler. He 
delivered a charge in 1751 (printed in his 
works). In this, after speaking strongly of the 
' general decay of religion in the nation,' and 
speaking of the evil effects of light conversation 
in promoting scepticism, he insists upon the 
importance of observing outward forms, of 
maintaining churches, and regular services, as 
well as impressing the people by proper per- 
sonal admonitions. He speaks incidentally of 
the influence of outward form in strengthen- 
ing the beliefs, superstitions, and religions of 
heathens, Mahommedans, and Catholics. This 
passage gave very needless offence, and in 
1752 Archdeacon Blackburne published an 
anonymous pamphlet called ' A Serious En- 
quiry into the Use and Importance of External 
Religion,' &c., in which Butler was accused 
of a tendency to Romanism. This pamphlet 
was republished with Blackburne's name by 
R. Baron, in a collection called ' The Pillars 
of Priestcraft and Orthodoxy shaken,' and is 
included in Blackburne's works. It is only 
worth notice as partly accounting for the 
report afterwards spread, that Butler had 
died a catholic. Another circumstance which 
aroused the suspicions of his contemporaries 
was his erection in the chapel of his palace 
at Bristol of a slab of black marble over the 
altar, with an inlaid cross of white marble. 
It remained till the destruction of the palace 
in the Bristol riots of 1831. 

The assertion that Butler died a catholic 
was made in 1767 in an anonymous pamphlet 
called 'The Root of Protestant Errors Ex- 
amined ' (attributed to Blackburne or Theo- 
philus Lindsey). Seeker replied in a letter 
to the ' St. James's Chronicle '(9 May), signed 
' Misopseudes,' challenging the author to pro- 
duce his authority. ' Phileleutheros,' the 
author, replied, giving no reasons beyond 
rumour, made probable, as he thought, by the 
circumstances of the Bristol cross and the 



Durham charge. Seeker on 23 May said that 
he regretted the cross, but emphatically de- 
nied the truth of the rumour. Other letters 
appeared in the same paper, showing only 
that the writers were determined to be- 
lieve, though without a tittle of evidence. 
Seeker in a letter of 21 July replied, ex- 
posing sufficiently the utter groundlessness 
of the statement. Butler's ' natural melan- 
choly ' and his fondness for ' lives of Romish 
saints and other books of mystic piety ' are 
noticed and apparently admitted by the arch- 
bishop. He says that Butler was ' never a 
communicant in any dissenting assembly ; ' 
that he attended the established worship from 
his early years, and became ' a constant con- 
formist ' from his entrance at Oxford. (A 
full account is given in the notes to Halifax's 
preface to Butler's Works, i. p. xxxiii.) 

Butler does not appear to have taken any 
part in politics. He had been wafted to his 
see, says Horace Walpole, ' in a cloud of 
metaphysics, and remained absorbed in it ' 
(George II, i. 148). He had, however, a 
house at Hampstead, which had once be- 
longed to Sir Henry Vane. Butler had filled 
the windows with painted glass, including 
some figures of the apostles, presented to him 
by the pope, according to ' local tradition.' 
Miss Talbot describes it to Mrs. Carter as a 
' most enchanting, gay, pretty, elegant house ' 
(Letters of 29 Feb. and 9 April 1751). The 
house was sold upon his death (see PARK'S 
Hampstead, p. 269 ). During his short tenure 
of the see of Durham, Butler showed great 
liberality, received the principal gentry three 
times a week, subscribed liberally to charities, 
and visited his clergy. The story was told 
that, in answer to some application for a 
subscription, he asked his steward how much 
money he had in the house. ' Five hundred 
pounds,' was the reply ; upon which the 
bishop bestowed the whole upon the appli- 
cant, saying that it was a shame for a bishop 
to have so much. 

Butler's health was failing, and his physi- 
cians sent him to Bristol and afterwards to 
Bath, where he died on 16 June 1752. He 
was buried in the cathedral at Bristol. Bishop 
Benson (Seeker's brother-in-law) and Natha- 
niel Forster, Butler's chaplain, were in atten- 
dance. The last tells Seeker that Butler was 
constantly talking of writing to his old friend, 
even when unable to express himself clearly. 
By his will he left 200J. to Forster, whom 
he appointed executor. The balance of his 
estate after various bequests, including 500/. 
to the 'Newcastle Infirmary and 500/. to the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
was to be distributed among his nephews 
and nieces. The total amount left seems to 



Butler 



Butler 



have been between 9,OOOZ. and 10,0001. (BA.KT- 
LETT, 277). He also directed that ' all his 
sermons, letters, and papers whatever, which 
are in a deal box locked, directed to Dr. 
Forster, and now standing in the little room 
within my library at Hampstead, be burnt, 
without being read by any one, as soon as 
may be after my decease.' A writer in 
Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes ' (ix. 292) says 
that he has reason to know that some of 
Butler's manuscript sermons ' are still (1815) 
in being.' 

One portrait of Bishop Butler is in the 
Newcastle Infirmary, and was taken during 
his last illness. It is engraved in the Oxford 
edition of his works. A second was painted 
by Hudson for his nephew Joseph, and a 
third by Vanderbank in 1732, which is en- 
graved in Bartlett's ' Life.' The last two were 
both at Kirby House, the residence of his 
nephew's grandson. 

Butler's position in contemporary specula- 
tion was unique. The deist controversy, 
which culminated about 1730, is throughout 
in his mind, though he designedly abstains 
from special references. The method of ab- 
stract metaphysical reasoning applied by his 
early friend Clarke both to ethical and theo- 
logical speculations had led to a system 
which tended to reduce the historical ele- 
ment of belief to a secondary position or to 
eliminate it entirely. Butler, while admit- 
ting the validity of Clarke's reasoning, adopts 
the different method of appealing to observa- 
tion of facts (Preface to Sermons, p. vii). 
His ethical system is therefore psychological, 
or appeals to the constitution of human 
nature, as the ' Analogy ' to the constitution 
of the world at large. In the sermons and 
the dissertation on ' The Nature of Virtue ' 
he assails especially the egoistic utilitarianism 
of which Hobbes had been the great teacher 
in the previous age, and which was main- 
tained both on a priori and empirical grounds. 
In this he follows Shaftesbury (the only 
writer to whom he explicitly refers), who 
had endeavoured to show the general har- 
mony between virtue and happiness ; but he 
tries to fill a gap in Shaftesbury's argument 
by showing the natural supremacy of con- 
science, and therefore the existence of moral 
obligation, even where self-interest is op- 
posed to conscience. The main result of the 
sermons is therefore the psychological sys- 
tem, in which the conscience is represented 
as holding a supreme position by its own 
self-evidencing authority among the various 
faculties which constitute human nature ; 
while other passions, and in particular self- 
love and benevolence, are independent but 
subordinate. The psychology, though some- 



what perplexed, shows remarkable acuteness, 
and the argument that self-love, instead of 
being the sole or supreme faculty, really 
presupposes the existence of co-ordinate pas- 
sions, is especially noteworthy. Butler greatly 
influenced the common-sense school of Hut- 
cheson and his followers, who are also allied 
to Shaftesbury ; and his influence upon Hume 
is perceptible, especially in Hume's admission 
of independent benevolent impulses, in con- 
nection with a utilitarian principle which 
had generally been interpreted as leading to 
pure egoism. Hume (it may be noticed) 
desired in 1737 to be introduced to Butler, 
and sent him a copy of the ' Treatise on 
Human Nature ' on its publication in 1739. 
He expressed his pleasure in 1742 upon hear- 
ing that his first set of essays (which did not 
include those offensive to the orthodox) had 
been ' everywhere recommended' by Butler 
(BURTON'S Hume, i. 6-4, 106, 143). 

The famous ' Analogy ' is an endeavour to 
show that, as the particular frame of man 
reveals a supreme conscience, so the frame 
of nature shows a moral governor revealed 
through conscience. Assuming the validity 
of the a priori arguments for theism and the 
immortality of the soul, he maintains that 
the facts of observation fall in with the 
belief that this life is a probationary state 
where men are, as a matter of fact, under 
a system of government which encourages 
virtue as such and discourages vice, and there- 
fore imply the probability that in a future 
life there will be a complete satisfaction of 
the claims of justice. This leads to a con- 
sideration of the problem of free will and 
necessity, while the second part argues for 
the conformity between the doctrine thus 
taught by fact and the nature of the Chris- 
tian revelation. 

The impressiveness of Butler's argument, 
the candour of his reasonings, and the vigour 
and originality of his thought have been de- 
nied by no one. It is remarkable, indeed, 
that the greatest theological work of the time, 
and one of the most original of any time, 
produced little contemporary controversy. 
The only works directed against him during 
his life were a short and feeble tract, ' Re- 
marks upon Dr. Butler's sixth chapter, &c., 
by Philanthropus ' (Mr. Bott) [see Borr, 
THOMAS], in 1737, and ' A Second Vindica- 
tion of Mr. Locke, wherein his sentiments 
relating to personal identity are cleared up 
from some mistakes of the Rev. Dr. Butler,' 
&c., 1738, by Vincent Perronet, vicar of 
Shoreham. This is a sequel to a vindication 
of Locke against Bishop Browne, and includes 
an answer to Andrew Baxter. These pamph- 
lets are worthless. Butler's contemporaries 



Butler 



Butler 



were perhaps deterred by the fear of ven- 
turing into the profundities of his argument. 
Hume's writings on theology, indeed, espe- 
cially the essay upon ' A Providence and a 
Future State,' contain an implicit criticism 
of the ' Analogy.' At a later period the 
proofs of Butler's influence are abundant. 
To some thinkers he appears as the most 
profound apologist of Christian theology, 
while others have held that his argument 
leads to scepticism, because, while conclu- 
sive against the optimism of the deists, it 
really shows only that the difficulties in re- 
vealed theology are equalled by the difficulties 
of natural religion. It is a retort, not an 
explanation, and therefore sceptical in es- 
sence. This was the view taken by James 
Mill, in whose mental history the study of 
the ' Analogy ' was a turning point, accord- 
ing to his son (J. S. MILL'S Autobiography, 
p. 38). A similar view is stated by Mr. 
James Martineau, who says (Studies of Chris- 
tianity, p. 93) that Butler has uninten- 
tionally ' furnished . . . one of the most 
terrible persuasives to atheism ever pro- 
duced.' A different view is expressed by 
Cardinal Newman, who says (Apologia, part 
iii.) that the study of the ' Analogy ' formed 
an ' era in his religious opinions.' He learnt 
from it the view that the world is a ' sacra- 
mental system ' in which ' material pheno- 
mena are both the types and instruments of 
the things unseen ; ' and he was deeply im- 
pressed by Butler's characteristic doctrine 
that ' probability is the guide of life.' Other 
references may be found in Mr. Hunt's ' His- 
tory of Religious Thought in England ; ' 
Mr. Pattison's essay on the ' Tendencies of 
Religious Thought in England (1688-1750) ; ' 
Hennell's ' Sceptical Tendency of Butler's 
" Analogy," ' 1865 ; Mr. Matthew Arnold's 
' Butler and the Zeitgeist ' in ' Last Essays 
on the Church and Religion ; ' and Mr. Lucas 
Collins's ' Butler ' in Blackwood's ' Philoso- 
phical Classics.' 

Butler's works are : 1. ' Fifteen Sermons 
preached at the Rolls Chapel,' 1726 (dedi- 
cated to Sir Joseph Jekyll). 2. ' The Ana- 
logy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to 
the Constitution and Course of Nature. To 
which are added two brief dissertations : 
(1) Of Personal Identity ; (2) Of the Nature 
of Virtue,' 1736. 3. ' Six Sermons preached 
upon Public Occasions,' viz. : (1) before the 
Society for Propagating the Gospel, 16 Feb. 
1739 ; (2) before the lord mayor, aldermen, 
and sheriffs, and the governors of the several 
hospitals of the city of London, Monday in 
Easter Week, 1740; (3) before the House 
of Lords, 30 Jan. 1740-1 ; (4) at the annual 
meeting of the charity children at Christ 



Church, 9 May 1745 ; (5) before the House 
of Lords on the anniversary of his majesty's 
accession to the throne, 11 June 1747 ; (6) 
before the governors of the London Infirmary, 
31 March 1748. 4. ' A Charge delivered to 
the Clergy at the Primary Visitation of the 
diocese of Durham in the year 1751.' 

These, together with the correspondence 
with Clarke, form Butler's works. The first 
collected edition was published at Edinburgh 
in 1804. It contains a Life by Kippis from 
the ' Biographia,' and a preface and notes by 
Halifax, bishop of Gloucester. It has been 
reprinted, at Oxford in 1807 and subsequently. 
An edition of the ' Analogy,' with a careful 
collation of the first editions, an index, and 
a life, was published at Dublin in 1860 by 
W. Fitzgerald, bishop of Cork. A sermon 
attributed to Butler was first printed in the 
appendix to Bartlett's ' Life.' An ' Enquiry 
Concerning Faith,' London, 1744, has been 
attributed to him, but without probability 
(Notes and Queries, 1st series, vi. 198). A 
list of writings upon the Bangorian contro- 
versy by a Mr. Herne says that ' a letter of 
thanks from a young clergyman to the Rev. 
Dr. Hare for his visitation sermon at Putney 
in 1719 ' was written by the author of some 
papers in the 'Freethinker, 'including No. 125 
(1 June 1719) upon ' Optical Glasses.' In 
the reprint of this list in Hoadly's 'Works' 
(1761) this author is identified with Butler. 
In all probability this is due to some con- 
fusion with Archbishop Boulter of Dublin, 
bishop of Bristol, 1719-24, who helped 
Ambrose Philips in the ' Freethinker.' 

[The first Life of Butler is in the supplement 
to the Biog. Britannica (1753), with information 
from a nephew ; a further Life by Kippis in his 
edition of the Biographia is prefixed to Butler's 
Works ; Kawlinson MSS. fo. 16,144, 8vo, v. 221, 
vi. 63 ; the Life by Thomas Bartlett (1839) gives 
the fullest information and refers to unpublished 
documents ; see also Some Remains (hitherto un- 
published) of Bishop Butler, 1853 (preface by 
E. Steere, chiefly from MSS. in the British Mu- 
seum); Stanhope Memorials of Bishop Butler 
by W. M. Egglestone, which adds very little ; 
Porteus's Life of Seeker ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
ii. 403, 584, 667.] L. S. 

BUTLER,, SIR PIERCE or PIERS, eighth 
EAEL OF ORMONDE and first EARL OP OSSORY 
(d. 1539), was descended from the Butlers, 
baronets of Poolestown, and was the son of 
Sir James Butler and Sawe (Sabina), daugh- 
ter of Donnell Reogh MacMurrough Ca- 
venagh, prince of his sept. He succeeded 
Thomas, seventh earl of Ormonde, in 1515. 
He took a prominent part in suppressing 
the Irish rebellions, and when the Earl of 
Surrey, who was his intimate friend, left the 



Butler 



73 



Butler 



kingdom in 1521, he was appointed lord- 
deputy. Owing to the representations of 
the Talbots he was removed from the go- 
vernment in 1524, but the king, to indicate 
his disagreement with the decision of the 
commissioners, created him on 13 May lord- 
treasurer of Ireland. At the special request 
of the king he surrendered the earldom of 
Ormonde to Sir Thomas Boleyn (or Bullen), 
grandson of the seventh earl of Ormonde and 
brother of Anne Boleyn, and in lieu thereof 
he was created Earl of Ossory by patent 
dated 23 Feb. 1527-8. By Lodge and other 
authorities it is stated that the earldom of 
Ormonde was restored to Sir Pierce Butler on 
22 Feb. 1537-8, on the death of Sir Thomas 
Boleyn ; but, as is shown by Mr. J. H. Round 
(FosiEE, Collect. Geneal. vol. i.), the grant 
of the earldom was made before the death of 
Thomas Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire and Or- 
monde, and that the earldom was a new one 
is sufficiently attested by the fact that it was 
limited to heirs male of his body. After its 
conferment ' the Earl of Wilts,' as is men- 
tioned in the ' Carew State Papers,' .' was 
content to be so named earl of Ormonde in 
Ireland, semblably as the two Lords Dacres 
be named the one of the south and the other 
of the north ' (Calendar, Carew MSS. 1515- 
1574, p. 127). The Earl of Ormonde mani- 
fested the sincerity of his loyalty by his 
activity in taking measures for crushing 
the insurrection of his brother-in-law, Lord 
Thomas Fitzgerald, and after the latter's 
execution he was rewarded by a large grant, 
of lands. He afterwards turned his arms 
against the Earl of Desmond, who submitted 
and took an oath of fidelity. He died on 
21 or 26 Aug. 1539, and was buried in the 
chancel of St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny. 
He is stated to have been ' a man of great 
honour and sincerity, infinitely good-natured.' 
He brought over to Kilkenny artificers and 
manufacturers from Flanders and the neigh- 
bouring provinces, whom he employed in 
working tapestry, diaper, Turkey carpets, and 
similar industries. By his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, earl of Kil- 
dare, he had three sons and six daughters. 
His second son, RICHARD, created Viscount 
Mountgarret, 23 Oct. 1550, was grandfather 
of Richard, third Viscount Mountgarret [q.v.] 
His eldest son, JAMES, created Viscount 
Thurles in 1535, became ninth Earl of Or- 
monde, married Lady Joan Fitzgerald, daugh- 
ter and heiress of James, eleventh earl of 
Desmond, was suspected of hostility to the 
English government, and was poisoned while 
in London at a supper at Ely House. He 
died on 28 Oct. 1546. His son Thomas 
(1532-1614) [q. v.j succeeded to the earldom. 



[Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormonde (Oxford 
ed. 1851), i. Ixxxvi-xciii ; Lodge's Peerage of 
Ireland, iv. 19-22; Paper on the Barony of 
Arklow by J. H. Eound in Foster's Collectanea 
Genealogica, vol. i. ; and on the Ormonde At- 
tainders in the Genealogist, new ser., vol. i. 
No. 7, 186-9 ; State Papers, Irish Series ; 
Calendar of Carew MSS.] T. F. H. 

BUTLER, PIERCE, third VISCOTTNT 
GALMOY (1652-1740), was descended from 
Thomas Butler, tenth earl of Ormonde [q. v.], 
and was the son of Edward, second viscount 
Galmoy, and Eleanor, daughter of Charles 
White of Leixlip, and widow of Sir Arthur 
Aston. He was born on 21 March 1652. 
On 6 Aug. 1677 he was created D.C.L. of 
Oxford. By James II he was appointed a 
privy councillor of Ireland, and lieutenant of 
the county of Kilkenny. As colonel of a 
regiment of Irish horse he was at the siege 
of Londonderry, where the protestants ac- 
cused him of barbarity and treachery (MAC- 
ATTLAY, c. xii.) He fought at Aughrim and 
the Boyne, and was afterwards outlawed. 
He was Irish commissioner at the capitu- 
lation of Limerick, and included in the am- 
nesty (3 Oct. 1691). He retired to France, 
and was created Earl of Newcastle by 
James II. His English estates were forfeited 
and he was attainted in 1697. In France 
he was named colonel of the second queen's 
regiment of Irish horse in the service of that 
country, and served with distinction in va- 
rious continental wars. He died at Paris on 
18 June 1740. His only son, JAMES, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Theobald Matthew, 
was killed at Malplaquet. A nephew, James, 
assumed the title of third viscount Galmoy. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, iv. 48, 49 ; O'Cal- 
laghan's Irish Brigades in the Service of France ; 
List of Oxford Graduates; Burke's Extinct 
Peerages, 97.] T. F. H. 

BUTLER, RICHARD, third VISCOTTNT 
MOTOTGARRET (1578-1651), was the son of 
Edmund, second viscount Mountgarret, and 
Grany or Grizzel, daughter of Barnaby, first 
lord of Upper Ossory, and was born in 1578. 
His first wife was Margaret, eldest daughter 
of Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, and having 
joined in his father-in-law's rebellion, he 
specially distinguished himself by his de- 
fence of the castles of Ballyragget and Culli- 
hill. His estates were nevertheless confirmed 
to him on the death of his father in 1605, 
and he sat in the parliaments of 1613, 1615, 
and 1034. At the rebellion of 1641 he was 
appointed joint governor of Kilkenny with 
the Earl of Ormonde, but being alarmed by 
designs said to have been formed against 
the lords of the Pale, he, after writing an 
explanatory letter to the Earl of Ormonde, 



Butler 



74 



Butler 



took possession of Kilkenny in the name of 
the confederates. He then detached parties 
to secure other adjacent towns, which was 
done with such success that in the space of 
a week all the fortresses in the counties of 
Kilkenny, Waterford, and Tipperary were 
in their power. After this he was chosen 
general of the confederates ; but the county 
of Cork having insisted on choosing a general 
of its own, his forces were thereby con- 
siderably weakened, and he was defeated by 
the Earl of Ormonde at Kilrush, near Athy, 
on 10 April 1642 ; but, returning to Kil- 
kenny, he was chosen president of the 
supreme council formed there in the follow- 
ing summer. In 1643 he was at the battle 
of Ross, fought by General Preston against 
the Marquis of Ormonde, and he took part in 
the capture of various fortresses. He died 
in 1651, but was excepted, though dead, 
from pardon for life or estate by the crown 
in the act of parliament for the settlement 
of Ireland passed on 12 Aug. 1652. He 
was buried in the chancel of St. Canice's 
cathedral, Kilkenny, under a monument with 
a eulogistic Latin inscription. By his first 
wife, Margaret, eldest daughter of Hugh 
O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, he had three sons 
and six daughters, of whom Edmund became 
fourth viscount. He was again twice mar- 
ried : to Thomasine (afterwards named Eliza- 
beth), daughter of Sir William Andrews of 
Newport, and to Margaret, daughter of 
Richard Branthwaite, serjeant-at-law, and 
widow of Sir Thomas Spencer of Yarnton, 
Oxfordshire, but by neither of these mar- 
riages had he any issue. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, iv. 49-66 ; State 
Papers, Irish Series ; Carew State Papers ; Cox's 
History of Ireland ; Carte's Life of the Duke of 
Ormonde.] T. F. H. 

BUTLER, RICHARD (d. 1791), major- 
general in the United States army,was a native 
of Ireland, and went to America some time 
before 1760. At the outbreak of the war of 
independence he became a lieutenant-colonel 
of the Pennsylvania troops, and in 1777 held 
that rank in Morgan's rifle corps, with which 
he distinguished himself on various occa- 
sions. In 1781 he was with Lafayette in 
Virginia, and at the close of the war was 
lieutenant-colonel of the 9th Pennsylvania 
regiment. About 1787 he was agent for In- 
dian affairs in Oregon ; and in St. Clair's 
expedition against the Indian tribes in 1791 
commanded the right wing of the force, with 
the rank of major-general. The troops, com- 
posed of United States regulars and militia, 
were attacked in their camp, about twenty 
miles from Miami Towns, by the Indians, on 



the morning of 4 Nov. 1791, and defeated 
with heavy loss. Butler, after fighting 
bravely on foot in the front line, was shot 
down just as he mounted his horse, and was 
tomahawked and scalped. 

[Drake's American Biography (1852) ; Diary 
of Colonel Winthrop Sargent, adjutant-general, 
U.S. army, in the campaign of 1791, edited by his 
grandson (Wormsloe, 1851, 4to).] H. M. C. 

BUTLER, SAMUEL (1612-1680), poet, 
was the fifth child and the second son of 
Samuel Butler, a Worcestershire farmer, and 
a churchwarden of the parish of Strensham, 
where the poet was baptised on 8 Feb. 1612. 
The entry is in his father's handwriting. The 
elder Samuel Butler owned a house and a 
piece of land, which was still called Butler's 
tenement fifty years ago ; the value of this 
was about 81. a year (see Notes and Queries, 
6th series, iv. 387, 469). According to Au- 
brey, however, the poet was not born in this 
Strensham house, but at a hamlet called 
Bartonbridge, half a mile out of Worcester. 
The father, according to Wood, leased of Sir 
Thomas Russell, lord of the manor of Strens- 
ham, an estate of 3001. a year. The boy was 
educated in Worcester free school. He has 
been identified, but against probability, with 
the Samuel Butler who went up to Christ 
Church, Oxford, from Westminster in 1623 ; 
another legend, somewhat better supported, 
says that he proceeded for a short time, about 

1627, to Cambridge. It is probable that the 
first of several situations which he occupied 
was that of attendant, with a salary of 201. 
a year, to Elizabeth, countess of Kent, at 
her residence of Wrest in Bedfordshire. The 
fact that he found Selden under the same 
roof makes it probable that this occurred in 

1628. Selden seems to have interested him- 
self in Butler's talents, and to have trained 
his mind. The young man spent several 
years at Wrest, and employed his leisure in 
studying painting under Samuel Cooper, or 
more probably with him, for Cooper was not 
yet illustrious. Butler is said to have painted 
a head of Oliver Cromwell from life ; his 
pictures were long in existence at Earl's 
Coombe in Worcestershire, but were all used, 
in the last century, to stop up broken win- 
dows. Butler spent some years of his early 
life at Earl's Coombe as clerk to a justice of 
the name of Jeffereys. He seems to have 
served as clerk or attendant to a succession 
of country gentlemen. One of these was 
Sir Samuel Luke of Cople Hoo, near Bed- 
ford, a stiff presbyterian, and one of Crom- 
well's generals. This person sat for the cha- 
racter of Hudibras, 

A Knight as errant as e'er was ; 



Butler 



75 



Butler 



but some of the touches are said to be studied 
from another puritan employer of Butler's, 
Sir Henry Rosewell of Ford Abbey in Devon- 
shire. It is supposed that Butler spent some 
time in France and Holland, which indeed his 
own writings show. He is not known to have 
published anything, or to have attained the 
smallest reputation, until after the death of 
Cromwell. In 1659, at the age of forty- 
seven, he first appeared before the public with 
an anonymous prose tract, in favour of the 
Stuarts, entitled ' Mola Asinaria.' Perhaps 
in reward for this service, he was appointed 
secretary to Richard, earl of Carbury, when 
he was made lord president of Wales in 
1660. Lord Carbury made Butler steward 
of Ludlow Castle. Some bills in which his 
name occurs are published in 'Notes and 
Queries' (1st ser. v. 5). He married soon 
after this, his wife being differently described 
as a spinster of the name of Herbert and as 
a widow of the name of Morgan. Whatever 
her name was, she was supposed to be well 
dowered, and Butler probably had the rash- 
ness to resign his appointment at Ludlow on 
that account, for he certainly did not hold it 
more than a year. He lived comfortably on 
his wife's jointure for a time, till the money 
was lost on bad securities. The obscurity 
which hangs over every part of Butler's life 
makes it impossible to say whether he did or 
did not succeed in securing the patronage of 
George, duke of Buckingham. Wycherley 
told a lively story which, if true, shows that 
Butler was not so successful ; but Butler has 
left a sketch of Buckingham which, though 
extremely satirical, seems founded on such 
study as a secretary alone would have the 
opportunity of making. 

At the age of fifty Butler suddenly became 
famous. Fifteen years before, in the puritan 
houses where he had lived, he had strung his 
pungent observations and jingling satirical 
rhymes into a long heroi-comic poem. The 
times had changed, and this could now be 
produced without offence to the ruling powers. 
On 11 Nov. 1662 was licensed, and early in 
1663 appeared, a small anonymous volume 
entitled ' Hudibras : the first part written in 
the time of the late wars.' This is the first 
genuine edition, but the manuscript appears 
to have been pirated, for an advertisement 
says that ' a most false and imperfect copy ' 
of the poem is being circulated without any 

Erinter s or publisher's name. Exactly a year 
iter a second part appeared, also heralded 
by a piracy. The book was introduced at 
court early in 1663 by the Earl of Dorset, 
and was instantly patronised by the king. 
Copies of the first "editions of 'Hudibras' 
not very unfrequently have inscriptions show- 



ing that they were the gift of Charles II to 
their first owner. Butler has himself recorded 
this royal partiality for his book : 

He never ate, nor drank, nor slept, 
But ' Hudibras ' still near him kept ; 
Nor would he go to church or so, 
But ' Hudibras ' must with him go. 

It was, however, the scandal of the age, that 
though the king was lavish in promises, he 
never did anything to relieve Butler's poverty. 
Lord Clarendon also greatly admired him, 
and had his -portrait painted for his own 
library, but in spite of all his promises gave 
him no employment. The neglect of Butler 
is one of the commonplaces of literary mo- 
rality, but the reader is apt to fancy that 
Butler was not easy to help. It is not plain 
that he had any talent, save this one of 
matchless satire ; and in his private inter- 
course he was unpleasing. From childhood 
' he would make observations and reflections 
on everything one said or did ; ' he had few 
friends, and was not careful to retain those 
few. He lived in poverty and obscurity for 
seventeen years after the first appearance of 
' Hudibras,' publishing a third part of that 
poem in 1678 (the different forms of which 
are described in ' Notes and Queries,' 6th ser. 
vi. 108, 150, 276, 311, 370, 454), and two 
slight pieces, the ' Geneva Ballad ' in 1674, 
and an ' Ode to the Memory of Du-Val ' in 
1671. In 1672 he printed an abusive prose 
tract against the nonconformists, called ' Two 
Letters.' Butler in his later years was much 
troubled with the gout, and from October 
1679 to Easter 1680 he did not stir out of 
his room. He lived in Rose Street, Covent 
Garden, until he died of consumption, al- 
though he was not yet seventy, on 25 Sept. 
1680. His best friend, William Longueville, 
a bencher of the Inner Temple, tried to have 
Butler buried in Westminster Abbey, but 
found no one to second him in this proposal. 
He therefore buried the poet at his own ex- 
pense, on the 27th, in the churchyard of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden. Aubrey says : 
' In the north part, next the church at the 
east end ; his feet touch the wall ; his grave 
2 yards distant from the pilaster of the door, 
by his desire, 6 foot deep.' Wood describes 
Butler as ( a boon and witty companion, 
especially among the company he knew well.' 
Aubrey writes of Butler's appearance : ' He is 
of a middle stature, strong set, high coloured, 
a head of sorrel hair, a severe and sound judg- 
ment, a good fellow.' This writer, who knew 
him pretty well, gives us an idea that the 
legend of Butler's poverty was exaggerated 
in the reaction which began in his favour 
soon after his death. A tradition is preserved 



Butler 



76 



Butler 



by Granger that Butler was in receipt of a 
pension of 1001. a year at the time of his death. 
The success of ' Hudibras,' and a rumour 
that a large quantity of Butler's unpublished 
manuscript was in existence, encouraged the 
production of a great many spurious posthu- 
mous collections of his verses. For some 
reason or other, however, the papers of But- 
ler were preserved untouched by William 
Longueville, who bequeathed them to his 
son Charles, and he in his turn to a John 
Clarke of Walgherton in Cheshire. This 
gentleman, in November 1754, consented to 
allow R. Thyer, the keeper of the public 
library in Manchester, to examine them. 
The result was the publication in 1759 of two 
very interesting volumes, entitled ' The 
Genuine Remains in Verse and Prose of Mr. 
Samuel Butler.' These volumes contain much 
that is only second in merit to ' Hudibras ' 
itself, among others a brilliant satire on the 
Royal Society, entitled 'The Elephant in 
the Moon,' and a series of prose ' Characters.' 
The collection of manuscripts from which 
these were selected was sold in London to 
the British Museum in 1885, and is now 
numbered there (MS8. Addit. 32625-6). 
Several of the pieces are still unpublished. 
'Hudibras,' which received the honour of 
being illustrated by Hogarth in 1726, was 
several times carefully edited during the 
eighteenth century (for an account of the 
illustrated editions see Notes and Queries, 
4th series, xi. 352, and 5th series, iii. 456). 
The edition of Dr. Grey, which appeared first 
in 1744, is still considered the standard one. 
' Hudibras ' was translated into French verse 
with great skill by John Townley (1697- 
1782). In 1721 a monument to Butler was 
raised in Westminster Abbey, at the expense 
of the lord mayor, John Barber, a graceful act 
which Pope rewarded in two spiteful lines : 
But whence this Barber ? that a name so mean 
Should, join'd with Butler's, on a tomb be seen. 

A portrait of Butler by Lely is in the gal- 
lery at Oxford ; another by Lely was painted 
for Clarendon (see EVELYN'S Diary, BRAT and 
WHEATLEY, iii. 444) ; Soest painted a third 
portrait, which was engraved for Grey's edi- 
tion of ' Hudibras.' 

[Very little has been discovered -with regard 
to Butler's life beyond what Wood (Athenae 
Oxon. (Bliss) iii. '874) reported. That little 
was mainly given to the world by Dr. Nash, in 
the second volume of his Collections for the His- 
tory of Worcestershire, in 1782. There have 
been no later discoveries than those made by 
Nash more than a century ago. Oldys made 
some notes for a life of Butler, which are in Brit. 
Mus. MS. Addit. 4221, pp. 198-203. See also 
Granger's Biog. Hist. iv. 38-40.] E. G. 



BUTLER, SAMUEL (1774-1839), bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry, born at Kenil- 
worth 30 Jan. 1774, was the son of William 
Butler of that place ; was admitted to Rugby 
31 March 1783, and entered St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1792. At Cambridge his 
career was singularly brilliant. He obtained 
three of Sir William Browne's medals, and 
in 1793 was elected Craven scholar in com- 
petition with Samuel Taylor Coleridge , Keate, 
afterwards head-master of Eton, and Chris- 
topher Bethell, afterwards bishop of Bangor. 
He was a senior optime in the mathematical 
tripos of 1796, when he proceeded B.A. He 
carried off the chancellor's medals in 1797, 
and the member's prizes for 1797 and 1798. He 
became fellow of St. John's 4 April 1797, and 
in 1798 was appointed head-master of Shrews- 
bury School. He held this appointment for 
thirty-eight years. Although many ecclesi- 
astical beneficeswere conferred on him within 
that period, the school occupied most of his 
attention, and it acquired a very high repu- 
tation during his head-mastership, in which 
he was succeeded by his pupil, Dr. Benjamin 
Hall Kennedy, in '1836. In 1802 Butler 
became vicar of Kenilworth, and in 1811 he 
proceeded D.D. In 1807 he was instituted 
to a prebend at Lichfield, in 1822 to the arch- 
deaconry of Derby, and in June 1836 (when 
he left Shrewsbury) to the bishopric of Lich- 
field and Coventry. In December 1836 the 
archdeaconry of Coventry was annexed to the 
see of Worcester, and left Butler bishop of 
Lichfield. While holding this office Butler 
suffered much ill-health, but he administered 
his diocese with great energy, and was popular 
with his clergy. He died 4 Dec. 1839, and 
was buried in St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury. 
He married in 1798 Harriet, daughter of the 
Rev. East Apthorp, B.D., vicar of Croydon 
and rector of St. Mary-le-Bow, by whom he 
had two daughters, Mary and Harriet, and 
one son, Thomas. His elder daughter married 
Edward Bather [q. v.], and his son became 
rector of Langar. 

Butler was the author of many educational 
works, the chief of which are : 1. An elabo- 
rate edition of ' ^Eschylus,' published at the 
Cambridge Universitv Press in four volumes 
between 1809 and 1826. 2. 'A Sketch of 
Modern and Ancient Geography,' Shrews- 
bury, 1813 (and frequently reprinted). 3. 'An 
Atlas of Ancient Geography. 4. ' An Atlas of 
Modern Geography.' He was also the editor 
of M. Musuri Carmen in Platonem, Is. Casau- 
boni in Josephum Scaligerum Ode. Accedunt 
Poemata ,et Exercitationes utriusque linguae,' 
1797 ; he wrote ' A Praxis on the Latin Pre- 
positions with Exercises,' 1823 ; and several 
sermons, one of them being the funeral ser- 



Butler 



77 



Butler 



mon on Dr. Parr. Butler's library was rich 
in Aldines, and in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek 
manuscripts. The latter were purchased for 
the British Museum, and are now numbered 
there Addit. MSS. 11828-12117. 

[Gent. Mag. 1840, pt. i. 203-5; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccl. Angl. ; Baker's Hist, of St. John's 
Coll. (ed. Mayor), i. 311.] S. L. L. 

BUTLER, SIMON (1757-1797), first 
president of the United Irishmen of Dublin, 
was the third son of Edmund, tenth Viscount 
Mountgarret, and his wife Charlotte, the 
second daughter of Sir Simon Bradstreet, 
bart. He was born in July 1757. Having 
been called to the Irish bar in Michaelmas 
term, 1778, he was made a king's counsel 
and a bencher of the Honourable Society of 
the King's Inns, Dublin, in Trinity term, 1784. 
With Wolfe Tone he was a zealous leader of 
the United Irishmen, and on 9 Nov. 1791 he 
presided at the first meeting of the Dublin 
society of that body. He compiled a digest 
of the popery laws, which was published in 
1792, and made a great impression on the 
minds of the people. For this work, and 'for 
other professional business,' the 'Catholic 
Committee ' voted him 500Z. On 1 March 
1793 Butler and Oliver Bond [q. v.], as chair- 
man and secretary respectively of the Dublin 
Society, were summoned before the Irish 
House of Lords on account of a paper which 
had been issued by the society, referring to a 
committee of secrecy of that house. They 
avowed the publication, but submitted that 
it contained nothing unconstitutional. The 
lords, however, voted it a ' false, scandalous, 
and seditious libel; a high breach of the pri- 
vileges of this house, tending to disturb the 
public peace, and questioning the authority 
of this High Court of Parliament,' and there- 
upon ordered the defendants to be imprisoned 
in Newgate gaol for six months, and to pay a 
fine of 500/. each. On the termination of his 
imprisonment, Butler went with his friend, 
Archibald Hamilton Rowan, another ener- 
getic leader of the United Irishmen, to Scot- 
land, where they continued to aid in direct- 
ing the proceedings of the society, until they 
were compelled to fly the country. On 18 Jan. 
1795 Butler married Eliza, the daughter of 
Edward Lynch of Hampstead, in the county 
of Dublin, by whom he had an only son, Ed- 
ward. Though his name was erased from 
the list of king's counsel in 1793, he remained 
a bencher of the King's Inns until his death, 
which took place at his lodgings in Bromp- 
ton Row on 19 May 1797, in the fortieth year 
of his age. An etching of him and his friend 
Rowan as they appeared in the streets of 
Edinburgh in 1793, by Kay, will be found 



in the second volume of ' Original Portraits,' 
No. 230. 

[Kay's Original Portraits and Caricature Etch- 
ings (1877), ii. 121, 168, 171, 176-7; Plowden's 
Historical Review of the State of Ireland (1803), 
ii. pt. i. 376-94 ; Sir Eichard Musgrave's Me- 
moirs of the different Rebellions in Ireland 
(1802), i. 112-54; Gent. Mag. 1797, Ixvii. pt. i. 
529; Annual Register, 1797, p. 97.] 

G. F. R. B. 

BUTLER, THEOBALD (d. 1205-6), 
first butler of Ireland, was son and heir of 
Hervey (Herveus) Walter of Amounderness 
in Lancashire and of Suffolk, by Maud (Ma- 
tilda), daughter and coheir of Theobald de 
Valoines. Her sister Berthe (Berta), the 
other coheiress, married the celebrated Ran- 
dulf deGlanville, justiciary of England [q.v.], 
who was thus uncle by marriage to Theobald. 
This much is certain from his own charters, 
as is also the fact that he was elder brother 
of Hubert Walter [q. v.], archbishop of Can- 
terbury, but beyond this all is obscure. The 
various theories of earlier writers, especially 
the belief that Theobald was nearly of kin to 
Becket (cf. Notes and Queries, 1st ser. xii. 
30), are exhaustively discussed by Carte in 
the introduction to his ' Life of James, Duke 
of Ormonde,' in which he has collected much 
useful information. Lord A. C. Hervey ar- 
gues that he sprang from the family of Her- 
vey, while Mr. Glanville-Richards claims his 
father as a younger brother of Randulf de 
Glanville. But this latter view is doubted 
by Mr. Yeatman, who discusses the point in 
his introduction to Mr. Glanville-Richards' 
work, and it must certainly be rejected. 
Theobald's surname appears in the various 
forms, LE BOTILLEK, WALTER, WALTERI, 
and FITZW ALTER. 

Theobald first appears in the ' Liber Niger ' 
(i.e. circa 1166) as holding Amounderness 
' per servicium 1 militis.' The received state- 
ment that he accompanied Henry II to Ire- 
land (1171-2), and was made by him butler 
of Ireland ' soon after 11 70,' though accepted 
by Lynch (p. 79), and repeated by Mr. Gil- 
bert (p. 31), rests upon no evidence, and 
must be dismissed as erroneous, as must also 
that of Carte that he appears previously 
(1170) with Henry in France. It was pro- 
bably in 1182 (EYTOST, p. 248 ; GLANTILLE- 
RICHARBS, p. 41) that he witnessed, with 
' John the king's son,' Randulf de Glanville's 
charter to Leystone, and it was through the 
influence of Randulf that, in 1185, he accom- 
panied John to Ireland. The freight of his 
' harnesium ' thither is charged for in that year 
(Rot. Pip. 31 H. II). Landing with John at 
Waterford on 25 April, he received a grant 
to Randulf and himself of 5i cantreds in 



Butler 



Butler 



Limerick (see CARTE for charter tested at 
Waterford) ; and the same year, with the 
men of Cork, fought and slew Dermot Mac- 
Arthy (Expugnatio, v. 386). He further re- 
ceived from John (before 1189) the fief of 
Arklow afterwards confirmed to him by Wil- 
liam Marshal on becoming jure uxoris lord of 
Leinster (see CAKTE for charters, though he 
explains them wrongly), where he fixed his 
chief residence, and in later days founded an 
abbey, as a cell to Furness (Mon. Angl. ii. 
1025). It is in virtue of this fief that Lynch 
and others have attempted to claim a ' feudal 
barony ' for Theobald and his descendants. 
Returning to England, he witnessed his 
brother Hubert's charter to West Derham 
(ib. ii. 624) in 1188, and then accompanied 
his uncle Randulf to France, witnessing with 
him a charter of Henry II at Chinon (ib. ii. 
648) on the eve of his death, July 1189 
(EYTON, p. 297). 

He now was in constant attendance on 
John, witnessing his charters to St. Augus- 
tine's, Bristol (ib. ii. 234), and Jeriponte Ab- 
bey (ib. 1029), and receiving from him, as 
lord of Ireland, the office of his 'butler.' He 
first assumes this style (' Pincerna ') when 
testing John's charter to Dublin, 15 May 
1192, at London (Mun. Doc. p. 55 ; St. Mary's 
Chart, i. 266-70) ; and it was apparently 
about this time that he received a grant from 
the Archbishop of Dublin as ' pincerna 
domini comitis Moretonise in Hibernia' (Cot- 
ton. MS. fo. 266), a style proving that he was 
appointed by John. He now adopted a fresh 
seal, adding to his name (Theobald Walter) 
the style ' Pincerna Hibernise.' This has 
escaped notice. Hence he is occasionally, in 
his latter days, spoken of as ' Le Botiller,' or 
' Butler,' which latter became the surname 
of his descendants. Carte states, on the 
authority of Roberts (who professed to have 
seen the patent), that he also had a grant of 
the prisage of wines, but this is clearly an 
error. Towards the end of 1192 he was with 
John at Nottingham (see charter in Cotton. 
MS. fo. 347), and received from him probably 
about this time a fresh grant of Amounder- 
ness (ib. fo. 352). John going abroad at the 
close of the year 1192, entrusted him with 
Lancaster Castle, but on his brother Hubert, 
then justiciar, summoning it, in Richard's 
name (February 1194), he surrendered it 
(HovEDEN, ii. 237), and, making his peace 
through Hubert, had a re-grant from Richard 
of Amounderness, 22 April 1194 (Rot. Pat. 
5 Ric. I. Printed by BAINES, iv. 289), and 
was appointed by Hubert in August 1194 
collector of the money for his tournament 
licenses (HOVEDEN, ii. 268). He was further 
made sheriff of Lancashire, and appears to 



have remained so till 1 John (Deputy Keeper's 
Reports, xxxi. 300). In 1197-8 (9 Ric. I), 
I he acted as a justice itinerant, assessing the 
! tollage on Colchester (MADOX, i. 733), and 
j it was in the course of Richard's reign that 
I he founded the abbey of Cokersand (Mon. 
i Angl. ii. 631; BAINES, iv. 290). 

John, on his accession, soon took ven- 
geance for Theobald's defection to Richard. 
I He disseised him of Amounderness, deprived 
him of his shrievalty (1200), and on 12 Jan. 
1201 sold his Limerick fief not, as Hoveden 
states (iv. 152-3), all his Irish possessions 
to his then favourite, William de Braose 
[q. v.] But Theobald, by the influence of his 
brother Hubert, effected a compromise in the 
matter, and within a year was restored to 
favour, Amounderness being re-granted to 
him on 2 Jan. 1202 as ' dilecto etfideli nostro' 
(Rot. de Lib. p. 25). While out of favour 
(1199-1201) numerous complaints were 
made against him of past oppressions (Rot. 
de Obi. et Fin.} In 1203 or 1204 he with- 
drew to Ireland by license (Rot. Pip. 5 John 
m. 18 dors.), and busied himself with his re- 
ligious foundations in Arklow, Nenagh in 
Tipperary (Mon. Angl. ii. 1044), and Wothe- 
ney in Limerick (ib. ii. 1034). He also gave 
a charter (printed by Carte) to his men of 
Gowran. He is said, on the authority of 
; Rothe's Register ' (compiled in 1616 from 
the Ormonde evidences), to have died in 1206, 
and to have been buried at Wotheney ; but 
if so, it must have been very early in the 
year, as John informs the sheriff as early as 
14 Feb. (1206) that he has committed his 
widow to her father (Claus. 7 John), and 
he is not mentioned as living on the Rolls 
later than 4 Aug. 1205 (ib.) 

He had married late in life Maud (Ma- 
tilda), daughter of Robert le Vavasor, by 
whom he left a son Theobald, born about 
1200, whom his grandfather was ordered 
(2 March 1206) to deliver up to Gilbert Fitz- 
Reinfrid (Pat. 7 John, m. 3), and a daughter 
Maud, also committed to Gilbert and his son 
till 1220 (Rot. Pat. 4 Henry III, m. 5), who 
is said by Lodge to have married Thomas de 
Hereford, but who seems from an inquisition 
of 1251 (Calendar) to have married Gerard 
de Prendergast. It is ingeniously suggested 
by Carte (pp. xii-xiv), on the strength of a 
plea-roll of 1295-6 (Plac. 24 Ed. I, m. 68), 
that Theobald had, by a previous marriage, 
a daughter Beatrice, who married, firstly, 
Thomas de Hereford, and secondly, in her 
father's lifetime, Hugh Purcell. This is not 
improbable. His widow Maud was given 
up, at first, to her father Robert, on payment 
of over 1200 marks (Rot. de Obi. et Fin.), but 
afterwards (by 1 Oct. 1206) to John's fa- 



Butler 



79 



Butler 



vourite, Fulke FitzWarine (Hot. Claus. 
John). 

[Close Rolls, Patent Eolls, Fine Rolls, and Libe- 
rateRolls (Record Commission); PipeRolls; Calen- 
dar of Documents relating to Ireland, Giraldus 
Cambrensis' Expugnatio, Roger de Hoveden, 
Municipal Documents of Ireland, and St. Mary's 
Chartulary (Rolls Ser.); Cottonian MSS. Titus 
B. xi, containing transcripts of Charters; 31st 
Report of Dep. Keeper of the Records ; Madox's 
Exchequer; Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, 
1661 ; Carte's Life of James, Duke of Ormonde, 
1736 ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. xii ; Lynch's Feudal Baronies in 
Ireland ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland ; Baines's 
Lancashire, 1836 ; Lord A. C. Hervey's Family 
of Hervey; Glanville-Richards's Records of the 
Anglo-Norman House of Glanville ; The Barony 
of Arklow (Foster's Collectanea Genealogica, 
No. iv.) ; The Barony of Arklow in Ireland (An- 
tiquarian Magazine and Bibliographer, vol. i.) ; 
Abstract of Roberts's MS. History of the House 
of Ormonde, 1648, in Appendix to 8th Report 
Hist. MSS. i. 586-8.] J. H. E. 

BUTLER, THOMAS, LL.D. (fi. 1570), 
catholic writer, graduated B. A. at Cambridge 
in 1548, and, afterwards going abroad, took 
in some foreign university the degree of doc- 
tor of the canon and civil laws. He is the 
author of ' A Treatise of the Holy Sacrifice 
of the Altar called the Masse : In which by 
the Word of God, and testimonies of the 
apostles and primitive church, it is proved 
that our Saviour Jesus Christ did institute 
the Masse, and the apostles did celebrate 
the same. Translated out of Italian into 
English.' Antwerp, 1570, 8vo. 

[Strype's Life of Abp. Parker, fol. 477; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), iii. 1627; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab, i. 294.] T. C. 

BUTLER, THOMAS, tenth EABL OF 
ORMONDE (1532-1614), born in 1532, was 
son and heir of James Butler, ninth earl, who 
died of poison at Ely House, London, 28 Oct. 
1546. His mother was Lady Joan Fitzgerald, 
heiress of James, eleventh earl of Desmond. 
His grandfather was Sir Pierce Butler, eighth 
earl of Ormonde [q. v.] Thomas, who was 
called, from his dark complexion, the ' Black 
Earl,' succeeded his father in the earldom 
and estates at the age of fourteen. He was 
brought up at the English court with a view 
to alienating his sympathies from Ireland, and 
was the first of his family to adopt protes- 
tantism. He was knighted on Edward VI's 
accession in 1547. After Edward's death in 
1553, the priests spread a false report that the 
young earl had been murdered in England, 
and the Irish on his estates, which were then 
managed by English officials, rose in revolt. 
In 1554 Ormonde set foot in Ireland amid 



great rejoicings on the part of the native 
population, and from the first attempted to 
act as mediator between the native Irish and 
their English rulers. He entered into friendly 
relations with Sussex, the lord deputy ; took 
the oath as privy councillor in 1559, and 
became lord treasurer of Ireland at the same 
time ; but his action was unhappily fettered. 
The house of Desmond was the hereditary 
and implacable foe of the house of Ormonde, 
and neither the present earl's relationship 
(through his mother) with the then Earl of 
Desmond nor his conciliatory disposition could 
remove the ancient grudge. A quarrel respect- 
ing the ownership of the manors of Clonmel, 
Kilsheelan, and Kilfeacle was made in 1560 
the pretext for a military demonstration, near 
Tipperary. of the retainers of the two houses. 
This happily proved abortive, and the English 
government tried to bring the rivalry to an end 
by a judicial award of the disputed territory 
in this case to the Earl of Desmond, but a 
permanent settlement was out of the question. 
Ormonde, though openly avowing strong 
Irish sympathies, resolved to throw the 
weight of his influence on the side of law 
and order. In 1561 he sought, by means 
of his personal influence, to extract from 
Shan O'Neill, the virtually independent ruler 
of Ulster, an acknowledgment of the supre- 
macy of the English crown and a promise to 
abstain from further aggression on other 
Ulster chieftains. O'Neill treated Ormonde 
with consideration, and agreed to visit Eng- 
land in his company in order to come to some 
settlement with Queen Elizabeth herself. In 
the result he was willing to submit all his 
differences with his views to a board of ar- 
bitration, at which he desired Ormonde to 
take a seat. But when in 1562 O'Neill broke 
his vague promises and re-opened attack on 
the MacDonnells, his chief rivals in Ulster, 
it was with great reluctance (6 April 1563) 
that Ormonde, fearful of offending Irish feel- 
ing, aided Sussex in repressing the powerful 
chieftain. Meanwhile his quarrel with Des- 
mond grew fiercer, and Munster, where the 
chief estates of either house lay, was in con- 
stant turmoil. Both leaders were summoned 
to London at the close of 1 561, but little came 
of their interview with Elizabeth. Ormonde 
tried hard for a while to keep the peace in 
the face of Desmond's continued aggressions. 
Late in 1563 Ormonde complained to Sussex 
that Desmond was repeatedly attacking his 
relatives and tenants, and that it was only 
just that he should retaliate. On 1 July 
1564 Ormonde issued a notable proclamation 
forbidding, in the interest of his poorer de- 
pendents, the exaction of the ancient Irish 
customs within his dominions, and he was 



Butler i 

contemplating other similar reforms, when an 
attack byDesmond on his kinsman Sir Maurice 
Fitzgerald led (1565) to a pitched battle be- 
tween the supporters of the two earls at Affone, 
a ford near the river Finisk, a tributary of the 
Blackwater. Desmond was wounded by Sir 
Edmund Butler,Ormonde's brother, and taken 
prisoner. Elizabeth, angered beyond measure 
by this act of private war, summoned both 
earls again to her presence. The queen's 
councillors were divided as to the degrees of 
guilt attaching to the offenders, and the court 
factions aggravated the local struggle. Sus- 
sex insisted that Ormonde was guiltless. 
Sir Henry Sidney and the Leicester faction 
denied that Desmond had shown disloyalty to 
the English cause. Finally, both earls agreed 
(September 1565) to enter into their recogni- 
sances in 20,OOOZ. to abide such orders as her 
majesty might prescribe. Elizabeth evinced 
unmistakable sympathy for Ormonde; the at- 
tentions she paid him at the time gave rise 
to no little scandal, and induced him to linger 
at court for the next five years. Meanwhile 
Sir Henry Sidney succeeded Sussex as lord 
deputy, and he was inclined to favour Des- 
mond, but the queen insisted that Ormonde's 
claims whenever conflict arose deserved the 
higher consideration. In 1567 Sidney visited 
Munster and reported that it was absolutely 
uncontrolled, and as turbulent as it well 
could be. Desmond was ravaging Ormonde's 
territory in the earl's absence. A royal com- 
mission was nominated in October 1567 to 
determine the truth of Ormonde's allegation, 
that he had suffered terribly from Desmond's 
aggressions ; an award was made in his fa- 
vour, and Desmond was mulcted in the sum 
of 20,894^. 12s. Bd. Early in 1568 the Earl of 
Desmond and his brother John were sent to 
the Tower of London. Although Ormonde 
(in Sidney's words) still ' politicly kept him- 
self in England,' the Butler influence was in 
the ascendant during the imprisonment of 
the rival earl. Edward and Sir Edmund, 
Ormonde's brothers, used their power, as his 
representatives in Munster, with the utmost 
cruelty and injustice. In June 1569 Sir Ed- 
mund, who had a personal hatred of Sidney, 
in temporary concert with some members 
of the Desmond family, broke into open re- 
volt against the lord deputy. Sidney as- 
serted that Ormonde's presence was indispen- 
sable to the peace of South Ireland, and the 
earl returned home with the queen's per- 
mission. He landed at Waterford in July 
1569, and found Munster in the throes of a 
civil war, in which his brother Sir Edmund 
was matched against Sidney's lieutenant, Sir 
Peter Carew. Ormonde honestly endeavoured 
to arbitrate between the combatants, but Sid- 



> Butler 

ney clearly regarded him at the time with 
deep suspicion. Early in 1570, however, 
Ormonde wrote to Cecil that he and Sidney 
were reconciled, and as proof of his goodwill 
he crushed, at Sidney's request, a rebellion of 
the Earl of Thomond, one of the Munster 
malcontents. In April Ormonde's three bro- 
thers, Edmund, Edward, and Piers, were at- 
tainted, and Ormonde passionately protested 
against the indignity; but though the three 
Butlers were pardoned in 1573, and became 
loyal subjects, they were not, through some 
legal error, restored in blood. In 1571 Or- 
monde was busily engaged in repressing fur- 
ther tumults in Munster, which the Desmond 
influence continued to foment. At the be- 
ginning of 1572 Fitzwilliam, the lord deputy, 
wrote to Burghley that ' the South was always 
the ticklish part of Ireland, and that Ormonde 
alone could manage it.' 

In 1572 the earl spent several months in 
London, and visited his old rival, the Earl 
of Desmond, who was still in confinement. 
Desmond begged Ormonde to use his in- 
fluence to secure his release, and probably 
Ormonde recommended the course, which 
was soon after adopted, of letting Desmond 
return to Ireland under guarantees of good 
behaviour. Ormonde's domain grew very tur- 
bulent in his renewed absence, and Desmond, 
scorning all his promises, resolved on striking 
a desperate blow at English rule in South 
Ireland. In July 1573 Ormonde entreated 
him in vain to abandon his threatening de- 
signs. While Ormonde was on another visit 
to London, news reached Elizabeth (Decem- 
ber 1579) of a rising of the Desmond faction 
in Munster, aided and encouraged by papal 
envoys and Spanish soldiers. Ormonde was 
straightway appointed military governor of 
the province, with a commission ' to banish 
and vanquish those cankered Desmonds.' In 
March 1580 he marched from Kilkenny to 
Kerry, ravaging the country with fire and 
sword. In the mountains of Kerry he cap- 
tured many of the rebel leaders, and in a 
report of his services drawn up in July 1580 
he claimed to have put to the sword within 
three months 46 captains, 800 notorious 
traitors and malefactors, and 4,000 other 
persons. In September, when the rebels were 
encouraged to renew the struggle by the 
arrival of a second detachment of Spaniards 
at Smerwick, Ormonde showed less activity, 
although he still maintained a large army 
and supported the movements of the govern- 
ment. His conduct gave rise in England to 
some groundless suspicions of his loyalty. In 
April 1581, when the immediate danger had 
passed, he declared himself weary of killing, 
and induced Elizabeth to proclaim pardon to 



Butler 



81 



Butler 



all the rebels save Desmond and his brothers. 
But in 1582 the country was still disturbed. 
' They seek,' wrote Sir Henry Wallop of the na- 
tive Irish (10 June 1582), ' to have the govern- 
ment among themselves,' and Lord Burghley 
and Walsiugham thought to conciliate Irish 
feeling by appointing Ormonde lord deputy. 
Wallop and other English officials, however, 
who, like Sidney, were jealous of Ormonde's 
influence both at the English court and in 
Ireland, protested that ' Ormonde is too great 
for Ireland already,' and he was merely con- 
firmed in the military government of Mun- 
ster. Desmond was still at large in the 
Kerry mountains, and a few of his supporters 
maintained the old warfare. Ormonde was 
inclined to treat the enemy leniently for a 
time, but in May 1583 he deemed it prudent 
to attack with his former rigour all the 
known adherents of Desmond. At the same 
time he set a price on Desmond's head, and 
in October the rebellious earl was captured 
and slain. Ormonde thus succeeded in paci- 
fying Munster. In November he insisted on 
the grant of an indemnity to all who had 
taken part in the revolt, and spoke very 
roughly in letters to Burghley of those Eng- 
lish officers who advocated further rigorous 
measures, or wished him to break faith with 
the penitent rebels whom he had taken under 
his protection. In 1588 he helped to capture 
and kill the Spanish refugees who had escaped 
the wreck of the Armada. 

In October 1597 Ormonde was appointed 
lieutenant-general of the army in Ireland, 
and he supported the English troops in their 
tedious attempts to repress the rebellion of 
O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, in 1598-9. Early in 
1599 he became for a second time, in suc- 
cession to Sir Henry Wallop, treasurer of 
Ireland, but with Essex he was on no friendly 
terms (SpEDtixe's Bacon, ii. 93 et seq.) 
Ormonde complained that Essex did not 
honestly strive to crush Tyrone, and Essex 
and his associates retaliated by hinting sus- 
picions of Ormonde's loyalty. In 1602 Eliza- 
beth granted him much confiscated lands in 
Munster, and a pension of 40/. In 1612 he 
was vice-admiral of Ireland and sought to 
repress piracy. He died 22 Nov. 1614, at the 
age of 82. 

Ormonde was thrice married : first, to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Thomas, tenth lord Berke- 
ley, by whom he had no issue ; secondly, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of John, ninth lord Shef- 
field, by whom he had two sons, James and 
Thomas, anda daughter Elizabeth; and third- 
ly, to Helen, daughter of David, viscount 
Buttevant. His sons both died before him, 
and his title descended to Walter, son of his 
brother John of Kilcash. In 1597 Ormonde 

VOL. VIII. 



conveyed some rich church lands (originally 
granted by the crown to his brother James, 
and reverting to him on the death of James's 
only son without issue) to an illegitimate son, 
Piers FitzThomas (b. 1576). This son mar- 
ried Katherine, eldest daughter of Thomas, 
lord Stone, and was the father of Sir Edward 
Butler, created Viscount Galmoy 16 May 
1646. 

A sonnet in Ormonde's praise is prefixed 
by Spenser to the ' Faerie Queene ' (1590). 

[Bagwell's History of Ireland under the Tu- 
dors, vols. i. and ii. ; Froude's Hist, of England, 
vols. vii. and x. ; Burke's Peerage ; Chamberlain's 
Letters, temp. Elizabeth (Camden Soc.) ; Cam- 
den's Annals ; Cal. State Papers (Irish), 1560- 
1614; CarewMSS.; Cal. State Papers (Dom.), 
1600-1614.] S. L. L. 

BUTLER, THOMAS, EAKL OF OSSORY 
(1634-1680), was the eldest son of James, 
first duke of Ormonde [q. v.], and was born 
in the castle of Kilkenny on 9 July 1634. 
Here he remained, and was carefully edu- 
cated, throughout the Irish rebellion, until 
Ormonde surrendered Dublin to the parlia- 
mentary commissioners in 1647, when he ac- 
companied his father to England, and shortly 
afterwards, in February 1647-8, to France. 
He stayed with his brother Richard at Paris 
until Ormonde's return to Ireland in Sep- 
tember. They were then placed in the house 
of a French protestant minister at Caen for 
a year, and were subsequently sent to the 
academy of M. de Camp at Paris, where 
Ossory distinguished himself, as he did 
throughout his life, by his skill in all manly 
exercises. Evelyn's friendship with Ossory 
dates from this time, and on 16 March 1650 
he writes that he ' saw a triumph here [i.e. 
at Paris], where divers of the French and 
English noblesse, especially my lord of Os- 
sorie and Richard, sons to the Marquis of 
Ormonde, did their exercises on horseback in 
noble equipage.' In another entry, on 7 May, 
Evelyn gives an early instance of Ossory\ 
display of temper. In December 1650 the 
youth returned to Caen, where his mother was 
now residing, and in August 1652 accom- 
panied her to England, whither she went to 
petition parliament for part of the Ormonde 
estates. Having succeeded in her object, she 
went to Ireland in the following year, leav- 
ing Ossory and his brother in London, and 
only returned to England after two years' 
absence. The two passages in Carte upon 
this point are contradictory (cf. iii. 631 and 
iv. 596). The place of residence of the bro- 
thers during these two years is uncertain, 
but after Lady Ormonde's return to London 
they lived with her at Wild House. Os- 
sory's character at this time is thus given by 

G 



Butler 



Butler 



Sir R. Southwell : ' He is a young man with j 
a very handsome face, a good head of hair, a 
pretty big voice, well set, and a good round 
leg. He pleaseth me exceedingly, being very | 
good natured, talking freely, asking many 
questions, and humouring the answers. He | 
rides the great horse very well; is a good | 
tennis player, fencer, and dancer. He under- ' 
stands music, and plays on the guitar and 
lute ; speaks French elegantly, reads Italian 
fluently, is a good historian, and so well 
versed in romances that if a gallery be full 
of pictures or hangings he will tell the stories 
of all that are there described. He shuts up 
his door at eight o'clock in the evening, and 
studies till midnight. He is temperate, 
courteous, and excellent in all his behaviour.' 
The heir of a great house, with such en- 
dowments, soon became the darling of so- 
ciety. As late as 20 Feb. 1655 he was at full 
liberty, and mixing freely in society ; for on 
that day he was at the Swedish ambassador's 
(WHITELOCKE, p. 621). But his unconcealed 
sympathies with the royal cause roused the 
jealousy of Cromwell, who, in March 1655, 
sent a guard to secure him. It happened that 
he was out at the time, but Lady Ormonde 
promised that he should wait upon Cromwell 
next morning. This, though offers were 
made to assist him in escaping, he did, and 
was immediately sent under guard to the 
Tower, although Cromwell had only shortly 
before given him a pass to travel through 
Italy and the Holy Land. Ossory remained 
in the Tower eight months, during which his 
mother in vain appealed to Cromwell for his 
release or for information as to his crime. In 
October, however, he fell ill of ague, and was 
partially released, but was not finally set at 
liberty until the following spring, when he 
went with Lady Ormonde to Acton in Glou- 
cestershire, and shortly afterwards with his 
brother to Flanders, apparently in disguise. 
Thence he went to Holland, and avoided the 
refugee court of Charles, lest he should give 
Cromwell a pretence for taking away his 
mother's estate. Here he stayed for four 
years, became acquainted with the Lord of 
Beverwaert, the governor of Sluys, a noble- 
man allied in blood to the Prince of Orange, 
and married his eldest daughter Emilia on 
17 Nov. 1659. Ormonde himself was present 
at the wedding, and approved the match. He 
hoped that by its agency he might induce De 
"Witt, a great friend of Beverwaert, to enter 
heartily into the design of the king's restora- 
tion. To secure this marriage, Ossory's mother 
was compelled to give up 1,200Z. a year out of 
the 2,OOOJ. a year settled upon her by Crom- 
well. The father of the bride gave 10,0002. 
dowry, with which Ormonde's sister was to 



have been married and his brother John edu- 
cated ; but the money appears to have been 
immediately devoted to the necessities of the 
royal service. Ossory's relations with his 
wife were of the purest kind, and he appears 
to have lived without even a suspicion of li- 
bertinism. Lady Ossory ' was an excellent 
woman, had exceeding good sense, and the 
sweetest temper in the world.' Ossory fell 
into one of the court follies, that of gam- 
bling ; and it is said that when, ' after losing, 
he came home thoughtful and out of humour, 
and upon her inquiring the reason told her 
that he was vexed at himself for playing the 
fool and gaming, and that he had lost one 
thousand pounds, she still desired him not to 
be troubled she would find ways to save it 
at home. She was indeed an admirable eco- 
nomist, always cheerful, and never known to 
be out of humour ; so that they lived together 
in the most perfect harmony imaginable.' By 
this marriage he became united with Henry 
Bennet [q. v.], earl of Arlington, already an 
intimate friend, who married Isabella, his 
wife's sister, in 1666. 

At the Restoration Ossory accompanied 
Charles. He was already the valued friend 
not merely of young gallants like himself, 
but of the best men of the time. On 6 July 
1660, for instance, Evelyn speaks of him as 
his ' excellent and worthy noble friend, my 
Lord Ossory,' and frequently mentions him 
in terms of enthusiastic admiration ; while 
the confidence reposed in him by James is 
shown by the fact that he was one of the 
two witnesses to the duke's marriage with 
Anne Hyde (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 159). 
On 8 Feb. 1660-1 he was made by patent 
colonel of foot in Ireland, on 13 June follow- 
ing colonel and captain of horse, and on the 
19th of the same month lieutenant-general of 
the horse. At the ceremony of the coronation 
he was one of the young noblemen appointed 
to bear the king's mantle, and as such he 
challenged the place before Lord Percy, the 
eldest son of the Duke of Northumberland. 
His pretension, which gave great offence, 
was unjustifiable, as Ormonde's dukedom was 
only an Irish one, and it was overruled by 
the king (CLARENDON, Life, 194). In the 
beginning of 1662 he succeeded the Earl of 
Mountrath in various military commands, 
and on 1 6 Aug. 1665 was appointed lieutenant- 
general of the army in Ireland. 

Meantime Ossory had been elected a mem- 
ber for Bristol in the parliament which met 
on 8 May 1661, and was also in the Irish 
House of Commons. On 22 June 1 662 Charles 
ordered 'that he should be called to the House 
of Peers in that country. By special order 
of the commons he was accompanied by Sir 



Butler 



Butler 



Paul Davys and Sir H. Tichborne, with the 
body of members, to the bar of the House of 
Lords. The lords themselves ordered that 
his seat should be above all the earls. The 
speaker of the commons gave thanks to the 
lords for the honour thus done to Ossory, 
who was further complimented by the lord 
chancellor. In April 1664 Ormonde left Ire- 
land for court, returning in October 1665, 
during which interval Ossory acted as his 
deputy. 

In 1665 he returned to England, and was 
on a visit to his future brother-in-law, Ar- 
lington, at the latter's seat at Euston, when 
the first great battle, lasting for four days, 
took place with the Dutch off the Suffolk 
coast. Hearing the guns at sea, he, with 
Sir Thomas Clifford, managed to get from 
Harwich on board the Duke of Albemarle's 
ship, and bring him the welcome news that 
Rupert was on his way to reinforce him ; 
and he remained with the duke, for whom he 
had ever afterwards a high opinion, during 
two days' fighting. He is stated by his dar- 
ing conduct in this fight to have 'become 
the darling of the kingdom, and especially 
of the seamen, who called him the preserver 
of the navy.' He was shortly made a gentle- 
man of the king's bedchamber upon his 
father's resignation, was placed on the Eng- 
lish privy council in June 1666, and on 
14 Sept. in the same year was summoned to 
the English House of Lords by the title of 
Lord Butler of Moore Park, taking his seat 
on 18 Sept. The lords were soon treated to 
a specimen of his fiery temper. The Duke 
of Buckingham, who was busily plotting 
against Ormonde, asserted in the house that 
none were against the bill then before them, 
prohibiting the importation of Irish cattle, 
except such as had Irish estates or Irish un- 
derstandings (PEPYS, 27 Oct. 1666). Ossory, 
on 26 Oct., angrily replied, and delighted to 
find an excuse for quarrelling with Bucking- 
ham at once challenged him, but on arriving 
at the place of meeting was arrested by the 
king's guard, Buckingham having, according 
to Carte (iv. 270), given notice to Charles. 
Clarendon's account differs somewhat from 
that of Carte. He says nothing of an arrest, 
and mentions that Buckingham went to a 
place other than that appointed, pretending 
that it was called by the same name (Life, 
969). Buckingham having complained of a 
breach of privilege, Ossory was released by 
the king to make his defence, but was sent 
back to the Tower by the lords, the duke too 
being taken into custody. On 31 Oct. Ossory 
presented a petition to the lords, drawn up 
by Arlington, who had vigorously espoused 
his quarrel in the house, expressing his regret, 



and praying to be released, which was done 
two days after the arrest. Pepys states that 
the quarrel was between Ossory and Claren- 
don ; but this is of course a clerical error, 
as Clarendon was one of Ormonde's greatest 
friends, and himself rebuked Buckingham 
(CARTE, iv. 270). A fresh quarrel, it appears, 
broke out on 19 Nov., in which Ossory flatly 
gave Buckingham the lie (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
8th Rep. 102 a, 102 b). For this, and for a 
similar attack upon Ashley, when, after great 
provocation, he said that Ashley spoke like 
one of Oliver's council, the fiery young man 
was compelled by the house to ask pardon of 
his opponents. 

In 1668 Ormonde asked leave of Charles to 
come to court, leaving his son as his deputy. 
Ossory accordingly set out in March and re- 
mained until his father's deprivation of the 
lord-lieutenancy in March of the following 
year, 1669, when he returned to England. 
He had been put in full possession of the in- 
trigues against Ormonde by Arlington, who 
was sincerely attached to himself, but who 
was at the time engaged in them. 

In May 1670 Ossory went in the king's train 
to Dover to meet the Duchess of Orleans, 
and in the following October was sent with 
a fleet of yachts to bring the Prince of Orange 
to England, sailing from Harwich about 
the 13th (ib. 6th Rep. 367 b}, and returning 
with him at the end of the month. It was 
in this year that the attempt was made by 
Blood upon his father's life. Ossory ascribed 
the outrage directly to the Duke of Bucking- 
ham before the king's face, and added : ' If 
my father comes to a violent end, by sword 
or pistol, ... I shall not be at a loss to know 
the first author of it. I shall consider you 
as the assassin ; . . . and wherever I meet 
you I shall pistol you, though you stood be- 
hind the king's chair. And I tell it you in 
his majesty's presence, that you may be sure 
I shall keep my word.' 

In February Ossory was again appointed 
to attend the Prince of Orange back to the 
Hague. Thence he returned by Flanders and 
Paris, intending to serve as a volunteer in 
the French force destined for Alsace. The 
expedition having, however, fallen through, 
Ossory once more came to Holland and thence 
to England. He had completely won the re- 
spect of Orange, who in April sent him as a 
present ' a bason and ewer of massy gold.' 

In June 1671 Ossory went over to Flanders 
to be present at the siege of Brunswick. 
Disappointed here, he was, in January 1671-2, 
in command of the third-rate king's ship 
the Resolution, and was on board of her 
when, along with Sir Robert Holmes, he 
attacked, on 14 March, the Dutch Smyrna 



Butler 



8 4 



Butler 



fleet before any declaration of war had been 
issued an action which deeply offended Or- 
monde, and which he himself afterwards ac- 
counted the one blot upon his life (EVELYN, 
12 March 1672, 26 July 1680). In April he 
was promoted to the command of the second- 
rate the Victory, upon which he fought the 
sanguinary action with the Dutch in South- 
wold Bay on 28 May. After the action, in 
which he further increased his reputation for 
courage, he caused the sick and wounded 
seamen in the Southwark Hospital to be 
visited and relieved at his own cost. It is 
stated (Biog. Brit.} that shortly before this he 
had lost about 8,0001. at cards, and that from 
this difficulty he was relieved by the king with- 
out the knowledge of the court. On 30 Sept. 
Charles bestowed the garter upon him, and 
he was installed at Windsor on 25 Oct. He 
was next employed, in November, as envoy 
extraordinary to carry formal condolences to 
Louis on the death of the Duke of Anjou. 
Every honour was shown him while at the 
French court, and the most enticing offers, 



confidence by choosing him in November 1674 
to propose to Orange the marriage with 
James's daughter Mary. On 31 May, Trinity 
Monday, 1675, he was elected master of the 
Trinity House, Evelyn again being present 
(ib. 8th Rep. 255 a). In July 1680 there was 
a painting of him in the Trinity House, but 
it was distrained, along with other property, 
for hearth-money, which the corporation 
refused to pay, on 29 Sept. 1682 (ib. 257 a, 
258 b). In August he was appointed one of 
the commissioners of the admiralty. Appa- 
rently his affairs were at this time some- 
what embarrassed, for on 22 Dec. 1675 he is 
mentioned as petitioning the king for a pension 
of 2,000/. a year out of the 30,OOOZ. reserved 
by him from the new farm of the revenue 
of Ireland (ib. 4th Rep. 248). On 18 Nov. 
1676 he was made lord chamberlain to the 
queen. In June 1677 the Prince of Orange, 
when sending over Bentinck to continue the 
marriage negotiations, advised him to go, 
in the first place, to Ossory and Ormonde. 
Ossory now obtained permission to make a 



both of place and money, were made him i campaign with Orange, and joined him before 





to induce him to take service with Louis, 
which he refused on the ground that he was 
already serving in the Dutch war. Upon 
his taking leave he was presented with a 
jewel of the value of 2,0001. On 26 March 
1673, along with Evelyn, Ossory was sworn 
a younger brother of the Trinity House 
(EVELYN, 26 March 1673). In May 1673 he 
accepted the command of the first-rate St. 
Michael, and was made rear-admiral of the 
blue on the 17th. In the great battle which 
was fought in June, Admiral Spragge, who 
commanded, being slain and his ship disabled, 
Ossory defended her from capture during the 
day, and at night brought her safely off. 
No one was left alive upon his quarter-deck 
but himself, his page, and Captain Narborough 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. 719 b note). 
After this action he was made rear-admiral of 
the red, and in September commanded in chief 
during Rupert's absence, while the fleet was 
lying at the Nore, receiving henceforward, 
according to custom, a pension of 250/. a year. 
Towards the close of the year Ossory received 
intelligence that the harbour of Helvoetsluys, 
where, when in Holland, he had noticed 
the prizes taken by the Dutch at Chatham, 
and which he was now informed was filled 
with the Dutch navy, was very insufficiently 
guarded. He at once made a design for 
attacking it, and haying secured a plan of 
the harbour, and having obtained the king's 
orders to sail with ten frigates and 2,000 
soldiers, was on the eve of setting out when, 
from causes never known, the expedition was 
countermanded. Charles showed continued 



Charleroi ; and upon the raising of the siege, 
a battle with Luxembourg being imminent, 
he had the post of honour with the command 
of 6,000 men conferred upon him (ib. 5th 
Rep. 187). He returned to England that 
year, for at the beginning of December we 
find him and his second, Captain Mackarly, 
worsted in a duel with Mr. Buckley and 
Mr. Gerard (ib. 7th Rep. 469 a). 

In February 1678 he again went to Hol- 
land, where he had been appointed general, 
by the prince's patent, of the British forces 
in the pay of the States. In that capacity 
he was present at the battle of Mons, and 
distinguished himself greatly, his own life 
being saved only by the fact that two shots 
which struck him were stopped by his armour. 
He returned to England in September 1678 
with many testimonies to his reputation. He 
was desirous, however, of having his com- 
mission of general confirmed by the States, 
and in March 1680 sent to demand this, 
which, after much difficulty, he obtained 
through Orange's personal influence. 

Upon his return in 1678 Ossory had been 
nominated to command the fleet intended to 
put down the pirates of Algiers; his de- 
mands for men and ships, however, were 
greater than the treasury would grant, and 
Narborough went in his stead. 

Ossory had an active share in the early 
stages of the popish terror. It is stated, 
indeed, that on 11 Nov. 1678 he discovered 
100,000 fireballs and grenades in Somerset 
House (ib. 471 b}, which was, of course, merely 
an idle tale. In December he appears to 



Butler 



Butler 



have given in a report concerning Godfrey's 
murder (ib. 6th Rep. 778 b), while he pointed 
out an evident falsehood in Oates's evidence, 
and on 30 Nov. was the first to carry to the 
queen the news that the lords had refused 
to concur in the vote of the commons of 
28 Nov. for an address to the king for her 
removal from court. In June 1679 there 
was talk of removing Lauderdale from his 
commands in Scotland, and of the appoint- 
ment of Ossory and another with Monmouth 
as a joint commission for governing that 
country (ib. 7th Rep. 473 a). 

In September he was named envoy ex- 
traordinary to carry to the King of Spain 
Charles's congratulations on the marriage of 
the latter's niece. This expedition, however, 
in preparing for which he had incurred much 
expense, was stopped by Essex, then at the 
head of the treasury, who persuaded Charles 
to seek a less expensive method (ib. 6th Rep. 
724 b). On 23 Oct. he walked before James 
at the artillery dinner given to the duke (ib. 
7th Rep. 476 b). When a volunteer force of 
young men of position was raised as a body- 
guard to the king, Ossory had the command 
(ib. 3rd Rep. 270). 

During the winter Ormonde was warmly 
attacked in the House of Lords by Shaftes- 
bury, who saw in his continuance in Ireland 
one of the greatest difficulties to the success of 
the anti-catholic and exclusion programme. 
He was, however, defended with the utmost 
spirit by Ossory, who retorted upon Shaftes- 
bury himself with telling effect : ' Having 
spoke of what he has done, I presume with 
the same truth to tell your lordships what he 
has not done. He never advised the break- 
ing up of the triple league, he never ad- 
vised the shutting up of the exchequer, he 
never advised the declaration for a tolera- 
tion, he never advised the falling out with 
the Dutch and joining with the French ; he 
was not the author of that most excellent 
position of " Delenda est Carthago," that Hol- 
land, a protestant country, should, contrary 
to the true interest of England, be totally 
destroyed. I beg your lordships will be so 
just as to judge of my father and of all men 
according to their actions and counsels.' This 
speech was translated into Dutch, and drew 
from Orange a sincere letter of praise. 

In April 1680 Ossory was replaced on the 
privy council, from which he had been re- 
moved at the dissolution of the old council. 
In June, greatly to his own dislike, he was 
nominated to the governorship of Tangier, 
with the generalship of the forces. He took 
it greatly to heart, since he was being sent 
out with an incompetent force upon what 
Sunderland the secretary told the king before 



his face was an errand that must fail, even if 
it were not intended to fail. The gallant and 
high-spirited man appears to have brooded 
deeply over this unworthy reward of his own 
and his father's services, and he unburdened 
his mind to Evelyn. On the evening of the 
same day, 26 July, he attended the king at 
the sheriffs' supper in Fishmongers' Hall. 
There he was taken ill, and was removed to 
Arlington House, where Evelyn watched his 
bedside. He speedily became delirious, with 
short lucid intervals, during which the sacra- 
ment was administered, and, in spite of the 
efforts of six doctors, died on Friday, 30 July 
(EVELYN, 26 July 1680). His body was 
placed temporarily in Westminster Abbey, 
and afterwards removed to the family vaults 
at Kilkenny Castle. The character which 
Evelyn gives him is supported by universal 
testimony. ' His majesty never lost a worthier 
subject, nor father a better or more dutiful 
son ; a loving, generous, good-natured, and 
perfectly obliging friend, one who had done 
innumerable kindnesses to se verall before they 
knew it ; nor did he ever advance any that 
were not worthy ; no one more brave, more 
modest ; none more humble, sober, and every 
way virtuous. . . . What shall I add ? He 
deserved all that a sincere friend, a brave 
souldier, a virtuous courtier, a loyal subject, 
an honest man, a bountifull master, and good 
Christian, could deserve of his prince and 
country.' 

Ossory had eleven children, of whom two 
sons and four daughters survived him. The 
eldest of the sons, James Butler (1665-1745) 
[q. v.], became the second duke of Ormonde, 
while of the daughters one became Countess 
of Derby, another Countess of Grant ham. 

[The authorities for Ossory's life are, in the 
first place, Carte's Life of Ormonde ; Evelyn 
gives much useful information ; one or two anec- 
dotes not otherwise mentioned will be found in 
Clarendon's Life, while the various notices in 
the Keports of the Hist. MSS. Commission, espe- 
cially those contained in Mr. Gilbert's most in- 
teresting account of the Kilkenny MSS., with the 
numerous specimens of Ossory's letters, are of 
the greatest value.] 0. A. 

BUTLER, THOMAS HAMLY (1762?- 
1823), musical composer, the son of James 
Butler, a musician, was born in London about 
1762. He was for nearly ten years a cho- 
rister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Nares, 
and subsequently studied in Italy for three 
years under Piccini. On returning to Eng- 
land, he was engaged by Sheridan as com- 
poser for Covent Garden Theatre ; but owing 
to a quarrel the engagement was not renewed. 
Butler wrote music to Cumberland's five-act 
play, ' The Widow of Delphi,' which was 



Butler 



86 



Butler 



produced at Covent Garden 1 Feb. 1780, and 
only acted six times. Soon afterwards he 
settled at Edinburgh, where he first lived at 
Bishop's Land, High Street, and subsequently 
at 24 Broughton Street and 3 Catherine Street. 
He enjoyed considerable reputation as a 
teacher, and wrote a quantity of music for 
the pianoforte marches, arrangements of 
Scotch airs, sonatas, &c., all of which are now 
forgotten. Butler died in Edinburgh in 1823. 

[A Dictionary of Musicians, 1827, i. 125 ; 
Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 386 a ; Genest's Hist, 
of the Stage, vi. 146; British Museum Music 
Catalogue.] W. B. S. 

BUTLER, WALTER, of Kilcash, eleventh 
EARL OF ORMONDE (1569-1633), was the 
eldest son of Sir John Butler, the younger 
brother of Thomas, tenth earl of Ormonde 
and Ossory [q. v.] He was but half a year 
old at his father's death, after which he lived 
under the guardianship of his uncle. In 1599 
he led a portion of the army commanded 
by the latter, and defeated Redmond Bourke 
at Ormond with the loss of 200 men, and 
on another occasion drove him out of the 
castle of Drehednefarney. In the former of 
these actions he behaved with great gal- 
lantry, and was wounded by a pike in the 
knee. When, a year later, Owen Grane and 
the O'Mores entered Kilkenny, and burnt 
his uncle's house at Bowlike, Walter Butler 
again fell upon the enemy, killing sixty of 
them, with two of their leaders, and recover- 
ing a large part of the booty. Upon the 
death of Earl Thomas, in 1614, without 
legitimate male issue, he succeeded to the 
earldom of Ormonde and Ossory. His title 
to the estates, however, was contested by 
Sir R. Preston, afterwards the Earl of Des- 
mond, who had married the sole daughter of 
Earl Thomas, and who, under the favour 
and with the active interference of James I, 
laid claim to a large portion in right of his 
wife. After much time and money had 
been spent in litigation, James made an 
award which Earl Walter refused to submit 
to. He was thereupon, in 1617, committed 
to the Fleet prison by James, where he re- 
mained for eight years in great want, no 
rents reaching him from his estate. James 
meanwhile brought a writ of quo warranto 
against him for the county palatine of Tippe- 
rary, which had been vested in the head of 
the family for nearly four hundred years, and 
which could not therefore under any circum- 
stances have belonged to his cousin Elizabeth, 
the wife of Preston ; no answer was made to 
the writ, if indeed an opportunity was afforded 
for answer, and James took the county 
palatine into his own hands. It was not 



restored until 1663, when Charles II returned 
it to the Duke of Ormonde with enlarged 
privileges. Earl Walter, however, was set 
at liberty in 1625, and a large part of his 
estates restored to him. For some while he 
lived in a house in Drury Lane, with his grand- 
son James, afterwards Duke of Ormonde, 
but shortly retired to Ireland. In 1629, 
on 5 the projected marriage of his grandson 
and Elizabeth Poyntz, Charles I granted 
her marriage and the wardship of her lands 
to him by letters patent dated 8 Sept. After 
the marriage he was recognised, 9 Oct. 1630, 
as heir to the lands of Earl Thomas as well 
as of Sir John Butler his father. He died 
at Carrick on 24 Feb. 1632-3, and was buried 
at Kilkenny 18 June 1633. 

By his marriage with Ellen Butler, daugh- 
ter of Edmund, second Viscount Mountgarret, 
he had three sons (Thomas, Lord Thurles, the 
father of James Butler, first duke of Ormonde 
[q. v.], James and John, who died young, 
without issue) and nine daughters. 

[Carte's Introduction to his Life of Ormonde, 
and a few notices in the Reports of the Hist. 
MSS. Com.] 0. A. 

BUTLER, WALTER, COUNT (d. 1634), 
was the second son of Peter Butler of Ros- 
crea, and his wife Catharine de Burgo. His 
father was the great grandson of Sir Richard 
Butler of Poolestown in Kilkenny, a younger 
son of James, third Earl of Ormonde (LODGE'S 
Peerage of Ireland, 1789, iv. 17). It is sup- 
posed that Walter Butler served on the Li- 
guistic side in the battle of Prague (1620), 
but he is first mentioned by name as lieuten- 
ant-colonel of James Butler's regiment, in 
which capacity he accompanied his kinsman 
[see BUTLER, JAMES, fl. 1631-1634] on his 
march from Poland to Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder early in 1631. There seems no satis- 
factory evidence of his having before this 
time become connected with the Tipperary 
priest Thomas Carve, who then or soon after- 
wards was appointed chaplain of his regiment, 
and to whom Walter Butler is indebted for 
the only literary attempt ever made to glorify 
his tarnished name (see, however, Preface to 
Itinerarium, v). According to the chaplain, 
Butler brilliantly distinguished himself at 
the siege of Frankfort, having apparently 
been left there in command of his absent kins- 
man's regiment. Although placed in the most 
dangerous position, he successfully resisted 
a Swedish attack made when the rest of the 
garrison was enjoying itself at table ; and on 
the day of the general assault (April 3-13) 
stayed the retreat of two imperial regiments. 
The latter part of this account is confirmed 
by Colonel Robert Monro, whose own regi- 



Butler 



Butler 



ment (Mackay's) was present at the siege on 
the Swedish side. He says that Butler's 
regiment bravely resisted the onslaught of 
the yellow and blue brigades, till most of the 
Irishmen fell to the ground ; and Butler, 
' being shot in the arm, and pierced with a 
pike through the thigh, was taken prisoner ' 
(MoNRO, His Expedition, London, 1637, ii. 
34). Carve gives a list of the Irish officers 
who fell. He further relates, with many 
surprising details, that after the city had 
been taken Gustavus Adolphus ordered the 
wounded officer to be brought into his pre- 
sence, when, after drawing his sword and 
ascertaining that it was the younger and not 
the elder Butler who was before him, he de- 
clared that had it been the elder he would 
have perished by the royal hand. In the same 
strain the chaplain goes on to tell how Walter 
Butler, having been accused on his own side 
of having caused the fall of Frankfort, re- 
ceived from the magnanimous king of Sweden 
a testimonial of valour, signed and sealed by 
all the Swedish generals, which he afterwards 
exhibited to the emperor at Vienna, while a 
broadsheet vindicating him was also published 
at Frankfort. 

After remaining in captivity for six months 
Butler, from what resources does not appear, 
purchased his freedom for 1,000 dollars. He 
immediately joined the imperial army in Si- 
lesia under Tiefenbach, by whom he was most 
honourably received. He paid two visits to 
Poland for the purpose of levying troops, 
meeting with strange adventures on the way, 
and in January 1632 was about to settle down 
in remote winter quarters, when he was en- 
trusted by Wallenstein, who had just re- 
assumed the command, with the defence of his 
own duchy of Sagan. According to Carve, 
Butler more than justified the choice, and was 
rewarded for his deeds of valour against the 
Saxons by being assigned the Silesian county 
of Jagerndorf (on the Bohemian frontier) 
and its appurtenances as his winter quarters. 
This is possible, as Jagerndorf had been 
recently confiscated by the emperor, and be- 
stowed by him upon a catholic magnate. 
Here Butler married a countess of Fondana. 
The brilliant victory of Eger, in which he 
and his cavalry captured twelve standards, 
may be identified with a brief stand made 
there by the Saxon Colonel von Starschettel 
before capitulating (cf. FORSTER, Brief e Wal- 
lenstein's, &c. ii. 218). Nothing more is heard 
of him till the fatal year 1634 ; nor was it till 
at a very late stage in the series of events 
which led to the death of Wallenstein that 
Butler intervened in the action. 

From the narrative of Butler's regimental 
chaplain, Patrick Taaffe, which there seems 



no reason for distrusting, it appears that at 
the beginning of the year 1634 Butler was in 
winter quarters at Klatrup (Kladran) on the 
Bohemian frontier, his regiment, composed 
of about 1,000 excellent soldiers, being posted 
about the neighbourhood for the defence of 
the passes between Bohemia and the Upper 
Palatinate. Though he had received no re- 
cent favours from Wallenstein, and had his 
suspicions as to the general's ultimate designs, 
he seems to have known neither of the steps 
which Wallenstein had in vain taken for as- 
suring himself of the fidelity of his superior 
officers, nor of the imperial rescript of Feb. 18 
bidding those officers cease to yield obedience 
to the deposed commander-in-chief. When, 
therefore, about this time an order from Wal- 
lenstein suddenly reached Butler, bidding 
him collect his regiment and march at once 
to Prague, where it had been the general's 
original intention to assemble his forces before 
opening the decisive negotiations, Butler 
obeyed. But he told his chaplain and con- 
fessor that the order confirmed his suspicions 
of the general's loyalty, and that he expected 
that at Prague death awaited him as a faithful 
soldier. Clearly he expected a battle there ; 
but in truth the Prague garrison had already 
declared for Gallas and the emperor, and Wal- 
lenstein, after a design of seizing his person 
at Pilsen had been frustrated, had no choice 
but to hold Eger and the adjoining frontier 
districtwith such troops as still adhered to him. 
When, therefore, on 22 Feb., Butler on his 
way to Prague reached Mies, near Pilsen, he 
was accidentally met by Wallenstein himself, 
proceeding from Pilsen to Eger with How, 
Terzka, Kinsky, and a small body of troops. 
(The statement that these included two hun- 
dred of Butler's own dragoons is probably 
founded on a mistake.) Butler was told 
to spend the night at Mies away from his 
soldiery ; and next morning had with his regi- 
ment, under certain precautions, to accompany 
the duke on his progress to Eger. On the 
24th Wallenstein entered into confidential 
conversation with him, enlarging on his own 
and his army's grievances against the em- 
peror, and plying his companion with com- 
pliments and promises. Butler in return 
assured the duke that he would serve him 
rather than any other mortal. On the same 
day Eger was reached, and Butler was as- 
signed quarters in the town, while his regi- 
ment remained outside the gates. Meanwhile 
on the 23rd Butler had contrived to despatch 
his chaplain to Piccolomini, now at Pilsen, 
assuring him that he would be true to the 
emperor, and adding that perchance God's 
providence designed to force him to do some 
heroic deed. Piccolomini bade the chaplain 



Butler 



88 



Butler 



tell Butler that if he desired the imperial 
favour and promotion, he must deliver -up 
Wallenstein dead or alive. The message did 
not reach Butler till all was over : but Pic- 
colomini is stated to have added that he 
would find some other way of letting Butler 
know his mind on the subject. If this account 
be correct, it results that Butler's presence 
at Eger was due to chance ; that after first 
mistrusting him Wallenstein believed himself 
to have gained him over ; and that Butler did 
not enter Eger, as he had certainly not left 
his quarters on the frontier, with any set pur- 
pose of assassinating the duke. Most as- 
suredly he had received no orders to that 
effect from the emperor, by whom none were ! 
given ; nor can we suppose any instructions 
to have reached him from Piccolomini. At 
the same time, as Ranke says, the idea of 
this particular solution was in the air and 
had previously suggested itself to various 
minds. 

On the night of his arrival at Eger, Butler 
had an interview with Lieutenant-colonel 
Gordon and Major Leslie, two Scotch pro- 
testant officers in Terzka's infantry regiment, 
which formed the garrison of Eger. Finding 
them alarmed at the situation of affairs, he 
began to sound them as to what should be 
done. Gordon having proposed flight, which 
Butler rejected, Leslie was led to declare 
that they should kill the traitors. Here- 
upon Butler opened to them his design, to 
which at last Gordon signified his assent. 
Then followed the well-known incidents of 
25 Feb. Several officers including Deve- 
reux, Geraldine, and de Burgo, possibly a con- 
nection of Butler's and about a hundred men 
of Butler's regiment, together with nearly 
the same number of German soldiers, were 
secretly introduced into the town. In the 
course of the day the rumour spread that the 
Swedes were approaching, and this no doubt 
helped to nerve the hands of the conspirators. 
In the evening a banquet was held in the 
castle, at which Butler's Irish dragoons cut 
down How, Terzka, Kinsky, and Neumann, 
and then Devereux killed Wallenstein him- 
self in his quarters at the burgomaster's 
house. Next morning Butler informed the 
town councillors of what had happened, and 
after making them swear fidelity to the em- 
peror, imposed a similar oath upon the regi- 
ments encamped outside the town. He also 
took measures for the capture of Duke Francis 
Albert of Saxe-Lauenburg, who was expected 
from across the frontier with tidings from 
Duke Bernard of Weimar. Information was 
sent to Gallas, and a proclamation to the 
army was issued by Butler and Gordon, de- 
claring the treason of Wallenstein, and stat- 



ing what measures had been taken against 
him and his associates. All these proceed- 
ings were substantially successful. 

The deed of Butler and his fellows may 
not have saved the house of Austria and the 
Roman catholic cause in the empire from 
any grave danger, for Wallenstein had been 
abandoned by the great body of his army 
before he quitted Pilsen for Eger, and beyond 
that frontier fortress hardly anything in Bo- 
hemia remained in his power. But the Irish 
dragoons had relieved the emperor, Spain, 
Bavaria, and the Roman catholic party in 
general from a grievous incubus ; and Butler 
in especial had done his part of the work 
promptly and effectively, and, what was most 
acceptable of all, without waiting for definite 
orders on the subject! Nor was he left un- 
rewarded. Besides receiving the personal 
thanks of the emperor, who presented him 
with a gold chain and a medal bearing the 
imperial portrait, he was made owner of the 
regiment of which he held the command, 
ennobled as a count, appointed chamberlain, 
and endowed with Friedberg, the most con- 
siderable of the late duke's domains next to 
Friedland itself. He afterwards took part in 
the battle of Nordlingen (7 Sept, 1634) ; but 
Carve's word must be taken for the statement 
that on this occasion Butler fought most va- 
liantly under the eyes of the king of Hun- 
gary and the Cardinal-Infante without in- 
termission for twenty-four hours, not giving 
way a single foot's breadth till the Spaniards 
and Croats came to his aid. After the victory 
Butler was sent with eight regiments to lay 
siege to Aurach and Schorndorf, in Wiir- 
temberg, both of which places he took. At 
Schorndorf he died, 25 Dec. 1634, 'most 
placidly,' after duly receiving the last sacra- 
ments of his church. Carve arrived in time 
to see his hero's coffin and to read his last 
will, in which he left 20,000 dollars to a 
convent of Franciscans at Prague, specially 
devoted to the interests of the faithful and the 
con version of heretics in Ireland and Scotland, 
besides legacies to Jesuits and other priests, 
and to his faithful lieutenant-colonel Walter 
Devereux, who succeeded to his regiment. 
Butler was sumptuously buried by his widow, 
but as he left no children his estate of Fried- 
berg passed to a kinsman of the Poolestown 
house, whom the Emperor Leopold I con- 
firmed in the possession of the title of count. 
The family afterwards migrated to Bavaria, 
where it still survives. 

[The Itinerarium of Thomas Carve, who was 
chaplain first to Butler and then to Devereux, and 
afterwards called himself head-chaplain to the 
English, Scotch, and Irish serving in the imperial 
army, contains many more or less trustworthy 



Butler 



8 9 



Butler 



particulars as to Butler, more especially in 
chaps, vii. viii. ix. and xi. of part i., and in 
part ii. concerning his descent. It was reprinted 
London, 1859. As to Butler's share in Wallen- 
stein's catastrophe, however, the best authority is 
the account written in answer to the inquiries of 
a Eatisbon priest by Patrick Taaffe, Butler's 
regimental chaplain, at the time of the murder, 
which is printed by Mailath, Geschichte d. 
osterreich. Kaiserstaats (1842), iii. 367-376, 
and is in substance accepted by Ranke, for whose 
account of the catastrophe see his Geschichte 
Wallenstein's (1869), 402-456. Cf. also the ar- 
tiale on Walter Butler by Landmann, in Allge- 
meine deutsche Biographic, iii. 651-653 ; and 
Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (1789), iv. 17.1 

A. W. W. 

BUTLER, WEEDEN, the elder (1742- 
1823), miscellaneous writer, was born at 
Margate on 22 Sept. 1742. He was articled 
to a solicitor in London, but quitted the 
legal profession for the church. He acted 
as amanuensis to Dr. "William Dodd from 
1764 till his patron's ignominious end in 
1777. In 1776 he had succeeded Dodd as 
morning preacher at Charlotte Street chapel, 
Pimlico, in which fashionable place of wor- 
ship he officiated till 1814. In 1778 he was 
lecturer of St. Clement's, Eastcheap, and 
St. Martin Orgars ; and for more than forty 
years he was master of a classical school at 
Chelsea. In 1814 he retired to Gayton, 
where he acted as curate to his son till 1820, 
when, in consequence of increasing infirmi- 
ties, he withdrew, at first to the Isle of 
Wight, next to Bristol, and finally to Green- 
hill, near Harrow, where he died on 14 July 
1823. He was father of "Weeden Butler, the 
younger [q. v.], and of George Butler, D.D., 
headmaster of Harrow [q. v.] He was chap- 
lain to the Duke of ifent and the queen's 
volunteers. 

His works are: 1. 'The Cheltenham 
Guide,' London, 1781, 8vo (anon.) 2. ' Ac- 
count of the Life and Writings of the Rev. 
George Stanhope, D.D., Dean of Canterbury/ 
London, 1797, 8vo (anon.) 3. 'Memoirof Mark 
Hildesley, D.D., Bishop of Sodor and Man,' 
London, 1799, 8vo. 4. 'Plea sing Recollect ions, 
or a Walk through the British Museeum. An 
interlude of two acts,' Addit. MS. 27276. 
5. Poems in manuscript, including ' The 
Syracusan,' a tragedy, and ' Sir Roger de 
Coverley,' a comedy. He also prepared edi- 
tions of Jortin's ' Tracts,' 2 vols. 1790, and 
Wilcock's ' Roman Conversations,' 2 vols. 
1797. 

[Addit. MSS. 27577, 27578 ; Nichols's Illust. 
of Lit. v. 130; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 223; 
Gent, Mag. xciii. (ii.) 182-4; Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mus. ; Biog. Diet, of Living 
Authors (1816), 50.] T. C. 



BUTLER, WEEDEN, the younger 
(17.73-1831), author, eldest son of the Rev. 
Weeden Butler mentioned above, was edu- 
cated by his father till 1790, when he entered 
Sidney College, Cambridge (B.A. 1794, M. A. 
1797). He became afternoon lecturer of Char- 
lotte Street Chapel, and evening lecturer of 
Brompton in 1811, and was presented to the 
rectory of Great Woolston, Buckingham- 
shire, in 1816. After having for nineteen 
years acted as classical assistant in his 
father's school, he succeeded to the superin- 
tendence of it on his father's retirement in 
1814. He died in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, on 
28 June 1831. 

He published : ' Bagatelles ; or miscel- 
laneous productions, consisting of Original 
Poetry and Translations,' London, 1795,8vo ; 
and translated ' Prospect of the Political Re- 
lations which subsist between the French 
Republic and the Helvetic Body,' from the 
French of Weiss, 1794; 'The Wrongs of 
Unterwalden,' 1799; and 'Zimao, the Afri- 
can,' 1800 and 1807. 

[Addit. MS. 19209, ff. 1236, 1246; Nichols's 
Illust. of Lit.; Gent. Mag. ci. (ii.) 186 ; Cat. of 
I Printed Books in Brit. Mus.; Biog. Diet, of 
1 Living Authors (1816), 51.] T. C. 

BUTLER, or BOTELER, WILLIAM 

(d. 1410?), a controversial writer against the 
Wycliffites, was the thirtieth provincial of 
the Minorites in England. At Oxford in 
1401 he wrote as his ' Determinatio,' or aca- 
demical thesis, a tract against the translation 
of the Bible into the vulgar tongue. Pits 
says this was in vindication of some public 
edict which ordered the burning of English 
Bibles, probably deriving the statement from 
Bale, who says that Purvey asserts (but Bale 
gives no reference for his citation) that such 
an order was issued at the instance of the 
friars ; but no such injunction is known of so 
early a date. It was not until 1408 that 
Wycliffe's version was condemned in the pro- 
vincial constitutions of Archbishop Arundel, 
and owners and readers of the book were 
declared excommunicate unless license had 
been obtained by them from their diocesans 
(WiLKiNS, Concilia, 317). Butler's tract 
exists in one manuscript which is preserved 
j in Merton College, Oxford ; unfortunately 
' the first leaf has been deliberately cut out, 
and all information whieh the beginning may 
have afforded as to the immediate cause of the 
composition of the tract is consequently lost. 
The colophon alone gives name, date, place, 
and title, as stated above, except that the 
first remaining page is also headed 'Buttiler 
contra translacionem Anglicanam.' Bale 
says that Butler states in this tract that the 



Butler 



Butler 



Psalter was translated by Bede, and other 
portions of the Scriptures by an (arch)bishop 
of York. This statement must have occurred 
in the introductory portion now lost. He 
also says (in his manuscript referred to below) 
that the book existed in Queen's College, 
Oxford, but this is probably a mistake for 
Merton College. The tract contains six sec- 
tions devoted to as many arguments against 
the allowance of the Scriptures in the verna- 
cular; and is possibly the earliest extant 
statement in English controversy of the op- 
ponent's case. 

The first argument is that the use of the 
vernacular would quickly lead to multiplica- 
tion of erroneous copies, while Latin copies, 
being written and read in the universities, 
are easily corrected. 2. That human under- 
standing is insufficient for all the difficulties 
of Scripture. The knowledge of God is better 
gained by meditation and prayer than by 
reading. 3. That in the celestial hierarchy the 
angels of lower order depend for illumination 
upon angels of higher order, who convey to 
them God's revelations, and that the church 
militant corresponds to the church triumph- 
ant. 4. That the teaching of the apostles 
was not by books, but by the power of the 
Spirit. And Christ himself in the temple 
asked the doctors, and did not read. 5. That 
if men were to read Scripture for themselves, 
disputes would soon arise. 6. That in Christ's 
body each member has its proper office, but if 
everyone may read, then the foot becomes the 
eye ; and who would offer a book to a joint 
of his foot ? Butler also wrote a tract ' De 
Indulgentiis,' of which Bale saw a copy which 
had belonged to the Minorites at Reading ; 
four books of commentary on the Sentences of 
Peter Lombard ; one book treating of various 
questions ; and several other works which his 
biographers do not specify. To Reading he 
is said to have removed from Oxford, and 
there, according to Pits, he died about 1410. 

[Bale's Collectanea de Scriptt. Anglis, a MS. 
in the Bodl. Lib., 'Selden supra, 64,' p. 215; 
Bale's Scriptt. Brit. Catalogus, Basle, 1557, 
p. 537; Merton Coll. MS. 68, ff. 202-4; Pits, 
De Angliae Scriptoribus, Par. 1619; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 1748; Madden's and Forshall's 
Pref. to Wycliffe's Bible, Oxford, 1850, i. xxxiii.; 
Brewer's Monumenta Franciscana, Lond. 1858, 
pp. 538, 561.] W. D. M. 

BUTLER, WILLIAM (1535-1618), phy- 
sician, was born at Ipswich, and educated at 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, of which he became 
fellow. He graduated M.A., and was pro- 
bably incorporated in that degree at Oxford 
in 1563. In October 1572 the university of ! 
Cambridge granted him a license to practise 
physic, he having then been a regent in arts 



for six years. He was usually styled Doctor, 
though he never took the degree of M.D. 
He acquired the most extraordinary reputa- 
tion in his profession, and it is said that ' he 
was the first Englishman who quickened 
Galenical physic with a touch of Paracelsus, 
trading in chemical receipts with great suc- 
cess.' In October 1612 he was summoned 
from Cambridge to attend Henry, prince of 
Wales, in his last illness. Although Sir 
Edward Peyton has not scrupled to cite 
Butler's opinion that the prince was poisoned, 
it appears that, in common with the other 
physicians, he entertained no such suspicion 
(Secret Hist, of the Court of James I, ii. 247, 
346). In November 1614 Butler attended 
the king at Newmarket for an injury received 
in hunting ; and when the king was at Cam- 
bridge in May 1615 he visited Butler and 
stayed with him nearly an hour. Butler 
lived in the house of John Crane, a cele- 
brated apothecary of Cambridge, and many 
anecdotes are recorded of his eccentricities 
and empirical mode of practice. Aubrey 
relates : ' The Dr. lyeing at the Savoy in 
London, next the water side where was a 
balcony look't into the Thames, a patient 
came to him that was grievously tormented 
with an ague. The Dr. orders a boate to be 
in readinesse under his windowe, and dis- 
coursed with the patient (a gent.) in the bal- 
cony, when on a signall given, 2 or 3 lusty 
fellowes came behind the gent, and threw 
him a matter of 20 feete into the Thames. 
This surprize absolutely cured him.' 

Butler died at Cambridge on 29 Jan. 
1617-18, and was buried in Great St. Mary's. 
On the south side of the chancel of that 
church there is a mural monument with his 
bust, in the costume of the period, and a 
Latin inscription in which he is termed 
' Medicorum omnium quos prsesens setas vidit 
facile Princeps.' 

Butler left his estate to his friend John 
Crane, and he was a benefactor to Clare 
Hall, to which he bequeathed many of his 
books and 2001. for the purchase of a gold 
communion cup. Thirty-five years after his 
death ' his reputation was still so great, that 
many empyrics got credit among the vulgar 
by claiming relation to him as having served 
him and learned much from him.' In the 
reign of Charles II there was in use in Lon- 
don ' a sort of ale called Dr. Butler's ale.' 
His portrait has been engraved by S. Pass. 

[Addit.MSS. 5810, p. 28, 5863, f. 876; Aikin's 
Biog. Memoirs of Medicine, 186; Blomefield's 
Collectanea Cantab. 92 ; Cambridge Portfolio, 
490 ; Cooper's Annals of Camb. iii. 73 n, 94 n, 
119-124; Lives of Nicholas Ferrar, ed. Mayor; 
Fuller's Hist, of the Univ. of Camb., ed. Prickett 



Butler 



9 1 



Butler 



and Wright, 307; Fuller's Worthies (1662), 
Suffolk, 67 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England 
(1824), ii. 119; Harl. MS. 7049, f. 39; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 172, 6th Rep. 269, 7th ' 
Rep. 188 ; Letters written by Eminent Persons 
in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries | 
(1813), ii., pt. i., 265 ; Leland's Collectanea, v. 
197 ; Parker's Hist, of the Univ. of Camb. 43 ; , 
Peckard's Life of Ferrar, 24 ; Wadd's Nugse i 
Chirurgicae, 31 ; Winwood's Memorials, iii. 429 ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 163.] T. C. 

BUTLER, WILLIAM ARCHER 

(1814 P-1848), professor of moral philosophy 
in the university of Dublin, was born of an 
old and respectable family at Annerville, 
near Clonmel, Ireland. The year of his birth 
is uncertain, but it is believed to have been 
1814. His father was a member of the 
established church of Ireland, his mother a 
Roman catholic. Through her influence the 
boy was baptized and educated as a mem- 
ber of the church to which she belonged. 
While Butler was a child his parents re- 
moved to Garnavilla, on the river Suir, about 
two miles from the town of Cahir. The beau- 
tiful landscape made a deep impression on 
his feelings and imagination an impression 
which lived in his verse. At nine years old 
he became a schoolboy at the endowed school 
of Clonmel. He was a modest, retiring boy, 
a favourite with the master, and beloved by 
his companions. Here he was an eager, dis- 
cursive reader, already attracted by meta- 
physical study, but also giving many leisure 
hours to poetry and to music, in which he 
acquired considerable skill. He especially 
distinguished himself by his public speaking 
for ' oratory ' exhibitions. While at school, 
about two years before entering college, But- 
ler passed over from the Roman catholic to 
the established church. It is said that a 
shock given to his moral nature by his con- 
fessor's dealings with his conscience led him 
to examine the grounds of his creed, and that 
he found his own way by study and medita- 
tion from his early to his later faith. 

On entering Trinity College, Dublin, he 
was quickly recognised as a youth of bright 
intellect, generous feeling, and varied cul- 
ture. His prize compositions in prose and 
verse attracted the attention of the heads of 
the college, and while still an undergraduate 
he contributed a considerable body of writ- 
ings poems and essays, critical, historical, 
and speculative to the ' Dublin University 
Review.' In the debates of the College His- 
torical Society he took a leading part, and in 
1835 delivered, as auditor of the society, an 
address which was printed. In November 1834 
took place the first examination for the newly 
instituted prize of moderatorship in logic and 



ethics, and Butler's name stands first upon the 
roll of moderators. Having thus obtained 
with honours his B.A. degree, he continued 
for two years in residence as a scholar. His 
friends designed him for the bar, but his 
tastes and habits were those of a student and 
a man of letters. By the exertions of Pro- 
vost Lloyd a professorship of moral philoso- 
phy was founded in 1837, and Butler was at 
once appointed to the chair. At the same 
time, having been ordained a clergyman of 
the church of Ireland, he was presented by 
the board of Trinity College to the prebend 
of Clondehorka, in the diocese of Raphoe, 
county of Donegal, where he resided, except 
when his professorial duties required his pre- 
sence at the university. ' Amongst a large 
and humble flock of nearly two thousand, he 
was,' says Mr. Woodward, ' the most indefa- 
tigable of pastors.' In 1842 he was re-elected 
to the chair of moral philosophy, and pro- 
moted to the rectory of Raymoghy, in the 
same diocese as Clondehorka. His sermon 
' Primitive Church Principles not inconsist- 
ent with Universal Christian Sympathy ' 
(1842), preached at the visitation of the united 
dioceses of Derry and Raphoe, 1842, was pub- 
lished at the request of the bishop and clergy. 
In 1844 he visited the English lakes, and made 
the acquaintance of Wordsworth. It was on 
a walk to Loughrigg Fells, in which Words- 
worth was accompanied byButler, Archdeacon 
Hare, and Sir William Rowan Hamilton, that 
the poet observed the daisy-shadow on a stone, 
which he has celebrated in the poem beginning 
' So fair, so sweet, withal so sensitive.' In 1845 
the Roman catholic controversy occupied But- 
ler, and beginning in December of that year, he 
contributed to the ' Irish Ecclesiastical Ga- 
zette ' a series of ' Letters on Mr. Newman's 
Theory of Development,' collected after his 
death into a volume (' Letters on the Deve- 
lopment of Christian Doctrine ; ' a reply to 
J. H. Newman, edited by Dean Woodward, 
Dublin, 1850). During the Irish famine of 
1846-7 Butler's exertions were untiring : ' lite- 
rature, philosophy, and divinity were all post- 
poned to the labours of relieving officer to his 
parish.' During the closing months of 1847 
and the first six months of the following year, 
Butler was engaged in preparation for a work 
on faith, and collected with this object a vast 
mass of theological material ; but the work 
was never to be completed. On Trinity Sun- 
day 1848 he preached the ordination sermon 
in the church of Dunboe ; five days later, on 
his way home, he was stricken with fever, 
the result of a chill following the excessive 
heat of midsummer exercise. On 5 July 1848 
he died. He was buried in the churchyard 
of his own parish. Butler's lectures as pro- 



Butt 



Butt 



fessor were remarkable for the large grasp of 
his subject, his aspiring views, and power of 
eloquent exposition. A noble person and 
countenance added to the impressiveness of 
his delivery. The same eloquence appears, 
with perhaps more appropriateness, in the 
sermons which he addressed to educated 
audiences ; with rustic hearers he could be 
plain and simple. In his lectures on Plato, 
perhaps the most important thought is that 
the Platonic idea was no mere mistaken form 
of abstract notion, but was Plato's mode of 
expressing the fact that there is an objective 
element in perception. Butler's ' Lectures 
on the Histoiy of Ancient Philosophy,' 2 vols. 
were edited after his death with notes, by 
W. H. Thomson (Cambridge, 1856). The 
second volume, which is chiefly occupied 
with Plato, is the more valuable of the two. 
Two volumes of ' Sermons Doctrinal and 
Practical ' have been published, the first series 
edited with a memoir of his life by the Rev. 
Thomas Woodward (Dublin, Hodges and 
Smith, 1849, 3rd. ed. Cambridge, 1855) : the 
second series, edited by J. A. Jeremie (Cam- 
bridge, 1856). Besides his many poems and 
prose articles contributed to the ' Dublin 
University Review,' he published a sermon 
on the ' Eternal Life of Christ in Heaven,' 
in first series of sermons for Sundays, &c., 
edited by Alex. Watson (Joseph Masters, 
1845) ; a sermon on ' Self Delusion as to our 
State before God ' (Dublin, 1842) ; a sermon 
on the ' Atonement, in a volume of sermons 
on that subject published by the Religious 
Tract Society (no date) ; and a memoir of 
Mrs. Hemans prefixed to her 'National 
Lyrics and Songs for Music ' (Dublin, Curry 
and Co. 1839). 

[Memoir by Woodward, prefixed to the first 
series of Butler's Sermons ; article on Butler by 
J. T. Ball, afterwards Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 
in Dublin University Review, May 1842 ; article 
'The late Professor Butler,' in same Review, 
July 1849.] E. D. 

BUTT, GEORGE (1741-1795), divine 
and poet, was the son of Dr. Carey Butt, phy- 
sician, of Lichfield, at whose house it is said 
that Dr. Johnson when a boy was a con- 
stant visitor (HAWKINS, Life of Johnson, p. 6), 
though this must have been before Butt was 
born, 26 Dec. 1741. The Butts were of the 
same family as Henry VIII's physician, Butts, 
though they had dropped the final s. After 
receiving his early education at the grammar 
school at Stafford, Butt was admitted, through 
the influence of his father's friend Thomas 
Newton (afterwards bishop of Bristol), on 
the foundation at Westminster in 1756, and 
was thence elected to Christ Church, Oxford, 



in 1761, where he graduated B.A. in 1765, 
M.A. in 1768, taking the degrees of B.D. 
and D.D. on 29 Oct. 1793. Having received 
deacon's orders in 1765, he was appointed 
to the curacy of Leigh, Staffordshire, which 
he shortly afterwards resigned for the post 
of private tutor to the son of Sir E. Win- 
nington of Stanford Court, Worcestershire, 
and in October 1767 accompanied his pupil 
to Christ Church. While acting as young 
Winnington's tutor, Butt, his daughter 
Mrs. Sherwood says, ' kept company with 
the noblemen and gentlemen, commoners 
of Christ Church, to whom the vivacity of 
his genius rendered his society acceptable,' 
though he was careful not to forget what 
was due to his profession. In 1771 he was 
presented by Sir E. Winnington to the rec- 
tory of Stanford and the vicarage of Clifton, 
and in 1773 married Martha Sherwood, the 
daughter of a London silk merchant . Expen- 
sive habits and especially his love of company 
had by this time involved him in debt. He 
was rescued from his difficulties by the good 
management of his wife, who, among other 
economical schemes, persuaded him to take 
private pupils. With these pupils, mostly 
young men of good family, he was popular, 
though his desultory mode of imparting in- 
struction could not have been of much benefit 
to them. In 1778 he was presented by New- 
ton, now bishop of Bristol, to the vicarage of 
Newchurch, in the Isle of Wight, which he 
held along with Stanford, where he continued 
to reside. About this time he occasionally 
joined the coterie of Lady Miller at Batheas- 
ton, and dropped verses into her vase. He ex- 
changed the living of Newchurch for the rec- 
tory of Notgrove, Gloucestershire, in 1783, 
and the same year was appointed chaplain in 
ordinary to the king, and gave up taking pupils. 
In 1787, on application from Dr. Markham, 
his old master at Westminster, he was pre- 
sented by Lord Foley to the rich vicarage of 
Kidderminster, which he held along with his 
other cures. He changed his residence to Kid- 
derminster the next year, and lived there on 
good terms with the many dissenters of the 
town. In 1794 he returned to Stanford, and 
used to ride into Kidderminster to do duty. 
On 30 June 1795 he was struck with palsy, 
and died on 30 September following at Stan- 
ford, where he was buried. He left a son, 
John Martin Butt, who took orders and be- 
came the author of some theological works, 
and two daughters, afterwards the well- 
known authoresses, Mrs. Cameron and Mrs. 
Sherwood. Butt published 'Isaiah versified,' 
1784, with a dedication to the king ; several 
sermons on special occasions, and in 1791 
Sermons ' in 2 vols. dedicated to Dr. Mark- 



Butt 



93 



Butt 



ham, archbishop of York; ' Poems 'in 2 vols. 
1793, dedicated to the Hon. George Annesley, 
afterwards Lord Valentia, one of his former 
pupils. Some of these poems had been already 
printed. They are devoid of beauty, power, 
and originality. One of them, written on the 
death of Dr. Johnson, is a dialogue between 
Lord Chesterfield and Garrick in the Elysian 
fields, and represents Garrick conversing 
with ' Avon's bard on those superior minds 
that since his day were gifted to produce 
their thoughts abroad.' In 1777 Butt sub- 
mitted a play entitled ' Timoleon ' to Garrick. 
with whom he was on terms of friendship. 
Garrick told him that the play could not be 
acted as it stood, but professed himself un- 
able to point out any faults in it, a declara- 
tion that has been taken by Butt's bio- 
graphers as a high compliment. ' Timoleon ' 
does not appear to have been acted or pub- 
lished. He published either in or after 1784 
a tract entitled ' The Practice of Liberal Piety 
Vindicated,' which he wrote in defence of his 
friend Richard Valpy of Reading, when a ser- 
mon of Valpy's was attacked by certain Cal- 
vinists. At the time of his death he was en- 
gaged in correcting a religious novel which 
he seems to have called '* Felicia.' This book 
was edited and published by his daughter, 
Mrs. Sherwood, in 2 vols. 1824, under the 
title of The Spanish Daughter;' it is a dreary 
production. 

[Mrs. Sherwood's Biographical Preface to the 
Spanish Daughter; Mrs. Sherwood's Autobio- 
graphy ; Life of Mrs. Cameron ; some account 
of the Rev. G-. Butt in Valpy's Poems spoken at 
Eeading, 225-264 ; Nash's Worcestershire, i. 250, 
11. 371 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 376, where 
the Spanish Daughter is incorrectly described as 
a play; Gent. Mag. 1795, vol. Ixv. pt. ii. p. 969; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 736.] . W. H. 

BUTT, ISAAC (1813-1879), Irish poli- 
tician, only son of the Rev. Robert Butt, 
rector of Stranorlar, county Donegal, by 
Berkeley, daughter of the Rev. R. Cox, of 
Dovish, county Donegal, was born at Glenfin, 
in Donegal, 6 Sept. 1813, and educated at 
the Royal School, Raphoe, entered Trinity 
College, Dublin, as a scholar in 1832, took 
his B.A. 1835, LL.B. 1836, M.A. and 
LL.D. 1840. During his collegiate course 
he published a translation of the ' Georgics' 
of Virgil, and other classical brochures, 
which showed a highly finished taste and 
scholarship. In 1833 he was one of the ori- 
ginal founders of the 'Dublin University 
Magazine,' of which he was editor from 
August 1834 to 1838. He was for many vears 
a contributor to its pages, chiefly of political 
articles and reviews ; but he also wrote for it 
some tales under the general title of ' Chap- 



ters of College Romance.' In 1836 he was 
appointed to the chair of political economy, 
which was then founded by Archbishop 
Whately, and he continued in the chair until 
1841. Having been called to the Irish bar 
November 1838, the high reputation which 
he had already won obtained for him a con- 
siderable share of practice. The old cor- 
poration of Dublin selected him as the junior 
barrister to plead their cause at the bar of 
the House of Lords 1840, and although he 
failed to induce that assembly to reject the 
Municipal Reform Bill, he added to his own 
prestige, and returning to Ireland was elected 
an alderman of the new corporation. He 
took an active part in the politics of the day, 
and was regarded as one of the ablest cham- 
pions of the conservative cause. He entered 
the lists against O'Connell, opposed him in 
the corporation debates, and carried on a 
counter agitation to that of the Repeal As- 
sociation in 1843. 

He wrote for the conservative press on both 
sides of the Channel, and established in Dublin 
a weekly newspaper, called the ' Protestant 
Guardian.' This was afterwards amalgamated 
with the ' Warder,' with which he then be- 
came connected. The lord chancellor, Sir 
Edward Sugden, called him to the inner bar 
2 Nov. 1844. Butt was retained as counsel 
in many great causes, and was one of those 
who defended Smith O'Brien and other pri- 
soners in the state trials of 1848. On 8 May 
1852 he entered parliament as member for 
Harwich ; but he was not long in undisturbed 
possession of the seat, for in the same year 
there was a general election, and he then 
offered himself as a liberal-conservative for 
the borough of Youghal. This appears to 
have been his first divergence from the straight 
track of conservatism. He was opposed by 
Sir J. M'Kenna, but was elected, and sat from 
July 1852 to July 1865. Previously to this, 
on 17 Nov. 1859, he had been called to the 
English bar at the Inner Temple. About 
the year 1864 he returned to Ireland, and 
resumed his practice in the Four Courts. 
The Fenian prisoners, beset by many and 
serious difficulties as to their defence, turned 
to him as one whose name alone was a tower 
of strength. For the greater part of four 
years, 1865-9, sacrificing to a considerable 
extent a splendid practice in more lucrative 
engagements, he busied himself in the pro- 
longed and desperate effort of their defence. 
In 1869 he accepted the position of presi- 
dent of the Amnesty Association. Another 
opportunity of entering parliament now pre- 
sented itself. He was chosen to represent the 
city of Limerick 20 Sept. 1871, and to take 
the leadership of the Home Rule party. He 



Butt 



94 



Butter 



soon became the one great figure in Irish 
popular politics. Butt was probably the in- 
ventor of the phrase Home Rule. He was 
certainly the first to use it as an effective 
election cry. Soon it was taken up and 
echoed by men of all shades of political 
opinion throughout the kingdom of Ireland. 
Latterly he found himself unable to manage 
the party he had created. It would perhaps 
be too much to say that the disobedience and 
disagreements of his party broke the leader's 
heart. A man in his sixty-sixth year, who 
had lived hard and worked hard, and who, 
besides his many public anxieties, had private 
troubles, was not in a fit state to resist a 
severe illness. He died at Roebuck Cottage, 
near Dundrum, county Dublin, 5 May 1879, 
and was buried at Stranorlar 10 May. 

The following is a list of writings to which 
his name is found appended : 1. 'Ovid's Fasti 
Translated,' 1833. 2. ' An Introductory Lec- 
ture delivered before theUniversity of Dublin,' 
1837. 3. ' The Poor Law Bill for Ireland, 
examined in a Letter to Lord Viscount Mor- 
peth,' 1837. 4. ' Irish Corporation Bill. A 
Speech at the Bar of the House of Lords,' 
1840. 5. ' Speech delivered at the Great 
Protestant Meeting in Dublin/ 1840. 6. 'A 
Voice for Ireland the Famine in the Land : 
What has been done and what is to be done ? ' 
1847. 7. ' Zoology and Civilisation : a Lec- 
ture delivered before the Royal Zoological 
Society of Ireland,' 1847. 8. ' The Rate in 
Aid : a Letter to the Earl of Roden,' 1849. 
9. 'The Transfer of Land by means of a 
Judicial Assurance : its Practicability and 
Advantages,' 1857. 10. 'The History of 
Italy, from the Abdication of Napoleon I, 
with Introductory References to that of 
Earlier Times,' 1860. 11. 'Daniel Manin 
and Venice in 1848-49, by B. L. H. Mar- 
tin, with an introduction by Isaac Butt.' 

12. 'Chapters of College Romance,' 1863. 

13. ' The Liberty of Teaching Vindicated : 
Reflections and Proposals on the subject of 
Irish National Education,' 1865. 14. ' The 
Irish People and the Irish Land : a Letter 
to Lord Lifford,' 1867. 15. 'A Practical 
Treatise on the New Law of Compensation 
to Tenants in Ireland, and the other provi- 
sions of the Landlord and Tenant Act,' 1871. 

16. ' The Irish Deep-Sea Fisheries : a Speech 
delivered at a meeting of the Home Go- 
vernment Association of Ireland,' 1874. 

17. 'Home Government for Ireland Irish 
Federalism: its Meaning,' 1874, of which 
four editions were printed. 18. 'The Problem 
of Irish Education, an Attempt at its Solu- 
tion,' 1875. 

[Dublin University Magazine, iii. 710-15 
(1879) ; Sullivan's New Ireland, ii. 306-10, 319 



(1877); Graphic, with portrait, iv. 483, 485 
(1871), xix. 499, 508, with portrait (1879); Il- 
lustrated London News, with portrait, iv. 40 
(1844).] G. C. B. 

BUTTER, JOHN, M.D. (1791-1877), 
ophthalmic surgeon, was born at Woodbury, 
near Exeter, on 22 Jan. 1791. He was edu- 
cated at Exeter grammar school, and studied 
for his profession at Devon and Exeter Hos- 
pital. He obtained the M.D. degree at Edin- 
burgh in 1820, and was chosen a member of 
the Royal Society in 1822. He was appointed 
surgeon of the South Devon Militia, and ulti- 
mately settled at Plymouth, where he spe- 
cially devoted himself to diseases of the eye. 
Along with Dr. Edward Moore, he was the 
originator of the Plymouth Eye Dispensary. 
He was the author of ' Ophthalmic Diseases,' 
1821, ' Dockyard Diseases, or Irritative Fever,' 
1825, and of various medical and chirurgical 
memoirs. In recognition of his services to 
the dispensary he was, in 1854, presented 
with his portrait, which hangs in the board 
room. He lost one eye through ophthalmic 
rheumatism, contracted by exposure while 
examining recruits for the Crimea, and in 
1856 became totally blind. 

[Plymouth Western Daily Mercury, 15 Jan. 
1877.] 

BUTTER, NATHANIEL (d. 1664), prin- 
ter and journalist, was the son of Thomas 
Butter, a small London stationer, who died 
about 1589. His mother carried on the busi- 
ness after his father's death from 1589 to 
1594, when she married another stationer 
named Newbery. On 20 Feb. 1603-4 Na- 
thaniel was admitted a freeman of the Sta- 
tioners' Company per patrimonium, and on 
4 Dec. 1604 he entered on the company's re- 
gisters his first publication ('The Life and 
Death of Cavaliero Dick Boyer ') . On 12 Feb. 
1604-5 he obtained permission to print ' " The 
Interlude of Henry the 8th "... if he get 
good allowance for it.' Between 1605 and 
1607 Butter published several sermons and 
tracts of no great value. On 26 Nov. 1607 
he, together with John Busby, undertook the 
publication of Shakespeare's ' Lear ; ' in 1609 
he printed Dekker's 'Belman of London,' 
and in 1611 he published a folio edition of 
Chapman's translation of the Tliad.' But 
from an early date he turned his attention 
to the compilation and publication of pam- 
phlets of news, and in this department he 
subsequently achieved very eminent success. 
He issued in June 1605 an account of two 
recent murders, one of them being the famous 
' Yorkshire tragedy : ' on 24 Aug. a report 
of the trial of the Yorkshire murderer, Wal- 
ter Calverley [q. v.], which had taken place 



Butter 



95 



Butterfield 



a day or two previously ; on 25 June 1607 
' a true and tragical discourse ' of the expe- 
dition to Guiana in 1605 ; on 19 May 1608 
' Newes from Lough ffoyle in Ireland ; ' on 
16 June 1609 ' The Originall Ground of the 
present Warres of Sweden ; ' and in 1611 
' Newes from Spain.' On 23 May 1622 two 
publishers, Nicholas Bourne and Thomas 
Archer, issued the first extant copy of ' The 
Weekly Newes from Italy, Germanie, &c.,' 
and this was continued at weekly intervals 
by the same publishers until 25 Sept. of the 
same year, when Butter and one William 
Shefford produced a rival quarto sheet entitled 
' Newes from most parts of Christendom.' 
This was Butter's first attempt at a newspaper, 
and its immediate success warranted him in 
issuing two days later, in conjunction with 
Thomas Archer, another budget of news from 
the continent, written (probably by himself) 
in the form of letters from foreign correspon- 
dents. From this date Butter made journal- 
ism his chief business, compiling and issuing 
reports of news at very frequent intervals, 
none of which exceeded a week, and his en- 
terprise virtually created the London press. 
On 12 May 1623 an extant copy of a publi- 
cation of ' The Newes of the present week,' 
printed by Butter, Bourne, and Shefford, bore 
a number (31) for the first time. The title 
of the news-sheet varied very much : some- 
times it was headed ' More Newes,' sometimes 
' Last Newes,' and at other times ' The Weekly 
Newes continued.' All were mainly compiled 
from similar sheets published abroad, and gave 
little information about home affairs, but un- 
fortunately the extant sets are so incomplete 
that no very positive statement can be made 
about their contents. Butter soon gained no- 
toriety as an industrious collector of news, 
and was satirised by the dramatists. Ben Jon- 
son ridiculed him in 1625 in his ' Staple of 
News' under the title of 'Cymbal;' Fletcher 
refers to him in the ' Fair Maid of the Tun ; ' 
and Shirley in his 'Love Tricks.' In 1630 he 
began a series of half-yearly volumes of col- 
lected foreign news, under such titles as ' The 
German Intelligencer,' ' The Swedish Intel- 
ligencer,' and so forth. On 20 Dec. 1638 
Charles I granted to Butter and Nicholas 
Bourne the right of ' printing and publishing 
all matter of history or news of any foreign 
place or kingdom since the first beginning of 
the late German wars to the present, and also 
for translating and publishing in the English 
tongue all news, novels, gazettes, currantes, 
and occurrences that concern foreign parts, 
for the term of twenty-one years, they pay- 
ing yearly towards the repair of St. Paul's 
the sum of IQl.' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1638-9, p. 182). At the end of 1639 the li- 



censer of the press prohibited Butter's weekly 
sheet, and on 11 Jan. 1640 he issued a ' Con- 
tinuation of the Forraine Occurrents for 5 
weeks last past . . . examined and licensed by 
a better and more impartiall hand than here- 
tofore.' Butter had varied his news sheets 
in his later years with a few plays. In 1630 
he issued the second part of Dekker's ' Honest 
Whore ; ' but on 21 May 1639 he made over 
the copyrights of all plays in his posses- 
sion to a printer named Flessher. By 1641 
Butter appears to have retired from business ; 
he was then more than seventy years old, 
and the competition of journalists during the 
civil war was intense. In Smith's ' Obituary ' 
(Camden Soc. p. 60) Butter's death is re- 
corded thus : 'Feb. 22 [1663-4] Nath. Butter, 
an old stationer, died very poor.' 

[Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Kegis- 
ters, ii. 736, iii. 277 et seq. ; F. K. Hunt's The 
Fourth Estate (1850), i. 10-54 ; Alex. Andrews's 
Hist, of Brit. Journalism, i. 28-38 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. iv. 38-9; Ben Jonson's Works, ed. 
Giffard; British Museum Collection of News- 
papers.] S. L. L. 

BUTTER, WILLIAM (1726-1805), phy- 
sician, was a native of the Orkneys, and 
studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he 
graduated M.D. in 1761. After practising 
for some years at Derby, having obtained 
some note by his treatises ' On the Kink- 
Cough' (hooping cough), London, 1773, and 
' On Puerperal Fevers,' London, 1775, he re- 
moved to London, where he died on 23 March 
1805. He is said to have attempted to open 
the carotid artery of a patient at the Edin- 
burgh Infirmary, and to have only desisted 
when the patient fainted after the first inci- 
sion. He is described as 'too much under 
the influence of very favourite hypotheses ' 
(Catalogue of Living English Authors, 1799, 
i. 401). Besides the above his writings in- 
clude ' A Method of Cure for Stone,' Edin- 
burgh, 1754 ; 'Dissertatio de frigore quatenus 
morborum causa,' Edinburgh, 1757 ; ' Disser- 
tatio de arteriotomia,' Edinburgh, 1761 ; ' A 
Treatise on Infantile Remittent Fever,' Lon- 
don, 1782 ; ' An Improved Method of Open- 
ing the Temporal Artery,' London, 1783 ; 
' A Treatise on Angina Pectoris,' London, 
1791 ; ' A Treatise on the Venereal Rose/ 
London, 1799. 

[New Catalogue of Living English Authors 
(1799), i. 400; Gent. Mag. Ixxv. 294, 580; 
Munk's College of Physicians (1878), ii. 360.] 

G. T. B. 

BUTTERFTELD, ROBERT (/. 1629), 
controversialist, received his academical edu- 
cation at St. John's College, Cambridge, as a 
member of which house he proceeded B.A. 



Butterfield 



9 6 



Butterworth 



in 1622-3, M.A. in 1626, and took orders. 
When the puritan divine, Henry Burton 
[q. v.], attacked Bishop Hall, Butterfield, 
with youthful zeal, hastened to champion the 
bishop's cause in a pamphlet entitled ' Mas- 
chil ; or, a Treatise to give instruction touch- 
ing the State of the Church of Rome . . . for 
the Vindication of ... the Bishop of Exeter 
from the cavills of H. B., in his Book in- 
tituled "The Seven Vialls,"' 12mo, 1629. 
Burton was not slow to reply ; for the same 
year he published his ' Babel no Bethel. . . . 
In answer to Hugh Cholmley's Challenge 
and Rob. Butterfield's " Masctiil," two mas- 
culine Champions for the Synagogue of Rome,' 
wherein he retorts, not without point, on 
Butterfield's boyish presumption and too evi- 
dent desire to parade his classical and pa- 
tristic learning, wishing him ' more ripenesse 
of yeares, and more soundnesse of judgement, 
before he doe any more handle such deepe 
controuersies.' Burton was sent to the Fleet 
prison for his pamphlet. Another reply was 
published about the same time, under the title 
of ' Maschil Unmasked,' in which the writer, 
Thomas Spencer, gent., author of ' The Art of 
Logick,' seeks to supply the defects of his 
learning and also logic by versatility of abuse. 
[Cooper's New Biographical Dictionary, 334 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G-. 

BUTTERFIELD, SWITHUN (d. 1611), 
miscellaneous writer, is supposed to have 
been a member of Pembroke Hall, Cam- 
bridge, as by his will, wherein he is de- 
scribed as of Cambridge, gentleman, dated 
1608, and proved in the university court on 
21 Dec. 1611, he gave to that college 101. to 
buy books, also his manuscripts which are 
enumerated below, and his geometrical in- 
struments and other curiosities. 

He was author of: 1. 'A Summarie of 
the Principles of Christian Religion, selected 
in manner of Common-Places out of the 
Writings of the best Diuines of our Age,' 
London, 1582, 8vo. 2. 'A Catechism, or 
the Principles of the true Christian Religion : 
breifelie selected out of manie good books,' 
London, 1590, 8vo. Licensed also to John 
Flasket, 26 June 1600. 3. ' A great Abridge- 
ment of the Common Lawes,' MS. 4. ' An 
Abridgement of the CivilLawes,' MS. 5. ' Col- 
lection of Policies in Peace and War,' MS., 
written in 1604. 6. ' A Book of Physic and 
Surgery,' MS. 7. ' A Book of Controversie 
out of Bellarmine, &c.,' MS., written in 1606. 
8. ' A Book of Common-Place in Religion,' 
MS., written in 1606. 

[MS. Baker, xxvi. 118 ; Ames's Typogr. An- 
tiquities, ed. Herbert, 1108, 1344, 1378; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab, iii. 53.] T. C. 



BUTTERWORTH, EDWIN (1812- 
1848), Lancashire topographer, was the tenth 
and youngest child of James Butterworth 
[q. v.], and was born at Pitses, near Oldham, 
on 1 Oct. 1812. He followed in the foot- 
steps of his father, whom he assisted in his later 
works, but was more given to statistical re- 
search. When Mr. Edward Baines undertook 
the preparation of a history of Lancashire, he 
found a useful colleague in Edwin Butter- 
worth, who visited many parts of the county 
in order to collect the requisite particulars. 
During the six years in which he was engaged 
by Mr. Baines he travelled on foot through 
nearly every town and village in the county. 
His own notes and those of his father formed a 
large mass of manuscript material. So exten- 
sive was it that in 1 847 he conceived the idea of 
issuing a history of the county in fifty volumes, 
each of which, while part of the general series, 
should also be complete in itself. This pro- 
ject was encouraged by the Earl of Ellesmere. 
Overtures were made to Samuel Bamford, as 
it was thought that his pleasant style and 
Butterworth's facts would make a popular 
combination. The suggestion was roughly 
treated by the ' Radical,' and Butterworth's 
death occurred before such a plan could have 
been completed. In addition to his share of 
Baines's ' Lancashire ' the following are from 
the pen of Butterworth: 1. 'Biography of 
Eminent Natives, Residents, and Benefactors 
of the Town of Manchester,' Manchester, 
1829. 2. ' A History of Oldham in Lanca- 
shire,' London, 1832. 3. 'A Chronological 
History of Manchester brought down to 1834,' 
second edition, Manchester, 1834. The first 
edition was the ' Tabula Mancuniensis ' of his 
father ; a third edition appeared in 1834. 

4. ' An Historical Description of the Town 
of Heywood and Vicinity,' Heywood, 1840. 

5. ' A Statistical Sketch of the County Pala- 
tine of Lancaster,' London, 1841. 6. 'An 
Historical Account of the Towns of Ashton- 
under-Lyne, Stalybridge, and Dukinfield,' 
Ashton, 1842. 7. ' Views of the Manchester 
and Leeds Railway, drawn from nature and 
on stone by A. F. Tait, with a descriptive his- 
tory by Edwin Butterworth,' London, 1845, 
folio. 8. 'Historical Sketches of Oldham, 
by the late Edwin Butterworth, with an ap- 
pendix containing the history of the town to 
the present time,' Oldham, 1856. The pre- 
vious edition appeared in 1847. 

In addition to these labours Butterworth 
acted as correspondent for the Manchester 
newspapers, and was for a considerable time 
registrar of births and deaths for the township 
of Chadderton. He is described by those who 
knew him as genial and modest. Such of his 
books and manuscripts as had not been acci- 



Butterworth 



97 



Butterworth 



dentally dispersed were purchased by Messrs. 
Platt Brothers, and by them presented to the 
Oldham Lyceum. Butterworth died of ty- 
phoid fever on 19 April 1848. In 1859 a mo- 
nument to his memory was erected by public 
subscription in Greenacres Cemetery, Oldham. 
His books are now for the most part scarce 
and difficult to obtain. 

[Local Notes and Queries from the Manchester 
Guardian, 1874-5; Index Catalogue of the Man- 
chester Free Library, Eeference Department, 
Manchester, 1879 ; Historical Sketches of Old- 
ham, 1856 ; Fishwick's Lancashire Library, 1875.] 

W. E. A. A. 

BUTTERWORTH, HENRY (1786- 
1860), law publisher, was born at Coventry 
28 Feb. 1786, being the son of a wealthy 
timber merchant of that place, and grand- 
son of the Rev. John Butterworth fq. v.], 
baptist minister of Coventry, Warwickshire, 
and author of a ' Concordance of the Holy 
Scriptures.' Young Henry was educated 
first in the grammar school at Coventry, and 
afterwards at Bristol. When fifteen years 
old he entered the bookselling establishment 
of his uncle, Joseph Butterworth [q. v.], in 
Fleet Street, London. Living in his uncle's 
house he became acquainted with Lord 
Liverpool, Lord Teignmouth, William Wil- 
berforce, ZacharyMacaulay, Dr. Adam Clarke, 
and others, who were frequent guests at his 
uncle's table. In 1818 he went into business 
on his own account, obtained the appoint- 
ment of law publisher to the queen, took a 
leading part in the management of the Sta- 
tioners' Company, and became the chief 
London law publisher. In 1823 he was 
elected a member of the city council, but 
declined other municipal office. He sup- 
ported generously church extension, and 
many social and Christian institutions. He 
was an active member of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. In 1813 Butterworth married 
Miss Elizabeth H. Whitehead, daughter of 
Captain Whitehead of the 4th Irish dragoon 
guards. He died at Upper Tooting, Surrey, 
2 Nov. 1860, aged 74. A painted glass 
window was placed in the choir of St. Paul's 
Cathedral by his friends, as a mark of respect 
to his memory. 

[Annual Eegister for 1860, p. 400, et seq.] 

W. B. L. 

BUTTERWORTH,JAMES(1771-1837), 

Manchester topographer, was the youngest 
of eleven children, and was born on 28 Aug. 
1771 in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne. 
His parents were probably handloom weavers. 
They sent the boy to school under Mr. John 
Taylor of Alt. Taylor allowed him a share 
in the instruction of the lower classes. But- 

VOL. VIII. 



terworth attained some skill in ornamental 
penmanship. He married in 1792 Hannah 
Boyton, by whom he had ten children ; the 
youngest, Edwin, attained, like his father, 
some distinction as a topographer. After 
many years spent in tuition, Butterworth 
acted for some years as postmaster of Old- 
ham. He produced a lengthy series of books 
and pamphlets on the history of his native 
county, which record much that would have 
been forgotten but for his personal observa- 
tion. He died on 23 Nov. 1837. 

His writings are: 1. 'A Dish of Hodge 
Podge, or a Collection of Poems by Paul Bob- 
bin, Esq., of Alt, near Oldham, Manchester, 
printed for the author, 1800.' 2. 'Rocher 
Vale,' a poem printed at Oxford 1804. 3. ' An 
Historical and Descriptive Account of the 
Town and Parochial Chapelry of Oldham,' 
Oldham, 1817 ; a second edition appeared in 
1826, ' The Rustic Muse, a collection of 
poems,' Oldham, 1818. 4. ' A Sequel to the 
Lancashire Dialect, by Paul Bobbin, Couzin 
German of the famous Tim Bobbin of merry 
memory, 'Manchester, 1819; professedly writ- 
ten in the local dialects of the parishes of 
Ashton and Rochdale. The frontispiece is a 
portrait of ' Paul Bobbin,' and represents a 
thin, sharp-featured, large-eyed man, with 
long and slightly curling hair. The plate is 
engraved by Slack from a drawing by But- 
terworth. 5. 'The Antiquities of the Town, 
and a Complete History of the Trade of Man- 
chester,' Manchester, 1822 ; reissued in 1823 
as ' A Complete History of the Cotton Trade, 
&c., by a person concerned in trade.' 6. ' His- 
tory and Description of the Town and Parish 
of Ashton-under-Lyne and the Village of 
Dukinfield,' Ashton, 1823. 7. ' History and 
Description of the Towns and Parishes of 
Stockport, Ashton-under-Lyne, Mottram- 
Long-Den-Dale, and Glossop, with some me- 
morials of the late F. D. Astley, Esq., of Du- 
kinfield, and extracts from his poems, with 
an elegy to his memory,' Manchester, 1827. 
These four works appear also to have been 
issued separately ; the ' Memorials of F. D. 
Astley ' is dated 1828. 8. ' A History and 
Description of the Parochial Chapelry of Sad- 
dleworth,' Manchester, 1828. 9. ' An His- 
torical and Topographical Account of the 
Town and Parish of Rochdale,' Manchester, 
1828. 10. ' The Instruments of Freemasonry 
Moralised,' Manchester, 1829 ; a pamphlet. 
11. ' Tabula Mancuniensis, chronological ta- 
ble of the history of Manchester,' Manchester, 
1829; this pamphlet is the foundation of Tim- 
perley's ' Annals of Manchester,' and the 
' Manchester Historical Recorder.' 12. ' A 
Gazetteer of the Hundred of Salford,' Man- 
chester, 1830 j a pamphlet. 



Butterworth 



Button 



Some of his manuscripts were placed, with 
those of his youngest son, Edwin [q. v.], in 
the Oldham Lyceum. Many of his books 
have become scarce, and in addition to the 
list given above he is said to have published 
' Mancunium,' a poem. In a letter addressed in 
1802 to a Manchester bookseller he complains 
of lack of encouragement. ' How would I 
exert myself could I find one single friend of 
genius amongst all the host of Paternoster 
Row factors ! ' He mentions that he has a 
work entitled ' A Guide to Universal Manu- 
facture, or the web disclosed,' which he may 
submit ; ' but, if like the generality of your 
tribe, you are not willing to encourage a poor 
author, I'll commit the work to the flames 
and for ever renounce the business.' 

[Biographical Sketch by John Higson ; Ashton 
Reporter, 9 Oct. 1869 ; Skeat's Bibliography of 
English Dialects, 1 875 ; Axon's Folk-Song and 
Folk-Speech of Lancashire, 1870; Fishwick's 
Lancashire Library, 1875 ; Local Notes and 
Queries from the Manchester Guardian, 1874-5.] 

W. E. A. A. 

BUTTERWORTH, JOHN (1727-1803), 
baptist minister, was the son of Henry But- 
terworth, a pious blacksmith of Goodshaw, 
a village in Rossendale, Lancashire. He was 
one of five sons, of whom three, besides John, 
became ministers of baptist congregations. 
One of them named Lawrence, a minister at 
Evesham, wrote two pamphlets against uni- 
tarian views. John was born 13 Dec. 1727, 
and went to the school of David Crosley, a 
Calvinistic minister who had known John 
Bunyan. About the year 1753 he was ap- 
pointed pastor of Cow Lane Chapel, Coventry. 
With this congregation he remained upwards 
of fifty years, and died 24 April 1803, aged 75. 

He published, in 1767, 'A New Concord- 
ance and Dictionary to the Holy Scriptures,' 
which was reprinted in 1785, 1792, and 1809. 
The last edition was edited by Dr. Adam 
Clarke. He also wrote ' A Serious Address 
to the Rev. Dr. Priestley,' 1790. 

His son, Joseph, and his grandson, Henry, 
are separately noticed. 

[Parry's Hist, of Cloughfold Baptist Church, 
p. 226 ; Newbigging's Forest of Rossendale, 
p. 176 ; Hargreaves's Life of Hirst, pp. 325, 365 ; 
Life of Adam Clarke, 1833, ii. 17, iii. 147; 
Poole's Coventry, p. 238.] C. W. S. 

BUTTERWORTH, JOSEPH (1770- 
1826), law bookseller, was son of the Rev. 
John Butterworth [q. v.], baptist minister of 
Coventry. He was born at Coventry in 1770. 
At an early age he went to London, where 
he learned the business of a law bookseller, 
and founded a large and lucrative establish- 
ment in Fleet Street, in which his nephew, 



Henry [q. v.], afterwards assisted him. His 
bouse became a resort of the leading phil- 
anthropists of the day. There Lords Liver- 
pool and Teignmouth, William Wilberforce 
and the elder Macaulay discussed their bene- 
volent schemes, and there the first meetings 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
were held. Butterworth liberally supported 
many philanthropic and Christian institutions. 
He sat in parliament for several years as 
representative of Dover, and gave an inde- 
pendent support to the government of the 
day. In August 1819 he was appointed 
general treasurer of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Missionary Society, which office he retained 
until his death. For many years he was a 
loyal member of the Wesleyan community, 
but maintained a generous spirit towards all. 
He was author of ' A General Catalogue of 
Law Books,' with their dates and prices ; a 
work of great value to members of the legal 
profession. He died at his house in Bedford 
Square, London, 30 June 1826, aged 56. 

[Sermon by Rev. Richard Watson, 1826, in 
vol. ii. of Watson's Works; Minutes of the 
Methodist Conference.] W. B. L. 

BUTTEVANT, VISCOUNT. [See BARKY, 
DAVID FITZJAMES.] 

BUTTON, RALPH (d. 1680), canon of 
Christ Church under the Commonwealth, was 
the son of Robert Button of Bishopstown, 
Wiltshire, and was educated at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford. He proceeded B.A. in 1630 ; 
in 1633 the rector of Exeter, Dr. Prideaux, 
recommended him to Sir Nathaniel Brent, 
the warden of Merton, for a fellowship in 
his college. The fellowship was conferred 
on him, and he became famous in the uni- 
versity as a successful tutor. Among his 
pupils were Zachary Bogan and Anthony a 
Wood. On the outbreak of the civil war in 
1642, Button, who sympathised with the 
parliamentarians, removed to London, and on 
15 Nov. 1643 was elected professor of geo- 
metry at Gresham College, in the place of 
John Greaves. In 1647 he was nominated 
a delegate to aid the parliamentary visitors 
at Oxford in their work of reform, and ap- 
parently resumed his tutorship at Merton. 
On 18 Feb. 1647-8 Button was appointed by 
the visitors junior proctor ; on 11 April he 
pronounced a Latin oration before Philip, 
earl of Pembroke, the new chancellor of the 
university, and on 13 June he resigned his 
Gresham professorship. On 4 Aug. he was 
made canon of Christ Church and public orator 
of the university, in the room of Dr. Henry 
Hammond, who had been removed from those 
offices by the parliamentary commission. At 
the same time Button declined to supplicate 



Button 



99 



Button 



fc'r the degree of D.D. on the ground of the 
ex oense ; it appears from Wood that he had 
then lately married. Button showed similar 
incependence in successfully resisting the 
endeavour of the visitors to expel Edward 
Poc )ck from the Hebrew and Arabic lecture- 
shij on the ground of political disaffection. At 
the Restoration Button was ejected from all 
his >ffi ces and his place at Christ Church filled 
by L>r. Fell. Leaving Oxford, he retired to 
Bri ntford, where he kept a school. Baxter 
says that he was soon afterwards imprisoned 
for six months ' for teaching two knight's sons 
in his house, not having taken the Oxford 
oa;h.' At the date of the Declaration of 
Indulgence (1672) Button removed to Is- 
lir gton, and Sir Joseph Jekyll lived with 
hii a as his pupil. He died at Islington in 
October 1680, and was buried in the parish 
church. A son died and was buried at the 
st me time. Baxter in ' Reliquiae Baxteri- 
a ise ' speaks of him as ' an excellent scholar, 
\ at of greater excellency ; a most humble, 
worthy, godly man, of a plain, sincere heart 
and blameless.' He left a daughter, who 
married Dr. Boteler of London. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 508, ii. 107, 
158-9 (where a memoir is given); Wood's 
Gresham Professors ; Baxter's Beliquise, pt. iii. 
pp. 36, 96 ; Palmer's Nonconformist Memorial, 
i. 315, iii. 126 ; Brodrick's Memorials of Merton 
College ; Burrows's Parliamentary Visitation of 
Oxford (Camd. Soc.)] S. L. L. 

BUTTON, SIR THOMAS (d. 1634), ad- 
miral, fourth son of Miles Button of Worl- 
ton, in Glamorganshire, entered the naval 
service of the crown about the year 1589. Of 
his early career we have no exact informa- 
tion, though from casual notices we learn 
that, with occasional intervals of wild and 
even lawless frolic (Cal. S. P. Dom. 15 Jan. 
1600), he served with some distinction in 
the West Indies and in Ireland. His good 
and efficient service at the siege of Kinsale is 
especially reported (Cal. S. P., Carew, 22 Oct. 
1601), and won for him a pension of 6s. Sd. 
a day, which was confirmed on 25 March 
1604. It is not, however, till 1612 that he 
comes prominently into notice, and then as 
the commander of an expedition to search 
for the north-west passage, under the direct 
patronage of Prince Henry, in whose name 
his instructions were drawn out. As captain 
of the Resolution, with the Discovery pin- 
nace in company, Button put to sea early in 
May, and in the following August explored 
for the first time the coasts of Hudson's Bay, 
and named Nelson River after the master of 
the Resolution, who died there, New Wales, 
and Button's Bay, into which the river flows, 



and where he wintered. For such severe ser- 
vice the ships' companies were but poorly pro- 
vided, and great numbers of them perished, 
although game was plentiful. In the follow- 
ing spring and summer, with much enfeebled 
crews, Button succeeded in examining the 
west coast of Hudson's Bay, so far as to 
render it certain that there was no passage 
to the west in that direction, and as autumn 
approached he returned to England. He was 
shortly afterwards appointed admiral of the 
king's ships on the coast of Ireland. This 
office he held during the rest of his life, exer- 
cising it for the most part on the station im- 
plied by the name, frequently also in the 
Bristol Channel or Milford Haven, where his 
duty was to suppress pirates, which, of dif- 
ferent nationalities, and more particularly 
French and Turkish, infested those seas. The 
only important break in this service occurred 
in 1620, when he was rear-admiral of the 
fleet which, under the command of his kins- 
man, Sir Robert Mansel, made an unsuccess- 
ful attack on Algiers. He had already been 
knighted at Dublin by his cousin, Sir Oliver 
St. John, then lord deputy (Cal. S. P., Ire- 
land, 30 Aug. 1616). In 1624 he was a 
member of the council of war, and in 1625 
was on a commission for inquiring into the 
state of the navy. At this time he was neces- 
sarily a good deal in London, and appears to 
have resided at Fulham. The duties of his 
commission and of his command kept him in 
continual hot water with the navy board, 
against which he was supported by the Duke 
of Buckingham and the Earl of Denbigh. 
The quarrel reached a climax in February 
1627-8. On the 12th Button wrote from 
Plymouth to Nicholas : 'All the world will 
take notice if I be unhorsed of the ship in 
which I have so long served. If dismissed, I 
shall shelter myself under the lee of a poor 
fortune which, I thank God, will give me 
bread, and say as the old Roman did " Votis 
non armis vincitur." ' On the 13th Lord 
Denbigh wrote to Buckingham that ' he 
should be sorry if so able and honest a man 
as Sir Thomas Button were neglected ;' and 
on the 15th the navy board complained that 
Sir Thomas Button would ' take no notice of 
any order unless he received the duke's im- 
mediate command.' Buckingham's interest, 
however, seems to have brought him success- 
fully through his difficulties. His later years 
were much embittered by a series of disputes 
with the admiralty regarding several in- 
stances of alleged misconduct on the one 
side, and the non-payment of his pension and 
allowances on the other. Of the charges 
against him, which amounted to neglect of 
duty, fraudulent appropriation of prizes, shel- 

H2 



Button 



100 



Button 



tering of pirates, &c., Button cleared himself 
without any serious difficulty ; but to make 
good his claim for money due to him was not 
so easy, for his accounts had become ex- 
tremely complicated, and no one could say 
even what pay he was entitled to as admiral 
of the Irish seas, the opinions varying from 
20. a day to 5*. The question was still un- 
determined at his death in April 1634. 

He was twice married, and left a large 
family. At least one of his sons, and two or 
three nephews of the name, were at one time 
or another captains in the navy, and we may 
fairly suppose that the Edmond Button who 
commanded the Sampson and was killed in 
the battle off Portland was one of these. It 
may be noted also that Sir Thomas Button 
was a near relation of the St. Johns, and 
more distantly of Cromwell himself. His 
eldest son Miles, however, after the Restora- 
tion, petitioned for compensation for losses 
sustained in the cause of royalty ; it does not 
appear that he received any. 

[Calendars of State Papers, Domestic, 1600- 
1635 ; Clark's Glamorgan Worthies (some account 
of Admiral Sir Thomas Button), 1883, 8vo ; But- 
ton's Journal of his Voyage to Hudson's Bay is 
hopelessly lost; -whatever traces of it remain 
have been collected in Kundall's Narratives of 
Voyages towards the North-West (Hakluyt 
Society), 81.] J. K. L. 

BUTTON, or BITTON, WILLIAM I 

(d. 1264), bishop of Bath and Wells, came of 
a family that took its name from Bitton in 
Gloucestershire, where a chantry chapel of 
great beauty is still to be seen, built on the 
north side of the parish church by Thomas 
Button, bishop of Exeter, nephew of this 
William, and consecrated 1299 (Somerset 
Archceol. Society's Proc. xxii. 67). William 
was rector of Sowy, sub-dean, and afterwards 
archdeacon of Wells. He was elected in the 
chapter-house of Bath on 24 Feb. 1247 by the 
monks of Bath and the canons of Wells con- 
jointly, according to an arrangement made 
during the episcopate of his predecessor Roger 
for settling the claims of the two capitular 
bodies. He was consecrated at Lyons by In- 
nocent IV on 14 June. On 21 Dec. his ca- 
thedral church was much damaged by an 
earthquake. The bishop gave an account of 
this event to Matthew Paris, telling him how 
fissures appeared in the walls, and how a new 
stone spire of great weight fell upon the 
church, destroyingthe finials and battlements, 
and crushing the capitals of the pillars (MATT. 
PARIS, v. 46). During a visit to the Roman 
court in 1251 he helped to defeat an attempt 
made to deprive Nicholas, the late bishop of 
Durham, of a portion of the revenues assigned 



to him on his retirement. The reason of his 
visit was the necessity of resisting the op- 
pressive extension of metropolitan claims, and 
on his return to England he brought a le tter 
from the pope, forbidding the archbishop to 
visit secular non-collegiate churches, and fix- 
ing a maximum sum to be paid as procura- 
tions. William was present at the parliament 
held in April 1253, in which the bishops 
vainly petitioned the king to grant the church 
freedom in elections [see ATMEK DE VALENCE, 
bishop], and joined in the solemn excommu- 
nication pronounced by the bishop in West- 
minster Hall on 3 May against the violators 
of the great charter and the charter of 
forests. A document relating the part taken 
by William in the ceremony is preserved at 
Wells (Chapter Documents, 533). Later in 
the year he was sent by Henry III to Al- 
fonso X of Castile to ask for his sister Eleanor 
in marriage for Edward. In January 1254 he 
was with the king in Gascony. He had a long 
contention with Roger Forde, abbot of Glas- 
tonbury, who sought to recover the posses- 
sions and rights which his house had lost to 
the bishopric. In the course of these pro- 
ceedings the bishop made an unjustifiable and 
unsuccessful attempt to deprive the abbot of 
his office. This quarrel took the bishop to 
Rome to uphold his cause. The king was in 
favour of the abbot, and this William thought 
hard after the expense he had been put to by 
his journey to Spain. He also quarrelled with 
his chapter, for he tried to take from them 
certain grants made to them by Bishop Jocelin 
for their common fund. Against this oppres- 
sion the chapter appealed both to Canterbury 
and Rome. The matter was finally arranged 
by the friendly intervention of the arch- 
bishop, who in 1259 decided in their favour 
(ib. 464). Another dispute arose in 1262 
on account of a trespass committed by the 
bishop's pigs in Winscombe wood, a right 
of pannage being of no inconsiderable value 
in those days ; in this matter also the bishop 
appears to have been in the wrong (MS. Reg. 
iii. 99). In 1258, in obedience to a letter re- 
ceived from the pope, he joined Bishop Giles 
of Sarum in investigating the claim of Robert 
Chance to the see of Carlisle, and in conse- 
crating him on 14 April. He was present at 
the dedication of Salisbury Cathedral at Mi- 
chaelmas 1258. Among the hangings given 
to the church of St. Albans Matthew Paris 
mentions a gift from Bishop William (vi. 390). 
He found means during his episcopate to ad- 
vance the interests of his own family. A 
nephew William II [q. v.], afterwards bishop, 
was made archdeacon of Wells, another of his 
name wasprecentor,one brother was treasurer, 
another was provost of Combe, and was sue- 



Button 



101 



Butts 



ceeded by Thomas Button, afterwards dean 
of Wells and bishop of Exeter. Button died 
3 April 1264, and was buried in the chapel of 
St. Mary behind the altar ; on his tomb was 
his effigy in brass (LELAND, Itin. iii. 108). 

[M. Paris, v. 46, 212, 373, 375, 396, 423, 534, 
590, vi. 229, 232, 390, ed. Luard ; Annales Bur- 
ton., Dunstapl., Theokes. ; Ann. Monast. i. 156, 
157, 300, iii. 205 ; Canon of Wells in Anglia 
Sacra, i. 565 ; Godwin de Prsesulibus, 372; Cas- 
san's Bishops of Bath and Wells, 133 ; Adam of 
Domerham, 523, ed. Hearne ; John of Glaston- 
bury, 224-34, ed. Hearne ; Eeshanger, 62, Cam- 
den Soc. ; Dean and Chapter MSS. at Wells.] 

W. H. 

BUTTON or BITTON, WILLIAM II 

(d. 1274), bishop of Bath and Wells, was 
nephew of the former bishop of the same name, 
and was also a relation of Walter Giffard, his 
immediate predecessor in the see. He was 
archdeacon and afterwards dean of Wells. 
Giffard having been translated to the see of 
York in October 1266, William was elected 
bishop in February 1267, and received the tem- 
poralities on 4 March of that year. In view of 
the fact that the bishops of this see lost even 
the right of a seat in their chapter, it is in- 
teresting to note that in 1270 William pre- 
sided over a meeting of the chapter, in which 
several new statutes were, enacted (Ordinale, 
57). This bishop was a man of a wholly dif- 
ferent stamp from the uncle who preceded 
him. Little as we know of his work, he may 
be looked on as an example of the influence 
exercised by the preaching of the friars ; for 
when Robert Kilwardby, the provincial of 
the Dominicans, was to be consecrated to the 
archbishopric of Canterbury, he declared that 
he would have the bishop of Bath to perform 
the rite on account of his eminent piety. He 
died 4 Dec. 1274, and was buried on the south 
side of the choir of his cathedral church. 
Though never acknowledged as a saint by the 
catholic church, he received the honour of 
popular canonisation. Crowds visited his 
tomb with prayers and offerings. Little pro- 
gress probably had been made of late years in 
the work of building the church, and it seems 
that the effects of the storm of 1248 [see BUT- 
TON, WILLIAM I, d. 1264] had not been re- 
paired. The offerings brought to the shrine 
of ' Saint ' William enriched the chapter, and 
are doubtless to be connected with a convo- 
cation held in 1284 ' for finishing the new 
work and repairing the old.' Somerset folk 
believed that the aid of the good bishop was 
especially effectual for the cure of toothache, 
and the belief lingered down to the seven- 
teenth century. On the capitals of some of 
the pillars in the transepts of Wells Cathedral 
are figures represent ing people suffering from 



toothache, and it may be reasonably believed 
that those parts of the church were built from 
the offerings made at the saint's tomb soon 
after his death. 

[Wykes, in Ann. Monast. iv. 194, 261 ; Matt. 
Paris Cont. 108; Keynolds's Wells Cathedral, 
Ordinale et Statuta ; Somerset Archaeol. Soc. 
Proc. xix. ii. 29 ; Godwin, De Prsesulibus, 373 ; 
Cassan's Bishops of Bath and Wells, 141.] 

W. H. 

BUTTON, SIB WILLIAM (d. 1654), 
royalist, was descended from the old family 
of Bitton or Button, so called from the parish 
of Bitton in the county of Gloucester. He 
was the eldest son of William Button of Al- 
ton, and of Jane, daughter of John Lamb, in 
the county of Wiltshire (BEERY, Hampshire 
Pedigrees). Lloyd (Memoirs, 649) confounds 
him with his son who died in 1660, and the 
error is repeated by Jackson (ATTBREY, Col- 
lections for Wiltshire. 190). Both state that 
he was educated at Exeter College under Dr. 
Prideaux, and attended Sir Arthur Hepton 
in his embassy through France and Spain, 
but the original source of these statements 
is the sermon preached on 12 April 1660 by 
Francis Bayly in the parish church of North 
Wraxall at the funeral of the second Sir 
William Button, to whom alone they apply. 
The father of this Sir William Button was 
raised to the baronetage on 18 April 1621 
(BUKKE, History of the Commoners, iv. 370). 
During the civil wars he was a staunch 
royalist, and on this account his house To- 
kenham Court was twice stripped and his 
property carried off, the first occasion being 
in June 1643 by Sir Ed. Hungerford, when 
his loss was 7671., and the second in June 
1644 by a party of horse from Malmesbury 
garrison, when it amounted to 5261. 6s. In 
the November following his estate at Token- 
ham was sequestrated, after which he lived 
at his manor of Shaw near Overton. In 1646 
he was fined 2,380/. for ' delinquency.' He 
died on 28 Jan. 1654, and was buried in the 
vault in the north aisle of North Wraxall 
church. Lloyd, confounding him with his 
son, gives the date of his death erroneously as 
1660. By his marriage with Ruth, daughter 
of Walter Dunche of Avebury, he left four 
sons and three daughters. 

[Aubrey's Collections for Wiltshire, ed. Jack- 
son, 190 ; Burke's History of the Commoners, 
iv. 370 ; Berry's Hampshire Pedigrees ; Lloyd's 
Memoirs, 649.] T. F. H. 

BUTTS, JOHN (d. 1764), painter, was 
born and bred in Cork, and with but little 
instruction developed extraordinary powers 
in landscape. His compositions, in which 
he is fond of introducing figures, are Claude- 



Butts 



IO2 



Butts 



like in subject and in treatment, but English 
in touch and tint, showing great breadth 
and harmony of colour. To supply the 
wants of a large family of young children, 
and, it must be added, his own vicious pro- 
pensities, Butts was glad to do anything, 
from scene-painting to coach-panels and 
signboards. He thus fell an easy prey, when 
about thirty years of age, to a dealer in 
Dublin, with whom he shared a garret and 
squandered his earnings in drink. His 
vices brought him to an early grave in 1764. 
James Barry, R.A., was a warm admirer of 
the genius of Butts, and declared that his 
works were his ' first guide ' (see a letter to 
Dr. Sleigh, Works, 1809, i. 20-22). 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists (1878), 
p. 66 ; Warburton, Whitelaw, and Walsh's His- 
tory of Dublin, ii. 1180.] G-. G-. 

BUTTS, ROBERT, D.D. (1684-1748), 
bishop successively of Norwich 1733-1738, 
and of Ely 1738-1748, was the son of the 
Rev. William Butts, rector of Hartest, near 
Bury St.Edmunds, Suffolk, of the elder branch 
of the Butts of Shouldham Thorpe in Norfolk, 
collaterally connected with SirWilliam Butts, 
M.D. [q. v.] Butts was educated at the gram- 
mar school at Bury, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated as B. A. 1 707, M. A. 
1711, and D.D. 1728. As an undergraduate he 
was famous as a pugilist and a football player, 
and excelled in all manly exercises. After his 
ordination he served the curacy of Thurlow in 
his native county, and in 1703 was chosen 
one of the preachers of Bury. Here he ren- 
dered political services to the Hervey family. 
He was a zealous and unscrupulous party 
agent, and useful in elections to John, lord 
Hervey, eldest son of the first earl of Bris- 
tol, lord privy seal in Sir Robert Wai- 
pole's administration. So powerful a patron 
secured his steady and rapid preferment. 
In 1717 he was appointed by Lord Bris- 
tol to the rich family living of Ickworth, 
and in 1728 he became chaplain to George II, 
receiving his degree of D.D. at the same time 
by royal mandate. Three years later, 6 Feb. 
1731, he was appointed dean of Norwich, re- 
taining the living of Ickworth in commen- 
dam, till his succession to the bishopric, on 
the death of Bishop Baker, 20 Jan. 1733. He 
was consecrated by Bishop Gibson of London, 
at Bow Church, 25 Feb. According to Cole 
his great and sudden rise was a matter of 
surprise to most people, as he was almost 
unknown in the ecclesiastical world, and his 
merit went very little ' beyond hallooing at 
elections, and a most violent party spirit.' 
As bishop he is said to have 'shown some 
zeal and earnestness' in the management of 



his diocese, but coupled with a haughtiness 
which rendered him the object of general dis- 
like, being, according to Cole, ' universally 
hated, not to say detested.' Little pains were 
taken to conceal the joy felt when, in four 
years' time, he was translated to the much 
richer see of Ely, which at that time seems to 
have been regarded as the natural apotheo- 
sis of the bishops of Norwich. As bishop of 
Ely he found his palace in London a far more 
agreeable residence than his episcopal city. 
He spent little time at Ely, and when there, 
if we may believe the spiteful Cole, he was a 
far more frequent visitor to the public bowl- 
ing-green than to the cathedral services. Ac- 
cording to the same authority he took little 
care to restrain his language within profes- 
sional decorum, having ' sufficient of every 
necessary language for his episcopal office but 
good language,' being often heard ' swearing 
a good round hand,' and using vulgar and 
scurrilous expressions. He took no more 
care at Ely than at Norwich to make himself 
acceptable to his clergy, whom he is charged 
with treating with the greatest insolence. 
Though paying little regard to his person in 
private, and rough and ungentlemanly in his 
manners, he knew how to comport himself 
with great dignity on public occasions. He 
was an excellent speaker, his voice being good, 
and his manner dignified. As a preacher also 
he displayed superior powers. During the 
latter years of his life Butts was crippled 
with gout, which did not mollify a temper 
never accustomed to be controlled. This 
disease flying to his stomach, caused his death 
at Ely House, Holborn, 26 Jan. 1748. His 
body was buried in the south aisle of the 
choir of his cathedral, under a tasteless marble 
monument, adorned with a bust and a lauda- 
tory epitaph, ascribing to him an ardent love 
for true religion : ' zelo B. Petri similis et 
sancte quoad licuit semulus.' 

The general estimate of this prelate may 
be gathered from the following passage in 
the 'Political Will and Testament' of Sir 
Robert Walpole, a party squib published after 
that minister's death in 1745 : ' My eloquence 
I leave to that Good Shepherd, the Bishop of 
Ely, to persuade the Sheep of his Flock to leave 
off their Prophaneness, to turn from the evil of 
their Ways, and to follow the pious example 
of their Leader.' Butts was twice married. 
His first wife was Miss Elizabeth Eyton, of 
the old Shropshire family of that name, who 
died of consumption in 1734, at the age of 
forty-four, leaving two sons and five daugh- 
ters. Mrs. Butts was buried in the chapel 
of the palace at Norwich, with a fulsome 
epitaph expressing the longing of the broken- 
hearted widower for ' prseclarus ille dies ' 



Butts 



103 



Butts 



which would restore her to him for ever. The 
bishop, however, consoled himself for his loss 
the next year, when, being over sixty, he 
married a young lady of twenty-three, the 
junior of his eldest daughter, the daughter of 
the Rev. Mr. Reynolds of Bury, by whom he 
had six more daughters. In 1753 Mrs. Butts 
took as her second husband Mr. George Green, 
the receiver of the late bishop's rents. The 
union was an unhappy one, the parties sepa- 
rated, and Mrs. Green retired to Chichester, 
where she died 3 Dec. 1781, at the age of 
sixty-nine. Butts printed nothing beyond a 
few charges and occasional discourses. The 
following may be mentioned : 1. A Sermon 
preached at Norwich on the day of the acces- 
sion of George II, 1719. 2. A Charge at the 
primary visitation of the diocese of Norwich, 
1735, London, 4to, 1736. 3. Sermon on Ps. 
cxxii. 6, preached before the House of Lords 
in Westminster Abbey, on the anniversary 
of the accession, 11 June 1737, London, 4to, 
1737. 4. Charge delivered at the primary 
visitation of the diocese of Ely, London, 4to, 
1740. 

[Cole MSS. xviii. 140, 233 ; Bentham's His- 
tory of Ely; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 80.] E. V. 

BUTTS, SIR WILLIAM (d. 1545), phy- 
sician to Henry VIII, was born in Norfolk, 
and educated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge, 
being admitted to the degrees of B. A. in 1506, 
M.A. 1509, and M.D. 1518. In the follow- 
ing year he applied for incorporation into 
the university of Oxford, but Wood could 
find no record of his incorporation. In 1524 
he took a lease of St. Mary's Hostel, and 
was therefore probably principal of the house 
(Athence Cantab.) ; but he was at the same 
time practising his profession among the 
nobility, and from that time to his death he 
was constantly employed as physician at the 
court. The king, his queens, Anne Boleyn 
and Jane Seymour, the Princess Mary, after- 
wards Queen Mary, the king's natural son, 
Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond, Cardinal 
Wolsey, the Duke of Norfolk, Sir Thomas 
Lovell, George Boleyn, and Lord Rochford, are 
all known to have been his patients. As phy- 
sician to the king his salary was 100Z. a year, 
afterwards increased by forty marks, and an 
additional 20/. for attending on the young 
Duke of Richmond. He was also knighted. 
As physician to the Princess Mary he received 
a livery of blue and green damask for himself 
and two servants, and cloth for an apothe- 
cary. His wife was also in the princess's 
service as one of her gentlewomen, and her 
portrait was painted by Holbein . The finished 
picture was exhibited in 1866 at the Royal 
Academy, and the sketch is at Windsor. It 



is engraved by Bartolozzi in ' The Court of 
Henry VIII.' It may fairly be said that 
the princess owed her life to her physician. 
Not only did he exert his professional skill 
in her behalf, but having good reason to sus- 
pect that there were plots to poison her, he 
frightened her governess, Lady Shelton, by 
telling her that it was commonly reported in 
London that she was guilty of this crime, and 
so made her doubly careful of her charge for 
her own sake. Some writers have spoken of 
him as being one of the founders of the Col- 
lege of Physicians, but this is an error. The 
college was founded in 1528, and he did not 
join till 1529. He does not seem to have held 
any collegiate office, but he was held in such 
esteem that he is entered in their books as 
< vir gravis, eximia literarum cognitione, sin- 
gular! judicio, summa experientia et prudent! 
consilio doctor.' 

This praise refers more particularly to his 
medical life ; but he was a patron of other 
branches of learning, and a man whose influ- 
ence with the king was invariably directed 
to good purposes. When Wolsey was in dis- 
grace Butts tried to reconcile the king to him, 
and his interposition in favour of Archbishop 
Cranmer is well known to readers of Shake- 
speare (If en. VIII. act v. sc. ii.) In religious 
matters his sympathies were with the refor- 
mation. He attempted in person to convert 
some of the monks of Sion who refused to 
acknowledge the king's supremacy, and two 
men, both prominent reformers, one on the 
side of religion and the other on the side of 
learning, Hugh Latimer and Sir John Cheke, 
both owed their advancement to him. He 
died 22 Nov. 1545, and was buried at Fulham 
church. His tomb was against the south 
wall, close to the altar, and formerly pos- 
sessed a brass representing him in armour, 
with a shield bearing his arms : azure, three 
lozenges gules on a chevron or, between three 
estoiles or, and a scroll inscribed with the words 
' Myn advantage.' Beneath it was a Latin 
epitaph in elegiacs by his friend Cheke. The 
tomb and brass are destroyed, but a slab with 
Cheke's verses, and an inscription stating that 
it was restored by Leonard Butts of Norfolk 
in 1627, is inserted in the wall of the tower. 
The epitaph gives the date of death as 17 Nov., 
22 Nov. being found in both inquisitions. The 
figures had perhaps become nearly illegible and 
were wrongly restored. All the authors who 
mention the date of death copy this mistake. 
He married Margaret Bacon, of Cambridge- 
shire, and left three sons : Sir William, of 
Thornage, Norfolk; Thomas, of Great Riburgh, 
Norfolk, and Edmund, of Barrow, Suffolk. Sir 
William, junior, was not killed at the battle of 
Musselburgh, as Blomefield says, but lived till 



Buxhull 



104 



Buxhull 



1583. The epitaphs on him were collected 
and printed by R. Dallington. Edmund 
alone had issue, one daughter, who married 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, eldest son of Sir Nicholas, 
keeper of the great seal. His will at Somerset 
House and the inquisitions taken after his 
death show that he possessed houses at Ful- 
ham, and on the site of the "White Friars, 
London, the manors of Thornage, Thornham, 
Edgefield, and Melton Constable, in Norfolk, 
and Panyngton, in Suffolk. Other lands with 
which the king rewarded him had been dis- 
posed of before his death. Sir William Butts 
was twice painted by Holbein. The portrait 
in the possession of Mr. W. H. Pole Carew, 
of Antony, Cornwall, which was exhibited at 
Burlington House in 1866, ranks among the 
very best of the genuine works of the painter. 
The National Portrait Gallery possesses a 
copy of it. The other portrait of him is in 
the picture of the delivery of the charter to 
the barber surgeons, engraved by Baron. 
Many of his prescriptions, some devised in 
consultation with Drs. Chambers, Cromer, 
and Augustine, are preserved in Sloane MS., 
No. 1047, in the British Museum. There are 
three epigrams on him (Nos. 48, 49, 100) in 
Parkhurst's collection. 

[Gal. of State Papers of Hen. VIII, vols. iv.- 
vii. ; State Papers, Hen. VIII, i. 299, 311, 572, 
ix. 170, xi. 59; Strype's Cranmer, 179; Eccl. 
Mem i. ii. 461, i. i. 261, in. i. 514 ; Cheke, 166 ; 
Wood's Athen.Oxon. i. 244, Fasti, i. 50; Wright's 
Suppression of the Monasteries, 49 (CamdenSoc.); 
Madden's Privy Purse Expenses of Princess Mary ; 
Blomefield's Norfolk ; Foxe's Acts and Mons. (ed. 
1838), v. 605, vii. 454-, 461, 773, viii. 25-34 ; 
Cooper's Athenae Cantab, i. 87, 535 ; Goodall's 
Koyal College of Physicians; Munk's Coll. of 
Phys. ; Granger's Biog. Hist. i. 76, 109 ; Inq. 
p. m. 37 Hen. VIII, pt. i. Nos. 50, 75 ; Patent 
Kolls, 28-38 Hen. VIII.] C. T. M. 

BUXHULL, SIK ALAN (1323-1381), 
constable of the Tower, was the son of Alan 
Bokeshull, or Buxhull, the tenant in capite 
of a messuage now known as Bugzell, in the 
parish of Salehurst, Sussex, and of other 
lands in the same county, and who also held 
the manor and church of Bryanstone, in Dor- 
setshire, all of which were, upon his death in 
1325, inherited by his son Alan, then an in- 
fant two years old. In 1355 he was a knight 
in the expedition of Edward III to succour 
the King of Navarre ; and some years later, 
in 1363, he attended the king to welcome the 
King of Cyprus on his landing at Dover. The 
year following he was sent with the Lord 
Burghersh and Sir Richard Pembrugge to 
render similar honours to King John of 
France, when by reason of the inability of 
his subjects to ransom him he was obliged to 



return to captivity in England. In 1369 Sir 
Alan, then the king's chamberlain, was sent 
with certain nobles to swear to the fulfil- 
ment of the treaty with Scotland, and in the 
same year he held a command under John of 
Gaunt at Tournehem. In 1370 he succeeded 
Sir John Chandos as captain and lieutenant 
of the king in the territory and fortress of 
St. Sauveur le Vicomte, near Valognes, in 
Normandy, where, as Froissart tells us, he 
bore himself as a right valiant knight, ' appert 
homme durement.' Soon afterwards he took 
part, with Sir Robert Knolles, in the expedi- 
tion against the French near Le Mans. It was 
during his stay in Normandy that Sir Alan 
received a writ from the king addressed to 
his 'dear and faithful Aleyn de Buxhull,' 
commanding him to proceed into the district 
of Cotentin to redress the outrages alleged to 
have been committed by the king's subjects 
there against those of the King of Navarre. 
Upon the death of the Earl of Stafford, one 
of the founders of the order, in October 1372, 
Buxhull was created a knight of the garter, 
being the fifty-third person promoted to that 
distinction. He had been elected in 1365-6 
successor to Sir Richard la Vache, K.G., in the 
office of constable of the Tower of London for 
life, and was also made custos of the forest and 
park of Clarendon and other forests in Wilt- 
shire. Towards the close of his life Sir Alan 
was a party to the murder, under peculiarly 
atrocious circumstances, of Robert Hauley and 
John Schakell, two esquires who had escaped 
from the Tower and taken sanctuary at West- 
minster. To effect their capture, Sir Ralph 
Ferrers and Buxhull were despatched with 
fifty men, and, meeting with some resistance, 
slew their unhappy prisoners within the very 
j precincts of the abbey. This deed happened on 
j 11 Aug. 1378. The power of John of Gaunt, 
however, effectually screened the perpetrators 
from punishment. Buxhull did not long sur- 
vive, for dying on 2 Nov. 1381, he was buried, 
according to Weever, in Jesus' chapel, under 
old St. Paul's, near the shrine of St. Ercken- 
wald. He was twice married. By his first 
wife, whose name is unknown, he left two 
daughters : Elizabeth, the wife of Roger 
Lynde, and Amicia, the widow of John Bever- 
ley. He took to his second wife Maud, the 
daughter of Adam Franceis, citizen of Lon- 
don, and relict of John Aubrey, who subse- 
quently married John de Montacute, after- 
wards third earl of Salisbury and K.G. She 
gave birth to a posthumous son, who also re- 
ceived the name of Alan, and in due time 
the honour of knighthood. 

[Beltz's Memorials of the Order of the Garter, 
pp. 188-92, and authorities cited ; Lower's Wor- 
thies of Sussex, pp. 147-9 ; Weever's Ancient 



Buxton 



105 



Buxton 



Funerall Monuments, p. 380 ; Hutchins's Dorset- 
shire, 3rd ed. i. 249, 251 ; Archaeologia, xx. 152 
n., where the writer asserts, but without giving 
any authority, that Buxhull was excommunicated 
for his share in the murder.] G. G. 

BUXTON, BERTHA H. (1844-1881), 
novelist, was born on 26 July 1844, and 
when only a girl of eleven years amused her- 
self by writing stories for her schoolfellows 
at Queen's College, Tufnell Park, London. 
Both her parents were Germans, her mother 
being Madame Therese Leopold, well known 
in musical circles, and with them she travelled 
in America, Germany, and Holland during 
her fourteenth and fifteenth years. At six- 
teen she was married to Henry Buxton, club 
manager and author, but still pursued her 
literary work as an amusement, translating 
a German operetta into English, and writ- 
ing a modest one-volume novel, which was 
published at her husband's expense, under 
the title of 'Percy's Wife.' In 1875 she 
suddenly found herself poverty-stricken, and, 
becoming entirely dependent on her own ex- 
ertions, she turned to writing for a living. 
In 1876 appeared her novel, ' Jennie of the 
Prince's, by B. H. B.,' dealing with theatrical 
life, which she had studied as a walking lady 
on the stage at Exeter. The book was a 
success. She wrote a serial for the ' World ' 
during the following year, bringing out during 
the same period ' Won ! By the Author of 
" Jennie of the Prince's," ' and a story for 
children entitled ' Rosabella,' published under 
the name of ' Auntie Bee.' From this period 
she wrote under her own name, and the fol- 
lowing Christmas brought out another child's 
book, entitled ' More Dolls,' illustrated by Mr. 
T. D. White, and dedicated to the Princess 
of Wales. Shortly afterwards Mrs. Buxton 
met with an accident which rendered work 
impossible. Somewhat recovering, she pro- 
duced 'Fetterless though Bound together' 
(1879); 'Great Grenfell Gardens' (1879); 
'Nell On and Off the Stage ; ' and ' From 
the Wings' (1880). The last two novels 
first appeared in ' Tinsley's Magazine.' Her 
other books were ' Many Loves ' (1880), ' Little 
Pops, a nursery romance ' (1881), and ' Sceptre 
and King' (1881). In collaboration with 
William Willhem Fenn she brought out 
'Oliver Gay, a Rattling Story of Field, 
Fright, and Fight,' in 1880, and a tale called 
' A Noble Name ' in a volume published by 
him in 1883. She died very suddenly from 
heart disease, at Claremont Villa, 12 St. 
Mary's Terrace, Kensington, London, on 
31 March 1881. 

[Tinsley's Magazine, xxviii. 499-500 (1881) ; 
The Carisbrooke Magazine, with portrait, April 
1881.] ' G. C. B. 



BUXTON, CHARLES (1823-1871), poli- 
tician, was the third son of Sir Thomas Fowell 
Buxton [q. v.], and was born on 18 Nov. 1823. 
Educated at home until the age of seventeen, 
he was then placed under the charge, succes- 
sively, of the Rev. T. Fisher, at Luccombe, and 
the Rev. H. Alford (afterwards dean of Can- 
terbury) at Wymeswold. In 1841 he went 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated M.A. in 1843. At the close of his 
university career he became a partner in the 
well-known brewery of Truman, Hanbury, 
Buxton, & Co. His father dying in 1845, 
Charles Buxton was entrusted with the task 
of preparing his biography. This work speedily 
passed through thirteen editions, and was 
translated into French and German. 

In 1852 Buxton visited Ireland. He pur- 

I chased an estate in county Kerry, and made 

! it a model of cultivation in the course of a few 

i years. In 1853 he published a pamphlet on 

! national education in Ireland, in which he 

j recommended for Ireland ' the system which 

had answered so admirably in England 

that of encouraging each denomination to 

! educate its own children in the best way 

[ possible.' In 1854 Buxton delivered a series 

of lectures on the theory of the construction 

of birds. In 1855 he published in the ' North 

British Review ' an article on the sale and 

use of strong drink, which attracted much 

attention as coming from a partner of a 

great brewing house. 

Buxton was returned to the House of Com- 
mons for Newport in 1857 ; for Maidstone 
in 1859 ; and for East Surrey in 1865, for 
which constituency he sat until his death. 
Buxton made an eloquent appeal in favour of 
referring the Trent question to arbitration : 
he frequently advocated the principle of the 
protection of private property during war, 
and the general amendment of international 
law in the interests of peace. In 1860 he 
published a work entitled ' Slavery and Free- 
dom in the British West Indies,' in which 
he endeavoured to prove that England had 
secured the spread of civilisation in West 
Africa, as well as the permanent prosperity 
of the West India islands. 

Buxton advocated the unpopular policy of 
clemency after the suppression of the Indian 
mutiny, and in the case of Governor Eyre 
and the Jamaica massacres. He declined 
to concur in the Jamaica committee's reso- 
lution to prosecute Governor Eyre on a charge 
of murder, and on 31 July 1866 brought for- 
ward in the House of Commons four resolu- 
tions, the first declaring that the punishments 
inflicted had been excessive ; that grave ex- 
cesses of severity on the part of any civil, mili- 
tary, or naval officers ought not to be passed 



io6 



Buxton 



over with impunity ; that compensation ought 
to be awarded to those who had suffered un- 
justly ; and that all further punishment on ac- 
count of the disturbances ought to be remitted. 
The government accepted the first resolution, 
and the others were withdrawn on the under- 
standing that inquiries should be made with 
the object, if possible, of carrying out the 
resolutions. Buxton, however, felt it incum- 
bent upon him subsequently to call for an 
effectual censure and repudiation of the con- 
duct of Mr. Eyre and his subordinates. 

Buxton was an advocate of church reform, 
of disestablishment, and of security of tenure 
in Ireland. In general politics an independent 
liberal, he strongly advocated the system of 
cumulative voting ; took a deep interest in 
the volunteer movement, but condemned all 
wars except those of defence. 

Buxton inherited his father's intense affec- 
tion for animals and his passion for outdoor 
sports. To these he added a love for archi- 
tecture. He was the architect of his own 
beautiful seat of Fox Warren, in Surrey, and 
he gained a prize of 100/. in the competitive 
designs for the government offices in 1856, 
being placed sixth in the list of competitors. 
He was an admirer of Gothic architecture 
for modern buildings, and he designed the 
fountain near Westminster Abbey, built by 
himself in 1863, as a memorial of his father's 
anti-slavery labours. In 1866 Buxton pub- 
lished ' The Ideas of the Day on Poficy,' 
and a pamphlet in 1869 on self-government 
for London. 

On 9 April 1867 Buxton was thrown from 
his horse in the hunting-field, and suffered 
concussion of the brain. During his illness 
he studied the subject of anaesthetics, and 
offered a prize of 2,000/. for the discovery of 
an anaesthetic agent which should satisfy 
certain conditions. 

Buxton's health began to fail rapidly to- 
wards the close of 1870. He died while he 
was staying at Lochearnhead, on 10 Aug. 
1871. In 1850 Buxton married the eldest 
daughter of Sir Henry Holland, bart., M.D., 
by whom he had a family. 

[Buxton's Survey of the System of National 
Education in Ireland, 1853; Buxton's Slavery 
and Freedom in the British West Indies, 1 860 ; 
Buxton's Ideas of the Day on Policy, 1866; 
Buxton's Self-Government for London, a letter 
to the Eight Hon. H. A. Bruce, M.P. (Home 
Secretary), 1869; Annual Eegister, 1871; Bux- 
ton's Notes of Thought, preceded by a biogra- 
phical sketch by the Kev. J. Llewelyn Davies, 
MA., 1873.] G.B. S. 

BUXTON, JEDIDIAH (1707-1772), an 
untaught arithmetical genius, was born at 
Elmton, Derbyshire, on 20 March 1707. His 



grandfather was vicar of Elmton, and his 
father schoolmaster of the same parish. Not- 
withstanding his father's profession, Jedi- 
diah never learned to write, and continued 
throughout his life to be employed as a 
farm-labourer. His inability to acquire the 
rudiments of education seems to have been 
caused by his absorbing passion for mental 
calculations, which occupied his mind to the 
exclusion of all other objects of attention, 
and in which he attained a degree of skill 
that made him the wonder of the neigh- 
bourhood. He was first brought into more 
general notice by a letter in the 'Gentle- 
man's Magazine' for February 1751, signed 
G. Saxe (probably a pseudonym), which was 
shortly followed by two further communica- 
tions from a Mr. Holliday, of Haughton 
Park, Nottinghamshire, who seems to have 
been the writer of the first letter. Among 
the many examples of Buxton's arithmetical 
feats which are given in these letters may be 
mentioned his calculation of the product of 
a farthing doubled 139 times. The result, 
expressed in pounds, extends to thirty-nine 
figures, and is correct so far as it can be 
readily verified by the use of logarithms. 
Buxton afterwards multiplied this enormous 
number by itself. It appears that he had 
invented an original nomenclature for large 
numbers, a ' tribe ' being the cube of a mil- 
lion, and a ' cramp ' (if Mr. Holliday's state- 
ment can be trusted) a thousand ' tribes of 
tribes.' In the spring of 1754 he walked to 
London, where he was entertained by ' Syl- 
vanus Urban 'at St. John's Gate. He was 
introduced to the Royal Society, before 
whom he gave some illustrations of his cal- 
culating powers. He was also taken to see 
Garrick in ' Richard III,' but paid no atten- 
tion to the performance except to count the 
words spoken by the actors. In the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' for June 1754 is a memoir 
of Buxton, accompanied by a portrait. His 
age is there given as forty-nine, which does 
not agree with the date of his birth as above 
stated on the authority of Lysons's ' Magna 
Britannia.' After spending some weeks in 
London he returned contentedly to his native 
village, where he was buried on 5 March 
1772. 

[G-ent. Mag. xxi. 61, 347, xxiii. 557, xxiv. 
251 ; Lysons's Magna Britannia, v. (Derbyshire), 
157.] ' H. B. 

BUXTON, RICHARD (1786-1865), bo- 
tanist, was born at Sedgley Hall Farm, 
Prestwich, on 15 Jan. 1786. His father, John 
Buxton, was a farmer, and both parents were 
from Derbyshire. Richard was the second 
son of a family of seven, but his father, re- 



Buxton 



107 



Buxton 



duced to giving up his farm within two years 
of his son's birth, came to live in Manchester 
as a labourer. As a child his education was 
almost entirely neglected, but his chief amuse- 
ment was picking wild flowers in the fields 
and brickyards near Great Ancoats. At 
twelve he was apprenticed to a bat-maker 
that is, a manufacturer of children's small 
leather shoes. When sixteen he determined 
to teach himself to read, and did so. Among 
his books he numbered some of the old her- 
balists, but found their indications quite in- 
adequate to find out plant-names. He then 
fell in with Jenkinson's Flora, alsoRobson's, 
and the first edition of Withering. For seve- 
ral years he plodded on, without making any 
botanical friends ; but in 1826 he encountered 
a kindred spirit in the person of John Horse- 
field, another of the keen Lancashire work- 
ing-men botanists, who introduced Buxton to 
their meetings. He afterwards botanised in 
Derbyshire, North Wales, and the Craven 
district of Yorkshire. When his ' Botanical 
Guide ' was published, and for many years 
afterwards, he was living unmarried with a 
sister in Manchester, where he died on 2 Jan. 
1865. He published only one book, entitled 
' Botanical Guide to the Flowering Plants, 
Ferns, Mosses, and Algae found . . . within 
16 miles of Manchester,' Lpnd. 1849 (2nd ed. 
1859) ; but he is frequently cited by Dr. Wood 
in his ' Flora Mancuniensis ' as the authority 
for many localities of the rarer plants. 

[Autobiography in Guide, iii-xv ; Cash's 
Where there's a Will, 94-1 07; Seemann's Journ. 
Bot. iii. (1865), 71-2.] B. D. J. 

BUXTON, SIB THOMAS FOWELL 

(1786-1845), philanthropist, was the eldest 
son of Thomas Fowell Buxton, of Earl's 
Colne, Essex, by a daughter of Osgood Han- 
bury, of Holfield Grange, in the same county. 
His mother, who was a member of the Society 
of Friends, was a woman of great intelligence 
and energy. He was born 1 April 1786, and 
at a very early age was sent to a school at 
Kingston, where he suffered severely from ill- 
treatment. His health gave way, and he 
was removed to Greenwich, and placed under 
the care of Dr.Burney, the brother of Madame 
d'Arblay. From his earliest youth he took 
great delight in all kinds of country sports. 
At the age of fifteen he left school, and was 
thrown much into the society of the Gurneys, 
at Earlham Hall, Norwich. In October 1803 
he was entered at Trinity College, Dublin. 
He passed all the thirteen examinations at 
Dublin (with a single exception) with the 
most distinguished success, and received the 
university gold medal, which is given only to 
men who have obtained in succession all the 



previous prizes. Before he had attained the 
age of twenty-one he was pressed to stand as 
a candidate for the representation of the uni- 
versity. He was extremely gratified by the 
offer, but declined it in consideration of his 
approaching marriage to Hannah, daughter 
of Mr. John Gurney, of Earlham Hall, sister 
to Mrs. Fry, and of the business career for 
which he was intended. He returned to 
England, and his marriage took place on 
13 May 1807. 

Buxton joined the well-known firm of 
Truman, Hanbury, & Co., brewers, of Spital- 
fields,in 1808. Though his business engage- 
ments were very arduous, he found time to 
study English literature and political eco- 
nomy. Nor did he neglect those philan- 
thropic efforts which had been pressed upon 
him by his mother, and in which he was 
encouraged by William Allen. Between 
1808 and 1816 he interested himself in all 
the charitable undertakings in the distressed 
district of Spitalfields, especially in those 
connected with education, the Bible Society, 
and the sufferings of the weavers. He took 
an energetic part in defending the Bible So- 
ciety when it was the subject of a violent 
controversy, initiated by Dr. Marsh, after- 
wards bishop of Peterborough. 

In 1816 almost the whole population in 
Spitalfields was on the verge of starvation. 
A meeting was called at the Mansion House, 
and Buxton delivered a forcible speech. He 
narrated the results of his personal investi- 
gations ; the sum of 43,369/. was raised at 
this one meeting, and an extensive and well- 
organised system of relief was established. 
Buxton joined the committee of the newly 
formed Society for the Reformation of Prison 
Discipline. He had previously gone through 
the gaol at Newgate, and the results of this 
and other visitations were afterwards col- 
lected and published in a volume, entitled 
' An Inquiry whether Crime and Misery are 
produced or prevented by our present system 
of Prison Discipline' (London, 1818). In 
the course of one year this work went through 
five large editions, and it had led to the 
formation of the Prison Discipline Society 
already mentioned. In the House of Com- 
mons, Sir James Mackintosh spoke highly of 
the book, which was translated into French, 
distributed over the continent, and reached 
India. There it indirectly led to a searching 
inquiry into the scandalous management of 
the Madras gaols. 

In 1818 Buxton was returned to parlia- 
ment at the head of the poll for Weymouth, 
and continued to represent the borough until 
1837. He also devoted himself at this time 
to the preparation of a work on prison dis- 



Buxton 



1 08 



Buxton 



cipline, the foundation of a savings bank in 
Spitalfields, the establishment of a salt fish 
market in the same district, an investigation 
into the management of the London Hos- 
pital, and the formation of a new Bible Asso- 
ciation. During his first session in parliament 
he paid close attention to the operation of 
the criminal laws. He seconded the motion 
made by Sir James Mackintosh for a com- 
mittee on this subject. He sat on two select 
committees appointed to inquire into the 
penal code, and in consequence of the re- 
ports of the respective committees the go- 
vernment brought in a bill for consolidating 
and amending the prison laws then in ex- 
istence. In 1820 Buxton lost his eldest son 
and three other children. A few months 
afterwards he removed from his house at 
Hampstead, and went to reside at Cromer 
Hall, Norfolk. In 1820 he supported Mackin- 
tosh's motion for abolishing the penalty of 
death for forgery. 

In May 1824 Wilberforce, who had long led 
the anti-slavery party in the House of Com- 
mons, formally requested Buxton to become 
his successor. Buxton had been an active 
member of the African Institution. In 1822 
he had begun his anti-slavery operations with 
vigour, being supported by Zachary Macau- 
lay, Dr. Lushington, Lord Suffield, and others. 
In March 1823 Mr. Wilberforce issued his 
' Appeal on behalf of the Slaves,' and imme- 
diately afterwards the Anti-Slavery Society 
was formed. On 15 May following Buxton 
feeling, after mature deliberation, that he 
could not decline the important charge 
pressed on him by Wilberforce brought 
forward a resolution in the House of Com- 
mons for the gradual abolition of slavery. 
It was carried, with the addition of some 
words proposed by Canning in reference to 
the planters' interests. The government 
issued a circular to the various colonial au- 
thorities, recommending the adoption of cer- 
tain reforms; but the planters indignantly 
rejected them, and denounced the attack 
upon their rights. 

Buxton laboured on, fortifying himself 
with facts concerning slave operations, and 
preparing documents charged with irrefrag- 
able statistics. Public meetings were held 
throughout the country in denunciation of the 
slave trade, and on 15 April 1831, the govern- 
ment having declined to take up the case, 
Buxton brought forward his resolution for 
the abolition of slavery. He showed that 
in 1807 the number of slaves in the West 
Indies was 800,000, while in 1830 it was only 
700,000. In other words, the slave popula- 
tion had suffered a decrease in twenty-three 
years of 100,000. The necessity for emanci- 



pation was conceded, and at the opening of the 
session of 1833 Lord Althorp announced that 
the government would introduce a measure. 
Eventually, on 28 Aug., the bill for the total 
abolition of slavery throughout the British 
dominions received the royal assent. 

In spite of some forebodings, the colonial 
legislatures duly carried the Act into effect. 
On emancipation day, 1 Aug. 1834, a large 
number of friends assembled at the house of 
Buxton, and presented him with two hand- 
some pieces of plate. On 22 March 1836 
Buxton moved for a committee of the House 
of Commons to inquire into the working of 
the apprenticeship system. He spent much 
time and labour in his investigation of this 
question, and adduced a mass of statistical 
information, ' proving, on the one hand, that 
the negroes had behaved extremely well, and, 
on the other, that they had been harassed by 
vexatious by-laws and cruel punishments.' 
The committee was granted, and subsequently 
the under-secretary for the colonies intro- 
duced a bill for enforcing in Jamaica mea- 
sures in favour of the negroes. 

In June 1837 the death of the king neces- 
sitated the dissolution of parliament, and 
Buxton lost his seat at Weymouth. He had 
refused beforehand to lend money ' a gentle 
name for bribery ' to the extent of 1,0001. 
Proposals were made from twenty-seven 
boroughs to Buxton to stand as a candidate, 
but he declined them all. 

He now sought to deliver Africa from the 
slave trade, and published in 1839 ' The Afri- 
can Slave Trade and its Remedy.' He re- 
commended the concentration upon the coast 
of Africa of a more efficient naval force ; the 
formation of treaties with the native chiefs ; 
the purchase by the British government of 
Fernando Po, as a kind of headquarters and 
mart of commerce ; the despatch of an ex- 
pedition up the Niger for the purpose of 
setting on foot preliminary arrangements ; 
and the formation of a company for the intro- 
duction of agriculture and commerce into 
Africa. 

The Society for the Extinction of the Slave 
Trade and the Civilisation of Africa was es- 
tablished ; and the government resolved to 
send a frigate and two steamers to explore the 
Niger, and if possible to set on foot com- 
mercial relations with the tribes on its banks. 
Sir Edward Parry, the comptroller of steam 
machinery, was appointed to prepare the ves- 
sels. Meantime Buxton's health had given 
way, and he was ordered complete rest. To- 
wards the close of 1839 he made a tour through 
Italy, where he engaged in a close investiga- 
tion into the crimes of the banditti. He 
fully exposed the deeds of a notorious band, 



Buxton 



109 



Byam 



headed by Gasparoni. He also conducted 
a minute examination into the state of the 
Roman gaols. 

On his return to England, Buxton eagerly 
threw himself into his previous plans. A 
baronetcy was conferred upon him 30 July 
1840. For a brief period all went well with 
the Niger expedition, but at length there re- 
mained no doubt of its failure ; and of the 
three hundred and one persons who composed 
the expedition, forty-one perished from the 
African fever. Sir Fowell Buxton was almost 
prostrated by this failure of his plans, and his 
health rapidly gave way. 

In January 1843 the African Civilisation 
Society was dissolved. At its closing meet- 
ing Sir Fowell Buxton defended himself from 
the charge of imprudence. The ill-fated Niger 
expedition ultimately proved to be far from 
fruitless. It gave a new impulse to the African 
mind, and induced the emigration from Sierra 
Leone, which opened the way into Yoruba 
and Dahomey, and placed even Central Africa 
within the reach of British influences. The 
communication established between the river 
Niger and England opened up an important 
trade in cotton and other articles. 

Sir Fowell Buxton now devoted himself 
to the cultivation of his estates. He esta- 
blished model farms and extensive plantations 
at Runton and Trimingham, near Cromer, 
and executed various plans of land-improve- 
ment. An essay upon the management of 
these estates gained the gold medal of the 
Royal Agricultural Society in 1845. 

In the spring of 1843 Sir Fowell, whose 
health was failing, was recommended to try 
the Bath waters. He died 19 Feb. 1845, and 
was buried in the ruined chancel of Over- 
strand church, near his family seat of North- 
repps Hall, Norfolk. His benevolence, his 
complete devotion to whatever was practical, 
his humility, his affection for children, and 
his love of animals were well known. He 
was eminently a religious man. Although 
attached to the church of England, Sir Fowell 
Buxton never allowed sectarian differences to 
interfere with his friendships and labours. The 
education of the poor and their social improve- 
ment were the especial objects of his endea- 
vours. The prince consort headed a move- 
ment for a public tribute to the memory of 
Sir Fowell Buxton, and it took the form of a 
statue by Thrupp, which is erected near the 
monument to Wilberforce, in the north tran- 
sept of Westminster Abbey. Lady Buxton, 
by whom he had three sons and two daughters, 
died 20 March 1872. 

[Memoirs of Sir T. F. Buxton, Bart., edited by 
his son, Charles Buxton, M.P., 1872 ; Times, 
February 1845; Annual Eegister, 1845; the 



African Slave Trade, 1839; An Inquiry whether 
Crime and Misery are produced or prevented by 
our present system of Prison Discipline, 1818; 
Bead's Sir T. F. Buxton and the Niger Expedi- 
tion, 1840 ; The Kemedy, being a Sequel to the 
African Slave Trade, 1840; Binuey's Sir T. F. 
Buxton, a Study for Young Men, 1845.] 

G. B. S. 

BYAM, HENRY, D.D. (1580-1669), 
royalist divine, was born 31 Aug. 1580, at 
Luckham, Somerset, the eldest of four sons 
of Lawrence Byam, presented to the rectory 
of Luckham 19 June 1575, and married 26 May 
1578 to Anne or Agnes, daughter of Henry 
Ewens or Yewings of Capton in the parish of 
Stogumber. Henry matriculated at Exeter 
College, Oxford, 10 June 1597, and was elected 
student of Christ Church 21 Dec. 1599. He 
graduated B.A. 30 June 1602, M.A. 9 June 
1605, B.D. 9 July 1612, D.D. 31 Jan. 1643. 
Wood praises him as ' one of the greatest 
ornaments of the university,' and ' the most 
acute and eminent preacher of his age.' He 
succeeded his father (whose will was proved 
in the middle of July 1614) in the rectory 
of Luckham with Selworthy. On 17 March 
1632 he was made prebendary of Exeter. His 
D.D. was given him by command of the king, 
just after he had escaped from the custody of 
Blake, Byam's family being the first to take 
up arms for the king in those parts. His 
living was sequestered in 1656. He accom- 
panied Charles II to Scilly when he fled from 
England, and was chaplain in the isle of 
Jersey until the garrison surrendered. Hence- 
forth he lived in obscurity till the restoration, 
when he was made prebendary of Wells, in 
addition to his prebend at Exeter. He died 
16 June 1669 at Luckham, and was buried 

29 June in the chancel of his church. Byam's 
wife and daughter were drowned in attempt- 
ing to escape to Wales by sea during the 
troubles. He had five sons, four of whom 
were captains in the royalist army. He pub- 
lished : 1. ' A Returne from Argier : a sermon 
preached at Minhead, 16 March 1627-8 at 
the readmission of a lapsed Christian to our 
church,' 1628, 4to. Posthumously appeared 
2. ' Xni Sermons : most of them preached 
before his majesty King Charles II in his 
exile,' &c., 1675, 8vo (edited, ' with the tes- 
timony given of him at his funeral,' by Ham- 
net Ward, M.D. ; two of the sermons are in 
Latin, being a visitation sermon at Exeter, 
and a sermon for his B.D. degree). A bust 
of Byam has been placed in the Shire Hall 
at Taunton. 

JOHN, second son of Lawrence Byam, was 
born about 1583, matriculated at Exeter 
College 12 Oct. 1599, and graduated B.A. 

30 June 1603, M.A. 25 May 1606. He 



Byer 



no 



Byers 



married a daughter of William Mascall 
(d. 1609), rector of Clot worthy, Somerset,and 
succeeded to the rectory on Mascall's death. 
In May 1625 he received a dispensation to 
hold also the vicarage of Dulverton, Somerset. 
His living of Clotworthy was sequestered, 
and he was imprisoned at Wells for loyal 
correspondence. He died in 1653, and is 
said to have left a manuscript account of his 
sufferings. 

EDWARD, third son of Lawrence Byam, 
was born at the end of September 1585, ma- 
triculated at Exeter College 31 Oct. 1600, 
chosen demy at Magdalen 1601 (tiU 1610), 
graduated B.A. 12 Dec. 1604, M.A. 13 July 
1607, took priest's orders 7 April 1612, and 
was presented 4 Aug. 1612 to the vicarage 
of Dulverton, Somerset, which he resigned, 
May 1625 to his brother John. On 30 April 
1637 he was collated to the precentorship 
of Cloyne, and the vicarage of Castle Lyons, 
in Ireland. On 17 April 1639 he received the 
prebend of Clashmore in the diocese of Lis- 
more. He died at Kilwillin 6 June 1639, 
and was buried at Castle Lyons. He married 
22 July 1613, at Walton, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Anthony Eaglesfield, formerly fellow 
of Queen's, then vicar of Chewton Mendip, 
rector of Walton-cum-Street, and prebendary 
of Wells. His widow, Elizabeth Byam, 
was among the despoiled and impoverished 
protestants of 1642. His son William was 
lieutenant-general, and governor of Guiana 
and Surinam. Edward Byam wrote ' Lines 
on the death of Q. Elizabeth ' in ' Acad. Ox. 
Funebre Officium in mem. Eliz. Reginse,' 
Oxford, 1603. 

[Chronological Memoir of the three clerical 
brothers, &c. Byam, by Edward S. Byam, Kyde, 
n. d. (dedication 5 Aug. 1854), 2nd ed. Tenby, 
1862 ; Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 29, 
207; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 836; 
Fasti, i. 296, &c. ; Bloxam's Eegister of Mag- 
dalen College, the Demies, vol. ii. 1876, p. 1.] 

A. G. 

BYER, NICHOLAS (d. 1681), painter, 
was a native of Drontheim in Norway. He 
practised portrait and historical painting, and 
on coming to England found a steady patron 
in Sir William Temple, at whose seat at 
Sheen, in Surrey, he lived for three or four 
years (WALPOLE, Anecdotes of Painting, ed. 
Wornum, ii. 479). His reputation as a face- 
painter must have been considerable ; several 
persons of distinction, including some mem- 
bers of the royal family, sat to him. Dying 
at Sheen in 1681 he is said to have been the 
first person buried at St. Clement Danes after 
the rebuilding of the church (REDGRAVE, 
Dictionary of Artists, 1878, p. 66). 

[Authorities as above.] G-. G. 



BYERLEY, THOMAS (d. 1826), jour- 
nalist and compiler of the ' Percy Anecdotes,' 
was the brother of Sir John Byerley. Devoting 
himself to literary pursuits, he became editor 
of the ' Literary Chronicle ' and assistant editor 
of the ' Star ' newspaper. He was also editor 
of ' The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, 
and Instruction,' from 1823 till his death, on 
28 July 1826. Under the pseudonym of Ste- 
phen Collet he published 'Relics of Literature,' 
London, 1823, 8vo, a collection of miscel- 
lanies, including a long article, reprinted in 
1875, on the art of judging the character of 
individuals from their handwriting ; but his 
chief claim to remembrance rests on ' The 
Percy Anecdotes,' 20 vols., London, 1821-3, 
12mo. These volumes, which came out in 
forty-four monthly parts, were professedly 
written by ' Sholto and Reuben Percy, bro- 
thers of the Benedictine monastery of Mount 
Benger.' Reuben Percy was Thomas Byerley, 
and Sholto Percy was Joseph Clinton Robert- 
son, who died in 1852. The name of the 
collection of anecdotes was taken, not from 
the popularity of the ' Percy Reliques,' but 
from the Percy coffee-house in Rathbone 
Place, where Byerley and Robertson were 
accustomed to talk over their joint work. 
Lord Byron insisted that ' no man who has 
any pretensions to figure in good society 
can fail to make himself familiar with the 
" Percy Anecdotes ; " ' but in spite of this 
commendation the work is now acknow- 
ledged to be a compilation of no real value 
or authority. The ' Anecdotes ' were re- 
printed in 2 vols. in the ' Chandos Library,' 
with four pages of preface by John Timbs, 
F.S.A. The ' Brothers Percy ' also compiled 
' London, or Interesting Memorials of its 
Rise, Progress, and Present State,' 3 vols., 
London, 1823, 12mo. 

[Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 214, 3rd ser. 
ix. 168; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; 
Preface to reprint of Percy Anecdotes ; Gent. 
Mag. N.S. xxxviii. 548.] T. C. 

BYERS or BYRES, JAMES(1733-1817), 

architect and archaeologist, died at his seat 
Tonley, in the parish of Tough, Aberdeen- 
shire, on 3 Sept. 1817, in the eighty-fourth 
year of his age (Scots Mag. N.S. 1817, i. 196). 
During a residence of nearly forty years at 
Rome, from 1750 to 1790, he assiduously 
collected antique sculpture. At one time he 
possessed the Portland vase, which he parted 
with to Sir William Hamilton. Bishop 
Percy, for whom Byers procured old Ita- 
lian roniances, calls him ' the pope's anti- 
quary at Rome ' (NICHOLS'S Illustr. of Lit. 
iii. 726, vii. 718-19). Byers also gave lec- 
tures for many years on the favourite objects 



Byfield 



of his study, and Sir James Hall, who has 
occasion in his ' Essay on Gothic Architec- 
ture ' (1813) frequently to refer to his au- 
thority, bears testimony to ' the very great 
success with which he contributed to form 
the taste of his young countrymen.' In 1767 
he proposed to publish by subscription ' The 
Etruscan Antiquities of Corneto, the antient 
Tarquinii' (Gent. Mag. xlix. 288); but for 
some not very satisfactory reason the book 
never appeared, a circumstance which gave 
rise to many complaints on the part of de- 
luded subscribers (ibid. vol. Ixii. pt. i. pp. 201, 
317, vol. Ixvi. pt. i. p. 222). Long after his 
death forty-one drawings from his collection 
were published with the title ' Hypogsei, or 
Sepulchral Caverns of Tarquinia, the capital 
of antient Etruria; edited by Frank Howard,' 
folio, London (1842). Byers was elected^n 
honorary fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
on 24 Feb. 1785, and was also a corresponding 
member of the Society of Arts and a fellow 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His 
profile is given at p. 101 of T. Windus's 
' Description of the Portland Vase,' and there 
is a portrait of him by Sir H. Raeburn. 

[New Statistical Account of Scotland, xii. 614 ; 
Thorn's History of Aberdeen, ii. 193-4.] G-. G-. 

BYFIELD, ADONIRAM (d. 1660), pu- 
ritan divine, the third son of Nicholas By- 
field [q. v.], was probably born before 1615. 
He was educated at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, and does not appear to have had 
any profession except the ministry, though 
Zachary Grey styles him ' a broken apothe- 
cary.' In 1642 he was chaplain to Sir Henry 
Cholmondeley's regiment. On 6 July 1643 
he was appointed one of the two scribes to 
the "Westminster Assembly, the other being 
Henry Roborough. Their amanuensis or as- 
sistant was John Wallis, afterwards Savilian 
professor of geometry. The scribes were not 
members of the assembly of which they kept 
the record, nor were they at first allowed, 
like the members, to wear their hats. (For a 
minute account of the way in which Byfield 
discharged the public part of his duties see 
Baillie's ' Letters and Journals,' ii. 107 sq.) 
In common with the other divines the scribes 
were entitled ito the allowance (irregularly 
paid) of four shillings a day. For their spe- 
cial trouble they received the copyright of 
the 'Directory' (ordered to be published 
13 March 1645), which they sold for 400J. ; 
the anticipated circulation must have been 
large, as the selling price was threepence per 
copy. It was during the sitting of the as- 
sembly that Byfield obtained first the sine- 
cure rectory, and then the vicarage of Ful- 
ham. Isaac Knight succeeded him in the 



i Byfield 

rectory in 1645, and in the vicarage in 1657. 
At some unknown date between 1649 and 
1654 Byfield received an appointment to the 
rectory of Collingbourn Ducis, Wiltshire, 
from which Christopher Prior, D.D., had been 
removed. Prior died in 1659, when Byfield 
was probably duly instituted, for he was not 
disturbed at the Restoration. In 1654 he 
was nominated one of the assistant commis- 
sioners for Wiltshire, under the ordinance of 
29 June for ejecting ' scandalous, ignorant, 
and insufficient ministers and schoolmasters,' 
and was the most active among them. Walker 
gives very full details of his procedure in the 
case against Walter Bushnell, vicar of Box 
(ejected in 1656). Byfield's assembly prac- 
tice had made him as sharp as a lawyer in 
regard to all the catches and technical points 
of an examination. We hear little more 
about him. He died intestate in London, in 
the parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, at the 
end of 1660 or very beginning of 1661. His 
wife, Katharine, survived him, and adminis- 
tered to his effects on 12 Feb. 1661. Granger 
describes a portrait of Byfield ' with a wind- 
mill on his head and the devil blowing the 
sails.' Butler has canonised him in ' Hudi- 
bras' (pt. iii. canto ii.) as a type of those 
zealots for presbytery whose headstrong tac- 
tics opened the way to independency. Walker 
has immortalised the tobacco-pipe which By- 
field flourished in his satisfaction at the judg- 
ment on Bushnell. 

Byfield's most important work consists of 
the manuscript minutes, or rather rough 
notes, of the debates in the assembly, which 
are almost entirely in his very difficult hand- 
writing. They are preserved in Dr. Williams's 
library, and were edited by Mitchell and 
Struthers in 1874. According to Mitchell 
( Westminster Assembly, pp. 409, 419), Byfield 
had published a catechism some years before 
the assembly met. In 1626 he edited his 
father's ' Rule of Faith,' a work on the 
Apostles' Creed. To Byfield is ascribed ' A 
Brief View of Mr. Coleman his new modell 
of Church Government,' 1645, 4to. He also 
assisted Chambers in his ' Apology for the 
Ministers of the County of Wiltshire, . . .' 
1654, 4to. 

[Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, i. 
178 sq., ii. 68 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), 
iii. 670, &c. ; Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial, 1802, 
ii. 447 ; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, iii. 
374 ; authorities cited above.] A. Or. 

BYFIELD, JOHN (/. 1830), wood en- 
graver, held a high position in his profes- 
sion, but no details of his life are recorded. 
He and his sister Mary cut the illustrations 
for an edition of Holbein's ' Icones Veteris 



Byfield 



112 



Byfield 



Testament!,' published in 1830, and he exe- 
cuted with great skill and fidelity, in con- 
junction with Bonner, the facsimiles of Hol- 
bein's ' Dance of Death,' published by Francis 
Douce in 1833. He also engraved the illus- 
trations for an edition of Gray's ' Elegy,' pub- 
lished in 1835. 

[Kedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 8vo, 1878.] L. F. 

BYFIELD, NICHOLAS (1579-1622), 
puritan divine, a native of Warwickshire, son 
by his first wife of Richard Byfield, who be- 
came vicar of Stratford-on-Avon in January 
1597. Nicholas was entered at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, in Lent term 1596, as ' aged 17 
at least,' which gives 1579 as the latest date 
for his birth ; and this answers to the original 
inscription on his portrait, ' An Dni 1620 
^Etatis suse 40,' thus making 1579 the earliest 
date. The second inscription (see below) 
shows that he was born in the last third of 
the year. He was four years at the univer- 
sity, but though a severe student did not 
graduate. Taking orders he intended to exer- 
cise his ministry in Ireland ; but on his way 
thither he preached at Chester, and was 
prevailed upon to remain as one of the city 
preachers, without cure. He lectured at St. 
Peter's church, and was extremely popular. 
John Bruen [q. v.] was one of his hearers, 
and a kind friend to him. In 1611 he got 
into a controversy on the sabbath question in 
a curious way. A Chester lad, John Brere- 
wood, was one of his catechists, and had been 
trained by Byfield in strict Sabbatarian habits. 
Consequently, when the lad went to London 
to serve as an apprentice, he refused to do his 
master's errands on Sundays, such as fetching 
wine and feeding a horse, and obeyed only 
under compulsion. The lad wrote to Byfield 
with his case of conscience, and was told to 
disobey. His uncle, Edward Brerewood [q.v.], 
first professor of astronomy in Gresham Col- 
lege, noticed the lad's depression, and, learn- 
ing its cause, gave him contrary advice, taking 
the ground that the fourth commandment was 
laid only upon masters. Brerewood opened 
a correspondence with Byfield on the subject. 
The discussion was not published till both 
Brerewood and Byfield had been long dead. 
It appeared at Oxford as 'A Learned Treatise 
oftheSabaoth, . . .' 1630, 4to; second edition, 
1631, 4to. Byfield's part in it is curt and harsh ; 
his manner roused Brerewood, who charges 
his correspondent with ' ignorant phantasies ' 
[see BYFIELD, RICHARD]. On 31 March 1615 
Byfield was admitted to the vicarage of Isle- 
worth, in succession to Thomas Hawkes. 
It appears from his own statement in a dedi- 
cation (1615) to Edward, earl of Bedford, 



whose chaplain he was, that his reputation 
had suffered from ' unjust aspersions.' What 
he means by saying that he had been cleared 
' by the mouth and pen of the Lord's anointed, 
my most dread soveraigne,' is not evident. 
At Isleworth he was diligent in preaching 
twice every Sunday, and in giving expository 
lectures every Wednesday and Friday. He 
kept up his public work till five weeks before 
his death, though for fifteen years he had been 
tortured with the stone. He died on Sunday, 
8 Sept. 1622. His portrait, painted on a 
small panel, hangs in Dr. Williams's library. 
The face is lifelike and rather young for his 
years, with a pleasing expression. Painted 
over the lower part of the panel is a porten- 
tous figure of the calculus from which he suf- 
fered, accompanied by this inscription : ' Mr. 
Nicholas Byfield, minister some times in the 
Citty of Chester, but last of Isleworth, in the 
county of Midellsex, where he deceased on 
the Lord's day September the 8, anno domini 
1622, aged neer 43 years. The next day after 
his death he was opened by Mr. Millins, the 
chirurgion, who took a stone out of his blad- 
der of this forme, being of a solid substance 
16 inches compasse the length way, and 13 
inches compass in thicknesse, which weighed 
35 ounces auerdupois weight.' This corre- 
sponds closely with the account given in 
William Gouge's epistle prefixed to Byfield's 
' Commentary upon the second chapter of the 
First Epistle of Saint Peter,' 1623, 4to. 
Gouge, who was present at the autopsy, makes 
the measurements of the calculus 15 inches 
about the edges, above 13 about the length, 
and almost 13 about the breadth. By his 
wife, Elizabeth, Byfield had at least eight 
children, of whom the third was Adoniram 
[q.v.] 

Byfield's works were numerous, and most 
of them went through many editions, some 
as late as 1665. His expository works, which 
are Calvinistic, have been praised in modern 
times. His first publication was ' An Essay 
concerning the Assurance of God's Love and 
of Man's Salvation,' 1614, 8vo. This was 
followed by ' An Exposition upon the Epistle 
to the Colossians . . . being the substance 
of neare seaven yeeres weeke-dayes sermons,' 
1615, fol. Brook gives abridged titles of 
fourteen works (eight being posthumous), 
adding ' several sermons,' but these are in- 
cluded in one or other of the collections 
previously enumerated in the list. The date 
of ' The Beginning of the Doctrine of Christ,' 
&c., is not 1609, as given by Brook, but 1619, 
12mo. ' The Marrow of the Oracles of God,' 
1620, 12ino (the last thing published by By- 
field himself), is a collection of six treatises, 
which includes one separately enumerated by 



Byfield 



Byles 



Brook, ' The Promises ; or a Treatise showing 
how a godly Christian may support his heart,' 
&c., 1618, 12mo. Brook does not fully spe- 
cify the issues of separate parts of Byfield's 
exposition of 1 Peter, nor does he give any 
indication of the later editions of the works. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 323; 
Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 297.; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, 1865, 
i. 159 ; authorities cited above ; extracts from 
registers of St. Peter's, Chester, and Isleworth.] 

A. G. 

BYFIELD, RICHARD (1598 P-1664), 
ejected minister, was a native of Worcester- 
shire, according to Wood ; yet as he is said 
to have been sixteen years of age in 1615 
(WooD) and ' setat. 67 ' (CALAMY) at his 
death in December 1664, he was probably 
born in 1598 ; and since his father became 
vicar of Stratford-on-Avon in January 1597, 
it is reasonable to conclude that, like his 
elder half-brother Nicholas Byfield [q. v.], he 
was a Warwickshire man, though his bap- 
tism is not to be found in the Stratford-on- 
Avon register. He was a son of Richard 
Byfield by his second wife. In Michaelmas 
term 1615 he was entered either as servitor or 
batler at Queen's College, Oxford. He gradu- 
ated B.A. 19 Oct. 1619, M.A. 29 Oct. 1622. 
He was curate or lecturer at Isleworth, pro- 
bably during his brother's incumbency (i.e. 
before 8 Sept. 1622), and had some other 
' petite employments ' before being presented 
(prior to 1630) by Sir John Evelyn to the 
rectory of Long Ditton, Surrey. He sat in 
the Westminster Assembly, but was not one 
of the divines nominated in the original ordi- 
nance of 12 June 1643, being appointed, per- 
haps through the influence of his nephew 
Adoniram [q. v.], to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Daniel Featley, D.D. (d. 17 April 
1645). During the protectorate he quar- 
relled with Sir John Evelyn, his patron, about 
the reparation of the church, and Calamy re- 
counts their amicable reconciliation through 
the intervention of Cromwell. In 1654 he 
was appointed one of the assistant commis- 
sioners for Surrey, under the ordinance of 
29 June for the ejection of scandalous, &c. 
ministers and schoolmasters. He held his 
rectory, with a high character for personal 
piety and zeal in the ministry, until the 
passing of the Uniformity Act. At his ejec- 
tion he was the oldest minister in Surrey, 
i.e. probably in seniority of appointment, for 
he was not an old man. Leaving Long 
Ditton, he retired to Mortlake, where he was 
in the habit of preaching twice every Sun- 
day in his own family, and did so the very 
Sunday before his death. He died suddenly 

VOL. VIII. 



in December 1664, and was buried in Mort- 
lake church. 

Some of the works of his brother Nicholas 
have been assigned to Richard ; he edited a 
few of them. His own works are : 1. ' The 
Light of Faith and Way of Holiness,' 1630, 
8vo. 2. < The Doctrine of the Sabbath Vin- 
dicated, in Confutation of a Treatise of the 
Sabbath written by Mr. Edward Brerewood 
against Mr. Nicholas Byfield,' 1631, 4to [see 
BREREWOOD, EDWARD, and BYFIELD, NICHO- 
LAS], Byfield attacks the spelling ' Sabaoth ' 
adopted by Brerewood. 3. ' A Brief Answer 
to a late Treatise of the Sabbath Day,' 1636 ? 
(given to Byfield by Peter Heylin, in ' The 
History of the Sabbath,' 2nd edit. 1636, 4to ; 
it was in reply to ' A Treatise of the Sabbath 
Day,' &c., 1635, 4to, by Francis White, bishop 
of Ely, who rejoined in ' An Examination and 
Confutation,' &c. 1637, 4to). 4. 'ThePowerof 
the Christ of God,' &c. 1641, 4to. 5. 'Zion's 
Answer to the Nation's Ambassadors,' &c. 
1645, 4to (fast sermon before the House of 
Commons on 25 June, from Is. xiv. 32). 
6. ' Temple Defilers defiled,' 1645, 4to (two 
sermons at Kingston-on-Thames from 1 Cor. 
iii. 17 ; reissued with new title-page ' A short 
Treatise describing the true Church of Christ,' 
&c., 1653, 4to, directed against schism, ana- 
baptism and libertinism). 7. 'A message 
sent from . . . Scotland to ... the Prince 
of Wales,' 1648, 4to (letter from Byfield). 
8. ' The Gospel's Glory without prejudice to 
the Law,' &c., 1659, 8vo (an exposition of 
Rom. viii. 3, 4). 9. ' The real Way to good 
Works: a Treatise of Charity,' 12mo (not 
seen ; mentioned by Calamy ; Palmer makes 
two works of it). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 668, &c. ; 
Calamy's Account, 1713, 664 ; Palmer's Nonconf. 
Memorial, 1803, iii. 301 ; Cox's Literature of the 
Sabbath Question, 1865, i. 160, &c. ; Minutes of 
the Sessions of the Westminster Assembly, 1874, 
pp. 90, 126; information from Eev. Gr. Arbuth- 
not, Stratford-on-Avon.] A. Gr. 

BYLES, JOHN BARNARD (1801- 
1884), judge, was eldest son of Mr. Jeremiah 
Byles, timber-merchant, of Stowmarket in 
Suffolk, by his wife, the only daughter of 
William Barnard, of Holts in Essex. He 
was born at Stowmarket in 1801 . He became 
a member of the Inner Temple, and, after 
reading as a pupil in the chambers of Chitty, 
the great pleader, and for a time practising as 
a special pleader himself, at 1 Garden Court, 
Temple, was called to the bar in November 
1831. He joined the Norfolk circuit and 
attended sessions in that county. In 1840 
he was appointed recorder of Buckingham, 
and in 1843 was raised to the degree of 



Byles 



114 



Bylot 



serjeant-at-law. When in 1846 the court of 
common pleas was opened to all the members 
of the bar, Byles received a patent of pre- 
cedence in all courts. He rapidly acquired 
a large and leading practice both on his own 
circuit, which he led for many years after 
Sir Fitzroy Kelly became solicitor-general, 
and also in London. About 1855 he resigned 
his recordership, and in 1857 was appointed 
queen's Serjeant, along with Serjeants Shee 
and Wrangham. This was the last appoint- 
ment of queen's Serjeants, and he was the 
last survivor of the order (see PULLING, 
Order of the Coif, 41, 182). Though he 
never sat in parliament, he was always a 
strong and old-fashioned conservative. He 
was once a candidate for Aylesbury, but 
being a rigid Unitarian, and constant at- 
tendant at a Unitarian chapel, was unac- 
ceptable to the church party. Nevertheless 
he was selected by Lord Cranworth in June 
1858, though of opposite politics, for promo- 
tion to the bench, and when Sir Cresswell 
Cresswell retired, he was made a knight and 
justice of the common pleas. He proved a 
very strong judge, courteous, genial and hu- 
morous, and of especial learning in mercan- 
tile affairs ; he was one of the judges who 
won for the court of common pleas its high 
repute and popularity among commercial 
litigants. Nevertheless, both as an advocate 
and a judge his mind was marked by a defect 
singular in one of his indubitable ability. 
He displayed a serious want of readiness in 
his perception of the facts of a case. What, 
however, he lacked in rapidity of mind, he 
made up for by extreme accuracy. He was 
an expert shorthand writer. In January 1873 
failure of health and memory and inability 
any longer to sustain the labour of going 
circuit compelled him to resign his judgeship. 
He received a pension, and along with Baron 
Channell became, on 3 March, a member of 
the privy council, and for some time, when 
his presence was required, he continued to 
attend the sittings of the judicial committee. 
He continued to reside at Hanfield House, 
Uxbridge, where and in London he was a 
well-known figure on his old white horse, 
and was occupied largely with literary in- 
terests until his death, which occurred on 
3 Feb. 1884, in his eighty-third year. In the 
course of his lifetime he published a consider- 
able number of works. Before he was called 
he delivered a series of lectures on commer- 
cial law in the hall of Lyons Inn, and the 
first of these, delivered 3 Nov. 1829, he pub- 
lished at the request and risk of friends, and 
without alteration, under the title of ' A 
Discourse on the Present State of the Law 
of England.' About the same time he pub- 



I lished ' A Practical Compendium of the Law 
of Bills of Exchange,' which has since be- 
come the standard work on this branch of 
law, and has reached a fourteenth edition. 
j The sixth edition he dedicated to Baron 
j Parke, and in the preparation of the ninth he 
I was assisted by his son Maurice. During the 
long vacation of 1845, while absent from 
London, he composed a pamphlet called ' Ob- 
servations on the Usury Laws, with sugges- 
tions for Amendment and a Draft Bill,' which 
he published in the October following. A 
keen protectionist, he wrote in 1849 a work 
called ' Sophisms of Free Trade,' which at 
once ran through eight editions, and was 
reprinted by his permission, but without his 
name, in 1870, with his notes brought up to 
date, by the Manchester Reciprocity Associa- 
tion. The book expressly disclaims party 
motives and displays considerable and wide 
reading. In 1875, after his retirement, he 
published ' Foundations of Religion in the 
Mind and Heart of Man.' It is non-contro- 
versial and didactic, and was written at dif- 
ferent times and at considerable intervals. 
He was twice married, first in 1828 to a 
daughter of Mr. John Foster, of Biggleswade, 
who died very shortly after the marriage ; 
second in 1836 to a daughter of Mr. James 
Webb, of Royston, who died in 1872. He 
had several children ; the eldest son, Walter 
Barnard, was called to the bar in 1865, the 
second, Maurice Barnard, in 1866, and was 
appointed a revising barrister in 1874. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Davy's Athenae 
Suffolcienses, iv. 35 ; Davy's Suffolk Collections ; 
Add. MS. 19121, pp. 351-2 ; Men of the Time, 
ed. 1879 ; Law Journal, viii. 33 ; Solicitors' 
Journal, 9 Feb. 1884; Serjeant Ballantine's Re- 
miniscences, p. 190.] J. A. H. 

BYLOT, ROBERT (fi. 1610-1616), navi- 
gator, is first mentioned as a seaman of the 
Discovery, in the expedition to the North- 
West under Hudson in 1610-11. His being 
rated as master's mate, and the jealousy 
which this promotion excited, were among 
the causes of the mutiny of the ship's com- 
pany and the death of the captain [see 
HUDSON, HENRY]. No blame seems to have 
been attributed to Bylot; and in 1612-13 
he was again employed under Button, who 
completed the exploration of Hudson's Bay 
[see BUTTON, SIR THOMAS]. It seems pro- 
bable that in 1614 he was employed with 
Gibbons, and in 1615 he was appointed to the 
command of the Discovery, with Baffin as 
his mate. The accounts of the voyages' in 
this and the following year were written by 
Baffin, who was unquestionably the more 
scientific navigator, and whose name has 



Byng i 

rightly been associated with the principal 
results [see BAFFIN, WILLIAM]. Bylot's 
name appears in the list of the company of 
the merchants-discoverers of the North- West 
Passage ( Calendar of State Papers, Colonial 
East Indies, 26 July 1612), but nothing 
further is known concerning him. Even the 
spelling of his name is quite uncertain. It 
appears in the different forms of Bylott, 
Bilot, and Byleth. 

[Eundall's Voyages towards the North-West 
(Hakluyt Society), p. 97.] J. K. L. 

BYNG, ANDREW, D.D. (1574-1651), 
Hebraist, was born at Cambridge, and edu- 
cated at Peterhouse in that university. He 
was elected regius professor of Hebrew in 
1608, and died at Winterton in Norfolk in 
1651. Byng was one of the translators em- 
ployed in the authorised version of the Bible. 
About 1605 we find a decree of the chapter 
of York to keep a resident iary's place for him, 
as he was then occupied in this business. 

[Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iii. 448; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Drake's Eboracum, app. p. Ixxvii ; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 228.] J. M. 

BYNG, GEORGE, VISCOUNT TOERINGTON 
(1663-1733), admiral, eldest son of John 
Byng, of a family settled for many centuries 
at Wrotham in Kent, was born on 27 Jan. 
1662-3. In 1666 his father, having got into 
pecuniary difficulties, was obliged to part 
with the Wrotham estate, and went over to 
Ireland, where he would seem to have en- 
gaged in some speculations which were so 
far from fortunate that he lost what money 
had remained to him, and in 1672 he re- 
turned to England, flying, apparently, from 
his creditors. In 1678, by the interest of 
Lord Peterborough with the Duke of York, 
George Byng entered the navy as a king's 
letter-boy on board the Swallow. On 28 Nov. 
he was transferred to the Reserve, and again 
in June 1679 to the Mary Rose. The Mary 
Rose was paid off in June 1680, and in the fol- 
lowing April young Byng was entered as a 
volunteer on board the Phoenix, commanded 
by Captain Blagg. The Phoenix was imme- 
diately afterwards sent to Tangier, where 
Byng's maternal uncle, Colonel Johnstone, 
was in garrison and on friendly terms with 
General Kirk, who, understanding that the 
boy complained of his captain's ' ill-temper,' 
offered him a cadetship in the grenadiers. 
This he gladly accepted, and was discharged 
from the Phoenix on 10 May 1681. In six 
months' time he was appointed as ensign, 
and early in 1683 was promoted to a lieu- 
tenancy. As this was held to be a grievance 
by his seniors, over whose head he had been 



Byng 



promoted, Kirk appointed him as lieutenant 
of a galley which attended on the garrison, 
and shortly afterwards to the acting com- 
mand of the Deptford ketch. From this, 
however, he was superseded at the end of 
the year by order of Lord Dartmouth, who 
consented at Kirk's request to give him a 
commission as ' lieutenant in the sea-service,' 
and appointed him (February 1683-4) to the 
Oxford. On the arrival of the fleet in England 
the officers and men of the Oxford were turned 
over to the Phcenix, fitting for a voyage to 
the East Indies, on which she finally sailed 
from Plymouth, 28 Nov. 1684. Byng had 
had his commission in the army confirmed by 
the king, and was at this time lieutenant of 
Charles Churchill's company of grenadiers, 
from which he received leave of absence to 
attend to his duty on board the Phoenix. 

The work at Bombay consisted chiefly 
in suppressing European 'interlopers' and 
native pirates. These last were rude ene- 
mies and fought desperately when attacked. 
On one occasion Byng was dangerously 
wounded. The service against the ' inter- 
lopers ' required tact, energy, and moral, 
rather than physical, courage, and Captain 
Tyrrell's views of it differed much from those 
held by Sir Josiah Child, the representative 
of the Company. It was thus that during 
an illness of Tyrrell's, Byng, being for the 
time in command, had an opportunity, by 
entering more fully into his designs, of cul- 
tivating Child's goodwill, with, as it would 
seem, very profitable results. Afterwards, 
on their return to England, 24 July 1687, 
Sir Josiah offered him the command of one 
of the Company's ships, which Byng declined 
' as being bred up in the king's service ; ' and 
when the Phoenix was paid off he rejoined 
his regiment, then quartered at Bristol. 

In May 1688 Byng, still a lieutenant, was 
appointed to the Mordaunt, and in Septem- 
ber to the Defiance. While serving in this 
subordinate employment, he was, on Kirk's 
suggestion and recommendation, appointed as 
an agent for the Prince of Orange, with the 
special work of winning over certain captains 
in the fleet. He was afterwards deputed by 
these captains to convey their assurances of 
goodwill and obedience to the prince. He 
found William at Sherborne : the prince ' pro- 
mised that he would take particular care to 
remember him,' and entrusted him with a 
reply to the officers of the fleet, and a more 
confidential letter to Lord Dartmouth, which 
may be said to have fixed his wavering mind 
(Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 31958, ff. 15-21; 
DALKTMPLE'S Memoirs, appendix to pt. i., 
314 et seq.) This was the turning-point of 
Byng's fortune ; he had judiciously chosen 

i2 



Byng 



116 



Byng 



the winning side, and on 22 Dec. 1688 was 
appointed captain of the Constant Warwick, 
from which in April 1689 he was removed 
to the Reserve, and on 15 May to the Dover, 
in which he served during the summer in 
the main fleet under the Earl of Torrington, 
and was employed during the autumn and 
winter in independent cruising. On 20 May 
1690 he was appointed to the Hope of 70 
guns, which was one of the red squadron in 
the unfortunate action off Beachy Head. In 
September he was moved into the Duchess, 
which, however, was paid off a few weeks 
afterwards. His career afloat being now well 
established, in November he resigned his 
commission in the army to his brother John, 
and in January 1690-1 was appointed to the 
Royal Oak of 70 guns, in which he continued 
till the autumn of 1692 ; but, having been at 
the time delayed in the river refitting, he 
had no share in the glories of Barfleur and 
La Hogue. In September Sir John Ashby 
hoisted his flag on board the Albemarle, to 
which Byng was appointed as second-captain 
(Admiralty Minute, 12 Sept.), and which he 
paid off in the following November. In the 
spring of 1693 he was offered the post of first- 
captain to the joint admirals, but refused it 
out of compliment to his friend Admiral Rus- 
sell, then in disgrace [see RTJSSELL, EDWARD, 
Earl of Orford] ; but accepted a similar offer 
made him in the autumn of the same year by 
Russell, then appointed commander-in-chief 
in the Mediterranean. He continued on this 
station for the next two years, and in 1696 
was appointed one of the commissioners for 
the registry of seamen, which office he held 
till its abolition in 1699. 

In 1701, when the Earl of Pembroke was 
appointed lord high admiral, Byng was nomi- 
nated as his secretary and first-captain if, as 
he intended, he took the command in person. 
This would have made Byng virtually com- 
mander-in-chief ; for Lord Pembroke was 
neither sailor nor soldier, and had no experi- 
ence in commanding men ; but before the 
nomination took effect the king died, and 
the Churchills, who came into power, visited, 
it was believed, on Byng, the old grudge 
which they bore to Admiral Russell, whose 
follower and partisan Byng was. He asked 
for a flag, which he considered due to him 
after having been so long first-captain to the 
admiral of the fleet ; it was refused him. He 
applied to be put on the half-pay of his rank ; 
this also was refused him ; and he was told 
plainly that he must either go to sea as a 
private captain or resign his commission. 
As his means did not permit him to quit his 
profession, he, under this constraint, accepted 
the command of the Nassau, a 70-guu ship 



(29 June 1702), and in the course of July 
joined the fleet under Sir Clowdisley Shovell, 
which, after cruising off Brest for two months, 
looking out for the French under Chateau- 
Renaud, went south towards Cape Finisterre. 
On 10 Oct. Byng, having been separated from 
the fleet, fell in with Sir George Rooke, but 
was at once despatched in search of Sir 
Clowdisley, with orders to him to join the 
admiral at once. Knowing that the attack 
on Vigo was imminent, Byng tried to excuse 
himself from this duty, but without success ; 
and though he made all haste to send the 
orders to Shovell, he rejoined the fleet only 
on the evening of the 12th, after the attack 
had been successfully made, and nothing re- 
mained but to complete the work of destruc- 
tion. 

On 1 March 1702-3 Byng was promoted 
to be rear-admiral of the red, and was sent 
out to the Mediterranean in the Ranelagh as 
second in command under Shovell. While 
there he was detached with a small squadron 
to Algiers, where he succeeded in renewing 
the treaty for the protection of English com- 
merce ; and towards the end of the year he 
returned to England, arriving in the Channel 
just in time to feel some of the strength of 
the great storm, though not in its full fury, 
and happily without sustaining any serious 
damage. In 1704, still in the Ranelagh, he 
commanded, as rear-admiral of the red squa- 
dron, in the fleet under Sir George Rooke in 
the Mediterranean ; he had the immediate 
command of the detachment of the fleet 
actually engaged in the bombardment and 
capture of Gibraltar ; and from his position in 
the centre of the line of battle, had a very 
important share in the battle of Malaga. On 
his return home he was (22 Oct.) knighted by 
the queen, ' as a testimony of her high appro- 
bation of his behaviour in the late action.' 
On 18 Jan. 17045 he was advanced to the 
rank of vice-admiral, and during the summer 
of that year commanded a squadron in the 
Channel for the protection of trade. In 
March 1705-6 he sailed in the Royal Anne 
for Lisbon and the Mediterranean, where he 
took part in the operations on the Spanish 
coast and in the siege of Toulon, under the 
command of Sir John Leake and Sir Clow- 
disley Shovell, which last he accompanied 
on his homeward voyage, and narrowly es- 
caped being lost with him on 22 Oct. 1707. 

On 26 Jan. 1707-8 Sir George Byng was 
raised to the rank of admiral of the blue, 
and appointed to command the squadron in 
the North Sea for the protection of the coast 
of England or Scotland, then threatened 
with invasion from France in the cause of 
the Pretender But jealousy and disputes 



Byng 



117 



Byng 



between the French officers frittered away 
much valuable time ; and when just ready 
to sail the titular king of England was inca- 
pacitated by a sharp attack of measles. All 
these delays were in Byng's favour, and 
when the expedition put to sea in the midst 
of a gale of wind on 10 March the English 
fleet was collected and intercepted it oft' the 
entrance of the Firth on 13 March, captured 
one ship, the Salisbury, and scattered the 
rest, which eventually got back to Dunkirk 
some three weeks afterwards (Memoires du 
Comte de Forbin, 1729, ii. 289 et seq.*) In 
England the question was at once raised 
whether Byng had done all that he might. 
A parliamentary inquiry was demanded. It 
was said that he could have captured the 
whole French fleet as easily as he had cap- 
tured the one ship, by some that his ships 
were foul, and by others the fault lay with 
the lord high admiral. Finally the discontent 
subsided, and the house passed a vote of 
thanks to Prince George for his promptitude ; 
Edinburgh presented Byng with the freedom 
of the city ; and the queen offered to appoint 
him as one of the prince's council, which, 
however, he declined. In October he carried 
the Queen of Portugal to Lisbon, and during 
the following year, 1709, commanded in chief 
in the Mediterranean. In November he was 
appointed one of the lords commissioners of 
the admiralty under his old chief Russell, 
now Earl of Orford. Orford's term of office 
at that time was short, but Byng continued 
at the admiralty till early in 1714, and re- 
turned to it in the following October, after 
the accession of George I. In 1715 he was 
appointed to command the fleet for the de- 
fence of the coast, and succeeded so well in 
stopping and preventing all supplies to the 
adherents of the Pretender, that the collapse 
of the insurrection was considered to be 
mainly due to his efforts, in acknowledgment 
of which the king created him a baronet, 
and gave him a diamond ring of considerable 
value. In 1717, on information that a new 
movement in support of the exiled Stuarts 
was meditated by Charles XII of Sweden, 
Sir George Byng was sent into the Baltic 
with a strong squadron. 

On 14 March 1717-18 he was advanced to 
the rank of admiral of the fleet, and was 
sent to the Mediterranean in command of a 
fleet ordered to restrain the Spanish attack 
on Sicily, in contravention of the treaty of 
Utrecht. He sailed from Spithead on 15 June 
1718, and on 21 July anchored before Naples. 
Having conferred with the viceroy, and re- 
ceived more exact intelligence of the move- 
ments of the Spaniards, at that time besieging 
the citadel of Messina by sea and land, he 



sailed from Naples on the 26th, and on the 29th 
arrived off the entrance of the Straits. From 
this position he wrote to the Spanish general, 
proposing ' a cessation of arms in Sicily for 
two months, in order to give time to the 
several courts to conclude on such resolu- 
tions as might restore a lasting peace,' adding 
that if he failed in this desirable work 'he 
should then hope to merit his excellency's 
esteem in the execution of the other part of 
his orders, which were to use all his force to 
prevent farther attempts to disturb the do- 
minions his master stood engaged to defend,' 
to which the general replied that ' he could 
not agree to any suspension of arms,' and 
' should follow his orders, which directed 
him to seize on Sicily for his master the king 
of Spain.' Historically, this correspondence 
is important, for it was afterwards asserted 
' that the English fleet surprised that of Spain 
without any warning, and even contrary to 
declarations in which Spain confided with 
security ' (CORBETT, 5). 

Early on the morning of 30 July the Eng- 
lish fleet entered the Straits ; before noon their 
advanced ships had made out the Spaniards 
far to the southward; the English followed; 
the chase continued through the night, the 
Spaniards retiring in long, straggling line, the 
English in no order, but according to their 
rates of sailing. About ten o'clock the next 
morning (31 July 1718), being then some three 
leagues to the east of Cape Passaro, the leading 
English ships came up with the sternmost of 
the Spaniards. They would have passed, for 
Byng's orders were to push on to the van ; but 
the Spaniards opening fire, they were com- 
pelled to engage, and the action thus took the 
form necessarily most disastrous to the Spa- 
niards ; for, as successive ships came up, the 
Spaniards were one by one overpowered by 
an enormous superiority of force, and almost 
the whole fleet was captured without a possi- 
bility of making any effective resistance. So 
little doubt was there of the result from be- 
ginning to end, that in the words of Cor- 
bett, the historian of the campaign ' the 
English might be rather said to have made a 
seizure than to have gotten a victory.' The 
English had indeed a considerable superiority 
of numbers, but not to an extent commensu- 
rate with the decisive nature of their suc- 
cess ; this was solely due to the measures 
adopted by the Spaniards, which rendered 
their defeat inevitable. There was little 
room for any display of genius on the part 
of Byng, though he was deservedly com- 
mended for the advantage he had taken of 
the enemy's incapacity ; and to the world at 
large the issue appeared, as broadly stated, 
that the English fleet of twenty-one sail had 



Byng 



118 



Byng 



utterly destroyed a Spanish fleet of eighteen 
ships of the line beside a number of smaller 
vessels. The king wrote his congratulations 
to the admiral with his own hand ; so also 
did the emperor ; and the Queen of Denmark, 
who claimed a personal acquaintance with 
him, sent friendly messages through the 
master of her household. 

With the destruction of the Spanish fleet 
the purely naval work of the expedition was 
accomplished, but for the next two years 
Byng continued in Sicilian and Neapolitan 
waters, keeping the command of the sea and 
co-operating with the German forces so far 
as possible. In August 1720 the Spaniards 
evacuated Sicily and embarked for Barce- 
lona ; and Byng, having convoyed the Pied- 
montese troops to Cagliari, acted as the 
English plenipotentiary at the conferences 
held there for settling the surrender of Sar- 
dinia to the Duke of Savoy, who, in acknow- 
ledgment of his services, presented him with 
his picture set in diamonds. On his return 
home, immediately after these events, he was 
appointed rear-admiral of Great Britain and 
treasurer of the navy ; in the following Janu- 
ary he was sworn in as member of the privy 
council ; and on 9 Sept. 1721 was raised to 
the peerage with the titles of Baron Southill 
and Viscount Torrington. In 1724 he re- 
signed the treasurership of the navy in favour 
of his eldest son ; in 1725 he was installed 
as a knight of the Bath ; and on the acces- 
sion of George II was appointed first lord of 
the admiralty, 2 Aug. 1727. He held this 
office till his death on 17 Jan. 1732-3. He 
was buried at Southill in Bedfordshire. 

The victory which Byng won off Cape 
Passaro, by its extraordinary completeness, 
gave him a perhaps exaggerated reputation 
as a naval commander ; but independently 
of this, his uniform success in all his under- 
takings sufficiently bears out Corbett's eulo- 
gium of him as a man who devoted his whole 
time and application to any service entrusted 
to him ; who ' left nothing to fortune that 
could be accomplished by foresight and ap- 
plication.' He describes him also as a man 
firm and straightforward in his dealings, im- 
partial and punctual in the performance of 
whatever he engaged in. He was accused 
by his enemies of meanness, greediness, and 
avarice, and several of his letters show that 
he was in the habit of looking closely after 
his pecuniary interests ; but to one brought 
up as he had been, the value of money may well 
have been unduly magnified, and lessons of 
parsimony must have been inculcated till it 
became almost a second nature. 

He married on 5 March 1691 Margaret, 
daughter of James Master of East Langden 



in Kent, who survived him by many years, 
dying at the age of eighty-seven in 1756. He 
had a numerous family, consisting of eleven 
sons and four daughters. 

His portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller is in 
the Painted Hall at Greenwich, to which it 
was presented by George IV. There is also 
another portrait by J. Davidson, a bequest of 
Mr. Corbett in 1751 ; and a picture of the 
action off Cape Passaro, by Richard Paton, 
presented by William IV, but of no historical 
value. 

[Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 31958 (this is the 
manuscript Life of Lord Torrington -which has 
been quoted or referred to by Collins, Dalrymple, 
and others as in the Hardwicke Collection, and 
being undoubtedly what it claims to be, "written 
from Byng's own journals and papers, is of the 
very highest authority, though of course its 
views are very partial ; it ends abruptly in 1705) ; 
Charnock's Biog. Nav. ii. 194; Collins's Peerage 
(1779), vi. 100; An Account of the Expedition 
of the British Fleet to Sicily in the years 1718, 
1719, and 1720, under the command of Sir 
George Byng, Bart., &c. (published anonymously, 
dedication signed T. C.), by Thomas Corbett, 
secretary of the admiralty ; Letters and other 
documents in the Public Kecord Office, more 
especially Home Office Eecords (Admiralty), No. 
48.] J. K. L. 

BYNG, JOHN (1704-1757), admiral, was 
the fourth son of George Byng, viscount Tor- 
rington [q. v.] He entered the navy in March 
1718 on board the Superb, commanded by 
his maternal uncle, Streynsham Master, 
served in her for eighteen months in the 
Mediterranean, and was present at the defeat 
of the Spaniards off Cape Passaro, in which 
the Superb had a very prominent share [see 
ARNOLD, THOMAS]. After serving in the Or- 
ford, the Newcastle, and the Nassau, he was 
moved into the Torbay. He passed his ex- 
amination on 31 Dec. 1722, and continued in 
the Torbay, with the rating of able seaman, 
till 26 Feb., when he was removed, with the 
same rating, to the Dover, and on 20 June 
was promoted into the Solebay. On 11 April 
1 724 he was appointed to the Superb as second 
lieutenant ; and when that ship was ordered 
to the West Indies, he was superseded from 
her at his own request on 29 March 1726. 
On 23 April he was appointed to the Burford 
as fourth lieutenant, continued in her on the 
home station as third and as second lieutenant, 
and at Cadiz, on 26 May 1727, was discharged 
to the Torbay for a passage to England. On 
8 Aug. 1727 he was promoted to the com- 
mand of 'the Gibraltar frigate in the Medi- 
terranean ; in the summer of 1728 he was 
moved into the Princess Louisa, also in the 
Mediterranean, and continued in her for 



Byng 



119 



Byng 



three years, when she was paid off at Wool- 
wich. He was immediately appointed to the 
Falmouth, and commanded her in the Medi- 
terranean for the next five years. The details 
of this service present no interest : nothing 
could be more uneventful ; but it is note- 
worthy on that very account. The son of 
Lord Torrington, admiral of the fleet and 
first lord of the admiralty, could pretty well 
choose his own employment, and he chose to 
spend his time for the most part as senior or 
sole officer at Port Mahon. This may have 
been very pleasant, but it was not exercising 
him in the duties of his rank, or training 
him for high command. In June 1738 he 
was appointed to the Augusta; in April 
1739 was moved into the Portland ; and in 
the following October was transferred to the 
Sunderland, in which he joined Vice-admiral 
Haddock off Cadiz. Early in 1742 he was 
appointed to the Sutherland, and went in her 
for a summer cruise to Newfoundland, com- 
ing home again in the autumn. In 1743 he 
was appointed to the St. George, and com- 
manded her in the fleet under Sir John Norris 
in February 1743-4. He continued in her 
in the spring of 1744, when Sir Charles 
Hardy hoisted his flag on board for the 
voyage to Lisbon. On 8 Aug. 1745 he was 
promoted to be a rear-admiral, and was im- 
mediately appointed to command in the 
North Sea under Admiral Vernon, then com- 
mander-in-chief in the Downs, and after his 
resignation under Vice-admiral Martin. Dur- 
ing the period of this service he was, in 1746, 
a member of the courts-martial on Vice- 
admiral Lestock and on Admiral Mathews. 
In 1747 he went out to the Mediterranean as 
second in command ; on 15 July he was ad- 
vanced to the rank of vice-admiral of the 
Blue ; and by the death of Vice-admiral 
Medley, on 5 Aug., became commander-in- 
chief in the Mediterranean, where he con- 
tinued till after the conclusion of the peace. 
When war again broke out in 1755, Byng 
was appointed to command a squadron in the 
Channel ; in the autumn he relieved Sir 
Edward Hawke in the Bay of Biscay ; and 
in the following March was promoted to be 
admiral of the blue, and was ordered to pro- 
ceed to the Mediterranean with a small 
squadron intended for the defence of Minorca, 
which, by the concurrent testimony of every 
agent in those parts, was then threatened by 
a French armament from Toulon. The govern- 
ment was very slow to believe this, and was 
rather of opinion that the armament was 
destined for North America, or for some opera- 
tions in the west, perhaps against Ireland. The 
squadron sent out with Byng was therefore 
by no means so large as it might easily have 



been made ; and the admiral's instructions 
laid most stress on the probability of the 
enemy passing the Straits. They were, how- 
ever, perfectly explicit on the possibility of an 
attack on Minorca, in the event of which he 
was, in so many words, ordered ' to use all 
possible means in his power for its relief.' 

At Gibraltar he received intelligence that 
the enemy had landed on Minorca, had over- 
run the island, and was laying siege to Fort 
St. Philip. This was exactly the contingency 
which his instructions specially and positively 
provided for. But the governor of Gibraltar 
refused to part with the troops which he was 
ordered to send, alleging that they could not 
be spared from the garrison ; and Byng, who 
from the first had shown himself very ill 
satisfied with the condition and force of his 
squadron, accepted his refusal without pro- 
test, and sailed from Gibraltar on 8 May. 
On the 19th he was off Port Mahon, and 
sent in the frigates to see what was the 
position of affairs, and to communicate with 
the acting-governor, General Blakeney. But 
before they could get near enough, the 
French squadron came in sight, and Byng, 
afraid that the frigates might be cut off, 
hastily recalled them. The wind, however, 
fell light, and the two fleets did not get 
near each other that day, nor till the after- 
noon of the next, 20 May, when, the enemy 
having yielded the weather-gage, about two 
o'clock Byng made the signal to bear down, 
and some twenty minutes after the signal to 
engage. In point of numbers the two fleets 
were equal ; but the French ships were 
larger, carried heavier guns and more men. 
A comparison of the two shows that the 
English flagship Ramillies, of 90 guns, threw 
a broadside of 842 Ibs., while the French 
flagship Foudroyant, of 80 guns, threw a 
broadside of 1,000 Ibs. The difference through- 
out was in favour of the French, but by no 
means so much as was afterwards said ; and 
in point of fact, the difference, whatever it 
was, in no way affected the result ; for the 
French stood entirely on the defensive. This 
was their great advantage ; for while the 
English were running down to the attack 
from the position to windward, Byng insisted 
on stopping to dress his line, which was thus 
iinduly exposed. The van, under Rear- 
admiral West, did, indeed, bear down as or- 
dered, and engage at very close quarters ; 
but the rear, under the commander-in-chief, 
backed their topsails, got thrown into dis- 
order, and never came within effective gun- 
shot. The ships in the van, thus unsupported, 
sustained great loss, and the whole French 
line, which had been lying by with their 
main topsails square, filled, and passing slowly 



Byng 



120 



Byng 



the disabled English ships, fired their broad- 
sides into them, then wore in succession and 
reformed on the other tack. When Byng 
extricated his rear from the confusion into 
which he had himself thrown it, he found 
his van so shattered as to be incapable of 
forming line and renewing the action. The 
French, on their side, remained as before on 
the defensive, and as they were not attacked, 
there was no further fighting. During the 
night the fleets separated ; and after waiting 
four days to refit, Byng summoned a council 
of war, the resolutions of which seemed to 
him to warrant his leaving Minorca to its 
fate, and he accordingly returned with the 
fleet to Gibraltar. When the news of the 
defeat reached England the wrath of the 
ministry and the fury of the populace were 
excessive. Hawke was at once sent out to 
supersede Byng, and send him home under 
arrest. He arrived at Spithead on 26 July. 
He was forthwith conveyed to Greenwich, 
and kept there, in a room in the hospital, 
under close and ignominious arrest. He was 
ordered to be tried by court-martial, and the 
court accordingly met at Portsmouth on 
28 Dec. After continuous sitting till 27 Jan. 
1757 this court pronounced that Admiral 
Byng had not done his utmost to relieve St. 
Philip's Castle, which it was his duty to re- 
lieve ; had not done his utmost to take, 
seize, and destroy the enemy's ships which 
it was his duty to engage, or to assist those 
of his majesty's ships which it was his duty 
to assist. For this neglect of duty the court 
adjudged him to fall under part of the 12th 
article of war, and according to the stress of 
that article sentenced him to death. To this 
sentence they added an earnest recommenda- 
tion to mercy, on the grounds that they did 
not believe the admiral's misconduct arose 
either from cowardice or disaffection, and 
that they had passed the sentence only be- 
cause the law, in prescribing death, left no 
alternative to the discretion of the court. 
The king refused to entertain this recom- 
mendation, and the sentence was duly carried 
out. Admiral Byng was shot on the quarter- 
deck of the Monarque, in Portsmouth Har- 
bour, on 14 March 1757. 

The strife of parties was at the time ex- 
ceedingly bitter, and it suited the opponents 
of the ministry, past and present, to urge 
that Byng was being executed as a cloak to 
ministerial neglect. They thus made com- 
mon cause with the personal friends of Byng, 
and a furious outcry was raised, not so much 
against the sentence as against the execution, 
which was roundly denounced as ' a judicial 
murder.' And this phrase, having caught 
the popular fancy, has been repeated over 



and over again with parrot-like accuracy. 
Another statement, less sweeping but wholly 
incorrect, has also been often repeated, and 
has been accepted by even serious historians : 
it is said that Admiral Byng was shot for 
' an error in judgment,' a fault which, as Lord 
Macaulay has properly shown, may be a very 
good reason for not employing a man again, 
but does not amount to a crime. It is right, 
therefore, to point out that neither in the 
charge against Admiral Byng, nor in the 
article of war under which he was found 
guilty, nor in the sentence pronounced on him, 
is there a single word about 'error in judg- 
ment.' The language of the article is perfectly 
clear and explicit, limiting its scope to those 
persons who shall commit the offences detailed 
' through cowardice, negligence, or disaffec- 
tion.' When, therefore, the court found Byng 
guilty under this article, and at the same 
time acquitted him of cowardice and disaf- 
fection, it did really, and with all the plain- 
ness of which the English language is 
capable, find him guilty of negligence of 
negligence so gross as to be in the highest 
degree criminal. This being the decision of 
the court, the only question is, Should the 
sentence have been carried out ? But the fact 
is that the court did not and could not give 
any reason for its recommendation except the 
severity of the law ; and to this point the most 
rational of Byng's friends applied themselves. 
Admiral West, urging it on his cousin, Lord 
Temple, the first lord of the admiralty, wrote : 
' The court have convicted him, not for cowar- 
dice nor for treachery, but for misconduct, an 
offence never till now thought capital, and 
now, it seems, only made so because no alter- 
native of punishment was found in that 
article they bring him under.' On this .it 
may be remarked that West, and all Byng's 
supporters, insisting on the novelty, the un- 
heard-of nature of the sentence, and the 
severity of the law which permitted no alter- 
native, or the absurdity of the law which took 
all discretionary power from the court, lost 
sight of the fact that it was the gross abuse of 
this discretionary power in a score of instances 
during the last war which had forced the par- 
liament to abolish it ; that absolute necessity 
had led to the passing of this stringent act 
only eight years before, and that, as these had 
been years of peace, it was still in effect new. 
It was unfortunate for Byng that he should 
be the first to feel its severity and its strin- 
gency : it was unfortunate for the country 
that it should have been goaded to an act so 
severe and stringent : but having passed 
that act, to have shrunk from the first occa- 
sion of giving it effect would have been im- 
becile. 



Byng 



121 



Byng 



When parliament refused to interfere, and 
the king finally rejected the recommendation 
to mercy, the admiral was left for execution, 
and in face of the inevitable walked to his 
death with a calm and noble bearing. His 
misconduct might be due to a want of reso- 
lution, to an unnerving sense of responsibility, 
or possibly, even probably, to a feeling of 
disgust at the government which had sent 
him out with a command so limited when it 
might have given him a force that would 
have swept the Mediterranean. But this 
want of temper, of confidence, of resolution, 
though leading to criminal misconduct, was 
not cowardice, certainly not that type of 
cowardice of which the court acquitted him, 
that cowardice which regards death or per- 
sonal danger as the most terrible of evils. 
Of this, in his last moments, Admiral Byng 
showed himself entirely free. His demea- 
nour on the Monarque's quarter-deck has 
been the theme of many a panegyrist ; and 
though panegyric on Admiral Byng seems 
strangely misplaced, it may be most truly 
said of him 

Nothing in his life 
Became him like the leaving it. 

Admiral Byng was never married. His 
remains were buried in the family vault at 
Southill, with a monumental inscription in 
which even the usual license is somewhat 
exceeded. 

[Official Documents in the Public Kecord 
Office; Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 31959, a statement 
of the case against Byng, prepared, apparently, 
for Lord Chancellor Hardwicke ; Minutes of the 
Court-martial (published by order, fol. 1757). 
The copy of this in the British Museum (5805, 
g 1 (2)) is bound up with many other papers 
of great interest, including a series of plans of 
the engagement, a picture of the execution, and 
a portrait ; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, 
vol. i. ; Walpole's Mem. of George II, vol. ii. 
The literature on the subject of Byng's execution 
is most voluminous. The list under Byng's name 
occupies four pages in the British Museum printed 
Catalogue, and this is a very small portion of 
the whole. The number of contemporary pamph- 
lets on each side of the question, for the most 
part equally scurrilous, is very great ; but they 
have no historical value, and the same may be 
said of most modern criticisms. Sir John Bar- 
row, in his Life of Anson, discusses the subject 
at some length, but with so little care that he 
bases a grave objection to the court-martial on 
the junior rank of the president, Vice-admiral 
Smith, and names as the three from whom the 
selection ought to have been made Admiral 
Steuart, who was at the time on his deathbed, 
and died on 30 March 1757, Admiral Martin, 
who died 17 Sept. 1756, two months before the 
convening of the court, and the Hon. George 



Clinton, who had retired from active service for 
more than sixteen years.] J. K. L. 

BYNG, SIE JOHN, EARL OF STRAFFORD 
(1772-1860), general, was the third son of 
Major George Byng of Wrotham Park, Mid- 
dlesex, andM.P. for that county, a grandson of 
Admiral Sir George Byng, first Viscount Tor- 
rington [q. v.], by Anne Connolly, daughter of 
Lady Anne Wentworth, who was eventually 
co-heiress of the last Earl of Strafford of the 
second creation. He was born in 1772, and 
entered the army as ensign in the 33rd regi- 
ment on 30 Sept. 1793, and was promoted 
lieutenant on 1 Dec. 1793 and captain on 
24 May 1794. With the 33rd, then com- 
manded by Colonel Wellesley, he served in 
the disastrous campaigns in Flanders of 
1793-5 and throughout the retreat to Bremen, 
and was wounded at the skirmish of Gelder- 
malsen. In 1797 he was appointed aide-de- 
camp to General Vyse, then commanding the 
southern district of Ireland, and was much 
engaged in the suppression of the rebellion of 
1798 in Ireland, when he was again wounded. 
In 1799 he became major in the 60th regi- 
ment, and in 1800 lieutenant-colonel of the 
29th, and in 1804 he exchanged into the 
3rd guards, with which he served in Hanover 
in 1805, at Copenhagen in 1807, and in the 
Walcheren expedition in 1809. In 1810 he 
was promoted colonel, and in 1811 ordered to 
]oin the army under Lord Wellington in 
Portugal. On 7 July 1811 the Duke of York 
wrote to Lord Wellington recommending 
him warmly ( Wellington Supplementary Des- 
patches, vii. 177), and shortly after Colonel 
Byng's arrival in Portugal in September 1811 
he was posted to the command of a brigade 
in the second division under General Hill, 
and retained it until the end of the Peninsular 
war. 

He was with Hill's corps in Estremadura 
and Andalusia, and so was not present at the 
battle of Salamanca. In 1813 his brigade 
was hotly engaged at Vittoria, and was at- 
tacked by Soult at the pass of Roncesvalles, 
when that marshal tried to break through 
Wellington's lines, and though Byng had to 
fall back on Sorauren, his heroic resistance 
enabled Wellington to concentrate enough 
troops to beat the French. He was engaged 
in the attack on the entrenched camp on 
the Nivelle, where he was wounded, at the 
passage of the Nive at Cambo, before 
Bayonne. For his conduct at this battle he 
was afterwards ' permitted to bear as an 
honourable augmentation to his arms the 
colours of the 31st regiment, which he planted 
in the enemy's lines, as an especial mark in 
appreciation of the signal intrepidity and 



Byng 



122 



Bynneman 



heroic valour displayed by him in the action 
fought at Mougerre, near Bayonne, on 18 Dec. 
1813.' Major-general Byng, as he had been 
promoted on 4 June 1813, continued to com- 
mand his brigade on the right of the army 
throughout the advance on Toulouse, and 
was present at the actions at Espellette and 
Garris, at the battle of Orthes, the storming 
of the camp of Aire, and the battle of Tou- 
louse, and on the conclusion of the war was 
made a K.C.B. and K.T.S. and governor of 
Londonderry and Culmore. Byng commanded 
the second brigade of the first or guards 
division under General Cooke at Waterloo, 
and after the battle his brigade headed the 
advance into France, took Peronne, occupied 
the heights of Montmartre, and formed part 
of the army of occupation. 

Byng saw no more service. In 1819 he 
received the command of the northern dis- 
trict, in 1822 the colonelcy of the 2nd West 
India regiment, in 1825 he was promoted 
lieutenant-general, and in 1828 received the 
colonelcy of the 29th regiment. In 1828 he 
became commander-in-chief of the forces in 
Ireland and was sworn a privy councillor of 
that kingdom, but resigned his command in 
1831 to enter the House of Commons as 
M.P. for Poole. As one of the very few 
distinguished generals who supported the 
Reform Bill, he was looked upon with especial 
favour by Lord Melbourne, and was created 
by him in 1835 Baron Strafford of Har- 
mondsworth, county Middlesex. His elder 
son held office under Lord Melbourne and 
Lord John Russell, and his services were 
recompensed by his father, the old general, 
being created Earl of Strafford and Viscount 
Enfield in 1847. He had been made a G.C.B. 
in 1828, a G.C.H. in 1831, and a Knight of 
Maria Theresa of Austria and of St. George 
of Russia after the battle of Waterloo, and in 
1841 he was promoted full general. In 1850 
he succeeded the Duke of Cambridge as 
colonel of the Coldstream guards, in 1855 he 
was made a field-marshal, and on 3 June 
1860 he died at his residence in London, at 
the age of eighty-eight. 

[Wellington Despatches ; Koyal Military Ca- 
lendar ; Obituary Notice in the Times.] 

H. M. S. 

BYNG, THOMAS (d. 1599), master of 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, matriculated as a 
sizar at Peterhouse in May 1552 ; proceeded 
B.A. in 1556, was admitted fellow of his 
college 7 Feb. 1557-8, and commenced M.A. 
1559, and LL.D. 1570. In 1564, when Eliza- 
beth visited Cambridge, Byng made a Latin 
oration in her presence on the excellence of 
a monarchical government; the speech is 



printed in Nichols's ' Progresses ' (iii. 63). 
He was proctor in the same year, and on 
2 March 1564-5 became public orator. He 
was incorporated M.A. of Oxford on 6 Sept. 
1566, while Queen Elizabeth was on a visit 
to that university. Byng became prebendary 
of York 18 Jan. 1566-7 ; master of Clare 
Hall, Cambridge, 1571 ; vice-chancellor of 
the university 1572 ; a member of the college 
of civilians 21 April 1572 ; regius professor 
of the civil law at Cambridge 18 March 
1573-4 ; a special commissioner for the vi- 
sitation of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
13 July 1576; visitor of Ely Cathedral 
6 Sept. 1593, and dean of the peculiars of 
Canterbury and dean of arches 24 July 1595. 
On 27 July 1578, with other dignitaries of 
the university, he visited the queen at Audley, 
and for a second time read a Latin oration 
in her presence. He died in December 1599, 
and was buried 23 Dec. at Hackney Church, 
Middlesex. By his wife, Catherine (1553- 
1627), he had ten sons and two daughters. 
Besides writing the orations mentioned above 
Byng edited Carr's translations from Demo- 
sthenes (1571), and contributed Latin and 
Greek verses to Wilson's translation of De- 
mosthenes(1570), and to the university collec- 
tions issued on the restoration of Bucer and 
Fagius (1560), and on the death of Sir Philip 
Sidney (1587). Many of Byng's official letters 
and publications are preserved among the 
university archives at Cambridge. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantab, ii. 279-80, 551 ; 
Coote's Civilians, 49 ; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 
173 ; Le Neve's Fasti Angl. Eccl.] S. L. L. 

BYNHAM, SIMON. [See BINHAM.] 

BYNNEMAN, HENRY (d. 1583), prin- 
ter, was apprenticed to Richard Harrison, 
printer, on 24 June 1560. His master died 
in 1562, and he apparently served the re- 
mainder of his apprenticeship with Reginald 
Wolfe. He became a liveryman of the Sta- 
tioners' Company 30 June 1578. He seems 
to have opened a shop in Paternoster Row as 
early as 1566. He afterwards moved to the 
sign of the Mermaid in Knightrider Street, 
and finally to Thames Street, near Baynard's 
Castle. Archbishop Parker encouraged him 
in many ways, allowed him to open a shed 
at the north-west door of St. Paul's, at the 
sign of the 'Three Wells,' and asked Burgh- 
ley to allow him to print ' a few usual Latin 
books for the use of grammarians, as Terence, 
Virgil, Tulley's offices, &c., a thing not done 
here in England before or very rarely '(SXRYPB, 
Parker, i. 552). In 1580 Bynneman was 
called to the bar of the House of Commons 
for having published in behalf of Arthur Hall, 
M.P. for Grantham, a libel on Sir Robert Ball, 



Byrd 



123 



Byrd 



the late speaker of the house, and on other 
members. The book was suppressed. Byn- 
neman gave his testimony against Hall. Hall 
alone was punished (D'EwES, Journals of 
Parliaments under Elizabeth, pp. 291-309). 
Bynneman died in 1583. 

Bynneman's publications were very nume- 
rous and of varied character. His name first 
appears in print on the title-page of Robert 
Crowley's ' Apologie or Defence,' in 1566. 
The ' Manuall of Epictetus ' in English was 
his second publication, followed by the second 
volume of Paynter's ' Palace of Pleasure ' in 
the same year. Bynneman was the publisher 
of George Turberville's ' Booke of Faulconrie ' 
(1575) and 'Noble Arte of Venerie' (1575) ; 
of George Gascoigne's ' Poems' (1575-6), and 
of Gabriel Harvey's Latin works (1577-8). 
He printed the first edition of Holinshed's 
' Chronicles ' in 1574, and had licenses for 
printing several Latin and Greek books. In 
1583 'the first foure bookes of Virgil's 
" ^Eneis," ' by Richard Stanihurst, bears his 
imprint. 

His usual device is a mermaid in an oval 
cartouch, with the motto ' Omnia tempus 
habet ; ' but he often employed in his earlier 
publications the device of a brazen serpent, 
which was the property of his master, Regi- 
nald Wolfe; in his later books he often 
used ' a doe passant on a half wreath,' with 
the motto ' Cerva charissima et gratissima 
hinnulus prod.' 

[Ames's Typographical Antiquities (ed. Her- 
bert), ii. 965 et seq. ; Arber's Transcript of Sta- 
tioners' Eegisters, i. passim ; Bullen's Cat. of 
Books in Brit. Mus. before 1640; Bigmore and 
Wyman's Bibliography of Printing, 96.] 

S. L. L. 

BYRD, WILLIAM (1538 P-1623), mu- 
sical composer, is generally supposed to have 
been the son of Thomas Byrd, a gentleman 
in the Chapel Royal under Edward VI and 
Mary. This statement is pure conjecture; 
there were several families who bore the 
same name at this period. The only evi- 
dence corroborative of it is that William 
Byrd's second son was named Thomas, pos- 
sibly after his grandfather. Similarly it has 
been said that ' in the year 1554 he was 
senior chorister of St. Paul's, and conse- 
quently about fifteen or sixteen years old ; 
and his name occurs at the head of the school 
in a petition for the restoration of certain 
obits and benefactions which had been seized 
under the Act for the Suppression of Col- 
leges and Hospitals in the preceding reign ' 
(RIMBAULT, Some Account of William Byrd 
and his Works, prefixed to the reprint of 
Byrd's Mass, published by the Musical An- 



tiquarian Society in 1841) ; but even this 
detailed statement cannot be verified, as the 
petition is not to be found in the Public Re- 
cords, and the proceedings referring to the 
pensions in the exchequer ( Queen's Remem- 
brancer, Memoranda Rolls, 1 and 2 Phil, and 
Mary, 232, 238, 262 b) do not contain the 
name of William Byrd, though two other 
choristers named John and Simon Byrd are 
mentioned. It is more probable that he was 
a native of Lincoln and a descendant of Henry 
Byrd or Birde, mayor of Newcastle, who died 
at Lincoln 13 July 1512, and was buried in 
the cathedral. All that is known for certain 
of Byrd's early life is that he was 'bred up to 
musick under Thomas Tallis ' (WooD, Bod- 
leian MS. 19 D. (4), No. 106), and was ap- 
pointed organist of Lincoln probably as early 
as 1563. On 25 Jan. 1569 Robert Parsons, 
gentleman of the Chapel Royal, was drowned 
at Newark-upon-Trent, and on 22 Feb. follow- 
ing Byrd was sworn in his place. The entry 
in the Chapel Royal Cheque Book records that 
he was from Lincoln. It was in all probability 
during his residence in Lincoln that he mar- 
ried Julian (or, as her name otherwise appears, 
Ellen), daughter of one ' M. Birley of Lin- 
colnshire ' ( Visitation of Essex, 1634, Harl. 
Soc. Publications, vol. xiii.) It is possible that 
immediately on his appointment at the Chapel 
Royal Byrd did not leave Lincoln. At all 
events he must have kept up some sort of 
connection with the place, for on 7 Dec. 1572 
the Chapter Records chronicle the appoint- 
ment of Thomas Butler as master of the 
choristers and organist, 'on y e nomination 
and commendation of Mr. William Byrd.' 
In London Byrd seems rapidly to have made 
his way, sharing with Tallis the honorary 
post of organist of the Chapel Royal. On 
22 Jan. 1575 Elizabeth granted the two com- 
posers and the survivors of them a license to 
print and sell music, English or foreign, and 
to rule, print, and sell music-paper for twenty- 
one years, all other printers being forbidden 
to infringe this patent under a penalty of 
forty shillings (AKBEK, Transcript of the 
Stationers 1 Registers, ii. 15). This monopoly 
has generally been considered to have been 
very productive to the patentees, but that it 
was not so regarded by contemporary printers 
is proved by a passage in a petition relating 
to these vexatious restrictions, which was 
written in 1582 : 'Bird and Tallys, her maies- 
ties servauntes, haue musike bokes with note, 
which the complainantes confesse they wold 
not print nor be furnished to print though 
there were no preuilege' (ib. p. 775). The 
first work which Byrd published (if the un- 
dated masses are excepted) was a collection 
of motets, ' Cantiones, quse ab argumento 



Byrd 



124 



Byrd 



sacrse vocantur, quinque et sex partium.' Part 
of these were written by Byrd and part by 
his master, Tallis. The book was dedicated 
to Elizabeth and printed by Thomas Vau- 
trollier ; it appeared in 1575. Prefixed are 
eulogistic verses by Richard Mulcaster and 
Ferdinando Richardson, and at the end is an 
epitome of the patent granted to the authors. 
In 1578 Byrd was living at Harlington in 
Middlesex, where he had a house until 1588, 
and possibly for longer. Like most of the 
members of the Chapel Royal, although out- 
wardly he had conformed to the state reli- 
gion, yet he remained throughout his life a 
catholic at heart. The first evidence we have 
of this is a quotation given by Dr. Rimbault 
(GROVE, Diet, of Music, i. 287 6) from a list 
of places frequented by recusants near Lon- 
don, in which his name occurs as living at 
Harlington in 1581, and ' in another entry 
he is set down as a friend and abettor of 
those beyond the sea, and is said to be re- 
siding with Mr. Lister, over against St. Dun- 
stan's, or at the Lord Padgette's house at 
Draighton.' It was probably on account of 
his religion that he lived all his life some 
way out of London, where he would be less 
likely to attract attention. About 1579 Byrd 
set a three-part song, ' Preces Deo fundamus,' 
in Thomas Legge's Latin play ' Richardus III ' 
(Harl. MS. 2412). In 1585 Tallis died, 
and under the terms of the patent the mo- 
nopoly of printing music became Byrd's sole 
property. Accordingly, during the next few 
years he seems to have been unusually active 
in composition. His first important work 
was entitled ' Psalmes, Sonets, and Songs of 
Sadnes and Pietie, made into Musicke of fiue 
parts : whereof, some of them going abroade 
among diuers, is vntrue coppies, are heere 
truely corrected, and th' other being Songs 
very rare and newly composed, are heere 
published, for the recreation of all such as 
delight in Musicke.' This work (consisting 
of five part-books) was published by Thomas 
Easte, ' the assigne of W. Byrd,' in 1588. 
Himbault (Bibliotheca Madrigaliana, p. 1) 
mentions another edition without date ; pro- 
bably this is the one referred to in an entry 
in the Stationers' Company's Registers (Ait- 
BER, Transcript, ii. 477) as being already in 
print on 6 Nov. 1587. The work is dedicated 
to Sir Christopher Hatton ; at the back of 
the title are eight quaint ' Reasons briefely 
set downe by th' auctor to perswade euery 
one to learne to sing.' In the same year 
(1588) Byrd contributed two madrigals to a 
collection made by one N. Yonge, entitled, 
' Musica Transalpina. Madrigals translated 
out of foure, fiue, and sixe parts, chosen out 
of diuers excellent Authors, with the first 



and second part of La Verginella, made by 
Maister Byrd, vpon two Stanz's of Ariosto, 
and brought to speake English with the rest.' 
By this it will be seen that he was the com- 
poser of the first English madrigal. In the 
following year Byrd published two important 
works. The first was entitled ' Songs of 
sundrie natures, some of grauitie, and others 
of mirth, fit for all companies and voyces.' 
This consists of six part-books, and is dedi- 
cated to Sir Henry Gary, lord Hunsdon. It 
was published by Thomas Easte, and a second 
edition appeared in 1610, published by Easte's 
widow, Lucretia, ' the assigne of William 
Barley.' The second work was the ' Liber 
Primus Sacrarum Cantionum quinque vo- 
cum,' which was published by Easte on 25 Oct., 
and dedicated to the Earl of Worcester. An 
edition in score of this was published by the 
Musical Antiquarian Society in 1842. In 
1590 Byrd contributed two settings of ' This 
sweet and merry month of May ' to Thomas 
Watson's 'First Sett of Italian Madrigalls 
Englished,' and in 1591 (4 Nov.) he pub- 
lished the ' Liber Secundus Sacrarum Can- 
tionum,' dedicated to Lord Lumley. These 
printed books do not by any means represent 
all that Byrd produced at this period of his 
career. As a composer of music for the vir- 
ginals the English equivalent for the spinet 
he was indefatigable, and fortunately many 
collections of these characteristic pieces are 
still in existence, though but few of them 
have been printed. The most important are 
the manuscript in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge, wrongly known as ' Queen Eliza- 
beth's Virginal Book,' which contains an im- 
mense number of Byrd's compositions, and 
the beautiful manuscript ' Ladye Novell's 
Booke,' belonging to the Marquis of Aber- 
gavenny, which consists entirely of Byrd's 
virginal lessons, and was copied by John 
Baldwin, a singing-man of Windsor, who 
finished the volume on 11 Sept. 1591 (GROVE, 
Diet, of Music, iii. 305 et seq.) Somewhere 
about this time, certainly in 1598, and pro- 
bably earlier, Byrd and his family were living 
at Stondon Place, Essex, where for several 
years he was involved in a curious dispute. 
This estate belonged to a member of the 
Shelley family who in 1598 was committed 
to the Fleet for taking part in a popish plot. 
The property was sequestrated, and a lease 
for three lives was granted to Byrd by the 
crown. William Shelley, the rightful owner, 
died about 1601, and his heir paid a large 
sum for the restoration of his lands in 1604, 
whereupon Shelley's widow attempted to 
oust Byrd from Stondon, which formed part 
of her jointure. This drew from James I a 
letter of remonstrance (State Papers, Dom. 



Byrd 



125 



Byrd 



James 1, Add. Ser. vol. xxxvi.), commanding 
her to permit Byrd quietly to enjoy the pos- 
session of the property ; but in spite of this 
Mrs. Shelley persevered, and four years later 
(27 Oct. 1608) she presented a petition to 
the Earl of Salisbury, praying for the resto- 
ration to her of Stondon Place, and setting 
forth in an enclosure eight grievances against 
Byrd. The chief of these are that Byrd 
in 1698 began a suit against Mrs. Shelley to 
force her to ratify the lease he had from 
Elizabeth; but being unsuccessful, he com- 
bined with the individuals who held her 
other jointure lands to maintain suits against 
her, and when all these had submitted ex- 
cept 'one Petiver,' who also finally sub- 
mitted, ' the said Bird did give him vile and 
bitter words ; ' that when told that he had 
no right to the property, he replied ' that yf 
he could not hould it by right, he would 
holde it by might ; ' that he had cut down 
much timber, and for six years had paid no 
rent (ib. vol. xxxvii.) What the end of the 
dispute was does not transpire. Mrs. Shelley 
in 1608 was seventy years old, and as both 
Byrd's son and grandson occupied the same 
property, it is probable that she did not live 
much longer. While Byrd was in the posses- 
sion of lands belonging to a recusant, and 
was actively engaged in performing his duties 
in the Chapel Royal, where he was present 
at the coronation of James I, he was not 
only being presented with his family for 
popish practices before the archidiaconal court 
of Essex, but he had actually been excom- 
municated since 1598. From the year 1605 
until 1612, and probably later, it was regu- 
larly recorded that the Byrd family were 
' papisticall recusants.' Mrs. Byrd in parti- 
cular, if the reports of the minister and 
churchwardens of Stondon are to be believed, 
seems to have been very zealous in making 
converts. Apart from these incidents, the 
particulars of Byrd's life consist chiefly of 
the list of his published works. In 1600 he 
contributed some instrumental music to ' Par- 
thenia,' a collection of virginal lessons by 
Bull, Orlando Gibbons, and Byrd. On 15 Oct. 
1603 Easte published a work bearing the 
following title : ' Medulla Musicke. Sucked 
out of the sappe of Two [of] the most famous 
Musitians that euer were in this land, namely 
Master Wylliam Byrd . . . and Master Al- 
fonso Ferabosco . . . either of whom having 
made 40 tie severall waies (without conten- 
tion), shewing most rare and intricate skill 
in 2 partes in one vpon the playne songe 
" Miserere." The which at the request of a 
friend is most plainly sett in severall distinct 
partes to be sunge (with moore ease and vn- 
derstanding of the lesse skilfull), by Master 



Thomas Robinson,' &c. (ARBER, Transcript of 
Stationers' Registers, iii. 247). All copies of 
this work seem to have disappeared, and its 
existence was only revealed by the publica- 
tion of the entry in the Stationers' Registers. 
Thomas Morley {Introduction, ed. 1608, p. 
115) mentions how Byrd (' never without 
reverence to be named of musicians') and 
Ferabosco had a friendly contention, each 
one judging his rival's work, and he adds 
that they both set a plain song forty different 
ways ; but it was not previously known 
that the result of their labours had been 
printed. In 1607 appeared the first and se- 
cond books of ' Gradualia, seu Cantionum 
Sacrarum,' &c., of which the first book was 
dedicated to the Earl of Northampton in 
terms which seem to imply that the author 
had received some special protection or bene- 
fit from that nobleman : ' Te habui, atque 
etiam (ni fallor) habeo, in afliictis familise 
meae rebus benignissimum patronum.' In 
the same dedication Byrd alludes to the in- 
crease in the salaries of the gentlemen of the 
chapel which was obtained by the earl's help 
in 1604. A second edition of this book ap- 
peared in 1610. The second book of the 
' Gradualia ' is dedicated to Lord Petre ; a 
second edition was issued by the author in 
1610. In 1611 appeared 'Psalmes, Songs, 
and Sonnets : some solemne, others joyfull, 
framed to the life of the Words : Fit for 
Voyces or Viols, &c.' This work was dedi- 
cated to Francis, earl of Cumberland, and 
contains a quaintly written address by the 
author ' to all true louers of musicke.' The 
last work which Byrd contributed to was 
Sir Thomas Leighton's ' Teares or Lamenta- 
cions of a Sorrowfull Soule ' (1614), in which 
four of his sacred vocal compositions are 
contained. Byrd's death took place (pro- 
bably at Stondon) on 4 July 1623. It is re- 
corded in the ' Chapel Royal Cheque Book ' 
as that of a ' father of musicke,' a title which 
refers as much to his age as to the venera- 
tion in which he was held by his contempo- 
raries, a feeling which was expressed by 
Peacham (Compleat Gentleman, ed. 1622, 
p. 100) as follows : ' In Motets, and Musicke 
of pietie and deuotion, as well for the honour 
of our Nation, as the merit of the Man, I 
preferre aboue all other our Phoenix, M. 
William Byrd, whom in that kind, I know 
not whether any may equall. I am sure, 
none excell, euen by the iudgement of France 
and Italy. . . . His Cantiones Sacrce, as also 
his Gradualia, are meere Angelicall and 
Diuine ; and being of himselfe naturally dis- 
posed to Grauitie and Pietie, his veine is not 
so much for light Madrigals or Canzonets, 
yet his Virginella, and some others in his 



Byrhtferth 



126 



Byrhtferth 



first set, cannot be mended by the best Italian 
of them all.' In addition to the works already 
mentioned, Byrd wrote three masses, for 
three, four, and five voices respectively. These 
were all printed, but the copies of the two 
former (although they have been traced in 
sale catalogues from 1691 to 1822) disap- 
peared. The third mass is in existence, 
but seems to have been published without 
a title-page (possibly owing to theological 
reasons); it was reprinted in score by the 
Musical Antiquarian Society in 1841. Manu- 
script compositions by Byrd are to be found 
in the British Museum, Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Buckingham Palace, Lambeth Palace, Music 
School (Oxford), Christ Church (Oxford), 
and Peterhouse (Cambridge) collections. Ac- 
cording to an old tradition (alluded to in 
some prefatory verses to Blow's ' Amphion 
Anglicus ') a canon by Byrd is preserved 
in the Vatican, engraved on a golden plate ; 
this has generally been supposed to be the 
well-known 'Non nobis, Domme,' the author- 
ship of which is usually ascribed to Byrd. 

Byrd's arms were three stags' heads ca- 
boshed, a canton ermine, and not those en- 
graved in the Musical Antiquarian Society's 
edition of the mass. By his wife, Ellen Bir- 
ley, he had five children : 1. Christopher, 
who married Catherine, daughter of Thomas 
Moore of Bamborough, Yorkshire, and had a 
son named Thomas , who was living at Stondon 
in 1634 ; 2. Thomas, who was a musician, 
and lived at Drury Lane ; he acted as deputy 
to John Bull [q. v.] at Gresham College ; 
3. Elizabeth, who married twice (her hus- 
bands' names were John Jackson and Bur- 
dett) ; 4. Rachel, who married Ed ward Biggs ; 
and 5. Mary, who married Thomas Falcon- 
bridge. A portrait of him which was pro- 
bably imaginary was engraved by Vander- 
gucht for a projected ' History of Music ' by 
N. Haym, a work which never appeared. 

[The documents quoted above from the State 
Papers and Archidecanal Records were printed 
by the writer in the Musical Review (1883), 
Nos. 19, 20, 21 ; Cheque Book of the Chapel 
Royal (Camden Soc. 1872), pp. 2, 10, 183; in- 
formation from the Rev. A. R. Maddison and Mr. 
W. H. Cummings ; Registers of Harlington ; 
authorities quoted above.] W. B. S. 

BYRHTFERTH, less correctly written 
BRIDFERTH (Jl. 1000), mathematician, 
was a monk (in priest's orders) of the abbey 
of Ramsey, and studied under the cele- 
brated Abbo of Fleury, who taught there for 
two years. Leland mentions that Byrht- 
ferth was described by some as a monk of 
Thorney, and it has been conjectured that he 
may have originally belonged to that monas- 



tery, and migrated to Ramsey soon after the 
foundation of the abbey there about 970. 
He subsequently became the head of the 
Ramsey school, and his extant works have 
for the most part the appearance of being 
notes of his lectures to his pupils. From a 
passage in his commentary on Bseda's work, 
' De Temporum Ratione,' it appears that he 
had travelled in France, as he mentions an 
observation on the length of shadows which 
he had made at Thionville (' in Gallia in loco 
qui Teotonis villa dicitur '). 

The only undisputed writings of Byrht- 
ferth which have hitherto been printed are 
his commentaries on four treatises of Bseda 
(' De Temporum Ratione,' ' De Natura Rerum,' 
' De Indigitatione,' and ' De Ratione Uncia- 
rum '), which may be found in the edition 
of Baeda published at Cologne in 1612. Con- 
sidering the age in which they were written, 
these commentaries display a surprising de- 
gree of scientific knowledge, and the wide 
range of classical reading which they exhibit 
is perhaps still more remarkable. Some in- 
teresting extracts from them are given in 
Wright's ' Biographia Britannica Literaria.' 

Bale ascribes to Byrhtferth two works, 
entitled respectively, ' De Principiis Mathe- 
maticis ' and ' De Institutione Monachorum.' 
Of these writings no trace is known to exist ; 
but a manuscript in the Bodleian Library 
(Ashmole, 328) contains a treatise of Byrht- 
ferth's, bearing the title ' Computus Lati- 
norum ac Grsecorum Hebrseorumque et 
^Egyptiorum necnon et Anglorum. This 
work is written in Latin, with an Anglo- 
Saxon translation at the foot of each page. 
From the account given of this manuscript 
by Dr. Stubbs in the introduction to his 
' Memorials of St. Dunstan,' it would appear 
to be well worthy of publication, as affording 
valuable information respecting the state 
of scientific knowledge among the Anglo- 
Saxons, and the methods of teaching adopted 
in their schools. It contains the following 
couplet, which is interesting as being probably 
the earliest attempt at imitating the classical 
hexameter in English : 

Cum nu, Halig Gast! Biitan the ne bist thu 

gewurthod. 
Gyf thine gyfe thsere tungan the thu gyfst gyfe 

on gereorde. 

From the terms in which Abbo is mentioned 
(' Abbo dignse memorise '), it may be inferred 
that this work was not written until after 
his death, which occurred in 1004 ; and the 
reference to ' Eadnoth the bishop ' (of Dor- 
chester) seems to point to a date a few years 
later. 
Another work which is usually attributed 



Byrne 



127 



Byrne 



to Byrhtfertli is a life of St. Dunstan, the 
writer of which calls himself ' B. presbyter.' 
The conjecture that this initial stands for 
Byrhtferth is due to Mabillon, who had seen 
the ' Life,' but did not consider it worth 
while to print it. He gives, however, some 
extracts from it in his preface and notes to 
the ' Life of Dunstan ' by Osbern, and it has 
been published in the ' Acta Sanctorum ' of 
the Bollandists, and in Dr. Stubbs's ' Memo- 
rials of St. Dunstan.' Mabillon's suggestion 
appears at first sight highly plausible, as 
Byrhtferth in the ' Computus ' describes 
himself as ' presbyter,' and his master Abbo 
had intimate relations with Dunstan. The 
wretched Latinity and the bombastic style 
of the ' Life,' how ever, cannot easily be re- 
conciled with the supposition of Byrhtferth's 
authorship. Dr. Stubbs has furnished some 
other arguments, which appear to be decisive 
against Mabillon's conjecture, although his 
attempt to show that the author of the ' Life ' 
was a continental Saxon can scarcely be con- 
sidered successful. 

[Bale's Script. 111. Maj. Brit. (Basle edition), 
138; Pits, De Angliae Scriptoribus, 178; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit. 125 ; Wright's Biog. Brit. Lit. 
i. 174 ; Memorials of St. Dunstan (ed. Stubbs), 
introd. p. xix ; Baeda's Works (Cologne edition, 
1612), ii. 103 et al."| H. B. 

BYRNE, ANNE FR ANCES(1775-1837), 
flower-painter, was born in 1775 in London, 
and was the eldest daughter of William 
Byrne, engraver [q. v.] She early became one 
of her father's pupils and assistants, etching 
for him and preparing his work. She also 
had some proficiency in fruit-painting, and 
exhibited a fruit-piece at the Academy in her 
twenty-first year, 1796, after which date pic- 
tures of hers appeared there from time to 
time, and at the British Institute, and Suffolk 
Street, down to 1832 (GRAVES'S Diet, of Ar- 
tists, p. 38). In 1805 Miss Byrne's father 
died. In 1806 she was elected associate- 
exhibitor at the Water Colour Society, which 
was followed by her election to full mem- 
bership in 1809. Miss Byrne died 2 Jan. 
1837, aged 62. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of British School, 
ed. 1878.] J. H. 

BYRNE, CHARLES (1761-1783), Irish 
giant, was born in Ireland in 1761. His father 
was an Irishman, and his mother a Scotch- 
woman, but neither of them was of extra- 
ordinary size. In August 1780 he ' measured 
exactly eight feet ; in 1782 he had gained two 
inches, and after he was dead he measured 
eight feet four inches' {Gent. Mag. liv. pt. i. 
541). He travelled about the country for ex- 



hibition ; at Edinburgh he alarmed the watch- 
men on the North Bridge one morning by 
lighting his pipe at one of the lamps without 
standing even on tiptoe. In London he cre- 
ated such a sensation, that the pantomime at 
the Haymarket, produced on 18 Aug.1782, was 
entitled, with reference to him, ' Harlequin 
Teague, or the Giant's Causeway.' He died 
(of, it is said, excessive drinking and vexation 
at losing a note for 700) at Cockspur Street, 
Charing Cross, on 1 June 1783, aged 22. His 
skeleton, which measures exactly 92| inches, 
is to be seen in the museum of the College 
of Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, where 
there is also a portrait of him. Two sketches 
of the giant by Kay will be found in the first 
volume of ' Original Etchings,' Nos. 4 and 
164. Byrne has often been confused with 
Patrick Cotter, another Irish giant, who took 
the name of O'Brien, and died at Bristol in 
1806. 

[Kay's Original Portraits and Caricature Etch- 
ings (1877), i. 10-11, 417 ; Chambers's Book of 
Days (1864), ii. 326-7; Buckland's Curiosities of 
Natural History, 4th ser. pp. 19-21 ; Scots Mag. 
1783, xlv. 335 ; Annual Register, 1783, app. 
pp. 209-10 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 369, 
396, 476, xii. 59 ; 5th ser. iv. 132-3.] 

G. F. R. B. 

BYRNE, LETITIA (1779-1849), en- 
graver, was born 24 Nov. 1779, presumably in 
London, being the third daughter of William 
Byrne, engraver [q. v.l, and the sister of Anne 
Frances Byrne [q. v.] ( Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxv. 
pt. ii. p. 1071). As a pupil of her father, she 
exhibited landscape-views at the Academy 
when she was only twenty, in 1799. In 1810 
she etched the illustrations for ' A Descrip- 
tion of Tunbridge Wells,' and among other 
work entrusted to her were four views for 
Hakewill's ' History of Windsor.' She ex- 
hibited ' From Eton College Play-fields ' at 
the Academy in 1822 ; and had other pic- 
tures there (twenty-one in all) down to 1848 
(GRAVES'S Diet, of Artists, p. 38). She died 
2 May 1849, aged 70, and was buried at 
Kensal Green. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of British School, 
ed. 1 878, p. 66 ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, p. 38.1 

J.H. 

BYRNE, MILES (1780-1862), member 
of the Society of United Irishmen, and after- 
wards chefde bataillon in the service of France, 
was the son of a farmer, and was born at Mona- 
seed, in the county of Wexford, Ireland, on 
20 March 1780. In 1796 he agreed to join a 
corps of yeomanry cavalry on condition of ob- 
taining the renewal of a lease of land for his 
mother; but his father, who was then ill, 
dying shortly afterwards, he was absolved 



Byrne 



128 



Byrne 



from serving, and thus, in his own words, 
' never wore a red coat.' Having in the spring 
of 1797joined the Society of United Irishmen, 
he entered into their plans with ardour, and 
took a leading part in organising the confede- 
ration in Wexford. On 3 June 1798 he united 
with the insurrectionists encamped at Corri- 
grua, and, after the defeat at Vinegar Hill 
on the 21st, rallied a number of pikemen, 
with whom he took part in a variety of minor 
skirmishes. An attack was made on Castle- 
comer, but without success, and after the 
battle of Ballygullen on 4 July he joined 
Holt in the Wicklow mountains, where for 
some months he kept up a faint show of re- 
sistance in the vain hope of obtaining aid from 
France. On All Hallows eve Byrne paid a 
visit to his mother and sister, when, finding 
that he was in imminent danger of arrest, he 
made his escape to Dublin in the disguise of 
a car-driver. There for some years he was 
employed as clerk in a timber-yard. In the 
spring of 1803 he was introduced to Robert 
Emmet, who found him ready to devote him- 
self with enthusiasm to his new enterprise 
for a rising, and who entrusted him with some 
of the most difficult of the arrangements con- 
nected with it. He supplied Emmet with a 
list of persons for the three counties of Car- 
low, Wicklow, and Wexford, ' who had ac- 
quired the reputation of being good patriots 
in 1798,' and he also made contracts with the 
gunmakers, arranged for the manufacture of 
pike-handles, and procured the necessary war 
material. In the scheme for the capture of 
Dublin Castle on 23 July he was entrusted 
with the command of the Wexford and Wick- 
low men, who were to seize on the entrance 
to the castle from the side of Ship Street, but 
as Emmet was prevented from keeping his 
agreement to attack the main entrance, the 
whole affair proved abortive. On returning 
from the Wicklow mountains, Byrne was 
commissioned by Emmet to go to Paris to 
communicate with Thomas Addis Emmet, the 
agent of the United Irishmen to the first con- 
sul, regarding help from France. Succeeding 
with some difficulty in reaching Bordeaux in 
an American vessel, he helped in composing a 
report on the state of Ireland, which was pre- 
sented to Napoleon, who, in view of a contem- 
plated expedition at no distant date, decreed 
in November 1803 the formation of the Irish 
legion in the service of France. In this le- 
gion Byrne obtained the commission of lieu- 
tenant of infantry, and served in the cam- 
paigns of Napoleon from 1804 to 1815. At 
an early period he was promoted captain, and 
in 1810 he was chosen to command a bataillon 
cf elite of the Irish troops. On 18 June 1813 
he was made a chevalier of the Legion of 



Honour. Shortly before the abdication of Na- 
poleon he was named to be promoted chef de 
bataillon,})ut not soon enough to permit of the 
formality of signing the commission. After 
the revolution of 1830 he was appointed chef 
de bataillon in the 56th regiment of the line, 
then commanded by Bugeaud, afterwards 
marshal, and in 1832 he received the cross of 
the Legion of Honour from Louis-Philippe. In 
1835 he resigned his commission, and took up 
his residence in Paris, where his tall and to 
the last straight figure, thin bronzed face, 
and mobile yet keen features were during the 
latter period of his life well known to fre- 
quenters of the avenue of theChamps-Elys^es. 
He retained strong sympathies in behalf of 
freedom throughout the world, and his de- 
voted attachment to Ireland was of course 
rendered only more intense by his enforced 
exile. He died on 24 Jan. 1862, and was in- 
terred in the cemetery at Montmartre, where 
there is a monument to his memory. 

[The Memoirs of Miles Byrne, published at 
Paris in 1863 in 3 vols. edited by his widow, 
contain many interesting details regarding the 
conspiracies in Ireland, the campaigns of Napo- 
leon, and the Irish officers in the service of 
France.] T. F. H. 

BYRNE, OSCAR (1795 P-1867), ballet- 
master, was the son of James Byrne, an actor 
and a ballet-master. His first appearance, ac- 
cording to one authority, was made in 1803 
at Drury Lane Theatre in a ballet arranged 
by his father from ' Ossian,' and called ' Oscar 
and Elwina,' which had been first presented 
twelve years previously at Covent Garden. A 
second authority states that he played his 
first part at Covent Garden 16 Nov. 1803 as 
Cheerly in Hoare's ' Lock and Key.' Much 
of Byrne's early life was passed abroad or in 
Ireland. In 1850 Charles Kean, in his me- 
morable series of performances at the Prin- 
cess's Theatre, engaged Oscar Byrne, who 
arranged the ballets for the principal revivals. 
In 1862 Byrne went to Drury Lane, then 
under Falconer and Chatterton. His last 
engagement was at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
when Mr. Falconer produced his ill-starred 
drama of ' Oonah.' In his own line Oscar 
Byrne showed both invention and resource. 
He died rather suddenly on 4 Sept. 1867 at 
the reputed age of seventy-two, leaving a 
young wife and seven children. 

[Oxberry's Dramatic Chronology ; private in- 
formation.] J. K. 

BYRNE, WILLIAM (1743-1805), land- 
scape engraver, was born in London in 1743. 
He studied for some time under his uncle, a 
Birmingham engraver of arms, and at the 



Byrnstan 



129 



Byrom 



age of twenty-two gained the Society of Arts 
medal for a plate of the ' Villa Madama,' 
after Richard Wilson. He then went to 
Paris and became a pupil of Aliamet and 
afterwards of J. G. Wille. He was a mem- 
ber of the Incorporated Society, and exhi- 
bited in Suffolk Street between 1760 and 
1780. He died in Titchfield Street, London, 
on 24 Sept. 1805, and was buried at Old St. 
Pancras Church. His works, which are nume- 
rous, display much skill in aerial perspective 
and beauty in the finish of the skies. Among 
them are ' The Antiquities of Britain,' after 
Hearne ; ' The View of the Lakes of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland,' after Joseph Faring- 
ton; 'Apollo watching the Flocks of King 
Admetus,' after Lauri ; ' The Flight into 
Egypt,' after Domenichino; 'The Death of 
Captain Cook ; ' 'The Waterfall of Niagara,' 
after Wilson, &c. Byrne had a son and 
three daughters, who all became artists, two 
of the latter, Anne Frances [q. v.] and Letitia 
[q. v.], following their father's profession with 
great ability and success. 

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 1878, 8vo; MS. notes in British 
Museum.] L. F. 

BYRNSTAN, BIRNSTAN,orBEORN- 

STAN (d. 933), bishop of Winchester, was 
in early life a king's thegn or minister of 
Eadward the Elder, in which capacity he 
attests charters of the years 900-2 (Codex 
Diplomaticus, mlxxvi. and mlxxvii. ; cf. Liber 
de Hyda, pp. 97, 101, 116). In 902 he be- 
came a priest, and very probably a secular 
canon in the new minster of Winchester, 
which ^Elfred the Great had projected, and 
Eadward himself established under the head- 
ship of Grimbald. Between 902 and 910 
Byrnstan frequently appears as attesting 
charters, including especially the series of 
grants made by the king to the churches of 
Winchester (Cod. Dipt, mlxxxiv-mccvi. ; 
Liber de Hyda, p. 105). After this we have 
no trace of his activity for twenty years. 
Whether an increasing fervour of devotion 
drove him from the court to those ascetic 
practices for which he became celebrated, and 
whether, as the later monastic writers assert, 
he forsook the secular life of a canon for the 
regular obligations of a monk, cannot be de- 
termined. The fact that the most zealous 
champion of the monks revived his cultus 
makes the latter very probable. The charters 
of the twenty years are too few to enable us 
to base any inference upon them ; but in 931 
the resignation of the bishopric of Winchester 
by the saintly Frithestan was succeeded by 
the election of Byrnstan to rule over the 
diocese with which he had been so long 
vol. Till. 



connected. On 29 May he was consecrated 
by Frithestan, but he only ruled over the 
church two years and a half, dying on All 
Saints' day 933 (Anglo-Saxon Chron. s. a.) 
Florence puts his death in 934, and his con- 
secration in 932 ; but the attestation of a 
charter of 933 by Bishop J^lfheah, his succes- 
sor (Cod. Dipl. mcix.), and the definite state- 
ment of the chronicle as to the length of his 
government of his bishopric, make the earlier 
date preferable. The only acts of Byrnstan 
as bishop that have survived are his attes- 
tation of a few charters (ib. mciii-viii.) 
Byrnstan had been bishop so short a time 
that his saintliness and charity were almost at 
once forgotten, until his memory was revived, 
a generation later, by Bishop ^Ethelwold. 
Henceforward he received the honours due to 
one of the holiest of the early bishops of Win- 
chester. William of Malmesbury commends 
his sanctity, his humility, and his care for the 
poor, whose feet he daily washed, and whose 
needs he supplied with a lavish hand. He 
also tells how Byrnstan said every day a mass 
for the repose of the souls of the dead, and 
how by night, regardless of the terrors that 
haunt churchyards, he perambulated the ceme- 
tery in the midst of which the new minster 
was built, reciting psalms for the same pious 
purpose. In 1150 his relics were translated 
to a nobler sepulchre, along with those of 
Birinus, of Swithun, and the most famous of 
the occupants of the see. 

[Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; Florence of Wor- 
cester ; Annales de Winton (Annales Monastici, 
vol. ii. in Rolls edition); William of Malmes- 
bury's De Gestis Pontificum ; Liber Monasterii de 
Hyda ; Rudborne's Historia Major Wintoniensis 
in Anglia Sacra ; Codex Diplomaticus, vol. v. ; 
Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. ii.] T. F. T. 

BYROM, JOHN (1692-1763), poet and 
stenographer, was born 29 Feb. 1691-2 at 
Kersall Cell, Broughton, near Manchester. 
He was the second son and seventh of the 
nine children of Edward Byrom, by his wife 
Sarah Allen. The Byroms of Manchester 
were a younger branch of the Byroms of 
Salford, themselves a younger branch of the 
Byroms of Byrom. The last representative 
of the parent stem was Samuel, commonly 
called ' Beau Byrom,' a spendthrift, who sold 
his estates (some of which were bought by 
John Byrom's father and uncle), got into the 
Fleet prison, and there published (in 1729) an 
'Irrefragable argument fully proving that to 
discharge great debts is .... more reason- 
able than to discharge small.' It was sold 
for the benefit of the author, and was, in 
reality, a covert appeal for charity. The 
' beau ' got out of prison, and John Byrom 
helped him to obtain support. 



Byrom 



130 



Byrom 



The Byroms of Manchester had been pro- 
sperous merchants and linendrapers. John 
Byrom's father, Edward, was son of another 
Edward (1627-1668), and had a younger 
brother, Joseph, whose daughter, Elizabeth, 
was thus John's cousin, and afterwards be- 
came his wife (see pedigrees appended to 
Byrom's Remains). John's name is in the 
register of Merchant Taylors' School in March 
1707. He was entered at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, on 6 July 1708 ; was elected 
scholar in May 1709 ; became B.A. in 1712 ; 
M.A. in 1715, and was elected fellow of his 
college at Michaelmas 1714. He had many 
scruples as to taking the oath of abjuration. 
While at college he contributed two papers 
on dreams to the ' Spectator ' (Nos. 586, 593, 
and perhaps 597), and a playful pastoral, 
caUed ' Colin and Pho3be (No. 605, 6 Oct. 
1714). Joan or ' Jug ' Bentley, then only 
eleven years old, daughter of the master, and 
afterwards mother of Richard Cumberland, 
is said to have been his Phoebe (MONK'S 
Bentley, i. 200, ii. 113). The poem was very 
popular. In 1716 Byrom travelled abroad 
and studied medicine for a time at Montpelier. 
He was afterwards called ' doctor ' by his 
friends, but never took the degree. He de- 
clined a proposal to practise at Manchester 
(Remains, i. 267), and his journey may pos- 
sibly have had rather a political than a pro- 
fessional purpose. He showed strong Jaco- 
bite leanings through life. 

He returned to London in 1718, and on 
14 Feb. 1721 married his cousin, with the 
consent of her parents (Remains, i. 43), though 
the contrary has been alleged as an explana- 
tion of his subsequent poverty. His father 
had died in 1711, and the estates had gone 
to his elder brother, Edward. Byrom now 
resolved to increase his income by teaching 
shorthand. He had invented a new system 
at Cambridge, in concert, it is said, with 
Thomas Sharp, a college contemporary, son 
of the archbishop of York. He issued pro- 
posals for publishing his system, dated 27 May 
1723. During many years he made visits to 
London, where he often stayed for months, 
and occasionally to Cambridge, in order to 
give lessons in his art. His pupils paid five 
guineas and took an oath of secresy. Byrom 
was soon challenged to a trial of skill by a 
ri val teacher named Weston, whom he treated 
with good-humoured ridicule. In June 1725 
he acted as moderator between Weston and 
one Clayton at the Chapter Coffee-house. 
His pupils formed a kind of society; they called 
him grand master, and upon opening his 'ses- 
sions ' he delivered addresses upon the history 
and utility of shorthand. His occupation 
brought him many distinguished acquain- 



tance. On 17 March 1724 he became a fellow 
of the Royal Society, and contributed two 
papers upon shorthand to the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' (No. 488). In June 1727 he 
had a sharp dispute at the society with Sir 
Hans Sloane. Byrom seems to have opposed 
an address to the king, and was accused of 
Jacobitism. He unsuccessfully supported 
Jurin against Sloane in the election of the 
president on 30 Nov. 1727. 

Byrom's diary, with many letters, published 
by the Chetham Society, are full of lively 
accounts of meetings with distinguished con- 
temporaries during these years. He was 
intimate with Bentley and his family ; with 
Bishop Hoadly's son, whose father he occa- 
sionally met ; he reports interesting conversa- 
tions with Bishop Butler and Samuel Clarke; 
David Hartley was a pupil and a very warm 
friend ; he saw something of Wesley ; and 
took a great interest in all the religious spe- 
culations of the time. He meets Whiston, 
the Arian ; the deist Collins ; the heretical 
Elwal ; and discusses Chubb and Woolston. 
His own leaning was towards mysticism. 
He is said to have become acquainted with 
the writings of Malebranche and Antoinette 
Bourignon in France. One of his liveliest 
poems describes his buying a portrait of 
Malebranche (9 March 1727), whom he calls 
' the greatest divine that e'er lived upon 
earth.' In this he sympathised with Wil- 
liam Law, whom he first went to see at 
Putney, 4 March 1729, in consequence ap- 
parently of having bought the ' Serious Call,' 
then just published. Law was at this time 
tutor to Gibbon's father, whom he accom- 
panied to Cambridge, where Byrom met him 
again. Byrom became an ardent disciple of 
Law, whom he calls his master. When Law 
became a student of Behmen, Byrom fol- 
lowed, with a modest confession of partial 
comprehension. He versified several passages 
of Law's writings, hoping that his verse 
would cling to the prose ' like ivy to an oak ' 
(Remains, ii. 521), and when Law settled at 
Bang's Cliffe, Byrom visited him in his re- 
tirement. He corresponded with Law's dis- 
ciple, Dr. Cheyne, and defended his master 
against Warburton's brutality. Warburton, 
who tells Hurd (2 Jan. 1752) that Byrom is 
' not malevolent but mad,' treated his new 
antagonist with unusual courtesy (see letters 
in Remains, ii. 522-39). 

Byrom's uncle and father-in-law, Joseph, 
died in 1733, leaving his property to a son, 
Edward, on whose death, in 1760, it came to 
John Byrom's family (Remains, ii. 93). The 
death of his own elder and unmarried brother, 
Edward (12 May 1740), put him in posses- 
sion of the family estates, and relieved him 



Byrom 



Byrom 



from the necessity of teaching shorthand. 
He had printed new proposals for publishing 
his system by subscription (dated 1 Nov. 
1739). Difficulties arose, and he obtained 
an act of parliament, passed 011 5 May 1742, I 
giving him the sole right both of publishing 
and teaching the system for twenty-one years. 
A list of persons testifying to its merits is 
appended to the proposals, and includes the 
Duke of Queensberry, Bishop Hoadly and his 
son, Hartley, R. Smith, the Cambridge as- 
tronomer, and other university authorities. 
The third Duke of Devonshire, Lord Dela- 
warr, Horace Walpole, Gibbon (the histo- 
rian's father), and, it is said, Lord Chester- 
field, were also among his pupils. 

At Manchester, Byrom was known as a 
warm supporter of the high church and Jaco- 
bite party. He acted as agent in a successful 
opposition to a bill for establishing a work- 
house in Manchester in the early months of 
1731. The objection was that the proposed 
board of guardians was so constituted as to 
give a majority to whigs and dissenters 
(BAINES, Lancashire, ii. 293, and WAKE'S Col- 
legiate Church of Manchester, ii. 79). Byrom 
was in Manchester during the Pretender's 
entry in 1745. His daughter's journal (.Re- 
mains, ii. 385 seq.) shows that, in spite of his 
strong Jacobite sympathies, he avoided com- 
mitting himself, though two sons of his inti- 
mate friend Dr. Deacon, physician and non- 
juring clergyman, joined the regiment raised 
by the Pretender. A strong party feeling 
distracted the town for some years after- 
wards. Jacobites were insulted at public 
assemblies (ib. ii. 509), and Byrom, with his 
friend Dr. Deacon, contributed various essays 
and epigrams to the ' Chester Courant,' which 
were collected in a small volume, called 
'Manchester Vindicated' (Chester, 1749), 
and form a curious illustration of the time. 

The correspondence of later years is chiefly 
theological. Byrom died, after a lingering 
illness, on 26 Sept. 1763. A fine of 5/. was 
levied on his estate because he was not buried 
in woollen. 

Byrom's poems were collected for the first 
time and published at Manchester in 1773. 
They were republished with a life and notes 
in 1814. To the last is prefixed a portrait, 
showing a man of great height and a strongly 
marked face. The poems are also (with 
some exceptions) given in Chalmers's ' Eng- 
lish Poets.' Byrom had an astonishing fa- 
cility in rhyming. Some of his poems are 
discussions on points of classical or theologi- 
cal criticism (e.g. against Conyers Middleton's 
reply to Sherlock), and scarcely better than 
clever doggerel. One is an argument to prove 
that St. George was really Gregory the 



Great. Pegge, who is challenged in the poem, 
replied to Byrom and Pettingall in the fifth 
volume of the ' Archseologia.' Others are 
versifications of Behmen, Rusbrochius, and 
Law (e.g. the ' Enthusiasm ' is from Law's 
' Appeal,' p. 30 et seq. and the < Pond ' from 
the same writer's ' Serious Call,' chap, xi.), 
and there are a few hymns. Byrom can be 
forcible, but frequently adopts a comic metre 
oddly inappropriate to his purpose. Some 
occasional poems in which his good-humoured 
sprightliness finds a natural expression have 
been deservedly admired, especially ' Colin to 
Phoebe' (see above), the 'Three Black Crows,' 
' Figg and Sutton,' printed in the sixth 
volume of Dodsley's collection and turned 
to account in Thackeray's ' Virginians,' chap, 
xxxvii. ; the ' Centaur Fabulous ' upon War- 
burton's ' Divine Legation,' and the epilogue 
to ' Hurlothrumbo.' Samuel Johnson, the 
author of this play, was a favourite object 
of Byrom's playful satire. Some epigrams 
are still familiar, ' Handel and Bononcini ' 
(see Remains, i. 136), often erroneously given 
to Swift ; ' Bone and Skin,' which refers to 
the mills belonging to the Manchester gram- 
mar school, and the well-known 

God bless the king, God bless our faith's defender, 
God bless no harm in blessing the Pretender ; 
But who pretender is, and who is king, 
God bless us all ! that's quite another thing. 

Byrom's system of shorthand was not 
printed until four years after his death, when 
it was explained in a volume illustrated with 
thirteen copper-plates, and entitled ' The 
Universal English Shorthand; or the way 
of writing English in the most easy, concise, 
regular, and beautiful manner, applicable to 
any other language, but particularly adjusted 
to our own,' Manchester, 1767, second edit. 
1796. The method is in appearance one of 
the most elegant ever devised, but it cannot 
be written with sufficient rapidity, and con- 
sequently it was never much used by pro- 
fessional stenographers. For reporting pur- 
poses it is decidedly inferior to the systems 
of Mason, Gurney, Taylor, Lewis, and Pit- 
man. Still its publication marks an era in 
the history of shorthand, and there can be 
no doubt that the more widely diffused sys- 
tem published by Samuel Taylor in 1786 
was suggested by and based upon that of 
Byrom. Thomas Molineux of Macclesfield 
issued several elegantly printed manuals of 
instruction in Byrom's system between 1796 
and 1824, but the best exposition of the 
method is to be found in the ' Practical In- 
troduction to the Science of Shorthand,' by 
William Gawtress, Leeds, 1819, third edit. 
London, 1830. 

K2 



Byron 



132 



Byron 



[The chief authority for Byrom is The Private 
Journal and Literary Remains of John Byrom, , 
related by Richard Parkinson, D.D., for the I 
Chetham Society, in two vols., 1854-7; some 
account is given of an unpublished fragment 
of the journal from 1731 to 1733 by Mr. J. E. 
Bailey in the Palatine Note-book for May 1882, 
also printed separately ; Chalmers's Life in the 
Collection of Poets, and Life prefixed to Works ; 
Baines's County Palatine of Lancaster, ii. 79,293; 
Hibbert Ware's Collegiate Church of Manchester, 
ii. 79, 129, 142, &c. ; Case in relation to an Act 
of Parliament, 1731 ; Case of Petitioners, &c., 
1731, for the Manchester Workhouse question.] 

L. S. 

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, sixth lord 
(1788-1824), poet, descended from John, first 
Lord Byron [q. v.], who was succeeded by 
his brother Richard (1605-1679). Richard's 
son, William (d. 1695), became third lord, 
and wrote some bad verses. By his wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Viscount Chaworth, 
he was father of William, fourth lord (1669- 
1736), gentleman of the bedchamber toPrince 
George of Denmark. The fourth lord was 
father, by his wife, Frances, daughter of Lord 
Berkeley of Stratton, of William, fifth lord, 
John, afterwards Admiral Byron [q. v.], and 
Isabella, wife of the fourth and mother of the 
fifth earl of Carlisle. The fifth lord (1722- 
1798) quarrelled with his cousin Mr. Cha- 
worth (great grandson of Viscount Cha- 
worth) at a club dinner of Nottinghamshire 
gentlemen, 26 Jan. 1765, and killed him after 
a confused scuffle in a room to which they 
had retired by themselves after dinner. Byron 
was convicted of manslaughter before the 
House of Lords, 16 April 1765 (State Trials, 
xix. 1175), and, though exempted from pun- 
ishment by his privilege as a peer, became a 
marked man. He lived in seclusion at New- 
stead Abbey, ill-treated his wife, was known 
as the ' wicked lord,' encumbered his estates, 
and made a sale of his property at Rochdale, 
the disputed legality of which led to a pro- 
longed lawsuit. His children and his only 
grandson (son of his son by the daughter of 
his brother, the admiral) died before him. 
Admiral Byron had two sons, John and 
George Anson (ancestor of the present peer), 
and three daughters, one of whom became 
wife of her cousin, son of the fifth lord ; an- 
other of Admiral Parker; the third of Colonel 
Leigh, by whom she was mother of another 
Colonel Leigh, who married his cousin, Au- 
gusta, daughter of John Byron, the admiral's 
eldest son. This John Byron (born 1756) was 
educated at Westminster, entered the guards, 
was known as ' mad Jack,' and was a hand- 
some profligate. He seduced the Marchioness 
of Carmarthen, who became Baroness Conyers 



on the death of her father, fourth earl of 
Holderness. He married her (June 1779) 
after her divorce, and had by her in 1782 a 
daughter, Augusta, married to Colonel Leigh 
in 1807. Lady Conyers's death in France, 
26 Jan. 1784, deprived her husband of an in- 
come of 4,000/. a year. He soon afterwards met 
at Bath a Miss Catherine Gordon of Gicht, 
with a fortune of 23,000/., doubled by rumour. 
The pair were married at St. Michael s Church, 
Bath, 13 May 1785 (parish register). John 
Byron took his second wife to France, squan- 
dered most of her property, and returned to 
England, where their only child, George Gor- 
don, was born in Holies Street, London, 
22 Jan. 1788. John Hunter saw the boy 
when he was born, and prescribed for the in- 
fant's feet (Mrs. Byron's letters in Add. MS. 
31037). A malformation was caused, as Byron 
afterwards said, by his mother's ' false deli- 
cacy.' Trelawny (Records, ii. 132) says that 
the tendo Achillas of each foot was so con- 
tracted that he could only walk on the balls 
of the toes, the right foot being most dis- 
torted and bent inwards. Injudicious treat- 
ment increased the mischief, and through life 
the poet could only hobble a few paces on 
foot, though he could at times succeed in 
concealing his infirmity. 

John Byron's creditors became pressing. 
The daughter, Augusta, was sent to her 
grandmother, the Dowager Countess Holder- 
ness. Mrs. Byron retired to Aberdeen, and 
lived upon 1501. a year, the interest of 3,000. 
in the hands of trustees, the sole remnant of 
her fortune. She took lodgings in Queen 
Street, Aberdeen, and was followed by her 
husband, who occupied separate lodgings and 
sometimes petted the child, who professed in 
later years to remember him perfectly (MED- 
WIN, p. 58). With money got from his wife 
or his sister, Mrs. Leigh, he escaped to France 
in January 1791, and died at Valenciennes, 
2 Aug. 1791, possibly by his own hand 
(JEAFFRESON, i. 48 ; HARNESS, p. 33 ; Letter 
No. 460 in MOORE'S Life of Byron implicitly 
denies suicide). Mrs. Byron's income, re- 
duced to 1351. by debts for furniture and by 
helping her husband, was raised to 190/. on 
the death of her grandmother, and she lived 
within her means. Capricious and passionate 
by nature, she treated her child with alter- 
nate excesses of violence and tenderness. 
Scott (MooEE, ch. xxiv.) says that in 1784 she 
was seized with an hysterical fit during Mrs. 
Siddons's performance in Southern's ' Fatal 
Marriage,' and carried out screaming, ' Oh, my 
Biron, my Biron ' (the name of a character 
in the play). She was short and fat, and would 
chase her mocking child round the room in 
impotent fury. To the frank remark of a 



Byron i 

schoolfellow, ' Your mother is a fool,' he re- 
plied, ' I know it.' Another phrase is said to 
have been the germ of the ' Deformed Trans- 
formed.' His mother reviling him as a ' lame 
beast,' he replied, ' I was born so, mother.' 
The child was passionately fond of his nurse, 
May Gray, to whom at the final parting he 
gave a watch and his miniature afterwards 
in the possession of Dr. Ewing of Aberdeen 
and by whose teaching he acquired a fami- 
liarity with the Bible, preserved through life 
by a very retentive memory. At first he went 
to school to one ' Bodsy Bowers,' and after- 
wards to a clergyman named Ross. The son 
of his shoemaker, Paterson, taught him some 
Latin, and he was at the grammar school from 
1794 to 1798 (BAIN, Life of Arnott, in the 
papers of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society, 
gives his places in the school). He was re- 
garded as warm-hearted, pugnacious, and idle. 
Visits to his mother's relations and an excur- 
sion to Ballater for change of air in 1796 
varied his schooldays. In a note to the ' Is- 
land' (1813) he dates his love of mountainous 
scenery from this period ; and in a note to 
' Don Juan ' (canto x. stanza 18) he recalls 
the delicious horror with which he leaned 
over the bridge of Balgounie, destined in an 
old rhyme to fall with ' a wife's ae son and 
a mare's ae foal.' An infantile passion for a 
cousin, Mary Duff, in his eighth year was so 
intense that he was nearly thrown into con- 
vulsions by hearing, when he was sixteen, of 
her marriage to Mr. Robert Cockburn (a well- 
known wine merchant, brother of Lord Cock- 
burn). She died 10 March 1858 (Notes and 
Queries, 2nd series, iii. 231 ; she is described 
in Mr. Ruskin's ' Praeterita '). 

In 1794, by the death of the fifth Lord By- 
ron's grandson at the siege of Calvi in Corsica, 
Byron became heir to the peerage. A Mr. 
Ferguson suggested to Mrs. Byron that an 
application to the civil list for a pension 
might be successful if sanctioned by the ac- 
tual peer (Letters in Morrison MSS.) The 
grand-uncle would not help the appeal, but 
after his death (19 May 1798) a pension of 
3001. was given to the new peer's mother 
(warrant dated 2 Oct. 1799). In the autumn 
Mrs. Byron with her boy and May Gray left 
Aberdeen for Newstead. The house was 
ruinous. The Rochdale property was only 
recoverable by a lawsuit. The actual income 
of the Newstead estate was estimated at 
1,1001. a year, which might be doubled when 
the leases fell in. Byron told Medwin (p. 40) 
that it was about 1,5001. a year. Byron was 
made a ward in chancery, and Lord Carlisle, 
son of the old lord's sister, was appointed his 
guardian. 

Mrs. Byron settled at Nottingham, and 



Byron 



sent the boy to be prepared for a public school 
by Mr. Rogers. He was tortured by the re- 
medies applied to his feet by a quack named 
Lavender. His talent for satire was already 
shown in a lampoon on an old lady and in an 
exposure of Lavender's illiteracy. In 1799 
he was taken to London by his mother, ex- 
amined for his lameness by Dr. Baillie, and 
sent to Dr. Glennie's school at Dulwich, where 
the treatment prescribed by Baillie could be 
carried out. Glennie found him playful, ami- 
able, and intelligent, ill-grounded in scholar- 
ship, but familiar with scripture, and a de-: 
vourer of poetry. At Glennie's he read a 
pamphlet on the shipwreck of the Juno in 
1795, which was afterwards worked up in 
' Don Juan ; ' and here, about 1800, he wrote 
his first love poem, addressed to his cousin Mar- 
garet Parker. Byron speaks of her transpa- 
rent and evanescent beauty, and says that his 
passion had its ' usual effects ' of preventing 
sleep and appetite. She died of consumption 
a year or two later. Meanwhile Mrs. Byron's 
tempers had become insupportable to Glennie, 
whose discipline was spoilt by her meddling, 
and to Lord Carlisle, who ceased to see her. 
Her importunity prevailed upon the guardian 
to send the boy to Harrow, where (in the 
summer of 1801) he became a pupil of the 
Rev. Joseph Drury. 

Drury obtained the respect and affection 
of his pupil. A note to ' Childe Harold ' 
(canto iv.), upon a passage in which he de- 
scribes his repugnance to the ' daily drug ' of 
classical lessons, expresses his enthusiastic re- 
gard for Drury, and proves that he had not 
profited by Drury's teaching. His notes in 
the books which he gave to the school library 
show that he never became a tolerable scholar. 
He was always ' idle, in mischief, or at play,' 
though reading voraciously by fits. He shone 
in declamation, and Drury tells how he quite 
unconsciously interpolated a vigorous passage 
into a prepared composition. Unpopular and 
unhappy at first, he hated Harrow (MooRE, 
ch. iv.) till his last year and a half ; but he 
became attached to it on rising to be a leader. 
Glennie had noticed that his deformity had 
increased his desire for athletic glory. His 
strength of arm made him formidable in spite 
of his lameness. He fought Lord Calthorpe for 

writing ' d d atheist ' under his name 

(MEDWIN, p. 68). He was a cricketer (Notes 
and Queries, 6th ser. viii. 245), and the late 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe remembered seeing 
him playing in the match against Eton with 
another boy to run for him. Byron was one 
of the ringleaders in a childish revolt against 
the appointment of Dr. Butler (March 1805) 
as Drury's successor, and in favour of Mark 
Drury. Byron said that he saved the hall from 



Byron 



134 



Byron 



burning by showing to the boys the names of 
their ancestors on the walls (MEDWIN, p. 68). 
He afterwards satirised Butler as ' Pompo- 
sus ' in ' Hours of Idleness,' but had the sense 
to apologise before his first foreign tour. 

' Sly school friendships,' says Byron, 'were 
with me passions.' Byron remonstrates with 
a boyish correspondent for calling him ' my 
dear ' instead of ' my dearest Byron.' His 
most famous contemporary at Harrow was 
Sir Robert Peel, for whom he offered to take 
half the thrashing inflicted by a bully. He 
protected Harness, his junior by two years, 
who survived till 1869. His closest intimates 
were apparently Lords Clare and Dorset and 
John Wingfield. When he met Clare long 
afterwards in Italy, he was agitated to a pain- 
ful degree, and says that he could never hear 
the name without a beating of the heart. He 
had been called at Glennie's 'the old English 
baron,' and some aristocratic vanity perhaps 
appears in his choice of intimates and depen- 
dents. 

His mother was at Bath in 1802 (where 
he appeared in Turkish costume at a masque- 
rade) ; at Nottingham in 1803 ; and at South- 
well, in a house called Burgage Manor, in 
1804. Byron visited Newstead in 1803, then 
occupied by Lord Grey de Ruthin, who set 
apart a room for his use. He was often at 
Annesley Hall, the seat of his distant cousins 
the Chaworths. Mary Anne Chaworth was 
fifth in descent from Viscount Chaworth, and 
her grandfather was brother to the William 
Chaworth killed by the fifth Lord Byron. A 
superstitious fancy (duly turned to account 
in the ' Siege of Corinth,' xxi.), that the family 
portraits would descend from their frames to 
haunt the duellist's heir, made him refuse to 
sleep there ; till a ' bogle ' seen on the road 
to Newstead or some less fanciful motive 
induced him to stay for the night. He had 
fallen desperately in love with Mary Anne 
Chaworth, two years his senior, who natur- 
ally declined to take him seriously. A year 
later Miss Pigot describes him as a ' fat bash- 
ful boy.' In 1804 he found Miss Chaworth 
engaged to John Musters. The marriage took 
place in 1805. Moore gives a report, proba- 
bly inaccurate (see JEAFFRESON, i. 123), of 
Byron's agitation on hearing of the wedding. 
He dined with her and her husband in 1808, 
and was much affected by seeing her infant 
daughter. Poems addressed to her appeared 
in 'Hours of Idleness' and Hobhouse's ' Mis- 
cellany.' He told Medwin (p. 65) that he had 
found in her ' all that his youthful fancy could 
paint of beautiful.' Mrs. Musters's marriage 
was unhappy; she was separated from her 
husband ; her mind became affected, and she 
died in 1832 from a shock caused by riots at 



Nottingham. This passion seems to have left 
the most permanent traces on Byron's life ; 
though it was a year later (if his account is 
accurate) that the news of Mary Duff's mar- 
riage nearly caused convulsions. 

In October 1805 Byron entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, as a nobleman. A youth 
of ' tumultuous passions ' (in the phrase of 
his college tutor), he was exposed to the 
temptations of his rank, yet hardly within 
the sphere of its legitimate ambition. He 
rode, shot with a pistol, and boxed. He made 
a friend of the famous pugilist, Jackson, paid 
for postchaises to bring ' dear Jack ' to visit 
him at Brighton, invited him to Newstead, 
and gave him commissions about dogs and 
horses. He was greatest at swimming. The 
pool below the sluice at Grantchester is still 
called by his name. Leigh Hunt first saw 
him (HUNT, Byron, &c. p. 1) swimming a 
match in the Thames under Jackson's super- 
vision, and in August 1807 he boasts to Miss 
Pigot of a three miles swim through Black- 
friars and Westminster bridges. He tra- 
velled to various resorts with a carriage, a 
pair of horses, a groom and valet, besides a 
bulldog and a Newfoundland. In 1806 his 
mother ended a quarrel by throwing the 
poker and tongs at his head. She followed 
him to his lodgings in London, whither he 
retreated, and there another engagement re- 
sulted in the defeat of the enemy his mother. 
On a visit to Harrogate in the same summer 
with his friend Pigot he was shy, quiet, 
avoided drinking, and was polite to Profes- 
sor Hailstone, of Trinity. On some of his 
rambles he was accompanied by a girl in boy's 
clothes, whom he introduced as his younger 
brother. He tells Miss Pigot that he has 
played hazard for two nights till four in the 
morning ; and in a later diary (MooEE, chap, 
viii.) says that he loved gambling, but left off 
in time, and played little after he was of age. 
It is not surprising to find him confessing in 
1808 (Letter 25) that he is ' cursedly dipped,' 
and will owe 9,000/. or 10,000/. on coming of 
age. The college authorities naturally looked 
askance at him ; and Byron symbolised his 
opinion of dons by bringing up a bear to 
college, and declaring that the animal should 
sit for a fellowship. 

Byron formed friendships and had pursuits 
of a more intellectual kind. He seems to 
have resided at Cambridge for the Michaelmas 
term 1805, and the Lent and Easter terms 
1806 ; he was then absent for nearly a year, 
and returned to keep (probably) the Easter 
term of 1807, the following October and Lent 
terms, and perhaps the Easter term of 1808, 
taking his M.A. degree on 4 July 1808 (in- 
formation kindly given by Cambridge autho- 



Byron 



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Byron 



rities). In the first period of residence, 
though sulky and solitary, he became the ad- 
miring friend of W. J. Bankes, was intimate 
with Edward Noel Long, and protected a 
chorister named Eddlestone. His friendship 
with this youth, he tells MissPigot(Julyl807), 
is to eclipse all the classical precedents, and 
Byron means to get a partnership for his friend, 
or to take him as a permanent companion. 
Eddlestone died of consumption in 1811, and 
Byron then reclaimed from Miss Pigot a cor- 
nelian, which he had originally received from 
Eddlestone, and handed on to her. References 
to this friendship are in the ' Hours of Idle- 
ness,' and probably in the ' Cornelian Heart ' 
(dated March 1812). Long entered the army, 
and was drowned in a transport in 1809, to 
Byron's profound affliction. He became in- 
timate with two fellows of King's Henry 
Drury and Francis Hodgson, afterwards pro- 
vost of Eton. Byron snowed his friendship 
for Hodgson by a present of 1,000/. in 1813, 
when Hodgson was in embarrassment and 
Byron not over rich (HODGSON, Memoirs, L 
268). In his later residence a closer ' coterie ' 
was formed by Byron, Hobhouse, Davies, and 
C. S. Matthews (Letter 66). John Cam 
Hobhouse, afterwards Lord Broughton, was 
his friend through life. Scrope Berdmore 
Davies, a man of wit and taste, delighted 
Byron by his ' dashing vivacity,' and lent 
him 4,800/., the repayment of which was 
celebrated by a drinking bout at the Cocoa 
on 27 March 1 814. Hodgson reports (i. 104) 
that when Byron exclaimed melodramatically 
' I shall go mad,' Davies used to suggest 
' silly ' as a probable emendation. Matthews 
was regarded as the most promising of the 
friends. Byron described his audacity, his 
swimming and boxing, and conversational 
powers in a letter to Murray (20 Nov. 1820), 
and tells Dallas (Letter 61) that he was a 
' most decided ' and outspoken ' atheist.' 

Among these friends Byron varied the 
pursuit of pleasure by literary efforts. He 
boasts in a juvenile letter (No. 20) that he 
has often been compared to 'the wicked' Lord 
Lyttelton, and has already been held up as 
' the votary of licentiousness and the disciple 
of infidelity.' A list (dated 30 Nov. 1807) 
shows that he had read or looked through 
many historical books and novels ' by the 
thousand.' His memory was remarkable (see 
e.g.GAMBA,p.!48 ; LADYBLESSINGTON,P. 134). 
Scott, however, found in 1815 that his read- 
ing did ' not appear to have been extensive, 
either in history or poetry ; ' and the list does 
not imply that he had strayed beyond the 
highways of literature. 

At Southwell, in September 1806, he took 
the principal part (Penruddock, an ' amiable 



misanthrope ') in an amateur performance of 
Cumberland's ' Wheel of Fortune,' and ' spun 
a prologue ' in a postchaise. About the same 
time he confessed to Miss Pigot, who had 
been reading Burns to him, that he too was 
a poet, and wrote down the lines ' In thee I 
fondly hoped to clasp.' In November 1806 
Ridge, a Newark bookseller, had privately 
printed for him a small volume of poems, 
entitled ' Fugitive Pieces.' His friend Mr. 
Becher, a Southwell clergyman [see BECKER, 
JOHN], remonstrated against the license of 
one poem. Byron immediately destroyed the 
whole impression (except one copy in Becher's 
hands and one sent to young Pigot, then 
studying medicine at Edinburgh). A hun- 
dred copies, omitting the offensive verses, and 
with some additions, under the title ' Poems 
on Various Occasions,' were distributed in 
January 1807. Favourable notices came to 
the author from Bankes, Henry Mackenzie 
('The Man of Feeling'), and Lord Wood- 
houselee. In the summer of 1807 Byron 
published a collection called ' Hours of Idle- 
ness, a series of Poems, original and trans- 
lated, by George Gordon, Lord Byron, a 
minor,' from which twenty of the privately 
printed poems were omitted and others added. 
It was praised in the ' Critical Review ' of 
September 1807, and abused in the first 
number of the ' Satirist.' A new edition, 
with some additions and without the prefaces, 
appeared in March 1808 (see account of these 
editions in appendix to English translation 
of ELZE'S Byron (1872), p. 446). In January 
1808 the famous criticism came out in the 
' Edinburgh ' (Byron speaks of this as about 
to appear in a letter (No. 24) dated 26 Feb. 
1808). The critique has been attributed both 
to Brougham and Jeffrey. Jeffrey seems to 
have denied the authorship (see MEDWIK, 
p. 174), and the ponderous legal facetiousness 
is certainly not unlike Brougham, whom 
Byron came to regard as the author (see Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. vi. 368, 480). The se- 
verity was natural enough. Scott, indeed, 
says that he remonstrated with Jeffrey, think- 
ing that the poems contained ' some passages 
of noble promise.' But the want of critical 
acumen is less obvious than the needless 
cruelty of the wound inflicted upon a boy's 
harmless vanity. Byron was deeply stung. 
He often boasted afterwards (e.g. Letter 420) 
that he instantly drank three bottles of claret 
and began a reply. He had already in his 
desk (Letter 18), on 26 Oct. 1807, 380 lines 
of his satire, besides 214 pages of a novel, 
560 lines in blank verse of a poem on Bos- 
worth Field, and other pieces. He now care- 
fully polished his satire, and had it put in 
type by Ridge. 



Byron 



136 



Byron 



On leaving Cambridge he had settled at 
Newstead, given up in ruinous condition by 
Lord Grey in the previous April, where he 
had a few rooms made habitable, and cele- 
brated his coming of age by some meagre 
approach to the usual festivities. A favour- 
able decision in the courts had given him 
hopes of Rochdale, and made him, he says, 
60,000/. richer. The suit, however, dragged 
on through his life. Meanwhile he had to 
raise money to make repairs and maintain his 
establishment at Newstead, with which he de- 
clares his resolution never to part (Letter of 
6 March 1809). The same letter announces 
the death of his friend Lord Falkland in a 
duel. In spite of his own difficulties Byron 
tried to help the widow, stood godfather to 
her infant, and left a 5QQI. note for his god- 
child in a breakfast cup. In a letter from 
Mrs. Byron (Athenceum, 6 Sept. 1884) this 
is apparently mentioned as a loan to Lady 
Falkland. On 13 March he took his seat 
in the House of Lords. Lord Carlisle had 
acknowledged the receipt of ' Hours of Idle- 
ness,' the second edition of which had been 
dedicated to him, in a ' tolerably handsome 
letter,' but would take no trouble about in- 
troducing his ward. Byron was accompanied 
to the house by no one but Dallas, a small 
author, whose sister was the wife of Byron's 
uncle, George Anson, and who had recently 
sought his acquaintance. Byron felt his iso- 
lation, and sulkily put aside a greeting from 
the chancellor (Eldon). He erased a com- 
pliment to Carlisle and substituted a bitter 
attack in his satire which was now going 
through the press under Dallas's superinten- 
dence. ' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ' 
appeared in the middle of March, and at once 
made its mark. He prepared a second edition 
at the end of April with additions and a 
swaggering prose postscript, announcing his 
departure from England and declaring that 
his motive was not fear of his victims' anti- 
pathies. The satire is vigorously written and 
more carefully polished than Byron's later 
efforts ; but has not the bitterness, the keen- 
ness, or the fine workmanship of Pope. .The 
retort upon his reviewers is only part of a 
long tirade upon the other poets of the day. 
In 1816 Byron made some annotations on 
the poem at Geneva, admitting the injustice 
of many lines. A third and fourth edition 
appeared in 1810 and 1811 ; in the last year 
he prepared a fifth for the press. He sup- 
pressed it, as many of his adversaries were 
now on friendly terms with him, and destroyed 
all but one copy, from which later editions 
have been printed. He told Murray (23 Oct. 
1817) that he would never consent to its 
republication. 



Byron had for some time contemplated 
making his ' grand tour.' In the autumn of 
1808 he got up a play at Newstead ; he buried 
his Newfoundland, Boatswain, who died of 
madness 18 Nov. 1808, under a monument 
with a misanthropical inscription; and in 
the following spring entertained his college 
friends. C. S. Matthews describes their amuse- 
ments in a letter published by Moore. They 
dressed themselves in theatrical costumes of 
monks (with a recollection, perhaps, of Med- 
menham), and drank burgundy out of a 
human skull found near the abbey, which 
Byron had fashioned into a cup with an ap- 
propriate inscription. Such revelries sug- 
gested extravagant rumours of reckless orgies 
and ' harems ' in the abbey. Moore assures 
us that the life there was in reality ' simple 
and inexpensive,' and the scandal of limited 
application. 

Byron took leave of England by some 
verses to Mrs. Musters about his blighted 
affections, and sailed from Falmouth in the 
Lisbon packet on 2 July 1809. Hobhouse 
accompanied him, and he took three servants, 
Fletcher (who followed him to the last), Rush- 
ton, and Joe Murray. From Lisbon he rode 
across Spain to Seville and Cadiz, and thence 
sailed to Gibraltar in the Hyperion frigate 
in the beginning of August. He sent home 
Murray and Rushton with instructions for 
the proper education of the latter at his own 
expense. He sailed in the packet for Malta 
on 19 Aug. 1809, in company with Gait, 
who afterwards wrote his life, and who was 
rather amused by the affectations of the youth- 
ful peer. At Malta he fell in with a Mrs. 
Spencer Smith with a romantic history (see 
Memoirs of the Duchesse cCAbrantes (1834), 
xv. 1-74), to whom he addressed the verses 
' To Florence,' ' stanzas composed during a 
thunderstorm,' and a passage in ' Childe Ha- 
rold ' (ii. st. 30-3), explaining that his heart 
was now past the power of loving. From 
Malta he reached Prevesa in the Spider, 
brig of war, on 19 Sept. 1809. He thence 
visited Ali Pasha at Tepelen, and was nearly 
lost in a Turkish man-of-war on his return. 
In November he travelled to Missolonghi 
(21 Nov.) through Acarnania with a guard 
of Albanians. He stayed a fortnight at Patras, 
and thence left for Athens. He reached 
Athens on Christmas eve and lodged with 
Theodora Macri, widow of the English vice- 
consul, who had three lovely daughters. The 
eldest, Theresa, celebrated by Byron as the 
Maid of Athens, became Mrs. Black. She 
fell into poverty, and an appeal for her support 
was made in the ' Times ' on 23 March 1872. 
She died in October 1875 (Times, 21, 25, 
27 Oct. 1875). He sailed from Athens for 






Byron 



137 



Byron 



Smyrna in the Pylades, sloop of war, on 
5 March 1810 ; visited Ephesus ; and on 
11 April sailed in the Salsette frigate for 
Constantinople, and visited the Troad. On 
3 May he repeated Leander's feat of swim- 
ming from Sestos to Abydos. In February 
1821 he wrote a long letter to Murray, de- 
fending his statements against some criticisms 
in W. Turner's ' Tour in the Levant ' (see 
Appendix to MOORE). Byron reached Con- 
stantinople on 14 May, and sailed in the 
Salsette on 14 July. Hobhouse returned to 
England, while Byron landed at Zea, with 
Fletcher, two Albanians, and a Tartar, and 
returned to Athens. Here he professed to 
have met with the adventure turned to account 
in the ' Giaour ' about saving a girl from being 
drowned in a sack. A letter from Lord Sligo, 
who was then at Athens, to Byron (31 Aug. 
1813), proves that some such report was cur- 
rent at Athens a day or two later, and may 
possibly have had some foundation. Hobhouse 
( Westminster Review, January 1825) says that 
Byron's Turkish servant was the lover of the 
girl. He made a tour in the Morea, had a 
dangerous fever at Patras (which left a lia- 
bility to malaria), and returned to Athens, 
where he passed the winter of 1810-11 in the 
Capuchin convent. Here he met Lady Hester 
Stanhope, and formed one of his strong attach- 
ments to a youth called Nicolo Giraud. To 
this lad he gave a sum of money on parting, 
and left him 7,000/. in a will of August 1811. 
From Athens Byron went to Malta, and sailed 
thence for England in the Volage frigate on 
3 June 181 1 . He reached Portsmouth at the 
beginning of July, and was met by Dallas at 
Reddish's Hotel, St. James's Street, on 15 July 
1811. 

Byron returned to isolation and vexation. 
He had told his mother that, if compelled to 
part with Newstead, he should retire to the 
East. To Hodgson he wrote while at sea 
(Letter 51) that he was returning embar- 
rassed, unsocial, ' without a hope and almost 
without a desire.' His financial difficulties 
are shown by a series of letters published in 
the 'Athenaeum ' (30 Aug. and 6 Sept. 1884). 
The court of chancery had allowed him 50QI. 
a year at Cambridge, to which his mother had 
added as much, besides incurring a debt of 
1,000/. on his behalf. He is reduced to his 
last guinea in December 1807, has obtained 
loans from Jews, and expects to end by suicide 
or the marriage of a 'golden dolly.' His 
mother was put to the greatest difficulties 
during his travels, and he seems to have been 
careless in providing for her wants. The 
bailiffs were at Newstead in February 1810 ; 
a sale was threatened in June. Byron writes 
from Athens in November refusing to sell 



Newstead. While returning to England he 
proposed to join the army, and had to borrow 
money to pay for his journey to London. 
News of his mother's illness came to him in 
London, and before he could reach her she 
died (1 Aug. 1811) of 'a fit of rage caused 
by reading the upholsterer's bills.' The loss 
affected him deeply, and he was found sob- 
bing by her remains over the loss of his one 
friend in the world. The deaths of his school- 
friend Wingfield (14 May 1811),of C. S. Mat- 
thews, and of Eddlestone, were nearly simul- 
taneous blows, and he tells Miss Pigot that 
the last death ' made the sixth, within four 
months, of friends and relatives lost between 
May and the end of August.' In February 
1812 he mentions Eddlestone to Hodgson 
(Memoirs, i. 221) as the ' only human being 
that ever loved him in truth and entirely.' 
He adds that where death has set his seal 
the impression can never be broken. The 
phrase recurs in the most impressive of the 
poems to Thyrza, dated in the same month. 
The coincidence seems to confirm Moore's 
statement that Thyrza was no more than an 
impersonation of Byron's melancholy caused 
by many losses. An apostrophe to a ' loved 
and lovely one' at the end of the second canto 
of ' Childe Harold ' (st. 95,96) belongs to the 
same series. Attempts to identify Thyrza 
have failed. Byron spoke to Trelawny of a 
passion for a cousin who was in a decline 
when he left England, and whom Trelawny 
identifies with Thyrza. No one seems to 
answer to the description. It may be added 
that he speaks (see MOORE, chap, iv.) of a 
' violent, though pure love and passion ' which 
absorbed him while at Cambridge, and writes 
to Dallas (11 Oct. 1811) of a loss about this 
time which would have profoundly moved 
him but that he ' has supped full of horrors,' 
and that Dallas understands him as referring 
to some one who might have made him happy 
as a wife. Byron had sufficient elasticity of 
spirit for a defiance of the world, and a vanity 
keen enough to make a boastful exhibition of 
premature cynicism and a blighted heart. 

At the end of October 1811 he took lodg- 
ings in St. James's Street. He had shown 
to Dallas upon his return to England the first 
two cantos of ' Childe Harold ' and ' Hints 
from Horace,' a tame paraphrase of the ' Ars 
Poetica.' According to Dallas, he preferred 
the last, and was unwilling to publish the 
' Childe.' Cawthorn, who had published the 
' English Bards,' &c., accepted the ' Hints ' 
(which did not appear till after Byron's death), 
but the publication was delayed, apparently 
for want of a good classical reviser ( To Hodg- 
son, 13 Oct. 1811). The Longmans had re- 
fused the ' English Bards,' which attacked 



Byron 



138 



Byron 



their friends, and Byron told Dallas to offer 
' Childe Harold ' elsewhere. Miller objected 
to the attack upon Lord Elgin (as the de- 
spoiler of the Parthenon), for whom he pub- 
lished ; and it was ultimately accepted by 
Murray, who thus began a permanent con- 
nection with Byron. ' Childe Harold ' ap- 
peared in March 1812. Byron had meanwhile 
spoken for the first time in the House of 
Lords, 27 Feb. 1812, against a bill for sup- 
pressing riots of Nottingham frameworkers, 
and with considerable success. A second 
and less successful speech against catholic 
disabilities followed on 21 April 1812. He 
made one other short speech in presenting a 
petition from Major Cartwright on 1 June 
1813. Lord Holland helped him in provid- 
ing materials for the first, and the speeches 
indicate a leaning towards something more 
than whiggism. The first two are of rather 
elaborate rhetoric, and his delivery was cri- 
ticised as too theatrical and sing-song. Any 
political ambition was extinguished by the 
startling success of ' Childe Harold,' of which 
a first edition was immediately sold. Byron 
' woke one morning andf ound himself famous.' 
Murray gave 600/. for the copyright, which 
Byron handed over to Dallas, declaring that 
he would never take money for his poems. 

The two cantos now published are admit- 
tedly inferior to the continuation of the 
poem ; and the affectation of which it set 
the fashion is obsolete. Byron tells Murray 
(3 Nov. 1821) that he is like a tiger. If he 
misses his first spring, he goes 'grumbling 
back to the jungle again.' His poems are 
all substantially impromptus ; but the vigour 
and descriptive power, in spite of all blemishes, 
are enough to explain the success of a poem 
original in conception and setting forth a type"! 
of character which embodied a prevailing! 
sentiment. 

Byron became the idol of the sentimental 
part of society. Friends and lovers of noto- 
riety gathered round this fascinating rebel. 
Among the first was Moore, who had sent 
him a challenge for a passage in ' English 
Bards' ridiculing the bloodless duel with 
Jeffrey. Hodgson had suppressed the letter 
during Byron's absence. Moore now wrote 
a letter ostensibly demanding explanations, 
but more like a request for acquaintance. 
The two met at a dinner given by Rogers, 
where Campbell made a fourth. Byron sur- 
prised his new friends by the distinction of 
his appearance and the eccentricity of his 
diet, consisting of potatoes and vinegar alone. 
Moore was surprised at Byron's isolation. 
Dallas, his solicitor, Hanson, and three or 
four college friends were at this time (No- 
vember 1811) his only associates. Moore 



rapidly became intimate. Byron liked him 
as a thorough man of the world and as an 
expert in the arts which compensate for in- 
feriority of birth, and which enabled Moore 
to act as an obsequious monitor and to 
smother gentle admonition in abundant flat- 
tery. In his diary (10 Dec. 1813) Byron 
says that Moore was the best-hearted man 
he knew and with talents equal to his feel- 
ings. Byron was now at the height of his 
proverbial beauty. Coleridge in 1816 speaks 
enthusiastically of the astonishing beauty 
and expressiveness of his face (GTLLMAN, 
p. 267). Dark brown locks, curling over 
a lofty forehead, grey eyes with long dark 
lashes, a mouth and chin of exquisite sym- 
metry are shown in his portraits, and were 
animated by an astonishing mobility of 
expression, varying from apathy to intense 
passion. His head was very small ; his nose, 
though well formed, rather too thick ; look- 
ing, says Hunt (i. 150), in a front view as if 
' grafted on the face ; ' his complexion was 
colourless ; he had little beard. His height, 
he says (Diary, 17 March 1814), 5ft. 8$in. 
or a little less (MEDWIN, p. 5). He had a 
broad chest, long muscular arms, with white 
delicate hands, and beautiful teeth. A ten- 
dency to excessive fatness, inherited from 
his mother, was not only disfiguring but 
productive of great discomfort, and increased 
the unwieldiness arising from his lameness. 
To remedy the evil he resorted to the in- 
jurious system of diet often set down to 
mere affectation. Trelawny (ii. 74) observes 
more justly that Byron was the only human 
being he "knew with self-restraint enough 
not to get fat. In April 1807 he tells Pigot 
that he has reduced himself by exercise, phy- 
sic, and hot baths from 14st. 71bs. to 12st. 71bs. ; 
in January 1808 he tells Drury that he has 
got down to lOst. 71bs. When last weighed 
at Genoa he was lOst. 91bs. (TRELAwmr). 
He carried on this system at intervals through 
life ; at Athens he drank vinegar and water, 
and seldom ate more than a little rice ; on 
his return he gave up wine and meat. He 
sparred with Jackson for exercise, and took 
hot baths. In 1813 he lived on six biscuits 
a day and tea ; in December he fasts for 
forty-eight hours ; in 1816 he lived on a thin 
slice of bread for breakfast and a vegetable 
dinner, drinking green tea and seltzer-water. 
He kept down hunger by chewing mastic 
and tobacco (HUNT, i. 65). He sometimes 
took laudanum (Diary, 14 Jan. 1821 ; and 
Lady Byron's Letter, 18 Jan. 1816). He 
tells Moore (Letter 461) in 1821 that a dose 
of salts gave him most exhilaration. Occa- 
sional indulgences varied this course. Moore 
describes a supper (19 May 1814) when he 



Byron 



139 



Byron 



finished two or three lobsters, washed down 
by half a dozen glasses of strong brandy, 
with tumblers of hot water. He wrote ' Don 
Juan' on gin and water, and Medwin (p. 
336) speaks of his drinking too much wine 
and nearly a pint of hollands every night 
(in 1822). Trelawny (i. 73), however, de- 
clares that the spirits was mere ' water be- 
witched.' When Hunt reached Pisa in 1822, 
he found Byron so fat as to be scarcely re- 
cognisable. Medwin, two or three months 
later, found him starved into ' unnatural 
thinness.' Such a diet was no doubt in- 
jurious in the long run ; but the starvation 
seems to have stimulated his brain, and Tre- 
lawny says that no man had brighter eyes or 
a clearer voice. 

In the spring of 1813 Byron published 
anonymously the ' "Waltz/ and disowned it 
on its deserved failure. Various avatars of 
' Childe Harold/ however, repeated his pre- 
vious success. The ' Giaour ' appeared in 
May 1813 ; the ' Bride of Abydos' in Decem- 
ber 1813 ; the ' Corsair ' in January 1814. 
They were all struck off at a white heat. 
The ' Giaour ' was increased from 400 lines 
in the first edition to 1,400 in the fifth, which 
appeared in the autumn of 1813. The first 
sketch of the ' Bride ' was written in four 
nights (Diary, 16 Nov, 1813) ' to distract 
his dreams from . . . / and afterwards in- 
creased by 200 lines. The ' Corsair,' written 
in ten days, or between 18 and 31 Dec., 
was hardly touched afterwards. He boasted 
afterwards that 14,000 copies of the last were 
sold in a day. With its first edition appeared 
the impromptu lines, ' Weep, daughter of a 
royal line ; ' the Princess Charlotte having 
wept, it was said, on the inability of the 
whigs to form a cabinet on Perceval's death. 
The lines were the cause of vehement attacks 
upon the author by the government papers. 
A satire called ' Anti-Byron/ shown to him 
by Murray in March 1814, indicated the rise 
of a hostile feeling. Byron was annoyed by 
the shift of favour. He had said in the dedi- 
cation of the 'Corsair' to Moore that he 
should be silent for some years, and on 9 April 
1814 tells Moore that he has given up rhym- 
ing. The same letter announces the abdica- 
tion of Napoleon, and next day he composed 
and sent to Murray his ode upon that event. 
On 29 April he tells Murray that he has re- 
solved to buy back his copyrights and sup- 
press his poetry, but he instantly withdrew the 
resolution on Murray's assurance that it would 
be inconvenient. By the middle of June he 
had finished ' Lara/ which was published in 
the same volume with Rogers's ' Jacqueline ' 
in August. The 'Hebrew Melodies/ written 
at the request of Kinnaird, appeared with 



music in January 1815. The ' Siege of Co- 
rinth/ begun July 1815 and copied by Lady 
Byron, and ' Parisina/ written the same au- 
tumn, appeared in January and February 
1816. Murray gave 700J. for ' Lara ' and 500 
guineas for each of the others. Dallas wrote 
to the papers in February 1814, defending his 
noble relative from the charge of accepting 
payment; and stated that the money for 
' Childe Harold ' and ' The Corsair ' had been 
given to himself. The sums due for the other 
two poems then published were still, it seems, 
in the publisher s hands. In the beginning 
of 1816 Byron declined to take the 1,000 
guineas for ' Parisina ' and the ' Siege of Co- 
rinth/ and it was proposed to hand over the 
money to Godwin, Coleridge, and Maturin. 
The plan was dropped at Murray's objection, 
and the poet soon became less scrupulous. 
These poems were written in the thick of 
many distractions. Byron was familiar at 
Holland, Melbourne, and Devonshire Houses. 
He knew Brummell and was one of the dan- 
dies ; he was a member of Watier's, then a 
' superb club/ and appeared as a caloyer in a 
masquerade given by his fellow-members in 
1813 ; of the more literary and sober Alfred; 
of the Union, the Pugilistics, and the Owls, 
or ' Fly-by-nights.' He indulged in the plea- 
sures of his class, with intervals of self-con- 
tempt and foreboding. Scott and Mme. de 
Stael (like Lady Byron) thought that a pro- 
found melancholy was in reality his domi- 
nant mood. He had reasons enough in his 
money embarrassments and in dangerous en- 
tanglements. Fashionable women adored the 
beautiful young poet and tried to soothe his 
blighted affections. Lady Morgan (ii. 2) de- 
scribes him as 'cold, silent, and reserved/ 
but doubtless not the less fascinating. Dal- 
las (iii. 41) observed that his coyness speedily 
vanished, and found him in a brown study 
writing to some fine lady whose page was 
waiting in scarlet and a hussar jacket. This 
may have been Lady Caroline Lamb, a woman 
of some talent, but flighty and excitable to 
the verge of insanity. She was born 23 Nov. 
1785, the daughter of the Earl of Bessboroup-h, 
and in June 1805 married William Lan>tf, 
afterwards Lord Melbourne. The women, as 
she says, ' suffocated him ' when she first saw 
him. On her own introduction by Lady West- 
morland, she turned on her heel and wrote 
in her diary that he was 'mad, bad, and 
dangerous to know.' The acquaintance was 
renewed at Lady Holland's, and for nine 
months he almost lived at Melbourne House, 
where he contrived to ' sweep away ' the 
dancing, in which he could take no part. 
Lady Caroline did her best to make her pas- 
sion notorious. She ' absolutely besieged 



Byron 



140 



Byron 



him,' says Rogers ( Table Talk, p. 235) ; told 
him in her first letter that all her jewels were 
at his service ; waited at night for Rogers in 
his garden to ask him to reconcile her to 
Byron ; and would return from parties in 
Byron's carriage or wait for him in the street 
if not invited. At last, in July 1813 (see 
JACKSON, Bath Archives, ii. 146), it was ru- 
moured in London that after a quarrel with 
Byron at a party Lady Caroline had tried to 
stab herself with a knife and then with 
the fragments of a glass (the party was on 
5 July ; HAYWARD, Eminent Statesmen, i. 
350-3). Her mother now insisted upon her 
retirement to Ireland. After a farewell in- 
terview, Byron wrote her a letter (printed 
from the original manuscript in JEAFFRESON, 
i. 261), which reads like an attempt to use 
the warmest phrases consistent with an ac- 
ceptance of their separation, though ending 
with a statement of his readiness to fly with 
her. She corresponded with Byron from Ire- 
land till on the eve of her return she received 
a brutal letter from him (printed in ' Glenar- 
von,' and apparently acknowledged by Byron, 
MEDWIN, p. 274), saying roundly that he was 
attached to another, and telling her to cor- 
rect her vanity and leave him in peace. The 
letter, marked with Lady Oxford's coronet 
and initials, threw Lady Caroline into a fit, 
which involved leeching, bleeding, and bed 
for a week. 

Lady Caroline's mother-in-law, Lady Mel- 
bourne, was sister of Sir R. Milbanke, who, 
by his wife, Judith Noel, daughter of Lord 
Wentworth, was father of an only daughter, 
Anne Isabella Milbanke, born 17 May 1792. 
Miss Milbanke was a woman of intellectual 
tastes ; fond of theology and mathematics, 
and a writer of poems, one or two of which 
are published in Byron's works (two are 
given in Madame Belloc's ' Byron,' i. 68). 
Byron described her to Medwin (p. 36) as 
having small and feminine, though not re- 
gular, features ; the fairest skin imaginable ; 
perfect figure and temper and modest manners. 
She was on friendly terms with Mrs. Siddons, 
Miss Baillie, Miss Edgeworth, and other li te- 
rary personswho frequented her mother's house 
(see HARNESS, p. 23). A strong sense of duty, 
shown in a rather puritanical precision, led 
unsympathetic observers to regard her as 
prudish, pedantic, and frigid. Her only cer- 
tain fortune was 10,CKXW. Her father had 
injured a considerable estate by electioneering. 
Her mother's brother, Lord Wentworth, was 
approaching seventy. His estate of some 
7,000/. a year was at his own disposal, and 
she was held to be his favourite ; but he had 
illegitimate children, and his sister, Lady 
Scarsdale, had sons and a daughter. Miss 



Milbanke was therefore an heiress with 
rather uncertain prospects. Byron, from what- 
ever motives, made her an offer in 1812, which 
was refused, and afterwards opened a corre- 
spondence with her (CAMPBELL, New Monthly, 
xxviii. 374, contradicts, on Lady Byron's au- 
thority, Medwin's statement (p. 37), that she 
began the correspondence), which continued 
at intervals for two years. On 30 Nov. 1813 he 
notices the oddness of a situation in which 
there is ' not a spark of love on either side.' 
On 15 March 1813 he receives a letter from 
her and says that he will be in love again if 
he does not take care. Meanwhile he and 
his friends naturally held that a marriage 
might be his salvation. Lady Melbourne, 
whom on her death in 1818 he calls (Letter 
316) the 'best, kindest, and ablest female' 
he ever knew, promoted a match with her 
niece, possibly because it would effectually 
bar the intrigue with her daughter-in-law. 
In September 1814 he made an offer to Miss 
Milbanke in a letter, which, according to a 
story told by Moore, was the result of a mo- 
mentary impulse. Byron may be acquitted 
of simply mercenary motives. He never acted 
upon calculation, and had he wished, he 
might probably have turned his attractions to 
better account. The sense that he was drift- 
ing into dangerous embarrassments, which 
(see Diary, 10 Dec. 1813) suggests hints of 
suicide, would no doubt recommend a match 
with unimpeachable propriety, as the lady's 
vanity was equally flattered by the thought 
of effecting such a conversion. Byron was 
pre-eminently a man who combined strange 
infirmity of will with overpowering gusts 
of passion. He drifted indolently as long 
as drifting was possible, and then acted im- 
petuously in obedience to the uppermost 
influence. 

Byron's marriage took place 2 Jan. 1815 at 
Seaham, Durham, the seat of Sir R. Milbanke. 
The honeymoon was passed at Halnaby, 
another of his houses in the same county. 
The pair returned to Seaham 21 Jan. ; in 
March they visited Colonel and Mrs. Leigh 
at Six Mile Bottom, Newmarket, on their way 
to London, where they settled, 18 March 1815, 
at 13 Piccadilly Terrace for the rest of their 
married life. Byron, in ' The Dream,' chose 
to declare that on his wedding day his thoughts 
had been with Miss Chaworth. He also told 
Medwin (p. 39) that on leaving the house he 
found the lady's-maid placed between him- 
self and his bride in the carriage. Hobhouse, 
who had been his ' best man,' authoritatively 
contradicted this ( Westminster Revieiv, No. 
5), and the statement of Mrs. Minns (first 
published in ' Newcastle Chronicle,' 23 Sept. 
1869), who had been Lady Byron's maid at 



Byron 



141 



Byron 



Halnaby and previously, is that Lady Byron 
arrived there in a state ' buoyant and cheer- 
ful ; ' but that Byron's ' irregularities ' began 
there and caused her misery, which she tried 
to conceal from her mother. Lady Byron 
also wrote to Hodgson (15 Feb. 1816) that 
Byron had married her ' with the deepest de- 
termination of revenge, avowed on the day 
of my marriage and executed ever since with 
systematic and increasing cruelty' (Byron 
contradicts some report to this effect to Sled- 
win, p. 39). The letters written at the time, 
however, hardly support these statements. 
Byron speaks of his happiness to Moore, 
though he is terribly bored by his ' pious 
father-in-law ' (see a reference to this in TEE- 
LAWNY, i. 72). Lady Milbanke speaks of their 
happiness at Seaham (Bland-Burgess Papers, 
p. 339). Mrs. Leigh tells Hodgson that Lady 
Byron's parents were pleased with their son- 
in-law, and reports favourably of the pair on 
their visit to Six Mile Bottom. In April Lord 
Wentworth died. The bulk of his property 
was settled upon Lady Milbanke (who, with 
her husband, now took the name of Noel) and 
Lady Byron. On 29 July 1815 Byron executed 
the will proved after his death. He left all 
the property of which he could dispose in trust 
for Mrs. Leigh and her children, his wife and 
any children he might have by her being now 
amply provided for. Lady Byron fully ap- 
proved of this provision, and communicates 
it in an affectionate letter to Mrs. Leigh. 

Harness says that when the Byrons first 
came to London no couple could be appa- 
rently more devoted (HARNESS, p. 14) ; but 
troubles approached. Byron's expenses were 
increased. He had agreed to sell Newstead 
for 140,00(V. in September 1812 ; but two 
years later the purchaser withdrew, forfeit- 
ing 25,000/., which seems to have speedily 
vanished. In November 1815 Byron had to 
sell his library, though he still declined Mur- 
ray's offers for his copyrights. Creditors (at 
whose expense this questionable delicacy must 
have been exercised) dunned the husband of 
an heiress, and there were nine executions in 
his house within the year. He found dis- 
tractions abroad. He was a zealous playgoer ; 
Kean's performance of Sir Giles Overreach 
gave him a kind of convulsive fit a story 
which recalls his mother's at the Edinburgh 
theatre, and of the similar effect afterwards, 
produced upon himself by Alfieri's ' Mirra 
(MooRE, chap, xxii.) He became member of 
the committee of management of Drury Lane, 
and was brought into connections of which 
Moore says that they gave no real cause of 
offence, though the circumstances were dan- 
gerous to the ' steadiness of married life.' 
We hear, too, of parties where all ended in 



' hiccup and happiness ; ' and it seems that 
Byron's dislike of seeing women eat led to a 
separation at the domestic board. The only 
harsh action to which he confessed was that 
Lady Byron once came upon him when he 
was musing over his embarrassments and 
asked ' Am I in your way ? ' to which he 
replied ' Damnably ' (MEDWIN, p. 43). 

On 10 Dec. 1815 Lady Byron gave birth 
to her only child, Augusta Ada. On 6 Jan. 
1816 Byron gave directions to his wife ' in 
writing ' to leave London as soon as she was 
well enough. It was agreed, he told Medwin 
(p. 40), that she should stay with her father 
till some arrangement had been made with 
the creditors. On 8 Jan. Lady Byron con- 
sulted Dr. Baillie, ' with the concurrence of 
his family,' that is, apparently, Mrs. Leigh 
and his cousin, George Byron, with whom 
she constantly communicated in the following 
period. Dr. Baillie, on her expressing doubts 
of Byron's sanity, advised her absence as an 
' experiment.' He told her to correspond 
with him on ' light and soothing ' topics. 
She even believed that a sudden excitement 
might bring on a ' fatal crisis.' 'She left Lon- 
don on 15 Jan. 1816, reaching her parents at 
Kirkby Mallory on the 16th. She wrote 
affectionately to her husband on starting and 
arriving. The last letter, she says, was circu- 
lated to support the charge of desertion. It 
began, as Byron told Medwin, ' Dear Duck,' 
and was signed by her pet name ' Pippin ' 
(HtrNT, Autobiogr. 1860, pp. 247, 254). She 
writes to Mrs. Leigh on the same day that 
she has made ' the most explicit statement ' 
to her parents. They are anxious to do 
everything in their power for the ' poor suf- 
ferer.' He was to be invited at once to 
Kirkby Mallory, and her mother wrote ac- 
cordingly on the 17th. He would probably 
drop a plan, already formed, for going abroad 
with Hobhouse on her parents' remonstrance. 
On 18 Jan. she tells Mrs. Leigh that she 
hopes that Byron will join her for a time and 
not leave her till there is a prospect of an 
heir. Lady Noel has suggested that Mrs. 
Leigh might dilute a laudanum bottle with 
water without Byron's knowledge. She still 
writes as an affectionate wife, hoping that 
her husband may be cured of insanity. An 
apothecary, Le Mann, is to see the patient, 
and Lady Noel will go to London, consult 
Mrs. Leigh, and procure advice. 

The medical advisers could find no proof 
of insanity, though a list of sixteen sym- 
ptoms had been submitted to them. The 
strongest, according to Moore, was the dash- 
ing to pieces of a ' favourite old watch ' in. an 
excess of fury. A similar anecdote (HoDG- 
SON, ii. 6) was told of his throwing a jar of 



Byron 



142 



Byron 



ink out of window, and his excitement at the 
theatre is also suggested. Lady Byron upon 
hearing the medical opinion immediately de- 
cided upon separation. Dr. Baillie and a 
lawyer, by Lady Noel's desire, ' almost forced 
themselves upon Byron' (MEDWIN, p. 46), 
and confirmed Le Mann's report. On 25 Jan. 
1816 Lady Byron tells Mrs. Leigh that she 
must resign the right to be her sister, but 
hopes that no difference will be made in their 
feelings. From this time she consistently 
adhered to the view finally set forth in her 
statement in 1830. Her letters to Mrs. Leigh, 
to Hodgson, who had ventured to intervene, 
and her last letter to Byron (13 Feb. 1816), 
take the same ground. Byron had been 
guilty of conduct inexcusable if he were an 
accountable agent, and therefore making sepa- 
ration a duty when his moral responsibility 
was proved. She tells Mrs. Leigh and Hodg- 
son that he married her out of revenge ; she 
tells Hodgson (15 Feb.) that her security 
depended on the ' total abandonment of every 
moral and religious principle,' and tells Byron 
himself that to her' affectionate remonstrances 
and forewarnings of consequences he had re- 
plied by a ' determination to be wicked though 
it should break my heart.' 

On 2 Feb. 1816 Sir R. Noel proposed an 
amicable separation to Byron, which he at 
first rejected. Lady Byron went to London 
and saw Dr. Lushington, who, with Sir S. 
Romilly, had been consulted by Lady Noel, 
and had then spoken of possible reconcilia- 
tion. Lady Byron now informed him of facts 
' utterly unknown,' he says, ' I have no doubt, 
to Sir R. and Lady Noel.' His opinion was 
' entirely changed.' He thought reconciliation 
impossible, and should it be proposed he could 
take no part, 'professionally or otherwise, 
towards effecting it.' Mrs. Leigh requested 
an interview soon after, which Lady Byron 
declined ' with the greatest pain.' Lushing- 
ton had forbidden any such interview, as 
they ' might be called upon to answer for the 
most private conversation.' In a following 
letter (neither dated) Lady Byron begs for 
the interview which she had refused. She 
cannot bear the thought of not meeting, and 
the ' grounds of the case are in some degree 
changed' (Addit. MS. 31037, ff. 33, 34). 
According to Lady Byron's statement (in 
1830) Byron consented to the separation 
upon being told that the matter must other- 
wise come into court. We may easily be- 
lieve that, as Mrs. Leigh tells Mr. Horton, 
Byron would be happy to ' escape the ex- 
posure,' whatever its precise nature. He after- 
wards threw the responsibility for reticence 
on the other side. He gave a paper to Mr. 
Lewis, dated at La Mira in 1817, saying that 



Hobhouse had challenged the other side to 
come into court ; that he only yielded because 
Lady Byron had claimed a promise that he 
would consent to a separation if she really de- 
sired it. He declares his ignorance of the 
charges against him, and his desire to meet 
them openly. This paper was apparently 
shown only to a few friends. It was first 
made public in the ' Academy ' of 9 Oct. 
1869. Hobhouse (see Quarterly Review for 
October 1869, January 1870, and July 1883) 
also said that Byron was quite ready to go 
into court, and that Wilmot Horton on Lady 
Byron's part disclaimed all the current scan- 
dals. It would seem, however, Byron could 
have forced an open statement had he really 
chosen to do so. This paper shows his con- 
sciousness that he ought to have done it if 
his case had been producible. Lady Byron 
tells Hodgson at the time (15 Feb. 1816) he 
' does know, too well, what he affects to in- 
quire.' 

The question remains, what were the speci- 
fic charges which decided Lady Byron and 
Lushington? A happy marriage between 
persons so little congenial would have sur- 
prised his best friends. So far we might well 
accept the statement which Moore assigns 
to him : ' My dear sir, the causes were too 
simple to be easily found out.' But this will 
not explain Lady Byron's statements at the 
time, nor the impression made upon Lushing- 
ton by her private avowal. Lady Byron only 
exchanged the hypothesis of insanity for that 
of diabolical pride. Byron's lifelong habit 
of ' inverse hypocrisy ' may account for some- 
thing. Harness reports (p. 32) that he used 
to send paragraphs to foreign papers injurious 
to his own character in order to amuse himself 
by mystifying the English public. Some of 
Lady Byron's statements may strengthen the 
belief that she had taken some such foolish 
brags too seriously. 

Other explanations have been offered. In 
1856 Lady Byron told a story to Mrs. Beecher 
Stowe. She thought that by blasting his 
memory she might weaken the evil influence 
of his writings, and shorten his expiation in 
another world. Lady Byron died in 1860. 
I After the publication of the Guiccioli me- 
moirs in 1868, Mrs. Stowe thought it her 
; duty to publish the story in ' Macmillan's 
I Magazine' for September 1869 and the 'At- 
lantic Monthly.' Her case is fully set forth, 
with documents and some explanations, in 
' Lady Byron Vindicated ; a History of the 
Byron Controversy,' 1 870. According to Mrs. 
Stowe, Lady Byron accused her husband to 
Lushington of an incestuous intrigue with 
Mrs. Leigh. An examination of all that is 
known of Mrs. Leigh (see Quarterly Review, 



Byron i 

July 1869), of the previous relations between 
brother and sister, and especially of Lady 
Byron's affectionate relations to Mrs. Leigh 
at the time, as revealed in letters since pub- 
lished, proves this hideous story to be abso- 
lutely incredible. Till 1830 Mrs. Leigh con- 
tinued to be on good terms with Lady Byron, 
and had conveyed messages between Byron 
and his wife during his life. The appoint- 
ment of a trustee under Byron's marriage set- 
tlements in 1830 led to a disagreement. Lady 
Byron refused with considerable irritation a 
request made by Mrs. Leigh. All acquain- 
tance dropped, till in 1851 Lady Byron con- 
sented to an interview. Mrs. Leigh was 
anxious to declare that she had not (as she 
supposed Lady Byron to believe that she 
had) encouraged Byron's bitterness of feeling 
towards his wife. Lady Byron replied simply, 
'Is that allP' No further communication 
followed, and Mrs. Leigh died 18 Oct. 1851. 
It can only be surmised that Lady Byron had 
become jealous of Byron's public and pointed 
expressions of love for his sister, contrasted 
so forcibly with his utterances about his wife, 
and in brooding over her wrongs had deve- 
loped the hateful suspicion communicated to 
Mrs. Stowe, and, as it seems, to others. It 
appears too, from a passage in the Guiccioli 
memoirs, that at a time when Byron was 
accused of ' every monstrous vice,' his phrases 
about his pure fraternal affection suggested 
some such addition to the mass of calumny 
(' Reminiscences of an Attach^,' by Hubert 
Jerningham (1886), contains a curious state- 
ment by Mme. Guiccioli as to Byron's strong 
affection for his sister). 

Another suggestion made by Mr. Jeaffreson, 
that the cause was a connection formed by 
Byron about the time of the first separation 
with Jane Clairmont, daughter, by a previous 
marriage, of William Godwin's second wife, 
seems quite inadmissible. It entirely fails to 
explain Lady Byron's uniform assertions at 
the time and in 1830 (see ante, and letter 
to Lady Anne Barnard, published by Lord 
Lindsay in the ' Times ' in September 1869) 
that Byron had been guilty of conduct ex- 
cusable only on the ground of insanity, and 
continued during their whole cohabitation. 
Byron's extreme wrath against a Mrs. Cler- 
mont (a former governess of Lady Byron's), 
whom he accused (MEDWIN, p. 43) of break- 
ing open a desk, seems to suggest that some 
discovery was made subsequently to Lady 
Byron's departure from London, but affords 
no confirmation of this hypothesis. 

The problem must remain unsolved. The 
scandal excited a general explosion of public 
indignation. In some ' Observations upon 
an article in "Blackwood's Magazine" ' (dated 



3 Byron 

15 March 1820, but not published till after 
Byron's death) Byron describes the state of 
feeling ; he was accused of ' every monstrous 
vice ; ' advised not to go to the theatre or to 
parliament for fear of public insults, and his 
friends feared violence from the mob when he 
started in his travelling carriage. This indig- 
nation, perhaps exaggerated (see HOBHOTJSE 
in Westminster Review), has been ridiculed ; 
and doubtless included mean and hateful 
elements love of scandal and delight in 
trampling on a great name. Yet it was not 
unnatural. Byron's very guarded sceptical 
utterances in ' Childe Harold ' frightened 
Dallas into a formal and elaborate protest, 
and shocked a sensitive public extravagantly. 
He had been posing as a rebel against all 
the domestic proprieties. So long as his 
avowed license could pass for a literary af- 
fectation, or be condoned in the spirit of the 
general leniency shown to wild young men 
in the era of the prince regent, the protest 
was confined to the stricter classes. But 
when a Lara passed from the regions of fancy 
to 13 Piccadilly Terrace, matters became more 
serious. Byron was outraging a woman of 
the highest character and with the strongest 
claims on his tenderness ; and a feeling arose 
such as that which, soon afterwards, showed 
itself when the prince regent passed from 
simple immorality to the persecution of a 
wife with infinitely less claims to respect 
than Lady Byron's. Lady Caroline Lamb 
claimed her part in the outcry by her wild 
novel of ' Glenarvon,' published at this time. 
The separation was signed, and Byron left 
his country for ever. Some friends still 
stood by him. Lady Jersey earned his last- 
ing gratitude by giving an assembly in his 
honour ; and Miss Mercer (afterwards Lady 
Keith) met him therewith marked cordiality. 
Leigh Hunt in the ' Examiner ' and Perry in 
the ' Morning Chronicle ' defended him. Mrs. 
Leigh's affection was his chief comfort, when 
even his cousin George took his wife's part 
(MEDWIN, p. 49). Two poems appeared in the 
papers, through the 'injudicious zeal of a 
friend,' says Moore, in the middle of April. 
' A Sketch ' (dated 29 March) is a savage 
onslaught upon Mrs. Clermont. ' Fare thee 
well ' (dated 17 March), written with tears, 
it is said, the marks of which still blot the 
manuscript, expostulates pathetically with 
his wife for inflicting a 'cureless wound.' 
On 8 March Byron told Moore that there 
was ' never a brighter, kinder, or more ami- 
able and agreeable being ' than Lady Byron, 
and that no blame attached to her. He ap- 
peals to Rogers (25 March) to confirm his 
statement that he had never attacked her. 
In 1823 he repeated this statement to Lady 



Byron 



144 



Byron 



Blessington (p. 117). In fact, however, he 
oscillated between attempts to preserve the 
air of an injured yet forgiving husband and 
outbursts of bitterness. At the instance of 
Mme. de Stae'l he made some kind of over- 
ture for reconciliation in 1816, and (appa- 
rently) upon its failure wrote the ' Dream,' 
intended to show that his love had always 
been reserved for Mary Chaworth ; and a 
novel upon the ' Marriage of Belphegor,' re- 
presenting his own story. He destroyed it, 
says Moore, on hearing of her illness ; but a 
fragment is given in the notes to ' Don Juan.' 
In a poem written at the same time, ' On 
hearing that Lady Byron was ill,' he attacks 
her implacability, and calls her a ' moral Cly- 
temnestra.' He never met Lady Blessington 
without talking of his domestic troubles. 
He showed an (unsent) conciliatory letter, 
and apologised for public allusions in his 
works. Some angry communications were 
suppressed by his friends, but the allusions 
in the last cantos of ' Childe Harold ' and 
in ' Don Juan ' were unpardonable. While 
Byron was bemoaning his griefs to even 
casual acquaintance with a strange inconti- 
nence of language, and circulating letters 
and lampoons, his occasional conciliatory 
moods were of little importance. Lady Bles- 
sington remarks on his curious forgetfulness 
of the way in which he had consoled him- 
self when he complained of his wife's impla- 
cability. Her dignified reticence irritated 
and puzzled him, and his prevailing tone only 
illustrates the radical incompatibility of their 
characters. 

Byron sailed for Ostend (24 April 1816) 
with a young Italian doctor, Polidori, a Swiss 
and two English servants, Rushton and 
Fletcher, who had both started with him in 
1809. Byron's good nature to his servants 
was an amiable point inhis character. Harness 
describes the ' hideous old woman' who had 
nursed him in his lodgings and followed him 
through all his English establishments, and 
speaks of his kindness to an old butler, Murray, 
at Newstead. Byron travelled in a large 
coach, imitated from Napoleon's, carrying bed, 
library, and kitchen, besides a caleche bought 
at Brussels. His expenses were consider- 
able, and his scruples about copyright soon 
vanished. In 1817 he was bargaining sharply 
with Murray. He demanded 600 for the 
' Lament of Tasso' and the last act of ' Man- 
fred' (9 May 1817). On 4 Sept. 1817 he 
asks 2,50W. instead of 1,500J. for the fourth 
canto of 'Childe Harold,' accepting ultimately 
2,000 guineas. The sums paid by Murray 
for copyrights to the end of 1821 amounted 
to 15,455/., including the amounts made over 
to Dallas. He must have received at least 



12,500^. at this period, and the 1,100Z. for 
' Parisina' and the ' Siege of Corinth' was in 
Murray's hands. In November 1817 he at 
last sold Newstead for 90,000 guineas. Pay- 
ment of debts and mortgages left the 60,000^. 
settled upon Lady Byron, the income of which 
was payable to Byron during his life. He 
was aggrieved by the refusal of his trustees 
in 1820 to invest this in a mortgage on Lord 
Blessington's estates {Diary, 24 Jan. 1821 ; 
Letter 374) . Hanson, Byron's solicitor, went 
to Venice to obtain his signature to the 
necessary deeds in November 1818 (HoDG- 
SON, ii. 53). Byron declared that he would 
receive no advantage from Lady Byron's pro- 
perty. On the death of Lady Noel in 1 822, how- 
ever, her fortune of 7,0001. or 8,000/. a year 
was divided equally between her daughter 
and Byron by arbitrators (Sir F. Burdett 
and Lord Dacre) ; and such a division had, 
it seems, been provided for in the deed of 
separation (HoBHOtrsE in Westminster Re- 
view, January 1825). Byron then became a 
rich man for his Italian position, and grew 
careful of money. He spent much time in 
settling his weekly bills (TRELAWNT, ii. 75), 
and affected avarice as a ' good old gentle- 
manly vice.' But this must be taken as partly 
humorous, and he was still capable of mu- 
nificence. 

From Brussels Byron visited Waterloo, and 
thence went to Geneva by the Rhine, where 
(June 1816) he took the Villa Diodati, on the 
Belle Rive, a promontory on the south side 
of the lake (see Notes and Queries, 5th ser. 
viii. 1, 24, 115). Here Byron met the Shel- 
leys and Miss Clairmont. Miss Clairmont 
came expressly to meet him, but it is autho- 
ritatively stated that the Shelleys were not 
in her confidence. The whole party became 
the objects of curiosity and scandal. Tourists 
1 gazed at Byron through telescopes (see letter 
| from Shelley, GTJICCIOLI, i. 97). When he 
visited Mme. de Stae'l at Cappet, a Mrs. Her- 
vey thought proper to faint. Southey was in 
Switzerland this year, and Byron believed 
that he had spread stories in England im- 
puting gross immorality to the whole party. 
They amused themselves one rainy week by 
writing ghost stories ; Mrs. Shelley began 
' Frankenstein,' and Byron a fragment called 
' The Vampire,' from which Polidori ' vamped 
up ' a novel of the same name. It passed as 
Byron's in France and had some success. 
j Polidori, a fretful and flighty youth, quarrelled 
with his employer, proposed to challenge Shel- 
ley, and left Byron for Italy. He was sent 
out of Milan for a quarrel with an Austrian 
officer, but afterwards got some patients. 
Byron tried to help him, and recommended 
him to Murray (Letters 275, 285). He com- 



Byron 



Byron 



mitted suicide in 1821. Byron and Shelley 
made a tour of the lake in June (described in 
Shelley's ' Six Weeks' Tour'), and were nearly 
lost in a storm. Two rainy days at Ouchy 
produced Byron's ' Prisoner of Chillon ; ' and 
about the same time he finished the third 
canto of ' Childe Harold.' Shelley, as Byron 
told Medwin (p. 237), had dosed him with 
Wordsworth ' even to nausea,' and the in- 
fluence is apparent in some of his ' Childe 
Harold ' stanzas (see Wordsworth's remarks 
in MOOEE'S Diary (1853), iii. 161). In Sep- 
tember Byron made a tour in the Ber- 
nese Oberland with Hobhouse, and, as his 
diary shows, worked up his impressions of the 
scenery. At the Villa Diodati he wrote the 
stanzas 'To Augusta' and the verses addressed 
to ' My sweet sister/ which by her desire were 
suppressed till after his death. Here, too, he 
wrote the monody on the death of Sheridan, 
and the striking fragment called ' Darkness.' 
On 29 Aug. the Shelley party left for Eng- 
land. In January 1817 Miss Clainnont gave 
birth to Allegra, Byron's daughter. The in- 
fant was sent to him at Venice with a Swiss 
nurse, and placed under the care of the 
Hoppners. Byron declined an offer from a 
Mrs. Vavasour to adopt the girl, refusing to 
abdicate his paternal authority as the lady de- 
sired. He afterwards sent for the child to Bo- 
logna in August 1819, and kept her with him 
at Venice and Ravenna till April 1821, when 
he placed her in a convent at Bagna-Cavallo 
(twelve miles from Ravenna), paying double 
fees to insure good treatment. He wished 
her, he said, to be a Roman catholic, and left 
her 5,000/. for a marriage portion. The mother 
vehemently protested against this (Eg. MS. 
2332), but the Shelleys approved (ToHopp- 
ner, 11 May 1821 ; To Shelley, 26 April 
1821). The child improved in the convent, 
and is described by Shelley as petted and 
happy (GABNETT, Select Letters of Shelley, 
p. 171, 1882). She died of a fever 20 April 
1822. Byron was profoundly agitated by the 
news, and, as the Countess Guiccioli says, 
would never afterwards pronounce her name. 
He directed her to be buried at Harrow, and 
a tablet to be erected in the church, at a spot 
precisely indicated by his school recollections 
(Letter 494). Of the mother he spoke with 
indifference or aversion (BLESSINGTON,P. 164). 
Byron and Hobhouse crossed the Simplon, 
and reached Milan by October. At Milan 
Beyle (Stendhal) saw him at the theatre, and 
has described his impressions (see his Letter 
first published in Mme.BELLOc's%rora, i. 353, 
Paris, 1824). He went by Verona to Venice, 
intending to spend the winter in this ' the 
greenest island,' as he says, ' of my imagina- 
tion.' He stayed for three years, taking as a 

VOL. VIII. 



summer residence a house at La Mira on the 
Brenta. April and May 1817 were spent in 
a visit to Rome, whence, 5 May, he sent to 
Murray a new third act of ' Manfred,' having 
heard that the original was thought unsatis- 
factory. 

On arriving at Venice he found that his 
' mind wanted something craggy to break 
upon ' (Letter 252), and he set to work learn- 
ing Armenian at the monastery. He saw 
something of the literary salon of the Coun- 
tess Albrizzi. Mme. Albrizzi wrote a book of 
portraits, one of which is a sketch of Byron, 
published by Moore, and not without interest. 
He became bored with the Venetian ' blues,' 
and took to the less pretentious salon of the 
Countess Benzoni. He soon plunged into 
worse dissipations. He settled in the Palazzo 
Mocenigo on the Grand Canal. And here, in 
ostentatious defiance of the world, which 
tried to take the form of contempt, he aban- 
doned himself to degrading excesses which 
injured his constitution, and afterwards pro- 
duced bitter self-reproach. ' I detest every 
recollection of the place, the people, and my 
pursuits,' he said to Medwin (p. 78). Shelley, 
whose impressions of a visit to Byron are 
given in the famous ' Julian and Maddalo/ 
says afterwards that Byron had almost de- 
stroyed himself. He could digest no food, 
and was consumed by hectic fever. Daily 
rides on the Lido kept him from prostration. 
Moore says that Byron would often leave his 
house in a fit of disgust to pass the night in 
his gondola. In the midst of this debasing 
life his intellectual activity continued. He 
began the fourth canto of ' Childe Harold ' 
by 1 July 1817, and sent 126 stanzas (after- 
wards increased to 186) to Murray on 20 July. 
On 23 Oct. he states that ' Beppo,' in imitation, 
as he says, of ' Whistlecraft ' (J. H. Frere), 
is nearly finished. It was sent to Murray 
19 Jan. 1819, and published in May. This 
experiment led to his greatest performance. 
On 19 Sept. 1818 he has finished the first 
canto of ' Don Juan.' On 25 Jan. 1819 he 
tells Murray to print fifty copies for private 
distribution. On 6 April he sends the second 
canto. The two were published without au- 
thor's or publisher's name in July 1819, The 
third canto was begun in October 1819. The 
outcry against its predecessors had disconcer- 
ted him, and he was so put out by hearing that 
a Mr. Saunders had called it 'all Grub Street/ 
as to lay it aside for a time. The third canto 
was split into the third and fourth in Feb- 
ruary 1820, and appeared with the fifth, still 
anonymously and without the publisher's 
name, in August 1821. 

A new passion had altered his life. In April 
1819 he met at the Countess Benzoni's Teresa, 



146 



Byron 



daughter of Count Gamba of Ravenna, re- 
cently married at the age of sixteen to a rich 
widower of sixty, Count Guiccioli, also of Ra- 
venna. Her beauty is described by Moore, an 
American painter West, who took her portrait, 
Medwin, and Hunt. She had regular features, 
a fine figure, rather too short and stout, and was 
remarkable among Italians for her fair com- 
plexion, golden hair (see JEAFFKESON, ii. 80), 
and blue eyes. She at once conceived a pas- 
sion for Byron, and they met daily at Venice. 
Her husband took her back to Ravenna in 
the same month, and she wrote passionate 
letters to Byron. She had fainted three 
times on her first day's journey ; her mother's 
death had deeply affected her ; she was ill, 
and threatened by consumption ; and she told 
him in May that her relations would receive 
him at Ravenna. In spite of heat and irre- 
solution, Byron left La Mira on 2 June 1819, 
and moved slowly, and after some hesitation, 
to Ravenna, writing on the way ' River that 
rollest by the ancient walls ' (first published by 
Medwin). Here he found the countess really 
ill. He studied medical books, she says, for 
her benefit, and sent for Aglietti, the best 
physician in Venice. As she recovered, 
Byron felt rather awkward under the polite 
attentions of her husband, though her own 
relations were unfavourable. His letters to 
her, says Moore, show genuine passion. His 
letters to Hoppner show a more ambiguous 
interest. He desired at times to escape from 
an embarrassing connection ; yet, out of ' wil- 
fulness,' as Moore thinks, when she was to go 
with her husband to Bologna, he asked her 
to fly with him, a step altogether desperate 
according to the code of the time. Though 
shocked by the proposal, she suggested a 
sham death, after the Juliet precedent. Byron 
followed the Guicciolis to Bologna, and 
stayed there while they made a tour of their 
estates. Hence (23 Aug.) he sent off to Mur- 
ray his cutting ' Letter to my Grandmother's 
Review.' Two days later he wrote a curious 
declaration of love to the countess in a volume 
of ' Corinna ' left in her house. A vehement 
quarrel with a papal captain of dragoons for 
selling him an unsound horse nearly led to 
an impromptu duel like his granduncle's. On 
the return of the Guicciolis the count left for 
Ravenna, leaving his wife with Byron at 
Bologna ' on account of her health.' Her 
health also made it expedient to travel with 
Byron to Venice by way of the Euganean 
Hills ; and at Venice the same cause made 
country air desirable, whereupon Byron po- 
litely ' gave up to her his house at La Mira,' 
and ' came to reside there ' himself. The whole 
proceeding was so like an elopement, that Ve- 
netian society naturally failed to make a dis- 



tinction. Moore paid a visit to Byron at this 
time, was cordially received at La Mira, and 
lodged in the palace at Venice. Hanson had 
described Byron in the previous year as ' enor- 
mously large ' (HODGSON, ii. 2), and Moore 
was struck by the deterioration of his looks. 
He found that his friend had given up, or 
been given up by, Venetian society. English 
tourists stared at him like a wild beast, and 
annoyed him by their occasional rudeness. 
It was at this time that Byron gave his me- 
moirs to Moore, stipulating only that they 
should not appear during his lifetime. Moore 
observed that they would make a nice legacy 
for his little Tom. Moore was alarmed at 
Byron's position. The Venetians were shocked 
by the presence of his mistress under his roof, 
especially as he had before ' conducted him- 
self so admirably.' A proposed trip to Rome, 
to which Byron had almost consented, was 
abandoned by Moore's advice, as it would look 
like a desertion of the countess. The count 
now wrote to his wife proposing that Byron 
should lend him 1,000., for which he would 
pay 5 per cent. ; the loan would otherwise be 
an avvilimento. Moore exhorted Byron to 
take advantage of this by placing the lady 
again under her husband's protection, a re- 
sult which would be well worth the money. 
Byron laughingly declared that he would 
' save both the lady and the money.' The 
count himself came to Venice at the end of 
October. After a discussion, in which Byron 
declined to interfere, the lady agreed to re- 
turn to her husband and break with her 
lover. Byron, set free, almost resolved to 
return to England. Dreams of settling in 
Venezuela under Bolivar's new republic oc- 
casionally amused him, and he made serious 
inquiries about the country. The return to 
England, made desirable by some business 
affairs (Letters 346, 359, 367), was appa- 
rently contemplated as a step towards some 
of these plans, though he also thought a year 
later (Letter 403) of settling in London to 
bring out a paper with Moore. In truth, he 
was restless, dissatisfied, and undecided. He 
shrank from any decided action, from tearing 
himself from Italy, and, on the other hand, 
from such a connection with the countess as 
would cause misery to both unless his pas- 
sion were more durable than any one, he least 
of all, could expect. The journey to England 
was nearly settled, however, when he was 
delayed by an illness of Allegra, and a touch 
of malaria in himself. The countess again 
wrote to him that she was seriously ill, and 
that her friends would receive him. While 
actually ready for a start homewards, he sud- 
denly declared that if the clock struck one 
before some final preparation was ready, he 



Byron 



147 



Byron 



would stay. It struck, and he gave up the 
journey. He wrote to the countess that he 
would obey her, though his departure would 
have been best for them all. At Christmas 
1819 he was back in Ravenna. 

He now subsided into an indolent routine, 
to which he adhered with curious pertinacity. 
Trelawny describes the day at Pisa soon after- 
wards, and agrees with Moore, Hunt, Med- 
win, and Gamba. He rose very late, took a 
cup of green tea, had a biscuit and soda-water 
at two, rode out and practised shooting, dined 
most abstemiously, visited the Gambas in 
the evening, and returned to read or write 
till two or three in the morning. At Ra- 
venna previously and afterwards in Greece he 
kept nearly to the same hours. His rate of 
composition at this period was surprising. 
Medwin says that after sitting with Byron 
till two or three the poet would next day 
produce fresh work. He discontinued ' Don 
Juan ' after the fifth canto in disgust at its 
reception, and in compliance with the request 
of the Countess Guiccioli, who was shocked 
at its cynicism. In February 1820 he trans- 
lated the ' Morgante Maggiore ; ' in March 
the ' Francesca da Rimini ' episode. On 
4 April he began his first drama, the ' Marino 
Faliero,' finished it 16 July, and copied it out 
by 17 Aug. It was produced at Drury Lane 
the next spring, in spite of his remonstrance, 
and failed, to his great annoyance. ' Sarda- 
napalus,' begun 13 Jan. 1821, was finished 
13 May (the last three acts in a fortnight). 
The 'Two Foscari' was written between 
11 June and 10 July; 'Cain/begun onlGJuly, 
was finished 9 Sept. The ' Deformed Trans- 
formed ' was written at the end of the same 
year. ' Werner,' a mere dramatisation of 
Harriet Lee's ' Kruitzner ' in the ' Canterbury 
Tales,' was written between 18 Dec. 1821 and 
20 Jan. 1822. The vigorous, though perverse, 
letters to Bowles on the Pope controversy 
are also dated 7 Feb. and 25 March 1821. No 
literary hack could have written more rapidly, 
and some would have written as well. The 
dramas thus poured forth at full speed by a 
thoroughly undramatic writer, hampered by 
the wish to preserve the ' unities,' mark (with 
the exception of * Cain ') his lowest level, and 
are often mere prose broken into apparent 
verse. 

Count Guiccioli began to give trouble. Byron 
was warned not to ride in the forest alone for 
fear of probable assassination. Guiccioli's 
long acquiescence" had turned public opinion 
against him, and a demand for separation on 
account of his ' extraordinary usage ' of his 
wife came from her friends. On 12 July a 
papal decree pronounced a separation accord- 
ingly. The countess was to receive 200/. a 



year from her husband, to live under the pa- 
ternal roof, and only to see Byron under re- 
strictions. She retired to a villa of the Gambas 
fifteen miles off, where Byron rode out to see 
her ' once or twice a month,' passing the in- 
tervals in ' perfect solitude.' By January 
1821, however (Diary, 4 Jan. 1821), she seems 
to have been back in Ravenna. Byron did 
all he could {Diary, 24 Jan. 1821, and Letter 
374) to prevent her from leaving her husband. 
Political complications were arising. Italy 
was seething with the Carbonaro conspiracies. 
The Gambas were noted liberals. Byron's 
aristocratic vanity was quite consistent with 
a conviction of the corruption and political 
blindness of the class to which he boasted of 
belonging. The cant, the imbecility, and im- 
morality of the ruling classes at home and 
abroad were the theme of much of his talk, 
and inspired his most powerful writing. His 
genuine hatred of war and pity for human 
suffering are shown, amidst much affectation, 
in his loftiest verse. Though no democrat 
after the fashion of Shelley, he was a hearty 
detester of the system supported by the Holy 
alliance. He was ready to be a leader in the 
revolutionary movements of the time. The 
walls of Ravenna were placarded with ' Up 
with the republic ! ' and ' Death to the pope ! ' 
Young Count Gamba (Teresa's brother) soon 
afterwards returned to Ravenna, became in- 
timate with Byron, and introduced him to the 
secret societies. On 8 Dec. 1820 the com- 
mandant of the troops in Ravenna was mor- 
tally wounded in the street. Byron had the 
man carried into his house at the point of 
death, and describes the event in ' Don Juan ' 
(v. 34). It was due in some way to the ac- 
tion of the societies. A rising in the Romagna 
was now expected. Byron had offered a sub- 
scription of one thousand louis to the consti- 
tutional government in Naples, to which the 
societies looked for support. He had become 
head of the Americani, a section of the Car- 
bonari (Letter 450), and bought some arms 
for them, which during the following crisis 
were suddenly returned to him, and had to 
be concealed in his house {Diary, 16 and 
18 Feb. 1821). An advance of Austrian troops 
caused a collapse of the whole scheme. A 
thousand members of the best families in the 
Roman states were banished (Letter 439), 
and among them the Gambas. Mme. Guic- 
cioli says that the government hoped by exil- 
ing them to get rid of Byron, whose position 
as an English nobleman made it difficult to 
reach him directly for his suspected relations 
with the Carbonari. The countess helped, per- 
haps was intentionally worked upon, to dis- 
lodge him. Her husband requested that she 
should be forced to return to him or placed 

L2 



Byron 



148 



Byron 



in a convent. Frightened by the threat, she 
escaped to her father and brother in Florence. 
A quarrel in which a servant of Byron's 
proposed to stiletto an officer made his rela- 
tions with the authorities very unpleasant. 
The poor of Ravenna petitioned that the 
charitable Englishman might be asked to re- 
main, and only increased the suspicions of 
the government. Byron fell into one of his 
usual states of indecision. Shelley, at his 
request, came from Pisa to consult, and re- 
ports him greatly improved in health and 
morals. He found Byron occupying splen- 
did apartments in the palace of Count Guic- 
cioli. Byron had now, he says, an income 
of 4,000/. a year, and devoted 1,OOOJ. to 
charity (the context seems to disprove the 
variant reading 100/.), an expenditure suffi- 
cient to explain the feeling at Ravenna 
mentioned by Mme. Guiccioli. Shelley, by 
Byron's desire, wrote to the countess, ad- 
vising her against Switzerland. In reply 
she begged Shelley not to leave Ravenna 
without Byron, and Byron begged him to 
stay and protect him from a relapse into his 
old habits. Byron lingered at Ravenna till 

29 Oct., still hoping, it seems, for a recall of 
the Gambas. At last he got in motion, with 
many sad forebodings, and preceded by his 
family of monkeys, dogs, cats, and peahens. 
He met Lord Clare on the way to Bologna, 
and accompanied Rogers from Bologna. 
Rogers duly celebrated the meeting in his 
poem on Italy ; but Trelawny (i. 50) tells 
how Byron grinned sardonically when he 
saw Rogers seated upon a cushion under 
which was concealed a bitter satire written 
by Byron upon Rogers himself (it was 
afterwards published in ' Fraser,' January 
1833). Byron settled in the Casa Lanfran- 
chi at Pisa, an old ghost-haunted palace, 
which Trelawny contrasted with the cheer- 
ful and hospitable abode of the Shelleys (i. 
85). The Gambas occupied part of the same 
palace (HUNT, Byron, i. 23). Byron again 
saw some English society. A silly Irishman 
named Taaffe, author of a translation of Dante, 
for which Byron tried to find a publisher, 
with Medwin, Trelawny, Shelley, and Wil- 
liams, were his chief associates. Medwin, of 
the 24th light dragoons, was at Pisa from 

30 Nov. 1821 till 15 March 1822, and again 
for a few days in August. Trelawny, who 
reached Pisa early in 1822, and was after- 
wards in constant intercourse with Byron, 
was the keenest observer who has described 
him. Trelawny insists upon his own supe- 
riority in swimming, and regards Byron as 
an effeminate pretender to masculine quali- 
ties. Byron turned his worst side to such 
a man; yet Trelawny admits his genuine 



courage and can do justice to his better quali- 
ties. 

Mme. Guiccioli had withdrawn her prohi- 
bition of ' Don Juan ' on promise of better 
behaviour (Letter 500). On 8 Aug. 1822 
he has finished three more cantos and is 
beginning another. Meanwhile ' Cain ' (pub- 
lished December 1821) had produced hostile 
reviews and attacks. Scott had cordially 
accepted the dedication. Moore's timid re- 
monstrances showed the set of public opinion. 
When Murray applied for an injunction to 
protect his property against threatened pi- 
racy, Eldon refused ; holding (9 Feb. 1822) 
that the presumption was not in favour of 
the innocent character of the book. Murray 
had several manuscripts of Byron in hand, 
including the famous ' Vision of Judgment;' 
and this experience increased his caution. 
Byron began to think of a plan, already sug- 
gested to Moore in 1820, of starting a weekly 
newspaper with a revolutionary title, such 
as ' I Carbonari.' In Shelley's society this 
plan took a new shape. It was proposed to 
get Leigh Hunt for an editor. In 1813 Byron 
had visited Hunt when imprisoned for a libel 
on the prince regent. Hunt had taken 
Byron's part in the 'Examiner' in 1816, and 
had dedicated to him the ' Story of Rimini.' 
Shelley and Byron now agreed (in spite of 
Moore's remonstrances against association 
with ill-bred cockneys) to bring Leigh Hunt 
to Italy. They assumed that Hunt would 
retain his connection with the ' Examiner,' 
of which his brother John was proprietor (see 
TEELAWNT, ii. 53). Hunt threw up this 
position without their knowledge, and started 
for Italy with his wife and six children. 
Shelley explained to Hunt (26 Aug. 1821) 
that he was himself to be 'only a sort of 
link,' neither partner nor sharer in the profits. 
He sent 150/., to which Byron, taking Shel- 
ley's security, added 200/. to pay Hunt's 
expenses. Hunt reproaches Byron as being 
moved solely by an expectation of large 
profits (not in itself an immoral motiA^e). 
The desire to have an organ under his own 
command, with all consequent advantages, 
is easily intelligible. When Hunt landed at 
Leghorn at the end of June 1822, Byron 
and Shelley found themselves saddled with 
the whole Hunt family, to be supported by 
the hypothetical profits of the new journal, 
while Hunt asserted and acted upon the 
doctrine that he was under no disgrace in 
accepting money obligations. Hunt took up 
his abode on the ground-floor of the palace. 
His children, says Trelawny, were untamed, 
while Hunt considers that they behaved 
admirably and were in danger of corruption 
from Byron. Trelawny describes Byron as 



Byron 



149 



Byron 



disgusted at the very start and declaring 
that the journal would be an ' abortion.' 
His reception of Mrs. Hunt, according to 
Williams, was ' shameful.' Mrs. Hunt natu- 
rally retorted the dislike, and Hunt reported 
one of her sharp sayings to Byron, in order, 
as he says, to mortify him. No men could 
be less congenial. Byron's aristocratic lofti- 
ness encountered a temper forward to take 
offence at any presumption of inequality. 
Byron had provided Hunt with lodgings, 
furnished them decently, and doled out to 
him about 100/. through his steward, a pro- 
ceeding which irritated Hunt, who loved a 
cheerful giver. Shelley's death (8 July) left 
the two men face to face in this uncomfortable 
relation. 

The ' Liberal,' so named by Byron, survived 
through four numbers. It made a moderate 
profit, which Byron abandoned to Hunt 
(HUNT, i. 87, ii. 412), but he was disgusted 
from the outset, and put no heart into the 
experiment. He told his friends, and pro- 
bably persuaded himself, that he had engaged 
in the journal out of kindness to the Hunts, 
and to help a friend of Shelley's ; and takes 
credit for feeling that he could not turn the 
Hunts into the street. His chief contribu- 
tions, the ' Vision of Judgment' and the letter 
H To my Grandmother's Review,' appeared in 
the first number, to the general scandal. 
' Heaven and Earth ' appeared in the second 
number, the ' Blues ' in the third, the ' Mor- 
gante Maggiore ' in the fourth, and a few epi- 
grams were added. Hunt and Hazlitt, who 
wrote five papers {Memoirs of Hazlitt, ii. 73), 
did most of the remainder, which, however, 
had clearly not the seeds of life in it. The 
' Vision of Judgment ' was the hardest blow 
struck in a prolonged and bitter warfare. 
Byron had met Southey, indeed, at Holland 
House in 1813, and speaks favourably of him, 
calls his prose perfect, and professes to envy 
his personal beauty (Diary, 22 Nov. 1813). 
His belief that Southey had spread scandalous 
stories about the Swiss party in 1816 gave 
special edge to his revived antipathy. In 
1818 he dedicated 'Don Juan' to Southey in 
' good simple savage verse ' (Letter 322), 
bitterly taunting the poet as a venal renegade. 
In 1821 Southey published his ' Vision of 
Judgment,' an apotheosis of George III, of gro- 
tesque (though most unintentional) profanity. 
In the preface he alludes to Byron as leader 
of the ' Satanic school.' Byron in return de- 
nounced Southey's ' calumnies ' and ' cowardly 
ferocity.' Southey retorted in the ' Courier ' 
(11 Jan. 1822), boasting that he had fastened 
Byron's name ' upon the gibbet for reproach 
and ignominy, so long as it shall endure.' 
Medwin (p. 179) describes Byron's fury on 



reading these courtesies. He instantly sent 
off a challenge in a letter (6 Feb. 1822) to 
Douglas Kinnaird, who had the sense to 
suppress it. His own ' Vision of Judgment,' 
written by 1 Oct. 1821, was already in the 
hands of Murray, now troubled by ' Cain.' 
Byron now swore that it should be published, 
and it was finally transferred by Murray to 
Hunt, 

Byron meanwhile had been uprooted from 
Pisa. A silly squabble took place in the 
street (21 March 1822), in which Byron's 
servant stabbed an hussar (see depositions in 
MEDWIN). Byron spent some weeks in the 
summer at Monte Nero, near Leghorn (where 
he and Mme. Guiccioli sat to the American 
painter West), and returned to Pisa in July. 
About the same time the Gambas were ordered 
to leave Tuscan territory. Byron's stay at 
Pisa had been marked by the death of Allegra 
(20 April) and of Shelley (8 July). Details 
of the ghastly ceremony of burning the bodies 
of Williams and Shelley (15 and 16 Aug.) 
are given by Trelawny, with characteristic 
details of Byron's emotion and hysterical 
affectation of levity. Shelley, who exagge- 
rated Byron's poetical merits (see his enthu- 
siastic eulogy of the fifth canto of ' Don Juan ' 
on his visit to Pisa), was kept at a certain 
distance by his perception of Byron's baser 
qualities. Byron had always respected Shelley 
as a man of simple, lofty, and unworldly cha- 
racter, and as undeniably a gentleman by birth 
and breeding. Shelley, according to Tre- 
lawny (i. 80), was the only man to whom 
Byron talked seriously and confidentially. 
He told Moore that Shelley was ' the least 
selfish and the mildest of men,' and added to 
Murray that he was ' as perfect a gentleman 
as ever crossed a drawing-room ' (Letters 482 
and 506). He was, however, capable of be- 
lieving and communicating to Hoppner scan- 
dalous stories about the Shelleys and Claire, 
and of meanly suppressing Mrs. Shelley's 
confutation of the story (see Mr. Froude in 
Nineteenth Century, August 1883 ; and Mr. 
Jeaffreson's reply in the Athen&um, 1 and 
22 Sept. 1883). 

Trelawny had stimulated the nautical 
tastes of Byron and Shelley. Captain Ro- 
berts, a naval friend of his at Genoa, built an 
open boat for Shelley, and a schooner, called 
the Bolivar, for Byron. Trelawny manned 
her with five sailors and brought her round 
to Leghorn. Byron was annoyed by the 
cost ; knew nothing, says Trelawny, of the 
sea, and could never be induced to take a 
cruise in her. When Byron left Pisa, after 
a terrible hubbub of moving his household 
and his baggage, Trelawny sailed in the 
Bolivar, Byron's servants following in one 

I 



Byron 



Byron - 



felucca, the Hunts in another, Byron travel- 
ling by land. They met at Lerici. Byron 
with Trelawny swam out to the Bolivar, 
three miles, and back. The effort cost him 
four days' illness. On his recovery he went 
to Genoa and settled in the Casa Salucci 
at Albaro ; the Gambas occupying part of 
the same house. Trelawny laid up the Boli- 
var, afterwards sold to Lord Blessington for 
four hundred guineas (TRELAWNY, i. 62), and 
early next year went off on a ramble to Rome. 
Lord and Lady Blessington, with Count 
d'Orsay, soon afterwards arrived at Genoa ; 
and Lady Blessington has recorded her con- 
versations with Byron. His talk with her was 
chiefly sentimental monologue about himself . 
Trelawny says that he was a spoilt child ; 
the nickname ' Baby Byron ' (given to him, 
says HUNT, i. 139, by Mrs. Leigh) ' fitted him 
to a T ' (TRELAWNY, i. 56). His wayward- 
ness, his strange incontinence of speech, his 
outbursts of passion, his sensitiveness to all 
that was said of him come out vividly in these 
reports. 

His health was clearly enfeebled. Resi- 
dence in the swampy regions of Venice and 
Ravenna had increased his liability to malaria 
(see Letter 311). His restlessness and in- 
decision grew upon him. His passion for 
Madame Guiccioli had never blinded him to 
its probable dangers for both. This experience 
had made him sceptical as to the durability 
of his passions ; especially for a girl not yet 
of age, and of no marked force of intellect 
or character. Hunt speaks of a growing 
coldness, which affected her spirits and which 
she injudiciously resented. Byron's language 
to Lady Blessington (BLESSINGTON, pp. 68 and 
117) shows that the bonds were acknow- 
ledged but no longer cherished. He talked 
of returning to England, of settling in Ame- 
rica, of buying a Greek island, of imitating 
Lady Hester Stanhope. He desired to restore 
his self-esteem, wounded by the failure of the 
' Liberal.' He had long before (28 Feb. 1817) 
told Moore that if he lived ten years longer 
he would yet do something, and declared that 
he did not think literature his vocation. He 
still hoped to show himself a man of action 
instead of a mere dreamer and dawdler. The 
Greek committee was formed in London in 
the spring of 1823, and Trelawny wrote to 
one of the members, Blaquiere, suggesting 
Byron's name. Blaquiere was soon visiting 
Greece for information, and called upon Byron 
in his way. The committee had unanimously 
elected him a member. Byron was flattered 
and accepted. His old interest in Greece in- 
creased his satisfaction at a proposal which 
fell in with his mood. He at once told the 
committee (12 May) that his first wish was 



to go to the Levant. Though the scheme gave 
Byron an aim and excited his imagination, 
he still hesitated, and with reason. Weak 
health and military inexperience were bad 
qualifications for the leader of a revolt. Cap- 
tain Roberts conveyed messages and counter 
messages from Byron to Trelawny for a time. 
At last (22 June 1823) Trelawny heard 
from Byron, who had engaged a ' collier-built 
tub' of 120 tons, called the Hercules, for 
his expedition and summoned Trelawny's 
help. Byron had taken leave of the Bles- 
singtons with farewell presents, forebodings, 
and a burst of tears. He took 10,000 crowns 
in specie, 40,000 in bills, and a large supply 
of medicine; Trelawny, young Gamba, Bruno, 
an ' unfledged medical student,' and several 
servants, including Fletcher. He had pre- 
pared three helmets with his crest, ' Crede 
Byron,' for Trelawny, Gamba, and himself; 
and afterwards begged from Trelawny a negro 
servant and a smart military jacket. They 
sailed from Genoa on Tuesday, 15 July ; a 
gale forced them to return and repair damages. 
They stayed two days at Leghorn, and were 
joined by Mr. Hamilton Browne. Here, too, 
Byron received a copy of verses from Goethe, 
who had inserted a complimentary notice of 
Byron in the ' Kunst und Alterthum,' and 
to whom Byron had dedicated ' Werner.' By 
Browne's advice they sailed for Cephalonia, 
where Sir C. J. Napier was in command and 
known to sympathise with the Greeks. Tre- 
lawny says that he was never ' on shipboard 
with a better companion.' Byron's spirits 
revived at sea ; he was full of fun and prac- 
tical jokes ; read Scott, Swift, Grimm, Roche- 
foucauld ; chatted pleasantly, and talked of 
describing Stromboli in a fifth canto of 
' Childe Harold.' On 2 Aug. they sighted 
Cephalonia. They found that Napier was 
away, and that Blaquiere had left for Eng- 
land. Byron began to fancy that he had 
been used as a decoy, and declared that he 
must see his way plainly before moving. 
Napier soon returned, and the party was 
warmly received by the residents. Informa- 
tion from Greece was scarce and doubtful. 
Trelawny resolved to start with Browne, 
knowing, he says, that Byron, once on shore, 
would again become dawdling and shilly- 
shallying. Byron settled at a village called 
Metaxata, near Argostoli, and remained there 
till 27 Dec. 

Byron's nerve was evidently shaken. 'He 
showed a strange irritability and nervous- 
ness (TRELAWNY, ii. 116). He wished to hear 
of some . agreement among the divided and 
factious Greek chiefs before trusting himself 
among them. The Cephalonian Greeks, ac- 
cording to Trelawny, favoured the election 



Byron 



of a foreign king, and Trelawny thought 
that Byron was really impressed by the possi- 
bility of receiving a crown. Byron hinted 
to Parry afterwards of great offers which 
had been made to him. Fancies of this kind 
may have passed through his mind. Yet his 
general judgment of the situation was re- 
markable for its strong sense. His cynical 
tendencies at least kept him free from the 
enthusiasts' illusions, and did not damp his 
zeal. 

In Cephalonia Byron had some conversa- 
tions upon religious topics with Dr. Kennedy, 
physician of the garrison. Kennedy reported 
them in a book, in which he unfortunately 
thought more of expounding his argument 
than of reporting Byron. Byron had, in fact, 
no settled views. His heterodoxy did not rest 
upon reasoning, but upon sentiment. He 
was curiously superstitious through life, and 
seems to have preferred Catholicism to other 
religions. Lady Byron told Crabb Robinson 
(5 March 1855) that Byron had been made 
miserable by the gloomy Calvinism from 
which, she said, he had never freed himself. 
Some passages in his letters, and the early 
' Prayer to Nature ' an imitation of Pope s 
' Universal Prayer ' seem to imply a revolt 
from the doctrines to which Lady Byron re- 
ferred. ' Cain,' his most serious utterance, 
clearly favours the view that the orthodox 
theology gave a repulsive or a nugatory an- 
swer to the great problems. But, in truth, 
Byron's scepticism was part of his quarrel 
with cant. He hated the religious dogma as 
he hated the political creed and the social 
system of the respectable world. He dis- 
avowed sympathy with Shelley's opinions, 
and probably never gave a thought to the 
philosophy in which Shelley was interested. 

Trelawny was now with Odysseus and the 
chiefs of Eastern Greece. Prince Mavro- 
cordato, the most prominent of the Western 
Greeks, had at last occupied Missolonghi. 
Byron sent Colonel Stanhope (afterwards 
Lord Harrington), a representative of the 
Greek committee, with a letter to Mavrocor- 
dato and another to the general government 
(2 Dec. and 30 Nov. 1823), insisting upon 
the necessity of union ; and on 28 Dec. sailed 
himself, on the entreaty of Mavrocordato 
and Stanhope. The voyage was hazardous. 
Gamba's ship was actually seized by a Turkish 
man-of-war, and he owed his release to the 
lucky accident that his captain had once saved 
the Turkish captain's life. Byron, in a ' mis- 
tico,' took shelter under some rocks called the 
Scrophes. Thence, with some gunboats sent 
to their aid, they reached Missolonghi, in 
spite of a gale, in which Byron showed great 
coolness. Byron was heartily welcomed. 



; i Byron 

Mavrocordato was elected governor-general. 
Attempts were made to organise troops. 
Byron took into his pay a body of five hundred 
disorderly Suliotes. He met thickening diffi- 
culties with unexpected temper, firmness, and 
judgment. Demands for money came from 
all sides ; Byron told Parry that he had been 
asked for fifty thousand dollars in a day. He 
raised sums on his own credit, and urged the 
Greek committee to provide a loan. His in- 
dignation when Gamba spent too much upon 
some red cloth was a comic exhibition of his 
usual economy hardly unreasonable under 
the circumstances. His first object was an 
expedition against Lepanto, held, it was said, 
by a weak garrison ready to come over. At 
the end of January he was named com- 
mander-in-chief. His wild troops were ut- 
terly unprovided with the stores required for 
an assault. The Greek committee had sent 
two mountain guns, with ammunition, and 
some English artisans under William Parry, 
a ' rough burly fellow ' (TRELAWNY, ii. 149), 
who had been a clerk at Woolwich. Parry 
after a long voyage reached Missolonghi on 
5 Feb. 1824. In the book to which he gave 
his name, and for which he supplied materials, 
he professes to have received Byron's confi- 
dence. Byron called him ' old boy,' laughed 
at his sea slang, his ridiculous accounts of 
Bentham (one of the Greek committee), and 
played practical jokes upon him. Parry 
landed his stores, set his artisans to work, 
and gave himself military airs. The Suliotes 
became mutinous. They demanded commis- 
sions, says Gamba, for 150 out of three or four 
hundred men. Byron, disgusted, threatened 
to discharge them all, and next day, 15 Feb., 
they submitted. The same day Byron was 
seized with an alarming fit the doctors dis- 
puted whether epileptic or apoplectic; but 
in any case so severe that Byron said he 
should have died in another minute. Half 
an hour later a false report was brought that 
the Suliotes were rising to seize the magazine. 
Next day, while Byron was still suffering from 
the disease and the leeches applied by the 
doctors, who could hardly stop the bleeding, 
a tumultuous mob of Suliotes broke into his 
room. Stanhope says that the courage with 
which he awed the mutineers was ' truly 
sublime.' On the 17th a Turkish brig came 
ashore, and was burned by the Turks after 
Byron had prepared an attack. On the 19th 
a quarrel arose between the Suliotes and the 
guards of the arsenal, and a Swedish officer, 
Sasse, was killed. The English artificers, 
alarmed at discovering that shooting was, as 
Byron says, a ' part of housekeeping' in these 
parts, insisted on leaving for peaceable re- 
gions. The Suliotes became intolerable, and 



Byron 



152 



Byron 



were induced to leave the town on receiving 
a month's wages from Byron, and part of 
their arrears from government. All hopes of 
an expedition to Lepanto vanished. 

Parry had brought a printing-press, though 
he had not brought some greatly desired 
rockets. Stanhope, an ardent disciple of 
Bentham's, started a newspaper, and talked 
of Lancasterian schools, and other civilising 
apparatus, including a converted blacksmith 
with a cargo of tracts. Byron had many 
discussions with him. Stanhope produced 
Bentham's ' Springs of Action' as a new pub- 
lication, when Byron ' stamped with his lame 
foot,' and said that he did not require lessons 
upon that subject. Though Trelawny says 
that Stanhope's free press was of eminent ser- 
vice, Byron may be pardoned for thinking 
that the Greeks should be freed from the 
Turks first, and converted to Benthamism 
afterwards. He was annoyed by articles in the 
paper, which advocated revolutionary prin- 
ciples and a rising in Hungary, thinking that 
an alienation of the European powers would 
destroy the best chance of the Greeks ( To 
Barff, 10 March 1824). He hoped, he said, 
that the writers' brigade would be ready be- 
fore the soldiers' press. The discussions, how- 
ever, were mutually respectful, and Byron 
ended a talk by saying to Stanhope, ' Give 
me that honest right hand,' and begging to 
be judged by his actions, not by his words. 

Other plans were now discussed. Stan- 
hope left for Athens at the end of February. 
Odysseus, with whom was Trelawny, pro- 
posed a conference with Mavrocordato and 
Byron at Salona. Byron wrote agreeing to 
this proposal 19 March. He had declined to 
answer an offer of the general government to 
appoint him ' governor-general of Greece ' until 
the meeting should be over. The prospects 
of the loan were now favourable. Byron was 
trying, with Parry's help, to fortify Misso- 
longhi and get together some kind of force. 
His friends were beginning to be anxious 
about the effects of the place on his health. 
Barff offered him a country-house in Cepha- 
lonia. Byron replied that he felt bound to 
stay while he could. ' There is a stake worth 
millions such as I am.' Missolonghi, with 
its swamps, meanwhile, was a mere fever- 
trap. The mud, says Gamba, was so deep in 
the gateway that an unopposed enemy would 
have found entrance difficult. Byron's de- 
parture was hindered by excessive rains. He 
starved himself as usual. Moore says that he 
measured himself round the wrist and waist 
almost daily, and took a strong dose if he 
thought his size increasing. He rode out when 
he could with his body-guard of fifty or sixty 
Suliotes, but complained of frequent weak- 



ness and dizziness. Parry in vain commended 
his panacea, brandy. Trelawny had started 
in April with a letter from Stanhope, en- 
treating him to leave Missolonghi and not 
sacrifice his health, and perhaps his life, in 
that bog. 

Byron produced his last poem on the morn- 
ing of his birthday, in which the hero is 
struggling to cast off the dandy with partial 
success. He had tried to set an example of 
generous treatment of an enemy by freeing 
some Turkish prisoners at Missolonghi. A 
lively little girl called Hato or Hatage, who 
was amongst them, wished to stay with him, 
and he resolved to adopt her. A letter from 
Mrs. Leigh, found by Trelawny among his 
papers, contained a transcript from a letter 
of Lady Byron's to her with an account of 
Ada's health. An unfinished reply from By- 
ron (23 Feb. 1824) asked whether Lady Byron 
would permit Hatagee to become a companion 
to Ada. Lady Byron, he adds, should be 
warned of Ada's resemblance to himself in 
his infancy, and he suggests that the epilepsy 
may be hereditary. He afterwards decided 
to send Hatagee for the time to Dr. Kennedy. 
On 9 April he received news of Mrs. Leigh's 
recovery from an illness and good accounts 
of Ada. On the same day he rode out with 
Gamba, was caught in the rain, insisted upon 
returning in an open boat, and was seized 
with a shivering fit. His predisposition to 
malaria, aided by his strange system of diet, 
had produced the result anticipated by Stan- 
hope. He rode out next day, but the fever 
continued. The doctors had no idea beyond 
bleeding, to which he submitted with great 
reluctance, and Parry could only suggest 
brandy. The attendants were ignorant of 
each other's language, and seem to have lost 
their heads. On the 18th he was delirious. 
At intervals he was conscious and tried to 
say something to Fletcher about his sister, 
his wife, and daughter. A strong ' antispas- 
modic potion ' was given to him in the even- 
ing. About six he said, 'Now I shall go 
to sleep,' and fell into a slumber which, after 
twenty-four hours, ended in death on the 
evening of 19 April. Trelawny arrived on 
the 24th or 25th, having heard of the death 
on his journey. He entered the room where 
the corpse was lying, and, sending Fletcher 
for a glass of water, uncovered the feet. On 
Fletcher's return he wrote upon paper, spread 
on the coffin, the servant's account of his 
master's last illness. 

Byron's body was sent home to England, 
and after lying in state for two days was 
buried at Hucknall Torkard (see Edinburgh 
Review for April 1871 for Hobhouse's account 
of the funeral). The funeral procession was 



Byron 



153 



Byron 



accidentally met by Lady Caroline Lamb and 
her ' husband. She fainted on being made 
aware that it was Byron's. Her mind became 
more affected; she was separated from her 
husband ; and died 26 Jan. 1828, generously 
cared for by him to the last. (For Lady 
Caroline Lamb see LADY MORGAN, Memoirs, 
i. 200-14 ; Annual Obituary for 1828 ; Mr. 
TOWNSHEND MAYER in Temple Bar for June 
1868; Lord LYTTON, Memoirs, vol. i. ; PAUL, 
Life of Godwin, vol. ii.) 

Lady Byron afterwards led a retired life. 
Her daughter Ada was married to the Earl of 
Lovelace 8 July 1835, and died 29 Nov. 1852. 
She is said to have been a good mathematician. 
A portrait of her is in Bentley's 'Miscellany' 
for 1853. Lady Byron settled ultimately at 
Brighton, where she became a warm admirer 
and friend of F. W. Robertson. She took an 
interest in the religious questions of the day, 
and spent a large part of her income in charity. 
Miss Martineau (Biographical Sketches, 1868) 
speaks of her with warm respect, and some 
of her letters will be found in Crabb Robin- 
son's diary. Others (see HOWITT'S letter in 
Daily News, 4 Sept. 1869) thought her pe- 
dantic and over strict. She died 16 May 
1860. Mme. Guiccioli returned to her hus- 
band ; she married the Marquis de Boissy in 
1851 and died at Florence in March 1873. 

The following appears to be a full list of 
original portraits of Byron (for fuller details 
see article by Mr. R. EDGCTJMBE and Mr. A. 
GRAVES in Notes and Queries, 6th series, vi. 
422, 472, vii. 269). Names of proprietors 
added : 1. Miniature by Kaye at the age of 
seven. 2. Full-length in oils by Sanders ; en- 
graved in standard edition of Moore's life 
(Lady Dorchester). 3. Miniature by same 
from the preceding (engraving destroyed at 
Byron's request). 4. Half-length by Westall, 
1814 (Lady Burdett-Coutts). 5. Half-length 
by T. Phillips, 1814 (Mr. Murray) ; engraved 
by Agar, R. Graves, Lupton, Mote, Warren, 
Edwards, and C. Armstrong. 6. Miniature 
by Holmes, 1815 (Mr. A. Morrison) ; en- 
graved by R. Graves, Ryall, and H. Meyer. 
7. Bust in marble by Thorwaldsen, 1816 
(Lady Dorchester) ; replicas at Milan and 
elsewhere. 8. Half-length by Harlowe, 
1817 ; engraved by H. Meyer, Holl, and 
Scriven. 9. Miniature by Prepiani, 1817, and 
another by the same ; given to Mrs. Leigh. 
10. Miniature in water-colours of Byron in 
college robes by Gilchrist about 1807-8 ; at 
Newstead. 1 1 . Half-length in Albanian dress 
by T. Phillips, R. A. (Lord Lovelace) ; replica 
in National Portrait Gallery; engraved by 
Finden. 12. Pencil Sketch by G. Cattermole 
from memory (Mr. Toone). 13. Medallion 
by A. Stothard. 14. Bust by Bartolini, 1822 



(Lord Malmesbury) ; lithographed by Fro- 
mentin. 15. Half-length by West (Mr. 
Horace Kent) ; engraved by C. Turner, En- 
gleheart, and Robinson. 16. Three sketches 
by Count d'Orsay, 1823 ; one at South Ken- 
sington. 17. Statue by Thorwaldsen, finished 
1834. This statue was ordered from Thor- 
waldsen in 1829 by Hobhouse in the name of 
a committee. Thorwaldsen produced it for 
1,OOOZ. It was refused by Dean Ireland for 
Westminster Abbey, and lay in the custom- 
house vaults till 1842, when it was again re- 
fused by Dean Tinton. In 1843 Whewell, 
having j ust become master of Trinity, accepted 
it for the college, and it was placed in the 
library (Correspondence in Notes and Queries, 
6th ser. iv. 421). 18. A silhouette cut in 
paper by Mrs. Leigh Hunt is prefixed to 
' Byron and some of his Contemporaries.' 

Byron's works appeared as follows : 
1. ' Hours of Idleness ' (see above for a notice 
of first editions). 2. ' English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers ' (Cawthorne) (for full de- 
tails of editions see Notes and Queries, 5th. 
ser. vii. 145, 204, 296, 355). 3. ' Imitations 
and Translations, together with original poems 
never before published, collected by J. C. Hob- 
house, Trinity College, Cambridge' (1809) 
(contains nine poems by Byron, reprinted in 
works, among ' occasional pieces,' 1807-8 and 
1808-10). 4. ' Childe Harold, a Romaunt,' 
4to, 1812 (an appendix of twenty poems, 
including those during his travels and those 
addressed to Thyrza). 5. ' The Curse of Mi- 
nerva' (anonymous; privately printed in a 
thin quarto in 1812 (Lowndes) ; at Phila- 
delphia in 1815, 8vo; Paris (Galignani),12mo, 
1818 ; and imperfect copies in Hone's ' Do- 
mestic Poems ' and in later collections). 
6. ' The Waltz ' (anonymous), 1813 (again in 
Works, 1824). 7. ' The Giaour, a Fragment 
of a Turkish Tale,' 1813, 8vo. 8. ' The Bride 
of Abydos, a Turkish Tale,' 1813, 8vo. 9. ' The 
Corsair, a Tale,' 1814, 8vo (to this were added 
the lines, ' Weep, daughter of a royal line,' 
omitted in some copies (see Letters of 22 Jan. 
and 10 Feb. 1814). 10. 'Ode to Napoleon Buo- 
naparte ' (anonymous), 8vo, 1814. 11. ' Lara, 
a Tale,' 1814, 8vo (originally published with 
Rogers's ' Jacqueline '). 12. ' Hebrew Melo- 
dies,' 1815 (lines on Sir Peter Parker ap- 
pended); also with music by Braham and 
Nathan in folio. 13. Siege of Corinth,' 1816, 
8vo. 14. 'Parisina,' 1816, 8vo (this and 
the last together in second edition, 1816). 
15. ' Poems by Lord Byron ' (Murray), 1816, 
8vo (' When all around,' ' Bright be the place 
of thy soul,' ' When we two parted,' ' There's 
not a joy,' ' There be none of beauty's daugh- 
ters,' ' Fare thee well ; ' poems from the 
French and lines to Rogers). The original 



Byron 



154 



Byron 



of ' Bright be the place of thy soul,' by Lady 
Byron, corrected by Lord Byron, is in the 
Morrison MSS. 16. ' Poems on his Domes- 
tic Circumstances by Lord Byron,' Hone, 
1816 (includes a ' Sketch,' and in later edi- 
tions a ' Farewell to Malta ' and ' Curse of Mi- 
nerva ' (mutilated) ; a twenty-third edition in 
1817. It also includes ' Shame to thee, Land 
of the Gaul,' and ' Mme. Lavalette,' which, 
with an ' Ode to St. Helena,' ' Farewell to 
England,' ' On his Daughter's Birthday,' and 
' The Lily of France,' are disowned by Byron 
in letter to Murray 22 July 1816, but are re- 
printed in some later unauthorised editions. 

17. ' Prisoner of Chillon, and other Poems,' 
1816, 8vo (sonnet to Lake Leman, ' Though 
the day of my destiny's over/ 'Darkness,' 
' Churchill's Grave,' the ' Dream,' the ' In- 
cantation' (from Manfred), 'Prometheus'). 

18. ' Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,' canto iii., 
1816, 8vo. 19. 'Monody on the Death of 
Sheridan '(anonymous), 1816, 8vo. 20. 'Man- 
fred, a Dramatic Poem,' 1817, 8vo. 21. ' The 
Lament of Tasso,' 8vo, 1817. 22. 'Childe 
Harold's Pilgrimage,' canto iv., 1818 (the 
Alhama ballad and sonnet from Vittorelli 
appended). 23. ' Beppo, a Venetian Story' 
(anonymous in early editions), 1818, 8vo. 
24. ' Suppressed Poems ' (Galignani), 1818, 
8vo (' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' 
' Land of the Gaul,' ' Windsor Poetics, a 
Sketch'). 25. Three Poems not included 
in the works of Lord Byron (Effingham 
"Wilson), 1818, 8vo ('Lines to Lady 
J[ersey] ; ' ' Enigma on H.,' often erroneously 
attributed to Byron, really by Miss Fan- 
shawe ; ' Curse of Minerva,' fragmentary). 
26. ' Mazeppa,' 1819 (fragment of the ' Vam- 
pire' novel appended). 27. ' Marino Faliero,' 
1820. 28. ' The Prophecy of Dante,' 1821 
(with ' Marino Faliero '), 8vo. 29. ' Sarda- 
napalus, a Tragedy ; ' ' The Two Foscari, a 
Tragedy ; ' ' Cain, a Mystery ' (in one volume, 
8vo), 1821. 30. ' Letter ... on the Rev. 
"W. L. Bowles's Strictures on Pope,' 1821. 
31. 'Werner, a Tragedy' (J. Hunt), 1822, 
8vo. 32. ' The Liberal ' (J. Hunt), 1823, 8vo 
(No. I. ' Vision of Judgment,' ' Letter to the 
Editor of my Grandmother's Review,' ' Epi- 
grams on Castlereagh.' No. II. ' Heaven and 
Earth.' No. III. 'The Blues.' No. IV. 'Mor- 
gante Maggiore '). 33. ' The Age of Bronze ' 
(anonymous) (J. Hunt), 1823, 8vo. 34. ' The 
Island ' (J. Hunt), 1823, 8vo. 35. ' The De- 
formed Transformed' (J. & H. L. Hunt), 
1824, 8vo. 36. 'Don Juan' (cantos i. and 
ii. ' printed by Thomas Davison,' 4to, 1819 ; 
cantos iii., iv., and v. (Davison), 8vo, 1821 ; 
cantos vi., vii., and viii. (for Hunt & 
Clarke), 8vo, 1823 ; cantos ix., x., and xi. 
(for John Hunt), 8vo, 1823; cantos xii., 



xiii., and xiv. (John Hunt), 8vo, 1823 ; 
cantos xv. and xvi. (John & H. L. Hunt), 
8vo, 1824), all anonymous. A 17th canto 
(1829) is not by Byron ; and ' twenty sup- 
pressed stanzas ' (1838) are also spurious. 

Murray published from 1815 to 1817 a 
collective edition of works up to those dates 
in eight volumes 12mo ; other collective edi- 
tions in five volumes 16mo, 1817 ; and an 
edition in eight volumes 16mo, 1818-20. 
In 1824 was published an 8vo volume by 
Knight &' Lacy, called vol. v. of Lord 
Byron's works, including ' Hours of Idle- 
ness,' ' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' 
the ' Waltz,' and various minor poems, several 
of the spurious poems mentioned under Hone's 
domestic pieces, and ' To Jessy,' a copy of 
which is in Egerton MS. 2332, as sent to 
' Literary Recreations.' In 1824 and 1825 
the Hunts also published two volumes uni- 
form with the above and called vols. vi. and 
vii. of Lord Byron's works, including the 
poems (except 'Don Juan') published by 
them separately as above, and in ' The Libe- 
ral.' In 1828 Murray published an edition 
of the works in four volumes 12mo. Uni- 
form with this were published two volumes 
by J. F. Dove, including ' Don Juan ' (the 
whole) and the various pieces in Knight & 
Lacy's volume, with ' Lines to Lady Caroline 
Lamb,' ' On my Thirty-sixth Birthday,' and 
the lines ' And wilt thou weep ? ' 

There are various French collections : in 
1825 Baudry & Amyot published an 8vo 
edition in seven volumes at Paris, with a 
life by J. W. Lake, including all the recog- 
nised poems, the letter to Bowles, and the 
parliamentary speeches (separately printed 
in London in 1824). Galignani published 
one-volume 8vo editions hi 1828 (with life 
by Lake), in 1831 (same life abridged), and 
1835 (with life by Henry Lytton Bulwer, 
M.P.) To the edition of 1828 were appended 
twenty-one ' attributed poems,' including' Re- 
member thee, remember thee,' the ' Triumph 
of the Whale' (by Charles Lamb, GRABS 
ROBINSON, Diary (1872), i. 175), and ' Re- 
mind me not, remind me not.' Most of these 
were omitted in the edition of 1831, which 
included (now first printed) the ' Hints from 
Horace,' of which fragments are given in 
Moore's ' Life ' (1830). 

The collected ' Life and Works ' published 
by Murray (1832-5), 8vo, includes all the 
recognised poems, and adds to the foregoing 
works a few 'published for the first time' 
(including the second letter to Bowles, and 
the ' Observations on Observations '), and 
several poems which had appeared in other 
works : ' River that rollest,' &c., from Medwin 
(1824) ; 'Verses on his Thirty-sixth Birthday,' 



Byron 



155 



Byron 



from Gamba (1824) ; ' And thou wert sad 'and 
' Could love for ever/ from Lady Blessing- 
ton ; ' I speak not, I wail not ; ' ' In the 
valley of waters ; ' ' They say that hope is 
happiness,' from Nathan's ' Fugitive Pieces,' 
&c. (1829); 'To my son,' 'Epistle to a 
friend,' ' My sister, my sweet sister,' ' Could 
I lament,' the ' Devil's Drive,' and many trifles 
from Moore's 'Life' (1830). This edition, 
which has been reprinted in the same form 
and in one volume royal 8vo, is the most 
convenient. 

[Moore had sold the Memoirs given to him by 
Byron to Murray (in November 1821) for 2,000^. 
(or guineas), with the agreement that they were 
to be edited by Moore if Byron died before him. 
Byron (1 Jan. 1820) offered to allow his wife to 
see the Memoirs, in order that she might point 
out any unfair statements. She declined to see 
them, and protested against such a publication. 
Byron afterwards became doubtful as to pub- 
lishing, and a deed was executed in May 1822, 
by which Murray undertook to restore the ma- 
nuscript on the repayment of the 2,000^. during 
Byron's life. On Byron's death, the power of re- 
demption not having been acted upon, the right 
of publication belonged to Murray. Byron's 
friends, however Hobhouse and Mrs. Leigh 
were anxious for the destruction. Lady Byron 
carefully avoided any direct action in the matter 
which would imply a desire to suppress her hus- 
band's statement of his case. Moore hesitated ; 
but at a meeting held in Murray's house (17 May 
1824) he repaid the money to Murray, having 
obtained an advance from the Longmans (Moore's 
Diary, iv. 189), and the manuscript was returned 
to him and immediately destroyed. It was pro- 
posed at the time that Lady Byron and Mrs. 
Leigh should repay the 2,0001. ; but the arrange- 
ment failed for some unexplained reason, and 
Murray ultimately paid off Moore's debt in 1828, 
amounting with interest to 3,020/., besides pay- 
ing him 1,6001. for the Life. Many charges 
arose out of this precipitate destruction of the 
Memoirs ; but there is no reason to regret their 
loss. Moore showed them to so many people 
that he had them copied out (Diary, 7 May 1820), 
for fear that the original might be worn out. 
Lady Burghersh destroyed, in Moore's presence, 
some extracts which she had made (Diary, v. 1 1 1 ). 
Giffard, Lord and Lady Holland, and Lord John 
(afterwards Earl) Eussell read them. Lord 
John gives his impressions in his edition of 
Moore's Diary (iv. 192), and seems to express the 
general opinion. There were some indelicate 
passages. There were also some interesting de- 
scriptions of early impressions ; but for the 
most part they were disappointing, and contained 
the story of the marriage, which Moore (who 
was familiar with them) gives substantially in 
the Memoir (see Jeaffreson's Eeal Lord Byron, 
ii. 292-330, Moore's Diary, Quarterly Keview 
(on Moore) for June 1853 and for July 1883, 
Jeaffreson in Athenaeum for 18 Aug. 1883). The 



first authoritative life was that by Moore, first 
published in 2 vols. quarto, London, 1830. It 
forms six volumes of the edition of the Life and 
Works, 17 vols. 12mo, 1837, and in one volume, 
8vo. Other authorities are : Lady Blessington's 
Journals of the Conversations of Lord B. with 
Lady Blessington (1834 and 1850); Correspon- 
dence of Lord Byron with a Friend, and Eecollec- 
tions by the late E. C. Dallas, by Eev. A. E. C. 
Dallas, Paris, 1825, Galignani; Life of Byron, 
by John Gait, 2nd edit. 1830 ; Life, Writings, 
Opinions, &c., by an English Gentleman in the 
Greek Service, 1825, published bylley ; Narrative 
of a Second Visit to Greece, by Edward Blaquiere, 
London, 1825 ; Narrative of Lord Byron's Last 
Journey to Greece, by Count Peter Gamba, 1825 ; 
Conversations on Eeligion with Lord Byron at 
Cephalonia, by the late Jas. Kennedy, M.D., 1830 ; 
Lady Morgan's Memoirs, 1862 (for Lady C. 
Lamb) ; Conversations of Lord Byron at Pisa, by 
Thomas Medwin, 1824 ; Guiccioli, Comtesse de, 
Lord Byron juge par les temoins de sa vie, 1868, 
| and in English as Guiccioli's My Eecollections of 
i Lord Byron, 2 vols. 1869 ; Eecords of Shelley, 
' Byron, and the Author, by E. J. Trelawny, 1858, 
| 2nd edit. 1878 ; Life of Eev. W. Harness, by 
i A. G. L'Estrange, 1871 ; Memoirs of Eev. 
i Francis Hodgson, by Eev. James T. Hodgson, 
2 vols. 1878 ; Parry, William, Last Days of Lord 
I Byron, 1825 ; Hobhouse's Travels in Albania 
; (1855, 3rd edit.), and 'Byron's Statue ; ' Greece 
in 1823 and 1824, by Colonel Leicester Stanhope 
(1825), new edition, contains reminiscences by 
George Finlay and Stanhope, reprinted in the 
| English translation of Elze ; Elze, Karl, Lord 
Byron (English translation), 1872 (first German 
edition 1870); The Eeal Lord Byron, by John 
Cordy Jeaffreson, 2 vols. 1883 ; also articles in 
Athenaeum, 4 and 18 Aug. 1883; Lady Byron 
Vindicated, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, London, 
1870 ; Lord Byron and his Contemporaries, by 
Leigh Hunt, 2 vols. 1826, and Leigh Hunt's 
Autobiography, 1850 and 1860. See also articles 
in the London Mag. for 24 Oct. ; Blackwood's 
Mag., June 1824; Westminster, July 1824 and 
January 1825 (Hobhouse); Quarterly, October 
1869, January 1870, July 1883 ( Hay ward ); 
New Monthly, January 1830 (T. Campbell); 
New Monthly for 1835, pt. iii. 193-203, 291-302, 
Conversations with an American ; MSS. in Bri- 
tish Museum and in possession of Mr. A. Morrison, 
who has kindly permitted their inspection. Two 
small collections called ' Byroniana ' are worth- 
less. The Byroniana referred to in the one- 
volume edition of Moore was a collection pro- 
jected by John Wright, but never carried out.] 

L. S. 

BYRON, HENRY JAMES (1834-1884), 
dramatist and actor, was born in Manchester 
in January 1834. His father, Henry Byron, 
was for many years British consul at Port- 
au-Prince. Placed first with Mr. Miles 
Morley, a surgeon in Cork Street, W., and 
afterwards with his maternal grandfather, 



Byron 



156 



Byron 



Dr. Bradley of Buxton, Byron conceived a 
dislike for the medical profession, and joined 
a ' provincial ' company of actors. A mono- 
logue of his entitled ' A Bottle of Champagne 
uncorked by Horace Plastic,' produced at the 
Marionette Theatre, London, into which the 
old Adelaide Gallery had been turned, was 
his earliest literary venture. He entered on 
14 Jan. 1858 the Middle Temple. His taste 
for the stage interfered with his pursuit of 
law. He had produced unsuccessfully at the 
Strand Theatre in 1857 a burlesque entitled 
' Richard Coeur de Lion.' Better fortune 
attended his next burlesque, ' Fra Diavolo,' 
given the next year at the same theatre, which 
had then passed from the hands of Payne 
into those of Miss Swanborough. A series 
of pieces, chiefly of the same class, followed 
at the Strand, Adelphi, Olympic, and other 
west-end theatres. Byron wrote for ' Temple 
Bar ' a novel entitled ' Paid in Full,' after- 
wards reprinted in 3 vols. London, 1865, into 
which he introduced some of his experiences 
as a medical student. He was the first editor 
of ' Fun,' and originated a short-lived paper, 
the 'Comic Times.' On 15 April 1865 he 
ioined Miss Marie Wilton in the management 
of the Prince of Wales's Theatre, formerly the 
Queen's, in Tottenham Street, contributing to 
the opening programme a burlesque on the sub- 
ject of La Sonnambula. ' War to the Knife/ 
a comic drama in three acts, was given at the 
same house, 10 June 1865, and 'A Hundred 
Thousand Pounds,' also in three acts, 5 May 
1866. His terms of partnership included 
an engagement to write for no other house. 
In 1867 he resigned his connection with this 
theatre, and began the management of the 
Alexandra Theatre, Liverpool, to which soon 
afterwards he added also the management of 
the Theatre Royal and the Amphitheatre. 
At one or other of these houses he produced 
some of his best works. The result was, 
however, disaster. These painful experi- 
ences did not prevent him from undertaking 
seven years later the management of the 
Criterion Theatre, which opened on 21 May 
1874 with his three-act comedy, ' An Ame- 
rican Lady.' On 16 Jan. 1875 he gave to the 
Vaudeville Theatre ' Our Boys,' a three-act 
domestic drama, which is noticeable as having 
had the longest run on record, not having 
been withdrawn till 18 April 1879. 

Byron's first appearance in London as an 
actor took place at the Globe, 23 Oct. 1869, 
as Sir Simon Simple in his own comedy, 'Not 
such a Fool as he looks,' a part originally 
designed for Mr. Sothern. He had previously 
played in the country as Isaac of York in his 
own burlesque of ' Ivanhoe.' Subsequently 
in his own comedies he appeared as FitzAl- 



tamont in 'The Prompter's Box,' Adelphi, 
1870 ; Captain Craven in ' Daisy Farm,' 
Olympic, 1871 ; Lionel Levert in ' Old Sol- 
diers,' Strand, 1873 ; Harold Trivass in ' An 
American Lady,' Criterion, 1874; Gibson 
Greene in ' Married in Haste,' Haymarket, 
1875 ; and Dick Simpson in ' Conscience 
Money,' Haymarket, 1878. In 1881 he 
played, at the Court Theatre, Cheviot Hill in 
Mr. Gilbert's comedy of 'Engaged.' This 
was his last engagement, and, so far as is 
known, the only one in which he played in 
a piece by another author. Shortly after 
this period, in consequence of ill-health, he 
retired from the stage. The same cause 
drove him into comparative seclusion. He 
died at his house in Clapham Park on 11 April 
1884, and was buried at Brompton. 

Byron's serious dramatic work is original 
in the sense that the plot is rarely taken 
from a foreign source. It displays ingenuity 
rather than invention, and abounds in the 
kind of artifice to be expected under arrange- 
ments by which no more than one scene is 
allowed to an act. The distinguishing cha- 
racteristics of Byron's plays are homeliness 
and healthiness. He revelled in pun and 
verbal pleasantry, and in a certain cockney 
smartness of repartee. Character and proba- 
bility were continually sacrificed to the strain 
after a laugh. In his dramatic works he met 
with many rebuffs, but few failures. ' Cyril's 
Success' is generally, and correctly, held to 
be his best play. As an actor Byron at- 
tempted little. A quiet unconsciousness in 
the delivery of jokes was his chief recom- 
mendation to the public. Byron had, before 
his retirement, an enviable social reputation. 
Many spoken witticisms, more indeed than 
he is entitled to claim, are associated with 
his name. 

A complete list of Byron's plays can 
scarcely be attempted. The following list, 
in which e stands, perhaps too comprehen- 
sively, for extravaganza, burlesque, or panto- 
mime, f for farce, c for comedy, and d for 
drama, omits little of importance : ' Bride 
of Abydos,' e, no date ; ' Latest Edition 
of Lady of Lyons,' e, 1858 ; ' Fra Diavolo,' 
e, 1858 ; ' Maid and Magpie,' e, 1858 ; ' Ma- 
zeppa,' e, 1858; ' Very Latest Edition of Lady 
of Lyons,' e, 1859 ; ' Babes in the Wood,' e, 
1859; 'Nymph of Lurleyburg,' e, 1859; 
' Jack the Giant- Killer,' e, 1860 ; ' The Mil- 
ler and his Men,' e (written with F. Talfourd), 
1860 ; ' Pilgrim of Love,' e, 1860 ; ' Robinson 
Crusoe,' e, 1860; 'Blue Beard,' e, 1860; 
' Garibaldi's Excursionists,' f, 1860 ; ' Cin- 
derella,' e, 1861 ; < Aladdin,' e, 1861 ; ' Esme- 
ralda,' e, 1861; 'Miss Eily O'Connor,' e, 
1861 ; ' Old Story,' c, 1861 ; < Puss in a New 



Byron 



157 



Byron 



Pair of Boots/ e, 1862 ; 'Rosebud of Sting- 
ing-nettle Farm,' e, 1862 ; ' George de Barn- 
well,' e, 1862 ; ' Ivanhoe,' e, 1862 ; ' Beautiful 
Haidee,' e, 1863 ; ' Ali Baba,' e, 1863 ; ' Ill- 
treated II Trovatore,' e, 1863 ; ' The Motto,' 
e, 1863 ; ' Lady Belle-belle,' e, 1863 ; ' Or- 
pheus and Eurydice,' e, 1863 ; ' Mazourka,' 
e, 1864; 'Princess Springtime,' e, 1864; 
'Grin Bushes,' e, 1864; 'Timothy to the 
Rescue,' /, 1864 ; ' Pan,' e, 1865 ; ' La Son- 
nambula,' e, 1865 ; ' Lucia di Lammer- 
moor,' e, 1865 ; ' Little Don Giovanni,' e, 

1865 ; ' War to the Knife,' c, 1865 ; ' Der 
Freischutz,' e, 1866 : ' Pandora's Box,' e, 

1866 ; ' A Hundred Thousand Pounds,' c, 
1866 ; ' William Tell.' e, 1867 ; ' Dearer 
than Life,' d, 1867 ; ' Blow for Blow,' d, 
1868; 'Lucrezia Borgia, M.D.,' e, 1868; 
' Cyril's Success,' c, 1868 ; ' Not such a Fool 
as he looks,' d, 1868 ; ' Robinson Crusoe,' 
e, 1868 ; ' Minnie, or Leonard's Love,' d, 
1869; 'Corsican Brothers,' e, 1869; 'Lost 
at Sea ' (with Dion Boucicault), d, 1869 ; 
'Uncle Dick's Darling,' d, 1869; 'Yellow 
Dwarf,' e, 1869 ; ' Lord Bateman,' e, 1869 ; 

< Whittington,' e, 1869; 'Prompter's Box,' 
d, 1870; 'Robert Macaire,' e, 1870; 'En- 
chanted Wood,' e, 1870 ; ' English Gentle- 
man,' d, 1870; 'Wait and Hope,' d, 1871; 
' Daisy Farm,' d, 1871 ; ' Orange Tree and 
the Humble Bee,' e, 1871 ; < Not if I know 
it,' e, 1871 ; ' Giselle,' e, 1871 ; ' Partners for 
Life,' c, 1871 ; ' Camaralzaman,' e, 1871 ; 
' Blue Beard,' e, 1871 ; ' Haunted Houses,' d, 
1872; 'Two Stars,' d (altered from the 
' Prompter's Box '), 1872 ; ' Spur of the Mo- 
ment,'/, 1872 ; ' Good News,' d, 1872 ; ' Lady 
of the Lake,' e, 1872 ; ' Mabel's Life,' d, 1872 ; 

< Time's Triumph,' d, 1872 ; ' Fine Feathers,' 

d, 1873; 'Sour Grapes,' c, 1873; ' Fille de 
Madame Angot,' op. bouffe, 1873 ; ' Old Sol- 
diers,' c, 1873; ' Chained to the Oar,' d, 1873; 
'Don Juan,' e, 1873 ; 'Pretty Perfumeress,' 
op. bouffe, 1874 ; ' Demon's Bride,' op. bouffe, 
1874 ; ' American Lady,' c, 1874 ; ' Nor- 
mandy Pippins,' e, 1874; 'Robinson Crusoe, 

e, 1874 ; ' Oil and Vinegar,' c, 1874 ; ' Thumb- 
screw,' d, 1874 ; ' Old Sailors,' c, 1874; 'Our 
Boys,' c, 1875 ; ' Married in Haste,' c, 1875 ; 
' Weak Woman,' c, 1875 ; ' Twenty Pounds 
a Year,'/, 1876 ; ' Tottles,' c, 1876 ; ' Bull by 
the Horns,' c d, 1876 ; ' Little Don Caesar de 
Bazan,' e, 1876 ;' Wrinkles,' d, 1876 ; ' Widow 
and Wife,' d, 1876 ; ' Pampered Menials,' / 
1876 ; ' Little Doctor Faust,' e, 1877 ; ' Olc 
Chums,' c, 1877 ; ' Bohemian Gyurl ' (second 
version), e, 1877 ; ' Guinea Gold,' d, 1877 

' Forty Thieves,' e (written in conjunction 
with F. C. Burnand, W. S. Gilbert, and 
R. Reece), 1878 ; ' La Sonnambula ' (seconc 
version), e, 1878; 'Young Fra Diavolo,' e 



1878; 'A Fool and his Money,' c, 1878; 

Crushed Tragedian,' c, 1878 ; ' Hornet's 
Nest,' c, 1878 ;' Conscience Money,' d, 1878 ; 

Uncle,' 1878; 'Courtship,' c, 1879; 'Jack 
the Giant-Killer,' e, 1879; 'Pretty Esme- 
ralda,' e, 1879 ; ' Handsome Hernani,' e, 1879; 

The Girls,' c, 1879 ; ' Upper Crust,' c, 1880; 

Light Fantastic,'/, 1880; 'Gulliver's Tra- 
vels,' e, 1880; 'Trovatore,' e, 1880; 'Bow 
Bells,' d, 1880; 'Without a Home,' c, 1880; 

Michael Strogoff,' d (translated from the 
French), 1881; 'Punch,' c, 1881; 'New 
Broom,' c, 1881 ; ' Fourteen Days,' c (trans- 
lated from the French), 1882; 'Pluto,' e, 
1882; 'Frolique,' c (with H. B. Farnie), 
1882 ; ' Auntie,' c, 1882 ; ' Villainous Squire,' 

. 1882. The following pieces may be added: 
'Dundreary,' ' Married and Done for,' 'Sen- 
sation Fork,' ' Our Seaside Lodging,' ' Rival 
Othellos,' and ' My Wife and I,' farces, the 

xact date of production of which it is diffi- 
cult to fix. Under the head c are ranked 
various slight productions put forth as farci- 
cal comedies, farcical dramas, &c. 

[Private information; Era Almanack; Era 
Newspaper, 19 April 1884 ; Athenaeum ; Dutton 
Cook's Nights at the Play ; Men of the Time, 
10th ed. ; Pascoe's Dramatic List.] J. K. 

BYRON, JOHN, first LORD BYRON (d. 
1652), was descended from Sir John Byron 
of Clayton, Lancashire, who obtained the 
abbey of Newstead, Nottinghamshire, at the 
dissolution of the monasteries. He was the 
eldest son of Sir John Byron, K.B., by Anne, 
daughter of Sir Richard Molineux of Sefton, 
Lancashire. He sat in the last parliament 
of James I and in the first of Charles I for the 
borough, and in the parliament of 1627-8 for 
the county of Nottingham. He had been 
knighted in the interval. He was high sheriff 
of Nottinghamshire in 1634. His name is not 
in the list of either the Short or the Long- 
parliament of 1640. In that year he brought 
his military experience and reputation, ac- 
quired in the Low Country wars, to the expe- 
dition against the Scots. On its failure, he 
looked eagerly to the projected great council of 
the peers at York (August 1640). Writing on 
the very day of meeting, he expresses his confi- 
dent hope that ' the vipers we have been too 
ready to entertain will be driven out,' and that 
the Scotch general Leslie's exaction of 350/. a 
day from Durham ' will prove a fruitful pre- 
cedent for the king's service, that hereafter 
ship-money may be thought a toy' {State 
Papers, Dom., 24 Sept. 1640). 

Byron was appointed to the lieutenancy 
of the Tower after Lunsford's dismissal 
(26 Dec. 1641). He was sent for as a de- 
linquent by the lords (12 Jan. 1641-2), 



Byron 



158 



Byron 



and examined as to the stores lately con- 
veyed into the fortress. 'He gave so full 
answers to all the questions asked of him, 
that they could not but dismiss him ' (Claren- 
don Rebellion, 154 a), but he refused to 
leave the Tower without the king's order. 
The peers refused to concur in the address 
for his removal, and it was therefore pre- 
sented by the commons alone (27 Jan.) 
The king at first declined to comply, but 
Byron himself begged to be set free ' from 
the vexation and agony of that place.' On 
11 Feb. 1641-2 Charles sent a message to 
the House of Lords consenting to the ap- 
pointment of Sir John Conyers in Byron's 
place. 

When the war broke out, Byron was among 
the first to join the king at York, and marched 
with him to summon Coventry (20 Aug. 
1642, DTTGDALE, Diary, p. 17). Thence he 
was despatched by Charles to protect Oxford. 
At Brackley (28 Aug.), while refreshing his 
troop after a long march, he was surprised, 
and forced to make a speedy retreat to the 
heath. In the confusion a box containing 
money, apparel, and other things of value 
was left in a field of standing corn. He 
wrote to a Mr. Clarke of Croughton for its 
restitution, which he said he would represent 
to the king as an acceptable service ; if not, 
he continued, ' assure yourself I will find a 
time to repay myself with advantage out of 
your estate.' The houses took notice of this 
letter, in a joint declaration, retorting on 
Byron 'the odious crime and title of traitor' 
(Declaration of the Lords and Commons, 
11 Sept. 1642). In a contemporary tract 
(Brit. M. E. 117, 11) the value of the spoil 
taken is estimated at not less than 6,000/. 
or 8,0001., and the prisoners taken by the 
parliamentarians are said to have been 
searched, despoiled, and thrown into the 
Tower, where they might have starved but 
for charity (cf. BAILEY, Nottinghamshire, ii. 
669, 672). 

Byron reached Oxford 28 Aug., and re- 
mained there till 10 Sept. After leaving 
Oxford he arrived at Worcester about 17 Sept. 
He had been pursued by Lord Say, and had 
to fight on the road. He gained a victory 
over the parliamentarians at Powick Bridge 
(22 Sept.), but found it necessary to evacuate 
Worcester, which he had not fortified, on the 
following day. 

At Edgehill (23 Oct. 1642), when Rupert's 
charge had scattered the enemy, Byron joined 
in the chase with the reserve of the right 
wing his own regiment of horse. When 
Rupert returned he ' found a great alteration 
in the field, and the hope of so glorious a 
day quite vanished ' ( Clarendon, 309 a). For 



Byron had left the foot, whom he had been 
posted to protect, to be taken in rear by the 
enemy. 

After Edgehill, Byron's regiment quartered 
a while at Fawley Court. His orders against 
plunder were disregarded, and the owner, 
Bulstrode Whitelocke, laments the wanton 
destruction of property, the writings of his 
estates, and many excellent manuscripts 
(Memorials, p. 65). Byron's regiment of horse 
was quartered at Reading in December 1642 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. 433 b), and 
he probably commanded the horse of the gar- 
rison there. Reading not long after (26 April 
1643) capitulated to Essex, but Byron was 
in Oxfordshire during the spring of this year. 
On 6 May he defeated a party of roundheads 
at Bicester, and on 12 July was sent west 
with Prince Maurice to relieve Devizes. The 
great victory of Roundway Down, near De- 
vizes, on 13 July, was chiefly the work of 
Byron, whose charge turned to flight the 
' impenetrable regiment ' of Haslerig's cuiras- 
siers. But his men were always ready to 
desert or to mutiny for plunder's sake, and 
on the day of the surrender of Bristol to 
Rupert, Byron writes in haste to beg the 
prince to give them assurance that they shall 
have their share ' some benefit from your 
highness's great victory.' On 20 Sept. Byron 
commanded the horse of the right wing at 
the first battle of Newbury, and Lord Falk- 
land fell fighting in the front rank of Byron's 
regiment. Byron wrote a full account of 
this battle for Lord Clarendon's use, and long 
extracts from his original manuscript are 
given by Mr. Money in his ' Battles of New- 
bury' (pp. 44, 51, 56). He himself received 
what reward the king had to bestow, being 
created Baron Byron of Rochdale (24 Oct. 
1643), with limitation of the title, after his 
own issue, to his six loyal brothers, Richard, 
William, Thomas, Robert, Gilbert, and Philip. 
He willingly accepted Rupert's offer of the 
sole command in Lancashire, if the county 
would agree thereto (7 Nov.), but wished 
first to make sure of the appointment of go- 
vernor to the Prince of Wales, ' an employ- 
ment likely to continue to my advantage 
when this war is ended ' (Add. MS. 18980, 
f. 147; WAKBTTKTON, Prince Rupert, ii. 329). 

By the cessation of arms granted by Or- 
monde, the troops raised for the king's service 
against the Irish rebels were set free for 
other employment, and detachments came 
over at intervals to join the force under the 
command of Byron, whose whole army is 
described as < rolling like a flood ' up to the 
walls of Nantwich, the only parliament gar- 
rison left in Cheshire. Byron defeated Brere- 
ton at Middle wick, and captured Crewe House. 



Byron 



159 



Byron 



But the tide soon turned. Byron failed in 
an assault on Nantwich 18 Jan. 1643-4; 
the besiegers confidently awaited the ap- 
proach of Fairfax with his Yorkshire horse 
and Manchester foot, soon to he joined by the 
Staffordshire and Derbyshire levies of Sir 
"William Brereton. A sudden thaw, swell- 
ing a little river that ran between the divi- 
sions of the royal army, gave the signal of 
disaster. The part under Byron's command 
had to march four or five miles before it could 
join the other, which had meanwhile been 
broken by Fairfax (28 Jan. ) The chief officers, 
1,500 soldiers, and all their artillery were 
taken, and Byron sadly retired to Chester. 
Prince Rupert now took separate command 
of the royal forces in Cheshire and the ad- 
jacent counties, with Byron as his lieutenant. 
Sir Abraham Shipman was made governor of 
Chester. Lands belonging to roundhead ' de- 
linquents ' were to be sold, and the admini- 
stration of this fund was vested in Byron, who 
not long after was made governor by special 
commission from Rupert (Sari. MS. 2135, 
f. 30). It was a slippery and thankless post. 
There had been talk of appointing one Alder- 
man Gamul, and Byron had successfully 
fought off the proposal on the ground that 
' if he be admitted the like will be attempted 
by all the corporations in England ' (Add. 
MS. 18981, f. 51). In October 1644 he com- 
plains that he has not as heretofore the sole 
command in Rupert's absence, ' but there are 
independent commissions granted without 
any relation to me ' (ib. 287). He disclaims 
any envy at the power Rupert had given 
William Legge, who appears to have super- 
seded him for a while as governor of the city 
but demurs to command being also given 
him over the counties of Cheshire, Flint, and 
Denbigh. Though Legge has ' ever been hii 
good friend,' Byron feels the slight so keenly 
that he begs to be recalled 'if I be not 
worthy of the command I formerly had.' 

Chester was in a sad condition. The mer- 
chants had been impoverished. To improve 
the fortifications the suburbs had been burnt, 
and their inhabitants were forced into the 
already crowded city. The soldiers lived al 
free quarters, and their hosts often fled from 
their houses, for the men (against orders) wore 
their weapons at all times. They plundered 
the houses of citizens when the owners were 
at church, and pawned the goods. They 
robbed in the highway, killed cattle in the 
fields, and wantonly ripped open the corn 
sacks on their way to market (Harl. MS 
2135). The troops sent by Ormonde hac 
an evil reputation. . Impressment was an 
other grievance. Notwithstanding the claim 
(allowed by Rupert) of exemption from 



all service outside the city by special privi- 
ege granted by Henry VIII, ' the garrison 
was divers times drawn forth, and threatened 
iO be hanged if they did not go, though most 
of them were sworn citizens.' 

In July 1644 Byron repeated his error of 
Edgehill at Marston Moor. He was in the 
Tont rank of Prince Rupert's division on the 
right wing. Stationed by a ditch, he charged 
across it, instead of waiting for the enemy 
x> reach his own position (SABTFOED, Studies, 
599 ; MAEKHAM, Fairfax, 163-7). ' By the 
improper charge of Lord Byron much harm 
was done 'is the comment in Prince Rupert's 
diary. 

In August Byron had his share in the 
defeat of Sir Marmaduke Langdale's northern 
dorse, near Ormskirk, on their march south- 
ward. He had come from Liverpool ' on a 
pacing nag, and thinking of nothing less than 
fighting that day.' He had narrowly escaped 
capture as he tried to rally the flying rout. 
He lays the blame on the brigade of Lord 
Molyneux, which fled at the first charge, and 
fell foul with such fury on his regiment 
that they utterly routed it. Legge, however, 
writes (22 Aug. 1644) that ' my Lord Byron 
engaged the enemy when he needed not,' and 
gives Langdale credit for saving Byron, 
bringing off his own men, and retreating 
without the least disturbance '(WABBUETON, 
Prince Rupert, iii. 21). Both agree that the 
fatal selfishness of the Lancashire men in 
resolutely diverting the war from themselves 
had lost the north. After the surrender (in 
September 1644) of Montgomery Castle by 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Byron tried to 
help Sir Michael Ernly to regain it. But 
Sir William Brereton came to its relief, and 
the governor of Chester returned thither. 
Byron was defeated by Brereton at Mont- 

)mery 18 Sept. 1644 (RTJSHWOETH, v. 747). 
yron now found that many who heretofore 
were thought loyal upon this success of the 
rebels had either turned neuter or had wholly 
revolted to them. Liverpool was threatened. 
The officers were ready to endure all extre- 
mities rather than yield, but the soldiers, for 
want of pay, ' are grown extreme mutinous, 
and run away daily ' the old story. 

In May 1645 the king marched to the re- 
lief of Chester; Byron met him at Stone, 
Staffordshire, with the news that the rebels 
had retired, and Charles turned back and 
took Leicester, his last success. That sum- 
mer came Naseby, and the autumn brought 
Rupert's loss of Bristol (10 Sept.) and Mont- 
rose's defeat at Philiphaugh (23 Sept.) The 
king again made his way into Chester with 
some provision and ammunition, but from 
the Phoenix tower of the city wall he beheld 



Byron 



160 



Byron 



the rout of his forces by Poyntz (24 Sept. 
1645). He wandered back to Oxford, bidding 
Byron keep Chester for eight days longer 
(WALKER, Hist. Discourses, p. 140). It was 
actually kept for some twenty weeks. The 
enemy was closing round. Byron's appeal 
to Rupert for help (6 Oct.) was published 
with virulent comments on the writer's sup- 
posed leanings to popery and the Irish rebels. 
Booth, fresh from the capture of Lathom, 
had joined the b'esiegers. Byron's brother 
was taken while marching to his rescue. A 
relief party from Oxford had been forced to 
return. The citizens urged surrender. Byron 
invited the chief malcontents to dine with 
him, and gave them his own fare of boiled 
wheat and spring water. Brereton repeatedly 
urged Byron to surrender, but the cavalier 
insisted on terms ' granted by greater com- 
manders than yourself no disparagement 
to you.' 

Chester at last surrendered (6 Feb. 1646). 
The citizens were not to be plundered, the sick 
and wounded were cared for, and Byron, with 
his whole army, were to march under safe- 
conduct to Conway (PHILLIPS, Civil War in 
Wales, p. 354). He fared better in Cheshire 
than in London, where the commons resolved 
to exclude him from pardon a vote in which 
the lords refused to concur. 

He had meanwhile taken the command of 
Carnarvon Castle, which he held till May 
1646, when the king ordered all his fortresses 
to be given up. It was surrendered upon 
articles dated 4 June (WHITELOCKE, p. 208). 

Byron joined the queen's court at Paris, 
and was appointed superintendent-general of 
the house and family of the Duke of York 
(30 April 1651). In 1648 he lent his as- 
sistance to the royalist invasion of England 
by Hamilton and the Scotch (cf. two letters 
from Byron to the Earl of Lanerick in the 
Hamilton Papers, Camd. Soc. ; Byron's own 
relation of his actions in the summer of 1648 
appears in Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 418). 
His main task was to seize Anglesea and 
to raise North "Wales for the king. [For 
his failure and its causes see BTTLKELEY, 
RICHARD.] In January 1648-9 Ormonde sent 
Byron to Charles II with a copy of the treaty 
he had made with the Irish confederates in 
behalf of the royalists, and a pressing in- 
vitation to the prince to come to Ireland 
(CARTE, Ormonde, bk. v. 98 ; CARTE, Orig. 
Letters, i. passim). He was now included 
by the houses among the seven persons who 
were to expect no pardon. 

Byron's after life was passed in exile. He 
returned to Paris to find himself supplanted 
in the confidence of his pupil, who arranged 
a visit to Brussels without his knowledge or 



the permission of the queen. At her request, 
nevertheless, Byron attended on the duke 
during that j ourney , and another to the Hague 
to see the Princess of Orange, as well as in 
James's first campaign under Turenne. 

Byron differed from Hyde, the king's oldest 
adviser, on such critical matters as the ac- 
ceptance by Charles of the invitation of the 
Scotch (1650). Byron wished the prince to 
accept it (CAKTE, Orig. Letters, i. 338). Hyde 
wrote, ' If Lord Byron has become a presby- 
terian, he will be sorry for it.' But Hyde 
did full justice to his opponent's fidelity, 
writing to Nicholas of Byron's death as ' an 
irreparable loss ' (23 Aug. 1652). 

Byron died childless, though twice married : 
(1) to Cecilia, daughter of the Earl of Dela- 
ware, and widow of Sir Francis Bindloss, 
knt. ; and (2) to Eleanor, daughter of Robert 
Needham, viscount Kilmurrey, Ireland, and 
widow of Peter Warburton of Arley, Che- 
shire. Byron's second wife was, according 
to Pepys (Diary, 26 April 1676), 'the king's 
seventeenth mistress abroad.' A portrait of 
Byron by Cornelius Jansen was in the Na- 
tional Portrait Exhibition of 1866 (No. 688). 

Byron's title was inherited by his brother 
Richard (1605-1679), whose exploits as go- 
vernor of Newark are recorded in Hutchin- 
son's ' Memoirs.' He held the office from 
the spring of 1643 till about January 1645. 
In September 1643 he surprised the town of 
Nottingham and held it for five days ; and 
on 27 Nov. 1643 surprised the committee of 
Leicestershire at Melton Mowbray (Mereu- 
rius Aulicus, p. 690). He resided in Eng- 
land during the protectorate, and in 1659 
rose to support Sir George Booth. He died 
on 4 Oct. 1679, aged 74, having married 
(1) Elizabeth, daughter of George Rossel ; 
and (2) Elizabeth, daughter of Sir George 
Booth. Four other brothers served in the 
civil wars on the royalist side. William 
was drowned at sea. Robert commanded a 
regiment at Naseby, served in Ireland, and 
was for a time imprisoned for sharing in a 
royalist plot in Dublin (GILBERT, Contem- 
porary History, ii. 158-60) ; he was alive 
in 1664 (HTJTCHINSON, Memoirs, ii. 310). 
Gilbert was commander of Rhuddlan Castle, 
North Wales, in 1645 (SYMOIODS, Diary, p. 
247) ; he was taken prisoner at Willoughby 
Field on 5 July 1648, and died on 16 March 
1656. Philip was killed in defending York 
on 16 June 1644 ; a curious character of him 
is in Lloyd's ' Memoirs of Excellent Per- 
sonages ' (p. 489). 

Much of Byron's correspondence remains. 
It has no literary charm ; but it exhibits 
persistent cheerfulness in the face of gather- 
ing disaster, unwearied effort to conquer un- 



Byron 



161 



Byron 



toward circumstance with patience and con- 
trivance, and dogged pathetic loyalty. 

[Information kindly supplied by Mr. C. H. 
Firth of Oxford ; authorities as above ; Warbur- 
ton's Prince Rupert ; Clarendon State Papers ; 
Carte's Collection of Original Letters and Papers.] 

E. C. B. 

BYRON, JOHN (1723-1786), vice-ad- 
miral, second son of William, fourth lord 
Byron, was born on 8 Nov. 1723. The date 
of his entry into the navy has not been traced. 
In 1740 he was appointed as a midshipman 
to the Wager storeship, one of the squadron 
under Commodore Anson, and sailed from 
England in her. After rounding Cape Horn 
the Wager was lost, 14 May 1741, on the 
southern coast of Chili, a desolate and incle- 
ment country. The survivors from the wreck 
separated, Byron and some few others remain- 
ing with the captain. After undergoing the 
most dreadful hardships, they succeeded in 
reaching Valparaiso, whence, in December 
1744, they were permitted to return to Europe 
by a French ship, which carried them to 
Brest. They arrived in England in February 
1745-6. Many years after, in 1768, Byron 
published a ' Narrative, containing an ac- 
count of the great distresses suffered by 
himself and his companions on the coast of 
Patagonia.' It has often been republished, 
and supplied some hints for the shipwreck 
scene in ' Don Juan,' whose author compares 
the sufferings of his hero ' to those related in 
my grand-dad's " Narrative," ' though, in- 
deed, the fictitious sufferings of Juan were 
trifling in comparison with those actually 
recorded by John Byron. 

During his absence he had been promoted 
to be lieutenant ; immediately on his arrival 
he was made commander, and on 30 Dec. of 
the same year was made captain and ap- 
pointed to the Syren frigate. After the peace 
he commanded the St. Albans, one of the 
squadron on the coast of Guinea ; in 1753 he 
commanded the Augusta, guardship at Ply- 
mouth ; and in 1755 the Vanguard. In 1757 
he commanded the America of 60 guns in the 
futile expedition against Rochefort ; he after- 
wards cruised with some success on the coast 
of France, and in the following year, still in 
the America, served in the fleet off Brest under 
Anson. In 1760 he was sent in command of 
the Fame and a small squadron to superin- 
tend the demolition of the fortifications of 
Louisbourg, and while the work was in pro- 
gress had the opportunity of destroying a 
quantity of French shipping and stores in 
the bay of Chaleur, including three small 
men-of-war. He returned to England in 
November, but continued in command of the 

VOL. VIII. 



Fame until the peace, being for the most 
part attached to the squadron before Brest. 

Early in 1764 he was appointed to the 
Dolphin, a small frigate which, with the 
Tamar, was ordered to be fitted for a voyage 
to the East Indies. The Dolphin was sheathed 
with copper, and her rudder had copper braces 
and pintles ; she was the first vessel in the 
English navy so fitted. Byron did not go 
on board her till 17 June. The Dolphin, 
with the Tamar in company, sailed from 
Plymouth on 2 July, when Byron hoisted a 
broad pennant, being appointed commander- 
in-chief of all his majesty's ships in the East 
Indies. At Rio they met Lord Olive, on his 
way out in the Kent, East Indiaman. Olive 
was anxious to take a passage in the Dolphin, 
as likely to get to India long before the In- 
diaman, but Byron managed to refuse him, 
possibly by secretly telling him the true state 
of the case ; for in fact his commission for 
the East Indies and the orders which had 
been publicly sent were all a blind, and the 
real destination of the two ships was for a 
voyage of discovery in the South seas. The 
jealousy of the Spaniards seemed to render 
this elaborate secrecy a necessary condition 
of success. No one on board the ships had a 
suspicion of what was before them till after 
they had stood much further to the south than 
a passage to the Cape seemed to require. The 
true object of the voyage was then divulged ; 
it was at the same time announced that the 
men were to have double pay, with such 
good effect that when shortly afterwards an 
opportunity occurred by a returning store- 
ship, only one man accepted the commodore's 
permission for any one that liked to go home. 
In passing through the Straits of Magellan 
they had frequent intercourse with the natives 
of Patagonia, and they have recorded, as 
simple matter of fact, that these people were 
of very remarkable size and stature. Modern 
travellers, having been unable to find these 
giants, have assumed that the former ac- 
counts were false, either by intention or by 
misconception, and have spoken, on the one 
hand, of Munchausen-like stories, and, on the 
other, of the deceptive appearance of long 
robes and of the mistakes that may arise 
from seeing men at a distance on horseback. 
In the case of the officers of the Dolphin 
with which alone we are now concerned 
this last explanation is impossible ; the 
statements are so explicit that they must be 
either true or wilfully false. The commo- 
dore, himself six feet high, either stood along- 
side of men who towered so far above him 
that he judged they could not be much less 
than seven feet, or he deliberately wrote 
a falsehood in his official journal, and his 

M 



Byron 



162 



Byron 



officers with one consent lied to the same 
effect (Byron's ' Journal ' in HAWZESWORTH'S 
Voyages, i. 28; A Voyage round the World 
in His Majesty's Ship the Dolphin ... by an 
Officer on board the said ship, pp. 45, 51 n). 

From the Straits of Magellan the Dolphin 
and Tamar proceeded westward across the 
Pacific, skirting the northern side of the Low 
Archipelago and discovering some few of the 
northernmost islands. It now seems almost 
wonderful how these ships could have sailed 
through this part of the ocean without making 
grander discoveries ; but they appear to have 
held a straight course westward, intent only 
on getting the voyage over. Not only the 
Low Archipelago but the Society Islands 
must have been discovered had the ships, on 
making the Islands of Disappointment, zig- 
zagged, or quartered over the ground, as ex- 
ploring ships ought to have done. And the 
necessary inference is that Byron was want- 
ing in the instinct and the hound-like per- 
severance which go to make up the great 
discoverer. Having passed these islands, the 
ships fell in with nothing new ; they seem 
indeed to have gone out of the way to avoid 
the possibility of doing so, and to have crossed 
the line solely to get into the track which 
Anson had described. Many of the seamen 
were down with scurvy, and Byron knew 
that the Centurion's men had found refresh- 
ment at Tinian ; so to Tinian he went, and, 
after staying there for a couple of months, 
pursued his way to Batavia, the Cape of 
Good Hope, and so home. The Tamar was 
sent to Antigua, her rudder having given 
way ; but the Dolphin arrived in the Downs 
on 9 May 1766, after a voyage of little more 
than twenty-two months. 'No navigator 
ever before encompassed the world in so 
short a time,' is Beatson's questionable com- 
mendation of what was primarily meant as 
a voyage of exploration (Nav. and Mil. Mem. 
vi. 458). 

In January 1769 Byron was appointed 
governor of Newfoundland, an office he held 
for the next three years. On 31 March 
1775 he was advanced to be rear-admiral, 
and on 29 Jan. 1778 to be vice-admiral. A 
few months later he was appointed to the 
command of a squadron fitting out at Ply- 
mouth for the North American station, or 
nominally to intercept the Count d'Estaing, 
who, with twelve ships of the line, had sailed 
from Toulon on 13 April. The delays con- 
sequent on maladministration prevented By- 
ron sailing till 9 June, and even then his 
ships were wretchedly equipped and badly 
manned. The rigging was of second-hand 
or even twice-laid rope, and the ships' com- 
panies were largely made up of draughts 



from the gaols. Under these circumstances 
it is not surprising that the first bad weather 
should have scattered the ships and dismasted 
several, that gaol fever and scurvy should have 
raged among the crews, and that the com- 
ponents of the squadron should have singly 
reached the American coast in such a state 
that they must have fallen an easy prey to 
any enterprising enemy. Fortunately D'Es- 
taing retired from before Sandy Hook just in 
time to leave the passage open to the first of 
Byron's ships, on 30 July. Others arrived 
later. Byron himself, in the Princess Royal, 
made Halifax with difficulty, so did two 
others ; one got to Newfoundland, one was 
driven back to England, all were more or less 
shattered, and all more or less disabled by the 
sickness of their men. It was 26 Sept. before 
the squadron was collected at Sandy Hook, 
and it was not till 18 Oct. that it could put 
to sea to look for the enemy It was imme- 
diately overtaken by a tremendous storm, 
which reduced the ships to their former con- 
dition of helplessness. One was wrecked, 
one was driven off the coast and had to 
make for England, the others got to Rhode 
Island and there refitted ; but it was 13 Dec. 
before they were again ready for sea. The 
delay had permitted D'Estaing to appear in 
the West Indies with a strong force, and with 
the first news of Byron's approach he sheltered 
himself and his squadron under the guns of 
Fort Royal of Martinique. For several months 
the English, being in superior strength, kept 
the French shut up in Martinique. In June 
Byron went to St. Christopher's to see the 
trade safely ofi' for England, and D'Estaing, 
taking advantage of his absence, and having 
been reinforced by ten ships of the line, went 
south, and without difficulty, almost without 
opposition, made himself master of Grenada, 
brutally handing over the town to be pillaged 
(BAEROW, Life of Lord Macartney, i. 62). 
Byron had meanwhile returned to St. Lucia, 
and having learned that D'Estaing had gone 
to Grenada, at once followed to protect the 
town, which he had believed able to hold out 
for some time. He had no intelligence of 
D'Estaing having received a considerable re- 
inforcement, and took for granted that in 
point of numbers his fleet was the stronger. 
At daybreak on 6 July 1779 he was off Gre- 
nada with twenty-one sail of the line and 
a large number of transports carrying the 
soldiers designed to co-operate with Lord 
Macartney. As he advanced the French got 
under way and stood out, and Byron, under 
the idea that there were not more than six- 
teen of them, made the signal for a general 
chase, and to engage as they came up with 
the enemy ; nor did he make any alteration 



/] 



Byron 



163 



Byron 



in his orders when the French, having ex- 
tended in line of battle, could be seen to 
number twenty-five sail of the line instead 
of sixteen. The attack was thus made in 
a scrambling, disorderly manner, in which 
several of the leading ships, being com- 
paratively unsupported, were very roughly 
handled. The English afterwards succeeded 
in forming their line of battle parallel to the 
French, and for a short time the action be- 
came general ; but D'Estaing had no wish 
to fight it out. He had got Grenada, and 
the result of the first shock of the battle, by 
disabling several of the English ships, seemed 
sufficient to prevent any serious attempt at 
its recapture. So the French wore and stood 
back into the bay. That they had had the 
best of the fighting, so far as it went, was 
certain ; but their neglecting to push their 
advantage and their hasty withdrawal left 
them with no claim to victory. The solid 
gain, however, remained with them, for Byron 
found himself too weak to attempt to regain 
the island, and with the greater part of his 
shattered fleet went back to St. Christopher's. 
He was lying there, in Basseterre Roads, on 
22 July, when D'Estaing made his appearance. 
The French fleet was more numerous by one- 
fourth than the English ; but D'Estaing having 
stood in within random gunshot, wore, stood 
out again, and disappeared. After this there 
seemed no immediate prospect of any further 
operations, and Byron, being in a weakly 
state of health, and suffering from ' a nervous 
fever,' availed himself of a provisional per- 
mission to return home, turning the command 
over to Rear-admiral Parker. He arrived 
in England on 10 Oct. 1779. 

Byron was beyond question a brave man, 
a good seaman, and an esteemed officer ; but 
nature had not given him the qualifica- 
tions necessary for a great discoverer, and the 
peculiar service in which so much of his time 
was passed gave him no experience in the con- 
duct of fleets. It is very doubtful whether 
he ever saw a fleet extended in line of battle 
before he saw the French fleet on the morning 
of 6 July 1779. Any knowledge which he 
may have had of naval tactics was purely 
theoretical, and when wanted in practice 
lost itself, giving place to the untrained com- 
bative instinct. That he was not thoroughly 
beaten at Grenada was due to the incapacity 
of his antagonist, and not to any skill on his 
part. It is said that, after the peace, he was 
offered the command in the Mediterranean, 
but declined it. He had thus no further 
employment, and died vice-admiral of the 
white on 10 April 1786. A fine portrait 
by Reynolds, painted in 1759, the property 
of William Byron, was exhibited at the 



Grrosvenor Gallery in the loan collection of 
Reynolds's works, 1883-4. 

He married in August 1748 Sophia, daugh- 
ter of John Trevannion of Carhays in Corn- 
wall, by whom he had two sons and seven 
daughters, three of whom died in infancy. 
Of the sons, the eldest, John, was father of 
Lord Byron the poet ; the second, George 
Anson, captain in the navy, while in com- 
mand of the Andromache frigate, had the 
honour of bringing to Sir George Rodney 
intelligence of the sailing of the French fleet 
from Martinique on 8 April 1782, and of 
thus contributing to the decisive victory off 
Dominica four days later. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. v. 423 ; Ealfe's Nav. 
Biog. i. 60 ; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs ; 
Chevalier's Hist, de la Marine Fran$aise pendant 
la Guerre de ITndependance Americaine.] 

J. K. L. 

BYRON, SIB THOMAS (d. 1644), com- 
mander of the Prince of Wales's regiment 
during the civil war, was fifth son of Sir 
John Byron of Newstead, Nottinghamshire, 
by Anne, daughter of Sir Richard Molineux 
of Sefton, Lancashire, and brother of John, 
first Lord Byron [q. v.] Clarendon, who 
characterises him as a 'very valuable and 
experienced officer,' states that the Prince 
of Wales's regiment, ' the titular command 
whereof was under the Earl of Cumberland,' 
was ' conducted and governed ' by him (His- 
on/(1849), App. 2, n. 5). Wood mentions 
that a degree was conferred on him at Oxford 
in 1642, but ' of what faculty ' he ' knows 
not.' While in command of his regiment at 
the battle of Hopton Heath, near Stafford, 
19 March 1642-3, he was so severely wounded 
by a shot in the thigh as to be compelled to 
leave the field (CLARENDON, History, vi. 281). 
' Sir Thomas Byron, at the head of the prince's 
regiment, charging their foot, broke in among 
them, but they having some troops of horse 
near their foot fell upon him, and then he 
received his hurt, bleeding so that he was not 
able to stay on the field' (' The Battaile on 
Hopton Heath'). On 7 Dec. 1643 he was 
attacked in the street at Oxford by Captain 
Hurst of his own regiment, owing to a dispute 
about pay (DTJGDALE, Diary ; CARTE, Letters, 
i. 27, Trevor tells the story to Ormonde). 
Hurst was shot on 14 Dec. Byron died of the 
wound on 5 Feb. 1643-4 (DTJGDALE, Diary). 
He was buried on 9 Feb. 1643-4 in Christ 
Church Cathedral, Oxford, ' on the left side of 
the grave of Wm. Lord Grandison in a little 
isle joyning on the south side of the choir ' 
(WooD, Fasti, ii. 42). By his wife Catherine, 
daughter of Henry Braine, he had two sons, 
who predeceased him. His wife was buried 
in Westminster Abbey on 11 Feb. 1675-6. 

M 2 



Byrth 



164 



Bysshe 



[Thoroton's Nottinghamshire (1797), ii. 284 ; 
Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, vii. 128-9 ; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), ii. 42 ; Foster's Peerage of the 
British Empire (1882), p. 106 ; information 
kindly supplied by Mr. C. H. Firth.] T. F. H. 

BYRTH, THOMAS, D.D. (1793-1849), 
scholar and divine, was the son of John 
Byrth, of Irish descent, who married Mary 
Hobling, a member of an old Cornish family. 
He was born at Plymouth Dock (now called 
Devonport) on 11 Sept. 1793, and received 
his early education in that town and at 
Launceston, under Richard Cope, LL.D. For 
five years (1809-14) he served his appren- 
ticeship to the Cookworthys, well-known 
chemists and druggists in the west of Eng- 
land, and during that period started, with 
other young men, the ' Plymouth Magazine,' 
which expired with its sixth number on 
19 Nov. 1814. After this he passed some 
years as a schoolmaster, but in 1818 he 
matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford. 
Hitherto he had been in sympathy with the 
Society of Friends, but on 21 Oct. 1819 he 
was baptised into the church of England at 
St. Andrew's Church, Plymouth. He took 
his degrees of B.A. and M.A. in the spring 
of 1826, and was ordained to the curacy of 
Diptford, near Totnes, in April 1823, remain- 
ing there until 1825. After that he was at 
Oxford as a tutor, but this occupation ceased 
in 1827, when he became the incumbent of 
St. James, Latchford, near Warrington. In 
1834 he was appointed to the more important 
and more lucrative rectory of Wallasey in 
Cheshire, where he died on Sunday night, 
28 Oct. 1849, having preached two sermons 
that day. Dr. Byrth he became B.D. on 
17 Oct. 1839 and took his degree of D.D. two 
days later was an evangelical in religion 
and a whig in politics. His scholarship was 
thorough, and he was possessed of poetic taste 
and antiquarian enthusiasm. He published 
many sermons and addresses, and was engaged 
in controversy with the Rev. J. H. Thorn on 
the Unitarian interpretation of the New Testa- 
ment. In 1848 he edited the sermons of the 
Rev. Thomas Tattershall, D.D., incumbent of 
St. Augustine's Church, Liverpool, and pre- 
fixed to them a memoir of the author. His 
own ' Remains,' with a memoir by the Rev. 
G. R. Moncreiff, were published in 1851, and 
a sermon on his death, preached by the Rev. 
John Tobin in St. John's Church, Liscard, on 
4 Nov. 1849, was published in the same year. 
He married on 19 June 1827 Mary Kingdom, 
eldest daughter of Dr. Stewart, and after 
Byrth's death a sum of 4,000/. was collected 
for the widow and their seven children. She 
died 20 Feb. 1879, aged 80 The west window 



in the present Wallasey Church is filled with 
stained glass in memory of Byrth. 

[Memoir by Rev. G. E. Moncreiff; Gent. Mag. 
(March 1850), p. 324 ; Ormerod's Cheshire (new 
ed.), ii. 478.] W. P. C. 

BYSSHE, SIB EDWARD (1615 P- 
1679), Garter king of arms, the eldest son of 
Edward Bysshe of Burstow, Surrey, a bar- 
rister of Lincoln's Inn, by Mary, daughter 
of John Tumor of Ham, in the parish of 
Bletchingley in the same county, was born at 
Smallfield, in the parish of Burstow, in or 
about 1615. His ancestors were lords ol 
the manors of Burstow and Home, and 
some of them owners also of the manor of 
Bysshe, or Bysshe Court, in Surrey. In 1633 
he became a commoner of Trinity College, 
Oxford, but before he took a degree he en- 
tered Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the 
bar. He was elected M.P. for Bletchingley 
to the parliament which met at Westmin- 
ster on 3 Nov. 1640, and afterwards taking 
the covenant, he was about 1643 made Garter 
king of arms in the place of Sir John Borough, 
who had followed the king to Oxford. On 
20 Oct. 1646 votes were passed in the House 
of Commons that Bysshe should be Garter 
king of arms, and likewise Clarenceux king 
of arms, that William Ryley should be Nor- 
roy king of arms, and that a committee 
should be appointed to regulate their fees 
(WHITELOCKE, Memorials, 229). In 1654 he 
was chosen burgess for Reigate, Surrey, to 
serve in ' the little parliament ' which met 
at Westminster on 3 Sept. 1654, and he was 
returned as member for Gatton in the same 
county to the parliament which assembled on 
27 Jan. 1658-9. 

After the Restoration he was obliged to 
quit the office of Garter in favour of Sir Ed- 
ward Walker, but with difficulty he obtained 
a patent dated 10 March 1660-1 for the office 
of Clarenceux king of arms. The latter office 
was void by the lunacy of Sir William Le 
Neve, and was given to Bysshe in considera- 
tion of his having during the usurpation pre- 
served the library of the College of Arms. 
The appointment was made in spite of the 
remonstrances of Sir Edward Walker, who 
alleged that Bysshe had not only usurped, 
but maladministered the office of Garter, and 
that if he were created Clarenceux it would 
be in his power to confirm the grants of 
arms previously made by him (Addit. MS. 
22883). 

He received the honour of knighthood on 
20 April 1661 (P. LE NEVE, Pedigrees of 
the Knights, 135), and he was elected M.P. 
for Bletchingley to the parliament which 
met at Westminster on the 8th of the fol- 



Bysshe 



165 



Bythner 



lowing month. During that parliament, 
which lasted seventeen years, he is said to 
have become a pensioner, and to have re- 
ceived 1001. every session. Wood, who speaks 
very harshly of Bysshe, says that after obtain- 
ing his knighthood ' he did nothing but de- 
turpate, and so continued worse and worse 
till his death,' which occurred in the parish 
of St. Paul, Covent Garden, on 15 Dec. 1679. 
He was obscurely buried late at night in 
the church of St. Olave, Jewry. He mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of John Green of 
Boyshall, Essex, serjeant-at-law. She sur- 
vived him. He edited: 1. ' Nicolai Vptoni 
de Studio Militari Libri Quatuor. lohan. de 
Bado Aureo Tractatus de Armis. Henrici 
Spelmanni Aspilogia. Edoardus Bissseus e 
Codicibus MSS. primus public! juris fecit, 
notisque illustravit,' Lond. 1654, fol. Dedi- 
cated to John Selden. The notes, originally 
written in English by Bysshe, were trans- 
lated into Latin by David Whitford, an 
ejected student of Christ Church, Oxford. 
2. ' Palladius, de Gentibus Indiae et Brag- 
manibus. S. Ambrosius, de Moribus Brach- 
manorum. Anonymus, de Bragmanibus,' 
Lond. 1665, 4to. In Greek and Latin. Dedi- 
cated to Lord-chancellor Clarendon. At one 
time he contemplated writing the ' Survey or 
Antiquities of the County of Surrey,' but the 
work never appeared. Even Wood is con- 
strained to admit that Bysshe was during 
the Commonwealth period a 'great encourager 
of learning and learned men,' and that^ he 
understood arms and armoury very well, 
though he ' could never endure to take pains 
in genealogies.' A modern and less preju- 
diced writer remarks that the praise of being 
a profound critic in the science of heraldry 
cannot justly be denied him. He is more 
learned and more perspicuous than his pre- 
decessors, and was the first who treated the 
subject as an antiquary and historian, en- 
deavouring to divest it of extraneous matter 
(DALLAWAY, Science of Heraldry in England, 
342). 

[Berry's Sussex Genealogies, 199; Brayley's 
Surrey, iv. 295, 296 ; Publications of the Kar- 
leian Soc. viii. 135 ; Manning and Bray's Surrey, 
i. 292, ii. 285, 318, 319; Harl. MS. 813, art. 40; 
Addit. MSS. 22883, 26669,26758, f. 13 b- Lansd. 
MS. 255, ff. 55, 58 ; Moule's Bibl. Heraldica ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 612 ; Noble's College of 
Arms, 236, 239, 248, 260, 261, 264, 280; Lists 
of Members of Parliament (official return), i. 
502, 510, 529 ; Surrey Archaeological Collections, 
iii. 381 ; Willis's Notitia Parliamentaria, iii. 236, 
250, 266, 293; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 
1218.] ' T. C. 

BYSSHE, EDWARD Q0. 1712), miscel- 
laneous writer, describes himself as 'gent. 



on the title-pages of his books. He probably 
belonged to the Surrey family of the name 
[see BYSSHE, SIB EDWARD], but all that is 
positively known about him is that he sought 
a livelihood as a literary hack in London. In 
1702 appeared the book by which he is re- 
membered. Its title runs : ' The Art of Eng- 
lish Poetry : containing I. Rules for Making 
Verses. II. A Dictionary of Rhymes. III. A 
collection of the most Natural, Agreeable, 
and Noble Thoughts, viz. Allusions, Similes, 
Descriptions, and Characters of Persons and 
Things : that are to be found in the best 
English Poets.' Bysshe addresses his dedi- 
cation to ' Edmund Dunch, Esq., of Little 
Wittenham in Berkshire.' The first part of 
the volume is a business-like treatise on the 
laws of English prosody, with illustrations 
which prove Bysshe to have been an enthu- 
siastic admirer of Dryden. The work was 
extraordinarily popular ; a fifth edition was 
issued in 1714; a seventh, 'corrected and 
enlarged,' in 1724 ; an eighth is dated 1737. 
In 1714 the second and third parts were 
published separately under the title of ' The 
British Parnassus ; or a compleat Common 
Place-book of English Poetry ' (2 vols.), and 
this was reissued in 1718 with a new title- 
page ('The Art of English Poetry, vols. the 
iii d and iv th '). Thomas Hood the younger 
reprinted Bysshe's ' Rules ' as an appendix 
to his ' Practical Guide to English Versifi- 
cation ' in 1877. Bysshe also edited in 1712 
Sir Richard Bulstrode's 'Letters,' with a 
biographical introduction and a dedication 
addressed to George, lord Cardigan. In the 
same year there appeared a translation by 
Bysshe of Xenophon's ' Memorabilia,' which 
was dedicated to Lord Ashburnham from 
' London, 24 Nov. 1711,' and was reissued in 
1758. 

[Bysshe's Works.] S. L. L. 

BYTHNER, VICTORINUS (1605 P- 
1670 ?), Hebrew grammarian, was a native 
of Poland. He became a member of the 
university of Oxford about 1635, and lec- 
tured on the Hebrew language in the great 
refectory at Christ Church until the out- 
break of the civil war. When Charles I 
fixed the headquarters of his army at Oxford 
in 1643, Bythner removed to Cambridge. 
He afterwards lived in London, but in 1651 
we find him again professor of Hebrew at 
Oxford. About 1664 he retired into Corn- 
wall, and there practised medicine. The 
date of his death is unknown. Bythner's 
grammatical works, though written in curi- 
ously faulty Latin, are models of lucid and 
compact arrangement, and continued long in 
use. His Hebrew grammar, published in 



Cabanel 



166 



Cabot 



1638 under the title ' Lingua Eruditorum,' 
was several times reprinted. An edition of 
this work was published by Dr. Hessey in 
1 853, accompanied by the author's ' Insti- 
tutio Chaldaica ' (first printed in 1650). Of 
Bythner's other writings, the most important 
is his ' Lyra Prophetica Davidis Regis ' (Lon- 



don, 1650), which is a grammatical analysis 
of every word in the Hebrew psalter. An 
English translation of this book, by T. Dee, 
was published in 1836, and a second edition 
of this translation appeared in 1847. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon., ed. Bliss, iii. 675 ; MS. 
Egerton 1324, f. 106.] H. B. 



c 



CABANEL, RUDOLPH (1762-1839), 
architect, was born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 
1762. He came to England early in life, and 
settled in London, where he was employed 
in the construction of several theatres. He 
designed the arrangements of the stage of 
old Drury Lane Theatre, the Royal Circus, 
afterwards called the Surrey Theatre, 1805 
(burnt down 30-1 Jan. 1865), and the Co- 
bourg Theatre, 1818. He was the inventor of 
the roof known by his name, besides a number 
of machines, &c. He died in Mount Gardens, 
Lambeth, on 5 Feb. 1839. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Gent. Mag. 
(1839), i. 329.] C. M. 

CABBELL, BENJAMIN BOND (1781- 
1874), patron of art, fourth son of George 
Cabbell, apothecary, of 17 Wigmore Street, 
London, by Mary, daughter of Thomas Bliss, 
astronomer royal, was born in Vere Street, 
London, in 1781, educated at Westminster 
School, and matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, 19 June 1800, 'aged 17;' thence 
he migrated to Exeter College on 25 Feb. 
1801, but left the university in 1803 without 
a degree. He was called to the bar, at the 
Middle Temple, 9 Feb. 1816, when he went 
the Western and Somerset circuits. In 1850 
he became a bencher of his inn. On 11 Aug. 
1846 he entered parliament, in the conserva- 
tive interest, as member for St. Albans, and 
in the following year, on 11 July, was re- 
turned for Boston, which he represented till 
21 March 1857. He was a staunch sup- 
porter of protestant principles, and was in 
favour of very great alterations in the then 
existing poor laws ; he opposed the grant to 
Maynooth, and, according to Dod's 'Parlia- 
mentary Companion,' ' was anxious to pro- 
mote the improvement of the social, moral, 
and mental condition of the industrious 
classes.' 

Cabbell was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society 19 Jan. 1837, was a magistrate for Nor- 
folk, Middlesex, and Westminster, and served 
as high sheriff for the first-named county in 
1854. He was president of the City of Lon- 
don General Pension Society, a vice-president 



of the Royal Literary Fund, treasurer to the 
Lock Hospital, and sub-treasurer to the Infant 
Orphan Asylum. He was also a zealous and 
influential mason, being a trustee of the 
Royal Masonic Institution, and provincial 

and master of the freemasons of Norfolk. 

is country residence was at Cromer Hall, 
Norfolk, and to Cromer and its neighbour- 
hood he was a munificent benefactor, having 
defrayed the cost of building a lifeboat for 
the town, besides presenting a considerable 
piece of land for the purposes of a cemetery. 

He was widely known as an art patron. 
He became a member of the Artists' Benevo- 
lent Fund, 1824, aided in obtaining a charter 
of incorporation for the society in 1827, and 
contributed 20/. towards the preliminary 
expenses. He died at 39 Chapel Street, 
Marylebone Road, London, 9 Dec. 1874, in 
his 94th year. 

[Solicitor's Journal, 19 Dec. 1874, p. 128 ; Law 
Times, 19 Dec. 1874, p. 124 ; Pye's Patronage of 
British Art, 1845, pp. 358, 365, with portrait ; 
Times, 11 Dec. 1874, p. 10.] G. C. B. 

CABOT, SEBASTIAN (1474-1557), cos- 
mographer and cartographer, was the second 
son of John Cabot, a Venetian pilot, who 
afterwards settled in Bristol as a merchant, 
probably as early as 1472, and who, after 
having made discoveries on the east coast of 
North America, assisted by his sons Sebastian, 
Lewes, and Sancto, is supposed to have died 
in Bristol about 1498. 

Sebastian Cabot has recently been described 
as the ' Sphinx of North American history 
for over three hundred years ' (WiNSOR, iii. 
32). A confusion between himself and his 
father on the part of many of his recent bio- 
graphers has been the main cause of their 
perplexity. This error can be avoided by a 
cautious use of the materials found in the 
pages of Peter Martyr (Anglerius), Ramusio, 
Eden, and Hakluyt, checked by comparisons 
with the letters patent granted by Henry VH 
to the elder Cabot and his sons, 1496-8. 

Recent writers have injudiciously rejected 
the old tradition that referred Sebastian 
Cabot's birthplace to Bristol in favour of a 



Cabot 



167 



Cabot 



comparatively new but suspicious story which 
removes it to Venice. One of the dreams 
of Sebastian's life, inherited from his father 
was the finding of ' a new passage ' to Cathay 
or Tanais, perhaps Tainsu, by the north o: 
north-east (WEISE, p. 193). At the age o 
forty-eight years or thereabout, having re- 
ceived no encouragement in Spain, Sebastian 
endeavoured to secure the attention of Gaspar 
Contarini, the Venetian ambassador, whom 
he met at Valladolid in 1522, in order that 
the scheme should be brought before the 
council of ten in Venice. If we are to be- 
lieve the ambassador, Cabot at a secret in- 
terview by night endeavoured to gain his ear 
by saying, ' Signer ambassator, per dirve i] 
tuto io naqui a Venetia, ma sum nutrito in In- 
gelterra ' (HARRISSE, p. 348). Assuming Con- 
tarini's report to be correct, Cabot's motive for 
ingratiating himself is so obvious that the 
interview must be regarded as a mere display 
of diplomatic finesse. Although negotiations 
were reopened as late as 12 Sept. 1551, Cabot 
never ventured to Venice in the interval of 
twenty-nine years to substantiate his claims 
as a citizen or his statements. In short, it 
is now shown and admitted by his latest 
biographer * that all the alleged facts were 
used as a pretext and a blind was on both 
sides avowed' (WrxsOR, iii. 31). The old 
tradition is in favour of Bristol, which Cabot 
had no motive for claiming falsely. Eden, 
the old friend of Cabot, while translating 
fol. 404 of vol. i. of G. B. Ramusio's < II 
Navigatione ' of 1550 for his own ' Decades ' 
in 1555, two years before Cabot's death, went 
out of his way to refute a similar story to 
Contarini's which he found in his text. In 
a marginal note Eden writes : ' Sebastian 
Cabot tould methathewas borne in Bry stowe, 
and that at iiii. yeare owld he was carried 
with his father to Venice, and so returned 
agayne into England with his father after 
certayne yeares, wherby he was thought to 
have bin born in Venice ' (fol. 255). 

There are two interesting accounts of Sebas- 
tian Cabot's early years which read as follows : 

1. ' Sebastian Cabote, a Venetian borne, whom 
beingyet but in maner an infante,his parentes 
caryed with them into England, havying 
occasion to resort thither for trade of mar- 
chandies, as is the maner of the Venetians 
too leave no parte of the worlde vnsearched 
to obteyne richesse ' (PETER MARTYR (ANGLE- 
RITJS), 3 Dec. bk. vi. Eden's trans, fol. 118). 

2. ' When my father departed from Venice 
many yeares since to dwell in Englande to 
follow the trade of marchaundies, he took me 
with him to the citie of London whyle I 
was very yong, yet having neverthelesse sum 
knowledge of letters of humanitie and of the 



sphere' (RAMtrsio, Eden's trans, fol. 255) 
A glance at the movements of John Cabot 
in Spain and Italy after 1476 serves to show 
that these two accounts refer to the last 
journey of his parents (about 1493) from 
Venice to Bristol via London while Se- 
bastian was a minor in his eighteenth year 
(cf. Fox BOURNE, i. 28). 

Early in 1496 we find the name of Sebas- 
tian Cabot associated with those of his father 
and two brothers in the following petition 
to Henry VII : ' Please it your highness of 
your moste noble and haboundant Grace to 
grant unto John Cabotto, citezen of Venes, 
Lewes, Sebastyan, and Sancto, his sonneys, 
your gracious letteres patentes . . . according 
to the tenour hereafter ensuyng,' which was 
to commission them to sail for the discovery 
of islands, countries, &c., which were then 
unknown to all Christians. These letters 
patent were granted on 5 March 1496. 
With this commission John Cabot and his 
sons set sail from Bristol in the spring of 
the following year with two ships, one of 
which was named the Matthew, which re- 
sulted in the discovery of the new-found 
lands of Cape Breton Island and Nova 
Scotia on St. John's day 1497. On 3 Feb. 
1498 letters patent were granted, in the name 
of John Cabot only, for a second expedition 
to the field of his first discoveries ; the fleet 
of five ships set sail early in the summer 
and was expected to return towards Septem- 
ber. According to Raimondo di Soncino, 
who wrote on 18 Dec. 1497, these discoveries 
were recorded by John Cabot on a map, and 
also on a globe, which are now lost (WEISE, 
p. 192). Nothing is known of the termination 
of this second voyage, and from this period 
the history of John Cabot ceases. 

It is much to be feared, from the am- 
biguous and often contradictory accounts of 
the voyages of 1497 to 1499 in contemporary 
chronicles, that nearly if not all the dis- 
coveries that are usually assigned to Sebas- 
tian Cabot are really those of his father. 
According to Stow (p. 862) Sebastian (?) 
Dabot ' made a voyage with two ships in the 
14th yeare of Henry VII,' or 1499. If this 
s the voyage referred to by Peter Martyr 
^EDEN, p. 119), Lopez de Gomara (ib, 318), 
and Galvano, he, or more probably his father, 
must have sailed along the coast of Labrador 
almost up to latitude 60 north and have re- 
urned along the coast of Baccalos, or New- 
bundland, thence almost out of sight of 
and down to latitude 30, whence he steered 
or England. The descriptions of the regions 
sxplored apply to no portion of the United 
States, but only to the coasts of Cape Breton 
sland and Nova Scotia, as laid down upon 



Cabot 



168 



Cabot 



the famous map of 1544 noticed below (cf. 
WEISE, p. 202). Of the nature of these 
discoveries nothing is known. There were 
other expeditions to Newfoundland set forth 
by the Bristol merchants Nicholas Thorn the 
elder and Eliot, assisted by Portuguese, from 
1501 to 1505, but there is no evidence that 
Sebastian Cabot was in any way connected 
with them ; on the contrary, according to a 
contemporary manuscript hitherto unnoticed 
by Cabot's biographers, ' Sebastyan . . . was 
never in that land [i.e. Newfoundland] him- 
self, and made report of many things only 
as he heard his father and other men speke 
in times past ' (HERBERT, i. 411). We hear 
nothing more of him for the next dozen 
years, during which period he was doubtless 
well employed in the study of the accounts 
of the discoveries of Columbus and his fol- 
lowers. His fame as a cartographer had 
already attracted the notice of Henry VIII, 
for we read in the king's exchequer accounts 
in May 1512: 'Paid Sebastian Tabot (sic 
Cabot), making of a carde of Gascoigne and 
Guyon (Guienne), 20s.' (Brit. Mm. AM. 
MS. 21481). Feeling, however, dissatisfied 
at the want of encouragement from the king, 
at the instance of Lord Willoughby he went 
to Spain in the following autumn, and en^ 
tered the service of King Ferdinand the 
Catholic as cartographer, and a member of 
the council of the New Indies, with the rank 
of captain, at a yearly salary of 50,000 mara- 
vedis. He was ordered to remain in Seville 
in readiness for any work that might be 
assigned to him. Before the close of the year 
he married Catalina Medrano, evidently a 
Spaniard (NAVARRETE, ii. 698). On 18 Nov. 
1515 Cabot figures as one of the cosmogra- 
phers who met to define the rights of the 
Spanish crown to the Moluccas (ib. iii. 319). 
About this period he was directed to prepare 
for a voyage of discovery towards the north- 
west. According to Peter Martyr, 'this 
voyage ' was ' appointed to bee begunne in 
March in the yeare next followynge, being 
the yeare of Chryst, 1516' (EDEN, p. 119). 
But this and other projects were frustrated 
by the death of Ferdinand on 23 Jan. pre- 
vious, and by the jealous conduct of Cardinal 
Ximenes as regent, which led to Cabot's re- 
turn to England towards the end of the 
year (Fox BOTTRKE, i. 42). 

This brings us to the well-known story 
of the disputed voyage of Cabot with Sir 
Thomas Perte about the year 1517. The 
sole authority for this voyage is Eden, in his 
'Treatyse of Newe India. In the dedication 
he writes : ' Kyng Henry the VTII about the 
same yere of his raygne, furnished and sent 
forth certen shippes under the gouernance 



of Sebastian Cabot, yet living (1553), and 
one Syr Thomas Perte, whose faynt heart 
was the cause that that viage took none 
iffect.' Hakluyt in 1589, in his eagerness to 
:onfirm Eden's story, had the misfortune, 
through a printer's error in ' Ramusio ' (iii. 
204), to associate it with an incident in a 
voyage now known to be that of John Rut 
(Rotz ?), correctly recorded in Oviedo's earlier 
work of 1535 (cap. xiii. fol. 161) under its true 
date of 1527. Hence the confusion, which 
has led not only to the rejection of Eden's 
story, but also of Cabot's own statement that 
he was in England in 1517 or thereabouts. 
In Contarini's despatch quoted above, Cabot, 
on the Christmas eve of 1522, is reported to 
have said, ' Now it so happened that when in 
England some three years ago, unless I err, 
Cardinal Wolsey offered me high terms if I 
would sail with an armada of his on a voy- 
age of discovery; the vessels were almost 
ready, and they had got together 30,000 
ducats for their outfit.' Observing that he 
could not do so without the emperor's leave, 
he adds : ' I wrote to the emperor by no 
means to give me leave to serve the King of 
England . . . and that on the contrary he 
should recall me forthwith ' (Miscell. Philo- 
-biblon Soc. ii. 15). Although Cabot may 
have exaggerated the purport of a chance 
conversation with Wolsey, there can be no 
reasonable doubt that he was in England 
probably tiU the close of 1519. That he 
knew Perte is also probable, as the latter 
was of an old Bristol family (cf. Brit. Mus. 
Add. MS. 29866). A careful review of all 
the known facts relating to this much-dis- 
puted voyage serves to show that it is highly 
probable that Henry VIII, through Wolsey, 
took advantage of Cabot's temporary stay in 
England at this period to request him to 
organise a small ^pedition, which ' tooke 
none effect,' or perhaps did not even leave 
our shores, either through the timidity or 
jealousy of Perte, who at this period was a 
yeoman of the crown and overseer of ballast- 
ing ships in the Thames (BREWER, vol. ii. 
pt. ii. p. 110, and NORDEN, p. 39). A second 
visit by Cabot, and a second failure of a voy- 
age in 1519,as suggested by Harrisse (p. 116), 
evidently refer to the same story. On 6 May 
1519 Cabot was appointed pilot-major to 
Charles V when he returned to Spain. From 
this period up to the time of his interview 
with Contarini in 1522 he appears to have 
been employed in making researches in refe- 
rence to the variation of the needle first ob- 
served by Columbus. In the spring of 1524 
he attended the conference of Bada^os as an 
expert on behalf of the emperor, which ter- 
minated in assigning the Moluccas to Spain, 



Cabot 



169 



Cabot 



and Brazil to Portugal. In April 1526 he 
was appointed to the command of an expe- 
dition to Brazil. He visited the river and 
adjoining district of La Plata, and founded 
a fort at San Salvador, spending nearly four 
years in attempting to lay the foundations 
of the Spanish conquest of South America. 
The attempt was such a failure, that on his 
return to Spain in August 1530 he was im- 
prisoned for nearly a year, and afterwards 
condemned by the council of the Indies to 
two years' banishment to Oran in Africa for 
mismanagement and excesses committed 
during the course of the expedition. He, 
however, returned to Seville in June 1533, 
and was soon reinstated in his former posi- 
tion. As remarked by Oviedo, Cabot was 
' a good person, and skilful in his office of 
cosmography, and making a map of the 
whole world in plane or in a spherical form, 
but it is not the same thing to command and 
govern people as to point a quadrant or an 
astrolabe' (ii. 169). For the next eleven 
years his duties as examiner of pilots in the 
Contractation House at Seville were varied 
by several voyages too unimportant to dwell 
upon (EDEN, p. 256), and in compiling mate- 
rials for his famous mappemonde. The ori- 
ginal of this famous map was drawn on 
parchment, and illuminated with gold and 
colours. The last that was heard of the 
manuscript was the sale of it at the decease 
of Juan de Ovando, president of the Council 
of the Indies, in September 1575. Another 
draft of it was afterwards engraved, appar- 
ently in three different states ; the first in 
1544 ; the second edition, dated 1549, and 
seen by Nicholas Chytraeus (Kochhoff) in 
1566 ; a third one, ' cut by Clement Adams 
[q. v.], which in his day was to be seen in 
the privie gallery at Westminster, and in 
many other ancient merchants' houses.' Of 
these the only one preserved to us is the 
unique example which was discovered in 
Germany in 1844, and which is now so distin- 
guished an exhibit in the Galerie de Gogra- 
phie of the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 
It is projected in piano on an ellipse with a 
longitudinal axis of 39 inches, and a parallel 
axis of 44 inches, engraved and coloured. 
It bears the following inscription : ' Sebas- 
tian Caboto capitan, y piloto mayor de la 
S.c.c. m. del Imperador don Carlos quinto . . . 
hizo esta figura extensa en piano, anno de 
. . . J.C. 1544.' There are legends on the 
map both in Latin and Spanish, the latter 
being corrupted at the hands of a Fleming. 
It was probably printed at Antwerp, the 
great centre of the production of geographi- 
cal works at this period. It embodies not 
only Cabot's discoveries in South America, 



and those of his father in North America, 
but also those of the Portuguese and 
Spaniards down to his day. It served as 
the model for all the general maps of the 
world afterwards published in Italy, and also 
for the well-known ' Typus orbis terrarum ' 
by Abraham Ortelius of Antwerp, so often 
reproduced by Hakluyt and others down to 
the end of the sixteenth century. Cabot's 
last official act as pilot-major to Charles V 
was the exercise of his censorship upon 
Pedro Medina's ' Arte de Nauegar,' Vallado- 
lid, 1544, fol. 

Shortly after the death of Henry VIII 
(28 Jan. 1547), Cabot received tempting offers 
from friends in England to transfer his ser- 
vices to the country of his birth. That no 
time was lost in accepting them is proved by 
the following minute of the privy council of 
Edward VI under date of 9 Oct. 1547 : < Mr. 
Peckham had warrant for 100 li for the 
transporting of one Shabot (sz'c), a pilot, to 
come out of Hispain to serve and inhabit in 
England.' According to Strype (n. i. 296), 
he once more settled in his native town, Bris- 
tol. In the following January he was awarded 
a pension of 166/. 13s. 4d. by the year during 
his life (RxMEE, xv. 181). No sooner had 
this news reached the ears of the Emperor 
Charles at Brussels, than he somewhat im- 
periously, through the English ambassador 
there, conveyed to the privy council in Eng- 
land his desire that ' Sebastian, grand pilot 
of the emperor's Indies, then in England, be 
sent over to Spain as a very necessary man 
for the emperor, whose servant he was, and 
had a pension of him ' (STETPE, loc. cit.) On 
21 April 1550 the privy council in England 
replied, ' that as for Sebastian Cabot, he of 
himself refused to go either into Spain or to 
the emperor, and that he being of that mind, 
and the King of England's subject, no reason 
or equity would that he should be forced or 
compelled to go against his will ' (Harl. MS. 
523, fol. 6). This application was renewed 
in the reign of Queen Mary on 9 Sept. 1553, 
but without result. Hakluyt records (iii. 
pref.) that King Edward, in addition to his 
pension, advanced him to be grand pilot of 
England. This, however, is an error, as no 
mention is made of it in either of the three 
patents relating to his pension. This hono- 
rary office was first created for Stephen 
Borough [q. v.] in 1563. Important work 
was soon found for Cabot, in addition to 
a general supervision of the maritime af- 
fairs of the country. He was called upon to 
settle the long growing disputes that had 
almost reached their height between the mer- 
chants of the steelyard, a colony of German 
traders of the Hanseatic League, and the mer- 



Cabot 



170 



Cabot 



chants of London, who for a long period had 
suffered from the monopolies exercised by 
the former. For his good offices on this 
occasion Cabot was awarded by the crown 
in March 1551 a further gratuity of 200/. 
(STRYPE, u. ii. 76). 

This brings us to the crowning work of 
Cabot's career. He was not the discoverer 
of North America an honour never claimed 
for him by his contemporaries or the chronicles 
of the sixteenth century but he was the first 
governor of the Merchant Adventurers, and 
founder of a new era in the history of com- 
merce and British merchant shipping. Hav- 
ing brought to so successful an issue the 
steelyard grievances, Cabot's further advice 
was sought by ' certain grave citizens of Lon- 
don ' for the removal of the great stagnation 
in trade resulting from the disturbed and 
warlike state of the continent. ' After much 
speech and conference together,' the mer- 
chants were induced by him to make an effort 
' for the searche and discoverie of the northern 
part of the world by sea to open a way and 
passage to Cathay by the North-East.' Cabot's 
advice was adopted, and the Company of 
Merchant Adventurers was formed and in- 
corporated on 18 Dec. 1551, with Cabot as 
governor for life. In May 1553 a fleet of three 
vessels was prepared, and set forth under the 
supervision of Cabot, with Sir H. Willoughby 
for admiral, and R. Chancellor for chief pilot. 
The first results of this expedition were the 
accidental discovery of Russia by the latter 
in the following August, and the opening up 
five years later by Ant. Jenkinson of the first 
English trade across the Caspian Sea to Cen- 
tral Asia. Although Cabot's pension had been 
renewed to him by Queen Mary on 27 Nov. 
1555, the tide in Cabot's affairs appears to have 
reached its height in the latest sketch of him 
afforded us in the account of the setting forth 
of the Searchthrift in the adventurers' third 
voyage to Russia in May 1556. Stephen 
Borough writes : ' The good old gentleman, 
Master Cabot, accompanied with divers gen- 
tlemen and gentlewomen,' went to Gravesend 
to inspect the ship previous to its departure. 
' Master Cabot,' adds Borough, ' gave to the 
poor most liberal alms, wishing them to pray 
for the good fortune and prosperous success 
of the Searchthrift ; and then, a,t the sign of 
the Christopher, he and his friends ban- 
queted, and made me and them that were in 
the company great cheer; and, for very joy 
that he had to see the towardness of our in- 
tended discovery, he entered into the dance 
himself among the rest of the young and 
lusty company ; which being ended, he and 
his friends departed, most gently commend- 
ing us to the governance of Almighty God ' 



(HAKLTJYT, i. 274). Within a week of King 
Philip's entry into London on 27 May 1557, 
Cabot was called upon to resign his pension, 
only to be allowed to share it two days later 
with William Worthington, perhaps out of 
royal spite for withdrawing himself from the 
service of Spain. Concerning the date and 
place of Cabot's death we have no informa- 
tion, but there is evidence of a negative 
character from which it may safely be in- 
ferred that he was already dead soon after 
the middle of 1557. The only account of 
Cabot's death on record is by his friend Eden, 
who writes : ' Sebastian Cabot, on his death- 
bed, told me that he had the knowledge [of 
the art of finding longitude] by divine reve- 
lation, yet so that he myght not teach any 
man. But I think that the goode olde man, 
in that extreme age, somewhat doted, and 
had not yet, even in the article of death, 
vtterly shaken of (sic) all worldly vayne 
glorie ' (J. TAISNTERTJS, Book concerning Na- 
vigation. Translated by R. Eden, London, t 
n. d. circa 1574). 

With the exception of the engraved map of 
1544 and its facsimile, natural size, executed 
by M. Jomard, no literary relics of Cabot are 
extant. All that Bristol has to show as a relic 
is what is known as the Dun Cow, the rib of a 
cow whale preserved in the western entrance 
of St. Mary Redclifie Church, supposed to 
have been placed there in 1497 as a trophy of 
Cabot's discovery of Newfoundland (ARROW- 
SMITH, pp. 100, 255). A street near the church 
is still known as Cathay. There was formerly 
a portrait of Cabot in the time of James I in 
the king's private gallery at Whitehall. This, 
or another copy of it, was discovered in Scot- 
land in 1792 by Mr. C. J. Harford of Bristol, 
who purchased it some years later. It was 
afterwards purchased by Mr. R. Biddle, the 
author of the memoir of Cabot, but was de- 
stroyed by fire with his mansion at Pitts- 
burg in 1845. It bore the following inscrip- 
tion : ' Effigies Sebastiani Caboti filii Johanis 
Caboti Veneti, militis aurati primi invetoris 
Terrse Novse sub Henrico VII, Anglise Rege.' 
An engraving of it was made for Seyers's 
' Memoirs ' (ii. 208). Cabot is here repre- 
sented with a pair of compasses and a globe, 
dressed in his fur robe and gold chain, be- 
lieved to be his official dress as governor of 
the Merchant Adventurers. To this day, in 
the Saba della Scudo in the ducal palace 
(Venice), there is a full-length portrait of 
Sebastian Cabot, copied (in the year 1763) 
apparently from a picture attributed to Hol- 
bein. It bears an additional inscription as 
follows : ' Henricus VII Anglise Rex Joannem 
Cabotam et Sebastianum Filium . . . Hac 
spe amissa eo tamen navigatore Terra nova 



Caddick 



171 



Cade 



detecta et Florida promontorium ' (Philo- 
biblon Soc. Miscell. ii. 25). 

[Arber's First Three English Books on Ame- 
rica, 1885; Arrowsmith and Spear's Dictionary 
of Bristol, 1884; Biddle's Memoir of Sebastian 
Cabot, 1831 ; Bourne's English Seamen under 
the Tudors, 1868; Brewer's Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, 1870; Eden's Treatyse of Newe 
India, 1553; Eden's Decades of the Newe 
Worlde, 1555 (see also Taisnier infra); Hakluyt's 
Voyages and Navigations, 1599-1600 ; Harrisse's 
Jean et Sebastien Cabot, Paris, 1882 ; Herbert's 
Twelve Livery Companies of London, 1837; Jo- 
mard's Les Monuments de la Geographic, Paris, 
1842, No. xx. ; Navarrete's Biblioteca Maritima 
Espaiiola, Madrid, 1851 ; Nicholls's Remarkable 
Life of Sebastian Cabot, 1869; Norden's Specu- 
lum Britannise, Middlesex, 1593; Oviedo's His- 
toria General de Indias, Seville, 1535; Kamu- 
sio's Navigation!, vol. i. Venice, 1550 ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, 1741, vol. xv. ; Seyers's Memoires of 
Bristol, 1821-3; Stevens's Sebastian Cabot- 
John Cabot = ! Boston, 1870 ; Strype's Eccles. 
Mem. Oxford, 1822; Taisnier's Book concerning 
Navigation, trans, by Eden, n.d. (circa 1574); 
Weise's Discoveries of America to 1525, New 
York, 1884 ; Winsor's Narrative and Critical 
History of America, vols. ii. iii. iv. Boston, 1885; 
Major, in Archseologia, vol. xliii. 1870; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. v. 1, 154, 193, 263, 285, 
3rd ser. i. 48, 125, 366, 5th/ser. iii. 468, iv. 54, 
v. 405 ; Penny Cyclopaedia ; Twiss, in Nautical 
Mag. vol. xlv. 1876 ; Cheney, in Philobiblon Soc. 
Miscellanies, vol. ii. 1856 ; Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 
21481, 29866, Harl. 525. For a few additional 
French and Italian authorities cf. Harrisse, pp. 
369, 375.] C. H. C. 

CADDICK, RICHARD, D.D. (1740- 
1819), Hebraist, was educated at Christ 
Church College, Oxford, and took the degree 
of B.A. on 5 June 1776, and that of MA. 
on 20 June 1799. In the latter year he pub- 
lished a small Hebrew grammar, which is 
very inaccurate and inconveniently arranged. 
From an advertisement prefixed to this vo- 
lume, it appears that he had previously is- 
sued an edition of the gospels in Hebrew. 
In 1799-1800 he published an edition of the 
Hebrew New Testament, in 3 vols. This 
was a corrected reprint of the translation 
published by G. Robertson in 1641, which 
is substantially identical with Hutter's ver- 
sion of 1599. Caddick's edition was issued 
simultaneously in two forms, viz. separately, 
and interleaved with the authorised English 
translation. In 1805 it was reprinted, inter- 
leaved with the Greek and the Latin Vulgate 
texts as well as the English. In 1802 Cad- 
dick published three sermons, the titles of 
which are 'True Christianity,' 'Peace the 
Christian's Happiness,' and 'Counsel for 
Christians.' In 1805 he issued proposals for 



printing by subscription a Hebrew and Eng- 
lish edition of the Book of Common Prayer, 
an annotated edition of the Old and New 
Testaments in Hebrew and English, and ' A 
Volume of Sermons preached in the Parish 
Churches in and about the Cities of London 
and Westminster from 1780 to 1804.' It 
does not appear, however, that any of these 
works were actually published. During the 
last forty years of his life he resided in or 
near London in Whitehall, at Islington, and 
at Fulham, where he died on 30 May 1819. 
The obituary in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
gives him the title of D.D., hut he did not 
obtain this degree either from his own uni- 
versity or from that of Cambridge. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxxix. pt. i. 587, 655 ; List of 
Graduates of Oxford University.] H. B. 

CADE, JOHN (d. 1450), rebel, commonly 
called Jack Cade, was an Irishman by birth, 
and is spoken of as a young man at the time 
of his rebellion ; but nothing is known of his 
personal history till a year before that date. 
He was then living in the household of Sir 
Thomas Dacre in Sussex, but was obliged 
suddenly to leave it and abjure the realm 
for the murder of a woman who was with 
child. He fled to France and served for a 
short time in the war against England, but 
within a few months ventured to return, and 
apparently settled in Kent, taking the name 
of Ay liner to conceal his identity, and giving 
himself out as a physician. In this cha- 
racter he gained so much credit as to marry 
a squire's daughter, ' of Taundede,' which may 
perhaps be Tandridge, in Surrey ; and the 
next thing we know of him is that in 1450, 
' gaily beseen in scarlet,' he became leader 
of the commons in Kent when they rose in 
rebellion against the extortions practised by 
the king's officers. 

Recent researches have shown that this 
rebellion was a much more formidable thing 
than older historians lead us to suppose. It 
was by no means an outbreak of ' the filth 
and scum of Kent.' No nobleman, indeed, 
appears openly to have taken part in it, and 
only one knight ; but apparently the greater 
part of the gentry, with the mayors of towns 
and the constables of the different hundreds, 
rose along with the rebels. The men were 
summoned as if by lawful authority, and in 
many districts it is clear that all who were 
capable of bearing arms joined in the move- 
ment. It was not a democratic rising. Ac- 
cording to Fabyan the people chose a captain 
to whom they gave the name of Mortimer, 
and professed to consider him as the cousin 
of the Duke of York ; ' but of most,' says 
the chronicler, 'he was named Jack Cade.' 



Cade 



172 



Cade 



Gascoigne, another writer of that age, says 
he was descended from Roger Mortimer, a 
bastard (Loti e Libra Veritatum, p. 190). It 
is, however, by no means certain that Cade 
was the captain originally chosen ; for one 
contemporary authority recently brought to 
light distinctly says that he was not (GRE- 
GORY, Collections of a London Citizen, p. 191, 
Camden Soc.) In any case it is clear that 
the ringleaders desired to give the movement 
the appearance of being supported by men 
of distinguished birth, and to suggest that 
their captain was connected with the family 
of the Duke of York. It is, moreover, ad- 
mitted by the chroniclers that the captain 
chosen performed his part so far well that he 
established good discipline, and, as it is said, 
' kept the people wondrously together.' This 
we should scarcely expect of an audacious 
adventurer such as we have described, and 
as a matter of fact Cade certainly did not 
do so after he entered London. So that we 
are the more inclined to believe that the 
original leader disappeared before the insur- 
gents reached the capital, and that the cool 
audacity of Cade served the purpose of the 
other leaders well in concealing his defection 
or loss. 

The rebellion first broke out about Whit- 
suntide in the latter part of May. The rebels 
encamped upon Blackheath on 1 June, where 
they 'made a field diked and staked well 
about, as it had been in the land of war.' 
The king (Henry VI) suddenly dissolved 
parliament, which had been holding its sit- 
tings before him at Leicester, and came to 
London on the 6th. He sent a deputation of 
lords, spiritual and temporal, to know the 
demands of the rebels, who replied by their 
captain that they desired the removal of cer- 
tain traitors who had too much influence in 
his council. On this orders were sent that 
every loyal man should avoid the field, and 
the king prepared to march against them in 
person. The host obeyed the proclamation 
so far that they retreated to Sevenoaks in 
the night. Next morning the king and his 
lords rode through London in their best array, 
and set out against the retreating host with 
a following of 10,000 men. They encamped 
on the ground vacated by the insurgents, 
against whom they sent on a detachment 
under Sir Humphrey Stafford and his brother 
William. But the result was disastrous ; for 
after a severe conflict these forces were de- 
feated, and both the Staffords slain. The 
news spread consternation in the royal camp 
at Blackheath. Many of the king's council 
had previously urged that a favourable answer 
should be given to the insurgents, and they 
now protested that they would openly take 



part with them unless Lord Say were placed 
in custody. The king was obliged to yield. 
Lord Say was committed to the Tower, and 
the royal army returned to London. A few 
days later the king thought it prudent to re- 
move to Kenilworth, and all resistance to the 
rebels was abandoned. They accordingly pre- 
pared to enter the city. And this was the time, 
according to Gregoiy, that another captain 
took the place of the first, pretending to be 
the same. If so, the first may have been slain 
at Sevenoaks, and the fact of his death con- 
cealed. Indeed, the first action recorded of 
the leader which seems really characteristic of 
an adventurer occurred on the field of Seven- 
oaks itself; where, as we learn from Fabyan, 
the captain arrayed himself in the apparel of 
the vanquished knight, Sir Humphrey Staf- 
ford, ' and did on him his bryganders set with 
gilt nails, and his salet and gilt spurs.' Under 
him the host again occupied Blackheath from 
St. Peter's day, 29 June, to 1 July, when 
they entered Southwark. At Blackheath he 
kept up the reputation for discipline which 
the captain had already established by be- 
heading a petty captain named Parys for 
disregard of his orders. Meanwhile a party 
within the common council had opened ne- 
gotiations with him, and he had given a pass- 
port under his sign-manual to Thomas Cooke, 
draper, to come and go between them. He 
also made use of Cooke as his agent in the 
city, and gave him written instructions to 
compel the Lombards and other foreign mer- 
chants to furnish him with armour and wea- 
pons, six horses fully equipped, and 1,000 
marks of ready money. 'And if this our 
demand be not observed and done/ so ran 
the instructions, ' we shall have the heads of 
as many as we can get of them.' 

Cade was doubtless encouraged by the 
knowledge that the citizens were mostly in 
his favour. The common council had just 
ventured to depose an alderman by name 
Philip Malpas, whom they had been com- 
pelled to elect two years before at the re- 
commendation of the court. On 2 July they 
were convoked by the mayor to take mea- 
sures for resisting the rebels; but a large ma- 
jority voted that they should be received into 
the city, and an alderman named Robert 
Home, fishmonger, who strongly opposed the 
proposal, was committed to prison. Cade 
had taken up his quarters at the White Hart 
in Southwark ; but that same afternoon he 
and his followers entered the city. After 
they had passed the drawbridge on London 
Bridge he hewed the ropes asunder. He rode 
in procession through the streets and struck 
his sword on London stone, saying, ' Now 
is Mortimer lord of this city ; ' but still keep- 



Cade 



173 



Cade 



ing up his character for good discipline he 
issued proclamations in the king's name 
against robbery and extortion, ' showed his 
mind to the mayor for the ordering of his 
people,' and returned to Southwark for the 
night. Next day (Friday, 3 July) he again 
entered the city, caused Lord Say to be 
sent for from the Tower, and had him ar- 
raigned before the mayor and other justices 
at the Guildhall. The unfortunate nobleman 
claimed to be tried by his peers ; but a body 
of men sent by the captain took him from 
the officers and hurried him to the standard 
in Cheap, where they beheaded him before 
he was fully shriven. About the same time 
William Crowmer, sheriff of Kent, Say's 
son-in-law, who was execrated as the instru- 
ment of extortionate taxation, was seized 
and brought to- Mile End, where he was be- 
headed in Cade's presence. The heads of 
Say and Crowmer were then carried through 
the streets upon poles and made to kiss each 
other. Another victim, named Bailey, who 
was also beheaded that day on a charge of 
necromancy, was believed to have been put 
to death by Cade's orders simply because he 
was an old acquaintance, who might have 
proclaimed his imposture. 

It was but a trifling addition to these ex- 
cesses that Cade also robbed the house of 
the unpopular Philip Malpas. That night 
he returned again to Southwark, and next 
morning came back as before, dined in a 
house in the parish of St. Margaret Pattens, 
and robbed his host. The better class of 
citizens were now seriously alarmed for the 
security of property ; and the mayor and 
aldermen took counsel with Lord Scales and 
Matthew Gough, to whom the king, when 
he retired to Kenilworth, had entrusted the 
keeping of the Tower. As Cade withdrew 
once more into Southwark for the night, it 
was determined not to let him enter the city 
again. Next day, 5 July, was a Sunday, and 
he apparently made no effort to do so, though 
there was no open show of opposition. He 
seems to have had some difficulties with his 
own men, and caused one, William Hawar- 
den, a common thief, who had been his chief 
councillor, to be beheaded in Southwark 
(William Worcester says in Smithfield, but 
evidently by mistake. Compare FABYAN). 
In the evening the mayor and citizens, with 
a force under Matthew Gough, occupied Lon- 
don Bridge to prevent the Kentish men re- 
entering the city. Cade at once called his men 
to arms, and set upon the citizens so furiously 
that he drove them from the Southwark end 
of the bridge to the drawbridge in the centre. 
After midnight the drawbridge was set on 
fire by the insurgents, and many of the 



citizens were slain or drowned. The vete- 
ran Matthew Gough himself perished in the 
conflict. Before this Cade had broken open 
the King's Bench and Marshalsea prisons, 
and the released prisoners came gladly to his 
aid. All night the battle raged between the 
drawbridge and the bulwark at the bridge 
foot in Southwark, till about nine in the 
morning the Kentish men gave way, and both 
sides being exhausted a truce was agreed on 
for some hours. 

The opportunity was seized by the leading 
members of the council to terminate disorders 
by an amnesty. Cardinal Kemp, archbishop of 
York, the chancellor, with Archbishop Staf- 
ford of Canterbury, who had only recently 
resigned the chancellorship, and Waynfleet, 
bishop of Winchester, held a conference with 
Cade in St. Margaret's Church, Southwark, at 
which terms were arranged, and two general 
pardons were afterwards sent by the chan- 
cellor, one for Cade himself and the other 
for his followers. The men eagerly availed 
themselves of the general pardon ; but unfor- 
tunately the other, being made out in the name 
of Mortimer, was invalid. It was not, how- 
ever, till about a week later that the captain's 
real name appears to have been discovered ; 
and meanwhile, trusting to the security of his 
pardon, he seems to have remained in South- 
wark till the 8th. He had, however, taken 
care to secure a quantity of booty in a barge, 
and have it conveyed by water to Rochester, 
whither he himself repaired on the 9th, pass- 
ing on his way through Dartford, and rais- 
ing new commotions as he went. He con- 
tinued at Rochester for two days, and went 
on to Queenborough, where he and his fol- 
lowers attempted to capture the castle, but 
were resisted by Sir Roger Chamberlain. 
On the 12th a proclamation was issued 
against him, in which he was for the first 
time named John Cade, and a reward of 
1,000 marks was offered to any one who 
would bring him to the king alive or dead. 
He now perceived that the game was de- 
sperate, and escaped in disguise towards the 
woody country about Lewes. But one Alex- 
ander Iden, ' a squire of Kent,' who had 
either already been, or more probably was 
soon after, appointed sheriff of Kent in the 
place of the murdered Crowmer, pursued him 
to the neighbourhood of Heathfield in Sussex, 
where he found him on 12 July in a garden, 
and took him prisoner, but not without a 
struggle, in which Cade received a mortal 
wound. He was put into a cart by his captor 
and conveyed up to London, but died by the 
way. On the following morning, Monday 
the 13th, his naked body was identified by 
the hostess of the White Hart in Southwark. 



Cade 



Cade 



It was taken to the King's Bench prison, 
where it lay from that day till the evening 
of Thursday the 16th. Then it was beheaded 
and quartered, and the remains were conveyed 
upon a hurdle through the streets, the head 
rest ing between the breasts. First from the 
king's bench they made the round of South- 
wark, then passed over London Bridge to 
Newgate. Finally the head was taken and set 
up on London Bridge, and of the four quarters 
one was delivered to the constable of the 
hundred of Blackheath. The other three 
were sent to the cities of Norwich, Salis- 
bury, and Gloucester for public exhibition. 

Many questions have arisen in connection 
with Cade's rebellion, and especially with 
regard to his personality, which it is not 
easy to answer with confidence. One recent 
writer questions the fact of his supposed low 
birth, on the ground that an act of attainder 
was passed against him after the rebel- 
lion. But his marriage with the daughter 
of an English squire might have given him 
some landed property, or at least some rever- 
sionary interest, which would fully account 
for the passing of such an act. It is remarked 
also that the name of Cade was not uncom- 
mon in Sussex, in the neighbourhood of 
Heathfield, where he was taken. There is 
no certainty, however, that the name of Cade 
descended to him from his father any more 
than that of Mortimer. In official records 
as well as chronicles he is declared to have 
been an Irishman, and his real origin was 
probably obscure. A point of more impor- 
tance as regards the political significance of 
the rising is whether there was any under- 
standing, as commonly supposed, between 
Cade and the Duke of York. If there was, 
it must be owned that Cade was a most un- 
faithful ally, for among the booty which he 
seized during the rebellion were jewels be- 
longing to the duke, for which the king 
afterwards ordered the latter to be recom- 
pensed to the value of 114/. (DEVON, Issue 
Rolls, 467-8). 

[Fabyan's Chronicle ; "Worcester's Annales, 
470-2 (at end of Hearne's Liber Niger) ; English 
Chronicle, ed. J. S. Davies (Camd. Soc\), 64-7; 
Collections of a London Citizen (Camd.Soc.), 1 90- 
194 ; Three Fifteenth-century Chronicles (Camd. 
Soc.), 66-8, 94 ; Paston Letters (Gairdner's ed.), 
i. 132-5; Kolls of Parliament, v. 224; Devon's 
Issue Kolls, 466-72, 476 ; Hall's Chronicle (ed. 
1809), 220-2; Holinshed (ed. 1587), iii. 632; 
Ellis's Letters, 2nd series,!. 113 ; Orridge's Illus- 
trations of Jack Cade's Rebellion.] J. G. 

CADE, JOHN (1734-1806), antiquary, 
was born in January 1734, at Darlington, 
where he was educated at the free grammar 
school. Entering the house of a wholesale 



linendraper in London, he in a few years 
was promoted to the first position in the 
counting-house, and subsequently became a 
partner in a branch of the concern at Dublin. 
Having obtained a sufficient competency, he 
retired from business, and occupied himself 
with antiquarian studies. He collected il- 
lustrations for a copy of Bishop Gibson's edi- 
tion of Cam den's ' Britannia,' and also sup- 
plied Gough with many corrections for his 
edition. He sent to Nichols ' Some Conjec- 
tures on the Formation of Peat-mosses in the 
mountainous parts of the Counties of Durham, 
Northumberland, &c.,' printed in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine,' lix. 967. Though not a 
member of the Society of Antiquaries, he 
contributed several papers to their ' Archaeo- 
logia,' including ' Conjectures concerning some 
undescribed Roman Roads and other Anti- 
quities in the County of Durham,' vii. 74 ; 
' A Letter from Rev. Dr. Sharp, Archdeacon 
of Northumberland, to Mr. Cade,' ib. 82; 
' Conjectures on the name of the Roman 
Station Vinovium or Birchester,' ib. ix. 276 ; 
and ' Some Observations on the Roman Sta- 
tion of Cataractonium, with an account of 
the Antiquities in the neighbourhood of Piers- 
bridge and Gainford ; in a letter to Richard 
Gough, Esq.,' ib. x. 54. He died at Gainford 
10 Dec. 1806, and was buried at Darlington. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. 313-28 ; Gent. 
Mag. vol. Ixxvi. pt. ii. p. 1252.] T. F. H. 

CADE or CADDY, LAURENCE (fl. 

1583), a catholic seminarist, was a gentleman 
of a good family, and received his education 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, but does not 
appear to have graduated. On becoming a 
Roman catholic he went abroad, and was 
admitted into the English College of Douay 
on 11 June 1578. Soon after his return to 
England he was apprehended, and being un- 
willing to answer such questions as were 
put to him, he was committed to the Tower. 
His relatives and friends brought him back 
to the church of England, and in 1581 he 
recanted at St. Paul's Cross and regained his 
liberty, but before long he returned to the 
catholic religion, and in April 1583 he was 
preparing himself for admission among the 
Carmelites at Paris. The ' Palinodia ' which 
he published at this period is printed in 
Bridgewater's ' Concertatio Ecclesiae Catho- 
licse in Anglia.' Dodd states that he ' was 
very instrumental in moderating the fury of 
John Nicols, who, having also been a student 
at Rome, had prevaricated, and not only pub- 
lished several scandalous libels against the 
catholics abroad, but was contriving to do 
that party all the mischief he could by turn- 
ing priest-catcher.' 



Cade 



175 



Cadell 



[Bridge-water's Concertatio (1589-94), iii. 223, 
234-8 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 157 ; Report 
of the Apprehension and Imprisonment of John 
Nicols, 18, 24 ; Addit. MS. 5865, f. 104; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab, i. 451 ; Diaries of the English 
College, Douay, pp. 142, 323-5, 358 ; Letters 
and Memorials of Card. Allen, 177, 182, 186, 
188.] T. C. 

CADE, SALTJSBTJRY, M.D. (1660?- 
1720), physician, was born in Kent about 
1660. He was of Trinity College, Oxford, 
and graduated M.D. in 1691, having been 
admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians three years previously. He was 
elected a fellow in 1694, and was twice 
censor. He was appointed physician to St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital on 14 Oct. 1708, 
and held the office till his death, on 22 Dec. 
1720. He lived at Greenwich till he obtained 
this appointment, and thenceforward in the 
Old Bailey. A Latin letter of Cade's, dated 
8 Sept. 1716, on the treatment of small-pox, 
is printed in Robert Freind's folio edition of 
Dr. John Freind's ' Works ' (London, 1733). 
It shows him to have had a large experience 
of the disease. He makes the interesting ob- 
servation that he had never known a case of 
hsematuria in small-pox survive the sixteenth 
day from the eruption, and his remarks on 
treatment are enlightened. His name is met 
with as giving official sanction to books pub- 
lished during his censorship, and in the ' Phar- 
macopoeia Pauperum' of 1718 a prescription 
of his for a powder to be taken internally 
for skin diseases is preserved. It was called 
Pulvis ^Ethiopicus, and consisted of one part 
of sethiopic mineral to two of crude antimony. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i- 510 ; Manuscript 
Journals St. Bartholomew's Hospital; original 
printed lists of fellows at College of Physicians ; 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital Eeports, xx. 287-] 

N. M. 

CADELL (d. 909), king of Ceredigion and 
afterwards of Powys, was one of the six war- 
like sons of Rhodri Mawr, the most powerful 
of the early Welsh kings. If we can trust 
a late authority, he was Rhodri's eldest son, 
and received as his patrimony Ceredigion, 
with the palace at Dinevwr, and an overlord- 
ship over his other brothers. In 877 Rhodri 
was slain by the Saxons, and Cadell entered 
upon his turbulent reign. In conjunction 
with his brothers he ravaged and devastated 
the neighbouring states of Dyved and Brech- 
einiog to such purpose that the latter gladly 
accepted the help of King Alfred against a 
nearer and more terrible foe ( ASSEK, M. H. B. 
488 B.C.) Not long after the sons of Rhodri 
were compelled themselves to become Alfred's 
men (? 885. Mr. J. R. Green's ' Conquest of 



England,' p. 183, dates the submission of the 
house of Rhodri in 897). The harmony 
between the brothers did not long survive 
their defeat. In 894 Anarawd, the king of 
Hwynedd, joined the English in a devastating 
inroad into Cadell's territory, and burnt re- 
morselessly all the houses and corn in Dyved 
and Ystrad Towy (Annales Cambrice, Gwen- 
tian Brut). ' Soon after Rhodri's death Cadell 
is said to have driven his brother Mervyn out 
of Powys and added it to his possessions 
( Gwentian Brut, 876) ; but as Mervyn con- 
tinued alive until 903 (An. Cambr. MS. B), 
and was still styled king of Powys (Gwentian 
Brut, which puts his death in 892), it is very 
improbable that a lasting conquest was ef- 
fected. Anyhow, as Anarawd continued to 
reign in Gwynedd, Cadell certainly was not, 
as the ' Gwentian Brut ' asserts, thus made 
king over all Wales. Indeed, it is quite pro- 
bable that Anarawd was the elder of the sons 
of Rhodri. Besides civil feuds and Saxon 
invasions the period of Cadell's reign was sig- 
nalised by repeated invasions of the ' black 
pagans,' as the Welsh called the Irish Danes, 
which culminated in 906 in the destruction 
of St. David's. Three years afterwards Cadell 
died (909 A. C. MS. A, 907 B. y T., 900 Gwen- 
tian B.~) Three of his sons are mentioned by 
the chronicles, Howel, Clydog, and Meurug. 
Of these the eldest became Cadell's successor, 
and was celebrated as Howel Dha, the wisest 
and best of the Welsh kings. 

[Annales Cambrias ; Brut y Tywysogion ; 
Asser's Vita ^Elfredi ; and the later and less 
trustworthy Gwentian Brut (Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association).] T. F. T. 

CADELL (d. 943), a Welsh prince, was 
the son of Arthvael, the son of Hywel. He 
appears to have been lord of some portion of 
Morganwg, and perhaps, like Arthvael, of 
seven cantreds of Gwent as well. He died 
of poison in 943, according to the ' Annales 
Cambrise ; ' in 941 according to the ' Brut y 
Tywysogion.' The less trustworthy ' Gwen- 
tian Brut,' which speaks with some authority 
for the part of Wales governed by Cadell, 
gives several other particulars about him. 
It also asserts that two of his immediate 
predecessors attained the patriarchal age of 
120. In 933 King ^Ethelstan subdued all 
the Welsh princes, and on his death in 940 
Cadell joined Idwal Voel and his brother in 
their effort to throw off the English yoke. 
On this account Cadell was slain by the 
Saxons ' through treachery and ambush.' It 
is quite clear that South-east Wales was 
during this period closely subject to the West 
Saxon kings, and there is nothing improbable 
in the story. Cadell, son of Arthvael, king 



Cadell 



176 



Cadell 



of Gwent, is mentioned in the ' Liber Landa- 
vensis' (p. 481) as approving and consenting 
to the pardon of a certain Llywarch, son of 
Cadwgan, by Bishop Gulfrid of Llandaff. 

[Authorities cited in the text.] T. F. T. 

CADELL (d. 1175), a South Welsh prince, 
the son of Gruffudd, the son of Rhys, the son 
of Tewdwr, succeeded, though perhaps jointly 
with his younger brothers, Anarawd, Mare- 
dudd, and Rhys, to the limited and precarious 
rule of those parts of Ceredigion and the vale 
of Towy which his father had managed to 
save from the Norman marchers (1137). Fa- 
voured by the anarchy of Stephen's reign, 
which prevented the possibility of direct Eng- 
lish intervention, and involved Robert of 
Gloucester, the lord of Glamorgan, in weigh- 
tier business than the extension of his Welsh 
dominions, Cadell's rule commenced under 
fortunate auspices. The return of Gruffudd 
to the old palace of the kings of Deheubarth 
at Dinevwr prepared the way for this, and his 
own assumption of the title of king after it 
had become unusual among the South Welsh 
reguli illustrates his importance. The silence 
of the chroniclers suggests that the first years 
of Cadell's government were peaceful. They 
were marked by an alliance with Owain Gwy- 
nedd. This alliance led in 1138 to a joint 
expedition of Cadell and his brother Anarawd, 
and of Owain and his brother Cadwaladr, with 
a fleet of Irish Danes against Aberteiv (Car- 
digan), a town in the possession of the Nor- 
mans. Even the murder of Anarawd by Cad- 
waladr could not break the alliance, as Owain 
expelled his brother from Ceredigion to punish 
the crime (1143). In 1145 (Annales Cam- 
bria ; 1147 Brut y Tywysogion) Cadell and 
his brothers ventured on a general attack on 
the French castles which dominated the vale 
of Towy. The capture of Dinweileir, Earl 
Gilbert of Clare's stronghold (Dinevwr itself, 
according to the ' Gwentian Brut '), was fol- 
lowed by the conquest, after a severe struggle, 
of the important fortress of Carmarthen. 
While the young Maredudd repulsed an at- 
tempt of the colonists of South Pembroke- 
shire to regain that castle, the capture of 
Llanstephan, commanding the mouth of the 
Towy, and the seizure of Gwyddgrug by a 
night surprise, completed the conquest of the 
valley. Next year (1148 A. C. ; 1146 B. y T.) 
the brothers marched against the castle of 
Gwys ; but the intervention of Howel, son of 
Owain Gwynedd, in favour of the Normans, 
sufficiently accounted, as the native chronicler 
thought, for the failure of the assailants (B. 
y T., MS. D). But the continued possession 
of Carmarthen, ' the ornament and strength 
of CadeU's kingdom,' in 1152 (1153 A. C. ; 



1149 B. y T.) shows that the ' French ' were 
permanently checked by the Welsh king's ex- 
ploits. In the same year Cadell's devastation 
of Kidwelly threatened the English settle- 
ments in Gower ; but soon afterwards his arms 
were diverted to the reconquest of Ceredigion, 
the old patrimony of the lords of Dinevwr, 
from Owain Gwynedd and his house. The 
first attack resulted in the capture of the 
country south of the Aeron, and next year 
the three brothers completed its entire con- 
quest, save one castle. Llanrhystyd, Cad- 
waladr's lately built stronghold, was taken 
after a severe struggle, but soon after regained 
by Howel, son of Owain (1153), though the 
neighbouring castle of Ystradmeurig was re- 
paired and held for the sons of GrufFudd ap 
Rhys. This was the last of Cadell's exploits. 
Not long after he fell, when out hunting, into 
an ambush prepared by the French or Fle- 
mings of Tenby, and was left by them ' half 
dead and cruelly bruised ' (the ' Gwentian 
Brut ' says the English of Gower laid\the 
snare). This disaster apparently incapaci- 
tated him for the wild life of a Welsh chief- 
tain. Henceforth Maredudd and Rhys alone 
carried on the war with French and North 
Welshmen. A few years later Cadell left 
his dominions to his brothers and went on 
pilgrimage to Rome (1152 B. y 7 1 .; 1157 
A. (?.) He returned in safety and continued 
a life remarkably long for his age and coun- 
try until 1175 (B. y T. ; 1177 Gwentian B.), 
when he died in the abbey of Strata Florida, 
where he had already assumed the monastic 
habit. 

[Annales Cambrise (Kolls Ser.); Brut y Ty- 
wysogion (Eolls Ser.) ; Gwentian Brut (Camb. 
Arch. Soc.)] T. F. T. 

CADELL, FRANCIS (1822-1879), Aus- 
tralian explorer, son of H. F. Cadell, was born 
at Cockenzie, near Prestonpans, February 
1822, and, after a somewhat brief education 
in Edinburgh and Germany, became in his 
fourteenth year a midshipman in the service 
of the East India Company. The vessel in 
which he sailed being afterwards chartered 
by government as a transport, the lad took 
an active part in the first Chinese war, 1840- 
1841, being present at the siege of Canton, the 
capture of Amoy, Ningpo, &c., and winning 
honours as well as prize-money. When only 
twenty-two he obtained the command of a 
ship. He devoted the intervals between his 
voyages to obtaining a practical knowledge 
of shipbuilding and of the construction of 
the marine steam-engine in the shipbuilding 
yards of the Tyne and the workshops of the 
Clyde. On paying a visit to Australia in 
1848, his attention being directed to the 



Cadell 



177 



Cadell 



navigation of the Murray, a subject then 
uppermost in the colonial mind, he carefully 
examined the mouth of that river and satis- 
fied himself of the practicability of the 
scheme. Sir Henry Young, then governor 
of South Australia, offered a bonus of 4,OOOZ. 
for the first two iron steamers, of not less 
than 40 horse-power and of not more than 
2 ft. draught of water when loaded, that 
should successfully navigate the Murray 
from the town of Goolwa to the junction of 
the Darling river. Cadell, returning to Aus- 
tralia in 1850, and being encouraged by Sir 
Henry Young, set about determining the 
question of the opening up of the Murray. 
He started from Melbourne with a canvas 
boat carried on a packhorse, and, arriving 
at Swan Hill station, on the Upper Murray, 
launched his bark upon the waters of the 
great stream, and, with four gold-diggers as 
his companions, commenced a voyage of many 
hundred miles. His examination of the river 
convinced him that there would be little 
difficulty in navigating it with steamers, and 
his representations on this subject on his 
arrival in Adelaide led to the formation of 
the Murray Steam Navigation Company, 
chiefly promoted by himself and Mr. William 
Younghusband, for some years chief secretary 
of South Australia. The first steamship of 
the company's fleet was called the Lady 
Augusta, after the wife of the governor. 
On her voyage up the Murray, 25 Aug. 1853, 
accompanied by the Eureka barge, she was 
commanded by Cadell, and had as visitors 
Sir Henry and Lady Young. The Lady Au- 
gusta reached Swan Hill on 17 Sept., a dis- 
tance of 1,300 miles from her starting-point, 
and returned thence with the first cargo of 
wool that had been floated on the Murray. 
At a banquet given to Sir Henry Young in 
Adelaide, a gold candelabrum of the value of 
900 guineas, with a commemorative inscrip- 
tion, was handed to Cadell. At the same 
time three gold medals were struck by order 
of the legislature of South Australia, and one 
of them given to Cadell (Illustrated London 
News, 24 Feb. 1855, p. 173, and 11 Aug. 
1855, p. 176). He continued for some time 
to run his vessel on the Murray, a higher 
point on the river being attained at each 
successive trip. His company then purchased 
two other steamers, the Albury and the 
Gundagai. In one of these, in October 
1855, he reached the town of Albury, on the 
Upper Murray, a point 1,740 miles from the 
Goolwa. In 1856 he explored the Edward 
river, which, branching out of the Murray, 
rejoins it lower down after a course of 600 
miles. During 1858 he succeeded, after a 
month's voyage, in reaching the town of 

VOL. VIII. 



Gundagai, on the Murrumbidgee river, a 
spot distant 2,000 miles from the sea and in 
the very heart of New South Wales. In the 
following year he proceeded up the Darling 
river as far as Mount Murchison. Largely 
as CadelTs labours contributed to the de- 
velopment of the resources of the colony of 
Australia, he himself derived very little sub- 
stantial reward from them. The sums granted 
in aid of his explorations were utterly inade- 
quate to cover the expenses incurred, and in 
his eagerness to serve the public his attention 
was distracted from commercial pursuits. The 
Murray Steam Navigation Company, never a 
commercial success, was dissolved, and its 
founder, having lost all his money, retired 
into the bush and began life again as a settler 
on a small station near Mount Murchison, on 
the Darling. 

In November 1867, when exploring in 
South Australia, he discovered the mouth of 
the river Roper and a tract of fine pastoral 
country, in latitude 14 S. The concurrence 
of bad seasons and misfortunes induced him 
at last to undertake a trading voyage to the 
Spice Islands. In his schooner, the Gem, 
fitted with auxiliary steam-power, he was on 
a passage from Amboyna to the Kei Islands, 
when he was murdered by his crew, who 
afterwards sank the vessel. This tragic event, 
which put an end to the career of one of 
the most enterprising and honourable of men, 
took place in the month of June 1879. 

[Anthony Forster's South Australia (1866), 
pp. 68-74 ; Heaton's Australian Dictionary of 
Dates, p. 30, and part ii. p. 96 ; Once a "Week 
(1863), viii. 667-70 ; Times, 7 Nov. 1879, p. 5.1 

G. C. B. 

CADELL, JESSIE (1844-1884), no- 
velist and orientalist, was born in Scotland 
23 Aug. 1844, and at an early age accom- 
panied her husband; an officer in the army, 
to India. She resided chiefly at Peshawur, 
and embodied her observations of frontier 
life in a pleasing novel, ' Ida Craven ' (1876). 
One of the principal characters in this work, 
a loyal Mahommedan officer, is drawn from 
personal observation, and is an instructive 
as well as an interesting study. To while 
away the tedium of cantonment life, Mrs. 
Cadell made herself mistress of Persian, and 
upon her return to England after the death 
of her husband devoted herself especially to 
the study of Omar Khayyam, the astronomer- 
poet of Persia. Without seeking to compete 
with Mr. Fitzgerald's splendid paraphrase in 
its own line, Mrs. Cadell contemplated a com- 
plete edition and a more accurate transla- 
tion. She visited numerous public libraries in 
quest of manuscripts, and embodied a portion 



Cadell 



178 



Cadell 



of her researches in an article in ' Eraser's 
Magazine ' for Mayl879, on which Bodenstedt, 
when publishing his own German translation, 
bestowed the highest praise, without any idea 
that he was criticising the production of a 
female writer. It is to be hoped that her 
collections may yet be made serviceable. She 
was prevented from carrying out her inten- 
tion by the decline of her health, and she 
died at Florence on 17 June 1884. 'She 
was,' the ' Athenaeum ' truly said, ' a brave, 
frank, true woman, bright and animated in 
the midst of sickness and trouble, disinte- 
restedly attached to whatever was good and 
excellent, a devoted mother, a staunch and 
sympathising friend.' 

[Athenaeum, 28 June 1884; private informa- 
tion.] E. G. 

CADELL, ROBERT (1788-1849), pub- 
lisher, was a cadet of the family of Cadell of 
Cockenzie, East Lothian, and born there on 
16 Dec. 1788. About the age of nineteen he 
entered the publishing house of Archibald 
Constable & Co., of Edinburgh see CON- 
STABLE, ARCHIBALD], becoming in 1811 a 
partner, and in 1812 the sole partner of Con- 
stable, whose daughter he married in 1817. 
She died a year afterwards (he married a se- 
cond time in 1821), and with her death began 
frequent disagreements between the two part- 
ners, Cadell being cautious and frugal, Con- 
stable lavish and enterprising to rashness. 
They agreed, however, as to the value of the 
firm's connection with Walter Scott, to whom 
Cadell, in the absence of his partner, once 
offered 1,000/. for an unwritten drama 
' Halidon Hill.' During the commercial crisis 
of 1825-6, which brought the house of Con- 
stable to the ground, each partner desired to 
separate from the other, and to retain for 
himself the connection with Scott, in whose 
'Diary' for 24 Jan. 1825 occurs the remark, 
' Constable without Cadell is like getting the 
clock without the pendulum, the one having 
the ingenuity, the other the caution of the 
business.' Cadell's advice led Scott to reject 
a proposal of Constable's for the relief of the 
firm from its difficulties, which would have 
involved him in heavy pecuniary liabilitie 
without averting either the ruin of the firm 
or Scott's consequent bankruptcy. In his 
' Diary,' 18 Dec. 1825, Scott speaks gratefully 
of Cadell, who had brought good news and 
shown deep feeling. After the failure of the 
firm, Constable and Cadell dissolved partner- 
ship. Scott adhered to Cadell, who was the 
sole publisher of his subsequent novels, and 
their relationship became one of confiden- 
tial intimacy. They resolved to unite in 
purchasing the property in the novels, from 



' Waverley ' to ' Quentin Durward,' with a 
majority of the shares in the poetical works, 
and determined to issue a uniform edition of 
the 'Waverley Novels,' with new prefaces 
and notes by the author. The copyrights 
were purchased for 8,5001. The publication 
of the 'author's edition' began in 1827, and 
was most successful. Cadell persuaded Scott 
not to issue a fourth 'Malachi Malagrowther ' 
letter against parliamentary reform, partly 
on the ground that it might endanger the 
success of that edition of the novels. Scott 
made his will in Cadell's house in Edinburgh, 
and entrusted it to Cadell's keeping. Lock- 
hart speaks of Cadell's ' delicate and watch- 
ful attention ' to Scott during his later years. 
He accompanied Scott in his final journey 
from London to Edinburgh and Abbotsford 
in July 1832. 

After Scott's death, the balance of his 
debts, through his partnership with the Bal- 
lantynes, was 30,000/. In 1833 Cadell made 
(' very handsomely,' Lockhart says) the 
offer, which was accepted, to settle at once 
with Scott's creditors on receiving as his sole 
security the right to the profits accruing from 
Scott's copyrights and literary remains until 
this new liability to himself should be dis- 
charged. Restricting his operations almost 
exclusively to the publication of Scott's 
works, he issued, with great success, an edi- 
tion of the 'Waverley Novels,' 48 vols. 1830- 
1834, and in 1842-7 (12 vols.) the Abbots- 
ford edition,which was elaborately illustrated, 
and on the production of which he is said to 
have expended 40,000/. Of a cheap ' people's ' 
edition 70,000 copies, it is said, were sold. 
In 1847 there remained due to Cadell a con- 
siderable sum, and to other creditors on 
Scott's estate the greater part of an old 
debt for money raised on the house and lands 
of Abbotsford. Cadell offered to relieve 
the guardians of Sir Walter Scott's grand- 
daughter from all their liabilities to himself 
and to the mortgagees of Abbotsford, on the 
transfer to him of the family's remaining 
rights in Scott's works, together seemingly 
with the future profits of Lockhart's ' Life of 
Scott.' Another stipulation was that Lock- 
hart should execute for him an abridgment 
of that biography, and only gratitude to 
Cadell for his conduct in the whole business 
induced Lockhart to perform the task. The 
possessor of a handsome estate in land, and 
of considerable personal property, Cadell died 
on 20 Jan. 1849 at Ratho House, Midlothian, 
from which he was driven to his place of 
business in St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, 
every morning at nine, with such punctuality, 
that the inhabitants of the district traversed 
knew the time by the appearance of 'the 



Cadell 



179 



Cadell 



Ratho coach.' Lockliart characterises him. 
as ' a cool, inflexible specimen of the na- 
tional character,' and (Ballantyne Humbuy 
handled, 1837) as 'one of the most acute 
men of business in creation.' 

[Lockhart's Life of Scott, ed. 1860, and the 
1871 reprint of his abridgment of it, 1848; 
Thomas Constable's Archibald Constable and 
his Literary Correspondence, 1873; K. Chambers's 
Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, 1868, art. 
'Archibald Constable;' Anderson's Scottish Na- 
tion, 1863 ; Athenaeum, 27 Jan. 1849.] F. E. 

CADELL, THOMAS, the elder (1742- 
1802), bookseller and publisher, was born of 
poor parents in Wine Street, Bristol, in 1742. 
In 1758 he was apprenticed to the great 
London bookseller and publisher, Andrew 
Millar, of the Strand. Cadell soon proved 
his capacity ; in 1765 he became Millar's part- 
ner, and in 1767 took over the business alto- 
gether. He followed Millar's example of 
treating authors liberally, fully maintained 
the reputation of the publishing house, and 
brought out the best books of the day. Ro- 
bertson, Gibbon, and Blackstone were among 
the writers whose works he published, and 
Cadell was intimate with Dr. Johnson, to 
whom he offered a large sum of money for a 
volume of ' Devotional Exercises,' which was 
declined ' from motives of the sincerest mo- 
desty' (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, ii. 552). 
Cadell was one of the original members of the 
famous dining club of booksellers which met 
monthly at the Shakespeare Tavern in Wych 
Street, Strand, and he was popular among his 
rivals in trade, whom he treated with unvary- 
ing fairness. For some years William Strahan 
(M.P. for Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire, from 
1780 to 1784) was Cadell's partner in his busi- 
ness, and subsequently Strahan's son Andrew 
took his father's place. Cadell retired from 
business in 1793 with a fortune, and was suc- 
ceeded by his only son, Thomas Cadell the 
younger [see below]. His generous tempera- 
ment is attested by his kindness to his own 
and Millar's chief assistant, Robin Lawless. 
On his retirement Cadell had Lawless's por- 
trait painted by Sir William Beechey, and 
' always showed it to his friends as the chief 
ornament of his drawing-room.' On the death, 
in 1788, of Millar's widow, who had married 
Sir Archibald Grant, Cadell acted as one of 
her executors. Subsequently Cadell was 
elected (30 March 1798) alderman of Wai- 
brook ward in the city of London, and served 
the office of sheriff, 1800-1. During his 
shrievalty he was master of the Stationers' 
Company, and presented a stained glass win- 
dow to the Stationers' Hall. He died on 
27 Dec. 1802 at his house in Bloomsbury 



Place. He was treasurer of the Foundling 
Hospital and governor of many public chari- 
ties. His portrait, by Sir William Beechey, 
still hangs in the court room of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. His wife died in January 
1 786, but his son and a daughter survived him. 
The latter married Dr. Charles Lucas Edridge, 
rector of Shipdam, Norfolk, and chaplain to 
George III, and died on 20 Sept. 1829 (Ni- 
CHOL8, Lit. Illustrations, viii. 552). 

THOMAS CADELL the younger (1773-1836), 
one of the court of assistants of the Sta- 
tioners' Company, conducted the publishing 
business with all his father's success from 
1793 till his death on 23 Nov. 1836. His 
father chose William Davies as his son's 
partner, and the firm was styled Cadell & 
Davies until the latter's death in 1819. In 
the ' Percy Correspondence,' printed in Ni- 
chols's ' Illustrations,' vols. vii. and viii., are 
many references to the dealings of this firm 
with Bishop Percy and his friends. Cadell 
married in 1802 a daughter of Robert Smith 
and sister of the authors of the ' Rejected 
Addresses.' By her he had a large family, 
but the business was not continued after his 
death. Mrs. Cadell died on 11 May 1848 
(Gent. Mag. 1837, pt. i. p. 110; NICHOLS, 
Lit. Illustrations, viii. 110). 

[Nichols's Literary Anecdotes is crowded with 
references to Cadell. A memoir is printed (vi. 
441-3) from Gent. Mag. (1802), pt. ii. pp. 1173, 
1222. A few additional facts are given in the 
last volume (viii.) of Nichols's Lit. Illustrations.] 

S. L. L. 

CADELL, WILLIAM ARCHIBALD 
(1775-1855), traveller and mathematician, 
was the eldest son of William Cadell, the 
original managing partner and one of the 
founders of the Carron ironworks, by his 
wife Katherine, daughter of Archibald Inglis 
of Auchendinny in Midlothian. He was 
born at his father's residence, Carron Park, 
near Falkirk, on 27 June 1775, and, after re- 
ceiving his education at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, became, about 1798, a member of the 
Scottish bar. He did not practise, being 
possessed of private means and of the estate 
of Banton in Stirlingshire, but spent his 
time in scientific and antiquarian research at 
home and abroad. His acquirements won 
him the friendship of Sir Joseph Banks, at 
whose instance Cadell was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society on 28 June 1810. He 
was also a fellow of the Geological Society, 
a member of the now defunct Wernerian 
Natural History Society of Edinburgh, and 
a fellow of the Royal Society of the same 
city. To the ' Transactions ' of the latter he 
contributed a paper 'On the Lines that 
divide each Semidiurnal Arc into Six Equal 

N2 



Cademan 



180 



Cademan 



Parts ' (viii. i. 61-81) ; in the ' Annals of 
Philosophy' (iii. 351-3) he wrote an 'Ac- 
count of an Arithmetical Machine lately 
discovered in the College Library of Edin- 
burgh.' While travelling on the continent 
during the war with France he was taken 
prisoner, and only escaped after a detention 
of several years by feigning to be a French- 
man, a feat which his very perfect knowledge 
of the language enabled him to accomplish 
successfully. On his return he gave some 
account of his wanderings in ' A Journey in 
Carniola, Italy, and France in the years 
1817, 1818,' 2 vols. 8vo, Edinburgh, 1820, 
which, although somewhat dry in treatment, 
is to be commended for its scrupulous ac- 
curacy. Cadell died unmarried at Edinburgh 
on 19 Feb. 1855. 

[Information from Mr. H. Cadell.] G. G. 

CADEMAN, SIR THOMAS (1590?- 
1651), physician, born in Norfolk about 
1590, was educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and proceeded B.A. 1605-6, M.A. 
1609. He then studied abroad, and took the 
degree of M.D. at Padua March 1620. In 
May and June 1623 he passed his examina- 
tion before the censors of the Royal College 
of Physicians of London, and ' at the comitia 
majora of 25 June was ordered to get incor- 
porated at one of our own universities' (MtnrK, 
i. 200). This he does not appear to have 
done. In 1626 he is returned to the parlia- 
mentary commission by the college as a pa- 
pist. He was then residing in Fetter Lane. 
Two years afterwards he is noted as a ' recu- 
sant ' residing in Westminster. He after- 
wards is mentioned as living at St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields. It is supposed that his religion 
delayed his admission to the college. It was 
not till 3 Dec. 1630 that he became licentiate. 
On 22 Dec. he was admitted fellow. His re- 
ligion probably helped him to another honour, 
for previously, it would seem, to 16 Dec. 1626 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1626, p. 24), he 
was appointed physician in ordinary to Queen 
Henrietta Maria. He signs himself medicus 
regineus after this. His name appears with 
some frequency in the State Papers for nearly 
twenty years. Thus on 24 May 1634 Thomas 
Reynolds, a secularpriest, confinedin Newgate 
for some years, petitions for release, and ap- 
pends a certificate from Cademan and others. 
Cademan and Sir William Brouncker [q. v.] 
had a patent for stilling and brewing in a house 
at the back of St. James's Park, and this patent, 
they note in 1633, they had exercised for many 
years. On 4 Aug.1638, on consideration of a pe- 
tition to government presented in March pre- 
vious, Sir Theodore de Mayerne [see MAYERNE, 
SIR THEODORE DE], Cademan, and others 



' using the trade of distilling strong waters 
and making vinegar in London, were incor- 
porated as distillers of London.' Cademan 
and Mayerne were directed to approve of 
a set of suitable rules ' for the right making 
of strong waters and vinegars according to 
art,' which the masters, warden, and assist- 
ants are to compose. The Company of Apo- 
thecaries, alarmed at this scheme, petitioned 
against it in September as infringing their 
monopoly. To this petition Mayerne, Brounc- 
ker, and Cademan replied, denying the state- 
ments made, and urging that the apotheca- 
ries should be admonished to confine their 
attention to their shops and their patients, 
and to speak in a more ' respective ' fashion 
of the physicians. The undertaking was al- 
lowed to proceed, and in 1639 was published 
' The Distiller of London, compiled and set 
forth by the speciall Licence and Command of 
the Bang's most Excellent Majesty for the sole 
use of the Company of Distillers of London, 
and by them to bee duly observed and prac- 
tized.' This is explained in the preface (p. ii) 
' to be a book of rules and directions con- 
cerning distillation of strong waters and 
making vinegars. ' The name of Thomas Cade- 
man as first master of the company is ap- 
pended. Another edition of the ' Distiller,' 
with ' the Clavis to unlock the deepest secrets 
of that mysterious art,' was ' published for 
the publicke good ' in 1652. Cademan was 
also physician to Francis Russell, fourth earl 
of Bedford, of whose death he wrote an ac- 
count in a curious little pamphlet of six pages, 
' The Earle of Bedford's passage to the High- 
est Court of Parliament, 9 May 1641, about 
tenne a clock in the morning ' (1641). This 
was to prove that the earl ' died of too much 
of his bed, and not of the small-pox ' (p. 5), 
as usually asserted. 

In 1649 Cademan was chosen anatomy lec- 
turer to the College of Physicians, but he 
performed the duties of this office in a most 
inefficient manner. He became an elect 
25 June 1650, and died 2 May 1651. A manu- 
script work of his, entitled ' De signis Mor- 
borum Tractatus, cura Thomse Clargicii,' of 
date 1640, dedicated to Queen Henrietta 
Maria, is in the library of the Royal Medico- 
Chirurgical Society (Catalogue of Library, 
i. 205). From the State Papers, 13 April 
1641 (Cal. Dom. Ser.), it appears that Cade- 
man had at that date a grown-up son. He 
was probably John Cademan, M.D., recom- 
mended on 22 June 1640 by the College of 
Physicians for appointment to the office of 
physician to the army (MTrra, i. 228). 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 199, with quotation 
from Baldwin Hamey'sBustorum aliquot reliquiae, 
1676 ; Sloane MS. 2149 ; Cal. State Papers (Dom. 



Cadoc 



181 



Cadogan 



Ser.), Charles I ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Cademan's 
name variously appears as Cademan, Caddiman, 
Cadiman, and Cadyman ; identification is easy.] 

F. W-T. 

CADOC, called the WISE, in Welsh 
CATTWG DDOETH (d. 570 ?), a Welsh saint, 
the early lives of whom are so contradictory 
that it must be supposed that there was 
more than one person of the name, is said 
to have been the son of Gwynllyw Filwr 
(Latinised into Gundlseus), lord of Gwynllwg 
in Glamorganshire, by Gwladys, daughter of 
Brychan, a chieftain of Talgarth in Breck- 
nockshire. This Brychan, it may be said, 
gave his name to Brecknock, in Welsh Bry- 
cheiniog. Another Cadoc is said to have been 
son of this same Brychan, and according to 
some accounts Cadoc the Wise was his great- 
great-grandson. Cadoc the Wise was cousin 
to St. David of Menevia, and nephew to St. 
Canoe of Gallen. He voluntarily devoted 
himself to a religious life from his earliest 
years, and miracles are ascribed to him while 
yet in his boyhood. He was educated by 
an Irish anchoret, Menthi ; declined to suc- 
ceed his father in his principality ; went to 
Gwent or Caerwent, Monmouthshire, and 
studied under the Irish saint, Tathai. He 
made repeated visits to Rome and Jerusalem, 
and also to Ireland and Scotland, in search 
of the best instruction of his time. Of the 
numerous foundations ascribed to St. Cadoc 
the most famous was the abbey of Llancar- 
van in Glamorganshire, of which he was the 
first abbot. This, like other monastic insti- 
tutions of the age, was as much a place of 
secular and religious instruction as the home 
of a religious community. At Llancarvan 
St. Cadoc enjoyed the friendship of Gildas, 
also surnamed the Wise, who taught in his 
school, and he had among his pupils Talie- 
sin, the most famous of the early Welsh 
poets. Among the earliest monuments of 
the Welsh language figures the ' Doethineb 
Catwg Ddoeth,' or ' Wisdom of Cadoc the 
Wise,' printed in vol. iii. of the ' Myvyrian 
Archaiology ' of Owen Jones ; this consists 
of proverbs, maxims, and triads, prose and 
verse ; and in the ' lolo MSS.' of Edward 
Williams are printed ' Dammegion Cattwg 
Ddoeth,' or 'Fables of Cadoc the Wise.' 
The second of these fables is entitled ' Dam- 
meg y gwr a laddwys ei filgi,' ' the story 
of the man who killed his greyhound.' This 
is in fact the well-known story of Bedd- 
gelert, told without names ; it ends by say- 
ing that ' as sorry as the man who killed 
his greyhound' has passed into a proverb. 
The old life, printed in Rees's 'Lives of 
Cambro-British Saints,' after recording the 
many miraculous feats of St. Cadoc, goes on 



to tell how, having been previously warned 
in a vision, he is carried off in a cloud to 
Beneventum, where he is immediately chosen 
abbot and named Sophias, and on the bishop's 
death is chosen to succeed him. Being asked 
in a dream what form of death he preferred, 
he chose martyrdom, and accordingly was 
killed by a soldier while saying mass on the 
following day. Cadoc was buried at Bene- 
ventum, and over his grave was built a church 
which no Briton was allowed to enter for 
fear of the saint's body being carried off. 
Colgan and Lanigan assign his death to 570 ; 
the former argues that he was martyred at 
Beneventum, but the latter represents him 
as dying at Llancarvan. The following 
churches are said to be of St. Cadoc's founda- 
tion : Llangattock and Crickhowel in Breck- 
nockshire ; Porteinion, Gelligaer, Cadox- 
ton-juxta-Barry and Cadoxton-juxta-Neath, 
Llancarvan, Pendenlwyn, Pentyrch, and 
Llanmaes in Glamorganshire ; Llangattock- 
upon-Usk, Llangattock Lenig, and Llangat- 
tock Lingoed in Monmouthshire. He is 
commemorated on 14 Jan. The extant ma- 
nuscript lives of Cadoc are described in 
Hardy's ' Descriptive Catalogue,' i. 146-51. 

[Bollandi Acta Sanctorum, Jan. ii. 602 ; W. J. 
Eees's Lives of Cambro-British Saints ; Kice 
Eees's Essay on Welsh Saints; Colgan's Acta 
Sanctorum, 158-61; lolo MSS. (1848); Lani- 
gan's Eccles. Hist. Irl. i. 439 ; Diet, of Christian 
Biog.] A. M. 

CADOGAN. [See also CADWGAN.] 

CADOGAN, HENRY (1780-1813), colo- 
nel, was one of the children of Charles Sloane, 
third baron Cadogan and first earl (second 
creation, 1800), by his second wife, and was 
born on 26 Feb. 1780. His granduncle was 
William, earl Cadogan [q.v.] He was edu- 
cated at Eton, and on 9 Aug. 1797 became en- 
sign, by purchase, in the 18th royal Irish foot, 
which corps he joined at Gibraltar after its 
return from Tuscany, and obtained his lieu- 
tenancy therein in 1798. In 1799, having pur- 
chased a company in the 60th, he exchanged 
as lieutenant and captain to the Coldstream 
guards, and served therein until promoted 
to a majority in the 53rd foot in 1804. On 
22 Aug. 1805 he became lieutenant-colonel 
in the 2nd battalion (afterwards disbanded) 
of his old corps, the 18th royal Irish, having 
purchased every step. After serving with 
the battalion in Scotland and the Channel 
Islands, he left it when it proceeded to the 
island of Curacoa, and exchanged, in 1808, 
to the 71st Highlanders at home. During 
the early part of the Peninsular war, Cado- 
gan served as aide-de-camp to Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, and after the passage of the 



Cadogan 



182 



Cadogan 



Douro was selected by him to proceed to 
the headquarters of the Spanish general, 
Cuesta, to make arrangements for the co- 
operation of the English and Spanish armies 
in the forthcoming campaign on the Tagus. 
He was afterwards present at the battle of 
Talavera. When the 71st Highlanders, then 
recently transformed into a light infantry 
corps, arrived out in Portugal in the sum- 
mer of 1810, Cadogan joined it at Mafra and 
assumed command in succession to Colonel 
Peacocke. At its head he distinguished him- 
self on various occasions during the sub- 
sequent campaigns, particularly at Fuentes 
de Onoro, 5 May 1811, when he succeeded 
to the command of a brigade consisting of 
the 24th, 71st, and 79th regiments (GuR- 
WOOD, iv. 797-8), at Arroyo dos Molinos 
28 Oct. 1811 (ib. v. 13, 354-6), and at Vit- 
toria, 21 June 1813, where he fell. On the 
latter occasion the 71st was ordered to storm 
the heights above the village of Puebla, 
whereon rested the French left. While ad- 
vancing to the charge at the head of his men 
Cadogan was mortally wounded. At his re- 
quest he was carried to a neighbouring emi- 
nence, whence he witnessed the success of 
the charge before he expired. The incident 
is represented on the public monument by 
Chantry, erected to the memory of Cadogan 
in St. Paul's, for which the House of Com- 
mons voted the sum of 1,5751. Monuments 
were also erected to him in Chelsea parish 
church and in Glasgow cathedral. Cadogan, 
who was in his thirty-fourth year and un- 
married, was much esteemed both in private 
life and professionally, and Lord Wellington, 
although an intimate personal friend, simply 
expressed the general feeling of the army when 
he wrote of his great merit and tried gallantry 
in his Vittoria despatch (ib. vi. 539, 545-6). 

[Burke's Peerage ; Army Lists and War Office 
Muster-Rolls; Hildyard's Hist. Rec. 71st High. 
Light Inf. (London. 1877); Gurwood's Welling- 
ton Despatches, iii. iv. v. vi.] H. M. C. 

CADOGAN, WILLIAM (1601-1661), 
major of horse under the Commonwealth and 
governor of Trim, was eldest son of Henry 
Cadogan of Llanbetter, and great-grandson 
of Thomas Cadogan of Dunster, Somerset- 
shire, who in his will, dated 12 June 1511, 
styles himself ' valectus corone,' and is cre- 
dited by many genealogists with descent from 
the ancient princes of Wales [see CADWGAN]. 
William Cadogan was born at Dunster in 1601 , 
and accompanied the Earl of Strafford to Ire- 
land, where he was serving as a captain of 
horse in 1641 . In 1649 he reappears as a major 
of horse in Cromwell's army in Ireland, and 
for his services in the revolted districts round 



Dublin, and especially against the Irish chief- 
tains Phelim O'Neill and Owen O'Rowe, was 
rewarded with the governorship of the castle 
and borough of Trim, co. Meath, which he 
held until his death, 14 March 1661. A 
monument to him, stated by some writers to 
be at Trim and by others in Christ Church, 
Dublin, bears or bore a lengthy Latin in- 
scription, transcribed in Collms's ' Peerage,' 
vol. v., which sets forth these and other par- 
ticulars of him. Cadogan had a son Henry, 
a barrister settled in Dublin, who married 
Bridget, daughter of Sir Hardress Waller, 
and by her had three children. The eldest of 
them, William, became a distinguished sol- 
dier, and was Marlborough's most trusted lieu- 
tenant [see CADOGAN, WILLIAM, first earl]. 

[Collins's Peerage (edit. 1812), vol. v. ; Burke's 
Peerage; Foster's Peerage.] H. M. C. 

CADOGAN, WILLIAM, first EARL CADO- 
GAN (1675-1726), general, colonel 1st foot 
guards, was eldest son of Henry Cadogan, 
counsellor-at-law, of Dublin, and grandson 
of Major William Cadogan, governor of Trim 
[see CADOGAN, WILLIAM, major]. He was 
born in 1675 (see DOYLE, Baronage), and is 
said to have fought as a boy cornet in King 
William's army at the passage of the Boyne. 
He obtained a commission in one of the regi- 
ments of Inniskilling dragoons, afterwards 
known as the 5th royal Irish dragoons (re- 
vived in 1858 as the 5th royal Irish lancers), 
with which he served under King William in 
the Irish and Flanders campaigns, and at- 
tracted the notice of Marlborough, who was 
twenty-five years his senior. When troops 
were sent from Ireland to Holland in 1701, 
Cadogan, then a major in the royal Irish dra- 
goons, accompanied them as quartermaster- 
general. He was employed on special duty at 
Hamburg and elsewhere later in the same year, 
in connection with the movement of the 
Danish and Wurtemburg troops into Holland 
(Hist.MSS. Comm. 3rd Eep. 189-90). In April 
1702, a month after King William's death, 
Marlborough was appointed generalissimo of 
the confederate armies, and fixed his head- 
quarters at the Hague, taking as his quarter- 
master-general Cadogan, who became his 
most trusted subordinate. Cadogan's ser- 
vices in the ensuing campaign, ending with 
the fall of Liege and the retreat of the 
French behind the Mehaigne, were rewarded, 
on 2 March 1703, with the colonelcy of the 
regiment with which his name is chiefly 
identified, the 6th (later 2nd Irish) horse, 
(the present 5th dragoon guards), which be- 
came famous as ' Cadogan's Horse.' In the 
winter of 1703-4 Cadogan was in England 
organising reinforcements. He returned to 



Cadogan 



183 



Cadogan 



Holland in advance of Marlborough, and as 
quartermaster-general conducted the historic 
march into Bavaria, ending with the great 
victory at Blenheim, 13 Aug. 1704, and the 
no less admirably managed return movement 
of the army with its huge convoys of pri- 
soners and wounded. During the campaign 
he was wounded and had his horse shot 
under him at the attack on Schellenburg, 
but was on the field at Bltenheim in attend- 
ance on Marlborough. He was promoted 
brigadier-general on 25 Aug. 1704, and his 
name figures in the distribution-list of the 
queen's bounty for Blenheim, for the sums 
of 90 as brigadier-general, 601. as quarter- 
master-general, and 123/. as colonel of a 
regiment of horse and captain of a troop 
therein (Treasury Papers, xciii. 79). In the 
following year Cadogan's Horse won great 
distinction at the forcing of the enemy's 
lines between Helixem and N eerwinden. Big 
men mounted on big horses, they drove the 
famous Bavarian horse-grenadier guards off 
the field, capturing four of their standards 
(CANNON, Hist. Rec. 5th Draff. Gds. p. 28). 
Popular accounts relate that the charge was 
led by Cadogan in person. After fulfilling 
special missions at Vienna and in Hanover, 
Cadogan was present at the victory at Ra- 
millies on 23 May 1706. A plan of the 
order of battle, now in the British Museum 
(Brit. Mus. Maps, -|ff-), shows that he held 
no separate command on that day. But 
immediately afterwards he was sent with a 
body of horse and foot to occupy Ghent and 
to summon Antwerp, services speedily ac- 
complished. The garrison of the latter city, 
consisting of six French and six Spanish 
regiments, was permitted to march out, and 
the keys of the city were handed to Cadogan, 
their first surrender since they were delivered 
up to the Duke of Parma, after a twelve- 
month's leaguer, two centuries before. Cado- 
gan was promoted to major-general on 1 June 
1706. The supply of the army was then in- 
cluded among the multifarious duties of 
Cadogan's department, and on 16 Aug. fol- 
lowing, while making a forage near Tournay, 
in the combined capacities of a cavalry com- 
mander and quartermaster-general, he was 
captured by the enemy, but released on 
parole three days later and soon afterwards 
exchanged. Later in the year he was en- 
gaged in the delicate task of quartering the 
confederate troops of different nationalities 
for the winter (see Marlb. Desp. iii. 175). 
In February 1707 he was entrusted on his 
return from London with the task of ex- 
plaining to the Dutch deputies the English 
view of the next campaign (ib. p. 369). 
Later in the year he was accredited envoy 



extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
to the States of Holland in the absence of 
Mr. Stepney, whom he succeeded in the post, 
retaining his military appointments. He 
arrived at Brussels in that capacity on 29 Nov. 
1707 (London Gazette, No. 4390). On 11 May 
1705 he had been returned for the borough of 
New Woodstock, Oxfordshire probably on 
Marlborough's nomination in the parliament 
which (after the union with Scotland) was 
proclaimed on 29 April 1707, the first par- 
liament of Great Britain (see Lists of Mem- 
bers of Parliament). He was re-chosen for 
the same place in four succeeding parliaments. 
In February 1708 Cadogan was at Ostend, 
superintending the embarkation of ten regi- 
ments for home, in view of the rumoured 
French descent on Scotland from Dunkirk 
(Marlb. Desp. iii. 680, 689). He commanded 
the van of the army in the operations which 
led up to the great battle at Oudenarde on 
11 July 1708, on which occasion he com- 
menced the action by crossing the Scheldt and 
vigorously attacking the village of Hayem, 
which was carried and four out of seven 
opposing battalions made prisoners. After- 
wards he was employed in convoying sup- 
plies from Ostend to the army during the 
siege of Lille. He was promoted to lieu- 
tenant-general on 1 Jan. 1709. Early in 
that year Cadogan was sent by Marlborough 
to see that the troops in Flanders were ready 
for the forthcoming campaign. In a list of 
general officers of the confederate armies, 
forwarded by Marlborough to the French 
headquarters in July, Cadogan's name ap- 
pears at the end of the lieutenant-generals 
of cavalry (ib. iv. 538). His services during 
the year included the siege of Menin, where 
an incident occurred which has been variously 
told. The version given by the historian of 
the Grenadier guards who says that it is 
commemorated by a centrepiece of plate in 
possession of the present Earl Cadogan is 
that Marlborough, attended by Cadogan and a 
numerous staff, was reconnoitring the enemy's 
position at close quarters, and having dropped 
his glove requested Cadogan to dismount and 
pick it up, which was instantly done. Re- 
turned to camp and the staff dismissed, he 
asked Cadogan if he remembered the inci- 
dent, adding that he wished a battery to be 
erected on the spot, but did not like to speak 
of it openly. Cadogan replied that he had 
already given the order, and on Marlborough 
expressing surprise rejoined that he knew 
his chief to be too much a gentleman to 
make such a request without good hidden 
reason (HAMILTON, Hist. Gren. Gds. ii. 48). 
Cadogan was present at the battle of Mal- 
plaquet on 11 Sept. 1709, and was sent after 



Cadogan 



184 



Cadogan 



the battle to confer with the French com- 
manders respecting provision for the wounded. 
Immediately afterwards he was detached 
with a corps of infantry, two hundred guns, 
and fifty mortars to commence the siege of 
Mons, where he was dangerously wounded in 
the neck and his aide-de-camp killed by his 
side while the troops were breaking ground. 
The lieutenancy of the Tower of London 
was conferred on him in December of the 
same year. In January 1710 he was present 
at a conference with the Dutch deputies at 
the Hague, after which he was again at 
Brussels. A volume of correspondence re- 
lating to affairs in 1709-10, chiefly autograph 
letters from Brussels in Cadogan's large, 
plain hand, is among the Foreign Office Re- 
cords in the Public Record Office, London 
(F. O. Rec. Flanders, Nos. 132-5), in one of 
which he expresses his intention of ' follow- 
ing the fortunes, good or bad, of the great 
man to whom I am under such infinite obli- 
gations ; ' adding, ' I would be a monster if I 
did otherwise.' Marlborough's influence was 
at this time fast declining. Cadogan shared 
his leader's unpopularity, and by the end of the 
year was removed from his diplomatic post, to 
Marlborough's great displeasure. Swift, who 
appears to have known Cadogan's family, 
mentions in a ' Letter to Stella,' in December 
1710, that there was a rumour of his being 
dispossessed of the lieutenancy of the Tower 
to make way for Jack Hill, brother of the 
queen's new favourite, Mrs. Masham (SwiFT, 
Works, ii. 477). Cadogan was lieutenant of 
the Tower from December 1709 to December 
1715 (see DB Ros, Memorials of the Tower 
of London, App.) Returning to his staff 
duties Cadogan rendered important services 
at the siege of Douay. At the head of some 
squadrons of his cuirassiers cuirasses, laid 
aside at the peace of Ryswick, had by this 
time been resumed by Cadogan's and other 
regiments of horse he took a prominent 
part in manoeuvring the enemy out of their 
lines at Arlieux, and so preparing the way 
for the important siege of Bouchain, the 
details of which were entrusted by Marl- 
borough to Cadogan. The place capitulated 
in September 1711. Bouchain was Marl- 
borough's last victory. When the Duke of 
Ormonde succeeded to the command of the 
army, Cadogan found his name omitted from 
the list of lieutenant-generals appointed to 
divisional commands; but, at his own re- 
quest, he made the campaign of 1712 as 
quartermaster-general. When the troops 
reached Dunkirk on their homeward route, 
Cadogan retired to Holland. Marlborough 
followed him into exile in November 1712. 
For his share in the reception accorded to 



his old chief on setting foot upon Dutch 
soil Cadogan was called upon to resign his 
offices and employments under the crown. 
He appears to have sold the colonelcy of his 
regiment to Major-general Kellum, a veteran 
who had served with the regiment since its 
first formation in 1685, for the sum of 3,000. 
(CANNON, Hist. Rec. 5th Drag. Gds.} As 
the recognised medium of communication 
between the English whigs and the German 
states interested in the Hanoverian succes- 
sion, Cadogan was busily engaged in the 
political intrigues and counter-intrigues at 
home and abroad which marked the next 
two years. 

Before the death of Queen Anne, on 1 Aug. 
1714, he had returned to London. With 
the customary issue of commissions under 
the new sign-manual Cadogan was reinstated 
in his former rank as lieutenant-general. 
The commission, with the date left blank, 
probably by design, is still extant (Home 
Office, Mil. Commissions, i.) He was ap- 
pointed master of the king's robes, lieutenant 
of the ordnance, which post he retained 
until 1718, and colonel of the Coldstream 
guards, the latter appointment bearing date 
11 Aug. 1714. He was re-chosen for the 
fifth time for the borough of Woodstock, 
and was accredited as envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary to the States 
General of Holland. On 15 Nov. (new style) 
1715 he signed at tho Hague the (third) bar- 
rier treaty between England, Holland, and 
Germany, whereby the empire recognised the 
Hanoverian succession to the British crown. 
When the exceptionally severe winter of that 
year brought news of the rising in the north 
in favour of the Pretender, Cadogan obtained 
from the States a contingent of 6,000 Dutch 
troops, with which he embarked and pushed 
on to Scotland, to serve as second in com- 
mand under the Duke of Argyll, whose forces 
had driven the rebels back, but whom Cado- 
gan found unwilling to act vigorously. On 
the urgent representations of Marlborough 
Argyll was recalled, and Cadogan appointed 
to the chief command. The vigorous mea- 
sures which followed speedily ended the re- 
bellion, and early in May 1716 Cadogan 
handed over the command to Brigadier Sa- 
bine and proceeded to London, where, on 
29 June, he was invested with the order of 
the Thistle at a chapter held at St. James's 
Palace. Next day, 30 June, he was raised to 
the peerage as Baron Cadogan of Reading. 
The preamble of the patent, setting forth 
Cadogan's many services, is given in Collins's 
' Peerage ' (2nd ed. v. 412). In September 
Cadogan was appointed governor of the Isle 
of Wight. The same year he became high 



Cadogan 



185 



Cadogan 



steward of Reading (CoATES, Hist, of Reading, 
i App.) Returning to hia poofe at the Hague, 
%"he signed, on 15 Sept. (new style) 1716, the 
treaty of defensive alliance between Great 
Britain, France, and Holland. After attend- 
ing George I on a visit to Hanover, the 
diplomatic duties at the Hague being mean- 
while performed by Mr. Leathes, secretary 
at Brussels, Cadogan came to England with 
the king, and was sworn of the privy council 
on 17 March 1717, and on 12 July following 
was promoted to general ' of all and singular 
the foot forces employed or to be employed 
in our service ' (Home Office, Mil. Entry 
Books, xi. 219). About the same time a vexa- 
tious indictment was brought against him 
in the lower house, in the shape of charges 
of fraud and embezzlement in connection 
with the transport of the Dutch troops to 
the Thames and Humber during the rising 
in the north. These were preferred by cer- 
tain Jacobite members, to whom his success 
in Scotland had made him particularly ob- 
noxious. The spiteful attack was urged with 
grotesque vehemence by Shippen, who was 
supported by Walpole and Pulteney, and 
opposed by Stanhope, Craggs, Lechmere, the 
new attorney-general, and others, and evi- 
dence in vindication of Cadogan was given 
at the bar of the house (see BOYEK, Political 
State, i. 697-794). But the motion was only 
lost by a majority of ten. Cadogan resumed 
his diplomatic duties in Holland during the 
year, and on his return home, 8 May 1718, 
was elevated to an earldom, with the titles 
of Earl Cadogan, Viscount Caversham, and 
Baron Cadogan of Oakley, the last title with 
remainder, in default of male issue, to his 
brother Charles [see below]. After this he 
was again engaged at Brussels and the Hague 
in negotiations with the imperialist minis- 
ters and the Dutch representatives relative 
to the working of the (third) barrier treaty. 
Writing to Lord Stair, under date 10 March 
1709, Lord Stanhope says : ' Good Lord Cado- 
gan, though he has made the utmost profes- 
sions of friendship and deference to other 
people's measures, has certainly blown the 
coals ; he has a notion of being premier mi- 
nistre, which I believe you will with me 
think a very Irish idea ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
2nd Rep. 189). In February 1720 Cadogan was 
despatched to Vienna, where, in conjunction 
with the representatives of the contracting 
powers, he arranged the terms of the acces- 
sion of Spain to what was thenceforward 
known as the quadruple alliance. 

Upon the death of the Duke of Marl- 
borough in June 1722, Cadogan succeeded 
to the posts of commander-in-chief of the 
army and master-general of the ordnance. 

' On 1 7 July he received new 
credentials and instructions as ambassador, 



He became colonel of 1st foot guards from 
18 June 1722 ; and was appointed a com- 
missioner of Chelsea Hospital. His detractors 
accused him of appearing at Marlborough's 
funeral pageant indecorously dressed and be- 
traying his want of sympathy by his looks 
and gestures. This was probably a malicious 
invention ; but it gave the point to some 
savagely sarcastic lines by Bishop Atterbury, 
which are quoted by Horace Walpole (Let- 
ters, vii. 230). Atterbury having heard that 
at the time of his committal to the Tower 
Cadogan had declared that he ought to be 
flung to the lions, retorted in a letter to 
Pope with the lines describing Cadogan as 
' ungrateful to th' ungrateful man he grew 
by, A big, bad, bold, blustering, bloody, blun- 
dering booby.' The year that witnessed the 
death of Marlborough saw likewise a revival 
of the Jacobite plots, including schemes for 
tampering with the Tower garrison and seiz- 
ing on the Tower and Bank. Apprised of 
these projects, the government prevailed on 
the king to postpone an intended visit to 
Hanover, and to retire to Kensington Palace, 
an encampment of the whole of the guards 
being formed for his protection close by, in 
Hyde Park, under the personal command of 
Cadogan. In November 1722 the camp was 
broken up. When the king embarked for 
Hanover, Cadogan was appointed one of 
the lords justices. The military records of 
his rule as commander-in-chief and master- 
general of the ordnance present little of inte- 
rest. The chief event of his remaining years 
was his litigation with the widowed Duchess 
of Marlborough respecting a sum of 50,000/., 
which the duke at the time of his exile had 
entrusted to him to place in the Dutch funds. 
Cadogan, with the best intentions, had in- 
vested the money in Austrian securities, which 
at the time appeared more advantageous. 
These, however, had greatly depreciated, and 
the duchess, whose letters betray a querulous 
feeling towards Cadogan, having insisted on 
reimbursement, Cadogan, who had not ap- 
plied the money to the specific purpose for 
which it was entrusted to him, was obliged 
to make good the deficiency at heavy loss. 

In his early days at the Hague, Cadogan 
married Margaretta, daughter of William 
Munter, counsellor of the court of Holland, 
and niece of Adam Tripp of Amsterdam, 
by whom he had two daughters, the Lady 
Sarah, afterwards married to the second 
duke of Richmond, and the Lady Margaretta, 
who married Count Bentinck, second son of 
William, earl of Portland. The countess 
long survived her husband, and died at the 
Hague in October 1749, aged 75. 

Cadogan died at his house at Kensington 



Cadogan 



186 



Cadogan 



Gravel Pits, then a rural village, on Sunday, 
17 July 1726. In accordance with a wish 
expressed in his will he was buried privately 
at night in Henry VII's Chapel in West- 
minster Abbey, on the Thursday following 
his decease. A notice of his death appears 
in ' Lettres Historiques ' for September 1726 
(Hague), and some memoranda relating to 
his Dutch estates are among the Portland 
papers in the British Museum (Egerton MS. 
1708, f. 43). 

Personally Cadogan was a big, burly Irish- 
man. A portrait, painted by Laguerre, re- 
presenting him in a light-coloured wig and 
a suit of silver armour worn over his scarlet 
uniform, is in the National Portrait Gallery. 
Horatio, lord Walpole, who was associated 
with him in some of his diplomatic missions 
at the Hague, describes him as rash and 
impetuous as a diplomatist, lavish of pro- 
mises when a present difficulty was to be 
removed, and prone to think that pen and 
sword were to be wielded with equal fierce- 
ness. He also says that Cadogan needlessly 
irritated the Dutch republic by his zeal in 
promoting the election of the Prince of 
Orange to the Stadtholdership of Groningen, 
and affronted the citizens of Antwerp by 
threatening in convivial moments to make 
them follow their neighbours' example (CoxE, 
Life of Lord Walpole, pp. 9-10). Upon oc- 
casions he seems to have displayed much 
magnificence. The papers of the period 
speak of the splendour of some of his enter- 
tainments when ambassador in Holland, and 
a news-letter of 1724 mentions his appear- 
ance at the drawing-room on the prince's 
birthday ' very rich in jewels.' As a soldier 
Cadogan must be ranked among the ablest 
staff officers the British army has produced. 
The confidence reposed in his judgment by 
Marlborough and the high opinions expressed 
of him by Prince Eugene and other foreign 
officers of note bespeak his high capacity ; 
he brought energy and skill to bear upon the 
details of his great leader's plans, and showed 
eminent administrative ability in performing 
the multifarious duties of a quartermaster- 
general. 

General CHARLES CADOGAN, who succeeded 
his brother as Baron Cadogan of Oakley, 
entered the army in 1706, in the Coldstream 
guards. He served in some of Marlborough's 
later campaigns and in Scotland in 1715. 
He sat in several parliaments for Reading, 
and afterwards for Newport, Isle of Wight. 
He purchased the colonelcy of the 4th ' king's 
own' foot in 1719, and in 1734 became 
colonel of the 6th Inniskilling dragoons. 
He married a daughter of Sir Hans Sloane, 
with which alliance commenced the connec- 



tion of the Cadogan family with the borough 
of Chelsea. At his death, which occurred 
at his residence in Bruton Street, on 24 Sept. 
1776, at the age of 85 (see FOSTER, Peerage), 
Charles, lord Cadogan, was a general, colonel 
of the 2nd troop of horse guards, governor of 
Gravesend and Tilbury Fort, a F.R.S., and a 
trustee of the British Museum. His only 
son, Charles Sloane, was created Viscount 
Chelsea and Earl Cadogan 27 Dec. 1800. 

[EarlCadogan's name has not been found in the 
early volumes of Irish Military Entry Books in 
the Dublin Eecord Office, odd volumes of which 
go back to 1697. His later commissions and 
appointments, subsequent to 1715, appear in the 
Home Office Military Entry Books and the 
Treasury and Ordnance Warrant Books, under 
date, in Public Record Office, London. Notices 
of his services occur incidentally in Lediard's 
Life of Marlborough ; in Coxe's Life of Marl- 
borough, the preface to which indicates various 
sources of information ; in the Marlborough 
Despatches, edited by Sir George Murray; in 
the London Gazettes of the period ; in Lettres 
Historiques, published at the Hague, of which 
there is a complete series in the British Museum ; 
in the published records of various regiments of 
cavalry and infantry which served in Marl- 
borough's campaigns and can be traced through 
the Army List ; in Correspondence of Sarah, 
Duchess of Marlborough, 1834 ; and in Lord Ma- 
hon's History of England, vol. i., where is a very 
impartial account of the campaign in Scotland in 
1715. The statements in the Stuart and Hanover 
papers, in Original Papers, by Macpherson, must 
be received with much reservation. Clode's ob- 
servations on the military expenditure of the 
period, in Military Forces of the Crown, i. 
118-24, deserve attention, and many of the mili- 
tary entries in the printed Calendars of Treasury 
Papers for the period indirectly illustrate the 
impecunious condition of the service at home 
at the time. The British Museum Cat. Printed 
Books, which has over 120 entries under the 
name of the first Duke of Marlborough, has but 
one under that of the first Earl Cadogan a 
printed copy of a diplomatic note respecting a 
British vessel pillaged by the Dutch at Cura90a 
in 1715. Among the biographical notices of 
Cadogan which have appeared, mention may be 
made of those in Collins's Peerage, 2nd ed., v. 
450, &c. ; Grainger's Biog. Hist. vol. iii. ; Timbs's 
Georgian Era, vol. ii. ; General Sir Frederick 
Hamilton's Origin and Hist. 1st or Grenadier 
Gds. vol. ii. ; Cannon's Hist. Eec. 5th Drag. Gds. 
A memoir which appeared in Colburn's United 
Service Mag. January- April 1872, headed 'Marl- 
borough's Lieutenants,' is chiefly noticeable for 
its numberless errors and misstatements. Ma- 
nuscript information is more abundant. Among 
the materials in the Public Records are : Fo- 
reign Office Records Flanders, Nos. 1 32-5, cor- 
respondence from Brussels in 1709-10 ; ditto, 
Flanders, No. 146, similar correspondence in 



Cadogan 



187 



Cad roe 



1714-15 ; ditto, Holland, Nos. 368, 372, 375,379, 
381-2, 386-8, 391-4, 400-1 ; correspondence of 
various dates relating to Cadogan's services in 
Holland ; ditto, Germany, Nos. 214-15, 216, the 
first two containing Cadogan's correspondence 
during his embassy at Vienna with M. St. Saporta, 
secretary of the Venetian Republic. Home Office 
Papers, besides the information in the Military 
Entry Books, contain in the Warrant and 
Letter Books sundry entries relative to Cado- 
gan's diplomatic services. In British Museum 
manuscripts may be noted : Add. MSS. 21494, 
ff. 64, 68, 72, letters dated 1703 ; 22196, a large 
volume of correspondence, chiefly diplomatic, be- 
tween Cadogan and Lord Raby, British repre- 
sentative at Berlin, covering the period 1703-10, 
where in one letter Raby incidentally recalls 
early days in Dublin, ' when you was really a 
poet,' and in another bespeaks Cadogan's inter- 
cession for a prisoner at Spandau, an artillery 
officer known to them both at the siege of King- 
sale ; 28329, correspondence with Lady Seaforth 
during the Scottish campaign in 1715 (see also 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 445) ; 20319, 
f. 39, letter on embassy to the Hague in 1718 ; 
28155, f. 299, letter to Admiral Sir John Norris 
in 1719; 29315, f. 35, letter to the Duke of 
Grafton in 1721. Also Add. Ch. 16154, patent 
of barony of Oakley, and 6300, appointment as 
plenipotentiary at Vienna. Cadogan's corre- 
spondence and other papers preserved in private 
manuscript collections will be found indexed in 
Hist. MSS. Comm. Reps., vol. ii., under ' Cado- 
gan,' vol. iii, under ' Cadogan ' with various pre- 
fixes, and under ' the Hague,' in vols. vi. and vii. 
under ' Cadogan,' in vol. viii., where the Marl- 
borough MSS., containing a mass of unpublished 
material, are reported upon, although Cadogan's 
name figures once only in the index, and in vol. 
ix.; correspondence and news-letters under heading 
' Cadogan.'] H. M. C. 

CADOGAN, WILLIAM (1711-1797), 
physician, was born in London in 1711 and 
graduated B.A. at Oriel College, Oxford, in 
1731. He then studied at Leyden, where he 
took the degree of M.D. in 1737, and was soon 
after appointed a physician to the army. He 
began private practice in Bristol, and while 
resident there was elected in 1752 F.R.S., but 
a little later settled in London, was made 
physician to the Foundling Hospital in 1754, 
and soon attained success. He took the de- 
grees of M.A., M.B., and M.D. at Oxford 
June 1755, became a fellow of the College of 
Physicians in 1758, was four times a censor, 
and twice delivered the Harveian oration. 
He lived in George Street, Hanover Square, 
died there 26 Feb. 1797, and was buried at 
Fulham, where he had a villa. Cadogan's 
works are his graduation thesis, 'De nutri- 
tione, incremento, et decremento corporis,' 
Leyden, 1737 ; his two Harveian orations, 
1764 and 1792 ; ' An Essay on the Nursing 



and Management of Children,' London, 1750; 
and ' A Dissertation on the Gout and on all 
Chronic Diseases,' London, 1771. His thesis 
is a statement of the current physiological 
opinions, and contains no original observation, 
and his Harveian orations are mere rhetori- 
cal exercises. His book on nursing is his best 
work, and went through nine editions in 
twenty years. He thinks children have, in 
general, too many clothes and too much food. 
Looser clothing and a simpler diet are re- 
commended, with sensible directions on the 
management of children. Cadogan's book 
on the gout was widely read, and was at- 
tacked by several of his medical contempo- 
raries, among others by Sir William Browne 
[q. v.] It reached a tenth edition within two 
years, but is not a work of any depth. Gout 
is, in his opinion, not hereditary, and, in com- 
mon with most chronic diseases, arises from 
indolence, intemperance, and vexation. The 
writer assumes a tone of superiority towards 
his contemporaries, which was probably en- 
gendered by his pecuniary success, but is not 
justified by the knowledge displayed in the 
book. His treatment of gout is sound as far 
as it goes, for he advises spare diet and as 
much exercise as possible. Dr. Cadogan's 
portrait, by R. E. Pine, is at the College of 
Physicians. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 222 ; Cado- 
gan's Works ; Nichols's Anecd. iii. 329 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1797, p. 352.] N. M. 

CADROE, SAINT (d. 976?), abbot of 
Wassor and St. Felix, near Metz, was born 
in Scotland about the beginning of the tenth 
century ; and the history of his life has pre- 
served almost the only materials we have for 
reconstructing the Scotch social life of this 
period. According to his contemporary bio- 
grapher both his parents were of royal, or at 
least noble, descent. His father, Fochertach 
or Faiteach, had married a widow, Bania 
by name, and being without children, the 
aged couple set out for Hi (lona), to obtain 
the intercession of St. Columba by prayers 
at the saint's tomb (the manuscript reads 
Columbanus by a natural mistake for Co- 
lumba). Their petition was granted, and 
in due time a son was born, to whom his 
parents gave the name of Kaddroe, in token 
that he was to be ' bellator in castris domini 
invictus.' Immediately on the child's birth 
we are told that, ' in accordance with the cus- 
tom of the country, a crowd of noble people 
of either sex and of every age came forward 
eager to undertake the boy's education.' In 
obedience to a second vision Cadroe was 
handed over to the care of a matron, who 
brought him up at her own home till he was 



Cadroe 



188 



Cadroe 



weaned, and perhaps later, when Fochertach, 
recognising his son's promise, began to train 
him up for a secular career. From this pur- 
pose, however, the father was dissuaded by 
the prayers of Beanus, the child's cousin (' pa- 
truelis ), who demanded that the boy should 
be instructed in letters, and who, finding the 
parents unwilling to lose the child of their old 
age, renewed his petition with success on the 
birth of the future saint's brother, Matta- 
danus. Accordingly, Cadroe was led by his 
weeping mother to St. Columba's tomb, and 
there formally handed over to his uncle's care 
(for St. Columba's tomb see SKENE, ii. 326, &c., 
who identifies Beanus with St. Bean, patron 
of the church of Kirkell, on the north bank of 
the Earn). In his new home Cadroe appears 
to have studied the scriptures chiefly, but 
there are not wanting tokens that, as he grew 
older, the bent of his mind was rather to the 
active than the contemplative life ( Vit. Cad. 
c. i. 8, 9). A sudden change seems, however, 
to have come upon him while yet a youth, 
and his ardour for knowledge grew so keen 
that his uncle despatched him to prosecute 
his secular studies at Armagh, which at this 
time (888-927) was governed by Maelbrigda, 
who was also abbot of lona {Ann. Ult. 927). 
Here Cadroe studied poetry, oratory, and 
philosophy, without neglecting the exacter 
sciences of number, measure, weight, motion 
(? tactu = tractu), hearing, and astronomy. 

Having thus made himself master of all the 
Irish learning, Cadroe returned to Scotland, 
and seems to have spent the next few years 
in imparting the knowledge he had acquired 
abroad to his countrymen ; ' for the Scots, 
though they have thousands of teachers, have 
not many fathers.' ' From the time of Cad- 
roe's return,' continues his biographer, ' none 
of the wise men [had] crossed the sea ; but 
they still dwelt in Ireland ' ( Vit. Cad. c. xii.) 
This obscure, and doubtless corrupt, passage 
Dr. Skene connects with the first establish- 
ment of the Culdees in Scotland (cf. Chr. 
Scot, sub an. 921). It perhaps marks the 
gradual severance of the two great Celtic 
churches of the West (SKENE, ii. 325). The 
effect produced by the labours of Cadroe is 
clearly shown by the grief of all ages and all 
classes of men when he announced his inten- 
tion of leaving Scotland in obedience to a 
heavenly vision. A curious penance (Vit. 
Cad. c. xv.) performed in a wintry stream 
(? the Earn) strengthened his resolution, and 
he started on his journey disregarding all the 
efforts of King Constantine to retain him. 
Entering the church of St. Bridget he bade 
farewell to the assembled people, and then 
once more set out on his way under the king's 
guidance, with gifts of gold, vestments, and 



steeds. The scene of this incident seems to 
have been Abernethy, and the king must be 
Constantine, the son of ^Edb, who reigned 
from c. 900 to c. 943 A.D. From Abernethy 
he passed on to his kinsman Dovenald or 
Donald, ' rex Cumbrorum.' This must be that 
Donald, king of Strathclyde, and brother to 
Constantine, who is called ' rex Britannorum ' 
in the ' Pictish Chronicle ' {Chr. of Picts and 
Scots, pp. xli, xlvi, and 9). Donald conducted 
Cadroe to Leeds (Loidam civitatem), whence 
the saint proceeded to King Eric, his kinsman 
by marriage, at York. This sovereign can only 
have been Eric, son of Harald Harfaegr, whom 
^Sthelstan had appointed king of Northumber- 
land c. 938 A.D. (LAING, i. 315, &c.) Thence 
Cadroe passed on to Lugdina (London), a 
city which he is credited with having saved 
from destruction by fire, and so on to visit 
King ' Egmund ' at Winchester (Edmund, 
940-6). With this king he had several 
conversations, after which he was conducted 
to the port ' qui dicitur hymen ' or ' limen ' 
(? Limne, the Roman Portus Lemanis ; see 
HASTED, Kent, iii. 435) by the archbishop 
Ottho (Odo, archbishop of Canterbury, 942- 
959). After dismissing his nephew and 
others of his companions Cadroe landed at 
Boulogne, whence he journeyed to Peronne 
to pray at St. Fursey's shrine. Here his fame 
reached the ears of Count Eilbert and his 
wife Hersindis, who, learning that the thir- 
teen strangers desired a spot on which they 
could devote themselves to agriculture and 
prayer, offered them a clearing in the ' Sylva 
Theorascensis,' where a church seems to have 
been already dedicated to St. Michael. Once 
settled here the brethren elected Cadroe to be 
their head, an office however which he refused 
in favour of Macallanus. A desire soon seized 
upon the little community of bringing itself 
into closer conformity with the monastic in- 
stitutions of the continent ; and accordingly 
Macallanus went to be instructed by Abbot 
Agenoald at Gorzia (ob. c. 968), and Cadroe to 
Erchembald at Fleury (abbot 942-51). Here 
Cadroe became a monk on the day of St. 
Paul's conversion (25 Jan.) Meanwhile his 
patrons had been building a second monastery 
at Walcidorus (Wassor on the Meuse, near 
Dinant), and now sent for the two wanderers 
to return home ; whereupon Maccalanus find- 
ing himself unable to conduct both establish- 
ments, Cadroe was persuaded by royal com- 
pulsion to undertake the charge of Wassor. 
In 946 A.D. Otto I confirmed the new foun- 
dation as a ' monasterium peregrinorum ' to 
be ruled by one of the ' Scotch ' strangers 
so long as a single member of the original 
community should survive (20 Sept. see 
Diploma ap. A. Mirseus, 278-9). Somewhat 



Cadroe 



189 



Cadroe 



later than this, but, according to Ste. Marthe 
(xiii. 846, 866), before 948, Adalbero, bishop 
of Metz, induced Cadroe to accept the ruined 
abbey of St. Clement or St. Felix, near Metz, 
which its new abbot restored and repeopled 
from Wassor (cf., however, MABILLON, Ann. 
iii. 500). The latter abbey Cadroe seems 
henceforward to have ruled by the aid of a 
prior, paying it visits from time to time. In 
948 Cadroe is said to have been made abbot of 
St. Symphorian at Metz (SiE. MARTHE, xiii. 
846). Among the list of Cadroe's friends 
we find many of the most distinguished men 
of the age, e.g. Adalbero and his brother Fre- 
deric, duke of Lorraine from 959 (FRODOARD 
and SIGEBERT, ap. PERTZ, ii. 402, 404, viii. 
511) ; John, abbot of Gorzia (whose lifeCadroe 
had saved from the effects of undue absti- 
nence), Otto's ambassador to the Saracens at 
Cordova ; Theodoric, cousin to Otto I and 
bishop of Metz (964-84), who 'venerated 
Cadroe as a father, knowing him to have the 
spirit of counsel ; ' Agenoald, the famous 
abbot of Gorzia (ob. c. 968) ; Anstey, abbot 
of St. Arnulf, at Ghent (946-60) ; and Hel- 
vidis, abbess of St. Peter's, near Metz, 'whose 
like,' to use Cadroe's own phrase, 'he had 
never found among the persons of her sex.' 

Shortly before Cadroe's death Adelheid, 
the widow of Otto I, reached Neheristein on 
her way to Italy, and sent to Metz to invite 
Cadroe to visit her. This request the saint, 
who already felt that death was at hand, 
reluctantly obeyed, and stayed with the ex- 
empress for some six days. As he was re- 
turning a fever seized him, and he died before 
he could reach his home at Metz, where he 
was buried in his own church of St. Felix. 
At this time, as his contemporary biogra- 
pher tells us, he had already overpassed the 
seventieth year of his age, and the thirtieth 
of his pilgrimage. Ste. Marthe (xiii. 866) 
says more precisely that he died in 978, 
after a rule of thirty-two years, at the age 
of seventy-eight or seventy-nine, but without 
giving any authority for his statement. The 
' Wassor Chronicle,' a compilation of the 
twelfth or thirteenth century, makes him die 
in the year 998 (ap. D'ACHERY, Spicileffium, 
vii. 543-4). A careful comparison of all the 
data at our disposal will make it very evi- 
dent that 940-2 were the years of his pil- 
grimage from Abernethy to Winchester. We 
know that Cadroe started in the reign of Con- 
stantine, i.e. probably before 943 A.D. (SKESTE, 
i. 360) ; while the mention of Donald, king 
of Cumberland, helps to fix his visit in this 
country before 945 A.D. (A.-S. (7.) Again, 
Eric Bloody Axe seems to have been settled 
in Yorkshire somewhere between the years 
937 and 941 (LAING, i. 315, &c. ; Roe. 



WEND. i. 396 ; A.-S. C. sub 941) ; for Eric's 
second reign in Northumberland was not till 
some years later (SIMEON OF DURHAM, sub 
949). Again, on reaching Winchester, Eg- 
mund (Edmund, from October 940-6) was 
reigning, while Otto (Odo) was already arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, to which office he was 
appointed 942 A.D. (STTJBBS, Register}. Hence 
it is evident that Cadroe can hardly have 
reached Peronne much before 943 A.D. This 
date will allow three years for his stay at St. 
Michael's and Fleury previous to his appoint- 
ment to Wassor in 946. Reckoning thirty 
years from this we arrive at the year 976, 
which may be considered as the approximate 
date of his death. At all events it is certain 
from contemporary authority that he stood 
by the deathbed of John, abbot of Gorzia, who 
died 973 A.D. (' Vita Johannis,' ap. MABILLON, 
A. SS. B. vii. 365, 366, 379, Ann. Bened. iii. 
621). On the other hand, it is evident that 
he did not survive Theodoric of Metz, who 
died 983 or 984 A.D. (SIGEBERT, ap. PERTZ, 
iv. 482). These considerations at once dis- 
pose of the Bollandist theory which would 
identify Adelheid's visit to Italy, alluded to 
above, with a journey mentioned byDithmar, 
and by him assigned to the year 988 (DiTH- 
MAR, ap. PERTZ, iii. 767, where, however, we 
read 984, and not 988 A.D.) 

[The chief authority for the life of Cadroe is 
a biography drawn up by a certain Eeimann or 
Ousmann, who, in the preface, claims to have been 
one of the saint's disciples and friends. Other 
phrases in the body of the work indicate that th& 
writer was dealing with almost contemporary 
events (cf. cc. 29 and 34). This life was under- 
taken at the request of a certain Immo, in whom 
we may perhaps recognise Immo, abbot of Wassor 
from c. 982, or Immo, abbot of Gorzia, c. 984. It 
was first printed by Colgan in his Acta Sancto- 
rum Hibernise (pp. 494-507), with copious notes, 
whose utility however is vitiated by the assump- 
tion that Cadroe was an Irishman. The Bollan- 
dist editors issued it, with certain omissions, in 
the Acta Sanctorum of 6 March (pp. 974-81), 
from which work Mabillon transcribed it for 
Acta SS. Benedict, vii. 487-501. See also Ste. 
Marthe's Gallia Christiana, vols. iii. vii. and xiii. ; 
Mabillon's Annales Ordinis Benedictini, vol. iii.; 
D'Achery's Spicilegium, vii. (1666) 513-83, con- 
tains the Chronicon Valciodorense ; Diplomata 
Belgica, by Albert Le Mire (Miraeus), 1627; No- 
titia Ecclesiarum Belgii (Le Mire), ed. 1630, 
pp. 99, 119 ; Skene's Chronicles of the Picts and 
Scots ; and Celtic Scotland, vol. ii. ; Forbes's 
Kalendars of Scottish Saints, 293-4 ; Lanigan's 
Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, iii. 396-402. 
The continental chroniclers are quoted from 
Pertz's Scriptores Berum Germanicarum ; Si- 
meon of Durham from Twysden's Decem Scrip- 
tores ; Eoger of Wendover has been edited by 
Coxe for the English Historical Society. Much 



Cadvan 



190 



Cadwaladr 



information as to the exact date of Cadroe's 
pilgrimage may be obtained by reference to 
Robertson's Hist, of Scotland, i. 66, &c. ; Calmet's 
Histoire de Lorraine, vol. i. ; Laing's Chronicles 
of the Kings of Norway, vol. i.] T. A. A. 

CADVAN (6th cent.), Welsh saint, was 
born in Brittany ; his father's name is given 
as Eneas Lydewig. Cadvan arrived in Wales 
early in the sixth century, having fled before 
the Frankish invasion of Gaul. He was ac- 
companied by a large number of persons, 
like himself of good birth, who proposed to 
devote themselves to a religious life on the 
loss of their possessions. Cadvan founded 
the churches of Llangadvan in Montgomery- 
shire and Towyn in Merionethshire, where 
there exists a rude pillar called St. Cadvan's 
stone to this day. The pillar bears an an- 
cient Welsh inscription, almost the only one 
of the kind remaining, which is given in 
Haddan and Stubbs's ' Early Ecclesiastical 
Documents,' i. 165. In conjunction with 
Einion Vrenin, Cadvan founded a monastery 
on Bardsey Isle, off the promontory of Car- 
narvonshire, of which he was the first abbot. 
He is called the tutelary saint of warriors, 
and is commemorated on 1 Nov. 

[Rees's Essay on Welsh Saints, 213-14; lolo 
MSS. ; article by Rev. Charles Hole in Dictionary 
of Christian Biography, i. 364; Archaeologia 
Cambrensis, new ser. i. 90, 205, ii. 58 ; Hiibner's 
Inscriptions Britanniae Christianas, p. 44.] 

A. M. 

CADVAN (d. 617? or 634?), was king of 
Gwynedd or North Wales. His existence may 
be regarded as satisfactorily established, but 
his exploits belong rather to legend or con- 
j ecture than history. The tenth-century pedi- 
gree of Owain, son of Howel Dha, makes him 
the son of lago, a descendant of Cunedda, and 
the father of the famous Csedwalla (d. 634) 
[q. v.], the ally of Penda, and the foe of the 
Northumbrian Bretwaldas (An. Cambria, 
Rolls Ser., p. x ; cf. Brut y Tywys. Rolls Ser., 
p. 2 ; and Cyvoessi Myrddin in Skene's Ancient 
Books of Wales, i. 464, ii. 221). Bseda gives 
us clear accounts of the warfare which went 
on between ^Ethelfrith of Northumbria and 
the North Welsh, culminating in the battle of 
Chester in 613 (B^DA, Hist. Eccl. bk. ii. ch. ii.) 
With these wars Welsh tradition connects 
the name of Cadvan, and the probability of 
the fact may excuse the weakness of the evi- 
dence. It is impossible, however, to accept 
the fabulous stories in Geoffry of Monmouth 
(Hist. Brit. bk. xii. ch. i. ; cf. Myvyrian 
Archaiology (1801), ii. 17, triad 81) of Cad- 
van's election as overlord by the princes of the 
Britons, his agreement to divide Britain with 
^Ethelfrith, and his acting as foster father to 



the fugitive Eadwine. In 616 the death of 
Ceredig {An. Cambr. MS. A. s. a.) may have 
given Cadvan a more commanding position. 
The legend that his son Cadwallawn began to 
reign in 617, the same year as Eadwine became 
king, has suggested that Cadvan himself died 
in that year, but Mr. Skene has conjectured 
with much ingenuity that Cadvan continued 
to reign in Gwynedd contemporaneously with 
his more energetic son, the leader of the com- 
bined British host against the Angles. In 
634 Oswald won a great victory at Heaven- 
field, and the ' wicked general ' slain there 
(unnamed by B.EDA, Hist. Eccl. iii. i ; called 
Catgublaun rex Gwenedote by Nennius, and 
Cathlan by Tighernac) Mr. Skene conjec- 
tures to have been Cadvan himself (Cadwal- 
lawn is called Cadwallaun by Nennius, and 
Chon by Tighernac; see Ancient Books of 
Wales, i. 71). But such hypotheses are 
hardly history. A very early inscription, ap- 
parently an epitaph, is still found on a stone 
like a coffin-lid above the southern door of 
the church of Llangadwaladr in Anglesea, 
called, as is conjectured, from Cadvan's grand- 
son. ' The old letters,' says Professor Rhys, 
' have quite the appearance of being of the 
seventh century' (Celtic Britain, p. 125). 
The words run : ' Catamanus rex sapien- 
tisimus opinatisimus omnium regum ' (HiJB- 
NEK, Inscriptions Britannice Christianes, p. 
52, No. 149). Burial near Aberffraw is hardly, 
though possibly, compatible with death on 
the field of battle in Northumbria. 

[Authorities cited in the text,] T. F. T. 
CADWALADER. [See OZEDWALLA.] 

CADWALADR (d. 1172), the son of 
Gruffudd, the son of Cynan, was the son and 
the brother of the two most famous north 
Welsh princes of their time. During his 
father's lifetime he accompanied his elder 
brother, Owain, on many predatory excur- 
sions against rival princes. In 1121 they 
ravaged Meirionydd, and apparently con- 
quered it. In 1135 and 1136 they led three 
successful expeditions to Ceredigion, and 
managed to get possession of at least the 
northern portion of that district. In 1137 
Owain succeeded, on Gruffudd ap Cynan's 
death, to the sovereignty of Gwynedd or 
North Wales. Cadwaladr appears to have 
found his portion in his former conquests of 
Meirionydd and northern Ceredigion. The 
intruder from Gwynedd soon became in- 
volved in feuds both with his south Welsh 
neighbours and with his family. In 1143 
his men slew Anarawd, son of Gruffudd of 
South Wales, to whom Owain Gwynedd had 
promised his daughter in marriage. Repu- 



Cadwaladr 



191 



Cadwaladr 



diated f by his brother, who sent his son 
Howel to ravage his share of Ceredigion 
and to attack his castle of Aberystwith, Cad- 
waladr fled to Ireland, whence he returned 
next year with a fleet of Irish Danes, to wreak 
vengeance on Owain. The fleet had already 
landed at the mouth of the Menai Straits 
when the intervention of the ' goodmen ' of 
Gwynedd reconciled the brothers. Disgusted 
at what they probably regarded as treachery, 
the Irish pirates seized and blinded Cadwa- 
ladr, and only released him on the payment 
of a heavy ransom of 2,000 bondmen (some 
of the chroniclers say cattle) . Their attempt 
to plunder the country was successfully re- 
sisted by Owain. In 1146, however, fresh 
hostilities broke out between Cadwaladr and 
his brother's sons Howel and Cynan. They 
invaded Meirionydd and captured his castle 
of Cynvael, despite the valiant resistance of 
his steward, Morvran, abbot of Whitland. 
This disaster lost Cadwaladr Meirionydd, and 
so hard was he pressed that, despite his 
building a castle at Llanrhystyd in Ceredi- 
gion (1148), he was compelled to surrender 
his possessions in that district to his son, ap- 
parently in hope of a compromise ; but Howel 
next year captured his cousin and conquered 
his territory, while the brothers of the mur- 
dered Anarawd profited by the dissensions 
of the princes of Gwynedd to conquer Cere- 
digion as far north as the Aeron, and soon 
extended their conquests into Howel's recent 
acquisitions. Meanwhile Cadwaladr was ex- 
pelled by Owain from his last refuge in Mona. 
Cadwaladr now seems to have taken refuge 
with the English, with whom, if we may be- 
lieve a late authority, his marriage with a 
lady of the house of Clare had already con- 
nected him (PowEL, History of Cambria, 
p. 232, ed. 1584). The death of Stephen put 
an end to the long period of Welsh freedom 
under which Cadwaladr had grown up. In 
1157 Henry II's first expedition to Wales, 
though by no means a brilliant success, was 
able to effect Cadwaladr's restoration to his 
old dominions. Despite his blindness, Cad- 
waladr had not lost his energy. In 1158 he 
joined the marcher lords and his nephews in 
an expedition against Rhys ap Gruffudd of 
South Wales. In 1165 Cadwaladr took part 
in the general resistance to Henry II's third 
expedition to Wales. In 1169 the death of 
Owain Gwynedd probably weakened his posi- 
tion. In March 1172 Cadwaladr himself 
died, and was buried in the same tomb as 
Owain, before the high altar of Bangor Ca- 
thedral (Gin. CAMBH. It. Camb. in Op. (Rolls 
ed.), iii. 133). 

The Welsh chroniclers are very full of 
Cadwaladr's exploits, and celebrate him as 



jointly with his brother upholding the unity 
of the British kingdom. Giraldus specially 
commends Cadwaladr's liberalitv (On. iii. 
145). 

[Brut y Tywysogion (Rolls Ser.) ; Annales 
Cambrise (Rolls Ser.) ; Gwentian Brut, Cambrian 
Archaeological Association.] T. F. T. 

CADWALADR CASAIL (/. 1590), 
a Welsh poet, flourished in the latter part of 
the sixteenth century. Some poems by him, 
consisting mainly of complimentary addresses 
and elegies, are preserved in the British 
Museum. 

[Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 14888, 14891-2, 14979, 
14994, 15010.] A. M. 

CADWALADR VENDIGAID, i.e. the 
BLESSED (d. 664 ?), king of the Britons, had 
a famous but rather shadowy figure in early 
Welsh history. Tenth-century sources tell 
us that he was the son of Cadwallawn, the 
ally of Penda, and that he reigned over the 
Britons after that monarch's death. He must 
have taken part in the ineffectual struggles 
of the North and Strathclyde Welsh against 
the overlordship of Oswiu, have participated 
in their earlier successes, and have shared, 
and, if the same person as the Cadavael of 
Nennius, largely helped to occasion the fall 
of Penda at Winwaed. After this we know 
nothing of Cadwaladr except that he died 
of the ' yellow plague ' that devastated Bri- 
tain in 664 (NEiomrs in Mon. Hist. Brit., 
45 c. The date is fixed from Baeda and 
Tighernac, cf. Annales Cambria, MS. A, 
s. a. 682). 

The fame of his father and his own con- 
nection with the last efforts of the Britons 
against the Saxon invaders early gave Cad- 
waladr a high place in Welsh tradition and 
poetry. Allusions to him are frequent in 
the dark utterances of the ' Four Ancient 
Bards ' (see SKENE, Four Ancient Books 
of Wales, passim, and especially i. 238- 
241, and 436-46). The prophecy of Merlin 
became current that he would one day come 
again, like Barbarossa, into the world and 
expel the Saxons from the land. At last 
Geoffry of Monmouth issued his elaborate fic- 
tion which made Cadwaladr the last British 
king of the whole island. After he had 
reigned twelve years, the story goes on, Cad- 
waladr was driven from Britain by a plague 
that raged for seven years, from which he 
took refuge in Armorica. Here he abdicated 
his rights in favour of Ivor, son of Alan, king 
of that land, who, on the cessation of the 
plague, went to Britain and performed pro- 
digies of valour against the Saxons ; but 
Cadwaladr, despairing of the struggle and 



Cadwgan 



warned by an angel in a dream, retired to 
Rome, where five years afterwards he died 
(12 May or 12 KaL May 687-9). Thus was 
the prophecy of Merlin fulfilled. ' Thence- 
forth the Britons lost the crown of the king- 
dom and the Saxons gained it.' Ivor reigned 
only as a prince, and the death of Cadwaladr 
marks the end of the ' Chronicle of the Kings ' 
and the beginning of the ' Chronicle of the 
Princes' (GEOF. of MON., Hist. Brit., bk. xii. 
ch. xiv-xix., or the Welsh Brut y Brenhinoedd 
in Myvyrian Archaiology, vol. ii., there called 
the Brut G. ap Arthur ; shorter versions are 
in the Brut y Tywysogion (Rolls Ser.), p. 2, 
and Gwentian Brut (Cambrian Archaeol. 
Soc.), P- 2). 

This story is plainly unhistorical, and the 
account of the voyage to Rome is obviously 
taken from the true history of Csedwalla of 
Wessex, who really died in Rome in 688. 
This accounts for the date being pushed for- 
ward from that given by Nennius or by the 
MS. A of the 'Annales Cambriae' (682). 
There is, however, no reason for not accepting 
the earlier and simpler accounts of Cadwaladr. 
Even the fabled transference of the kingdom 
to the Saxons may express in a mythical form 
the plain historical fact that under Cadwaladr 
the struggle of the Britons against the North- 
umbrians came to its disastrous end by 
their subjection to the alien power. This 
can be done without admitting into history 
the ingenious conjectures which connect with 
the fall of the last British kings who played 
a foremost part in the general history of the 
island the attribution of the title of Bretwalda 
to the Northumbrian conquerors. Cadwaladr, 
as is shown by his name of the Blessed, was 
early reputed a saint. Churches were dedi- 
cated to him in various parts of Wales. Of 
these most historical interest belongs to Llan- 
gadwaladr, near Aberffraw, in Anglesea, 
where his grandfather, Cadvan, king of North 
Wales [q. v.], was buried, and of which he 
was reputed the founder. 

[Besides original authorities mentioned above, 
see modern accounts in Skene's Introduction to 
the Four Ancient Books of Wales, i. 68-75 ; 
Prof. Ehys's Celtic Britain, especially pp. 130- 
1 36 ; and for his religious position, Prof. Rice 
Eees's Welsh Saints, pp. 299-301.] T. F. T. 

CADWALLADOR, ROGER (1668- 
1610), divine, was a native of Stretton 
Sugwas, Herefordshire, and studied in the 
English colleges at Rheims and Valladolid. 
After being ordained he returned to England 
in 1594, and laboured on the mission, chiefly 
in his native county, for sixteen years. At 
length, on Easter day, 1610, he was appre- 
hended and taken before Dr. Robert Bennet, 



bishop of the diocese, who committed him to 
prison, where he was very cruelly treated. He 
was condemned to death on account of his 
priestly character, and suffered at Leominster, 
on 27 Aug. 1610. He translated from the 
Greek Theodoret's ' Philotheus ; or, the Lives 
of the Fathers of the Syrian Deserts.' 

[Pits, De Anglise Scriptoribus, 806 ; Chal- 
loner's Missionary Priests (1742), ii. 27; Pan- 
zani's Memoirs, 83 ; Foley's Records, vi. 207 ; 
Diaries of the English College, Douay, 241, 243, 
247.] T. C. 



CADWALLON. [See 



CADWGAN (d. 1112), a Welsh prince, 
was a son of Bleddyn, who was the son of 
Cynvyn, and the near kinsman of the famous 
Gruffudd, son of Llewelyn, on whose death 
Harold appointed Bleddyn and his brother 
Rhiwallon kings of the Welsh. This settle- 
ment did not last very long, but Bleddyn 
retained to his death possession of a great 
part of Gwynedd, and handed his terri- 
tories down to his sons, of whom, besides 
Cadwgan, four others, Madog, Rhirid, Mare- 
dudd, and lorwerth, are mentioned in the 
chronicles. Cadwgan's name first appears 
in history in 1087, when, in conjunction 
with Madog and Rhirid, he led a North 
Welsh army against Rhys, son of Tewdwr, 
king of South Wales. The victory fell to 
the brothers, and Rhys retreated to Ireland, 
whence he soon returned with a Danish 
fleet, and turned the tables on his foes in the 
battle of Llechryd. Cadwgan escaped with 
his life, but his two brothers were slain. 
Six years later Rhys was slain by the Nor- 
man conquerors of Brecheiniog (1093), and 
Cadwgan availed himself of the confusion 
caused by the catastrophe of the only strong 
Welsh state in South Wales to renew his 
attacks on Deheubarth. His inroad on Dy- 
ved in May prepared the way for the French 
conquest of that region, which took place 
within two months, despite the unavailing 
struggles of Cadwgan and his family. But 
the Norman conquest of Ceredigion and Dy- 
ved excited the bitterest resistance of the 
Welsh, who profited by William Rufus's 
absence in Normandy in 1094 to make a 
great attack on their newly built castles. 
Cadwgan, now in close league with Gruffudd, 
son of Cynan, the chief king of Gwynedd, 
was foremost among the revolters. Besides 
demolishing their castles in Gwynedd, the 
allied princes penetrated into Ceredigion and 
Dyved, and won a great victory in the wood 
of Yspwys, which was followed by a devas- 
tating foray which overran the shires of Here- 
ford, Gloucester, and Worcester (Gwentian 



Cadwgan 



193 



Cadwgan 



Brut, 1094, cf. FLOE. WIG. s. a.) But, as Mr. 
Freeman points out, Cadwgan fought in the 
interest of Gwynedd rather than of Wales. 
His capture of the castles of Ceredigion was 
followed by the wholesale transplantation of 
the inhabitants, their property, and cattle 
into North Wales. A little later Cadwgan 's 
family joined in forays that penetrated to 
the walls of Pembroke, the only stronghold, 
except Rhyd y Gors, now left to the French- 
men. Two invasions of Rufus himself were 
needed to repair the damage, but the great 
expedition of 1097 was a signal failure. 
Rufus ' mickle lost in men and horses,' and 
Cadwgan was distinguished as the worthiest 
of the chieftains of the victorious Cymry 
in the pages of the Peterborough chronicler, 
who in his distant fenland monastery com- 
monly knew little of the names of Welsh 
kings (A.-Sax. Chron. s. a. 1097: 'Sum faera 
waes Caduugaun gehaten, J>e heora weorSast 
waes'). Such successes emboldened Cadwgan 
and his ally Gruffudd to attempt to save 
Anglesea when threatened in 1099 by the 
two earls Hugh of Chester and Shrewsbury. 
But the treachery of their own men either 
the nobles of Mona or some of their Irish- 
Danish allies drove both kings to seek safety 
in flight to Ireland. Next year they returned 
to Wales, and made peace with the border 
earls. Cadwgan became the man of the Earl 
of Shrewsbury, and received as a fief from 
him Ceredigion and part of Powys (Bruty T., 
s. a. 1100; according to the Gwentian Brut 
Arwystli and Meirionydd were his posses- 
sions in Powys). In 1102 Robert of Belleme 
[q. v.] called upon Cadwgan and his brothers 
lorwerth and Maredudd for help in his great 
war against Henry I. Great gifts of lands, 
horses, and arms persuaded Cadwgan and 
Maredudd to join Robert in Shropshire, but 
lorwerth stayed behind, and his sudden de- 
fection is regarded by the Welsh chroniclers 
as a main cause of Robert's fall. lorwerth 
now appears to have endeavoured to dis- 
possess Cadwgan and Maredudd of their 
lands as supporters of the fallen Earl of 
Shrewsbury. But though he succeeded in 
putting Maredudd into a royal dungeon, he 
made peace with Cadwgan and restored him 
his old territories. Thus Cadwgan escaped 
sharing in the disgrace and imprisonment of 
lorwerth by Bishop Richard of Belmeis, 
Henry's steward in Shropshire. It is pro- 
bable that it was some other Cadwgan who be- 
came an accomplice in the murder of Howel