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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

CLATER CONDELL 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



LESLIE STEPHEN 



VOL. XI. 
CLATER CONDELL 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1887 



v. \\ 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE ELEVENTH VOLUME. 



0. A 

E. H.-A. . . 
A. J. A. . . 
T. A. A. . . 
W.E.A.A. 
G. F. R. B. 
KB.... 
W. B. . . . 
G. T. B. . . 
A. C. B. . . 
J. T. B. . . 
W. G. B. . 
G. C. B. . . 
G. S. B. . . 

H. B 

E. H. B. . . 
A. A. B. . . 
H. M. C. . 
J. W. C. . . 
A.M. C. . 
G. E. C. . . 
E. C. . . . 
W. C. ... 

T. C 

W. P. C. . 
G. W. C. . 



OSMUND AIRY. 

EDWARD HERON-ALLEN. 

SIR A. J. ARBUTHNOT, K.C.S.I. 

T. A. ARCHER. 

W. E. A. AXON. 

G. F. RUSSELL BARKER. 

THE REV. RONALD BAYNE. 

THE REV. WILLIAM BENHAM, B.D. 

G. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. BICKLBY. 

J. T. BLACK. 

THE REV. PROFESSOR BLAIK.IE, D.D. 

G. C. BOASE. 

G. S. BOULGEH. 
HENRY BRADLEY. 
R. H. BRODIE. 
A. A. BRODRIBB. 
H. MANNERS CHICHESTER. 
J. W. CLARK. 
Miss A. M. CLERKE. 
G. E. COKAYNE, F.S.A. 
Miss EDITH COLERIDGE. 
WILKIE COLLINS. 
THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 
W. P. COURTNEY. 

THE RIGHT REV. SIR G. W. Cox, 
BART. 

CHARLES CHEIGHTON, M.D. 



M. C 

L. C. . . 

A. D 

J. W. E. 

F. E 

L. F 

C. H. F. . . 

R. G 

J. W.-G. . . 

G. G 

A. G 

R. E. G. . . 
J. A. H. . . 
T. F. H. . . 

J. H 

R. H-T. . . 
W. H. . . . 

C. K 

J. K 

J. K. L. . . 
S. L. L. .. 
H. R. L. . . 
G. P. M. . . 

. M. 
J. A. F. M. 
T. M. . . 
N. M. . 



. THE REV. PROFESSOR CKEIGHTON. 
. LIONEL GUST. 
. AUSTIN DOBSON. 



THE REV. J. W. EBSWOHTH, 
F.S.A. 

FRANCIS ESPINASSE. 

Louis FAGAN. 

C. H. FIRTH. 

RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D. 

J. WESTBY-GIBSON, LL.D. 

GORDON GOODWIN. 

THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

R. E. GRAVES. 

J. A. HAMILTON. 

T. F. HENDERSON. 

Miss JENNETT HUMPHREYS. 

ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S. 

THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

CHARLES KENT. 

JOSEPH KNIGHT. 

PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

S. L. LEE. 

THE REV. H. R. LUARD, D.D. 

G. P. MACDONELL. 

J2.YKAS MACKAY, LL.D. 

J. A. FULLER MAITLAND. 

SIR THEODORE MARTIN, K.C.B. 

NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



.T. M-Y. . . JOHN MOELEY, M.P. 

T. O THE KEV. THOMAS OLDEN. 

J. F. P. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

K. L. P. . . R. L. POOLE. 

S. L.-P. . . STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 

J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 

J. M. S. . . J. M. Scorr. 

E. S. S. . . E. S. SHUCKBUHGH. 

E. S EDWARD SMITH. 

W. B. S. . . W. BARCLAY SQUIRE. 
L. S LESLIE STEPHEN. 



H. M. S. . . H. M. STEPHENS. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER. 

T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. Tour. 

E. V THE REV. CANON VENABLBS. 

A. V. ... ALSAOER VIAN. 

G. F. W. . G. F. WARNER. 

M. G. W. . THE RET. M. G. WATKINS. 

F. W-T. . . FRANCIS WATT. 
C. W-H. . CHARLES WELSH. 
W. W. . . WARWICK WROTH. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Clater 



Clater 



CLATER, FRANCIS (1756-1823), far- 
rier, wrote the popular works ' Every Man his 
own Cattle Doctor ' (1810) and ' Every Man 
his own Farrier.' In the preface to the last- 
named work, which was published at Newark 
in 1783, when the writer was twenty-six, 
Clater describes himself as ' farrier, late of 
Newark,' and states that he served a regular 
apprenticeship and one year as journeyman 
to 'the late W. Frost, farrier, of Notting- 
ham, and being his nephew, succeeded to 
all the secrets of his profession.' The work 
was published at the desire of the numerous 
gentlemen and farmers who were Clater's 
employers, and appears to have roused the 
hostility of farriers generally. The writer 
insists chiefly on careful diagnosis of indivi- 
dual cases, and the use of pure drugs. Clater 
afterwards resided for many years at East 
Retford, where he practised as a chemist and 
druggist, as well as a cattle doctor, and, ac- 
cording to the inscription on a small me- 
morial tablet set up in the methodist chapel 
in Newgate Street in that town, was much 
respected, and there died, on 29 May 1823, 
in the sixty-seventh year of his age (PiERCE, 
Hist, of East Retford, 1828). The publica- 
tion of the above-mentioned works marked 
a stage in veterinary progress, and their last- 
ing popularity may be judged from the fact 
that, at the hands of the writer's son, John 
Clater, and subsequent editors, the former 
went through over twelve, and the latter 
over thirty editions. In the later ones as 
the edition of ' Every Man his own Farrier ' 
by Mayhew, published in 1850, and of the 
' Cattle Doctor ' by Armytage, published in 
1870 much exploded conjecture has been 
omitted, and the text almost entirely re- 
written. 

[Clater's Works ; Gent. Mag. xciii. (i.) 474, 
where Clater's age is wrongly given ; Pierce's 
Hist, of East Ketford.] H. M. C. 

VOL. XI. 



CLATER,THOM AS (1789-1867), painter, 
third son of Francis Clater [q. v.], farrier, of 
East Retford, Nottinghamshire, and Anne 
his wife, was baptised on 9 June 1789 at 
East Retford. He first exhibited in London 
in 1819 at the British Institution, sending 
two pictures, ' Children at a Spring ' and 
' Puff and Dart, or the Last Shilling a 
Provincial Game,' and at the Royal Aca- 
demy, to which he sent ' The Game at Put, 
or the Cheat detected.' In 1820 he exhibited 
at the Royal Academy a portrait of his bro- 
ther John Clater, and in 1823 portraits of 
Mr. C. Warren and of his father Francis 
Clater ; the latter picture was subsequently 
engraved by Lupton. Clater continued to 
send many pictures to the Royal Academy, 
British Institution. Suffolk Street Gallery, 
and all the principal exhibitions in the coun- 
try every year up to 1863. In 1843 he was 
elected a fellow of the Society of British 
Artists. His pictures were popular and of a 
class that was easily appreciated by the public. 
They were usually of a quietly humorous cha- 
racter, scenes from domestic and provincial 
life, and executed in a manner based on that 
of the Dutch genre painters. In the Walker 
Art Gallery at Liverpool there is a picture 
by him representing ' A Chief of Gipsies 
dividing Spoil with his Tribe.' Others which 
attracted attention were ' The Fortune-Teller 
Dressing for a Masquerade,' 'The Morning 
Lecture,' ' Christmas in the Country,' ' Sir 
Roger de Coverley,' ' The Music Lesson,' 
' The Smugglers' Cave,' ' Sunday Morning,' 
' Preparing for the Portrait,' &c. Clater re- 
sided for the latter portion of his life in 
Chelsea. So prolific a painter as he was is 
always liable to incur difficulties in dispos- 
ing of his pictures ; Clater was no exception, 
and as his pictures latterly failed to find pur- 
chasers, he became involved in pecuniary 
troubles, and had to be relieved from the 






Claudet 2 

funds of the Royal Academy. He died on 
24 Feb. 1867, leaving a family, some of whom 
also practised painting as a profession. Shortly 
after his death his widow married Mr. Jona- 
than Peel. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; Library of the Fine 
Arts, 1831 ; Arnold's Magazine of the Fine Arts; 
Evans's Cat. of Portraits ; Catalogues of the Royal 
Academy, British Institution, Suffolk Street, and 
other exhibitions; Gent. Mag. new ser. iii. 667.] 

L. C. 

CLAUDET, ANTOINE FRANQOIS 
JEAN (1797-1867), photographer, was born 
at Lyons on 12 Aug. 1797, and, after receiv- 
ing a good commercial and classical educa- 
tion, entered at the age of twenty-one the 
office of his uncle, M. Vital Roux, banker, 
who a few years afterwards placed him at 
the glass works of Choisy-le-Roi as director, 
in conjunction with M. G. Bontemps. Even- 
tually Claudet came to London, and in 1829 | 
opened a warehouse at 89 High Holborn for | 
the sale of French glass, but in 1833 describes 
himself as the owner of a sheet glass, glass 
shade, and painted glass warehouse. He j 
took George Houghton into partnership in > 
1837, and the latter for many years con- j 
tinued to manage the business. In 1833 ' 
Claudet invented the machine now generally 
used for cutting cylindrical glass, and for 
this invention he received the medal of the 
Society of Arts in 1853. Daguerre's great 
discoveries were announced in January 1839 ; 
in the following August, on the purchase of 
his invention by the French government, the 
new discovery was published to the world. ! 
Daguerre secured a patent in England for j 
his process, and Claudet, becoming possessor 
of a portion of this patent, commenced about 
1840 the practice of daguerreotype portrai- ! 
ture in the Adelaide Gallery, London, where '> 
his studio remained for many years. He i 
zealously devoted himself to photography, 
perfecting known processes and inventing 
new ones. He first obtained vastly increased 
sensitiveness by using chloride of iodine in- 
stead of iodine alone. In 1847, discussing 
the properties of solar radiation modified by 
coloured glass media, he made a bold at- 
tempt to lay the foundation of a more com- 
plete theory of the photographic phenomena, 
and he was rewarded by the publication of 
his paper in the 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions' (1847, pp. 253-62), and by his subse- 
quent election, 2 June 1853, as a fellow of 
the Royal Society. At this time the collo- 
dion process had supplanted the method of 
Daguerre, and Claudet was one of the first 
to adopt it. He assisted Sir Charles Wheat- 
stone in the early application of the stereo- 



Claughton 



scope to photography. The reports of the 
British Association during twenty years 
bear testimony to the ingenuity and origina- 
lity of his inventions. His dynactinometer, 
his photographometer, his focimeter, his 
stereomonoscope, his system of unity of mea- 
sure for focusing enlargements, his system 
of photosculpture, and other results of his 
experimental researches, are familiar to all 
students of the photographic art . He removed 
to 107 Regent Street, London, in 1851, and in 
1858 was appointed photographer in ordinary 
to the queen. In his later years he invented 
' A self-acting focus equaliser, or the means 
of producing the differential movement of 
the two lenses of a photographic optical com- 
bination which is capable, during the expo- 
sure, of bringing consecutively all the planes 
of a solid figure into focus without altering 
the size of the various images superposed.' 
After this, and in the same year, he had a 
correspondence with his collaborator, Sir 
David Brewster, who held that the most 
perfect photographic instrument is a single 
lens of least dispersion, least aberration, and 
least thickness. Claudet realised these views 
with a small topaz lens which reached with 
equal distinctness every plane of the figure. 
He was the author of upwards of forty papers, 
communicated from 1841 to 1867 to the 
Royal and other philosophical societies, and 
to photographic and philosophical publica- 
tions in England and France. He received 
awards of eleven medals, including the council 
medal of the Great Exhibition of 1851 ; but 
acting on juries, on other great occasions he 
was excluded from participation in the prizes. 
In 1863 he was made a chevalier of the Legion 
of Honour. He died at his residence in Re- 
gent's Park, London, on 27 Dec. 1867. Only 
a few weeks after his death, 23 Jan. 1868, his 
photographic premises in Regent Street were 
destroyed by fire, when the only negative of 
Claudet's portrait was entirely consumed. 
His widow, Julia, died at Brighton on 30 Oct. 
1881, aged 80. 

Claudet was the author of a small brochure 
entitled ' Du Stereoscope et de ses applica- 
tions a la Photographic,' Paris, 1853. 

[Scientific Review, August 1868, pp. 151-4; 
Proceedings of Royal Soc. of Lond. xvii. pp. Ixxxv- 
Ixxxvii ; Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1867). i. 
939, vii. 397 ; Photographic News, xii. 3, 51, 59, 
377, 387.] G. C. B. 

CLAUGHTON, PIERS CALVERLEY 

(1814-1884), bishop of Colombo, son of 
Thomas Claughton (M.P. for Newton, Lan- 
cashire, 1818-25, who died in 1842), born 
at Haydock Lodge, Winwick, Lancashire, 
on 8 Jan. 1814, was educated at Brasenose 



Clavel 



Clavell 



College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. in 
1835, and M.A. in 1838. He won the prize 
for the chancellor's prize essay in 1837, was 
fellow and tutor of University College from 
1837 to 1842, public examiner in 1842 to 
1844, and select preacher in 1843 and 1850. 
He was ordained in 1838, and appointed 
rector of Elton, Huntingdonshire, in 1845, 
where he introduced harvest festivals, which 
have since been so popular. He remained 
at Elton until 1859, when he was appointed 
the first bishop of St. Helena. During his 
tenure of that bishopric he took part at the 
Cape synod in the condemnation of Bishop 
Colenso. In 1862 he was translated to the 
see of Colombo, which he successfully ad- 
ministered for eight years. On his return to 
England in 1870 he was appointed arch- 
deacon of London and canon of St. Paul's, 
and as practical coadjutor to the Bishop of 
London he worked indefatigably. On the 
death of the Rev. G. R. Gleig in 1875 he 
succeeded to the post of chaplain-general 
of the forces. In all his offices he showed 
himself a most kindly, hard-working, and 
conscientious prelate. He took a leading part 
in the debates of convocation, as to the im- 
portance of which body he published a letter 
addressed to Lord Derby in 1852. His other 
publications were : ' A Brief Examination of 
the Thirty-nine Articles,' 1843, 8vo ; 'A 
Catechism, in six parts, for the Sundays in 
Lent,' 1847, 12mo ; ' Charges to the Clergy 
of the Archdeaconry of London,' 1872 to 
1878 ; ' Our Missions, a Letter to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury,' 1873, 8vo ; and occa- 
sional sermons published between 1840 and 
1877. He died on 11 Aug. 1884, at 2 North- 
wick Terrace, Maida Hill, London, and was 
buried at Elton. A tablet to his memory 
has been placed in the crypt of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. It contains a medallion portrait, 
and is near the memorial of Sir John Goss. 

[Guardian, 13 Aug. 1884, p. 1202; Illus- 
trated London News, 16 Aug. 1884, p. 155 ; 
Honours Register of Oxford, 1883 ; Crockford's 
Clerical Directory, 1884 ; Lancashire and Che- 
shire Historical and Genealogical Notes, iii. 
103.] C. W. S. 

CLAVEL, JOHN (1603-1642), highway- 
man, was descended from a family in good 
position, being the nephew and heir-at-law 
of Sir William Clavel, knight-banneret, whom 
he admitted he had grossly injured. He took 
to the highway when he was in great neces- 
sity, his first robbery being on Gad's Hill. 
( Ho wad apprehended in 1697, found guilty 
and condomnad to doatb. In 1628 he pub- 
lished ' A Recantation of an ill-led Life ; or 
a Disco verie of the Highway Law, in verse.' 
He dates it ' from my lonely chamber in the 



King's Bench, October 1627.' From the verses 
it would appear that he owed his pardon to 
the intercession of the king and queen. The 
poem was ' approved by the king's most ex- 
cellent majesty and published by his express 
command. A second edition appeared in 
1628, and a third, with a portrait, in 1634. 
Clavel died in 1642. 

[Granger's Biog. History of England, 5th ed. 
iii. 251-2 ; Caulfield's Portraits and Memoirs, 
ed. 1813, i. 97-104; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
x. 442-3 ; Black's Cat. Ashm. MSS. ; Evans's 
Portraits; Hazlitt's Handbook to the Popular, 
Poetical, and Dramatic Literature of Great Bri- 
tain, iii ; Hazlitt's Bibliographical Collection and 
Notes, 2nd series, 128.] T. F. H. 

CLAVELL, ROBERT (d. 1711), book- 
seller, of London, was the author of a curious 
little treatise entitled ' His Majesties Pro- 
priety and Dominion on the Brittish Seas as- 
serted : together with a true Account of the 
Neatherlanders' Insupportable Insolencies, 
and Injuries they have committed ; and the 
Inestimable Benefits they have gained in their 
Fishing on the English Seas : as also their 
Prodigious and Horrid Cruelties in the East 
and West Indies, and other Places. To which 
is added an exact Mapp,' &c., 8vo, London, 
1665 (another edition, 8vo, London, 1672). 
He is better known, however, by his useful 
classified lists of current literature, the first 
number of which appeared at the end of Mi- 
chaelmas term, 1668, the last at the end of 
Trinity term, 1700. Collective editions are 
as follows: 1. ' Mercurius Librarius, or a 
Catalogue of Books printed and published in 
Michaelmas Term (HillaryTerm, 1668, Easter 
Term, Michaelmas Term, 1669),' fol. [Lon- 
don, 1668-9]. Nos. 1-4 were the joint com- 
pilation of Clavell and John Starkey, a fellow- 
bookseller. 2. ' The General Catalogue of 
Books printed in England since the dreadful 
Fire of London, 1666, to the end of Trinity 
Term, 1674. Collected by R. Clavell,' fol. 
London, 1675. 3. ' The General Catalogue 
of Books printed . . . since . . . 1666, to ... 
1680 ... To which is added, a Catalogue of 
Latin Books, printed in foreign parts, and in 
England since 1670,' fol. London, 1680 [-81]. 
4. ' A Catalogue of Books printed in Eng- 
land . . . since . . . 1666, to the end of Mi- 
chaelmas Term, 1695. With an Abstract of 
the general Bills of Mortality since 1660,' 
fourth edition, fol. London, 1696. 5. 'A 
Catalogue of Books printed and published at 
London in Easter Term, 1670, to Trinity 
Term, 1700,' fol. [London, 1670-1700]. Dun- 
ton describes Clavell as ' a great dealer, who 
has deservedly gained himself the reputation 
of a just man. Dr. Barlow, bishop of Lin- 
coln, used to call him " the honest bookseller." 



*' He was appre- 
ded, convicted and sentenced to death on 



was probably the author of the play entitled 
'The Soddered Citizen' which has been 
ascribed to Shackerley Marmion. This play 



Claverhouse 



Clavering 



He has been master of the Company of Sta- 
tioners [1698 and 1699]; and perhaps the 
greatest unhappiness of his life was his being 
one of Alderman Cornish's jury' (Life and 
Errors, ed. 1818, i. 207). He died at Isling- 
ton in 1711 (Probate Act Book, P. C. C., 
August 1711). His will, as ' citizen and sta- 
tioner of London,' dated 17 April 1711, was 
proved on the following 8 Aug. by Catherine 
Clavell, his widow (Reg. in P. C. C. 161, 
Young). Mrs. Clavell survived her husband 
until the close of 1717, dying in the parish 
of St. Margaret, Westminster (Will reg. in 
P. C. C. 227, Whitfield ; Probate Act Book, 
P. C. C. December 1717). 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 608 n. ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] G. G. 

CLAVERHOUSE, JOHN GRAHAM 
OF. [See GRAHAM, JOHN, VISCOTTNT DUN- 
DEE.] 

CLAVERING, SIB JOHN (1722-1777), 
opponent of Warren Hastings, was the third 
son of Sir James Clavering of Greencroft in 
Lanchester, Durham, a member of the old 
northern family of Clavering of Axwell. 
Clavering was baptised on 31 Aug. 1722 
at Lanchester. ' In early life he began his 
military career in the Coldstream regiment 
of guards' (family papers). In 17f>9 General 
Barrington was sent to take the French island 
of Guadeloupe. Clavering, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, commanded under him. 
He led the British force in person, and was 
mainly instrumental in securing the conquest 
of the island, which surrendered after an 
eight days' attack. ' Clavering,' wrote Horace 
Walpole to Sir Horace Mann, ' is the real 
hero of Guadeloupe.' 

On 16 June 1759 Clavering was appointed 
' to be one of his majesty's aides-de-camp, to 
command and take rank as colonel of foot,' 
and in June 1760 he was sent 'to Hesse 
Cassel, to watch the motions of the landgrave 
of Hesse.' While engaged in this mission 
he wrote a number of letters to A. Mitchell, 
giving an account of part of the military 
operations during the seven years' war. 
These letters, together with other correspon- 
dence of his noticed below, throw some light 
not only on the conflict itself, but on British 
diplomacy of the period. 

In 1762 Clavering was appointed colonel 
of the 52nd regiment of foot, in June 1763 
was^recalled (Mitchell Papers, Letter 102), 
in 1770 was made lieutenant-general, and in 
1776 a knight of the Bath. In 1773 the 
' Regulating Act,' for the better government 
of India, was passed. Warren Hastings 
was appointed governor-general of Bengal, 
and four persons were named in the act to 



constitute, along with him, a council. Cla- 
vering was one of these. He was to com- 
mand the Bengal army, to be next in rank ta 
Hastings, and as councillor to draw a salary 
of 10,000/. The new councillors reached Ben- 
gal in October 1774, and a bitter strife im- 
mediately began between Clavering, Francis, 
and Monson on the one part, and Hastings,, 
supported by Barwell, on the other. The 
story of that conflict, in which Hastings, at 
first outnumbered and regularly outvoted, 
I was at last completely victorious, is told under 
I his life. Clavering conducted the struggle 
i with more violence than discretion, fought 
a bloodlesss duel with Barwell, and very 
nearly fought Hastings. He strongly sup- 
ported Nuncomar in the charges he brought 
against the governor-general ; but after Nun- 
comar's trial and conviction he ' peremptorily 
refused ... to make any application in favour 
j of a man who had been found guilty of for- 
gery ' (STEPHEN, i. 233), and this he repeated 
again at the council-board (ib. ii. 92). Thi 
seems to dispose of the rumour mentioned by 
Macaulay, that Clavering had sworn that 
' even at the foot of the gallows Nuncomar 
should be rescued.' In September 1776 
Monson died. This reduced the council to 
four, and Hastings, owing to his casting vote, 
was now supreme. He had, however, given 
authority to Maclean, his agent in London, 
to present his resignation if he thought fit. 
Maclean considered it necessary to do so, and 
the resignation was at once accepted. In 
June 1777 intelligence of this reached Ben- 
gal. Clavering, who had been directed to act 
as governor-general till the successor to Has- 
tings should arrive, at once proceeded, in a 
! violent manner, to take possession of the su- 
preme power. He was met by the refusal 
of Hastings to acknowledge the validity of 
the resignation presented in his name. Has- 
tings also declared that Clavering, having 
attempted to seize the governor-generalship, 
had by so doing vacated his seat at the 
council-board. The matter was finally re- 
ferred to the judges of the supreme court, 
who held that Hastings was still governor- 
! general, and Clavering still a member of 
council. 

Clavering took this disappointment much 
I to heart. He soon after fell ill, and died, 
: ' from the effects of climate,' on 30 (or, ac- 
; cording to Impey's letters, 29) Aug. 1777. 
| According to the ' Mahommedan chronicler T 
(viz. Syud Gholam Hussein Khan ; see 
STEPHEN, i. 261 et seq.), quoted by Mac- 
! aulay, Clavering's death was partly due to his 
j enforced attendance at the marriage of Has- 
tings ; but he seems to have been attacked by 
j his fatal illness when returning from a visit 



Clavering 



to Sir Elijah Impey (Impey to Bat hurst, 
IMPEY'S Memoirs, p. 166). 

Burke affirmed (Impeachment, ii. 68) that 
Clavering was the equal of Hastings ' in 
eveiy respect,' but in truth he was no match 
for him. He was an honest, straightforward 
man, of passionate disposition and mediocre 
abilities. 

Clavering married, first, Lady Diana West, 
daughter of the first Earl Delaware, and had 
issue two sons and three daughters; secondly, 
Katherine, daughter of John Yorke of Be- 
werley Hall, Yorkshire. 

[Information from Sir H. A. Clavering, bart., 
of Axwell ; Surtees's Hist, of Durham, ii. 249. 
The story of the quarrel with Hastings is given 
most brilliantly in Macaulay's well-known essay 
on Hastings, but "with much greater care and 
accuracy, and with full examination of the ori- 
ginal authorities, in Sir J. F. Stephen's Nuncomar 
and Impey (1885). The totally erroneous date 
of Clavering'sdeath, given in the Annual Register 
for 1778 as 10 April of that year, is probably 
the date when the news reached England. Notices 
of Clavering will be found in the speeches in the 
trial of Hastings, edited by Bond (1859-61), 
Gleig's Life of Hastings, Impey's Memoirs, and 
H. E. Busteed's Echoes from Old Calcutta (Cal- 
cutta, 1882). The manuscripts in the British 
Museum regarding Clavering are the Mitchell 
Papers, Add. MS. 6840, Add. MSS. 5726 C. f. 116, 
6821 f. 40, 12565, 12578, 16265,16267 f. 5, 29113, 
Eg. MS. 1722 f. 109.] F. W-T. 

CLAVERING, EGBERT (1671-1747), 
bishop of Peterborough, son of William Cla- 
vering of Tillmouth, Durham, was born in 
1671. He was admitted of Lincoln College, 
Oxford, on 26 June 1693, at the age of twenty- 
one, .having graduated previously at Edin- 
burgh, and after a residence of three years 
was permitted to proceed M.A. as a member 
of that house on 20 May 1696 (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. vi. 589). In 1701 he was 
fellow and tutor of University College. In 
July 1714 he was preferred to the deanery 
and rectory of Booking, Essex, which he re- 
signed on 27 July 1719 for the well-endowed 
rectory of Marsh Gibbon, Buckinghamshire. 
Meanwhile he had accumulated his degrees 
in divinity, proceeding D.D. on 2 March 1715 
as a member of Christ Church, and having 
been elected regius professor of Hebrew on 
20 May of that year in place of Roger Altham, 
resigned, was made prebendary of the sixth 
stall in the cathedral on the following 2 June. 
On 2 Jan. 1725 he was promoted to the bi- 
shopric of Llandaff and deanery of Hereford, 
two posts which at that time always went 
together, where he continued until his trans- 
lation to Peterborough in February 1729. 
He obtained permission to hold his professor- 



Claxton 

ship, prebendal stall, and rectory with his 
bishopric. Clavering died on 21 "July 1747. 
By his wife Mary, second daughter of John 
Cook, a Spanish merchant, of Fawley Court, 
Buckinghamshire, he had a son and four 
daughters. Besides two episcopal charges 
and three sermons, he published : ' R. Mosis 
Maimonidis Tractatus duo : 1. De doctrina 
Legis, sive educatione puerorum. 2. De na- 
tura & ratione Pcenitentise apud Hebraeos 
[being the third and fifth chapters of the first 
book of the Yad hachazakah]. Latine red- 
didit notisque illustravit R. Clavering. . . . 
Prsemittitur dissertatio de Maimonide ejusque 
operibus,' Oxford, 1705, 4to. The ' Disser- 
tatio ' was reprinted by Blasius Ugolinus in 
I vol. viii. of his ' Thesaurus Antiquitatum.' 
J Clavering's portrait, by Thomas Gibson, was 
engraved by Jean Simon. 

[Noble's Continuation of Granger, iii. 91 ; 

Eaine's North Durham, p. 325 ; Morant's Essex, 

ii. 389 ; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, iii. 54-5 ; 

Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy) ; Marshall's Genealo- 

' gist, iii. 76.] G. G. 

CLAXTON or CLARKSON, LAU- 
RENCE (1615-1667), sectary, was born at 
Preston, Lancashire, in 1615. He was brought 
up in the faith of the church of England. 
In an age of puritanism his conscience was 
afflicted, among other things, with the ' to- 
leration of maypoles, dancing, and rioting,' 
with which the Lord's day was profaned in 
Lancashire. He started on a strange pil- 
grimage through various sects, beginning, as 
a layman, with the presbyterians, with whose 
system he quarrelled after a time. He then 
made a brief trial of the independents, joined 
the antinomians, became a preacher among 
j them, and in his own opinion was ' not in- 
j ferior to any priest in those days.' After 
| this time he held for six months a ' benefice ' 
of the value of about 50/. per annum. The 
name of the place at which he was ' parish 
priest' is called by him Pulom. There is 
little doubt that Pulham Market in Norfolk 
is meant, although his name does not occur 
in the registers. In the course of a rambling 
life which he afterwards led he became a 
dipper or anabaptist (immersed 6 Nov. 1644, 
exercised his ministry till 24 Jan. 1645), 
I and his practices brought upon him a pro- 
! secution, when he was cast into prison at 
Bury St. Edmunds. He was released from 
confinement 15 July 1645, having procured 
his liberty by formally renouncing the prac- 
tice of dipping. He is found shortly after 
among the seekers, and we have the first of 
his tracts, entitled 'The Pilgrimage of Saints 
by Church cast out, in Christ found, seeking 
Truth' (Lond. 1646, 4to). Edwards (Gan- 



Claxton 



Claxton 



yrcena) states that as a seeker Claxton 
preached one Sunday at Bow Church before 
a large and distinguished congregation. He 
was appointed minister of Sandridge in Hert- 
fordshire, where he ' continued not a year.' 
To this date belongs another tract, ' Truth 
released from Prison to its former Libertie ; 
or a True Discovery who are the Troublers 
of True Israel ; the Disturbers of England's 
Peace' (London, 1646, 8vo, pp. 26). It is 
dedicated to the ' mayor, aldermen, and in- 
habitants of Preston.' Soon after this he 
wrote a tract against the parliament, called 
' A General Charge or Impeachment of High 
Treason, in the name of Justice Equity, 
against the Communality of England' (1647, 
4to). He was presented to a small parish in 
Lincolnshire, but soon grew weary of it. On 
19 Dec. 1648, according to a record in the 
manuscript minutes of the Fourth London 
Classis (now in Dr. Williams's library), 
' Mr. Laurence Claxton presented himselfe, 
brought certeine papers as testimonials wch 
the presbyterie returned, as not satisfactorie.' 
After the rejection of these overtures he be- 
came a ranter. His extravagant and ex- 
tremely licentious conduct brought again 
upon him the displeasure of the authori- 
ties. For publishing' an impious and blas- 
phemous ' tract called ' A Single Eye all 
Light no Darkness, or Light and Darkness 
One ' (1650, 4to, pp. 16), he was condemned 
by the House of Commons to be sent to 
prison for one month, and from that time 
' to be banished out of the commonwealth 
and the territories thereof, and not to return 
upon pain of death.' The book itself was 
burned by the common hangman. Somehow 
its author escaped the penalty of banishment, 
and for a while he travelled about as a pro- 
fessor of astrology and physic, and even 
aspired to the art of magic. He states that 
he was afterwards 'beneficed' at Terrington 
St. John parish in Marshland, Norfolk, and 
was 'by all the town received 'at Snettisham 
in the same county. In 1658 he came to 
London from the eastern counties and made 
the acquaintance of John Reeve and Ludo- 
wick Muggleton, to whose doctrines he be- 
came a convert. On the death of Reeve about 
the latter end of July 1658 he applied for 
and obtained ' leave to write in the vindica- 
tion and justification of this commission of 
the spirit.' The treatises he wrote are en- 
titled: 1. 'The Right Devil discovered, in 
his Descent, Form, Education, Qualification, 
Place and Nature of Torment,' 1659, small 
8vo. Muggleton in enumerating Claxton's 
books states that the first he wrote (as aMug- 
gletonian) was styled ' Look about you, for 
the Devil that you fear is in you,' but this may 



have been the title of the above work while 
yet in manuscript. It is, however, given 
by Claxton himself in ' Lost Sheep found , r 
p. 33. 2. ' The Quakers Downfal, with all 
other Dispensations, their inside turn'd out- 
ward,' 1659, 4to. On the title-page of this 
work he styled himself ' the alone, true, and 
faithful messenger of Christ Jesus, the Lord 
of Glory.' It was answered by John Har- 
wood, a quaker, in a tract entitled ' The 
Lying Prophet discovered and reproved,' 
1659, 4to. 3. ' A Paradisical Dialogue be- 
twixt Faith and Reason : disputing the 
high mysterious Secrets of Eternity, the 
like never extant in our Revelation,' 1660, 
4to. 4. 'Wonder of Wonders,' 1660. 5. 'The 
Lost Sheep found, or the Prodigal returned 
to his Father's House, after many a sad and 
weary journey through many religious coun- 
treys,' 1660, 4to, pp. 64. The last work, 
which is really an autobiography, was used 
by Scott in ' Woodstock ; ' the author's weak- 
nesses are displayed in it with extraordinary 
frankness. ' He had grown so proud as to 
say that nobody could write in the vindica- 
tion of the commission, now John Reeve was 
dead, but he.' Muggleton was highly offended 
at the work, and at once discountenanced the 
author. Before this time there had, however,, 
been a difference between them on another 
business. For twelve months (till 1661) he 
sought in vain for followers, but finding- 
Muggleton's power too strong for him he 
humbled himself to the prophet and acknow- 
ledged his fault. Thereupon he was taken- 
again into favour, but undertook not to write 
any more. His subsequent conduct seems to 
have been exemplary, as he gained credit from 
Muggleton as a faithful disciple. His later 
publications contain much practical moral 
teaching, especially against uncleanness, as is 
characteristic of Muggletonian writings. He 
is supposed to have been twice married, first 
to the daughter of R. Marchant, by whom he 
had five children. He probably got his living 
while in London by trading. At an earlier 
date, according to Edwards, he was a tailor. 
His last speculation was disastrous. After the 
fire of London he undertook to obtain money 
at interest to help sufferers to rebuild their 
houses, but he was left in the lurch by some 
persons who had procured 100Z. through him, 
and for this debt he was put in Ludgate gaol, 
where after lingering a year he died in 1667. 

The name is written Clarkson in his earlier 
tracts and Claxton in the later ones. It was 
no doubt originally Clarkson. In that form 
the name is still common about Preston, 
where it is pronounced Clackson. 

[Claxton's Lost Sheep found ; Edwards's Gan- 
grsena, 3rd edit, part i. 15, 19 (second pagination), 



Claxton ; 

103, ii. 6, '23, 29, 42, 136; Commons' Journals, 
vi. 427, 444, 475-6; Hart's Index Expurgatorius 
Anglicanus, 1872, p. 166; Sir W. Scott's Prose 
Works, xviii. 85-9 ; the same article in Quart. 
Eev. xliii. 475-8 ; Kev. Alex. Gordon in Proc. 
Liverpool Literary and Phil. Soc., 1869-70, xxiv. 
199-201 ; additional information and suggestions 
given by Mr. Gordon privately ; Notes and Queries, 
4th series, xi. 278, 350, 487, xii. 17 ; Jos. Smith's 
Biblioth. Anti-Quakeriana, pp. 124-6 ; Muggle- 
ton's Acts of the Witnesses of the Spirit (as 
quoted by A. Gordon, ubi supra, and in Notes 
and Queries).] C. W. S. 

CLAXTON, MARSHALL (1813-1881), 
painter, born at Bolton in Lancashire on 
12 May 1813, was the son of the Rev. Mar- 
shall Claxton, a Wesleyan minister. He 
was a pupil of John Jackson, R.A., and also a 
student of the Royal Academy, entering that 
school in January 1831. In 1832 he exhi- 
bited his first picture at the Royal Academy, 
a portrait of his father, and in 1833 his first 
subject picture, ' The Evening Star,' in the 
same year also exhibiting his first picture at 
the Gallery of the Society of British Artists. 
In 1834 he exhibited his first picture at the 
British Institution, and obtained the first 
medal in the painting school at the Royal 
Academy. In 1835 he was awarded the gold 
medal of the Society of Arts for a portrait 
of Sir Astley Cooper, and he also gained a 
silver medal from the same society. In 1837 
he went to Rome, and remained some con- 
siderable time in Italy. In 1843 he competed 
in the Cartoon Exhibition at Westminster 
Hall, and obtained one of the additional 
prizes of 100J. for his cartoon of ' Alfred in 
the Camp of the Danes,' which is now the 
property of the Literary and Scientific In- 
stitute at Greenwich. In 1844 he again took 
part in the competition at "Westminster Hall 
with two frescoes of the ' Death of Abel ' 
and the ' Building of Oxford University,' and 
again in 1847 with a large oil painting of the 
' Death of Sir John Moore at Corunna.' The 
success of his ' Alfred in the Camp of the 
Danes ' excited his ambition, and gained him 
considerable success. His activity and power 
of production, however, exceeded the demand 
for his works, and in 1850, having a number 
of pictures undisposed of, he conceived a new, 
and in those days original, plan. With about 
two hundred pictures by himself and others 
Claxton started for Australia, with the in- 
tention of founding, if possible, a school of 
art at the antipodes and disposing of some 
of his pictures. On his arrival he exhibited 
gratis the works he had brought with him, 
this being the first exhibition of works of 
art in Australia. He met with but little re- 
ward for his enterprise, and transferred him- 



Clay 



self and his pictures to India, where he dis- 
posed of most of the latter. He also visited 
Egypt, and about 1858 returned to England 
with a portfolio full of reminiscences of his 
travels. While in Australia Claxton was 
commissioned by MissBurdett-Couttsto paint 
there a large picture of ' Christ blessing the 
Little Children,' which is now in the school- 
room of the church of St. Stephen's, West- 
minster, and has been engraved by Samuel 
Bellin. This was the first historical picture 
painted at the antipodes. The same lady also 
commissioned several other works, among 
them ' Spenser reading the Faerie Queene to 
his Wife and Sir Walter Raleigh ' (engraved 
by E. Webb for the Art Union of London, 
1847), the ' Mother of Moses,' the 'Free Seat,' 
the ' Grandmother.' Claxton also received 
commissions from the queen, for whom he 
painted ' General View of the Harbour and 
City of Sydney, Australia,' and ' Portrait of 
the last Queen of the Aborigines.' He ex- 
hibited numerous works at the Royal Aca- 
demy and elsewhere, among which were 
' John Wesley, being refused the use of the 
Church, preaches to the people from his 
Father's Grave,' the ' Deathbed of John Wes- 
ley,' ' Sir Joshua Reynolds and his Friends,' the 
' Last Interview between Dr. Johnson and Sir 
Joshua Reynolds,' 'High Church,Low Church, 
and No Church ' (a picture in three compart- 
ments), ' Christ at the Tomb of Lazarus,' 
' The Jews mourning over Jerusalem,' and 
other scriptural works, besides portraits and 
scenes from domestic life. To the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862 he sent his pic- 
ture of the ' Sepulchre ' (engraved by S. 
Smith), which he afterwards presented to the 
South Kensington Museum, and which is by 
some thought to be his best work. Claxton 
was an ambitious and industrious painter, 
but lacked the strength requisite to rise to 
a high position in his art. He died at 155 
Carlton Road, Maida Vale, on 28 July 1881, 
after a long illness, aged 70 (according to the 
Times obituary). In 1837 he married Sophia, 
daughter of T. Hargrave, J.P., of Black- 
heath, by whom he was the father of two 
daughters, who have attained some repute 
as artists. 

[Times, 4 Aug. 1881 ; Athenaeum, 13 Aug. 
1881 ; Ottley's Dictionary of Recent and Living 
Painters ; Our Living Painters ; Graves's Dic- 
tionary of Artists, 1760-1880 ; Catalogues of the 
Royal Academy, National Art Gallery, South 
Kensington, &c. ; private information.] L. C. 

CLAY, ALFRED BORRON (1831-1868), 
painter, born 3 June 1831 at Walton, near 
Preston, Lancashire, was the second son of 
the Rev. John Clay [q. v.], the well-known 



Clay 



Clay 



chaplain of Preston gaol, and Henrietta 
Fielding, his wife. He was educated at the 
Preston grammar school, but also received 
instruction from his father, who added to his 
other merits that of being an accomplished 
artist. Clay was intended for the legal pro- 
fession, and was articled to a solicitor at 
Preston, but having great love of art decided 
on quitting his profession and becoming a 
painter. A portrait of his mother removing , 
the doubts of his parents as to the advis- 
ability of this step, he went to Liverpool to : 
study in 1852, and later in the same year 
became a student of the Royal Academy in 
London. In 1854 he exhibited for the first j 
time, sending to the British Institution 
1 Finishing Bleak House,' and to the Royal 
Academy ' Nora Creina' and ' Margaret Ram- 
say ; ' in 1855 he sent to the Royal Academy 
a portrait of his father, and continued to 
contribute to the same exhibition regularly 
up to the time of his death. The chief pic- 
tures painted by him were ' The Imprison- 
ment of Mary Queen of Scots at Lochleven 
Castle,' exhibited in 1861 ; < Charles IX and 
the French Court at the Massacre of St. Bar- 
tholomew,' exhibited in 1865 ; and ' The 
Return to Whitehall, 29 May 1660,' exhibited 
in 1867, and now in the Walker Gallery at 
Liverpool. This was his last work of im- 
portance, as his health failed about this time, 
and he died at Rainhill, near Liverpool, on 
1 Oct. 1868, aged 37, just at the commence- 
ment of a very promising career. On 9 April 
1856 he married Elizabeth Jane Fayrer, 
who survived him, and by whom he left a 
family. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Memoir of the Eev. John 
Clay ; Catalogues of the Koyal Academy, &c. ; 
private information.] L. C. 

CLAY, JAMES (1805-1873), writer on 
whist, was born in London in 1805. His 
father, a merchant in the citv of London, was 
brother of Sir William Clay, M.P. for the 
Tower Hamlets [q. v.] Clay was educated 
at Winchester. In 1830, in company with 
Benjamin Disraeli,who maintained to the end 
a close friendship with him, he travelled in 
the East. In 1837 he contested Beverley, 
and in 1841 Hull, unsuccessfully. In 1847 
he was elected as a liberal for Hull, for which 
borough he sat until his death, which took 
place in 1873 at Regency Square, Brighton. 
He married the daughter of General Wool- 
rych, one of Wellington's generals, and had 
a family, the best known of whom are Ernest 
Clay (who had a distinguished diplomatic 
career, and on his marriage with the daugh- 
ter of Mr. Ker Seymer, formerly member for 



Worcestershire, took after his own name that 
of Ker Seymer), Frederick Clay, the mu- 
sician, and Cecil Clay, well known in literary 
and artistic circles. Clay was chiefly emi- 
nent as a whist-player. ' A Treatise on the 
Game of Whist, by J. C.,' affixed to J. L. 
Baldwin's ' Laws of Short Whist ' (London, 
1864), has gone through many editions, and 
retains its authority in this country and in 
America. Some refinements which have 
come in, such as the lead from the penulti- 
mate and the discard from a strong suit when 
the adversaries show strength in trumps, se- 
cured his adhesion, and have been added to 
later editions by the author's sons. In the 
' Correspondence of Lord Beaconsfield ' are 
many friendly references to Clay. In a letter 
from Malta, dated 27 Sept. 1830 (Home Let- 
ters, pp. 58-9), Disraeli speaks of Clay's life 
of ' splendid adventure,' and, after chronicling 
his various triumphs, appends the character- 
istic reflection: 'To govern men you must 
either excel them in their accomplishments or 
despise them. Clay does one, I do the other, 
and we are both equally popular.' 

[Information privately supplied.] J. K. 

CLAY, JOHN (1796-1858), prison chap- 
lain, was the fifth son of Thomas Clay of 
Liverpool, ship and anchor smith, who died 
in 1821, by Mary, daughter of Ralph Lowe 
of Williamson Square, Liverpool, tanner. 
He was born in Liverpool on 10 May 1796, 
and after receiving a commercial education ' 
entered a merchant's office, but the failure of 
his master left him at the age of twenty-one 
without employment. He had, however, me- 
chanical genius, and invented a chair for per- 
sons suffering with spinal complaints, and an 
improved bow and arrow which long bore his 
name. After spending a considerable time 
in self-education he was ordained as a literate 
by the Bishop of Chester on 11 Aug. 1821, and 
obtained a title for orders by acting as assist- 
ant-chaplain at Preston house of correction. 
On 22 Sept. 1822 he was ordained a priest, 
and soon after entered as a ten-years man at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, but did not 
keep the three terms required until 1834-5, 
when he took his degree as bachelor of divi- 
nity. He became chaplain of the gaol in 
1823, and held the post for thirty-six years. 
His one ambition in life was the reformation 
and reclamation of prisoners, and to this end 
he incessantly laboured. His experience soon 
taught him that the indiscriminate mixture 
of prisoners was the great hindrance to any 
improvement in their moral condition, and 
his chief efforts were made in the direction 
of the silent and separate confinement of 
criminals. He befriended all who deserved 



Clay 



lielp, and communicated with their friends. 
He stated that in eighteen years he was only 
once insulted by a prisoner. From 1824 he 
commenced issuing annual reports, and after 
a time entered so minutely into the details of 
prison management that his report became a 
thick octavo volume and made him an autho- 
rity on criminal reform. In 1836 his annual 
reports were reprinted in a parliamentary blue 
book, and in a debate on education three years 
afterwards Lord John Russell quoted Clay's 
description of the ignorance of many of the 
prisoners. The chaplain in 1847 gave valu- 
able evidence before Lord Brougham's com- 
mittee of investigation into the question of 
the execution of the criminal laws. Lord 
Harrowby, then chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, offered him, when he was in pecu- 
niary difficulties, the rectory of Castleford, 
Yorkshire, but with conscientious ideas about 
keeping curates there, he declined the gift. 
Ill-health obliged him to resign his chaplaincy 
in January 1858. He died at Leamington 
on 21 Nov. 1858. He married, 1 1 Marchl828, 
Henrietta, third daughter of Mr. Fielding ; 
she died at Preston on 28 June 1858. 

Besides the prison reports already men- 
tioned he was the author of : 1. 'Twenty- 
five Sermons,' 1827. 2. < Burial Clubs and 
Infanticide in England. A Letter to W. 
Brown, esq., M.P.,' 1854. 3. ' A Plain Ad- 
dress to Candidates for Confirmation,' 1866. 

[W. L. Clay's Prison Chaplain, 1861, with 
portrait.] G. C. B. 

CLAY, JOHN GRANBY (1766-1846), 
general, was appointed ensign on 6 Nov. 
1782, in a Scotch independent company, com- 
manded by Captain, afterwards Lieutenant- 
colonel, James Abercrombie, then stationed 
in the north of England. He was placed on 
half-pay when the company was reduced 
some months later, but exchanged to full pay 
in the 45th foot in December 1784, and join- 
ing that regiment in Ireland, accompanied it 
to the West Indies in 1786. He obtained 
his lieutenancy on 30 April 1788. In 1794 
he served with the 2nd provisional battalion 
of light infantry in the expedition against 
Martinique, and highly distinguished himself 
at St. Pierre on the windward side of the 
island, where he led the forlorn hope in the 
attack on Morne du Pin. His party con- 
sisted of a sergeant and twelve men. With 
a few of them he gained the summit in rear 
of the enemy's position just at daybreak. 
Finding themselves unexpectedly assailed 
from that quarter, the French precipitately 
retreated, leaving a brass field-gun in the 
captors' hands, but not until after the officer 
in command had been wounded by Clay. 



> Clay 

After serving at the sieges of Forts Louis 
and Bourbon, and at the capture of St. 
Lucia, Clay returned home and purchased 
a company in the 105th foot, then raising 
at Leeds, in which, by priority of army ser- 
vice, he became senior captain, and in 1795 
major, but the regiment being drafted into 
others soon after, he was placed on half-pay. 
In 1797-9 he served on the staff as brigade- 
major to Major-general Cuyler at Brighton, 
and to Major-general Samuel Hulse at Lewes, 
and elsewhere in Kent and Sussex, and during 
the same period was detached for a time 
with the brigade of guards sent to Ireland in 
1798. In 1800 a number of line regiments 
formed second battalions from the militia, 
the men being enlisted for two years or the 
continuance of the war, among them being 
the 54th, in which Clay was appointed 
major on 19 May 1800. He accompanied 
the battalion to Quiberon, Ferrol, and Cadiz, 
and afterwards to Egypt, where he was 
present in the actions of 12-13 March 1801, 
and at the siege of Alexandria, and had 
his horse killed under him at Marabout on 
21 Aug. during General Eyre Coote's opera- 
tions against the city from the westward. 
For his services in Egypt he received the in- 
signia of the Ottoman order of the Crescent, 
and also the gold medal given by the Porte. 
His battalion ceasing to exist at the peace, 
Clay was again placed on half-pay. After 
the renewal of the war, he was brought into 
the 3rd Buffs, and sent to London to assist 
in organising the battalions of the army of 
reserve in Middlesex, London, and the Tower 
Hamlets, and in June 1804 was appointed 
assistant inspector-general of that force, re- 
turns of which will be found in the 'Annual 
Register,' 1 804, pp. 567-70. On its dissolution 
soon after, Clay was appointed to a lieutenant- 
colonelcy on half-pay of the 24th dragoons,and 
made inspecting field-officer of the Manchester 
recruiting district. He was senior military 
officer there in May 1808, when very serious 
disturbances broke out among the opera- 
tives in Manchester and the neighbouring 
towns, which he succeeded in suppressing 
in a few days with a very small force, and 
received the special thanks of General Cham- 
pagne, commanding the north-west district. 
Four years later riots again occurred, but a 
timely example made at Middleton, where 
the mob attacked the mill and burned the 
dwelling-house of Mr. Burton, a leading 
manufacturer, and attempted to fire on the 
troops, so completely dismayed them, that 
they ceased to assemble in any large num- 
bers. On the arrival of three militia regi- 
ments as reinforcements, Clay was appointed 
to the command of a brigade at Manchester, 



Clay 



Clay 



5. ' Speech on moving the Second Reading- 
of the Church Rate Abolition Bill,' 1856. 

[Times, 17 March 1869, p. 12 ; Men of the 
Time, 1868, p. 183 ; Burke's Peerage and Baro- 



netage for 1869, p. 232.] 



F. W-T. 



which he retained until his promotion. Full | Stock Banks,' 2nd edit. 1837, replied to by 
details of the disturbances of 1808 and 1812 , ' Vindex,' 1836. 3. ' Remarks on the Ex- 
will be found in A. Prentice's ' Historical pediency of restricting the Issue of Promis- 
Sketchesof Manchester '(London, 1851). The sory Notes to a Single Issuing Body,' 1844. 
promptitude with which the disorder was ar- 4. ' Remarks on the Water Supply of Lon- 
rested, and the absence of any charges against don,' 2nd edit. 1849, replied to by T. Coates, 
the military in the accounts, even of those in ' Statement of the Plan of supplying 
most disposed to side with the operatives, London with Water, proposed in the " Me- 
suggest that Clay displayed a firmness and tropolitan Waterworks Bill," ' &c. 1850. 
discretion fully entitling him to the recogni- K ' K-nwr.li nn m^nn- +lio So^nnrl "RparUno- 
tion his services received. Before leaving 
Manchester, in June 1813, on promotion to 
major-general and appointment to the staff in 
the West Indies, he was waited on by a depu- 
tation of gentlemen, who presented him with 
a sword valued at a hundred guineas. A few 
days later it was notified that the prince re- 
gent had been pleased to transfer Clay to the 
home staff, and he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the great depot of prisoners of war 
on the north road at Norman Cross, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, which he held until September 
1814, when, in consequence of the termina- 
tion of the war, his duties ceased. Clay at- 
tained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1825, 
and general on 23 Nov. 1841. He was in 
receipt of a pension for distinguished ser- 
vices. He died at his residence, 11 Baring 
Crescent, Exeter, on 13 Dec. 1846, in the 
eightieth year of his age. 

[Army Lists ; A. Prentice's Hist. Sketches of 
Manchester, pp. 30-82 ; Wheeler's Manchester 
(London, 1836), pp. 103-5 ; Gent. Mag. new ser. 
xxviii. p. 313 ; Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth 
Gazette, 19 Dec. 1846.] H. M. C. 

CLAY, SIR WILLIAM (1791-1869), 
politician, born in London in 1791, was the 



CLAY, WILLIAM KEATENGE (1797- 
1867), antiquary, was born in 1797, and r 
having been ordained deacon in 1823 by the 
Bishop of Salisbury, became curate of Green- 
wich. He was ordained priest in the fol- 
lowing year by the Bishop of London. He 
was curate of Paddington in 1830, and of 
Blunham, Bedfordshire, in 1834. In 1835 
he took the degree of B.D. at Jesus College, 
Cambridge, as a ' ten-year ' man, under the 
statute of Elizabeth (now repealed) ; he be- 
came minor canon of Ely Cathedral in 1837, 
and was subsequently appointed ' prselector 
theologicus' and librarian of the cathedral. 
In 1842 he was instituted to the perpetual 
curacy of Holy Trinity, Ely, and was collated 
in 1854 by Dr. Turton, bishop of Ely, to 
the vicarage of Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire, 
where he died on 26 April 1867. 

His works are : 1. ' Explanatory Notes on 
the Prayer Book Version of the Psalms,' 
London, 1839, 8vo. 2. ' The Book of Com- 
mon Prayer illustrated ; so as to show its 



son of George Clay, an eminent merchant, , various modifications, the date of its several 
into whose firm Clay was admitted at an j parts, and the authority on which they rest/ 
early age. In 1832 he was elected M.P. in , London, 1841, 8vo. 3. ' An Historical Sketch 
the liberal interest for the newly created j of the Prayer Book,' London, 1849, 8vo. 
Tower Hamlets constituency. He occupied . 4. Histories of the parishes of Waterbeach 
the seat till 1857. He was appointed secre- i (1859), Landbeach (1861), and Horningsey 
tary to the board of control in 1839 under j (1865) in Cambridgeshire. These three paro- 
Lord Melbourne's ministry. This office he chial histories, printed separately by the Cam- 
held till the retirement of his party in 1841, bridge Antiquarian Society, were collected 
when he was created a baronet. Clay was into one volume with a common title-page, 
a magistrate for Middlesex and Westminster, Cambridge, 1865, 8vo. 5. ' A History of 



and was also chairman of the Grand Junction 
and Southwark and Vauxhall water com- 
panies. He died at Cadogan Place, Chelsea, 
London, on 13 March 1869. In 1822 Clay 
married Harriet, daughter of Thomas Dicka- 



the Parish of Milton in the county of Cam- 
bridge,' edited by the Rev. W. G. Searle 
for the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
1869. 

He edited for the Parker Society ' Litur- 



son of Fulwell Lodge, Middlesex, and had gies and Occasional Forms of Prayer set 

issue three sons and six daughters. , forth in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,' 1847, 

Clay published the following pamphlets : and ' Private Prayers put forth by authority 

1. ' Speech at the Meeting of the Electors of during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. With 

the Tower Hamlets,' 1834. 2. ' Speech on an appendix containing the Litany of 1544,' 

Moving for a Committee to inquire into the Cambridge, 1851. He also assisted in the 

Act permitting the Establishment of Joint- edition of the ' Book of Common Prayer ' 



Claymond 



issued by the Ecclesiastical History Society 
in 1849-54, and in the edition of Wheatley's 
'Rational Illustration of the Book of Common 
Prayer/ reprinted in 1858 by the syndics of 
the Cambridge University Press. 

[Memoir prefixed to History of Milton ; Cam- 
bridge Chronicle, 4 May 1867; Graduati Can- 
tab. (1856), p. 79; Gent. Mag. ccxxi. 825.] 

T. C. 

CLAYMOND, JOHN, D.D. (1457?- 
1537), divine and scholar, was the son of 
John Claymond and Alice his wife, ' suffi- 
cient inhabitants ' of Frampton in Lincoln- 
shire, where John was born. He was edu- 
cated at Magdalen College grammar school, 
Oxford, and became a demy of the college, 
and in 1488 perpetual fellow, and in 1504 
president. He proceeded B.D. in 1508 and 
D.D. in 1510. He held many ecclesiastical 
benefices. In 1505 he was made master of St. 
Cross Hospital, near Winchester, by Bishop 
Fox, and held the post till 1524; in 1506 
the abbot and convent of Glastonbury ap- 
pointed him to the rectory of West Monkton 
in Somersetshire ; he received in 1509 from 
Adrian de Castello the prebend of Whit- 
church in the cathedral church of Wells, to 
which belonged the church of Beningar in 
Somersetshire; from 1498 to 1518 he held 
the vicarage of the collegiate church Norton, 
Durham, resigning it on condition of receiving 
a yearly pension of twenty marks ; one of the 
six scholars for whom he subsequently pro- 
vided scholarships atBrasenose College was to 
come from Overton orHavant or Mottesfont, 
Hampshire, ' of which three places he was suc- 
cessively rector.' At the request of Bishop Fox 
Claymond gave up the presidentship of Mag- 
dalen and accepted that of Corpus Christi, 
which Fox founded in 1516 ; but since this 
involved a pecuniary loss the bishop bestowed 
upon him the ' rich rectory ' of Cleeve in 
Gloucestershire, which he held till his death. 
Claymond was a considerable benefactor of the 
Oxford colleges in which he was interested ; 
to Magdalen he left ' divers lands and tene- 
ments ' in Oxfordshire and Southampton, 
conditionally upon annual service being per- 
formed in the chapel for the souls of himself, 
his father and mother, and his stepfather 
John ; he also left certain moneys for distri- 
bution among the poorest fellows and demies ; 
at Brasenose he founded six scholarships, the 
scholars being chosen from places where he 
had held preferments, these scholars were 
afterwards called Claymondines orClemmon- 
dines ; to Corpus Christi he left lands and 
money and his books. He does not seem to 
have printed anything, but left in manuscript 
to Corpus Christi College Library: 'Notse et 
Observationes in Plinii Naturalem Histo- 



i Claypoole 

riam,' 4 vols. ; ' Comment, in Auli Gellii 
Noctes Atticas ; ' ' Comment, in Plautum ; ' 
' Epistolae ad Simon. Grinaeum, Erasmum et 
alios Viros Doctissimos ; ' and a ' Treatise of 
Repentance,' which came into the posses- 
sion of Anthony a Wood. John Shepgreve, 
professor of Hebrew, wrote a Latin life of 
Claymond, with the title ' Vita et Epicedion 
Johannis Claymundi, Prsesidis Coll. Corp. 
Chr.' Erasmus mentions Cuthbert Tonstall, 
Thomas More, and Richard Pace as his spe- 
cial friends. He died on 19 Nov. 1537, and 
was buried in Corpus Christi College Chapel. 
The dates were never filled in on his tomb- 
stone, so that the year of his birth is a guess 
of Wood's. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. i. 104 ; Wood's Anti- 
quities, passim ; Allen's Lincolnshire, i. 348 ; 
Hutchinson's Durham, iii. Ill ; Leland's En- 
comia, &c., London, 1589, p. 43; J. Cains de 
libris propriis, London, 1576, p. 13; Erasmi 
Opera Omnia, 1703, iii. 463.] E. B. 

CLAYPOOLE or CLAYPOLE, ELIZA- 
BETH (1629-1658), second daughter of 
Oliver Cromwell, was born on 2 July 1629 
(NOBLE). Her marriage to John Claypoole 
[q. v.] took place in 1646. She was the fa- 
vourite daughter of her father, to whom her 
spiritual condition seems to have caused some 
anxiety. On one occasion he writes to his 
daughter Bridget expressing his satisfaction 
that her sister Claypoole ' sees her own vanity 
and carnal mind, bewailing it, and seeks after 
what will satisfy ' (Letter xli. 1646). But 
four years later he bade her mother warn her 
to ' take heed of a departing heart and of being 
cozened with worldly vanities and worldly 
company, which I doubt she is too subject to ' 
(Letter clxxi . ) According to several accounts 
she was too much exalted by her father's 
sovereignty, for which reason Mrs. Hutchin- 
son terms her and all her sisters, excepting 
Mrs. Fleetwood, ' insolent fools.' Captain 
Titus writes to Hyde relating a remark of 
Mrs. Claypoole's at a wedding feast concern- 
ing the wives of the major-generals : ' The 
feast wanting much of its grace by the absence 
of those ladies, it was asked by one there 
where they were. Mrs. Claypole answered, 
" 111 warrant you washing their dishes at 
home as they use to do." This hath been 
extremely ill taken, and now the women do 
all they can with their husbands to hinder 
Mrs. Claypole from being a princess ' {Claren- 
don State Papers, iii. 327 ; see also Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 177). But according 
to the account of Harrington ' she acted the 
part of a princess very naturally, obliging all 
persons with her civility, and frequently in- 
terceding for the unhappy.' To her he ap- 
plied with success for the restoration of the- 



Claypoole 



12 



Claypoole 



confiscated manuscript of ' Uceana ' ( Works, 
ed. Toland, xix.) According to Ludlow and 
Heath she interceded for the life of Dr. 
Hewit, but her own letter on the discovery 
of the plot in which he had been engaged 
throws a doubt on this story (THURLOE, 
vii. 171). Still she is said to have habitually 
interceded with her father for political of- 
fenders. ' How many of the royalist pri- 
soners got she not freed ? How many did 
not she save from death whom the laws had 
condemned ? ' (S. CARRINGTON, Life and Dea th 
of his most Serene Highness Oliver, fyc. 1659, 
p. 264). She was taken ill in June 1658, and j 
her sickness was aggravated by the death of i 
her youngest son, Oliver (THURLOE, vii. 177). 
The nature of her disease is variously stated : 
* The truth is,' writes Fleetwood, ' it's believed 
the physicians do not understand thoroughly 
her case ' (ib. 295, 309, 320, 340 ; LUDLOW, 
231 ; BATES, 233). Clarendon, Heath, Bates, 
and other royalist writers represent her as 
upbraiding her father in her last moments 
with the blood he had shed, &c. (Rebellion). 
The first hint of this report occurs in a news- 
letter of 16 Sept., where it is said that the 
Lady Claypoole ' did on her deathbed beseech 
his highness to take away the high court of 
justice ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 143). 
She died on 6 Aug. 1658, and the ' Mercurius 
Politicus ' in announcing her death describes 
her as ' a lady of an excellent spirit and 
judgment, and of a most noble disposition, 
eminent in all princely qualities conjoined 
with sincere resentments of true religion 
and piety.' She was buried on 10 Aug. in 
Henry VII's chapel in Westminster Abbey 
(Mercurius Politicus, 6 and 10 Aug.) After 
the Restoration her body was exhumed and 
cast with others into a pit at the back door 
of the prebendary's lodgings (12 Sept. 1661 ; 
RENNET, Register). 

Of her children (three sons and one daugh- 
ter) Cromwell died in May 1678 unmarried, 
Henry is said to have predeceased his brother, 
Oliver died in June 1658, and Martha in 
January 1664. None left issue. 

[Noble's House of Cromwell ; Carlyle's Letters 
and Speeches of Cromwell ; Ludlow's Memoirs, 
1751; Clarendon State Papers ; Thurloe Papers.] 

C. H. F. 

CLAYPOOLE or CLAYPOLE, JOHN 

(d. 1688), Cromwell's son-in-law, was the son 
of John Claypoole of Norborough, Northamp- 
tonshire. John Claypoole, senior, was one of 
those who refused to pay ship-money, and 
was created a baronet by the Protector on 
16 July 1657 (NOBLE, ii. 374). The date of 
the birth of John Claypoole the younger and 
the date of his marriage with Elizabeth Crom- 



well [see CLAYPOOLE, ELIZABETH] are both un- 
certain ; the former probably took place in 
1623, the latter some time before October 1646 
(CARLYLE, Cromwell, Letter xli.) According 
to Heath, Claypoole first appeared in arms for 
the parliament at the siege of Newark in the 
winter of 1645-6 (Chronicle, 185). On 11 Aug. 
1651 he received a commission from the coun- 
cil of state to raise a troop of horse to oppose 
the march of Charles II into England (Cal. 
S. P. Dom. 1651, 516). After the expulsion 
of the Long parliament he became more 
prominent. He was appointed by the Pro- 
tector one of the lords of his bedchamber, 
master of the horse, and ranger of Whittle- 
wood Forest. He took a leading part in the 
public ceremonials of the protectorate, such 
as the reception of the Dutch ambassadors 
in 1654, the two solemn investitures of his 
father-in-law as Protector, and the installa- 
tion oi Richard Cromwell on 27 Jan. 1659 
(Cromwelliana). On 15 Jan. 1656 he was 
appointed a member of the committee of 
trade, and sat in the parliaments of 1654 
and 1656, in the former for Carmarthen 
county, in the latter for Northampton county. 
He was also one of Cromwell's House of 
Lords (1657). In the parliament of 1656 
he endeavoured to moderate the wrath of the 
house against James Naylor (BURTON, Diary, 
i. 77), but distinguished himself most by his 
opposition to the legalisation of the authority 
exercised by the major-generals (7 Jan. 1657; 
BURTON, i. 310). ' The sycophants of the 
court, being fully persuaded that Claypoole 
had delivered the sense if not the very words 
of Cromwell in this matter, joined as one 
man in opposing the major-generals, and so 
their authority was abrogated ' (LUDLOW, Me- 
moirs, 222). Claypoole also was, according 
to Lilly, the intermediary by whom Crom- 
well sought his advice (Life, 175). In cha- 
racter there was nothing of the puritan about 
Claypoole. Mrs. Hutchinson terms him ' a 
debauched ungodly cavalier,' and in the 
' Second Narrative of the late Parliament ' 
j he is described as one ' whose qualifications 
not answering to those honest principles 
formerly so pretended of putting none but 
godly men into places of trust, was for a 
long time kept out ' (Harleian Miscellany, 
I iii. 480). Pepys mentions a famous running 
j footman who had been in Claypoole's service 
(Diary, 10 Aug. 1660), and we find him 
! begging from Colonel Verney a dog of superior 
fighting capacity (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th 
[ Rep. 460). A letter from Claypoole to Henry 
j Cromwell, expressing his feelings on the loss 
. of his wife and his father-in-law, is printed 
in the ' Thurloe State Papers ' (vii. 489). At 
the Restoration he escaped scot-free, and till 



Clayton i 

her death gave shelter to his mother-in-law, 
Oliver's widow. In June 1678 he was arrested 
on suspicion and imprisoned in the Tower, 
but speedily released. He died on 26 June 
1688 (NOBLE, ii. 380). 

His children by his first wife all prede- 
ceased him. He married a second time, in 
June 1670, Blanche, widow of Lancelot 
Stavely, by whom he had one daughter, 
Bridget, but falling under the influence of a 
certain Anne Ottee disinherited his daughter 
for her benefit. Mrs. Claypoole brought an 
action in chancery and recovered some por- 
tion of his property, most of which, however, 
he had been obliged to part with during his 
lifetime. 

[Noble's House of Cromwell, ii. 370-87 ; Lud- 
low's Memoirs, ed. 1751 ; Carlyle's Cromwell's 
Letters and Speeches; Burton's Cromwellian 
Diary ; Domestic State Papers ; Mercurius Poli- 
ticus.] C. H. F. 

CLAYTON, JOHN(1693-1773), botanist, 
was born at Fulham in 1693. His fat her was 
the attorney-general of Virginia, and the son 
left England and joined him in 1705. He 
appears to have studied medicine, botany, 
and, to some extent, chemistry. He sent to 
the Royal Society in 1739 a statement of 
1 Experiments concerning the Spirit of Coals,' 
which paper was published in the ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions.' Through the influence 
of his father Clayton was appointed secretary 
of Gloucester county, which office he held for 
many years. His position allowed him the 
leisure for studying the soil and atmospheric 
phenomena affecting the vegetation of the 
state, and for collecting specimens of its flora. 
Eventually he sent to the Royal Society the 
results of his observations, which were pub- 
lished in volumes xvii. xviii. and xli. of the 
' Philosophical Transactions. 1 These papers 
secured him the friendship of many of theEuro- 
pean naturalists ; especially he corresponded 
with the celebrated Dutch naturalists, the 
brothers Gronoy or Gronoviue. To these 
Clayton forwarded dried plants, and in con- 
nection with the celebrated Swedish natu- 
ralist, John Frederick Gronovius, they pub- 
lished ' Flora Virginica exhibens Plantas quas 
in Virginia Clayton collegit,' Leyden, 1739 
and 1745. These parts were reissued after 
Clayton's death in 1782. This work was the 
first flora of Virginia published, and it con- 
tained many new genera. Gronovius (Lau- 
rence, as his brother John Frederick died in 
1760) affixed the name of Clayton to a genus 
of plants. The Claytonias are perennial, rare 
in cultivation ; but the C. mrginica is some- 
times met with. These plants are popularly 
known in America by the name of ' spring 



3 Clayton 

beauty,' from the early season at which they 
flower. Clayton died in 1773. 

[Barton's Medical and Physical Journal ; Al- 
libone's Biographical Dictionary ; The Flora 
of Virginia, 1762 ; Philosophical Transactions ; 
Lindley and Moore's Treasury of Botany ; Hose's- 
Biographical Dictionary.] K. H-T. 

CLAYTON, JOHN (1709-1773), divine, 
son of William Clayton, bookseller, of Man- 
chester, was born 9 Oct. 1709. He wa* 
educated at the Manchester grammar school, 
and gained the school exhibition to Brasen- 
ose College, Oxford, in 1825. In 1829 the 
Hulmean scholarship was awarded to him, and 
a little later he became a college tutor. He 
proceeded B.A. on 16 April 1729, and M.A. 
on 8 June 1732. One of his early friends was 
John Byrom [q. v.l, his fellow-townsman, 
and at Oxford he knew John and Charles 
Wesley, James Hervey, Benjamin Ingham, 
and a few other pious young collegians, who 
formed the little society of ' Oxford Metho- 
dists,' the germ of the great Wesleyan me- 
thodist body. Fasting, almsgiving, and the 
visitation of the sick were among the main 
objects of the friends, and the influence of Clay- 
ton's devotional spirit and earnest church- 
manship was soon felt in the little community. 
He left Oxford in 1732, and was ordained 
deacon at Chester on 29 Dec. of that year. His 
first cure was that of Sacred Trinity Chapel 
in Salford. His house became the resort of 
Wesley and others of the Oxford society 
whenever they came to Manchester, and Wes- 
ley on several occasions preached from his 
pulpit. George Whitefield also delivered one 
of his stirring addresses in Clayton's chapel. 
When Wesley was contemplating his mis- 
sion to Georgia, he visited Manchester to take 
the opinions of Clayton and Byrom, and was, 
it is thought, influenced by their advice in 
carrying out that important project. Clayton 
acted as chaplain to Darcy Lever, LL.D., high 
sheriff of Lancashire in 1736, and published 
the assize sermon which he preached at Lan- 
caster in that year. On 6 March 1739-40 
he was elected one of the chaplains of the 
Manchester Collegiate Church, and twenty 
years later (28 June 1760) was appointed a 
fellow of the same. His high-church prac- 
tices and strongly pronounced Jacobite views 
proved very obnoxious to the whig party of 
the neighbourhood. He was attacked in a 
pamphlet by Thomas Percival of Roy ton, and 
subsequently by the Rev. Josiah Owen, presby- 
terian minister of Rochdale, and John Collier 
[q. v.], otherwise ' Tim Bobbin.' When the 
Young Pretender visited Manchester in 1745, 
Clayton publicly advocated his claims, and 
offered up prayer in the collegiate church for 



Clayton 



Clayton 



the deposed royal family. It is related that 
when the young chevalier was passing along 
the streets of Salford, he was met by Clay- 
ton, who fell upon his knees and invoked a 
divine blessing upon the prince. For his te- 
merity the Jacobite chaplain had afterwards j 
to suffer. He was obliged to conceal himself, | 
and was suspended from his office for vio- j 
lating his ordination vow, and for acting as | 
one disaffected towards the protestant sue- ; 
cession. He was reinstated when a general j 
amnesty towards the misguided adherents of 
the prince was proclaimed, and he recovered 
his allegiance to the church and gained the 
respect of his townsmen as a sincere and 
conscientious man. 

For many years he conducted an academy 
at Salford, and so attached himself to his 
pupils, that after his death they formed them- 
selves into a society called the Cyprianites, 
and at their first meeting decided to erect a 
monument to their master's memory, ' as a 
grateful token of their affectionate regard.' 
This monument is still remaining in the Man- 
chester Cathedral. For their use he pub- 
lished in 1754 ' Anacreontis et Sapphonis 
Carmina, cum virorum doctorum notis et 
emendationibus.' An excellent library of six 
thousand volumes, collected by himself, was 
attached to this school. It was dispersed in 
1773. In Chetham's Hospital and Library at 
Manchester he naturally took considerable 
interest, and in 1764 was elected a feoffee of 
that foundation. In 1755 he published a 
little volume entitled ' Friendly Advice to 
the Poor ; written and published at the re- 
quest of the late and present Officers of the 
Town of Manchester,' in which he presented 
an interesting account of the manners and 
state of society of the poorer inhabitants of 
the town, and suggested various wise sani- 
tary and provident remedies for the evils 
which he exposed. It was replied to in the 
following year in a jocular and sarcastic man- 
ner in ' A Sequel to the Friendly Advice to 
the Poor of Manchester. By Joseph Stot, 
Cobbler.' The real author was Robert Whit- 
worth, printer and bookseller. 

Clayton died on 25 Sept. 1773, aged 64, 
and was interred in the Derby chapel of the 
Manchester Collegiate Church (now cathe- 
dral). His wife was Mary, daughter of Wil- 
liam Dawson of Manchester. She appears to 
have died young. 

[Hibbert Ware's Foundations in Manchester, 
ii. 94, 100, 159, 336; Everett's Methodism in 
Manchester, 1827; Wesley's Works, 1831, vide 
index ; Byrom's Remains (Chetham Soc.), i. 236, 
515, 534, ii. 63, 218, 301, 394; Tyerman's Ox- 
ford Methodists. 1873, pp. 24-56 ; Eawlinson 
MS3. fol. 16, 311, 384; Raines's Lancashire MSS. 



vol. xl., in Chetham Library ; Evans's Memorials 
of St. John's, Manchester (still in manuscript). 
Portraits of Clayton and his wife and sister are 
in the possession of Colonel Mawson of Man- 
chester ; and a picture of Clayton in his school 
was formerly at Kersall Cell, Manchester, the 
property of the late Miss Atherton.] C. W. S. 

CLAYTON, JOHN (1728-1800), painter, 
belonged to a family residing at Bush Hill, 
Edmonton, and was brother to Samuel Clay- 
ton of Old Park, Enfield, and uncle to Nicholas 
Clayton [q. v.] He was brought up for the 
medical profession, and served his time with 
Samuel Sharpe, a well-known surgeon, but as 
he did not see his way to advancement in this 
profession, he took to painting. The form of 
art he adopted was still life, especially fruit 
and flower pieces, painting both in oil and 
water-colours ; he occasionally painted land- 
scapes. We first find Clayton exhibiting in 
1761 and the following years at the Free 
Society of Artists in the Strand, but in 1767 
he appears as a member of the Incorporated 
Society of Artists, and was one of those who 
signed the roll declaration of that society on 
its incorporation by charter in 1765; in these 
years and in the following he exhibited with 
that society. He resided in the Piazza, 
Covent Garden. In March 1769 a disastrous 
and extensive fire broke out which destroyed 
one side of the Piazza, and most of Clayton's 
best pictures perished in the flames. After 
this event he seems to have relinquished art, 
and retired, having married, to his brother's 
house at Enfield, where he devoted himself 
to gardening and music. We find his name 
again as an exhibitor in 1778. Clayton died 
on 23 June 1800 at Enfield, in his seventy- 
third year, leaving two sons and one daugh- 
ter. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists; Gent. 
Mag. 1800, Ixx. 596 ; Pye's Patronage of British 
j Art ; Catalogues of the Free Society of Artists 
! and of the Incorporated Society of Artists.] 

L. C. 

CLAYTON, JOHN (1754-1843), inde- 
pendent minister, was born at Wood End 
Farm, Clayton, near Chorley, Lancashire, 
5 Oct. 1754. He was the only son of George 
Clayton, a bleacher, and had nine elder sisters. 
He was educated at Leyland grammar school, 
where strong party feeling led to frequent 
fights between ' protestant ' and ' catholic ' 
sets of schoolboys. In these encounters Clay- 
ton's tall figure and natural courage made 
him conspicuous. He was apprenticed to his 
brother-in-law, Boultbee, an apothecary in 
Manchester ; but at the end of four years he 
ran off, and made his way to the house of a 
married sister in London. He was taken to 



Clayton i 

"hear the Rev. William Romaine preach, and 
his ' conversion ' followed. Clayton was in- 
troduced to the Countess of Huntingdon, and 
sent by her to Trevecca College, of which she 
was the foundress. The students of Lady 
Huntingdon's Connexion went forth in streets 
and market-places as preachers, and were 
sometimes roughly handled. On one occasion 
Clayton rode post from Wales to London to 
convey a message from his patroness, coun- 
termanding an order which she had given for 
the building of a new chapel. He became a po- 
pular preacher, and on account of symptoms 
of pulmonary disease was sent to take charge 
of her chapel at Tunbridge Wells. He also 
preached frequently in London. In 1777 he 
sought episcopal ordination, but difficulties 
arose which led him to desist, and a perusal 
of Towgood's 'Letters on Dissent' decided 
him to throw in his lot with nonconformists. 
This was a great disappointment to the 
countess, who addressed a long letter to him 
on the subject of his secession. He became 
an assistant to Sir Harry Trelawny, a Cornish 
gentleman, who was also minister of a pres- 
byterian congregation at West Looe. Tre- 
lawny afterwards became a Unitarian, then 
an Anglican clergyman, and finally a catholic. 
Clayton's Calvinism soon led to a separation 
from Trelawny, and he accepted an invita- 
tion to succeed the Rev. Samuel Wilton, D.D., 
as pastor of the Weigh-house Chapel. This he 
accepted in preference to a ' call' from Edin- 
burgh, and was ' ordained ' 25 Nov. 1778. 
He married, in July 1779, Mary, the eldest 
daughter of Mr. George Flower. Three of 
his sons afterwards attained distinction in 
the congregational ministry, the Rev. John 
Clayton, jun., the Rev. George Clayton, and 
the Rev. William Clayton. 

The minister of the Weigh-house was a 
man of methodical habits, and living at High- 
bury Place, Islington, once stated that for 
thirty years together he never heard the clock 
strike nine in London. Jacob Thornton, the 
Clapham philanthropist, took Clayton in his 
carriage to preach to the convicts at the 
Woolwich hulks. He had for supporters 
two officers with loaded carbines. ' Gentle- 
man' Barrington, the pickpocket, was one 
of the auditors, and at the close commented 
upon the sermon in the words : 'Well, doc- 
tor, I see that with you it is all faith and 
no works.' To this Clayton retorted : ' The 
very last place in which I should have ex- 
pected to find the merit of works pleaded 
"would be his majesty's hulks for convicted 
felons.' He was appointed in 1793 one of 
the preachers at the merchants' lecture. He 
held a similar office at Fetter Lane, Holborn, 
and Hare Court, Aldersgate. His literary 



Clayton 



remains are not very important. In addition 
to a share in the ordination service of his 
sons and other ministers, he published ' A 
Counter Statement relative to a late With- 
drawment from a Dissenting Independent 
Church,' London, 1804. This refers to his 
conduct in regard to one of his flock who 
had a taste for the theatre, and sometimes 
travelled on Sunday. The Rev. Richard Cecil 
~q. v.] is reported to have said : ' Clayton, I 
lave long respected you, but I have never 
before envied you. I own I do now envy you, 
because I hear that you have applied the dis- 
cipline of the church to a man that rides in 
his coach.' Clayton published : 1. ' The Snares 
of Prosperity,' to which is added an ' Essay 
upon Visiting,' London, 1789. 2. 'The Duty 
of Christians to Magistrates,' London, 1791, 
a sermon which led to a controversy, and 
provoked from Robert Hall his fine vindica- 
tion of liberty, entitled ' Christianity con- 
sistent with a Love of Freedom.' 3. ' The 
great Mercies of the Lord bestowed upon 
Britain,' London, 1802. 4. ' The Antidote 
of Fear ; a Sermon,' London, 1804. 

Clayton's brother-in-law, Benjamin Flower, 
the editor of the ' Cambridge Intelligencer,' 
brought an action against Clayton's son, the 
Rev. John Clayton, jun., who had circulated 
statements made by his father imputing to 
Flower forgery, or its equivalent. The case 
was tried before Lord Mansfield 25 July 1808, 
and the verdict of the jury awarded 40s. 
damages just enough to carry costs. About 
1820 Clayton bought a small estate at Gaines 
in Essex, and in 1826 he resigned the charge 
of the Weigh-house, after a pastorate of forty- 
eight years. Upon this occasion a service of 
plate was presented to him by the hands of 
the lord mayor. His wife died 11 Jan. 1836, 
and he died 22 Sept. 1843. He is buried in 
Bunhill Fields. 

His eldest son, the Rev. JOHN CLAYTON, 
jun., referred to above, was pastor of the 
Poultry Chapel, London, and died at Bath 
3 Oct. 1865, aged 85. He published some 
sermons and a treatise on ' The Choice of 
Books,' 1811. 

[Aveling's Memorials of Clay ton Family, 1867 ; 
Jones's Bunhill Memorials ; General Catalogue 
of the British Museum. The quarrel between 
the Flowers and the Claytons is referred to in 
Flower's Life of Kobinson of Cambridge, as well 
as in his Statement of Facts, 1808.1 

W. E. A. A. 

CLAYTON, JOHN (d. 1861), architect, 
was a native of Hereford, where he had a 
large practice. The market-gateway entrance 
with a clock-tower in that town was erected 
from his design, besides numerous other public 
buildings and private residences. About 1839 



Clayton 



16 



Clayton 



he came to London and settled in Elizabeth 
Street, Eaton Square. In that year he sent 
to the Royal Academy a ' Design for a Villa 
in the Isle of Wight.' On 13 June 1842 he 
was elected an associate of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects, and was advanced 
to the dignity of fellow of the same body on 
2 Nov. 1857. He exhibited architectural 
designs in the Royal Academy in 1844-7, 
1853, and 1856, and in 1845 obtained the 
premium of the Royal Academy in architec- 
ture for the most finished drawing in detail of 
the church of St. Stephen, Walbrook. Clay- 
ton is best known for his architectural pub- 
lications : ' A Collection of the Ancient Timber 
Edifices of England,' 1846, a most valuable 
record of those structures, most of which 
have now disappeared, and ' The Dimensions, 
Plans, Elevations, and Sections of the Paro- 
chial Churches of Sir Christopher Wren, 
erected in the cities of London and West- 
minster,' 1848. In addition to these he pub- 
lished the following sessional papers, contri- 
buted by him to the Royal Institute of British 
Architects : ' Norman Refectory at Hereford,' 
1847 ; ' Abbey Dore Church and Monastery 
near Hereford,' 1851 ; ' Towers and Spires of 
the City Churches, the works of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren,' 1852 ; ' Bridges and Viaducts 
of the Present Day,' 1856. Clayton died in 
1861, and at the opening meeting at the 
Royal Institute in November of that year 
allusion was made to the merits of his works 
and his architectural abilities. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; Royal Academy Ca- 
talogues ; Catalogue of the Library, and Records 
of the Royal Institute of British Architects.] 

L. C. 

CLAYTON, NICHOLAS, D.D. (1733 ?- 
1797), presbyterian divine, son of Samuel 
Clayton of Old Park, Enfield, Middlesex, was 
born about 1733. He was educated partly 
by private teachers at St. Albans and Chelms- 
ford, and partly at a dissenting academy at 
Northampton and at the university of Glas- 
gow. He was minister from 1759 to 1763 
of the presbyterian chapel at Boston in Lin- 
colnshire, and was invited thence in 1763 
to the newly built Octagon Chapel at Liver- 
pool, the promoters of which had the de- 
sign of introducing a liturgy which dissen- 
ters and members of the established church 
might join in using. The scheme was car- 
ried on for thirteen years, but as it was not 
supported by the members of the church who 
had professed to be dissatisfied with the Book 
of Common Prayer, the chapel was then sold 
to a clergyman of the church of England, and 
Clayton went to the chapel in Benn's Gar- 



den, Liverpool, as the colleague of the Rev. 
Robert Lewin. The sermon with which he 
concluded the services at the Octagon on 
25 Feb. 1776 was published under the title 
of ' The Importance of Sincerity in Public 
Worship to Truth, Morals, and Christianity/ 
Besides this sermon, he printed one in the 
same year entitled ' The Minister of the Gos- 
pel represented in a sermon on 1 Cor. x. 33 T 
(WATT, Bibl. rit.), and another in 1776 on 
prayer. In the spring of 1781 he was ap- 
pointed divinity tutor at the Warrington 
Academy, in succession to Dr. John Aikin, 
but that establishment was then in a declining 
state, and in 1783 he returned to Liverpool 
broken in health. While at Warrington, in 
1782 he received the degree of D.D. from the 
university of Edinburgh. From 1785 to 1795 
he ministered at Nottingham as the colleague 
of the Rev. George Walker. In the latter 
year he returned once more to Liverpool, and 
died there on 20 May 1797, aged 66. He 
married in 1765 Dorothy, daughter of James 
Nicholson of Liverpool. Clayton was a 
highly accomplished man, and outside his own 
calling was a good mathematician and skilled 
in natural philosophy. His sermons were ac- 
counted excellent compositions. 

[Monthly Repository, 1813, viii. 625-9 ; Thorn's 
Liverpool Churches and Chapels, 1854, p. 71 ; 
Mem. of Gilbert Wakefield, 1804, i. 226, 321, 
555; Thompson's Hist, of Boston, p. 263; Brooke's 
Liverpool, 1853, p. 58; Kendrick's Warrington 
Profiles (portrait) ; Gent. Mag. 1776, xlvi. 369, 
450 (notice of the Octagon sermon) ; Cat. of 
Edinb. Graduates, 1858, p. 246. The liturgy 
used at the Octagon Chapel was published in 
1763.] C. W. S. 

CLAYTON, RICHARD, D.D. (d. 1612), 
dean of Peterborough, son of John Clayton, 
gentleman, of Crook in Lancashire, was ad- 
mitted a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in 1572, but removed to Ox- 
ford, where he proceeded B.A., and was in- 
corporated in that degree at Cambridge in 
1576. In the following year he was admitted 
a fellow of St. John's, on the Lady Margaret's 
foundation. He commenced M.A. at Cam- 
bridge in 1579, and was incorporated in that 
degree at Oxford on 12 July 1580 (Woou, 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 217). He proceeded B.D. 
at Cambridge in 1587, was elected a college 
preacher at St. John's the same year, was 
created D.D. in 1592, became master of Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge, in 1593, was in- 
stalled archdeacon of Lincoln on 30 Aug. 
1595, collated to the prebend of Thorngate 
in the church of Lincoln on 11 Dec. 1595, 
and admitted master of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on the 22nd of the same month. 
The second court of the college was the great 



Clayton 3 

work of this master : but during his master- 
ship the college declined in learning, its in- 
mates ' being so overbusied with architecture 
that their other studies were intermitted, and 
the noise of axes and hammers disturbed 
them in their proper business ' (BAKER, Hist, 
of St. John's, i. 190, 191, 196). Under his 
government puritanism was in great measure 
rooted out of the college. He was collated 
to a canomy of Peterborough on 21 June 
1596 ; was vice-chancellor of the university 
of Cambridge in 1604 ; and was installed 
dean of Peterborough on 28 July 1607 (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 539). He died 
on 2 May 1612, and was buried in St. John's 
College chapel with great solemnity. 

[Cambridge Antiquarian Communications, i. 
349 ; Addit. MS. 5866, f. 8 ; Hacket's Life of 
Abp. Williams, pp. 17, 18, 22.] T. C. 

CLAYTON, SIR RICHARD (d. 1828), 
translator, was the son of John Clayton of 
Northall, Lancashire, by Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Dr. Goodwin, rector of 
Tankersley, near Barnsley, Yorkshire, and 
nephew of Richard Clayton, serjeant-at-law 
and lord chief justice of the common pleas 
in Ireland, who by his will, dated 16 March 
1770, left him his manors of Adlington and 
Worthington. He was created a baronet 
on 3 May 1774, was recorder of Wigan 
(1815-28), constable of Lancaster Castle, 
and British consul at Nantes, where he died 
on 29 April 1828. He was a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and a member of the 
Inner Temple, where he was admitted in 
1762, called in 1771, and reader in 1811. He 
married in 1780 Ann, daughter of Dr. Charles 
White, an eminent surgeon of Manchester, 
and left an only daughter, who married Lieu- 
tenant-general Robert Browne. Lady Clay- 
ton died at Cheltenham on 23 Nov. 1837. 

Clayton published the following transla- 
tions and other works: 1. ' On the Cretins 
of the Vallais,' a paper in the ' Memoirs ' of 
the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, 1790. 2. ' Connubia Florum Latino 
carmine demonstrata ; auctore D. De la Croix, 
notas et observationes adjecit,' Bath, 1791, 
8vo. 3. ' A Critical Inquiry into the Life of 
Alexander the Great by the Ancient His- 
torians, translated from the French of the 
Baron de St. Croix,' Bath, 1793, 4to, which 
he rendered by his additions more valuable 
than the original. 4. ' Memoirs of the House 
of Medici, from the French of M. Tenhove, 
with notes and observations,' Bath, 1797, 
4to, 2 vols. 5. ' The Science of Legislation, 
from the Italian of Filangieri,' 1806, 8vo. 
6. ' A Treatise on Greyhounds,' in the ' Pam- 
phleteer,' vol. ix. 1817. 

VOL. XI. 



Clayton 



[Baines's Lancashire, 1870, ii. 165; Literary 
Memoirs of Living Authors (by Rivers), 1798, 
i.101; Biog.Dict. of Living Authors, 1816, p. 66 ; 
Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies, 1844, 
Addenda, p. 600 ; De Quincey's Autob. Sketches, 
1854, ii. 67, where he writes of Sir R. Clayton 
having honourably distinguished himself in lite- 
rature by translating and improving the work 
of Tenhove.] C. W. S. 

CLAYTON, SIR ROBERT (1629-1707), 
merchant and politician, was born at Bulwick, 
Northamptonshire, on 29 Sept. 1629, being 
one of several children of a small farmer 
called Clayton or Cleeton (described by Le 
Neve as ' carpenter or joyner, a poor man of 
no family '), who resided in that parish. At 
an early age he was apprenticed to his uncle, 
a London scrivener, of the name of Robert 
Abbot, who left him a large sum of money. 
Among the manuscripts of W.M. MoreMoly- 
neux of Losely Park, near Guildford, is a 
document witnessed by Abbot and his nephew, 
who there signed his name as Robert Cleton, 
in 1648 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. 678). 
Alderman John Morris was a fellow-appren- 
tice and partner in business, and on the death 
of Morris in February 1682 without issue, 
his estates came to his old friend, Clayton, 
who by his own exertions, aided by these 
accessories of wealth, amassed a fortune suffi- 
cient to give him a commanding influence in 
the councils of the corporation of London. 
He was a member of the Scriveners' and 
Drapers' Companies, alderman of Cordwainer 
ward from 1670 to 1676, and of the ward of 
Cheap from that year to 1688. In 1671 he was 
elected sheriff (being knighted at the Guild- 
hall on 30 Oct.), and elected as lord mayor 
in 1679-80, when the pageants performed at 
his cost on the day (29 Oct. 1679) of ' initia- 
tion and instalment' were described by Tho- 
mas Jordan in a tract entitled ' London ia 
Luster.' All his influence in commerce was- 
exerted on the side of the protestant or whig- 
interest, and he became one of its chief par- 
tisans. He was returned to parliament for 
the city of London in 1678-9, in 1679, and in 
1680-1. To the last of these parliaments, 
which was summoned to meet at Oxford, he- 
and his three whig colleagues in the represen- 
tation of the city came in great state, with 
troops of supporters wearing on their hats 
ribbons with the words 'No popery, no 
slavery,' and at the request of his constitu- 
ents he moved for leave to bring in a bill for 
excluding any papists from succeeding to the 
English throne. Clayton was accused, with 
Slingsby Bethel [q. v.], Cornish, and other 
champions of whiggism,of having endeavoured 
to induce Fitz-Harristo make false confessions 
on the popish plot, but the charge was merely 



Clayton 



18 



Clayton 



the result of party animosity. It may be 
dismissed as unworthy of credence, together 
with the assertion made by his own followers 
that Charles II was bent on taking the life 
of a city magnate, and that Clayton would 
have been destroyed had not Jeffreys, in re- 
turn for favours received when he obtained 
the office of recorder, saved the life of his 
friend. When the common council voted 
an address to the king for the calling and 
sitting of a parliament, Clayton was one of 
the deputation sent to Windsor (14 May 
1681) to present it. They were refused 
admittance to the royal presence and told 
to go to Hampton Court, but when they 
went before the king in that palace (7 July) 
the answer they received was a severe rebuke 
for their presumption. Clayton was one of 
the committee of four aldermen and eight com- 
moners appointed (18 Jan. 1682) to arrange 
the defence against the quo warranto brought 
against the city charter. For these and other 
acts he was subjected to several annoyances 
from the court, and in June 1682 there were 
rumours that a charge for extortion would 
be instituted against him. At the general 
election on the accession of James II (1685) he 
failed to obtain a seat for the city of London, ; 
but in the Convention parliament of 1689 he i 
again represented his old constituents. His ; 
parliamentary representation now alternated , 
with the rise or fall of the whig party be- i 
tween London and the borough of Bletching- 
ley in Surrey, where he possessed a large 
estate. He sat for the latter borough in the 
dark days of whiggism, 1690-5, 1698-1700, 
and from 1702 to 1705. From 1695 to 1698, 
in the short-lived house of 1701, from 1701 
to 1702, and from 1705 until his death, he 
represented the city of London, rejecting for 
that honour the constituency of Castle Rising, 
for which he had been also returned in 1705. 
Clayton was one of the deputation sent by 
the common council to the Prince of Orange 
in December 1688, and he was rewarded for 
his fidelity to the whig cause by a place on 
the board of customs (April 1689 to June 
1697). A conspicuous proof of his wealth 
was shown in October 1697, when he lent the 
king 30,0001. in order that the troops might 
be paid off. After having passed a long 
and active life he died at Harden, Surrey, 
16 July 1707. His wife, Martha, the daugh- 
ter and heiress of Perient Trott, a London j 
merchant, died on 25 Dec. 1705, aged 62, 
after a married life of forty-six years. Both 
husband and wife were buried in a vault 
of Bletchingley church under magnificent 
monuments of white marble erected in their 
honour. Le Neve, in his pithy way, sums up 
Clayton's life in the words : ' He was a scrive- 



nor and hath no issue ; vastly rich he came up 
to town a poor boy, dyed without children.' 
His only child, Robert, died when an infant, 
and he thereupon left by his will all his 
estates to his nephew, William Clayton (the 
second son of his brother, William Clayton 
of Hambledon in Buckinghamshire), who 
was created a baronet in 1732. Clayton's 
known wealth subjected him to many strokes 
of satire. He was attacked by Tate in the 
' Second Part of Absalom and Achitophel,' as 
' extorting Ishban, pursued by a meagre troop 
of bankrupt heirs,' and the herd of tory pam- 
phleteers made his usury and his desire to 
obtain a peerage matters of constant ridi- 
cule. The manor of Bletchingley was sold 
under an act of parliament for the discharge 
of Lord Peterborough's debts, and Evelyn 
notes in his diary (3 July 1677) that he 
' sealed the deeds of sale to Sir Robert Clay- 
ton.' Harden was bought by Clayton and 
Morris from Sir John Evelyn in 1672, but 
Horris afterwards conveyed his share to Clay- 
ton. The house at Harden, with its walnut 
trees, its orangery and its walks, and its ' soli- 
tude among hills,' are highly praised in Eve- 
lyn's diary, and in a short account of the 
gardens in December 1691, which is printed 
in the ' Archseologia,' xii. 187, it is recorded 
that Clayton ' has great plantations at Mar- 
den, in a soil not very benign to plants, but 
with great charge he forces nature to obey 
him.' In his house in the Old Jewry, Lon- 
don, ' built for a great magistrate at excessive 
cost,' Clayton and his wife, ' a free-hearted 
woman,' gave great entertainments, his ban- 
quets vying with those of kings. Clayton 
held a variety of city appointments. He 
was a director of the Bank of England, a 
governor of the Irish Society, a vice-presi- 
dent of the London workhouse (1680), presi- 
dent of St. Thomas's Hospital 20 Feb. 1691-2, 
and one of the governing body of Christ's 
Hospital. Through the agency of the lord 
treasurer, Clifford, he suggested to Charles II 
the foundation of a mathematical school at 
Christ's Hospital, and by this means a royal 
charter was obtained and the school opened 
in 1673. In 1675 he was attacked with ' a 
severe and dangerous illness,' and in gratitude 
for his recovery rebuilt the southern front of 
the hospital, which had been injured in the 
great fire, at a cost of about 10,000/., the 
works being finished in 1682. His liberality 
was commemorated by an inscription under 
a statue of the founder, Edward VI, in a 
niche above the south gateway. Towards 
the rebuilding of St. Thomas's Hospital Clay- 
ton gave 600/., and he left it by his will the 
sum of 2,300Z., the third court of the old in- 
stitution being built through his munificence. 



Clayton 



A full-length marble statue of him was erec- 
ted in that court in 1701, and it now stands 
near the school buildings of the new hospital. 
A portrait of Clayton, by Jonathan Richard- 
son, hangs in the governor's hall at the count- 
ing-house of that institution, and in the 
livery room of the Drapers' Company is a 
three-quarter length of him by Kneller, 
painted in 1680. The speech by Clayton, as 
lord mayor elect, to the citizens on 29 Sept. 
1679 was printed in that year ; it was strong 
on behalf of protestantism. 

[Trollope's Christ's Hospital, pp. 77, 101-3; 
Gelding's St. Thomas's Hospital, pp. 91, 108-10, 
117-18, 148, 182; Orridge's Citizens of London, 
145-51 ; Herbert's City Companies, i. 205-6, 
438, 440, 457-61, 476-8 ; Luttrell's Eelation of 
State Affairs (1857), passim; Evelyn's Diary 
<1850 ed.), ii. 78-9, 110, 115-16, 136, 300, 335, 
361 ; Eapin, ii. 781 ; Dryden's Works, ix. 328, 
359-61 ; Le Neve's Knights (Harl. Soc. 1873), 
270 ;Macaulay's History (1871 ed.)i.276, ii. 362; 
Manning and Bray's Surrey, ii. 294, 302, 310-11, 
804-5, iii. app. p. cxliv.] ~W. P. C. 

CLAYTON, ROBERT (1695-1758), Irish 
bishop, born at Dublin in 1695, was a descen- 
dant of the Claytons of Fulwood, Lancashire, 
whose estates came to him by inheritance. He 
was the eldest of eight children of Dr. Robert 
Clayton, minister of St. Michael's, Dublin, 
and dean of Kildare, and Eleanor, daughter 
of John Atherton of Busie. Zachary Pearce 
: [q. v.] privately educated him at Westmin- 
ster School. He entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, became B.A. 1714, a fellow the same 
year, M.A. 1717, LL.D. 1722, andD.D. 1730. 
He made the tour of Italy and France, and 
on his father's death in 1728 came into pos- 
session of a good estate and married Catha- 
rine, daughter of Lord Chief Baron Don- 
nellan. He gave his wife's fortune to her 
sister, and doubled the bequest, under his 
father's will, to his own three sisters. 

A gift of 300/. to a distressed scholar recom- 
mended to him by Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) 
&, v.] brought him the intimate friendship of 
arke. Clayton embraced Clarke's doctrines 
and held to them through life. Queen Caroline, 
hearing from Dr. Clarke of Clayton's remark- 
able beneficence, had him appointed to the 
bishopric of Killala and Achonry in 1729- 
1730. In 1735 he was translated to that of 
Cork and Ross, and in 1745 to that of Clogher. 
His first literary production was a letter in 
the ' Philosophical Transactions,' August 
1738, on a French refugee, in Cork, suckling 
a child, with an account of a remarkable 
skeleton. In 1739 he published 'The Bishop 
of Corke's Letter to his Clergy,' Dublin, 8vo, 
and ' A Sermon preached before the Judges 
of Assize,' Cork, 4to, and in 1740 ' The Re- 



? Clayton 

ligion of Labour,' Dublin, 4to, for the Society 
for Promoting English Protestant Schools in 
Ireland. In 1743 he published ' A Replica- 
tion . . . with the History of Popery,' &c., 
Dublin, 4to, directed against the author of 
' A Brief Historical Account of the Vaudois.' 
In 1747 appeared ' The Chronology of the 
Hebrew Bible vindicated ... to the Death 
of Moses,' London, 4to, pp. 494. In 1749 he 
published ' A Dissertation on Prophesy . . . 
with an explanation of the Revelations of 
St. John,' Dublin, 8vo; reprinted London, 
8vo. This work aimed at reconciling Daniel 
and Revelation, and proving that the ruin 
of popery and the end of the dispersion of the 
Jews would take place in A.D. 2000. Two 
letters followed, printed separately, then to- 
gether, 1751, London, 8vo, ' An Impartial 
Enquiry into the Time of the Coming of the 
Messiah.' In 1751 appeared the remarkable 
work written by him, though often asserted 
to be that of a young clergyman of his dio- 
cese, ' Essay on Spirit . . . with some re- 
marks on the Athanasian and Nicene Creeds,' 
London, 1751, 8vo. This book, full of Arian 
doctrine, led to a long controversy. It was 
attacked by William Jones, Warburton (who 
described it as ' the rubbish of old heresies '), 
Nathaniel Lardner, and many others. The 
Duke of Dorset, the lord-lieutenant, refused 
on account of this work to appoint him to 
the vacant archbishopric of Tuam. Several 
editions appeared in 8vo and 12mo, 1752, 
1753, and 1759. In 1752 a work having ap- 
peared called ' A Sequel to the Essay on 
Spirit,' London, 8vo, Clayton published ' The 
Genuine Sequel to the Essay,' &c., Dublin, 
8vo. His next work was ' A Vindication of 
the Histories of the Old and New Testament, 
in answer to the Objections of . . . Boling- 
broke,' pt. i., Dublin, 1752, 12mo. The same 
year he was made fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries, having some years before been 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 
1753 he published ' A Journey from Grand 
Cairo to Mount Sinai, and back again. In 
Company with some Missionaries de propa- 
ganda Fide,' &c., translated from a manu- 
script which had been mentioned by Pococke 
in his ' Travels.' The chief interest lay in 
the account of the supposed inscriptions of 
the Israelites in the Gebel el Mokatab. The 
work was addressed to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and the author offered to give 5001., 
spread over five years, to assist an exploration 
in Mount Sinai, but the society took no steps 
in the matter. Mr. Wortley Montagu, how- 
ever, was induced to visit the spot and give 
an account of the inscriptions. The same 
year Clayton published ' A Defence of the 
Essay on Spirit,' London, 8vo. His next 

c2 



Clayton 



20 



Clayton 



work was ' Some Thoughts on Self-love, In- 
nate Ideas, Freewill,' &c., occasioned by 
Hume's works, London, 1754, 8vo. The same 
year he brought out the second part of the 
' Vindication of ... the Old and New Tes- 
tament,' Dublin, 8vo, adorned with cuts. 
This produced Catcott's attack on his theories 
of the earth's form and the deluge. In 1756 
appeared ' Letters which passed between . . . 
the Bishop of Clogher and Mr. William Penn 
concerning Baptism,' London, 8vo, in which 
he asserted the cessation of baptism by the 
Holy Ghost. Clayton's friend Bowyer ob- 
tained a copy of the correspondence and pub- 
lished it. Clayton proposed, 2 Feb. 1756, in the 
Irish House of Lords, that the Athanasian and 
Nicene creeds should be expunged from the \ 
liturgy of the church of Ireland. His speech, 
taken in shorthand, was afterwards published, 
and passed through several editions. Some 
editions have appeared as late as Evesham, 
1839, 12mo, and London, 1839, 12mo. It is 
also given in Sparke's 'Essays and Tracts on 
Theology,' vol. vi. 12mo, Boston, U.S., 1826. 
No proceedings were taken against him until 
the publication of the third part of the ' Vin- 
dication of ... the Old and New Testament,' 
Dublin, 1757, 8vo, when he renewed his at- 
tack on the Trinity and advanced so many 
doctrines contrary to the Thirty-nine Articles 
that the government was compelled to order 
a prosecution. A meeting of Irish prelates 
was called at the house of the primate, and 
Clayton was summoned to attend. Before 
the appointed time the bishop was seized with 
a nervous fever, and died 26 Feb. 1758. On. 
being told that he would probably lose his 
bishopric, he replied that he should never 
survive the blow. 

Clayton's temper was amiable, his spirit 
catholic, his beneficence unbounded, and 
many of his gifts secret till after his death. 
As a member of the linen board he managed 
to get steady employment for the poor of his 
diocese of Clogher. His writings are fanciful, 
though not without ability. 

Dr. Bernard, afterwards dean of Derry, 
who married Clayton's niece, and was his 
executor, had several of his works in manu- 
script, but they have never been published. 
He gave copyright of all Clayton's works for 
England to the learned printer Bowyer, who 
issued the three parts of the ' Vindication ' 
and the 'Essay on Spirit,' with additional 
notes and index to the scripture texts, in 
1 vol. 8vo, London, 1759, pp. 504. 

[Clayton's Works; Boulter's Letters, i. 340, 
ii. 127, 134 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 231, 241, 
245 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iv. 733 ; Burdy's 
Life of Philip Skelton, pp. 84, 98 ; Warburton's 
Letters, 4to edit. p. 68.] J. W.-G-. 



CLAYTON, THOMAS (fi. 1706), musi- 
cal composer, was one of the musicians in 
ordinary to William and Mary. His name 
occurs in the lists of the royal band from 
1692 until 1702, at which date he probably 
went to Italy. He returned about 1704, 
bringing with him (as was said at the time) 
a considerable quantity of Italian songs which 
he had collected abroad. These he set to an 
adaptation by Peter Motteux of a drama by 
Stonzani, which had been performed at Bo- 
logna in 1677, and at Venice in 1678. In 
association with N. F. Haym and C. Dieu- 
part, Clayton entered upon a series of opera 
performances at Drury Lane Theatre the 
first venture of the kind in the annals of the 
English stage. The first season began on 
Tuesday, 16 Jan. 1705, with ' Arsinoe, Queen 
of Cyprus,' the work which Clayton had 
vamped up from his Italian gleanings. It 
was announced as ' a new opera, after the 
Italian manner, all sung,' with recitative* 
instead of spoken dialogue. It seems to 
have attained some success, though a con- 
temporary writer (supposed to be Galliard) 
says ' there is nothing in it but a few sketches- 
of antiquated Italian airs, so mangled and 
sophisticated, that instead of Arsinoe, it ought 
to be called the Hospital of the old Decrepid 
Italian Operas,' and Burney was inclined to 
acquit Clayton of plagiarism in its com- 
position, for ' nothing so mean in melody and 
incorrect in counterpoint was likely to have 
been produced by any of the reigning com- 
posers of that time.' It was sung by Leve- 
ridge, Hughes, Ramondon, Good, Mrs. Lind- 
say, Mrs. Cross, and Mrs. Tofts, the last of 
whom made in it her first appearance on the 
stage. On 6 Feb. 1705 it was played at St. 
James's before Queen Anne, at the celebra- 
tion of her birthday ; according to Genest 
it was performed fifteen, or according to 
Burney twenty-four times in 1705, and 
thirteen times in 1706. Encouraged by this 
success, Clayton tried his hand at another 
opera, and on Tuesday, 4 March 1707, pro- 
duced at Drury Lane a setting of Addison's 
' Rosamond,' in which Holcomb, Leveridge,. 
Hughes, Mrs. Tofts, Mrs. Lindsay, and Maria 
Gallia sang the principal parts. This work 
was repeated on the 15th and 22nd of the 
same month, but its failure was so decided 
that it was never again performed. The- 
anonymous author already quoted opines that 
' Rosamond ' ' mounted the stage on purpose 
to frighten all England with its abominable 
musick.' Both ' Arsinoe ' and ' Rosamond ' 
were published, and posterity has thus been 
enabled to endorse the opinions of Clayton's 
contemporaries. After the failure of ' Rosa- 
mond' the operatic venture continued until 



Cleasby 2 

1711, when it ceased, and Clayton and his 
partners gave concerts at the Music Room in 
York Buildings. On 24 May 1711 settings 
by Clayton of a version of Dryden's ' Alex- 
ander's Feast' (altered by John Hughes), 
and of Harrison's ' Passion of Sappho,' were 
performed, but both works failed, after which 
nothing is heard of the luckless composer. 
He is said to have died about 1730. Clayton 
is of importance in the history of English 
music as the first to acclimatise legitimate 
opera in England, but as a composer his posi- 
tion is summed up in the words of his anony- 
mous contemporary : ' If a reward was to be 
ordain'd for him that made the worst musick 
in all the world, the author of Rosamond 
wou'd have reason to say he had not lost his 
labour, since he wou'd have an undoubted 
title to the gratification.' 

[Burney's Hist, of Music, iv. 199-204 ; 
Hawkins's Hist, of Music (ed. 1853), 810-14; 
Chamberlayne's Present State of England, 1692- 

1 704 ; Grove's Diet, of Music, i. ; Clayton's 
Queens of Song, i. 2, 7, 11 ; Busby's Anecdotes, 
i. 71 ; Georgian Era, iv. ; Daily Courant for 

1705 and 1707; Genest's Hist, of the Stage, 
i. 318; London Gazette, No. 4095; A Critical 
Discourse upon some Operas in England (1709), 
5.] W. B. S. 



CLEASBY, SIE ANTHONY (1804- 
1879), judge, was born 27 Aug. 1804. His 
father, Stephen Cleasby, was a Russia broker, 
who carried on a prosperous business at 
11 Union Court, Broad Street, in the city of 
London, and died at Craig House, Westmore- 
land, 31 Aug. 1844 ; having married, 4 Feb. 
1797, at Stoke Newington, Mary, second 
daughter of George John of Penzance. An- 
thony was educated at Brook Green, Ham- 
mersmith, and then at Eton, 1820-3 ; he 
abandoned an intention of entering the army, 
because of an illness in 1819 which rendered 
him lame for life. He matriculated from 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1823, 
was third wrangler and B.A. in 1827, fellow 
of his college 1828, and M.A. 1830. He 
was admitted a student of the Inner Temple 
30 Jan. 1827, and called to the bar there 
10 June 1831, and then went the northern 
circuit. He soon became known as a most 
accurate and careful junior ; he was a master 
of the science of special pleading, and learned 
in all branches of the law. He was not, how- 
ever, a successful nisi prius advocate, but ob- 
tained a large practice as a junior. His 
opinion was sought by commercial clients in 
patent cases, mercantile disputes, and real 
property cases. In 1852 and again in 1859 
he was an unsuccessful conservative candi- 
date for East Surrey. He had previously 
purchased an estate called Ledgers, six miles 



Cleasby 

east of Croydon. He was appointed a queen's 
counsel on 22 Feb. 1861, and in the same 
year became a bencher of his inn. In 1867 
he contested the university of Cambridge 
without success against Mr .'Beresford Hope. 
Cleasby became a baron of the court of ex- 
chequer on 25 Aug. 1868, was nominated a 
Serjeant on the same day, admitted on 2 Nov., 
and on the 9th of the following month was 
knighted. As a judge he was so cautious 
and diffident that he won little popular ap- 
plause. In the criminal courts he was never 
quite at home. The juries were puzzled by 
his extremely conscientious efforts to explain 
the whole law. In his written judgments, 
however, he spared no pains, and they were 
always thorough and exhaustive. He retired 
on a pension in October 1878 ; went to his 
country house, Penoyre, near Brecon, which 
he had purchased after his elevation to the 
bench ; and died on 6 Oct. 1879. He married, 
on 26 March 1836, Lucy Susan, youngest 
daughter of Walter Fawkes of Farnley Hall, 
Yorkshire. 

[Law Magazine and Review, February 1880, 
pp. 113-27; Illustrated London News, 23 Jan. 
1869, p. 93, with portrait; Cleasby and Vigfits- 
son's Icelandic-English Dictionary (1869), pp. 
Ixi-civ ; Times, 8 Oct. 1879, p. 6.] G. C. B. 

CLEASBY, RICHARD (1797-1847), 
philologist, brother of Sir Anthony Cleasby 
[q. v.], and eldest son of Stephen Cleasby, was 
born on 30 Nov. 1797. He was educated at 
a private school, and for some years assisted 
his father in his business, but in 1824 gave 
up trade and proceeded to the continent to 
devote himself to the study of philosophy 
and literature. After spending four years 
principally in Italy and Germany, he re- 
turned for a winter's term at the university 
of Edinburgh, repaired again to the con- 
tinent, and, after much roaming, settled down 
in 1830 at Munich to study philosophy under 
Schelling and old German under Schmeller 
and Massmann. Philology gradually en- 
croached on philosophy, and his excursions 
into almost every district of Germany, to 
which he devoted all the time he could spare 
from his studies, procured him an extraor- 
dinary knowledge of German dialects. A 
liver complaint, which he had contracted in 
Italy, compelled him to frequently resort to 
Carlsbad, and he occasionally revisited Eng- 
land for a brief period. His first visit to 
Denmark and Sweden was in May 1834, 
and he became gradually more and more 
attracted by Scandinavian subjects. In 1839 
he collated the ' Codex Argenteus ' at Upsala, 
and in January 1840, ' to get an unaccount- 
able and most scandalous blank filled up,' he 



Cleasby 



22 



Cleaver 



formed the plan of his 'Icelandic-English Dic- 
tionary.' The work was fairly commenced 
in April, and continued to be the chief in- 
terest of the too short remainder of a life 
greatly tried by family and business cares 
and attacks of rheumatism and liver com- 
plaint, threatening to end in paralysis. He 
oscillated incessantly between England, the | 
German baths, and Copenhagen, where he j 
had amanuenses continually at work, some 
of whom occasionally travelled with him. 
In the summer of 1847 his health grew worse, 
and on 6 Oct. he died of an attack of typhoid 
fever, not at first considered serious. The 
poetical vocabulary, prepared under his direc- 
tion by Dr. Egilsson, was ready for publica- 
tion in 1846. In the following year Cleasby 
caused five words to be set up in type as 
specimens of the prose dictionary. Nothing 
else appeared to exist in a state fit for print, 
and arrangements were made for the com- 
pletion of the work at Copenhagen. ' Mr. 
Cleasby's heirs,' says Dean Liddell, ' paid a 
considerable sum of money to certain per- 
sons ; but in 1854 came a demand for more 
money, and as it seemed doubtful whether 
the work was likely to be finished in any 
reasonable time, and on any reasonable terms, 
it was determined that the whole of the 
manuscripts should be sent to London.' 
Cleasby's own manuscript materials, how- i 
ever, were retained, and the transcripts made ' 
after his death proved so unsatisfactory that 
the whole work had to be done over again. 
In 1864 the task was undertaken by Mr. ! 
Gudbrand Yigfusson, an Icelander, and, at 
the instance of Sir G. W. Dasent, defrayed 
by a grant from the delegates of the Claren- 
don Press. The work, a noble monument of 
industry and scholarship, was eventually : 
completed in 1873, and published with a 
preface by Dean Liddell, and an introduction 
and memoir of Cleasby by Sir G. W. Dasent. 
Cleasby's own autographic materials, even- 
tually given up, arrived too late to be used, 
and proved in every respect superior to the 
transcripts which had cost so much time and 
money. ' The dictionary as it now stands,' j 
says Dasent, ' is far more the work of Vig- j 
fusson than of Cleasby ; ' but while many | 
men would have been competent to make good 
the deficiencies and amend the imperfections 
of Cleasby's unfinished labours, there was 
perhaps not another who, with every tempta- 
tion to lead a life of leisure and amusement, 
would have voluntarily, from pure philologi- 
cal and literary enthusiasm, have engaged in j 
an undertaking so arduous and expensive. 
The value of his work to his own country, as i 
well as to Iceland, is ably pointed out in an 
article in the ' Edinburgh Review,' vol. cxl., 



by Mr. Henry Reeve. The specimens of his 
correspondence given in Dasent's ' Memoirs ' 
exhibit him in the light of a sensible and 
amiable man, with strong family affections. 

[Dasent's Memoirs prefixed to Cleasby and 
Vigfusson's Icelandic-English Dictionary ; Edin- 
burgh Review, vol. cxl.] E. G. 

CLEAVER, EUSEBY (1746-1819), 
archbishop of Dublin, was a native of Buck- 
inghamshire, beinjg a son of the Rev. "William 
Cleaver, master of a school atTwyfordinthat 
county, and a younger brother of William 
Cleaver [q.v.], bishop successively of Chester, 
Bangor, and St. Asaph. He was educated 
on the foundation at Westminster School, 
whence he was elected to Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1763. He graduated B.A. in 1767, 
M.A. in 1770, B.D. and D.D. in 1783. In 1774 
he was presented to the rectory of Spofforth, 
Yorkshire, which he held till 1783, when Lord 
Egremont, whose tutor he had been, presented 
him to the rectories of Tillington and .of 
Pet worth, Sussex. He became prebendary of 
Hova Villa in the church of Chichester in 
1787, and in the same year, through the in- 
terest of his brother, the bishop of St. Asaph, 
who had been tutor to the Marquis of Buck- 
ingham, he was appointed chaplain to that 
nobleman, then going to Ireland as viceroy 
for the second time. 

In March 1789 he was promoted to the sees 
of Cork and Ross, and in June the same year 
he was translated to the sees of Ferns and 
Leighlin. He suffered heavy losses by the 
rebellion of 1798, having his palace plundered 
and his library and property of all kinds de- 
stroyed, but he himself escaped personal vio- 
lence. In August 1809 he was raised to the 
archbishopric of Dublin. His mind eventu- 
ally became impaired, and the functions of 
the see were discharged by a coadjutor for 
some years previously to his death at Tun- 
bridge Wells, Kent, in December 1819. His 
wife, by whom he had several children, died 
1 May 1816. 

This prelate was ' as eminent for his mild- 
ness and condescension as he was for his great 
piety and extensive learning.' His only pub- 
lication is a ' Sermon preached before the In- 
corporated Society in Dublin for Promoting 
English Protestant Schools in Ireland,' Dub- 
lin, 1792, 4to. A portrait of him, painted by 
Stewart, has been engraved by J. Grozer. 

[Welsh's Alumni Westmon. ed. Phillimore, 
pp. 362, 372, 379, 460, 462 ; Cat. of Oxford Gra- 
duates, ed. 1851, p. 132 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, i. 279 ; Gent, Mag. Ixxxix. pt. ii. p. 564 ; 
Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hibern. ed. 1847, i. 190, ii. 
27, 343 ; Mant's Hist, of the Church of Ireland, 
ii. 757.] T. C. 



Cleaver 



Cleeve 



CLEAVER, WILLIAM (1742-1815), 
bishop of St. Asaph, is a remarkable instance 
of a man with many substantial claims to 
remembrance being principally remembered 
through a trivial accident. He was the eldest 
son of the Rev. W. Cleaver, master of a pri- 
vate school at Twyford in Buckinghamshire, 
and was the elder brother of Archbishop 
Cleaver [q. v.] He was at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and after taking hisB. A. degree, 1761, 
was a fellow of Brasenose College ; he became 
M. A. on 2 May 1764, and in 1768 was a can- 
didate for the Bodleian librarianship. The 
votes between him and his competitor Price 
were equal, and the latter was appointed on 
account of being a few months the senior. 
Cleaver became tutor to the Marquis of Buck- 
ingham. He was successively made vicar of 
Xorthop in Flintshire, prebendary of West- 
minster (1784), master of Brasenose College 
(1785), bishop ol Chester (1787), of Bangor 
(1800), and of St. Asaph (1806). He re- 
tained the headship of Brasenose until 1809, 
and almost constantly lived there, ' such,' 
observes his biographer in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' ' was his attachment to the place 
of his education.' He must, however, have 
occasionally resided in his diocese, for it was 
at Bangor that, in 1802, he cautioned an old 
servant who let apartments against a stray 
lodger who the bishop thought might be no 
better than a swindler. This suspicious per- 
sonage was no other than Thomas De Quincey, 
whose wrath blazed up immediately, and who 
in turn exasperated his landlady by ' a harsh 
and contemptuous expression, which I fear 
that I applied to the learned dignitary him- 
self.' He had to quit his lodgings, and, after 
abandoning his original intention of remon- 
strating with his lordship in Greek, dismissed 
the matter from his mind till he came to write 
the ' English Opium-eater,' when, feeling 
that he had been somewhat unreasonable, he 
indemnified the bishop by recording that to 
him ' Brasenose was indebted for its leader- 
ship at that era in scholarship and discipline,' 
which reputation after his retirement ' ran 
down as suddenly as it had run up ; ' and 
that in his academic character ' he might 
almost be called a reformer, a wise, temperate, 
and successful reformer.' This encomium, 
founded no doubt on facts ascertained by 
De Quincey during his subsequent residence 
at Oxford, protects Cleaver's name from the 
oblivion which has overtaken his writings. 
The most important of these were ' De 
Rhythmo Grsecorum,' 1775, and ' Directions 
to the Clergy of the Diocese of Chester on 
the Choice of Books,' 1789. He also edited 
the beautiful Homer printed at Oxford by 
the Grenville family. As a bishop he is com- 



mended for benevolence, for discrimination 
in the exercise of patronage, and for encou- 
raging among his clergy, by the erection of 
parsonage houses, that residence of which he 
did not set the example. He was also a good 
deal interested in the higher education of 
women. Cleaver died 15 May 1815 in Bru- 
ton Street, London. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxiii. pt. i. pp. 563, 564, 
ii. 213 ; De Quincey's Confessions of an English 
Opium-eater, pp. 122-8, ed. 1862 ; Abbey's Eng- 
lish Church and its Bishops, 1700-1800, ii.273.] 

K. a. 

CLEEVE, BOURCHIER (d. 1760), 
writer on finance, a prosperous pewterer in. 
London, was probably the son of Alexander 
Cleeve, pewterer in Cornhill, who died on 
11 ApTill738(Gent.Maff. April 1738, p. 221). 
Cleeve's name is mentioned in 1755 as pay- 
ing a fine to be excused serving the office 
of sheriff. About this date he acquired an 
estate in Foots Cray, Kent, once the property 
of Sir Francis Walsingham. Here ' he pulled 
down the old seat, and erected, at some dis- 
tance northward from it, an elegant mansion 
of freestone, after a design of Palladio, and 
enclosed a park round it, which he embel- 
lished with plantations of trees, an artificial 
canal, &c.' This house was called Foots Cray 
Place. Cleeve also acquired a good deal of 
other land in Kent before his death, which 
took place on 1 March 1760. Cleeve was 
survived by his wife and daughter, both 
named Elizabeth. The latter inherited the 
estates, which in 1765 came into the posses- 
sion of Sir George Yonge, bart., by his mar- 
riage with her. Cleeve wrote 'A Scheme 
for preventing a further Increase of the 
National Debt, and for reducing the same/ 
inscribed to the Earl of Chesterfield (1756). 
The scheme was simply to impose a consider- 
able tax on houses, and to repeal ' an equiva- 
lent amount of taxes on commodities.' A 
part of this tract was taken up with estimates 
of the amount subtracted in taxes from in- 
comes of various magnitude. Cleeve's esti- 
mates were much exaggerated, as was con- 
clusively shown in ' J. Massie's Letter to 
Bourchier Cleeve, Esq., concerning his Cal- 
culations of Taxes ' (1757). 

[Gent. Mag. July 1755, p. 330, March 1760, 
p. 154, January 1761, p. 44; London Magazine, 
March 1760, p. 163 ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent, 
vol. i. ; Ireland's Hist, of Kent, vol. iv. (with 
picture of house, p. 524) ; M'Culloch's Litera- 
ture of Political Economy. There is no copy of 
Cleeve's pamphlet in the British Museum, but 
there are four of Massie's reply to it. An an- 
swer to this, and apparently the third edition 
of the pamphlet, is in the Edinburgh Advocates' 
Library.] F. W-T. 



Clegg 



Clegg 



CLEGG, JAMES, M.D. (1679-17oo),pres- 
byterian minister, born at Shawfield in the 
parish of Rochdale, Lancashire, on 26 Oct. 
1679, was educated by the Rev. Richard 
Frankland at Rathmell in Yorkshire, and the 
Rev. John Chorlton at Manchester. In 1702 
he settled as minister of a presbyterian congre- 
gation at Malcalf or Malcoffe in Derbyshire, 
in succession to the Rev. William Bagshaw 

Eij. v.], the ' Apostle of the Peak,' and in 1711 
e removed to Chinley, where a chapel had 
been built, partly from the old materials of 
the Malcalf meeting-house. At Chinley he 
remained until his death, on 5 Aug. 1755. 
He qualified himself as a medical man and 
obtained the degree of M.D. This step was no 
doubt taken in order that he might have the 
means of adding to the slender income he 
would receive as a village dissenting pastor. 
During his long residence in the Peak dis- 
trict he gained great respect for his distin- 
guished abilities and kindly character. 

In 1703 he, in conjunction with the Rev. 
John Ashe [q. v.], edited William Bagshaw's 
' Essays on Union unto Christ,' and shortly 
afterwards he wrote an ' advertisement ' pre- 
fixed to Mr. Ashe's ' Peaceable and Thankful 
Temper recommended,' the subject of which 
is the union of England and Scotland. In 
1721 he published a discourse on the ' Cove- 
nant of Grace' (pp. 71), written in answer 
to the Rev. Samuel De la Rose of Stockport ; 
and in 1731 he printed a sermon which he 
had preached at the ordination of John Hol- 
land, jun., entitled ' The Continuance of the 
Christian Church secured by its Constitu- 
tion.' In 1736 he wrote a little book which 
is valuable for its biographical information, 
entitled 'A Discourse occasion'd by the 
sudden death of the Reverend Mr. John 
Ashe : to which is added a Short Account 
of his Life and Character, and of some others 
in or near the High Peak in Derbyshire, as 
an appendix to the Rev. Mr. William Bag- 
shaw's Book " De Spiritualibus Pecci "'(12ino, 
pp. 109). He subsequently edited a collec- 
tion of ' Seventeen Sermons ' preached by 
his friend John Ashe (1741, 8vo). Clegg 
was married in 1703 to Ann Champion. 

[History of Chesterfield, J839, p. 130; Sir 
Thomas Baker's Memorials of a Dissenting 
Chapel, 1884, p. 101 ; 0. Heywood's Diaries, ed. 
Turner, iv. 318, 321; Urwick's Nonconformity 
in Cheshire, 1864, p. 293 ; Brit. Mus. and Man- 
chester Free Library Catalogues.] C. W. S. 

CLEGG, JOHN (1714P-1746?), violinist, 
is said to have been born in Ireland, and to 
have studied the violin under Dubourg and 
Buononcini. He travelled in Italy with 
Lord Ferrers, and made his first appearance 



in London in 1723, when he played a con- 
certo by Vivaldi. For several years he stood 
at the head of his profession as an executant, 
but over-study drove him mad, and on 21 Jan. 
1 743-4 he was confined in Bethlehem Hospi- 
tal, where during his sane intervals he was al- 
lowed to play on the violin. Burney relates 
that it was long ' a fashionable, though in- 
human amusement to visit him there ... in 
hopes of being entertained by his fiddle or his 
folly,' and adds that ' no one who ever heard 
him would allow that he was excelled by any 
performer in Europe on the violin.' He was 
discharged as cured 20 July 1744, but on 
15 Dec. of the same year was readmitted, 
and remained in the hospital until 13 Oct. 
1746, when he was again discharged, his con- 
dition at this time not being stated. His 
death is aupposed to have occurred shortly 
afterwards. Before his admission to the hos- 
pital Clegg lived in the parish of St. James's 
Westminster. 

[Burney, in Kees's Cyclopaedia ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music and Musicians, i. ; Hawkins's Hist, of 
Music, v. 361 ; Burney's Hist, of Music, iv. 609 ; 
Chrysander's G. F. Handel, ii. 256 ; Records of 
Bethlehem Hospital, communicated by Mr. G. H. 
Haydon.] W. B. S. 

CLEGG, SAMUEL (1781-1861), inventor 
and gas engineer, born at Manchester on 
2 March 1781, received a scientific educa- 
tion under the care of Dr. Dalton. He was 
then apprenticed to Boulton and Watt, and 
at the Soho factory witnessed many of Wil- 
liam Murdoch's earlier experiments in the 
use of coal gas. He profited so well by his 
residence there that he was soon engaged by 
Mr. Henry Lodge to adapt the new lighting 
system to his cotton mills at Sowerby Bridge, 
near Halifax ; and finding the necessity for 
some simpler method of purifying the gas, he 
invented the lime purifiers. After removing 
to London, he lighted in 1813 with gas the 
establishment of Mr. Rudolph Ackermann, 
printseller, 101 Strand. Here his success was 
so pronounced that it brought him promi- 
nently forward, and in the following year he 
became the engineer of the Chartered Gas 
Company. He made many unsuccessful 
attempts to construct a dry meter which 
would register satisfactorily ; but in 1816 
patented a water meter which has been the 
basis of all the subsequent improvements in 
the method of measuring gas. For some years 
he was actively engaged in the construction 
of gasworks, or in advising on the formation 
of new gas companies ; but in an evil hour 
he joined an engineering establishment at 
Liverpool, in which he lost everything he 
possessed, and had to commence the world 



Cleghorn 2 

afresh. He was afterwards employed by the 
Portuguese government as an engineer, and 
in that capacity reconstructed the mint at 
Lisbon, and executed several other public 
works. On his return to England railway 
works engaged his attention, but unfortu- 
nately he became fascinated with the at- 
mospheric system. Its entire failure as a 
practicable plan of useful locomotion was a 
great blow to him, and he never after took 
any very active part in public affairs. He 
was appointed by the government one of the 
surveying officers for conducting preliminary 
inquiries on applications for new gas bills, 
and he occupied his spare time in contributing 
to the elaborate treatise on manufacture of 
coal gas published by his son in 1850. He 
became a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in 1829, and took a prominent part 
in the discussions at its meetings. He died 
at Fairfield House, Adelaide Road, Haver- 
stock HiU, Middlesex, 8 Jan. 1861. 

SAMUEL CLEGG, the younger, only son of 
the above, born at Westminster 2 April 1814, 
was employed as an assistant engineer on 
the Greenwich, Great Western, and Eastern 
Counties (afterwards the Great Eastern) 
lines, and as resident engineer on the South- 
ampton and Dorchester railway in 1844. Pre- 
viously to this he had made a trigonometri- 
cal survey of part of the Algarves in Portu- 
gal in 1836. He was appointed professor of 
civil engineering and architecture at Putney 
College in 1849, and in the same year lecturer 
on civil engineering to the royal engineers at 
Chatham, which latter post he held to his 
death. In 1855 he was sent by the govern- 
ment to Demerara to report upon the sea walls 
there, and to superintend t he works for their re- 
storation. He died at Putney, Surrey, 25 July 
1856, aged only forty-three. At the time of 
his decease he was engaged in maturing a plan 
for removing all the gas manufactories in 
London to a considerable distance from the 
metropolis, and concentrating them at a spot 
on the Essex shore. He was author of a 
treatise on coal-gas, 1850. 

[Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of Civil 
Engineers, i. 138 (1841), xvi. 121-4 (1857), xxi. 
552-4 (1862).] G. C. B. 

CLEGHORN, GEORGE, M.D. (1716- 
1789), physician, born at Granton, near Edin- 
burgh, on 18 Dec. 17l6, was the youngest 
of five children. He began his education 
in the grammar school of his native parish 
of Cramond, and entered the university of 
Edinburgh as a student of physic under Dr. 
Alexander Monro in 1731, and lived in his 
house. In the same year, when Dr. Fothergill 
went to Edinburgh, he made Cleghorn's ac- 
quaintance, and they became friends and cor- 



Cleghorn 



respondents for life. In 1736 Cleghorn was 
appointed surgeon to the 22nd regiment of 
foot, then stationed in Minorca, and he re- 
mained in that island till Offarrell's regiment 
was ordered to Dublin in 1749. Cleghorn 
had corresponded in Latin with Fothergill on 
the medical observations which he made in 
Minorca, and on his return from the Medi- 
terranean was persuaded by his friend to col- 
lect and arrange the contents of these letters. 
The work was ready for the press in 1750,. 
and while Cleghorn was superintending its 
publication in London he attended the ana- 
tomical lectures of Dr. William Hunter. The 
book appeared in 1751, and is called ' Observa- 
tions on the Epidemical Diseases in Minorca 
from the year 1744 to 1749.' After an in- 
troduction, giving a general account of the 
climate, natives, and natural history of the 
island, with meteorological tables and lists 
of the plants and animals, with the native 
names of the several species, Cleghorn summa- 
rises his observations on the diseases of the 
natives and of the British troops in seven 
chapters. These are all full of original ob- 
servation, and entitle the book to a perma- 
nent place among English medical treatises. 
The author made many post-mortem exami- 
nations, and a copy of his book in the library 
of the College of Physicians, which belonged 
to Dr. Matthew Baillie, bears internal evi- 
dence that the great morbid anatomist valued 
it. Cleghorn recognised the fact that many 
otherwise inexplicable statements in the Hip- 
pocratic writings become clear when studied 
by the light of clinical observations on the 
Mediterranean coasts, and that the obscu- 
rity depends upon the circumstance that dis- 
eases, both acute and chronic, are there often 
modified in a way rarely seen in the north, 
by their concurrence with malarial fever. The 
pathology of enteric fever and acute pneu- 
monia was unknown in Cleghorn's time, but 
his book gives a clear account of the course 
of enteric fever complicated with tertian ague, 
with dysentery, and with pneumonia, and he 
keeps so strictly to what he really observed 
at the bedside, that the usefulness of his ob- 
servations is scarcely impaired by the facts 
that he regarded the incidental pleurisy as 
the chief feature of inflammation of the lungs, 
and that he held the doctrine forty years later 
demolished by Baillie, that polypus of the 
heart was a frequent cause of death. Any one 
going to practise in Minorca may still read 
Cleghorn's book with profit. Four editions 
were published during the author's lifetime, 
and a fifth with some unwarrantable altera- 
tions in 1815. Cleghorn settled in Dublin in 
1751, and began to give lectures in anatomy, 
and a few years later was made first lecturer 



C leghorn 



on anatomy in the university, and afterwards 
professor. The index or summary of his lec- 
tures shows that they were not confined to 
the mere details of human anatomy, but in- 
cluded both comparative and surgical anatomy 
and the general principles of physiology ( In- 
dex of Lectures, Dublin, 1756). Cleghorn 
was successful in practice, and in his later 
years spent much of his time on a little farm 
of his own near Dublin. His general learn- 
ing was considerable, and he was one of the 
original members of the Royal Irish Academy. 
He had no children of his own, but devoted 
his means and care to the nine children of a 
deceased brother. One of these, William 
Cleghorn, took the degree of M.D. at Edin- 
burgh in 1779, published a thesis on the theory 
of fire, and gave promise of distinction, but 
died a few years after his graduation. In 
Lettsom's ' Memoir ' there is a portrait of 
Cleghorn from an original drawing. It re- 
presents him as a stoutly built man, with a 
broad and deep forehead, and a most kindly 
expression of face. He died in December 
1789. 

[Lettsom's Memoirs of Fothergill, Cleghorn, 
and others, London, 1786; Dr. Baillie's copy of 
Diseases in Minorca ; Cleghorn's Index of Lec- 
tures, Dublin, 1756 and 1767.] N. M. 

CLEGHORN, JAMES (1778-1838), 
Scottish actuary, was a native of Dunse, 
where he was born in 1778. For some time 
he followed the vocation of a farmer, but 
in 1811 he removed to Edinburgh, where 
he edited the ' Farmers' Journal.' In 1817, 
along with Thomas Pringle, he became editor 
of the ' Edinburgh Monthly Magazine,' of 
which only six numbers were issued, and 
regarding which the editors published' Notice 
of the Transactions between the Publisher 
and Editors of the " Edinburgh Monthly 
Magazine." ' Subsequently he became con- 
nected with the ' Scots Magazine.' He was 
the author of a pamphlet on the 'Depressed 
State of Agriculture,' 1822, and to the seventh 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Brit annica ' con- 
tributed the article on ' Agriculture,' which 
was also published separately. Cleghorn was 
the projector and founder of the Scottish 
Provident Assurance Company, of which he 
was manager. He was also actuary of the 
Edinburgh National Security Savings Banks. 
He enjoyed a high reputation for his skill as 
an actuary and accountant, which was shown 
in his ' Widows' Scheme for the Faculty of 
Advocates,' his ' Report on the first Investi- 
gation of the Widows' Fund ' of that body, 
and his ' Report on the Widows' Fund of the 
Writers to her Majesty's Signet.' He died 
unmarried on 27 May 1838. 



5 Clein 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Modern Athe- 
nians ; Catalogue of the Library of the Faculty 
of Advocates, Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

CLEIN or CLEYN, FRANCIS (1590 ?- 
1658), draughtsman, ornamental painter, and 
etcher, was born at Rostock in Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin, and while a youth displayed 
such abilities that he was retained in the 
service of Christian IV, king of Denmark. 
During this time he painted, in 1611, a half- 
length portrait of Christian, now in the gal- 
lery of Copenhagen, and executed decorative 
works in the castle of Rosenberg and other 
places. Here, too, he met Sir Robert An- 
struther, then ambassador extraordinary from 
England to the court of Denmark. He was- 
sent to Italy to study, and remained there 
four years, studying at Rome and Venice ; 
at Venice he was introduced to Sir Henry 
Wotton, then English ambassador to the 
republic. After returning to Denmark he 
proceeded to England with letters of intro- 
duction from Anstruther and Wotton to 
Charles, then prince of Wales. He found 
Charles away on his expedition with Buck- 
ingham to Spain, but was warmly received 
by James I, who saw in him the very man 
he wanted for the new tapestry manufac- 
tory which he had recently set up under 
Sir Francis Crane [q. v.] at Mortlake. So 
anxious was he to obtain Clein's services that 
he wrote in person to the king of Denmark, 
requesting that Clein, who had to return to 
Denmark to finish some work for the king, 
might be allowed to return to England, and 
offering to pay all expenses. The request was 
granted, and Clein returned to England to 
enter the service of Prince Charles, and was 
immediately employed at Mortlake. On the 
accession of Charles to the throne in 1625, he 
rewarded Clein by granting him denization 
and a pension for life of 100/. per annum. 
He also built for him at Mortlake a residence 
near the tapestry manufactory. Here Clein 
settled with his family, and superintended 
the copying of cartoons, and designed the 
frames in which the subjects were enclosed 
in the tapestry. Charles sent down five out 
of the seven original cartoons of Raphael 
from the Acts of the Apostles, then recently 
acquired, to be copied and reproduced in 
tapestry under Clein's direction. Copies of 
these were made by Clein's sons, Francis and 
John, and they were worked into tapestry 
at Mortlake. These and the other produc- 
tions of the Mortlake manufactory were held 
in high estimation, especially in France, and 
dispersed over the continent. A set of six 
pieces, representing the history of Hero 
and Leander, from Clein's designs, were at 



Clein 



Cleland 



the Louvre in Paris ; and there are some 
fine pieces of grotesque at Petworth. The 
grotesques and other ornaments in these 
works, a line in which Clein appears to have 
been unrivalled, have always oeen greatly 
admired, and some modern authorities have 
had no hesitation in ascribing them to the 
hand of Vandyck or some more famous 
painter, ignoring the fact that Clein was 
spoken of at the time as a second Titian, and 
as ' il famosissimo pittore, miracolo del se- 
colo.' Clein was also largely employed by 
the nobility to decorate their mansions. 
Samples of his work in this line were to be 
seen at Somerset House, Carew House, Par- 
son's Green, Hanworth Palace, Wimbledon 
House, Stone Park, Northamptonshire, Bol- 
sover Castle, and the Gilt Room at Holland 
House. With the civil war there came a 
check to Clein's prosperity, and we find him 
chiefly employed in etching and designing 
illustrations for books ; in 1632 he had al- 
ready provided the illustrations (engraved 
by P. Lombart and S. Savery) to Sandys's 
edition of Ovid's ' Metamorphoses,' of which 
an edition was published in Paris in 1637. 
He designed the illustrations, ornamental 
head-pieces, &c., to the editions of the classics 
published by Ogilby fq. v.], viz. '/Esop's 
Fables' (1651), 'Virgil' (English edition, 
1654, Latin 1658), and ' Homer/ (1660). 
His designs were engraved by P. Lombart, 
W. Faithorne, and W. Hollar, and were so 
much admired that the king of France had 
those for Virgil copied in a special edition 
of his own. Clein etched title-pages for 
E. Montagu's 'Lacrymae Musarum' (1650), 
Thomas Fuller's ' A Pisgah-sight of Pales- 
tine ' (1650), a frontispiece to ' Lysis, or the 
Extravagant Shepherd,' and perhaps the etch- 
ings in the 1654 and 1660 editions of that 
work. He published in the form of gro- 
tesques some sets of original etchings, viz. 
' Septem Liberates Artes ' (1645), ' Varii 
Zophori Figuris Animalium ornati ' (1645), 
' Quinque Sensuum Descriptio ' (1646) ; and 
a friend and contemporary artist, a Mr. Eng- 
lish, etched some grotesques (1654), and a 
humorous piece from Clein's designs. There 
are other etchings in the print room at the 
British Museum, attributed with great pro- 
bability to Clein. Although he retained his 
house at Mortlake, he resided for some time 
in Covent Garden, and died in London in 
1658 at an advanced age. He left three 
sons, Francis, John (both mentioned above), 
and Charles, and three daughters, Sarah, 
Magdalen, and Penelope. Francis Clein, the 
younger, was born in 1625, and was buried 
at Covent Garden 21 Oct. 1650. With his 
brother John he followed his father's pro- 



fession, and they both attained repute as 
draughtsmen and miniature painters. It 
is difficult to distinguish their work from 
that of their father. A series of drawings of 
the cartoons of Raphael were found at Ken- 
sington Palace ; they bear the dates 1640- 
1646, are executed on a large scale, and 
highly finished; some are signed by John 
Clein, and were evidently executed by him 
and his brother at Mortlake. They were 
seen by Evelyn, who states that the brothers 
were then both dead. Penelope Clein ap- 
pears to have been also a miniature painter, 
and to her have been ascribed two miniatures 
of Cecil, lord Roos (1677), and Dorothea, 
daughter of Richard Cromwell (1668), signed 
P. C. A portrait of Clein was engraved by 
Chambers for Walpole's 'Anecdotes,' and 
Mr. English had a picture of Clein and his 
family, which was afterwards in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Crawley at Hempsted, Hertford- 
shire ; there also seems to have been in exis- 
tence a portrait of Clein and his family by 
candlelight. Evelyn describes Clein as a 
' most pious man.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists; Wai- 
pole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Dallaway and 
Wornum ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England ; 
Nagler's Kiinstler-Lexikon ; Nagler's Monogram- 
misten ; Dansk Konstner-Lexikon ; Evelyn's 
Sculptura; Gent. Mag. (1787), Ivii. 853-5; 
Scharf ' s Royal Galleries ; Ruland's Notes on 
Raphael's Cartoons ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 
Ser. (1627) ; Lysons's Environs of London ; Man- 
ning and Bray's History of Surrey; Andresen's 
Handbuch fur Kupferstichsammler ; Guiffrey's 
Van Dyck ; Guiffrey's Histoire de la Tapisserie ; 
Rymer's Foedera, vol. xviii. ; Fuller's Worthies 
(1811), ii.] L. C. 

CLELAND, JAMES (1770-1840), sta- 
tistician, was a native of Glasgow, and began 
life as a cabinet-maker, but having migrated 
to London, obtained in 1814 the post of 
superintendent of public works. In 1819 he 
was employed by the municipal authorities 
of Glasgow in taking a census of that town, 
the first ever taken in the United Kingdom. 
He was similarly employed in 1821 and 1831. 
He published : 1. ' Annals of Glasgow,' Glas- 
gow, 1816, 8vo. 2. 'Rise and Progress of 
the City of Glasgow,' Glasgow, 1820, 8vo. 
3. ' Enumeration of the Inhabitants of Glas- 
gow,' Glasgow, 1832, fol. 4. 'Historical 
Account of Bills of Mortality of the Pro- 
bability of Human Life in Glasgow and other 
large towns,' Glasgow, 1836, 8vo. 5. ' De- 
scription of the Banquet in honour of the 
Right Honourable Sir R. Peel, Lord Rector 
of the University of Glasgow, 13 Jan. 1837,' 
Glasgow, 1837, 4to. 6. 'Description of the 
City of Glasgow,' Glasgow, 1843, 8vo. 



Cleland 



Cleland 



[Irving's Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; Martin's 
Contributions to English Literature by the Civil 
Servants of the Crown ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. M. K. 

CLELAND, JOHN (1709-1789), novel- 
ist, was probably a son of William Cleland 
(1674P-1741) [q. v.] He was entered at 
Westminster School in 1722, was afterwards 
a consul at Smyrna, and thence went as far as 
Bombay, where in 1736 he was in the service 
of the East India Company. He soon left Bom- 
bay in a destitute condition somewhat hur- 
riedly, and for unknown reasons connected 
with a quarrel with the members of the 
council at Bombay : and for many years subse- 
quently wandered from city to city in Europe 
without any defined employment, and is said 
to have been more than once in a debtors' 
prison in England. In 1750 he published (1) 
' Fanny Hill, or the Memoirs of a Woman of 
Pleasure,' 2 vols. 1 2mo, a scandalously indecent 
book, for which he received twenty guineas 
from Griffiths. A first part had appeared pre- 
viously in 1748, and a second in 1749. The 
book obtained an enormous sale, and is said 
to have brought Griffiths a profit of 10,000/. 
This was followed in 1751 by (2) ' Memoirs 
of a Coxcomb,' 12mo, a work of greater 
merit. His first work, however, was so licen- 
tious that Cleland was summoned before the 
privy council, where he pleaded his poverty 
as an excuse. No punishment was inflicted 
upon Cleland, but a bookseller (Drybutter), 
who is said to have altered the language of 
the book for the worse after it had been 
favourably noticed in the ' Monthly Review ' 
(ii. 451-2), was made to stand in the pillory 
in 1757. Lord Granville, who had been at 
the council, procured Cleland a pension of 
1001. a year, in order that he might make a 
worthier use of his talents, or perhaps with 
a view to his prospective services as a news- 
paper writer. After this Cleland wrote for 
the theatre and for the newspapers. His 
productions appeared chiefly in the ' Public 
Advertiser,' under various signatures, such 
as ' Modestus ' or ' A Briton.' His dramatic 
works were : (3) ' Titus Vespasian,' 8vo, 1755. 
(4) ' The Ladies' Subscription, a Dramatic 
Performance designed for an introduction to 
a dance,' 8vo, 1755. (5) ' Timbo-Chiqui, or 
the American Savage, a Dramatic Entertain- 
ment in Three Acts,' 8vo, 1758. He now 
turned his attention to the more serious study 
of the English language, especially as to its 
connection with Celtic. In 1766 he published 
(6) ' The Way to Things by Words and to 
Words by Things ; being a sketch of an At- 
tempt at the Retrieval of the Ancient Celtic 
or primitive language of Europe ; to which 
is added a succinct account of the Sanscrit, 



or the learned language of the Bramins ; also 
two Essays, the one on the origin of the Mu- 
sical Waits at Christmas, the other on the 
real secret of the Freemasons,' London, 1766, 
8vo. How ill Cleland was equipped for phi- 
lological studies may be gathered from the 
spelling of a pamphlet issued by him in 1787 : 
(7) ' Specimen of an Etimological Vocabu- 
lary or Essay by means of the Anilitic Method 
to retrieve the Ancient Celtic.' Besides these 
works he published : (8) ' Surprises of Love,' 
London, 1765, 12mo, and (9) ' The Man of 
Honour,' London, 17 , 12mo, 3 vols. The 
latter years of his life were spent in great 
obscurity, and he died in Petty France on 
23 Jan. 1789. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 457-8, viii. 412 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1789 ; Forster's Life of Goldsmith, i. xxx, 
2nd edit. ; Biog. Drain. ; Biog. Brit. ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Manual ; Welch's Alumni Westm.] 

E. S. S. 

CLELAND, WILLIAM (1661 P-1689), 
covenanting colonel and poet, son of Thomas 
Cleland, gamekeeper to the Marquis of Dou- 
glas (WoDKOW, History of the Sufferings 
of the Church of Scotland, i. 524), was born 
about 1661. From references in his poems 
to the county town of Dumfries, and to the 
rivers Nith and Annan, it has been supposed 
that he was a native of Dumfriesshire, but 
the probability is that he was born and 
brought up near Douglas Castle in Lanark- 
shire, where the Marquis of Douglas chiefly 
resided. He was educated at the univer- 
sity of St. Andrews, where he entered St. 
Salvator's College in 1676, and was matricu- 
lated on 2 March 1677 (Records of St. An- 
drews University quoted in note byT. M'Crie 
, to Memoirs of William Veitch, p. 108). The 
statement of James Watson in ' Choice Col- 
lection of Comic and Serious Scots Songs,' 
1706, that Cleland wrote the additional 
verses to ' Hullo, my fancie ' while a student 
' in the college of Edinburgh,' must therefore 
be regarded as an error, although, substitut- 
I ing St. Andrews for Edinburgh, we may 
I accept the statement that he wrote them 
during his 'last year at college, not then 
fully eighteen years of age.' Immediately 
after leaving the university, Cleland attached 
himself to the covenanters, and was present 
at Drumclog on 1 June 1679, one version of 
this encounter attributing to him the ar- 
rangements which resulted in the total de- 
feat of Claverhouse's dragoons. He then 
joined the covenanting army assembled near 
Hamilton, and acted as one of the captains 
at Bothwell Bridge. In the proclamation 
after the battle denouncing the leaders of the 
insurgents, he and his brother are described 
as ' James and William Clelands, brother-in- 



Cleland 



Cleland 



law to John Haddoway, merchant in Dou- 
glas.' He escaped arrest by going to Holland, 
and in a manuscript in the Advocates' Library, 
quoted by T. M'Crie in 'Memoirs of William 
Veitch,' is stated to have been sick there in 
November 1680. There is every probability 
that while in Holland he studied civil law at 
Utrecht, for he published there ' Disputatio 
Juridica de Probationibus' in 1684. He was 
present at the meeting held at Amsterdam on 
17 April 1685 to concert measures for a descent j 
on Scotland under the Earl of Argyll, and ar- ! 
rived there, specially commissioned, some time 
before the earl landed (WODEOW). After its 
failure he remained some time under hiding ; 
in the wilds of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire, j 
but ultimately escaped again to Holland, and 
in 1688 arrived in Scotland along with Dr. ' 
William Blackadder [q.v.] as one of the agents 
of the Scottish exiles in connection with the 
expedition of the Prince of Orange, and con- ^ 
ducted negotiations in preparation for the 
revolution. He is said to have been the 
author of the plot of the western covenanters, 
which caused Dundee suddenly to leave Edin- 
burgh during the meeting of the convention 
of estates in 1689, thus preventing the com- 
pletion of the plans of the Jacobite leaders 
tor a royalist convention at Stirling. The in- 
fluence of Cleland among the western cove- 
nanters, and his intimacy with James, earl of 
Angus, son of the Marquis of Douglas, suffi- 
ciently account for his appointment to be 
lieutenant-colonel of the Cameronian regi- 
ment (now the 26th) formed by the Earl of 
Angus from among the minority of the 
western covenanters after the majority at a 
great meeting held in the parish church of 
Douglas had decided that to take service 
under King William would be ' a sinful as- 
sociation.' In 'Faithful Contendings dis- 
played,' representing the views of the ex- 
treme covenanting party, he is referred to as 
' though once with us,' yet ' afterwards a 
great opposer of our testimony, and a re- 
proacher of Mr. James Renwick and our 
faithful brethren both at home and abroad.' 
In little more than a month after it was 
raised, the regiment, after the death of Dun- 
dee at Killiecrankie, was sent to garrison 
Dunkeld as an outpost preparatory to a 
second invasion of the highlands. The de- 
cision of the Scottish privy council to place 
a body of raw undisciplined troops in such 
a critical position met with strong remon- 
strances from General Mackay ; but unjustifi- 
able as the arrangement would have been even 
in the case of veteran troops, the stern fanati- 
cism of the western peasants was equal to 
the emergency. In the face of overwhelm- 
ing danger their confidence and courage 



never for a moment blenched; and while their 
defence is worthy to rank among the most 
heroic achievements in the annals of war, 
fortune further rewarded it with the glory of 
complete victory. The implacable hostility 
existing between the highland Jacobites and 
the western covenanters doubtless led to the 
resolution of General Cannon to concentrate 
all his forces against a mere outpost. On the 
morning of 26 Aug. ' all the hills around Dun- 
keld were,' in the picturesque language of 
Macaulay, ' alive with bonnets and plaids,' 
and a force of over five thousand highlanders 
swarmed round the devoted band cut off" from 
all hope of succour, and without the defence 
of ramparts or heavy ordnance to ward off 
the immediate fury of a hostile assault. Fully 
aware of the critical nature of their position, 
the regiment had, some time before they were 
actually attacked, remonstrated with Colonel 
Cleland on his resolution to hold the town, 
representing that while the officers had 
horses to carry them out of danger, the pri- 
vate soldiers must remain and be butchered. 
In reply to this Cleland ordered all the horses 
to be brought out that they might be "shot ; 
but his words at once made the men ashamed 
of their apprehensions, and, declining to ac- 
cept any pledge, they resolved to maintain 
the town to the last. The desperate conflict 
raged for over four hours, the Cameronians 
for the most part taking up their position 
behind a wall surrounding a mansion belong- 
ing to the Marquis of Athole, whence they 
sallied forth with burning faggots on the end 
of long poles, and set fire to the houses from 
which the highlanders maintained their fire, 
Cleland, while directing his men, was shot 
through the head and liver, and fell lifeless 
before he could return to shelter ; but his loss 
only made the determination of the cove- 
nanters more desperate, and their unflinching 
resolution gradually told on the excitement 
of the highlanders, who, seeming suddenly 
to recognise that if they did at last gain the 
victory it would be at too dear a price, re- 
laxed their efforts, and began steadily to 
retreat. Not only had the Cameronians 
baffled completely their attack, but by their 
resolute valour had so discouraged the high- 
land chiefs, that they immediately returned 
home with their followers, and the Jacobite 
rising was at an end. 

Cleland was the author of ' A Collection 
of several Poems and Verses composed upon 
various occasions,' which appeared posthu- 
mously in 1697. Of the first piece in the 
volume, ' Hullo, my fancie, whither wilt thou 
go ?' displaying more ease and grace than most 
of his other verses, only the last nine of the 
seventeen stanzas are by Cleland, and were- 



Cleland 



Clement 



-written by him at college while in his 
eighteenth year. The original song had 
achieved popularity twenty years before the 
birth of Cleland, and a parody on it, printed 
about 1640, is among the ' Roxburghe Bal- 
lads,' iii. 633. Cleland's ballad was reprinted 
in James Watson's ' Collection ' in 1706, and 
by Sir Walter Scott in his 'Minstrelsy.' The 
most important piece in the volume of Cle- 
land is a ' Mock Poem on the Expedition of 
the Highland Host who came to destroy the 
Western Shires in Winter 1678,' in which 
the appearance and manners of the out- 
landish array are satirised with considerable 
keenness and force, but in somewhat doggerel 
rhyme. There is also a longer and duller 
' Mock Poem on the Clergie when they met 
to consult about taking the Test in the year 
1681.' Cleland is erroneously stated by Sir 
Walter Scott to have been the father of 
Major William Cleland, commissioner of ex- 
cise [q. v.] 

[Faithful Contendings displayed; General 
Mackay's Memoirs ; Memoirs of Sir Ewen Came- 
ron (Abbotsford Club, 1842); Wodrow's Suffer- 
ings of the Church of Scotland ; Memoirs of 
William Veitch (1825); Exact Narrative of the 
Conflict at Dunkekl between the Earl of Angus's 
Regiment and the Rebels, collected from several 
Officers of that Regiment who were Actors in, or 
Eye-witnesses of, all that's here narrated in re- 
ference to those Actions ; Letter of Lieutenant 
(afterwards Lieutenant- colonel) Blackadder to his 
brother, dated Dunkeld, 21 Aug. 1689, inserted 
in Crichton's Life and Diary of Colonel Black- 
adder ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 493 ; 
Irving's History of Scottish Poetry, 581-5 ; His- 
tories of Hill Burton and Lord Macaulay.] 

T. F. H. 

CLELAND, WILLIAM (1674 P-1741), 
friend of Pope, was of Scotch birth. He 
studied at Utrecht, served in Spain under 
Lord Rivers, and after the peace became a 
commissioner of customs in Scotland, and 
after 1723 of the land tax and house duties 
in England. He died on 21 Sept. 1741, in 
his sixty-eighth year, having been dismissed 
from his office (worth 500/. a year) two 
months previously. He is known chiefly from 
his connection with Pope. Pope presented a 
portrait of himself by Jervas, and a copy of 
the Homer, to Cleland, with the inscription, 
' Mr. Cleland, who reads all other books, will 
please read this from his affectionate friend, 
A. Pope.' A letter, obviously written by 
Pope, but signed William Cleland (dated 
22 Dec. 1728), was prefixed to later editions 
of the ' Dunciad.' Pope also made use of Cle- 
land to write a letter to Gay (16 Dec. 1731) 
in contradiction of the report that ' Timon ' 
was intended for James Brydges, duke of 



Chandos [q. v.] A note by Pope on the ' Dun- 
ciad ' letter is the chief authority for the facts 
of his life ; some writers at the time of its first 
publication had even denied Cleland's exis- 
tence. There is no doubt of the facts men- 
tioned, but other statements about Cleland 
are contradictory. Scott, in his edition of 
Swift, described him as the son of Colonel 
W. Cleland [q. v.], which is impossible, as 
Colonel Cleland was born about 1661. He 
is also said to have been the prototype of 
Will Honeycomb, which is improbable from 
a consideration of dates. Neither can he be 
I identified with a Colonel Cleland with whom 
1 Swift dined on 31 March 1713. He and Mrs. 
| Cleland are mentioned in Swift's correspon- 
j dence by Mrs. Kelly and Mrs. Barber as 
known to Swift (Scon's Swift, iii. 195, xviii. 
195, xix. 91). Pope (3 Nov. 1730) asks Lord 
Oxford to recommend a son of Cleland's, who 
was then at Christ Church, having been elected 
from Westminster in 1 728. Another son was 
probably John Cleland [q. v.], a disreputable 
person, who was also at Westminster in 1722, 
and who was mentioned in his lifetime as the 
son of Pope's friend. His father's portrait, in 
the fashionable costume of the day, is said 
always to have hung in the son's library. 

[Carruthers's Life of Pope (1857), 258-63, 
where all the evidence is given ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 457-8 ; Oent. Mag. 1735, p. 500, 1741, 
p. 500, 1789, p. 180 ; Welch's Queen's Scholars of 
Westminster, 276, 281, 297.] 

CLEMENT SCOTUS I ( fl. 745) was a 
bishop, doubtless a native of Ireland, resident 
in the Frankish realm in the time of St. 
Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, against whose 
attempts to introduce the complete Roman 
discipline into Germany he strenuously, but 
in vain, contended. The archbishop cited 
him before a synod in 743 or 744, at which 
Carloman and Pippin were present, and Cle- 
ment was deprived of his priesthood and con- 
demned to imprisonment for sundry acts and 
opinions deemed heretical (Monum. Mogunt. 
pp. 133, 137, 149; WILLIBALD, Vit. S. Bonif. 
vii. p. 458) . Pope Zacharias, to whom the affair 
was reported, approved Boniface's action, and 
confirmed the former part of the sentence 
(June 22, 744 ; Ep. xlviii. p. 133). The charges 
against Clement were first that he had a wife 
(Boniface calls her a concubine) and two chil- 
dren ; more than this, that he j ustified marriage 
with a deceased brother's w'ife, in conformity 
with the Jewish law. In dogmatic theology 
he held views which seemed to contradict 
the Latin doctrine of predestination ; and he 
asserted that Christ on his rising from the 
dead ' delivered all Avho had been kept in pri- 
son, faithful and unbelievers, worshippers of 



Clement 



Clement 



God as well as idolaters.' This description, 
drawn by his enemy, probably indicates that 
Clement maintained a universalism of some 
sort. He was also accused of denying the 
canons of the church and rejecting the autho- 
rity of SS. Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory 
(see for the Avhole, Monum. Mogunt. pp. 133, 
140, 141, 146). He had in fact brought into 
collision with the unfriendly rigour of Latin 
Christianity those freer usages and more spe- 
culative habits of thought which prevailed 
in the churches of Ireland, at this time the 
fountain-head of literary culture and mis- 
sionary enterprise for the west of Europe. 
The German opponents of Boniface, who seem 
to have been in a majority (cf. Ep. Ixvi. p. 187), 
must have supported Clement.; for when the 
matter was brought before a synod at Rome, 
25 Oct. 745 (not 746 or 748, as was formerly 
supposed ; cf. Histoire litteraire de la France, 
iv. 83, 109), Deneard, Boniface's represen- 
tative, stated that the archbishop was power- 
less to close his mouth. The synod confirmed 
Boniface's action, anathematised Clement, 
and once more declared him to be deprived 
of his orders (see the Acts, pp. 136-48 ; cf. 
Ep. li. p. 151, liii. p. 155) ; but in spite of this 
sentence Clement persisted in his opinions, 
and so soon as 5 Jan. 747 we find the mild 
pope writing again to Boniface, enjoining him 
to re-examine the whole question at a council 
which was shortly to be held in Germany, 
and to do his best to bring Clement to re- 
pentance ; should he prove contumacious, he 
was to be sent on to Rome (Ep. Ixiii. pp. 182, 
183). The issue of the affair is not known ; 
but it is probable that Clement's case from 
the beginning was prejudiced by the fact that 
his opinions were mixed up in all the pro- 
ceedings with those of a certain Adelbert, 
who held views of a very fanatical character. 
Clement, on the other hand, to judge even 
from the meagre and distorted accounts of 
his doctrine which we possess, seems to re- 
present in some ways the free characteristics 
of Irish theology which found a lasting and 
vital expression in the writings of his great 
countryman, John Scotus, a century later. 

This Clement has been often confounded 
with the subject of the following article ; cf. 
Dempster, 'Hist. Eccl. Gent. Scot.' iii. 177, 
178. 

[The correspondence of Zacharias and Boni- 
face, the Acts of the Koman Synod, and the Life 
by Willibald, are all in the Monuments Mogun- 
tina (Jaffe's Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, 
vol. iii.), Berlin, 1866. Compare Gfrorer's All- 
gemeine Kirchengeschichte, iii. 526-33 '(Stutt- 
gart, 1844), and Neander's History of the Chris- 
tian Keligion and Church, v. 76-80 (Stebbing's 
translation, 1849).] R. L. P. 



CLEMENT Scoxus II (fi. 820), gram- 
marian, arrived, according to the old tra- 
dition, from Ireland on the coast of Gaul, 
in company with another scholar of his na- 
tion, about the time when Charles the Great 
' began to reign alone in the west,' that is, 
after the death of Carloman in 771. The two 
men were warmly received at the Prankish 
court, and Clement was entrusted with the 
education of a number of pupils, apparently 
at the royal court. This appointment has 
been naturally connected with the foundation 
of the ' schola palatina,' which formed a cha- 
racteristic feature in Charles's domestic or- 
ganisation. The older French scholars, as du 
Boulay (Historia Universitatis Parisiensis, 
i. 568), assuming that the school was esta- 
blished at Paris, claimed Clement accordingly 
as one of the founders of the university of some 
four centuries later date. The account, how- 
ever, of Clement's appearance in the Frank- 
ish realm rests solely upon the authority of 
the monk of St. Gall ( Gesta Karoli Magni, 
i. 1, 3, in JAFFE, Bibliotheca Rerum Germa- 
nicarum, iv. 632, 633), who wrote towards the 
end of the ninth century, and whose narrative 
is admitted to contain a large element of 
fable. Yet some scholars who discredit the 
story still maintain that the unnamed Scot, 
or rather band of Scots, whose influence at 
the palace roused the opposition of Alcuin 
(Ep. xcviii. in JAFFE'S Bibliotheca, vi. 107 
et seq.) and of Bishop Theodulf of Orleans 
(Carm. xxxv. in DUMMLEK'S Poetce Latini &vi 
Carolini, i. 487 et seq. 1881), must neces- 
sarily designate Clement. This identification 
was merely suggested by Mabillon (Acta SS. 
Ord. S. Bened. sec. iv. pt. i. praef. p. cxxxi, 
1677) as a plausible inference from the monk 
of St. Gall's narrative, the historical character 
of which he accepted ; but it has in modern 
times been asserted more positively by M. 
Haureau (Singularites Historiques et Litte- 
raires, pp. 25, 26, 39, 1861) and Mr. Bass 
Mullinger (Schools of Charles the Great, pp. 
121-4, 1877). It is, however, not the less 
an hypothesis. 

The first tangible notice of Clement occurs 
in a ' Catalogue of the Abbots of Fulda ' 
(PEKTZ, Monumenta Germanice Historica, 
Scriptt. xiii. 272), where we read that Rat- 
gar, who was abbot from 802 to 817, sent 
a certain Modestus and other monks to Cle- 
ment the Scot for the purpose of learning 
grammar. Clement was, then or later, plainly 
resident at the Prankish court ; for we have 
a poem by him addressed to Lothar as em- 
peror (that is, after he had gained the im- 
perial title in 817), from which it appears 
that the latter was his pupil (Poet. Lat. cevi 
Carol, ii. 670, 1884) ; and another poem, by 



Clement 



Clement 



Ermoldus Nigellus (Carm. iv. 403, 404 ; ib. 69), 
describes Clement as active in the festivities 
at Ingelheim on the occasion of the baptism 
of the Danish king Harald in 826 (compare 
SIMSON, Jahrbiicher des frankischen HeicJis 
unter Ludicig dem Frommen, i. 260, 261, 1874). 
The year of Clement's death is not known, 
but the day is given as 29 March (' dementis 
presbiteri magistri palatini ') in a necrology 
preserved in a "Wiirzburg manuscript of the 
ninth century (printed by DTJMMLER in the 
Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, vi. 
116, 1866), whence it has been conjectured 
that he died at Wiirzburg (SiJf SON, op. cit. ii. 
259, 1876). His high characteris celebrated in 
a poem by one Prudens, otherwise unknown, 
who ranks him first among the teachers in 
the palace school (Poet. Lat. eevi Carol, i. 581). 
Two grammatical works exist in manuscript 
bearing Clement's name ; one is an ' Ars 
Grammatica ' (also described as ' De Partibus 
Orationis '), the other, which is possibly only 
apart of the same, 'De Barbarismo' (H. KEIL, 
Grammatici Latini, i. praef. pp. xx, xxi). 
Specimens have been printed by Sinner (Cat. 
Codd. MSS. Biblioth. Bern. i. 344-6, 1760), 
Haureau (/. c. pp. 23, 24), and H. Hagen 
(Anecdota Helvetica supplement to KEIL 
prsef. xxxii-xxxiv, 1870). Clement's biblio- 
graphy has, however, been largely extended 
by a twofold confusion ; he has been identi- 
fied first with the opponent of St. Boniface 
[see preceding article], and secondly with 
Claudius, bishop of Turin, who died about 839, 
and who has long been proved to have been not 
an Irishman but a Spaniard (see MABILLON, 
Annales Ord. S. Bened. xxviii. 33, vol. ii. 418, 
419). In consequence of this confusion the 
two Clements and Claudius have been fre- 
quently called indifferently ' Clemens Clau- 
dius ' or ' Claudius Clemens ' (compare the 
notices of LiLitrs GREGORIUS GYRALDUS, 
Opera, ii. 222, 1580 ; BALE, "Scriptt. Brit. Cat. 
xiv. 32, pt. ii. 203; MIR^TTS, Biblioth. ec- 
desiast. ccxlii, p. 228, 1639 ; LABBE,De script t. 
ecclesiast. i. 228, 1660 ; DTI BOTJLAY, I. c. ; 
TANNER, Bibl. Brit. p. 184 ; FABRICITJS, Bibl. 
Lat. med. et infim. ^Et. i. 357, 358, ed. 1858 
which are all pervaded by this mistake in one 
form or another). The distinction between 
the three men is carefully examined by 
Nicolaus Antonius, ' Bibliotheca Hispana 
vetus,' i. 459-61 (Madrid, 1788), though this 
writer persists in calling both those surnamed 
Scotus by the double name of ' Clemens 
Claudius.' 

[See especially Simson's Jahrbiicher, as above, 
ii. 257-9.] E. L. P. 

CLEMENT, CAESAR, D.D. (d. 1626). 
catholic divine, born in the diocese of London, 



was great-nephew to Dr. John Clement [q.v.] r 
president of the College of Physicians, and 
nephew to Margaret Clement, prioress of St. 
Ursula's convent at Louvain. When very 
young, he was sent to the English college 
of Douay, with which he removed to Rheims, 
and he completed his theological studies in 
the English college at Rome, where he was 
ordained priest in 1585. He was created 
D.D. in some Italian university, was ap- 
pointed dean of St. Gudule's in Brussels, 
and vicar-general of the king of Spain's army 
in Flanders, and in 1612 was associated with 
Robert Chambers (1571-1624?) [q. v.] in 
the visitation of Douay college. He had 
great influence among the English catholics, 
and took a leading part in procuring an esta- 
blishment for the English canonesses at 
Louvain. His death took place at Brussels 
on28Aug.!626. A great many of his original 
letters were formerly in the possession of 
Dodd, the church historian. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 388 ; Foley's Eecords, 
vi. 117, 138, 190, 507; Morris's Troubles of our 
Catholic Forefathers, 1st series, 40, 41, 47, 57, 
281, 283, 284; Husenbeth's English Colleges 
and Convents on the Continent, 53 ; Gillow's. 
Bibl. Diet. i. 496.] T. C. 

CLEMENT, GREGORY (d. 1660), regi- 
cide, is described by Ludlow as ' a citizen 
and merchant of London, who by trading to 
Spain had raised a very considerable estate ' 
(Memoirs, p. 370). In the spring of 1647 he 
became member for Camelford, and, according 
to ' The Mystery of the Good Old Cause, r 
' when he had been a member two months 
protested he had scarcely cleared the pur- 
chase money, which was but 60/., but said 
trading, he doubted not, would mend ' (re- 
print, p. 14). H,e was one of the members 
who subscribed their dissent to the vote of 
5 Dec. 1648 for an accommodation with the 
king, and doubtless owed to that circum- 
stance his appointment as one of the king's 
judges (Parliamentary History, xviii. 482). 
He attended the high court of justice all the 
days on which it met in Westminster Hall, 
and in the Painted Chamber on 8, 22, 23, 
and 29 Jan., and signed the death-warrant 
(NALSON, Trial of Charles /). On 11 May 
1652 he was expelled from parliament for his 
'scandalous carriage ;' according to the Rev. 
Mark Noble, ' not managing his intrigues 
with secrecy, he was proved to have been 
frail with his female servant at Greenwich T 
(NOBLE, Eegiddes, p. 143 : HEATH, p. 476). 
At the Restoration he went into hiding, but 
was found concealed ' in a mean house near 
Gray's Inn,' identified by his voice, ' which 
was very remarkable,' and sent to the Tower 



Clement 



33 



Clement 



(LTTDLOW, p. 347 ; KENNET, Register, 26 May 
1660). On 9 June he was absolutely ex- 
cepted from the Act of Indemnity, both for 
life and estate; on 12 Oct. he was tried, 
confessed himself guilty of the fact, and 
begged for mercy ; and on 16 Oct. he was 
executed. ' He had no good elocution, but 
his apprehension and judgment were not to 
be despised ' (LirDLOw). 

[Noble's Lives of the Kegicides ; Ludlow's 
Memoirs, ed. 1751 ; Complejte Collection of 
Speeches of those Persons lately Executed, 
1661, pp. 147-8.] C. H. F. 

CLEMENT or CLEMENTS, JOHN, 
M.D. (d. 1572), president of the College of 
Physicians, probably a native of Yorkshire, re- 
ceived his education at St. Paul's School, and 
at an early period made the acquaintance of Sir 
Thomas More, who took him into his family, 
made him tutor to his children, and treated him 
with a kindness almost paternal (ROBINSON, 
Registers of St. PauVs School, p. 19). Wood 
asserts that Clement had a part of his original 
education at Oxford, though at what house 
is unknown (Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 401). 
About 1519 he settled in Corpus Christi Col- 
lege on being constituted by Cardinal Wolsey 
his rhetoric reader in the university of Oxford, 
and subsequently he became reader of Greek. 
He studied medicine and was created M.D. 
On 1 Feb. 1527-8 he was admitted a member 
of the London College of Physicians (MuKK, 
Coll. ofPhys. ed. 1878, i. 26). On 16 April 
following he was admitted an ' elect,' and he 
was one of the physicians sent by Henry VIII 
to Wolsey when the cardinal lay languishing 
at Esher in 1529. He was ' consiliarius ' in 
1529, 1530, 1531, and 1547, and in 1544 he 
was elected president of the College of Phy- 
sicians. In the reign of Edward VI he retired 
to Louvain for religion's sake, as ' he always 
adhered scrupulously both to the doctrine and 
authority of the see of Rome ' (DoDD, Church 
Hist. i. 202). 

On 19 March 1553-4 he returned to Eng- 
land, and during Mary's reign practised his 
faculty in Essex. He was elected censor of 
the College of Physicians in 1555, and con- 
siliarius in 1556, 1557, and 1558. Soon after 
Elizabeth's accession he again retired abroad, 
and practised his profession at Mechlin till 
his death, which occurred at his residence in 
the Blockstrate in St. John's parish on 1 July 
1572 (Pus, De Anglice Scriptoribus, p. 767). 
He was buried the following day in the ca- 
thedral church of St. Rumbold, near his wife 
Margaret [see CLEMENT, MARGARET], who 
died on 6 July 1570. She had been educated 
with the children of Sir Thomas More, and 
had shared Clement's tuition with them. 

VOL. XI. 



Her tutor had made her little inferior to him- 
self in the knowledge of Latin and Greek, and 
she assisted him in his translations. 

He composed ' Epigrammatum et aliorum 
carminum liber,' and translated from Greek 
into Latin : 1. The Epistles of Gregory Na- 
zianzen. 2. The Homilies of Nicephorus Ca- 
lixtus concerning the Greek Saints. 3. The 
Epistles of Pope Celestine I to Cyril, Bishop 
of Alexandria (TANNER, Bill. Brit. p. 184). 

[Authorities cited above.] T. C. 

CLEMENT or CLEMENTS, MAR- 
GARET (1508-1570), learned lady, whose 
maiden name was Giggs, was born in 1508, 
being daughter of a gentleman of Norfolk. 
She was a kinswoman of Sir Thomas More, 
who brought her up from a child with his 
own daughters. About 1530 she married 
Dr. John Clement [q. v.], on which occa- 
sion Leland wrote an epithalamium ; and her 
portrait was included in both of Holbein's 
large pictures of the ' More Family,' painted 
about the same time. Algebra was probably 
her special study; and More had an ' algorisme 
stone ' of hers with him in the Tower, which 
he sent back to her the day before his execu- 
tion, 1535. She obtained also the shirt in 
which he suffered, and preserved it. About 
1540 Sir Thomas Elyott conveyed to her and 
her husband the indignation felt by Charles V 
at More's execution. She was a papist, and 
died in exile at Mechlin on 6 July 1570. She 
had one child, a daughter, Winifred, who mar- 
ried William Rastall, judge, More's nephew 

[Koper's Life of Sir Thomas More (ed. 1731), 
pp. 102, 146 and note, 169 note; Foss's Judges 
of England, v. 535 ; Ballard's Ladies.] J. H. 

CLEMENT, WILLIAM INNELL (d. 

1852), newspaper proprietor, was born, it is 
believed, in London of humble parentage, and 
received only a scanty education. Between 
1810 and 1815 he started in business by the 
purchase of a share of the ' Observer,' at that 
time a comparatively obscure paper. Clement 
by his liberal management and faculty for 
organisation soon placed it at the head of the 
Sunday press. He aimed at making it what 
he called ' a seventh-day paper.' By not print- 
ing it till between four and five o'clock on the 
Sunday morning he was enabled to give the 
very latest intelligence. His energy in this 
department led him to publish a full report 
of Thistlewood's trial in April 1820. By 
doing so he incurred a penalty of 5001., which, 
however, was never enforced. 

Elated with the success of the ' Observer,' 
Clement became ambitious of owning a morn- 
ing paper. Accordingly, on the death of Mr. 
James Perry in 1821, he purchased the ' Morn- 
ing Chronicle ' for the extravagant sum of 



Clements 



34 



Clench 



42,OOOZ. It proved an unlucky venture. His 
capital being unequal to such a demand, he 
was obliged to raise the greater portion of 
the purchase-money by bills. Through his 
bill transactions he became involved with 
Messrs. Hurst & Robinson, by whose bank- 
ruptcy in 1825 he was an extensive sufferer. 
Alter losing annually on the ' Morning Chro- 
nicle,' Clement was glad to part with it in 
1834 to Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Easthope 
and two other speculators for 16,500 In 
the meantime he had, in addition to the 
' Morning Chronicle ' and ' Observer,' bought 
' Bell's Life in London,' which, under the 
editorship of Mr. Vincent Dowling, became 
a first-rate sporting paper. Clement died at 
Hackney on 24 Jan. 1852 at an advanced 
age. Part of his business was acquired by 
Mr. W. H. Smith. 

Clement was at one time intimate with 
William Cobbett [q. v.], and stood his friend 
when the latter had to fly to the United States 
on the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act 
during the Liverpool and Castlereagh minis- 
try. He afterwards had reason to complain 
of Cobbett's ingratitude. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xxxvii. 306-7 ; Andrews's 
Hist, of British Journalism, ii. ; Grant's News- 
paper Press, i. 280, iii. 28, 128.] G. G. 

CLEMENTS, MICHAEL (d. 1796?), 
captain in the royal navy, was, in May 1757, 
first lieutenant of the Unicorn frigate when 
she engaged and captured 1'Invincible, a 
large Malouin privateer. The captain of the 
Unicorn was killed, and Clements, after con- 
ducting the fight to a successful issue, brought 
the prize into Kinsale, and went out again 
in pursuit of the privateer's consort, which 
he also captured and brought in (BEATSON, 
Nav. and Mil. Mem. ii. 78). For this good 
service Clements was immediately promoted 
to the command of the London buss, and 
four months later (29 Sept.) to post rank 
and the command of the Actaeon frigate. 
He continued in her, attached to the Chan- 
nel fleet, till the summer of 1759, when he 
was moved into the Pallas of 36 guns, also 
with the fleet blockading Brest and Quiberon 
Bay, and specially employed, with the other 
frigates, in cruising against the enemy's pri- 
vateers and in communicating with the home 
ports. By a fortunate accident, the Pallas, 
in company with the ^Eolus and Brilliant, 
put into Kinsale in the last days of February 
1760, just as a message came from the Duke 
of Bedford, then lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
that Thurot's squadron was at Belfast. They 
immediately put to sea again, and, coming 
off Belfast on the morning of the 28th, suc- 
ceeded in capturing all Thurot's ships [see 



ELLIOT, JOHN] with but little loss. The 
Pallas continued on the same service till 
towards the end of the year, and was then 
sent to the Mediterranean, where she re- 
mained till after the peace, and returned to 
England in December 1763. On paying off 
this ship Clements refused to give a certifi- 
cate to the master, whom he reported as 
' inattentive to his duty.' The master in 
revenge laid an accusation of waste and mal- 
versation of stores against his captain. After 
a full and tedious inquiry at the navy office the 
charge was, in November 1765, pronounced 
groundless and malicious. In 1769 he com- 
manded the Dorsetshire of 70 guns, guardship 
at Portsmouth, but which in 1770 was sent 
up the Mediterranean o,s part of the answer 
to a threatening armament of the French at 
Toulon. In March 1778 he was appointed 
to the Vengeance of 74 guns, which he com- 
manded in the action off Ushant on 27 July 
and in the October cruise under Admiral 
Keppel. He was afterwards a witness for 
the defence in the admiral's trial, and spoke 
very strongly in the admiral's favour (Mi- 
nutes of the Court-martial, p. 147), which, 
with the admiralty constituted as it then 
was, did not tend to his advantage. A few 
months later he was compelled by failing 
health to resign his command, and he never 
got another. His correspondence during 
1780 shows, however, that he was still in 
delicate health. In July he applied for leave 
to go abroad with his family. Tuscany he 
conceived to be a proper place, if their lord- 
ships should approve, and finally asked for a 
passport for himself, his wife, and daughter 
for Ostend. ' When my health shall be re- 
established,' he added, ' I shall be happy to 
return and follow my profession with every 
zeal to regain that reputation which at pre- 
sent appears to me so much sullied.' It was 
not a sentence likely to commend him to 
Lord Sandwich. 

His name continued on the list of cap- 
tains till 1787, when there was a very large 
retirement. Then, or a year or two later, 
he was made a rear-admiral on the superan- 
nuated list, and is believed to have died 
about 1796. 

[Official letters, &c., in the Public Record 
Office ; Charnock's Biog. Navalis, vi. 220.] 

J. K. L. 

CLENCH, ANDREW, M.D. (d. 1692), 
physician, was descended from the family of 
that name seated in Suffolk. He was created 
M.D. at Cambridge by royal mandate on 
29 March 1671, was admitted a candidate of 
the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1677, 
and a feUow on 23 Dec. 1680. He had be- 



Clench 



35 



Clennell 



come a fellow of the Royal Society on 22 April 
in the last-named year. Clench resided in 
Brownlow Street, Holborn. He was mur- 
dered between nine and eleven o'clock on the 
night of Monday, 4 Jan. 1692. ' This week,' 
writes Evelyn, ' a most execrable murder was 
committed on Dr. Clench, father of that ex- 
traordinary learned child whom I have be- 
fore noticed. Under pretence of carrying him 
in a coach to see a patient, they strangled 
him in it, and sending away the coachman 
under some pretence, they left his dead body 
in the coach, and escaped in the dusk of the 
evening' (Diary, 1850-2, ii. 317). A swindler 
named Henry Harrison, to whose mistress 
Clench had lent money, was convicted of the 
murder and hanged on 15 April 1692. By 
his wife Rose, Clench had two sons, Edmund 
and John. From his will (reg. in P. C. 0. 24, 
Pane), we learn that he died possessed of pro- 
perty in Norfolk, of the manor and advowson 
of Monk Soham, Suffolk, and the lordship of 
Blomvile's or Woodcroft Hall in the same 
parish. Evelyn has left a charming account 
of Clench's gifted son referred to above, who, 
when Evelyn saw him, was not twelve years 
old. It is gratifying to know that no pres- 
sure was brought to bear upon him, and 
' that he usually played amongst other boys 
four or five hours every day, and that he was 
as earnest at his play as at his study ' (Diary, 
1850-2, ii. 288-90). 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), i. 419-21 ; 
Luttrell's Kelation of State Affairs (1857), ii. ; 
Trials of H. Harrison and J. Cole ; Harrison's 
Last Words of a Dying Penitent ; Kowe's Mr. 
Harrison proved the Murtherer ; Blomefield's 
Norfolk (8vo), vii. 221.] G. G. 

CLENCH, JOHN (d. 1607), judge, son 
of John Clench of Wethersfield, Essex, by 
Joan, daughter of John Amias of the same 
county, and grandson of John Clench of 
Leeds, Yorkshire, was admitted a student at 
Lincoln's Inn on 11 Feb. 1556, called to the 
bar in 1568, appointed recorder of Ipswich 
in 1573-4 being the first known to have 
held office elected reader at his inn in Lent 
1574, took the degree of serjeant-at-law in 
Michaelmas term 1580, was appointed a 
baron of the exchequer in the following 
year (27 Nov.), being assigned to the northern 
circuit, and on 29 May 1584 was transferred 
to the court of queen's bench. He was one 
of the judges appointed to hear causes in 
chancery in the six months which intervened 
between the death of the lord chancellor, 
Sir Christopher Hatton (20 Nov. 1591), and 
the appointment of his successor. He re- 
mained, however, attached to the northern 
circuit, apparently until his retirement. In 



1596 he took the Lincoln assizes with Chief- 
justice Anderson, the bulk of the criminal 
business consisting, as it would seem, of cases 
of ecclesiastical recusancy. The unknown 
writer of a letter preserved in the fourth 
volume of Strype's ' Annals ' says : ' The de- 
meanour of him (Anderson, a zealous high 
churchman) and the other judge, as they sit 
by turns upon the gaol (with reverence I 
speak it) in these matters is flat opposite ; 
and they which are maliciously affected, 
when Mr. Justice Clinch sitteth upon the 
gaol, do labour to adjourn their complaints 
(though they be before upon the file) to the 
next assize ; and the gentlemen in the several 
shires are endangered by this means to be 
cast into a faction ' (STRYPE, Annals, fol., iv. 
265). Clench is said to have been an especial 
favourite with Elizabeth. Nevertheless he 
does not appear to have been knighted, or in 
any way honoured. In 1600, while retaining 
the emoluments of his office, he was dis- 
placed from attendance at court, on account 
of age and infirmities, and three years later 
he was pensioned. He died on 19 Aug. 1607, 
at his seat at Holbrooke, Essex, and was 
buried in Holbrooke Church, his monument 
being inscribed as in memory ' colendissimi 
suique temporis antiquissimi judicis Jo- 
hannis Clenche.' A half-length portrait of 
Clench in his robes was long preserved at 
Harden Hall (the seat in the last century 
of Lord Alvanley) in Cheshire, but appears 
to have been among the works of art dis- 
persed in 1815. A portrait of the judge was 
also in the possession of the town clerk of 
Ipswich in 1831. Clench married Catherine, 
daughter of Thomas Almot of Greeting All 
Saints, Essex, by whom he had issue five 
sons and eight daughters. His heir, Thomas, 
who married Margery, daughter of John 
Barker, merchant, of Ipswich, was sheriff of 
Suffolk in 1616, and junior M.P. for the same 
county in 1620, and one John Clench of 
Greeting was sheriff of Suffolk in 1630. 
The family appears to be now extinct. 

[Add. MS. 19123, fol. 252; Dugdale's Orig. 
253 ; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 95, 98 ; Cal. State 
Papers (Dom. 1581-90), p. 452, (1591-4) pp. 188, 
311, (1598-1601) p. 387, (1601-3) p. 284, 
Addenda (1566-79) p. 527, Addenda (1580- 
1265) ii. pp. 252-3, 405; Lysons's Magna Britan- 
nia, ii. pt. ii. 783 ; Earwaker's East Cheshire, i. 
479; Excursions through Suffolk (1818), i. 150; 
Suckling's Suffolk, i. xliii, xlviii ; Foss's Judges 
of England.] J. M. E. 

CLENNELL, LUKE (1781-1840), artist 
and wood engraver, was born at Ulgham, 
near Morpeth, Northumberland, on 8 April 
1781. He was the son of a farmer. Placed 

D2 



Clennell 



Clennell 



as a youth with his uncle, Thomas Clennell, | 
a grocer and tanner of Morpeth, he continued j 
to develope an early manifested taste for art i 
until, upon the recommendation of a noble- i 
man who saw one of his drawings, he was i 
transferred from the counter to the care of , 
Bewick, the Newcastle engraver [see BE- 
WICK, THOMAS]. This was in April 1797. 
With Bewick he remained seven years, dur- 
ing which time he copied on the block, and 
subsequently engraved, several of the de- 
signs of Robert Johnson [see JOHNSON, RO- 
BERT], which were used as tail-pieces for 
Bewick's ' Water Birds,' 1804. By the time 
his apprenticeship expired he had become an 
expert draughtsman and designer, with some- 
thing of his master's love of, and feeling for, 
nature and natural history. His apprentice- 
ship must have ended early in 1804, about 
which time he executed a number of cuts 
for the third edition of Solomon Hodgson's 
' Hive of Ancient and Modern Literature,' 
1806. Probably the majority of the illustra- 
tions to this book, some of which bear his 
initials, were by him, the rest being by Thomas 
Bewick. He afterwards worked for Bewick 
on Wallis and Scholey's ' History of Eng- 
land,' but, finding that his old master re- 
ceived the greater portion of the money, he 
came to London in the autumn of 1804, after 
having opened direct communications with 
the publishers. In May 1806 he received the 
gold palette of the Society of Arts for ' an 
engraving on wood of a Battle.' Among 
other engraved work he was employed upon 
the ' Scripture Illustrated ' of Craig [see 
CRAIG, WILLIAM MARSHALL], and Thur- 
ston's designs for Beattie's 'Minstrel,' 1807. 
Another volume of this period was Fal- 
coner's ' Shipwreck,' 1808, which contains a 
well-known picture of a ship in a gale of 
wind. In 1809 he took part in Ackermann's 
'Religious Emblems,' his colleagues being 
Nesbit, Branston, and Hole. The designs 
for this book were by Thurston. Clennell's 
work was unequal, his best cuts being the 
' Call to Vigilance ' and the ' Soul Encaged.' 
After he settled in London he married a 
daughter of Charles Warren, the copper-plate 
engraver, a connection which introduced him 
to the society of Raimbach, Finden, and the 
little knot of talented men who emulated 
each other in producing those delicate book 
embellishments published by Sharpe, Du 
Rovery, and others, at the beginning of the 
century. After Ackermann's ' Emblems,' his 
next work of importance was a large block 
for the diploma of the Highland Society after 
a design by Benjamin West. For this, in 
1809, he received the gold medal of the So- 
ciety of Arts. His last work of any moment 



as a wood engraver was the series of cuts 
which illustrate Rogers's ' Pleasures of Me- 
mory, with Other Poems,' 1810, a volume 
which has a deserved reputation with col- 
lectors for the excellence of its rendering of 
Stothard's pen-and-ink sketches. Towards 
1810 Clennell seems virtually to have re- 
linquished wood-engraving for painting, in 
which direction he had probably for some 
time been preluding, since he had prepared 
many of the sketches for Scott's 'Border An- 
tiquities,' and there is an engraving after one 
of his designs as far back as 1803. In the 
Kensington Museum there is, besides other 
sketches, a water-colour drawing called the 
' Sawpit,' dated 1810 ; and the Art Library 
contains a number of lightly washed designs, 
afterwards engraved for a series of ' British 
Novelists,' published by Sherwood, Neely, & 
Jones, which show considerable vigour and 
force of realisation. In 1812 he contributed 
to the Royal Academy a lively picture of 
' Fox-hunters regaling,' which was twice 
engraved. Henceforth he continued to ex- 
hibit at the Academy, the British Institu- 
tion, and the Exhibition of Painters in Water 
Colours. The ' Baggage Waggons in a Thun- 
derstorm,' 1816, the ' Day after the Fair/ 
1818, and the ' Arrival of the Mackerel-Boat,' 
are good specimens of his work. In fishing 
scenes and marine subjects he specially ex- 
celled. 

His two most important pictures, how- 
ever, were the ' Waterloo Charge,' and the 
'Banquet of the Allied Sovereigns in the 
Guildhall.' The former, which is his master- 
piece, gained one of the premiums awarded 
by the British Institution for finished oil- 
sketches of the British successes under Wel- 
lington. It is a most spirited composition, 
full of fire and furious movement, and was 
engraved in 1819 by W. Bromley. The 
latter was a commission from the Earl of 
Bridgewater. So much fatigue, vexation, 
and disappointment was experienced by the 
artist in assembling the materials for this 
picture that he became insane, and, with 
brief lucid intervals, continued so until his 
death. Under the pressure of this misfor- 
tune his wife's mind also gave way, and she 
died, leaving three children. Friends inte- 
rested themselves for the father and young 
family. The ' Waterloo Charge' was engraved 
for their benefit, and they were also assisted 
by the Artists' Fund, to which institution 
Clennell had belonged. 

From 1817 until 9 Feb. 1840, when he died, 
Clennell never wholly recovered his reason. 
In his milder moments he amused himself 
by strange, half-articulate verses, and half-in- 
telligible drawings, specimens of which, dated 



Clenocke 



37 



Clephane 



from one or other of his asylums or tempo- 
rary retreats, are still preserved. Some of 
his poems were published in the 'Athenaeum' 
for 7 March 1840, in Chatto's ' Treatise on 
Wood Engraving/ 1839, and elsewhere. In 
many of them the inborn love of nature is 
still discernible through the disjointed ima- 
gery and wandering words. In 1831, be- 
coming dangerous, Clennell was placed per- 
manently in an asylum. Four years after 
his death a tablet by a local sculptor, R. 
Davies, was erected to him in St. Andrew's 
Church, Newcastle. As an engraver, he 
ranks, after Nesbit, as the best of Bewick's 
pupils. As a water-colour artist it is pro- 
bable that he had not reached his highest 
point when his faculties failed ; but he had 
already exhibited a distinct ability for land- 
scape and rural scenes. Fineness and deli- 
cacy are less conspicuous in his work than 
breadth, spirit, and rapidity of handling. 

[Chatto's Treatise on Wood Engraving, 1839 ; 
Chatto's History and Art of Wood Engraving, 
1848; Memoirs of Dr. Eobert Blakey, 1879; 
Thomas Bewick and his Pupils, 1884, by the 
writer of this article.] A. D. . 

CLENOCKE or CLYNOG, MAURICE 

(d. 1580 ?), divine, was a native of Wales, 
and educated at Oxford, where he was ad- 
mitted B.C.L. in 1548. Having taken orders, 
he became in Queen Mary's reign chaplain, 
servant, and domestic to Cardinal Pole, rec- 
tor of Orpington, Kent, and dean of Shoreham 
and Croydon (SiKTPE, Memorials, iii. 390, 
folio). In 1556 he was presented by Bishop 
Goldwell to the rectory of Corwen or Cwrr 
Owen, in the diocese of St. Asaph (WiLLis, 
Survey of St. Asaph, ed. 1801, i. 271). On 
the decease of Dr. William Glyn, bishop of 
Bangor, in May 1558, Clenocke was nominated 
by Queen Mary to be his successor, but was 
never consecrated. On Elizabeth's accession 
he was obliged to surrender all his prefer- 
ments for refusing to comply with the court 
measures. In 1560 he travelled to Rome with 
Thomas Goldwell, bishop of St. Asaph. In 
the Vatican collections there is a paper written 
about that time apparently for the purpose 
of supplying the holy see with information 
which might be of service in the event of the 
pope filling the vacant sees in England. This 
document states that Clenocke ' is a good man, 
but is no preacher. He is worthy of the see 
of Bangor, to which he has been nominated' 
(BEADY, Episcopal Succession, ii. 324). In 
1567 he was a camerarius of the Hospital of 
the English Pilgrims at Rome, and subse- 
quently he became its custos or warden. Pope 
Gregory XIII ordered the suppression of the 
hospital until the kingdom of England should 



return to the catholic church, and converted 
the institution into a college. In 1578 Cle- 
nocke, the last warden of the hospital, was 
made the first rector of the English college. 
A commotion was excited among the English 
students by his alleged favouritism to the 
Welsh. There were thirty-three English stu- 
dents in the college, and only seven Welsh- 
men. The English students at last broke out 
in open mutiny (February 1578-9), and de- 
clared that they would leave Rome in a body 
unless another rector were appointed, and 
petitioned the pope to entrust the college to 
the government of the Society of Jesus. A 
detailed account of this dispute is given by 
Canon Tierney in his edition of Dodd (Church 
History, ii. 167-76). In March 1578-9 the 
pope gave over the management of the col- 
lege entirely to the Jesuits, and on 23 April 
1579 Father Alfonso Agazzari was appointed 
rector. The Jesuits retained the charge of 
the college till the suppression of their order 
by Clement XIV in 1773. 

Clenocke, who is often called 'Dr. Maurice,' 
retired about 1580 to Rouen, where he em- 
barked on board a ship bound for Spain, and 
was drowned at sea. 

[Academy, xvi. 376 ; Letters and Memorials 
of Card. Allen, 69, 74, 77, 79, 82; Boase's Re- 
gister of Univ. of Oxford, i. 215 ; Catholic Mag. 
and Review (1832), ii. 357, 358, 412, 415 ; Catho- 
lic Miscellany, vi. 255 ; Constable's Specimen of 
Amendments to Dodd's Church Hist. 48 seq. ; 
Dodd's Church Hist. i. 513 ; Dodd's Apology for 
the Church Hist. 6, 89-91 ; Flanagan's Hist, of 
the Church in England, ii. 196, 197, 251 ; Gillow's 
Bibl. Diet. i. 501 ; Husenbeth's Colleges and Con- 
vents on the Continent, 5, 6 ; Munday's English 
Romayne Lyfe (1582), 60 seq. ; Simpson's Life of 
Campion, 97 ; Strype's Annals (fol.), iii. 474 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 766, Fasti, i. 
126, 208.] T. C. 

CLEPHANE, JOHN, M.D. (d. 1758), 
physician, a Scotchman, took his degree of 
M.D. at St. Andrews on 29 May 1729. He 
acted as physician to the army in the Low 
Countries. He was appointed physician to 
St. George's Hospital on 8 May 1751, and 
admitted a licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians on 25 June 1752. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society on 8 Jan. 1746, 
but was not admitted until 4 May 1749. 
Clephane died in the Isle of Wight on 11 Oct. 
1758. He was in the expedition to Quiberon 
Bay in 1746 under General St. Clair. He 
was afterwards the familiar friend and corre- 
spondent of David Hume, St. Glair's secretary. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), ii. 180-1 ; Gent. 
Mag. xxviii. 504, 505 ; Scots Mag. xx. 553 ; 
Burton's Life and Correspondence of D. Hume.] 

G. G. 



Cle'risseau 



Clerk 



CLERISSEAU, CHARLES LOUIS 

(1721-1820), architectural draughtsman, was 
born in Paris in 1721. He entered the Aca- 
demie de Peinture et de Sculpture, and in 
1746 gained the ' prix de Rome ' for archi- 
tecture. This led to a residence of many 
years in Rome, where he made numerous 
drawings of architectural remains, which are 
remarkable for their extraordinary facility of 
execution, and are highly esteemed. Among 
those with whom he at that time became 
acquainted were Winckelmann and Robert 
Adam [q. v.], the latter of whom he assisted 
in making the drawings for his ' Ruins of the 
Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spala- 
tro in Dalmatia,' published in 1764. With 
Winckelmann he kept up a correspondence, 
extracts from which are printed in the ' Briefe 
an seine Freunde ' of the great German archaeo- 
logist. In 1771 he resolved to come to Lon- 
don, where he was already known by his 
works, and while resident here he exhibited 
tinted drawings of ruins and architectural 
subjects at the Society of Artists in Spring 
Gardens and at the Royal Academy between 
1772 and 1790. The bankruptcy of Adam 
led to the return of Clerisseau to France, 
where in 1778 he projected the ' Antiquits 
de la France,' of which the first part, the 
' Monumens de Nismes,' alone appeared. A 
new edition, with additional plates, and an 
historical and descriptive text by J. G. Le- 
grand, was published in two folio volumes at 
Paris in 1806. In 1769 he was elected an 
academician, his reception works being two 
compositions of architectural ruins executed 
in body-colours, and between 1773 and 1808 
he exhibited occasionally at the Salon both 
paintings and drawings of architectural sub- 
jects. Late in 1783 the Empress Catherine II, 
always magnificent in her ideas, conceived 
the project of building a palace exactly like 
that of the Roman emperors, and Clerisseau, 
who had made ancient buildings his special 
study, was recommended to her as a person 
competent to direct this grand undertaking. 
He at once set out for Russia, where he was 
appointed first architect to the empress, and 
elected a member of the Academy of St. 
Petersburg, but the scheme was abandoned, 
and there is no record of what he did while 
there. He returned to France some time 
before the revolution, which scarcely at all 
affected his reputation and position, for he 
retired into the country, and seldom went to 
Paris. Under the empire he received the 
Legion of Honour. He painted occasionally 
in oil-colours, but he is best known by his 
fine drawings in water-colours of the remains 
of classical architecture, in which the figures 
were often inserted by Antonio Zucchi. As 



an architect he built the Hotel du Gouverne- 
ment at Metz. 

Clerisseau died at Auteuil, in the suburbs 
of Paris, on 19 Jan. 1820, in his ninety-ninth 
year. The Louvre possesses three of his 
drawings, and there is one of ' Roman Ruins ' 
in the museum at Orleans. A drawing of 
' Tivoli,' executed in body-colours in 1769, is 
in the South Kensington Museum. There is 
also a drawing of ' Ruins,' in pastel, in the 
Florence Gallery. Twenty volumes of draw- 
ings from the antique, made during his re- 
sidence in Italy, are in the possession of the 
emperor of Russia. 

[Kedgrave's Dictionary of Artists of the Eng- 
lish School, 1878 ; Bryan's Dictionary of Pain- 
ters and Engravers, ed. Graves, 1886; Bellier 
de La Chavignerie's Dictionnaire general des 
Artistes de 1'Ecole Franchise, 1868, &c., i. 265 ; 
Bachaumont's Memoires Secrets, 1776, &c., vii. 
99 ; Dussieux's Artistes Francjais a 1'etranger, 
1856, pp. 141, 413.1 E. E. G. 

CLERK. [See also CLARK, CLARKE, and 
CLERKE.] 

CLERK, SIB GEORGE (1787-1867), 
statesman, elder son of James Clerk, by his 
wife, Janet, daughter of George Irving of 
Newton, Lanarkshire, and grandson of Sir 
George Clerk Maxwell [q. v.], was born on 
19 Nov. 1787, and educated at the High 
School, Edinburgh, and at Trinity College, 
Oxford, where he was admitted on 21 Jan. 
1806. His father died in 1793, and in 1798 he 
succeeded his uncle, Sir John Clerk, as the 
sixth baronet. He was admitted an advocate 
in 1809, and created a D.C.L. of Oxford 
5 July 1810. At a bye-election in the fol- 
lowing year he was elected M.P. for Midlo- 
thian, for which constituency he continued to 
sit in the next six parliaments. On 5 March 
1819 Clerk was appointed one of the lords of 
the admiralty in the Liverpool administra- 
tion. This post he held until May 1827, 
when he became clerk of the ordnance. He 
was gazetted one of the council of the 
Duke of Clarence, the lord high admiral, 
4 Feb. 1828, but upon the duke's resigna- 
tion was reappointed a lord of the admi- 
ralty. On 5 Aug. 1830 he became under- 
secretary for the home department for the 
few remaining months of the Wellington 
administration. At the first general election 
after the passing of the Reform Bill, which 
took place in December 1832, Clerk lost his 
seat for Midlothian, being defeated by Sir 
John Dalrymple (afterwards eighth earl of 
Stair), the whig candidate, by 601 to 536. 
He was re-elected, however, in January 1835 
for his old constituency, but at the next 
general election, in August 1837, was de- 



Clerk 



39 



Clerk 



feated by William Gibson Craig. In April 
of the following year he was elected without 
any contest for the borough of Stamford, 
which he also represented in the succeeding 
parliament. In July 1847 Clerk was re- 
turned for Dover, but, after unsuccessfully 
contesting that constituency in July 1852 
and March 1857, made no further attempt 
to re-enter parliament. He held the post of 
secretary to the treasury in Sir Robert Peel's 
administration from December 1834 to April 
1835, and from September 1841 to February 
1845. On 5 Feb. 1845 he was appointed 
vice-president of the board of trade, and was 
at the same time sworn a member of the 
privy council. In the same month he was 
made master of the mint on the retirement 
of W. E. Gladstone. Clerk held both these 
offices until July 1846, when Sir Robert 
Peel's second administration came to an end. 
For many years he was an able and zealous 
supporter of the tory party. He, however, 
became an earlier convert to the principles 
of free trade than the majority of his party 
(see Hansard, 3rd ser. Ixxxiii. 1420-39), and 
continued to belong to the Peelite section 
until it was finally broken up. On 13 Aug. 
1810 he married Maria, second daughter of 
Ewan Law of Horsted Place, Sussex, by 
whom he had eight sons and four daughters. 
His wife died on 7 Sept. 1866. Clerk, who 
was a fellow of the Royal Society, chairman 
of the Royal Academy of Music, an elder of 
the kirk of Scotland, and a deputy-lieutenant 
of Midlothian, died on 23 Dec. 1867, at Peni- 
cuik House, near Edinburgh, in his eighty- 
first year. He was succeeded in the title by 
his eldest son, James, whose son, Sir George 
Douglas Clerk, is the present baronet. There 
are two portraits of Clerk, one painted by 
Dyce in 1830, and the other by Watson 
Gordon. James Clerk Maxwell [see under 
MAXWELL] was his grand-nephew. 

[Gent. Mag. 1868, new ser. v. 246-7 ; Men of 
the Time (seventh edition) ; Times, 25 Dec. 1867 ; 
Parliamentary Papers, 1878, vol. btii. pt. ii.; 
Foster's Members of Parliament, Scotland (1822), 
p. 70; Dod's Peerage, &c. (1866); London Ga- 
zettes.] G. F. E. B. 

CLERK, JOHN (d. 1541), bishop of Bath 
and Wells, B.A. of Cambridge 1499, and 
M. A. 1502, studied law and received the doc- 
tor's degree at Bologna. He was instituted to 
the rectory of Hothfield, Kent, on 21 April 
1508, and in 1509 appears as master of the 
hospital of St. Mary, or the Maison Dieu, at 
Dover. He was presented to the rectory of 
Portishead, Somerset, 12 Sept. 1513, and also 
held the living of Ditcheat in the same county, 
which he resigned in 1517. In March 1514 



he was instituted to the living of Ivychurch, 
Kent, in the July following to the rectory 
of West Tarring, Sussex, and in August to 
the rectory of Charlton. In March 1519 he 
was presented to the living of South Molton, 
Devonshire, in the next October he was col- 
lated to the archdeaconry of Colchester, on 
9 Nov. following he was appointed dean of 
Windsor, and was shortly afterwards made 
a judge in the court of Star-chamber. He 
was Wolsey's chaplain and dean of the king's 
chapel. Wolsey employed him to transact 
confidential business with the king in 1517 
and 1518. In June 1519 he was sent by the 
king with a message to Louise of Savoy. In 
the spring of 1521 he was sent as ambassa- 
dor to Rome, and arrived there on 20 April. 
In the following October he presented the 
king's book to Leo X with a set oration and 
much ceremony. He was in Rome at the 
death of Leo X and the election of Adrian, 
and was employed by Wolsey to advance his 
interests. He returned to England in the Sep- 
tember of the next year. He was appointed 
master of the rolls on 20 Oct. following, and 
resigned that office 9 Oct. 1523. On the re- 
signation of the see of Bath and Wells by 
Wolsey in 1523 Clerk was nominated to the 
bishopric by papal provision on 26 March, and 
received the temporalities on 2 May. As 
bishop-elect he was sent to Rome in this 
spring to conclude a treaty with Adrian VI, 
Charles V, the duke of Milan, and the Swiss. 
He entered Rome on 3 June, and was conse- 
crated bishop there on 6 Dec. following. He 
worked hard to promote the election of Wol- 
sey, but was outwitted by the Cardinal de' 
Medici. He left Rome 7 Nov. 1525, and on 
parting from the pope was presented with a 
ring worth five hundred ducats. In the course 
of his journey to England he had an interview 
on state affairs with Louise of Savoy. In July 
1526 he was employed as ambassador to the 
court of France, where he endeavoured to 
draw Francis from his idea of an alliance with 
Charles V, and of a marriage with the Prin- 
cess Eleonora, and to persuade him to apply 
for the hand of the Princess Mary of England. 
In 1527 he was again in Rome on the 
king's business. He met Cardinal Campeggio 
at Paris in August 1528, and proceeded to 
England with him. He was appointed one 
of the counsellors for Queen Catherine, and 
in accordance with the command of the legates 
served their citation on the king and queen 
on 18 June 1529. On the avocation of the 
cause of the king's divorce from the legatine 
court he betrayed the interests of the queen 
by agreeing with Wolsey that she should 
withdraw from proceedings at Rome. He 
joined in pronouncing the king's divorce. In 



Clerk 



Clerk 



1540, when returning from an embassy to 
the Duke of Cleves, he fell sick at Dunkirk, 
it was thought from poison. Believing him- 
self about to die, he directed that he should 
be buried in the church of Notre Dame at 
Calais. However, he lived to return to Eng- 
land, and died 3 Jan. 1541, and was buried 
in St. Botolph's, Aldgate. He acted as one 
of the king's ecclesiastical commissioners on 
some trials for heresy. His diocesan duties 
were generally performed by two suffragan 
bishops and by a bishop consecrated to the 
suffragan see of Taunton. He wrote ' Oratio 
pro Henrico VIII apud Leonem max. pontif.' 
1521, translated into English, and published 
with Henry VIU's ' Assertio septem sacra- 
mentorum,' 1687, 1688. He was appointed to 
assist in drawing up the 'Institution of a 
Christian Man,' and is believed to have helped 
Cranmer in writing certain works on the 
king's supremacy and divorce. 

[Letters and State Papers of Henry VIII, pas- 
sim ; Brewer's Reign of Henry VIII, passim ; 
Friedmann's Anne Boleyn, i. 86 ; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 754 ; Ellis's Letters, 2nd and 
3rd series; Strype's (8vo edit.) Memorials, i.i. 51, 
83 ; Cranmer, 77, 568 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab. 
77 ; Reynolds's Wells Cathedral, preface 92.] 

W. H. 

CLERK, JOHN (d. 1552), catholic writer, 
said to have been descended ' from famous 
and noble lineage,' was educated for a time 
in ' grammaticals, logicals, and philosophicals 
among the Oxonians,' though in what col- 
lege or hall Wood was unable to discover. 
He then travelled on the continent, and be- 
came proficient in the French and Italian 
languages. In Italy he was the. intimate 
friend of the eminent divine and statesman 
Richard Pace. ' All things were in a man- 
ner common between them, and what was 
by either read or observed was forthwith 
communicated to each other's great advan- 
tage.' On his return to England he obtained 
the post of secretary to Thomas Howard, 
duke of Norfolk. At length he, like his pa- 
tron, was accused of leze majesty, and com- 
mitted to the Tower of London, where, to 
avoid public shame, as has been conjectured, 
he hanged himself in his cell with his girdle 
on 10 May 1552. Clerk, who was a steady 
adherent of the old form of religion, wrote : 
1. ' A Treatise of Nobility,' translated from 
the French, London, 1543, 12mo. 2. ' Opus- 
culum plane divinum de mortuorum resur- 
rectione et extremo iuditio, in quatuor lin- 
guis succincte conscriptum. Latyne, Eng- 
lysshe, Italian, Frenche,' London, 1545, 4to, 
2nd edition 1547, 4to. Dedicated to Henry, 
earl of Surrey, K.G. Tanner notices a third 
edition in 1573, 4to. The English and French 



texts are in black letter, the Latin and Ita- 
lian in Roman characters. This excessively 
rare book is printed in double columns, so that 
the four languages are apparent at one view. 

3. 'A Declaration briefly conteyning as well 
the true understandynge of tharticles en- 
suynge as allso a recitall of the capital er- 

1 rours against the same. Predestination, Ffree 
j will, Faythe, Justification, Good woorkes, 
Christian libertye,' London, 1546, 8vo ; de- 
dicated in Italian to Thomas, duke of Norfolk. 

4. Meditations on death. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss) i. 203 ; Bale, 
Script. Brit. Cat. part. post. 109 ; Pits, De An- 
gliae Scriptoribus, 747 ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. 
(Herbert), 577, 587, 708 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
(Bohn), 480 ; Cat. of the Hath Library, i. 325 ; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 184; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 
379.] T. C. 

CLERK, SIB JOHN (1684-1755), of Peni- 
cuik, judge and antiquary, was the eldest son 
of John Clerk of Penicuik, who was created 
knight bart. on 24 March 1679, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry Henderson of Elvington. 
He early achieved some success as an advocate 
at the Scotch bar, and was elected to the 
Scotch parliament as member for Whithorn 
(in the Wigtown district) in 1702, which he 
continued to represent until 1707. In 1706-7 
he was placed on the commission appointed 
to treat for the union of the realms, was re- 
turned to the first parliament of Great Britain 
in the same year, and next year was raised 
to the bench of the then newly constituted 
Scotch court of exchequer. On the death 
of his father, which occurred in 1722, he suc- 
ceeded to the title and estates. His house, 
Penicuik, where he gathered together a very 
valuable collection of antiques, specially 
rich in inscriptions illustrative of the history 
of Great Britain, was long a centre of re- 
union for the cultivated society of Edinburgh. 
He enjoyed the intimacy of the great English 
antiquary, Roger Gale, and was one of the 
earliest and most constant patrons of Allan 
Ramsay, whom he used to invite year by 
year to spend a portion of the summer with 
him. Ramsay is said to have passed much 
of his later years under Clerk's roof, and 
to have bitterly felt his death, which took 
place on 4 Oct. 1755. He survived his patron 
for only three years, Clerk's son and suc- 
cessor, Sir James Clerk, erecting an obelisk 
to his memory at Penicuik. Sir John be- 
came a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
in 1725, of the Royal Society three years 
later, and of the Spalding Society in 1740. 
He married twice, viz. (1) on 23 Feb. 1700-1, 
Lady Margaret Stewart, eldest daughter of 
Alexander, third earl of Galloway, who died 
the same year (26 Dec.) after giving birth 



Clerk 



Clerk 



to a son, whose premature death in 1722 was 
made by Allan Ramsay the occasion for an 
elegy; (2) Janet, daughter of Sir John Inglis 
of Cramond, bart., by whom he had issue 
seven sons and six daughters. 

Clerk was the author of: 1. 'Money and 
Trade considered, with a Proposal for sup- 
plying the Nation with Money' (published 
anonymously), Edinburgh, 1705, 4to. 2. 'His- 
torical View of the Forms and Powers of 
the Court of Exchequer in Scotland. 1 This 
work was written jointly with Baron Scrope 
in 1726, but remained in manuscript until 
1820, when it was edited by Sir Henry Jar- 
dine, writer to the signet and kings re- 
membrancer, and printed for private circu- 
lation by the barons of the exchequer. 3. ' De 
Stylis Veterum et diversis Chartarum gene- 
ribus Dissertatio.' Published in vol. iii. of 
the ' Supplement to the Thesauri of Grsevius 
and Gronovius,' edited by Joannes Polenus, 
Venice, 1738, fol. A portion of the disserta- 
tion was translated and communicated by 
Gale to the Royal Society in 1731 (see Philo- 
sophical Transactions, xxxvii. 157-63). A 
letter from Clerk to Gale, dated 6 Nov. 
1731, giving an account of certain pecu- 
liar effects of thunder on trees, and of the 
discovery of the horn of a large deer in 
the heart of an oak, will also be found in 
' Philosophical Transactions,' xli. pt. i. 235. 
4. 'Dissertatio de Monumentis quibusdam 
Romanis in boreali Magnse Britannise parte 
detectis anno MDCCXXXI,' Edinburgh, 1750, 
4to. This Latin tract describes some Roman 
remains discovered near Middleby in 1731, 
which the author referred to the age of 
Julian the Apostate, and pronounced to be 
the ruins of the temple dedicated to Mercury 
and Brigantia. 5. Some letters on the subject 
of tumuli and other antiquities which passed 
between Clerk and Roger Gale in 1725-6 were 
printed, apparently without Clerk's sanction, 
by Alexander Gordon, by way of appendix 
to his ' Itinerarium Septentrionale,' London, 
1726, 4to. These, with other correspondence 
on a variety of curious and more or less 
recondite topics extending from 1726 to 1740, 
are included in ' Reliquiae GaleanEe ' (NICHOLS, 
Bibliotheca Topographica Sritannica, iii. No. 
ii. pts. ii. and iii.) Clerk also wrote all but 
the first stanza of the popular Scotch song, 
* O, merry may the Maid be that marries the 
Miller; ' and he is the reputed author of some 
lines addressed to Susanna, daughter of Sir 
Archibald Kennedy of Culzean, bart., an- 
cestor of the Marquis of Ailsa, afterwards 
wife of Alexander, ninth earl of Eglinton. 
The verses may be read in Anderson's 
' Scottish Nation.' Allan Ramsay dedicated 
his ' Gentle Shepherd ' to the same lady. 



[Foster's Baronetage : Members of Parliament, 
Scotland; Acts Parl. Scot. xi. 217, 139 a, App. 
162 b ; Return of Members of Parliament, ii. 8; 
Scots Mag. xvii. 461 ; Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, iv, 547, v. 330-335, vi. 13, 79, 129, 139; 
Cat. Adv. Lib. ii. 268 ; ;Cat. Sig. Lib. i. 213 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Anderson's Scottish Nation.] 

J. M. E. 

CLERK, JOHN (1728-1812), of Eldin, 
author of an essay on naval tactics, seventh 
son of Sir John Clerk of Penicuik [q. v.], 
was born at Penicuik on 10 Dec. 1728, and 
was educated at the grammar school of Dal- 
keith. He early entered into business as a 
merchant in Edinburgh, and continued so 
engaged till about 1773, with such suc- 
cess that, finding himself then in easy cir- 
cumstances, he purchased the small pro- 
perty of Eldin in the parish of Lasswade, 
about six miles from Edinburgh, where he 
settled down, devoting much of his time to 
artistic and scientific pursuits. He had al- 
ways been an accomplished draughtsman, 
and about 1770 began the practice of .etch- 
ing on copper, in which he attained con- 
siderable skill. A collection of his etch- 
ings, printed from his private plates in 1786, 
was presented to the king by the Earl of 
Buchan, and is now in the British Museum. 
A more extended series was published by 
the Bannatyne Club in 1855. A business 
interest in some collieries seems to have di- 
rected his attention to the then infant sci- 
ence of geology ; in this pursuit he was en- 
couraged by Dr. James Hutton, whom he 
frequently accompanied in his excursions and 
surveys, and assisted with his ready pencil in 
portraying the features of the country. 

But his name is best known in connection 
with the ' Essay on Naval Tactics ' and the 
controversy which arose out of it. He had 
always, he tells us in the preface, taken a 
great interest in naval affairs, an interest 
strengthened by the fact of his having many 
near kinsmen in the navy; and, meditat- 
ing on the unsatisfactory results of several 
battles at sea, he was led to the conception of 
certain manoeuvres which would, he believed, 
lead to breaking the enemy's line, to over- 
whelming part of it, and compelling the rest 
either to close action or ignominious flight. 
These proposals were handed about in manu- 
script, and fifty copies of some of them were 
privately printed. Clerk was under the im- 
pression that they had been brought to the 
notice of Sir George Rodney which an exact 
comparison of dates shows to have been im- 
possible and of Sir Charles Douglas, who 
categorically denied having ever heard of 
either Clerk or his proposals till after his 
return from the West Indies (SiK HOWARD 



Clerk 



Clerk 



DOUGLAS, Naval Evolutions, 1832, p. 51). 
Clerk persuaded himself that Rodney's suc- 
cess at Dominica, 12 April 1782, was obtained 
by carrying out his suggestions, though the 
details of the battle, closely examined, are 
widely different from anything described by 
Clerk, to which, on the other hand, the tac- 
tics attempted by Suffren in the East Indies 
bear considerable resemblance [see RODNEY, 
GEORGE BRYDGES]. 

A copy of the ' Essay,' privately printed 
in 1782, was afterwards in tha possession of 
Lord Rodney, and, having been freely anno- 
tated by him in the margin, was re-presented 
to the author in 1789. It is understood to 
be still in the library at Penicuik. In 1790 
the ' Essay ' was published for the first time. 
It then contained only the first part, sug- 
gesting a mode of attack from the position 
to windward. This is all that Rodney seems 
ever to have known of, and his remarks on 
the notice of his own action oft" Martinique, 
17 April 1780, ought to have been accepted 
as quite conclusive of his ignorance, at that 
time, of anything that had been proposed by 
Clerk. His greater action of 12 April 1782 
did not come within the scope of the ' Essay ' 
as then printed, and no suggestion of his 
owing anything to Clerk appears ever to have 
reached him. The second and third parts of 
the ' Essay,' including the attack from the 
position to leeward, were first published in 
1797, five years after Rodney's death ; and 
in 1804 a collective edition was published, 
in the preface to which Clerk, for the first 
time in public, claimed to have some share 
in the glories of Dominica. The claim passed 
then without much notice, but when re- 
peated and enlarged upon by Professor Play- 
fair before the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
in 1821 (Collected Works, iii. 441), and after- 
wards in 1827 by an anonymous 'naval 
officer,' who contributed a preface to a third 
edition of the ' Essay,' an angry controversy 
was roused, which is now principally re- 
markable for the curious ignorance of the 
subject displayed by most of the disputants. 
That Professor Playfair, in attempting to 
exalt his friend's reputation, should show 
himself utterly ignorant of the details of 
naval battles was not to be wondered at ; 
but that the anonymous ' naval officer ' on 
the one side, or Sir Charles Knowles (Obser- 
vations on Naval Tactics, 1830) on the other, 
should betray an equal ignorance of the his- 
tory, and a still grosser ignorance of the 
theory, of tactics is indeed extraordinary. 

So far as related to Rodney and the battle 
of Dominica, the negation of the claim was 
clearly settled by the distinct evidence of 
Sir Howard Douglas, and was loyally ac- 



cepted by Clerk's son, Lord Eldin. But not- 
withstanding this, and though the details of 
Clerk's suggestions have never been put into 
actual practice, least of all in the battles of 
First of June, St. Vincent, or Camperdown, 
we may still believe that, directly or indi- 
rectly, Clerk'stheorisingdid contribute largely 
to our successes during the wars of the French 
revolution. Nelson himself is said to have 
been a careful student of Clerk's book ; his 
celebrated memorandum of 9 Oct. 1805, in 
directing the attack from the position to 
windward, adhered closely to Clerk's pro- 
posal, and though he afterwards saw fit to 
modify the details, the principle was left 
unchanged. This must be considered Clerk's 
grand achievement. The lessons he taught 
were in reality not new, but they had become 
so overlaid by the pedantry of routine that 
they had been virtually lost sight of, and, 
notwithstanding the great victories of Hawke 
and Rodney, might not have been recognised 
by the naval service at large, had not this 
civilian, from an outsider's point of view, 
given one more proof that a looker-on often 
sees most of the game. 

Clerk died on 10 May 1812. He is de- 
scribed by Lord Cockburn (Memorials of his 
Time, p. 272) as being, in his later years, 
' an interesting and delightful old man ; full 
of the peculiarities that distinguished the 
whole family talent, caprice, obstinacy, 
worth, kindness, and oddity; a striking- 
looking old gentleman, with grizzly hair, 
vigorous features, and Scotch speech,' equally 
fond of a joke and an argument. He married 
in 1753 Susannah, a younger sister of the 
brothers Adam the architects [see ADAM, 
ROBERT], by whom he had one son, John, 
Lord Eldin [q. v.], and four daughters. His 
portrait, by Raeburn, was lithographed for 
the series of his etchings published by the 
Bannatyne Club, to which is also prefixed a 
memoir from materials furnished by Lord 
Eldin. Other portraits are also there noted. 

[The principal authority for Clerk's life is the 
Memoir just spoken of. The prefaces of the 
2nd and 3rd editions of the Essay on Naval 
Tactics (1804, 1827) may also be referred to; 
and as bearing on the controversy about the 
battle of Dominica (on which many pamphlets 
were written, mostly quite valueless) Edinburgh 
Review, li. 1, and Quarterly Review, xlii. 71. 
This last article was by Sir John Barrow.] 

J. K. L. 

CLERK, JOHN, LORD ELDIN (1757- 
1832), Scotchjudge, was the eldest son of John 
Clerk of Eldin [q. v.], the author of an 
' Essay on Naval Tactics,' and his wife, Su- 
sannah Adam, the sister of the celebrated 



Clerk 



43 



Clerk 



architects of that name. He was born in April 
1757. Though originally intended for the In- 
dian civil service, he was apprenticed to a 
writer of the signet. After serving his articles 
he practised for a year or two as an accoun- I 
tant, and eventually was admitted a member 
of the Faculty of Advocates on 3 Dec. 1785. 
He soon made his mark at the bar, where 
he acquired so extensive a practice that, it 
is said, at one period of his career he had 
nearly one-half of the business of the court 
in his hands. On 11 March 1806 he was ap- 
pointed solicitor-general to Scotland in the 
Grenville administration, an office which he 
held during the twelve months that that 
ministry lasted. His practice at the bar had 
been for some time falling off, and his health 
had already begun to fail, when, on 10 Nov. 
1823, he was appointed an ordinary lord of 
session in the place of Lord Bannatyne. 
Assuming the title of Lord Eldin, he took 
his seat on the bench 22 Nov. As a judge 
he was not a success ; his temperament 
was not a judicial one, and his infirmities 
rendered him unfit for the office. After five 
years of judicial work he resigned in 1828, 
and was succeeded by Lord Fullerton. As 
a pleader he was remarkable, both for his 
acuteness and his marvellous powers of 
reasoning, as well as for his fertility of re- 
source. Possessed of a rough, sarcastic hu- 
mour, he delighted in ridiculing the bench, 
and was in the habit of saying whatever he 
liked to the judges without reproof, though 
on one celebrated occasion, after a prolonged 
wrangle, he was compelled by the court to 
make an apology to Lord Glenlee for a fiery 
retort which he had made in reply to a 
remark of that judge (Journal of Henry 
Cockbum, 1874, ii. 207-10). In politics he 
was a keen whig. He had a considerable 
taste for fine arts, and occasionally amused 
himself in drawing and modelling. In ap- 
pearance he was remarkably plain ; he was 
also very lame, and paid no attention to his 
dress. It is related that when walking down 
High Street one day from the court of session 
he overheard a young lady saying to her com- 
panion rather loudly, 'There goes Johnnie 
Clerk, the lame lawyer.' Upon which he 
turned round and said, ' No, madam, I may 
be a lame man, but not a lame lawyer.' A 
felicitous sketch of this brilliant but eccentric 
advocate will be found in Cockburn's ' Life 
of Lord Jeffrey' (1852), i. 199-205. Clerk 
died unmarried at his house in Picardy Place, 
Edinburgh, on 30 May 1832, in the seventy- 
sixth year of his age. A vignette portrait of 
him will be found in the second volume of 
Kay, No. 320. His collection of pictures and 
prints was sold by auction at his house in 



March 1833, when a serious accident occurred 
by reason of the floor giving way. 

[Kay's Original Portraits (1877), ii. 438-42; 
Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of 
Justice (1832), 551, 552; Edinburgh Evening 
Courant, 2 June 1832 ; Scots Mag. 1823, new ser., 
xiii. 760 ; Cockburn's Memorials of his Time 
(1856), 272-3, 407-8; Anderson's History of 
Edinburgh (1856), 428-9.] G. F. K. B. 

CLERK, JOSIAH, M.D. (1639-1714), 
president of the College of Physicians, was 
matriculated as a pensioner of Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, in December 1656, and took the 
two degrees in medicine, M.B. in 1661, M.D. 
on 3 July 1666. He was admitted a candi- 
date of the College of Physicians on 26 June 
1671, a fellow on 29 July 1675, and was ap- 
pointed censor in 1677 and 1692. On the 
death of Sir Thomas Witherley he was named 
elect on 16 April 1694, delivered the Har- 
veian oration in 1708, was consiliarius in 

1707, 1709, 1710, 1711, and 1712, and was 
elected to the presidentship, void by the death 
of Dr. Edward Browne [q. v.], on 13 Sept. 

1708, being re-elected at the general election 
of officers on the 30th of the same month. 
Clerk ' being indisposed by many bodyly in- 
firmityes, and also aged,' was unable to act ; 
he accordingly resigned on 18 Dec., and Dr. 
Goodall was appointed on 23 Dec. 1708. He 
had been chosen treasurer on 16 April 1708, 
and retained that office as long as he lived. 
Clerk died at his house in Fenchurch Street 
in the autumn of 1714, in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age. In the annals of the college 
cited by Dr. Munk the date of Clerk's death 
is given as 8 Dec., which is erroneous. His 
will (reg. in P. C. C. 188, Aston) was proved 
on 14 Oct. He desired ' to be decently, tho' 
very privately, buried by night in the vault 
in St. Olave Hart Street Church, where my 
honoured mother and my children lye, if it 
may be done with conveniency.' By his 
wife Abigail, who survived him, he left a 
daughter Elizabeth, married to Richard Wil- 
shaw. Clerk's portrait is at the college. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), i. 379.] 

G. G. 

CLERK, MATTHEW (1659-1735), Irish 
presbyterian minister, was born in 1659. He 
was in Derry during the siege (1689), and 
received a bullet-wound on the temple, leav- 
ing a sore, over which he wore a black patch 
to the end of his days. Not till after the 
siege did he begin his studies for the ministry. 
He was ordained in 1697 by the Route pres- 
bytery as minister of Kilrea and Boveedy, 
co. Derry. In 1721 he was the sole dissen- 
tient from the synod's 'charitable declara- 



Clerk 



44 



Clerke 



tion ' enjoining forbearance towards the non- 
subscribers to the Westminster Confession. 
Next year he, with two others, entered a 
strong protest against any compromise with 
the non-subscribing party. This party at- 
tacked him in his own presbytery, but though 
the matter was referred to the synod, the non- 
subscribers were too much occupied in defend- 
ing themselves to proceed with it. Clerk's 
literary contributions to the controversy were 
the first on either side which appeared with 
the author's name. His friends considered 
his manner of writing not sufficiently grave 
in tone. ' I don't think,' writes Livingstone 
of Templepatrick to Wodrow, on 23 June 
1723, 'his reasoning faculty is despisable, 
but I wish it were equal to his diverting 
one, for I think he is one of the most comical 
old fellows that ever was.' On 29 April 1729 
Clerk resigned his charge and emigrated to 
New Hampshire. On landing he found that 
James Macgregor, formerly minister of Agha- 
dowey, and founder of the township of Lon- 
donderry on the Merrimac, had died on 
5 March. He succeeded him as minister, 
and also engaged in educational work. Clerk 
was a strict vegetarian, but his abstemious 
diet did not subdue his warlike spirit. Among 
the quaint anecdotes told of him is one of 
his criticising to this effect the prowess of 
St. Peter : ' He only cut off a chiel's lug, 
and he ought to ha' split doun his held.' 
Clerk died on 25 Jan. 1735. He was carried 
to his grave by old comrades at the Derry 
siege. He had been thrice married, his third 
wife being the widow of Macgregor. 

He published : 1. ' A Letter from the 
Country to a Friend in Belfast, with respect 
to the Belfast Society,' &c. (Belfast), 1712 
(misprint for 1722), 18mo (issued in June 
1722). 2. ' A Letter from the Belfast Society 
to the Rev. Mr. Matthew Clerk, with an 
Answer to the Society's Remarks on ... 
A Letter from the Country,' &c. (Belfast), 
1723, 12mo (the Belfast Society's Letter, 
signed by six of its members [see BKTTCE, 
MICHAEL, 1686-1735], was sent to Clerk in 
October 1722). 

[Reid's Hist. Presb. Ch. in Ireland (Killen), 
J867, iii. 149, 162; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. 
Mem. of Presb. inlreland, 1st ser. 1879, p. 241 sq.] 

A. G. 

CLERK, WILLIAM, LL.D. (d. 1655), 
civilian, received his education at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge (LL.B. 1609, LL.D. 1629). 
He was admitted an advocate at Doctors' 
Commons on 23 Oct. 1629 (CooiE, English 
Civilians, p. 78), and in 1639 he occurs as 
official of the archdeacon of London (HALE, 
London Precedents, p. 362). He was ap- 



pointed one of the judges of the admiralty in 
1651 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 389). 
His death occurred about August 1655. Jtf 

He was author of ' An Epitome of cer- 
taine late Aspersions cast at Civilians, the 
Civil and Ecclesiastical Lawes, the Courts 
Christian, and at Bishops and their Chancel- 
lors, wherein the Authors thereof are re- 
futed and repelled,' Dublin, 1631, 4to. This 
treatise is chiefly in answer to the preface of 
Sir John Davis's Reports, and to some parts 
of the case of prsemunire reported by him. 

[Authorities cited above.] T. C. 

CLERK-MAXWELL, SIR GEORGE 

(1715-1784), of Penicuik, second son of 
Sir John Clerk of Penicuik [q. v.], second 
baronet, and Janet, daughter of Sir John 
Inglis of Cramond, was born at Edinburgh in 
October 1715. He was educated at the uni- 
versities of Edinburgh and Leyden. From 
his father he received in patrimony the 
lands of Drumcrieff in Annandale, and by 
marriage with Dorothea Clerk- Maxwell, 
daughter of his uncle William by Agnes 
Maxwell, heiress of Middlebie, Dumfries- 
shire, he obtained the lands of Middlebie, 
adopting thereupon his wife's name, Clerk- 
Maxwell. He was one of the commissioners 
of the customs, king's remembrancer in the 
exchequer, and one of the trustees for im- 
proving fisheries and manufactures in Scot- 
land. Both in his private and public capacity 
he exerted himself with zeal and ability to 
promote the agricultural and commercial in- 
terests of the country. At Dumfries he erect ed 
at considerable expense a linen manufactory, 
and he set on foot a variety of projects for 
the mining of lead and copper in the county. 
In 1755 he addressed two letters to the trustees 
for the improvement of the fisheries and ma- 
nufactures of Scotland, regarding the common 
mode of treating wool, which were published 
by direction of the board in 1756. He was 
also the author of a paper on shallow plough- 
ing, read before the members of the Philoso- 
phical Society, and published in the third 
volume of their essays. He was a remark- 
ably clever draughtsman, and etched a variety 
of views of Scotland. On the death of his 
elder brother in 1782, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy and estates of Penicuik. He died 
29 Jan. 1784, and was succeeded in the 
baronetcy by his eldest son John. He had 
four other sons and four daughters. 

[Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, i. 462-3 ; 
Gent. Mag. liv. pt. i. 314 ; Scots Mag. xlvi. 55 ; 
Anderson's Scottish Nation.] T. F. H. 



CLERKE. 

and CLERK.] 



[See also CLARK, CLARKE, 



^ He was buried on 
3 Aug. at St. Benet's, Paul's Wharf 
(Reg. iv. 43 : Harl. Soc. xli. cited in 



Clerke 



45 



Clerke 



CLERKE, BARTHOLOMEW, LL.D. 
(1537 P-1590), civilian, was grandson of 
Richard Clerke, gentleman, of Livermere in 
Suffolk, and son of John Clerke of Wells, 
Somersetshire, by Anne, daughter and heiress 
of Henry Grantoft, gentleman, of Hunting- 
donshire. He was born about 1537 in the 
parts of Surrey which adjoin London. He 
received his education at Eton, whence he 
was elected to King's College, Cambridge, 
being admitted scholar on 23 Aug. 1554 and 
fellow on 24 Aug. 1557. He proceeded B. A. 
in 1558-9, and commenced M.A. in 1562. 
He also studied at Paris, where he was much 
admired for his oratory, and he was promised 
a salary of three hundred crowns if he would 
read a public lecture at Angers, but this offer 
he declined. About 1563 he was professor of 
rhetoric at Cambridge. When Queen Eliza- 
beth visited that university in August 1564, 
he took a part in the philosophy act which 
was kept in her majesty's presence, and 
made an oration to her when she visited 
King's College. He was one of the proctors 
of the university for the academical year be- 
ginning in October 1564. On the death of 
Roger Ascham he was recommended to suc- 
ceed him as Latin secretary to the queen by 
Sir William Cecil, the Earl of Leicester, and 
Dr. Walter Haddon. The office had, how- 
ever, been previously promised by her majesty 
to another person. About the same time he 
was accused of unsoundness in religion, but 
this charge he confuted. In 1569 he was again 
elected proctor of the university. On this 
occasion he was publicly charged with un- 
soundness in religion and reproached for 
having been rejected at court. Thereupon 
the Earl of Leicester, by a letter to the vice- 
chancellor and regents of the university, 
dated 11 May 1569, fully vindicated Clerke's 
reputation, highly commended his learning, 
and stated that the queen had conceived a 
right good opinion of his towardness. 

To the parliament which assembled on 
2 April 1571 he was returned as one of the 
members for the borough of Bramber in 
Sussex (WiLLis, Notitia Parliamentaria, iii. 
pt. ii. p. 85), and on the 19th of that month 
he took part in a debate on the bill against 
usury, his speech containing quotations from 
Aristotle, Plato, St. Augustine, and the 
psalmist. In that year he accompanied Lord 
Buckhurst to Paris when that nobleman was 
sent as ambassador to the French court to con- 
gratulate Charles IX on his marriage. He 
resided with his lordship for some time after 
his return to England, and he was also held 
in great esteem by Edward Vere, earl of Ox- 
ford, to whom he seems to have been tutor 
(STRYPE, Life of Parker, p. 384). It was in 



1571 that Dr. Nicholas Sanders printed his 
book, ' De visibili Ecclesise Monarchia/ 
Burghley and Archbishop Parker thought 
it ought to receive a substantial answer by 
some person well skilled in the civil law, 
and they could find no one equal to such an 
undertaking except Clerke. Burghley de- 
sired some public testimony from the univer- 
sity respecting Clerke's conduct. Accord- 
ingly the vice-chancellor and Dr. Whitgift, 
master of Trinity College, testified on 6 Dec. 

1572 to his good reputation for learning. 
While engaged in refuting Sanders, Clerke 
was accommodated with a room in the Arches 
by favour of Archbishop Parker, who him- 
self assisted in preparing the reply, which 
was carefully scrutinised and corrected by 
the lord treasurer himself before it was sent 
to the press (STRYPE, Whitgift, p. 47, and 
Parker, p. 381 ; also Parker Correspondence, 
pp. 411-14). On 14 Jan. 1572-3 Clerke be- 
came a member of the College of Advocates 
at Doctors' Commons, and on 3 May 1573 he 
was constituted dean of the arches (CooiE, 
English Civilians, p. 50). The queen, at the 
instigation, it is supposed, of the Earl of 
Leicester and the puritans, commanded the 
archbishop to remove Clerke on the pretence 
that he was too young to hold such a post. 
He firmly resisted this arbitrary attempt to 
remove him, and as his cause was warmly 
espoused by the primate he succeeded in re- 
taining his office (STRTPE, Parker, p. 387, 
Append, p. 123 ; Parker Correspondence, pp. 
417-32). 

In November 1573 he occurs in a commis- 
sion from the archbishop to visit the church, 
city, and diocese of Canterbury. About the 
same time he was appointed a master in 
chancery. His name occurs in the high com- 
mission for causes ecclesiastical on 23 April 
1576, and he became archdeacon of Wells 
about the beginning of 1582. In December 
1585 he and Henry Killegrew were sent to 
Flanders to co-operate with the Earl of Lei- 
cester , being appointed members of the council 
of state. On 10 March 1585-6 Clerke de- 
livered an oration in Leicester's name, on 
his arrival in Amsterdam, and in October 
following he was despatched to England by 
Leicester on a special mission to the queen. 
In 1587 he was again sent to the Low Coun- 
tries, with his friend Lord Buckhurst and 
Sir John Norris, in order to allay the discon- 
tent which had been excited by the Earl of 
Leicester's proceedings in Holland, and to 
open the way for a peace with Spain. 

It is said that Clerke was a member of the 
old Society of Antiquaries (Archceologia, i. 
introd. p. xx). For several years his ordi- 
nary residence was at Mitcham in Surrey, 



Clerke 



4 6 



Clerke 



and he was lord of the manor of Clapham 
in that county. He died on 12 March 
1589-90, and was buried in the old church 
at Clapham. 

By his wife Eleanor [Haselrigge] he had 
a son, Sir Francis Clerke of Merton in Surrey 
(not Francis Clerke, the civilian) [q. v.], who 
is said to have been an eminent benefactor 
to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (but cf. 
COLE, Hist, of King's Coll. Camb. ii. 97). 

His works are : 1. ' Balthasaris Castilionis 
comitis de Curiali, sive Aulico, libri quatuor, 
ex Italico sermone in Latinum conversi,' 
... 15 ... London, 1571, 8vo ; 1577, 12mo ; 
1585, 8vo; 1603, 12mo; 1612, 8vo ; Stras- 
burg, 1619, 8vo ; Cambridge, 1713, 8vo. This 
work receives high commendation from Sir 
John Harington in his preface to his ' Or- 
lando Furioso,' 1591 (HASLEWOOD, Ancient 
Critical Essays, ii. 143). 2. ' Fidelis servi 
subdito infideli responsio, una cum errorum 
et calumniarum examine quse continentur in 
septimo libro De visibili ecclesiae monarchia a 
Nicholao Sandero conscripto,' London, 1573, 
4to. Sanders wrote a rejoinder bearing the 
same title : ' Responsio servi fidelis subdito in- 
fideli' (PiTS, De Scriptoribus, p. 775 ; DA VIES, 
Athence Britannicce, pref. p. 77). 3. ' Cantise 
status ab adventu Csesaris.' Verses in the Earl 
of Sunderland's copy of Archbishop Parker's 
' Antiquitates Britannicae ; ' transcribed in 
Baker's MS. xxxii. 216. 4. ' The reasonable 
Answer of the Official of the Arches, who 
... is driven to defend the ancient dignity 
of the Court of Arches, and Official thereof: 
not with triple titles and gay terms, but by 
reason, law, and statute,' 1576. MS. Petyt. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 910, 
979, 1071, 1125; Cole's Hist, of King's Coll. 
Camb. ii. 92-7 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 70, 
544; Guillim's Display of Heraldry (1724), p. 
246 ; Harwood's Alumni Eton. p. 170 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti ; Lodge's Illustr. of British Hist, 
ii. 318 ; Lysons's Environs, Suppl. p. 19; Man- 
ning and Bray's Surrey, iii. 361, 365 ; Cal. of 
State Papers (Dom. 1547-80), pp. 257, 260, 291, 
320, 324, 346, 397, 473 ; Strype's Works (gen. 
index) ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Wood's Fasti 
Oxon." (Bliss), i. 195; Leicester Correspondence 
(Camden Soc).] T. C. 

CLERKE, CHARLES (1741-1779), cap- 
tain in the royal navy, circumnavigator, en- 
tered the navy about 1755, served continu- 
ously during the seven years' war, and was 
on board the Bellona when she captured the 
Courageux on 13 Aug. 1761. During the 
action Clerke was stationed in the mizen- 
top, and when the mizen-mast was shot 
away fell with it into the sea, happily, how- 
ever, without any serious hurt. After the 
peace he was appointed midshipman of the 



Dolphin, and sailed with Commodore the Hon. 
John Byron [q. v.] in his voyage round the 
world (1764-6). On his return he communi- 
cated to the secretary of the Royal Society 
an account of the great height of the Pa- 
tagonians, among whom he says they saw 
' hardly a man less than eight feet ; most of 
them were considerably more.' The paper 
was read before the society on 12 Feb. 1767, 
and published in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions,' Ivii. 75. In 1768 he was appointed as 
master's mate to the Endeavour, with Cap- 
tain Cook [see COOK, JAMES], and again sailed 
round the world in that expedition, 1768-71. 
He had been promoted during the voyage to 
the rank of lieutenant, and sailed as second 
lieutenant of the Resolution in Cook's second 
voyage round the world, 1772-5. On his re- 
turn to England he was advanced to the rank 
of commander, and when Cook's third expe- 
dition was fitting out in 1776, Clerke was 
appointed to command the Discovery. On 
the death of Captain Cook on 14 Feb. 1779, 
Clerke succeeded to the vacant rank and the 
command of the expedition, which, however, 
he did not long enjoy, dying of a lingering 
consumption within little more than six 
months. During this short time he had given 
proofs not only of his zeal for the service in 
which he was engaged, but of his ability, 
energy, and devotion. He had taken the ship 
into high latitudes. The climate proved ex- 
tremely trying to his fatal disease ; but as 
his orders were to look for a north-west pas- 
sage, he persisted until ' it was the opinion of 
every officer in both ships that it was imprac- 
ticable, and that any farther attempts would 
not only be fruitless, but dangerous.' But it 
was then too late. He died in Avatcha Bay 
on 22 Aug. 1779. 

[A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean during the 
years 1776-80, vol. iii. by Captain James King, 
p. 280 et seq.] J. K. L. 

CLERKE or CLARKE, FRANCIS 

(Jl. 1594), civilian, after a short stay at Ox- 
ford, left the university and went to Doctors' 
Commons, and for about forty years practised 
civil law in various courts. In consequence 
of his having acted as senior proctor for the 
university he received the degree of B.C.L. 
without examination in 1594, having then 
practised in London about thirty-five years. 
He wrote ' Praxis tarn jus dicentibus quam 
aliis omnibus qui in foro ecclesiastico ver- 
santur,' finished in 1596, but not published 
until after the author's death ; an edition 
was published at Dublin in 1664, 4to (Brit. 
Mus.), and another by T. Bladen, dean of 
Ardfert, Ireland, 1666 (WOOD), 2nd ed. 1684, 
4to (Brit. Mus.) ; and ' Praxis curise Ad- 



Clerke 



47 



Clerke 



miralitatis Anglise,' Dublin, 1666 (WOOD); 
London, 1667, 8vo; edited by F. Hargrave, 
1743, 8vo ; 5th edition, 1798, 12mo ; also in 
Latin and English, 1722, and again trans- 
lated with notes referring to American ad- 
miralty practice by J. E. Hall in the second 
part of his ' Practice and Jurisdiction of the 
Court of Admiralty,' Baltimore, 1809, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 657 ; Marvin's 
Legal Bibliography, 151 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

CLERKE, GILBERT (1626-1697 ?), 
mathematician and theological writer, born 
at Uppingham, Rutlandshire, in 1626, was 
a son of John Clerke, master of the school 
there. In 1641 he was admitted into Sid- 
ney Sussex College, Cambridge, and there 
he proceeded M.A., being elected a fellow 
in 1648. In 1651 an increase to his allow- 
ance was granted, and he received presby- 
terian ordination ; he became proctor also in 
the next year, 1652 ; but in 1655 he resigned 
his fellowship and quitted the university, 
because the statutes required him to take the 
degree of bachelor of divinity, and his con- 
scientious scruples made this impossible. His 
great acquirements brought him into com- 
munication with Dr. Cumberland, his con- 
temporary at Cambridge, with Whiston, and 
others; but, inheriting a small property, 
yielding 40/. a year, at Luffingham, North- 
amptonshire, he contented himself with 
quietly pursuing his mathematical studies in 
that county to the end of his life. Thence 
in 1660 he issued his first work, ' De Pleni- 
tudine Mundi,' &c. In this he reviewed 
Descartes and attacked Bacon, Hobbes, and 
Seth Ward. In the ensuing year he was 
engaged in following the lines of Torricelli 
and Boyle ; and, dedicating the resulting work 
to Sir Justinian Isham, he brought it out in 
1662 as ' Tractatus de Restitutione Cor- 
porum,' &c. Another work of his was ' Fi- 
nalis Concordia,' alluded to by him in some 
correspondence with Baxter on church divi- 
sions. In 1682 he published his thoughts on 
Oughtred's ' Clavis Mathematica,' with the 
title ' Oughtredus explicatus,' part i. dedi- 
cated to his original patron, Isham, part ii. 
to Sir Walter Chetwynd. In this work 
Clerke spoke of his invention of the spot- 
dial, and to meet the general demand for such 
an instrument, he published his ' Description' 
of it in 1687, this being the only work he 
wrote in English. In 1695 appeared ' Trac- 
tatus Tres,' in answer to Dr. Bull's Nicene 
writings, the first two of these being by 
Clerke and the third anonymous, though he 
is accredited with the whole three by some 
writers, while others take from him the two 
to which he put his name and attribute 



them all to Samuel Crellis (Anti-Trin.Biog. 
p. 485). Clerke's position as an original theo- 
logian is also questioned ; it is thought he 
merely reproduced Zwicker's arguments. 
Even the county in which he lived has been 
disputed, because Whiston knew him as a 
noted mathematician at Stamford, and Nel- 
son, in ' Life of Bull,' says his home was in 
Northamptonshire. The two statements agree 
in reality, for one part of the Lincolnshire 
city, the hamlet called Stamford Baron, is in 
Northamptonshire (MagnaBrit. iii.475),and 
Clerke no doubt resided there, since all his 
directions to find the meridian, &c., relate to 
observations taken at Stamford. The manner 
and the time of his death are not recorded. 
He is supposed to have died about 1697. 

[Wallace's Anti-Trinitarian Biog. iii. 261, 
362-6, 485; De Plenitudine Mundi, Praefatio; 
The Spot-Dial, To Courteous Reader, n. p., and 
ib. 22.] J. H. 

CLERKE, HENRY, M.D. (d. 1687), phy- 
sician, son of Thomas Clerke of Willoughby, 
Warwickshire, was matriculated at Magda- 
len Hall on 20 April 1638, at the age of 
sixteen, obtained a demyship at Magdalen 
College, and was probationer fellow of that 
society from 1642 to 1667. He graduated 
B.A. on 4 Dec. 1641, M.A. on 21 June 1644. 
He was reader in logic at his college in 1643, 
bursar in 1653, 1656, and 1662, vice-president 
in 1655, and again in 1663. He seems to 
have submitted to the parliamentary visitors 
in May 1648. Meanwhile he had taken the 
degree of M.D. by accumulation on 27 May 
1652, and was incorporated at Cambridge 
in 1673. In 1657 he was appointed deputy 
lecturer in anatomy at Oxford. He was ad- 
mitted a candidate of the College of Physi- 
cians on 5 April 1658, and a fellow on 25 June 
1669. He was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 7 Nov. 1667. Upon the 
death of Dr. Thomas Pierce in 1672 Clerke 
was elected president of Magdalen College 
on 5 March of that year. In order to fully 
qualify himself for the office he soon after- 
wards took orders. He was appointed vice- 
chancellor on 9 Oct. 1676. Clerke married 
Catherine, fourth daughter of William Adams 
of Charwelton, Northamptonshire, and had 
by her, who died in 1669 at the age of thirty- 
three, a son Henry, who died in the same 
year with his mother, and a daughter Cathe- 
rine. His daughter, called by the college 
wits the Infanta, was married in 1682 to 
Mr. (afterwards Sir Richard) Shuttleworth 
of Gawthorp Hall, near Burnley, Lancashire, 
at that time a gentleman commoner of Trinity 
College. Their united ages did not exceed 
thirty-three years. Clerke continued presi- 



Clerke 



Clerke 



dent until his death, which occurred at the 
seat of his son-in-law on 24 March 1687, at 
the age of sixty-eight. He was buried with 
his ancestors at Willoughby. A monument 
was afterwards erected on the north wall of 
the north aisle of the church, which some 
forty years ago was restored at the expense 
of the college, ' who for many reasons justly 
considered the president to be a great bene- 
factor.' In his will he bequeathed to the 
college ' the sum of fifty pounds, to be laid 
out in a gilded bowl with a cover, and to 
be placed upon the altar.' Clerke has some 
verses in ' Musarum Oxoniensium Charis- 
teria,' 1638, and in ' Horti Carolini Rosa 
Altera,' 1640. A portrait of Clerke, copied 
from one at Gawthorp, is in the president's 
lodgings at Magdalen College. 

[Bloxam's Keg. of Magd. Coll. Oxford ; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. (1878), i. 358-9 ; Foster's Lanca- 
shire Pedigrees, sub ' Shuttle-worth.'] G. Q. 

CLERKE, RICHARD, D.D. (d. 1634), 
divine, was educated at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, where he was created D.D. He 
became vicar of Minster in the Isle of Thanet 
on 19 Oct. 1597, and afterwards obtained in 
addition the vicarage of the adjoining parish 
of Monkton. On 8 May 1602 he was ap- 
pointed one of the six preachers of Christ 
Church, Canterbury (Ls NEVE, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, i. 53). He died in 1634. 

He was one of the learned men employed 
in the authorised translation of the Old Tes- 
tament, being one of the class to which the ! 
portion from Genesis to 2 Kings inclusive ' 
was entrusted. A large folio volume of his 
' Sermons ' was published at London in 1637 | 
by Charles White, M.A., one of the six I 
preachers of Christ Church, Canterbury. 

[Lewis's Hist, of the Isle of Tenet, ed. 1736, ' 
pp. 62, 101 ; Hasted's Kent, ed. 1800, x. 285, | 
292 ; Lewis's Hist, of English Translations of i 
the Bible, p. 310; Anderson's Annals of the j 
English Bible, ii. 374 ; Reading's Hist, of Sion \ 
College, p. 41 ; Harl. MS. 6350, art. 8 f. 16.] 

T. C. 

CLERKE, THOMAS HENRY SHAD- 
WELL (1792-1849), major unattached, mili- 
tary journalist, was a native of Bandon, co. 
Cork. Being intended for the army, a pro- 
fession also adopted by his brothers, St. John 
Augustus Clerke, who died a lieutenant-gene- 
ral and colonel 75th foot, 17 Jan. 1870, and 
William Clerke, afterwards a major 77th foot, 
he was sent to the Royal Military College, 
Great Marlow, where he distinguished himself 
by his abilities, and was appointed to an en- 
signcy without purchase in 1808. As a subal- 
tern in 28th and 5th foot he served through 
the Peninsular campaigns until the loss of his 



right leg in the combat at Redinha in 1811 in- 
capacitated him for further active service, and, 
on the recommendation of Lord Wellington, 
he was promoted to a company in the 1st garri- 
son battalion (GuBwooD, Wellington Desp. v. 
122), with which he did duty until its reduc- 
tion in 1814. He afterwards served with the 
2nd battalion 57th, and on the army depot 
staff. He was promoted to a majority un- 
attached in 1830. He became editor of ' Col- 
burn's United Service Magazine ' when that 
journal was started in January 1829, and so 
continued until July 1842. On the death 
of Colonel Gurwood, he was entrusted with 
the task of seeing the last volume of ' Se- 
lections from the Wellington Despatches r 
through the press. He possessed a familiar 
acquaintance with the French, Italian, and 
Spanish languages, and, although his name 
does not appear as the author of any scientific 
or other works, was a very active member of 
the British Association and of various learned 
societies. At the time of his death he was 
a F.R.S. (elected 10 April 1833), a vice-pre- 
sident of the Royal United Service Institu- 
tion, of which he had been one of the origi- 
nators, a fellow of the Royal Astronomical 
and Geological Societies, and for a short time 
had been honorary foreign secretary of the 
Royal Geographical Society. He died at his 
residence, Brompton Grove, of paralysis, 
19 April 1849. 

[Army Lists ; Colburn's United Service Mag. 
July 1842, May 1849; Abstracts Royal Soc. 
1853, p. 888.] H. M. C. 

CLERKE, WILLIAM (fi. 1595), mis- 
cellaneous writer, matriculated as a sizar of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in June 1575, 
became a scholar of that house, and in 1578-9 
proceeded B.A. He was soon afterward* 
elected a fellow of his college, and in 1582 
he commenced M.A. There was a William 
Clerke, possibly the same, who was admitted 
to St. Paul's School on the recommendation 
of Mr. Malyne, and who received money 
3 June 1579 and 20 Feb. 1579-80, on going 
to Cambridge, from Robert Nowel's estate. 

He is the supposed author of : 1. ' The 
Triallof Bastardie. . . . Annexed at the end of 
this Treatise, touching the prohibition of Mar- 
riage, a Table of the Levitical, English, and 
Positive Canon Catalogues, their concordance 
and difference,' Lond. 1594, 4to. 2. ' Poli- 
manteia, or, the meanes lawfull and unlaw- 
full, to judge of the fall of a Common-wealth 
against the frivolous and foolish conjectures 
of this age. Whereunto is added a letter 
from England to her three daughters, Cam- 
bridge, Oxford, Innes of Court, and to all the 
rest of her inhabitants, perswading them to 



Clerke 



49 



Cleveland 



& constant unitie of what religion soever they 
are . . .' Cambridge, 1595, 4to. The dedica- 
tion to Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, is 
signed ' W. C.' In this very curious and 
interesting work mention is made of our old 
English writers, ' sweet Shakespeare,' Harvey, 
Nash, and ' divine Spenser.' It has been said 
that this is the earliest known publication in 
which Shakespeare's name is mentioned ; but 
it occurs previously in the commendatory 
verses prefixed to ' Willobie his A visa,' 1594. 
[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 1284, 1483; 
Bliss's Sale Cat. i. 77 ; Brydges's Brit. Bibl. i. 
274-85 ; Cat.Libb. Impress. Bibl. Bodl. ; Cooper's 
Athense Cantab, ii. 243 ; Gardiner's Reg. of St. 
Paul's School, 26 ; Ingleby's Shakespeare's Cen- 
turye of Prayse, 6, 15 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
(Bohn), 480, 1906.] T. C. 

CLERKE, SIB WILLIAM HENRY 

(1751-1818), eighth baronet, rector of Bury, 
Lancashire, of an old Buckinghamshire fa- 
mily, was born 25 Nov. 1751, and received his 
later education at All Souls' College, Oxford. 
In 1778 he succeeded to the baronetcy on the 
death of his elder brother Francis, who was 
the favourite aide-de-camp to General John 
Burgoyne in North America, and was mor- 
tally wounded at Saratoga (DE FotfBLANau~E, 
p. 295). When dying, Francis asked Burgoyne 
to endeavour, on his return to England, to 
procure preferment for his brother, who had 
taken orders. The twelfth Earl of Derby, at 
the instance no doubt of General Burgoyne, 
who had married the earl's aunt, presented 
Clerke to the rectory of Bury, to which he 
was instituted 6 Feb. 1778, taking his B.C.L. 
degree at Oxford in the October following. 
He paid much attention to the physical health 
of his parishioners, vaccinating the children of 
the poor, and even going to Rochdale once a 
week for a considerable time to perform the 
same operation. On the occasion of an out- 
break of fever he issued, in 1790, ' Thoughts 
upon the Means of Preserving the Health of 
the Poor by Prevention and Suppression of 
Epidemic Fever,' a pamphlet containing useful 
sanitary suggestions, and a long letter on its 
subject-matter by the philanthropic Dr. Tho- 
mas Percival [q. v.] At a time when a French 
invasion was feared he printed 'A Sermon 
preached in the Parish Church of Bury on the 
18th October 1798, on the occasion of the 
colours being presented to the Bury Loyal 
Association,' &c.,and 'A Serious Address to 
the People of this Country.' Appended to 
the sermon was the speech made on the re- 
ception of the colours by the lieutenant- 
colonel commandant of the Bury volunteers, 
the first Sir Robert Peel, whose second wife 
was Clerke's sister. Another of Clerke's pub- 
lications is his undated 'Penitens, or the 

VOL. XI. 



Dying Tradesman, extracted from the books 
of a late pious writer. To which is added 
Prayers,' &c. Clerke was fond of agricultural 
pursuits and enterprises, and dealt exten- 
sively in corn, malt, and lime, borrowing 
largely in the course of his undertakings. He 
was a simple-minded man, was fleeced by his 
subordinates, and at last his living was se- 
questered for the benefit of his creditors. He 
died 10 April 1818, in the Fleet prison, where 
he was incarcerated for debt. In May 1792 he 
married Byzantia, daughter of Thomas Cart- 
wright of Aynhoe. His eldest son, William 
Henry (1793-1861), became ninth baronet, 
and served in the Peninsula and at Waterloo. 
[Barton's History of the Borough of Bury in 
Lancashire, 1874; Baines's Lancashire ; Collins's 
Peerage, by Brydges ; Betham's and Foster's 
Baronetages ; Catalogue of Oxford Graduates ; 
E. de Fonblanque's Political and Military Epi- 
sodes . . . derived from the life and correspon- 
dence of the Right Hon. John Burgoyne, General, 
&c., 1876; information communicated by Mr. 
C. W. Sutton.] F. E. 

CLERY, MICHAEL. [See O'CLEAKY.] 

CLEVELAND, AUGUSTUS (1766- 

1784), Bengal civilian, is said to have been a 
cousin of Sir John Shore, first lord Teign- 
mouth and governor-general of India (Life 
of Lord Teignmouthj by his Son, i. 88), and 
seems to have been an Indian administrator 
of exceptional ability. He was collector and 
magistrate of Boglipoor, and died in his 
twenty-ninth year from his exertions in civi- 
lising the mountain tribes in his district and 
preventing them from fighting the inhabitants 
of the plains. Though he died so young, he 
had made his mark ; Warren Hastings erected 
a monument to him at Calcutta, and the na- 
tives of his district one in their midst ; John 
Shore wrote a remarkable monody on his 
early death (Life of Lord Teignmouth, i. 489- 
494), and Bishop Heber, who did not reach 
Calcutta until many years afterwards, found 
his memory still treasured in the province 
which he had ruled. One of his most judi- 
cious steps was to raise a corps of sepoys out 
of the wildest of the mountaineers, and to 
make the greatest freebooter their captain ; 
and by giving them regular employment he 
saved the lowlands from their incursions. 
Bishop Heber found the monument at Bogli- 
poor in good preservation, and relates that it 
was the custom of the natives to assemble 
there and hold a ' poojah ' or religious festival 
in his honour; and Lord Hastings re-esta- 
blished the school which he had founded and 
revived his corps of mountaineers. 

[Life of Lord Te'gnmouth, by his Son ; He- 
ber's Indian Journal.J H. M. S. 



Cleveland 



Cleveland 



CLEVELAND, DUCHESS OF. [See VIL- 
LIERS, BARBARA..] 

CLEVELAND, JOHN (1613-1658), the 
cavalier poet (whose name is properly spelt 
Cleiveland, from the former residence of the 
family in Yorkshire), was born at Lough- 
borough, Leicestershire, in June 1613, and 
baptised on the 20th of the same month, as 
appears from the church register of SS. Peter 
and Paul (now known as All Saints). The 
poet's father, Thomas, was usher at Burton's 
Charity School from 1611 to 1621 (as proved 
by the Burton's Charity accounts), for which 
he received the stipend of 21. half-yearly. The 
head-masters during that period were John 
Dawson and Woodmansly. Thomas Cleve- 
land (father of John) must have been of 
straitened means, as appears from entries of 
small payments from 1611 to 1621 in the 
Burton's Charity accounts. The last recorded 
payment to him is on Lady day 1621. He 
also assisted the rector of Loughborough, John 
Browne the elder, whose will was dated 21Feb. 
1622-3, and was in 1621 presented to the 
living of Hinckley, a small market town in 
Leicestershire. As a royalist, he was dis- 
possessed by the parliament in 1644-5 ; his 
congregation was dispersed by the committee 
of Leicester. He died in October 1652, 'and 
was a very worthy person, and of a most 
exemplary life ' (WALKER, Sufferings of the 
Clergy, p. 221). 

John's early years were spent at Lough- 
borough, and afterwards at Hinckley, where 
he was educated under the Rev. Richard 
Vynes, who is mentioned as ' the Luther of 
the presbyterians ' (NICHOLS, Leicestershire), 
and as ' a man of genius and learning.' David 
Lloyd declares that Cleveland's natural fancy 
owed much of its culture to the Greek and 
Latin exercises which were superintended by 
Vynes, ' who was afterwards distinguished 
among the presbyterians, as his scholar was 
among the cavaliers ' (LLOYD, Memoires, 
p. 617). In his fifteenth year Cleveland went 
to Cambridge, and was admitted, 4 Sept. 1627, 
at Christ's College, where he remained until 
he took the degree of B. A. in 1631 (RICHARD- 
SON, List of Graduates). He was then trans- 
planted to St. John's College, there elected 
fellow on 27 March 1634, proceeded M.A. 
in 1635 (BAKER, Hist. St. John's Coll. Cam- 
bridge, p. 294), and was unanimously admitted 
24 March 1639-40 as ' legista ' (ib. p. 295). 
Cleveland did not take orders, and within six 
years after election to his fellowship it was 
necessary to choose either law or physic, in 
accordance with the statutes. Cleveland not 
only pursued the ' law line,' but was admitted 
on that of physic on 31 Jan. 1642 (ALEX. CHAL- 



MERS). He lived at Cambridge nine years, 
' the delight and ornament of St. John's so- 
ciety. What service as well as reputation he 
did it, let his orations and epistles speak ; to 
which the library oweth much of its learning, 
the chapel much of its pious decency, and 
the college much of its renown' (Clievelandi 
Vindicice). One of his orations, addressed to 
Charles I when on a visit to Cambridge in 
1641, gratified the king, who called for him, 
gave him his hand to kiss, and commanded a 
copy to be sent after him to Huntingdon. In 
1637 Cleveland was incorporated M.A. at 
Oxford (WooD, Fasti Oxon.) When Crom- 
well was a candidate for the representation 
of Cambridge in the Long parliament, Cleve- 
land vehemently opposed him, and, when the 
future Protector was returned by a majo- 
rity of one, declared publicly that ' that single 
vote had ruined both church and kingdom.' 
The master and several of the fellows were 
ejected by the parliamentary visitors (BAKER, 
p. 225). By order dated 13 Feb. 1644-5, the 
Earl of Manchester ' directed Anthony Houl- 
den to be admitted in Cleveland's place, which 
was done 17 Feb.' Cleveland, whose father 
also suffered for his loyalty, had been one 
of the college tutors until his ejection, and 
was highly respected by his pupils, several of 
whom became eminent. Among them were 
John Lake, afterwards bishop of Chichester 
(THORESBT, Vicaria Leodensis, p. 99), and 
Dr. Samuel Drake, S.T.B., vicar of Ponte- 
fract. Long afterwards these two men edited 
their instructor's poems. Cleveland went to 
the royalist army at Oxford. His sportive 
sallies of verse, his sound scholarship, and 
his frank, generous disposition made him a 
favourite not only with the learned but with 
the military. Promoted to the office of judge- 
advocate under Sir Richard Willis, the gover- 
nor, he remained with the garrison of Newark 
until the surrender. His appointment was 
noticed by the opposite faction thus in the 
'Kingdome's Weeklv Intelligencer,' No. 101, 
p. 811, for Tuesday,* 27 May 1645 : ' But to 
speak something of our friend Cleveland, that 
grand malignant of Cambridge, we hear that 
now he is at Newark, where he hath the title 
of advocate put upon him. His office and em- 
ployment is to gather all college rents within 
the power of the king's forces in those parts, 
which he distributes to such as are turned 
out of their fellowships at Cambridge for 
their malignancy.' He has been commended 
for his skilful and upright conduct in the diffi- 
cult office at so disturbed a time. He 'was 
a just and prudent judge for the king, and a 
faithful advocate for the country.' Unwearied 
in labours, inexhaustible in jests and playful 
sarcasms, he kept up the spirits of all around 



Cleveland 



Cleveland 



him. Comparatively few of his political poems 
have come down to us. That on ' The King's 
Disguise,' and the prose answer which he 
drew up to the summons of the besiegers of 
Newark, are specimens of his skill. He con- 
cludes the letter : ' When I received my com- 
mission for the government of this place, I 
annexed my life as a label to my trust.' His 
loyalty never decayed, nor did he despond in 
evil days. He avowed his readiness to resist to 
the last, but he found that ' the king's especial 
command, when first he surrendered himself 
into the hands of the Scots, made such stub- 
born loyalty a crime.' We are assured that 
Cleveland foresaw, and declared beforehand, 
that shameful sale of his sovereign's blood 
three days before the king reached the Scot- 
tish army. He expressed his loyal indigna- 
tion in that memorable outburst entitled ' The 
Rebel Scot,' which has never been forgiven 
in the north, and which expressed his disgust 
and loathing for the treachery and arrogance 
of the Scots. He says of them, with biting 
sarcasm, in memorable words, ' praying with 
curst intent ' 

may they never suffer banishment ! 

Had Cain been Scot, God would have changed 

his doom, 
Not forced him wander, but confin'dhim home. 

He asserts that it is only their ravenous hun- 

fer which makes ' the Scots errant fight, and 
ght to eat.' He shows how even their scru- 
pulosity in religion springs from their empty 
stomachs. His final couplet aroused the ut- 
most anger : 

A Scot, when from the gallows-tree got loose, 
Drops into Styx, and turns a Soland goose. 

Answers were attempted by Barlow and 
others. The best are some manuscript lines 
by Andrew Marvell on Douglas, the ' loyal 
Scot,' during the Dutch war, only part of 
which appears in his printed works. Many 
poems were attributed to Cleveland which he 
would have disdained to write, but also many 
of the best occasional satires of the day came 
from him, and these still lack careful editing 
and identification. The s urrender of Newark 
threw him out of employment, and although 
left at liberty, except during one brief inter- 
val, he was almost destitute. He found hos- 
pitality among the impoverished cavaliers. 
He gave in requital his services as tutor and 
the delight of his companionship. He was 
obliged to be circumspect, and cautiously limit 
the exercise of his wit so as not to gall the do- 
minant powers. His brother AVilliam was in 
equal difficulties, but lived to find reward and 
brief preferment after the Restoration, be- 
coming rector of Oldbury and Quatt, near 
Bridgnorth, Shropshire. He died in 1666, and 



left a sou who was great-grandfather of Dr. 
Thomas Percy, bishop of Dromore and editor 
of the ' Reliques.' Aubrey relates that ' after 
the king was beaten out of the field, he (John 
Cleveland) came to London, where he and 
Samuel Butler of the same society had a club 
every night ' (manuscript in Museo Ashmol. 
cit.) That any such regular club was main- 
tained is improbable, but there was certainly 
friendship between the men. In November 
1655 Cleveland was seized at Norwich. He 
had been reported by one Major-general 
Haines. The charges are five in number : 
' 1. Gives no account of his reason for being 
at Norwich, " only he pretends that Edward 
Cooke, Esq., maketh use of him to help him 
in his studies." 2. Confesses that he hath 
lived in strict privacy at Mr. Cooke's. 3. At 
Cooke's house,"a family of notorious disorder," 
royalists and papists resort. 4. That Mr. 
Cleaveland liveth in a genteel garb, yet he 
confesseth that he hath no estate but 20/. per 
annum allowed by two gentlemen, and 30/. 
per annum paid by Mr. Cooke. 5. Mr. Cleave- 
land is a person of great abilities, and so able 
to do the greater disservice.' The charge is 
dated 10 Nov. 1655. Cleveland was sent to 
Yarmouth, and there imprisoned for three 
months, until he obtained release at the order 
of Cromwell, to whom he had written a 
manly and characteristic letter devoid of ser- 
vility or arrogance. He obtained freedom 
without sacrifice of principle and indepen- 
dence. 

Having obtained release he continued to 
live retired from the world. Apparently he 
never pursued the practice of physic, but de- 
pended chiefly on teaching for his support. 
Next he tried successfully to publish his early 
writings. Before 1656 the small volume of 
' Poems by J. C.' was extensively circulated. 
In that year they were reissued by ' W. S.,' 
probably William Sheares, who next year 
printed the ' Petition.' This edition claims to 
have ' additions never before printed ' (108 pp. 
with eight separately numbered, ' The Cha- 
racter of a Diurnall-Maker '). There are 
thirty-six poems ; a few are loyal elegies on 
Charles I, Strafford, and Laud, and there are 
some sharp satires on ' The Mixt Assembly,' 
' Smectymnuus, or the Club Divine,' the ' Scots 
Apostasie,' and the ' Hue and Cry after Sir 
John Presbyter/ such as had so galled his poli- 
tical foes. One of the elegies was written ' on 
the memory of Mr. Edward King, drowned 
in the Irish seas,' whom Milton also mourned 
in his 'Lycidas.' Probably nearly all the 
amatory poems had been of similarly early 
date, written while at Christ's College and 
St. John's. He went to live at Gray's Inn, 
' after many intermediate stages (which con- 

2 



Cleveland 



tended emulously for his abode as the seven 
cities for Homer's birth).' He had not long 
resided there before ' an intermittent fever 
seized him, whereof he died, a disease at that 
time epidemical.' This was on Thursday, 
29 April 1658. His body was removed to 
Hunsdon House, and carried thence on Satur- 
day, May day, for burial in the parish church 
of St. Michael Royal on College Hill. Mr. 
Edward Thurman performed the service. The 
Rev. Dr. John Pearson (afterwards bishop of 
Chester, expositor of the Creed) preached the 
funeral sermon. Thomas Fuller ranks Cleve- 
land among Leicestershire worthies as ' a 
general artist, pure latinist, exquisite orator, 
and eminent poet. His epithets were preg- 
nant with metaphysics, carrying in them a 
difficult plainness, difficult at the hearing, 
plain at the considering thereof. Never so 
eminent a poet was interred with fewer (if 
any remarkable) elegies upon him.' Samuel 
Butler's grief and affection needed no public 
outcry. He is probably alluded to, with his 
care for his friend's reputation, in the preface 
by E. Williamson to 'J. Cleaveland revived' 
(21 Nov. 1658 ; the second edition, 1666), 
when he mentions ' certain poems in manu- 
script received from other of Mr. Cleveland's 
near acquaintance, which when I sent to his 
ever-to-be-honoured friend of Gray's Inn, he 
had not at that time the leisure to peruse 
them ; but for what he had read of them he 
told the person I intrusted that he did be- 
lieve them to be Mr. Cleaveland's, he having 
formerly spoken of such papers of his, that 
were abroad in the hands of his friends, 
whom he could not remember.' In 1677 Oba- 
diah Blagrove printed the volume ' Clieve- 
landi Vindicise ; or, Cleveland's Genuine 
Poems, Orations, Epistles, &c., purged from 
the many false and spurious ones that had 
usurped his name. . . . Published accord- 
ing to the author's own copies.' The dedi- 
cation to Francis Turner, D.D., master of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, is signed by 
J. L. andS. D. (Lake and Drake, already men- 
tioned), who were doubtless the writers of 
the ' Short Account of the Author's Life ' 
which followed, with one of the five elegies. 
We may safely accept the contents of this 
volume as genuine, but it is far from contain- 
ing all Cleveland's extant writings. Guthrie 
records the saying of General Lesley, when 
Cleveland had been brought before him, 
charged with having some political poems in 
his pocket : ' Is this all ye have to charge him 
with ? ' said the general ; ' for shame ! let the 
poor fellow go about his business and sell 
his ballads ' (Biog. Brit. p. 631). Milton's 
nephew, Edward Phillips, in 1675 wrote 
disparagingly of him, being evidently jealous 



of this rival of his own dead uncle's fame 
(Theatrum Poetarum Anglicanorwri) . 

To the 1661 edition of ' Poems by John 
Cleavland [sic], with Additions never before 
printed,' is prefixed a copperplate portrait, 
probably authentic, showing a pleasant, hand- 
some face, with long curling hair, well curved 
eyebrows, and expression combining thought- 
ful gravity and intellect with a genial smile 
of mirthfulness. It is declared to be ' Vera 
et viva effigies Johannis Cleeveland.' The 
portrait is in an oval, formed by palm-leaves. 
In the ' Vindiciae ' also is a copperplate por- 
trait, which Granger mentions as ' in a clerical 
habit,' and ' probably fictitious, because he waa 
never in orders.' But the dress seems to in- 
dicate a lawyer's gown, and he wears a collar 
not exclusively ecclesiastical. This portrait 
of Cleveland is pleasing, of good features, 
though large and some what heavy. Another 
portrait, accounted genuine, is engraved in 
Nichols's ' Select Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems,' vol. vii. 1781, from an original paint-* 
ing by Fuller, in possession of Bishop Percy 
of Dromore. His printed works may fail to 
sustain his former reputation in the opinion 
of those who cannot make allowance for 
their evanescent or ephemeral character. His 
influence on Butler is not difficult to trace. 
Aubrey writes : ' That great poet has conde- 
scended to imitate or copy Cleveland in more 
instances than occurred to Dr. Grey in his 
notes upon Hudibras.' Those who fail to 
recognise the genius of Samuel Butler are 
naturally blind to the merits of Cleveland, 
whom Eachard styles ' the first poetic cham- 
pion of the king.' He loved the anagram of 
his name, ' Heliconean Dew.' 

[Baker's Hist. Coll. St. John, Camb. (Mayor), 
pp. 225, 294, 295 ; Nichols's Sel. Coll. of Misc. 
Poems, vol. vii.; Clievelandi Vindiciae, 1677; 
Granger's Biog. Hist. ; Thurloe State Papers, 
iv. 184, 1742; Eachard, p. 735; David Lloyd's 
Memoires, 1668, 1677 ; Dr. Thomas Percy on 
Cleveland in Biog. Brit.ed. Kippis, iii. 628, 1784; 
Chalmers's Engl. Poets, ix. 468, 1813 ; Walker's 

\ Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 221 ; Nichols's Hist. 
Leicestershire, pt. ii. pp. 913-15, 1804, and his 
Hist, of Hinckley, p. 135, 1783 ; Rev. JohnE. B. 
Mayor in Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. No. 92, p. 
266, October 1857, showing that the verses on 
sleep were by Thomas Sharp, and that many of 
John Hall's poems were wrongly attributed to 
Cleveland ; Reliquiae Hearnianae (Lib. Old Authors 
ed.), ii. 15, where is a statement of general report 
that Cleveland was the author of Majestas In- 
temperata, or The Immortality of the Soul, 1649, 

j 12mo ; Sir E. Brydges's Restituta, iv. 225, 256 ; 

j Thomasson's Coll., original broadside of Cleve- 
land's Petition, October 1657 (King's Pamphlets, 
folio, 669, f. 20, art. 69); Fuller's Worthies, 
Leicestershire, pp. 572, 573, ed. 1811 ; J. Cleave- 



Cleveland 



53 



Cleveley 



land Revived, 1666, and other editions ; letters 
in the Loughborough Advertiser of 18 and 
'25 April and 2 May 1872, signed W., i.e. William 
Oeorge Dymock-Fletcher ; Rectors of Lough- 
borough, p. 20, 1882 ; Mr. Dymock-Fletcher's 
manuscript parish registers of Loughborough ; 
private memoranda from Mr. Dymock-Fletcher 
relating to Burton's Charity records at Lough- 
borough.] J. W. E. 

CLEVELAND, EARL OF (1591-1667). 
[See WENTWORTH, THOMAS.] 

CLEVELAND, DUKE OF (1766-1842). 
[See VANE, WILLIAM HENRY..] 

CLEVELEY, JOHN (1747-1786), ma- 
rine painter, son of John Cleveley, ship- 
wright, of Deptford, and Sarah his wife, 
was born 25 Dec. 1747, being twin-brother 
of Robert Cleveley [q. v.] ; he was baptised 
with his brother at St. Paul's, Deptford, 
on 7 Jan. following. He seems early in life 
to have held some appointment at Deptford, 
probably of the same nature as his father's, 
and while residing there he made acquaint- 
ance with Paul Sandby, who was then chief 
drawing master at the royal military academy 
at Woolwich, from whom he learnt the art 
of water-colour painting and tinted drawings. 
The shipping at Deptford afforded to a young 
artist of his temperament every opportunity 
for depicting nautical scenes and incidents. 
We find the name of John Cleveley as an 
exhibitor first in 1764 at the exhibition of the 
Free Society of Artists ; this, however, was 
probably his father, by whom there is a pic- 
ture of ' The Prince of Wales, East India- 
man,' dated 1754, in possession of Mr. Philip 
Peck of Exmouth. In 1767, 1768, 1769, at 
the same society's exhibitions, we find the 
names of John Cleveley, and John Cleveley, 
junior, concurrently. He first exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1770, and up to 
1782 his works are always signed ' John 
Cleveley, junior.' His first exhibited works 
were views on the Thames, mostly taken at 
the docks or in the neighbourhood of Dept- 
ford. In 1772 he was chosen to accompany Sir 
Joseph Banks, as draughtsman, on his voyage 
to the Hebrides, Orkneys, and Iceland, and 
made numerous sketches, which he after- 
wards worked up into water-colour drawings. 
Several of these are preserved in the British 
Museum. In 1774 he was appointed draughts- 
man to Captain Phipps's expedition to the 
North Seas, and made the drawings to illus- 
trate the ' Journal of the Voyage.' Another 
brother, James Cleveley, was carpenter on 
board the Resolution under Captain Cook, 
and made sketches on the spot of the places 
visited during that expedition. These were 
afterwards worked up in water-colours by 



John Cleveley, and published in aquatint by 
F. Jukes. Some water-colours by him of 
this description are in the Sheepshanks col- 
lection at the South Kensington Museum. 
He particularly excelled in his water-colour 
paintings, for which he was awarded a pre- 
mium by the Society of Arts, and which 
have a freedom of execution and a character 
not to be found in his oil paintings. Among 
the latter exhibited at the Royal Academy 
and the Free Society of Artists were : ' A 
Storm, the Prince and Princess of Brunswick 
going over to Holland,' 'His Majesty re- 
viewing the Fleet at Spithead,' ' Views of 
Lisbon, the Tagus, and Gibraltar,' ' View of 
Freshwater Bay, Isle of Wight,' and nume- 
rous paintings of coast scenery at Ports- 
mouth, Dover, &c., or reminiscences from his 
own or his brother's travels. Cleveley re- 
sided some time in Pimlico, but seems to 
have returned to Deptford before his death. 
He died 25 June 1786, in London, probably 
at Deptford. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Graves' s 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. v. 176; Add. MSS. Brit. Mus. 15509- 
15512; Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters; Seventh 
Report of the Committee on Works of Art in 
Devonshire (Devonshire Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, &c., 1886); Catalogues 
of the Royal Academy, Free Society of Artists, 
and National Art Gallery, South Kensington ; 
Registers of St. Paul's, Deptford, per Rev. H. Gr. 
Gundy, D.D.] L. C. 

CLEVELEY, ROBERT (1747-1809), 
marine painter, was twin-brother of John 
Cleveley [q. v.] Like his brother he painted 
both in oil and in water colours. It is un- 
certain whether he was one of the Cleveleys 
who exhibited at the Free Society of Artists 
in 1764 and the following years, but in 1780 
he appears as an exhibitor at the Royal Aca- 
demy. At first he is classed among the hono- 
rary exhibitors, and is sometimes styled ' Ro- 
bert Cleveley of the Navy.' It does not ap- 
pear, however, that he ever held any commis- 
sion in the navy, and he probably had some 
dockyard appointment similar to those held 
by his father and brother. He very soon at- 
tained distinction as a painter of naval ac- 
tions. Among those represented by him on 
canvas were ' Commodore Elliott in the Ed- 
gar leading the British Line under Admiral 
Kempenfeldt and engaging Monsieur Vau- 
dreuil in Le Triomphant, 12 Dec. 1781;' 
' The Relief of Gibraltar by Lord Howe,' 
' Admiral Hawke pursuing the French Fleet 
in November 1759,' ' The Ruby engaging the 
Solitaire,' and ' The Solitaire striking to the 
Ruby 6 Dec. 1782;' 'The Marlborough en- 
gaging on 1 June 1794 ; ' ' Retreat of the 



Cleverley 



54 Cliderhou 



French Squadron into Port L'Orient 23 June 
1795 ; ' ' Commodore Nelson boarding and 
taking the San Nicolas and San Josef ; ' 
' H.M.S. Victory engaging the Spanish ship 
Prince of Asturias 14 Feb. 1797 ; ' ' The De- 
feat of the Spanish Fleet on the Evening of 
14 Feb. 1797 ; ' two pictures of ' The Battle 
of the Nile, 1 Aug. 1798 ; ' ' The Defeat of 
the Spanish Fleet by Admiral Jervis off Cape 
St. Vincent, 14 Feb. 1796.' In 1795 he ex- 
hibited separately in Bond Street two large 
pictures representing the ' Morn ' and the 
* Eve of the Great Victory of the BritishFleet 
under Earl Howe on 1 June 1794;' these 
two pictures were much admired and were 
engraved by T. Medland and B. T. Pouncy. 
A series of great English naval victories from 
Cleveley's paintings was engraved by J. G. 
Walker, R. Rhodes, and others. Cleveley 
also painted numerous views of shipping and 
coast scenery at home and abroad. He 
was appointed marine draughtsman to the 
Duke of Clarence and also marine painter 
to the Prince of Wales. He was acci- 
dentally killed by a fall on 28 Sept. 1809, 
while on a visit to a relative at Dover. There 
was a good portrait of him in civilian dress 
painted by Sir William Beechey, which was 
engraved by Freeman and published after his 
death. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880 ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. iv. 473 ; Examiner, 3 Oct. 1809 ; Cata- 
logues of the Royal Academy and the Free So- 
ciety of Artists ; Registers of St. Paul's, Dept- 
ford, per Rev. H. G. Cundy, D.D. ; manuscript 
information (Anderdon), print-room, British Mu- 
seum.] L. C. 

CLEVERLEY, SAMUEL (d. 1824), phy- 
sician, was the son of William Cleverley, a 
shipbuilder of Gravesend. After some school- 
ing at Rochester he attended for two years 
the borough hospitals, whence he removed to 
Edinburgh and took the degree of M.D. on 
24 June 1797 (inaugural essay, 'De Ana- 
sarca'). With the object of further study- 
ing his profession he went abroad, and visited 
Halle, Gottingen, Vienna, and Paris. He 
was detained a prisoner in France for no less 
a period than eleven years, being confined 
successively at Fontainebleau, Verdun, and 
Valenciennes. At the latter depot he passed 
the greater part of his detention. On his 
arrival he found the prisoners in the ut- 
most need of medical assistance. 'He ac- 
cordingly proposed to the committee of Ver- 
dun, an association of the principal British 
officers and gentlemen in France, charged 
with the general distribution of charitable 
succours obtained from England, to give them 
his gratuitous care, which was gladly ac- 



cepted, and a dispensary was in consequence 
established, though not without great diffi- 
culties from the French military authorities/ 
Cleverley was allowed to return home in 
1814, when he received for his services at 
Valenciennes the marked thanks of the ma- 
naging committee of Lloyd's. He eventually 
settled in London, was admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1815, 
and appointed one of the physicians to the 
London Fever Hospital. He died at his 
house in Queen Anne Street, Cavendish 
Square, on 10 Nov. 1824. 

[Munk's CoU. of Phys. (1878), iii. 141-2; 
Authentic Memoirs of the most Eminent Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons of Great Britain (1828), 
p. 479.] G. G. 

CLEVES, ANNE OF. [See ANNE, 1515- 
1557.] 

CLEYN, FRANCIS. [See CLEIN.] 

CLEYPOLE. [See CIAYPOOLE or CLAY- 
POLE.] 

CLIDERHOU, ROBERT DE (d. 1339 ?), 
justiciar, belonged to a family which had 
been for one or two generations settled at 
Clitheroe in Lancashire, and he held the 
manor of Bayley near that town. In 1302 
some land at Aighton was conveyed to him 
by W. de Mitton, and in 1307 he brought an 
action against three brothers, Ralph, Wil- 
liam, and Geoffrey, of Bradenull, who had 
assaulted him when on the king's service, and 
had beaten him until they left him for dead. 
The offenders were ordered to pay him 200/. 
as compensation. During the reigns of Ed- 
ward I and Edward II he was one of the 
clerks of the chancery. When he ceased to 
hold that office is not stated, but from the 
abstract of the proceedings at his trial in 
1123 (Parl. Writs, i. pt. ii. 240) we learn 
that he had occupied it for thirty years. In 
1311 he acted as one of the itinerant justices 
for the counties of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, 
and in the following year he was summoned, 
as one of the clerks of the king's counsel, to 
a parliament held at Lincoln. Subsequently 
(in 1316 ?) he was appointed the king's es- 
cheat or north of the Trent, and seems to have 
retained that position for about two years. 

In 1321, at the time of the outbreak of 
hostilities between Thomas, earl of Lancas- 
ter, and Edward II, Cliderhou was parson of 
Wigan, and seems to have been an active 
supporter of the earl's cause. After Lancas- 
ter's defeat and execution, the king appointed 
Sir Robert de Malberthorpe, Sir John de 
Stonor, Sir Hervey de Staunton, and Robert 
de Ayleston, as commissioners to make in- 
quisition respecting those who had been, 



Cliderhou 



55 



Cliff 



guilty of abetting the rebellion (Rolls of Par- 
liament, ii. 406 ; the matter is curiously mis- 
understood in Baines's ' Lancashire,' ed. Har- 
land, ii. 172). Cliderhou was one of those 
who were accused by the commissioners, 
and he was brought to Nottingham to take 
his trial at Michaelmas 1323. The charges 
against him were that he had preached in 
the church of Wigan in favour of the rebel 
cause, telling his parishioners that they owed 
allegiance to the earl, and promising absolu- 
tion to all who supported him ; and, further, 
that he had sent his son, Adam de Cliderhou, 
and another man-at-arms, with four foot- 
soldiers, to join the rebel army. Cliderhou 
is said to have met both charges with a full 
denial. The jury, however, found him guilty, 
and he was imprisoned, but afterwards released 
on bail, the name of his son Adam appearing 
in the list of sureties. In November of the 
same year he presented himself for judgment, 
and agreed to a fine of 2QQL (three hundred 
marks). He, however, retained his benefice, 
and in the reign of Edward III (the date is 
not stated) presented a petition for redress of 
his grievances. He did not on this occasion 
deny having furnished military aid to the 
earl, but pleaded that in this respect he had 
only done what was required of him by his 
duty to his feudal superior. With regard to 
the charge of advocating rebellion in the 
pulpit, he asserted that he had merely ex- 
horted the people to pray for a blessing on 
the earl and the other barons of the kingdom, 
and for the deliverance of the king from 
' poisonous counsel.' He further stated that 
in order to raise money to pay the penalty 
imposed upon him he had had to sell his land ; 
he had paid two hundred marks into the ex- 
chequer, besides thirty marks to the queen's 
treasury, and Sir Robert de Leyburn, the 
sheriff of Lancaster, had levied upon him the 
remaining hundred marks, but had never 
paid over the sum into the exchequer. The 
answer to this petition was that as Cliderhou 
had voluntarily agreed to the fine (' fit fin de 
gre ') nothing could be done. 

In another petition in parliament (also of 
unknown date) Cliderhou asks that the bur- 
gesses of Wigan may be restrained from 
holding unlicensed markets, which competed 
injuriously with the market on Mondays, 
from which the parson was authorised by 
royal charter to receive tolls. It was an- 
swered that the parson had his remedy at 
common law. 

In 1331 he assigned to the monks of Coker- 
sand his manor of Bayley, where he had built 
a chapel dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
He died in or before 1339, in which year a 
chantry was founded at Bayley by Henry 



de Clyderhowe ' for the repose of the soul of 
Robert, late rector of Wigan.' Foss says that 
in 1334 he recovered possession of some land 
at Clitheroe and Dinkley ; but the person to 
whom this statement refers is another Robert 
de Cliderhou, who is frequently mentioned 
in documents belonging to the locality. As 
Robert was clearly a priest, it is singular that 
he should have had a son bearing his surname ; 
possibly, as Foss suggests, Adam de Cliderhou 
may have been born before his father took 
orders. 

[Abbrev. Eot. Orig. i. 129; Placit.Abbrev.300; 
Parl. Writs, ii. pt. ii. 73, and App. 107, 240, 241, 
pt. iii. 686 ; Eolls of Parliament, ii. 406; Baines's 
Hist. Lancashire, ed. Harland, ii. 172; Whita- 
ker's Hist. Whalley, ii. 471, 473 ; Foss's Lives of 
the Judges, iii. 246.] H. B. 

CLIFF, HENRY DE (d. 1334), judge, 
is first mentioned as accompanying the king 
abroad in May 1313 ; and on 11 May 1317, 
as a master in chancery, he had charge of the 
great seal at the house of the lord chancel- 
lor, John de Sandale, bishop of Winchester. 
There is another master in chancery in Ed- 
ward II's reign of the same name, probably 
a brother. From 1317 till 1324 he continued 
to be one of the clerks under whose seal, 
during the absences of the lords chancellors 
Sandale, Hotham, bishop of Ely, Salmon, 
bishop of Norwich, and Baldock, the great 
seal was constantly secured. On the opening 
of parliament on 6 Oct. 1320 he was auditor 
of petitions in England and Wales. On 
23 Feb. 1324 he appears as a canon of York 
and as procurator in parliament at Westmin- 
ster, both for the dean and chapter of York 
and for the bishop of St. Asaph. On 4 July 
1325 he was appointed master of the rolls, and 
after the abdication of Edward II in 1326 he 
was, on 17 Dec., directed to add his seal to that 
of the Bishop of Norwich to secure the great 
seal. Until the appointment of Bishop Hot- 
ham of Ely as lord chancellor on the accession 
of Edward III, the Bishop of Norwich and 
Cliff discharged the chancellor's duties. For 
some dispute with Thomas de Cherleton, 
bishop of Hereford, in connection with the 
presentation to the prebend of Blebury in 
Salisbury Cathedral he incurred the penalty 
of excommunication, in regard to which, 
within a month of his accession, and again 
| in the following March, Edward III per- 
sonally wrote letters on his behalf. The 
great seal continued to be often entrusted 
to him. From the resignation of John de 
Hotham to the appointment of Henry de 
Burghersh, bishop of Lincoln (1 March to 
12 May 1328), he held it along with Willi am 
de Herlaston, and during absences of Burg- 



Clifford 



Clifford 



hersh it was in his custody again in 1328 
(1-30 July and 17-26 Aug.), and in 1329 
(31 May-11 June). He was similarly en- 
trusted with it under the next chancellor, 
John de Stratford, bishop of Winchester, in 
April and November 1331, and April and 
December 1332. In 1329 he was a com- 
missioner with the Bishop of Hereford and 
another to open the adjourned session of 
parliament. He died in January 1334, and on 
the 20th was succeeded by Michael de Wath. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Bymer's Fcedera, 
ed. 1818, ii. 212, 415, 646, 732, 752,756; Parl. 
Writs, ii. pt. i. pp. 714, 732; Pat. Kolls, 20 
Ed. II, m. 5, 6 Ed. Ill, m. 9 ; Eot. Claus. 10 
Ed. II, m. 8, 8 Ed. Ill, m. 35-1 J. A. H. 

CLIFFORD, ANNE, COUNTESS OF DOR- 
SET, PEMBROKE, and MONTGOMERY (1590- 
1676), was the only surviving child of George, 
third earl of Cumberland [q. v.], by his wife, 
Lady Margaret Russell [see CLIFFORD, MAR- 
GARET], third daughter of Francis, second 
earl of Bedford. She was born at Skipton 
Castle on 30 Jan. 1590. The poet Daniel 
was her tutor, and the verses written by him 
and addressed to her when in her youth will 
be found in the collected editions of Daniel's 
poems, 1599, 1601-2, 1623. On 25 Feb. 
1609 she was married in her 'mother's house 
and her own chamber in Augustine Fryers, 
in London,' to Richard Sackville, lord 
Buckhurst, afterwards second earl of Dorset 
(Sari. MS. 6177, p. 124). By him she had 
three sons, all of whom died young, and 
two daughters, viz. Margaret, who married 
John, lord Tufton, afterwards second earl of 
Thanet, and Isabel, who became the wife of 
James Compton, third earl of Northampton. 
Her first husband died on 28 March 1624, 
and shortly afterwards she had a severe 
attack of small-pox, 'which disease did so 
martyr my face, that it confirmed more and 
more my mind never to marry again, tho' 
ye providence of God caused me after to 
alter that resolution.' On 3 June 1630 she 
was married to her second husband, Philip 
Herbert, fourth earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, at Chenies in Buckinghamshire 
(ib. p. 129). There was no issue of this mar- 
riage, and her husband died on 23 Jan. 1650. 
Neither of these marriages appears to have 
turned out very happily; for she relates 
that ' in both their lifetimes the marble 
pillars of Knowle in Kent and Wilton in 
Wiltshire were to me often times but the 
gay arbour of anguish, insomuch as a wise man 
that knew the insides of my fortune would 
often say that I lived in both these my lords' 
great familys, as the river of Roan or Rodanus 
runs through the Lake of Geneva without 



mingling any part of its streams with that 
lake ; for I gave myself wholly to retiredness 
as much as I could in both those great families, 
and made good books and virtuous thoughts 
my companions ' (ib. p. 123). After the death 
of her father in 1605 continual lawsuits were 
waged by her mother on her behalf, and, after 
her mother's death, by herself with her uncle 
Francis and cousin, with regard to the family 
estates. On 17 Feb. 1628 a writ was issued to 
her cousin, Henry Clifford, calling him up to 
the House of Lords, in the barony of Clifford, 
under the erroneous supposition that the 
ancient barony of that name was vested in 
his father. Though she claimed the barony 
in right of her father, no further proceedings 
seem to have been taken in the matter. On 
the death of Henry Clifford, fifth and last earl 
of Cumberland [q. v.], on 11 Dec. 1643, with- 
out male issue, the large family estates in the 
north reverted to her under the proA r isions of 
her father's will. Her passion for bricks and 
mortar was immense. She restored or rebuilt 
the castles of Skipton, Appleby, Brougham, 
Brough, Pendragon, and Bardon Tower, the 
churches of Appleby, Skipton, and Bongate, 
the chapels of Brougham, Ninekirks, Mal- 
lerstang, and Barden. She founded the alms- 
houses at Appleby, and restored the one which 
had been built and endowed by her mother 
at Bethmesley. She also erected the monu- 
ment to Spenser in Westminster Abbey, and 
that in Beckington Church in Somersetshire 
to her old tutor Daniel, while she raised a 
pillar on the road between Penrith and Ap- 
pleby to mark the spot where she last parted 
from her mother. It was her custom to reside 
at fixed times at each one of her six castles, 
where she freely dispensed her charity and 
hospitality. But though generous to her 
friends and dependents, she was frugal in her 
personal expenses, dressing, after her second 
widowhood, in black serge, living abstemi- 
ously, and pleasantly boasting that ' she had 
never tasted wine and physic.' She was pos- 
sessed of a very strong will, and was tenacious 
of her rights to the smallest point. Devoted 
to the church, she assisted many of the ejected 
clergy with her bounty. Having been care- 
fully educated in her childhood, she was so 
well versed in different kinds of learning that 
Dr. Donne is reported to have said of her 
that ' she knew well how to discourse of all 
things, from predestination to slea-silk' (Fu- 
neral Sermon preached by Edward Rainbow, 
bishop of Carlisle, 1677, p. 38). This re- 
markable woman is, however, best known in 
the present day for the spirited answer which 
she is supposed to have given to Sir Joseph 
Williamson, who, when secretary of state to 
Charles II, had written to her, naming a can- 



Clifford 



57 



Clifford 



didate for her pocket borough of Appleby. 
To this she replied : ' I have been bullied by 
an usurper, I have been neglected by a court, 
but I will not be dictated to by a subject ; 
jour man shan't stand. Anne Dorset, Pem- 
broke and Montgomery.' This letter was first 
published in the ' World' for 5 April 1753, 
to which it was contributed by Horace Wai- 
pole. The reasons for doubting its genuine- 
ness are very strong : (1) No reference to the 
original was given at the time of its first 
publication, which occurred some seventy- 
seven years after the death of the countess, 
nor has any trace of it been since discovered ; 
(2) the style is neither that of her own 
letters, which have been preserved, nor that 
of the time in which it was supposed to have 
been written; (3) Sir Joseph Williamson 
did not become secretary of state until 1 1 Sept. 
1674, and during the period of time from the 
date of his appointment to the death of the 
countess there does not appear to have been 
any vacancy in the representation of Appleby 
(Parl. Papers, 1878, vol. Ixii. pt. i. p. 530). 
She died at Brougham Castle on 22 March 
1676, in the eighty-seventh year of her age, and 
was buried in the vault which she had built for 
that purpose in Appleby Church on 14 April 
following. The celebrated picture of the 
Clifford family at Appleby Castle (the long 
inscriptions for which were drawn up by the 
countess with the assistance, it is said, of Sir 
Matthew Hale) contains two representations 
of her at different periods of her life. The 
National Portrait Gallery possesses a portrait 
of the countess by an unknown painter, and 
an engraving of her portrait by My tens, which 
was exhibited in the loan collection of por- 
traits in 1866 (No. 512), will be found in 
Lodge, iv. 24. 

The autobiography which she compiled in 
the sixty-third year of her life was formerly 
preserved at Skipton Castle, but is no longer 
there. It was among the list of suggested 
publications of the Camden Society, but the 
council could only procure the abridged 
manuscript, which was afterwards published 
by Mr. Hailstone in the ' Proceedings of the 
Archaeological Institute at York' (1846). 
This account of her life is written in the 
third person, and was taken from a small 
quarto volume containing an abstract of the 
great volumes of records which were ' col- 
lected by the care and painfull industry of 
that excellent lady Margaret Russell, Coun- 
tess Dowager of Cumberland, out of the 
various offices and courts of this kingdome, 
to prove the right title which her only childe, 
the Lady Ann Clifford, now Countesse of 
Pembroke, had to the inheritance of her an- 
cestors.' 



In the British Museum is a manuscript 
entitled ' A Summary of the Lives of the 
Veteriponts, Cliffords, and Earls of Cumber- 
land, and of the Lady Anne, Countess Dow- " 
ager of Pembroke and Dorset, and Heir to 
George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, on 
whom ye name of the said Cliffords deter- 
mined ! ' (Harl. MS. 6177). It is stated on 
the title-page that it was ' Copied from ye 
original Manuscript ye 29th of December 
1737 by Henry Fisher,' but no mention is 
made of the original from which it is taken. 
This manuscript contains ' A Summary of the 
Records and a True Memorial of me the Life 
of the Lady Anne Clifford,' &c. pp. 119-206. 
It is written in the first person, and contains 
a much fuller account of her life than the 
one edited by Mr. Hailstone. Among the 
Hale MSS. in the Lincoln's Inn Library is a 
small folio (No. 104) relating to the pedigree 
of the countess and her title to the baronies 
of Clifford, Westmoreland, and Vesey. 

There seems to be another manuscript of 
a similar character to the last among the 
Williamson MSS. in the library of Queen's 
College, Oxford (CoxE, Cat. Cod. MSS. pt. i.) 

[Hartley Coleridge's Lives of Northern 
Worthies (1852), ii. 1-84; Lodge's Portraits 
(1854), iv. 24-7; Costello's Memoirs of Emi- 
nent English Women (1844), ii. 228-304; Pen- 
nant's Tour in Scotland (1790), iii. 355-62; 
Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors (Park), iii. 
165-74 ; The World, i. 86 ; Biog. Brit. (Kip- 
pis), iii. 639-42 ; Whitaker's History of Craven 
(1878), iii. 355-62; Notes and Queries, 1st 
series, i. 28, 119, 154, ii.4, vii. 154, 245, xii. 2, 
2nd series, i. 114, 3rd series, iii. 329, ix. 238, 
306, 4th series, viii. 418.] G. F. E. B. 

CLIFFORD, ARTHUR (1778-1830), 
antiquary, born in 1778, was the sixth of the 
eight sons of the Hon. Thomas Clifford (fourth 
son of Hugh, third lord Clifford of Chud- 
leigh) of Tixall, Staffordshire, by the Hon. 
Barbara Aston, younger daughter and co- 
heiress of James, fifth lord Aston. After re- 
ceiving some preliminary education, he spent 
some months in 1795 at Stony hurst. His first 
publication was ' The State Papers and Let- 
ters of Sir Ralph Sadler, edited by Arthur 
Clifford, Esq. ; to which is added a Memoir 
of the Life of Sir R. Sadler, with Historical 
Notes by Walter Scott, Esq.,' Edinburgh 
(Constable), 1809, 2 vols. 4to (a few copies 
were printed on large paper in 3 vols. 4to). 
This collection consists of four sets of letters 
relating almost entirely to Scotch affairs. A 
much less complete collection of Sadler's 
' State Papers ' had been previously pub- 
lished in 1720. The documents in Clifford's 
edition were printed by him from a copy of 
the original manuscripts preserved atTixal], 



Clifford 



Clifford 



the seat of his eldest brother, Thomas Hugh 
Clifford, to whom they had descended through 
the family of Lord Aston, into which Sir 
Ralph Sadler's granddaughter had married. 
Sir Walter Scott superintended the printing 
of the book, besides contributing the notes 
and a memoir of Sadler extending to thirty 
pages (republished in Scott's ' Miscellaneous 
Prose Works,' iv. 834). After publishing the 
Sadler Papers, Clifford made a diligent search 
at Tixall for the papers of Sir Walter (after- 
wards Lord) Aston [q.v.], ambassador in Spain 
under James I and Charles I. The Aston 
family had formerly resided at Tixall, and 
James, fifth lord Aston, was Clifford's grand- 
father. The Sadler MSS. had been originally 
found at Tixall 'in an old oaken box covered 
with variegated gilt leather, and ornamented 
with brass nails. Clifford's father had at one 
time made a bonfire of various old trunks and 
papers that had been accumulating in the 
house for two centuries, but the gilt leather 
box was rescued by the ladies of the family. 
Clifford now found that it contained all the 
state papers and letters of Sir Walter Aston 
carefully tied up in small bundles, and in his 
researches at Tixall he also discovered a 
number of letters and papers relating to the 
Aston family, some manuscript volumes of 
poetry, and an additional packet of letters 
belonging to Sir R. Sadler. The 'Gentle- 
man's Magazine' for March 1811 announced 
that the State Papers and Letters of Sir W. 
Aston were then being printed uniform with 
the Sadler Papers. This work, however, never 
appeared, though in 1815 Clifford published 
' Tixall Letters, or the Correspondence of the 
Aston Family and their Friends during the 
Seventeenth Century ; with Notes and Illus- 
trations,' 2 vols. London, 1815. 12mo. He 
had already published in 1813 the manu- 
script volumes of poetry found at Tixall, 
under the title of ' Tixall Poetry . . . with 
Notes and Illustrations,' Edinburgh, 1813, 
4to. Sections i. and iv. of this book are 
headed : 1. ' Poems collected by the Hon. Her- 
bert Aston,' 1658. 2. ' Poems by the Hon. 
Mrs. Henry Thimelby.' 3. ' Poems collected 
by Lady Aston.' Some 'of the poems are ori- 
ginal, others are transcribed by the Astons 
from the works of different English writers. 
Clifford adds some verses of his own, in- 
cluding a ' Midnight Meditation among the 
Ruins of Tixall ' (also published separately 
1813 ? 4to). In 1817 he was staying at Paris 
with his eldest brother, and while in that city 
published ' Collectanea Cliffordiana,' in three 
parts, containing notices of the Clifford family 
and an historical tragedy on the battle of Tow- 
ton ; and ' A Topographical and Historical 
Description of the parish of Tixall in the 



county of Stafford. By Sir Thomas [Hugh] 
Clifford, Bart., and Arthur Clifford, Esq., 
Paris, 1817, 4to. 

In his later years Clifford published some 
treatises on teaching: 1. ' A Letter to ... 
the Earl of Shrewsbury on a new Method of 
teaching and learning Languages,' &c., 2 pts. 
1827, 8vo. 2. ' An Introduction to the Latin 
Language in three parts,' Oxford (1828 ?),. 
8vo. 3. ' Instructions to Parents and Teachers 
respecting the use of the elementary Books 
for the Latin Language,' &c., Oxford, 1829, 
12mo. He died at Winchester on 16 Jan. 
1830, aged 52. He married on 15 Junel809- 
Eliza Matilda, second daughter of Donald 
Macdonald of Berwick-upon-Tweed. His 
wife died in August 1827. There seems to 
have been no issue of the marriage. 

[Clifford's Works; Gent. Mag. 1830, vol. c. 
pt. i. p. 92, and Memoir, ib. 274, also given in 
Annual Kegister (1830), Ixxii. 247 ; Lockhart's 
Life of Scott (one vol. ed. 1845), pp. 159, 182, 
183 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

CLIFFORD, SIR AUGUSTUS WIL- 
LIAM JAMES (1788-1877), usher of the 
black rod, was born 26 May 1788, and edu- 
cated at Harrow. He entered the navy as a 
midshipman in May 1800, and was promoted 
to a lieutenancy in 1806. He served at the 
reduction of Ste.Lucie and Tobago in 1803, and 
throughout the operations in Egypt during 
1807 ; was at the capture of a convoy in the 
Bay of Rosas in 1809 (for which he received 
a medal), and in the operations on the coast 
of Italy 1811-12. After this, as captain, he 
was for many years actively employed in naval 
duties, being several times mentioned in the 
'Gazette' for his courage in cutting-out ex- 
peditions and on other occasions. For some 
time he was engaged in attendance on the 
lord high admiral, the Duke of Clarence, after- 
wards William IV, and in 1828 he took out 
Lord William Bentinck as governor-general 
to India. This was his last service afloat, 
and he was not actively employed after 1831. 
He obtained the rank of rear-admiral 1848, 
vice-admiral 1855, retired admiral 7 Nov. 
1860, and admiral of the red 1864. He sat 
in parliament for Bandon Bridge 1818-20 ; 
for Dungarvan, 1820-2 ; and again for Ban- 
don Bridge from 23 July 1831 to 3 Dec. 1832. 
He was nominated a C. B. 8Dec.l815, knighted 
by William IV at St. James's Palace 4 Aug. 
1830, and created a baronet 4 Aug. 1838. 
The Duke of Devonshire, then lord chamber- 
lain, appointed him on 25 July 1832 gentle- 
man usher of the black rod, which office he 
held, much to his satisfaction, until his death. 
On various occasions between 1843 and 1866 
he acted as deputy lord great chamberlain of 



Clifford 



59 



Clifford 



England, in the absence of Lord Willoughby 
d'Eresby. He died at his residence in the 
House of Lords 8 Feb. 1877. He married, 
20 Oct. 1813, Lady Elizabeth Frances Town- 
shend, sister of John, fourth marquis of Town- 
shend. She was born 2 Aug. 1789, and died 
at Nice 10 April 1862. Captain William 
John Cavendish, R.N., succeeded his father 
as second baronet. Clifford was a patron of 
the arts, and formed a unique collection of 
paintings, sculpture, etchings, engravings, and 
bijouterie. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biog. (1861 edit.), p. 211; 
Times, 9 Feb. 1877, p. 5, 12 Feb. p. 8 ; Graphic, 
24 Feb. 1877, pp. 172, 179, with portrait; Il- 
lustrated London News, 17 Feb. 1877, p. 167. 
24 Feb. pp. 1 7 1 , 1 8 1 , with portrait.] G. C. B. 

CLIFFORD, SIB CONYERS (d. 1599), 
military commander, was the eldest son of 
George Clifford, esq., of Bobbing Court in 
Kent, by his wife Ursula, daughter of Roger 
Finch. He served in the army sent under 
the Earl of Essex to the siege of Rouen in 
1591, being then a captain (SiRT.CoNTNGSBY, 
Journal of the Siege of Rouen, ed. Nichols, 
38, 39, 64). He and John Wotton especially 
distinguished themselves in rescuing from 
the enemy the dead body of the earl's brother, 
Walter Devereux, who had fallen into an 
ambuscade during a demonstration before 
Rouen (W. B. DEVEREUX, Lives of the Deve- 
reux, Earls of Essex, i. 231). In the same 
year Clifford was knighted. He represented 
the borough of Pembroke in the parliament 
which met 19 Feb. 1592-3. At the bache- 
lors' commencement in 1594-5 the university 
of Cambridge conferred upon him the degree 
of M.A. (COOPER, Annals of Cambridge, ii. 
529). 

On the news being received of the siege of 
Calais by the Spaniards, the Earl of Essex 
pushed to Dover, whence he wrote to Sir 
Anthony Shirley (3 April 1596) that he had 
sent Clifford to see whether he could ascer- 
tain the state of the town. Later in the 
same year Clifford accompanied the famous 
expedition against Cadiz, in the capacity of 
serjeant-major of the troops. He was one of 
the officers who formed the council. The de- 
clared value of his share of the plunder was 



By letters patent dated 4 Sept. 1597 he 
was appointed president of the province of 
Connaught in Ireland, with a fee of 100/., and 
the command and conduct of forty horsemen 
and a band of footmen. For some months 
previously he had acted as chief commissioner 
of that province, and constable of the castle 
of Athlone. The Earl of Essex, having re- 
ceived a supply of a thousand men from Eng- 



land, prepared to march northward, and, in 
order to divide the forces of Tyrone, he di- 
rected Clifford to penetrate from Connaught 
into Ulster to create a diversion. Clifford's 
force consisted of fifteen hundred foot and a 
hundred horse. On coming to the Curlew 
mountains, the baggage and ammunition were 
halted under the protection of the horse, 
while the infantry attempted the passage. 
The rebels under O'Rourke attacked them 
vigorously, but were checked, and the men, 
having nearly consumed their ammunition, 
were seized with a panic and took to flight. 
Clifford and Sir Andrew Ratcliffe with 120 
men were slain on the field. This was in 
1599, about the month of August. 

Clifford married Mary, daughter of Francis 
Southwell, esq., of Wymondham Hall, Nor- 
folk, and widow successively of Thomas 
Sydney, esq., and Nicholas Gorge, esq. By 
her he had issue two sons, Henry and Conyers, 
and a daughter, Frances, who died young. 
His wife survived him, and married a fourth 
husband, Sir Anthony St. Leger, knight. 
She died on 19 Dec. 1603, aged thirty-seven. 

Clifford is author of ' A brief Declaration 
relating to the Province of Connaught, how it 
stood in 1597.' Lambeth MS. 632, f. 22. 

[Birch's Elizabeth, i. 457, 468, ii. 16, 19, 21, 
53, 426 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 278, 551 ; 
Cox's Hibernia Anglicana, i. 412, 421 ; The De- 
vereux, Earls of Essex, i. 231, 335, 358, 360, 361, 
365, 377, ii. 53, 56, 57; Lascelles's Liber Mune- 
rum Publicorum Hiberniae, pt. ii. 189; Mason's 
Hist, of St. Patrick's, Dublin, Append, p. lii ; 
Morgan's Sphere of Gentry, lib. iii. 88 ; Moryson's 
Itinerary, pt. ii. 17, 21, 22, 37; Willis's Not. 
Parl. iii. (2) 136; Winwood's Memorials, i. 91.] 

T. C. 

CLIFFORD, GEORGE, third EARL OF 
CUMBERLAND (1558-1 605),naval commander, 
eldest son of Henry, second earl of Cumber- 
land [q. v.], by his second wife Anne, daugh- 
ter of William, third lord Dacre, was born at 
Brougham Castle in Westmoreland on 8 Aug. 
1558, and succeeded to the earldom on 8 Jan. 
1569-70 on the death of his father, when he 
became the ward of Francis Russell, second 
earl of Bedford, and made his home during 
his minority at Chenies or Woburn. In 
1571 he was entered as a nobleman at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, was in residence there 
till July 1574, and took his degree of M.A. on 
30 Nov. 1576. He is said to have also studied 
for some time at Oxford, and to have applied 
himself more especially to mathematics and 
geography. On 24 June 1577 he married Mar- 
garet, daughter of his guardian [see CLIF- 
FORD, MARGARET]. The marriage had been 
arranged in their infancy by their respective 
fathers, and did not prove a happy one. Cum- 



Clifford 



Clifford 



berland was a man of irregular life, and, having 
run through a great part of his very handsome 
property, seized on the opportunity offered 
by the war with Spain to re-establish himself. 
In 1586 he fitted out a little fleet of three 
ships and a pinnace, which, under the com- 
mand of Captain Robert Widrington, sailed 
from Plymouth in August, and returned in 
September 1587, after a cruise which had ex- 
tended beyond the mouth of the river Plate, 
but without much success to repay the cost 
of the expedition. In 1588 he commanded 
the Elizabeth Bonaventure, a queen's ship 
of 600 tons, against the Spanish Armada, 
and after the decisive action off Gravelines 
(29 July) carried the news of the victory to 
the camp at Tilbury. The reports of his gal- 
lantry so pleased the queen, that she lent him 
the Golden Lion, a ship of 500 tons, with 
which to undertake another expedition to the 
South Sea. The rest of the ships, as well as 
the equipment of the Golden Lion, were pro- 
vided at his own expense, and he put to sea 
in October, but only to be driven back by 
bad weather. The next year the queen lent 
him the Victory, in which, and with six other 
ships all equipped at his own expense, he put 
to sea from Plymouth on 1 8 June. With him 
sailed Edward Wright [q. v.], the mathema- 
tician and hydrographer, who wrote an ac- 
count of the voyage, and Captain William 
Monson [q. v.] was his vice-admiral. On 
29 June they happily fell in with Sir Francis 
Drake's squadron returning from Cadiz in ex- 
treme want of provisions, which they relieved, 
and proceeded on their way. In the Chan- 
nel they captured three French ships of the 
league ; on the coast of Portugal a number 
of ships laden with spice ; at St. Michael's 
andFlores they made some further captures: 
and at Fayal cut seven ships out from under 
the guns of the castle, getting ' an unex- 
pected victory, rather by valour than reason.' 
Afterwards they fell in with and captured 
one of the Spanish West India fleet, richly 
laden, to the value, it was estimated, of 
100,000/. At Graciosa and St. Mary's they 
made other rich prizes, though at this last- 
named place, rashly landing under the very 
guns of the fort, they suffered severely ; ' two- 
parts of the men were slain and hurt,' and 
Cumberland himself sorely wounded. With 
more prizes and prisoners than they could 
well manage, they turned homewards. The 
rich West Indiaman, sent on ahead, was 
wrecked in Mount's Bay and utterly lost, with 
all hands. The other ships ran short of water, 
and were put to direful extremity, their men 
being at last reduced to an allowance of 
three spoonfuls of vinegar a day, while some, 
'going to the great ocean for relief, drank 



themselves to death with salt water.' In all 
this time, we are told, ' the earl maintained 
his own equal temper and good presence of 
mind, avoiding no part of distress that others, 
even the meanest seaman, endured.' In the 
end they met an English ship, from which 
they obtained such relief as enabled them to 
reach Ireland, and so arrived at Falmouth in 
the last days of the year. 

In 1591 Cumberland again fitted out an 
expedition, consisting of the queen's ship Gar- 
land and seven others ; he was again accom- 
panied by Captain Monson, and sailing from 
England in May, he came on the coast of 
Portugal, where he made several valuable 
prizes, which were shortly afterwards, by 
different misadventures, recaptured, Monson 
being at the time in command of one, and 
so made prisoner. Having lost his captain 
and responsible adviser, and found the Gar- 
land, a new ship, to be extremely crank and 
uncomfortable, the earl returned to England, 
sending, as he left the coast of Spain, a pin- 
nace to Lord Thomas Howard [q. v.], then 
waiting at the Azores for the Plate fleet, to 
warn him of a powerful armament that was 
on the point of sailing to attack him. In 
1592 the earl was at the cost of another ex- 
pedition of five ships, which he sent out under 
the command of Captain Norton. Near the 
Azores, Norton fell in with the ships under 
the command of Sir John Burgh [q. v.], and 
was in company with them when the great car- 
rack was captured on 3 Aug. Their claim, 
however, to any share in the rich prize was 
angrily contested, and was legally decided 
against Cumberland, to whom, as special com- 
pensation, the queen allotted a sum of 36,000/. 
It was solely in consideration of his money 
venture ; for he himself had spent the autumn 
at court, and on 27 Sept., being in attendance 
on the queen at Oxford, received the degree 
of M.A. He was also during this year made 
a knight of the Garter. The sixth expe- 
dition, which Cumberland sent to sea in 1593, 
consisted of nine ships, of which he took 
command himself, having his trusted friend 
Monson again with him, and returned to his 
former cruising ground among the Azores. 
He was shortly afterwards seized with a 
violent sickness, and Monson, fearing for his 
life, determined to carry him back to Eng- 
land, sending on the other ships to the West 
Indies. His name is associated with the 
squadron which, in the following year, fought 
and burnt the great carrack Cinco Llagas of 
2,000 tons, and said to be by far richer than 
! the Madre de Dios captured by Sir John 
I Burgh, and fought also a severe but unguc- 
cessful action with her consort, a ship of 
1,500 tons; but his share in these exploits 



Clifford 



61 



Clifford 



was only that of promoter and litter out ; and 
so also in the expedition of 1595, for which 
he had built a large and powerful ship, then 
called Malice Scourge, but afterwards cele- 
brated in the history of East Indian naviga- 
tion under the name of Dragon. In 1596 he 
had intended to take the command himself, 
but the Malice Scourge being dismasted and 
forced to put back, he contented himself 
with sending the smaller ships, which he had 
equipped,for a cruise on the coast of Portugal. 
In January 1597-8 he undertook the most 
considerable of all his expeditions, fitting out 
no fewer than twenty ships, almost entirely at 
his own cost, and himself takingthe command 
in the Malice Scourge. They sailed from Ply- 
mouth on 6 March, passed by the Canaries, 
plundering as they went, rested for a few 
weeks at Dominica, and then fell in their 
full force on Porto Rico on 6 June, and made 
themselves masters of San Juan, which they 
proposed to clear of Spaniards, and establish 
as an English settlement. But violent sick- 
ness broke out among the troops ; and the 
earl having gone with some of his ships to 
Flores to lie in wait for the treasure fleet, Sir 
John Berkeley, to whom he had left the 
command at Porto Rico, decided to abandon 
the place and return. Berkeley joined the 
ead at Flores, and the united fleet returned 
to England in October. Considered as a pri- 
vateering expedition on a large scale, it was 
certainly a failure, for no care had been taken 
to keep its sailing secret, and the Spaniards 
or Portuguese, warned of its approach, re- 
mained in their harbours ; nor did the plunder 
of San Juan de Puerto Rico at all compensate 
for the loss of the galleons which might other- 
wise have fallen into their hands. The same 
want of fortune or of management had at- 
tended all Cumberland's expeditions, and it 
was doubted whether they had not proved 
more of a loss than a gain to his estate. It is 
certain that, having at his majority inherited 
a large property, he was nearly 1,000/. in debt 
at his death, which took place in London on 
30 Oct. 1605. 

He has often been spoken of as a sort of 
nautical Quixote, a title curiously unsuitable 
to the courtier, gambler, and buccaneer, in 
all of which guises history presents him. His 
love of adventure was strong, and he staked 
his money on the success of his cruisers 
in much the same spirit that he did on the 
speed of his horses or the turn of his dice 
And he spared his body no more than his 
purse. His courage was unimpeachable, anc 
the temper which he showed in times of diffi- 
culty won him both credit and popularity 
At court he was in high favour with the 
queen, whose glove, set in diamonds, he wore 



as a plume in his hat. He is described as a 
man of great personal beauty, strong and ac- 
tive, accomplished in all knightly exercises, 
splendid in his dress, and of romantic valour. 
3n the other hand, he was a gambler and a 
spendthrift, a faithless husband, and for seve- 
ral years before his death was separated from 
lis wife. His portrait, by an unknown artist, 
dated 1588, is in the National Portrait Gal- 
ery. As this portrait shows the glove in the 
lat, the received story that it was given him 
iy the queen on his return from one of his 
voyages is manifestly inaccurate in its minor 
details. An engraved portrait (by William 
Rogers) is in the library of the Society of 
Antiquaries (LEMON'S Cat. p. 33). 

The body was embalmed and buried in the 
family vault at Skipton in Craven, where a 
black marble altar tomb to his memory was 
rected by his sole surviving daughter Anne r 
:ountess of Pembroke [see CLIFFORD, ANNE]. 
In 1803 Dr. Whitaker obtained permission to 
xamine the body, which he found quite per- 
fect, so much so that the face could be seen 
to resemble the portraits ; only, he says, ' all 
the painters had the complaisance to omit 
three large warts upon the left cheek.' 

[Lediard's Naval History ; Monson's Naval 
Tracts, book i. ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab, ii. 
413; Whitaker's Hist, of Craven (3rd ed. by 
Morant), 338-57, where there is a detailed ac- 
count of the curious genealogical pictures pre- 
served in Appleby Castle ; Catalogue of the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery.] J. K. L. 

CLIFFORD, HENRY DE CLIFFORD, 
fourteenth LORD CLIFFORD, tenth BARON OF 
WESTMORELAND, first LORD VESCI (1455 ?- 
1523), was the eldest son of John de Clifford 
[q. v.j, baron of Westmoreland, by his wife 
Margaret (1462-1493), daughter and heiress 
of Sir John Bromflet, baron Vesci (d. 16 Jan. 
1468). His father having been attainted and 
his estates forfeited when Henry de Clifford 
was seven years old, he was, according to Dug- 
dale, brought up as a shepherd at his mother's 
estate of Londesborough in Yorkshire, whence 
by the help of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld he was 
conveyed to a Cumberland farm on the Scot- 
tish borders, while his hereditary manors were 
enjoyed by the partisans of Edward IV 
Skipton going to Sir William Stanley, and 
the barony of Westmoreland to Richard, duke 
of Gloucester (DUGDALE, i. 343; WHITAKER, 
History of Craven, 320-7). On the accession 
of Henry VII his attainder was reversed and 
his estates restored by act of parliament (9 Nov. 
1485). His age was then about thirty ; but 
he had been brought up so meanly that it is 
said he could not read at the time. His name 
does not appear in Hall's list of Henry VII's 



Clifford 



Clifford 



chief counsellors, though he was a Yorkshire 
commissioner of array against the Scots and 
receiver of crown lands on 25 and 30 Sept. 
1485, when he had received knighthood. He 
was employed to receive the rebels to allegi- 
ance (18 May 1486), having a little before this 
date (2 May) been appointed steward of Mid- 
dleton. In February 1491 he laid claim to the 
Durham manors of Hert and Hertlepool. His 
descendant, the Countess of Pembroke, speaks 
of him as ' a plain man, who lived for the most 
part a country life, and came seldom to court 
or London, except when called to parliament,' 
to which, according to Nicolas, he received 
summons from 15 Sept. 1485 to 16 Jan. 1497. 
He was, however, at London on 30 Oct. 1494, 
when Prince Henry, afterwards Henry VIII, 
was made a knight of the Bath. He aided 
the Earl of Surrey at the relief of Norham 
Castle in 13 Henry VII, and fought with the 
central vanguard against the Earls of Craw- 
ford and Murray at the battle of Flodden, 
whence he seems to have carried off three 
pieces of James IV's famous ordnance, ' the 
seven sisters,' to grace his castle at Skipton, 
where they were still to be seen in 1572. 
He was frequently commissioner of array for 
the three Yorkshire ridings, Cumberland, and 
Westmoreland, of which last county he was 
hereditary sheriff. In 1522 he lent Henry VIII 
a thousand marks for that king's French ex- 
pedition almost the largest sum on the list. 
On 8 Sept. 1522 his son, Henry de Clifford 
(1493-1542) [q. v.], had to lead the Clifford 
force against the Scots, as his father was sick. 
Next year he died, 23 April 1523, leaving 
orders for his burial at Shap in Westmoreland 
or Bolton in Craven (WHITAKER, pp. 322-7, 
405; Letters of Richard III and Henry VII, 
99, 389 ; DTJGDALB, i. 344 ; Calendar of State 
Papers, ed. Brewer, vols. i. &c. ; Mat. for 
History of Henry VII, pp. 63, 117, 224, 420 ; 
HALL, pp. 424, 481). 

Clifford seems to have been a man of stu- 
dious habits, and, according to Whitaker, was 
specially devoted to astronomy and astrology. 
Whitaker mentions an Old-French ' Treatise 
on Natural Philosophy ' given by him to Bol- 
ton Priory, on the dissolution of which esta- 
blishment it reverted to the family. He seems 
to have resided chiefly in a half retirement at 
Barden, where he is said to have constructed a 
tower, and where, with the aid of the neigh- 
bouring canons of Bolton, he amused himself 
by studying the heavenly bodies (WHITAKER, 
334). This feature in his life, and the romantic 
story of his early years, form the basis of one 
of Wordsworth's poems, ' Song at the Feast 
of Brougham Castle,' and of what is perhaps 
the finest passage in the ' White Doe of Ryl- 
stone.' 



Clifford married, first, Anne, daughter of 
Sir John St. John of Bletsho, Bedfordshire, 
knt., cousin-german to Henry VII, by whom 
he had three sons Henry [q. v.], first earl of 
Cumberland, Sir Thomas Clifford (married to 
Lucy, daughter of Sir Anthony Brown), who 
figures in the ' State Papers ' of Henry VTIFs 
reign, and Edward and four daughters. Clif- 
ford's second wife was Florence, daughter of 
Henry Pudsey of Barfoot, Yorkshire, by whom 
he had two or three sons, who died young, 
and a daughter. 

[For general authorities on the family see CLIF- 
FOED, ROBERT DE ; see also Letters of Richard TTT 
and Henry VII, ed. Gairdner (Rolls Series) ; 
Materials for the History of Henry VII, ed. Camp- 
bell (Rolls Series) ; Calendar of State Papers, ed. 
Brewer, vols. i. andii. ; Hall's Chronicle, ed. Ellis, 
1809-10.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, HENRY DE CLIFFORD, 
fifteenth LORD CLIFFORD, first EARL OF CUM- 
BERLAND, eleventh BARON OF WESTMORE- 
LAND, and second BARON VESCI (1493-1542), 
was the eldest son of Henry de Clifford, tenth 
Baron of Westmoreland [q. v.], by his first 
wife, Anne, daughter of Sir John St. John of 
Bletsho (DTTGDALE, 344; WHITAKER, 327). 
He is said to have been brought up with 
Henry VIII. He seems at one time to have 
been on bad terms with his father ; and a 
letter is still preserved written by the old 
lord to one of the privy councillors, complain- 
ing of the ' ungodly and ungudely disposi- 
tion of my sonne Henrie Clifforde, in such 
wise as yt was abominable to heare yt.' The 
father proceeds to accuse his son of open 
robbery and violence, ' in such wyse as some 
whol townes are fayne to kepe the churches 
both nighte and daye, and dare not come att 
ther own housys,' as well as of apparelling him- 
self and his horse in cloth of gold and gold- 
smith's work, ' more lyk a duke than a pore 
baron's sonne as hee is ' (WHITAKER, 327-8). 

In his father's lifetime he appears as Sir 
Harry Clifford. He was one of the gentle- 
men of Yorkshire originally chosen to be 
present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold ; 
but his name, for some reason or other, is 
struck out of the list. In 1522 he was sheriff 
of Yorkshire. From 1522 to 1526 he was 
actively engaged in border warfare. In the 
latter year (October 1525, according to Doyle) 
he seems to have been appointed lord warden 
of the marches, an office which he held for fully 
two years. He was succeeded by William, 
lord Dacre (before 26 June 1528), with whom 
he had a long contention about the castle of 
Carlisle. Both nobles were summoned before 
the council of the north on 16 Oct. 1528, after 
the Earl of Northumberland had vainly striven 



Clifford 



Clifford 



to make a final award (26 Feb. and 2 April) 
(State Doc. iii. 241, Nos. 2667, 2995, iv. 
4419-21, &c.) In 1533 he had a similar 
-dispute with the young Duke of Richmond, 
relative to his right to hold a sheriff's tourn in 
Kendal. In May and June 1534 he was en- 
gaged in the inquiry into Lord Caere's treason, 
and on 27 Oct. is again found ruling the 
borders in quiet (cf. DUGDALE, i. 344). A 
year later he had charge of the privy seal 
(3 April 1335), ' because none of the king's 
council would receive it.' Three weeks after 
this he was one of the Middlesex commis- 
sioners, ' oyer et terminer,' for the trial of the 
prior of the Charterhouse, Bishop Fisher of 
Rochester, and Sir Thomas More (dated 1 and 
26 June) (ib. vols. v. vii. viii.) 

In the summer of 1525 Henry VIII made 
his illegitimate son Henry Blount Duke of 
Richmond and Somerset. On this occasion 
Clifford was created Earl of Cumberland 
(18 June), when Anne Boleyn's father was 
made Viscount Rochford (HALL, 703 ; Cal. 
of State Doc. iv. pt. iii. 1431). Seven years 
later he was made a knight of the Garter (DuG- 
DALE, 344). He was also governor of the town 
and castle of Carlisle and president of the coun- 
cil of the north (ib.) 

In the political and religious troubles of the 
age he seems to have adhered to the king. 
Thus he is found signing the July letter of 
1530, begging Clement VII to sanction the 
Mng's divorce (Cal. of State Doc. iv. No. 6513). 
In 1534 he was sent to search Bishop Tun- 
stall's house at Auckland for a copy of that 
prelate's treatise, ' De Differentia Regiae et 
Ecclesiasticse Potestatis' (ib. v. 986). At 
the time of Aske's rebellion his was one of 
the three great families of the north that re- 
mained faithful to the crown, though Robert 
Aske was a distant relative of his own. The 
earl had hard work to hold his castle of Skipton 
(October 1536), weakened as it was by whole- 
sale desertion, against the rebels' siege : and 
Mr. Froude tells the romantic story that his 
eldest son's wife, Lady Eleanor Clifford, and 
her infant children were rescued from the 
extremest danger at Bolton Abbey, and car- 
ried safely into Skipton Castle through the 
very heart of the besieging host, by the chival- 
rous courage of Robert Aske's brother Chris- 
topher (FROUDE, ii. 552-4, 562 ; cf. WHITA- 
KER, 335). In reward for his devotion the earl 
received several manors that had belonged to 
the dissolved monasteries, notably the site of 
Bolton Abbey (DUGDALE, i. 344), together 
with the Skipton possessions of this founda- 
tion. His second marriage brought him the 
whole Percy fee in the same district, and 
thus made the Clifford family lords of almost 
all Craven (WHITAKER, 335). He died on 



22 April 1542 (1543?), and was buried at 
Appleby or Skipton (ib. 336 ; cf. DUGDALE, 
i. 340). He married, first, Margaret, daugh- 
ter of George Talbot, fourth earl of Shrews- 
bury ; secondly, Margaret, daughter of Henry 
Percy, fifth earl of Northumberland. By his 
first wife, who must have died before 1517, he 
had no issue. By his second he had Henry 
Clifford, second earl of Cumberland [q. v.j, 
his son and successor, Sir Ingram Clifford, 
knt. (d. s.p.), and four daughters. 

[Calendar of State Documents for the Reign of 
Henry VIII, ed. Brewer, vols. ii-ix. ; Froude's 
History of England, ed. 1870 ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage, i. 490-1. Much genealogical informa- 
tion may be got from the inscriptions on the great 
family portrait-pictures drawn up originally in 
June 1589, at the order of Margaret, countess of 
Cumberland, at Westminster. Two copies of the 
large picture are still extant, one at Hothara 
(formerly at Skipton Castle), the other and the 
original at Appleby Castle. See Whitaker, ed. 
1878, pp. 339-53, where the inscriptions are 
printed entire.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, HENRY DE, second EARL 
OF CUMBERLAND, sixteenth LORD CLIFFORD, 
twelfth BARON OF WESTMORELAND, and third 
BARON VESCI (d. 1570), was the eldest son 
of Henry de Clifford, first earl of Cumberland 
[q . v.], by Margaret, daughter of Henry Percy, 
fifth earl of Northumberland. He succeeded to 
his father's titles in April 1542. He was made 
a knight of the Bath at the time of Anne Bo- 
leyn's coronation, on which occasion he is 
styled ' Lorde Clyfforde ' (30-31 May 1533) 
(HALL, 799). In 1537 he married Eleanor 
Brandon, daughter of Charles Brandon [q. v.], 
duke of Suffolk The expenses of this alliance 
seriously impoverished his estate, and obliged 
him to alienate ' the great manor of Temed- 
bury, co. Herreford, the oldest estate then re- 
maining in the family.' On the death of his 
first wife he retired to the country, and suc- 
ceeded in increasing his paternal inheritance. 
Whitaker tells a curious story, from the family 
manuscripts at Appleby : that he was on one 
occasion, while in a trance, laid out and covered 
with a hearse-cloth ready for burial. He 
slowly recovered, after having for a month 
or more been fed with milk from a woman's 
breast. He is said to have been a strong 
man in later life (WHITAKER, 336-8 ; DUG- 
DALE, 344-5). 

After his retirement in 1547 he is said to 
have visited the court only thrice : at Queen 
Mary's coronation, on his daughter's marriage, 
and again soon after Queen Elizabeth's ac- 
cession (WHITAKER, 338). In July 1561 he 
and Lord Dacre, his father-in-law, were ac- 
cused of protecting the popish priests in the 
north. A similar charge was advanced in 



Clifford 



6 4 



Clifford 



February 1562. He was in 1569 strongly op- 
posed to the contemplated marriage of Mary 
Queen of Scots and the Duke of Norfolk, and 
readily promised support to the great rebellion 
of that year. In May 1569 he was in London. 
As the year wore on he gave in his adherence 
to the scheme for proclaiming Mary queen of 
England ; but when the critical moment ar- 
rived he did not act with vigour, but as a 
' crazed man, leaving his tenants to the leader- 
ship of Leonard Dacres ' (FROUDE, vii. 469, 
ix. 412, 446, 449, 511). According to Dug- 
dale, he even assisted Lord Scrope in fortifying 
Carlisle against the rebels (i. 345). He died 
shortly after 8 Jan. 1569-70,at Brougham Cas- 
tle, and was buried at Skipton (ib.}, where his 
skeleton was seen by Whitaker in March 1803. 
It is described as being that ' of a very tall and 
slender man.' ' Something of the face might 
still be distinguished, and a long prominent 
nose was very conspicuous ' (pp. 430-1). 

The second Earl of Cumberland is described 
by his daughter as having ' a good library,' 
being ' studious in all manner of learning, 
and much given to alchemy.' His first wife 
was Eleanor Brandon, mentioned above 
(d. November 1547) ; his second Anne (d. July 
1581), daughter of William, third lord Dacre 
of Gillesland. By his first wife he had a 
daughter, Margaret (b. 1540), who on 7 Feb. 
1555 married Henry Stanley, afterwards 
fourth Earl of Derby. This Margaret in 1557 
was looked upon as the legal heir to the Eng- 
lish crown by many Englishmen (Cal. of State 
Papers, Venetian, ed.Rawdon Brown, p.1707). 
By his second wife he had two sons, George 
[q. v.] and Francis, respectively third and 
fourth earls of Cumberland, and a daughter, 
Frances (1556-1592), who married Philip, 
lord Wharton. Dugdale mentions two other 
daughters, Eleanor and Mary, by his second 
wife, and two other sons, Henry and Charles, 
by his first, all of whom died young WHI- 
TAKER, 343, &c. ; DUGDALE, i. 345). 

[For general authorities see HENRY DE CLIF- 
FORD (1493-1542); Froude, ed. 1863. For his 
various offices see Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 
491-2.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, HENRY, fifth EARL OF 
CUMBERLAND ( 159 1-1643) , nephew of George 
Clifford, third earl [q. v.], and only son of 
Francis, fourth earl, by Grisold, daughter of 
Thomas Hughes of Uxbridge, and widow of 
Edward Nevill, lord Bergavenny, was born 
on 28 Feb. 1591 at Londesborough (DUG- 
DALE, i. 345). He matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 30 Jan. 1606, and took 
the degree of B. A. on 16 Feb. 1608 (BLISS). 
He was created knight of the Bath on 
3 June 1610, and on 25 July in the same 



year married Lady Frances Cecil, daughter 
of Robert, earl of Salisbury (Court and Times 
of James I, i. 125, 131, 138). In the follow- 
ing year Clifford's sister Margaret married 
Sir Thomas Wentworth, and though she 
died in 1622, the friendship of Clifford and : 
Wentworth which thus originated proved 
lasting. When Wentworth refused to pay 
the forced loan of 1627, Clifford used all 
his influence to persuade him to submission 
(Straffbrd Papers, i. 36-8). He took part 
in the quarrel with Savile, who was fined 
100/. in 1630 for a libel against him (Rusn- 
WORTH, ii. App. 21). Wentworth's influ- 
ence arranged the match between Clifford's 
only daughter, Elizabeth, and Richard Boyle, 
earl of Dungar van, which took place on 5 July 
1634 (Lismore Papers, iii. 220 ; Sir afford 
Papers, i. 112-262). It was also owing to 
Wentworth's representation of the great and 
pressing necessities of the Clifford family 
that the king consented to repay in 1637 a 
quarter of the debt to them which his father 
had contracted twenty years earlier (CARTE, 
Ormonde, v. 227). Clifford was appointed 
a member of the council of the north on 
10 July 1619, was summoned to the House 
of Lords as Baron Clifford on 17 Feb. 1628, 
and from 14 March 1636 to 31 Aug. 1639 
was joint lord-lieutenant of the counties of 
Northumberland, Cumberland, and West- 
moreland. Charged, at the approach of the 
Scotch war, with the duty of raising troops 
in his lieutenancy, he wrote to the king as- 
suring him that 'the same loyal blood of 
my ancestors runs still in my veins which 
they were never sparing of when their sove- 
reigns commanded them to fight for them r 
(Straffbrd Papers, ii. 214). But though his 
zeal was great his military knowledge was 
little, and Strafford, when recommending the 
king to make him governor of Carlisle on 
account of his local influence and loyalty, 
could only say that, ' provided he be fur- 
nished with an able lieutenant-governor and 
set into a right posture at first, he would after 
govern himself, I believe, dexterously enough r 
(ib. ii. 208, 234). In April 1639, having ob- 
tained a commission as lieutenant-general 
from the Earl of Essex, he occupied Carlisle 
with some local levies, and was reinforced by 
five hundred of Strafford's Irish army and an 
experienced commander, Sir Francis Wil- 
loughby, to act as his counsellor (ib. ii. 317). 
Three months later the command of Carlisle 
was taken from him and given to Lord Wil- 
liam Howard, but he was nevertheless active 
for the king's cause in the second Scotch 
war (ib. ii. 365 ; Hardwick Papers, ii. 152). 
The popular party seems to have had some 
hope of gaming his support, for he was no- 



T* The friendship 

of Clifford and Wentworth did not date 
from the latter's marriage; Wentworth and 



Clifford 



Clifford 



initiated by them lord-lieutenant of West- 
moreland (9 Feb. 1642, Parliamentary His- 
tory, x. 287). But he joined the king at 
York in May 1642, signed the engagement 
of 13 June promising to support the king, 
and promised to raise and pay fifty horse for 
three months (22 June 1642). At the re- 
quest of the Yorkshire gentlemen he became 
colonel of the regiment raised by them, under 
the title of the Prince of Wales's regiment, 
for the defence of the king's person. Also 
at their request the king left him at York as 
commander-in-chief in that county, with Sir 
Thomas Glemham to act as his lieutenant 
(CLARENDON, Eebellion, v. 445). The ap- 
pointment was unfortunate, for Cumberland 
had 'very much acceptation and affection 
from the gentlemen and the common people, 
but he was not in any degree active or of a 
martial temper ' (ib.) In the words of a con- 
temporary news-letter ' the Earl of Cumber- 
land stands for a cipher, they do what they 
please without his advice ' ( Terrible News 
from York). In October 1642 he was be- 
sieged in York and obliged to appeal to the 
Earl of Newcastle to march into Yorkshire 
to relieve him (Newcastle, p. 335). On New- 
castle's arrival he delivered up his command 
to him (December 1642, RTTSHWORTH, iii. 2, 
78). Cumberland died on 11 Dec. 1643 in 
one of the prebend's houses in York, and 
was buried in Skipton Church on 31 Dec. 
(WHITAKER, History of Craven, p. 252). By 
his death the earldom of Cumberland in the 
family of Clifford became extinct, and the 
estates reverted to the Lady Anne Clifford, 
wife of Philip, earl of Pembroke. All his 
children except Elizabeth, countess of Cork, 
had died young. He is described by the 
Countess of Pembroke as 'endued with a 
good natural wit, a tall and proper man, a 
good courtier, a brave horseman, an excel- 
lent huntsman, had a good skill in architec- 
ture and mathematics, and was much fa- 
voured by King James and King Charles.' 
He was the author of: 1. ' The Declaration 
of the Right Honourable Henry, Earl of 
Cumberland, together with divers Gentle- 
men of the County of York,' York, 1642. 
2. ' Poetical Translations of some Psalms 
and the Song of Solomon, by that noble and 
religious soul, now sainted in heaven, Henry, 
E. of Cumberland,' a manuscript bequeathed 
by Dr. Rawlinson to the Bodleian, which has 
secured its writer a place in Dr. Bliss's edition 
of Wood's ' Athene ' (iii. 82). Several let- 
ters by him are printed in the ' Strafford 
Papers ' and the ' Fairfax Correspondence.' 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Domestic State 
'apers ; Clarendon's Eebellion ; Life of the 
)uke of Newcastle, ed. 1886 ; Whitaker's History 

VOL. xi. 



of Craven ; Strafford Letters ; Carte's Ormonde, 
ed. 1851 ; and the other works above referred 
to.] C. H. F. 

CLIFFORD, HENRY (1768-1813), legal 
writer, was the second son of the Hon. 
Thomas Clifford of Tixall, Staffordshire 
(brother to Hugh, fourth lord Clifford), by 
his wife Barbara, youngest daughter and co- 
heiress of James, fifth lord Aston, and niece 
to Thomas and Edward, dukes of Norfolk, 
and to George, earl of Shrewsbury. He was 
born on 2 March 1768 ; studied at Liege with 
his eldest brother Thomas, created a baronet 
in 1815 ; and on his return to England ap- 
plied himself to the law, and soon after the 
passing of the Catholic Act of 1792 was called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn (GlLLOW, Bibl. 
Diet, of the English Catholics, i. 508). He 
was very learned in the law and a warm 
advocate of the liberties of the people. His 
personal exertions in the memorable ' O. P.' 
contest at Covent Garden Theatre brought 
him prominently before the public (EVANS, 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, No. 14320). He 
was a sincere catholic, and it was chiefly 
owing to his efforts that a catholic chapel 
was opened at Chelsea in 1812. He died 
at Bath on 22 April 1813. Three months 
previously he had married Anne Teresa, 
youngest daughter of Edward Ferrers of 
Baddesley-Clinton, Warwickshire. 

The following works were written by or 
have reference to him : 1 . ' Reflections on the 
Appointment of a Catholic Bishop [Douglass] 
to the London District, in a letter to the 
Catholic Laity of the said District,' Lond. 
1790, 8vo. 2. < A Report of the Two Cases of 
Controverted Elections of the Borough of 
Southwark, &c. ; to which are added an ac- 
count of the two subsequent cases of the 
city of Canterbury, and an appendix on the 
right of the returning officer to administer 
the oath of supremacy to Catholics,' Lond. 
1797 and 1802, 8vo. A copy in the British 
Museum contains a manuscript letter from 
the author to Francis Hargrave. 3. ' Pro- 
ceedings in the House of Lords in the Case 
of Benjamin Flower, printer, for a supposed 
Libel on the Bishop of Landaff ; to which are 
added the arguments in the King's Bench 
on a motion for an Habeas Corpus,' Lond. 
1800, 8vo (CLARKE, Bibl. Zejw?re,pp.l76, 314). 
4. ' Observations on the Doctrines advanced 
during the late Elections, in a letter to 
Samuel Whitbread, Esq.,' 1807, 8vo (WATT, 
Bibl. Brit.} 5. ' Clifford for ever ! O. P., 
and no P. B. The trial between H. Clifford, 
plaintiff, and J. Brandon, defendant, for an 
assault and false imprisonment as the plain- 
tiff was quitting Covent Garden Theatre, 
31 Oct. 1809,' Lond. [1809], 8vo. 6. ' The 



Clifford 



66 



Clifford 



whole Proceedings on Trial of an Action 
brought by Henry Clifford, Esq., against Mr. 
James Brandon for an assault and false im- 
prisonment on 5 Dec. 1809,' Lond. 1809, 8vo. 
7. 'A Poetical Epistle to Henry Clifford, 
Esq., on the late Disturbances in Covent 
Garden Theatre,' Edinburgh, 1810, 8vo. 

[Authorities cited above.] T. C. 

CLIFFORD, SIR HENRY HUGH (1826- 
1883), major-general, third son of Hugh 
Charles Clifford [q. v.], seventh baron Clifford, 
who died in 1858, by his marriage with Mary 
Lucy, only daughter of Thomas Weld of Lul- 
worth Castle, Dorsetshire, was born 12 Sept. 
1826, and received his first commission as a 
second lieutenant in the rifle brigade 7 Aug. 
1846. He served in South Africa against the 
Gaikas under Sandili in the following year, 
and then against the Boers, until their sub- 
mission at Weinberg on the Vaal river. On 
the outbreak of another Kaffir war in 1852 
he again went to Africa, where he remained 
until November 1853. He also took part in 
the Crimean war, where he received the ap- 
pointment of aide-de-camp to Sir George 
Brown, commanding the light division, and 
was present at Alma and Inkerman, and for 
his gallantry in the latter battle was deco- 
rated with the Victoria cross. In May 1855 
he was appointed deputy assistant quarter- 
master-general, and remaining in the Crimea 
until the conclusion of the war was then 
promoted to the rank of brevet major, and 
received the medal and clasps for Alma, In- 
kerman, and Sebastopol, and from foreign 
governments the Legion of Honour and the 
5th class of the Medjidie. On the outbreak 
of hostilities in China he sailed thither, and as 
assistant quartermaster-general was present 
at the operations between December 1857 
and January 1858 which resulted in the cap- 
ture of Canton. For his services he received 
the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, with the 
China medal and Canton clasp. On his return 
to England he commenced a long term of 
service on the staff; he was assistant quarter- 
master-general at Aldershot 1860-4, held a 
similar appointment at headquarters 1865- 
1868, was aide-de-camp to the commander-in- 
chief 1870-3, and assistant adjutant-general 
at headquarters 1873-5. Early in 1879 Clif- 
ford was selected to proceed to South Africa 
to take charge of the communications of Lord 
Chelmsford between Durban and the forces 
in the field. His task was no light one, 
for great confusion prevailed at Durban, the 
port of disembarkation ; but by his great 
experience in staff duties, his knowledge of 
the requirements of the supply of an army, 
and, above all, by his familiarity with Kaffir 



warfare and his indefatigable nature, he very 
soon reduced everything to order, and his la- 
i bours were fully acknowledged by Sir Garnet 
i Wolseley. He was gazetted a C.B. 2 June 
1869, and a K.C.M.G. 19 Dec. 1879, and was 
granted a pension of 100Z. for distinguished 
i services 7 Oct. 1874. He was major-general 
of the eastern district of England from April 
to September 1882. He died at Ugbrooke, 
near Chudleigh, Devonshire, 12 April 1883. 
He married, 21 March 1857, Josephine Eliza- 
beth, only child of Joseph Anstice of Madeley 
Wood, Shropshire, professor at King's College, 
London. 

[Low's Soldiers of the Victorian Age (1880), 
i. 208-21 ; Graphic, 12 April 1879, p. 372, with 
portrait.] G. C. B. 

CLIFFORD, HUGH CHARLES, seventh 
LORD CLIFFORD OF CHTTDLEIGH (1790-1858), 
eldest son of Charles, sixth lord, by a daughter 
of Henry Arundell of Wardour, was born in 
1790. He was educated at the Roman catholic 
college of Stonyhurst, and in 1814 attended 
Cardinal Consalvi to the congress of Vienna. 
He served as a volunteer through a large por- 
tion of the Peninsular campaigns. On suc- 
ceeding to his father's estates in 1831 he took 
his seat in the House of Lords. He gave his 
general support to the ministry of Lord Grey 
and afterwards of Lord Melbourne, but seldom 
took part in the debates except on questions 
connected with Roman Catholicism. In his 
later years he lived chiefly in Italy, where he 
had a residence in the neighbourhood of Tivoli. 
He died at Rome 28 Feb. 1858 of the effects 
of a wound in the ankle. By his wife, Mary, 
only daughter of Thomas (afterwards Car- 
dinal) Weld of Lulworth Castle, Dorsetshire, 
he left two daughters and four sons. The 
eldest son, Charles Hugh, became eighth lord ; 
the third was Sir Henry Hugh [q. v.] He 
was the author of a 'Letter to Edmund 
Burke on the Repeal of the Corn Laws,' 
1824 ; ' Letters addressed to Lord Alvanley 
on his pamphlet, " The State of Ireland con- 
sidered," ' 1841 ; and ' Letters to the Editor 
of the " Morning Chronicle " on the East 
Indian Question : ' and several published 
speeches. 

[Gent. Mag. 3rd series (1858), iv. 551-2; 
Brit, Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

CLIFFORD, JAMES (1622-1698), di- 
vine and musician, son of Edward Clifford, 
a cook, was born at Oxford, in the parish 
of St. Mary Magdalen, where he was bap- 
tised on 2 May 1622. He was a chorister 
at Magdalen College from 1632 to 1642, and 
was educated in the choir school. He took 
no degree at Oxford, and the date of his 



Clifford 



Clifford 



ordination is not known. On 1 July 1661 
he was appointed tenth minor canon of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, in 1675 he became sixth 
minor canon, on 30 May 1682 was admitted 
senior cardinal, and on 24 Nov. of the same 
year sacrist. He was for some years curate 
of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, a post he seems 
to have resigned before September 1695, 
in which month he was succeeded by Charles 
Green. He was also chaplain to the Society 
of Serjeants' Inn, Fleet Street. In 1663 
Clifford published the first edition of the work 
hy which he is best known, ' Divine Services 
and Anthems, usually sung in the Cathedrals 
and Collegiate Choires in the Church of Eng- 
land.' This is a collection of words of 
anthems, and was originally intended only 
for use at St. Paul's, but in 1664 Clifford pub- 
lished a second edition, with large additions, 
so as to apply to ' all choires in England and 
Ireland.' The work contains the words of 
393 anthems, besides tunes of chants, &c., 
* Brief Directions for the understanding of 
that part of the Divine Service performed by 
the Organ in St. Paul's Cathedral on Sun- 
dayes ; a ' Scale or Basis of Musick,' by Dr. 
Ralph Winterton, regius professor of me- 
dicine at Cambridge, and a 'Psalm of Thanks- 
giving,' sung by the children of Christ's Hos- 
pital, set to music by Thomas Brewer (b. 1611) 
[<j. v.] The book is valuable from a litur- 
gical point of view, besides which it has pre- 
served a record of many anthems by English 
church composers which are now lost. In 
1694 Clifford published < The Catechism, con- 
taining the Principles of Christian Religion,' 
together with ' A Preparation Sermon before 
the receiving of the Holy Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, ' preached at Serjeants' Inn 
Chapel in Fleet Street. Clifford was twice 
married. His first wife's name is unknown, 
but on 30 May 1667 he obtained a license 
for his marriage at St. Dunstan in the West, 
or the chapel of Serjeants' Inn, with Clare 
Fisher of the parish of St. Gregory by St. 
Paul's. He died in September 1698. His 
will (dated 16 June 1687) was proved on the 
26th of the same month by his widow, who, 
according to Hawkins (ed. 1853, p. 690), after 
her husband's death lived with her daughter 
in Wardrobe Court, Great Carter Lane, where 
they kept a school for little children. Clifford 
had a younger brother named Thomas (bap- 
tised on 17 Oct. 1633), who was a chorister 
at Magdalen College from 1642 to 1645. He 
also had a brother Richard, who lived at 
Abingdon, Berkshire ; a brother John, who 
lived at London ; and two sisters, Mrs. Anne 
Coles and Mrs. Vaughan. A son of his was 
baptised at St. Gregory's on 2 May 1679, and 
buried there in 1684. By his will he left all 



his music to be divided among the minor 
canons of St. Paul's. 

[Magd. Coll. Registers, ed Bloxam, i. 16, 28 
39, 40, 56, ii. 187, 201, iii. 159 ; Wood's Athens, 
ed. Bliss, iv. 597 ; Registers of St. Gregory's, 
communicated by the Rev. E. Hoskins ; Chapter 
Records of St. Paul's, communicated by theRev. 
W. Sparrow Simpson ; will in Probate Registry, 
Somerset House, 198, Lort; Chester's London 
Marriage Licenses.] W. B. S. 

CLIFFORD, JOHN DE, ninth BABON CLIF- 
FOBD (1435 P-1461), son of Thomas, eighth 
baron Clifford [q. v.], was born in 1435 or 
1436 (Escheat Rolls, iv. 272). He makes 
his first appearance in February 1458, when, 
together with Somerset and the Earl of North- 
umberland, he is found ' with a grete power ' 
lodged without ' the walls of London aboute 
Temple barre and Westmynstre,' clamouring 
for compensation for the death of his father at 
St. Albans. On this occasion the king and his 
council intervened, and ordered the Duke of 
York and the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick 
to establish masses for the souls of the slain 
nobles and to pay their representatives ' a 
notable sum of money' (English Chronicle, 
ed. Da vies, 77, 78). Clifford seems now 
to have been perfectly reconciled with his 
former enemies, and his name is found as 
one of the lords attainted with York, War- 
wick, and Salisbury, after the battle of 
Blore Heath, at the parliament of Coventry 
in November 1459 (ib. 84). About the same 
time (38 Henry VI) he was made commissary- 
general of the Scotch marches (DUGDALE), 
and a conservator of the truce with Scotland 
(RxMEE, xi. 434). In July 1460 he was 
summoned to parliament (Dignity of a Peer, 
iii. 916). He was one of the Lancastrian 
leaders at the battle of Wakefield (Eng. Chr. 
107) in December 1460, where he is reported 
to have slain the Earl of Rutland, the young 
son of the Duke of York, with his own hands 
(HALL). For his acts of cruelty he is said to 
have received the by-name of ' the Butcher ' 
(DUGDALE). In the same battle he is charged 
with having cut off the head of the dead Duke 
of York and presented it decked with a paper 
crown to Queen Margaret (HOLINSHED) . Two 
months later he was present at the second 
battle of St. Albans (February 1461), but 
was slain within six weeks at Ferrybridge, on 
the eve of the battle of Towton (GEEGOEY, 
Chronicle, 217). The same year he was at- 
tainted by act of parliament (Escheat Rolls, 
iv. 327). His barony of Skipton went to 
Sir William Stanley, that of Westmoreland 
to Richard of Gloucester. He left three 
children, of whom the eldest, Henry (d. 1523) 
[q. v.], is the hero of one of Wordsworth's 

F2 



Clifford 



68 



Clifford 



happiest poems. The romantic story of this 
noble's early years, and how he was brought 
up as a shepherd on his father's estates till 
he was restored to his full honours on the 
accession of Henry VII, can be traced back 
at least as far as the middle of the sixteenth 
century (1548), when it makes its appearance 
in Hall's ' Chronicle.' Hall, however, and 
Holinshed following him, give the name of 
this noble as Thomas, by mistake for Henry. 
Of Clifford's other children, Richard died 
abroad, while Elizabeth married Robert, son 
and heir of Sir John Aske (DUGDALE). 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 342-3 ; English Chro- 
nicles of the reigns of Richard II-Henry VI, ed. 
Davies (Camden Society), pp. 77, 78, 84, &c. ; 
Escheat Rolls, iv. 272, 327, &c. ; Gregory's Chro- 
nicle of London, ed. Gairdner (Camden Society), 
pp. 209, 217 ; Hall's Chronicle, ed. Ellis (1809), 
pp. 250-1, 253-5 ; Grafton's Chronicle, ed. Ellis, 
i. 671, 676; Holinshed's Chronicle, ed. Ellis, 
iii. 268, 277 ; Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. Ellis, p. 
639 ; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. 425, ii. 5, 6 ; 
Registrum Abbatiae Johannis Whethamstede, i. 
299, 393 ; Report on the Dignity of a Peer, 
vol. iii. The authority for the details of Lord 
Clifford's brutal treatment of the Duke of York 
and the Earl of Rutland is Hall, who, however, 
it must be remembered, wrote from eighty to 
ninety years after the battle of Wakefield. From 
Hall the story passed to Holinshed, and from 
him to Hume and our later English historians.] 

T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, MARGARET, COUNTESS 
OP CUMBERLAND (1560 P-1616), was the 
wife of George Clifford, third earl of Cum- 
berland [q. v.], to whom she was married, 
24 June 1577, at St. Mary Overies (now St. 
Saviour's), South wark. She was the third and 
youngest daughter of Francis Russell, third 
earl of Bedford, and was born at Exeter about i 
7 July 1560 (WHITAZER, p. 342). Her hus- 
band's intrigue with a certain court lady led to 
his separation from his wife, who, however, ! 
together with her daughter Anne [see CLIF- 
FORD, ANNE], was present at his death 30 Oct. 
1605. The next few years were occupied in 
collecting documents in support of the claim 
of her daughter to the family estates, which 
the last earl had, by a will dated only eleven 
days before his death, left to his brother 
Francis and his heirs male. On 12 Oct. 1607 
the dowager countess and her daughter were 
denied entrance to Skipton Castle. She died 
at Brougham Castle in Westmoreland 24 May 
1616, leaving the great lawsuit to be settled 
by a compromise dated 14 March 1617. Her 
daughter was present at her burial, which 
took place 7 J uly in Appleby Church, where 
her monument may still be seen. 

The Countess Margaret seems to have been 



an affectionate mother. Her daughter Anne 
describes her as a ' woman of greate naturall 
wit and judgment, of a swete disposition, truly 
religious and virtuous, and endowed with a 
large share of those four moral virtues, pru- 
dence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. The 
death of her two sonnes did so much afflict 
her as that ever after the booke of Jobe was 
her dayly companion.' She was also a lady 
with some pretension to literary tastes. In 
her portrait as it is preserved in the great 
family picture, drawn up for her husband in 
June 1589, she is represented holding the 
Psalms in her hands. A manuscript note 
in a Bodleian copy of Walpole's ' Noble 
Authors ' ascribes to her ' some beautiful 
verses in the stile of Spencer.' They are said 
to appear on the monument of Richard Can- 
dish of Suffolk, in Hornsey Church, Middle- 
sex (Auct. Bodleian. D. Ill, pp. 172-3). Per- 
haps her highest praise is to be found in the 
pains with which she educated her daughter 
Anne for her high station. Samuel Daniel 
[q. v.], whom she engaged as her daughter's 
tutor from her tenderest years, dedicated to 
her several poems. 

[The principal authorities for the preceding 
life are the inscriptions on the great family 
pictures at Skipton and Appleby. These, with 
many monumental inscriptions of great value 
for dates and genealogies, may be found in 
Whitaker's Craven, ed. Morant, 1878. See also 
A True Memoriall of the Life of Lady Anne 
Clifford, dictated by herself, in the York volume 
of the Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute 
(1846); Dugdale's Baronage, i. 345; Daniel's 
poems in Chalmers's English Poets, iii. 529-32.] 

T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, MARTIN (d. 1677), master 
of the Charterhouse, was probably connected 
with the family of Thomas,lord Clifford [q.v.], 
a member of the cabal administration. He 
was educated at Westminster, and in 1640 
proceeded to Cambridge, taking his bachelor's 
degree as a member of Trinity College three 
years later (Cole MS. xlv. f. 265). What 
became of him during the civil war is not 
known with any certainty ; W 7 ood notes that 
' one Martin Clifford was lieutenant in Tho- 
mas, earl of Ossory's regiment, 1660.' After 
the Restoration he hung about town, mainly 
supported by the dissolute noblemen of the 
court, among whom his licentious tastes and 
powers of buffoonery were especially accept- 
able. He was employed by the Duke of 
Buckingham, along with Samuel Butler and 
Thomas Sprat, in producing the famous ' Re- 
hearsal.' Clifford's precise share in the com- 
position is of course uncertain ; the fact of 
his co-operation is noticed in the fourth stanza 
of the ' Session of Poets : ' 



Clifford 



6 9 



Clifford 



Intelligence was brought, the Court being set, 
That a Play Tripartite was very near made ; 
Where malicious Matt Clifford and spiritual 

Spratt 

Were join'd with their Duke, a Peer of the 
Trade. 



, Miscellany Poems, 5th edit. pt. ii. 
p. 89.) 

Clifford attacked Dryden in a series of let- 
ters, written at different periods and probably 
circulated by transcripts, for the only known 
edition was issued long after the author's 
death with the title ' Notes upon Mr. Dry- 
den's Poems in Four Letters, by M. Clifford, 
late master of the Charterhouse, London ; to 
which are annexed some Reflections upon the 
Hind and Panther, by another hand (Tho- 
mas Brown), 4to, London, 1687. The style 
of these paltry effusions makes it difficult to 
believe that the writer had been a distin- 
guished university man ; the criticism is 
chiefly verbal. Dryden made no reply, much 
to Clifford's chagrin, for in the last letter 
dated from the Charterhouse, 1 July 167:2, 
and signed with his name, he writes : ' Since 
I cannot draw you to make a reply to me, 
assure your self that after this letter you 
shall hear no further from me.' 

In 1671 Clifford was elected master of the 
Charterhouse, a post which he doubtless owed 
to the friendship of Buckingham. He died 
on 10 Dec. 1677, and was buried on the 13th 
in the chancel of St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, not, as Wood asserts, in the chapel of the 
Charterhouse. Buckingham intended to have 
erected a memorial to him, as he had already 
done to Cowley, their common friend, ' but 
dying, it was turned upon the carver's hands.' 
During the time of his mastership Clifford 
published anonymously ' A Treatise of Hu- 
mane Reason,' 12mo, London, 1674, which 
was reprinted the following year, and again 
in 1691 with the author's name on the title- 
page. ' One or two months after its publi- 
cation the Bishop of Ely (Laney) was dining 
in Charterhouse with many " persons of qua- 
lity," and the conversation during dinner 
turned on that book. The bishop, no doubt 
unaware that he was in the presence of the 
writer of it, remarked that " 'twas no matter 
if all the copies were burnt and the author 
with them," " because it made every man's 
private fancy judge of religion." ' The trea- 
tise was answered the year following its issue 
by ; Observations upon a Treatise,' attributed 
to the Rev. Edward Stephens, and by ' Plain- 
Dealing. ... By A. M., a Countrey Gen- 
tleman.' The last-named tract was in turn 
dealt with by Albertus Warren, who, at the 
end of his ' Apology,' 1680, has left a curious 
description of Clifford's person and habits. 



To Clifford, Sprat addressed his ' Life of Cow- 
ley.' His portrait, engraved by Vandergucht, 
faces the ' Life ' in the octavo editions of the 
poet's complete works. 

In the 'Nouvelle Biographie Generate ' 
(x. 862), Clifford is amusingly described as 
' theologien anglais, de 1'ordre des Chartreux,' 
who, it is added, ' fut prieur de son ordre.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 999-1000, 
iv. 209, 728 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. (1852), 
pp. Ill, 115, 116, 532; Dryden's Works, ed. 
Scott, 2nd edit., i. 136, 154-5; W.Haig Brown's 
Charterhouse, Past and Present, pp. 1 2 1 -2 ; Gran- 
ger's Biog. Hist, of England, 2nd edit., iv. 96-7 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G. 

CLIFFORD, RICHARD (d. 1421),bishop 
of Worcester and London, is said to have 
been grandson of Thomas de Clifford, younger 
son of Robert de Clifford II (d. 1344), third 
baron of Westmoreland (WHITAKER ; Duo- 
DALE, i. 340). It is, however, possible that 
he was the son of Sir Lewis Clifford (1336 ?- 
1404), as Godwin asserts on manuscript au- 
thority (p. 187, cf. Scrope and Grosvenor 
Roll, i. 197, ii. 427, 429, &c.) He makes his 
first appearance on 1 March 1385 as canon of 
St. Stephen's Chapel Royal in Westminster. 
When the appellant lords impeached Sir 
Simon Burley [q. v.], Clifford found himself 
involved in the same charges, and was impri- 
soned in Rochester Castle 4 Jan. 1388. Five 
months later (3 June) the commons made a 
special petition that his name, with that of 
Henry Bo wet [q. v.] and a few others, should 
be excluded from the list of pardons. From 
this it would appear that he was one of the 
favourites of Richard II, an opinion which is 
strengthened by the fact that he is first clerical 
executor of this king's will, dated 16 April 
1398 or 1399 (Parl. Rolls, ii. 248-9 ; WALSING- 
HAM, Ypod. Neustri<e,Tp.355; RTMER, vii. 567, 
viii. 77). He must, however, have been re- 
leased very soon, as on 4 June 1388 he ap- 
pears as guardian of the privy seal, an office 
which he seems to have held till the end of 
the reign (RYMEK, viii. 77; Privy Council 
Proceedings, i. 80-1), and even during the 
first year and a half of Henry IV (ib. p. 129). 
He was a great pluralist, and was apparently 
canon and prebendary of Salisbury (Blebury) 
till his elevation to a bishopric (22 Sept. 
1401) ; prebendary of Fenton, in the diocese 
of York (17 Oct. 1386 ; reappointed 31 Dec. 
1395) ; prebendary of Leighton Buzzard 
(9 Aug. 1392), and of Cadington Major in 
the diocese of London (10 Dec. 1397) ; arch- 
deacon of Canterbury (March 1397) ; dean 
of York (26 March 1398) ; prebendary of 
Riccall (York, 24 April 1398), and of Norwell 
Palishall (Southwell, from 25 Sept, 1415) ; 



Clifford 



70 



Clifford 



prebendary of Islington (17 March 1418) ; 
archdeacon of Middlesex (2 May 1418). 

About April 1401 Clifford was promoted 
by papal provision to the see of Bath and 
Wells; but, as the king refused him the 
temporalities, he was transferred to Wor- 
cester (19 Aug. 1401), and his original 
bishopric given to Henry Bowet (LB NEVE, 
i. 42 ; GODWIN, pp. 378-9). In 1402 he helped 
to conduct Blanche, the eldest daughter of 
Henry IV, to Cologne, and there married her 
to Louis, son of Rupert, king of the Romans 
(GREEN, iii. 326). Three of his letters writ- 
ten about this period are preserved (SMITH, 
Worcester, pp. 100-1 ; WILKINS, Concilia, iii. 
278 ; COXE, Cat. C. C. C. ii. 26). From Wor- 
cester Gregory XII translated him to Lon- 
don by a bull dated 22 June 1407, the same 
year in which Henry Bowet was translated 
to York (LE NEVE, ii. 294 ; Ypod. Neustr. 
p. 423). On 23 and 25 Sept, 1413 he was 
present in the chapter-house of St. Paul's 
at Sir John Oldcastle's trial for heresy, and 
it is from the Archbishop of Canterbury's 
elaborate letter to him that we derive our 
knowledge of the details of this great case. 
Two years later (17 Aug. 1415) he assisted 
the same prelate's successor, when John Clay- 
don, the London Lollard, was handed over 
to the civil power (RYMER, ix. 61 ; WIL- 
KINS, iii. 371). On 28 May 1415 he was or- 
dered to array his clergy against the enemies 
of the king and church. Little more than a 
year later (20 July 1416) he was appointed 
one of the English ambassadors to the coun- 
cil of Constance, and he had certainly quitted 
England on this service by 16 Dec. (RTMEK, 
ix. 254, 371, 420). While at Constance he 
received at least one letter of instruction 
written by the king's own hand. In the de- 
liberations he took a very prominent part, 
and was even proposed for the papacy. It 
was he who at the ' early morning ' conclave 
of 11 Nov. 1417 uttered the words ' Ego Ri- 
cardus episcopus Londoniensis accedo ad do- 
minum meum cardinalem de Columpna,' and 
thus secured the election of Martin V. On 
Sunday, 31 Jan. 1417, he entertained the Duke 
of Bavaria, the king of the Romans, and the 
Burgrave (RYMER, ix. 436, 466 ; Ypodigma 
Neustr. pp. 475-6). 

While bishop of London Clifford took a 
considerable part in matters not strictly 
ecclesiastical. He was acting as the arch- 
bishop's deputy when the convocation held 
at St. Paul's (Corpus Christi day, 1413) 
granted a tenth to the king, and was present 
at the AVestminster great council (16 April 
1415) when Henry V determined to recover 
his inheritance in France (WiLKixs, iii. 351 ; 
RYMER, ix. 222). Little more than a month 



before his death he was in communication 
with the archbishop about the privileges of 
Oxford and Cambridge graduates (16 July 
1421). He died 20 Aug. 1421, and was buried 
' under the marble stone where formerly stood 
the shrine of St. Erkenwald ' (WiLKiNS, p. 
401 ; GODWIN, i. 187). It was this bishop 
who (15 Oct. 1414) supplanted the old use 
of St. Paul's by that of Sarum. 

[Wilkins's Concilia, vol. iii. ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
ed. Hardy, vols. i. ii. iii. ; Smith's Worcester 
in ' English Dioceses ; ' Register of St. Paul's, ed. 
Simpson (1873) ; Godwin, De Prsesulibus, ed. 
Richardson (1743) ; Walsingham's Ypodigma 
Neustriae (Rolls Series) ; Coxe's Catalogue of Ox- 
ford MSS. ; for other authorities see CLIFFORD, 
ROBERT DE and ROGER DE.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, ROBERT DE, fifth BARON 
CLIFFORD by tenure, first baron by writ (1273- 
1314), only son of the Roger de Clifford 
who was killed in North Wales in 1282, by 
his wife Isabella, daughter and coheiress of 
Robert de Vipont, was born about Easter 
1273 (History of Westmoreland, Ann. Wint. 
109 ; RISHANGER, 87, 103 ; Ann. Dunst. 291 ; 
Parl. Writs, i. 536 ; Cal. Geneal. 139, 331). 
Clifford was thus left heir to the Clifford 
estates of his grandfather, Roger de Clifford 
[q. v.l, who died in 1285, and to a moiety of 
the Vipont inheritance shared between his 
mother (? d. 29 Nov. 1301) and her sister 
Idonea de Leyborne (Cal. Geneal. 331, 540, 
&c. ; Ann. Wigorn. 550). 

Clifford was summoned to do service by 
proxy for his Northumbrian estates about 

I July 1282, being at that time under age. In 
1285 he is found paying 100/. relief as one 

1 of Ralph Gaugy's heirs, and according to Sir 
Matthew Hale was in the king's employ 
when only nineteen (Parl. Writs, i. 230, 241 ; 
Siege of Carlaverock, 186). It is not, how- 
ever, till 1297 that he comes forward pro- 

i minently. In this year he was appointed 
justice of the forests beyond Trent, an office 
which he still held in April 1300, and appa- 
rently in 1305. In the previous May (1297) 
he had been summoned to attend Edward 
across the sea, but can hardly have done so, 

| as on 12 July he was appointed captain of the 

I Cumberland fortresses and ordered to invade 
Scotland with Henry de Percy (Parl. Writs, 
536 ; Siege of Carl. 186; cf. RYMER, ii. 774). 
In the course of the same year (1297) he was 
made captain and guardian of the Scotch 
marches and the county of Cumberland 

I (18 Oct., 14 Nov.) ; and towards the middle 
of June 1297 as a baron received a personal 

| summons to the York muster for 12 Nov. 1298 
(Parl. Writs, 536). In 1297 he was appointed 
governor of Carlisle ; in 1298 governor of Not- 



Clifford 



Clifford 



tingham Castle; and in February 1301 signed 
the Lincoln letter to the pope as ' castellan 
of Appleby' (ib. NICOLAS, Carlaverock, 186), 
denying the claim that Scotland was a fief 
of the papacy. In 1299 he was deputed with 
Antony Bek [see BEK, ANTONY I] to superin- 
tend the castle garrisons on the marches ; and 
in the same year received his first summons 
to parliament (29 Dec.) His last summons is 
dated 26 Nov. 1313 (Siegeof Carlaverock, 186; 
Hist. Peerage, 111). 

In the intervening years he had been dis- 
tinguishing himself by his military achieve- 
ments, which seem to have opened with a bril- 
liant raid into Scotland, immediately before 
Christmas 1297 (RISHANGER, 183) ; though, 
according to a much later chronicler, he had 
been present at the battle of Dunbar on 
27 April 1296 (KNTGHTON, 2480). From 
this date he seems to have been actively em- 
ployed on the Scotch marches in almost every 
year till his death. His exertions brought 
about the fall of the fortress of Carlaverock 
in July 1300, which the king in return en- 
trusted to his guardianship (Siege of Carlav. 
pp. 27, 28, 76, 86). In 2 Edward II he was 
again warden of the Scotch marches, and on 
20 Aug. 1308 was appointed captain and chief 
guardian of all Scotland on either side of the 
Firths in company with the Earl of Angus. He 
was reappointed to the same office on 15 Dec. 
1309, having in the previous October been 
despatched against Scotland with the Earl 
of Hereford and Henry de Beaumont. On 
4 April 1311 he was nominated guardian 
south of the firths, and on 18 June was a 
commissioner of array for Westmoreland and 
Cumberland (DUGDALE, 338 ; Parl. Writs, 
687-8). 

In return for these services he received 
many grants and lucrative posts. On 15 Oct. 
1306 he was enfeoffed in Robert Bruce's for- 
feited manor of Hert and Hertlepool, a grant 
which in later years embroiled the Cliffords 
with the bishops of Durham, who claimed 
that these estates, being situated within their 
county palatine, should revert to them on the 
treason of the original holder (Reg. Pal. Dun. 
iii. 58, 59, iv. 261). Skelton, in Cumber- 
land, he received on the forfeiture of Chris- 
topher de Seton (DTJGDALE, 338; Escheat 
Rolls, i. 260, cf. 106). Skipton Castle was 
given him in exchange for his claims in the 
vale of Monmouth on 7 Sept, 1310 (Hist, of 
Westmoreland, i. 274 ; cf. PALGRAVE, Ka- 
lendar, 34) ; and Edward I is said to have 
granted him the Scotch lands of William 
Douglas in satisfaction of a claim for 500/. a 
year. According to Barbour it was this grant 
that made Sir James Douglas side with Bruce ; 
and the Scotch rhyme has more than one 



story of the vengeance taken by the ' good 
Lord Douglas ' on his English rival ' the Clif- 
ford.' Nor were the gifts of Edward II less 
munificent. To those already mentioned may 
be added the marshalry of England (3 Sept. 
1307), and the several grants of 3 & 4 Ed. IE 
of which Sir Harris Nicolas makes mention 
(RTMER, iii. 9 ; Siege of Carlav. 186). By 
a special clause in the ordinances of 1311 
the royal grants to Clifford were exempt 
from the general restoration decreed (Chron. 
of Ed. I and II, i. 199). He was also ap- 
pointed guardian of Norham Castle on the 
eve of the Assumption 1314. 

Clifford, who in 1302, 1303, and 1305 
was acting as ' custos ' for the Bishop of 
Durham, was deputed to inquire into the 
question of the forfeiture of Balliol's manors 
of Gaynesford and Castle Bernard (11 Dec. 
1305). He was summoned to the great par- 
liament of Carlisle (January 1307), and is 
said to have been present at Edward I's death- 
bed, where he received that monarch's dying 
instructions relative to the banishment of 
Gaveston (Reg. Pal Dun. iv. 795-7 ; Parl. 
Writs, i. 536; NICOLAS, Carlav. 186). In 
1307-8 he was invited to be present at Ed- 
ward IPs coronation, was reappointed go- 
vernor of Nottingham Castle, and in the early 
half of the latter year entered into a league 
with Antony Bek, bishop of Durham [q. v.J, 
to preserve the king's rights (Parl. Writs, 
617-18 ; DTJGDALE, 338). He seems to have 
been a favourite with Edward II. He signed 
the Stamford letter of the barons to the pope 
on 6 Aug. 1309 (Chron. of Ed. I and II, i. 162). 
His name occurs in one list among those 
of the ordainers (ib. 172 ; but cf. STTJBBS, ii. 
327-8). That he had as yet hardly thrown 
himself definitely into the opposition is shown 
by his declaration of 17 March 1310 that the 
king's concessions should not be construed 
into a precedent (Chron. 171) ; while the or- 
dinance alluded to in the last paragraph 
seems to show that towards the end of 1311 
(28 Oct.) he was not viewed with distrust 
by the barons. Next year, however, he is 
found occupying a more decided position. On 
the rumour of Gaveston's return he was as- 
signed to guard the northern counties against 
any collusion between the favourite and Ro- 
bertBruce (c. January 1312). On 4 May he 
entered Newcastle with an armed force, in 
company with the Earl of Lancaster ; and a 
fortnight later he was besieging Gaveston in 
Scarborough Castle (Chron. of Ed. I and II,\. 
204; Parl. Writs, 688 ; RTMER, ii. 328). After 
Gaveston's death he was appointed one of the 
representatives of the baronial party, and 
as such had a safe-conduct for an interview 
with the papal legates before Christmas 1312 . 



Clifford 



Clifford 



Lancaster, Hereford, and Warwick, however, 
refused to confirm his arrangements on tech- 
nical grounds ; on 16 Oct. 1313 a pardon was 
granted him for his share in the murder of 
Gaveston (ib. 221, 443, 688, &c.) 

On 23 Dec. 1313 Clifford was summoned 
to join the muster at Berwick for the Scots 
expedition of June 1314. When about the 
beginning of Lent (c. 20 Feb.) 1314 came 
the news of the distress of the Stirling garri- 
son, Clifford was one of the few great lords 
on whose loyalty Edward felt that he could 
rely. He was hurriedly excused from at- 
tendance at the parliament summoned for 
21 April, and bidden to muster his men at 
Berwick by the same date (Parl. Writs, 688 ; 
Chron. Ed. II, 201). On the eve of Bannock- 
burn, Clifford commanded the eight hun- 
dred chosen warriors sent to attempt the 
relief of Stirling. The account of his defeat 
in this effort by a small force of Scotch under 
Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray, is one of 
the most picturesque incidents in the siege 
of Stirling. Next day (24 June 1314) he 
was slain in the great battle : ' turpiter in 
fugam convertitur ' is the phrase of one 
chronicler. Bruce, with characteristic gene- 
rosity, sent back his dead body, like that of 
the Earl of Gloucester, to the English king 
(BARBOTJR, xi. 513-655, xii. 29, 99-164; 
Chron. Ed. I and II, ii. 202; TROKELOWE, 
85, 87). 

Clifford married (13 Nov. 1295) Matilda 
or Maud (d. 1327, Escheat Rolls, ii. 4), 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas de Clare, 
brother of Gilbert de Clare, last earl of Glou- 
cester but one. This Maud, his executrix, 
after having had his will proved on 18 Sept. 
1314, was seized and carried off while on a 
journey by James Iseys, guardian of Castle 
Bernard, c. 11 Nov. 1315, and is said to have 
afterwards married Robert de Welles, a 
baron of Lincolnshire {Ann. Wigorn. 523; 
Chron. Ed. I and II, 48 ; Beg. Pal. Dun. 
iv. 607 ; DTJGDALE, 339). Clifford was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son Roger, born on 
2 Feb. 1299 (WHITAKER, 311, &c.), who, after 
joining the insurgent barons in 1321-2, is vari- 
ously reported to have been executed at York 
(23 March 1322) immediately after the battle 
of Boroughbridge, and to have survived till the 
commencement of Edward Ill's reign {Reg. 
Pal. Dun. iv. 1051 ; Chron. Ed. I and II, 
i. 302, ii. 77-8, with which cf. WHITAKER, 
348; DTJGDALE, 339; Escheat Rolls, ii. 5). 
A second son, Robert de Clifford, held the 
estates fromabout 1327,if not earlier, to about 
1344 (Reg. Pal. Dun. iv. 182; Escheat Rolls, 
v. 118). 

Clifford was one of the greatest barons 
of the age. In addition to the estates of his 



grandfather, he inherited from his mother, 
Isabella de Vipont (d. 1291), a moiety of 
the barony of Westmoreland. He thus be- 
came possessed of Brougham, Burgh, Pen- 
dragon, and perhaps Appleby castles (for 
a full list of his manors see DUGDALE, pp. 339- 
340). By agreement with his aunt Idonea 
he is said to have enjoyed all the Vipont 
estates in Westmoreland during his life ; 
but it was not till after her death that his 
son Robert united all the inheritance of this 
family (Hist, of Westmoreland, 274, &c. ; 
DUGDALE, 339). 

Clifford was one of Edward I's most vigor- 
ous soldiers and administrators. Rishanger 
describes him as ' miles illustris.' The author 
of the ' Siege of Carlaverock ' is more em- 
phatic in his praise. Clifford's valour at this 
siege and his long services for Edward I 
and II seem to justify the eulogy. He was 
the founder of the north-country branch of 
the Clifford family (RISHANGER, pp. 97, 
185 ; Siege of Carlaverock (text), pp. 27, 
28,76,86). 

[Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. ; Whitaker's 
History of Craven, ed. Morant, 1877; Nicolas's 
Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope ; Siege of Car- 
laverock, ed. Nicolas ; Nicolson and Burn's His- 
tory of Westmoreland ; Parliamentary Writs, 
vols. i. and ii. div. iii. ; Calendarium Genealo- 
gicum, ed. Koberts ; Kalendar of Exchequer, &c. 
ed. Palgrave; Escheat Eolls, vols. i. ii. ; Rotuli 
Parliament, vol. i. ; Tres Scriptores Historise 
Dunelm. ed. Raine (Surtees Society) ; Eymer's 
Foedera, ed. 1704, vol. ii. ; Barbour's Bruce, ed. 
Skeat (Surtees Society) ; Knyghton ap. Twys- 
den's Decem Scriptores. The following volumes 
are quoted from the Eolls Series : Annales 
Wigorn., Winton., Dunstapl. ap. Annales Monas- 
tic!, ed. Lnard ; Chronicles of Edward I and II, 
ed. Stubbs; Eisbanger, ed. Eiley; Eegistrum 
Palatin. Dunelm., ed. Hardy.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, ROGER DE (d. 1285?), 
soldier and judge, was the son of Roger de 
Clifford of Tenbury, second son of Walter de 
Clifford, brother of Fair Rosamond, by Sybil, 
daughter of Robert de Ewyas, and relict 
first of Robert, lord Tregoz, and then of 
William de Newmarch. He was a minor' at 
the date of his father's death (1231 ?). In 
1259 he was among the suite of Henry III 
in France during the negotiations for the 
treaty of peace which was concluded in that 
year with Louis IX. Three years later sus- 
picions of his loyalty were aroused by a letter 
which, as representing the marcher barons, 
he sent to the king urging upon him the ob- 
servance of the provisions of Oxford, and he 
was forbidden to joust or appear in arms, 
particularly during the king's absence over- 
seas, without a royal license. The effect of 



Clifford 



73 



Clifford 



this injunction was, however, neutralised by 
a commission issued almost simultaneously, 
and doubtless at the instance of de Mont- 
fort, by which he was placed in command 
of the royal castles of Ludgershall and Marl- 
borough. In 1263 he joined the insurgent 
barons under de Montfort, ravaging theWelsh 
marches with Roger de Leybourne and tak- 
ing Hereford and Bristol, and was excom- 
municated. The following year he returned 
to his allegiance and played a prominent part 
in the siege of Nottingham, taking prisoner 
Simon de Montfort the younger. He was re- 
warded with the command of the castle of 
Gloucester and the shrievalty of the county, ! 
and with the post of justice of the royal 
forests south of the Trent. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Lewes, but was 
among those who were released on condition 
of appearing in parliament when summoned. 
The liberty thus gained he employed in rais- 
ing an army for the king in the Welsh 
inarches, and with Roger de Mortimer suc- 
ceeded in reducing Gloucester, Bridgnorth, 
and Marlborough. Cited by the parliament 
to give an account of his conduct and failing 
to appear, he was declared an exile. In the 
spring of 1265 the timely appearance of a 
force under the joint command of Clifford 
and Roger de Leybourne prevented the re- 
capture of Prince Edward, then a fugitive 
from the castle of Hereford. Clifford also 
greatly distinguished himself at the battle of 
Evesham in August of the same year; it was 
to him that John Fitz-John, one of the few 
English supporters of de Montfort who left 
the field alive, owed his preservation. In 
recognition of his services the king released 
him from a debt of 399Z. 17s., granted him 
very extensive estates in Warwickshire and 
Leicestershire, and put him in possession, 
jointly with Roger de Leybourne, of certain 
estates in Westmoreland which had belonged 
to Robert de Vipont (Veteri Ponte). Clif- 
ford obtained (1269-70) the hand of Isabella, 
Vipont's elder daughter and coheiress, for 
his son Roger, and Leybourne married her 
younger sister Idonea. There is evidence, 
however, that Clifford and Leybourne soon 
began to quarrel about their respective shares 
of the property. In 1270 Clifford joined the 
crusade under Prince Edward, his son Roger 
being temporarily substituted for him as justice 
of the forests, and he was one of the executors 
of the will made by the prince at Acre in 1272, 
and a witness to the contract executed by Ed- 
ward at Sordua in Gascony in the following 
year, by which he agreed to marry his eldest 
daughter to the eldest son of Peter of Arra- 
gon. It was probably in the same year that 
Clifford married in France a lady who is 



described by Dugdale as the Countess of 
Lauretania. The lady died in 1301, and 
was buried in Worcester Cathedral. Clif- 
ford's first wife was probably Hawyse or 
Avicia, daughter of John Boterell, a grant 
of whose hand his father had obtained from 
the king in 1230. On his return to England 
in 1274 he was at once sent with William 
de Beauchamp into Wales with a commis- 
sion to examine into the state of the border 
and to exact reparation for breaches of the 
peace. In the autumn of 1275 he was again 
in France, being commissioned to explain to 
Philip Edward's reason for refusing to act as 
arbitrator in a dispute between the Duke of 
Burgundy and the Count of Nivernois, which 
it was desired to refer to him. We find him 
appointed governor of Erdesleigh in Here- 
fordshire in the following year, and justice 
of Wales in 1279, being invested, as we gather 
from Rishanger, with a jurisdiction extend- 
ing over the whole of that country. On the 
outbreak of the last Welsh insurrection he 
was surprised by David, brother of Llewe- 
lyn, in Hawarden Castle on Palm Sunday 
(22 March 1281-2), the garrison being put to 
the sword, and taken prisoner, though not 
before he had been severely (according to 
one chronicler mortally) wounded. He was 
carried to Snowdon. In the war which fol- 
lowed his son Roger was drowned on St. 
Leonard's day (6 Nov. 1282) while crossing 
a bridge of boats over the Menai Straits, a 
sudden attack of the Welsh having thrown 
the English forces into confusion. Clifford 
probably died about 1285. His estate being 
in debt to the crown, execution was issued on 
his goods in 1286, the jewels of his widow the 
countess being exempted by the writ. Before 
his death he had made over to the city of 
London certain property which he held in 
the Jewry. 

[Ypodigma Neustrise (Rolls Ser.), 153, 155, 
158, 173, 510; Kishanger (Eolls Ser.), 13, 21, 
30-1, 34, 97, 99, 103, (Camden Society) 18, 125; 
Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Ser.), ii. 221-2, 
226, 234, iii. 225, 232, iv. 172, 234-5; Annal. 
Monast. (Rolls Ser.), ii. 107, 109, 376, 397, iii. 
292, iv. 459, 481, 485 ; Hoare's Wiltshire, Hd. 
of Ambresbury, 84; Devon's Issues of the Exch. 
(Hen. Ill-Hen. VI), p. 93 ; Rot. Fin. (Roberts), 
ii. 182,242, 410; Cal. Rot, Chart. 92; Excerpta, 
e Rot. Fin., i. 219, ii. 520; Rot. Hund., i. 186, 
ii. 140, 270; Rymer's Fcedera (2nd edit.), i. 777, 
804, (ed. Clarke) i. pt. i. 434, 449, 455, 465, 483, 
pt. ii. 504, 506, 510, 530, 537, 558, 576,608; 
Eyton's Shropshire, v. 146, 163 ; Nichols's Leices- 
tershire, i. 178, 181; Dugdale's Warwickshire 
(Thomas), pp. 399, 556, 899, 1 009 ;Pierre de Lang- 
toft (Rolls Ser.), ii. 178; Eulogium Historiarum 
(Rolls Ser.), iii. 123, 129, 136, 145; Cal. Rot. 
Pat. 42 ; Parl. Writs, i. 222 ; John de Oxenides 



Clifford 



74 



Clifford 



(Rolls Ser.), 236 ; Nicolas's Testam.Vetusta, p. 8 ; 
Mun. Gild. Londin. (Rolls Ser.), i. 555 ; Chron. 
Edw. I (Rolls Ser.), i. 89 ; Nicolas's Hist. Peerage 
(Courthope); Dugdale's Baronage, i. 135; Foss's 
Judges of England.] J. M. R. 

CLIFFORD, ROGER DE, ninth LORD 
CLIFFORD, fifth BARON OF WESTMORELAND 
(1333-1389), was born 10 July 1333 (Ser. 
and Gros. Roll, text, i. 197). His father 
(d. 20 May 1344) was Robert de Clifford, 
second son of Robert de Clifford (1273-1314) 
[q. v.], the founder of the northern branch of 
this family ; his mother (d. 25 July 1362) was 
Isabella, daughter of Maurice, lord Berkeley. 
He succeeded his elder brother, Robert, pro- 
bably in or before 1352, and certainly before 
10 Aug. 1354, on which day he made proof 
of his age (DUGDALE, i. 240 ; WHITAKER, 
pp. 310-11; Hist. Peerage, 117; Hist, of 
Westmoreland, i. 279; Escheat Rolls, ii. 118, 
248). 

Clifford entered on his military career 
when hardly more than twelve, being armed 
at the time of Jacob van Arteveldt's death 
on 17 July 1345 (Ser. and Gros. Roll, i. 197). 
In August 1350 he was engaged in the sea- 
fight with the Spaniards nearWinchelsea ; and 
in 1355 he accompanied his father-in-law, 
Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, on 
the expedition to Gascony (WHITAKER, 314- 
315 ; DUGDALE, i. 340). He was again serv- 
ing in Gascony in 1359, 1360, and in the 
French expedition of the Duke of Lancaster 
in 1373. A document dated at Brougham 
10 July 1369 shows him engaging the ser- 
vices of Richard le Fleming and his company 
for a year. In the same way he retained Sir 
Roger de Mowbray ; and was himself retained, 
with his company of nearly eighty men, by 
Edmund, earl of March, on 25 Sept. 1379 : 
(DUGDALE, i. 340 ; WHITAKER, 317). On 
15 March 1361 he was called upon to assist 
Lionel, duke of Clarence, in his great Irish 
expedition on pain of forfeiting his Irish 
estates. A similar summons to defend his 
lands in Ireland was issued on 28 July 1368 ! 
(RTMER, vi. 319, 595). His chief services, 
however, were rendered on the Scotch borders. 
In July 1370 he was appointed one of the 
wardens of the west marches ; but according 
to Sir H. Nicolas he is found defending the 
northern borders fourteen years earlier (Rx- 
MER, vi. 657 ; DUGDALE, i. 340 ; Scrope Roll, 
ii. 469, &c.) Resigned the truce with Scot- 
land on 24 Aug. 1369, and was warden of 
both east and west marches on five occasions 
between 1380 and 1385. In 1377 he was made 
sheriff of Cumberland and governor of Car- 
lisle, a city whose walls he appears to have 
inspected and found weak in the preceding 



year. To the last two offices he was reap- 
pointed on Richard II's accession. He was 
made a commissioner of array against the 
Scots (26 Feb. 1372), and one of a body of 
commissioners to correct truce-breakers and 
decide border disputes 26 May 1373, having 
sat on a similar commission in September 
1367. In August 1385 he accompanied 
Richard's expedition against Scotland with 
sixty men-at-arms and forty archers. His 
last border sendee seems to have been in Oc- 
tober 1388, when he was ordered to adopt 
measures of defence for the Scotch marches 
(RTMER, vi. 570, 637, 714, vii. 9, 475; 
NICOLAS, Ser. and Gros. Roll, ii. 469, &c.) 

Clifford was summoned to all parliaments 
from 15 Dec. 1356 to 28 July 1388 (DuG- 
DALE, i. 340 ; Hist. Peerage, 117). He was 
trier of petitions in many parliaments from 
November 1373 to September 1377. In 
August 1374 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners to settle the dispute between 
Henry de Percy and William, earl of Douglas, 
relative to the possession of Jedworth Forest. 
In the parliament of November 1381 he was 
member of a committee to confer with the 
House of Commons. On 12 Oct. 1386 he gave 
evidence in the great Scrope and Grosvenor 
case at St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. 
Two years later (May 1388) he was with. 
Richard, earl of Arundel, in his naval expe- 
dition to Brittany (Ser. and Gros. Roll, i. 
197, ii. 469, &c.; RYMER, vii. 45). He died 
13 July 1389, being then possessed of enor- 
mous estates, chiefly situated in Yorkshire, 
Northumberland, Cumberland, and West- 
moreland, but spread over several other 
counties (DUGDALE, i. 341 ; Escheat Rolls, 
iii. 113). 

Clifford married Maud or Matilda, daugh- 
ter of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of War- 
wick, who perhaps died in 1402-3 (cf. Es- 
cheat Rolls, iii. 286). By her he had two 
sons, Thomas, his successor (d. 1391 ?) [q. v.j ; 
and, as is said, Sir William Clifford, the gover- 
nor of Berwick (d. 1419), and three daugh- 
ters: Mary, who married Sir Philip Went- 
worth of Wentworth, Yorkshire ; Margaret, 
who married Sir John Melton, knight ; and 
Katherine, the wife of Ralph, lord Greystock. 
Dugdale gives him a third son, the Lollard, 
Sir Lewis Clifford (d. 1404), whom, however, 
Sir H. Nicolas shows to have been probably 
his brother, but certainly not his son (DUG- 
DALE, i. 340-2 ; WHITAKER, 314-16 ; NICO- 
LAS, Ser. and Gros. Roll, ii. 427, &c.) The 
genealogical table in Whitaker gives Clifford 
two brothers, John de Clifford and Thomas 
de Clifford, said to have been the ancestor of 
Richard de Clifford, bishop of London [q. v.] ; 
also three sisters. 



Clifford 75 



Clifford 



[Whitaker's Historyof Craven (ed. 1877) con- 
tains copious extracts from the account of the 
Clifford family drawn up by Sir Matthew Hale 
in the seventeenth century; together with a 
genealogical table facing p. 311 ; ScropeandGros- 
venor Eoll, ed. by Sir Harris Nicolas, of which 
vol. i. contains the text and vol. ii. lives of many 
of the witnesses, compiled by the editor ; for 
other references see CLIFFORD, ROBERT DE.] 

T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, ROSAMOND (FAIR ROSA- 
MOND) (d. 1176 ?), mistress of Henry II, was 
the daughter of Walter de Clifford [q. v.], and 
granddaughter of Richard FitzPonce, the 
ancestor of the Clifford family. There are 
reasons for believing that Walter was already 
married by 1138. Hence his daughter Rosa- 
mond may possibly have been born, as is often 
asserted, before 1140. 

The surname Clifford does not seem to 
have been ascribed to Fair Rosamond till 
the publication of the first edition of Stow's 
' Chronicle of England ' (1580), where she is 
called ' Rosamond, the faire daughter of Wal- 
ter, lord Clifford.' But there can be little or 
no doubt of Rosamond's parentage. In the 
' Hundred Rolls of Ed. I' (ii. 93, 94) we find 
the verdict of the jurors of Corf ham running 
as follows : 'Dicunt quod [Corf ham erat in] 
antique dominico Regum, set Henricus Rex 
pater Johannis Regis dedit [Waltero] de 
Clyfford pro amore Rosamundse filise suae.' 
Hence, at least as early as 2 Ed. I (1274), 
it was already the popular story on a Clifford 
manor that Rosamond Clifford had been the 
mistress of Henry II. 

No contemporary writer mentions the le- 
gends commonly associated with the name of 
Rosamond, most of which prove to be popular 
myths. Giraldus Cambrensis, writing at the 
close of the twelfth century, in his treatise ' De 
Principis Institutione,' tells us that Henry II, 
after having imprisoned his wife Eleanor, be- 
gan to live in open adultery with some one 
who can hardly have been any one else than 
Rosamond : ' [Rex] qui adulter antea fuerat 
occultus effectus postea manifestus nonmundi 
(jiiidem rosa juxta falsam et frivolatissimam 
compositionem sed inmundi verius rosa vocata 
palam et impudenter abutendo ' (pp. 21, 22). 
The date of this open connection with Rosa- 
mond is fixed (' biennali vero clade sedata ') 
after the suppression of the great rebellion 
which lasted from March 1173 to September 
1174 (Itin. of Hen. II, pp. 172, 184). Hence 
it must have been about 1174 or 1175 that 
Henry proclaimed his adultery with Rosa- 
mond. Three later writers, John Brompton 
(of uncertain date), Knyghton (c. 1400), and 
Higden (c. 1350), give a similar account with 
additional details of their own. Verbal coinci- 



dences show that they all had access, directly 
or indirectly, to Giraldus Cambrensis. They 
all also probably had access to some other 
common source of information, as they all 
speak of Rosamond's having been hidden away 
from the queen's jealousy at Woodstock in a 
secret chamber of ' Daedalian workmanship,' 
the 'maze' of popular ballads and legend 
(BROMPTON, p. 1151 ; KNYGHTON, p. 2395 ; 
HIGDEN, viii. 52). They likewise declare 
Rosamond to have died soon after her open 
acknowledgment by the king (' sed ilia cito 
obiit '), and to have been buried in the chapter- 
house at Godstow nunnery. Giraldus Cam- 
brensis knows nothing of the Woodstock resi- 
dence or of the Godstow burial ; but the latter 
fact is corroborated by Robert of Gloucester 
(c. 1800), and is established by a charter 
printed in the ' Monasticon,' where Osbert 
FitzHugh (apparently Rosamond's brother- 
in-law) bestows his salt pit at Wick on the 
Godstow nunnery at the petition of Walter 
de Clifford (Rosamond's father) for the salva- 
tion of the souls of his (i.e. Walter's) wife and 
his daughter Rosamond, ' quarum corpora 
ibidem requiescant ' (Monast. iv. 366, No. 13). 
Walter de Clifford, the father, is proved by 
other charters to have endowed the nunnery 
of Godstow ' pro animabus uxoris mese Mar- 
garetae Clifford et nostrae filiae Rosamundse.' 
Benedict of Peterborough and Hoveden tell 
us that Henry II had bestowed many gifts 
on Godstow, ' which had previously been but 
a small nunnery,' for the sake of Rosamond, 
' quaa quondam extiterat arnica Henrici regis.' 
The same chroniclers say that in 1191 St. 
Hugh, the bishop of Lincoln, on a visitation 
of Godstow, found Rosamond's tomb set in 
the middle of the church choir before the altar, 
and adorned with silken hangings, lamps, and 
waxen candles. Disgusted at such profana- 
tion he gave orders for her body to be taken 
up and buried outside the church. It would 
seem that she was reinterred in the chapter- 
house (BROMPTON, HIGDEN, KNYGHTON in 
loc. cit.'), where her tomb had the famous in- 
scription : 

Hie jacet in tumulo Rosa mundi non Rosa munda : 
Non redolet sed olet quae redolere solet. 

Here her bones may have remained till the 
time of the Reformation, about which date we 
learn from Leland (ap. Monasticon, iv. 365) 
that ' Rosamunde's tumbe at Godstowe nun- 
nery was taken up a-late. It is a stone with 
this inscription, Tumba Rosamunda.' Ac- 
cording to the account of Allen, president of 
Gloucester Hall, now Worcester College, who 
died in 1632 in the ninetieth year of his age, 
this stone was broken into pieces ; but tra- 
dition still pointed out ' her stone coffin ' in 



Clifford 



7 6 



Clifford 



Hearne's time (c. 1711), though that writer 
regarded it as ' no more than the fiction of the 
vulgar ' (LELAND, Itin., ed. Hearne, ii. 77 ; 
HEARNE. Will, of Newburgh, iii. 739). 

Rosamond is commonly reported to have 
had two sons by Henry II, viz. Geoffrey, 
archbishop of York, and William Longsword, 
earl of Salisbury. This statement does not 
seem to reach further back than the end of 
the sixteenth or beginning of the seventeenth 
century. Apparently it is unknown to any 
English chronicler or historian before the pub- 
lication of Speed's ' History of Great Britain ' 
in 1611. It has since been accepted by both 
Carte and Eyton. That Geoffrey and William 
cannot both have been sons of Fair Rosamond 
is plain from the fact that the former was 
born in 1151-2 (GiR. CAMBR. iv. 384), whereas 
Rosamond is spoken of as a ' girl ' (puellam) 
more than twenty years later (GiR; CAMBR. 
De Instit. Pnnc. p. 91). We also know from 
Walter Map that Geoffrey's mother was called 
Ykenai or Hikenai (-De Nug. Curial. pp. 228, 
235) ; and it is worth notice that, according 
to Dr. Stubbs, William Longsword laid claim 
to the inheritance of a Sir Roger de Akeny, 
a name which bears a close resemblance to 
Walter Map's Ykenai (GiR. CAMBR., ed. Di- 
mock, vii. p. xxxvii). There is moreover no 
positive evidence in favour of William Long- 
sword's being the son of Rosamond. Before 
his death in 1188 Henry II granted William 
Longsword the manor of Appleby, Lincoln- 
shire, whence it is seen to be improbable that 
he was the son of Rosamond and born, as the 
old legends have it, about 1175. In 1607, 
when Margaret, wife of George Clifford, third 
earl of Cumberland [q. v.], claimed the Clif- 
ford estates for her daughter Anne, and insti- 
tuted proceedings against her brother-in- 
law Francis, another claimant, the Clifford j 
genealogy was investigated, and the theory 
that William Longsword was the son of 
Rosamond Clifford was emphatically stated. 
But the main argument in favour of this 
kinship used on this occasion is vitiated by 
a fatal confusion between the manor of Ap- 
pleby (in Lincolnshire) owned by Longsword 
and his descendants and the manor of the 
same name in Cumberland in the hands of 
the Cliffords. 

The story of Queen Eleanor's vengeance on 
Rosamond makes its first appearance in the 
1 French Chronicle of London/ a fourteenth- 
century document which concludes with 1343 
(17 Ed. III). It is entered under 1263 (47 
Hen. Ill), and is transferred from Eleanor, 
the wife of Henry II, to Eleanor, the wife of 
Henry III. In this, the earliest version of 
the legend, the queen is made to bleed Rosa- 
mond to death in a hot bath at Woodstock, 



and King Henry has the dead body buried at 
Godstow. There is no allusion here to the 
familiar dagger and the poison-cup or to the 
maze, of which the latter alone was known 
to Higden, Knyghton, and Brompton. An- 
other of the Rosamond legends, that of the 
silken clue, occurs first in Fabyan's ' Chroni- 
cle ' (ed. Ellis, pp. 276-7). After describing 
the ' howse of wonder workyng or Daedalus' 
werke which is to mean, after moost ex- 
posytours, an howse wrought lyke unto a 
knot in a garden called a maze, 7 he adds, ' the 
comon fame tellyth that lastly the quene 
wane to her [i.e. Rosamond] by a clewe of 
threde or sylke and delte with her in such 
maner that she ly ved not long after. Of the 
maner of her deth spekyth not myne auctour.' 
From Fabyan this tradition was handed on 
to Grafton and Holinshed, but still without 
the additions of the dagger and the bowl, 
which apparently make their first appear- 
ance together in the Percy ballad bearing 
the date 1611 (but for the poisoned draught, 
cf. DANIEL, Complaint of Rosamond, 1596). 
This part of the story also may possibly 
be of considerably earlier date, if we can 
trust the evidence of Thomas Allen (d. 
1632). He has recorded that on Rosamond's 
tomb, before its destruction at the Reforma- 
tion, were ' enterchangeable weavings drawn 
out and decked with roses red and green, 
and the picture of the cup out of which she 
drank the poyson, given her by the queen, 
carved in stone' (HEARNE, Will, of New- 
burgh, iii. 739). Hearne has left us an ac- 
count of a picture, according to his infor- 
mant painted about the reign of Henry VII, 
which represents Rosamond gazing at the 
' fatal bowl.' Altogether the evidence would 
seem to show that the stories of the poisoned 
draught and the silken clue are the latest 
accretions to the Rosamond legend. The 
student of folklore will doubtless recognise in 
the latter incident a variant of an old-world 
myth in a somewhat altered setting ; while he 
may suspect, when he notices how very late 
is the introduction of the poisoned bowl, that 
he has here a distorted version of the actual 
fate of a yet more renowned Rosamond than 
the mistress of Henry II (cf. PATTLTTS DIA- 
CONTJS, ii. c. 29). 

[Dugdale's Monasticon (ed. 1817-46), vol. 
iv. ; Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. ; Eyton's His- 
tory of Shropshire, vol. v., and Itinerary of 
Henry II ; Sir H. Ellis's Introduction to Domes- 
day ; Carte's History of England, vol. i. ; Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, ed. Dimock (Rolls Series), vol. 
iv. ; Benedict of Peterborough, Roger Hoveden, 
and Walter of Coventry, ed. Stubbs (Rolls Series) ; 
Higden's Chronicle, ed. Luard (Rolls Series) ; Wal- 
ter Map, De Nugis Curialium, ed. Wright (Camden 



Clifford 



77 



Clifford 



Society) ; French Chronicle of London, ed. Aun- 
gier (Camden Society) ; Chronicles of Fabyan, 
Grafton, and Holinshed,ed. Ellis ; Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, De Instructione Principis, ed. Brewer, for 
Anglia Sacra Society ; Chronicles of Brompton 
and Knyghton ap. Twysden's Decem Scriptores ; 
Hearne's William of Newburgh, vol. iii., and his 
edition of Leland's Itinerary, vol. ii., contain 
two very discursive essays on the Rosamond 
legend ; Hundred Rolls, vol. ii. ; Stow's Chro- 
nicle of England (ed. 1580), p. 212; Speed's 
Hist, of Great Britain (ed. 1611), p. 471 ; Percy 
Ballads (ed. 1847), iii. 151, &c.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, THOMAS DE, tenth LOKD 
CLIFFORD, sixth BARON OF WESTJIORELAND 
(d. 1391 ?), was the eldest son and successor 
of Roger de Clifford (1333-1389) [q. v.] He 
is said to have been twenty-six years old at 
the time of his father's death, hut his name 
occurs nearly a quarter of a century earlier 
in the ' Escheat Rolls ' for 1366. According 
to Dugdale, he was a knight of the king's 
chamber in 8 Richard II (1384-5). On 25 June 
1386 Northampton, the herald, was allowed 
to carry a challenge from ' Thomas de Clif- 
ford, chivaler 1'eisne Fitz-Rogeri, Sire de 
Clifford/ to Sir Bursigande, eldest son of ' le 
Sire Bursigande,' in France (WHITAKER, 376 ; 
Escheat Rolls, ii. 271 ; RTMER, vii. 526). 
According to Dugdale (i. 341), Sir Thomas 
crossed the sea for this tournament in the 
following May. Rymer has preserved a do- 
cument, dated 28 Jan. 1387, in which the 
king licenses ' our very dear and loyal knight, 
Sir Thomas Clifford, to perform all manner of ! 
feats of arms ' (toutz maners pointz (farmes) , 
on the Scotch borders. After he had suc- 
ceeded to his father's barony (March 1390 ; ! 
falsely dated 9 March 1389 in Rymer), he 
and two other English knights challenged 
three French knights to a tourney in the 
marches between Boulogne and Calais ; and 
on 20 June 1390 he procured a safe-conduct 
through England for William de Douglas, who 
was coming to the English court with forty 
knights to a wager of battle with Clifford 
with, reference to certain disputed lands 
(RTMER, vii. 552, 663, 666, 678). 

Clifford's chivalric disposition, while it 
endeared its owner to the young king, seems 
to have provoked the anger of the baronial 
party, which in 1388 banished him from court, 
with the proviso that he was to appear before 
the next parliament (WALSINGHAM, ii. 173). 
Yet on his father's death next year he had 
livery of his lands (6 Sept. 1389-90), and about 
the same time (11 Aug. 1389) was appointed a 
commissioner of peace on the Scotch marches, 
some four years after his life appointment as 
governor of the castle at Carlisle (8 Rich. II), 
and some three years after being made (1 1 July 



1386) a guardian of the east marches. His 
name occurs in the council minutes for 
28 April 1390 ; and according to Dugdale he 
received summonses to parliament in 1390-2 
(DUGDALE, i. 341 ; WHITAKER, 316; RYMER, 
vii. 539, 640; NICOLAS, Privy Council, i. 24). 
According to Nicolson and Burn he accom- 
panied Thomas, duke of Gloucester, on his 
journey to < Spruce in Germany against the 
infidels, where he was slain 4 Oct. 1493 ' {Hist, 
of Westmoreland, i. 281 ; cf. WHITAKER, 31). 
Dugdale (p. 341) gives the date of his death 
18 Aug. 1391 (cf. Escheat Rolls, 15 Ri- 
chard II, iii. 135; WHITAKER, 348). 

Clifford married his kinswoman, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Thomas, lord Ross of Ham- 
lake. She is said to have survived till March 
1424 (WALSINGHAM, Hist. Anglic, ii. 214; 
WHITAKER, 316). By her Clifford had 
two children : (1) John, his son and heir 
(d. 13 March 1422), a warrior of some repute 
in Henry Vs French wars, who, marrying 
Elizabeth Percy, Hotspur's daughter, became 
the father of Thomas, eighth baron Clifford 
[q. v.] ; and (2) daughter Maud (d. 16 Oct. 
1436), who married (a) Richard Plantagenet,. 
earl of Cambridge (executedAugust!415), and 
(6) John Neville, lord Latimer (WHITAKER, 
316, &c. ; DUGDALE, i. 341 ; Deputy-Keeper's 
Report, Norman Rolls, xli. 698, xlii. 317). 

[For authorities see text and under CLIFFORD, 
ROBERT DE, and ROGER DE (1333-1389).] 

T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, THOMAS DE, eighth BARON 
CLIFFORD (1414-1455), was the son of John, 
seventh baron Clifford, by his wife Eliza- 
beth, who, according to Dugdale, was the 
daughter of Harry Hotspur (Baronage, i. 
342 ; NICOLAS'S Acts of Privy Council, iii. 36). 
He was born on 25 March 1414, and suc- 
ceeded to his father's estates on 13 March 
1422 (10 Hen. V, sic), before he was quite 
eight years old (DUGDALE). He appears to 
have been under the guardianship of his 
mother and grandmother, to whom the right 
of ' maritagium ' was granted in 1423 (Privy 
Council Acts, iii. 36). His summons to par- 
liament dates from December 1436 (Report 
on Dignity of a Peer, iii. 896). In 1 3 Hen. VI 
(1334-5) he was joined in commission with the 
Earl of Northumberland to array the northern 
counties against the Scots, who then threat- 
ened Berwick, and next year had livery of 
his lands on making proof of his age (DUG- 
DALE). Some fifteen years later (1449) he 
appears as a conservator of the truce then 
being arranged between England and Scot- 
land, and occupied a similar position in 1451 
(RTMER, xi. 253, 299). In 1452 he was 
called upon to muster men and ships from 



Clifford 



Clifford 



the northern counties for the relief of Calais; 
and again in 1454. About the same time he 
was sheriff of "Westmoreland, and in this 
capacity was bidden to lend assistance to 
the Duke of York (Privy Council Acts, vi. 
119, 177). Several years previously (1435) 
his name occurs as being a member of the 
Duke of Bedford's retinue in France (WiL- 
LIAM WORCESTER), and again (c. 1439) as 
defending Pontoise against the French king 
(POLYDORE VERGIL). He was slain in the 
battle of St. Albans (1455), where his body 
was afterwards buried in the Virgin's chapel 
by the abbot (Register ofJ. Whethainstede, i. 
176). His wife, according to Dugdale, was 
a daughter of Thomas, lord Dacres of Gilles- 
land; by her he had four sons John, his suc- 
cessor [q. v.]; Sir Roger Clifford; Sir Thomas 
Clifford (one of Henry VIII's councillors) ; 
and Robert Clifford, who was concerned in 
Perkin Warbeck's rebellion (DUGDALE). He 
had also five daughters. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 342-3 ; Nicolas's His- 
toric Peerage, ed. Courthope, p. 112; Eymer's 
Fcedera, xi ; Nicolas's Acts and Proceedings of 
the Privy Council, vols. iii. iv. vi. ; Registrum 
Johannis Whethamstede, ed. Eiley (Rolls Series), 
i. 176, 393; Polydore Vergil, ed. Ellis (Camden 
Society), ii. 65 ; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner 
(Arber's Reprints), i. 264, &c.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, THOMAS, first LORD CLIF- 
FORD OF CHUDLEIGH (1630-1673), was born 
at Ugbrooke, near Exeter, on 1 Aug. 1630. 
He was the son of Hugh Clifford, who com- 
manded a regiment of foot in Charles I's 
campaign of 1639 against the Scotch, and of 
Mary, daughter of Sir George Chudleigh of 
Ashton, Devonshire. On 25 May 1647 he 
was entered at Exeter College, Oxford, where 
he remained until 1650, when he ' did suppli- 
cate for the degree of batchelor of arts.' He 
appears to have had great natural parts, and 
to have been accomplished, but was ' accounted 
by his contemporaries as a young man of a 
very unsettled head, or of a roving, shattered 
brain ' (A thenee Oxon.) Upon leaving college 
he became a student at the Middle Temple, 
and afterwards travelled (PRINCE, Worthies 
of Devon, p. 222). In the Convention parlia- 
ment he was elected for Totnes, and subse- 
quently for the same place in the Pensionary 
parliament, which met on 8 May 1661. There 
is no record in the ' Parliamentary History ' 
of his speeches in the house for some years, 
though apparently Clarendon includes him 
in the number of those young men ' who 
spake confidently and often' (Life, i. 615, 
Clar. Press edit.), and Prince speaks of him 
as a frequent and celebrated speaker, at first 
against the royal prerogative. If Burnet, 



who is inaccurate in several points regarding 
Clifford, is correct in t his, he applied to Cla- 
rendon for his patronage on entering parlia- 
ment. Clarendon, however, it is stated, aware 
that he was a catholic, and had indeed been 
one previous to the Restoration, rejected his 
advances (BTJRKET, i. 225), and he thereupon 
joined the party of Bennet, afterwards Lord 
Arlington, who was intriguing against Cla- 
rendon, and endeavouring to secure influence 
at court by forming a party in the commons 
of ' king's friends.' Clifford was among the 
first. His fortune was very small Pepys 
speaks of him as of ' about seven score pounds 
a year' and he evidently regarded this as the 
most promising manner of making his way. 
This was in 1663. Clarendon, it should be 
observed, nowhere mentions a previous appli- 
cation to himself, nor does Evelyn, in his final 
notice of Clifford, on 18 Aug. 1673 (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1663). On 16 Feb. 1663 
Clifford received the gift of the first reversion 
of a tellership of the exchequer, and upon 
the breaking out of the Dutch war in 1664 
was, with Evelyn and two others, appointed 
commissioner for the care of the sick and 
wounded and prisoners of war, a salary of 
1,200/. a year being attached to the commis- 
sion (EVELYN, 27 Oct. 1664). On 18 Jan. 
1665 he was made one of the commissioners 
for managing the estates of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth during his minority ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1664-5). In March, however, he joined 
the fleet, and having been previously knighted, 
took part under the Duke of York in the 
great battle of 3 June 1665. On 28 June 
the prize-ship Patriarch Isaac was bestowed 
upon him in reward for his constant service 
in the disposal of ships, preventing embezzle- 
ments, &c. In the beginning of August he 
was prominently engaged (BITRNET, i. 223) 
under the Earl of Sandwich, apparently as 
captain of the Revenge (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
4th Rep. 230), in the abortive attempt to cap- 
ture the Dutch East India fleet in the harbour 
of Bergen, a ' heady expedition,' in which he 
appears to have acted against Sandwich's in- 
structions (EVELYN, 31 May 1672), and of 
which, on 17 Aug., he sends a long account 
to Arlington (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1664-5). These reports from Clifford to Ar- 
lington are frequent, and it is evident that he 
joined the fleet as Arlington's confidential 
agent. His advancement, which was effected 
by that minister ' to the great astonishment of 
the court,' was now rapid ; and immediately 
after the affair at Bergen (29 Aug.) he was 
appointed to join Henry Coventry as ambas- 
sador extraordinary to the king of Denmark, 
to settle disputed questions of commerce and 
navigation (ib. 2 Sept. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 



Clifford 



79 



Clifford 



4th Rep. 233, 6th Rep. 333 b). During the 
spring of 1666 Clifford was at Ugbrooke, but 
shortly after was again with the fleet. He 
was on a visit to Arlington at Euston when 
the guns were heard off Harwich. Along with 
Ossory he rode thither with all haste, and on 
2 June went off with him in a small armed 
shallop to join Albemarle. On the 6th he sent 
a long account from the fleet to Arlington of 
the great four days' battle, ending it by saying 
that he ' would not have missed seeing the 
fight for half I was worth ' ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1665). He stayed with the fleet until 
the action of 25 July, in which he took part, 
and of which he again sends an account. 
He had previously (1 July) been recommended 
by Rupert to the king for early promotion. 
He left the fleet and came to London, but 
immediately returned (5 Aug.) with instruc- 
tions to the admirals, whom he reached on the 
13th. On the 20th he was again 'ashore, 
and very active in the king's affairs,' was at 
Southwold on the 21st looking after the sick 
and wounded, and had again joined the fleet 
on 11 Sept. (ib.) It is at this time that Pepys 
mentions him as ' a very fine gentleman, and 
much set by at court for his activity in going 
to sea, and stoutness everywhere, and stirring 
up and down ' (17 Sept. 1666). On 8 Nov. 
he was appointed comptroller of the house- 
hold, on the death of Sir Hugh Pollard, 
and on 5 Dec. was placed on the privy 
council for ' his singular zeal, wherein he 
had on all occasions merited in his majesty's 
service, and more eminently in the honour- 
able dangers in the then late war against the 
Dutch and French, where he had been all 
along a constant actor, and, as it was observed, 
had made it his choice to take his share in 
the warmest part of these services.' Upon 
the death of Southampton, in 1667, Clifford 
was placed on the commission of the treasury, 
though he had, according to Pepys (28 April 
1667), ' little learning, more than the law of 
a justice of peace, which he knows well,' and 
on 14 June 1668, on the death of Lord Fitz- 
hardinge, was made treasurer of the house- 
hold, a post he obtained through the influence 
of Arlington, to whom he wrote ' with such 
submissions and professions of his patronage 
as I had never seen any more acknowledging ' 
(EVELYN, Diary, 18 Aug. 1673). On 25 Oct. 
1667 he had been one of those who were re- 
quested by the commons to prepare, for the 
committee of investigation, all papers con- 
cerning the operations of the fleet in the war. 
He appears now to have been active in parlia- 
ment, though his recorded speeches are few. 
He of course spoke always in the interest 
of the court ; on 18 Feb. 1668 against the 
bill for frequent parliaments ; on 16 Feb. 1670 



against doubly assessing members of parlia- 
ment for non-attendance ; and on 13 Jan. 
1670 against the malicious maiming and 
wounding bill which followed the outrage 
on Sir John Coventry. 

In 1669 the Dutch war was brought to an 
end by the triple alliance. This treaty was 
regarded by Clifford with the greatest dislike. 
He was an ardent catholic, in sympathy if not 
in name, and looked to the help of France for 
the securing of toleration for that creed. He 
was, moreover, a vehement royalist, and hated 
the Dutch republic. Scarcely was the treaty 
concluded when Charles, who deeply regretted 
having been forced into it, began an intrigue 
with France to break through it, and Clifford, 
who was entirely in his confidence, and who 
had already openly expressed his own and his . 
master's hopes, eagerly joined (DALRYMPLE, 
Memoirs, i. 37). His position as one of the 
members of the famous cabal is clearly de- 
fined. It was a toleration cabinet, but with 
very different views. Buckingham and Ashley 
were protestant, Lauderdale was merely the 
king's personal adherent, Arlington was, or 
was supposed to be, a catholic [see BENNET, 
HENRY, EARL OF ARLINGTON], but, through 
his marriage, with Dutch sympathies. Clif- 
ford, in turn, was zealous for religious freedom 
joined with royal despotism. His contempt 
of constitutional trammels is shown by his 
advice to Charles, rather to be in slavery to one 
man, meaning Louis, than to five hundred. 
It was now that he began to show his en- 
thusiasm for popery, and it was now too that 
Pepys noted his ' folly, ambition, and desire 
of popularity, rudeness of tongue and pas- 
sions when angry;' though it must be re- 
membered that this description was given 
shortly after Clifford had expressed himself 
in no measured terms as to the want of 
method in the admiralty office (Diary, 12 Feb. 
and 1 March 1669). 

Meanwhile the Duke of York, with whom 
Clifford was intimate, had declared his ' con- 
version ; ' and on 25 Jan. 1669 Charles held a 
secret conference with the duke, Arundel, 
Clifford, and Arlington ; declared himself a 
catholic, and asked for advice as to how best 
to avow his conversion publicly and establish 
Roman Catholicism in England. In the in- 
trigues which were subsequently begun with 
France, and which led up to the famous 
treaty of Dover in June 1670, Clifford was 
closely engaged, being named as one of the 
commissioners to conclude the affair with 
Colbert, the French ambassador, in which 
capacity he placed his signature to the treaty 
when finally arranged. And, in pursuance 
of his hatred against the Dutch, he urgently 
advised Charles to fulfil the condition com- 



Clifford 



Clifford 



pelling him to go to war with the United 
Provinces before he attempted the avowal of 
his Catholicism. 

It had been found, however, impossible to 
show this treaty to the protestant members 
of the cabal, inasmuch as one of the condi- 
tions was that Louis should pay Charles a 
certain sum upon his declaring himself a 
catholic. A second treaty was therefore pre- 
pared, in which this sum was represented as 
an addition merely to the subsidy promised 
by France for the war ; and nothing was said 
in it, as in the first, of bringing French troops 
to help Charles in England. To this trick, 
which imposed upon the other members of 
the cabal, Clifford was a party, and with 
them signed it on 31 Dec. 1670. Even so it 
was not considered safe to show it to the 
king's ministers generally until February 
1672, when a similar treaty was signed by 
the cabal, as being the first and only one in 
existence. 

It appears that in 1671, as afterwards in 
1672, Ashley was offered the lord treasurer- 
ship, and that, had he accepted it, Clifford 
was to have become chancellor of the ex- 
chequer ; but the authority for this is not of 
weight (Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. 369 a). 

In 1672, during the absence of Henry Co- 
ventry and Arlington in Sweden and Hol- 
land, Clifford filled, on the death of Sir John 
Trevor, the office of principal secretary of 
state. In January of this year he advised 
Charles, who needed further immediate sup- 
plies for the Dutch war, to have recourse to 
the stop of the exchequer. This step, whereby 
all payments out of the exchequer on all 
warrants, orders, or securities whatsoever 
were prohibited for twelve months, and which 
temporarily ruined commercial credit, while 
it gave the king a present supply, has been 
by Burnet and Macaulay wrongly ascribed to 
Shaftesbury. Clifford appears to have been 
the sole author of the plan, and to have pro- 
posed it in the previous year, and Shaftesbury 
undoubtedly opposed it [see COOPER, AN- 
THONY ASHLEY] (MABTYN, Life, i. 415). Sir 
W. Temple (Works, ii. 184), Shaftesbury 
himself (CHRISTIE, Life of the First Earl of 
Shaftesbury, ii. 62), Ormonde (MARTYN, Life, 
i. 422), and Evelyn, who was greatly attached 
to Clifford (Diary, 12 March 1672), unani- 
mously ascribe the suggestion to Clifford. 
The evidence on the point will be found col- 
lected and analysed in Christie's ' Life of 
Shaftesbury,' pp. 53-70. In all probability 
the attack on the Dutch Smyrna fleet before 
hostilities had been declared was also at his 
advice (ib.) 

On 22 April 1672, probably in reward for 
this service, he was made a baron by the title 



of Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, and on 28 Nov. 
lord high treasurer, and by letters patent, 
treasurer of the exchequer (COLLINS, Peer- 
age). The high treasurership he appears to 
have gained by the goodwill of James, and 
against the influence of his early patron, Ar- 
lington, who had hoped for the post himself. 
Clifford's conduct in securing this post while 
constantly persuading Arlington, according to- 
his account, that he was pressing his claims, 
is quoted by Evelyn as the only ' real ingrati- 
tude ' of which he was guilty (Diary, 18 Aug. 
1673). Meanwhile, in March of the same 
year Charles had issued his declaration of 
indulgence, whereby all the penal laws on 
account of religion were suspended, a mea- 
sure warmly supported by Clifford. This 
roused the greatest irritation among the An- 
glican party in the house, and when parlia- 
ment met in February 1673 the most violent 
opposition was expressed. Against this op- 
position Clifford urged the king to stand firm, 
and he further strongly pressed the necessity 
of dissolving parliament. The necessities of 
the king, however, and the advice of Louis, 
restrained him from doing this, and he found 
himself compelled in March 1673 to withdraw 
the declaration. The commons immediately 
followed up this success by introducing the 
Test Act, the terms of which made it im- 
possible for any conscientious catholic to 
hold office under the crown. It is very pro- 
bable that Arlington devised this act, which 
he knew must ruin Clifford, from anger at 
having been supplanted by him in the trea- 
surership. It was warmly supported by Shaf- 
tesbury, who perhaps had become aware of 
his having been duped in the matter of the 
secret treaty of Dover, in which Clifford had 
had so prominent a share. When the bill 
came before the lords, Clifford opposed it with 
the utmost vehemence, and it was clearly 
now, not in the debate on the declaration of 
indulgence, as stated by Burnet, that not 
having intended to speak, but being suddenly 
inspired, he delivered the speech in which he 
applied the phrase ' monstrum horrendum 
ingens ' to the bill (CHRISTIE, Shaftesbury, 
ii. 137). Colbert in his despatches declare* 
that but for this speech a compromise would 
have been possible, but that ' it kindled such 
a flame that nothing since has been heard 
but fury and reproach against the govern- 
ment ' (ib. p. 138). By the Test Act the cabal 
was scattered. The Duke of York resigned 
his posts, and Clifford gave up the treasurer- 
ship in the beginning of June, and left the 
privy council. The question of whether 
Clifford was really a catholic or not cannot 
be settled. As late as 1671 he had erected 
a protestant chapel at LFgbrooke. Evelyn, 



Clifford 



81 



Clifford 



who knew him well {Diary, 19 June 1673), 
is confident that he did it ' more from some 
promise he had enter'd into to gratify the 
duke than for any prejudice to the protestant 
religion, tho' I found him wavering awhile.' 
Colbert also, who, if any one, would know 
about Clifford's religion, appears in the fol- 
lowing words to regard him as a protestant : 
' Nothing is more surprising than to have the 
lord treasurer, who has the greatest part in 
all the king's secrets, take the part of the 
catholics with inimitable eloquence and cou- 
rage ' (CHEISTIE, ii. 139). It is true, he adds, 
' his head is so turned with the glory of 
martyrdom, that he has reproached Father 
Patrick for his lukewannness about religion,' 
and, according to James {Life, i. 484), he was 
a new and zealous convert. However this 
may be, he felt bound to resign his offices, 
which it is difficult to believe he would have 
done merely out of friendship to James. He 
immediately retired to Tunbridge Wells, 
where in July he was visited by Evelyn, 
who found that though he had with him 
' music and people to divert him,' his ' rough 
and ambitious nature ' would not allow him 
to support the blow. The want of success in 
the Dutch war, and the failure of the stop 
of the exchequer, both of which had been 
brought about by his influence, affected him 
deeply. Clifford returned to London in Au- 
gust, but only for a final leave-taking. On 
the 18th Evelyn found him at Wallingford 
House, preparing to leave at once for Devon- 
shire, packing up his pictures, ' most of which 
were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces 
of bull, beare baiting,' &c. This is almost the 
sole illustration that we have of his known 
love of the chase (RANKE, Hist, of England, 
iii. 51 5) . On parting, Clifford wrung Evelyn's 
hand, declaring he should never see him or 
the court again. In less than a month he was 
dead ; and although there is now no absolute 
proof, the evidence of suicide is strong (Evs- 
LYN, Diary, 18 Aug. 1673). Prince, in his 
' Worthies of Devon,' states that he died of 
stone, but his information about Clifford is in 
many respects very scanty. His death was 
in September, and he was buried in the chapel 
he had himself built at Ugbrooke. 

Clifford was a believer in the calculation 
of nativities, and had declared before he was 
made a peer that he was assured by his horo- 
scope that he would reach the summit of his 
ambition early, but should enjoy it for a short 
while only, and would die by a bloody death. 
This was affirmed by Shaftesbury, and is 
strongly supported by Evelyn's testimony (ib.) 
' For the rest, my Lord Clifford was a valiant, 
uncorrupt gentleman ; ' ' ambitious, not covet- 
ous; generous, passionate, a most sincere 

VOL. XI. 



friend ' (ib.) There is, it should be added, no 
record of Clifford paying court to the royal 
mistresses. Literary societies met at his house, 
and he appears to have had the taste for scho- 
larship characteristic of the time (RANKE, 
Hist. iii. 515). In spite of the smallness of 
his fortune he, as far as is known, kept his 
hands clean ; for Colbert's statement that he 
accepted a present from France (DALBYMPLE, 
i. 124) must be received with hesitation, 
though he probably gave him much informa- 
tion (ib. 127), and that is the only statement 
of the kind. From the king he received, in 
1671, a lease for sixty years of Chestow pas- 
tures, near Aylesbury, as well as the manors 
of Cannington and Rodway Fitzpain, Somer- 
setshire, for himself and his heirs male. The 
livings of Ugbrooke and Chudleigh were also 
in the same year entailed by act of parliament 
upon his family. 

Clifford married Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Martin of Lindridge, Devonshire, 
by whom he had seven sons and eight daugh- 
ters, of whom four sons and seven daughters 
survived him ( COLLINS, Peerage). His eldest 
son, Robert, died at Florence on 29 Feb. 
1670-1 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. 514), 
while another, Thomas, is mentioned in the 
' Athene Oxonienses ' as being entered as a 
gentleman commoner at Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, in 1668, aged fifteen. He was succeeded 
in his titles by his third son, George, who died 
in 1690. 

[The materials for Clifford's life have been all 
mentioned in the text ; see also Kippis's Biog. 
Brit.] 0. A. 

CLIFFORD, WALTER DE (d. 1190?), 
is said to have been the grandson of Pons 
or Poncius, the father of five sons, Walter, 
Drogo, Osbern, Simon, and Richard. Of 
these five sons Richard FitzPonce was the 
father of Walter de Clifford, who, according 
to Eyton, succeeded to the estates of his 
uncles Walter and Drogo. These two brothers 
figure in Domesday as the possessors of 
lands in Herefordshire, Berkshire, and other 
counties (EYTON, v. 146, &c. ; Domesday, 
i. 180 b, 61 ; ELLIS, Introduction, i. 405, 
504). His father Richard seems to have 
died between 1115 and 1138, in which latter 
year we find ' Walter de Cliffort ' signing a 
Gloucester charter (EYTON, v. 148 ; Monasti- 
con, i. 551). He reappears under the same 
name in 1155 (Pipe Soils, p. 144). He pro- 
bably obtained the barony of Clifford from his 
wife Margaret, asserted to be the daughter of 
Ralph de Tony, who in 1068 was lord of this 
fee (Domesday, i. 183). According to another 
theory, his mother Maud,wife of Richard Fitz- 
Ponce, was the original holder of it (EYTON, 

6 



Clifford a 

149). Towards the middle of Henry II's reign 
he was possessed of the manors of Corf ham, 
Culminton, &c. in Shropshire. He was a bene- 
factor to several monasteries, e.g.Haughmond, 
Dore, and Godstow (Monasticon, viii. 551 ; 
ETTON). 

Clifford's name occurs in the Welsh an- 
nals as lord of the castle of Llannymddyvri. 
He ravaged the lands of Rhys ap Gruffydd, 
who, finding his complaints to Henry II dis- 
regarded, surprised his castle (1157-9). In 
1164 he is said to have slain Cadwgan, son 
of Maredudd (Srut, 118; Annales Cambria, 
p. 48). He was still living in 1187, and ac- 
cording to Eyton died in 1190. His children 
were Walter (d. 1220?), Richard, and Wil- 
liam, and three daughters, Lucia, married to 
Hugo de Say, Amicia, married to Osbern 
FitzHugh, and Rosamond [q. v.] The main 
part of the Clifford estates passed to Matilda, 
a great-granddaughter, wife of William 
Longesp6e, earl of Salisbury, whose daugh- 
ter, Margery Longespee, brought them to her 
husband, Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln (d. 
1311). Walter de Clifford's grandson Roger 
(d. 1231) was father of Roger (d. 1285 ?) 
[q. v.] 

[Authorities cited above, and Dugdale's Baron- 
age, i. 338, &c.] T. A. A. 

CLIFFORD, WILLIAM (d. 1670), di- 
vine, was son of Henry Clifford of Bracken- 
borough, Lincolnshire, and Elizabeth Thi- 
melbey of Irnham, Lincolnshire, who in her 
widowhood retired to the monastery of 
English nuns at Louvain, and became a re- 
ligious. He was lineally descended from the 
ancient family of the Cliffords, who were 
first created barons and afterwards earls of 
Cumberland. By right of succession the 
barony, though not the earldom, fell to him, 
and he might have assumed the title of Lord 
Clifford, but his humility prevented him from 
asserting his claim. He received his educa- 
tion in the English college at Douay, and 
after being ordained priest he was sent back 
on the mission. Subsequently he was made 
rector of the English college at Lisbon. He 
was next constituted superior of Tournay 
College at Paris, which Cardinal Richelieu 
had granted to the Bishop of Chalcedon for 
the education of the English clergy. In 1 660 
he was placed on the list for the episcopal 
dignity ; but he declined this honour, as he 
also did in 1670 the offer of the presidentship 
of Douay College. During the latter years 
of his life he resided in the H6pital des In- 
curables at Paris, where he spent the greater 
part of his time in ministering to the wants 
of the poor inmates. He died on 30 April 



Clifford 

1670, and was buried in the churchyard be- 
longing to the hospital. 

His works are: 1. 'Christian Rules pro- 
posed to a Vertuous Soule aspiring to Holy 
Perfection, whereby shee may regulate both 
her Time and Actions for the obtaining of 
her happy end,' Paris, 1655, 1659, 1665, 12mo. 
Dedicated to Mrs. Ursula Clifford. 2. ' The 
Spiritual! Combat, worthily termed a Golden 
Treatise of Christian Perfection. Translated 
out of the truest coppies in several! languages 
by R. R. With a Letter of S. Eucherius, 
Bishop of Lyons, &c.,to Valerian,' Paris, 1656, 
48mo. Dedicated to Walter Montagu, abbot 
of St. Martin at Pontoise ; second dedication 
to Mrs. Ursula Clifford. 3. ' A little Manual 
of the Poor Man's Dayly Devotion,' 2nd edit. 
Paris, 1670, 12mo ; 4th edit. London, 1687, 
12mo ; 5th edit. (London ?), 1705, 8vo ; fre- 
quently reprinted. 4. ' Observations upon 
all the Kings' Reigns since the Conquest,' 
manuscript. 5. 'Collections concerning the 
Chief Points of Controversy,' manuscript. 

[Preface to fifth edition of Clifford's Little 
Manual; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 297; Gillow's 
Bibl. Diet. i. 514 ; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. 
Mus.] T. C. 

CLIFFORD, WILLIAM KTNGDON 
(1845-1879), mathematician, was born on 
4 May 1845 at Exeter. His father, William 
Clifford, was a well-known citizen of the 
town. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Kingdon, died in September 1854. He was 
a very precocious child. He was educated at 
Mr. Templeton's school at Exeter until 1860, 
when he was sent to King's College, London. 
Here he showed marked ability in classical 
and literary, as well as in mathematical stu- 
dies. In October 1863 he entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, having won a minor 
scholarship. His mathematical genius was 
at once recognised, and the most competent 
judges anticipated that he would rise to the 
highest place among contemporary men of 
science. His private tutor was Mr. Percival 
Frost. His originality led him to diverge 
from the regular course of study to indepen- 
dent researches. Like other eminent mathe- 
maticians, Whewell, Sylvester, Sir William 
Thomson, and Clerk Maxwell, he was second 
in the mathematical tripos. He was also 
second Smith's prizeman. He had become 
known for other qualities to his fellow-stu- 
dents. He took a boyish pride in his gym- 
nastic prowess. Though slight, he was well 
made, and his great nervous energy enabled 
him to perform remarkable feats. He could 
' pull up on the bar with either hand/ and 
once hung by his toes from the cross-bar of a 
weathercock on a church-tower. Praise of 



Clifford 8 

his athletic excellence gratified him even 
more than official recognition of his intellec- 
tual achievements. His literary power was 
shown by his winning the college declama- 
tion prize in 1866, in consequence of which 
he was appointed to deliver the usual oration 
at the college commemoration in the follow- 
ing December, when he pronounced a cha- 
racteristic panegyric upon Whewell, then re- 
cently dead. He was a member of the well- 
known club generally called the ' Apostles,' 
and had many friends among his most dis- 
tinguished contemporaries, especially Pro- 
fessor Pollock, afterwards his biographer. He 
was at this time a high churchman. He had 
studied Aquinas, and was fond of supporting 
catholic doctrines with ingenious scientific 
analogies. This phase was dispelled by his 
study of Darwin and Mr. Herbert Spencer, 
under whose influence he worked out the 
dominant ideas of his later writings. 

In 1868 Clifford was elected to a fellow- 
ship at Trinity, and was a resident until 1871 . 
In 1870 he joined the English Eclipse expe- 
dition, and was wrecked in the Psyche off 
Catania. The ship was entirely lost, but the 
instruments and all hands were saved. During 
his Cambridge residence he became intimate 
with Professor Fawcett, and was secretary to 
the Republican Club, of which Fawcett was 
a member. In 1871 he was appointed profes- 
sor of applied mathematics at University Col- 
lege, London. In 1874 he was elected fellow 
of the Royal Society, a distinction for which 
he had modestly refused to be nominated at 
an earlier period. His reputation was rapidly 
spreadingbeyond purely scientific circles. He 
was a singularly effective lecturer. On 6 March 
1868 he had delivered a discourse at the Royal 
Institution (upon ' Conditions of Mental De- 
velopment '), showing the strong impression 
made upon him by Mr. Herbert Spencer, and 
another on 18 Feb. 1870 upon ' Theories of 
Physical Forces.' The last showed a remark- 
able power of giving a popular exposition of 
abstruse doctrines, which won general recog- 
nition when, on 19 Aug. 1872, he delivered 
an address before the British Association at 
Brighton upon ' The Aims and Instruments 
of Scientific Thought.' Clifford spoke with 
extreme facility, generally from a few brief 
notes. He woula revise his lectures from a 
shorthand report, or write them out from me- 
nory. He found previous writing down to 
>e only an encumbrance. The vivacity and 
luaint humour of his addresses, and the re- 
larkable felicity of illustration, interested 
opular hearers, and persuaded them (not 
Iways correctly) that they could follow his 
;asoning. In the years 1872-5 he delivered 
iveral addresses to the Sunday Lecture 



5 Clifford 

Society, in which he took a deep interest. He 
sympathised with its aim of popularising the 
results of scientific inquiry, and was excep- 
tionally qualified to aid in its promotion. 

On 7 April 1875 Clifford married Lucy, 
daughter of Mr. John Lane, a well-known 
Barbadian. His marriage was a source of 
unmixed happiness. His house became the 
meeting-place of a varied circle of friends of 
all opinions and tastes, though especially of 
scientific friends. Clifford was a most at- 
tractive companion. His careless phrases had 
always the stamp of genius. His transparent 
simplicity and modesty, his unflagging viva- 
city and his keen interest in all speculative 
questions were combined with admirable deli- 
cacy of perception and a most affectionate 
nature. Childlike to the last, he had a spe- 
cial talent for attracting children, and a chil- 
dren's party was one of his greatest pleasures. 
He was equally at ease with the most emi- 
nent thinkers of his day, and was from 1874 
a prominent member of the Metaphysical 
Society, in which distinguished men of the 
most opposite views met for a frank discus- 
sion of fundamental questions. Some of his 
papers read before this society were published 
in ' Mind ' and the ' Contemporary Review,' and 
may be found in his ' Essays and Lectures.' 
Clifford's freedom of speech and strong sense 
of the ridiculous occasionally gave some pre- 
text for a charge of levity. But the utter 
absence of any wish to give pain prevented 
offence at the time, nor could there be any 
doubt of the fundamental seriousness of his 
purpose. 

From 1875 to 1878 Clifford published 
several reviews, not previously delivered as 
lectures, for which his health was now be- 
coming a disqualification. They give his 
latest philosophical views. One of them (a 
review of the 'Unseen Universe' in the 
' Fortnightly Review ' for June 1875) was 
written between a quarter to ten at night 
and nine the next morning. Another upon 
Virchow's address (' Nineteenth Century ' 
for April 1878) was written in the same way. 
Both at Cambridge and afterwards he would 
not unfrequently work through the night. 
The disproportion between his great ner- 
vous energy and his constitutional weakness 
tempted him to dangerous efforts, both phy- 
sical and intellectual. It was difficult to 
persuade him to adopt prudential measures, 
and he persevered even in his gymnastic 
exercises till after serious warnings. 

In the spring of 1876 grave symptoms of 
pulmonary disease showed themselves. He 
was induced, very reluctantly, to take six 
months' leave of absence, which he spent 
with his wife in Algiers and Spain. The 



Clifford 



8 4 



Clifford 



next year and a half was spent in England ; 
but the death of his father (February 1878) 
and the strain of literary work hastened an- 
other collapse, and in April 1878 he again 
visited the Mediterranean, and afterwards 
spent some time at the Monte Generoso. In 
August 1878 he had improved sufficiently to 
return to England, but another collapse fol- 
lowed at the end of September. As a last 
chance he was sent to Madeira. The senate 
of University College recommended that he 
should retain his chair, and that, if he should 
recover sufficiently, he should be invited to 
lecture upon special subjects not involving 
the strain of regular work. Before the council 
could act upon this suggestion the end had 
come. After a brief interval of comparative 
ease, the case became hopeless, and he died 
at Madeira 3 March 1879. He was buried in 
Highgate cemetery. He left a widow and 
two daughters. 

An excellent portrait of Clifford by his 
intimate friend Mr. John Collier is in pos- 
session of Mrs. Clifford. Two portraits after 
photographs are engraved in the ' Essays and 
Lectures.' 

Clifford's health prevented him from giving 
more than a fragmentary exposition of views 
which still needed fuller elaboration. As a 
philosopher, he was a follower of the Eng- 
lish school, and radically opposed to the 
teaching of modern Hegelians. He venerated 
Berkeley and Hume, but held that their 
teaching requires the modification implied in 
modern theories of evolution. His mathe- 
matical genius led him to take a special 
interest in one doctrine. He thought that 
Kant's argument, based upon the universality 
and necessity of geometrical truths, was in- 
vincible as against Hume. But he thought 
that the ' imaginary geometry ' of Lobat- 
schewsky and Eiemann supplied the true 
answer, and showed that even geometrical 
truths must be regarded as a product of ex- 
perience. His view is most fully given in 
his essay on the 'Philosophy of the Pure 
Sciences.' The metaphysical theory to which 
he inclined is given in the essays on ' Body 
and Mind ' and the ' Nature of Things in 
themselves.' He was more inclined than 
most English psychologists to believe in the 
possibility of constructing a definite meta- 
physical system, in which he was probably 
influenced by his admiration for Spinoza. His 
doctrine is described by Professor Pollock as 
an ' idealist monism.' He agreed with Berkeley 
that mind is the ultimate reality ; but held 
that consciousness as known to us is built 
up out of simple elements or atoms of ' mind- 
stuff ' the characteristic phrase which gives 
the keynote of theories full of suggestion, 



and showing curious affinities to other phi- 
losophies, but not fully worked out. His 
ethical system, strongly influenced by evolu- 
tionist doctrines, was also congenial to his 
own temperament. He attaches supreme 
importance to freedom, since all progress im- 
plies variation, and the implicit acceptance of 
formulas is equivalent to death. Here he 
was also influenced by Mazzini from another 
side. But in his later work more importance 
is attached to the ' social factor ' and the 
'tribal judgment ' regarded as an embodi- 
ment of the past experience of the race. The 
second volume of ' Essays and Lectures T 
contains his application of his leading ideas 
to ethical and religious questions ; especially 
in the essays upon the ' Scientific Basis of 
Morals,' ' Right and Wrong,' and ' Cosmic 
Emotion.' He had contemplated a recasting of 
his work in a book to be called ' The Creed 
of Science.' A sketch of the intended con- 
tents is given in the ' Essays and Lectures ' 
(i. 71, 72). As he had not the opportunity 
of completing his design, the essays must be 
taken only as a collection of fragmentary 
though luminous suggestions. 

As a mathematician, says Professor Karl 
Pearson, Clifford may be regarded as marking 
an epoch in the history of this science in 
England. He was among the first by his 
writings to raise a protest against the analy- 
tical bias of the Cambridge school. Essen- 
tially a geometrician he yet regarded geo- 
metry as a ' physical science,' whose axioms 
are the outcome of human experience. So- 
great was his belief in geometry that he even 
went the length of attempting to explain 
matter on geometrical principles ; an attempt 
which, however it may be regarded in the 
future, will at least remain as a witness to- 
future investigators of Clifford's conscious- 
ness of the often disregarded truth that 
matter cannot be explained by mechanism. 
As a mathematical writer Clifford was marked 
by a keen power of imagination, rich in its- 
suggestions of new lines of thought and dis- 
covery ; he was a standing example of the 
fact that the true man of science, especially 
the mathematician, is the man of speculation, 
of tested theory, of keen, albeit disciplined 
imagination. His ' Canonical Dissection of 
a Riemann's Surface,' his theory of ' Biqua- 
ternions,' and his unfinished memoir ' On the 
Classification of Loci,' belong to the classics 
of mathematical literature. As a mathema- 
tical teacher Clifford did much (and his in- 
fluence is still working) to revolutionise the 
teaching of elementary mathematics ; he in- 
troduced into England the graphical and 
geometrical methods of Mo'bius, Culmann, 
and other Germans. His uncompleted text- 



Clift 



Clift 



book on ' Dynamics,' his fragmentary ' Com- 
mon Sense of the Exact Sciences/ and the 
* Lectures on Geometry ' represent especially 
the direction and novelty of his elementary 
teaching; its fundamental aim was not to 
teach a student the analytical solution of 
a problem, but to force him to think for 
himself. 

Clifford's works as posthumously published 
are : 1. ' Lectures and Essays,' edited by 
F. Pollock and L. Stephen, 1879. 2. ' Mathe- 
matical Fragments, being facsimiles of his 
unfinished papers relating to the theory of 
Graphs,' 1881. 3. 'Mathematical Papers,' 
edited by R. Tucker, with a very interesting 
introduction by H. J. S. Smith, late Savilian 
professor at Oxford, 1882. A careful biblio- 
graphy is added. 4. ' Common Sense of the 
Exact Sciences,' edited and partly written by 
Karl Pearson, 1885. 5. ' Elements of Dyna- 
mic.' We may mention, in addition to the 
works already referred to, the little volume 
of elementary science entitled ' Seeing and 
Thinking.' 

[Life by F. Pollock prefixed to Lectures and 
Essays ; information from Mrs. Clifford ; per- 
sonal knowledge.] L. S. 

CLIFT, WILLIAM (1776-1849), natu- 
ralist, born at Burcombe, about half a mile 
from the town of Bodmin in Cornwall, on 
14 Feb. 1775, was the youngest of the seven 
children of Robert CLift, who died a few 
years later, leaving his wife and family in 
the depths of poverty. The boy was sent 
to school at Bodmin, and his taste for draw- 
ing came under the notice of Colonel Walter 
Raleigh Gilbert of the Priory, Bodmin, and 
his wife, ' a lady of great accomplishments,' 
with whom he was soon established as a great 
favourite. Mrs. Gilbert had been a school- 
fellow of Miss Home, and kept up a corre- j 
spondence with her friend after her marriage 
to John Hunter, the celebrated physician 
[q. v.] She recommended Clift as an appren- j 
tice to Hunter, stating that he was qualified 
by his quickness and by his natural taste for 
drawing, which was shown in his eagerness 
' to come into her kitchen in Cornwall and 
makeT ' wings with chalk on the floor.' Clift 
arrived *n London on 14 Feb. 1792, his own 
and Hunter's birthday, and as he at once 
gave satisfaction to Hunter, was apprenticed 
without the payment of a fee, on the under- 
standing that he was 'to write and make 
drawings, to dissect and take part in the 
jharge of the museum ' which his master had 
armed at the back of his house in Leicester 
Square. While Hunter lived this system 
if labour proved satisfactory to both of them, 
^he pupil waited on his master at his dissec- 



tions or wrote from his dictation from early 
morning until late at night. Hunter died 
on 16 Oct. 1793, but his death made no dif- 
ference in Clift's attachment to his master's 
memory. So long as life lasted Clift used 
to call him a truly honest man, and to ridi- 
cule the slanders that envy endeavoured to 
fasten on his character. For six years he 
was engaged by Hunter's executors to watch 
over the collections, living with an old house- 
keeper in the house in Castle Street, his pay 
being limited to 'seven shillings a week,' 
although bread had risen to war prices. For 
the safety of these specimens he was solely 
responsible, and he kept zealous guard over 
his charge, copying and preserving many, 
probably a half, of Hunter's manuscripts 
which would otherwise have perished. Clift 
was unwearied in cleaning, and on the pur- 
chase of the collection by parliament it was 
in a better state than at its owner's death. 
When the Corporation of Surgeons agreed to 
undertake the charge of the collection, and 
was incorporated by a charter dated 22 March 
1800 as the Royal College of Surgeons, one 
of its first acts was to retain Clift in his 
place, dignifying him with the title of con- 
servator of the museum, and rewarding his 
services with a salary of about 100J. a year. 
From that date his time and talents ' were 
exclusively devoted to the advancement of 
comparative anatomy and physiology.' His 
pride was in his daily work, and he lived to 
see the museum 'enriched, enlarged, and 
worthily displayed and illustrated.' Under 
his supervision Hunter's collections were 
twice removed without the slightest damage, 
first in 1806 to a temporary place of deposit, 
and on the second occasion in 1813 to the 
museum of the college, and the whole of the 
specimens were more than once numbered by 
hun. After he had been more than fifty years 
connected with the discoveries and studies 
of John Hunter, he retired into private life 
on his full salary of 400J. a year. He mar- 
ried, at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, in 
1799, Caroline Amelia Pope, who died in 
April 1849. A few weeks later, on 20 June 
1849, Clift died at Stanhope Cottage, Hamp- 
stead Road, London, and they were both 
buried in Highgate cemetery. His only son, 
William Home Clift, who assisted his father 
in the museum, was born in 1803 and died 
in 1833. His only daughter, Caroline Amelia 
Clift, was married at New St. Pancras Church 
on 20 July 1835 to Professor (now Sir Richard) 
Owen, and died at Sheen Lodge, Richmond 
Park, on 7 May 1873, aged 70. A pleasing 
glimpse into her character is afforded by a 
passage in Caroline Fox's 'Journals' (first 
ed. p. 137). 



Clift 



86 



Clifton 



The praises of Clift 's character were in the 
mouth of every man of science. Dr. South 
spoke of him as ' a kindly-hearted creature, 
always ready to impart and not to appropri- 
ate information,' and with a ' head crammed 
full of knowledge.' Sir Benjamin Brodie the 
elder praised his industry and his thirst for the 
acquisition of knowledge, qualities which he 
found to he combined with great sagacity and 
keen observation. He was highly esteemed 
by Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Wollaston, and Sir 
Humphry Davy, and through the influence 
of the latter was elected F.E.S. 8 May 1823, 
being the last to receive that honour before 
the increase in the admission fees. He was 
also a member of the Chemical Society, a 
small body of savants within the ranks of 
the Royal Society, who dined together as a 
pleasure, and communicated papers to the 
parent institution with the object of promo- 
ting the study of animal chemistry (WELD, 
Royal Soc. ii. 237-^3). Cliffs stores of know- 
ledge were open to every one who visited 
Hunter's museum, and most of the contem- 
porary works or memoirs on the ' fossil re- 
mains of the higher classes of animals ' were 
improved by his information. Dr. Mantell 
acknowledged his help to Clift in the original 
memoir on the 'Iguanodon' (Phil. Trans. 
1825, p. 181), and Baron Cuvier owned to a 
similar debt in the concluding volume of his 
work on fossil remains. His knowledge of 
osteology is referred to in deferential terms 
by Sir Charles Lyell, and his researches in 
anatomical science proved of much profit to 
Sir Benjamin Brodie. In 1803 there ap- 
peared a volume divided into ten fasciculi (the 
first of which had been issued in 1799), and 
entitled ' A Series of Engravings ... to il- 
lustrate the Morbid Anatomy of some of the 
most important parts of the Human Body,' 
by Matthew Baillie. The advertisement to 
the first fasciculus announced that ' the draw- 
ings will be made by a young man, who is 
not only very well skilled in his own arts, but 
who possesses a considerable share of know- 
ledge in anatomy.' This was Clift, and all the 
drawings in Baillie's book were made by him, 
as were most of the illustrations of Sir Eve- 
rard Home's numerous papers on ' Compara- 
tive Anatomy ' in the ' Phil. Trans.' He 
contributed papers to the ' Phil. Trans.' for 
1815 and 1823, to the ' Edinburgh New Phi- 
losophical Journal ' for 1831, and to the ' Geo- 
logical Society's Transactions ' in 1829 and 
1835, his paper ' On the Fossil Remains . 
found on the left bank of the Irawadi ' in the 
' Transactions ' of the latter society for 1829 
being reprinted in an appendix to Mr. John 
Crawf urd's ' Journal of an Embassy to the 
Court of Ava.' His son-in-law, Sir Richard 



Owen, published in 1861 two volumes of 'Es- 
says and Observations on Natural History, 
Anatomy, &c., by John Hunter.' These were 
printed from copies of Hunter's manuscripts, 
which were made by Clift between 1793 and 
1800. Some of them had previously been pub- 
lished in Owen's ' Descriptive Catalogue of 
Physiological Series of Comparative Ana- 
tomy,' but the whole collection was not 
placed in his hands until a short time before 
the death of Clift, who had himself contem- 
plated their publication and drawn up some 
notes for that purpose. These are printed 
with his initials or full name. The original 
manuscripts were by Sir Everard Home's 
orders removed to his house in a cart shortly 
before 1800, and were most of them destroyed 
by him in 1823. When Clift was told of 
this destruction, he said to its author, ' Well, 
Sir Everard, there is but one thing more to 
be done, that is to destroy the collection/ 
and burst into tears. He was the compiler 
of the catalogue of the osteology in the Hun- 
terian Museum, and he gave some valuable 
evidence to the parliamentary committee on 
medical education in 1834. Dr. Westby- 
Gibson is the owner of two manuscripts in 
shorthand, giving the particulars of forty- 
nine lectures delivered by Dr. Haighton at 
Guy's Hospital 1814-15, which are believed 
to be the work of Clift. His portrait, from 
a daguerreotype, is in Claudet s ' Historical 
Gallery,' and his bust in plaster, with the 
date 1843, is placed on the entrance door to- 
the western museum of the College of Sur- 
geons. 

[Gent. Mag. August 1849, pp. 209-10; Ap- 
pendix to Owen's edition of Hunter's Essays and 
Observations, ii. 493-500; Owen's Descriptive 
Catalogue of Comparative Anatomy in Museum 
of Surgeons, v. pp. xii-xiii ; Abstract of Papers 
of Royal Society, v. 876-80 ; Sir James Paget's 
Hunterian Oration, 51-2, 60-1 ; Sir W. Law- 
rence's Hunterian Oration, 18, 59-64 ; Brodie'a 
Autobiog. 65-7 ; LyelPs Letters, i. 116, 172, 176 ; 
South's Memorials, pp. 73-5; Lancet, 1849, i. 685 ; 
BoaseandCourtney'sBibl.Cornub.i.72,iii.ll21.} 

W. P. C. 

CLIFTON, FRANCIS, M.D. (d. 1736), 
physician, was the fourth and youngest son 
of Josiah Clifton, merchant, of Great Yar- 
mouth, Norfolk, by his wife Mary, only child 
of Thomas Fenne of the same town (wills of 
Josiah and Mary Clifton, reg. in P. C. C. 191, 
Marlboro, and 295, Abbott, respectively ; 
PALMER, Perlustration of Great Yarmouth, 
ii. 191). Electing to follow the profession 
of physic, he was entered at Leyden on 
23 May 1724, and before the end of the year 
graduated doctor of medicine there. His in- 
augural dissertation, ' De distinctis et con- 



Clifton 



Clifton 



fluentibus Variolis,' Leyden, 1724, 4to, was 
included by Haller in the fifth volume of 
his ' Disputationes ad Morborum Historiam 
et Curationem facientes.' Clifton afterwards 
settled in London, where his classical and 
scientific attainments won him the friendship 
of many eminent men, among others of Sir 
Hans Sloane, at whose instance he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society on 22 June 

1727. The same year he published ' Hippo- 
cratis Coi Operum quse extant omnium se- 
cundum Leges artis Medicae dispositorum, 
editionis novse specimen,' London, 1727, folio, 
which was followed in 1732 by ' Proposals 
for Printing, by subscription, all the works of 
Hippocrates in Greek and Latin, digested in 
a new and regular manner,' but from want of 
encouragement the intended publication never 
appeared (NICHOLS, Literary Anecdotes, ii. 
14-15). Clifton received the honorary de- 
gree of M.D. from Cambridge on 26 April 

1728, during the visit of George II ; was ad- 
mitted a candidate of the College of Physi- 
cians on 23 Dec. in the same year, a fellow on 
22 Dec. 1729, and read the Gulstonian lectures 
in 1732. He also held the appointment of 
physician to the Prince of Wales, which he 
resigned, and abruptly quitted London for 
Jamaica in 1734. Writing to Sir Hans Sloane 
from Kingston in that island on 3 June 1736, 
he says : ' My misfortunes came so fast upon 
me, and my brother's provocations were so 
frequently repeated, that I was hurried in a 
manner to death about 'em ' (Sloane MS. 4041, 
f. 9). He died a few weeks afterwards, leaving 
no issue by his wife, Sarah Banckes, daughter 
of a merchant in Leadenhall Street. In the 
letters of administration P. C. C. granted on 
6 Nov. 1736 to his widow, Clifton is described 
as ' late of the parish of St. George, Hanover 
Square, Middlesex, but at Kingston in Ja- 
maica, deceased.' His widow survived until 
1747, and was buried in the parish church of 
St. Andrew Undershaft (will reg. in P. C. C. 
145, Potter). 

At the time of his death Clifton was en- 
gaged in drawing up an account of the 
diseases of Jamaica, but left it unfinished. 
His other works were: 1. 'Tabular Obser- 
vations recommended as the plainest . . . 
way of practising and improving Physick,' 
London, 1731, 8vo. 2. 'The State of Phy- 
sick, Ancient and Modern, briefly considered,' 
London, 1732, 8vo. In this treatise the author 
maintains that Hippocrates had anticipated 
Newton in his idea of the system of gravita- 
tion. A French version by the Abb6 Des- 
fontaines was published at Paris in 1742. 
3. ' Hippocrates upon Air, Water, and Situa- 
tion ... To this is added Thucidides's Ac- 
count of the Plague of Athens. Translated 



and . . . illustrated with notes,' London, 1734, 
8vo. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys., 2nd edit, ii. 115-16 ; 
Nouvelle Biographie Generale, x. 864 ; Bio- 
graphie Universelle, 453-4.] Q-. G. 

CLIFTON, JOHN C. (1781-1841), musi- 
cal composer, born in London in 1781, was in- 
tended by his father to become a merchant, but 
his early talent for music was so pronounced 
that he was placed under the care of a rela- 
tion, Richard Bellamy [q. v.], with whom he 
studied music for five years. He next be- 
came the pupil of Charles Wesley, and even- 
tually determined to follow music as a pro- 
fession, throwing up an appointment in the 
Stationery Office, which he held for about 
two years. His first professional engagement 
was at Bath, where he conducted the Har- 
monic Society. In 1802 he went to Dublin, 
and in 1815 he produced there a musical piece 
called ' Edwin,' which is said to have been suc- 
cessful. He also gained some credit by orga- 
nising (together with Sir John Stevenson) a 
concert on a very large scale in aid of the 
sufferers from the Irish famine. About 1816 
he invented an instrument for facilitating 
singing by sight. This he called the ' Eido- 
musicon,' but it does not appear to have been 
patented. About the same time he finished 
a work on the theory of harmony, and came 
to London in 1818 in order to obtain the 
publication of his invention, in which he 
was unsuccessful. Clifton next adopted the 
Logierian system of musical instruction, and 
for some years was a teacher of repute in 
London. He married the proprietress of a 
ladies' school at Hammersmith, where the 
last years of his life were spent. About 1838 
he became possessed with the idea that he 
was enormously wealthy, and the mania grew 
to such an extent that it was found necessary 
to place him under restraint. He died at 
Teresa House, Hammersmith, 18 Nov. 1841. 
His compositions were unimportant, chiefly 
consisting of songs and glees. 

[Diet, of Musicians, 1827; The Georgian Era, 
iv. 529; Musical World, 25 Nov. 1841 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1842, i. 112.] W. B. S. 

CLIFTON, RICHARD (d. 1616), puritan 
divine, became pastor of a Brownist congre- 
gation at Scrooby, Nottinghamshire. Pro- 
bably he was the Richard Clifton who, on 
12 Feb. 1585, was instituted to the vicarage 
of Marnham, near Newark, and on 11 July 
1586 to the rectory of Babworth, near Ret- 
ford, and not very far from Scrooby. The 
separatist church in Nottinghamshire, which 
was probably Clifton's church, ordinarily met 
in Mr. Brewster's house at Scrooby. The 



Clifton 



88 



Cline 



celebrated John Robinson attached himself 
to Clifton's church, and was shortly after- 
wards chosen his assistant in the ministry ; 
and on Clifton's removal to Holland became 
sole pastor of the church (BROWNE, Hist, of 
Congregationalism, p. 64). 

To avoid persecution Clifton emigrated to 
Amsterdam in August 1608 (DEXTER, Con- 
gregationalism of the last Three Hundred 
Years, pp. 317, 318, 380). He joined the 
other exiles there, and attached himself to 
the church of which Francis Johnson was 
pastor. He was, perhaps, on Ainsworth's 
secession (16 Dec. 1610) invested with the 
office of teacher among them (HAITBITRY, 
Historical Memorials relating to the Inde- 
pendents, i. 272). He is denominated the 
' principal scribe ' among the separatists, and 
is said to have written most to the purpose 
in defence of separation (BROOK, Puritans, 
ii. 199). William Bradford describes him 
as a ' grave and fatherly old man when he 
left England, having a great white beard ; ' 
and elsewhere as a ' grave and reverend 

Sreacher, who, by his pains and diligence, 
id much good.' 

At Amsterdam he was engaged in several 
bitter controversies. Having renounced the 
principles of rigid separation he became one 
of the most violent adversaries of John 
Smyth, and published, ' A Plea for Infants 
and elder People concerning their Baptisme. 
Or a Processe of the Passages between M. 
lohn Smyth and Richard Clifton,' Amster- 
dam, 1610, 4to. He also wrote ' An Adver- 
tisement concerning a book lately published 
by Christopher Lawne and others, against 
the Exiled English Church at Amsterdam,' 
1612, 4to (DEXTER, Bibliography of Congre- 
gationalism, No. 403). The book attacked is 
' The prophane Schism of the Brownists or 
Separatists, with the impiety, dissensions, 
lewd and abominable vices of that impure 
Sect, discovered,' 1612. Henry Ainsworth 

gablished ' An Animadversion to Mr. Richard 
lyftons Advertisement,' Amsterdam, 1613, 
4to. Clifton died at Amsterdam on 20 May 
1616. 

[Hunter's Collections concerning the Founders 
of New Plymouth, pp. 17, 18, 40; Wilson's Dis- 
senting Churches, i. 28, 29 ; Cotton's Congrega- 
tional Churches, p. 7 ; Paget's Arrow against 
Separation, p. 8 ; Dexter' s Bibliography of Con- 
gregationalism, No. 367 ; Notes and Queries, 
April 1853, p. 354 ; Morse and Parish's Hist, of 
New England (1804), p. 22.] T. C. 

CLIFTON, ROBERT COX (1810-1861), 
canon of Manchester, the son of a clergyman 
who was many years British chaplain at 
Bruges, was born at Gloucester on 4 Jan. 



1810. The earlier part of his education was 
received under his father's care at Worcester, 
and in 1830 he went to Oxford, where he 
matriculated at Worcester College. He pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1831 and M.A. in 1834, and 
took holy orders in 1833, at the hands of the 
bishop of Oxford. In 1833 he was elected 
fellow of his college. Before taking his first 
curacy, which was in Berkshire, he spent some 
time in Oxford as a tutor. In 1837 he was 
appointed to the office of clerk in orders at the 
Manchester Collegiate Church, and on 6 Dec. 
1843 was elected to a fellowship by the col- 
legiate chapter. When the church was ele- 
vated to cathedral dignity he became a canon. 
In 1843 he was instituted to the rectory of 
Somerton in Oxfordshire, which benefice he 
held, concurrently with his Manchester pre- 
ferment, till his death. He took a very active 
part in the administration of public charities 
and religious societies in Manchester, and 
was a trustee of Owens College, in which 
college his son, Robert Bellamy Clifton, was 
for some time professor of experimental philo- 
sophy. Clifton was an admirable man of 
business and an influential and useful mem- 
ber of the cathedral chapter. He published 
several occasional sermons and pamphlets, 
among which are : ' A Letter to the Rev. Dr. 
Hook on the subject of National Education ' 
(1846, 8vo) ; ' The Collegiate Church of Man- 
chester from its foundation in 1422 to the 
present time, with Observations on the pro- 
posed Bill for the Subdivision of the Parish 
of Manchester, and for the Appropriation of 
the Revenues of the Chapter ' (1850, 8vo). 
He died at his rectory at Somerton on 30 July 
1861, aged 51. 

[Raines's MSS. in the Chetham Library, xlii. 
187 ; Manch. Guardian, 3 Aug. 1861 ; Manch. 
Courier, same date ; Manch. Free Library Cata- 
logue.] C. W. S. 

CLINE, HENRY (1750-1827), surgeon, 
born in London in 1750, was educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School. At the age of 
seventeen he was apprenticed to Mr. Thomas 
Smith, one of the surgeons to St. Thomas's 
Hospital, and before the close of his appren- 
ticeship he frequently lectured for Else, then 
lecturer on anatomy. On 2 June 1774 Cline 
obtained his diploma from Surgeons' Hall. 
In the same year he attended a course of 
John Hunter's lectures, and was much in- 
fluenced by them. In 1775 Cline took a 
house in Devonshire Street, and married Miss 
Webb, lecturing on the day of his marriage. 
When Else died in 1781, Cline bought his 
preparations from his executors, and was ap- 
pointed to lecture on anatomy. Three years 
after, on the death of his old master Smith, 



Cline 



8 9 



Clint 



Cline succeeded him in the surgeoncy of St. 
Thomas's. After a residence of some years 
in St. Mary Axe, he removed in 1796 to Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, where he remained during 
the rest of his life. 

In 1796 Cline was elected a member of the 
court of assistants of the Surgeons' Company; 
but his election having taken place at a meet- 
ing when neither of the two governors was 
present (one having just died), was found to 
have voided the act of incorporation. After 
the failure of a bill to legalise the surgeons' 
proceedings, in 1800 they were incorporated 
by charter as the Royal College of Surgeons, 
the old municipal privileges being given up. 

In 1808 Cline bought some land at Bound's 
Green in Essex, and visited it regularly, 
becoming greatly interested in agriculture, 
and losing much time and money in its pur- 
suit, according to Sir Astley Cooper, his 
pupil. When he was sixty years old his 
practice brought him about 10,000 per an- 
num ; but it was Cooper's opinion that it 
would have been much more had he not 
been so fond of politics and farming. In 
1810 Cline became an examiner at the Col- 
lege of Surgeons, and in the following year 
resigned his appointments at St. Thomas's. 
His pupils subscribed for a bust by Chantrey, 
which was placed in St. Thomas's Museum. 
In 1815 he became master of the College of 
Surgeons, and in the following year (also in 
1824) delivered the Hunterian oration (never 
published). In 1823 Cline was president of 
the college, the title having been changed 
from that of master in 1821. He died on 
2 Jan. 1827. 

The ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (January 
1827, p. 90) says of Cline : ' He was a person 
who would have distinguished himself what- 
ever had been his situation and calling. His 
strong intellect, his self-determination, his 
steady adherence to his purpose, and his con- 
summate prudence would have insured him 
success in any career of honourable ambition.' 
He was a cautious, sound, and successful 
surgeon, an excellent lecturer, but somewhat 
deficient, according to Cooper, in industry and 
professional zeal. In temper he was mild, 
equable, and reserved. He had great per- 
sonal courage. His family were devoted to 
him and he to them. Sir Astley characterises 
him ' as a friend, sincere but not active ; as 
an enemy, most inveterate ' (Life of Sir A. 
Cooper, i. 99), but gives no details under the 
latter head. Probably this remark was tinc- 
tured by Sir Astley's withdrawal from Cline's 
political associates in order to obtain the Guy's 
surgeoncy. Cline was a devoted adherent of 
Home Tooke, attending him professionally 
when at the Tower, and afterwards in his 



last illness. For many years he gave an 
anniversary dinner to Tooke's friends and sup- 
porters at his own house, in commemoration 
of Tooke's acquittal. He was also a friend 
of John Thelwall, and showed him great 
kindness. He was much in favour of the 
French revolution, and by his influence 
with leading men in Paris secured Astley 
Cooper's safety during a three months' resi- 
dence there in 1792. Cline thought there 
was a cause superior to man, but believed 
that nothing was known of the future. ' His 
character,' says Sir Astley Cooper, ' was that 
of Washington ; he would have devoted him- 
self to what he considered the advantage of 
his country, and surrendered whatever dis- 
tinction he might have attained when he 
had accomplished his object.' Apparently 
his only publication was a small brochure on 
the ' Form of Animals,' 4to, 1805 ; twice re- 
printed, 1806 and 1829. 

Cline was succeeded in the surgeoncy to 
St. Thomas's and in the lectures upon anatomy 
and surgery by his son Henry Cline, a man 
of considerable ability, who died on 27 May 
1820 of phthisis (see Memorials of J. F. South, 
p. 34, &c.) 

[Gent. Mag. Januaryl827, p. 90 ; B.B. Cooper's 
Life of Sir Astley Cooper, 1843, references in 
many places ; Feltoe's Memorials of J. F. South, 
1884, pp. 198-208 ; Thelwall's letter to Cline, on 
imperfect developments of the faculties, 1810; 
Life of Thelwall, by his widow, 1837.1 

G. T. B. 

CLINT, ALFRED (1807-1883), marine 

gainter, was the fifth and youngest son by his 
rst marriage of George Clint, A.R.A. [q. v.] 
He was born in Alfred Place, Bedford Square, 
London, on 22 March 1807, and acquired the 
technical knowledge of painting from his 
father, while he studied from the life at a 
students' society, which met first in Drury 
Lane and afterwards in the Savoy. In early 
life he painted portraits and landscapes, and 
he exhibited for the first time in 1828 at the 
British Institution, sending in the following 
year a ' Study from Nature' to the Royal 
Academy. In 1831 he began to exhibit at 
the Society of British Artists, of which he 
became a member in 1843, and secretary 
from 1853 to 1859. He succeeded Frederick 
Yeates Hurlstone as president in 1869, and 
continued to fill that office until 1881. He is 
best known as a marine painter, the subjects 
of his pictures being taken chiefly from the 
English Channel, and especially from Jersey, 
Guernsey, and the coast of Sussex. They 
were very popular, and some of them have 
been engraved. Between 1828 and 1879 he 
contributed no less than 402 works to the 
exhibitions of the Royal Academy, British 



Clint 



Clint 



Institution, and the Society of British Artists. 
He both drew and etched the illustrations to 
Bennett's ' Pedestrian's Guide through North 
Wales,' 1838, and in 1855 wrote 'Landscape 
from Nature,' which forms the second part of 
Templeton's ' Guide to Oil Painting.' 

Clint died in Lancaster Road, Netting 
Hill, London, on his birthday, 22 March 
1883, at the age of seventy-six, after having 
for about five years relinquished the pursuit 
of art owing to the failure of his eyesight. 
He was buried in the same grave as his father, 
in Kensal Green cemetery. His remaining 
works were sold by Messrs. Christie, Man- 
son, & Woods in February 1884. 

[Times, 28 March 1883 ; Athenaeum, 31 March 
1883; Illustrated London News, 7 April 1883, 
with portrait ; Koyal Academy Exhibition Cata- 
logues, 1829-71; Brit. Inst. Exhibition Catalogues, 
1828-52; Society of British Artists Catalogues, 
1831-79 ; family memoranda.] K. E. G. 

CLINT, GEOEGE (1770-1854), portrait 
painter and engraver, born in Brownlow 
Street, Drury Lane, on 12 April 1770, was 
the son of Michael Clint, a hairdresser in 
Lombard Street. The youth, after receiving 
a plain education at a Yorkshire school, was 
apprenticed to a fishmonger, but on account 
of a quarrel with his master, who struck him, 
he sought protection of the lord mayor, and 
then found some employment in an attorney's 
office. His conscience, however, revolting 
against this work, he took to house-painting, 
and actually painted the stones of the arches 
in the nave of Westminster Abbey. He 
decorated the exterior of a house built by 
Sir Christopher Wren in Cheapside, and was 
afterwards employed by Tegg, the bookseller. 
He married the daughter of a small farmer in 
Berkshire ; by her he had five sons and four 
daughters. Mrs. Clint died a fortnight after 
giving birth to her son Alfred, the artist. 
Clint now took to miniature-painting. His 
studio was inLeadenhall Street, and he became 
acquainted with John Bell, the publisher 
[q. v.], whose nephew, Edward Bell, the mez- 
zotint engraver, initiated Clint into the mys- 
teries of the art of engraving. His first at- 
tempt in oil colours was his wife's portrait. 
Having heard of Sir William Beechey's libe- 
rality towards his professional brethren, he 
longed to have that artist's opinion respecting 
his own work, upon which Mrs. Clint under- 
took to show her portrait to Sir William, who 
received her most kindly. At this period Sa- 
muel Reynolds, the engraver, advised Clint to 
undertake water-colour portraits. Commis- 
sions now being scarce, he made copies, in 
colours, from prints after Morland and Teniers ; 
he reproduced several times Morland's ' The 



Enraged Bull' and 'The Horse struck by 
Lightning.' About 1816 his studio, 83 Gower 
Street, was the rendezvous of the leading 
actors and actresses of the day. This popu- 
larity arose from a series of dramatic scenes 
which he painted, such as 'W. Farren, 
Farley, and Jones as Lord Ogleby, Canton, 
and Brush ' in the comedy of the ' Clandestine 
Marriage.' Clint was elected an associate of 
the Royal Academy in 1821. This position 
he resigned in 1836, after repeated disappoint- 
ments in not obtaining the full honours of 
the Academy, and took a house at Peckham, 
but removed to Pembroke Square, where he 
died on 10 May 1854. Among his early 
copper-plates are 'The Frightened Horse,' 
after G. Stubbs ; ' The Entombment,' after 
Dietrich; 'The Death of Nelson,' after W. 
Drummond, and a set of the Raphael car- 
toons in outline. The following portraits 
are by Clint : Lord Suffield and his family, 
Lord Egremont, Lord Essex, Lord Spencer, 
General Wyndham, and many others. For 
Mrs. Griffiths of Norwood he executed several 
theatrical portraits, some of which were de- 
stroyed by fire. There is in the National 
Gallery ' Falstaff and Mistress Ford,' formerly 
in the Vernon collection. Of his best mezzo- 
tint engravings may be mentioned ' The Trial 
of Queen Caroline,' after G. H. Harlow; 
portrait of the Right Hon. W. Pitt, after J. 
Hoppner; portrait of Margaret, ladyDundas, 
after Sir T. Lawrence ; portrait of Miss Sid- 
dons, after Sir T. Lawrence ; portrait of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, after himself^&c. In 1868, 
at the South Kensington Museum, were 
exhibited six portraits, &c., by Clint, viz. : 
George Cook, engraver ; John Bell, publisher ; 
Edmund Kean, actor ; Liston as Paul Pry ; 
Madame Vestris, Miss Glover, and Mr. 
Williams ; Charles Young as Hamlet ; and 
William Dowton, the comedian. 

[Art Journal, 1854, p. 212; A Dictionary of 
English Artists, 1878; A Biographical and Cri- 
tical Dictionary of Kecent and Living Painters, 
&c., 1866, 8vo.] L. F. 

CLINT, SCIPIO (1805-1839), medallist 
and seal-engraver, born in 1805, was the son 
of George Clint, A.R.A. [q. v.], the portrait- 
painter and engraver. He gained a medal at 
the Society of Arts in 1824. He exhibited 
at the Academy for the first time in 1825, 
and in 1830 exhibited there his dies for a 
medal of Sir Thomas Lawrence. He was ap- 
pointed medallist to William IV and seal- 
engraver to Queen Victoria, and was begin- 
ning to attain some distinction in his profes- 
sion when he died on 6 Aug. 1839, at the 
early age of thirty-four. Among his medals 
(which are not numerous) are two of Sir T. 



Clinton 9 

Lawrence, with heads after the models of 
E. H. Baily and S. Joseph, the sculptors ; 
a medal of Cardinal Wiseman, dated 1836, 
with reverse, sacred emblems (a specimen, pre- 
sented by Clint, is in the British Museum) ; 
and one of the prize medals for Winchester 
College, obverse, head of William IV; reverse, 
tomb of William of Wykeham. His medals 
are signed Clint or S. Clint. 

[Hawkins's Medallic Illustr. of Brit. Hist, 
ed. Franks and Grueber, i. 11, No. 5, ii. 723; 
Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists of Eng. School; Brit. 
Mus. Medal Collection.] W. W. 

CLINTON, CHARLES (1690-1773), 
colonel, American colonist, was born in co. 
Longford, Ireland, in 1690, his grandfather, 
an officer of Charles I's army, having settled 
in Ireland. In May 1729, Charles Clinton, 
who was an elder and influential member of 
a presbyterian congregation, chartered a ship 
to convey a party of relatives and friends to 
Philadelphia, but, according to American bio- 
graphers, the captain, either with a view of 
acquiring their belongings or to deter further 
emigration, conceived a plan of starving his 
passengers to death, and only landed them at 
Cape Cod after accepting a heavy ransom. 
Clinton's journal, as printed in ' Magazine of 
American History/ i. (ii.) 620-2, makes no 
mention of this, but shows that although the 
ship sailed in May, the American continent 
was not sighted until 9 Oct. 1729, and that 
a terrible mortality occurred on board, the 
deaths including a son and daughter of Clin- 
ton. In the spring of 1731 Clinton removed 
to Ulster county, New York, where he pur- 
chased a tract of land about eight miles from 
the Hudson, amidst the rich pasture lands of 
what is now Orange County, N.Y. There he 
followed the occupation of a farmer and land- 
surveyor, and became a justice of the peace, 
county judge, and colonel of militia. On 
24 March 1758 he was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel of De Lancy's Provincials and served 
in the expedition to Fort Frontenac under 
Bradstreet. He died in 1773, on the eve of the 
rupture with the mother-country, charging his 
sons with his latest breath ' to stand by the 
liberties of their country ' (BANCROFT, iv. 272) . 
Of his four surviving sons, Alexander was a 
physician ; Charles, a surgeon of the provin- 
cial troops which took part in the conquest 
of the Havannah in 1762 ; James, afterwards 
a major-general in the United States army, 
was father of De Witt Clinton, the originator 
of the Erie Canal ; and the youngest, George, 
born in 1739, became a well-known soldier 
and statesman, and was vice-president of the 
United States from 1804 to his death in 
1812. 



Clinton 

[Drake's American Biography ; Enc. Ameri- 
cana, 11 ; American Mag. of History, i. (ii.) 
620-2 ; Bancroft's Hist, of America, vol. iv. 
Details of Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, and 
of its capture by Bradstreet, will be found in F. 
Parkman's Wolfe and Montcalm (London, 1884).] 

H. M. C. 

CLINTON, CHARLES JOHN FYNES 
(1799-1872), classical scholar, born 16 April 
1799, was the third son of the Rev. Charles 
Fynes Clinton, LL.D., prebendary of West- 
minster, being thus a brother of Henry Fynes 
Clinton, the chronologist [q. v.] He was edu- 
cated at Westminster, and at Oriel College, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1821. Having 
held some parochial charges, he was ap- 
pointed in 1828 to the rectory of Cromwell, 
Nottinghamshire. He was also vicar of Or- 
ston in the same county. In 1842 he pub- 
lished ' Twenty-one plain Doctrinal and Prac- 
tical Sermons/ London, 1842, 12mo ; and in 
1853 edited and completed for publication 
' An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chro- 
nology of Rome and Constantinople/ which 
had been left unfinished by his brother, the 
chronologist. In 1854 he edited and pub- 
lished the 'Literary Remains' (London, 
1854, 12mo) of his brother. He died in 1872. 

[Men of the Time, 1865, p. 183.] W. W. 

CLINTON, EDWARD FIENNES DE, 
ninth LORD CLINTON AND SATE, EARL OF LIN- 
COLN (1512-1585), lord high admiral, son of 
Thomas, eighth lord Clinton, who died of the 
sweating sickness in 1517, was born in 1512, 
and, being left a royal ward, married, in or 
about 1530, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John 
Blount, and widow of Gilbert, lord Talboys, 
but better known in history as the mistress 
of Henry VIII and the mother of his illegiti- 
mate son Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond. 
Mr. Froude calls her ' an accomplished and 
most interesting person ' (Hist, of England, 
cabinet ed. i. 389 ), but old enough to be 
her boy-husband's mother. It is fair to pre- 
sume that this marriage confirmed young 
Clinton in the king's favour, and we find him 
in 1532 in attendance on the king at Bou- 
logne and Calais ; in 1536 he was summoned 
by writ to parliament; in 1539 he was one of 
the deputation to receive Anne of Cleves, 
and in May 1540 was one of the challengers 
in the grand tournament held at Westmin- 
ster. He was shortly afterwards invited by 
Lord Lisle, then lord high admiral (and after- 
wards Duke of Northumberland), to take 
service afloat, and served under his imme- 
diate command in the expedition to Scotland 
in 1544, and in the storming of Edinburgh 
(FROTTDE, iv. 35), on which occasion he was 
knighted by the Earl of Hertford (afterwards 



Clinton 



Clinton 



Duke of Somerset), the commander-in-chief 
of the army. From Scotland the fleet was 
sent to Boulogne, then besieged by the king, 
and there Clinton served on shore till the 
capture of the town on 14 Sept. In the fol- 
lowing year he held a command in the fleet 
under Lord Lisle, which repelled the threat- 
ened invasion of the French under Anne- 
bault ; and in 1546 was one of the commis- 
sioners to settle the terms of peace with 
France, and signed as a witness on 7 June 
(RYMER, Hagse 1741, vol. vi. pt. iii. p. 138). 
After the accession of Edward VI, Clinton 
commanded the fleet which co-operated with 
Somerset in the invasion of Scotland in 1547, 
and had an important share in the decisive 
victory at Musselburgh. He was then ap- 
pointed governor of Boulogne, and held that 
post till the surrender of the place by treaty 
in April 1550. His defence during the pre- 
vious winter, when left almost entirely with- 
out support, won him deserved credit ; and 
on his return to England he was appointed, 
14 May 1550, lord high admiral, with very 
full powers and privileges, and received in 
addition lands and manorial rights to the 
value, it would appear, of about 500/. per an- 
num. In the following April he was elected 
a knight of the Garter, and was installed on 
30 June. Minor offices in great number were 
heaped upon him, including that of lord-lieu- 
tenantof the county of Lincoln, and, onlJuly 
1553, that of governor of the Tower. This 
would seem to have been with the object of 
strengthening the cause of Lady Jane Grey, 
on whom the crown was settled by the will 
of Edward VI, to which Clinton was a wit- 
ness. His share in this intrigue may fairly be 
attributed to his old intimacy with the Duke 
of Northumberland, for after the duke's death 
he seems to have had no difficulty in making 
his peace with Queen Mary, and in the fol- 
lowing year took an active part in the sup- 
pression of Wyatt's rebellion, which was in 
the nominal interest of Lady Jane Grey. In 
October 1554 he was sent, in company with 
Garter king-at-arms, to invest the Duke of 
Savoy with the order of the Garter. In 1557 
he was associated with the Earl of Pembroke 
in the command of the English contingent 
sent to the support of the Spaniards at St. 
Quentin, and though it did not arrive till j 
after the battle had been won (10 Aug.), some | 
of the glory of that brilliant victory fell on 
Clinton, in England at least (cf. MACATJLAY, 
Hist, of England, cabinet ed. ii. 299). On 
Mary's accession he had been deprived of his 
office of lord high admiral, but was again ap- 
pointed to it on 13 Feb. 1557-8, with a spe- 
cial commission (12 April) as commander-in- 
chief of the fleet and forces to be employed 



against France and Scotland. It was a time 
of great difficulty and danger; Calais had 
fallen (19 Jan.), and the grief of the people 
was only equalled by their dread sense of 
coming evil. Clinton's return to office seems to 
have put new life into the conduct of affairs. 
By May he had mustered a force of some two 
hundred and fifty vessels of all sizes, detached 
squadrons of which scoured the Channel, while 
the main fleet, combined with a Flemish squa- 
dron, attempted an attack on Brest. Brest they 
I found too strong, but landing near Conquet, 
! they ravaged the country for several miles, 
! till a party of some five hundred Flemings, 
straggling too far inland, were cut off and 
taken prisoners, and eventually the fleet was 
forced by sickness and the late season to re- 
turn to Spithead. Nothing at all commensu- 
| rate with the cost and magnitude of the expe- 
dition was achieved, though, as a formidable 
diversion, and by drawing the French troops 
away from Flanders, something might have 
been done on the north. But the English 
counsels were feeble ; Mary was dying, and 
Philip had no wish to win success for the 
English without a more distinct idea of what 
his future relations with them were likely to 
be. The war thus languished, and an armi- 
stice was concluded, which in the following 
March, four months after Elizabeth's acces- 
sion, was converted into a treaty of peace, in 
which the loss of Calais was practically ac- 
cepted by the English. 

The change of queen and religion made no 
change in Clinton's position. He continued 
lord high admiral under Elizabeth as under 
Mary, and directed, though he had no imme- 
diate share in, the naval operations in Scot- 
land in 1560, and at Havre in 1562-3. He 
was in attendance on the queen on her visit 
to Cambridge in 1564, when the degree of 
M.A. was conferred on him as well as on 
some others of the royal train. In 1569 he, 
together with the Earl of Warwick, com- 
manded the army which quelled the for- 
midable rising of the north, and drove its 
leaders, the Earls of Northumberland and 
Westmoreland, over the border into Scotland ; 
and in 1570, when Elizabeth was publicly ex- 
communicated by the pope (15 May), and 
it seemed not improbable that France, if not 
Spain, might make some attempt to give 
effect to the sentence, Clinton in person took 
command of the fleet, with special orders to 
guard the North Sea, and ' to sink at once, 
and without question, any French vessels he 
might find carrying troops to Scotland.' His 
services during this critical period were re- 
cognised by his being advanced on 4 May 
1572 to the dignity of Earl of Lincoln. A 
few weeks later he was sent to France on a 



Clinton 



93 



Clinton 



special mission to receive the ratification of 
the treaty, and, though perhaps not officially, 
to be present at the marriage of the king's 
sister Marguerite with the king of Navarre, 
which was celebrated on 8-18 Aug., only six 
days before St. Bartholomew ; and yet, as he 
took his departure, he carried away the ex- 
pression of the king's hope ' that his sister's 
would not be the only marriage on which 
those who wished well to Europe would have 
to congratulate themselves.' This appears to 
have been Clinton's last public service, though 
he continued at court and on the queen's 
council till his death on 16 Jan. 1584-5. He 
was buried in St. George's Chapel at Wind- 
sor, where his grave is marked by a highly 
ornate monument in alabaster and porphyry, 
erected to his memory by his widow, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the Earl of Kildare, and 
widow of Sir Anthony Browne, who has been 
identified with the lady celebrated by the Earl 
of Surrey as the fair Geraldine [see FITZ- 
GERALD, ELIZABETH]. 

By his first wife Clinton had three daugh- 
ters. About 1541 he contracted a second 
marriage with Ursula, daughter of William, 
lord Stourton, who died in 1551, leaving a 
family of two daughters and three sons, the 
eldest of whom, Henry, was made a knight 
of the Bath at the coronation of Queen Mary. 
About 1552 he married Lady Elizabeth Fitz- 
gerald, by whom he had no children. In after 
years there seems to have been a bitter quarrel 
between her and the children by the second 
marriage. Clinton's will, dated 11 July 1584, 
contains some curious clauses intended to 
guard her from any attempt on the part of 
his son Henry to dispute the will, or to mo- 
lest her in the possession of her estates, and 
on 13 Jan., only three days before the earl's 
death, Henry wrote to Lord Burghley solicit- 
ing his favourable influence ; his father, he 
said, was in the extremity of sickness, and 
his mother-in-law was scheming to deprive 
him of his inheritance, and had already, by 
her evil speeches at court, incensed the queen 
against him. On 16 Jan. he wrote again, an- 
nouncing the death of his father, and com- 
plaining bitterly of the hard dealing of his 
mother-in-law, who, when he called to see 
his dying father, refused him admittance. 

Of Clinton's ability as a councillor we have 
no direct evidence, beyond the fact that he 
continued to the last the trusted friend of 
Burghley. In his military capacity he did 
well whatever he had to do, though it was 
but little, and though any share he may have 
had in the organisation of the young navy 
was probably vicariously performed, he must 
still have exercised some degree of supervi- 
sion. That he must have been a man of re- 



markable tact is abundantly proved by his 
having maintained himself in a foremost po- 
sition in the state under the very different 
circumstances of the four reigns of Henry, 
Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth, and by his 
having been the confidential friend of such 
very different men as Somerset, Northumber- 
land, and Burghley. His portrait as a young 
man, by Holbein, in the royal collection, 
was engraved by Bartolozzi for ' Imitations 
of Original Drawings by Holbein,' published 
by John Chamberlaine in 1793. 

[Collins's Peerage of England (ed. 1768), iii. 
59-80 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab, i. 497-500 ; Cal. 
State Papers (Dora.), 1547-85 ; Froude's Hist, of 
England, passim.] J. K. L. 

CLINTON, GEOFFREY DE (fl. 1130), 
chamberlain and treasurer to Henry I, ap- 
pears to have been the founder of the great 
Clinton family, and was probably the creator 
of his own fortunes, though attempts have 
been made to show that he was descended 
from William de Tankerville, chamberlain 
of Normandy (DtTGDALE, Baronage, i. 528). 
His name seems to occur for the first time 
in a charter of Henry I to Westminster 
Abbey a document that cannot, from the 
names of the co-signatories, be dated later 
than 1123 (Monast. Any lie. i. 308). Foss 
assigns it to 1121 or 1122. Probably before 
1126 Clinton founded the Benedictine priory 
of Kenilworth ; his second charter to this 
establishment is witnessed by Simon, bishop 
of Worcester, who was consecrated in 1125 
(STTTBBS, Reg. Sacr.) In the charters to Kenil- 
worth Clinton styles himself respectively as 
chamberlain and treasurer to Henry I. In the 
' Pipe Roll ' of 30-1 Henry I he is found holding 
pleas in no less than eighteen counties, and 
appears to have still retained the treasurer- 
ship (Pipe Koll,3Q-l Henry I ; Foss). About 
the same time (Easter 1130) we read that he 
was unjustly accused of treason, and was- 
brought to trial at Woodstock. On this oc- 
casion David I, king of Scotland, sat in judg- 
ment as an English peer (ORD. VIT. viii. c. 22). 
There does not seem to be any satisfactory 
evidence as to the date of Clinton's death. 
According to Madox, a Geoffrey de Clinton 
was a baron of the exchequer in Stephen's 
reign ; but there is nothing to show whether 
this was our Geoffrey or his son. The direct 
descendants of Clinton (in the male line) 
seem to have become extinct in the reign of 
Henry III (DUGDALE) ; but from his nephew 
Osbert were descended the Earls of Lincoln 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries r 
the Earl Clinton of the eighteenth, and the 
Duke of Newcastle in the nineteenth (Nico- 
LAS). Clinton himself is included by Order ic 



Clinton 



94 



Clinton 



Yitalis among the number of those ' men of 
ignoble stock ' whom Henry I, ' so to speak, 
lifted up from the dust and exalted above 
earls and burghers.' As his name appears 
first on this list, it would seem that the 
historian intended the full force of his re- 
marks to apply to Geoffrey, even to the 
charges of unjustly gotten wealth and op- 
pression (ORD.VIT. xi. c. 1). A secondnephew, 
Robert, was ordained priest (21Dec. 1129 A.D.) 
and next day consecrated bishop of the Mer- 
cians. He died in 1148 at Antioch. 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 528-9 ; Nicolas's His- 
toric Peerage, ed. Courthope ; Orderic'Vitalis ap. 
Migne's Cursus Patrologise, clxxxviii. 622, 789, 
896 ; Henry of Huntingdon, ed. Arnold (Rolls 
Series), p. 252 ; Annals of Waverley in Luard's 
Annales Monastici (Rolls Series), ii. 222 ; Foss's 
Judges of England, i. 109, &c. ; Hunter's Pipe 
Roll, 30-1 Henry I ; Dugdale's Monasticon An- 
glicanum (ed. 1817-46), i. 308, vi. 152, 219, &c.; 
Madox's History of the Exchequer, i. 58, 59, ii. 
312.] T. A. A. 

CLINTON, SIR HENRY, the elder 
(1738 P-1795), general, only son of Admiral 
the Hon. George Clinton, second son of Fran- 
cis, sixth earl of Lincoln, and governor of 
Newfoundland from 1732 to 1741, and of New 
York from 1741 to 1751, was born about 1738. 
He first entered the New York militia, or the 
New York companies as they were called, and 
held the rank of captain-lieutenant, when he 
came with his father to England, and was 
gazetted on 1 Nov. 1751 a lieutenant in the 
2nd or Coldstream guards. From this regi- 
ment he was promoted into the 1st, now the 
Grenadier guards, on 6 April 1758 as captain 
and lieutenant-colonel, and in 1760 went on 
active service for the first time. A brigade 
of guards was attached to the force under 
Prince Ferdinand, and Clinton so greatly dis- 
tinguished himself that he was selected to fill 
the post of aide-de-camp to the hereditary 
Prince of Brunswick, who commanded a di- 
vision. His gallantry was conspicuous ; he 
was promoted colonel on 24 June 1762, was 
wounded at Johannisberg on 30 Aug. 1762, 
and after the conclusion of peace was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 12th regiment in 1766. 
He was promoted major-general on 25 May 
1772, and was in the following July elected 
M.P.forBoroughbridge, through the influence 
of his cousin, the second Duke of Newcastle, 
who in 1774 also returned him for Newark, 
a seat which he held for ten years. In May 
1775 he reached Boston with Generals Howe 
and Burgoyne in time to hear of the skirmish 
of Lexington, and so greatly distinguished 
himself at the battle of Bunker's Hill that he 
was made a local lieutenant-general in Sep- 
tember 1775, and a local general in January 



1776. In the last year he was sent to America 
again with reinforcements, and a commission 
to act as second in command to Sir William 
Howe. He reached Staten Island with three 
thousand men in August 1776, and played so 
great a part in the battle of Long Island on 
16 Aug. and in the capture of New York on 
15 Sept. that he was promoted lieutenant- 
general, and made a knight of the Bath in the 
following year. In June 1777, when Sir Wil- 
liam Howe started for Philadelphia in order to 
open up a communication with General Bur- 
goyne marching from Canada, he left Clinton 
in command at New York, and when the great 
plan failed, and Burgoyne was captured at 
Saratoga, Sir William Howe returned to 
England in May 1778, and Clinton became 
commander-in-chief of the forces in North 
America. He at once evacuated Philadelphia 
and concentrated at New York, and pursued 
a policy of sending out predatory expedi- 
tions and not attempting military operations. 
These were all successful, and one expedition 
in May 1779, under Major-general Mathew, 
alone destroyed property worth 300,000^. on 
the Chesapeake river. But Clinton was not 
happy ; Lord Cornwallis, his second in com- 
mand, held a dormant commission to succeed 
him, a circumstance which always arouses 
distrust, and he would form large military 
plans, which were repugnant to the instincts 
of Clinton, and which he knew he had not 
sufficient force to carry into execution. How- 
ever, in December 1779 he agreed to go to 
the southern states, and in January 1780 he 
took Charleston in conjunction with Admiral 
Marriot Arbuthnot [q. v.] with six thousand 
prisoners and four hundred guns, with a loss 
to his own army of only seventy-nine killed 
and 189 wounded. Clinton then returned to 
New York and left Cornwallis to operate in the 
south, and the younger general in 1781 made 
the famous march which ended in the capitu- 
lation of Yorktown and the final loss of the 
American colonies. How far Clinton is to 
be blamed cannot be accurately defined, but 
in May 1781 he resigned his command to 
Sir Guy Carleton and returned to England, 
and in 1783 he published his 'Narrative,' 
which called forth an acrimonious answer 
from Cornwallis. In 1784 Clinton quarrelled 
with his cousin the Duke of Newcastle, and 
failed to secure his re-election for Newark, 
but in 1790 he again entered the House of 
Commons as M.P. for Launceston. He had 
been appointed colonel of the 7th light dra- 
goons in 1779, and was promoted general in 
October 1793, and in July 1794 he was ap- 
pointed to the important governorship of 
Gibraltar. He did not hold the appointment 
long, but died at his post on 23 Dec. 1795. 



Clinton 



95 



Clinton 



Clinton married in 1767 Harriett, daughter of 
Thomas Carter, by whom he had two sons, 
who hoth rose to be generals in the army and 
G.C.B.'s, Sir Henry and Sir William Henry 
Clinton [q. v.] 

[Bancroft's and other histories of the United 
States for his career there, and the Narrative of 
Lieut.-gen. Sir Henry Clinton, K.B., relative to 
his conduct during part of his command of the 
King's Troops in North America (London, 1783), 
and the Army Lists for the dates of his promo- 
tions.] H. M. S. 



CLINTON, SIB HENRY, the younger 
(1771-1829), general, younger son of General 
Sir Henry Clinton the elder, K.B. [q. v.], 
was born on 9 March 1771. He entered the 
army as an ensign in the llth regiment on 
10 Oct. 1787, and served from October 1788 
to August 1789 as a volunteer in the Bruns- 
wick corps, raised by his father's old comrade 
Riedesel, which was acting with the Prus- 
sian army in Holland. In March 1791 he was 
transferred to the 1st or Grenadier guards, 
promoted captain into the 15th regiment in 
April, and transferred back to the 1st guards 
in November 1792. In January 1793, at 
the commencement of the great war with 
France, he was appointed aide-de-camp to the 
Duke of York, and served on his personal 
.staff throughout the disastrous campaigns in 
Flanders, the only incidents in his life being 
that he was promoted major by brevet on 
22 April 1794, and that he was severely 
wounded at Camphin on 10 May following. 
He remained aide-de-camp to the Duke of 
York until his promotion to the lieutenant- 
colonelcy of the 66th regiment on 30 Sept. 
1795. He joined his regiment in the West 
Indies, and in the following year exchanged 
back into the guards, but as he was taken 
prisoner by a French cruiser he did not reach 



for Sicily, and acted as commandant at Syra- 
cuse from December 1806 to November 1807. 
Clinton inow made the acquaintance of Sir 
John Moore and became his intimate friend, 
and for this reason he was made a brigadier- 
general in January 1808, and accompanied 
Moore as adjutant-general, first to Sweden 
and then to Portugal. He filled this most 
important position throughout Moore's ad- 
vance into Spain and the famous retreat to 
Corunna, and after his return to England 
he was the first person to defend Sir John 
Moore's proceedings in his' ' A few Remarks 
explanatory of the Motives which guided 
the Operations of the British Army during 
he late short Campaign in Spain.' Clinton 
hen acted as adjutant-general in Ireland, 
jut after his promotion to the rank of major- 
reneral on 25 July 1810, he requested to be 
sent to the Peninsula for active service. His 
request was granted, and in October 1811 he 
oined Lord Wellington and was posted to the 
:ommand of the 6th division. Though not 
jifted with the military abilities of Picton 
or Cole, Clinton yet made a thoroughly good 
general of division. His first feat of arms 
was the reduction of the forts of Salamanca 
in June 1812, when one of his brigadiers, 
General Bowes, was killed, and he also 
layed a conspicuous part in the battle of 
Salamanca, when his division was brought 
up to carry the Arapiles after the failure of 
Pack's Portuguese, and did its work success- 
fully. After the battle, Clinton was left in 
command upon the Douro, and he afterwards 
co-operated in the unsuccessful siege of Bur- 
gos. In April 1813 he was made a local 
lieutenant-general, and on 29 July 1813 he 
was for his services at the battle of Vit- 
toria made a knight of the Bath. Towards 
the end of 1813 he had to go to England for 



England until January 1797. He was next 
made aide-de-camp to Lord Cornwallis, then 
commander-in-chief in Ireland, and was pre- 
sent at the surrender of General Humbert. 
He was attached to Lord William Beritinck's 
mission with Suwarrow in Italy, when he 
witnessed the battles of the Trebia and oi 
Novi, and the campaign in Switzerland against 
Mass6na. In JunelSOl Clinton was appointed 
assistant-adjutant-general in the eastern dis- 
trict, in January 1802 adjutant-general in 
India, and on 25 Sept. 1803 he was promoted 
colonel. He did good service in India in com- 
manding the right wing in the battle of Las- 
waree, but left India in March 1805. He next 
acted as military commissioner with the Rus- 
sian general Kutusoff in the campaign o 
Austerlitz, and in July 1806 he embarked in 
command of the flank companies of the guards 



his health, to the great regret of the Marquis 
of Wellington ( Wellington Despatches, vi. 
287), but returned in time to command his 
division at the battles of the Nive, Orthes, 
and Toulouse, and the affairs of Caceres and 
Tarbes. At the conclusion of the war his 
services were amply rewarded. He received 
a gold cross and one clasp, and the order of the 
Tower and the Sword ; he was made colonel 
of the 1st battalion 60th regiment ; he was 
promoted lieutenant-general on 4 June 1814, 
and appointed inspector-general of infantry. 
When Napoleon escaped from Elba, Clinton 
was one of the former subordinates for whose 
services the Duke of Wellington specially 
applied, and he took command of the 3rd di- 
vision, which was posted on the right centre 
at the battle of Waterloo. In this position 
he suffered as much from the French artillery 
as the other divisions in the centre, and also 



Clinton 



9 6 



Clinton 



had to resist many charges of cavalry. After 
the battle Clinton was made a knight of the 
orders of Maria Theresa, of St. George of 
Russia, and of William of the Netherlands, 
and on 9 Aug. 1815 he was made colonel of the 
3rd regiment, the Buffs. In 1818 he resigned 
his seat in the House of Commons, where 
he had sat for Boroughbridge, together with 
his brother Sir William, since 1808, in the 
interest of the Duke of Newcastle, and re- 
tired altogether to his country seat in Hamp- 
shire, where he died on 11 Dec. 1829. Sir 
Henry Clinton married in 1799 Lady Susan 
Charteris, daughter of Francis, lord Elcho, 
who died in 1816, but had no issue. 

[Koyal Military Calendar; Napier's Peninsular 
War.] H. M. S. 

CLINTON, HENRY FIENNES, ninth 
EAEL OF LINCOLN and second DTTKE OF NEW- 
CASTLE-TJNDER-LTNE (1720-1794), was the 
second son of Henry Clinton, seventh earl of 
Lincoln, K.G., P.O., paymaster-general of the 
forces, cofferer of the household, and constable 
of the Tower, by Lucy Pelham, daughter of 
Thomas, first lord Pelham, and sister of 
Thomas, duke of Newcastle, and the Right 
Honourable Henry Pelham, prime ministers 
of England. He was born on 24 April 1720, 
and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, and succeeded his brother George as ninth 
earl of Lincoln on 30 April 1730. Soon after 
comingof age, in 1742,hewas appointed a lord 
of the bedchamber by his uncle, Henry Pel- 
ham, the prime minister, whose elder daughter, 
Catherine Pelham, he married on 16 Oct. 1744. 
This marriage and his relationship to the Pel- 
hams secured him further advancement ; he 
was made lord-lieutenant of the counties of 
Cambridgeshire in 1742 and Nottinghamshire 
in 1768, was sworn of the privy council, and 
appointed cofferer of the household in 1746, 
received two lucrative sinecures, the offices of 
auditor of the exchequer, and comptroller of 
the customs in the port of London ; was made 
a knight of the Garter in 1751, and appointed 
high steward of Westminster in 1759. His 
relationship to the Pelhams brought him still 
higher rank, and on 17 Nov. 1768 he suc- 
ceeded his uncle, Thomas Pelham, as second 
duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, under a spe- 
cial patent, dated 13 Nov. 1756, by which 
Thomas Pelham, duke of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
was created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, 
with remainder to his nephew, the Earl of 
Lincoln, when he resigned the prime minis- 
tership. The second Duke of Newcastle, who 
added the name of Pelham to his own by 
royal license, did not play any very great 
part in politics, though his great borough in- 
fluence made his assistance eagerly sought by 



every section of the whig party. He kept 
himself, however, free from political life, and 
preferred the pleasures of the country and of 
sport. He died on 22 Feb. 1794, and was 
succeeded by his only surviving son, Thomas 
Pelham Clinton, a major-general in the army, 
as third duke of Newcastle. 

[Collins's Peerage of England, ed. Brydges, 
vol. ii. ; Foster's Peerage ; Gent. Mag. March 
1794.] H. M. S. 

CLINTON, HENRY FYNES (1781- 
1852), chronologist, born at Gamston in Not- 
tinghamshire on 14 Jan. 1781, was a son 
of the Rev. Charles Fynes Clinton, LL.D. 
(whose name Clinton was not assumed till 
26 April 1821), by Emma, daughter of Job 
Brough of Newark. Dr. Clinton (who was 
the son of Norreys Fynes, appointed governor 
of Jamaica in 1757) held the rectories of 
Gamston and of Cromwell (Nottinghamshire), 
became in 1788 prebendary of Westminster, 
and in 1797 minister of St. Margaret's, West- 
minster. He was descended from Henry, 
second earl of Lincoln, who died in 1616. 
Henry Fynes Clinton was educated at South- 
well School (1789-96), and at Westminster 
(September 1796-9). At Southwell his mas- 
ter was the Rev. Magnus Jackson, a 'very 
severe ' preceptor, who inspired Clinton with 
a ' contempt for versions, clavises, and all the 
pernicious helps by which the labour of learn- 
ing is shortened.' Clinton was admitted a 
commoner of Christ Church, Oxford, 5 April 
1799. He graduated B.A. 17 March 1803, 
M.A. 1805. From 1803 till June 1806 he 
acted as private tutor at Oxford to Earl 
Gower. He entered the university with ' a 
strong passion ' for Greek literature, and his 
curiosity to read the Greek historians had 
been excited by the perusal of Mitford's 
' History of Greece.' While at Oxford he 
went through, in seven years and eight months, 
about 69,322 verses of the Greek poets and 
about 2,913 pages of the prose authors, making- 
together an amount of about 5,223 pages. 
The less obvious Greek authors were still 
unknown to him ; and later in life he read 
five times as much in the same space of time. 
On 3 Nov. 1806 he was brought in by the 
Duke of Newcastle as member for Aldborough. 
He began to seek for such parliamentary 
knowledge ' as the shortness of the time would 
allow,' and devoted the forty days before the 
assembling of the house ' to the study of 
Smith's " Wealth of Nations " and Smollett's 
" Continuation of Hume." ' He was re-elected 
M.P. in 1807, 1813, 1818, 1819, and in 1820, 
when the votes were : Antrobus and Clinton, 
40 ; Pringle and Bryant, 7. He retired from 
parliament in June 1826, having taken no> 



Clinton 



97 



Clinton 



active part in politics. In 1809 Clinton mar- 
ried; and in 1811 the will of Mr. Isaac Gar- 
diner, a distant connection, put him in pos- 
session of ' a comfortable independence.' In 
1812 he purchased the house (once the resi- 
dence of Young the poet) and the estate of J 
Welwyn in Hertfordshire, where he hence- 
forth chiefly resided ; when in London he 
lived at his father's house in Dean's Yard, j 
Westminster. In December 1827 he offered 
himself as a candidate for the principal li- 
brarianship of the British Museum. But 
Henry Ellis, the other candidate, was chosen 
on the ground of many years' previous service 
in the museum. 

Clinton found his true employment and 
happiness in books. He kept a minute journal 
of his studies (written in English with scraps 
of Latin and Greek interspersed), which con- 
stitutes interesting and even exciting reading 
for students of the classics. In 1811 he began 
to draw up a list of Greek and Latin authors, 
and in order to determine the quantity of 
their extant writings, he reduced the con- 
tents of the various pages of folio, quarto, or 
octavo editions to one standard page of 1002 
letters (nearly equal to a page in Reiske's 
' Demosthenes '). From 1810 to 1818 inclu- 
sive he read Greek literature amounting to 
33,700 of these standard pages. He also read 
4,136 pages in Latin (cf. his Literary Remains, 
pp. 206-11). He found that he read about 
twenty pages of Dion Cassius in each hour of 
study. Plato's ' Republic ' occupied him five 
days. The reading of the second book of the 
' ^Eneid ' with Heyne's ' Commentary ' occu- 
pied him fifty minutes ; the fourth book, fifty 
minutes; and the sixth book, fifty-five mi- 
nutes. Several authors he perused more than 
once, especially with a view to determine 
their chronology. About 1811 he had begun 
to form a classical library ; his object being 
' to procure a single copy of each author . . . 
the best and most complete for use,' with 
indexes and notes. He estimated that, ex- 
cluding rare or curious books, 'every re- 
quisite help for the critical use of a scholar 
[in Greek and Latin] may be contained in a 
library of from six to seven hundred volumes.' 
Clinton is also said to have had a very ac- 
curate knowledge of history, and to have been 
well read in English and other literatures. 
He invariably devoted Sunday to the study 
of theology. He was a firm believer in a 
revealed religion ; and his literary journals 
constantly record (in Latin or Greek) some 
fervent prayer or thanksgiving in connection 
with his classical studies. 

From 1810 Clinton read with a view to 
his great work on Greek and Roman chro- 
nology (' Fasti Hellenic! ' and ' Fasti Ro- 

VOL. XI. 



mani'). Its publication was undertaken by 
the Clarendon Press, and the first instal- 
ment, part ii. (part i. was issued subse- 
quently), was published in January 1824. It 
was well received, and within four months 
four-fifths of the whole impression were sold, 
though the edition was not exhausted till 
February 1826. He received no payment for 
this volume, but for the second edition of it 
he was granted an honorarium and the copy- 
right. The work and its various editions 
occupied Clinton till his death, and were pub- 
lished as follows : 1824, ' Fasti Hellenici : 
the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece,' 
part ii. 4to, pp. 381 ; 1827, 2nd edition (1,000 
copies) of ' Fasti Hellen.' part ii. 4to, pp. 527 
(a Latin translation appeared at Leipzig in 
1830, 4to) ; 1830, ' Fasti Hellen.' part iii. 
4to ; 1834, ' Fasti Hellen.' part i. 4to ; 1841, 
3rd edition of 'Fasti Hellen.' part ii. 4to, 
pp. 627 ; 1845, ' Fasti Romani : the Civil and 
Literary Chronology of Rome and Constan- 
tinople,' vol. i. 4to, pp. 872 ; 1850, ' Fasti 
Rom.' vol. ii. 4to, pp. 612 ; 1851, 2nd edition 
of ' Fasti Hellen.' part iii. 4to, pp. 644 ; and 
' An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chro- 
nology of Greece,' 8vo; 1853, 'An Epitome 
of the Civil and Literary Chronology of 
Rome,' 8vo (posthumous, completed and 
edited by Rev. Charles John Fynes Clinton 
[q. v.]). Clinton also published in 1807 ' So- 
lyman, a Tragedy ' (hardly fifty copies were 
sold), and wrote one or two articles on Hel- 
lenic subjects. An article on Antiphanes 
appeared in the ' Philological Museum/ 
No. 3. 

Clinton died at Welwyn on 24 Oct. 1852. 
The ' Epitome ' of Roman chronology had 
been carried on until within fourteen days of 
his decease, and his ' Literary Journal ' to 
the very day before. He married, first, on 
22 June 1809, Harriott, eldest daughter of 
Rev. Dr. Wylde of Nottingham (she died on 
2 Feb. 1810, and her son on the day of birth) ; 
secondly, on 6 Jan. 1812, Katherine, third 
daughter of Dr. Majendie, bishop of Bangor, 
by whom he had eight daughters and one 
son, Charles Francis Clinton, B.A., of Christ 
Church, Oxford, who 'served in the Christina 
army in Spain, was appointed British arbi- 
trator under the treaty with Portugal for 
the abolition of slavery, and died at Loanda 
in 1844.' He wrote a short account of his 
Spanish campaign, and published some notes 
of travel (1841 and 1843) in ' Bentley's Mis- 
cellany ' (Gent. Mag. new ser. (1853) xxxix. 
316). A younger brother of Henry Fynes 
Clinton, Clinton James Fynes Clinton, M.A. 
(1792-1833), was barrister-at-law and M.P. 
for Aldborough from 1826 to 1832 (Gent. 
Mag. May 1833). 



Clinton 



9 8 



Clinton 



[Literary Remains of Henry Fynes Clinton 
ed. by Rev. Charles J. F. Clinton, London, 185 
(pt. i. contains his Autobiography, 'written i 
1818; pt. ii. his Literary Journal, 1819-52 
pt. iii. Brief Assays on Theological Subjects) 
Gent. Mag. new ser. (1853) xxxix. 315-16 ; c 
Annual Reg. (1852) xciv. 323.] W. W. 

CLINTON, HENRY PELHAM FIEN 
NES PELHAM, fourth DTTKE OF NEWCASTL 
(1785-1851), grandson of Henry Fiennes Clin 
ton, the second duke [q. v.l, and elder son o 
Thomas Pelham Clinton, third duke of New 
castle, by Lady Anna Maria Stanhope, fift 
daughter of William Stanhope, second earl o 
Harrington, was born 30 Jan. 1785. Hisfathe 
held the dukedom from 22 Feb. 1794 to hi 
death, 17 May 1795, when his son succeedec 
him. He received his education at Eton 1796- 
1803, and was the founder at that college in 
1829 of a scholarship which bears his name 
In 1803, during the peace of Amiens, he ven 
tured on a continental tour, when, on the re- 
newal of hostilities, he was taken prisone 
and detained in France for four years. On hii 
return to England in 1807 he entered on lift 
with many personal advantages, and with 
a considerable fortune. He married at Lam- 
beth, 18 July 1807, a great heiress, Georgiana 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Miller Mundy 
of Shipley, Derbyshire. Newcastle was ap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of Nottingham in 
1809, a knight of the Garter in 1812, and on 
4 April in the same year steward of the forest 
of Sherwood and of the park of Folewood, 
Nottinghamshire. He was a rigid conserva- 
tive, and violently opposed the claims of the 
protestant dissenters, catholic emancipation, 
and parliamentary reform. On various occa- 
sions he laid himself open to the bitterest 
assaults of popular indignation. The storm 
raged at its height when he repeated in 
parliament, 3 Dec. 1830, his famous and long- 
remembered question in reference to some of 
his tenants ejected at Newark: 'Is it not 
lawful for me to do what I please with mine 
own ? ' (Hansard, 3 Dec. 1830, pp. 750-63). 
On 10 Oct. 1831 the mob of Nottingham 
burnt to the ground his mansion, Nottingham 
Castle, and at the same period he found it 
necessary to fortify his residence at Clumber, 
and the windows of his town house in Port- 
man Square were broken by the London 
rabble. In the committee on the Reform Bill 
in May 1832 the duke avowed his decided 
hostility to the measure in every shape, and 
at a further stage left the house declaring 
that he would not take any part in its pro- 
ceedings for the future. He adhered to his 
principles throughout the remainder of his 
life with conscientious consistency. In 1839, 
in resisting the appointment to the magis- 



tracy of two gentlemen nominated by the 
government, but of whose political and reli- 
gious principles he disapproved, Newcastle 
wrote a very offensive letter to Lord-chan- 
cellor Cottenham, and on his refusing to 
withdraw it he received a letter on 4 May 
from Lord John Russell informing him that 
the queen had no further occasion for his ser- 
vices as lord-lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. 
The acquisition of Worksop manor, one of the 
finest estates in England, strained his re- 
sources, and involved him in much pecuniary 
difficulty. The purchase of Hafod estate in 
Wales was more successful, but the terms on 
which it was acquired led to much discussion 
in parliament, in connection with the rights 
of the commissioners of woods and forests. 
By the passage of the Reform Bill he lost the 
patronage and interest in six boroughs, a loss 
which he himself estimated as being equiva- 
lent to 200,000/. His opinions never changed. 
In 1837 he said, 'On looking back to the past 
I can honestly assert that I repent of nothing 
that I have done.' For more than twenty 
years it was assumed by the general public 
that the duke's motives as a landlord and 
as a member of the House of Lords were of 
the most unworthy character, and that his 
appetite for jobbery was insatiable. He died 
at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, 12 Jan. 
1851, and was buried in Markham Clinton 
Church on 21 Jan. His wife, who was born 
1 June 1789, died, after giving birth to twins, 
at Clumber 26 Sept. 1822, and was buried at 
Bothamsal Church on 7 Oct. The duke pub- 
lished: 1. ' Letter of the Duke of Newcastle 
to Lord Kenyon on the Catholic Emancipa- 
tion Question,' 1828. 2. ' An Address to all 
classes and conditions of Englishmen,' 1832. 
3. ' Thoughts in times past tested by subse- 
quent events,' 1837. 

[Gent. Mag. October 1822, p. 370, March 1851, 
3p. 309-10; Hansard's Debates, 1827 to 1831 ; 
Times, 15 Jan. 1851, p. 5; Illustrated London 
s, 18 Jan. 1851, p. 37, portrait, 25 Jan. 
)p. 62-4 ; Portraits of Eminent Conservatives 
1836), pp. 1-2, with portrait.] G. C. B. 

CLINTON, HENRY PELHAM FIEN- 
NES PELHAM. fifth DTTKE OP NEWCASTLE 
1811-1864), eldest son of Henry Pelham 
r iennes Pelham Clinton, fourth duke of New- 
castle [q. v.], was born at 39 Charles Street, 
Berkeley Square, London, 22 May 1811, and 
as earl of Lincoln was entered at Eton in 
826 ; he then proceeded to Christ Church, 
3xford, where he took his B.A. degree in 
832, and was created a D.C.L. in 1863. He 
at in parliament as member for South Not- 
inghamshire 1832-46, and under Sir Robert 
'eel's short-lived government was a lord of 



Clinton 



99 



Clinton 



the treasury from 31 Dec. 1834 to 20 April 
1835. When Sir Robert Peel returned to 
power, Lord Lincoln became first commis- 
sioner of woods and forests, 15 April 1841, 
a post which, on 14 Feb. 1846, he exchanged 
for that of chief secretary to the lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. His political opinions, like 
Peel's, had undergone a very great change, 
which offended the main body of his consti- 
tuents as well as his father, who addressed a 
letter to the inhabitants of South Nottingham- 
shire, in which he charged his son with being 
the victim of bad counsel. Under these cir- 
cumstances, at the bye election for South Not- 
tinghamshire 27 Feb. 1846, he was beaten by 
a large majority, but not long after, 2 May, 
came in for the Falkirk Burghs. During the 
administration of Lord John Russell he took 
little part in public affairs, and the death of 
his father in 1851 removed him to the upper 
house. In 1852, when Lord Aberdeen was 
called upon to form a cabinet, the duke re- 
ceived the seals of the colonial office on 
28 Dec., on which department also devolved 
the management of the military affairs of 
the nation. When the Russian war broke 
out, it was found necessary to make the war 
administration a separate department. The 
duke then left the colonial office, 12 June 
1854, for the war office. England had been 
at peace for more than thirty years ; the old 
system broke down, and many blunders were 
committed. The duke worked night and 
day to bring his department into a sound 
administrative condition, and though he was 
assailed both in and out of parliament in the 
most virulent terms, it has since been ac- 
knowledged that he did all that was possible. 
On 1 Feb. 1855 he resigned office, and went 
to the Crimea and to the Black Sea, to wit- 
ness for himself the state of the army and 
the peculiarities of the country. When the 
second coalition government was formed, 
Newcastle was appointed secretary of state 
for the colonies, 18 June 1859. In 1860, while 
holding this office, he went to Canada and the 
United States in company with the Prince of 
Wales. The duke became high steward of 
Retford 1 851 , lieutenant-colonel commandant 
of the Sherwood Rangers 1853, lord-lieute- 
nant of Nottinghamshire 1857, lord warden 
of the stannaries 6 Feb. 1862, one of the 
council to the Prince of Wales January 

1863, and a knight of the Garter 17 Dec. 
1860. Failing health, partly caused by the 
anxiety of mind which he endured during the 
continuance of the Crimean war, caused him 
to resign the colonial secretaryship in April 

1864, and he died rather suddenly at Clumber 
Park on 18 Oct. 1864, aged only fifty-three. 
His personalty was sworn under 250,000/. on 



11 Feb. 1865. He married, 27 Nov. 1832, 
Lady Susan Harriet Catherine, only daughter 
of Alexander Douglas Hamilton, tenth duke of 
Hamilton, by whom he had four sons and a 
daughter. His eldest son, Henry Pelham 
Alexander, born 25 Jan. 1834, succeeded to the 
title as sixth duke. He represented Newark in 
1857-9, married Henrietta Adela, daughter 
of Henry Thomas Hope of Deepdene, 11 Feb. 
1861, and died 22 Feb. 1879. The fifth duke's 
wife was born 9 June 1814. This marriage 
having been dissolved 14 Aug. 1850, she mar- 
ried, 2 Jan. 1860, M. Opdebeck of Brussels. 

[Gent. Mag. December 1864, pp. 783-6; British 
Cabinet (1853), pp. 240-50; Illustrated London 
News, 22 Dec. 1860, pp. 575, 586-7, portrait, 
5 Nov. 1864, p. 469 ; C. Brown's Nottingham- 
shire Worthies (1882), pp. 353-5; Times, 19,20, 
22, 25, 28 Oct. and 26 Nov. 1864; Eton Portrait 
Gallery (1876), pp. 412-17; Martineau's Biogra- 
phical Sketches (1876), pp! 122-30; Kinglake's 
Invasion of the Crimea (6th edit. 1883), vii. 28 
et seq.] G. C. B. 

CLINTON, SIK WILLIAM HENRY 

(1769-1846), general, elder son of General Sir 
Henry Clinton the elder, K.B., was born on 
23 Dec. 1769. He commenced his career as a 
cornet in his father's regiment, the 7th light 
dragoons, to which he was gazetted on 22 Dec. 
1784. He waspromoted lieutenant on 7 March 
1787, captain into the 45th regiment on 9 June 
1790, and lieutenant and captain in the 1st or 
Grenadier guards on 14 July 1790. He served 
in the campaign of 1793 in Flanders with his 
battalion, and was promoted captain and lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 29 Dec. 1794. He was next 
employed with Doyle's abortive expedition, 
and in 1796 became aide-de-camp to the Duke 
of York, in which capacity he acted, with but 
one slight intermission of regular duty in 
Ireland, until June 1799. In that year he 
was sent on a secret mission to the Russian 
generals Korsakoff and Suwarrow, and re- 
turned in October in time to take up his old 
appointment on the duke's staff at the Hel- 
der, and it was his duty to bear the news 
of the armistice of Alkmar to England. In 
June 1800 he was appointed to act as deputy 
quartermaster-general at headquarters during 
the absence of Colonel Anstruther in Egypt, 
and on 1 Jan. 1801 he was promoted colonel. 
In June of that year he was selected to com- 
mand a secret expedition, and on 23 July 
following he took possession of the island of 
Madeira, which he governed as a brigadier- 
general until the conclusion of the peace of 
Amiens in 1802. In April 1803 he was ap- 
pointed military secretary to the commander- 
in-chief, and on 26 July 1804 quartermaster- 
general in Ireland. In May 1807 he was sent 

H 2 



Clinton 



100 



Clissold 



on a secret mission to Sweden, and on 25 April 
1808 he was promoted major-general, but he 
was not sent upon foreign service until the 
beginning of 1812, when he was ordered to 
Sicily. He there commanded the division at 
Messina until September 1812, when he pro- 
ceeded to Alicante to take command of the 
troops on the east coast of Spain. He was, 
however, superseded by Major-general Camp- 
bell in December 1812, who was in his turn 
superseded by Sir John Murray in March 1813, 
when Clinton took the command of the 1st 
division. This division he commanded at the 
battle of Castalla on 13 April 1813, but from 
that time he failed to live in harmony with 
Sir John Murray. That most unsuccessful 
general managed to quarrel with the admiral 
commanding, Admiral Hallowell, his second 
in command, Clinton, and his quartermaster- 
general, Colonel Donkin, and it is to this dis- 
union that the failure of the British army to 
take Tarragona was due. Lord William Ben- 
tinck took command of the army in the east 
of Spain on 17 June 1813, and on leaving it 
he sent Sir John Murray to England and 
again gave Clinton the command-in-chief. 
The general had now no very difficult task ; 
his wary enemy, Suchet, was obliged to fall 
back on France because of the advance of 
Wellington in the west, and Clinton had 
only to watch him, and then to form the 
blockade of Barcelona. At the conclusion of 
the war, Clinton was made colonel of the 55th 
regiment, and promoted lieutenant-general, 
and in January 1815, on the extension of the 
order of the Bath, he was made a G.C.B. 
He now took some part in politics. He had 
been elected M.P. for Boroughbridge with his 
brother in 1806 in the interest of the Duke 
of Newcastle, and after sitting for that place 
till 1818 he was in that year elected M.P. for 
Newark in the same interest, and sat for that 
town till 1830. In 1825 he received the office 
of lieutenant-general of the ordnance, which 
he held till 1829, and in December 1826 he 
received the command of the division of five 
thousand men which was sent to Portugal to 
maintain order there, and brought them back 
in April 1828. On 22 July 1830 he was pro- 
moted general, and in the same year he re- 
signed his seat in the House of Commons, 
and retired to his country seat, Cockenhatch, 
near Royston in Hertfordshire, where he died 
at the age of seventy-six, on 23 Dec. 1846. 
Clinton married in 1 797 Lady Dorothea Louisa 
Holroyd, youngest daughter of John Holroyd, 
first earl of Sheffield, and by her had a family 
of two sons, both officers in the Grenadier 
guards, and two daughters. 

[Royal Military Calendar Napier's Peninsular 
War.l H. M. S. 



CLIPSTONE, JOHN (J. 1378), divine, 
was a native of Nottingham, and a member 
of the Carmelite convent of St. Nicholas in 
that city. He was also professor of sacred 
literature at Cambridge University. He 
wrote a variety of theological and devotional 
works, the style of which is much praised by 
Leland. 



[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib.] 



J. M. E. 



CLISSOLD, AUGUSTUS (1797 P-1882), 
Swedenborgian, born in or about 1797, the 
son of Augustus Clissold of Stonehouse, near 
Stroud, Gloucestershire, was matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, on 6 Dec. 1814, the 
same day as his elder brother, Henry Clis- 
sold (Exeter College Admission BooTt), He 
took the ordinary B.A. degree on 19 Nov. 
1818, proceeding M. A. on 13 June 1821. In 
the last-named year he was ordained deacon, 
and in 1823 was admitted to priest's orders 
by the Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Thomas Bur- 
gess [q. v.]). He held for some time the cura- 
cies of St. Martin-in-the-Fields and St. Mary, 
Stoke Newington, but having become an en- 
thusiastic student of the writings of Emanuel 
Swedenborg, he withdrew from the ministry 
about 1840, although he remained nominally 
connected with the church of England to 
the end of his life. He continued to reside 
at Stoke Newington, with occasional migra- 
tions to his country house, 4 Broadwater 
Down, Tunbridge Wells, and he died at the 
latter place on 30 Oct. 1882, in the eighty- 
sixth year of his age. Clissold translated 
and printed at his own expense Swedenborg's 
' Principia Rerum Naturalium/ 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1845-6, and ' O3conomia Regni Ani- 
malis ' (edited by J. J. Garth Wilkinson), 
2 vols. 8vo, London, 1846, both of which he 
presented to the Swedenborg Association, 
started in 1845 for the publication of Sweden- 
borg's scientific works, and merged, after its 
task had been accomplished in a great mea- 
sure, in the larger Swedenborg Society. Of 
this association Clissold was chosen president. 
In 1838 Clissold joined the Swedenborg So- 
ciety as a life member, and in the same year 
he was placed on the committee. In 1840 
he was elected chairman of the annual meet- 
ing. In 1854 he purchased for the use of 
the society a seventy years' lease of the 
house, 36 Bloomsbury Street, which has since 
become the depot of ' New Church ' litera- 
ture. During the stormy time through which 
the Swedenborg Society passed in 1859 and 
1860 Clissold assisted it liberally with money, 
and by his will he bequeathed to it the sum 
of 4,OOW. In 1870 he busied himself in 
forwarding the publication of the work known 
as ' Documents concerning the Life and Cha- 



Clissold 



101 



Clitherow 



racter of Emanuel Swedenborg, collected, 
translated, and annotated by R. L. Tafel,' | 
2 vols. 1875-7, and during the last two years 
of his life he assisted largely the publication , 
of Swedenborg's posthumous work on ' The 
Brain,' 1882, &c., forming a portion of the 
' Regnum Animale perlustratum '(TAFEL, Me- 
morial Sermon). Besides a sermon preached 
upon the decease of the Rev. G. Gaskin, 8vo, 
London, 1829, Clissold was the author of: 

1. ' The Practical Nature of the Doctrines 
and alleged Revelations contained in the 
Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg . . . in a 
Letter to the Archbishop of Dublin ' (R. I 
Whately), 8vo, London, 1838 (2nd ed. as ' 
* The Practical Nature of the Theological , 
Writings,' &c., 8vo, London, 1860 [1859]). 

2. ' Illustrations of the End of the Church, 
as predicted in Matthew, chap, xxiv.' 8vo, 
London, 1841. 3. ' A Letter to the Rev. J. 
Bonwell of Preston, upon the Subject of his 
Sermon on the Perishing in the Gainsaying 
of Core,' 8vo, London, 1843. 4. ' The New 
Church . . . addressed to the inhabitants of 
Preston,' 8vo, London, 1843. 5. ' A Review 
of the Principles of Apocalyptical Interpre- 
tation,' 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1845. 6. ' A 
Reply to the Remarks emanating from St. 
Mary's College, Oscot, on Noble's Appeal in 
behalf of the Doctrines of Swedenborg,' 8vo, 
[London], 1849. 7. ' The Spiritual Exposi- 
tion of the Apocalypse,' 4 vols. 8vo, London, 
1851. 8. ' A Letter to the Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford on the Present 
State of Theology in the Universities and 
the Church of England,' &c., 8vo, London, 
1856. 9. ' Swedenborg's Writings and Ca- 
tholic Teaching,' &c. (in answer to the Rev. 
W. J. E. Bennett, by A. Clissold), 8vo, 
London, 1858 (3rd ed. 8vo, London, 1881). 
10. ' Inspiration and Interpretation : being a 
review of seven sermons ... by J. W. Bur- 
gon, . . . with some remarks upon "The 
Beginning of the Book of Genesis," by I. 
Williams,' 7 parts, 12mo, Oxford, London 
[printed], 1861-4. 11. 'The Reunion of 
Christendom,' 8vo, London, 1866. 12. ' Swe- 
denborg and his modern Critics,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1866. 13. ' The Literal and Spiritual 
Senses of Scripture in their relations to each 
other and to the Reformation of the Church,' 
8vo, London, 1867. 14. ' Transition ; or, the 
Passing away of Ages or Dispensations, Modes 
of Biblical Interpretation, and Churches; 
being an Illustration of the Doctrine of De- 
velopment,' 8vo, London, 1868. 15. 'The 
Centre of Unity; What is it? Charity or 
Authority ? ' 8vo, London, 1869. 16. ' The 
Prophetic Spirit in its relation to Wisdom 
and Madness,' 8vo, London, 1870. 17. ' The 
Present State of Christendom in its relation 



to the Second Coming of the Lord,' &c., 8vo, 
London, 1871. 18. < The Creeds of Athana- 
sius, Sabellius, and Swedenborg, examined 
and compared with each other,' 8vo, London, 
1873 (2nd ed. in the same year). 19. ' Paul 
and David ' (by A. Clissold), 12mo, London, 
1873. 20. ' Sancta Ccena ; or the Holy Sup- 
per, explained on the principles taught by 
Emanuel Swedenborg,' 8vo, London, 1874. 
21. ' The Divine Order of the Universe as 
interpreted by Emanuel Swedenborg, with 
especial relation to modern Astronomy,' 8vo, 
London, 1877. 22. ' The Consummation of 
the Age : being a Prophecy now fulfilled and 
interpreted in the Writings of Emanuel Swe- 
denborg ' (extracted from Swedenborg's ' Ar- 
cana Ccelestia,' with a preface by A. Clissold), 
8vo, London, 1879. 

[Oxford Graduates ; Crockford's Clerical Direc- 
tory ; Men of the Time, 10th ed. ; Times, 2 Nov. 
1882, p. 6, col. 3 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G. 

CLISSOLD, STEPHEN (1790P-1863), 

writer on trade, born about 1790, studied at 
Clare College, Cambridge. He proceeded 
B.A. 1819, M.A. 1822, was rector of Wrent- 
ham, Suffolk, from 1830 to 1853, and hono- 
rary canon of Norwich Cathedral. He died 
at Wrentham on 12 May 1863. Clissold 
wrote : 1. ' Letters of Cincinnatus,' 1815. 
2. 'Considerations on the Trade, Manufac- 
ture, and Commerce of the British Empire,' 
1820. 3. 'National Piety the Source of 
National Prosperity,' two sermons, 1828. 
4. ' Official Account of the Parochial Chari- 
ties &c. belonging to the Blything Union,' 
Halesworth, 1838. 

[Gent. Mag. June 1863, pp. 801-2, July 1863, 
p. 108 ; Catalogue of Cambridge Graduates.] 

F. W-T. 

CLITHEROW, SIB CHRISTOPHER 
(d. 1641), merchant, was the only son of 
Henry Clitherow by his second wife Bridget, 
daughter of Thomas Hewett. His father 
was a citizen of London and master of the 
Ironmongers' Company in 1592, 1603, and 
1606, and dying in the following year be- 
queathed to the company a piece of plate. 
Lysons considers the family to have been 
descended from the Cliderows, or Clithe- 
rows, of Kent. The family was, however, 
represented in the city of London in early 
times, as Malcolm mentions a monument 
formerly existing in the church of St. Martin 
Outwich to William Clitherow and Mar- 
garet his wife, dated 1469 (Lond. Rediv. iv. 
412). Clitherow was a prominent member 
of the East India Company. Between 
21 March 1601 and 26 April 1602 ' bills of 
adventure ' for 62,880J. were sealed by the 



Clitherow 



102 



Clitherow 



incorporated company to various merchants, 
among them being included Clitherow, who J 
contributed 240/. He was admitted a mem- : 
ber of the company in October 1601, and the 
court book of the company records the ad- 
mission in 1610 of Edward Warnor as an 
adventurer under Clitherow in the first, se- 
cond, and third voyages. The profits upon 
the first and second are stated in Sir Jeremy 
Sambrooke's report on the East India trade 
to have amounted to 95. per cent, upon the 
capital subscribed. In 1612 an association 
was formed by the East India and Muscovy 
Companies for the discovery of a north-west 
passage, and Clitherow's name appears in the 
grant of incorporation. Two years after- 
wards he became a member of the committee 
of the East India Company, and in 1619 was 
put in nomination for the offices of deputy- 
governor and treasurer. He was not then 
elected, but was deputy-governor in 1625 
and governor in 1638. In the latter year 
the offices of the East India Company, which 
had since 1621 been in Crosby House, were 
removed to Clitherow's house in Leadenhall 
Street, where they remained until 1648, 
when they finally removed to the adjoining 
house, the property of Lord Craven. Clithe- 
row was also governor of the Company of 
Eastland Merchants, and in that capacity in 
1638 refused to admit as a member of the 
company one Henry White, who had been 
recommended to the company by the king, | 
in a letter which ended with the promise of i 
a ' good turn ' on his majesty's part. Clithe- j 
row in reply said that ' they all knew what ] 
the king's good turns were when they came 
to seek them.' In 1618 and again in 1624 
he was master of the Ironmongers' Com- 
pany, and was desired by the company in 
1623 to go over to Brittany to purchase a 
stock of wheat to be laid in by them as re- 
quired by act of parliament. In 1627 the 
Ironmongers were called upon to provide the 
large sum of 2,148/. as a forced loan, and 
Clitherow and two others were entreated to 
lend the balance of this sum to the company 
at interest ' at the best rates they can.' He 
bequeathed a sum of money for the purchase 
of a piece of plate for the company, but this, 
with his father's bequest and other articles, 
was sold by order of the company in 1644 
to meet the demands of the parliamentary 
committee. 

During 1625 Clitherow was chosen one of 
the sheriffs of London and Middlesex. The 
plague was raging. Four sheriffs were elected 
in the year, one at least, and probably two 
of them, having fallen victims to the pesti- 
lence. On 2 Jan. 1625 he was elected al- 
derman for the ward of Aldersgate in the 



room of Thomas Westrow, one of the she- 
riffs for the year, and on 7 Feb. 1627 he re- 
moved to Billingsgate ward, over which he 
presided as alderman until his death. In 
the parliament which met in March 1627-8 
he was chosen one of the representatives of 
the city of London. Granger, speaking of 
his character as a politician (but apparently 
without authority), says that his principles 
made him unacceptable to the puritans (Eioy. 
History of England, v. 373-4 n.) He was 
a member of two commissions in 1628 to 
examine the accounts of moneys raised for 
suppressing the pirates of Algiers and Tunis. 
A further expedition became necessary in 
1633, and the corporation deputed Clitherow 
with others to attend before the council and 
urge that the charge should be borne by the 
companies of merchants instead of by the 
city. The city appears to have been success- 
ful in their contention. 

In 1635 Clitherow became lord mayor, and 
London was again visited by the plague. 
The mayoralty pageant provided by the Iron- 
mongers' Company for Clitherow was written 
by Thomas Heywood, and entitled ' Londini 
salus salutis, or London's Harbour of Health 
and Happinesse.' It is printed in the fourth 
volume of the collected edition of his dra- 
matic works, published in London by John 
Pearson in 1874. The cost of the pageants, 
in the production of which Heywood was 
associated with John and Mathias Christmas, 
was 180/. This included five hundred 'bookes 
of the declaracon of the shew.' Further de- 
tails of the expenses are given by Nichols 
{Hist, of Ironmongers' Company, pp. 222-4). 

On 15 Jan. in the year of his mayoralty 
he was knighted by the king at Hampton 
Court. Clitherow was rich, and apparently 
engaged in monetary transactions in addi- 
tion to his business as a merchant. In 
August 1640 a bond of several noblemen, 
knights, and gentlemen for 20,OOOZ. was pay- 
able at the ' present house of Sir Christopher 
Clitherow in Leadenhall Street.' On 19 June 
1638 Sir Thomas Penyston, sheriff of Oxford- 
shire, reporting on the payments of ship- 
money in that county, states that he sent to 
' Sir Christopher Clitherow and Mr. Ridge, 
aldermen of London,' to pay 201. apiece, 
'having good estates in this county.' He 
also possessed estates in Essex and Hertford- 
shire, besides his residence of Pinner Hill in 
the latter county. In 1636-40 Clitherow 
was president of Christ's Hospital, and his 
portrait, which still hangs in the court room, 
is described by Strype in his edition of Stow's 
'Survey.' He died on 11 Nov. 1641, and 
was buried in the church of St. Andrew 
Undershaft. His will was proved in the 



Clitherow 



103 



Clive 



Prerogative Court, Canterbury, on 22 Nov. 
in the same year. Nichols, in his ' History 
of the Ironmongers' Company,' gives a pedi- 
gree of Sir Christophers family and de- 
scendants. Besides his bequest to the Iron- 
mongers' Company, he left annuities to the 
poor of St. Andrew Undershaft and of Beck- 
ington, Essex, and two scholarships for poor 
scholars of Christ's Hospital at Oxford Uni- 
versity. He was twice married: first, to 
Catherine, daughter of Thomas Rowland of 
London, who died on 15 April 1606 ; and 
secondly, to Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Campbell, who survived him, and died on 
13 Dec. 1645, both wives being buried with 
him in St. Andrew Undershaft. Clitherow 
had several children, but the branches in 
the male line became extinct, except the pos- 
terity of James Clitherow, the fourth son, 
who purchased in 1670 the manor of Burston, 
or Boston, near Brentford, Middlesex. Ra- 
chel, a daughter of Sir Christopher Clithe- 
row, married Dr. William Paul, bishop of 
Oxford. Her lineal descendant, Sir Thomas 
Stapleton, succeeded in 1788 to the ancient 
barony of Despencer. 

[Wills of Sir Christopher Clitherow and his 
son Christopher ; Records of the Corporation of 
London ; State Papers, Colonial and Domestic 
Series ; Stow's History of London ; Lysons's En- 
virons ; Rymer's Fcedera ; Clutterbuck's Hert- 
fordshire ; Faulkner's History of Brentford ; 
Metcalfe's Book of Knights; Charity Commis- 
sioners' Reports ; Trollope's History of Christ's 
Hospital ; Reports of Historical Manuscripts 
Commission ; Morant's Essex ; Foster's Peerage, 
&c.] C. W-H. 

CLITHEROW, MARGARET (d. 1586), 
the ' martyr of York/ was the daughter of 
Thomas Middleton, citizen of York and wax- 
chandler, who served the office of sheriff in 
1564-5. On 1 July 1571 she was married 
to John Clitherow, butcher. He was a well- 
to-do man, and was afterwards chosen a 
chamberlain of the city, thus becoming en- 
titled, ex officio, to the appellation of gentle- 
man. Although John Clitherow was not a 
Roman catholic, his brother William was a 
priest, and it is probable that ' Thomas Clithe- 
row of York, draper,' who was in the castle for 
his religion in 1600, was another brother. 
In 1574 Margaret Clitherow embraced the 
catholic faith, and on account of her zeal and 
constancy in it she was separated from her 
husband and children and cast into prison, 
sometimes for the space of two years to- 
gether, and sometimes for an even longer 
period. On 10 March 1585-6 she was ar- 
raigned at York before Judges Clinch and 
Rhodes, with whom several members of the 
council sat on the bench as assessors. The 



indictment charged her with having har- 
boured and maintained Jesuit and seminary 
priests and with having heard mass. As she 
refused to plead she was sent back to prison 
that night, where she was visited by a puri- 
tan preacher named Wigginton. The next 
day she was again brought into court and 
was urged to plead, but as she persisted in 
her refusal she was threatened with the 
'peine forte et dure.' Wigginton in vain 
interceded for her, telling the judge that he 
might condemn her to it by the queen's law, 
but not by the law of God. Clinch then 
pronounced the terrible sentence upon her, 
which was carried into execution on New 
Year's day (25 March 1586) in the Tolbooth, 
six or seven yards distant from the prison. 
' She was in dying a quarter of an hour.' 

Her sons, Henry and William, went abroad 
to study for the priesthood, the one to Rome 
and the other to Rheims. Anne, her daugh- 
ter, became a nun in St. Ursula's convent at 
Louvain. 

John Mush, a secular priest and her spiri- 
tual director, wrote her life, which was edited 
by William Nicholson of Thelwall Hall, 
Cheshire, from a contemporary manuscript 
in the possession of Peter Middleton of 
Stockeld Park, Yorkshire (London, 1849, 
12mo, with portrait). More recently it has 
been edited by Father John Morris for his 
' Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers ' (3rd 
series, 1877), pp. 331-440. Other manu- 
script copies of the life are preserved at St. 
Mary's Convent, York, and at Oscott. 

[Life, by Mush; Challoner's Missionary Priests 
(1803), i. 101 ; Foley's Records, vi. 183 ; Gil- 
low's Bibl. Diet. i. 517; Notes and Queries, 6th 
series, v. 23 ; Twyfordand GrifBths's Records of 
York Castle, p. 200 ; Twyford's York and York 
Castle, pp. 210, 282; Life by Lsetitia Selwyn 
Oliver, 1886 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 90 a.] 

T. C. 

CLIVE, CAROLINE (1801-1873), au- 
thoress, was the second daughter and co- 
heiress of Edmund Meysey- Wigley of Sha- 
kenhurst, Worcestershire, sometime M.P. for 
Worcester, and his wife, Anna Maria, the 
only surviving daughter of Charles Watkins 
Meysey. She was born at Brompton Grove, 
London, on 24 June 1801, and on 10 Nov. 1840 
was married to the Rev. Archer Clive, the 
eldest surviving son of Edward Bolton Clive, 
for many years M.P. for Hereford. She died 
on 13 July 1873 from the result of an accident, 
which set fire to her dress while writing in 
her boudoir at Whitfield in Herefordshire, 
surrounded by her books and papers. She 
had for some years previously been a con- 
firmed invalid. Mrs. Clive left two children 
Charles Meysey Bolton Clive, who succeeded 



Clive 



104 



Clive 



to the Whitfield estate on the death of his 
father, and Alice, the wife of Lieutenant- 
colonel Wilberforce Greathed, V.C. Her 
husband, who was formerly rector of Soli- 
hull, Warwickshire, and afterwards chan- 
cellor and prebendary of Hereford Cathedral, 
survived her some years, and died on 17 Sept. 
1878. 

Her reputation as an authoress now mainly 
rests upon ' Paul Ferroll,' a sensational novel 
of great power and considerable imagination. 
She published the following works : 1. ' IX 
Poems by V.,' London, 1840, 8vo. These 
poems attracted a good deal of notice at the 
time, and were most favourably reviewed in 
the 'Quarterly' (Ixvi. 408-11). A second 
edition, including nine other poems, was pub- 
lished in 1841. 2. ' I watched the Heavens: 
a poem, by V.,' London, 1842, 8vo. The 
volume contains only the first canto of this 
poem, which appears to have never been 
completed. 3. ' The Queen's Ball, a poem, 
by V.,' London, 1847, 16mo. 4. 'The Valley 
of the Rea, a poem, by V.,' London, 1851, 
8vo. 5. ' The Morlas, a poem, by V.,' Lon- 
don, 1853, 8vo. 6. 'Paul Ferroll, a Tale, 
by the author of " IX Poems by V.,"' London, 
1855, 8vo. This novel has passed through 
a number of editions, and has been trans- 
lated into French by Madame H. Loreau. 
In the fourth edition a concluding chapter 
was added bringing the story down to the 
death of Paul Ferroll. 7. ' Poems by the 
author of " Paul Ferroll," including a new 
edition of " IX Poems by V." with former 
and recent additions,' London, 1856, 8vo. 
In this collection the last of the ' LX Poems ' 
is omitted, and only four of the additional 
poems contained in the second edition of 
1841 are included. In addition to the above- 
mentioned poems, numbered 3, 4, and 5 re- 
spectively, eight other pieces, not printed in 
the previous editions, are given. 8. ' Year 
after Year, by the author of " Paul Ferroll" 
and "IX Poems,'" London, 1858, 12mo. 
Two editions were published of this book. 
9. 'Why Paul FerroU killed his Wife, by 
the author of " Paul Ferroll," ' London, 
I860, 12mo. Though the names of the cha- 
racters are different, the object of this novel 
is to explain the opening chapter of ' Paul 
Ferroll. It is not, however, at all equal in 
power to its predecessor. It has passed 
through several editions. 10. 'John Gres- 
wold, by the author of " Paul Ferroll," &c. 
&c.,' in 2 vols., London, 1864, 8vo. 11. 'Poems 
by V., author of " Paul Ferroll," including 
the " IX Poems," ' London, 1872, 8vo. In 
this collection the last of the ' IX Poems ' 
is again omitted, and twelve additional poems 
are given besides others which appeared in 



former editions. It is not, however, by any 
means a complete collection of her poems. 

[Men of the Time, 8th ed. 1872, 278; Annual 
Eegister, 1873, pt, ii. p. 142; Gent. Mag. 1801, 
vol. Ixxi. pt. ii. p. 671, 1841 (new ser.), xv. 
90; Times, 16 July 1873; Athenaeum, 19 July 
1873 ; Grazebrook's Heraldry of Worcestershire 
(1873), pp. 374, 624 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. F. E. B. 

CLIVE, CATHERINE, commonly known 
as KITTY CLIVE (1711-1785), was the daugh- 
ter of William Raftor, an Irish gentleman of 
good family. He was a lawyer in Kilkenny, 
who lost his property by reason of having 
joined the army which fought for James II 
at the battle of the Boyne, and after spend- 
ing some years of exile in France returned 
to England on receiving a pardon from 
Queen Anne, settled in London, and married 
a Mrs. Daniels, daughter of a well-to-do citi- 
zen of Fish-street Hill. The Raftor family 
was probably too large for their means ; for 
all we know of Kitty Clive points to the 
conclusion that her education was of the 
scantiest. Her spelling to the last was bad 
even for the last century. What she wrote, 
however, was marked by strong common sense, 
and she made her way to eminence by sheer 
force of a vigorous genius, in spite of a want 
of refinement which was incompatible with 
good early culture. If we are to believe Mr. 
Lee Lewis, she was when very young in the 
service of a Miss Knowles, afterwards Mrs. 
Young, who lodged in a house in Church 
Row, Houndsditch, opposite to the Bell 
Tavern, a great resort of actors, at which the 
Beef Steak Club was held. Kitty Raftor, 
Lewis says, ' being one day washing the steps 
of the door and singing, the windows of the 
club room being open, they were instantly 
crowded ' by the members of the club, ' who 
were all enchanted with her natural grace 
and simplicity.' Mr. Beard and Mr. Dunstall, 
both of them actors and singers, were among 
those present, and under their auspices Miss 
Raftor was introduced to the stage. Lewis 
gives this story on the authority of Mr. 
Thomas Young, a son of Mrs. Young, and 
himself an actor and singer. But it is not 
confirmed by any contemporary evidence, and 
seems most improbable ; for to wash down 
the doorsteps of a lodging-house was surely 
not the duty of a lodger's, but rather of the 
landlady's maid. Whether Miss Raftor owed 
her introduction to the stage in this way or 
not, her special gift of vivid impersonation 
was such that she was sure to have found 
her way thither sooner or later through strong 
natural inclination. The theatre and actors 
very early took hold of her imagination ; for 
she herself told Chetwood that when she was 



Clive 



I0 5 



Clive 



twelve years old, her friend, Miss Johnson, 
afterwards married to Theophilus Gibber 
[q. v.], and herself ' used to tag after Wilks 
wherever they saw him, and gape at him as a 
wonder.' Wilks, born in 1670, was by this 
time over fifty, but years had not deprived him 
of his fine figure and face, nor of ' the easy 
frankness of a gentleman/ and the ' singular 
talent in representing the graces of nature,' for 
which Steele tells us in the 'Tatler' (No. 182) 
he was distinguished. Sharing Miss J ohnson's 
admiration for their stage hero, Miss Raftor 
was pretty sure to follow her example in going 
upon the stage. She found her way to the 
notice of Colley Gibber, then manager of 
Drury Lane. She had youth, spirit, a fine 
and trained singing voice, and by the time 
she was seventeen he found a place for her 
as Ismenes, page to Ziphares, in Nat Lee's 
tragedy of ' Mithridates, King of Pontus,' 
where she was well fitted with the song 
written for the piece by Sir Car Scroop, her 
execution of which established her as a fa- 
vourite with the town. Her next great success 
was in 1729 as Phillida in Colley Gibber's 
ballad opera ' Love in a Riddle.' A cabal 
had been formed to damn the piece, and 
although the Prince of Wales was present, 
so violent was the uproar, that before Miss 
Raftor's entrance on the scene, late in the 
play, was reached, the author had promised 
to withdraw it. But no sooner did she make 
her appearance than the clamour abated ; 
she went on with her song, and the tide 
turned. 'Zounds, Tom,' one of the rioters, 
according to Chetwood, was heard to ex- 
claim ; ' take care, or that charming little 
devil will spoil all.' And spoil all she did 
for the night, so far as Gibber's enemies were 
concerned. But not even Phillida could pro- 
long the life of the piece, and it was at once 
withdrawn. So great, however, was the im- 
pression produced by Miss Raftor that her 
portrait as Phillida was immediately painted 
by Schalken and engraved by Faber, and 
from it we see that youth and animated ex- 
pression, and not beauty of features, formed 
the attraction of the young actress. Two 
years later (1731) she established a reputa- 
tion as a comic actress of the strongest type 
as Nell in Coffey's farce, ' The Devil to pay, 
or the Wives metamorphosed,' one of the. 
many dramatic works which have owed their 
hold on the stage solely to the genius of the 
actors, who put into them qualities of cha- 
racter and interest which will be sought for 
in the text in vain. So long as Mrs. Clive 
remained on the stage the original Nell was 
always in high favour with the town, and 
its transmitted reputation kept the farce 
npon the stage for many years after she left 



it. After the retirement of Mrs. Jordan, who 
was the only other celebrated Nell, it fell 
into what to a mere reader seems merited 
oblivion. While Miss Raftor's success in a 
piece which gave scope at once to her charm 
as a singer of ballads and to her exuberant 
humour was yet recent, she married a bar- 
rister, Mr. George Clive. The union ended by 
mutual consent not long afterwards in separa- 
tion. The impulsive Kitty probably was not 
very easy to live with, and both found their 
peace in living apart. She was not, however, 
a woman to make bad worse by seeking con- 
solation elsewhere. Her character then and 
to the last was unblemished. She was still 
living with Mr. Clive when Fielding wrote 
of her (1734), in the preface to the 'In- 
triguing Chambermaid ' : ' Great favourite as 
you at present are with your audience, you 
would be much more so were they acquainted 
with your private character ; could they see 
you laying out great part of the profits which 
arise to you from entertaining them so well, 
in the support of an aged father ; did they 
see you, who can charm them on the stage 
with personating the foolish and vicious cha- 
racters of your sex, acting in real life the part 
of the best wife, the best daughter, the best 
sister, and the best friend.' The eulogy was 
proved by Mrs. dive's after-life to be well 
founded. She remained at Drury Lane till 
1741, growing steadily in public favour by 
her vivid power of impersonation, and by the 
rich flow of native humour which she threw 
into her parts. So long as she kept to strongly 
emphasised comedy and well-marked cha- 
racters of middle or low life, or to her favour- 
ite task of ridiculing the extravagances of 
Italian opera and its professors, which her 
accomplishments as a musician enabled her 
to do with singular success, she was on firm 
ground. But her usual good sense failed 
her when in 1741 she ventured to appear as 
Portia to Macklin's Shylock. It says little 
for the taste of the town that she was not 
only endured in the character, but even ad- 
mired. Macklin had some time before rescued 
the character of Shylock from the hands of 
comic actors into which it had fallen before 
his time, and now Mrs. Clive reduced to the 
level of vulgar comedy the most refined, ac- 
complished, and intellectual of Shakespeare's 
women. The trial scene was used by her as 
the means of introducing buffoonish imita- 
tions of the manners of an Old Bailey bar- 
rister. This setting on of a quantity of barren 
spectators to laugh so far succeeded, that the 
' Dramatic Censor' says ' the applause she re- 
ceived in Portia was disgraceful both to her- 
self and the audience.' The same defect in 
taste and judgment induced Mrs. Clive, as 



Clive 



106 



Clive 



years went on, to persist in attempting parts 
in genteel comedy, and even in tragedy, for 
which she was utterly unfitted both by person 
and mind. As Garrick was great in farce 
and comedy as well as tragedy, she seems to 
have thought her powers were no less varied. 
But the true appreciation of them was no 
doubt expressed by the critic just quoted 
when he said : ' Mrs. Clive, peculiarly happy 
in low humour, with a most disagreeable face 
and person, was always the joy of her audi- 
ence when she kept clear of anything serious 
and genteel.' Except during a short visit to 
Dublin in 1741, she acted only in London. 
Like Mrs. Gibber, she was a favourite with 
Handel, and sang the music of Dalilah on 
the first production of his oratorio of ' Samson ' 
(1742). In many of the ephemeral pieces in 
which she appeared songs were introduced 
for her, in which her fine voice and piquant 
delivery were turned to account. Her own 
taste, however, seems to have run towards 
music of a higher class. In her portrait, now 
in the Garrick Club, painted when she was 
clearly past middle age, she holds in her hand 
Handel's setting of Milton's ' Sweet bird, that 
shuns the noise of folly,' and Horace Walpole, 
writing to his friend George Montague (5 July 
1761), speaks of Mrs. dive's disappointment 
at Mr. Montague's not coming to Strawberry 
Hill, 'where she had proposed to play at 
quadrille with him from dinner till supper, 
and to sing old Purcell to him from supper 
to breakfast next morning.' When Garrick 
became lessee of Drury Lane Theatre in 1746, 
he enrolled her in his company, and with him 
she remained, except for a brief interval, until 
she retired from the stage on 24 April 1769, 
when he played Don Felix to her Vio- 
lante in the comedy of the ' Wonder.' Each 
had the truest respect for the genius of the 
other. Mrs. Clive, according to Tate Wil- 
kinson, who saw much of her behind the 
scenes at Drury Lane, ' was a mixture of com- 
bustibles ; she was passionate, cross, and 
vulgar,' and this side of her character often 
fretted her manager, and put hia temper to 
the severest trial. ' I am very glad you are 
come to your usual spirits,' he wrote in 
answer to a scolding letter from her on re- 
covering from an illness. He had learned 
patience, for she was but one of many who 
strained his forbearance to the uttermost by 
evil temper, jealousy, and caprice, without 
any of her genius to qualify the trial. At 
heart Mrs. Clive was fond of Garrick, and 
thoroughly appreciated his merits both as 
man and actor. He, on the other hand, knew 
that on the stage in her special line of cha- 
racters she was invaluable, and that under 
the blunt and rude manner in which she was 



apt to indulge there was a truly generous 
nature and a large vein of vigorous common 
sense. He was therefore very sorry to lose 
tier services, but, finding she was bent on re- 
tirement, he showed his good will by offering 
to play the leading part at her farewell bene- 
fit. ' How charming you can be when you 
are good ! ' she wrote in answer to his offer, 
adding that it convinced her he had ' a sort 
of a sneaking kindness for your "Pivy" [a 
pet name he had given her]. I suppose I 
shall have you tapping me on the shoulder 
(as you do to Violante) when I bid you fare- 
well, and desiring one tender look before we 
part.' The friendship between them lasted 
to the end. An active correspondence passed 
between Drury Lane and Strawberry Hill, 
to which Mrs. Clive had retreated. A house 
there (Clive's-den he called it) had been 
given to her by her old friend Horace Wal- 
pole, who, petit maitre as he was, obviously 
found in her rough, outspoken humour a de- 
lightful contrast to the insipidities of the fine 
ladies of his circle. When Mrs. Clive heard 
of her old manager's approaching retirement 
from the stage, and his intention to become 
churchwarden, justice of the peace, &c., down 
at his Twickenham villa, she wrote (31 Jan. 
1773) : ' I schream'd at your parish business. 
I think I see you in your churchwardenship, 
quareling for not making their brown loaves 
big enough ; but for God's sake never think 
of being a justice of the peace, for the people 
will quarel on purpose to be brought before 
you to hear you talk, so that you may have 
as much business upon the lawn as you had 
upon the boards. If I should live to be 
thaw'd, I will come to town on purpose to 
kiss you ; and in the summer, as you say, I 
hope we shall see each other ten times as 
often, when we will talk and dance and 
sing, and send our hearers laughing to their 
beds.' It is clear from Horace Walpole's cor- 
respondence that Mrs. Clive by the originality 
and shrewdness of her talk held her ground 
among his most distinguished visitors, male 
and female, at Strawberry Hill. How well 
able she was to do so may be argued from 
what Johnson said of her to.Boswell : ' Clive, 
sir, is a good thing to sit by ; she always 
understands what you say. In the spright- 
liness of humour I have never seen her 
equalled.' And she, in no way awed by the 
great man, used to say of him, ' I love to sit 
by Dr. Johnson ; he always entertains me.' 
Here is one of her sayings that would have 
delighted him. When asked why she did 
not visit certain people of noble rank whose 
character in private life was not unexception- 
able, she replied, ' Why because, my dear, I 
choose my company as I do my fruit, there- 



Clive 



107 



Clive 



fore I am not for damaged quality.' John- 
son admired her acting greatly, and thought 
her only second to Garrick. ' Without the 
least exaggeration,' Goldsmith writes (' Bee,' 
No. 5), ' she has more true humour than any 
actor or actress on the English or any other 
stage I have seen.' Victor says ' her extra- 
ordinary talents could even raise a dramatic 
trifle, provided there were nature in it, to a 
character of importance. Witness the Fine 
Lady in [Garrick's] " Lethe," and the yet 
smaller part of Lady Fuz in the " Peep 
behind the Curtain." Such sketches in her 
hand showed high finished pictures.' Her 
merits in this respect are recognised in 
Churchill's ' Rosciad ' (1761) : 

In spite of outward blemishes she shone, 

For humour famed, and humour all her own ; 

Easy, as if at home, the stage she trod, 

Nor sought the critic's praise, nor fear'd his rod ; 

Original in spirit and in ease, 

She pleased by hiding all attempts to please ; 

No comic actress ever yet could raise, 

On humour's base, more merit or more praise. 

Mrs. Clive died at Little Strawberry Hill 
on 6 Dec. 1785, and was buried in Twicken- 
ham Churchyard. Walpole put up an urn 
in the shrubbery attached to her cottage, 
with the following inscription by himself : 

Ye smiles and jests, still hover round ; 
This is mirth's consecrated ground. 
Here lived the laughter-loving dame, 
A matchless actress, Clive her name ; 
The comic muse with her retired, 
And shed a tear when she expired. 

Mrs. Clive wrote four small dramatic sketches : 
1. ' The Rehearsal, or Boys in Petticoats,' 
1753. 2. ' Every Woman in her Humour,' 

1760. 3. ' Sketch of a Fine Lady's Return 
from a Rout,' 1763. 4 The Faithful Irish 
Woman,' 1765. Only the first of these was 
printed. A fifth piece, the ' Island of Slaves,' 
translated from Marivaux's ' Isle des Esclaves,' 
acted for her benefit at Drury Lane, 26 March 

1761, has been attributed to her on doubtful 
authority. There are several portraits of Mrs. 
Clive still in existence, one of great merit by 
Hogarth ; one by Davison, engraved in mez- 
zotint by Van Haacken ; one now in the Gar- 
rick Club, by a painter unknown, but probably 
Van Haacken : and one which was sold at 
Strawberry Hill in 1884. There is also a 
rare engraving of her as Mrs. Riot, the Fine 
Lady, in ' Lethe,' with a pug dog under her 
arm, by A. Mosley, 1750, by which time she 
had developed into the full blown and florid 
dame, who looks quite the person to keep her 
stage associates in order, as Tate Wilkinson 
says she did. Her figure in this character 



in contemporary Chelsea ware is still in great 
demand among collectors. 

[Chetwood's History of the Stage ; Davies's 
Life of Garrick ; Genest ; The Dramatic Censor, 
1770 ; Victor's History of the Theatres ; Boswell's 
Johnson ; Garrick Correspondence ; Tate Wilkin- 
son's Memoirs ; Lee Lewis's Memoirs ; H. Walpole's 
Correspondence; manuscript letters.] T. M. 

CLIVE, SIR EDWARD (1704-1771), 
judge, eldest son of Edward Clive of Worm- 
bridge, Herefordshire, by his wife Sarah, 
daughter of Mr. Key, a Bristol merchant, was 
born in 1704, and after being admitted a mem- 
ber of Lincoln's Inn on 27 March 1719 was 
called to the bar in 1725. In 1741 he was 
returned to parliament as one of the members 
for the borough of St. Michael's, Cornwall. 
There is no record of any speech of his while 
in the house. In Easter term 1745 he was 
made a serjeant-at-law and appointed a baron 
of the exchequer in the room of Sir Laurence 
Carter. On the death of Sir Thomas Burnet 
in January 1753 Clive was transferred to the 
common pleas, and on 9 Feb. received the 
honour of knighthood. After sitting in this 
court for seventeen years he retired from the 
bench in February 1770 with a pension of 
1,200/. a year, and was succeeded by Sir Wil- 
liam Blackstone. Clive is chiefly remarkable 
for having concurred with Mr. Justice Bath- 
urst in the case of Buxton v. Mingay, where 
these two judges determined, in spite of the 
opinion of Lord-chief-justice Willes to the 
contrary, that a surgeon was 'an inferior 
tradesman,' within the meaning of 4 & 5 
W. & M. c. 23, s. 10 (WILSON, ii. 70). He 
married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
Symons of Mynde Park, Herefordshire ; and 
! secondly, Judith, the youngest daughter of 
I his cousin, the Rev. Benjamin Clive, who 
i survived him many years, and died at Worm- 
: bridge on 20 Aug. 1796. Clive died at Bath 
on 16 April 1771. As he had no children 
by either marriage, he left the Wormbridge 
estate to the great-grandson of his eldest 
uncle, Robert Clive. The present owner of 
i Wormbridge is Percy Bolton Clive, the grand- 
i son of Mrs. Caroline Clive[q.v.], the authoress 
| of ' Paul Ferroll.' Clive was the nephew of 
George Clive, the cursitor baron of the ex- 
chequer. His portrait was introduced by 
j Hogarth in his engraving of 'The Bench' 
| (1758 and 1764). 

[Foss's Judges of England (1864), viii. 261-2 ; 
Gent. Mag. xv. 221, xxiii. 53, 100, xli. 239,lxvi. 
pt. ii. 709; Collins's Peerage (1812), v. 545; 
the table prefixed to vol. i. of George Wilson's 
Reports (1799); Campbell's Lives of the Chief 
Justices (1849), ii. 276 n. ; Blackstone's Reports 
(1781), ii. 681; Parliamentary Papers (1878), 
vol. Ixii. pt. ii.] G. F. R. B. 



Clive 



1 08 



Clive 



OLIVE, EDWAED, EARL OF Powis 
(1754-1839), governor of Madras, was the 
eldest son of the first Lord Olive, governor 
of Bengal [q. v.] Succeeding to the Irish 
barony of Clive on his father's death in 1774, 
he was returned to parliament, although still 
under age, as member for Ludlow, and sat 
for that borough in the House of Commons 
until his elevation to a British peerage as 
Baron Clive of Walcot in 1794. In 1798 he 
was appointed governor of Madras, which 
office he held until 1803. During the first 
year of his government the south of India 
was the scene of the important military ope- 
rations which, resulting in the capture of 
Seringapatamand the death of Tippoo Sultan, 
were followed by General Wellesley's cam- 
paign against the freebooter, Dhundaji Wah, 
and three years later by the second Mahratta 
war and the campaign in the Deccan, of 
which the most memorable incident was the 
battle of Assaye. In all these operations Clive 
rendered active co-operation by placing the 
resources of the Madras presidency at the 
disposal of the generals commanding, and in 
the year following his retirement from office 
he received the thanks of both houses of 
parliament for his services. In the same 
year, 1804, he was raised to an earldom, with 
the title of Earl of Powis. It devolved upon 
Olive, when governor of Madras, to carry into 
effect, under the orders of Lord Wellesley, 
the measures by which the nawab of the Car- 
natic was deprived of sovereign power and 
his territories became a British province. In 
1805 Clive was nominated lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, but owing to Mr. Pitt's death the 
appointment did not take effect. He does 
not appear to have subsequently filled any 
prominent official position. He was remark- 
able for his physical vigour, which he retained 
to an advanced age, digging in his garden in 
his shirt-sleeves at six o'clock in the morn- 
ing when in his eightieth year. He married 
in 1784 Lady Henrietta Antonia Herbert, 
daughter of Henry Arthur, earl of Powis 
(the last earl of the Herbert family), with 
whose death that earldom lapsed until it was 
revived in the person of Clive. He left two 
sons and two daughters, and died on 16 May 
1839, having been apparently well the day 
before his death. 

[Ann. Reg. 1839 ; Collins's Peerage of Scot- 
land, vol. v. ; Mill's History of British India, 
vol. vi. ; Marshman's History of India, vol. ii.] 

A. J. A. 

CLIVE, EGBERT, LOKD CLIVE (1725- 
1774), governor of Bengal, was the eldest 
son of Richard Clive of Styche, a small 
estate near Market Drayton in Shropshire, 



in which county the Clive family had been 
established ever since the reign of Henry II. 
He was born 29 Sept. 1725 (EoBiNSOir, Mer- 
chant Taylors' School, ii. 90). His mother 
was a daughter of Mr. Nathaniel Gaskell of 
Manchester, one of her sisters being the wife 
of Mr. Daniel Bayley of Hope Hall, Man- 
chester, in whose house Clive spent several 
years of his childhood. At a very early age 
he appears to have given evidence of that 
energy of disposition, combined with a cer- 
tain amount of combatieness, which dis- 
tinguished him in after life. Mr. Bayley, 
writing about him to his father in June 1732, 
when he had not completed his seventh year, 
described him as ' out of measure addicted 
to fighting.' When still very young he was 
sent to a school at Lostock, Cheshire, kept by a 
Dr. Eaton, who predicted that ' if his scholar 
lived to be a man, and if opportunity enabled 
him to exert his talents, few names would be 
greater than his.' At the age of eleven he was 
removed to a school at Market Drayton, thence 
in 1737 to Merchant Taylors' School, and 
finally to a private school at Hemel Hemp- 
stead in Hertfordshire, where he remained 
until he was appointed in 1743, at the age 
of eighteen, a writer in the service of the 
East India Company at Madras. His school 
life does not appear to have been particu- 
larly studious. Notwithstanding Dr. Eaton's 
opinion of his talents, which seems in some 
measure to have been shared by his father, 
the greater part of such book learning as Clive 
possessed would appear to have been acquired 
some few years later, after his arrival in India, 
when he obtained access to the library of the 
governor of Madras, and is said to have spent a 
good deal of his time in studying its contents. 
As a schoolboy Olive's chief characteristics 
were undaunted courage and energy in out- 
of-door pursuits, which latter sometimes took 
a mischievous turn, and possibly accounted 
for his frequent changes of school. It is re- 
lated of him that on one occasion he climbed 
the lofty steeple of the church at Market Dray- 
ton, and seated himself on a stone spout in 
the form of a dragon's head which projected 
from it near the top. There is also a tradi- 
tion that he levied from the shopkeepers at 
Market Drayton contributions in pence and 
j in trifling articles as compensation to him- 
I self and a band of his schoolfellows for abs- 
i taining from breaking windows. 

Leaving England in 1743, Clive did not 
reach Madras until late in 1744, after an un- 
usually long voyage, in the course of which 
he was delayed for nine months in Brazil. 
His detention in Brazil led to his acquiring 
some slight knowledge of the Portuguese 
language, which was of use to him in after 



Clive 



109 



Clive 



years in India, but he does not appear ever to 
have acquired any proficiency in the native 
languages of India. The unforeseen expenses 
in which he became involved owing to the 
detention of the ship resulted in his arriving 
at Madras in debt to the captain. The only 
gentleman at Madras to whom he had an in- 
troduction had left India before he arrived. 
He appears at first to have led a very forlorn 
and solitary life, suffering even then from the 
depression of spirits which at times attacked 
him in after yearij, and which was the cause 
of his melancholy end. In one of his letters, 
written a few months after his arrival, he 
described himself as not having enjoyed one 
happy day since he left his native country. 
' I am not acquainted,' he wrote, ' with any 
one family in the place, and I have not assur- 
ance enough to invite myself without being 
asked.' About this time he made an attempt 
upon his life which failed owing to the pistol 
not going off. His work, which was very 
much that of a clerk in a merchant's office, 
was by no means to his taste, nor was sub- 
ordination to his official superiors a duty 
which he was prepared to discharge without 
a struggle. On more than one occasion he got 
into serious scrapes by his wayward and in- 
subordinate behaviour. 

But Clive was not destined for prolonged 
employment at the desk. In the very year in 
which he arrived at Madras war was declared 
between England and France, and two years 
later Madras capitulated to the French under 
Admiral Labourdonnais. Clive, with the rest 
of the English in the settlement, became a 
prisoner of war, but was allowed to remain at 
liberty on parole, the French admiral having 
promised to restore the place on payment of 
a ransom, which he undertook should not be 
excessive in amount. The terms granted 
by Labourdonnais were not approved by Du- 
pleix, the governor of Pondicherry, who re- 
quired the English to give a fresh parole to 
a new governor, removing the English go- 
vernor and some of the principal officials to 
Pondicherry, and parading them as captives 
before the natives of the town and surround- 
ing country. Clive, deeming that this infrac- 
tion of the terms upon which the parole had 
been given released him from his obligations, 
escaped in company with his friend, Edmund 
Maskelyne, in the disguise of a native, to 
Fort St. David, a place on the coast to the 
south of Pondicherry, which was still held 
by the English. In the following year Clive 
applied for military employment, and, having 
obtained an ensign's commission, served in 
1748 under Admiral Boscawen in the unsuc- 
cessful siege of Pondicherry, where he greatly 
distinguished himself by his bravery. It was 



during dive's stay at Fort St. David, and 
before he had entered upon military duty, 
that a characteristic incident occurred. He 
became involved in a duel with an officer 
whom he had accused of cheating at cards. 
According to the account given in Malcolm's 
' Life,' Clive fired and missed his antagonist, 
who came close up to him and held his pistol 
to his head, desiring him to ask for his life, 
which Clive did. His opponent then called 
upon him to retract his assertions regarding 
unfair play, and on his refusal threatened to 

shoot him. ' Fire and be d ,' was Clive's 

answer. ' I said you cheated and I say so 
still, and I will never pay you. ' The astonished 
officer threw away his pistol, exclaiming that 
Clive was mad. Clive was much compli- 
mented on the spirit he had shown, but de- 
clined to come forward against the officer 
with whom he had fought, and never after- 
wards willingly alluded to his behaviour at 
the card-table. ' He has given me my life,' 
he said, ' and though I am resolved on never 
paying money which was unfairly won, or 
again associating with him, I shall never do 
him an injury.' This incident forms the sub- 
ject of Browning's poem ' Clive ' (Dramatic 
Idylls, 2nd ser. 1880), in which the facts of 
the duel are stated somewhat differently, the 
poet omitting all mention of the demand that 
Clive should beg for his life and the com- 
pliance with it, and describing the officer as 
having, under the spell of Clive's undaunted 
courage, acknowledged the truth of the ac- 
cusation. 

During the siege of Pondicherry Clive 
became involved in a dispute with another 
officer who had made an offensive remark re- 
garding Clive having on one occasion left his 
post to bring up some ammunition. In the 
course of the altercation the officer struck 
Clive, but a duel was prevented and a court 
of inquiry was held, which resulted in Clive's 
assailant being required to ask his pardon in 
front of the battalion to which they both be- 
longed. The court, however, having taken 
no notice of the blow, Clive insisted on 
satisfaction for that insult, and on its being 
refused waved his cane over the head of his 
antagonist, telling him he was too contemp- 
tible a coward to be beaten. The affair ended 
in the person who had defamed Clive resign- 
ing his commission on the following day. 
Mill, adverting to these and other similar in- 
cidents, characterises Clive as having been 
' turbulent with his equals ; ' but this judg- 
ment is contested, and apparently with rea- 
son, by Clive's biographer, Malcolm, who 
points out that ' in all these disputes Clive 
appears to have been the party offended, 
and that the resolute manner in which he 



Clive 



no 



Clive 



resented the injuries done to him raised his re- 
putation for courage, and no doubt protected 
him from further insult and outrage.' 

Shortly after the failure of the siege of 
Pondicherry the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
which provided for the restoration of Madras 
to the English, put a stop for a time to 
further hostilities between the English and 
French in India. Clive returned for a brief 
space to his civil employment, but before 
many months had elapsed circumstances 
occurred which induced him again to ex- 
change the pen for the sword. An invita- 
tion addressed to the English authorities at 
Fort St. David by a member of the reigning 
family in the Mahratta principality of Tan- 
jore to aid him in recovering the throne of 
which he had been dispossessed, coupled with 
an offer to cede to the company the town and 
fort of Devikota, led to the despatch of a 
small force to the aid of the dispossessed 
raja, which, failing to achieve its object, was 
followed by a larger force under the command 
of Major Lawrence, in which Clive served 
with the rank of lieutenant. Clive on this oc- 
casion requested and obtained the command 
of a storming party told off to storm an em- 
bankment which had been thrown up to de- 
fend the breach made in the walls of the 
fort. He again behaved with the same daring 
which he had displayed at Pondicherry, and 
had a very narrow escape ; for the sepoys, who 
formed the greater part of the storming party, 
having failed to advance, a small platoon of 
thirty British soldiers which accompanied 
Clive was suddenly attacked by a body of 
Tanjore horse and almost wholly destroyed. 
The fortune of the day was subsequently re- 
trieved by Major Lawrence, who, advancing 
with the whole of his force, took the fort. 
Mill, in narrating this incident, accuses Clive 
of rashness ' in allowing himself at the head of 
the platoon to be separated from the sepoys.' 
Orme's version of the affair gives it a different 
complexion. He writes : ' About fifty yards 
in front of the entrenchment ran a deep and 
miry rivulet . . . The Europeans marching at 
the head of the sepoys crossed the rivulet 
with difficulty, and four of them were killed 
by the fire from the fort before they reached 
the opposite bank. As soon as the sepoys had 
passed likewise, Lieutenant Clive advanced 
briskly with the Europeans, intending to at- 
tack the entrenchment in flank,' at an end 
Where the work had not been completed. 
' The sepoys who had passed the rivulet, in- 
stead of following closely, as they had been 
ordered, remained at the bank waiting until 
they were joined by greater numbers.' If 
Orme's statement of the facts is correct, the 
charge of rashness would seem in this case to 



be unfounded. Incidents very similar have 
frequently occurred in war. At the same time 
it is right to bear in mind that if Clive and 
the same may be said of other commanders 
in more recent times had not carried daring 
to, and sometimes beyond, the verge of rash- 
ness, the conquest of India would never have 
been achieved. Had British Indian strategy 
been always governed by ordinary rules, 
neither Assaye nor Plassey would have been 
fought, nor would the strong position of the 
! Afghans on the Peiwar Kotal have been taken 
by General Roberts with his small force of 
three thousand men in the last Afghan war. 
After the affair of Devikota, Clive again 
returned to civil employment, and, on the 
recommendation of Major Lawrence, was ap- 
pointed commissary for supplying the Euro- 
pean troops with provisions. About this 
time he had an attack of fever of a nervous 
kind, ' which so much affected his spirits that 
the constant presence of an attendant became 
necessary.' He was sent for change of air in 
the cold season to Bengal, where the cooler 
temperature in a great measure restored him 
to health. Two years later he was present 
in a civil capacity at what Sir John Malcolm 
calls the disgraceful affair of Valkonda, where, 
owing to the irresolution of the English offi- 
cers, a body of the company's troops sent to 
oppose a native chief on his way to attack 
Trichinopoly, then in possession of an ally of 
the government of Fort St. David, was com- 
pelled to retire and seek shelter under the walls 
of Trichinopoly. Clive, however, speedily re- 
sumed military employment. Very shortly 
after the last affair he was sent with Mr. 
(afterwards Lord) Pigot, then a member of 
council at Fort St. David, in charge of some 
recruits and stores to Trichinopoly. On their 
return, with an escort of only twelve sepoys, 
they were attacked by a body of polygars, 
and obliged to ride for their lives. Soon 
afterwards, Clive, having been promoted to 
the rank of captain, was sent for the third 
time to Trichinopoly in charge of another 
small reinforcement, and was then so much 
impressed by the situation of the garrison 
there, and the hopelessness of relieving it, 
except by creating a diversion in another 
quarter, that on his return to Fort St. David 
he suggested the expedition against Arcot, 
which may be said to have established his 
reputation as a military commander, and to 
have been the first decisive step towards the 
establishment of British power in India. 

The military operations in which Clive 
was now engaged were not, like those which 
preceded them, caused by hostilities between 
the English and French nations. In Europe 
the two countries were for the time at peace. 



Clive 



Clive 



In India the English and French trading 
companies became involved in wars which 
arose between native rivals for power in the 
Deccan and in the Carnatic. The conflict 
between the English and French was imme- ' 
diately brought about by the ambition of 
Dupleix, the head of the French factory at j 
Pondicherry ; but apart from this, the posi- 
tion of the two companies in relation to the | 
native states was such that sooner or later 
the political ascendency of one or the other 
must have become essential to their pro- ' 
sperity, if not to their continued existence. 
Dupleix was the first practically to recognise 
this important fact, and had it not been for 
Olive it is quite possible that he would have 
succeeded in obtaining for the French that 
position in India to which the English even- 
tually attained. The struggle arose in con- 
nection with rival claims for the offices of 
subahdar, or viceroy of the Deccan, and of 
nawab of the Carnatic. The holders of the 
first of these posts, though nominally subor- 
dinate to the emperors of Delhi, had long 
been practically independent. They were 
the real over-lords of the greater part of the 
south of India, recognised as such by, and 
receiving tribute from, the nawabs of the 
Oarnatic. On the death, in 1748, of Nizam 
ul Mulk, the last really powerful subahdar 
of the Deccan, the succession of his son, 
Nazir Jung, was disputed by Mirzapha Jung, 
one of his grandsons ; and shortly afterwards 
a somewhat similar dispute arose regarding 
the nawabship of the Carnatic, at that time 
held by Anwaruddin Khan, whose claim was 
contested by Chanda Sahib, the son-in-law 
of a former nawab. The two claimants hav- 
ing united their forces, a battle was fought 
on 3 Aug. 1749 at Ambur, in which Anwar 
ud din Khan was killed, his eldest son taken 
prisoner, and his second son, Mahomed Ali, 
afterwards better known as the Nawab Wala- 
jah, compelled with a small body of adherents 
to take refuge at Trichinopoly . The victory on 
this occasion was mainly due to the aid ren- 
dered by Dupleix, who, having espoused the 
cause of Mirzapha Jung and Chanda Sahib, 
sent them a contingent of four hundred 
French soldiers and two thousand sepoys, 
trained under French officers. Nazir Jung 
was killed shortly afterwards by one of his 
tributaries, and was succeeded as subahdar 
by his rival, Mirzapha Jung, who, in his 
turn, met his death in a revolt of some of 
his Pathan soldiers, when on his way to 
Hyderabad with an escort of French troops 
under M. Bussy. Meanwhile Mahomed Ali, 
whose cause had been espoused by the Eng- 
lish authorities at Fort St. David, was be- 
sieged at Trichinopoly by a large force under 



Chanda Sahib, and it was while this siege 
was in progress that Clive, having been sent 
to Trichinopoly with the reinforcements al- 
ready referred to, conceived the idea of com- 
pelling Chanda Sahib to raise the siege, by 
seizing Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic. 
Clive's proposal was sanctioned by the gover- 
nor of Fort St. David, and on 26 Aug. 1751 
Clive marched from Madras in command of 
a detachment of five hundred men, of whom 
only two hundred were English, and three 
field pieces of artillery. Of the English offi- 
cers, eight in number, who accompanied 
Clive, six had never been in action, and four 
were young men in the mercantile service of 
the company, who, fired by the example of 
Clive, had volunteered to join the expedition. 
On reaching Conjeveram, about forty miles 
from Madras, Clive, learning that the garri- 
son in the fort of Arcot was eleven hundred 
strong, despatched a message to Madras for 
two more guns to be sent after him. The 
little force reached Arcot on 31 Aug., making 
the last march in a violent thunderstorm, and 
arriving to find the fort evacuated by the 
enemy, who, it was said, were so much alarmed 
by the accounts they had received of the un- 
concern with which Clive's force had pursued 
its march through the thunderstorm, that they 
fled in a panic. Clive occupied the fort with- 
out encountering any opposition, and at once 
set to work to lay in provisions for under- 
going a siege. During the first week after 
his arrival he marched out twice with the 
greater part of his force to beat up the quar- 
ters of the fugitive garrison, which had taken 
up a position some six miles from Arcot. 
Two unimportant encounters took place, after 
which Clive and his men remained for some 
ten days in the fort, engaged in strengthen- 
ing the works. At the end of that time the 
enemy, augmented by reinforcements from 
the neighbourhood to three thousand men, 
and encouraged by the cessation of Clive's 
sallies, took up a position within three miles 
of Arcot, where Clive surprised them by a 
night attack and put them to flight without 
the loss of a single man. A few days later, 
having detached a considerable part of his 
force to strengthen the detachment coming 
from Madras in charge of the guns for which 
he had applied, he was attacked by and re- 
pulsed a large body of the enemy. The oc- 
cupation by the English of the fort of Arcot 
very speedily produced the effect which Clive 
had anticipated, in inducing Chanda Sahib 
to detach a portion of his force from Trichi- 
nopoly. On 23 Sept. four thousand of Chanda 
Sahib's troops, reinforced by a hundred and 
fifty French soldiers from Pondicherry, and 
by the troops already collected in the neigh- 



Clive 



112 



Clive 



bourhood of Arcot, the whole numbering ten 
thousand men, under the command of Chanda 
Sahib's son, Raja Sahib, occupied the city of 
Arcot preparatory to laying siege to the fort. 
On the following day Clive made another 
sally in the hope of driving the enemy out 
of the city, or at all events of inflicting such 
loss upon him as would diminish his boldness 
in the prosecution of the siege. The first of 
these objects was not accomplished, and the 
sally was attended by the loss of fifteen of j 
the English force ; Clive himself having one 
of those narrow escapes which were so nu- 
merous at this period of his career. The fort 
was then completely invested and underwent 
a siege, which, last ing for fifty days, is justly 
regarded as one of the most memorable events 
in military history. ' The fort was more than 
a mile in circumference ; the walls in many 
places ruinous, the towers inconvenient and 
decayed, and everything unfavourable to de- 
fence. Yet Clive found the means of making 
an effectual resistance. When the enemy 
attempted to storm at two breaches, one of 
fifty and one of ninety feet, he repulsed them 
with but eighty Europeans and a hundred 
and fifty sepoys fit for duty ; so effectually 
did he avail himself of his resources, and 
to such a pitch of fortitude had he exalted 
the spirit of those under his command ' 
(MiLL, History of British India, iii. 84). 
The final assault was delivered on 14 Nov. 
and failed, and on the following morning 
it was found that the whole of the besieg- 
ing army had disappeared from Arcot. Be- 
fore the siege commenced Clive had lost 
four out of the eight officers who had accom- 
panied him from Madras. One had been 
killed, two wounded, and one had returned 
to Madras. The stock of provisions had 
fallen very low some time before the siege 
was raised. When it became apparent that 
famine might compel the garrison to surren- 
der, the sepoys offered to give up the grain 
to the Europeans, contenting themselves with 
the water in which the rice was boiled. ' It 
is,' they said, ' sufficient for our support. The 
Europeans require the grain.' The defence 
of Arcot produced an immense effect upon 
the minds of the natives of Southern India. 
They had hitherto entertained but little re- 
spect for the English, ranking the French as 
greatly their superiors in military capacity ; 
but from this time native opinion entirely 
changed, and the defence of Arcot may justly 
be regarded as 'the turning-point in the 
'eastern career of the English' (MALLESON, 
French in India, p. 290). 

The long-expected reinforcement from Ma- 
dras reached Arcot the day after the siege 
was raised. At the same time Clive was 



joined by a contingent of Mahratta troops, 
who had been hovering about the neighbour- 
hood, uncertain which side to take. Clive at 
once followed the enemy, who, although con- 
siderably reduced in the number of native 
troops, had been joined by three hundred 
French soldiers sent by Dupleix. A battle 
was fought at Ami, in which Clive was vic- 
torious, driving the enemy from the field 
with a loss of two hundred and fifty killed 
and wounded and all their guns. Recaptur- 
ing Conjeveram, which had been taken by the 
French, Clive returned to Fort St. David, 
with the intention of arranging for the im- 
mediate relief of Trichinopoly. From this 
duty, however, he was speedily called away 
by the intelligence that Raja Sahib, profiting 
by his absence, had recovered Conjeveram and 
had ravaged the country in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Madras. Clive again took 
the field and, recapturing Conjeveram for the- 
second time, followed up Raja Sahib, who 
was marching to recover Arcot, and overtak- 
ing him at Caveripak, again beat him in a 
severely contested battle, fought by moon- 
light, killing fifty French and three hundred 
sepoys, and capturing nine guns, three colours, 
and many prisoners. Advancing again to- 
Arcot, Clive proceeded to Vellore, and was 
planning the reduction of that place, when 
he was recalled to Fort St. David to com- 
mand an expedition against Trichinopoly. 
On his march back he razed to the ground a 
town called Dupleix Fatihabad and a monu- 
ment which Dupleix had built in commemo- 
ration of French victories. When Clive wa& 
on the point of starting for Trichinopoly, 
Major Lawrence, who had been absent in 
England, landed at Fort St. David, and 
as senior officer of the company's forces 
claimed the command of the expedition. To 
this Clive, who throughout his life enter- 
tained a grateful regard for his old comman- 
der, readily assented, and accompanied the 
expedition in a subordinate capacity. Not- 
withstanding his recent services, Clive was not 
placed in the position of second in command 
until the force reached Trichinopoly, when 
Lawrence, acting on a suggestion made by 
Clive to detach a portion of the troops to a 
position some miles to the north of the town 
for the purpose of isolating the enemy's force 
and operating against any reinforcements that 
might be sent from Pondicherry, placed the 
detachment under the command of Clive ; the 
remonstrances of the other captains, who 
were all senior to Clive, being silenced by 
the refusal of Mahomed Ali's troops to serve 
under any other commander. Olive's stra- 
tegy again proved thoroughly successful, and 
resulted in the capitulation of the French 



Clive 



Clive 



commander, and also in that of Chanda Sa- 
hib, who was subsequently murdered by order 
of the Tanjore chief. In the course of these 
operations Clive had more than one hair- 
breadth escape. During a night attack by 
the French, who, aided by some English de- 
serters, had managed by stratagem to secure 
an entrance into Olive's position, a choultry 
in which Clive was sleeping was fired into, 
a box which lay under his feet was shattered 
by bullets, and a servant sleeping close to him 1 
was killed. In the fighting which followed 
Clive was wounded, and a few hours later had 
the narrowest escape of being shot. The inci- 
dent is thus related by Orme : ' At daybreak 
the commanding officer of the French, seeing 
the danger of his situation, made a sally at 
the head of his men, who received so heavy 
a fire that he himself, with twelve others who 
first came out of the gateway, were killed by 
the volley ; on which the rest ran back into 
the pagoda. Captain Clive then advanced 
into the porch of the gate to parley with the 
enemy, and, being weak with loss of blood 
and fatigue, stood with his back to the wall 
of the porch, and leaned, stooping forward, 
on the shoulders of two sergeants. The offi- 
cer in charge of the English deserters pre- 
sented himself with great insolence, and, tell- 
ing Clive with abusive language that he 
would shoot him, fired his musket. The ball 
missed him, but went through the bodies of 
both the sergeants on whom he was leaning, 
and they both fell mortally wounded.' Shortly 
after the close of the Trichinopoly campaign 
Clive was employed in reducing the forts of 
Covelong and Chingleput, which had been 
occupied by the enemy. This service he per- 
formed with a force of two hundred raw 
English recruits, just landed at Madras, and 
five hundred sepoys newly raised, alike defi- 
cient in discipline and courage, until shamed 
into the exercise of the latter quality by the 
example of Clive, who, exposing himself to 
the hottest fire, compelled his men to stand 
firm. 

Clive's health was at this time much broken 
by the fatigues and exposure to climate which 
he had undergone. He accordingly resolved 
to revisit England, and embarked from Ma- 
dras early in 1753, reaching England in the 
course of the year. Before his departure he 
contracted what proved to be a very happy 
marriage with Margaret, daughter of Mr. Ed- 
mund Maskelyne of Purton in Wiltshire, and 
sister of the friend with whom he had escaped 
from Madras after its capture by the French. 
The fame of his exploits having preceded him, 
his reception in England was most gratifying. 
The court of directors of the East India Com- 
pany treated him with special honour, toast- 

VOL. XI. 



ing the young captain at their banquets as 
General Clive, and presenting him with a 
sword set in diamonds, of the value of five 
hundred guineas, ' as a token of their esteem 
and of their sense of his singular services to 
the company on the coast of Coromandel.' 
Clive's stay in England was short. He had 
received considerable sums in prize money, 
and had brought home a moderate fortune, 
a portion of which he expended in extricat- 
ing his father from pecuniary difficulties, and 
in redeeming the family estate ; while the 
greater part of the remainder was dissipated 
in maintaining an establishment beyond his 
means, and in an expensive contested elec- 
tion for the borough of St. Michael's in Corn- 
wall, which ended in his being unseated on 
petition. Being thus compelled to return to 
India, Clive obtained from the court of direc- 
tors the appointment of lieutenant-governor 
of Fort St. David, with a provisional com- 
mission to succeed to the government of Ma- 
dras, but was ordered in the first instance 
to go to Bombay and take part in an expedi- 
tion then contemplated against the French in 
the Deccan. The rank of lieutenant-colonel 
was conferred upon him before his depar- 
ture. The expedition to the Deccan having 
been countermanded in consequence of a 
convention which had been made between 
the governors of Madras and Pondicherry, 
Clive, on his arrival at Bombay, was em- 
ployed, in conjunction with Admiral Wat- 
son, in reducing the stronghold of a piratical 
freebooter, named Angria, and then proceeded 
to Fort St. David, of which he took charge 
on 20 June 1756, the day preceding the cap- 
ture of Calcutta by Suraj ud Dowlah and the 
tragedy of the Black Hole. When the intel- 
ligence of these occurrences reached Madras, 
Clive was at once selected to command a 
force sent to recapture Calcutta, and to avenge 
the outrage which had been committed. The 
expedition, in which the naval command was 
entrusted to Admiral Watson, was embarked 
on a squadron composed of five king's ships 
and five ships of the company, with nine 
hundred British soldiers and fifteen hundred 
sepoys under Clive. It sailed from Madras 
on 16 Oct., but did not reach the Hiigli 
until the latter part of December. After an 
encounter with the nawab's troops at Budge 
Budge, the force advanced to Calcutta, which 
surrendered at once. An expedition against 
the town of Hugli followed, resulting in the 
capture of the place and of booty valued 
at 15,OOOJ. Shortly afterwards the nawab, 
with an army of forty thousand men, ad- 
vanced against Calcutta, encamping on the 
outskirts of the town, from which they were 
driven by Clive with a small force of thirteen. 



Clive 



114 



Clive 



hundred Europeans and eight hundred sepoys. 
The nawab then made overtures for peace, 
which, in opposition to the advice of Admiral 
Watson, Clive accepted, being anxious to 
withdraw his troops to the Carnatic, which 
was again threatened by the French. Before, 
however, leaving Bengal, he determined to 
attack Chandernagore, a French settlement 
near Calcutta, the capture of which had been 
urged upon him from Madras, on the ground 
that its retention by the French endangered 
the safety of Calcutta. This object was 
speedily and successfully accomplished by 
a joint military and naval operation ; but 
other circumstances occurred which delayed 
indefinitely the return of Clive and his 
troops to Madras. The nawab, crafty as he 
was cruel, although he had outwardly as- 
sented to the attack upon Chandernagore, 
was found to be intriguing with the French, 
and by advancing a part of his army to 
Plassey again threatened Calcutta. Clive 
speedily came to the conclusion that there 
was no chance of permanent peace or safety 
for the English in Bengal as long as Suraj ud 
Dowlah continued on the throne. Taking 
advantage of an intrigue which had been set 
on foot by some of the nawab's principal 
officers who had been alienated from him by 
his vices, Clive resolved to dethrone him, 
and to replace him by Mir Jaffier, the com- 
mander of the nawab's troops, from whom 
he had received overtures. The events which 
followed included the most brilliant and the 
most questionable incidents in Cli ve's career. 
While his military reputation, already esta- 
blished, rose higher than ever, and while he 
developed a capacity for civil and political 
administration of the highest order, the fame 
of his exploits was tarnished by a breach of 
faith which it is impossible to justify, and by 
the acceptance of large sums of money from 
a native prince which afterwards formed the 
subject of damaging charges against him. 
The negotiations with Mir Jaffier were prin- 
cipally conducted through the agency of a 
Hindu named Omichand, who, after having 
entered into solemn engagements to support 
the English cause, threatened to divulge the 
intrigue to Suraj ud Dowlah, demanding thirty 
lakhs of rupees as the price of his silence. 
Clive met the demand by a fraud. It had 
been settled that a treaty should be drawn 
up embodying the terms upon which Mir 
Jaffier should be placed upon the throne, and 
Omichand had demanded that the payment 
to be made to him should be inserted in the 
treaty. In order to defeat the latter demand 
Clive had two treaties drawn up, one on 
white paper and the other on red paper. In 
the white treaty, which was the real one, 



no mention was made of the agreement with 
Omichand. In the red treaty, which was 
shown to Omichand, but which was not the 
document given to Mir Jaffier, the payment 
to be made to Omichand was set forth in 
full. It appears that Admiral Watson, who 
in all the operations in Bengal up to that 
time had been associated with Clive, declined 
to sign the red treaty, and that his signature 
was attached to it by another person by 
Clive himself according to Macaulay, but at 
all events by Clive's orders. On the strength 
of evidence subsequently given by Clive, Sir 
John Malcolm, who defends the transaction 
as a pious and necessary fraud, represents 
that Watson, while unwilling to affix his 
signature to the fictitious treaty, did not ob- 
ject to its being done for him. Having thus 
secured the silence of Omichand, and having 
arranged with Mir Jaffier that he should 
separate himself with a considerable body of 
troops from the nawab's army and join the 
English on their advance, Clive, on 12 June 
1757, commenced the campaign, sending at 
the same time a letter to the nawab in which 
he arraigned him for his breach of treaty, 
and stated that he should ' wait upon him to 
demand satisfaction.' Clive's force, consisting 
of three thousand men, of whom less than 
a thousand were Europeans, reached Plas- 
sey on 23 June and found itself confronted 
by an army numbering forty thousand in- 
fantry, fifteen thousand cavalry, and fifty 
guns. Clive had previously been disquieted 
by apprehensions of treachery on the part 
of Mir Jaffier, who had not joined him as 
agreed, and on the 21st, on reaching the Hugli 
river a few miles distant from Plassey, he 
had called a council of war to discuss the 
question of an immediate attack. A majority 
of the council, including Clive, voted against 
the attack, but shortly afterwards Clive 
changed his mind and ordered the troops to 
cross the river on the following morning. 
Clive's small army had only time to take a 
few hours' rest in a grove which they occu- 
pied, when the battle commenced by a can- 
nonade from the nawab's artillery. Clive 
remained for some hours on the defensive, 
taking advantage of the grove in which his 
small force was posted, and which, by its 
trees and the mudbanks enclosing it, afforded 
an excellent position. His original intention 
was to delay his advance until night, and 
then to attack the enemy's camp ; but about 
noon they drew off their artillery, and Clive 
at once took possession of some eminences, 
from one of which a few guns, managed by 
Frenchmen, had caused considerable annoy- 
ance to his force. This movement brought 
out the enemy a second time ; but their heavy 



Clive 



Clive 



guns were driven back by Olive's field-pieces, 
which, killing some of their chief officers, 
threw them into confusion, with the exception 
of a body of troops under Mir Jaffier, who, 
detaching themselves from the rest, joined 
Clive after the action was over. In the course 
of a few hours the rout of the nawab's army 
was complete. He himself escaped from the 
field, and after a brief visit to Murshidabad, 
his capital, fled to the neighbourhood of 
Rajmahal, where he was captured, brought 
back to Murshidabad, and there put to death 
by order of Mir Jaffier's son. Mir Jaffier 
was at once installed as nawab, Clive ac- 
cepting his excuses for not having joined 
him before the battle. Omichand was then 
informed of the fraud by which his silence 
had been secured, and told that he was to have 
nothing. According to Orme and Mill he 
lost his reason and died in the course of a 
few months. According to Wilson, the editor 
of, and commentator upon, Mill's history, the 
alleged loss of reason is doubtful, inasmuch 
as Clive, in a subsequent letter to the court 
of directors, describes Omichand as ' a person 
capable of rendering you great services, there- 
fore not wholly to be discarded ' (see also 
MALCOLM, Life of Clive, i. 301). A large sum 
was paid by Mir Jaffier to the company, and 
Clive accepted, as a personal gift, between 
200,000/. and 300,OOW. Shortly after these 
transactions took place orders were received 
from England for a reconstitution of the 
government of Bengal under arrangements 
which provided no place in it for Clive ; but 
the persons selected wisely invited Clive to 
place himself at the head of the government, 
thereby anticipating the views of the court of 
directors, who, on hearing of the victory of 
Plassey and the events which succeeded it, 
immediately appointed Clive governor of their 
possessions in Bengal. During the four years 
which followed, Clive was to all intents and 
purposes the ruler of the whole of Bengal. 
Mir Jaffier, though free from many of his 
predecessor's vices, was by no means a strong 
man, and for a time relied upon Clive in all 
emergencies. Clive aided him in suppressing 
a rising of certain Hindu chiefs, and by 
merely advancing to his rescue stopped a 
threatened invasion of Bengal by the son of 
the emperor of Delhi. In return for these 
services Mir Jaffier bestowed upon Clive for 
, life in jaghir the quit-rent which the East 
India Company paid to him for the territory 
rwhich they held to the south of Calcutta, 
amounting to nearly 30,OOW. a year. After 
a time Mir Jaffier, forgetful of the benefits 
he had received, and chafing under his de- 
pendence upon Clive, induced the Dutch to 
bring troops to their factory at Chinsura, in 



the hope of subverting, with their aid, the 
daily increasing power of the English in 
Bengal. Clive thereupon, notwithstanding 
that England and Holland were at peace, 
and notwithstanding that a great part of his 
own fortune had recently been remitted to 
Europe through the Dutch East India Com- 

Biny, despatched a force which defeated the 
utch force near Chinsura, and, equipping and 
arming some merchant vessels, captured the 
Dutch squadron, and compelled the Dutch to 
sue for peace. 

While thus consolidating British influence 
in Bengal, Clive did not neglect the interests 
of his countrymen in the south of India, then 
menaced by the French under Lally. In 
the year after the battle of Plassey he des- 
patched an expedition under the command 
of Colonel Forde, the officer who was after- 
wards employed in conducting the attack 
upon the Dutch, to the northern sirkars, the 
districts north of the Carnatic, which was 
attended with signal success. During the 
whole of this time Clive displayed a genius 
and firmness in dealing with administrative 
affairs hardly less remarkable than that which 
characterised him as a military commander. 
Even at that early period in British Indian 
history those presidential jealousies existed 
which still occasionally clog the wheels of 
administrative progress. The rivalry between 
the army and the navy, and the antagonism 
between the troops of the crown and those of 
the company, were then, as in later times, a 
source of difficulty. When Clive first reached 
Calcutta the committee of civilians which 
formed the so-called government of the fac- 
tory, unmindful of the terrible calamity by 
which they had been so recently overwhelmed, 
resented the authority with which Clive had 
been invested by the Madras government, and 
called upon him to place himself under their 
orders. With Admiral Watson, who co- 
operated with him loyally enough in the 
operations which subsequently took place, 
Clive's relations at the outset were not free 
from friction. When Calcutta was recap- 
tured, Captain (afterwards Sir Eyre) Coote, 
acting under Watson's orders, refused to 
admit Clive's claims as senior officer to com- 
mand the fort, and it was not until the day 
after the capture that the fort was handed 
over to Clive. In both these cases, and in 
many others, Clive, by the exercise of tact 
and firmness, overcame the difficulties which 
confronted him, and proved himself in the 
council chamber, as in the camp, a true leader 
of men. Clive's views as to the British posi- 
tion in India were in advance of his time. 
Malcolm's life contains a remarkable letter 
which Clive addressed to the elder Pitt shortly 

i2 



Clive 



116 



Clive 



before his departure from Bengal, in which 
he urged upon that statesman the policy of ex- 
tending British rule in Bengal as opportuni- 
ties offered, and of taking the conquests under 
the guardianship of the crown (MALCOLM, 
Life of Clive, ii. 119-25). At an early period 
Clive perceived the importance of placing 
the company's possessions in India under 
the controlling influence of one head. This 
policy had been recognised by the court nearly 
seventy years before by the appointments of Sir 
John Child [q. v.] and Sir John Goldsborough 
successively as captains-general, with supreme 
authority over the company's possessions 
throughout India ; but the arrangement had 
been allowed to lapse, and Clive, on becom- 
ing governor of Bengal, speedily discerned 
the evils which were likely to result from the 
three presidencies continuing entirely inde- 
pendent of each other. Clive does not appear 
at that time to have raised this question offi- 
cially ; nor did he at any time make a definite 
recommendation that the appointment of go- 
vernor-general should be created ; but in one 
of his letters to the court, on the occasion of 
his second appointment to the government 
of Bengal, he expressed the opinion that ' if 
ever the appointment of such an officer as 
governor-general should become necessary,' 
' he ought to be established in Bengal, as the 
greatest weight of your civil, commercial, 
political, and military affairs will always be 
in that province' (ib. ii. 315). Olive's opinion 
of the administrative capacity of the court 
of directors as a governing body was at no 
time favourable. During his first govern- 
ment of Bengal he resented extremely the 
language of some of their despatches, and in 
a letter addressed to them not long before his 
departure, which was signed by four other 
members of the council, he administered to 
the court a rating in terms which have seldom 
been used by subordinate officers, however 
high in rank, when addressing official supe- 
riors. The result was the recall of all the 
members of council still in India who had 
signed the letter. 

Clive left India for the second time on 
25 Feb. 1760. The reception which he met 
with on his arrival in England was even more 
enthusiastic than that which had greeted 
him on his return a few years before. He 
was received with distinction by the king 
and by his ministers, and also by the court 
of directors, notwithstanding the letter which 
had given so much offence. The court during 
his absence had placed a statue of him in 
the India House, and had struck a medal in 
his honour. The estimation in which he 
was held by the authorities was fully shared 
by the country. The reports of Olive's vic- 



1 tories had come at a time when the nation was 
smarting under disasters in other quarters, 
! and made, it is probable, a greater impression 
| than, brilliant as they were, might otherwise 
have been the case. Mr. Pitt, in a speech on 
the Mutiny Bill, described Clive as 'a heaven- 
born general,' contrasting his achievements 
with the disgraces which had attended the 
British arms elsewhere. There was at the 
same time a delay in conferring upon him 
other honours, for which it is difficult to- 
account, unless it was caused by a long and 
serious illness which attacked him shortly 
after his arrival, and disabled him from ap- 
pearing in public for nearly twelve months. 
However, in 1762 he was raised to the Irish 
peerage, with the title of Baron Clive of 
Plassey, and in 1764 he was created a knight 
of the Bath. In the year of his return he 
was elected member for Shrewsbury, which 
seat he retained until his death. He appears 
to have cultivated parliamentary interest,, 
and had a not inconsiderable number of fol- 
lowers in the House of Commons, but did 
not take a prominent part in English politics. 
Overtures made to him by Lord Bute to 
support the government of which he was the 
head, Clive rejected, entertaining the greatest 
admiration for the political principles of Mr. 
Pitt, but finally connecting himself in the 
closest manner with George Grenville. When, 
however, the peace of Paris was about to be 
concluded, Clive offered to Lord Bute, and 
procured the adoption of, various suggestions 
regarding those provisions of the treaty which 
related to India ; the chief one being that the 
French should be required to keep no troops 
in Bengal or in the northern sirkars. India, 
indeed, was the sphere to which Olive's at- 
tention was almost wholly devoted. At 
the India House he exercised considerable in- 
fluence, having invested a large sum in East 
India stock, and being able thereby to com- 
mand a large number of votes. During the 
greater part of Olive's stay in England the 
chairman of the court of directors was Law- 
rence Sulivan, a person with whom Clive 
had carried on a most friendly correspond- 
ence when last in India, and who had wel- 
comed him on his return with profuse ex- 
pressions of admiration and esteem. Owing, 
however, to various causes, one of which, it 
would seem, was jealousy on the part of 
Sulivan of dive's influence, an estrange- 
ment took place and increased to such an 
extent, that when Clive, in 1764, was re- 
quested again to undertake the government 
of Bengal, he stated publicly at a meeting 
of the court of proprietors that he could not 
accept the office if Sulivan, whom he de- 
nounced as his inveterate enemy, retained the 



Clive 



117 



Clive 



chair at the India House. Clive carried his 
point, and another person was appointed to 
the chair. The matter in which Sulivan's 
hostility towards Clive had been mainly 
shown was connected with the jaghir which 
had been bestowed upon Clive by Mir Jaffier. 
This grant the directors, at the instance of 
Sulivan, proposed to disallow, and sent orders 
to Bengal to that effect. Ultimately the 
question was compromised by Clive accept- 
ing a limitation to ten years of the period 
for which the payment was to continue. An- 
other point of difference between Clive and 
Sulivan had reference to the claims of mili- 
tary officers who had served under Clive. 
Here also Clive was victorious and his re- 
commendations were acted on. 

The reappointment of Clive to the govern- 
ment of Bengal was rendered necessary by 
the misgovernment which had taken place 
under his successors. Mir Jaffier had been 
displaced in favour of his minister and son- 
in-law, Mir Kasim, and the latter in his 
turn, after having been goaded by the ex- 
tortions of the Calcutta civilians to make 
war against the company, had been expelled 
from Bengal. Mir Jaffier, then in a state of , 
senile imbecility, had been restored. Every 
ship brought to England intelligence of grave 
irregularities, of venality and corruption, and 
of the disorganisation of trade owing to the 
rapacity of the members of the Calcutta 
council. A terrible massacre of Europeans, 
described by Macaulay as surpassing that of 
the Black Hole, had taken place at Patna. 
Battles had been fought at Gheriah, Adwa- 
nalla, and Buxar, in the first of which the 
sepoys of Mir Kasim, trained on the Euro- 
pean system, had fought so well that the 
issue was for a time doubtful [see ADAMS, 
THOMAS, 1730P-1764]. < Rapacity, luxury, 
and the spirit of insubordination had spread 
from the civil service to the officers of the 
army, and from the officers to the soldiers. 
The evil continued to grow till every mess- 
room became the seat of conspiracy and cabal, 
and till the sepoys could be kept in order 
only by wholesale executions ' (MACATJLAY, 
Essay on Clive). It was in these circum- 
stances that a general cry arose, urged by 
the proprietors of East India stock, but at 
first resisted by the court, that Clive, as the 
only man qualified to deal with the crisis, 
should be induced to return to Bengal. Clive 
responded to the call, and, leaving England 
in the autumn of 1764, resumed the govern- 
ment on 3 May in the following year. He 
found the military situation improved, the 
defeat at Buxar of the nawab of Oudh having 
broken the power of the only formidable foe 
of the company in that part of India, while 



the insubordination of the army had been 
quelled for the time. But in all other re- 
spects the difficulties with which Clive had 
; to contend exceeded his previous expecta- 
j tions. While he was on his voyage out Mir 
Jaffier had died, and his second son, Najam 
ud Dowlah, an effeminate youth utterly un- 
I fit for the position, had been placed on the 
masnad. In direct opposition to the recent 
and positive orders of the court, that their 
servants should not receive presents from 
the native princes, the governor and certain 
members of the council had exacted from 
the young prince on his accession sums 
amounting to twenty lakhs of rupees. The 
court, at Clive's request, before his departure 
from England had appointed a small select 
committee, composed of persons in whom he 
had confidence, and to whom, in conjunc- 
tion with him, the real authority was to be 
entrusted. The existing council, however, 
had not been abolished, and some of the 
members at once called in question the 
powers of the select committee ; but Clive, 
by his firmness, overbore all opposition. The 
most factious of his opponents he removed 
from office, and brought up civilians from 
Madras to assist him in carrying on the ad- 
ministration. He then proceeded to effect 
the reforms which were necessary to secure 
honest and efficient government. The pri- 
vate trade of civil servants was suppressed. 
The orders prohibiting the receipt of presents 
from natives were enforced, and the salaries 
of the civil servants, at that time absurdly 
low, were placed for a time upon a proper 
footing by appropriating to that purpose the 
profits of a monopoly for the sale of salt. 
But the most serious of the difficulties with 
which Clive had to deal was a mutinous 
conspiracy among the English officers of the 
army. Recent orders from home had pro- 
vided for certain reductions in the allow- 
ances to the officers. The spirit of insubor- 
dination, partially suppressed, still existed, 
and a large body of officers determined to 
prevent the enforcement of the obnoxious 
orders by simultaneously resigning their com- 
missions. Clive was equal to the situation. 
Finding that he had a few officers upon 
whom he could rely, he sent to Madras for 
more, gave commissions to mercantile men 
who were prepared to support him, and or- 
dered all the officers who had resigned their 
commissions to be sent to Calcutta. Clive's 
firmness prevailed. The sepoys stood by him. 
The ringleaders were tried and cashiered. 
The rest of the conspirators asked to be al- 
lowed to withdraw their resignations, and 
discipline was restored. While thus reform- 
ing the civil service and restoring the disci- 



Clive 



118 



Clive 



pline of the army, Clive introduced an im- 
portant change in the relations of the company 
to the native powers. Discerning in the 
recent occurrences the danger of allowing the 
nawab of Bengal to maintain a disciplined 
body of troops, he relieved him of all respon- 
sibility for the military defence of the coun- 
try and of the management of the revenue, 
assigning to him out of the revenues of the 
province an annual sum of fifty-three lakhs 
of rupees for the expenses of his court and 
for the administration of justice. From the 
emperor of Delhi he obtained an imperial 
firman conferring upon the company the di- 
wani, i.e. the right to collect the revenue in 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, thus constituting 
them in form, as well as in fact, the gover- 
nors of the country. 

After a residence of twenty-two months 
in Bengal Clive was compelled by ill-health 
to leave India for the last time. He returned 
to England a poorer man than he had left 
it. With enormous opportunities for amass- 
ing additional wealth in the course of the 
large transactions in which he was engaged, 
he had scrupulously abstained during his last 
visit to India from making any addition to 
his fortune. A legacy of 70,000/. which had 
been left to him by Mir Jaffier he accepted, 
but not for himself, devoting it to the esta- 
blishment of a fund for the benefit of dis- 
abled Indian officers and their families. In his 
second government of Bengal Clive rendered 
services to his country which went far to out- 
weigh whatever errors he had committed in 
his previous government. But those services, 
eminent as they were, did not meet with the 
same recognition in England which had been 
accorded to the services rendered by him in 
the earlier periods of his career. Both in the 
civil service and in the army he had made ene- 
mies by his stern repression of abuses and in- 
flexible enforcement of orders. The malcon- 
tents, supported by Sulivan and his party at 
the India House, and by other persons, who, in- 
dignant at the abuses which had discredited 
British rule in Bengal, identified with the per- 
petrators of those abuses the man who in his 
last government had devoted himself to their 
repression, were unceasing in their denuncia- 
tions of Clive. The newspapers were filled 
with attacks upon him ; stories of the wildest 
kind were scattered broadcast ; the very crimes 
which he had incurred odium by suppressing 
were laid to his charge ; the unsatisfactory 
condition of the company's affairs after his 
departure from India, attributable to the 
errors of his successors, was ascribed to him. 
At last Clive, stung to the quick by the at- 
tacks which were made upon him, took ad- 
vantage of a debate in the House of Commons 



on Indian affairs to reply to his assailants,, 
and in a speech of considerable eloquence 
and vigour, in regard to which Lord Chat- 
ham, who heard it, said that he had never 
heard a finer speech, demolished the greater 
part of the accusations which had been made 
against him. A parliamentary inquiry en- 
sued. Clive was subjected to a rigid exami- 
nation and cross-examination, in the course 
of which, after describing in vivid language 
the temptations to which he had been ex- 
posed, he gave utterance to the celebrated 
exclamation, 'By God, Mr. Chairman, at 
this moment I stand astonished at my own 
moderation ! ' The inquiry extended inta 
two sessions. It was completed in May 1773, 
and resulted in resolutions condemning, as 
illegal, the appropriation by servants of the 
! state of acquisitions made by the arms of the 
state, and resolving, first, that this rule had 
been systematically violated by the English, 
functionaries in Bengal ; and, secondly, that 
Clive, by the powers which he possessed as 
commander of the British forces in India, 
had obtained large sums from Mir Jaffier ; 
but when it was further moved that Clive 
had abused his powers, and set an evil ex- 
ample to the servants of the public, the pre- 
vious question was put and carried, and sub- 
sequently a motion that Clive had rendered 
' great and meritorious services to the state ' 
was passed without a division. 

Clive did not long survive the termination 
of the inquiry. His health, always precarious, 
and much impaired by the exposure and fa- 
tigue of his life in India, had for some time 
occasioned him acute bodily suffering, which 
was greatly increased by the mental annoy- 
ance to which he was subjected after his- 
final return from India. In order to alleviate 
his physical pain he had recourse to opium. 
The fits of depression to which he had been 
j from time to time subject from an early age 
increased in frequency, and, combined with 
j paroxysms of pain, affected his reason. He 
j died by his own hand on 22 Nov. 1774, very 
! shortly after completing his forty-ninth year. 
Lady Clive survived him for many years. He 
left several children. His eldest son, Edward 
[q. v.], afterwards became Earl of Powis. 

The career of Clive was a very remarkable 
one, whether we consider the position and 
the reputation which he, the son of an im- 
poverished country squire, commencing life 
as a clerk in the service of a mercantile com- 
pany, was able to achieve at a comparatively 
early age ; or the results of his exertions to 
his country ; or the combination of adminis- 
trative capacity in civil affairs with military 
genius of the highest order; or the difficul- 
ties under which he laboured, arising from a 



Clive 



119 



Clive 



temperament peculiarly susceptible of ner- 
vous depression, and from a physique by no 
means strong ; or the shortness of the time 
in which his work was done. Perhaps the 
most extraordinary part of the story is the 
very few years which it took to lay the 
foundations of the British Indian empire. 
Clive received his first military commission in 
1747, and his first course of service in India 
was brought to a close in February 1753. In 
that brief period, amounting to less than six 
years, during which he twice reverted to civil 
employment, Clive by his defence of Arcot, 
and by the other operations in which he was 
engaged in the south of India, at the age of 
twenty-seven, established his reputation as 
a military commander. His second visit to 
India, which included Plassey and the esta- 
blishment of British military ascendency in 
Bengal, lasted only from 27 Nov. 1755 to 
25 Feb. 1760, or little more than four vears. 
His third and last visit, in which he laid the 
foundations of regular government in Bengal, 
was cut short by ill-health in twenty-two 
months. Clive's real work in India thus 
occupied, all told, a little less than twelve 
years. Regarding Clive's character, in spite 
of all that has been written upon it, a con- 
siderable amount of misconception exists 
even now. The common estimate of him 
still is that he was a brave and able, but vio- 
lent and unscrupulous man. The prejudice 
against him, which embittered the latter years 
of his life, although in a great degree un- 
founded, has not yet entirely passed away. 
In a modern poem, entitled ' Clive's Dream 
before Plassey,' Clive is thus apostrophised : 

Violent and bad, thou art Jehovah's servant still, 
And e'en to thee a dream may be an angel of 
his will. 



remo, poems chiefly written in India, 
by H. G. Keene, London, 1855.^) 

Macaulay's statement that ' Clive, like most 
men who are born with strong passions and 
tried by strong temptations, committed great 
faults,' but that ' our island has scarcely ever 
produced a man more truly great either in 
arms or in council,' is not only more generous 
but more true. The transactions upon which 
Clive has been chiefly attacked are the fraud 
upon Omichand and the pecuniary transac- 
tions with Mir Jaffier. For the fraud upon 
Omichand it is impossible to offer any defence. 
It was not only morally a crime, but, regarded 
merely from the point of view of political 
expediency, it was a blunder of a kind which, 
if it had been copied in after times, would 
have deprived our government in India of one 
of the main sources of its power the implicit 
confidence of the natives in British faith. But 



for the acceptance of the sum of money, large 
as it was, which Mir Jaffier presented to Clive 
after Plassey, and of the jaghir which he 
subsequently conferred upon him, there is 
something to be said, if not in justification, 
at all events in extenuation. Macaulay, in- 
deed, justifies Clive's acceptance of the jaghir, 
making what is perhaps a questionable dis- 
tinction between the one grant and the other, 
on the ground that the jaghir was a present, 
in regard to which there could be no secrecy. 
The East India Company became under its 
terms Clive's tenants, and by their acquies- 
cence in the first instance virtually sanc- 
tioned Clive's acceptance of the grant. Mac- 
aulay, however, admits that both grants 
were accepted without any attempt at se- 
crecy, and it would seem that to both the 
primd fade objection that a general ought 
not to accept rewards from a foreign ruler 
without the express permission of his own 
government must be held to apply. On the 
other hand, as Macaulay shows, in extenua- 
tion of the course taken by Clive, it must be 
remembered, and the fact is entitled to great 
weight, that the East India Company at that 
time tacitly sanctioned the acceptance by 
their servants of presents from the native 
powers, paying them miserable salaries, but 
allowing them to enrich themselves by trade 
and presents. That Clive would have scorned 
for the sake of personal gain, under any cir- 
cumstances, to take a course which he knew 
to be inconsistent with the interests of his 
country, is proved by his conduct in making 
war on his own responsibility upon the Dutch 
at a time when a great part of his fortune 
was in the hands of the Dutch East India 
Company. And, whatever errors he com- 
mitted in the two transactions above referred 
to, those errors were nobly redeemed by the 
energetic onslaught which he made during 
his second government of Bengal upon the 
system of oppression, extortion, and corrup- 
tion which then prevailed. In the relations 
of private life Clive's character appears to 
have been irreproachable. He was a generous 
and dutiful son, a kind brother, an affectionate 
husband, and a firm friend. 

In 1775, the year after Clive's death, the 
first volume was published of a work entitled 
'The Life of Robert, Lord Clive, Baron 
Plassey,' by Charles Caraccioli, which was 
subsequently extended to four volumes. It 
is from first to last a virulent attack upon 
Clive both in his public and in his private life. 
It denies his capacity, whether in civil or in 
military affairs, and attributes his success 
partly to good luck and partly to the timidity 
of the natives of India [see CARACCIOLI, 
CHARLES]. 



Clobery 



120 



Clogie 



[Sir John Malcolm's Life of Lord Olive, Lon- 
don, 1836; Macaulay's Essay on Clive; Orme's 
Hist, of the Military Transactions of the Bri- 
tish Nation in Indostan, vol. ii., Madras edit. 
1861 ; Mill's Hist, of British India, vol. iii. edit. 
1858; Marshman's Hist, of India, vol. i., Lon- 
don, 1867 ; Malleson's French in India, Lon- 
don, 1868 ; Browning's Dramatic Idylls, 2nd ser., 
London, 1880 ; Hunter's Imperial Gazetteer of 
India, vi. 383, London, 1886 ; English Historical 
Review, article on Fra^ois Joseph Dupleix, Oc- 
tober 1886.] A. J. A. 

CLOBERY, ROBERT, M.D. [See GLYN, 

ROBEKT.J 

CLOETE, SIK ABRAHAM JOSIAS 
(1794-1886), general, one of the sons of 
Peter Laurence Cloe'te, member of the coun- 
cil of the Cape of Good Hope, was born in 
1794. He was appointed to a cornetcy in 
the 16th hussars 29 Jan. 1809, his subse- 
quent promotions bearing date as follows : 
lieutenant, 17 May 1810; captain, 5 Nov. 
1812 ; brevet-major, 21 Nov. 1822 ; lieutenant- 
colonel, 10 Jan. 1837 ; colonel, 11 Nov. 1851 ; 
major-general, 19 Jan. 1856 ; lieutenant-ge- 
neral, 12 Feb. 1863 ; general, 25 Oct. 1871. 
Joining the 15th hussars in England soon 
after its return from Corunna, Cloe't served 
with it during the Burdett riots of 1810 
and the 'Luddite' disturbances in the Mid- 
lands and Lancashire of the following years. 
On 28 Oct. 1813 he exchanged to the late 
21st light dragoons at the Cape, whither he re- 
turned as aide-de-camp to the newly appointed 
governor, Lord Charles Somerset. He com- 
manded a military detachment, composed of 
volunteers from regiments at the Cape, sent to 
occupy the desert island of Tristan d'Acunha 
soon after the arrival of the Emperor Napo- 
leon at St. Helena. Leaving the detachment 
there, Cloet resumed the performance of his 
duties as aide-de-camp, and during that time 
fought a duel with Surgeon James Barry 
(1795-1865) [q. v.] In 1817 he accompanied 
his regiment to India, and served with a squa- 
dron employed as a field force in Cuttack, on 
the frontiers of Orissa and Behar, during the 
Pindarree war of 1817-19. The 21st dra- 
goons (a party at St. Helena excepted) was 
disbanded in England in May 1819, and Cloe'te 
was placed on half-pay. In 1820 he was em- 
ployed, with the rank of deputy-assistant 
quartermaster-general, in superintending the 
landing and settling on the eastern frontier 
of the Cape Colony, in the now flourishing 
districts of Albany and Somerset, of a large 
body of government immigrants, known as 
' the settlers of 1820.' In 1822 he was sent 
home with important despatches, and received 
the brevet rank of major, after which he was 



appointed town-major of Cape Town, a post 
he held until 1840. In 1836 he was made 
K.H., and at the time of his decease was 
the last surviving knight companion of the 
Guelphic order in the ' Army List.' In 1840 
he was appointed deputy quartermaster-ge- 
neral at the Cape, and retained the post until 
1854. In 1842 he was sent with reinforce- 
ments from Cape Town to relieve a small 
force under Captain Smith, 27th Inniskillings, 
which was besieged by insurgent Boers near 
Port Natal (Durban), when his firm and 
judicious action not only prevented a Boer 
war, but prepared the permanent settlement 
of the present valuable colony of Natal. He 
was quartermaster-general in the Kaffir war 
of 1846 and was mentioned in despatches, and 
in 1848 was made C.B. He was chief of the 
staff with the army in the field in the Kaffir 
war of 1851-3, including the operations in the 
Basuto country, and the battle of the Berea, 
where he commanded a division. He was men- 
tioned in despatches in the ' London Gazette,' 
4 May 1852, and knighted for his services in 
1854. As major-general on the staff he com- 
manded the troops in the Windward and 
Leeward Islands from 1855 to 1861. He 
was made colonel 19th foot, now Princess of 
Wales's Own Yorkshire regiment, in 1861, 
and K.C.B. in 1862. He was placed on the 
retired list in 1877. 

Cloet married, 8 May 1857, Anne Wool- 
combe, granddaughter of the late Rear-ad- 
miral Sir Thomas Louis, baronet, by whom 
he had two children, a son, now a lieutenant 
royal artillery, and a daughter. He died at 
his residence in Gloucester Place, London, 
26 Oct. 1886. 

[Foster's Baronetage and Knightage; Army 
Lists; Colonial Office Lists; London Gazettes ; 
Times, 28 Oct. 1886. Some account of the old 
21st light dragoons will be found in Colburn's 
United Serv. Mag., July, August, 1876. Much in- 
teresting information respecting the government 
immigration of 1820 will be found in J. Cent- 
livre Chase's Cape of Good Hope (London, 1843, 
12mo). An excellent account of affairs in Natal 
in 1 842 is given in Five Lectures on the Emigra- 
tion of the Boers, &c. (Cape Town, 1856, 8vo), 
written by the late Henry Cloe'te, LL.D., recorder 
of Maritzburg, brother of the general, a copy of 
which is in the Brit. Mus. Library.] H. M. C. 

CLOGIE or CLOGY, ALEXANDER 

(1614-1698), biographer, born in Scotland in 
1614, probably graduated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, during the provostship of William 
Bedell [q. v.], whose chaplain, on his appoint- 
ment in 1629 to the bishoprics of Kilmore and 
Ardagh, he became. In 1637 he married Lea 
Maw, daughter of a recorder of Bury St. Ed- 
munds, and stepdaughter to Bishop Bedell. 



Cloncurry 



Clopton 



On 12 Nov. 1637 he became vicar of Dyne, 
continuing, however, to reside in the episcopal 
palace at Kilmore. In May 1640 he became 
vicar of Cavan, resigning Dyne. In December 
1641 he, together with the bishop and several 
others, was seized by the rebels at Kilmore, 
and conveyed to the ruinous castle of Clough- 
boughter, where they were retained for three 
weeks, during which they suffered extremely 
from the vigorous winter, when they were 
exchanged for two rebels. During this time 
the bishop and Clogie constantly preached to 
and assisted the other prisoners. He remained 
with Bishop Bedell till his death (7 Feb. 1642), 
when, after officiating at his funeral, Clogie 
sought a temporary refuge in Dublin. At the 
end of 1643 he came to England as ' chaplain 
with the horse.' In 1646 he seems to have 
been residing in London, and in 1647 he 
was presented to the rectory of Wigmore in 
Herefordshire, which he held to the time of 
his death in 1698. On 11 Dec. 1655 he married 
his second wife, Susanna Nelme, by whom he 
had six children. Mrs. Clogie died in 1711. 
Burnet, whose ' Life of Bishop Bedell ' was 
avowedly compiled from materials supplied 
by Clogie, says he was a venerable and 
learned divine. He assisted Bedell in com- 
paring King's ' Translation of the Old Testa- 
ment' into Irish with the original. His 
manuscript ' Life of Bedell,' written about 
1675, was first published in 1862 under the 
title of ' Memoirs of the Life and Episcopate 
of W. Bedell ' [see BEDELL, WILLIAM]. He 
also wrote 'Vox Corvi, or the Voice of a 
Raven that thrice spoke three words dis- 
tinctly,' 1694, in the preface to which work he 
states that he was over eighty years old. The 
raven perched on a church-steeple on 3 Feb. 
1691, and told a child who belonged to a 
quarrelsome family to look at Colossians, iii. 
15. There are two editions of the book; 
each has a woodcut representing Clogie, the 
boy, the raven, and the quarrelsome family. 
[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 327, 411; 
Clogie's Memoir of W. Bedell ; Burnet's Life of 
William Bedell ; Life of Bedell, edited for the 
Camden Society in 1872 by T. Wharton Jones, 
pp. 211-20.] ' A. C. B. 

CLONCURRY, LORD. [See LAWLESS, 
VALENTINE BROWNE, 1773-1853.] 

CLONMELL, EARL OF. [See SCOTT, 
JOHN, 1739-1798.] 

CLONTARFF, VISCOTTNT. [See RAW- 
SON, JOHN, d. 1560.] 

CLOPTON, SIR HUGH (d. 1497), lord 
mayor of London and benefactor of Strat- 
ford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, was born at 



Clopton manor-house, a mile from the town of 
Stratford-on-Avon. His ancestors had been 
owners of Clopton manor since Henry Ill's 
time. His father, John de Clopton, received 
a license to erect an oratory in the manor- 
house in 1450, and his elder brother, Thomas, 
obtained permission from Pope Sixtus IV in 
1474 to add a chapel for the celebration of 
divine service. Hugh, a younger son, left 
Clopton at an early age, and rapidly became 
a wealthy mercer in London. He was sheriff 
in 1486, when Sir Henry Colet [q.v.] was 
mayor, and was himself chosen mayor in 
1492, when he was apparently knighted. 
His vast fortune enabled him, it is said, to 
become possessed of the family estates at 
Clopton, the inheritance of his elder brother, 
and it is certain that the neighbouring town, 
of Stratford was his favourite place of resi- 
dence. About 1483 he erected there (in 
Chapel Street) ' a pretty house of brick and 
timber,' which was ultimately purchased by 
Shakespeare in 1597, and was, in a renovated 
form, the poet's residence, under the name of 
New Place, until his death in 1616. The 
nave of the chapel of the Stratford guild 
of the Holy Trinity, situated opposite his 
' pretty house,' Clopton rebuilt, and he adorned 
the building with a steeple tower, glass win- 
dows, and paintings for the ceiling. He 
also removed at his own expense the old 
wooden bridge over the Avon, and substi- 
tuted a remarkably fine stone structure rest- 
ing on fourteen arches. Clopton's chapel and 
bridge are still notable features of modern 
Stratford. He died 15 Sept, 1497. By his 
will, dated a week earlier, he provided for 
the due completion of the Stratford im- 
provements, and left a hundred marks to 
twenty-four maidens of the town, and 2001. 
for rebuilding the cross aisle of the parish 
church. He also instituted exhibitions of 
4:1. a year each for five years for three poor 
scholars at each university of Oxford and 
Cambridge ; and gave 10/. to the common box 
of the Mercers' Company, and other sums to 
' the Venturers' fellowship resident in Zeland, 
Brabant, and Flanders,' and to ' the fellow- 
ship of the staple of Calais.' Clopton desired 
to be buried in the parish church of Strat- 
ford, if he died in that town, where he spent 
much time in his later years. But his death 
took place in his London house, in the parish 
of St. Margaret's, Lothbury, and he finally 
' bequeathed ' his body to the church of that 
parish. Clopton never married. 

The Clopton estates ultimately passed to 
Joyce (not Anne as is sometimes stated) 
Clopton, of the sixth generation in descent 
from Thomas, Sir Hugh's elder brother. She 
married Sir George Carew, created Baron 



Clopton 



122 



Close 



Carew of Clopton and Earl of Totnes [q.v.], 
who thus became for a time master of the 
property. 

[Stow's Survey, ed. Strype, bk. v. 175; Dug- 
dale's Warwickshire, ed. Thomas, ii. 699-700 ; 
Fisher's Account of the Guild Chapel at Strat- 
ford-on-Avon ; Leland's Itinerarium, ed. Hearne ; 
Lee's Stratford-on-Avon from the Earliest Times 
(1885), pp. 23-5.] S. L. L. 

CLOPTON, WALTEE DE (d. 1412?), 
judge, was the fourth son of Sir William de 
Clopton of Newnham Manor, Ashdon, Essex, 
by Ivetta, daughter of Sir Thomas Grey. The 
seat of the family was Suffolk, and Sir Wil- 
liam de Clopton appears as commissioner of 
array for that county in 1359. Having, how- 
ever, purchased Newnham Manor in the fol- 
lowing year, he permanently established him- 
self there, and it remained in his posterity for 
some generations. For some reason, which 
the writ does not disclose, he and his sons 
Walter and Edmund were enjoined in 1366 
not to leave the country on pain of forfeiture 
of their possessions. Clopton's name does not 
begin to appear in the year-books until 1376-7, 
when it suddenly rises into prominence. In 
1378 he took the degree of king's serjeant, and 
in May 1383, as we learn from Walsingham 
(St.Alban's Chronicles, Rolls Ser. iii. 269), he 
sat with Bealknap to take the assizes at Hert- 
ford when a case in which the monastery of St. 
Alban was concerned was tried. In January 
1388-9 he was appointed chief justice, being 
created knight banneret in the following 
April. He succeeded Tresilian, over whom 
an impeachment was then impending for his 
part in the conspiracy of 1387 against the 
council of state. Nine years later it was the 
turn of the Duke of Gloucester and the earls 
of Arundel and Warwick, who had been prin- 
cipally concerned in bringing about the re- 
volution of 1386, to undergo impeachment, 
and in the consequent proceedings Clopton 
played a subordinate part, conveying to 
Arundel, who had pleaded a royal pardon, 
the formal intimation that the king was not 
bound by a pardon which had been obtained 
partly by intimidation and partly by deceit, 
and that in default of a better plea he would 
be convicted and attainted. Later in the 
year the ordinances passed in the parliament 
of 1387 were annulled. The identical inter- 
rogatories for answering which, in a sense 
favourable to the king, Tresilian had lost his 
head, were read in parliament with the an- 
swers of the judges. The parliament for- 
mally approved the conduct of the judges, 
and Thirning, chief justice of the common 
pleas, being also asked his opinion, replied 
that ' to declare an impeachment of treason 



null and void belonged to parliament, but if 
he had been a lord or peer of parliament, and 
had been asked his opinion, he should have 
concurred ; ' and this extremely foolish at- 
tempt at evasion, if such it really was, was 
adopted by Clopton. This year also he was 
engaged in collecting and arranging evidence 
of the complicity of John Hall in the murder 
of the Duke of Gloucester, which parliament 
was then investigating. He was one of the 
triers of petitions from England, Ireland, and 
Wales in the parliament of 1399, and was ap- 
pointed to inquire into the conduct of Wil- 
liam Rickhill, one of the judges of the com- 
mon pleas, in carrying letters between the 
late king and the Duke of Gloucester when, 
in prison at Calais. The nature of the com- 
munications does not appear from the evi- 
dence reported in the roll of parliament for 
that year, but Rickhill swore, and the estates 
believed him, that he was entirely ignorant 
of the contents of the letters which he car- 
ried. Clopton retired from office in November 
of the ensuing year, being succeeded by Wil- 
liam Gascoigne, but he was summoned to the 
council in the following August. Blomefield 
(Hist, of Norfolk, ii. 569) says that he was 
induced by ' the piety, mildness, integrity, 
and commendable example ' of Robert Cole- 
man, D.D. (chancellor of Oxford, 1419) to 
enter the monastery of the grey friars in 
Norwich, and that ' he wrote several treatises, 
some of which remain.' These, however, 
seem to be now entirely lost. The date of his 
death is uncertain, as the Walter de Clopton 
mentioned in the Escheat Roll for 1411-12 as 
late of the manor of Elingham Meoles in 
Hampshire cannot be identified with the 
judge. He left two daughters, but no male 
issue. His eldest daughter, Alice, married 
Thomas Bendish of Steeple in Binnstead, 
Essex. Her sister Elizabeth married one 
John Barwick. 

[Add. MS. 19123, f. 301 ; Morant's Essex, ii. 
540; Cullum's Hawsted, p. 112; Weaver's Fun. 
Mon. 659; Rymer's Fcedera, ed. Clarke, iii. 449; 
Year-book, 50 Edward III, Hil. ff. 2, 3, 19, 20, 
Trin. ff. 2, 3, Mich. f. 3 ; Bellewe's Ans du Roy 
Rich. II; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 51, 52; Cob- 
bett's State Trials, i. 129 ; Proceedings and Ordi- 
nances of the Privy Council, i. 158 ; Rot. Parl. 
iii. 358, 416, 430-2, 452 ; Cal. Inq. P.M. iii. 335; 
Wood's Hist, and Antiq. Oxford (Ghitch), iv. App. 
41 ; Foss's Judges of England.] J. M. R. 

CLOSE, SIR BARRY (d. 1813), major-ge- 
neral, was appointed a cadet of infantry at 
Madras in 1771 . In 1780 and the two following 
years he served as a subaltern at Tellicherry 
during the prolonged siege of that town by 
Hyder Ali's forces, and shortly afterwards was 
selected on two occasions to conduct negotia- 



Close 



123 



Close 



tions regarding disputed boundaries with the 
commissioners of the Mysore chief. From 1790 
to 1792 he was deputy adjutant-general with 
Lord Cornwallis's army, and was present 
throughout the first siege of Seringapatam. 
On that occasion he rendered a valuable ser- 
vice by pressing upon the governor-general 
the importance of insisting upon the imme- 
diate completion of the treaty, which Tippoo 
was endeavouring to delay in the hope of 
compelling the British forces, which were 
suffering much from endemic fever, to raise 
the siege. At the final siege and capture of 
Seringapatam in 1799 Close, as adjutant- 
general and practically chief of the staff, was 
conspicuous for the efficiency with which he 
directed the several departments under his 
control. His services during the siege elicited 
the warm approval of the commander-in-chief , 
General Harris, and of the governor-general, 
the Earl of Mornington. In recognition of 
those services the court presented him with a 
sword of honour. Close was a member of the 
commission which sat at Seringapatam to 
arrange the government of Mysore. In the 
course of the year he was appointed British 
resident at Mysore, and, in conjunction with 
the Diwan Purnayya, conducted the govern- 
ment of that country until 1801, when he 
was transferred to the Poona residency. The 
latter appointment Close held during the fol- 
lowing ten years, amply confirming his pre- 
vious reputation by his tact, courage, and 
excellent judgment, all of which qualities 
were repeatedly called into play during that 
critical time. Among his other signal ser- 
vices was that of concluding with thePSshwa 
the treaty of Bassein, the ultimate conse- 
quence of which was the destruction of the 
Mahratta power. His retirement from the 
Poona residency in 1811 called forth from the 
government of India, Lord Minto being then 
governor-general, a general order couched in 
language of the most laudatory kind. 

Close died in England on 20 April 1813, 
having been created a baronet after his return 
from India. He was not less beloved in pri- 
vate life than he was honoured in his public 
career. Mountstuart Elphinstone wrote in 
one of his letters, referring to the death of 
Close : ' I doubt whether such an assembly 
of manly virtues remains behind him. A 
strong, erect, and hardy frame, a clear head 
and vigorous understanding, fixed principles, 
unshaken courage, contempt for pomp and 
pleasure, entire devotion to the public ser- 
vice, formed the character of Sir Barry Close 
a character one would rather think ima- 
gined in ancient Rome, than met with in our 
own age and nation.' Close appears to have 
been an accomplished Arabic and Persian 



scholar. Wilks, in his ' History of Mysore/ 
describes Close as having 'mastered the logic, 
the ethics, and the metaphysics of Greece 
through the medium of the Arabic and Persian 
languages.' 

[Marshman's Hist, of India, vol. ii. ; Philip- 
part's East India Military Calendar, ii. 257 ; 
Ann. Keg. 1813 ; Wilks's Hist, of Mysore, vol. ii. 
Madras edition, 1869 ; Colebrooke's Life of 
Mountstuart Elphinstone.] A. J. A. 

CLOSE, FRANCIS, D.D. (1797-1882), 
evangelical divine, was the youngest son of 
the Rev. Henry Jackson Close, rector of 
Hitcham, Suffolk, a distinguished agricul- 
turist, who wrote several tracts on pastoral 
pursuits, and died at Bristol in April 1806. 
Francis was born near Frome, Somersetshire, 
at the residence of the Rev. Mr. Randolph, 
where his parents were then staying, on 
11 July 1797. He was first educated at a 
school in Medhurst, then at the Merchant 
Taylors' School (1808), and was afterwards 
a pupil of the Rev. John Scott of Hull. 
Entering St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
October 1816, he became a scholar in the fol- 
lowing year, and proceeded B.A. in 1820 and 
M.A. in 1825. He was ordained deacon to 
the curacy of Church Lawford, Warwickshire, 
in 1820, and priest in 1821. In 1822 he was 
curate of Willesden and Kingsbury, near 
London. In 1824 he accepted the curacy of 
the fashionable town of Cheltenham. During 
1826 his incumbent (the Rev. C. Jervis) died, 
and he was at once presented to the living. 
He liberally aided not only societies belong- 
ing to the church of England, but also many 
other societies not in union with the esta- 
blished church. Besides his numerous duties 
as a preacher, he was diligent as an author. 
He published pamphlets on controversial sub- 
jects, tracts on church architecture, on popu- 
lar education, on Romanism, and other topics 
of the day. During his incumbency of Chel- 
tenham the population more than doubled. 
In the town he erected, or caused to be 
erected, five district churches, with schools,, 
and also contributed largely to the establish- 
ment of Cheltenham College. On the recom- 
mendation of Lord Palmerston he was nomi- 
nated dean of Carlisle, 24 Nov. 1856, and in 
the same year had the degree of D.D. con- 
ferred on him by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. He held the perpetual curacy of 
St. Mary, Carlisle, from 1865 to 1868. He 
tried by every means in his power to improve 
the condition of the poor in Carlisle. Failing 
health obliged him to resign the deanery in 
August 1881, and in the following year, 
having gone to Penzance to winter, he died 
there at Morrab House on 18 Dec. 1882, and 



Close 



124 



Close 



Avas buried in Carlisle cemetery on 23 Dec. 
A. memorial, the proceeds of a public sub- 
scription, consisting of a recumbent figure in 
white marble, by Armstead, was erected in 
the cathedral in October 1885. He married, 
first, in 1820, Anne Diana, the third daughter 
of the Rev. John Arden of Longcroft Hall, 
Stafford; and secondly, on 2 Dec. 1880, Mary 
Antrim, widow of David Hodgson of Scot- 
land. 

Close was a most popular preacher of the 
evangelical type, but his theological views 
were narrow. His style of oratory was too 
.ambitious in straining after great effects, but 
his voice was full and harmonious. He was 
a powerful opponent of horse-racing and thea- 
trical amusements, and in his later years 
maintained a strong opposition to the use 
of alcohol and tobacco. 

He was the author of upwards of seventy 
publications, but few of these are of any per- 
manent value. The following are the titles 
of some of his chief works : 1. ' A course of 
nine Sermons on the Liturgy,' 1825 ; 7th 
edition, 1844. 2. ' The Book of Genesis, a 
series of historical discourses,' 1826; 3rd 
edition, 1853. 3. 'The Evil Consequences 
of attending the Racecourse,' 1827 ; 3rd 
edition, 1827. 4. ' Miscellaneous Sermons 
preached in the parish church of Chelten- 
ham,' 1829-34, 2 vols. 5. ' Sermons for the 
Times,' 1837. 6. ' Nine Sermons illustrative 
of some of the Typical Persons of the Old 
Testament,' 1838. 7. ' The Female Chartist's 
Visit to the Parish Church,' 1839. 8. ' Pauper- 
ism traced to its True Sources by the aid 
of Holy Scripture and Experience,' 1839. 

9. 'Divine and Human Knowledge,' 1841. 

10. 'Twelve Discourses on some of the Pa- 
rables,' 1841. 11. ' Occasional Sermons,' 1844. 
12. ' Church Architecture scripturally con- 
sidered,' 1844 ; 2nd edition, 1853. 13. ' The 
Restoration of Churches is the Restoration 
of Popery,' 1844; another edition, 1881. 
14. 'The Catholic Doctrine of the Second 
Advent,' 1846. 15. 'Passion-week Lectures,' 
1847. 16. ' Popery Destructive of Civil and 
Religious Liberty,' 1853. 17. 'Table-turn- 
ing not Diabolical,' 1853 ; 4th edition, 1853. 

18. ' High Church Education Delusive and 
Dangerous, being an Exposition of the Sys- 
tem adopted by the Rev. W. Sewell,' 1855. 

19. 'A few more Words on Education Bills,' 
1856. 20. ' An Indian Retrospect, or what has 
Christian England done for Heathen India ? ' 
1858. 21. 'Tobacco; its Influence, Phy- 
sical, Moral, and Religious,' 1859. 22. 'Lec- 
tures on the Evidences of Christianity,' 1860. 

23. ' Teetotalism the Christian's Duty,' 1860. 

24. ' Why have I taken the Pledge ? ' 1860 ; 
15th thousand, 1861. 25. ' Eighty Sketches 



of Sermons/ 1861. 26. 'The Footsteps of 
Error traced through a Period of Twenty- 
five Years/ 1863. 27. ' Cathedral Reform/ 
1864. 28. ' The Cattle Plague viewed in the 
Light of Holy Scripture,' 1865. 29. ' Thoughts 
on the Daily Choral Service in Carlisle Cathe- 
dral,' 1865. 30. ' Domestic Ritualism, how 
it creeps into Houses/ 1866. 31. ' The Eng- 
lish Church Union a Ritualistic Society/ 
1868. 32. ' Recent Legislation on Contagious 
Diseases/ 1870. 33. ' Our Family Likeness. 
Illustration of our Origin and Descent/ 
1871. 34. ' Auricular Confession and Priestly 
Absolution/ 1873. 35. ' Essay on the Com- 
position of a Sermon/ 1873. 36. 'The Stage, 
Ancient and Modern ; its tendencies on 
Morals and Religion/ 1877. 

[Eoose's Ecclesiastica (1842), pp. 429-30; 
Church of England Photographic Portrait Gal- 
lery, 1859, Portrait No. xxiii.; Christian Cabi- 
net Illustrated Almanack, 1861, pp. 32-3 (with 
portrait) ; Congregationalist (1875), iv. 562-72 ; 
Illustrated London News, 13 Jan. 1883, pp. 45-6 
(with portrait); Times, 19 Dec. 1882, p. 4, 
25 Dec. p. 6.] G. C. B. 

CLOSE, NICHOLAS, D.D. (d. 1452), 
bishop, a native of Westmoreland, was one 
of the six original fellows of Bang's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, appointed by the founder, 
Henry VI, in 1443. Of his previous life 
nothing has as yet been discovered. The 
accounts of King's College show that he was 
frequently employed on important business, 
and in 1447 he became overseer of the build- 
ing works (' magister operum '). In 1448 he 
was made warden of King's Hall in the same 
university. In 1449 (10 July) he appears as 
one of the English commissioners for pro- 
claiming a truce with Scotland, and is de- 
scribed in the letters patent as chancellor of 
the university of Cambridge. In the fol- 
lowing year (14 March 1449-50) he was 
made bishop of Carlisle, at which time he was 
also archdeacon of Colchester. In 1451 he 
was a commissioner for investigating whether 
the conservators of the truce with Scotland 
had been negligent in their duty or not ; and 
in 1452 (30 Aug.) he was translated to the 
bishopric of Coventry and Lichfield. He 
died before the end of October in the same 
year. Close received a grant of arms from 
Henry VI 'for the laudable services ren- 
dered by him in many diverse ways, both, 
in the works of the building of our College 
Royal and in other matters.' There is reason 
for believing that this grant should be dated 
30 Jan. 1450. The arms are : Argent, on a 
chevron sable three passion-nails of the first ; 
on a chief sable three roses argent. A nail, 
clou, was probably chosen as canting on the 
name Close. After he became a bishop he 



Close 



125 



Closterman 



sent several valuable presents (jocalia) to 
King's College, and either gave or bequeathed 
his library to it. 

[Willis and Clark's Arch. Hist, of the Univ. 
of Cambridge, i. 468 and notes ; Kymer's Fcedera, 
ed. 1704-35, xi. 231, 284 ; Le Neve's Fasti Ec- 
clesise Anglicanae ; Bentley's ] Excerpta His- 
torica, p. 362.] J. W. C. 

CLOSE, THOMAS (1796-1881), anti- 
quary, was born in 1796. He engaged in 
archaeological researches, and paid special 
attention to genealogy and heraldry. In 
several peerage cases he gave important evi- 
dence, especially in that of the Shrewsbury 
and Talbot succession. He published in 1866 
' St. Mary's Church, Nottingham ; its pro- 
bable Architect and Benefactors. With re- 
marks on the Heraldic Window described 
by Thoroton,' Nottingham, 1 866, 12mo. Close 
was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
a chevalier of the order of Leopold in Bel- 
gium, and of other foreign orders. He was 
also grand master .of the masonic province 
of Nottingham, and one of the founders and 
original members of the Reform Club. He 
died at Nottingham on 25 Jan. 1881, three 
days after the death of his wife. 

[Obituary notice in the Times, 31 Jan. 1881, 
p. 6.] W. W. 

CLOSSE, GEORGE (Jl. 1585), divine, 
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated M.A. in 1579. In 1581 
he was accused of obtaining the institution 
to the vicarage of Cuckfield by fraud, and was 
ejected by legal process. In 1585 he accused 
Sir Wolstan Dixie, lord mayor of London, 
in a sermon preached on 6 March at Paul's 
Cross, of partiality in the administration of 
justice. Accordingly he was summoned to 
appear at Guildhall before the mayor and 
aldermen, and complaint was subsequently 
lodged with the high commission court, who, 
Whitgifb presiding, ordered him to make 
submission in a sermon to be preached at 
Paul's Cross on 27 March before three doc- 
tors and as many bachelors of divinity, who 
were to act as his judges. In this sermon he 
reiterated his charge, and the lord mayor 
made fresh complaint to the high commission. 
The certificate of the six clergymen was, 
however, in his favour, and though the lord 
mayor applied to the privy council he could 
get no redress. Closse sent his own account 
of the affair to Abraham Fleming for in- 
sertion in the next edition of Holinshed's 
' Chronicle.' 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. (1581-90), p. 24; 
Holinshed's Chron. (4to), iv. 888-91 ; Peck's 
Desid. Cur. (fol.), lib. vi. p. 51 ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantab.] J. M. K. 



CLOSTERMAN, JOHN (1656-1713), 
portrait-painter, born at Osnaburg, Hanover, 
in 1656, was the son of an artist, who taught 
him the rudiments of design. In 1679 he went 
to Paris, accompanied by his countryman Ti- 
buren, and there worked under Jean de Troy. 
In 1681 he came to England, and painted dra- 
peries for John Riley, at whose death, in 1691, 
Closterman finished several of his portraits. 
This recommended him to the Duke of Somer- 
set, but he lost his favour on account of a dis- 
pute about a picture of Guercino, specially ac- 
quired for his grace, and which was afterwards 
purchased by Lord Halifax. In 1696 he was 
invited to the court of Spain, and executed 
the portraits of the king and queen ; he also 
went to Italy twice, and made several acqui- 
sitions of works of art. On returning to this 
country he obtained considerable employ- 
ment, and married an Englishwoman, who, 
according to Houbraken, ruined him by her 
extravagant habits, and ultimately left him 
in a state of dejection of body and mind. He 
diedin 1713, and was buried in Covent Garden 
churchyard. Among his works should be 
mentioned a whole-length portrait, formerly 
in the Guildhall, of Queen Anne in her coro- 
nation robes, wearing a crown, and carrying 
the orb and sceptre ; this is similar to another 
portrait, engraved in mezzotint by John 
Faber, jun., and now in the National Portrait 
Gallery, where there is also a portrait of John 
Churchill, first duke of Marlborough, painted 
before he became a knight of the Garter, to 
which order he was elected in March 1702. 
Closterman also executed a family group of the 
Duke and Duchess of Marlborough, with their 
children, viz. John, marquis of Blandford, 
Lady Henrietta, Lady Ann, Lady Elizabeth, 
and Lady Mary Churchill. The members of 
the family are assembled beneath a rich hang- 
ing curtain, on a raised dai's all the figures are 
of life size. This picture is now at Blenheim, 
and it is particularly mentioned by Horace 
Walpole in his ' Anecdotes of Painting.' It 
was most probably painted about the begin- 
ning of 1698. It is related that Closterman 
had so many disputes with the duchess on this 
subject, that the duke said, ' It has given me 
more trouble to reconcile my wife and you 
than to fight a battle.' The following por- 
traits were engraved in mezzotint after him 
by W. Faithorne : John Dry den (Elsum wrote- 
an epigram on this portrait), Sir Richard 
Haddock, Madam Plowden, and Lord Henry 
Scot. Engra ved by John Smith are : William 
Cowper, Grinling Gibbons and his wife, Sir 
Richard Gipps, Thomas Maxwell, Sir William 
Petty, and Mr. Sansom. By R. Williams : 
John, duke of Argyll, Sir Richard Black- 
more (this portrait was exhibited at the South 



126 



Clotworthy 



Kensington Museum in 1867), and Sir John 
Houblon. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, 1862, ii. 
406; Kedgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.] 

L. F. 

CLOTWOKTHY, SIR JOHN, first LORD 
MASSEREENE (d. 1665), was the son of Sir 
Hugh Clotworthy, knt., sheriff of the county 
of Antrim, and descended from the Devon- 
shire family of that name. He was one of 
the largest landowners in the county of 
Antrim (Aphorismical Discovery, i. 335), 
and appears as the representative of those 
who held under the charter of the London 
corporation in their dealings with Strafford 
(Strafford Papers, ii. 222). During Stafford's 
rule he more than once came into collision 
with the lord deputy. Lady Clotworthy was 
convened as a nonconformist (ib. ii. 273), and 
Clotworthy himself, for opposing one of Straf- 
ford's illegal proclamations, was severely re- 
primanded and threatened with arrest (Rtrsn- 
WORTH, Stratford's Trial, p. 419). On the 
call of the Long parliament Clotworthy was 
returned for the borough of Maldon, and be- 
came agent between the English and Irish 
malcontents (CARTE, i. 217). Directly par- 
liament assembled he attacked Strafford (Di- 
urnal Occurrences, 1 Nov.), and he seconded 
Pym's proposal for a committee on Irish 
grievances. Duringthe earl's trial Clotworthy 
was one of the managers for the third article, 
and one of the witnesses for the thirteenth 
(RUSHWORTH) . He was also active on religious 
questions, and is charged by the Irish catholics 
with instigating petitions in Ireland, ' which 
petitions contained matters destructive to 
the said catholiques, and were the more to 
be feared, by reason of the active power of 
the said Sir John Clotworthy in the Com- 
mons' House ' (BEIXINGS, ii. 233). He was 
also charged with having said ' that the con- 
version of the papists in Ireland was only to 
be effected by the Bible in one hand and the 
sword in the other ' (NALSON, ii. 536). The 
Irish plot to seize Dublin Castle was dis- 
covered through an attempt to induce Clot- 
worthy's servant, Owen O'Connolly, to join 
the conspiracy. ' Whereas you have of long 
time been a slave to that puritan,' said Mac- 
mahon to O'Connolly, ' I hope you shall have 
as good a man to wait on you ; ' but O'Con- 
nolly preferred to inform the lords justices. 
Immediately the rebellion broke out Clot- 
worthy's regiment was armed and despatched 
to Ireland, probably under the command of 
his brother James ; for Sir John Clotworthy 
appears to have remained in England (CARTE, 
ii. 237 ; A True Relation of the Taking of 
Mountjoy, in the County of Tyrone, by Col. 



Clotworthy, 1642, reprinted by Gilbert). He 
appears in the list of adventurers for the reco- 
very of Ireland as subscribing 1,OOOZ., and was 
one of the persons appointed to execute the 
doubling ordinance (CARTE, iv. 49). He was 
also an active member of the committee of both 
kingdoms, and took part in the prosecution 
of Laud. When Laud was executed Clot- 
worthy annoyed him on the scaffold with im- 
pertinent questions, ' asking him what was the 
comfortablest saying for a dying man, and on 
what his assurance of salvation was founded' 
(HETLTN, Life of Laud, p. 536). In October 
1646 he was commissioned to negotiate with 
the Earl of Ormonde about the surrender of 
Dublin to the parliament, but returned unsuc- 
cessfully in the following February (RUSH- 
WORTH, vi. 418-44). In the following March 
and April he was one of the commissioners 
employed to pacify the English army, and was 
equally unsuccessful. Lilburne and others 
had already brought against Clotworthy the 
charge of embezzling the supplies raised for 
Ireland (Regal Tyranny discovered, p. 102), 
and the army now proceeded to accuse him, 
not only of embezzlement, but also of hold- 
ing secret intelligence with Ormonde, and 
obstructing Lord Lisle's authority (A Par- 
ticular Charge of Impeachment against the 
Eleven Members, 1647, Charges 12-14). Clot- 
worthy and the other accused members pub- 
lished a joint reply, denying and refuting 
the charges of the army (A Full Vindication 
and Defence of the Accused Members, 1647). 
Nevertheless, he, with the rest, was obliged 
to withdraw from the House of Commons on 
20 July, and when summoned, on the 30th, 
to take his seat again, he took flight to 
France, but was pursued, captured, and 
brought back. Finally, on 28 Jan. 1648, 
Clotworthy was disabled from sitting any 
longer in the house. During the second civil 
war, however, the presbyterian party took 
courage again, and referred his case to a com- 
mittee (19 June 1648), with the result that 
he was received back to the house, and the 
election of another member in his place de- 
clared null and void (26 June, Journals of the 
House of Commons}. Pride's Purge expelled 
Clotworthy again from the house, and it was 
followed by his arrest (12 Dec. 1648). The 
protest signed by Clotworthy, Waller, Mas- 
sey, and Copley is given by Walker (History 
of Independency, ii. 40). He was, neverthe- 
less, imprisoned until about November 1651 
( Col. State Papers, Dom.) Besides the general 
charge of stirring up war between the parlia- 
ment and the army, the old charges of em- 
bezzlement were revived, and in 1651 he was 
further accused of being privy to Love's plot. 
After his release he took little part in public 



Clough 



127 



Clough 



affairs. We hear of him, in April 1653, ob- 
taining a license to transport Irishmen to 
foreign parts, and on 6 Aug. 1654 Crom- 
well appointed him one of the committee 
established to determine differences among 
the adventurers for Irish lands (Collection 
of Crormvelts Ordinances). Two years later 
Baillie wrote to Spang about Clotworthy's 
plan of founding a college in Antrim (BAIL- 
LIE, Letters, iii. 312). 

On the Restoration Clotworthy once more 
took a leading part in public affairs. He was 
sent to England in March 1660 to represent 
the interests of the Irish adventurers and the 
soldiers settled in Ireland (for his instruc- 
tions see Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 99). 
In their interests he proposed an act to confirm 
all estates of soldiers and adventurers as they 
stood on 7 May 1659 (CAKTE, iv. 26), and 
while making very favourable terms for them, 
provided still better for himself (ib. p. 61). 
At the same time he vigorously defended the 
cause of the Irish presbyterians. ' Only Sir 
John Clotworthy, wrote Clarendon, ' dis- 
sembled not his old animosity against the 
bishops, the cross, and the surplice, and 
wished that all might be abolished ; though 
he knew well that his vote would signify 
nothing towards it. And that spirit of his 
had been so long known, that it was now im- 
puted to sincerity and plain dealing, and that 
he would not dissemble, and was the less ill 
thought of, because in all other respects he 
was of a generous and jovial nature, and 
complied in all designs which might advance 
the king's interest and service ' (Life, ii. 380). 
This compliance was rewarded by the title of 
Viscount Massereene (21 Nov. 1660), which 
he enjoyed for five years, dying on 25 Sept. 
1665. 

[Archdall's Peerage of Ireland ; Foster's Peer- 
age ; Carte's Life of Ormonde (edit. 1851); 
Oilbert's Contemporary History of Affairs in 
Ireland ; History of the Irish Catholic Confedera- 
tion ; Rushworth ; Clarendon's History of the 
Rebellion ; Walker's History of Independency ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom.] C. H. F. 

CLOUGH, ARTHUR HUGH (1819- 
1861), poet, was the second son of James But- 
ler Clough, by Anne, daughter of John Per- 
fect, a banker at Pontefract. Richard Clough 
[q. v.], of Plas Clough in Denbighshire, was 
agent to Sir Thomas Gresham at Antwerp 
in the sixteenth century. His descendants 
continued to live at Plas Clough. A Hugh 
Clough, born in 1746, was a fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge, a friend of Cowper and 
Hay ley, and a writer of poetry. The brother 
of this Hugh, Roger of Bathafern Park, Den- 
bighshire, was the father of James Butler 
Clough. James Butler Clough was the first 



of his family to leave the neighbourhood. He 
settled as a cotton merchant at Liverpool, 
and had four children. In the winter of 
1822-3 he emigrated to Charleston, South 
Carolina. He was of a lively, sociable, and 
sanguine temperament, and strongly attached 
to his children. His wife was of simple, lofty, 
and retiring character, and during her hus- 
band's absences made a special companion of 
her son Arthur. In June 1828 the doughs 
sailed for England, returning to Charleston 
in October. Arthur and his elder brother 
Charles were sent to a school at Chester in No- 
vember, and to Rugby in the summer of 1829. 
Arnold had then been head-master for a year. 
Clough spent his holidays with relations, ex- 
cept in the summer of 1831, when his parents 
visited England, and his recollections of the 
time are turned to account in ' Mari Magno.' 
The long separation from his family made him 
prematurely self-reliant and thoughtful. He 
distinguished himself at school work, winning 
a scholarship open to the whole school at the 
age of fourteen ; he contributed to, and for 
some time edited, a school magazine ; and was 
excellent at football, swimming, and running. 
He became a favourite with Arnold, whose 
system had a powerful influence in stimulat- 
ing his moral and mental development. In 
July 1836 his family returned to settle at 
Liverpool. In the following November .he 
gained the Balliol scholarship, and in Octo- 
ber 1837 went into residence. He became 
known to his most distinguished contempo- 
raries, especially to W. G. Ward, to B. Jowett 
(the present master of Balliol), Dean Stanley, 
Professor Shairp, Bishop Temple, and Dr. Ar- 
nold's two eldest sons, Matthew and Thomas. 
The influence of Newman was stirring all 
thoughtful minds at Oxford, and Clough, 
whose intellect had been aroused and perhaps 
overstrained at Rugby, took the keenest in- 
terest in the theological controversies of the 
time. The result in his case was a gradual 
abandonment of his early creed. He never 
became bitter against the church of his child- 
hood, but he came to regard its dogmas as 
imperfect and untenable. His lofty principle, 
unworldliness, and intellectual power won 
general respect, and his friends were asto- 
nished when he only obtained a second class 
in 1841. In the following spring, however, 
he was elected to a fellowship at Oriel, then 
the greatest distinction obtainable at Oxford. 
In 1843 he was appointed tutor, and con- 
tinued to reside in college, taking reading 
parties in the long vacation, one of which 
suggested the ' Bothie.' 

Family troubles were coming upon him. 
His younger brother died of fever at Charles- 
ton at the end of 1842, and his father never 



Clough 



128 



Clough 



recovered the blow, dying a few months 
later. The business was not prosperous, and 
Clough undertook liabilities which pressed 
upon him. Meanwhile, his religious scruples 
developed, while the famine in Ireland and 
the political difficulties of the time increased 
his dissatisfaction with the established order 
of things. He resigned his tutorship in 1848, 
and his fellowship in October of the same 
year. In September he wrote the ; Bothie,' 
published at Oxford soon afterwards. His 
sympathies were strongly aroused by the re- 
volutionary movements of the year. He was 
at Paris with Emerson in May 1848, and in 
the next winter went to Rome, where he 
stayed during the siege by the French in June 
1849. Here he wrote ' Amours de Voyage.' 
His last long poem, the ' Dipsychus,' was 
written on a trip to Venice in 1850. 

The headship of University Hall, London, 
had been offered to him in the winter of 
1848, and he entered upon his duties in Oc- 
tober 1849. He seems to have found his life 
in London uncongenial, though he gained 
some valuable friends, especially Carlyle. Car- 
lyle, as Mr. Froude says ( Carlyle in London, 
i. 468),had been strongly attracted by Clough, 
and regarded him as ' a diamond sifted out of 
the general rubbish-heap.' He led a secluded 
life, and was still hampered by his pecuniary 
liability. After two years at University Hall, 
he had to give up the appointment, and finally 
resolved to try America. He sailed to Bos- 
ton in October 1852 in the same ship with 
Thackeray and Mr. Lowell. Emerson, whom 
he had first met in England in 1847, wel- 
comed and introduced him. He formed a 
warm friendship with Mr. C. E. Norton, to 
whom many of his letters are addressed, and 
with many other Americans. He took pupils, 
wrote articles, and began to revise Dryden's 
translation of Plutarch's ' Lives.' His friends 
meanwhile obtained for him an appointment 
to an examinership in the education office. 
He returned to England in July 1853, and 
in June 1854 was married to Blanche, eldest 
daughter of Samuel Smith of Combe House, 
Surrey. From this time he was fully occu- 
pied with official work of various kinds. His 
domestic happiness gave him peace of mind, 
and he took a lively interest in helping the 
work of his relation, Miss Nightingale. After 
1859 his health began to break. His mother 
died of paralysis in 1860. In 1861 change 
of scene was ordered. He went to Greece 
and Constantinople, and in July visited the 
Pyrenees, where he met his friends the Ten- 
nysons, and afterwards travelled to Italy. He 
was attacked by a malarial fever, and, after 
it had left him, died, like his mother, of para- 
lysis, on 13 Nov. 1861, at Florence. He was 



. buried in the protestant cemetery at that 
place. He left a widow and three children. 

dough's lovable nature attracted all who 
' knew him as it attracted Carlyle. Circum- 
1 stances compelled change of occupation ; he 
was diffident, and his intellect was wanting- 
i in quickness and audacity. He failed to carry 
out any large design, and his poetry is defi- 
cient in form and polish ; yet it has a greater 
charm for congenial minds than much poetry 
of superior refinement and more exquisite 
workmanship. It reveals, without self-con- 
sciousness, a character of marked sweetness, 
humour, and lofty moral feeling. Though 
Clough was in part a disciple of Wordsworth, 
he shows the originality of true genius in his 
descriptions of scenery, and in his treatment 
of the great social and philosophical problems- 
of his time. If several contemporaries showed 
greater artistic skill, no one gave greater in- 
dications of the power of clothing serious con- 
templation in the language of poetry. He is 
commemorated in the fine poem, ' Thyrsis, r 
by Mr. Matthew Arnold, who speaks warmly 
of his powers in his ' Last Words on Trans- 
lating Homer.' Mr. Lowell says of him : 
' We have a foreboding that Clough, imper- 
fect as he was in many respects, and dying* 
before he had subdued his sensitive tempe- 
rament to the requirements of his art, will be 
thought a hundred years hence to have been 
the truest expression in verse of the moral 
and intellectual tendencies, the doubt and 
struggle towards settled convictions of the 
period in which he lived.' 

His works are : 1. ' The Bothie of Toper- 
na-Fuosich (afterwards Tober-na-Vuolich), 
a Long Vacation Pastoral,' 1848. 2. 'Am- 
barvalia ; Poems by Thomas Burbidge and 
A. H. Clough,' 1849. 3. ' Plutarch's Lives ; 
the translation called Dry den s corrected from 
the Greek and revised,' Boston, 1859 and 
1864; London, 1876. 4. 'Greek History in 
a series of Lives from Plutarch ' (selected from 
the last), 1860. 5. ' Poems, with Memoir (by- 
F. T. Palgrave), 1862. 6. ' Poems and Prose 
Remains, with a selection from his Letter* 
and a Memoir.' Edited by his wife, 2 vols. 
1869. 

[Memoir prefixed to Remains, as above, 1869 ; 
see also Arthur Hugh Clough, a monogram by 
Samuel Waddington, 1883, where many notices 
by contemporaries are cited.] L. S. 

CLOUGH, RICHARD (d. 1570), mer- 
chant and factor for Sir Thomas Gresham, 
came of a family which had been long seated 
in North Wales. His father, Richard Clough, 
was of sufficient consideration in Denbigh, 
where he followed the trade of a glover, to 
marry into two families of note; his first 



Clough 



129 



Clough 



wife was a Whittingham of Chester, and his 
second wife the daughter of Humphrey Hol- 
land. He survived to so great an age that 
he obtained the epithet of Hen, or The Old, 
having lived, it is said, during the reigns of 
Henry VII and VIII, of Edward VI, Mary, 
and Elizabeth. Of his five sons Richard 
was the youngest. In his boyhood ' he went,' 
says Fuller, ' to be a chorister in the city of 
Chester. Some were so affected with his 
singing therein, that they were loath he 
should lose himself in empty air (church 
musick beginning then to be discounte- 
nanced), and persuaded, yea, procured his re- 
moval to London ' ( Worthies, Flintshire, ed. 
1662, p. 39). In the fervour of youthful zeal 
he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where 
he was created a knight of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, ' though not,' observes Fuller, ' owning 
it after his return under Queen Elizabeth, 
who disdained her subjects should accept of 
such foraign honour.' The badge of the order, j 
the five crosses, was afterwards borne by him | 
in his arms. Pennant and other popular j 
writers have in consequence styled him ' Sir ' 
Richard Clough, by which designation he is i 
still known among his descendants. It is un- i 
certain whether it was before or after this 
pilgrimage that he entered the service of Sir 
Thomas Gresham, under whose auspices he | 
was admitted a member of the Mercers' Com- 
pany. In 1552 he went to reside permanently 
at Antwerp, where he both carried on business 
as a merchant on his own account and acted 
in various matters as factor for Gresham. His 
more important duties were in connection 
with Gresham's offices of queen's merchant 
and financial agent, and the adroitness which 
he manifested both in negotiating loans and in 
smuggling money, arms, and foreign goods 
secured him the entire confidence and friend- 
ship of his employer. His voluminous cor- 
respondence with Gresham, the greater bulk 
of which may be found in the Record Office, 
is by no means confined to dry commercial 
details. Although he had perhaps only two 
or three days before sent Gresham an account 
of his proceedings ' at large,' it was nothing 
unusual for him to cover ten or twenty sides 
more of foolscap with the description of a 
pageant, a state funeral, or some other sub- 
ject involving long details, in which he de- 
lighted. To Clough Sir William Cecil was 
indebted for a considerable portion of his 
information respecting the Low Countries. 
His letters were regularly forwarded to the 
minister by Gresham, who never fails to 
speak most handsomely of his factor's abilities, 
although obliged to confess now and then 
that ' he is very long and tedious in his 
writing.' 

VOL. XI. 



At the beginning of 1560 Gresham availed 
himself of an offer made by Count Mansfeld 
to advance a large sum of money for the use 
of the English government. He accordingly 
sent Clough, about 24 April, to attend the 
council at London in company with the 
count's negotiator, one Hans Keck. Clough 
got back to Antwerp on 9 May, and a few 
days later was despatched by Cecil's recom- 
mendation to the count at his estate of Mans- 
feld in Saxony in order to bring matters to 
a final issue. Here he was given ' marvel- 
lous interteynment,' and on his departure in 
June was presented by the count with ' a 
silver standing-cup of the vallew of xx. lib.,' 
while the countess sent him by one of her 
gentlewomen ' a littel feather of gold and 
silver of the vallew of x. lib.' The negotia- 
tion, however, ultimately failed. 

In December 1561 Clough, writing to Gres- 
ham, suggested the erection of an exchange 
for merchants in London after the model of 
the burse at Antwerp, and he became a 
zealous promoter of the work. By his ad- 
vice a Flemish architect, by name Hendrix, 
was engaged, and most of the materials and 
workmanship were imported from Antwerp 
under his supervision. At length, after twelve 
years of such service abroad, Clough felt 
anxious to return to Wales for a brief re- 
tirement. He therefore, in February 1563-4, 
petitioned Cecil, through Gresham, ' to helpe 
hym to a lease for xxj yeres of serteyn landes 
of the Quenes Majesties lying in Wales of 
the yerely vallew of xxvij li. by yere.' Lease- 
holds in the counties of Carnarvon, Flint, 
Nottingham, and Buckingham were granted 
to him in the following year ( JONES, Index 
to Records, vol. i., Originalia temp. Eliz.*), 
but there is no evidence to show that he went 
home just then. Probably the commence- 
ment of the disturbances in the Low Coun- 
tries rendered his presence at Antwerp more 
necessary than ever. Meanwhile he corre- 
sponded with his accustomed regularity, giv- 
ing the particulars of every ' marvellous stir * 
with all the minuteness of a Dutch painter. 
It was not until the middle of April 1567 
that he was able to make a hasty excursion 
into Wales, there to marry, after a brief 
courtship, the fair Katharine Tudor, better 
known as Katharine of Berain, the widow 
of John Salusbury, son and heir of Sir John 
Salusbury, knt., of Lleweni, near Denbigh, 
and daughter and heiress of Tudor ap Robert 
Fychan of Berain in the same county. In 
this same year he began building, in a retired 
valley near Denbigh, the house of Bachegraig, 
and two miles further, on a beautiful elevated 
bank, another house, to which he gave 1 he 
name of Plas Clough. Both houses were. 



Clough 



130 



Clough 



built in the Dutch style and probably by 
Dutch workmen. After a few days' visit to 
Gresham in London, Clough returned with 
his bride to Antwerp in May to find the city 
at the height of a religious crisis. It is pro- 
bable that he soon quitted Antwerp to travel 
for nearly three months in Spain. He re- 
turned, however, to Flanders, where he con- 
tinued to reside throughout 1567 and 1568, 
making occasional visits to Wales. In Janu- 
ary 1569 he reported the arrest of the Eng- 
lish merchants at Antwerp. He himself 
managed to effect his escape, only to be ar- 
rested a few weeks later at Dieppe with letters 
for the English government in his possession. 
The intervention of Cecil soon procured his 
release, and he was allowed to return home 
unmolested. Arrived in London he found 
the fleet of the merchant-adventurers on the 
eve of its departure for Hamburg, it having 
been at last resolved to transfer the seat of 
commerce from Antwerp to that city. There 
is little doubt that Clough on this occasion 
went over to Hamburg in the honourable 
capacity of deputy of the Fellowship of the 
Merchant- Ad venturers (April 1569). His 
connection with Gresham was now severed, 
their correspondence had ceased, and the re- 
maining glimpses of Clough are few and of 
little interest. He died of a lingering illness 
at Hamburg when in the prime of life, some 
time between 11 March and 19 July 1570. 
He could have scarcely passed his fortieth 
year at the time of his death, which was 
mourned by all Welsh bards of note, among 
others by John Tudor, Simwnt Fychan, and 
William Cynwal. He was buried at Ham- 
burg, but, in compliance with his request, his 
heart, and some add his right hand, were 
brought to England in a silver urn and de- 
posited in the church of Whitchurch, the 
parish church of Denbigh. Clough began 
to write his will with ' his own hand ' at 
Antwerp on 20 Sept. 1568, when, as he says, 
he was ' in ryghte good healthe and mery.' 
But on 26 Feb. 1569-70 he drew up a docu- 
ment, which he made his wife and two in- 
timate friends sign, bequeathing all his mov- 
able goods to Gresham, a fact which adds 
weight to Fuller's assertion 'that it was 
agreed betwixt him [Clough] and Sir Thomas 
Gresham that the survivor should be chief 
heir to both.' Gresham, however, renounced 
the document just cited when the earlier 
will was proved, on 9 Nov. 1570 (Reg. in 
P. C. C. 23 and 37, Lyon). By Katharine 
of Berain, Clough had two daughters, Anne, 
born in 1 568, and Mary, born in 1 569. Bache- 
graig was inherited by his eldest daughter, 
who married Roger Salusbury, younger son 
of Sir John Salusbury, knt., of Lleweni, and 



it continued in this family until it ended in 
an heiress, Mrs. Thrale, afterwards Piozzi, 
herself a Salusbury. A curious house in 
Denbigh, also built by Clough, together with 
Maenan Abbey in Carnarvonshire, came by 
marriage to the husband of his younger 
daughter, William Wynn of Melai, Denbigh- 
shire, and is now possessed by their descen- 
dant, Lord Newborough. Plas Clough fell 
to a natural and ' forraine borne ' son, Richard, 
and has continued up to the present day in 
the possession of his descendants. He mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of John Drihurst of 
Denbigh. Clough meditated many plans for 
the benefit of his native land ; among others 
he intended to make the Clwyd navigable as 
far as Ruddlan, introduce commerce into the 
heart of the country, and convert the sides 
of the court of his house, Bachegraig, into 
magazines for dispensing his imports. To 
Denbigh, his birthplace, he left the one hun- 
dred pounds which he had lent in his lifetime 
to the town towards the founding of a free 
school, but no result came of this bequest. 
His fortune was in fact so large that ' Eve a 
aeth yn Glough' (he is become a Clough) 
passed into a proverb on the attainment of 
wealth by any person. During his long resi- 
dence at Antwerp he formed an acquaintance 
with Ortelius, and ultimately became the 
medium of communication between the latter 
and his fellow-townsman Humphrey Llwyd, 
the celebrated Welsh historian and antiquary 
(see letter from Llwyd, dated 5 April 1568, 
at the end of OKTELITTS'S Theatrum Orbis 
Terrarum, where he mentions Clough with 
affection, and styles him ' vir integerrimus '). 
A portrait of its founder still hangs at Plas 
Clough, apparently the work of some Flemish 
artist, of which a poor engraving is given at 
page 446 of the third edition of Pennant's 
' Account of London.' 

Mrs. Clough, when her husband's death 
had left her for a second time a widow, 
became the wife of Morris Wynn of Gwydyr, 
Carnarvonshire, after whose decease she took 
for a fourth and last husband Edward Thel- 
wall of Plas y Ward, Denbighshire. The 
rapidity with which this lady supplied the 
place of her husbands as she lost them forms 
the subject of an amusing anecdote in Pen- 
nant's 'Tour in Wales,' ed. 1784, ii. 29-30. 
She died on 27 Aug. 1591, and was buried 
on 1 Sept. at Llanyfydd, Denbighshire. 

[Burgon's Life and Times of Sir T. Gresham ; 
Harl. MS. 1971, f- 95 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
6th ed. i. 328 ; Fuller's Worthies, Flintshire (ed. 
1662), pp. 39-40; Williams's Biog. Diet, of Emi- 
nent Welshmen, pp. 76-8 ; Lipscomb's Bucking- 
hamshire, iii. 273 ; Johnson's Diary of a Journey 
into North Wales (1816), p. 51 ; Pennant's Tour 



Clover 



Clowes 



in Wales, ed. 1784, ii. 24-7, 29-30; Pennant's 
Account of London, 3rd ed. p. 446 ; Nicholas's 
Counties and County Families of Wales, i. 393, 
444.] G. G. 

CLOVER, JOSEPH (1725-1811), far- 
rier, son of a blacksmith at Norwich, was 
born in that city on 12 Aug. 1725, and fol- 
lowed for many years his father's calling. 
About 1750 he attracted the notice of Dr. 
Kervin Wright, afellow-townsman, by whom 
he was encouraged to apply himself to the 
investigation and treatment of the diseases 
of horses. By dint of extraordinary appli- 
cation he so far mastered Latin and French 
as to be able to read in the original the best 
authors on farriery and medicine, particu- 
larly Vegetius and La Fosse. He also be- 
came a good mathematician. In 1765 his 
reputation had increased so much that he 
left off working at the forge to devote him- 
self entirely to veterinary practice. In this 
lie was assisted by many well-known medi- 
cal men of that day, especially by Mr. Ben- 
jamin Gooch, the surgeon, who inserted in 
his ' Cases and Practical Remarks in Sur- 
gery ' a letter from Clover, giving a descrip- 
tion and a drawing of a machine invented by 
him for the cure of ruptured tendons and 
fractured legs in horses. As early as 1753 
he had discovered the manner in which the 
larvae of the hots are conveyed from the coat 
of the horse into the stomach. Ill-health 
obliged him to decline business in 1781. He 
died at Norwich on 19 Feb. 1811. 

[Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxi. pt. ii. pp. 191-2.] 

G. G. 

CLOWES, BUTLER (d. 1782), mezzo- 
tint-engraver and printseller, lived in Gutter 
Lane, Cheapside, where he kept a print-shop, 
his address appearing on engravings by James 
Watson and others. He scraped several 
portraits in mezzotint, usually from the life, 
some of which he sent to the exhibitions 
of the Free Society of Artists from 1768 to 
1773. Among these portraits, which show 
some artistic ability, were those of himself, 
his wife, John Augustus Clowes, John Glas 
{founder of the Glassite, or Sandemanian, 
sect), Nathan Potts, Mrs. Luke Sullivan, after 
Tilly Kettle, and Charles Dibdin as Mungo 
in the opera of the * Padlock.' He also 
engraved in mezzotint, after Philip Dawe, 

* The Hen-pecked Husband ' and ' The Dying 
Usurer/ both exhibited in 1768 ; after John 
Collet, ' A Rescue, or the Tars Triumphant,' 

* Grown Gentlemen taught to dance,' and 
' The Female Bruisers,' exhibited in 1771 ; 
after Heemskerk, and Stubbs, and a print 
entitled ' Domestic Employment Starching,' 
probably after Henry Morland. He died in 



1782. An etched portrait of Clowes, pub- 
lished by S. Harding, Pall Mall, in 1802, shows 
a man past the prime of life, with a round, 
jovial, and doubtless rubicund countenance. 
The general tone of his prints and the cha- 
racter of his associates tend to support the 
idea that he was of a free and lively disposi- 
tion. He does not appear to have been a 
painter himself. 

[Eedgrave's Dictionary of English Artists ; 
Graves's Dictionary of Artists, 1760-1880 ; Cata- 
logues of the Free Society of Artists ; J. Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotint Portraits ; Bromley's 
Catalogue of British Portraits ; Nagler's Kiinst- 
ler-Lexikon; Collectanea Biographica (Ander- 
don) in the Print Eoom, British Museum.] 

L. C. 

CLOWES, JOHN (1743-1831), Sweden- 
borgian, whom De Quincey called the ' holi- 
est of men whom it had been his lot to meet/ 
was born at Manchester on 31 Oct. 1743. 
He was the fourth son of Joseph Clowes, bar- 
rister-at-law, and his wife Catherine, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Edward Edwards, rector of 
Llanbedr, near Ruthin. Clowes was only 
seven years old when his mother died, but 
she laid the foundation of his religious educa- 
tion, which was continued by his father and 
strengthened by the Rev. John Clayton, to 
whose academy in Salford he was sent at an 
early age. At the age of eighteen, in 1761, 
he was admitted a pensioner of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. In January 1766 he gra- 
duated B. A. and was eighth wrangler. During 
the next three years, while engaged in the 
work of a private tutor, he took two prizes for 
Latin essays, and was elected fellow of Trinity. 
Abandoning his original idea of entering his 
father's profession, he prepared himself for holy 
orders, and was ordained in 1767 by Bishop 
Terrick. He proceeded to his degree of M. A. 
in 1769, in which year he became the first 
incumbent of St. John's Church, Manchester, 
then recently built by his kinsman Mr. Ed- 
ward Byrom. He was at that time in delicate 
health, and in other ways felt himself un- 
prepared for his vocation. In this diffident 
state of mind he one day, while engaged in 
arranging his father's library, met with a copy 
of William Law's ' Christian Perfection.' 
The perusal of this work had a marked effect 
on his mind, and led to the study of Law's 
other books, as well as the writings of sundry 
English, French, and German mystics. In 
1773 he was introduced to the writings of 
Emanuel Swedenborgby Mr. Richard Hough- 
ton of Liverpool, through whom he became 
acquainted with the Rev. T. Hartley, rec- 
tor of Winwick, Northamptonshire, and the 
earliest translator into English of any of 
Swedenborg'a works. Once entered upon 

K2 



Clowes 



132 



Clowes 



the study of these works they had for him a > 
fascination that was as lasting as it was in- 
tense. In obedience to what he recognised 
as a ' call from above ' he digested well the 
numerous publications of the Swedish divine j 
and spent many years in translating them. 
His first translation was the ' Vera Christiana 
Religio' (1781, 2 vols. 4to.), followed by the 
'Arcana Coelestia' (1782-1806, 12 vols.), 
' De Telluribus in Mundo nostro Solari ' (1787), 
'Amor Conjugialis ' (1792), and ' Doctrina 
Vitse pro Nova Hierosolyma.' 

Soon after his adoption of Swedenborg's 
views he consulted Mr. Hartley as to the 
consistency of his continuing a beneficed 
clergyman of the church of England, but 
the latter ' warmly urged upon him the duty 
of remaining in the line of occupation which 
Providence had marked for him.' Clowes 
followed the advice and remained rector of 
St. John's, in spite of occasional opposition. 
Several pamphlets were published against 
him, and finally an appeal was made, in 1792, 
to his bishop, Dr. B. Porteus. The bishop 
dealt very gently with Clowes, dismissing 
him with a friendly caution to be on his guard 
against his adversaries (Autob. p. 27 ; Pure 
Evang. Religion Revealed, chap, vii.) In 
later years he was assailed by John Grundy 
(unitarian), W. Roby (independent), and 
other dissenting ministers. About 1780 a 
weekly lecture was established at St. John's, 
and from these meetings there sprang up in 
the towns and villages around Manchester 
many societies having for their object the 
promulgation of the New Jerusalem doc- 
trines. At the same date Clowes founded a 
printing society (which still exists) for the 
purpose of printing and circulating the wri- 
tings of Swedenborg and tracts on his teach- ] 
ings. In 1787 the followers of Swedenborg ! 
resolved to establish distinct places of worship, 
and in 1792 the New Jerusalem church in ! 
Peter Street, Manchester, was opened. This 
action was taken against Clowes's wish, but 
it did not prevent his continuing to hold 
communion with his fellow-believers. When 
the Hawkstone Park meetings were insti- 
tuted, in 1806, he became closely associated 
with them, and continued his attendance at 
the reunions until a few years before his 
death. In 1804 he declined a seat on the 
episcopal bench offered to him by William 
Pitt on the recommendation of Baron Gra- 
ham. High testimonies of the influence of 
his character and conversation are given by 
De Quincey and by Mrs. Fletcher of Edin- 
burgh. The fiftieth anniversary of his in- 
duction to St. John's (1818) was commemo- 
rated by the erection in that church of a 
basso-relievo tablet, sculptured by John Flax- 



man, and the painting of an oil portrait, by 
John Allen, which is placed in the vestry. 

His declining years were spent at Lea- 
mington and Warwick, where he employed 
himself in literary labours. He died at Lea- 
mington on 29 May 1831, hi his eighty-eighth 
year, and was buried at St. John's, Manches- 
ter, on 9 June. A marble monument to his 
memory, designed by R. Westmacott, was 
subsequently placed in the church. 

He contributed frequently to the pages of 
the ' Intellectual Repository ' and issued a 
large number of separatepublications. Among 
his more important works are: 1. 'A Letter 
to a Member of Parliament on the Character 
and Writings of Baron Swedenborg,' 1799, 
8vo (pp. 370). 2. ' An Affectionate Address 
to the Clergy on the Theological Writings 
of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg,' 1802. 
3. ' Sermons on the Call and Deliverance of 
the Children of Israel,' 1803. 4. ' The Gospel 
according to Matthew, translated from the 
original Greek,' 1805 ; followed in later years 
by the three other gospels. 5. ' On Science,, 
its Divine Origin,' &c., 1809. 6. ' Pure Evan- 
gelical Religion Restored,' 1811. 7. 'Twenty- 
four Sermons on the Marriage of the Kings- 
Son,' 1812. 8. ' On Mediums,' 1813. 9. ' On 
the Two Worlds, the Visible and the In- 
visible,' 1818. 10. 'The Two Heavenly Memo- 
rialists,' 1818. 11. ' A Treatise on Opposites/ 
1820. 12. ' The Twelve Hours of the Day,* 1 
1822. 13. ' On Delights,' 1823. 14. 'Letters 
on the Human Soul,' 1825. 15. ' Letters on 
the Human Body,' 1826. 16. < The Psalms : 
a new Translation from the Hebrew (begun 
by Clowes and finished by others after his 
death), 1837. Several volumes of collected 
sermons and tracts were published both before 
and subsequent to his decease. His translation 
of Swedenborg's treatise ' On the Worship and 
Love of God,' originally brought out by him 
in 1816, was republished, with an introduction 
by the Rev. T. M. Gorman, in 1885. 

[Memoir by himself, Manchester, 1834, 2nd 
edit. 1848; Life and Correspondence, edited by 
Theodore Compton, Lond. 1874; De Quincey 
in Tait's Mag. February 1837, pp. 65-8, and 
Autobiographic Sketches, 1862, p. 131 ; Autob. of 
Mrs. Fletcher, 1875. pp. 40-4; John Evans's 
manuscript Memorials of St. John's, Manchester, 
and his communication to Papers <>f Manchester 
Literary Club, v. 1 1 3 ; Page's Thomas De Quincey, 
1877, i. 65-70. The manuscript of Clowes's Autob. 
is in the Chetham Library, Manchester.] 

C. W. S. 

CLOWES, WILLIAM, the elder (1540 ?- 
1604), surgeon, born about 1540, was the son 
of Thomas and grandson of Nicholas Clowes, 
both of Kingsbury inWarwickshire, and great- 
grandson of Geffrey Clowes of Tutbury in 



Clowes 



133 



Clowes 



Staffordshire, all of them gentlemen bearing 
tokens and arms of honour, helm, mantle, and 
crest (G. DETHICK). He learned surgery as 
apprentice of Mr. George Keble, a London 
surgeon, but not a member of the Barber-Sur- 
geons' Company, and often praises his master: 
* Sure Alexander the Great was never more 
bound to Aristotle his master for his lessons j 
in philosophic than I was bound to him for j 
giving me the first light and entrance into i 
the knowledge of this noble art of chirurgerie.' 
Clowes began practice in 1563 as a surgeon 
in the army commanded by Ambrose, earl 
of Warwick, in France, and on this expedi- ' 
tion began his lifelong friendship with John 
Banester the surgeon (BANESTER, Antido- 
tarie, 1589 ; CLOWES, Treatise on Struma, 
1602). After the Havre expedition Clowes 
served for several years in the navy (CLOWES, 
Profitable Observations), but about 1569 
settled in London. On 8 Nov. in that year 
he was admitted by translation into the I 
Barber-Surgeons' Company. He was sue- i 
cessful in practice, with occasional disap- 
pointments, as when a man complained in 
1573 that the cure of his wife was a failure and 

fot twenty shillings damages from Clowes, 
n March 1575 he was appointed on the 
surgical staff of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
and became full surgeon in 1581. He also < 
became surgeon to Christ's Hospital, and in 
his later works gives many details of his 
practice in both institutions. At St. Bar- 
tholomew's he introduced a new styptic pow- 
der which caused smaller sloughs than that 
of Gale, which it supplanted. In 1579 he 
published his first book, ' De Morbo Gallico.' \ 
It is mainly a compilation, and his best ob- \ 
servations on the subject are to be found 
here and there in his later works. In May j 
1585 he resigned his surgeoncy at St. Bar- 
tholomew's (MS. Minute Book at St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital), having been ' sent for 
by letters from Right Honourable and also 
by her Majestie's commandment to goe into 
the Low Countries, to attend upon the Right 
Honourable the Earle of Leicester, Lord 
Lieutenant and Captain General of her Ma- 
jestie's forces in those countries.' In his 
' Prooved Practise ' Clowes gives many de- 
tails of this expedition, and though bad 
surgeons, he says, slew more than the enemy, 
he and Mr. Goodrouse lost no cases from 
gunshot wounds but those mortally wounded 
at once. He attended Mr. Cripps, lieutenant 
of Sir Philip Sidney's horse, and was in the 
field when Sidney was wounded ; but as he 
is silent as to the case it is probable that if 
Sidney received any surgical help it was 
from the other chief surgeon whom Clowes 
often praises, Mr. Goodrouse or Godrus. 



Clowes had some sensible ideas on ambulance 
work, and remarks that scabbards make ex- 
cellent splints. He learned what he could 
from every member of his craft, English or 
foreign, and by experiment ; thus at Arnhem 
he tried with success a new balm on a pike- 
wound seven inches long. After this war 
Clowes returned to London, and on 18 July 
1588 was admitted an assistant on the court 
of the Barber-Surgeons' Company, and im- 
mediately after served in the fleet which 
defeated the Spanish Armada. He kept his 
military surgical chest by him, with the bear 
and ragged staff of his old commander on 
the lid, but was never called to serve in war 
again, and after being appointed surgeon to 
the queen, and spending several years in 
successful practice in London, retired to a 
country house at Plaistow in Essex, whence 
he dates his last preface. He died in 1604, 
before the beginning of August. In 1595 he 
received from Garter king-at-arms (South's 
MS. copy of Dethick's MS.) a confirmation 
of his coat of arms and statement of his 
public services and descent. He engraved 
these arms on the back of the title of the 
first book which he published after their 
confirmation, and they are a chevron bearing 
three crescents and between three unicorns' 
heads. He succeeded in handing on some 
court influence as well as heraldic honour to 
his son William [q. v.], who was made sur- 
geon to the Prince of Wales a few years after 
his father's death. The books of Clowes are 
the best surgical writings of the Elizabethan 
age. They are all in English, and his style 
is easy and forcible, sometimes a little prolix, 
but never obscure. He had read a great deal, 
and says that he had made Calmathius ' as it 
were a day-starre, or christallin cleare look- 
ing-glasse.' Tagalthius, Guido, Vigo, and 
Quercetanus are his other chief text-books, 
and he had read seventeen English authors 
on medicine ; but with all this book-know- 
ledge he trusted much to his own observa- 
tion, and a modern spirit of inquiry pervades 
his pages which makes them altogether dif- 
ferent from the compilations from authorities 
which are to be found in the surgical works 
of his contemporaries Baker and Banester. 
His ' Prooved Practise for all young Chirur- 
gians,' London, 1591, and his 'Treatise on 
the Struma,' London, 1602, are the most 
interesting of his works, and besides their 
surgical interest are full of pictures of daily 
life in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He was 
called to a northern clothier whose leg was 
broken by robbers two miles outside London; 
to another man whose injury was received 
by the breaking down of a gallery at a bear- 
baiting ; another patient was a serving-man 



Clowes 



134 



Clowes 



whose leg had been pierced by an arrow as 
he walked near the butts ; a fifth was one of 
Sir Francis Drake's sailors who had been shot 
by a poisoned arrow on the coast of Brazil ; 
a sixth was a merchant wounded on his own 
ship by a pirate at the mouth of the Thames. 
Clowes cared little for critics, favourable 
or unfavourable ' Scornfull scanners, their 
commendations I disdayne ' but he always 
speaks with generosity of his professional 
contemporaries Goodrouse, Banester, Bedon, 
and Baker, the surgeons ; Gerard, the author 
of the ' Herbal ; ' Dr. Lopez, Dr. Wotton, Dr. 
Foster, and Dr. Randall, and Maister Rasis, 
the French king's surgeon. He had met all 
of them in consultation. He did not conceal 
that he had secret remedies ' my unguent,' 
' my balm,' ' of my collection ' but he never 
made bargains for cures, and never touted for 
patients as some surgeons did at that time. 
He gives several amusing accounts of his en- 
counters with quacks, and prides himself on 
always acting as became ' a true artist.' He 
figures a barber's basin among his instruments 
of surgery, and says he was a good embalmer 
of dead bodies, and knew well from practice 
how to roll cerecloths. Besides a power of 
ready expression in colloquial English, he 
shows a vast acquaintance with proverbs, 
and a fair knowledge of French and of Latin. 
His books were all printed in London in 
black letter and 4to, and are : 1. ' De Morbo 
Gallico,' 1579. 2. ' A Prooved Practise for 
all young Chirurgians concerning Burnings 
with Gunpowder, and Woundes made with 
Gunshot, Sword, Halbard, Pike, Launce, or 
such other,' 1591. 3. 'Treatise of the French 
or Spanish Pocks, by John Almenar,' 1591 
(a fresh edition of 1). 4. ' A Profitable and 
Necessary Book of Observations,' 1596 (a 
fresh edition of 2). 5. ' A Right FrutefuU 
and Approved Treatise for the Artificiall 
Cure of the Struma or Evill, cured by the 
Kinges and Queenes of England,' 1602. In 
1637 reprints of his ' De Morbo Gallico ' and 
' Profitable Book of Observations' were pub- 
lished. Letters by him are printed in Bane- 
ster's ' Antidotarie ' (1589), and in Peter 
Lowe's ' Surgery ' (1597). 

[Clowes's Works ; MS. Admission Book and 
Court Minute Book of the Barber-Surgeons' Com- 
pany; MS. Minute Book of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital ; South's copy of MS. of Dethick.] 

N. M. 

CLOWES, WILLIAM, the younger 
(1582-1648), surgeon, son of William Clowes 
the elder (1540 P-1604) [q. v.], surgeon to 
Queen Elizabeth, studied his art under his 
father. He was admitted a member of the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company 22 Jan. 1605. 



In 1616 he was surgeon to the Prince of 
Wales (DEVON, Issues of Exchequer), and 
became surgeon to Charles I on his accession. 
In 1625 he was chosen renter warden of his 
company, but protested against a king's sur- 
geon being appointed to so low an office, and 
declined to serve. On 21 Aug. 1626, being 
then sergeant surgeon to the king, he was 
elected master of the Barber-Surgeons, and 
on 16 Aug. 1638 he was a second time elected 
master. It was the duty of the king's ser- 
geant surgeon to examine all persons brought 
to be cured by the royal touch (DOUGLAS, 
The Criterion, ed. 1820, p. 479), and in this 
capacity Clowes complained of one Leve- 
rett, a gardener, who took on himself to cure 
the king's evil. Leverett was brought before 
the lords at the Star-chamber 20 Oct. 1637, 
and Clowes was by them directed to lay the 
matter before the College of Physicians. Le- 
verett accordingly appeared at the college 
3 Nov. 1637, and stated that he cured, by- 
touch alone, king's evil, dropsy, fevers, agues, 
internal diseases, and external sores, and that, 
though he did not lay much stress on it, he 
was a seventh son. A patient with a strum ous 
knee-joint and other cases were given him to 
experiment on, and on his failure Clowes pre- 
sented, 28 Nov. 1637, a memorial recounting 
that Leverett slighted his majesty's sacred 
gift of healing, enticed great lords and ladies 
to buy the sheets he had slept in, and deluded 
the sick with false hopes. He produced cer- 
tificates from Thomas Clowes and two other 
surgeons in the city as to Leverett's impos- 
tures, and finally, by an extract from the re- 
gister of St. Clement, Eastcheap, proved that 
James Leverett was a fourth and not a seventh 
son, and that his father had but six sons in 
all. The college thereupon reported to the 
lords that Leverett was an impostor and de- 
ceiver. The last appearance of Clowes in the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company was on 14 Sept. 
1648, and he died a few months later. 

[Original manuscript records of the Barbers' 
Company preserved in their hall; Goodall's 
Eoyal Coll. of Phys. London, 1684.] N. M. 

CLOWES, WILLIAM, the elder (1779- 
1847), printer, was born 1 Jan. 1779, at Chi- 
chester, where his father kept a school, and 
where he was apprenticed to a printer of the 
name of Seagrave. He came to London in 
1802, and, after working as a compositor with 
Mr. Teape of Tower Hill, commenced busi- 
ness in the following year on a small scale on 
his own account in Villiers Street, Strand. 
He then married a cousin of Mr. Winchester, 
a stationer in the Strand, through whom he 
obtained a share of the government printing 
work. After some years' residence in Villiers 



Clowes 



135 



Clowes 



Street, Clowes removed to larger premises, 
previously occupied by Mr. Clark, in North- 
umberland Court, Charing Cross, where (in 
1823) he was the first to make use of steam 
machinery for bookwork printing. He was 
obliged to rebuild on account of a fire, and 
to defend an action for nuisance caused by I 
his new engines brought by a neighbour, the \ 
Duke of Northumberland. The duke lost the 
action, but subsequently bought out Clowes, I 
who, taking Applegath's business, removed ! 
to a site still occupied by the firm in Duke 
Street, Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road, j 
In 1832 he was chosen by the executive of j 
the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge to print, from new machines made by 
Applegath and Cowper, the ' Penny Maga- 
zine,' the earliest instance of successfully 
printing woodcuts by steam. He also printed 
the ' Penny Cyclopaedia ' and other publica- 
tions of the society. The chief features in 
his work were accuracy, speed, and quantity. 
The business increased rapidly, owing to 
Clowes's energy and enterprise. The course 
of its development may be seen from parti- 
culars coUected in 1839 by Sir F. B. Head 
(see Quarterly Review, December number), 
and by Timperley (Encyclopedia, p. 920). 
In 1846 he was turned out of his private 
residence in Parliament Street, where he had 
lived twenty-two years, to make room for rail- 
way offices, and retired to a country house at 
Banstead. By his wife, who died before him, 
he had four sons, all of whom were brought 
up to the business, and four daughters. He 
died at Wimpole Street on 26 Jan. 1847, and 
was buried in Norwood cemetery. 

[Information from Mr. W. C. K. Clowes and 
Mr. W. Clowes ; Description of Messrs. Clowes 
& Sons' printing office, Duke Street, Stamford 
Street, with a memoir of the late William Clowes 
(privately printed, n. d.) ; Smiles's Men of In- 
vention and Industry, 1884 ; Gent. Mag. March 
1847 ; Sussex Express, 30 Jan. 1847; Bookseller, 
June 1870.] H. K. T. 

CLOWES, WILLIAM (1780-1851), 
primitive methodist, son of William Clowes, 
potter, and of Ann, daughter of Aaron Wedg- 
wood, was born at Burslem, Staffordshire, 
on 12 March 1780, and employed during his 
early years as a working potter. He was 
considered one of the finest dancejs in his 
neighbourhood, aspired to be the premier 
dancer in the kingdom, and gave a challenge 
to all England. For many years he led a 
dissipated life, but on 20 Jan. 1815 was con- ; 
verted. He soon established a prayer-meeting 
in his own house, became the leader of a j 
Wesleyan methodist class, and joined a so- 
ciety which endeavoured to promote the 
better keeping of the Sunday. He was one 



of the attendants at the first camp-meeting 
ever held in England, which was at Mow 
Hill, near Harrisehead, on 31 May 1807, and 
was joined in this meeting by Hugh and 
James Bourne and others. In October 1808 
he preached his trial sermon and was duly 
appointed a local preacher, but, continuing 
to associate with the Bournes and to attend 
camp-meetings, his name was omitted from 
the preachers plan in June 1810, and in Sep- 
tember his quarterly ticket as a member of 
the society was withheld from him. After 
this he made common cause with H. and J. 
Bourne and J. Crawfort, and with them was 
one of the founders of the primitive metho- 
dist connexion, which dates its commence- 
ment from 14 March 1810 [see BOURNE, 
HUGH]. From this time forward he became 
one of the best-known preachers of the new 
society, and his labours in most of the north- 
ern counties of England, as well as in Lon- 
don and Cornwall, were most successful in 
adding members to the church. In 1819 he 
visited Hull, where primitive methodism 
was as yet unknown, and such was the force 
and earnestness of his preaching that in six 
months three hundred persons joined the so- 
ciety. On 10 June 1842 he was placed on 
the superannuation fund, but still continued 
his labours as before, and was at his work 
until a day or two before his decease, which 
took place, from paralysis, at Hull on 2 March 
1851. He was a man of strong common 
sense and of great mental powers. 

[Davison's Life of W. Clowes, 1854 (with por- 
trait) ; Petty's Primitive Methodist Connexion, 
1864 (with portrait).] G. C. B. 

CLOWES, WILLIAM, the younger 
(1807-1883), printer, eldest son of William 
Clowes the elder (1779-1847) [q.v.], wasborn 
15 May 1807, and entered his father's business 
in 1823. The name of the firm was changed 
to William Clowes & Sons in 1846. They 
have long carried on one of the largest print- 
ing businesses in London, having also exten- 
sive premises at Beccles, Suffolk. The official 
catalogues of the exhibitions of 1851 and 
1883 to 1886 were printed by them, as well as 
(since 1823) the exhibition catalogues of the 
Royal Academy. They introduced improve- 
ments in type-music printing and the Clowes 
type composing machine (Hooker's patent). 
They are also publishers of military and legal 
works (for the Council of Law Reporting), and 
of ' Hymns Ancient and Modern.' William 
Clowes the younger was much esteemed for 
his benevolent disposition and the active in- 
terest he took in the welfare of the operatives 
of his craft. In 1844 he was trustee, and in 
1853 treasurer, of the Printers' Pension Cor- 



Clubbe 



136 



Clulow 



potation. He died on 19 May 1883, and was 
buried at Norwood cemetery. In 1881 the 
business was turned into a limited liability 
company. He married Emma Lett, daughter 
of Mr. Lett of Lambeth, by whom he had 
nine children. His eldest son, William, is 
at the present time one of the managing di- 
rectors of the company. 

[Information from Mr. W. C. K. Clowes and 
Mr.W. Clowes; Athenaeum, 9 June 1883 ; Printers' 
Eegister, 6 June 1883.] H. K. T. 

CLUBBE, JOHN (1703 P-1773), satirical 
writer, son of the Rev. George Clubbe, rector 
of Whatfield, Suffolk, was born in or about 
1703. At the usual age he was entered at 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of B. A. 
as a member of King's College in 1725. He 
was subsequently ordained, became vicar of 
Debenham, Suffolk, in 1730, and five years 
later succeeded to his father's living of What- 
field. By his wife, Susannah Beeston, whom 
he married on 8 Aug. 1732, he had twelve 
children, eight of whom, including John 
Clubbe, M.D., of Ipswich, and William 
Clubbe [q. v.], survived him. He died on 
2 March 1773, at the age of seventy. Contem- 
porary writers represent Clubbe as possessed 
of considerable literary talent added to a 
keen sense of humour. As a churchman his 
sympathies were broad. With the excep- 
tion of a sermon printed in 1751, all his 
writings in their original form were pub- 
lished anonymously, and are : 1. 'The His- 
tory and Antiquities of the Ancient Villa of 
Wheatfield, in the county of Suffolk,' 4to, 
London, 1758, chiefly a burlesque of Morant's 
' History and Antiquities of Colchester,' and 
frequently reprinted in the author's lifetime. 
2. ' Physiognomy ; ' being a sketch only of a 
larger work upon the same plan, 4to, Lon- 
don, 1763. 3. ' A Letter of Free Advice to 
a Young Clergyman,' 8vo, Ipswich, 1765. 
The above, with the ' Sermon ' and two other 
slighter pieces, were collected together and 
published in two volumes 12mo, Ipswich 
(1770 or 1771), under the title of ' Miscella- 
neous Tracts of the Rev. John Clubbe.' 4. ' The 
Farmers' Queries and Resolutions concerning 
the Game. Written in the second year of the 
Association for Preserving the Game, but 
never before published,' 4to, Ipswich (1770 ?). 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 377-9, viii. 410; 
Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. vi. 462-6 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.; Davy's MS. Athense Suffolc. ii. 317, in 
Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 19166] G. G. 

CLUBBE, WILLIAM (1745-1814), 
poetical writer, was seventh son of the Rev. 
John Clubbe [q. v.], rector of Whatfield, 
Suffolk. He was baptised at Whatfield on 



16 April 1745, and educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated LL.B. in 1769. 
In the same year he was instituted to the 
rectory of Flowton, and in the following year 
to the vicarage of Brandeston, both in Suffolk. 
At the latter place he continued to reside till 
1808, when, having lost his wife, he removed 
to the house of his youngest brother, Na- 
thaniel, an attorney at Framlingham, where 
he died on 16 Oct. 1814. His wife was Mary, 
daughter of the Rev. William Henchman ; 
but he had no issue. 

His works include : 1. 'The Emigrants, a 
Pastoral,' Ipswich, 1793, 8vo. 2. ' Six Satires 
of Horace ; in a style between free imita- 
tion and literal version,' Ipswich, 1795, 4to. 
3. 'The Epistle of Horace to the Pisos on 
the Art of Poetry ; translated into English 
verse,' Ipswich, 1797, 8vo. The original ma- 
nuscript is in the British Museum, Addit. MS. 
19201. 4. 'The Omnium; containing the 
Journal of a late Three Days' Tour in France ; 
curious and extraordinary anecdotes, critical 
remarks, and other miscellaneous pieces, in 
prose and verse/ Ipswich, 1798, 8vo (cf. 
Addit. MS. 19197). 5. ' Ver : de Agricola 
Puero, Anglo Poemate celeberrimo excerp- 
tum, et in morem Latini Georgici redditum,' 
Ipswich, 1801, 12mo, 1804, 8vo. A transla- 
tion into Latin of part of Bloomfield's ' Far- 
mer's Boy.' 6. ' Parallel between the Cha- 
racters and Conduct of Oliver Cromwell and 
Bonaparte.' 7. ' Three Lyric Odes, on late 
Celebrated Occasions,' Ipswich, 1806, 4to. 
8. Miscellaneous poems, in Addit. MS. 19201, 
f. 31 seq. 

[Addit. MSS. 19167 f. 78, 19209 f. 160 *; 
Biog. Diet, of Living Authors (1816), 67, 422; 
Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Caulfield's 
Memoirs of Sir K. Naunton, 21, 22 ; Gent. Mag. 
xl. 280, Ixxxiv. (ii.) 507 ; Lit. Memoirs of Living 
Authors (1798), i. 103 ; Page's Supplement to 
the Suffolk Traveller, 82 ; Suffolk Garland, 365.] 

T. C. 

CLULOW, WILLIAM BENTON(1802- 
1882), dissenting minister, was a native of 
Leek, Staffordshire, and, after receiving a pre- 
liminary education in the grammar school 
there, entered the Hoxton Academy. He 
became pastor of the congregational church 
at Shaldon, Devonshire, where he remained 
twelve years. In 1835 he accepted an invita- 
tion to the classical tutorship of Airedale Col- 
lege, Bradford ; but he withdrew from that 
position in 1843, in consequence of his views 
being at variance with those of some influen- 
tial supporters of the institution. After re- 
siding at Bradford for forty years he retired 
to Leek, where he died on 16 April 1882. 

His works are: 1. ' Truths in Few Words.' 
2. ' Aphorisms and Reflections, a miscellany 



Clunie 



137 



Clutterbuck 



of thought and opinion,' London, 1843, 8vo. 
-3. ' Sunshine and Shadows, or Sketches of 
Thought Philosophic and Religious,' London, 
1863, 1877, 1883, 8vo. 4. ' Essays of a Re- 
cluse, or Traces of Thought, Literature, and 
Fancy,' London, 1865, 8vo. 

[Congregational Year-Book (1883), 269 ; Cat. 
of Printed Books in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

CLUNIE, JOHN (1757 P-1819), the sup- 
posed author of the beautiful Scotch song 
' I lo'e na a laddie but ane,' was born about 
1757. He was educated for the church of 
Scotland, and licensed by the presbytery of 
Edinburgh on 29 Dec. 1784. He then be- 
came schoolmaster at Markinch, Fifeshire, 
and possessing a fine voice and some musical 
skill acted as precentor in the parish church. 
In 1790 he was presented by the Duke of 
Buccleuch to the parish of Ewes, Dumfries- 
shire, and on 12 April 1791 to that of Borth- 
wick, Midlothian ; he was also chaplain of 
the eastern regiment of Midlothian volunteer 
infantry. His reputation for the rendering of 
Scotch songs led to an acquaintanceship with 
Burns, who highly appreciated his singing. 
He also composed several songs of his own to 
the old tunes, but did not take the trouble to 
publish them. The first two stanzas of the song 

* I lo'e na a laddie but ane ' are attributed to 
him by Burns, a better authority than Ritson, 
who in his ' Collection of Scotch Songs ' pre- 
fixes to them the initials J. D. The four 
supplementary stanzas beginning with ' Let 
others brag weel o' their gair ' were added 
by Hector MacNeil. The song ' Ca' the Yowes 
to the Knowes ' was taken down by Stephen 
Clarke when he and Burns were spending a 
night with Clunie in 1787. Writing to Mr. 
Thomson in September 1794, Burns says: 

* I am flattered at your adopting " Ca' the 
Yowes to the Knowes," as it was owing to 
me that it ever saw the light. About seven 
years ago I was well acquainted with a worthy 
little fellow of a clergyman, a Mr. Clunie, 
who sang it charmingly, and at my request 
Mr. Clarke took it down from his singing.' 
Burns added two stanzas to the song and 
made several alterations in the old verses. 
These old verses, as taken down by Clarke, 
are printed in Stenhouse's edition of John- 
son's ' Scots Musical Museum.' Clunie was 
the author of the account of the parish in 
Sinclair's ' Statistical Account of Scotland.' 
He died at Greenend, near Edinburgh, on 
14 April 1819, in his sixty-second year. He 
was married to Mary, daughter of the Rev. 
Alexander Oliphant, minister of Bower, and 
left a family. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot. i. 268, 637 ; 
Conolly's Dictionary of Eminent Men of Fife, 



p. 125 ; Stenhouse's edition of Johnson's Scots 
Musical Museum (1853), pp. 248-9; Works of 
Robert Burns.] T. F. H. 

CLUTTERBUqK, HENRY,M.D.(1767- 

1856), medical writer, was the fifth child of 
Thomas Clutterbuck, attorney, who died at 
Marazion in Cornwall 6 Nov. 1781, by his 
wife, Mary, a daughter of Christopher Mas- 
terman, merchant, Truro. He was born at 
Marazion, 28 Jan. 1767, and commenced the 
study of medicine by an apprenticeship to 
Mr. James Kempe, a surgeon at Truro, and 
at the age of twenty-one came to London, 
when he entered the United Borough Hos- 
pitals. On 7 Aug. 1790 he passed as a mem- 
ber of the College of Surgeons, and settled 
as a general practitioner at Walbrook in the 
city of London. Five years later he com- 
menced the publication of ' The Medical and 
Chirurgical Review,' a journal which appeared 
twice each month, of which he was the pro- 
i jector, editor, and almost sole writer, and 
I which he continued until 1807. Determin- 
| ing to qualify as a physician, he, in 1802, 
proceeded to Edinburgh for one. year, but 
then transferred himself to Glasgow, where 
he graduated doctor of medicine, 16 April 
1804. Returning to the metropolis, he es- 
tablished himself at 17 St. Paul's Churchyard, 
and on 1 Oct. 1804 was admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians. He removed 
to Bridge Street, Blackfriars, in 1808, was 
elected physician to the General Dispensary, 
Aldersgate Street, in 1809, and about that 
' time began to lecture on materia medica and 
the practice of physic. His lectures were plain, 
forcible, and unadorned, full of facts and free 
from speculations. His receipts from his lec- 
I tures in one year are said to have exceeded 
1 a thousand pounds. In 1809 he sent to the 
press his ' Inquiry into the Seat and Nature of 
Fever.' From this period Clutterbucfs re- 
putation aud business steadily increased, and 
he soon took a position among the first phy- 
sicians in the city. For more than fifty years 
he was a regular attendant at the meetings 
of the Medical Society of London, where he 
was known as a most effective speaker. He 
was a model debater on medical subjects; 
never for a moment carried away into state- 
ments which he could not authenticate, and 
always preserving the full command of his 
temper. Clutterbuck continued in the active 
duties of his profession to the last. He was 
run over in the street on leaving the anni- 
versary meeting of the Medical Society of 
London, 8 March 1856, and died at his house, 
1 Crescent, New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, 
24 April 1856. He retained his faculties to 
the last, and is said to have seen patients on 
the very day he died. A portrait of him is 



Clutterbuck 



138 



Clyffe 



in the meeting-room of the Medical Society 
of London. He married in 1796, at Wai- 
brook Church, Harriet Matilda, daughter of 
William Browne of Kirby Street, Hatton 
Garden, attorney-at-law, by whom he had 
ten children. He was the author of the fol- 
lowing works: 1. 'An Account of a New 
Method of treating Affections which arise 
from the Poison of Lead,' 1794. 2. 'Remarks 
respecting Venereal Disease,' 1799. 3. ' Ten- 
tamen Pathologicum Inaugurale qusedam 
de Sede et Natura Febris proponens,' 1804. 
4. ' An Enquiry into the Seat and Nature of 
Fever,' 1807 ; 2nd edition, 1825. 5. ' Obser- 
vations on the Epidemic Fever at present 
prevailing,' 1819. 6. ' An Essay on Pyrexia 
or Symptomatic Fever,' 1837. 7. ' On the 
Proper Administration of Blood Letting,' 
1840. 8. ' A brief Memoir of G. Birkbeck, 
M.D.,' 1842. 9. ' A Series of Essays on In- 
flammation,' 1846; besides many papers to 
the medical press. The medical profession 
owes much to his talent, enterprise, and in- 
dependent spirit. 

[Pettigrew's Medical Portrait Gallery (1840), 
ii. 10 (with portrait) ; Taylor's National Portrait 
Gallery (1846), ii. 88-9 ; People's and Hewitt's 
Journal (1850), iii. 245-7 (with portrait); Me- 
dical Circular (1853), ii. 495-7 (with portrait); 
Lives of British Physicians (1857), p. 403; Il- 
lustrated London News, 17 May 1856, p. 523, 
24 May, p. 567 ; Lancet (1850), ii. 210-15 
(with portrait), and (1856), i. 490-1 ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. pp. 73, 1122; Boase's 
Collectanea Cornubiensia, cols. 148-9 ; Munk's 
Coll. ofPhys. (1878), iii. 14-16; Index Catalogue 
of Library of Surgeon-General's Office, U. S. 
America (1882), iii. 234.] G. C. B. 

CLUTTERBUCK, ROBERT (1772- 
1831), topographer, was the eldest surviving 
son of Thomas Clutterbuck, esq*, of Watford, 
Hertfordshire, by Sarah, daughter of Robert 
Thurgood, esq., of Baldock in that county. 
He was born at Watford on 28 June 1772, 
and at an early age was sent to Harrow 
School, where he continued until he was en- 
tered as a gentleman commoner of Exeter 
College, Oxford. After graduating B.A. in 
1794 he entered at Lincoln's Inn, intending 
to make the law his profession ; but his ardour 
in the pursuit of chemistry and in painting 
(in which he took lessons of Barry) induced 
him, after a residence .of several years in 
London, to abandon his original plans. In 
1798 he married Marianne, eldest daughter of 
Colonel James Capper, and after a few years' 
residence at the seat of his father-in-law, 
Cathays, near Cardiff, Glamorganshire, he 
took possession of his paternal estate at Wat- 
ford, where he continued to reside until his 
death, on 25 May 1831. He was a county 



magistrate and a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries. For eighteen years he was 
busily engaged in the compilation of a new 
history of his native county. The work ap- 
peared under the title of ' The History and 
Antiquities of the County of Hertford ; com- 
piled from the best printed authorities and 
original records preserved in public reposito- 
ries and private collections. Embellished 
with views of the most curious monuments 
of antiquity, and illustrated with a map of 
the County,' 3 vols. London, 1815, 1821, 1827, 
fol. The plates in this work have never been 
surpassed in any similar publication. Several 
of them were from his own sketches, and he 
also secured the assistance of Edward Blore 
[q. v.] and other eminent draughtsmen and 
engravers. Clutterbuck published, in 1828, 
an ' Account of the Benefactions to the Parish 
of Watford in the County of Hertford, com- 
piled from Authentic Documents.' His por- 
trait has been engraved by W. Bond. 

[Gent. Mag. ci. (i.) 565 ; Evans's Cat. of En- 
graved Portraits, 14343, 14344; Upcott's English 
Topography, i. 623* ; Egerton MS. 1533; Cat. 
of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Nichols's Illustr. 
of Lit. vi. 437, 447, 448 ; Cat. of Oxford Graduates 
(1851), 135.] T. C. 

CLYDE, LORD. [See CAMPBELL, Sm 
COLIN, 1792-1863.] 

CLYFFE, WILLIAM (d. 1558), divine, 
educated at Cambridge, where he graduated 
LL.B. in 1514, was admitted advocate at 
Doctors' Commons on 15 Dec. 1522, gra- 
duated LL.D. in 1523, was commissary of 
the diocese of London between 1522 and 
1529, instituted to the prebend of Twyford 
in the church of St. Paul, London, in 1526, 
appointed archdeacon of London three years 
later, prebendary of Fenton in the church of 
York in 1532, resigned the archdeaconry of 
London for that of Cleveland in 1533, be- 
came precentor of York in 1534, treasurer 
of York in 1538, on the suppression of which 
office in 1547 he was made dean of Chester. 
The last place he held till his death in 1558. 

j As a civilian his reputation was sufficient 
to induce convocation to seek his advice as 
to the royal divorce in 1533. On his prefer- 
ment to the deanery of Chester he was im- 
mediately thrown into the Fleet prison at 

| the instance of Sir Richard Cotton, comp- 
troller of the king's household, and only ob- 
tained his liberty by leasing the chapter 
lands to Cotton at a considerable undervalue. 

I He was one of the authors of the celebrated 
treatise on ' The Godly and Pious Institu- 

j tion of a Christian Man,' commonly known 
as the ' Bishops' Book,' and published by the 

j authority of Henry VIII in 1537. 



Cnut 



139 



Coates 



[Coote's Civilians, p. 19; Hale's Precedents in 
Criminal Causes, pp. 98, 102 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccl. Angl. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 27 ; 
Strype'sCranmer.i. 77,113 ; Fiddes'sWolsey (Col- 
lections), p. 203; Ormerod's Cheshire (Helsby), 
i. 254 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab.] J. M. R. 

CNUT. [See CANTTTB.] 

COATES, CHARLES (1746 P-1813), 
antiquary, son of John Coates, watchmaker, 
of the city of London, was born at Reading 
in or about 1746. After nine years' schooling 
at the free grammar school of Reading under 
the Rev. John Spicer, he was admitted, at 
the age of sixteen, as a sizar to Caius College, 
Cambridge, on 5 May 1762, proceeded M.B. 
in 1767, and on 16 June of the same year was 
admitted ' pensionarius major ' ( College Matri- 
culation Book}. He ultimately selected the 
church as his profession, and was for some 
years, between 1775 and 1797, curate to the 
Rev. Charles Sturges, at that time vicar of 
Baling (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ix. 110). Mean- 
while, in 1780, he had become vicar of Pres- 
ton, Dorsetshire, a preferment which he owed 
to his old schoolmaster, the Rev. John Spicer, 
and early in 1788 he was presented to the 
neighbouring vicarage of Osmington by the 
Bishop of Salisbury (HTTTCHINS, Dorsetshire, 
3rd ed. ii. 510, 838). In the last-named year 
he was created LL.B. by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and was afterwards appointed 
chaplain to the prince regent. The last years 
of his life were clouded by illness and do- 
mestic loss, and he died at Osmington on 
7 April 1813. 

In 1791 Coates issued proposals for ' The 
History and Antiquities of Reading ' ( Gent. 
Mag. vol. Ixi. pt. ii. p. 1088), which appeared 
in 1802 (ib. vol. Ixxii. pt. ii. p. 620), and was 
followed, seven years later, by ' A Supple- 
ment . . . with Corrections and Additions by 
the Author.' Both works are of permanent 
value, but their general utility is diminished 
by the absence of indexes. Coates meditated 
other literary work. An enlarged edition of 
Ashmole's ' Antiquities of Berkshire ' is men- 
tioned, and he also made collections for a con- 
tinuation of Le Neve's ' Lives of the Protestant 
Bishops,' which he afterwards presented to 
Alexander Chalmers for insertion in the new 
edition of the ' General Biographical Dic- 
tionary.' He was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries on 18 April 1793. 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxxiii. i. 83, ii. 88-9 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. i. 128; Cooper's Biog. Diet.] G. G. 

COATES, ROBERT (1772-1848), actor, 
generally known as ROMEO COATES, was born 
in the island of Antigua in 1772. His father, 
Alexander Coates, born 16 April 1734, was 



a merchant and sugar-planter in Antigua, 
where he showed his patriotism by lending 
the government 10,000^. to pay the expenses 
of the encampment necessitated by the threat- 
ened attack of the fleets of France and Spain 
in June 1805. He died in Antigua, 12 Nov. 
1807. By his wife, Dorothy, he had nine 
children, of whom only Robert lived beyond 
infancy. Coates when about eight years of 
age was brought to England by his father, 
and there received a very liberal classical 
education, after which, returning to his native 
place, he first showed his taste for the theatre 
by taking part in some dramatic exhibitions 
given in celebration of the success of the pa- 
triotic movement in 1805. On the death of 
his father he became the possessor not only 
of great wealth, but also of a large collection 
of magnificent diamonds ; and, coming back 
to England, took up his residence at Bath. 
Here he lived in extraordinary style. His 
carriage, drawn by white horses, was in shape 
like a kettledrum, and across the bar of his 
curricle was a large brazen cock, with his 
motto, ' Whilst I live I'll crow.' His parti- 
ality for the drama soon became known, and 
the ladies requested him to perform the part 
of Romeo on the boards of the Bath Theatre. 
Accordingly, on 9 Feb. 1810 he made his 
debut in England, being supported by Miss 
Jameson in the character of Juliet. This was 
the first of his representations of a character 
which gave him the name of Romeo Coates, 
but he was also called Diamond Coates, from 
the liberal display which he made of his 
treasures both in private and on the stage. 
Other names by which he was known were 
Cock-a-doodle-doo Coates, in allusion to his 
motto, the Amateur of Fashion, and as he 
preferred to call himself, ' The Celebrated 
Philanthropic Amateur.' On 9 Dec. 1811 he 
presented himself to a London audience, and 
played Lothario in ' The Fair Penitent,' for 
; the benefit of a lady. After this for some 
time he continued by his eccentric acting to 
( divide the attention of London with the young 
i Roscius, and even had his admirers who be- 
, lieved in his dramatic talent and abilities. 
j His appearance created so much sensation 
that Charles Mathews, in his ' At Home ' at 
Covent Garden, produced on 25 Feb. 1813 a 
farcical sketch, in which he personated Romeo 
Rantall, and held the Amateur of Fashion 
up to ridicule. This piece had a run, and for 
a long time Romeo was one of Mathews'smost 
popular impersonations. Coates also appeared 
at Richmond, and in Birmingham and other 
towns, and added to his list of characters that 
of Belcour in the ' West Indian.' For some 
seasons longer he continued to play at the 
Bath Theatre, where he is found in 1816, but 



Coats 



140 



Cobb 



the audiences in time grew weary of laughing 
at him, and at last took to hissing him, and 
ultimately the management declined to lend 
him the use of the stage. As an actor, he 
was by competent judges considered to be 
contemptible. His performances were, how- 
ever, often given for charitable purposes. 
He was much laughed at for being made the 
victim of a hoax by Theodore Hook with re- 
spect to an invitation to a ball given at Carl- 
ton House in 1821 in honour of the Bour- 
bons. During all these years his great friend 
was the well-known Baron Ferdinand Ge- 
ramb. By lending and spending money in a 
reckless manner he at last fell into difficul- 
ties, and was obliged to retire to Boulogne, 
where he soon after married. He came to an 
arrangement with his creditors, and returning 
to England lived respectably on the wreck of 
his fortune. On 15 Feb. 1848 he attended 
Allcroft's grand annual concert at Drury 
Lane, and after the performance, while cross- 
ing Russell Street, was crushed between a 
hansom cab and a private carriage, and died 
from erysipelas and mortification at his resi- 
dence, 28 Montagu Square, London, 21 Feb. 
1848, aged 76. His widow, Emma Anne, 
married, secondly, on 23 Dec. 1848, Mark 
Boyd [q. v.j 

[Gent. Mag. Ixxviii. 1188 (1808), and May 
1848, p. 557; European Mag. March 1813, pp. 
179-83, portrait; Morning Herald, London, 
11 Dec. 1811 ; Genest, viii. 207, 337, 556, 627- 
630; Era, 27 Feb. 1848, p. 12; Once a Week, 
19 Aug. 1865, pp. 235-46 ; St. James's Mag. v. 
489-99 (1862); Gronow's Keminiscences (2nd 
edit. 1862), pp. 64-71; Kent's Birmingham 
(1880), pp. 382-3, 386.] G. C. B. 

COATS, THOMAS (1809-1883), thread 
manufacturer, was born at Paisley 18 Oct. 
1809. He was the fourth of a family of ten 
sons. His father, James Coats, was one of 
the founders of the thread industry of Pais- 
ley. In the hands of Thomas and his sur- 
viving brother, Sir Peter Coats, the Ferguslie 
Thread Works became one of the largest in 
the world. Coats was distinguished for the 
interest he took in the public welfare, and 
for many private acts of unostentatious gene- 
rosity. In 1868 he presented to the town of 
Paisley a public park, called the ' Fountains 
Gardens,' the first place of recreation for the 
poor of the town. He took great interest in 
education, and in 1873 was elected chairman 
of the school board, an office he continued to 
hold with credit until his death. He gave 
large sums to improve the school accommo- 
dation, and provided a playground for the 
scholars. From 1862 to 1864 he was presi- 
dent of the Paisley Philosophical Institution, 
and in 1882 he presented to the society the 



observatory situated on Oakshaw Hill ; he 
furnished it with an equatorial telescope and 
other costly instruments, and provided a re- 
sidence and endowment for the curator. 

For several years Coats was an enthu- 
siastic collector of Scottish coins, and his 
collection became the largest and most valu- 
able of its kind. He was desirous of making 
a catalogue of the various specimens, and 
entrusted the work to Edward Burns, a 
well-known Scottish numismatist. But in 
Burns's hands the catalogue swelled into an 
elaborate ' History of the Coinage of Scot- 
land,' and was unfinished at the time of 
Coats's death. Burns himself died suddenly 
in the midst of his labours, and the task of 
completion was entrusted to other hands. 
The work is now (1887) in the press. 

In November 1881 Coats and his brother 
Sir Peter were entertained at a banquet at 
Paisley, and presented with their portraits, 
painted by Sir Daniel Macnee, P.R.S.A. 
Coats died of an affection of the heart on 
15 Oct. 1883. His funeral was attended by 
a large concourse of people. A statue was 
recently erected at Paisley to his memory. 
In religion Coats was a baptist, and in poli- 
tics a liberal. 

[Glasgow Herald and Glasgow News and Scots- 
man, 17 Oct. 1883; Paisley and Renfrewshire 
Gazette, 20 Oct. 1883; Paisley Daily Express, 
22 and 25 Oct. 1883.] J. T. B. 

COBB, JAMES (1756-1818), dramatist, 
entered in 1771 the secretary's office of the 
East India Company, in which he rose to the 
post of secretary. He sent anonymously, 
for the benefit of Miss Pope (Drury Lane, 
30 March 1773), an occasional prologue, which 
was recited with some slight alteration by 
Garrick, to whom it was submitted. For 
the benefit of the same lady he produced at 
Drury Lane, on 5 April 1779, his first dra- 
matic piece, ' The Contract, or Female Cap- 
tain,' which all the popularity of the actors 
could not galvanise into life, but which under 
the second title was acted at the Haymarket 
on 26 Aug. 1780. This was followed by 
many operas, farces, preludes, and comedies, 
most of which served, more or less, a tem- 
porary purpose, and are now forgotten. Such 
interest as any of Cobb's pieces possess arises 
generally from association with actors or com- 
posers. In the ' Humourist ' (Drury Lane, 
27 April 1785), which owed its production to 
the application of Burke to Sheridan, John 
Bannister made a great hit as Dabble, a den- 
tist. This piece was burned in the fire at 
Drury Lane in 1809. Genest, not too good- 
naturedly, says that if the whole of Cobb's 
pieces about twenty-four in number had 



Cobb 



141 



Cobb 



shared the same fate, ' the loss would not have 
been very great.' In ' Strangers at Home,' 
an opera (Drury Lane, 8 Dec. 1785), with 
music hy Linley, Mrs. Jordan is said to have 
made her first appearance as a singer, and 
to have played her first original character. 
' Doctor and Apothecary,' a two-act musical 
farce (Drury Lane, 25 Oct. 1788), introduced 
to the London stage Stephen Storace, from 
whose ' Singspiele ' ' Der Doctor und der 
Apotheker' performed at Vienna on 11 July 
1786, music and plot were taken. 'The 
Haunted Tower' (Drury Lane, 24 Nov. 1789), 
also with music by Storace, served for the 
debut in English opera of his sister, Anna 
Selina Storace. It was very successful, and 
frequently revived. The works of Cobb 
which were printed with his sanction are : 
1. ' Strangers at Home,' comic opera, 8vo, 

1786 (Drury Lane, 8 Dec. 1785). 2. ' Eng- 
lish Readings,' an occasional prologue, 8vo, 

1787 (Haymarket, 7 Aug. 1787). 3. ' The 
First Floor,' farce, 8vo, 1787 (Drury Lane, 
13 Jan. 1787). 4. ' Love in the East,' comic 
opera, 8vo, 1788 (Drury Lane, 25 Feb. 1788). 
5. 'Doctor and Apothecary,' musical farce, 
8vo, 1788 (see above). 6. ' Haunted Tower ' 
(see above). 7. ' Ramah Droog, or Wine 
does Wonders,' comic cpera, 8vo, 1800 (Co- 
vent Garden, 12 Nov. 1798). 8. 'A House 
to be sold,' musical piece in two acts, 8vo, 
1802 (Drury Lane, 17 Nov. 1802). This is a 
clumsy expansion of ' Maison a vendre,' a 
one-act opera of Duval, with music by 
D'Aleyrac, played in 1800. 9. ' The Wife of 
Two Husbands,' musical drama, 8vo, 1803 
(Drury Lane, 1 Nov. 1803), a translation of 
' La Femme a deux Maris ' of Guilbert de 
Pixrcourt, Paris, 1803. Surreptitious edi- 
tions were issued of (10) the ' Cherokee,' opera, 
1795, 8vo (Drury Lane, 20 Dec. 1796). 
11. ' Paul and Virginia,' musical drama, 12mo, 
1801 (Covent Garden,! May 1800). 12. 'Siege 
of Belgrade,' comic opera, 12mo, 1792 (Drury 
Lane, 1 Jan. 1791), and other works. Of this 
last piece, as of (13) 'The Pirates,' comic 
opera in three acts (Drury Lane company 
at Haymarket, 21 Nov. 1792), and (14) The 
Shepherdess of Cheapside,' musical farce 
(Drury Lane, 20 Feb. 1796), the songs only 
were printed in octavo. In addition to the 
works named Cobb wrote : 15. ' Wedding 
Night,' musical farce (Haymarket, 12 Aug. 
1760 ?). 16. ' Who'd have thought it ? ' 
farce (Covent Garden, 28 April 1781). 
17. ' Kensington Gardens, or the Walking 
Jockey, 'prelude (Haymarket, 22 Aug. 1791?), 
unmentioned by Genest. 18. ' Hurly Burly,' 
a pantomime (Drury Lane, 1785-6). In this 
Cobb was assisted by Thomas King the come- 
dian. 19. ' Poor Old Drury,' prelude (Hay- 



market, by the Drury Lane company, 22 Sept. 
1791). 20. ' The Algerine Slaves,' a musical 
entertainment abridged from ' The Strangers 
at Home,' and given at the Haymarket Opera 
House in 1792. 21. ' Algonah,' a comic opera 
(Drury Lane, 30 April 1802). 22. ' Sudden 
Arrivals ; or Too Busy by Half,' a comedy 
(Lyceum, by Drury Lane company, 19 Dec. 
1809), making, with ' The Contract ' and 
' The Humourist ' mentioned above, twenty- 
four works. Besides the composers previously 
named, Mazzinghi, Kelly, and Dr. Arnold 
supplied music to Cobb's pieces. In Gifford's 
' Mseviad ' Cobbe (sic) is mentioned in con- 
temptuous terms. Cobb married in 1800 
Miss Stanfell of Fratton, Hampshire, and 
died in 1818. 

[Monthly Mirror, vol. xv. ; Baker, Reed, and 
Jones's Biographia Dramatica ; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Biographical Dictionary 
of Living Authors, 1816 ; Oulton's History of 
the Theatres of London ; Gilliland's Dramatic 
Mirror, 1808.] J. K. 

COBB, SAMUEL (1675-1713), translator 
and versifier, was connected nearly all his 
life with Christ's Hospital, London. His 
father, Samuel Cobb, citizen and cooper of 
London, died before April 1683, in which 
month the boy was admitted into the hospital 
on the presentation of Sir John Moore, some- 
time lord mayor. He was then stated to have 
been baptised on 17 Oct. 1675, and to have 
been admitted from St. Andrew's, Holborn. 
The boy became in due time a Grecian, and 
proceeded with an exhibition from the hos- 
pital to Trinity College, Cambridge, the date 
of his discharge from the school being 27 Feb. 
1694. He is said to have successfully de- 
fended a Greek exercise against Bentley by 
quoting Pindar (Johnson's Poets, ed. Cunning- 
ham, iii. 119). He took the degrees of B.A. 
in 1698 and M.A. in 1702, being allowed by 
the governors of his old school in London the 
sum of 12^. towards the cost of the first de- 
gree, and 15/. for the second. From college he 
returned to Christ's Hospital, and was elected 
to the post of ' under grammar school master ' 
on 11 March 1701-2, and granted residence 
in 1704. He was more than once reported 
as being ' often disguised with strong liquors,' 
but he kept his place until his death, 18 Sept. 
1713. He was buried in the school cloisters. 
For many years he wrote the Easter anthem, 
particulars of which are given in Trollope's 
' History of Christ's Hospital,' p. 107. 

Cobb s writings were of considerable popu- 
larity in their day. His earliest production 
was an ode on the death of Queen Mary, 
which he published under the disguise of 
' J.D., gent.,' very soon after his matriculation 



Cobb 



142 



Cobbett 



at Cambridge, but no copy is in the British 
Museum Library. His works which are pre- 
served include: 1. ' Bersaba ; or, the Love 
of David,' 1695, which he wrote when a stu- 
dent at Trinity College, the preface being 
dated 3 Aug. 1695. 2. ' The Portugal Ex- 
pedition,' 1704, urging the Austrian prince 
on his expedition for the Spanish throne. 

3. 'The Female Reign, an ode . . . occa- 
sion'd by the wonderful successes of the arms 
of her Majesty and her allies,' 1709. This 
ode was reproduced in ' A Collection of the 
best English Poetry,' 1717, the 'Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for 1755, pp. 282-5 (when it was 
slightly altered by Dr. Watts and styled the 
' truest and best Pindaric ' that he had ever 
read), in Dodsley's ' Collection of Poems,' i. 
69-81, whereupon Joseph Warton, in a letter 
in Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' vi. 170, 
wrote, 'Cobb's ode in Dodsley is most ex- 
cellent,' and with other poems by Cobb in 
Nichols's ' Collection of Poems,' vii. 238-66. 

4. ' A Synopsis of Algebra, being the posthu- 
mous work of John Alexander of Bern, in 
Swisserland. . . . Done from the Latin by 
Sam. Cobb for the use of the two mathe- 
matical schools in Christ's Hospital,' 1709. 
The manuscript of this work was given by 
Edward Brewster, and the translation was 
printed at the expense of the governors. 

5. ' Poems on several occasions. With imi- 
tations from Horace, Ovid, &c. To which 
is prefix'd a discourse on criticism and the 
liberty of writing,' 3rd edit. 1710. 6. ' A 
Panegyrical Elegy on the Death of Gassen- 
dus, the celebrated astronomer and philoso- 
pher. Inscrib'd to the reverend Mr. Flam- 
steed of Greenwich.' 7. ' The Mousetrap, a 
poem written in Latin by Edward Holds- 
worth, made English by Samuel Cobb,' 1712, 
reprinted in 1771, and included in John Tor- 
buck's collection of Welsh travels. 8. ' The 
Carpenter of Oxford, or The Miller's Tale from 
Chaucer attempted in modern English by 
Samuel Cobb,' 1712. This was included in 
George Ogle's ' Canterbury Tales of Chaucer 
modernis'd,' 1741, i. 191-228. 9. ' News from 
both Universities, containing Mr. Cobb's tripos 
speech at Cambridge, with a complete key in- 
serted,' 1714. 10. ' ClavisVirgiliana; or, new 
observations upon the works of Virgil,' 1714. 
Cobb translated ' The Judgment of the Vowels ' 
in the works of Lucian (1711), ii. 55-62, the ' 
third and fourth books of the translation of 
Quillet's ' Callipsedia,' which bore the name of 
Nicholas Rowe (1708), and assisted John 
Ozell in his version of Boileau's ' Lutrin ' 
(1708). He is said to have been the author 
of ' The Oak and the Briar, a tale,' and to 
have composed the translation of Dr. Freind's 
Latin epitaph on Lord Carteret's younger 



son, Philip, which is given in [Crull's] ' An- 
tiquities of Westminster Abbey ' (1722), ii. 
101-2. Cobb's learning and ready wit were 
much commended by his contemporaries. 

[Jacob's Poetical Kegister, i. 36 ; Trollope's 
Christ's Hospital, pp. 298, 334 ; Christ's Hos- 
pital List of Exhibitioners, p. 11; information 
from Christ's Hospital Kecords.] W. P. C. 

COBBE, CHARLES, D.D. (1687-1765), 
archbishop of Dublin, was born and educated 
at Winchester. He afterwards entered Tri- 
nity College, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1709, and M.A. in 1712 (Cat. of 
Oxford Graduates, edit. 1851, p. 136). In 
August 1717 he went to Ireland as chaplain 
to Charles, duke of Bolton, lord-lieutenant. 
His first ecclesiastical preferment was the 
rectory of Skrine in the diocese of Meath. 
Afterwards he was appointed dean of Ardagh 
(22 Jan. 1718-19), whence he was promoted 
to the sees of Killala and Achonry by patent 
dated 30 May 1720. He was translated to 
the see of Dromore by patent dated 16 Feb. 
1726-7, and thence in March 1731 to Kil- 
dare, with which latter dignity he held, in 
commendam, the deanery of Christ Church, 
Dublin, and the preceptory of Tully, co. Kil- 
dare. On 19 July 1734 he was sworn of the 
privy council. He appears to have taken 
the degrees of B.D. and D.D. at Dublin 1735, 
and he was created D.D. at Oxford by diploma 
dated 9 July 1744 (Cat. of Dublin Graduates, 
edit. 1869, p. 109). He was translated to the 
archiepiscopal see of Dublin by letters patent 
dated 4 March 1742-3. He died at St. Sepul- 
chre's, Dublin, on 14 April 1765, and was 
buried at Dunabate, where he had a country 
seat. 

His portrait has been engraved by A. Mil- 
ler from a painting by F. Bindon (BROMLEY, 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p. 354). 

[Authorities cited above ; also Cotton's Fasti 
Eccl. Hibernise, ii. 24, iii. 187, iv. 74 ; Gent. Mag. 
xxxv. 199; D'Alton's Memoirs of the Archbishops 
of Dublin, p. 342 ; Mant's Hist, of the Church of 
Ireland, ii. 637-40.] T. C. 

COBBETT, WILLIAM (1762-1835), es- 
sayist, politician, and agriculturist, was born 
at Farnham in Surrey on 9 March 1762. Of 
a purely peasant origin, his early days were 
spent in the fields, and he had few educa- 
tional advantages until he arrived at an age 
when his native force of character could help 
him to severe self-application. He was much 
impressed at an early age by Swift's ' Tale of 
a Tub.' In 1783 a sudden freak brought him 
to London, where he obtained employment as 
a copying-clerk to an attorney. After some 
months he enlisted in a line regiment. At 



Cobbett 



M3 



Cobbett 



the dep6t at Chatham he developed an extra- 
fordinary capacity for literary cultivation. All 
his leisure was devoted to acquiring English 
grammar and to the study of the best English 
classics. He soon obtained promotion, and 
joined the regiment in Nova Scotia, a promis- 
ing non-commissioned officer. During eight 
years of service he uniformly commanded 
respect from his superior officers, and was 
employed by them in keeping accounts, re- 
gisters, &c. At the end of 1791 his regiment 
returned to England, and Cobbett obtained 
his discharge with honourable notice. He 
married a soldier's daughter, and stayed in 
London during the spring of 1792, making 
some endeavour to bring certain officers to ac- 
count for peculation, which, however, proved 
abortive. It was suggested by his enemies 
that he had made some corrupt compromise 
with the persons accused. His defence is 
given in the ' Political Register' for 14 June 
1809 (Political Works, iii. 249-64). In sup- 
port of the agitation then afloat for an in- 
crease of soldiers' pay, he wrote (or assisted 
| to write) 'The Soldier's Friend.' His action 
in these cases endangered his personal liberty, 
and he went to St. Omer in France, and there 
applied himself to the study of the French 
language and literature. Thence he emigrated 
| to Philadelphia in October 1792. Cobbett 
endeavoured to obtain an office under govern- 
ment, but soon settled down as a teacher of 
English to the French refugees. He pre- 
sently published ' Le Tuteur Anglais ' (1795). 
He also occupied himself in translating for 
the booksellers Martens's ' Law of Nations ' 
and other works. He was soon drawn into 
politics. ' Hearing my country attacked,' 
he says, ' I became her defender through thick 
and thin.' Challenged to do so on the occa- 
sion of Dr. Priestley's public reception in 
^Philadelphia, he produced ' Observations on 
[Priestley's Emigration.' The pamphlet en- 
joyed immense success, and was forthwith 
reprinted by the anti-jacobin party in Eng- 
land. This made Cobbett's career. He took 
fthe federal side in American politics. In 
January 1796 he began a monthly tract 
under the title of ' The Censor ; ' this was 
discontinued after eight numbers, and its 
place occupied by 'Porcupine's Gazette,' a 
daily newspaper, which ran from March 1797 
till the end of 1799. Cobbett opened a book- 
vstore in July 1796. He reprinted and pub- 
Vished much of the violent loyalist literature 
then current, including Chalmers's scurrilous 
' Life of Thomas Paine,' garnished with his 
own unreserved comments. He had now 
become a factor in American politics as a 
I pamphleteer, and began to reap the conse- 
Iquences. He narrowly escaped conviction 



for libel in an action brought by the Spanish 
envoy. During the yellow fever of 1797 he 
so ridiculed the purging and bleeding adopted 
by Dr. Rush that he incurred another prose- 
cution, which ended in a verdict against him 
for $5,000. After this affair was over Cobbett 
.transferred his business to New York, and 
started a new federal monthly, ' The Rush- 
light.' But this change unsettled him, and 
he sailed for England in June 1800. 

The fame which Cobbett had already ac- 
quired at home insured him a hearty recep-. 
tion from the government party on his arrivalj 
in London. Windham and others patronised 
him and assisted him to start a daily paper. 
' The Porcupine ' appeared on 30 Oct., and 
lasted till November 1801, when its strong 
anti-gallican principles proved too much for 
its continued success, and the paper was re- 
linquished. In March 1801 Cobbett started 
a bookshop in Pall Mall, but transferred it 
to Mr. Harding in 1803. In January 1802 
he began 'Cobbett's Weekly Political Regis- 
ter,' which, with very trifling interruptions, 
was continued till his death, more than thirty- 
three years after. In 1801-2 he reprinted 
all his American writings in twelve volumes, 
under the title ' Porcupine's Works.' In 
1803 he began the ' Parliamentary Debates,' 
which subsequently (1812) passed into the 
hands of Mr. Hansard. ' Cobbett's Spirit of 
the London Journals ' was published for one 
year only (1804). In 1806 'The Parlia- 
mentary History of England from the Nor- 
man Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803' 
was projected, and ultimately completed in 
thirty-six volumes. ' Cobbett's Complete Col- 
lection of State Trials ' (afterwards known 
as Howell's, from the name of the original 
\ editor) was commenced in 1809. With all 
this business activity Cobbett found time to 
; pursue planting and agriculture on a large 
; scale at Botley in Hampshire, where he usu- 
! ally resided after 1804. 

About 1804 Cobbett began to take thd 
popular side in politics. He had already in-l 
curred a charge of libel, occasioned by some I 
I plain-spoken articles on Ireland, contributed' 
by Judge Johnson of the Irish bench. He 
! was convicted, but escaped further action 
' upon the discovery of the true authorship. 
This helped to convince him that he was on/ 
the wrong side, and he thenceforward devoted/ 
himself to the cause of reform. His journal 
was the best authority of the day, the news 
portion being marked by extreme accuracy 
and intelligence. The action of Wardle in 
obtaining inquiry into the misdoings of Mrs. 
Clarke owed much to Cobbett's support (1809). , 
A severe article on military flogging at length jj 
brought him into trouble, and he was prose- 



Cobbett 



144 



Cobbett 



cuted by the government, the result being an 
imprisonment for two years and a fine of 
1,0001. (June 1810). Cobbett offered to drop 
his paper in order to escape punishment. 



\and his position was precarious. He was at 
jthe bottom of the poll at both places. He 
[obtained a seat for Oldham in the first reformed 
{parliament. This was too late in life to be of 



The offer was rejected, and Cobbett denied i ^rnuch service to his cause or to his reputation. 

positively that he had ever made it. The Remade an absurd attack on Sir Robert Peel r 

Iwhich brought on him some discredit and ridi- 
cule ; but he was eventually listened to with 
respect. He was engaged in a debate on the 
malt tax just before his death in June 1835, 
at Normandy Farm, near Guildford, the seat 



fact, however, seems to have been conclu- 
sively established at later actions for libel 
(see HciSH, ii. 312-35). Cobbett's business 
affairs had been managed badly, and he came 

tout of prison pecuniarily ruined. Cobbett's 
writing was at its very best at this period, 
and the ' Political Register ' continued to 
enjoy some authority until, in 1816, during 
the domestic distresses of the day, he threw 
tiimself without reserve into the agitation for 
reform, and reduced the price of his journal 

^ to twopence. The result of the change was 
in enormous circulation among the working 
classes. Fearing a second imprisonment on 
I the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, 
and being much embarrassed, he went to Ame- 
rica in March 1817. Here he kept a farm, and 
continued to write, for more than two years. 
He brought back to England with him the 



of his latest planting experiment. 

Cobbett's boundless pugnacity, self-esteem, JM 
and virulence of language injured his reputa-fl 
tion ; his inconsistency was glaring and his 
integrity sometimes doubtful. But his shrewd ' 
sense, homespun eloquence, and independence 
of judgment are equally conspicuous. His 
\ views of politics and history were crude, and 
Vhis economic theories often absurd. But he 
showed a genuine and ardent interest in the 
tvelfare of the poor, especially the agricul- 
urul labourer 5 and in many ways, as in his 
rpimons~about the Reformation, anticipated 
he doctrine of the Young England party as 



bones of Thomas Paine, with the object of ,led by Disraeli. His style is admirable in its 
glorifying a character which he had formerly j way, and his descriptions of rural scenery 
vilified, and provoked much justifiable ridi- |/ufisurpassable._ There is abundance of ma- 
cule. He now published numerous works terial iblr^seeing what his contemporaries 
of domestic and educational utility, and ven- thought of him in the periodicals of the time,, 
tured again on a daily paper, ' Cobbett's and many interesting personal matters will 
Evening Post ' (January-March 1820). His I be found in the authorities quoted below. The 
' Political Register ' was at this period a j/anti-Cobbett literature, at all periods of his 
warm advocate of Queen Caroline, and Cob- jllife, is one of the most striking pheno- 
bett was the writer of her celebrated letter ,'mena connected with his history ; and this, 



to the king. In 1821 he opened a seed-farm 
at Kensington, and resided for some years at 
Barn Elm, following his favourite pursuits 
of agriculture and planting. He now under- 
took a series of political tours, traversing 
England on horseback, the accounts of which 
he regularly printed in his paper. These 
tours were published in a collected form in 
1830 under the title ' Rural Rides.' 

Cobbett was now the leading journalist 
concerned in the movement for parliamentary 
reform. He at length incurred a government 
prosecution for incitement to sedition. He 
undertook his own defence with astonishing 
vigour and ability in July 1831. The jury 
being unable to agree were discharged, and 
Cobbett triumphed. He had long meditated 
a parliamentary career, and had already con- 
tested Coventry (1821) and Preston (1826) 
without success. He had appealed to his 
admirers to raise a fund for the purpose. His 
character had been injured by his vagaries, 
and especially by a quarrel with Sir Francis 
Burdett, who advanced him 3,OOOZ. as a loan 
which Cobbett declared to be a gift. His 
money transactions had been questionable, 



more than anything else, tells of the extra- 
\ordinary power and independence of his cha- 
jracter. 

Besides the works already named, Cobbett 
wrote: 1. 'Letters to Lord Hawkesbury 
and Henry Addington on the Peace with. 
Bonaparte,' 1802. 2. 'The Political Proteus, 
a view of the public character and conduct 
of R. B. Sheridan, Esq./ 1804. 3. ' Paper 
against Gold,' 1815. 4. ' A Year's Residence 
in the United States of America/ 1818. 
5. ' A Grammar of the English Language, 
in a series of letters/ 1818. 6. ' The Ameri- 
can Gardener/ 1821 (afterwards reproduced 
with some modifications as ' The English 
Gardener/ 1827). 7. 'Cobbett's Monthly 
Religious Tracts ' (afterwards ' Twelve Ser- 
mons '). 1821-2, a most excellent series, very 
little known. 8. ' Cottage Economy/ 1821. 
9. ' Cobbett's Collective Commentaries ' (on 
the proceedings in parliament), 1822. 10. In- 
troduction to reprint of Tail's ' Horse-hoeing 
Husbandry/ 1822. 11. ' Cobbett's French 
Grammar/ 1823. 12. ' History of the Pro- 
testant Reformation/ two parts, 1824-7 (this 
book has had a large circulation and been 



Cobbett 



145 



Cobbold 



often translated. It is a bitter attack on the 
protestant view, and dwells upon the tyranny 
and corruption of the ruling classes of the j 
Reformation period). 13. ' The Woodlands,' a j 
treatise on planting, 1825. 14. ' Cobbett's 
Poor Man's Friend,' 1826. 15. ' A Treatise on 
Cobbett's Corn,' 1828. 16. ' The Emigrant's 
Guide,' 1828. 17. 'Advice to Young Men, 
and, incidentally, to Young Women,' 1830. 
18. ' Eleven Lectures on the French and Bel- 
gian Revolutions, and English Boroughmon- 
gering,' 1830. 19. 'Cobbett's Plan of Parlia- 
mentary Reform,' 1830. 20. 'A Spelling Book 
. . . with stepping-stone to English Grammar,' 
1831. 21. ' Cobbett's Manchester Lectures,' 
in support of his fourteen reform proposi- 
tions, 1832. 22. ' A Geographical Dictionary 
of England and Wales,' 1832. 23. Preface 
to Gouge's ' Curse of Paper-money,' 1833. 
24. ' History of the Regency and Reign of 
George the Fourth,' 1830-4. 25. ' Cobbett's 
Tour in Scotland,' 1833. 26. ' Life of Andrew 
Jackson, president of the U.S.A., abridged 
by Wm. C.,' 1834. 27. ' A New French and 
English Dictionary,' 1834. 28. 'Surplus 
Population, and Poor-law Bill, a comedy in 
three acts,' 1835. 29. ' Legacy to Labourers,' 
1835. 30. 'Legacy to Peel/ 1835. 31. 'Legacy 
to Parsons,' 1835. Six volumes of ' Selec- 
tions from his political works ' chiefly the 
' Register ' were edited by his sons John M. 
and James P. Cobbett in 1835. 

Some of these works had already appeared 
in serial form in his journal. In the compi- 
lation he was assisted by J. H. Sievrac, B. 
.Tilly, J. Yonge Akerman, and others. It is 
asserted (Tait's Magazine, 1835, f. 496) that 
Cobbett wrote out, in some regimental books 
of the 54th, directions for a sergeant-major 
or an orderly, in the manner of Swift's ' Ad- 
vice to Servants,' ' which were full of admi- 
rable humour and grave irony.' His writings 
are full of autobiographical matter, and some 
of his correspondence is in possession of the 
British Museum. 

[Add. MSS. 22906. 22907, 31125, 31126, 
18204 f. 73, 22976 f. 212, 27809 f. 129, 27937 
ff. 51, 117, 28104 f. 71, 31127 ff. 1-20; Life 
by Robert Huish, 1835; William Cobbett, a bio- 
graphy, by Edward Smith, 1878 ; Waters's Cob- 
bettand hisGrammar(NewYork,1883); Bulwer's 
Political Characters (1868), ii. 90-193 ; Rural 
Rides, with notes, 1853, ed. by Mr. Pitt Cobbett, 
1 885 ; Life and Adventures of Peter Porcupine ; 
Times, 20 June 1835 ; Athenaeum, 27 June 1835 ; 
Gent Mag. (N.S.) iv. 205, 246, 670 ; Tait's Mag. 
1835, pp. 493-6 ; Penny Cyclopaedia ;Fraser's Mag. 
Ixv. 1 76-9; Gilnllan'sGaller.y of Literary Portraits, 
ii. 28 ; Hazlitt's Table Talk, essay vi. ; Francis's 
Old New York, p. 141 ; Hudson's Journalism in 
* the United States, pp. 154, 309, 620; Recollec- 
tions of Samuel Breck, p. 204; Fearon's Sketches 

VOL. XI. 



of America, pp. 61, 64 ; Windham's Diary, pp. 
430, 439, 444, 446, 460, 488, 493, 501 ; Parl. 
History, xxxvi. 1679 ; Minto's Life and Letters, 
iii. 341, 347 ; Lord Colchester's Diary, i. 442, 
518, ii. 240, 279, iii. 284, 468; Wilberforce's 
Life, ii. 384, iii. 46, 93, 531, iv. 277, 308, v. 67, 
108, 203 ; Fonblanque's Life and Labours, p. 63 ; 
Earl of Albemarle's Fifty Years of My Life; 
Lord Althorp's Memoirs, p. 450 ; Brougham's 
Memoirs, i. 437, 501, iii. 265-7; Brougham's 
Letter to Marquis of Lansdowne, p. 96 ; T. Moore's 
Memoirs, ii. 354, 356, iv. 98 ; Cartwright's Life 
and Corresp. passim ; S. Romilly's Memoirs, ii. 
211, iii. 28 ; Wm.Lovett's Life, &c. p. 55 ; Bent- 
ham's Works, iii. 465 et seq., v. 66, 80, 97, 106- 
117, x. 351, 448, 458, 471, 570, 601, xi. 68; H. 
Hunt's Corresp. passim ; Greville Memoirs, i. 14, 
175, ii. 68, 158, 335, 351, 353, 373, iii. 27. 75 ; 
Somerville's The Whistler at the Plough, pp. 
263, 295; Dr. Parr's Works, viii. 21; Rump 
Chronicle 1819, passim ; Yorke's Political Regis- 
ter, passim ; Birkbeck's Reply, &c. ; Recollec- 
tions of John O'Connell, M.P., pp. 2, 5, 32-5, 
39.] E. S. 

COBBIN, INGRAM (1777-1851), inde- 
pendent minister, was born in London in 
December 1777, and educated at Hoxton 
Academy. He became minister at South Mol- 
ton in 1802, and afterwards officiated at Ban- 
bury, Holloway, Putney, Crediton, Worces- 
ter, and Lymington. For some time he acted 
as secretary to the British and Foreign School 
Society, and in 1819 he was appointed the first 
secretary of the Home Missionary Society. 
Ill-health compelled him to retire from the 
ministry in 1828, and he thenceforward de- 
voted his energies at his residence in Cam- 
berwell to the compilation of a large number 
of scholastic and biblical works, among which 
may be mentioned his ' Evangelical Synopsis ;' 
his ' Condensed,' ' Portable,' ' Domestic,' 'Ana- 
lytical,' and ' Oriental ' Commentaries ; ' The 
Book of Popery,' 1840 ; and ' Bible Remem- 
brancer,' 1848. He died on 10 March 1851. 

[Congregational Year-book, 1851, p. 212; Cat. 
of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Evans's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, No. 14352.] T. C. 

CpBBOLD, ELIZABETH (1767-1824), 
poetical writer, born in Watling Street, Lon- 
don, in 1767, was a daughter of Robert Knipe, 
afterwards of Manchester and Liverpool, by 
his wife, a Miss Waller. In 1787 Miss Knipe 
published her first work, 'Six Narrative 
Poems,' by subscription, and dedicated it to 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom she was well 
known. In 1789 she wrote an epilogue to a 
play performed at Liverpool : and at the end 
of 1790 she was married in that city to Wil- 
liam Clarke, comptroller of the customs at 
Ipswich, a man much her senior and a great in- 
valid. In 1791, as Eliza Clarke, she published 



Cobbold 



146 



Cobbold 



at Liverpool, and also by subscription, ' The 
Sword, or Father Bertrand's History of his 
own Times,' a novel, in 2 vols. She lost her 
first husband, Clarke, six months after their 
marriage. In 1792 she married John Cob- 
bold of the Cliff Brewery, Ipswich, a widower 
of considerable property, with fourteen chil- 
dren. Mrs. Cobbold had six sons and one 
daughter by her second husband ; but she was 
indefatigable with her pen and her pencil, and 
her hospitalities and charities, both at The 
Cliff and Holy wells, her subsequent resi- 
dence. In 1800, under the pseudonym of 
Carolina Petty Pasty, she published 'The 
Mince Pye,' a poetical skit, the frontispiece 
to which is a portrait of Mrs. Glasse, from 
Mrs. Cobbold's own hand. In 1803 she edi- 
ted the poems of ' The Suffolk Cottager,' Ann 
Candler [q. v.], prefixing a memoir to them ; 
and having commenced some noted valentine 
parties about 1806, she published sets of 
these, as ' Cliff Valentines,' in 1813 and 1814, 
followed by an ' Ode to Waterloo ' in 1815. 
She established a clothing society for infant 
poor in 1812, a charitable bazaar in 1820, and 
she was a frequent contributor to such perio- 
dicals as ' The Chaplet,' Raw's ' Ladies' Fash- 
ionable Repository,' &c. 

Mrs. Cobbold wrote a monodrama, ' Cas- 
sandra,' performed by Miss Macauley at what 
was then called the European Saloon, King 
Street, St. James's; and she wrote an address 
for Miss Goward (afterwards Mrs. Robert 
Keeley), the singer, on her appearance at the 
Ipswich theatre, the vocalist's talent having 
been discovered and fostered by her. Mrs. 
Cobbold died on 17 Oct. 1824. In 1825 many 
ot her fugitive pieces were collected and pub- 
lished at Ipswich in two editions, the large 
size embellished with her own drawings. For 
this volume of ' Poems ' a memoir was written 
by Lsetitia Jermyn ; and the large copies have 
portraits of the poetess and Mr. Cobbold. 
Mrs. Cobbold helped Sir W. Smith over his 
4 Flora Anglica,' and Sowerby named a shell 
after her, the Nucula Cobboldice. 

[Poems, 1825 (large ed.), the Memoir affixed, 
et infra ; The Mince Pye, by Carolina Petty 
Pasty.] J. H. 

COBBOLD, JOHN SPENCER (1768- 
1837), divine, son of the Rev. Thomas Cob- 
bold, was born at Occold, Suffolk, on 24 July 
1768. He was educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, of which he was elected a fellow. 
He graduated B.A. as seventh wrangler in 
1790, M.A. in 1793. About 1794 he accepted 
the mastership of the free school at Nuneaton, 
Warwickshire. He next became curate to 
his father at Wilby, Suffolk. In 1805 he re- 
moved to Woolpit, in the same county, as 



his father's curate, and on the decease of his 
father in 1831 he became the rector of that 
parish, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. He also held the vicarage of Shel- 
land, Suffolk, to which he was instituted in 
1793. He died at Woolpit on 3 April 1837 
(Ipswich Journal, 15 April 1837, 25 Aug. 
1838). 

In addition to several detached sermons, he 
published : 1. ' An Essay tending to show in 
what sense Jesus Christ " hath brought life 
and immortality to light through the Gos- 
pel,"' Ipswich, 1793, 8vo. 2. 'An Essay 
tending to show the advantages which result 
to Revelation from its being conveyed to us 
in the form of History,' Coventry, 1797, 8vo 
(Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus.) Both 
these essays gained the Norrisian prize. 

[Authorities cited above ; also Graduati Can- 
tab, ed. 1856, p. 81 ; Davy's Athenae Suffolcienses, 
iii. 246 ; Gent. Mag. new ser. vii. 665.] T. C. 

COBBOLD, RICHARD (1797-1877), no- 
velist, born in 1797 at Ipswich, the youngest 
but one of twenty-one children, was the son 
of John Cobbold of Holywells and the Cliff 
Brewery, Ipswich, by his second wife, Eliza- 
beth [see COBBOLD, ELIZABETH], daughter of 
Robert Knipe of Liverpool. His grandmother 
on the maternal side, whose maiden name was 
Waller, was descended from Edmund Waller, 
the poet. The literary tastes of his mother 
probably had some influence upon the son. 
Richard was educated at Bury St. Edmunds 
under Charles the father of Bishop Blomfield, 
and proceeded to Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he gained a scholarship and graduated in 
1820. After serving as curate in Ipswich he 
became rector of Wortham (which he held for 
half a century) and rural dean of Hartismere. 
Here he developed into a typical country par- 
son, would ride across country at times with 
the hounds, and was a keen sportsman with 
rod and gun. For several years he acted as 
chaplain to the union, only asking as stipend 
that the children with their master and mis- 
tress should attend the Sunday services at his 
church. In 1822 he married the only daughter 
of Jeptha Waller, by whom he had three sons, 
one of them being the celebrated helmintholo- 
gist, Thomas Spencer Cobbold, M.D. [q. v.] 
Cobbold is best known as the author of the 
' History of Margaret Catchpole,' a novel based 
on the romantic adventures of a girl living in 
the neighbourhood of Ipswich, in whom Cob- 
bold's father had taken a kindly interest [see 
CATCHPOLE, MARGARET]. For the copyright 
of this book he is said to have received 1,000/. ; 
but Cobbold did not make much money by his 
other literary ventures, which were mostly 
undertaken for charitable purposes. Thus his 



Cobbold 



147 



Cobden 



account of ' Mary Ann Wellington ' brought 
in no less than 600/., much of it in small gifts, 
for the subject of the book, who was after- 
wards placed in an almshouse by Cobbold's 
exertions. 

Cobbold was of unwearied activity both 
in mind and body, never without a pen, 
pencil, or paint-brush in his hand, and a great 
reader. To large conversational powers he 
added a quick apprehension, a remarkable 
memory, lively humour, and wide and gene- 
rous sympathies. He was devoted to the 
church of England, always ready to impress 
its doctrines on others by example and ex- 
hortation. He died on 5 Jan. 1877, in his 
eightieth year. 

His works range from 1827 to 1858. Be- 
sides several religious pieces, sermons, and 
addresses, they are chiefly: 1. 'Zenon the 
Martyr,' 3 vols. 1827. 2. ' Mary Ann Wel- 
lington, the Soldier's Daughter, Wife, and 
Widow,' 1846. 3. ' The History of Margaret 
Catchpole, a Suffolk Girl,' 1845. 4. 'The 
Young Man's Home,' 1848. 5. ' J. H. Steg- 
gall, a Real History of a Suffolk Man,' 1851. 
6. ' Courtland,' a novel, 1852. 7. ' Preston 
Tower, or the Early Days of Cardinal Wol- 
sey,' 1850. He also wrote, in 1827, ' Valen- 
tine Verses,' which he illustrated with spirited 
pen-and-ink etchings. 

[Private information from Rev. E. A. Cobbold 
and others.] M. G. W. 

COBBOLD, THOMAS SPENCER, M.D. 

(1828-1886), helminthologist, was born at 
Ipswich in 1828, being the third son of the 
Rev. Richard Cobbold [q. v.] He was edu- 
cated at the Charterhouse, and in 1844 be- 
came a pupil of J. G. Crosse, F.R.S., surgeon 
to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. In 
1847 he proceeded to Edinburgh University, 
where he became assistant to Professors 
Hughes Bennett and Goodsir, the latter of 
whom especially influenced him by his philo- 
sophical views of anatomy. In 1851 Cobbold 
graduated in medicine, being a gold medal- 
list, and after a short visit to Paris returned 
to Edinburgh and was appointed curator of 
the anatomical museum. In 1854 the lec- 
tures of Edward Forbes attached Cobbold still 
more deeply to natural history, and his geo- 
logical field excursions interested him greatly 
in geology. In 1857 he removed to London, 
and was appointed lecturer on botany at St. 
Mary's Hospital, in 1861 obtaining a similar 
post at the Middlesex Hospital, where he for 
thirteen years lectured on zoology and com- 
parative anatomy. During this period Cob- 
bold became devoted to helminthology, espe- 
cially that portion of it dealing with human 
and animal parasitic worms. Many memoirs 



on the subject were contributed by him to the 
learned societies, and he was elected F.R.S. 
in 1864. In 1865, failing to obtain remune- 
rative work in biology, he commenced medical 
practice in London, especially as a consultant 
on cases where the presence of internal para- 
sites was suspected, and in this department 
gained considerable success. In 1868, through 
Sir Roderick Murchison's influence, he was 
appointed Swiney lecturer on geology at the 
British Museum, which post he held for five 
years with distinguished success. In 1873 he 
received an appointment as professor of botany 
at the Royal Veterinary College, which shortly 
afterwards instituted a special professorship 
of helminthology for him. He died of heart 
disease on 20 March 1886. 

Cobbold's work, which was original and 
painstaking, successfully elucidated many ob- 
scure features in the history of animal para- 
sites. His principal books are : 1. ' Ento- 
zoa ; an introduction to the study of Helmin- 
thology, with reference more particularly to 
the internal parasites of man,' 1864. 2. ' En- 
tozoa,' a supplement to the last work, 1869. 
3. ' The Grouse Disease,' 1873. 4. ' The In- 
ternal Parasites of our Domesticated Animals,' 
1873. 5. ' Parasites,' 1879. 6. ' Tapeworms,' 
1866; fourth edition, 1883. 7. 'Worms,' 
1872. 8. 'Human Parasites,' 1882. 9. 'Para- 
sites of Meat and Prepared Flesh Food,' 1884. 
10. ' Our Food-producing Ruminants and 
the Parasites which reside in them,' Cantor 
Lectures, 1871. 11. ' Catalogue of the Spe- 
cimens of Entozoa in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England,' 1866. Cob- 
bold was a contributor to Todd's ' Cyclopaedia 
of Anatomy and Physiology' (article ' Rumi- 
nantia '), supplement, 1858 ; the Museum of 
Natural History (mammalian division), 1859; 
to Quain's ' Dictionary of Medicine ' (articles 
on ' Human Parasites ') ; and revised the sixth 
edition of Maunder's 'Treasury of Natural 
History,' 1862. Many memoirs were contri- 
buted by him to the ' Annals of Natural His- 
tory,' ' Linnean Society's Journal and Trans- 
actions,' ' Zoological Society's Proceedings and 
Transactions,' ' Microscopical Society's Trans- 
actions and Journal,' ' Intellectual Observer,' 
' Edinburgh New Phil. Journal,' ' British 
Association Reports,' &c. 

[Barker and Tindal Eobertson's Photographs 
of Eminent Medical Men, ii. 1868, pp. 77-81; 
Midland Medical Miscellany (Leicester), 1 March 
1884; Lancet, 27 March 1886, p. 616.] 

G. T. B. 

COBDEN, ED WARD,D.D. (1684-1764), 
divine and poet, born early in 1684, was edu- 
cated and took a B. A. degree at Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford ; removing to King's College, 



Cobden 



148 



Cobden 



Cambridge, lie proceeded to M.A. in 1713, 
and again changed to Oxford for his B.D. 
and D.D. degrees, the last being taken in 
1723. His earliest works were : ' A Letter 
from a Minister to his Parishioners,' London, 
1718, 8vo, and ' A Poem on the Death of 
. . . Addison,' London, 1720, 8vo. Bishop 
Gibson, to whom he was chaplain, gave him 
the prebend of Erpingham in Lincoln Cathe- 
dral in 1721, the prebend of Buckden in 1726, 
resigned 1727 ; a prebend in St. Paul's, the 
united rectories of St. Austin and St. Faith, 
with that of Acton, Middlesex, in 1730; 
the chaplaincy to George II, 1730 ; and the 
archdeaconry of London, in which he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Tyrwhitt, in 1742. He published 
nine sermons separately. One, delivered at St. 
James's before George II in 1748, led eventu- 
ally to the resignation of his chaplaincy. He 
published it in self-defence in 1749, under 
the title ' A Persuasive to Chastity.' It had 
been censured, and the preacher had been 
lampooned in a court ballad. Dr. Whiston 
calls it ' that seasonable and excellent ser- 
mon ' delivered ' when crime between the 
sexes was at its greatest height.' In 1748 he 
published a volume entitled ' Poems on seve- 
ral Occasions,' London, 8vo, printed for the 
widow of a clergyman, formerly his curate. 
In this work he eulogises Stephen Duck's 
poetic fame, glorifies somebody's squirrel and 
a lady's canary, and laments over a dead cow. 
He fell from his horse in 1749, and seriously 
impaired his memory. In 1751 he was 
elected president of Sion College, and in 
1752 resigned his warrant for chaplain. He 
says all his preferments together did not 
amount to 350J. a year clear. Soon after he 
met with losses of 2,000. In 1753 appeared 
' Concio ad Clerum,' and in 1755 'An Essay 
tending to promote Religion,' London, 8vo, 
a curious piece, half prose, half verse, clearly 
showing his disappointment at not having a 
canonry of St. Paul's to add to the archdea- 
conry. He speaks of his chaplaincy, and 
affirms that the sum total of reward received 
for his twenty-two years' service was one 
meal a fortnight and no salary. In 1756 he 
published ' A Poem sacred to the Memory of 
Queen Anne for her Bounty to the Clergy,' 
London, 4to. In 1757 he published a col- 
lection called 'Twenty-eight Discourses on 
various Subjects and Occasions,' London, 4to, 
and the next year, when residing at Acton, 
he republished the whole of his works, under 
the title of ' Discourses and Essays in Prose 
and Verse by Edward Cobden, D.D., arch- 
deacon of London, and lately chaplain,' &c. 
Cobden died on 22 April 1764. His wife, a 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Jessop of Tempsford, 
Bedfordshire, died in 1762. 



[The author's works; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, 
i. 555, ii. 207, 288, 412, iii. 67, iv. 317 ; Nichols's 
Miscellaneous Poems, vii. 366 ; Memoir of Whis- 
ton ; Cole's MS. Athense in Brit. Mus. Add. IMS. 
5865.] J. W.-G. 

COBDEN, RICHARD (1804-1865), 
statesman, was born on 3 June 1804, in an 
old farmhouse in the hamlet of Heyshott, 
near Midhurst, on the western border of Sus- 
sex. He came of an ancient stock of yeomen 
of the soil, for several centuries rooted in that 
district. William Cobden, his father, was 
a small farmer. The unfavourable circum- 
stances of agriculture at the peace were too , 
strong for him, and the farm was sold. Re- 
latives took charge of his eleven children, and 
Richard, who was fourth among them, was 
banished for five miserable years to one of 
those Yorkshire schools whose brutalities were 
afterwards exposed in Dickens's famous pic- 
ture of ' Dotheboys Hall.' In 1819 he be- 
came a clerk in his uncle's warehouse in Old 
Change, and in due time went the circuits 
as commercial traveller, soliciting orders for 
muslins and calicoes, collecting accounts, 
diligently observing whatever came under 
his eye, and impressing everybody with his 
power of making himself useful. 

In 1828 Cobden determined to set up in 
business on his own account. He and a 
couple of friends raised a thousand pounds 
among them, most of it by way of loan ; 
they persuaded a great firm of calico-printers 
in Lancashire to trust them with the sale of 
their goods on commission in London ; and 
they quickly established a thriving concern. 
In 1831 the partners leased an old factory at 
Salden, a village between Blackburn and 
Clitheroe in Lancashire, and began to print 
their own calicoes. Cobden himself took up 
his residence at Manchester (1832), the great 
centre with which so much of his public 
activity was afterwards identified. The new 
venture prospered, Cobden prints won a re- 
putation in the trade for attractive pattern 
and good impression, and the partners ap- 
peared to be destined to accumulate a large 
and rapid fortune. Cobden felt himself free 
to give some of his time to wider concerns. 
He was const itutionally endowed with an alert 
and restless intelligence, and in the hardest 
days of his youth he had done what he could 
to educate himself. He taught himself French, 
practised composition in the shape of two or 
three very juvenile comedies, took an ardent 
interest in phrenology, and was profoundly 
and permanently impressed byGeorge Combe's 
views on education. He read some of the 
great writers, and picked up a fair idea of the 
course of European history. His practical 
and lively temperament combined with his 



Cobden 



149 



Cobden 



position to tix his interest in the actualities 
of the present, and though he was always a 
reader, and always very ready to admire 
men whose chances of scholarship and science 
had been better than his own, he knew that ! 
lie must look for the knowledge that his pur- | 
poses made necessary, in the newspapers, in 
blue-books, in Hansard's reports, and perhaps, 
above all, in frequent and industrious travel. 
In 1835 he made his first rapid visit to the 
United States (June-August), and in the 
autumn of the next year he went for six 
months (October 1836-April 1837) to Con- 
stantinople, Greece, Egypt, and the western 
shores of Asia Minor. 

A To the same time belong the two remark- 

j able pamphlets in which he practically opened 
his public career : ' England, Ireland, and 
America ' (1835), and ' Russia ' (1836), 'by a 
Manchester Manufacturer.' He had already 
tried his hand in print in letters on econo- 
mic subjects, which had been published in 
the ' Manchester Examiner,' and had at- 
tracted considerable attention by their firm- 
ness of thought and clearness of expression. 
He exhibited the same qualities still more 
conspicuously in the two pamphlets. Briefly 
stated, the argument is as follows : America 
must at no distant date enter into serious 
competition with our products ; in this com- 
petition we shall be heavily handicapped, first- 
by protection, secondly by the load of taxa- 
tion and debt incurred in needless interven- 
tion in continental wars. From these proposi- 
tions he drew what, if they were true, was the 
irresistible inference, that the sound policy 
for Great Britain lay in the- direction of free 
trade and non-interventioii! Ireland consti- 
tuted another national danger, hardly less 
formidable than the debt or the tariff, and was 
another reason why we should attend more 
steadfastly to our own affairs. In the second 
pamphlet the writer shows that the case of 
Russia, on which David TJrquhart was then 
successfully endeavouring to kindle alarmist 
opinion, is no exception to his principle as 
stated above, and that we were not called 
upon to interfere by arms between Russia 
and Turkey, either for the sake of European 
law and the balance of power, or for the 
security of British interests. The doctrine 
which he thus preached at the beginning 
of his public life, was the substance of his 
policy and object of his urgent exhortations 
down to its close. 

At the general election which followed the 
accession of Queen Victoria, Cobden was the 
defeated candidate forStockport, polling 418 
votes out of a total poll of less than nine 
hundred, in a constituency which to-day has 
upwards of nine thousand voters on the re- 



gister. His defeat did not for an instant 
damp his concern in public affairs. He was 
keenly interested in what was then the com- 
paratively obscure field of national education, 
and he took an active part in the municipal 
work of Manchester, which had received its 
charter of incorporation in 1838. In the same 
year he went for a month's tour to Germany, 
where he thus early perceived the future 
political effects of the new Zollverein. 

It was now that Cobden joined the great 
movement with which his name will always 
be inseparably associated. In 1836 the phi- 
losophic radicals, including Grote, Moles- 
worthTHume, and Roebuck, had formed an 
association for repealing the duties on corn. 
But they did not catch the public ear, and 
nothing had come of it. In October 1838 
seven Manchester merchants met to form a 
new association, which very speedily grew to 
be the famous Anti-Cornlaw League. The 
agitation went on until the session of 1846, 
and its history contains Cobden's biography 
for the eight years during which the move- 
ment lasted. He threw himself into it with 
unsparing devotion, and though any history 
of the league would be fatally incomplete 
which should omit the names of Villiers, 
Bright, Ashworth, George Wilson, and other 
fellow-workers as zealous as himself, yet it 
was Cobden who speedily came to take the 
foremost place in connection with the subject 
in the popular mind. He was energetic, bold, 
and fertile in counsel ; he developed singular 
gifts for organisation on an immense scale ; 
and he showed himself the greatest master 
that has ever appeared in English public life 
of the art of bringing home the force of diffi- 
cult demonstrations to simple and untrained 
minds! In 1841 he was elected for Stock- 
port. The whigs had gone to the country 
with the cry of a moderate fixed duty, but 
they had forfeited the confidence of the nation 
alike in their sincerity and their capacity. 
When the new parliament met, Sir Robert 
Peel carried an amendment on the address 
by a majority of ninety-one, and in a few days 
found himself at the head of that powerful 
administration, ' which contained not only 
able tories like Lord Lyndhurst, but able 
seceders from the whigs like Lord Stanley 
and ' Sir James Graham ; which commanded 
an immense majority in both houses ; which 
was led by a chief of consummate sagacity ; 
and which was at last slowly broken to 
pieces by the work of Cobden and the league.' 
Cobden early made his mark in parliamentary 
debate, confining himself almost exclusively 
to his own subject. He was fluent without 
being voluble ; direct and pointed without 
strained or studious search ; above all, he had 



Cobden 



150 



Cobden 



two signal recommendations which never fail 
to command a position in the House of Com- 
mons he abounded in apt information, and 
he was always known to be in earnest. The 
chief scene of his labours, however, was not 
in the House of Commons, but on the plat- 
form. In his own phrase, he lived in public 
meetings. In company with Mr. Bright, 
whose name and his own became a pair of 
household words, he year after year traversed 
the island from end to end, arguing, reply- 
ing, exhorting, organising, and raising funds, 
which, "before the agitation reached its goal, 
are calculated to have amounted to nearly 
half a million of money. The Anti-Cornlaw 
League was the first organised appeal on a 
gigantic scale in Great Britain to popular 
judgment and popular power ; and its opera- 
tions were viewed with lively alarm. It was 
denounced by tory landlords, with entire sin-' 
cerity, as ' the most cunning, unscrupulous, 
knavish, pestilent body of men that ever 
plagued this or any other country.' Loud 
cries were raised for its suppression as a se- 
ditious conspiracy. In the session of 1843, 
Sir Robert Peel charged Cobden with using 
language that held him up to public odium, 
and, by implication, invited personal outrage. 
The incident was the most painful in Cobden's 
parliamentary life. In the question of factory 
legislation, which was raised into prominence 
at this time by Lord Ashley, Cobden, though 
he did not vote against the bill of 1844, 
always deprecated the regulation of the hours 
of labour by law, maintaining that the work- 
men were strong enough to protect them- 
selves. In 1845 Peel proposed the augmen- 
tation of the grant to the catholic college 
at Maynooth, and Cobden supported it as a 
means of extending the education of a body 
of men who were the instructors of millions 
of the population. This, and a proposal relat- 
ing to the outlay at South Kensington, were 
the only two occasions in five-and-twenty 
years in which Cobden and Mr. Bright took 
different sides in parliamentary divisions. 

The cause, meanwhile, moved slowly. In 
1844 trade revived, and the condition of 
the people began rapidly to improve. This 
weakened the practical force of Cobden's 
argument, that the duty on corn was the 
great obstacle to a vast increase in the foreign 
demand for British manufactures ; in other 
words, that extended markets could only be 
secured by the free admission of foreign corn 
in exchange for our goods. He now turned 
to the agricultural side of the question, and 
began to ask the farmers and the labourers 
what advantage the corn law had brought 
to either of them. Cobden spoke at his best 
in 1845. Probably the most powerful speech 



that_he ever made was that of 13 March in^ 
this year. The men on the tory benches 
whispered eagerly among one another, ' Peel 
must answer this.' But the minister is said 
to have crumpled up the notes that he had 
taken, with the words, ' Those may answer 
him who can/' 

Events told more powerfully than the most 
persuasive logic. By the middle of October 
the government found themselves face to 
face with the prospect of famine in Ireland, 
and Peel proposed to his cabinet to summon 
parliament and advise a temporary suspension 
of the corn duties. After three meetings of 
the cabinet the question was left undecided. 
Lord John Russell then launched the Edin- 
burgh letter, in which he gave up the old 
whig principle of a fixed duty, and advocated 
total repeal. The cabinet was again called 
together, and as they were still unable to- 
come to an Agreement, Sir Robert Peel re- 
signed (5 Dec.) Cobden had plunged into 
the work of agitation with more energy than 
ever. It was essential to impress on the 
government, whoever they might be, the im- 
possibility of meeting the crisis by the tem- 
porary expedient of opening the ports, or by 
anything short of total, immediate, and final 
repeal. On Peel's resignation the queen sent 
for Lord John Russell, and Lord John invited 
Cobden to become vice-president of the board 
of trade. Cobden declined on the ground that 
he should be able to render more efficient 
assistance as the out-of-doors advocate of 
free trade, than in an official capacity. Owing 
to internal dissensions among the whig chiefs, 
the administration was not formed. Peel re- 
turned to office, and at the opening of the 
session of 1846 proposed the total repeal of 
the corn duty, though the ports were not to 
be entirely open until 1849. When the bill 
had passed, and the minister announced to 
the House of Commons that his defeat on the 
Irish Coercion Bill compelled him to resign 
(29 June), he explained the success of the 
great measure of 1846 in well-known words : 
' The name which ought to be, and which will 
be, associated with the success of these mea- 
sures is the name of a man who, acting, I 
believe, from pure and disinterested motives, 
has advocated their cause with untiring 
energy, and by appeals to reason, expressed 
by an eloquence the more to be admired 
because it was unaffected and unadorned 
the name of Richard Cobden.' 

Cobden's earnest wish at this great party 
crisis was that Peel, instead of resigning, 
should dissolve parliament, should place him- 
self at the head of the representatives of the 
middle class, and should go to the country 
with the cry of practical reforms, as distin- 



Cobden 



Cobden 



guished from those organic questions which, 
as Cobden urged, had no vitality in the 
country. These views he pressed upon the 
falling minister in a long and interesting 
letter (23 June 1846). Peel replied on the 
following day, urging that it would be im- 
possible for him to dissolve after a defeat on 
an Irish Coercion Bill, without seeming to 
appeal to England against Ireland, which he 
should deeply lament, and without incurring 
the suspicion that he was using the power of 
dissolution, and the popular influence which 
his conversion to free trade had given him, 
merely for the sake of personal obj ects. When 
Lord John Russell formed his government, 
he wrote Cobden a very civil letter (2 July), 
not proposing office at the moment, as he 
understood that Cobden was going abroad, 
and that perhaps he did not intend to follow 
politics as a pursuit apart from free trade. 
He expressed a hope, however, that on his 
return Cobden would join the cabinet. 

It would, in fact, have been difficult for 
Cobden to enter an administration at this 
moment, even if he had been inclined. The 
absorbing nature of his public labours had 
been disastrous to his private fortunes. In 
1840 he had married Miss Catherine Anne 
Williams, a young Welsh lady, and he was 
now the father of a family. His business 
imperatively needed energy and attention, 
and his brother Frederick proved unequal 
to the task which devolved upon him. In 
the summer of 1845 embarrassments had 
become serious, and at the moment when his 
unselfish devotion to the national interest 
received its triumphant reward, Cobden him- 
self was a ruined man. A subscription was 
raised, and nearly 80,000/. was collected in 
commemoration of his services to a great 
cause. Of this sum a considerable portion 
went to the discharge of debt, some was ex- 
pended in the purchase of a little property 
at Dunford, where he was born, and where 
henceforth he lived ; and the balance was in- 
vested in the shares of the Illinois Central 
Railway. The prudence of the investment 
was in one sense justified by the subsequent 
prosperity of the line, but for the time both 
the railway shares and some speculative 
dealings in land in Manchester proved un- 
fortunate and troublesome. In 1860, after 
he had been able to render another immense 
service to the commercial interests of Eng- 
land and France, a second subscription was 
privately raised to the amount of 40,000/. 

The enormous labours of seven years had 
told not only upon Cobden's fortune, but on 
his health. He sought relief in his favourite 
refreshment of foreign travel, and spent four- 
teen months (5 Aug. 1846-11 Oct. 1847) in 



France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and Russia, 
eagerly striving wherever he went to win 
converts to his great gospel of free trade. 
He was everywhere received with marks of 
honour. He was entertained at public ban- 
quets, attended l&tige gatherings, and had 
long private interviews with leading states- 
men. At the general election of 1847 he 
was chosen both for his former borough of 
Stockport and for the great constituency of 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. He elected 
to sit for the West Riding, which he repre- 
sented for ten years. For the five or six 
years following his return to England public 
affairs were comparatively tranquil. He 
carried on a wide and active correspondence 
with reformers of all kinds, about tempe- 
rance, about education, about parliamentary 
reform, about the land, and, above all, about 
peace. In 1849 (12 June) he brought forward 
the first motion in favour of international ar- 
bitration, and in 1851 a motion for the gene- 
ral reduction of armaments. He supported 
the measure for removing Jewish disabilities, 
and he denounced the Ecclesiastical Titles 
Bill (1851) as an intolerant and insulting mea- 
sure. The accession of Lord Derby's govern- 
ment (February 1852) kindled lively appre- 
hensions of a return to a protective 1 policy, 
the league reassembled, fresh funds were 
subscribed, and a plan arranged for the elec- 
toral campaign. It proved to be a false 
alarm, for Mr. Disraeli announced that the 
government had greater subjects to consider 
than the triumph of obsolete opinions, and 
free trade was safe. The following year (1853) 
Cobden once more came forward as an author. 
His pamphlet, ' 1792 and 1853, in Three 
Letters,' was a protest against the panic fear 
of invasion which had disturbed the public 
mind after the rise of the Second Empire in 
France. He attended, for the fourth time, 
the peace conference, which was held on this 
occasion at Manchester ; and in parliament 
he again pressed the necessity of reducing 
expenditure. Friends warned him that he 
was flogging a dead horse, and destroying 
without compensation the influence and popu- 
larity that he had acquired by his labours in 
the cause of cheap food. He replied that 
this only showed that there never was a time 
yet when it was so necessary for a peace party 
to redouble its efforts. In the same year he 
wrote his pamphlet on the second Burmese 
war, entitled ' How Wars are got up in 
India.' The narrative, extracted and pieced 
together from the papers laid before parlia- 
ment, is left to point its own moral, and is 
a good specimen of Cobden's diligent and 
weighty method. 

Whatever hopes he may have had in the 



Cobden 



152 



Cobden 



direction of peace were soon rudely shattered 
by the Crimean war (1854-6). True to the 
views which he had expressed twenty years 
before, Cobden, along with his constant com- 
rade, Mr. Bright, vigorously withstood the 
policy of the war, and the strong tide of 
popular"- sentiment in its favour. They very 
soon perceived that public opinion was vio- 
lently and incurably against them, but this 
made no difference in the vigour with which 
they endeavoured to stem the current. His 
view of the Turkish empire and its prospects 
had been formed upon the spot years before. 
' You must address yourselves,' he said, ' to 
the question, What are you to do with the 
Christian population ? Mahometanism can- 
not be maintained, and I should be sorry to 
see this country fighting for the maintenance 
of Mahometanism. You may keep Turkey 
on the map of Europe, but do not think that 
you can keep up the Mahometan rule in the 
country.' To urge this deliberate judgment, 
which has not been discredited by the course 
of subsequent events, Cobden made speeches 
both in the House of Commons and on the 
platform, he kept up a busy correspondence, 
and in the beginning of 1856 he published 
the pamphlet entitled ' What next ? and 
next ? ' Austria, acting in concert with 
France, had just despatched an ultimatum 
to Russia, proposing terms of peace, and in- 
timating that if they were not accepted 
Austria would range herself by the side of 
France and Great Britain. Cobden's pamph- 
let, passing over all discussion of the origin 
of the war, was a plea, backed by a heavy 
array of economic and military facts, against 
the imposition on Russia of humiliating 
terms of peace. 

Before the peace of Paris was signed, 
Cobden suffered a heavy domestic blow in 
the sudden death of his only son (6 April 
1856), a promising lad of fifteen, at school 
near Heidelberg. The severe illness which 
disabled Mr. Bright at the same time was 
almost as painful to Cobden as a personal afflic- 
tion, and to these private sorrows there was 
speedily added the mortification of a great 
public repulse. Sir John Bowring had in- 
volved this country in hostilities with the 
government of China, on the ground that 
they had unlawfully boarded a ship alleged 
to be British, for the purpose of seizing cer- 
tain of their subjects on board. The men 
were given up by the Chinese governor, on 
Bowring's demand, but Bowring thought it 
right to persist in vindictive operations, 
many junks were destroyed, Canton was 
shelled, and a long and troublesome war 
was entered upon. On 26 Feb. 1857, Cobden 
brought forward a motion condemning Bow- 



ring's action, on the ground that his demand 
was not strictly legal, that his violent action 
was precipitate, and that it would have been 
better for us to make joint representations 
with France and the United States, instead 
of plunging into a conflict which Lord Elgin 
himself afterwards declared to be a scandal 
to us. Cobden's motion was carried against 
Lord Palmerston by a majority of sixteen, 
by a curious coalition in which the Man- 
chester men were joined not only by the 
Peelites, headed by Mr. Gladstone, but by 
Mr. Disraeli and by Lord John Russell. 
Lord Palmerston at once appealed to the 
country. Cobden found that his action dur- 
ing the Russian war, and on some other less 
important subjects, had destroyed all chance 
of retaining his seat in the W'est Riding, and 
he went to Huddersfield. At Huddersfield 
(26 March) he was beaten by 823 votes 
against 590. Mr. Bright, Milner Gibson, 
W. J. Fox, Miall, and nearly every other 
prominent member of the Manchester school, 
experienced an equally disastrous defeat. 

After this great rout, which at first he felt 
very sharply, Cobden passed two years in 
retirement at his home in Sussex. In 1859 
he made his second voyage to the United 
States, and spent three months there, de- 
lighted at the immense moral and material 
progress which America had made in the 
four and twenty years since his former visit. 
It all tends to the argument, he said to Mr. 
Bright, that the political condition of a 
people is very much dependent on its econo- 
mic fate. When he landed at Liverpool 
(29 June), a great surprise awaited him. 
The conservative government which had 
come into power after Lord Palmerston's 
defeat on the Conspiracy to Murder Bill 
(20 Feb. 1858) had been defeated in April, 
a general election had followed, the various 
liberal sections met at Willis's Rooms and 
made up their differences, a vote of want of 
confidence was moved in the new parliament 
by Lord Hartington and carried by a majo- 
rity of thirteen. Lord Derby resigned, and 
Lord Palmerston proceeded to form the ad- 
ministration which lasted until his death in 
October 1865. When Cobden stepped from 
the steamer, a letter was placed in his hands 
from the new prime minister, offering him 
the post of president of the board of trade 
with a seat in the cabinet. Many of his 
friends pressed him to accept, but his own 
judgment did not waver for an instant. He 
had an interesting interview with Lord Pal- 
merston, and after an explanation, marked 
by entire good humour on both sides, he de- 
clined to join, on grounds which were more 
easily understood than accurately expressed. 



Cobden 



153 



Cobden 



' For the last twelve years,' lie said to Lord 
Palmerston, ' I have been the systematic and 
constant assailant of the principle on which 
your foreign policy has been carried on. I 
believed you to be warlike, intermeddling, 
and quarrelsome. At the same time I have 
expressed a general want of confidence in 
your domestic politics. I may have been 
altogether wrong in my views, but I put it 
candidly to you whether it ought to be in 
your cabinet that I should make the first 
avowal of a change of opinion respecting 
your public policy.' Cobden would not have 
been what he was, if he had been ready to 
accept a post ' under one to whom the beliefs 
and the language of a lifetime made him the 
typical antagonist.' ' I have a horror,' he 
said, ' of losing my own individuality, which 
is to me as existence itself.' 

At the general election Cobden had in 
his absence been returned without a contest 
as member for Rochdale. But his most im- 
portant work was again to be done outside 
of parliament. In the early autumn of 1859 
Cobden received a letter from Michel Che- 
valier, urging him to take an opportunity 
of converting the emperor of the French to 
the policy of free trade, at least so far as 
was necessary for the conclusion of a treaty 
of commerce between England and France. 
Cobden went to Hawarden to discuss the 
project with Mr. Gladstone, then chancellor 
of the exchequer. Host and guest were in 
strong sympathy alike in the economic and 
the ethical sjdes of national policy. Both were 
quick to perceive the advantage which a com- 
mercial treaty with France would be, not only 
to the work of tariff reform in England, but 
at the same time to the restoration of smoother 
relations in the sentiment of the two countries 
to one another. Lord Palmerston and Lord 
John Russell were consulted, and though they 
treated the enterprise coolly, they did not for- 
bid Cobden's volunteer mission. He went 
to Paris on 18 Oct. 1859, and the prolonged 
and laborious negotiations that followed did 
not come to a close until 16 Nov. 1860. In 
two interviews he converted the emperor to 
the soundness and the feasibility of lowering 
or removing duties, though the emperor's 
adhesion to his views was probably due more 
to political motives, and less to economic or 
fiscal, than Cobden knew. The negotiations 
reached the formal stage in January (1860), 
when Cobden received official instructions 
and powers. When the secret came out, it 
roused violent excitement among the French 
protectionists, and Cobden fought with them 
a strenuous battle for many months. The 
treaty was signed by Cobden and Lord Cowley 
on behalf of England on 23 Jan. The details of 



the tariff remained to be settled, and this was as 
important in many respects as the treaty itself. 
After a holiday at Cannes and a short visit to 
London, Cobden returned to Paris (20 April) 
as chief commissioner for working out the 
scale of duties on particular articles. This 
fatiguing task occupied him for many hours 
of every day until November, when all was at 
last brought to a satisfactory close. Nothing 
short of the most dauntless faith and per- 
sistency could have carried him through. 
Apart from the immense labour of the trans- 
action itself, he was harassed by the occa- 
sional vacillations of the emperor, by the 
lukewarmness of departments at home, by 
unfriendly articles in the English newspapers, 
and above all by Lord Palmerston's ostenta- 
tious attitude of suspicion and defiance to- 
wards the imperial government. When Mr. 
Gladstone explained the provisions of the 
commercial treaty to the House of Commons 
(10 Feb. 1860), in one of his most famous 
speeches, he paid a well-earned tribute to 
Cobden's labours. 'Rare,' he said, 'is the 
privilege of any man who, having fourteen 
years ago rendered to his country one signal 
and splendid service, now again within the 
same brief span of life, decorated neither by 
rank nor title, bearing no mark to distinguish 
him from the people whom he serves, has 
been permitted again to perform a great and 
memorable service to his country.' Lord 
Palmerston offered Cobden either a baronetcy 
or the rank of a privy councillor. The 
honour was courteously declined. ' The only 
reward I desire,' said Cobden, ' is to live to 
witness an improvement in the relations of 
the two great neighbouring nations which 
have been brought into more intimate con- 
nection by the treaty of commerce.' 

The main work of his life was now over, 
though he persevered manfully in pressing 
those doctrines of peace and retrenchment 
which had been the text of his earliest public 
deliverances. In 1862 he engaged in a sort 
of single combat with Lord Palmerston on 
the subject of national defence, and he en- 
forced the same lessons in his pamphlet on 
' The Three Panics ' of 1848, 1853, and 1862. 
When the civil war broke 'out in America, 
Cobden at first wavered, but it was only for 
a very short time, and he came forward, 
along with Mr. Bright, as a strenuous de- 
fender of the northern cause. In 1863 he 
carried on a pungent correspondence with 
J. T. Delane [q. v.], then the editor of the 
' Times ' newspaper. The ' Times ' had, falsely 
enough, charged Mr. Bright with proposing 
to divide the lands of the rich among the poor. 
Cobden, refusing to allow Delane to shelter 
himself behind the screen of anonymous 



Cobden 



154 



Cobham 



journalism, attacked him publicly and by 
name for his ' scandalous aspersions ' on Mr. 
Bright, and the matter was the talk of the 
country for some weeks. The session of 1864 
was remarkable for the refusal of parlia- 
ment and the constituencies to allow Lord 
Palmerston to go to war with Prussia and 
Austria on behalf of Denmark. This was a 
signal proof of the hold which the new doc- 
trine of non-intervention had gained upon 
the opinion of the day, for there were some 
peculiar circumstances in the diplomatic his- 
tory of the question which, but for that doc- 
trine and a few years earlier, would un- 
doubtedly have been held to make the defence 
of Denmark an obligation of honour on our 
part. Besides an important speech which he 
made on this subject (5 July), Cobden moved 
a resolution for extending the principle of 
non-intervention by force of arms in the in- 
ternal affairs of foreign countries to the case 
of China (31 May) ; and he introduced a 
motion that the government should not manu- 
facture for itself articles that could be ob- 
tained from private producers in a competi- 
tive market (22 July). 

This was Cobden's last speech in the House 
of Commons. In November he addressed at 
great length an immense meeting in his own 
constituency. The effort gave him a serious 
shake, and for many weeks afterwards he was 
confined to the house with asthma, bronchitis, 
and -irritation of the throat. He followed 
the proceedings in parliament with watchful 
interest. The desire to take part in the dis- 
cussion on a scheme of Canadian fortifica- 
tion became too strong to be resisted, and 
he travelled up to London in very bitter 
weather. He was seized with acute bron- 
chitis, and died on 2 April 1865 in lodgings 
in Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, within a couple 
of months of the completion of his sixty-first 
year. He was buried, amid a large concourse 
of sorrowing friends, public and private, in 
the churchyard atLavington,near his home in 
Sussex, in the grave where his son had been 
laid nine years before. Cobden was as emi- 
nent for the amiability of his private cha- 
racter as for his public virtue. Though in- 
cessantly engaged in the keenest controversy, 
he never made an enemy. The sincerity of 
his interest in great causes raised him above 
personalities, as it enabled him to bear with 
a singular constancy the embarrassments and 
trials of a life which in some respects had 
less than its share of happy fortune. 

[Speeches on Questions of Public Policy by 
Kichard Cobden, edited by John Bright and J. E. 
Thorold Eogers, 1870; The Political Writings 
of Kichard Cobden, 1867; Morley's Life of 
Kichard Cobden, 1881 ; Ashworth's Recollections 



of Kichard Cobden and theAnti-Cornlaw League, 
1876; The League: the Exponent of the Princi- 
ples of Free Trade, and the Organ of the National 
Anti-Cornlaw League, September 1843 to 4 July 
1846.] J. M-Y. 

COBHAM, LORDS. [See BROOKE, HENRY, 
d. 1619 ; OLDCASTLE, SIR JOHN, d. 1417.] 

COBHAM, VISCOUNT. [See TEMPLE 
RICHARD, 1669-1749.] 

COBHAM, ELEANOR, DUCHESS OP 
GLOUCESTER (d. 1443 ?). [See under PLAN- 

TAGENET, HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

1391-1446.] 

COBHAM, SIR HENRY (1538-1605?), 
diplomatist, was the fifth son of George 
Brooke, sixth lord Cobham (the grandfather 
of Henry Brooke, eighth lord Cobham [q. v.]), 
but was always known as, and subscribed him- 
self, Henry Cobham. He accompanied Sir 
Thomas Chaloner the elder [q. v.] to Spain on 
the latter being accredited as ambassador resi- 
dent at Madrid in 1561, returning to England 
the same year with despatches. In 1567 he 
carried letters from Elizabeth to the emperor 
and the Archduke Charles at Vienna, by which 
the queen hoped to reopen the negotiations for 
her marriage with the archduke, and returned 
.with the answer which closed that chapter of 
history. In 1570 he was sent to Antwerp, os- 
tensibly on a mission of courtesy, but really to 
ascertain the destination of the fleet which 
Alva was then equipping. Thence he went 
to Speyer, where he had audience of the em- 
peror (17 Sept.), and proceeded by way of 
Paris to Spain, being accredited to Philip 
as an envoy extraordinary. His instructions 
were to demand (1) the release of the Eng- 
lish ships seized by Alva in alleged retalia- 
tion for depredations committed by English 
privateers, (2) the expulsion of the English 
catholic refugees from Spain. He was treated 
with signal discourtesy, was hardly admitted 
to an audience of Philip, and then imme- 
diately referred to the council. On his at- 
tempting to argue that Alva was the aggres- 
sor, De Feria bluntly intimated that he was 
not speaking the truth, and Cardinal Spinosa 
suggested that Elizabeth ought to make the 
first advances by restoring the Spanish trea- 
sure taken by the privateers. Cobham then 
returned to England. He was knighted at 
Kenilworth in the summer of 1575 (SiRYPB, 
Ann., fol., ii. pt. i. p. 394), and in the autumn 
was again sent to Madrid, this time to de- 
mand, under threat of a breach of amity, 
religious toleration for English subjects resi- 
dent and travelling in Spain, and ' minister- 
ing no just cause of offence by open word, 
act, or writing,' and liberty for English am- 



Cobham 



155 



Cobham 



bassadors resident to use the forms of the 
English church in their own houses, and to 
make an offer of mediation between Philip 
and the Netherlands. Philip was immovable, 
but Alva, alarmed at the prospect of a rup- 
ture between the two countries, undertook 
on his own responsibility to secure some 
slight relaxation of the laws against heretics 
in favour of English residents. The proffered 
mediation was rejected. On his return to 
England Cobham was at once despatched to 
Brussels to threaten Requescens with Avar if 
he proceeded further with coercive measures. 
Requescens, however, died before Cobham 
could deliver the message. In 1579 Cobham 
succeeded Sir Amyas Paulet as ambassador 
resident at Paris (Birch MS. 2442, f. 883). 
He was instructed (1) to negotiate for a 
joint expedition to place Don Antonio on 
the throne of Portugal, (2) to require the 
establishment of a court for the relief of 
English subjects injured by the depredations 
of French privateers, (3) to temporise in the 
matter of the proposed marriage with Alen- 
con. He was joined by Somers and Wal- 
singham in 1581, when the three ambas- 
sadors urged the substitution of a ' league of 
amity ' for the match. He remained at Paris 
until 1583, when he Avas recalled. He re- 
presented Kent in the parliaments of 1586 
and 1589, and was a member of the ' privy 
council of the house 'and several committees. 
He was living in 1604, but probably died 
soon after that date (Cotton MS. Vesp. F. 
xiii. f. 285 6). Cobham married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Sir Henry Sutton of Nottinghamshire, 
relict of Walter Haddon, master of requests, 
by whom he had three sons. Of these the 
second, Sir John Cobham of Hekington, 
Lincolnshire, was raised to the peerage by 
Charles I at Oxford in 1645, by the title of 
Baron Cobham, but by his death without 
issue the title became extinct. 

[Coll. Top. et Gen. vii. 352 ; Cal. State Papers, i 
(Foreign, 1558-9) p. 281, (1562) pp. 100, 256, 
459, 580, (1566-8) p. 369, (1569-71) pp. 303, 
328-9, 331, 335, 339, 435, 438, (1575-7) pp. 156, 
180, 219-21, 406-7 ; Froude's Hist. Engl. xi. 41, 
437 ; Murdin's State Papers, p. 343 ; MS. Cott. 
Cal. E. vii. 156, Otho E. iv. ; Digges's Compleat 
Ambassador; Cal. State Papers (Dom. 1581-90), 
p. 119 ; Official Eeturn of Lists of Members of 
Parl.; D'Ewes's Journ. of Parl. temp. Eliz. pp. 394, 
395, 440; MS. Harl. 6157, f. 10; Misc. Gen. et. 
Her. (N.S.),i. 451 ; Dugdale'sBar. ii. 283 ; Nicolas's 
Hist. Peerage (Courthope), p. 119.] J. M. E. 

COBHAM, JOHN DE, third LORD COB- 
HAM (d. 1408),was the grandson of Henry de 
Cobham (1260-1335), and son of John de 
Cobham, constable of Rochester Castle, and, 
if we may trust Dugdale, 'admiral of the 



king's fleet from the Thames westward' in 
1335 (DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 65; Abbrev. 
Rot. Orig. Scacc. ii. 78; Collect. Topog. vii. 
320). His mother's name seems to have been 
Joan, according to Hasted, a daughter of 
John, lord Beauchamp (Hist, of Kent, i. 490 ; 
Coll. Top. vii. 342). Dugdale has confused 
the two John de Cobhams, and has treated 
them as one individual who, in this case, must 
have held the barony of Cobham for about 
seventy years. As Henry de Cobham can be 
shown to have died in 1335 or 1339 (Coll. 
Top. 322), and as John de Cobham the elder 
was already married in 8 Edward III (1314- 
1315), and admiral of the fleet in 1335, on this 
supposition he can hardly have been less than 
110 years old at the time of his death in 1408. 
The Cobham records (Top. Gen. vii. 320) also 
speak distinctly of two Johns, respectively 
the son and grandson of Henry de Cobham. 
Hasted makes John de Cobham the elder to 
have died in 36 Edward III (Hist, of Kent, i. 
490), but in this statement he seems to be 
going beyond his authority, the 'Escheat 
Rolls ' for this year (cf. Esch. Rolls, ii. 258). 
From other evidence we find that John de 
Cobham the elder was alive in 25 Edward III 
(1351), but apparently dead by 33 Ed- 
ward III (1359) (Coll. Top. vii. 345, 348); 
whence we may conclude that the younger 
John de Cobham succeeded to his father's 
estates between 1351 and 1359. An en- 
try in the Cobham records dated 32 Ed- 
ward III, and running in the name of ' John 
de Cobham, son of Lord John de Cobham ' 
(ib. vii. 344), would seem to imply that the 
elder John survived the year 1357, in which 
case he must have died in 1358 or 1359. 
In 40 and 41 Edward III John de Cobham 
appears to have been serving in France, and 
in the latter year was despatched as ambas- 
sador to Rome (DTIGDALE ; RTMEE, vi. 542, 
567 ; PALGRAVE, ExcJieq. Kalendars, i. 212). 
In 1374 he was at Bruges negotiating the 
futile attempts at a treaty with the French 
(WALSINGHAM, Ypod. Neustr. 379), and is 
found associated with the Duke of Lancaster 
on a similar errand in the two ensuing years 
(RYMER, vii. 58, 88, &c.) On the accession 
of Richard II he was appointed one of the 
two barons in the young king's council (ib. 
161). Two years later he was sent to treat 
with the French, and to help in the arrange- 
ments previous to Richard's marriage (Sep- 
tember 1379). In the course of the next few 
years he is constantly found negotiating with 
France and Flanders (RYMER, vii. 229, 248, 
412, &c.) Meanwhile, his name occurs with 
unbroken regularity as one of the triers of 
petitions for England, Scotland, and Wales, 
and later (from 1382) as trier for Gascony 



Cobham 



156 



Cobham 



(Rot. Parl. in. 4, 144, &c.) In 1387-8 he 
was one of the commissioners of the king 
before whom the appellant lords brought 
their charges against Robert deVere, Michael 
de la Pole, and Richard's other favourites (ib. 
229). This committee had been appointed 
about Michaelmas 1386, and was originally 
only intended to continue till Christmas 
(Eulog. Hist. 360) for the purpose of regu- 
lating the royal court and finance. In 1397 
he was impeached by the commons for having 
been a member of this commission, and was 
brought up for trial in January by the Duke 
of Lancaster, who prosecuted for the king. 
A detailed account of the process has been 
preserved. He pleaded that he had only 
served on the commission at the king's com- 
mand; but was unable to meet the retort that 
he must have been well aware that the king's 
consent had been obtained by pressure. As 
regarded the execution of Sir Simon Burley 
[q. v.], he made a similar defence that it was 
carried out by those who were at that time 
rulers de facto 'par yceux q'adonques furent 
mestres.' Finally he was adjudged a traitor, 
and sentenced to be hung, drawn, and quar- 
tered, a penalty which, however, the King 
commuted for one of forfeiture and perpetual 
banishment to Jersey (Rot. Parl. iii. 382). 
There can be little doubt that Cobham's ex- 
treme age (he must have been between eighty 
and ninety at the time) had something to do 
with obtaining him so lenient a sentence. 
Wai singham describes him as ' vir grandsevus, 
simplex et rectus,' and speaks of the king as 
granting ' the old man ' ' a life for which he 
did not care ' ( Ypod. Neustr. 379). It would 
seem that he had before his impeachment 
withdrawn from the world to a Carthu- 
sian monastery, whence he was removed for 
his trial (GowER, Tripartite Chron. i. 433). 
The punishment of Cobham formed one of 
the charges brought against Richard II on 
his deposition (CAPGRAVE, De HI. Henr. 103) ; 
and on the accession of Henry IV Cobham 
was recalled from banishment (Eulog. Hist. 
385). He acted as one of the ' triers ' for 
England in 2 Henry IV, apparently for the 
last time. His name, however, is appended 
to the document of 1406 in which Henry IV 
regulates the succession to the crown (Rot. 
Parl. iii. 580). Shortly after this (10 Jan. 
1408) he seems to have died, being probably 
not very far short of a hundred years old ( Coll. 
Top. vii. 329). He married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devonshire, 
to whom he was perhaps betrothed, if not 
actually married, as early as 1331 (HASTED, 
with which cf. Top. Gen. vii. 323). His 
heiress was his granddaughter Joan, whose 
mother, bearing the same name, had married 



Sir John de la Pole (ib. 320: HASTED ; DUG- 
DALE). This younger Joan, at the time of 
her grandfather's death, was thirty years of 
age, and the widow of Sir Nicholas Hawberk. 
She is said to have been married five times 
(Coll. Top. 329 ; HASTED). One of her hus- 
bands was Sir John Oldcastle [q. v.l, who, in 
the right of his wife, was sometimes known as 
Lord Cobham (WALSINGHAM, Ypod. Neustr. 
439). By another husband, Sir Gerard Bray- 
brooke, Joan had a daughter, likewise called 
Joan, who married Sir Thomas Brooke of 
Somerset, and thus was ancestress of the 
Brookes of Cobham (HASTED). Cobham's 
name is associated with several important 
occurrences in the reign of Richard II, be- 
sides those mentioned above, as, for example, 
the famous Scrope and Grosvenor case 
(RTMER, vii. 620), and the letter of remon- 
strance to the papal court in 1390 (ib. 675). 
In 1372 he is found transacting business with 
a certain John Gower, probably the poet 
(Excheq. Rolls, ii. 78). Ten years previously 
(1362) he founded the college, or chantry, 
of Cobham (HASTED, i. 503), and nearly ten 
years later (1370-1) received permission to 
crenellate his house at Cowling, where his 
inscription and coat of arms were still to be 
seen over the eastern gate in Hasted's time 
(Coll. Top. vii. 346 ; HASTED, i. 539). Through 
his granddaughter Joan this castle passed into 
the hands of Sir John Oldcastle, and is said 
to have been the place where he entertained 
and protected Lollard priests (HASTED). 

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 66-7 ; Hasted's His- 
tory of Kent, i. 490, &c. ; Collectanea Topo- 
graphica et Genealogica, vii. 320-54, where is to 
be found a very large collection of records from 
the muniment room at Cobham House, which 
have been of the greatest assistance in fixing 
the dates and successions in the above article; 
Nicolas's Peerage, ed. Courthope, 118; Wal- 
singham's Historia Anglicana, ed. Riley (Rolls 
Series), ii. 227 ; Walsingham's Ypodigma Neus- 
trise, ed. Eiley (Rolls Series), 379, 320; Eulogium 
Historiarum, ed. Haydon (Rolls Series), 360, 376, 
385, &c. ; Trokelowe's Chronica et Annales, ed. 
Riley (Rolls Series), 224 ; Knyghton ap. Twys- 
den's Decem Scriptores, 2685, 2697 ; Abbreviatio 
Rotulorum Orig. Scaccarii, 86, 216, 275, 340; 
Kalendarium Inquisitionum post mortem (Es- 
cheat Rolls), 224, 315, &c. ; Rolls of Parliament, 
iii. 4, 34, &c. ; Palgrave's Calendars and Inven- 
tories, i. 212 ; Nicolas's Proceedings of Privy 
Council, i. 12, 59, &c. ; Issue Rolls of Exchequer, 
ed. Devon (1835), 440, &c. ; Issue Rolls of Ex- 
chequer from Henry III to Henry VI (1837), 
208 ; Rymer's Foedera, vi. 542-3, vii. 58, 88, &c. ; 
Capgrave, De Illustribus Henricis, ed. Hingeston 
(Rolls Series), 101, 103; Gower's Tripartite 
Chronicle in Wright's Political Poems (Rolls 
Series).] T. A. A. 



Cobham 



157 



Cobham 



COBHAM, THOMAS DE (d. 1327), 
bishop of Worcester, was a member of the 
well-known Kentish family of Cobham (MoN. 
MALMESB. Vit. Edw. II, p. 197). He gra- 
duated in three universities in arts at Paris, 
in canon law at Oxford, and in theology at 
Cambridge (Annales Paulini, p. 274). It 
has also been erroneously stated that he was 
chancellor of Cambridge (note to GODWIN, 
De Pr&sulibus, ii. 42), through a confusion 
with another Thomas de Cobham, who held 
that post in 1422 (Graduati Cantabrigien- 
ses, Append, p. 3 ; LE NEVE, Fasti, iii. 599, 
ed. Hardy). Cobham was a secular clergy- 
man and was highly reputed, by the accordant 
testimony of contemporaries, as a man of 
eminent learning and unblemished character, 
so that he came to be known by the distin- 
guishing name of ' the good clerk ' (BALE, 
Scriptt. Brit. Cat. iv. 98, p. 379). He received 
preferment in seven dioceses. In January 
1287-8 the Archbishop of Canterbury insti- 
tuted him to the benefice of Hollingbourn 
in Kent ; in 1299 he was presented to that 
of Boxley in the same county (TANNER, Bibl. 
Brit. p. 172), as well as to the prebend of 
Fiona Parvain Hereford Cathedral (LENEVE, 
i. 521). On 13 Dec. of the same year he re- 
ceived the prebend of Wedmore the second 
at Wells (WHARTON, Anglia Sacra, i. 532 ; 
TANNER). In 1301 he is mentioned as arch~ 
deacon of Lewes (WHARTON; LE NEVE, i. 
262), and in 1306 as canon of London (Rr- 
MER, Foedera, ii. 992, ed. 1705), where he 
held the prebend of Ealdstreet in St. Paul's 
Cathedral (Ls NEVE, ii. 385). He was made 
precentor of York on 14 July 1312 (WHAR- 
TON), and given the prebend of Fenton in 
that cathedral on 6 Dec. of the same year 
(LE NEVE, iii. 184). These last-named pre- 
ferments, if not also his stall at Hereford, 
Cobham retained in plurality with his canonry 
of St. Paul's, which was in his time one of 
small value. He has also been generally 
described as sub-dean of Salisbury, but this 
statement is plainly due to a confusion with 
Thomas de Chabham [q. v.], who held this 
office early in the thirteenth century. 

Cobham's ability was recognised in his 
employment by Edward I on a mission to 
the pope in 1306 (RYMER, I. c.), and by his 
son on a mission to the king of France in 
1312 (ib. iii. 313). He was as yet only in 
sub-deacon's orders, when in May 1313, im- 
mediately after the funeral of Archbishop 
Robert Winchelsey, the monks of Canterbury 
proceeded to elect him as his successor. The 
election took place on 28 May (or 23 as one 
authority gives the date, ap. GODWIN, i. 103 
note 6), Cobham being at the moment at 
Paris, engaged on the king's business (A 



MURIMUTH, Chron. p. 18, ed. Hog, 1846), or r 
according to others, ' regent' at the university 
(GODWIN, i. 103). Thither a deputation of the 
monks followed him, and persuaded him to 
accept the election. Edward II was also in 
Paris, and, it is said, allowed Cobham to be 
presented to him as elect on 9 June (WHAR- 
). But he had another candidate in his 
mind in the person of Walter Reynolds, 
bishop of Worcester and chancellor of the 
realm 'a mere creature of court favour 7 
(STUBBS, Constitutional History of England, 
251, ii. 365, Library ed.) ; and it tran- 
pired conveniently that Clement V had re- 
served to himself the collation of the arch- 
bishopric on 27 April, just before Winchelsey'a 
death (WILKINS, Concilia Magnce Britannia, 
ii. 424 et seq.) His bull notifying this fact 
was publicly read in St. Paul's Cathedral on 
9 July (Ann. Paul. p. 274). Another bull, 
dated 1 Oct. in the same year, quashed the 
election of Cobham and nominated Reynolds, 
the document (printed in Rymer's 'Foedera/ 
iii. 439 et seq.) expressly declaring that Cob- 
ham's rejection was not caused by any per- 
sonal demerit, but by consideration of the 
larger interests of the English church. Others- 
said that the pope was not uninfluenced by 
a present of thirty-two thousand marks, with 
which Edward had supported his application 
(T. BURTON, Chron. Monast. de Melsa, ii. 
329, ed. Bond, 1867). What contemporaries 
thought of the proceeding is shown well 
enough by the comments, for instance, of the 
monk of Malmesbury ( Vita Edw. II, p. 197), 
In the meantime Cobham had visited 
Avignon, and seemed disposed to press his 
suit at the papal court. Unwilling, how- 
ever, to offend both the king and the pope, 
and soothed perhaps by the promise that his 
patience should be rewarded in due time, 
he soon renounced his claim to the arch- 
bishopric. Not long afterwards Bishop Maid- 
stone, Reynolds's successor at Worcester, 
died, and John XXII, who had, as usual, 
made ' provision ' for the next voidance of 
the see, conferred it upon Cobham (A. MU- 
RIMUTH, p. 25). Cobham signified his assent 
on 31 March 1317 (GODWIN, ii. 42), and was 
consecrated at Avignon on 22 May (SiUBB8 r 
Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 51). But 
he was not enthroned at Worcester until 
28 Oct. 1319 (Ann. Paul. p. 287). He died 
at his castle of Hartlebury (RTMER, Foedera, 
iv. 331) on 26 Aug. (Ann. Paul. p. 337) or 
27 (WHARTON ; STUBBS, Reg. I.e.) 1327, and 
was buried in his own cathedral. 

Cobham's memory is preserved at Oxford 
by a library which he founded. About 1320 1 
he made preparations for the building of a 
room over the old congregation house on 



Cobham 



158 



the north side of the chancel of St. Mary's 
Church, and he bequeathed his books to the 
university to be deposited there. His exe- 
cutors, however, in order to defray the charges 
of the bishop's funeral and his outstanding 
debts, pawned the library. Then Adam de 
Brome, at their suggestion, redeemed the 
collection and deposited it in Oriel College. 
But after a while, about 1337, the scholars 
of the university, headed by the commissary 
(or vice-chancellor), deeming the books their 
property, carried them away by force and 
placed them in the chamber provided by 
Cobham (see a document in the Oriel muni- 
ments, printed by C. L. Shadwell, in the 
Collectanea -of the Oxford Historical Society, 
i. 62-5, 1885). The claim of the university 
to possess and regulate the library was de- 
clared in a statute, and ratified in 1367 (AN- 
STEY, Munimenta Academica, i. 226-8, Rolls 
Series, 1868) ; but the dispute between the 
college and the university was not finally 
settled until 1410 (SHADWELL, /. c. p. 65). 
Meanwhile the books remained in St. Mary's 
Church until they were incorporated with the 
collection of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, 
which afterwards came to form the nucleus 
of the Bodleian Library (compare WOOD, Hist, 
and Antiq. of Oxford (Colleges and Halls), 
ed. Gutch, p. 133 ; MACRA.Y, Annals of the 
Bodleian Library, p. 1, 1868). 

[Annales Paulini, in the Chronicles of Ed- 
ward I and Edward II, ed. Stubbs, vol. i., Rolls 
Series ; Vita Edwardi II, by a monk of Malmes- 
bury, in the same collection, vol. ii.; Trokelowe's 
Annales, ed. Eiley, pp. 81, 82; Walsingham's 
Hist. Angl., ed. Riley, i. 136, 137, mainly de- 
rived from Trokelowe ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
i. 532 et seq. ; Godwin, De Praesulibus, i. 103, 
ii. 42 et seq. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 1 72.] 

R. L. P. 

COBHAM, THOMAS (1786-1842), actor, 
was born in 1786 in London. His father, whom 
in an account of his life which he supplied 
to the 'Dublin Theatrical Observer,' 1821-2, 
he vaguely describes as ' distinguished as an 
algebraist, mathematician, and architectural 
draughtsman,' died young, and Cobham was 
apprenticed by his mother to a printer. He 
rose to be reader and corrector for the press, 
and came into some relations with Malone, 
an edition of whose ' Shakespeare ' he ; read ' 
for the printers. He first appeared as an ama- 
teur in Lamb's Conduit Street as Shylock, a 
part in which George Frederick Cooke [q. v.] 
had greatly impressed him. His first profes- 
sional essay was at Watford, Hertfordshire. 
He subsequently played in various country 
towns, taking, like Kean, every part, from 
leading tragedian to harlequin. At Salisbury 
he married Miss Drake, an actress of the 



Salisbury Theatre. When playing at Ox- 
ford, Cobham, with his wife, was engaged by 
Penley for the theatre in Tottenham Street, 
where he appeared with much success as 
! Marmion in a dramatisation by Oxberry of 
Scott's poem. He then went to the Surrey 
Theatre, and thence to the Royalty. On 
16 April 1816 he appeared as Richard III at 
Covent Garden. That the experiment was 
a failure was in part ascribed to the supporters 
of Kean, and especially to the club known as 
' The Wolves.' Hazlitt, however, who was 
present on the occasion, declares his Richard 
to have been ' a vile one,' a caricature of 
Kean, and continues : ' He raved, whined, 
grinned, stared, stamped, and rolled his eyes 
with incredible velocity, and all in the right 
place according to his cue, but in so extra- 
vagant and disjointed a manner, and with 
such a total want of common sense, decorum, 
or conception of the character as to be per- 
fectly ridiculous' (A View of the English 
Stage, 1818, p. 274). The ' Theatrical In- 
quisitor ' (April 1816), on the other hand, says 
of his performance that ' it was good very 
good,' and censures the audience for tak- 
ing a cowardly advantage and condemning 
him before he was heard. The performance 
was repeated with some success on 22 April 
1816, and Cobham then disappeared from 
the West-end. In 1817 he appeared at the 
Crow Street Theatre, Dublin, as Sir Giles 
Overreach, playing afterwards Macbeth, and 
Richard. He was in Dublin in 1821-2, a 
member of the Hawkins Street stock com- 
pany, dividing with Warde the principal cha- 
racters of tragedy. After Warde's disappear- 
ance he played, in the memorable engagement 
of Kean in July 1822, Richmond, lago, Edgar 
in Lear, and the Ghost in Hamlet. Early 
in his career Cobham played at Woolwich, at 
the Navy Tavern, Glenalvon to the Young 
Norval of Kean. Subsequently at the Coburg 
Theatre the two actors met once more, Kean 
playing Othello, and Cobham lago. The re- 
ception of Kean on this occasion by the trans- 
pontine public, the faith of which in Cob- 
ham was never shaken, was unfavourable. A 
full account of the scene of Kean's indigna- 
tion and Cobham's speech to the audience 
appears in Cole's ' Life of Charles Kean,' i. 
161-3. Cobham had some resemblance in 
appearance and stature to Kean, being dark, 
with flexible features, and about five feet five 
inches in height. In spite of Hazlitt's un- 
favourable verdict, he was a fair actor, a little 
given to rant, and to so-called and not very 
defensible ' new readings.' In the ' Dramatic 
Magazine,' ii. 210, he is placed in respect of 
genius above all actors of the day except 
Kean, Young, Macready, and Charles Kemble. 



Cochran 



15. 



It is there also said that ' the modern stage 
affords few efforts of genius superior to his 
acting in the last scene of " Thirty Years of 
a Gambler's Life." ' A coloured print of 
Cobham as Richard III was published in 
Dublin, presumably in 1821. In his later 
life he rarely quitted the transpontine stage. 
He died on 3 Jan. 1842, leaving a son and 
& daughter on the stage. The latter acted 
under the name of Mrs. Fitzgerald. 

[Authorities cited ; Oxberry's Dramatic Bio- 
graphy, vol. i. ; Gent. Mag. ; Era newspaper ; 
Notes and Queries, 7th ser. ii. 318; Doran's 
Her Majesty's Servants; private recollections 
supplied.] J. K. 

COCHRAN, WILLIAM (1738-1785), 
painter, born at Strathaven in Clydesdale, 
N.B., 12 Dec. 1738, came of a family of dis- 
tinction in Glasgow. He received his first 
instruction in art in 1754 at the academy 
founded in Glasgow by the well-known prin- 
ters, Robert and Andrew Foulis. Towards 
the close of 1761 he went to Italy, and be- 
came a pupil of Gavin Hamilton ; there 
he painted several historical and mythologi- 
cal pictures, of which the best known were 
* Daedalus and Icarus ' and ' Diana and En- 
dymion.' Not having any very great ambi- 
tion, he returned to Glasgow, and devoted 
himself to portrait-painting, practising both 
in oil and in miniature ; in this line of art he 
attained great proficiency. Among the por- 
traits painted by him was that of William 
Cullen, professor in Edinburgh University, 
and first physician to his majesty in Scot- 
land, which was engraved in mezzotint by 
Valentine Green. Cochran never exhibited 
his works, and seldom put his name to them ; 
hence he is not so well known as he deserves 
to be. He continued to reside at Glasgow, 
and died there on 23 Oct. 1785, aged 47. 
He was buried in the cathedral in that city, 
where a monument was erected to his memory. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Gent. 
Mag. (1786), Ivi. 82 ; Cooper's Biog. Diet. ; 
Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers ; J. Cha- 
loner Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits.] 

L. C. 

COCHRANE, SIR ALEXANDER FOR- 
RESTER INGLIS (1758-1832), admiral, 
younger son of Thomas Cochrane, eighth earl 
of Dundonald, was born on 22 April 1758, 
entered the navy at an early age, and was 
made lieutenant in 1778. In 1780 he was a 
junior lieutenant of the Montagu, with Cap- 
tain Houlton, and was wounded in the action 
off Martinique on 17 April. In the follow- 
ing December he was made commander, 
and, continuing on the West Indian station 
under Sir George Rodney, was advanced to 



Cochrane 

\king experiments which Dundonald 
P bought of. 

En !pnald in 1785 proposed the malting 
half-f or t he purpose of feeding cattle, 
till 1 , D iished a treatise ' On the Use of 
Hind --> as a Manure.' Several of his 
when w% ave> with some modifications, 
during th, re the public as modern disco- 
he cruised reative tendencies of his mind 
the enemy >,i e ; but he wanted the me- 
transferred required to reduce his ideas 
he commande* 

American stati-ig on 1 July 1831. His 
the Hussar in Cat in the most depressing 
large French sttyrites ' l His discoveries, 
tured two, frigat'ty, ruined him, and de- 
well-contested act their remaining pater- 
JOHN Poo]. In IVas thrice married, and 
the Ajax of 80 guns-wife, Anne Gilchrist, 
during the following} Thomas Cochrane 
fleet, under Lord St. s second wife was 
cially engaged in the ; his third Anne 
under Sir Edward Pellets Plowden. She 
lase Warren [q. v.] in TI for her father's 
Quiberon Bay and againsi with her, and 
afterwards joined the M-'22) Dundonald 
under Lord Keith, with wl<y Fund, 
the coast of Egypt, where G'ce Tyne, Wear, 
pointed to superintend the 1 ; Thomson's 
troops and to support them wiciobiography 
armed boats on Lake Marcotis. rl of Dun- 
mance of these duties called fortl^hird Meet- 
from both Lord Keith and Genen 3 : 
son. At the peace of Amiens th en 
turned to England and was paid c ~ T ' 
Cochrane was elected member of par.!883)> 
for the Stirling boroughs. In the fol^och- 
year, however, when the war again ly of 
out, he was appointed to the NorthuiT.98. 
land of 74 guns, and on his advancements 
be rear-admiral on 23 April 1804, hoist 1 -t 
his flag on board the same ship, and for som 
time commanded the squadron off Ferrol, 
from which station he was able to send 
home the news of the Spanish armament, 
which led to the seizure of the treasure-ships 
off Cape Santa Maria on 5 Oct. [see MOORE, 
SIR GRAHAM]. James (Naval History, 1860, 
iii. 287) implies that the intelligence was in- 
correct, and that the Spanish armament and 
war preparations at Ferrol existed only in 
Cochrane's imagination, a view which ap- 
pears untenable, though it is quite possible 
that their immediate importance was exag- 
gerated, and such, indeed, was Lord Nelson's 
opinion at the time (Nelson Despatches, vi. 
241). 

Cochrane was still off Ferrol in February 
1805 when he heard of the sailing of Mis- 
siessy with a strong squadron from Roche- 
fort, and at the same time received orders t- 
follow in pursuit. Missiessy, carrying 



Cobham 



Cochrane 



the north side of the chancel of St. MaryV d 
Church, and he bequeathed his books to th to 
university to be deposited there. His e. r01 
cutors, however, in order to defray the ch? . 1<1V 
of the bishop's funeral and his outsta 581 '*>> 
debts, pawned the library. Then Ac" c ' 
Brome, at their suggestion, redeer rei 
collection and deposited it in OneP 1 ^ g et 
But after a while, about 1337, th^ Madeira 
of the university, headed by the f"* returned 
(or vice-chancellor), deeming th^antime ap- 
property, carried them away c the Leeward 
placed them in the chambe^rbadoes wrth 
Cobham (see a document in nd when Nelson 
ments, printed by C. L. P n * P U Tl < ? 
Collectalea-of the Oxford F ond attempt had 
i. 62-6, 1885). The clairf <? f ^Jf^T 
to possess and regulate ok the Northumber- 
clared in a statute, and > ^taming her with 

STEY, Munimenta Aca^\ 9 18 e , m <{* g 
o IQCA Knf tv r behind when he sailed 
Series, lobo); but tr ,. 

TII 4 A. ,,;T- ; In. the following year, 

college and the unn / _ , , / fi j 
settled until 1410 ^Duckworth followed 
Meanwhile the bool *V * West Indies, 
Church until they ^ ned , the mam .fleet, and, 
collection of Hu7^f d > had a j er im .P r - 
which afterwarc-^ ba " le J ^ff 
oftheBodleiar' y hen Sf^^SS^S 

j A + ^d to a hundred killed and 

ArS f nearly one-third of the whole. 

ed. (jutcn, r. ' , , . . ^ , 

fi (Jl ' Zt7 ices on occasion Cochrane 

knight of the Bath, was presented 

[Annales eedom of the city of Lon( j on> and 

ward an' o honour. Cochrane continued as 
ider-in-chief at the Leeward Islands, 
e^r * ne ca ? t ure ^ Guadeloupe in January 
Hist *^ appointed governor of that island, 
rived n P^ he held till 1814, when he was 
i. sainted oo the command of the North 
ii.oierican station. Here, with his flag in 
ae Tonnant of 80 guns, he was employed 
during the next year in directing the opera- 
tions along the coast, more especially the 
unsuccessful attempts against Baltimore and 
New Orleans, in which, however, he had no 
active share. At the peace he returned to 
England, where he remained unemployed 
till 1821, when he was appointed commander- 
in-chief at Plymouth. This was the end of 
his active service. He died suddenly in 
Paris on 26 Jan. 1832, and was buried in 
Pere-la-Chaise. 

He attained the rank of vice-admiral on 
25 Oct. 1809, admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, and 
was made G.C.B. in June 1815, on the re- 
constitution of the order. He married in 
1788 Maria, widow of Captain Sir Jacob 
Waite, bart., R.N., by whom he had several 
children. 

Vpf Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. i. 257; United 
-jg^ Journal, 1832, pt. i. 372.] J. K L. 



COCHRANE, ARCHIBALD, ninth 
EARL OP DTJXDONALD (1749-1831), naval 
officer and chemical manufacturer, born on 
1 Jan. 1749, was the son of Thomas Cochrane, 
the eighth earl of Dundonald. Archibald 
was in his youth in the navy, in which he 
became acting lieutenant. A cruise on the 
coast of Guinea gave the young man a dis- 
taste for the naval profession, and on his re- 
turn home he obtained a commission in the 
army, joining the 104th regiment, which he^ 
after a time also relinquished. He succeeded 
to the title on the death of his father, 27 Jun& 
1778 ; but the ancient inheritance of the 
Cochranes had been wasted, and Archibald 
was so poor that he was unable to equip 
his son for sea until the Earl of Hopetoun 
advanced him 100/. Although his circum- 
stances were somewhat improved by a second 
marriage, he expended so much money on his- 
manufacturing pursuits that the family were 
compelled to return to Scotland. About this 
time he made extensive experiments for im- 
proving the mode of preparing hemp and flax 
for the manufacture of sailcloth. The ad- 
miralty appears to have adopted Dundonald's 
process ; but the inventor derived no benefit 
from his patent. His son states that 'the- 
unentailed estates were absorbed by extensive 
scientific pursuits,' that is, in attempts to 
apply imperfect scientific knowledge to manu- 
facturing processes. 

Dundonald was an active-minded young 
man, and found himself in the midst of a 
society full of the recent great discoveries 
made by Cavendish, Priestley, Black, and 
others. He is said to have been on intimate 
terms with those philosophers ; but his only- 
thought was to retrieve the fortunes of the 
family by applying the discoveries of that day. 
While staying with his relations on the Tyne, 
he became acquainted with the alkali manu- 
facturers ; the manufacture was then carried 
on by employing the ashes of various marine 
plants. Attempts were being made by con- 
tinental chemists to prepare carbonate of soda 
by the decomposition of common salt. Le 
Blanc, in 1781, patented a process for effect- 
ing this by a mixture of sulphate of soda, 
carbonate of lime, and charcoal calcined 
together, and Dundonald's attention was at- 
tracted to this new process. He was now 
residing in Newcastle, and he formed an in- 
timate acquaintance with Messrs. Losh and 
Doubleday, who were employing a process, 
not very successfully, resembling, in many 
respects, that of Le Blanc. At the suggestion 
of Dundonald, and at his expense, Mr. Losh 
made inquiries at Paris. On Losh's return 
from France the Walker Chemical Company 
was formed and a new manufactory esta- 



Cochrane 



161 



Cochrane 



Wished. Dundonald became an active member 
of this firm, and all the experimental trials 
appear to have been made at his suggestion, 
chiefly under his superintendence, and at his 
cost. In 1796 the new process had obtained 
a considerable degree of success, and in 1808 
alkali (carbonate of soda) was obtained by 
decomposing the waste salt obtained from the 
soap-boilers. Thus was commenced the alkali 
manufacture on the banks of the Tyne, which 
speedily extended itself to Lancashire and 
Cheshire. Dundonald's motives were excel- 
lent, but his means were insufficient. ' Our 
remaining patrimony,' his son writes, ' melted 
like the flux in his furnaces.' 

Dundonald also established a manufactory 
for the production of alumina as a mordant, 
for silk and calico printers ; he engaged in 
the manufacture of British gum (starch, in 
the form of sago, exposed to a temperature of 
600 F.), still extensively used ; and he spent 
money on the economical preparation of sal- 
ammoniac, and on a new process for obtaining 
white lead. 

When on the west coast of Africa he had 
noticed the ravages made on ships' bottoms 
by worms. It now occurred to him to apply 
coal-tar ; and he immediately designed and 
built, at much cost, retorts for the distillation 
of tar from coal. He was quite correct in 
his views, and was very near the discovery of 
the other coal products, from which fortunes 
have been derived ; but although he urged the 
admiralty to try the coal-tar on ships in the 
navy, he was never successful, mainly owing 
to the introduction of copper sheathing. 

In the prosecution of his coal-tar patent 
Dundonald went to reside, in 1782, at the 
family estate of Culross Abbey. Here he 
erected kilns, and superintended the working 
of his collieries on the adjoining properties 
of Vallyfield and Kincardine ; but his un- 
business-like management led only to ruin. 
An explosion of one of his kilns, and the 
combustion of the escaping gas, suggested to 
Dundonald the possibility of applviner coal- 

. . * f r'r Jo 

gas as an illuminating agent. The result of 
all these schemes was failure. 

In 1795 Dundonald published his ' Treatise 
showing the intimate connection between 
Agriculture and Chemistry.' Davy published 
his ' Elements of Agricultural Chemistry ' in 
1813. It has been urged that the celebrated 
chemist was indebted to the earl for many 
of the hypotheses which gave character to 
the ' Elements.' But Davy's appointment in 
1802 to the post of chemist to the board of 
agriculture, and the allotment to him by Sir 
Thomas Bernard and Davies Gilbert of land 
on their estates for his experiments in agri- 
cultural chemistry, gave him the opportunity 

vol.. xi. 



of making experiments which Dundonald 
never thought of. 

Dundonald in 1785 proposed the malting 
of grain for the purpose of feeding cattle, 
and he published a treatise ' On the Use of 
Salt Refuse as a Manure.' Several of his 
suggestions have, with some modifications, 
been laid before the public as modern disco- 
veries. The creative tendencies of his mind 
were considerable ; but he wanted the me- 
thodical training required to reduce his ideas 
to practice. 

He died at Paris on 1 July 1831. His 
last years were spent in the most depressing 
poverty. His son writes : ' His discoveries, 
now of national utility, ruined him, and de- 
prived his posterity of their remaining pater- 
nal inheritance.' He was thrice married, and 
had six sons by his first wife, Anne Gilchrist, 
the eldest of whom was Thomas Cochrane 
[q. v.], the admiral. His second wife was 
the widow of John Mayne ; his third Anne 
Maria, daughter of Francis Plowden. She 
had a pension from the crown for her father's 
literary services, which died with her, and 
after her death (18 Sept. 1822) Dundonald 
received help from the Literary Fund. 

[The Industrial Resources of the Tyne, Wear, 
and Tees, 1864 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Thomson's 
Cyclopaedia of Chemistry, 1854 ; Autobiography 
of a Seaman, by Thomas, tenth earl of Dun- 
donald, I860; Eeport of the Twenty-third Meet- 
ing of the British Association, 1863; Paris's 
Life of Sir Humphry Davy, 1831 ; Gent. Mag. 
1831, pt. ii. 172-3.] E. H-T. 

COCHRANE, SIR JAMES (1798-1883), 
chief justice of Gibraltar, son of Thomas Coch- 
rane, speaker of the House of Assembly of 
Nova Scotia, was born in that colony in 1798. 
He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple 
in 1829, was appointed attorney-general at 
Gibraltar in 1837, and in that place he spent 
the rest of his life. He was made chief justice 
there in 1841, was knighted in 1845, and he 
retained his high office for thirty-six years, 
resigning in 1877. Upon that occasion Gene- 
ral Lord Napier of Magdala, governor of the 
fortress, said of him : ' During the long time 
that Sir James Cochrane has presided over the 
supreme court at Gibraltar he has eminently 
maintained the high character of the bench. 
The clearness of his judgment, the wisdom of 
his decisions, and his personal character have 
commanded the respect of all classes of the 
community. He has done much for the lower 
classes, and his firmness and perfect fairness 
have helped greatly to dispel from the city of 
Gibraltar the crime of using the knife, which 
was unfortunately once so prevalent.' Coch- 
rane married in 1829 Theresa, daughter of 
Colonel William Haly, who died in 1873. 



Cochrane 



162 



Cochrane 



He died at Glenrocky, his house in Gibraltar, 
on 24 June 1883, leaving one son, the Rev. 
Thomas Cochrane, rector of Stapleford Ab- 
botts in Essex. 

[Foster's Knightage ; Times, 27 June 1883.1 

H. M. S. 

COCHRANE, SIR JOHN (d. 1650?) 
soldier and diplomatist, was the eldest son of 
Alexander Blair, who on his marriage with 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Cochrane of 
Cochrane, assumed the name of Cochrane. 
His younger brother William [q. v.] became 
first earl of Dundonald. He was in command 
of a regiment at Edinburgh in 1640, and in the 
following year was implicated in the plot for 
seizing the chiefs of the parliamentary party. 
He was arrested, but being released on bail 
j oined the king at York in 1642. Thence he was 
sent by Charles to Denmark to solicit help in 
men or money, and returning with the Danish 
ambassador, who was instructed to attempt to 
mediate between the king and the parliament, 
was arrested in London. Having regained his 
liberty he was placed by the king in command 
of Towcester in 1643. His estates were for- 
feited in the following year. He was subse- 
quently employed in raising money for the 
royal cause in Hamburg, Danzig, and Poland. 
He was living in 1650, and probably died 
before the Restoration. His wife was aButler 
of the Ormonde family. 

[Sir James Turner's Memoirs, p. 17; Baillie's 
Letters, i. 392, ii. 9 ; Spalding's Memorials of 
the Troubles (Spalding Club), ii. 74-7, 86, 208, 
430 ; Spalding's Hist, of the Troubles (Bann. 
Club), ii. 99, 284; Whitelocke, pp. 66, 394, 451, 
695 ; Warburton's Memoirs of Prince Rupert, 
ii. 335; Ancram and Lothian Corresp. (Bann. 
Club), ii. 312, 333; Douglas's Peerage of Scot- 
land, i. 471 ; Dundonald's Autobiography of a 
Seaman, p. 11.] J. M. R. 

COCHRANE, SIB JOHN (d. 1695?), of 
Ochiltree, second son of William Cochrane, 
the first Earl of Dundonald [q. v.], by Eu- 
pheme, daughter of Sir William Scot of 
Ardross, Fife, was implicated in Monmouth's 
conspiracy and the Rye House plot (1683), 
but escaped to Holland, where he remained 
till the death of Charles II. On the ac- 
cession of James II he was attainted while 
still abroad. He took part in Argyll's in- 
surrection in 1685, on the suppression of which 
he was harboured for a time by his kinsman, 
Gavin Cochrane of Renfrew. Betrayed by 
Gavin Cochrane's wife, whose brother had 
fallen in a skirmish on the royalist side, he 
was carried to Edinburgh, led through the 
streets by the hangman, and lodged in the 
Tolbooth. Charged with high treason he is 
said by Fountainhall to have turned approver 
and saved his head. Burnet states that the 



Earl of Dundonald bought his son's pardon 
by a payment of 5,0001. to ' the priests,' and 
denies that Cochrane disclosed anything of 
importance. On the promulgation of the 
declaration of indulgence he was employed 
(1687) to urge its acceptance upon the pres- 
byterians. His estates were restored to him 
in 1689. He subsequently held the position 
of farmer of the poll tax, and in 1695, failing 
to give satisfactory account of moneys re- 
ceived by him in that capacity, was committed 
to prison. The date of his death is uncertain. 
By his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William 
Strickland of Boynton, Yorkshire, one of Crom- 
well's lords of parliament, he had two sons. 
[Fountainhall's Hist. Notices of Scottish Affairs 
(Bann. Club), pp. 600, 653, 661, 665, 666, 818; 
Burnet's Own Time (fol.), i. 634 ; Luttrell's Re- 
lation of State Affairs ; Douglas's Peerage of 
Scotland, i. 474; Dundonald's Autobiography of 
a Seaman, i. 28-31.] J. M. R. 

COCHRANE, JOHN DUNDAS (1780- 
1825), traveller, was a nephew of Sir Alex- 
ander Cochrane [q. v.] and grandson of the 
eighth Earl of Dundonald. Having entered 
the royal navy when ten years old, he served, 
chiefly in West and East Indian waters, until 
the peace of 1814. He then made a tour on foot 
through France, Spain, and Portugal. Re- 
turning to England in 1820 he offered his ser- 
vices to the admiralty for the exploration of the 
Niger, but receiving an unfavourable answer, 
left England with the intention of making the 
tour of the world by way of Russia, Siberia, 
and North America. He travelled by Dieppe, 
Paris, and Berlin to St. Petersburg, most of 
the way on foot for the sake of economy. His 
subsequent progress was facilitated by the 
Russian government, who supplied him with 
the means to hire horses, sledges, and canoes. 
He reached Okhotsk in June 1821, having left 
England in February 1820. While in Kams- 
chatka he married a lady of the country and 
abandoned the idea of prosecuting his journey 
any further. He returned to Europe by way 
of St. Petersburg, which he reached in June 
1823. In June 1824 he left England for South 
America, with the design of engaging in the 
mining industry, returned to England in the 
ensuing year, but after a brief stay sailed 
again for America. He died the same year 
of a fever at Valencia in Colombia, now Ve- 
nezuela. Cochrane published in 1824 ' Narra- 
tive of a Pedestrian Journey through Russia 
and Siberian Tartary,' London, 8vo. The 
work passed through several editions. It is 
written in a lively style and contains much 
interesting incident. Of scientific value it 
is entirely destitute. 

[Gent. Mag. (1825), pt. ii. 644 ; Imperial Diet. 
Biog.] J. M. R. 



Cochrane 



163 



Cochrane 



COCHRANE, JOHN GEORGE (1781- 
1852), bibliographer, was born in 1781 at 
Glasgow, where his father was engaged in 
the law. Having received a fair education 
he was placed with a bookseller, but set out 
to seek his fortune in London before he was 
twenty. Here, after a residence of some 
years, he entered into partnership with John 
White, and the firm of White, Cochrane 
Co. carried on an extensive business in Fleet 
Street, until they became involved in the 
almost universal trade ruin which followed 
the failure of Archibald Constable [q. v.] 
Cochrane wrote a pamphlet, ' The Case stated 
between the Public Libraries and the Book- 
sellers ' (anon. 1813), calling attention to the 
hardship suffered by publishers, who were then 
obliged, under the Copyright Act, to supply 
copies of their most expensive books to eleven 
public libraries. He and his partner were ex- 
amined before the parliamentary committee 
of 1813. The minutes of evidence include a 
list of important works, such as Sowerby's 
* English Botany,' Lambert's ' Genus Pinus,' ; 
c., published by them. The select committee \ 
of 1818 recommended that only five copies 
should be claimed forpublic libraries in future, 
which was made law by the statute of 1835. 

Cochrane afterwards became manager of 
the foreign bookselling house of Messrs. 
Treuttel, Wiirtz, Treuttel junior, and Richter 
of Soho Square, who published in July 1827 
the first number of the ' Foreign Quarterly 
Review.' The editorship was accepted by 
Cochrane. The review was brought out by 
the same firm to the twenty-fourth number 
{October 1833) inclusive, and by their suc- 
cessor, Adolphus Richter, to the twenty- 
seventh (August 1834). The twenty-eighth 
number (December 1834) was issued by Coch- 
rane at his own risk. Richter became bankrupt 
on 9 Dec. 1834, and Cochrane established 
' Cochrane's Foreign Quarterly Review ' 
(1835), only two numbers of which appeared. 
The ' Foreign Quarterly Review ' (a list of the 
contributors to the first fourteen volumes of 
which may be seen in Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. viii. 124-7) came to an end in 1846, 
and was then incorporated with the ' West- 
minster Review.' Cochrane was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the librarianship of the 
Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, and for 
some time in that city acted as the editor of 
the ' Caledonian Mercury.' An intimacy with 
Robert Cadell [q. v.] caused him to be chosen 
to catalogue Sir Walter Scott's library at Ab- 
"botsford. It was necessary to print the cata- 
logue, and extra copies were struck off for 
members of the Maitland and Bannatyne 
Clubs ( 1 838) . References to passages in Scott's 
writings connected with the books throw con- 



siderable light upon Scott's literary history. A 
good index completes this excellent catalogue. 
Cochrane afterwards resided for some time 
at Hertford as editor of a local newspaper. 
On 17 Feb. 1841 he became the first secretary 
and librarian of the London Library, founded 
in the previous year. This institution was 
opened on 3 May at 49 Pall Mall, where the 
first catalogue (1842) was issued by Coch- 
rane. In April 1845 the committee took a 
lease of the premises now occupied by the 
library. In 1847 an enlarged edition of the 
catalogue appeared, and a short time before 
his death a supplementary volume, in which 
a general classified index is announced. He 
died at his apartments in the library, St. 
James's Square, on 11 May 1852, in his 
seventy-second year. Cochrane was a zealous 
and able librarian, with an excellent know- 
ledge of bibliography and literary history. 
Besides the above-named he published ' The 
English Works of Roger Ascham, preceptor 
to Queen Elizabeth, a new edition [ed. by 
J. G. Cochrane],' London, 1815, sm. 8vo, 250 
copies printed, includes life by Dr. Johnson. 

[Gent. Mag. June 1852, p. 628; Nichols's II- 
lustr. of Lit. Hist. viii. 467 ; Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. v. 454 ; Christie's Explanation of the 
Scheme of the London Library, 1841 ; Catalogue 
of the London Library, by K. Harrison, 1875, 
pp. vii-xi.] H. R. T. 

COCHRANE, ROBERT, EARL op MAR 
(d. 1482), Scottish architect and courtier, is 
known only by his sudden elevation and 
tragic end. His name is excluded, perhaps 
erased, from the statute book, as is his title 
from the peerage books, and Scottish history, 
more than usually meagre in the reign of 
James III as of James II, gives only a few 
glimpses of Cochrane, though probably enough 
to mark his character. A mason, as was 
said by his enemies, more probably an archi- 
tect by profession, Cochrane first attracted 
the notice of James III by his courage in a 
single combat, a common amusement of that 
age, but scarcely so among the lower orders, 
so that this story told by Buchanan, if true, 
appears to contradict the view that he was 
not by birth a gentleman. His name also is 
not that of a person of low birth. But it 
was by his skill in his own craft that, ac- 
cording to all accounts, he obtained a hold 
on the king's favour. This he is reputed to 
have acquired, but on no certain authority, 
in Italy. James III was a monarch of the 
type which repeats itself in all countries 
in the middle ages, and is not unknown in 
modern times, in whom a taste for the fine 
arts carried to excess led to a neglect of 
the graver studies and pursuits proper for a 

H 2 



Cochrane 



164 



Cochrane 



king. He gave his confidence to those who 
could gratify his pleasures, rather than the 
sterner advisers -whom he might have chosen 
from the nobles and clergy. At what pre- 
cise date is uncertain, hut probably before 
1476, Cochrane became his chief favourite. 
The building of the great hall or Parliament 
House and the Chapel Royal (afterwards 
rebuilt by James VI) at Stirling, the favourite 
residence of the king, was probably his work. 
Supported originally, it appears, by a faction 
of the nobles, especially the Homes and Hep- 
burns, he succeeded in alienating James from 
his brothers, the Duke of Albany and Earl 
of Mar, by raising the suspicion that they 
aimed at deposing him. Unlike the king in 
personal character, and distinguished for their 
love of martial exercises, these young princes 
were favourites of the people and the greater 
part of the nobility. Already in the parlia- 
ment of 1476 the barons had shown their 
distrust of James by obtaining the appoint- 
ment, at its dissolution, of a committee to 
whom its whole powers were entrusted, at 
the head of which Albany and Mar were 
placed. Cochrane is said to have brought to 
the ear of the king one of those prophecies 
which passed so readily from mouth to mouth 
before printing, that a lion in Scotland should 
be devoured by its whelps, or that he should 
be slain by one of his own kindred, a version 
into which it would be easily translated. It 
was an age of superstition, and Mar was 
alleged to have used magic, which James 
himself dabbled in, against his brother's life. 
"Whatever basis there may have been for 
these stories, Mar, the younger of the two 
brothers, was seized in 1479, sent to Craig- 
millar, and soon after transferred to an ob- 
scure lodging in the Canongate (a curious 
parallel to Darnley's fate), where he died, it 
was said, by a vein opened while he was 
in a warm bath. The first execution of 
witches in Scotland is said to have followed, 
being connected with the death of Mar, who 
was charged with seeking their counsel. 
Albany was about the same time committed 
to Edinburgh Castle, from which he escaped 
by the aid of a servant to Dunbar, and after- 
wards fled to France. Cochrane now became 
all powerful, and the gift of the earldom of 
Mar, or its revenues, confirmed the suspicion 
that he was an associate in a secret of guilt. 
His elevation disgusted the nobles, whose 
pride was roused by an adventurer receiving 
one of the oldest titles. A depreciation of 
the coinage under his advice, by the issue of 
black money, an alloy of the standard silver, 
irritated the whole nation. When told that 
his new coinage would certainly be recalled, 
' That day I shall be hanged,' was his arrogant 



answer, regarded as a presage of the death 
which awaited him. 

Albany had now come to England and 
entered into a treaty with Edward IV, by 
which he surrendered a considerable part of 
Scotland for the empty title of king and the 
promise of his assistance. Having laid siege 
to Berwick in 1482, James mustered the 
Scotch feudal army and advanced to meet 
him. At Lauder the barons in secret coun- 
cil, led by Angus, Huntly, and Crawford, but 
really with one consent Evandale the chan- 
cellor, Lord Home, the former ally of Coch- 
rane, and several of the bishops being specially 
mentioned as taking their side mutinied and 
determined to get rid of the obnoxious fa- 
vourite, who had been given the command of 
the artillery. According to the well-known 
parable, Lord Gray asked which of the mice 
would bell the cat, and Angus, who replied 
' I shall,' received the nickname of ' Bell 
the Cat.' Cochrane, whose sumptuous ex- 
travagance is specially noted a gold chain 
on his neck, his horse adorned with precious 
stones, and his helmet overlaid with gold 
came from his tent, whose cords were made 
of silk, attended by a large retinue in splen- 
did livery, to the church where the barons 
were assembled. Sir Robert Douglas having 
asked his name, Cochrane answered ' It is 
the Earl of Mar.' The answer obtained his 
admittance, but a reception very different 
from his expectation. Angus pulled his gold 
chain off, saying ' A rope will become thee 
better.' Douglas seized his horse, exclaiming 
he had been too long a hunter of mischief. 
' Is this jest or earnest ? ' asked Cochrane, a 
needless question, to which no reply was 
vouchsafed. The unfortunate favourite was 
dragged to the Bridge of Lauder, over which, 
in sight of the king, he was hung, like a 
thief, with a rope, his petition for the use of 
the silk cords of his tent being rejected with 
contempt. Roger, an English musician ; 
Torphichen, a fencing-master ; Leonard, a 
smith ; two lowborn associates of the king ; 
and Proctor, a gentleman of the court, met 
the same fate. John Ramsay of Balmain, 
another courtier, was spared at the king's 
personal intercession ; and although James 
I himself was conveyed to Edinburgh Castle 
and kept for some time in custody, the nobles 
! were satisfied by the removal of his favourite, 
and a reconciliation between him and his 
brother was soon after eifected by Arch- 
bishop Schives. Albany received the titles of 
Mar and March in addition to his dukedom. 
This circumstance renders it probable, though 
| it has been doubted, that Cochrane had been 
j really created earl, and that the record of his 
j creation was afterwards destroyed. 



Cochrane 



165 



Cochrane 



[Ferrerius, Appendix to Boece's History ; 
Lindsay of Pitscottie's Chronicle ; Lesley and 
Buchanan's Histories ; and Pinkerton's History, 
in which there is the fullest account of Coch- 
rane.l M. M. 

COCHRANE, THOMAS, tenth EAEL OF 
DTJNDONALD (1775-1860\ admiral, son of 
Archibald Cochrane, ninth earl of Dundonald 
[q. v.] and of Anne, daughter of Captain 
James Gilchrist [q. v.], was born at Anns- 
field in Lanarkshire on 14 Dec. 1775. He 
was destined for the army by his father, who 
when he was still a mere child obtained for 
him a commission in the 104th regiment, 
while his uncle, Captain Alexander Forrester 
Inglis Cochrane [q. v.], placed his name on 
the books of the several ships he commanded ; 
so that some years later, when his father 
yielded to his wish to go to sea, he had al- 
ready nominally served in the navy for nearly j 
five years. In reality he joined his first ship, | 
the Hind, commanded by his uncle, on 27 June j 
1793, at the comparatively mature age of 
seventeen years and a half. His introduction 
to the service was a rude one, but he entered 
into it with a peculiar zest, and under the 
able teaching of ' Jack ' Larmour, the first 
lieutenant of the Hind and afterwards of 
the Thetis, he rapidly learned the practical 
mysteries of the profession, and was on 14 Jan. 
1795 appointed acting lieutenant of the Thetis, 
though he was not confirmed in the rank till 
24 May 1796 ; the required six years of sea 
service being satisfactorily accounted for by 
the books of the various ships his uncle had 
commanded. The Thetis was then on the 
North American station, and continued there 
till the autumn of 1798, when, on her return 
to England, Cochrane was appointed to the 
Foudroyant, carrying the flag of Lord Keith, 
who was going out to the Mediterranean. On 
arriving at Gibraltar Lord Keith moved into 
the Barfleur, to which ship Cochrane accom- 
panied him, rather to the dissatisfaction, he 
believed, of older officers. A rugged self- 
sufficiency had already shown itself in his 
temper, and, now that he was freed from his 
uncle's control, was not long in getting him 
into a difficulty with the first lieutenant, 
Philip Beaver [q. v.], who brought him to 
a court-martial for disrespect. Lord Keith, 
who was anxious to get to sea, hurried the 
trial over with a gentle admonition to Coch- 
rane to ' avoid flippancy.' He continued in 
the Barfleur during the blockade of Cadiz 
and the voyage up the Mediterranean ; fol- 
lowed Lord Keith to the Queen Charlotte, 
in which he served during the fruitless pur- 
suit of the French fleet out of the Mediter- 
ranean, to Brest, returning also in her when 
Keith resumed the command of the station 



, GEORGE KEITH, VISCOUNT 
KEITH.] 

On the capture of the Genereux, 18 Feb. 
1800, Cochrane was appointed prize-master, 
to take her to Port Mahon ; and was thus 
happily absent from the Queen Charlotte 
when she was burnt off Leghorn on 17 March. 
He was shortly afterwards, 28 March, pro- 
moted to command the Speedy, a brig of 158 
tons, armed with fourteen 4-pounders, and 
'crowded rather than manned' with ninety 
officers and men. In this burlesque on a ship 
of war Cochrane was ordered to cruise off 
the Spanish coast, which he did with signal 
activity and success, capturing in the course 
of the summer and autumn several merchant 
ships and small privateers, and rendering the 
Speedy a marked object of the Spanish autho- 
rities. On 21 Dec. he ran close up to a large 
frigate specially fitted out, in the disguise of 
a merchantman, to put a stop to his cruise. 
He had painted the Speedy in imitation of a 
well-known Danish brig, had shipped a Danish 
quartermaster, and now dressed him in Danish 
uniform to personate the Danish captain. The 
Spaniard sent a boat to board her, the Speedy 
ran up the quarantine flag, which effectually 
kept it at a satisfactory distance, and so the 
two vessels parted. After cruising with singu- 
lar good fortune for another month, on 1 Feb. 
1801 he put into Valetta, and the same even- 
ing attended a subscription fancy-ball, in the 
dress of an English seaman. Some of the 
French royalist officers under whose patron- 
age the ball was given supposing that he 
really was a seaman, ordered him out. Coch- 
rane, refusing to go, was collared by a French- 
man, whom he promptly knocked down. He 
was then carried off to the guardroom. A 
duel followed, in which the Frenchman was 
shot through the leg, and a ball passing 
through Cochrane's clothes bruised his side. 

On the following day the Speedy again put 
to sea, and, with occasional intermissions, 
continued cruising along the Spanish coast, 
with the now customary good fortune and 
success, till 6 May, when, off Barcelona, she 
fell in with a large Spanish frigate, which 
had put to sea in search of the Speedy. As 
some dissatisfaction had been expressed at 
his not attacking the frigate on 21 Dec., 
Cochrane gave the order to prepare for action, 
though his ship's company was reduced to 
fifty-four, all told. The result is without a 
parallel in naval history. Without any sur- 
prise, in broad daylight, this little brig ran 
alongside the frigate, and after a few broad- 
sides, in which every gun from the Speedy 
told, while the Spaniard's shot passed harm- 
lessly overhead, Cochrane, at the head of 
his men, boarded and carried her, a frigate 



Cochrane 



166 



Cochrane 



named El Gamo, of upwards of 600 tons, 
of thirty-two heavy guns and 319 men, with 
a loss of four killed and seventeen wounded. 
The Spaniards had lost fourteen killed and 
forty-one wounded. To convey the prize 
to Port Mahon was a work of serious diffi- 
culty, for the prisoners were more than 
eight times as numerous as the prize crew, 
and were only kept from rescuing them- 
selves by their own main-deck guns, loaded 
with canister, being pointed down the hatch- 
way, while men with lighted matches stood 
ready beside them. It would almost seem 
that the extreme brilliance of this action pre- 
vented its being properly rewarded. The 
senior officer at Port Mahon did not forward 
Cochrane's official letter for more than a 
month, and the impression everywhere gained 
ground that the Gamo was taken by surprise. 
After a very unusual delay, Cochrane was 
advanced to post rank on 8 Aug. 1801 ; but 
his request for the promotion of Mr. Parker, 
the lieutenant of the Speedy, was met with 
the reply from Lord St. Vincent, then first 
lord of the admiralty, that ' the small number 
of men killed on board the Speedy did not 
warrant the application.' Cochrane had the 
imprudence to answer that there were more 
casualties on board the Speedy in this action 
than there were on board the Victory at St. 
Vincent, for which his lordship had been 
made an earl and his first captain a knight. 
He was afterwards surprised at his want of 
favour with the admiralty. But meantime 
the Speedy, having been ordered to convoy 
a dull sailing packet from Port Mahon to 
Gibraltar, fell in, on 3 July, among a squa- 
dron of three French line-of-battle ships, 
and, after a very remarkable display of in- 
genious seamanship, was compelled to haul 
down her flag to the Dessaix. When Coch- 
rane went on board, the French captain de- 
clined his sword with the complimentary 
remark that ' he would not accept the sword 
of an officer who had, for so many hours, 
struggled against impossibility,' and requested 
him to continue to wear it, though a prisoner. 
During the thirteen months of his command 
the Speedy had ' taken or retaken upwards 
of fifty vessels, 122 guns, and 534 prisoners.' 
The three French ships proceeded to the Bay 
of Gibraltar, and anchored off Algeciras, 
where, on 6 July, they were unsuccessfully 
attacked bythe squadron under Sir James Sau- 
marez, afterwards Lord de Saumarez [q. V.], 
Cochrane being a witness of the engagement 
from the Dessaix. The next day he, as well 
as the officers of the Hannibal, which had 
been captured, was permitted to go to Gi- 
braltar on parole ; and after the more fortu- 
nate engagement in the Straits on the night 



of 12 July, was exchanged for the second 
captain of the San Antonio. 

After the peace he was not immediately 
appointed to another ship ; and towards the 
end of 1802 he entered himself as a student 
in the university of Edinburgh. He pursued 
his studies earnestly, living in secluded lodg- 
ings. In 1 803, when the war again broke out, 
he was ordered to go to Plymouth, and there 
found himself appointed to command the 
Arab, an old collier which had been bought 
into the service and was being fitted as a 
ship of war. When ready for sea she was 
sent to the Downs, and ordered to keep watch 
on the enemy in Boulogne. Cochrane soon 
found that for such a service the Arab was 
useless. He represented this to the admiral 
in command ; his letter was forwarded to 

I the admiralty, and he was ordered to cruise 

! to the N.E. of the Orkneys to protect the 
fisheries. There appeared to be no fisheries to 
protect, and he believed that the service was 
invented as a mark of the board's displeasure. 
It lasted for fifteen months ; nor was he per- 
mitted to return to England till Lord Mel- 
ville had succeeded Lord St. Vincent at the 
admiralty, when he was appointed to the 
Pallas, a new 32-gun frigate, and, as some 

, compensation for past sufferings, ordered to 
cruise for a month off the Azores. The cruise, 
which extended from February to April 1805, 

i proved remarkably fortunate ; and having 
made several rich prizes, and on the home- 
ward voyage escaping from a squadron of 

j French line-of-battle ships by a ruse as clever 

I as it was daring, the Pallas sailed into Ply- 
mouth Sound with a large gold candlestick, 
about five feet high, on each masthead. These, 
which had been made in Mexico for presen- 

; tation to some church in Spain, Cochrane 
was desirous of possessing, and had made an 
arrangement to that effect with his officers 

I and snip's company. Unfortunately the cus- 
tom-house authorities would not let them 
pass without the full duty, which was pro- 
hibitive ; and, though of exquisite work- 
manship, they were broken up and passed as 
old gold. 

Just at this time there was a vacancy in 
the representation of Honiton, and Cochrane 
offered himself as a candidate. He soon found 
that it was a mere question of bribery, but 
refused to sanction any on his account, and 
was consequently rejected (13 March 1805). 
On this he sent the bellman round the town 
to announce that his agent would pay ten 
guineas to every one who had voted for him. 
The ten guineas was accordingly paid, with 
an explanation that it was a reward for having 
withstood the influence of bribery. 

In the end of May the Pallas was sent to 



Cochrane 



167 



Cochrane 



North America in charge of convoy for the 
St. Lawrence, and on her return in December 
was ordered to join Vice-admiral Thorn- 
brough in the Downs, as part of a squadron 
destined to act in the Bay of Biscay. The 
cruise lasted from the beginning of February 
to the end of May 1806, during which time 
the Pallas, for the most part detached from 
the squadron, captured or drove on shore and 
burnt a very large number of the enemy's 
merchant ships, as well as the Tapageuse 
sloop, cut out of the Garonne by the ship's 
boats, while the Pallas herself, left with only 
forty men on board, chased, drove ashore and 
destroyed three corvettes, each singly more 
than her match at the moment. The affair 
was reported by Thornbrough with very warm 
commendation, but was passed over by the 
admiralty without notice ; the Tapageuse 
was not bought into the service, and neither 
prize-money nor head-money was allotted for 
this capture and destruction of four ships of 
war. On 14 May, as the Pallas was engaged 
in reconnoitring the French fleet in the road- 
stead of Aix, the Minerve frigate of 40 guns 
stood out to meet her, accompanied by three 
brigs. She was very roughly handled, and 
would probably have been captured had not 
two other frigates weighed to support her. 
As the Pallas had lost her foretopmast and 
maintopsail-yard, she was now in a position 
of some danger, when the Kingfisher sloop 
ran in and took her in tow. This was vir- 
tually the end of her cruise, for four days 
afterwards she was ordered to Plymouth with 
a convoy, and arrived there on the 27th. In 
October 1806 there was a general election, 
when Cochrane again stood for Honiton, and 
was returned by a triumphant majority. The 
new member positively refused to entertain 
the electors' demand for another ten guineas 
apiece, though he finally agreed to give his 
constituents a public supper, which was con- 
verted into a general treat to the town, at a 
cost of some 1,200. 

On 2 Sept. Cochrane and the crew of the 
Pallas wsre turned over to the Imprieuse 
frigate, which put to sea on 17 Nov. and on 
the 29th joined the blockading squadron in 
Basque Koads. In February 1807 she re- 
turned to Plymouth, and at the general elec- 
tion in May, Cochrane and his Honiton con- 
stituents being mutually sick of each other, he 
offered himself as a candidate for Westminster, 
and was returned at the head of the poll, Sir 
Francis Burdett being his colleague. He had 
scarcely taken his seat before he brought for- 
ward, on 10 July, a motion on naval abuses. 
The abuses complained of were real, but Coch- 
rane's attack was injudicious in its form and 
was negatived without a division. The ad- 



miralty ordered him out to the Mediterra- 
nean, on account of which his constituents 
gave him unlimited leave of absence. The Im- 
pSrieuse sailed from Portsmouth on 12 Sept. 
1807, and, having captured a Maltese pirate 
on 14 Nov., joined the fleet under Lord Col- 
lingwood off Toulon on the 19th. Cochrane 
was then directed to go to Corfu to relieve 
the senior officer there ; but having interfered 
to put a stop to the iniquitous system of 
granting passes, which his predecessor had 
sanctioned, he was speedily recalled as ' want- 
ing in discretion.' It does not appear that 
Collingwood made any inquiries into the 
merits of the charge, but accepted the report 
of the officer who had granted and presumably 
profited by the illegal passes. 

Cochrane rejoined the fleet on 2 Jan. 1808, 
and in the end of the month was sent on a 
roving commission, with general instructions 
' to harass the Spanish and French coast as 
opportunity served.' It is impossible here 
to relate in detail the extraordinary events 
of the next four months, or even to enume- 
rate the vessels that were captured or burnt, 
the batteries, towers, signal stations and 
lighthouses that were blown up. In the be- 
ginning of June came the change in the re- 
lations between France and Spain, and after 
three weeks of uncertainty, Cochrane re- 
ceived orders, on 21 June, to ' cruise in the 
Mediterranean and render every possible as- 
sistance to the Spaniards against the French.' 
The Imp6rieuse immediately passed up the 
coast, fraternising with the Spaniards at the 
ports, till at Barcelona she found the French 
in possession. Her work in Catalonia con- 
sisted chiefly in breaking down the roads and 
bridges, seriously interfering with the march 
and transport service of the French armies. 
Then, stretching along the south coast of 
France, destroying whatever could be de- 
stroyed, this one frigate brought a pressure 
on the French armies which largely modified 
their plans of aggression. Cochrane wrote 
to Collingwood from the Gulf of Lyons, 
28 Sept. 1808 : ' With varying opposition, but 
with unvaried success, the newly constructed 
semaphoric telegraphs, which are of the ut- 
most consequence to the safety of the nume- 
rous convoys that pass along the coast of 
France, at Bourdique, La Pinede, St. Maguire, 
Frontignan, Canet, and Fay, have been blown 
up and completely demolished, together with, 
their telegraph houses, fourteen barracks of 
gens (formes, one battery, and the strong 
tower on the lake of Frontignan.' Upon this 
Collingwood commented thus : ' Nothing can 
exceed the zeal and activity with which his 
lordship pursues the enemy. The success 
which attends his enterprises clearly indi- 



Cochrane 



168 



Cochrane 



cates with what skill and ability they are 
conducted, besides keeping the coast in con- 
stant alarm, causing a general suspension of 
the trade and harassing a body of troops em- 
ployed in opposing him.' 

Perhaps the most extraordinary of Coch- 
rane's exploits in the ImpSrieuse was the 
defence of the castle of Trinidad, which com- 
manded the town of Rosas, then besieged 
by the French. On 22 Nov. the castle was 
judged to be no longer tenable ; Captain Ben- 
nett of the Fame had withdrawn the marines 
with which he had strengthened the garri- 
son, and the governor had made up his mind 
to capitulate. It was at this juncture that 
the ImpSrieuse arrived. Cochrane was of 
opinion that the place might still hold out ; 
and having discretionary orders, with which 
Bennett, though his senior, would not inter- 
fere he landed a party of seamen and ma- 
rines from the ImpSrieuse; and there, for 
the next fortnight, he maintained himself 
against the thousands of assailants, supported 
by a heavy battering train. It was not till 
the town had been occupied by the French, 
and the citadel was capitulating, that Coch- 
rane thought it necessary to evacuate the 
castle, which he did on 5 Dec., embarking 
the whole of the little garrison without loss, 
and blowing up the shattered fortifications 
by a carefully laid train. 

Early in February 1809 Cochrane received 
permission to return to England. His health 
was beginning to suffer ; he wished to call 
attention in parliament to the iniquitous 
jobbery of the Maltese prize court ; and hoped 
to carry on a war of harassing attacks on 
the west coast of France. He was always 
of opinion that had he been entrusted with 
the command of a small squadron for this 
purpose, ' neither the Peninsular war nor 
its enormous cost to the nation from 1809 
onwards would ever have been heard of. 
It would have been easy ... so to harass 
the French coast as to find full employ- 
ment for their troops at home, and thus to 
render any operations in western Spain, or 
even in foreign countries, next to impos- 
sible.' Towards the end of March the Im- 
p^rieuse arrived at Plymouth, and Cochrane 
was immediately summoned to attend at the 
admiralty. The French had been permitted 
to collect the whole of their western fleet in 
Aix roads ; it was now contemplated to at- 
tempt an attack on it there, and Cochrane 
was led to hope for an important command 
in the projected expedition. At the admi- 
ralty, however, he found that this was not 
quite the case. Lord Gambier, who com- 
manded in the Bay of Biscay, had written 
that though ' the enemy's ships lie much ex- 



posed to the operation of fireships, it is a 
horrible mode of warfare, and the attempt 
hazardous if not desperate.' Cochrane was 
pressed to give his opinion on this matter. 
He was told by Lord Mulgrave, then first 
lord of the admiralty, that ' the present was 
no time for professional etiquette,' and that 
' the board was bent on striking some deci- 
sive blow before the French squadron had an 
opportunity of slipping out.' Thus urged, 
Cochrane submitted the outline of a plan for 
such an attack ' which, if seconded by the 
fleet, must certainly result in the total de- 
struction of the French squadron.' Lord 
Mulgrave expressed his own satisfaction and 
that of the board, and asked him ' if he would 
undertake to put it in execution.' Cochrane 
naturally demurred ; he represented that, 
being a junior officer, his doing so would ex- 
cite a great deal of jealousy ; that Lord Gam- 
bier might consider it presumptuous, and 
might not impossibly deem the plan still 
more desperate and horrible than that to 
which he had already objected. It was only 
after repeated and urgent solicitation that 
he consented to undertake the service, Lord 
Mulgrave saying, ' Make yourself easy about 
the jealous feeling of senior officers ; I will 
so manage it with Lord Gambier that the 
amour propre of the fleet shall be satisfied.' 
But no attempt to allay this jealousy was 
made, and Cochrane on his arrival in the 
fleet found himself exposed to the indigna- 
tion of every officer senior to himself. Lord 
Gambier virtually refused to have anything 
to do with the undertaking, while Admiral 
Harvey told Cochrane that as he himself 
had volunteered for that service, he could 
only consider his being specially sent out as 
an insult to the fleet. The work which Coch- 
rane had immediately before him was the 
conduct of the fireships. He urged Gam- 
bier not to wait the arrival of those which 
were to be sent from England, but to fit 
up some transports actually with the fleet. 
To this Gambier consented, and several ships 
| were accordingly got ready, Cochrane per- 
i sonally superintending the preparation of 
some as ' explosion vessels,' each of which 
was charged with fifteen hundred barrels of 
powder closely confined by heavy logs, hun- 
dreds of shell, and wedges. In Cochrane's 
own words, they ' were simply naval mines, 
the effect of which depended quite as much 
on their novelty as engines of war, as upon 
their destructiveness. It was calculated that, 
independently of any mischief they might do, 
they would cause such an amount of terror 
as to induce the enemy to run their ships 
ashore as the only way to avoid them. This 
expectation was fully answered, but no ade- 



Cochrane 



169 



Cochrane 



quate attack on the part of the British force 
following up the effect of the explosion ves- 
.sels, the stranded ships were permitted to 
heave off and thus escaped, for the most 
part.' 

The attack was made on the night of 
11 April, but with the exception of one ex- 
plosion vessel, commanded by Cochrane in 
person, which shattered the boom in front of 
the French ships, explosion vessels and fire- 
ships alike, timidly, nervously, and ignorantly 
conducted, were burnt or blown up without 
doing any damage to the enemy. But the 
terror of the one had produced the effect 
which Cochrane anticipated. The French 
ships cut their cables and attempted to es- 
cape, but the water behind was of insufficient 
depth. At daylight on the morning of the 
12th, all but two of them were helplessly 
aground. But the fireships had all been 
uselessly expended, and the fleet, which, ac- 
cording to Cochrane's plan, was to have sup- 
ported the explosion and fire ships, and com- 
pleted the destruction, was fourteen miles 
off; nor could Cochrane's signals induce Gam- 
bier to make the attempt. In vain did Coch- 
rane signal 'All the enemy's ships except 
two are on shore ; ' ' The enemy's ships can be 
destroyed ; ' ' Half the fleet can destroy the 
enemy ; ' ' The frigates alone can destroy the 
enemy ; ' ' The enemy is preparing to heave 
off.' Gambier tacitly but practically refused 
to take any measures whatever ; he did in- 
deed get the fleet under way, and approach 
to within about three miles, when he an- 
chored ; and in all probability nothing further 
would have been done had not Cochrane, in- 
dignant at seeing the great opportunity wholly 
lost, let the ImpSrieuse drift in till she could 
engage the nearest of the enemy's ships, some 
of which were still aground, and others had 
thrown their guns overboard. For very 
shame, the commander-in-chief was obliged 
to send in some assistance, and thus four of 
the enemy's ships were destroyed. Several 
more might have been, even then ; but Lord 
Gambier peremptorily commanded the assail- 
ants to return. The Imperieuse was ordered 
to England with despatches, and sailed the 
following morning. 

On arriving in England, Cochrane was 
honoured with the order of the Bath, but he 
felt deeply how much what had been done 
fell short of what might and should have 
been done ; and when he was told by Lord 
Mulgrave that a vote of thanks to Lord Gam- 
bier would be proposed in the House of Com- 
mons, he replied that in his capacity of mem- 
ber for Westminster he would oppose the 
motion ' on the ground that the commander- 
in-chief had not only done nothing to merit 



a vote of thanks, but had neglected to destroy 
the French fleet in Aix roads when it was 
clearly in his power to do so.' To this de- 
termination he adhered, despite the entrea- 
ties of Lord Mulgrave ; and Lord Gambier 
applied for a court-martial. Cochrane was 
thereupon, on 29 May, ordered to prefer his 
charges, which he declined doing, answering 
that 'the logs and signal log-books of the 
fleet contained all particulars and furnished 
premises whence accurate conclusions might 
t>e drawn.' He thus had to bear all the 
odium of having accused his commander-in- 
chief, without the compensating advantage 
of being in a position to prove his accusa- 
tion. Tried by a friendly court, and supported 
by the whole influence of the admiralty, Lord 
Gambier was ' most honourably acquitted,' 
and was thanked by parliament for what, 
under the most favourable aspect, was a gross 
error of judgment. The admiralty virtually 
adjudged Cochrane guilty of falsely libelling 
his commanding officer on a matter of service. 
From a naval point of view he was ruined. 
He submitted a plan for the destruction of 
the French ships and forts in the Scheldt ; 
the admiralty refused to entertain it. He 
applied for permission to rejoin his ship, then 
with the fleet in the North Sea; that also 
was curtly refused ; but several months after- 
wards, when his speeches in parliament had 
proved offensive to the admiralty, he was 
directed to join the Imperieuse without delay 
and proceed to the Mediterranean. Cochrane 
declined the service, was therefore placed on 
half-pay, and for the next three years devoted 
himself to the exposure of gross abuses in 
the admiralty. Cochrane's well-justified at- 
tack, though it indirectly led to great reforms, 
created in the first instance much ill-feeling. 
There were many officials with vested in- 
terests eager to do Cochrane an ill turn, and 
many members of the government, irritated 
by Cochrane's persistency, who would witness 
his disgrace without compunction. 

Towards the end of 1813 Cochrane's uncle, 
Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane, was 
appointed to the command-in-chief on the 
North American station, and went out in a 
frigate, leaving his flagship, the Tonnant, to 
be equipped and brought out by his nephew, 
who was nominated his flag captain. While 
engaged in fitting out the Tonnant, Coch- 
rane became acquainted with a Captain de 
Berenger, a French refugee and officer in one 
of the foreign regiments, who was recom- 
mended to him as a skilled rifle instructor 
and pyrotechnist, in which capacities he was 
anxious to secure his services for the Tonnant. 
There is no reason to doubt that De Berenger 
was fully qualified for this post ; but he was 



Cochrane 



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Cochrane 



also gifted with an unscrupulous impudence. 
On 20 Feb. 1814, while at Dover, he sent 
word to the admiral at Deal (whence the 
news was brought to London) that he was 
Lord Cathcart's aide-de-camp, and was the 
bearer of intelligence from Paris to the effect 
that Bonaparte had been killed, that the allies 
were in full march on Paris, and that im- 
mediate peace was certain. The funds rose 
suddenly, and then fell heavily ; out of the 
fluctuation one of Cochrane's uncles, who had 
taken the name of Johnstone, netted, it was 
said, a very large sum. De Berenger mean- 
while posted up to London, took a hackney 
coach and drove to Cochrane's house in Green 
Street, changing his dress on the way from 
the scarlet coat of a staff officer to his own 
green coat of a rifleman, and in Green Street 
again changing into plain clothes which he 
borrowed from Cochrane. He was traced to 
Green Street, and Cochrane thus learning that 
he was the perpetrator of the swindle, gave in- 
formation that led to his arrest. De Berenger, 
Johnstone, and with them Cochrane were 
thus all apprehended and brought to trial. 
The case of Cochrane, who knew absolutely 
nothing of the affair, was mixed up with that 
of the others who were undoubtedly guilty ; 
all were convicted, and Cochrane was sen- 
tenced to pay a fine of 1,000/., to stand in the 
pillory for an hour, and to be imprisoned 
in the king's bench prison for a year. The 
standing in the pillory was remitted, pro- 
bably because Sir Francis Burdett, his fellow- 
member for Westminster, avowed his in- 
tention of standing with him, and the govern- 
ment feared a riot ; but his name was struck 
off the list of the navy (25 June) ; he was ex- 
pelled from the House of Commons (5 July) ; 
and, with every possible indignity, from the 
number of knights of the Bath. Within a 
few days of his being expelled from the House 
of Commons he was enthusiastically returned 
again by Westminster, the electors in a mass 
meeting passing a unanimous resolution that 
he ' was perfectly innocent of the Stock Ex- 
change fraud, that he was a fit and proper 
person to represent their city in parliament, 
and that his re-election should be secured 
without any expense to him.' He, however, 
had to undergo his term of imprisonment, 
which, after he had escaped and been recap- 
tured, was made cruelly severe. On 20 June 
1815 he was told that, the term being expired, 
he would be set at liberty on paying the fine 
of 1,OOOZ. On 3 July he reluctantly accepted 
his liberty, paying the fine with a bank note, 
on the back of which he wrote : ' My health 
having suffered by long and close confinement, 
and my oppressors being resolved to deprive 
me of property or life, I submit to robbery to 



protect myself from murder, in the hope that 
I shall live to bring the delinquents to jus- 
tice.' This note is still preserved at the Bank 
of England. Cochrane always suspected Cro- 
ker, the secretary of the admiralty, of having 
helped to contrive his disgrace. But there 
is no proof beyond the personal and political 
enmity which subsisted between the two men. 
On the day of his release Cochrane ap- 
peared in the House of Commons, just in time 
to give a casting vote against the proposal to 
increase the Duke of Cumberland s pension, 
and for the next two years he devoted him- 
self both in and out of parliament to an active 
and energetic opposition to the government ; 
an opposition which, though honest in prin- 
ciple, was embittered by his keen sense of 
the injustice to which he had been subjected. 
In August 1816, immediately after a stormy 
meeting at the London Tavern, and, as Coch- 
rane maintained, in order to punish him for 
the very prominent part he had taken, he was 
brought to trial on a charge of breaking out 
of the king's bench prison seventeen months 
before. As he rested his defence entirely on 
the alleged illegality of imprisoning him, a 
member of parliament, he freely admitted 
having made his escape, and was on his own 
admission found guilty. Sentence was de- 
ferred, but three months afterwards, having 
again taken part in a large political meet- 
ing, he was condemned to pay a fine of 100/. 
This he refused to pay, and was taken into 
custody ; the sentence, he said, amounted to 
one of perpetual imprisonment, as he would 
never pay a fine imposed for escaping from 
an illegal detention. The fine was, however, 
speedily raised by a penny subscription, and 
Cochrane was released after a confinement 
of sixteen days. The subscription once 
started was continued, and the 1,OOOZ. pre- 
viously paid was raised, actually in coppers, 
together with some further contribution to- 
wards his law expenses. 

In May 1817 Cochrane accepted the invi- 
tation of the Chilian government to under- 
take the organisation and command of their 
navy, though in consequence of various de- 
lays he did not leave England till August 
1818, when, crossing over to Boulogne, ac- 
companied by his wife and two children, he 
sailed in the Rose merchantman. He reached 
Valparaiso on 28 Nov., and proceeded at once 
to Santiago, where he was received with the 
| utmost enthusiasm. The Spaniards had a 
formidable squadron, and were preparing for 
an attack on Valparaiso, while the whole 
| navy of Chili numbered only seven vessels, 
| one of which, a 50-gun frigate captured from 
j the Spaniards, andrechristened the O'Higgins, 
; was an efficient man-of-war ; the others were 



Cochrane 



171 



Cochrane 



worn-out merchant ships or English ships of 
war that had been sold out of the service. 
Cochrane, who was appointed ' admiral and 
commander-in-chief of the naval forces of 
the republic/ determined to forestall the 
threatened attack, and, having hoisted his 
flag on board the O'Higgins, sailed from Val- 
paraiso on 16 Jan. 1819, accompanied by three 
other ships of his little navy. His force was 
too small to achieve any great success ; but 
in a five months' absence from Valparaiso 
he blockaded the Spanish ships under the 
shelter of their forts, scattered their soldiers 
in several skirmishes, and captured both stores 
and a considerable amount of treasure. In 
a correspondence with the viceroy at Lima 
relative to the exchange of prisoners, the 
viceroy expressed his surprise ' that a British 
nobleman should come to fight for a rebel 
community unacknowledged by all the powers 
of the globe.' Cochrane replied that ' a Bri- 
tish nobleman had a right to assist any country 
which was endeavouring to re-establish the 
rights of aggrieved humanity, and that he 
had adopted the cause of Chili with the same 
freedom of judgment that he had exercised 
in refusing the offer of an admiral's rank in 
Spain, which had been made to him not long 
before by the Spanish ambassador in London.' 
After a stay of nearly three months at Val- 
paraiso Cochrane sailed on a second cruise on 
12 Sept. He had now with him the whole 
force of the Chilian navy, including two fire- 
ships. He was also provided with a quantity 
of rockets and other explosives, from which 
great results were hoped. But in an attack 
on Callao the rockets proved to be worthless ; 
one of the fireships was uselessly expended, 
and after watching the port for some weeks 
sickness and want of provisions compelled him 
to withdraw. Having sent some of the ships 
to Valparaiso, and leaving others on the coast 
of Peru, he sailed towards the middle of De- 
cember with only the flagship for Valdivia, 
then strongly fortified, and held by the Spa- 
niards as a base of operations against the 
Chilians from the south . Having reconnoitred 
the place he went to Concepcion to get a re- 
inforcement of two hundred and fifty soldiers. 
He was there joined also by a small schooner 
and a Brazilian brig, which volunteered for the 
expedition ; and thus strengthened returned 
to Valdivia, where, in the most extraordinary 
manner, having landed about three hundred 
men, he stormed the outermost fort of a long 
chain of works which defended the harbour, 
and a panic having spread among the Spa- 
niards he chased them from fort to fort in 
wild confusion. The whole fell into his hands 
with a loss of not more than seven killed and 
nineteen wounded. Of the garrisons, upwards 



of one hundred were found dead, as many 
more were made prisoners, and the rest es- 
caped, some into the woods, some up the river 
to Valdivia, which they sacked and aban- 
doned, flying to Chiloe. Cochrane thus ob- 
tained undisputed possession of the town, and 
with it of a very large quantity of military 
stores. He returned to Valparaiso on 27 Feb. 
1820, and was enthusiastically welcomed by 
General O'Higgins, the supreme director, and 
the people generally ; but he soon found that 
among the ministry the prevailing feeling 
was one of jealousy. He was thus subjected 
to such indignities and attempted persecu- 
tions that, on 14 May, he tendered his resig- 
nation. It was refused, but he received a 
promise of better treatment ; the seamen's 
wages were paid, and the prize-money for 
Valdivia was awarded. Cochrane's share 
amounted to sixty-seven thousand dollars, 
and to this was added a grant of land ; but 
the money was never paid, and the estate was 
forcibly seized a few years later. 

When this dispute had been arranged it 
was determined to undertake an expedition 
against Peru with the whole force of the re- 
public. An army of upwards of four thousand 
men under the command of General San Mar- 
tin was embarked on board the ships of war, 
which sailed from Valparaiso towards the end 
of August 1820. In spite of Cochrane's re- 
monstrances San Martin insisted on the troops 
being landed at Pisco, where they remained 
in idleness for nearly two months. On 28 Oct. 
they were re-embarked, and, again on St. Mar- 
tin's demand, landed at Ancon. Cochrane 
had in vain urged the advisability of an imme- 
diate attack on Callao and Lima ; and now, 
understanding that his second landing would 
be as fruitless as the former, he determined 
with a detachment of his own force to cut 
out the Esmeralda frigate at Callao. Acting 
entirely on his own responsibility and with- 
out consulting San Martin, he made the at- 
tempt with complete success. On the night 
of 5 Nov. the boats pulled into the harbour ; 
about midnight they were alongside the Es- 
meralda, and the Chilians boarded from several 
points at once. The Spaniards, though sur- 
J prised, fought obstinately, but were beaten 
below with great slaughter. Cochrane him- 
self was severely wounded, and the total loss 
of the victors was eleven killed and thirty 
wounded. As soon as the uproar on board 
announced to the garrison that an attack was 
being made, the batteries at once opened fire 
on the Esmeralda, thus killing or wounding 
many of their own men. The fire, however, 
did less damage than might have been ex- 
pected, being neutralised by one of those 
simple but ingenious expedients, in which 



Cochrane 



172 



Cochrane 



Cochrane's mind was particularly fertile, and 
which, more than even the brilliant dash, 
mark his achievements. There were present 
in the harbour an English and an American 
ship of war. Cochrane noticed that as soon 
as the firing began these hoisted position 
lights. He at once saw that this was by pre- 
arrangement with the authorities on shore, 
and immediately hoisted exactly similar lights 
on board the Esmeralda. The garrison were 
perplexed ; in the darkness they were unable j 
to distinguish, and fired by preference on the 
two neutrals, which were struck several times, 
the Esmeralda escaping comparatively un- 
touched. Cochrane intended to go on from 
the Esmeralda and capture or set fire to every 
ship in the harbour. Unfortunately he was 
incapacitated by his wounds, and the officer 
on whom the command devolved, less ven- 
turesome and less ingenious than his chief, 
cut the Esmeralda's cables. There was then 
nothing for it but to loose her topsails and get 
out of range. The exploit, however, though 
not complete in itself, was so in its results. 
Not only was the Spanish navy reduced to 
inaction, but Cochrane, after a short time, 
finding that there was no further work for 
hi afloat, induced San Martin to lend him 
some six hundred soldiers, with which and 
the ships of the squadron he so harassed the 
coast from Callao to Arica that he virtually 
-compelled Lima to capitulate on 6 July 1821. 
San Martin, though he had taken little or no 
part in the work, now appeared to receive 
the honours and reward. On 3 Aug. he pro- 
claimed himself Protector of Peru, and on the 
4th refused to advance a single real for the 
payment of the seamen unless they, and Coch- 
rane especially, transferred their allegiance to 
the new-founded republic. Cochrane declined 
the offers of the protector, sailed to Ancon, and 
took possession of a large quantity of captured 
treasure which San Martin had deposited 
there. With this he paid off the arrears of 
his officers and men, reserving the surplus for 
the re-equipment of the squadron. After an 
absence of more than twenty months Coch- 
rane returned to Valparaiso in June 1822 ; 
but though received with popular enthusiasm 
he found that ministerial jealousy and cor- 
ruption rendered further service in Chili im- 
possible. San Martin, having been expelled 
from Peru by a popular insurrection, came 
back to Valparaiso in October, and, though de- 
nounced by Cochrane as a traitor, was loaded 
with honours and rewards, while Cochrane 
was unable to obtain payment of the sums due 
to himself or of the wages due to his men. Had 
he chosen to enter into the struggle of parties, 
he might possibly have reaped pecuniary ad- 
vantage ; but declining to do that the only 



course open to him was to resign his command 
in the Chilian navy, which he virtually did 
on 29 Nov. by requesting leave of absence for 
an indefinite time. 

He had received invitations to enter the 
service of Brazil, of Mexico, and of Greece ; 
and though intending ultimately to lend his 
aid to the Greeks he accepted provisionally 
the offers of Brazil, and sailed from Valpa- 
raiso on 18 Jan. 1823. He arrived at Rio de 
Janeiro on 13 March, and on the 21st was 
appointed by the newly proclaimed emperor 
' first admiral of the national and imperial 
navy.' The spirit of faction, however, ran 
exceedingly high, and though during the next 
eighteen months Cochrane succeeded in quell- 
ing the efforts of the Portuguese and com- 
pletely establishing the naval supremacy of 
Brazil, he was so embarrassed by the power- 
ful opposition at court that the most serious 
part of his work was the maintenance of his 
authority, and at times even of his liberty. 
Notwithstanding the generally successful re- 
sults of his operations, they lacked the extreme 
brilliancy of his exploits under the Chilian 
flag ; much of his work was administrative 
rather than naval, and he repeatedly expressed 
his wish to retire from the service, in which 
he continued at the urgent request of the 
emperor. In the beginning of 1825 he was at 
Maranham, and having restored order and 
finding his ship's company sickly he re- 
solved to go for a cruise into the temperate 
latitudes of the North Atlantic. He put to 
sea on 18 May, and in about three weeks was 
off the Azores, when, in some strong gales, the 
frigate's masts and rigging were found to be 
rotten and no longer serviceable. The pro- 
visions, too, ran short. It was therefore ne- 
cessary to make the nearest friendly port, and 
he anchored at Spithead on 26 June. He at 
once reported his arrival to the Brazilian mi- 
nister in London, and requested to be pro- 
vided with the means of refitting the ship. 
I None were given him ; he was ordered to re- 
j turn at once ; he was accused of deserting, of 
; attempting to carry off his ship, and the offi- 
1 cers and crew were ordered to repudiate his 
authority and return without him. Some 
months thus passed away, and on 3 Nov. peace 
was declared between Brazil and Portugal. 
Cochrane seized on this as his opportunity, 
and on 10 Nov. wrote to the emperor, for- 
; mally resigning his commission. 

He had already received repeated invita- 

! tions to take the command of the Greek navy. 

! Burdett, Hobhouse, Hume, Bowring, and 

! other leading members of the Greek com- 

I mittee, all agreed that he was the only man 

capable of achieving the liberation of Greece, 

though some reminded him of the jealousies 



Cochrane 



173 



Cochrane 



and the want of hearty co-operation to be ex- 
pected. Cochrane had suffered too much an- 
noyance, both in Chili and Brazil, to think 
lightly of these objections ; but he accepted 
the invitation, stipulating that out of the loan 
of 2,000,000/. which had just been contracted 
in London, 150,000/. should be devoted to the 
construction of six steamers in England, and 
the same amount to the building and fitting 
out of two large frigates in the United States ; 
they were to be manned by English or Ame- 
rican seamen, and he was to have sole, inde- 
pendent, uncontrolled command of the entire 
Greek fleet. All this was readily agreed to, 
but for nearly eighteen months Cochrane was 
fully occupied in endeavouring to forward the 
building and equipment of the steamers which 
were unaccountably delayed. It was the dawn 
of naval warfare under steam, and Cochrane 
was quick to perceive the enormous advan- 
tage they would give him in the narrow con- 
fined waters of the Archipelago. ' Steam 
vessels,' he wrote, ' whenever they shall be 
brought into war for hostile purposes, will 
prove the most formidable means that ever 
has been employed in naval warfare. It is my 
opinion that twenty-four vessels moved by 
steam (such as the largest constructed for the 
Greek service) could commence at St. Peters- 
burg and finish at Constantinople the destruc- 
tion of every ship of war in the European 
ports.' 

It was not till March 1827 that Cochrane 
arrived at Hydra, and then only in a small 
yacht ; the steamers and frigates were not 
ready, and, as a whole, never were ready. The 
money allotted for them had been lavishly 
expended ; one of the frigates was eventually 
finished at a cost of 200,000, and of the 
steamers only one appears ever to have reached 
Greece. There was no money to pay the sea- 
men, and the patriotism of the Greek sailors 
did not extend to trusting their country for 
payment in the future. In May the new ad- 
miral held a review of the fleet at Poros. The 
men demanded a month's wages in advance, 
and as this demand could not be complied 
with they weighed anchor and took their ves- 
sels, mostly small brigs, out of the fleet, to 
swell the ranks of the pirates, which at that 
time infested the Levant. ' It was impossible,' 
Cochrane wrote some months later, ' to induce 
the Greek seamen to submit to the slightest 
restraint on their inclinations, or to render 
the most trifling service without being paid 
in advance, or to perform such service after 
being so paid, if it suited their interest or con- 
venience to evade the fulfilment of their en- 
gagement. More than six crews have passed 
under my review on board the Hellas in the 
course of as many months, exclusive of those 



in other vessels, and notwithstanding all that 
has been written to praise the courage of 
the Greek seamen they are collectively the 
greatest cowards I have ever met with.' It 
was thus that Cochrane was able to accomplish 
little or nothing in the Greek war, which came 
virtually to an end in the following October 
with the battle of Navarino [see CODRING- 
TON", SIR EDWARD]. The business was unfor- 
tunate in every way. It had been agreed that 
he was to receive 57,000/. as payment for hia 
services ; of this sum 20,000^. was never paid, 
and the other 37,000^., in vested in Greek stock 
at par, was so depreciated as to prove insuf- 
ficient to meet his expenses. It thus appears 
that he really derived no pecuniary advan- 
tage from his appointment, though scandal 
made free with his name, for it was patent 
that he was associated with men beneath 
whose financial skill the loan of 2,000,OOOJ. 
wasted away without benefit to the Greek 
cause (FiNLAY, Hist, of the Greek Revolution, 
ii. 154-8). In February 1828 Cochrane re- 
turned to England for a few months. He 
hoped to advance the cause of Greek inde- 
pendence by pushing forward the armaments 
that had been contracted for. By September 
he was back again in Greece, not having been 
able to accomplish any satisfactory end ; but 
in Greece he was received with scant civility, 
and returned in December. 

The object to which Cochrane now devoted 
himself was his reinstatement in the English 
navy. He had already during his visit to 
England in the summer of 1828 presented a 
memorial to the Duke of Clarence, then lord 
high admiral ; but the duke having submitted 
it to the cabinet it was decided that nothing 
should be done. Other memorials were pre- 
sented after the accession of the duke as Wil- 
liam IV ; but it was not till 2 May 1832 that 
he received, not the annulling of the condem- 
nation nor the investigations for which he had 
prayed, but a ' free pardon.' He was at the 
same time restored to his rank in the navy, 
on 8 May he was gazetted as a rear-admiral, 
and on the following day was presented at 
the levee. He had meantime, by the death 
of his father on 1 July 1831, become in suc- 
cession Earl of Dundonald. Released from 
the cares and annoyances of the peculiar ser- 
vice in which he had been so long engaged, he 
devoted his leisure to mechanical inventions, 
and especially to improvements of the steam 
engine in its adaptation to marine purposes, 
and as early as 1843 he was urging on the 
admiralty the necessity of adapting steam- 
power and screw-propellers to ships of the 
line. ' During the last twelve years,' he wrote, 
' I have actually disbursed, to the great in- 
convenience of my family, upwards of 16,000/. 



Cochrane 



174 



Cochrane 



to promote nautical objects which appeared 
to me of importance.' Some of these, in ad- 
dition to numerous experiments on the steam 
engine, were in connection with the problems 
of naval architecture, and from 1843 to 1848 
he was chiefly occupied in the building and 
equipment of the Janus frigate, the lines, the 
engines, and the boilers of which were all de- 
signed by him. In this he had many diffi- 
culties to contend with. From the practical 
men he received none of the assistance on 
which he must necessarily have depended ; 
:and some of them thwarted his plans by such ; 
measures as plugging the suction-pipe of the 
pumps. The ship's weights proved to have 
been miscalculated or exceeded, and she lay 
so low in the water as to be unseaworthy. 
Still, though the Janus herself was a failure, 
the improvement in her lines was acknow- 
ledged and adopted, and the screw-propeller 
rapidly came into general use. 

But perhaps the invention which is most 
commonly associated with the name of Dun- ; 
donald is the ' secret war plan,' the nature of 
which was never made public, though he re- ! 
peatedly declared that it was capable of de- 
stroying any fleet or fortress in the world. 
He first proposed it as early as 1811, when it 
was referred to a secret committee, consisting 
of the Duke of York, Lord Keith, Lord Ex- 
mouth, aud the two Congreves, who pro- 
nounced it to be infallible, irresistible, but 
inhuman. On this ground it was not adopted; 
but when the inventor entered the service of 
Chili he was pledged by the prince regent 
not to use it for any other country than his 
own. After his readmission to the English 
navy this secret plan was several times urged 
on the admiralty and the government, and 
was brought prominently into notice during 
the Russian war of 1854-6 ; but on every oc- j 
casion it was put on one side as too terrible ; 
and inhuman, though always with the clear 
admission that it was capable of producing , 
the results which Dundonald claimed for it. j 

In 1848 Dundonald was appointed com- | 
mander-in-chief on the "West Indian and 
North American station, a command which 
he held for three years, during which time he 
submitted to the government several valuable 
reports on the condition and capabilities of 
the various colonies which he officially visited. 
He had no further employment, for it was 
decided not to use his ' secret plan ' against 
Cronstadt or Sebastopol, which he offered to 
reduce to ruins. He had become in course 
of seniority vice-admiral on 23 Nov. 1841, 
and admiral on 21 March 1851 ; on 23 Oct. | 
1864 he was nominated rear-admiral of the 
United Kingdom. On 22 May 1847 he had 
been reinstated in the order of the Bath, being i 



gazetted on the 25th as a knight grand cross ; 
but notwithstanding his repeated applications 
his banner was not replaced in Henry VII's 
Chapel, out of which it had been ignomini- 
ously kicked in 1814, till after his death, 
which took place on 31 Oct. 1860. During 
the last years of his life he had been occupied 
in preparing his ' Narrative of Services in the 
Liberation of Chili, Peru, and Brazil, from 
Spanish and Portuguese Domination ' (8vo, 
1859), and ' Autobiography of a Seaman ' 
(2 vols. 8vo, 1860-1), which was brought to 
an abrupt termination by his death. 

In 1812 he married Miss Katherine Corbett 
Barnes, a lady of good family, but not wealthy. 
The marriage gave great offence to his uncle 
Basil, a rich East India merchant, who con- 
sequently struck him out of his will. In 
writing of this long years afterwards he said : 
' Without a particle of romance in my com- 
position, my life has been one of the most ro- 
mantic on record, and the circumstances of 
my marriage were not the least so.' Finding 
that his rich uncle was bent on his marrying 
an heiress, he prevailed on Miss Barnes to 
accompany him over the border, and they 
were secretly married at Annan. The secret 
was not long kept, and from that time his 
uncle ceased to acknowledge him. He seems 
never to have regretted the loss of his uncle's 
friendship or fortune, considering his wife ' a 
rich equivalent.' She survived him a few 
years, and died in 1865. Besides his eldest 
son, who succeeded him in the title, he left 
three other sons, one of whom, Arthur Auck- 
land Leopold Pedro, now admiral, was in 
1873-6 commander-in-chief in the Pacific. 

Dundonald's very remarkable career, dis- 
tinguished above all others by the attainment 
of great results with small means, has deser- 
vedly won for him a very high place in the 
roll of naval commanders. What he might 
have done has been argued from what he did, 
and he has thus been estimated as one of the 
greatest of our admirals, whose name must be 
ranked with those of Nelson, Hawke, Rod- 
ney, or Blake. It will, however, be noticed 
that his exploits, brilliant as they were, were 
those of a captain or partisan leader, not of 
an admiral. It is impossible to speak too 
highly of his daring yet cool courage, or of 
the quaint inventive genius which directed 
it ; but it is equally impossible to assign him 
any place among the great masters of naval 
tactics, for the display of which he never had 
any opportunity. It is indeed noteworthy 
that during the whole course of his particu- 
larly active service he had no share in any 
general engagement. The terrible blow which 
fell on him in 1814 must be considered as 
having really raised his reputation by giving 






Cochrane 



175 



Cochrane 



his career the peculiarly romantic and adven- 
turous turn which it afterwards assumed. But 
for that, his life would probably have been 
passed in parliamentary contests, for which, 
alike by temper and genius, he was unfitted. 
The exile which was almost forced on him 
removed him to a more favourable field, and 
the renown of such feats as the capture of 
Valdivia or of the Esmeralda was increased 
by the results to which they immediately con- 
duced. It is possible that without him Chili 
might have achieved her own independence 
and that of Peru. The detailed history of the 
war shows that more probably she would have 
succumbed to the better organisation and dis- 
cipline of Spain. A portrait by Stroehling, 
lent by the Earl of Dundonald, was exhibited 
at South Kensington in 1868. 

[Autobiography of a Seaman, by Thomas, tenth 
arl of Dundonald ; Life of Thomas, tenth earl 
of Dundonald, completing the Autobiography of 
a Seaman, by Thomas, eleventh earl of Dun- 
donald, and H. E. Fox Bourne (2 vols. 8vo, 
1869) ; Narrative of Services in the Liberation 
of Chili, Peru, and Brazil, by Thomas, tenth earl 
of Dundonald ; Stevenson's Twenty Years' Kesi- 
dence in South America (3 vols. 8vo, 1829); 
Finlay's History of the Greek Eevolution (2 vols. 
8vo, 1861).] J. K. L. 

COCHRANE, SIR THOMAS JOHN 

(1789-1872), admiral of the fleet, eldest son 
of Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis 
Cochrane [q. v.], was born on 6 Feb. 1789, 
was entered as a volunteer on board the Thetis 
in 1796 [cf. COCHRANE, THOMAS, tenth EARL 
OF DUNDONALD], and continued to serve under 
his father's pennant, or flag, till June 1805, 
when he was made lieutenant into the Jason. 
In September 1805 he was advanced to be 
commander of the Nimrod, on 23 Jan. 1806 
to be acting captain of the Jason, and was 
confirmed in the rank on 23 April 1806, being 
then only two months over seventeen. It is 
this rapid promotion that constitutes Coch- 
rane's principal claim to distinction, but 
which, carried out as it was by the commander- 
in-chief of a foreign station, in defiance of the 
admiralty instructions, and for the advantage 
of his son, can only be called gross jobbery. 
There were few instances so flagrant as this 
of a practice then not uncommon. The same 
interest which had promoted Cochrane was 
able to keep him employed. He continued 
in the West Indies till 1809, and after two 
years on half-pay commanded the Surprise 
frigate on the coast of North America till 
the peace. From 1820 to 1824 he commanded 
the Forte on the same station, and on 23 Nov. 

1841 attained the rank of rear-admiral. From 

1842 to 1845 he was second in command in 
China, with his flag in the Agincourt, and 



was commander-in-chief from 1845 to 1847. 
He was afterwards (1852-5) commander-in- 
chief at Portsmouth, and he died in 1872. 

In due course of seniority he became vice- 
admiral on 14 Jan. 1850, admiral on 31 Jan. 
1856, and admiral of the fleet on 12 Sept. 
1865. He was knighted (29 May 1812) as 
proxy for his father at his installation as 
K.B. He was himself made C.B. on 18 April 
1839, K.C.B. on 2 Nov. 1847, and G.C.B. on 
18 May 1860. He was twice married, and 
had a numerous family. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet.] J. K. L. 

COCHRANE, SIR WILLIAM, of Cow- 
don, first EARL OP DUNDONALD (d. 1686), was 
the second son of Alexander Blair, of the an- 
cient family of Blair of Blair, who, on his mar- 
riage to Elizabeth Cochrane, of the ancient 
family of Cochrane of Cochrane, assumed the 
name of Cochrane. By prudent management 
he came to be one of the largest proprietors in 
the counties of Ayr and Renfrew, and was 
returned member of the Scottish parliament 
for Ayrshire in 1644 (' Members of Parlia- 
ment for Scotland' in FOSTER'S Collectanea 
Genealogica, i. 7). For his services in behalf 
of the king he was created a peer by the title 
of Lord Cochrane of Dundonald, by patent 
dated Scarborough, 27 Dec. 1647, with limi- 
tation to heirs male of his body. When it 
was resolved to raise an army in behalf of 
Charles I, in 1648, he was sent over to 
Ireland to bring home the Scotch troops 
(GUTHRY, Memoirs, 268). In 1653 he ac- 
quired the lordship of Paisley, where he fixed 
his residence, and lived in great splendour. 
The following year he was fined by Cromwell 
for his loyalty 5,0001., which was reduced to 
2,000/. (State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1655, p. 71), 
and afterwards to 1,666/. 13s. 4d. (ib. 116). 
At the Restoration he was appointed a privy 
councillor and one of the commissioners of the 
treasury, and for these services was created 
a peer by the title Earl of Dundonald, Lord 
Cochrane of Paisley and Ochiltree, 12 May 
1669. His tremulous signature appears at- 
tached to Claverhouse's marriage contract in 
1684. The same year an accusation was pre- 
ferred against him on the ground that his 
son, Lord Cochrane, when he was dying in 
1679, kept a chaplain who prayed God to bless 
the rebels in the west with success (FouN- 
TAINHALL, Decisions, i. 299). He died in 1686, 
and was buried at Dundonald. By his mar- 
riage to Eupheme, daughter of Sir William 
Scot of Ardross, Fifeshire, he had two sons, 
William, lord Cochrane, who died in his 
father's lifetime, in 1679, and Sir John Coch- 
rane of Ochiltree [q. v.], and one daughter, 
Grrizel, married to George, tenth lord Ross. 



Cock 



176 



Cockayne 



He was succeeded in the earldom by his 
grandson John, the son of "William, lord 
Cochrane. 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, i . 47 1 -2 ; Bishop 
Guthry's Memoirs ; Fountainhall's Decisions ; 
State Papers (Dora. Ser.), 1655, pp. 71, 116, 118 ; 
Memoirs of Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount 
Dundee.] T. F. H. 

COCK, GEORGE (d. 1679), captain, states 
that in the civil war he ' was employed hy 
the queen mother to negotiate the raising of 
Lord Newcastle's army, and helped to supply 
it with arms; raised a troop himself, was 
plundered, twice shot, imprisoned some years, 
and remained out of the kingdom eleven more, 
for his loyalty.' For such services he was re- 
warded with the office of searcher of the port 
of Newcastle, his native place, on 31 July 1660. 
He was in the service of the admiralty, where 
he was a commissioner for inspecting the chest, 
and in November 1664 steward for sick and 
wounded seamen. He was also a prosperous 
merchant, and possessed large tanning works 
at Limerick. His love of hospitality rendered 
him very popular with his colleagues at the 
admiralty, especially with Pepys, who con- 
sidered him ' the greatest epicure in the world.' 
In his ' Diary ' Pepys records how on 21 July 
1662 he ' did take boat and down to Green- 
wich to Captain Cocke, who hath a most 
pleasant seat, and neat,' and how on 1 April 
1665 he was ' dining at Captain Cocke's in 
Broad Streete, very merry.' In 1666 he made 
Pepys a present of plate of the value of 100/. 
as some return for the profitable contracts 
which the latter had been able to obtain for 
him. From his business connections Cock was 
often enabled to present the Royal Society 
with some 'natural rarities' from abroad, 
which led to his being elected a fellow on 
21 March 1666. He died in 1679 in the parish 
of St. Clement Danes, London (Probate Act 
Book, P. C. C., 1679). In his will, dated 
19 Feb., and proved on 3 April of that year, 
he desired to be buried ' in the parish church 
of St. Peter's Poore in London, towards the 
north-east part of that church by my first 
wife, Anna Maria Cock ' (Reg. in P. C. C., 
45, King). His second wife, Mary, was, as 
Pepys tells us, ' a German lady, but a very 
great beauty.' He left a family of four sons. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom., 1660-1, pp. 66, 136, 
575 ; Pepys's Diary (Bright), i. 380, ii. 83, 247, 
iii. 78, 137, 288-9, 296, iv. 84, and passim.] 

G. G. 

COCKAYNE. [See also COKATNE, 
COKA.TN, and COKATNE.] 

COCKAYNE, THOMAS OSWALD 

(1807-1873), philologist, born in 1807, was 



educated at St. John's College, Cambridge,, 
where he took his degree in 1828 as tenth 
wrangler. He took holy orders in due course, 
and devoted himself partly to literature and 
partly to educational work. He was for 
many years an assistant-master in King's 
College School, London, which post he re- 
signed in 1869. He died in 1873. Through- 
out the greater part of his life he was an 
industrious student of the Anglo-Saxon lan- 
guage, on which subject he published several 
works, now out of print, which are cha- 
racterised both by learning and originality. 
He was a member of the Philological and 
the Early English Text Societies. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the more important of 
his published works : 1. ' A Civil History of 
the Jews, from Joshua to Hadrian,' 1841, a 
second edition in 1845. 2. ' A Greek Syntax,' 
1846. 3. ' Outlines of the History of France/ 
1846. 4. Outlines of the History of Ireland/' 
1851. 5. ' Life of Marshal Turenne,' 1853. 
6. 'Leechdoms, Wort-cunning, and Starcraft 
of Early England, being a collection of docu- 
ments never before published, illustrating the 
History of Science before the Norman Con- 
quest/ 1858. 7. ' Spoon and Sparrow, or 
English roots in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew/ 
1861. 8. ' The Shrine, a collection of papers 
on dry subjects/ 1864. 

[Private information.] A. A. B. 

COCKAYNE, WILLIAM (1717-1798),. 
astronomer, son of the Rev. George Cock- 
ayne, vicar of Doveridge in Derbyshire, was 
born 3 Nov. 1717. Admitted to Merchant 
Taylors' School in 1728, he was elected to 
St. John's College, Oxford, in 1736, took de- 
grees of B.A., M.A., and B.D. respectively 
in 1740, 1744, and 1751, was junior proctor 
of the university in 1750, and proceeded D.D. 
13 July 1754. His uncle, Francis Cockayne,, 
being elected lord mayor of London in 1750,. 
he was appointed his chaplain, and preached 
before him the anniversary sermon of 5 Nov. 
in that year. In 1753 we find him acting 
as chaplain to the Countess of Orkney and 
Inchiquin. He filled the chair of astronomy 
in Gresham College 1752-95, and was nomi- 
nated, 20 Sept. 1763, rector of Kilkhampton 
in Cornwall, occupying the post until his 
death in 1798. He published ' A Sermon 
preached before the Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of London, 
5 Nov. 1750,' London, 1751 ; and ' A Sermon 
preached before the Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of London, 
3 Sept. 1753,' London, 1753. 

[Cockayne Memoranda, p. 1 85 ; Robinson's Re- 
gister of Merchant Taylors' School, ii. 73 ; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 431 ; Parochial Hist. 



Cockburn 



177 



Cockburn 



of Cornwall, ii. 365 ; Wood's Colleges and Halls, 
ed. Gutch, App. 170; Gent. Mag. 1750, p. 522, 
1795, p. 711 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] A. M. C. 

COCKBURN, ADAM (1656-1735), lord 
justice clerk, was a lineal descendant of John 
Cockburn the younger of Ormiston, and 
Margaret Hepburn his wife (NiSBET, System 
of Heraldry, 1804, p. 347). On 28 Dec. 1671 
he succeeded his brother John in the posses- 
sion of the lands and barony of Ormiston. 
He was one of the commissioners for Had- 
dingtonshire in the convention of 1678 and 
in the parliament of 1681. Cockburn was 
not a member of the parliament of 1685-6, 
but again represented Haddingtonshire in the 
convention of 1689, which afterwards re- 
assembled as a parliament without re-election 
of its members. On 23 April 1689 he was 
appointed by the estates one of the commis- 
sioners for the union {Act Par I. ix. 60), and 
was made lord justice clerk on 28 Nov. 1692 
(ib. 243), thereby vacating his seat for Had- 
dingtonshire. He was admitted to the privy 
council, and in May 1695 was appointed on 
the royal commission of inquiry into the mas- 
sacre at Glencoe, the report of which was 
presented to parliament on the following 
24 June (ib. 354, 376 ; for the report see 
CARSTARES, 236-54, where it is wrongly 
dated). For his part in the commission 
Cockburn was fiercely attacked by the Earl 
of Argyll, who challenged him to ask satis- 
faction which way he pleased (CARSTARES, 
256). It appears from a letter of the Earl 
of Argyll to Carstares that about this time 
special powers were entrusted to Cockburn 
and Sir Thomas Livingstone 'to seize per- 
sons, horses, and arms, without being obliged 
to be accountable to the council, make close 
prisoners or otherwise, as they see fit ' (ib. 
373). On 6 Feb. 1699 Cockburn was ap- 
pointed treasurer depute, in the place of 
Lord Raith, deceased, and was succeeded in 
his office of lord justice clerk by Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollock (Act Parl. x. 188-9). 
Shortly after the accession of Anne he was 
deprived of the post of treasurer depute 
(LoCKHAHT, Memoirs, 20-1), but was reap- 
pointed lord justice clerk on 8 Jan. 1705 
(Act Parl. xi. 212), in the place of Sir 
William Hamilton of Whitelaw, whose seat 
on the bench as an ordinary lord of session 
he also succeeded to. In 1710 he was super- 
seded in the office of lord justice clerk by 
James Erskine of Grange, but on the acces- 
sion of George I obtained a patent conferring 
it on him for life. He retained this office 
and that of ordinary lord until his death, 
which occurred at Edinburgh on 16 April 
1735, aged 79. Cockburn was a man of great 
integrity, and though possessed of an over- 

VOL. XI. 



j bearing temper had a considerable amount of 
strong good sense and great business capacity. 
As early as 1698 he endeavoured to break 
through the old system of short leases, and 
it was on his own estate at Ormiston that 
the fields were enclosed for the first time in 
Scotland. He was a staunch supporter of 
the presbyterian church, and a firm adherent 
of the whig party. His zeal gained him the 
bitter hatred of his political opponents. ' Of 
all the party,' says Dr. Houston, ' Lord Ormis- 
toun was the most busy, and very zealous 
in suppressing the rebellion and oppressing 
the rebels, so that he became universally 
hated in Scotland, where they called him the 
curse of Scotland, and when the ladies were 
at cards, playing the nine of diamonds (com- 
monly called the curse of Scotland), they 
called it the justice clerk. He was indeed 
of a hot temper and violent in all his mea- 
sures ' ( Works of James Houstoun, 1753, 
p. 92). Cockburn married, first, Lady Susan, 
third daughter of John Hamilton, fourth earl 
of Haddington, by whom he had two sons 
John, an energetic agriculturist, and Patrick, 
an advocate, who married in 1731 Alison 
Rutherford of Fairnalee [see COCKBTTRN, 
ALICIA], His second wife was Anne, daugh- 
ter of Sir Patrick Houstoun, and widow of 
Sir William Hamilton of Whitelaw. 

[Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College 
of Justice (1832), 478-80; State Papers and 
Letters addressed to William Carstares (177-1), 
passim ; Macky's Memoirs (1733), 224-5 ; Cham- 
bers's Eminent Scotsmen (1868), i. 380 ; Parlia- 
mentary Papers (1878), vol. Ixii. pt. ii. ; Gent. 
Mag. (1735), v. 219.] G. F. E. B. 

COCKBURN, SIR ALEXANDER 
JAMES EDMUND (1802-1880), lord chief 
justice of England, was of an ancient Scotch 
family. A knight of the name fell at Ban- 
nockburn, and his grandson Alexander was 
a knight and keeper of the great seal of Scot- 
land from 1389 to 1396. In 1595 Sir Wil- 
liam Cockburn received a grant of the land 
and barony of Langton in the county of Ber- 
wick, and his son William was created a 
baronet of Nova Scotia in 1627. Sir James 
(1729-1804), sixth baronet, had five sons. 
The three eldest succeeded in turn to the 
baronetcy. Sir James, seventh baronet (1771- 
1852), was a major-general, secretary of state 
in 1806, and governor of the Bermudas in 
1811 ; the eighth, Sir George (1772-1853) 
[q. v.], was an admiral ; the ninth, Sir Wil- 
liam (1773-1858), was dean of York. Alex- 
ander, father of the chief justice, was younger 
brother of the three baronets, and fourth son 
of the sixth baronet, by his second wife, a niece 
of George, lord Lyttelton. He was British 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 



Cockburn 



178 



Cockburn 



tiary to the state of Columbia. He married 
Yolande, daughter of the Vicomte de Vignier. 
His only son, Alexander James Edmund, was 
born on 24 Dec. 1802. He was privately edu- 
cated, both at home and abroad. His mother 
being a foreigner, both of his sisters marrying 
Italians, and being himself brought up on the 
continent, he became a fluent linguist, and 
was an admirable scholar in French, German, 
Spanish, and Italian. In 1822 he entered at 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he was a con- 
temporary of the first Lord Lytton. He was 
distinguished in Latin prose, and in his second 
year won the prizes for English and Latin 
exercises. He subsequently gained the English 
essay prize, and was a prominent speaker in 
debating societies. In 1825 he became a fel- 
low commoner. In 1829 he took the degree 
of bachelor of civil law in the first class, and 
was elected to a fellowship, which he long 
continued to hold. He was an honorary fellow 
till his death. He was a candidate for the 
mastership of Trinity Hall in 1852, when Dr. 
Geldart was elected, and on Geldart's death in 
1877 would have been willing, if he had been 
elected, to accept the office. Sir Henry Maine, 
however, was elected. A portrait of Cock- 
burn was presented to the college in June 1876 
(L. STEPHEN, Life of Fawcett, pp. 113, 132). 
He had entered at the Middle Temple in 
1825, and on 6 Feb. 1829 was called to the 
bar. Though well known for his cleverness 
and the associate of Dalling and Bulwer, he 
was at this time far from industrious. There 
was then a greater opportunity of establishing 
a reputation at sessions than now, and Cock- 
burn joined the western circuit and the Devon 
sessions, which had then a strong bar. It 
was led by Follett. Here he soon attained a 
good practice, but he was so little employed 
in London that he was with difficulty in- 
duced to keep his chambers open there at all. 
In 1832, in collaboration with Mr. Howe of 
the western circuit, afterwards knight and re- 
corder of Plymouth, he published a volume 
of reports of election cases decided in election 
committees of the House of Commons. The 
reports, which were of an admirable kind, 
were found at that moment, just after the re- 
form of 1832, of such importance that they 
were issued in parts, but not more than one 
volume was published in all. This brought 
him a considerable quantity of election pe- 
tition practice. He received on 26 March 
1833 his first parliamentary brief for the sit- 
ting members for Coventry, Henry Lytton 
Bulwer and Edward Ellice, and, led by Sir 
William Follett, he also appeared in the Lin- 
coln and Dover petitions for the sitting mem- 
bers. All three seats were successfully de- 
fended. On 18 July 1834 he was appointed 



a member of the commission of inquiry into the 
state of corporations in England and Wales, 
and with Messrs. Whitcombe and Rushton 
he was allotted to report upon the northern 
midland towns, and Leicester, Warwick, 
and Nottingham. The reports on Bridge- 
north, Derby, Newark, Newcastle-under- 
Lyne, Retford, Stafford, Shrewsbury, and 
Wenlock, which are the joint work of Cock- 
burn and Rushton, are very full and clear. 
Those on Coventry, Leicester, Nottingham, 
and Warwick, which are his and Whitcombe's, 
and Bewdley, Kidderminster, Newport, Sut- 
ton Coldfield, Tamworth, and Walsall, which 
are his alone, though very impartial, are not 
so full as those executed with Rushton. The 
mode in which his work as a commissioner 
was performed brought him a client in the 
person of Mr. Joseph Parkes, the chief par- 
liamentary agent of the whig party. In 1835 
and 1838 he appeared in election petitions. 
In 1838 he appeared for the first time as lead- 
ing counsel in the Taunton election petition. 
At the same time he was diligent in his at- 
tention to his circuit, became recorder of 
Southampton, and in 1841 was made a queen's 
counsel by Lord Cottenham. Though of a 
very distinguished courtesy at all times, he was 
often a little testy in his advocacy. He ap- 
peared to the best advantage when conducting 
a defence, and in 1843, when Sir William 
Follett, the solicitor-general, appeared for the 
crown, was leading counsel for McNaughten, 
who shot Mr. Drummond, Sir Robert Peel's 
secretary, and, in spite of the discredit cast 
on the plea by its employment in the case of 
Oxford, procured his acquittal on the ground 
of insanity. His speech, which was made on 
a Saturday, was reported at the length of ten 
columns on the following Monday, one re- 
porter only being employed. It occupied the 
largest space which had till then been supplied 
by a single hand to one day's newspaper. In 
the same year he appeared with Sir Cresswell 
Cresswell against Campbell, the attorney- 
general, Wilde, the solicitor-general, Dundee, 
and Phillimore, for his uncle, Dr. Cockburn, 
the dean of York, in a proceeding against the 
archbishop of York for illegally depriving the 
dean by his commissary, Dr. Phillimore, upon 
a charge of simony. After a three days' ar- 
gument in the queen's bench the rule for pro- 
hibition against the archbishop was made 
absolute. In 1844 he appeared for its owners 
in the remarkable case about the racehorse 
Running Rein. In this case he made a fierce 
attack on Lord George Bentinck, who had 
personally prepared all the details of the 
case for the other side, the owners of Orlando. 
Lord George wrote to him expostulating and 
begging that he might be sworn and have an 



Cockburn 



179 



Cockburn 



opportunity of clearing himself, whereupon 
a day or two afterwards Cockburn withdrew 
all imputations in court. In 1847 he became 
a candidate as a liberal reformer for Southamp- 
ton with Mr. Wilcox. He was elected without 
a contest, and soon gained the ear of the House 
of Commons by short speeches on topics of 
legal reform. The opportunity for distinc- 
tion soon came. In 1850 the House of Lords 
passed a vote of censure on the government 
of Lord John Russell for Lord Palmerston's 
conduct of the ' Pacifico ' dispute with Greece. 
In the House of Commons Roebuck, member 
for Sheffield, moved a counter vote of confi- 
dence (24 June), and a close division was 
expected, on which hung the fate of the 
ministry. Lord Palmerston at first applied 
to Mr. Crowder, afterwards a justice of the 
common pleas, to state the points of law for 
him, and on his refusal committed the task 
to Cockburn. On the night of 28 June, at the 
close of the fourth night's debate, Cockburn 
rose to reply to a long and damaging speech 
by Mr. Gladstone, and moved the adjourn- 
ment. He made a fine speech, full of elo- 
quence and sarcasm, and developing the legal 
argument showed that no redress was obtain- 
able by Don Pacifico in the Greek courts. 
He proceeded to a general vindication of Lord 
Palmerston's policy in Naples and Lombardy, 
and so successfully that, as was said by Sir 
Robert Peel, who spoke next and for the last 
time, ' one-half of the treasury benches were 
left empty, while honourable members ran 
one after another, tumbling over each other 
in their haste, to shake hands with the ho- 
nourable and learned member.' He proceeded 
to push his success. In the next great debate, 
not many hours later, he rose and denounced 
the cruelties practised by the Austrian go- 
vernment upon the Magyar rebels. Accord- 
ingly on 12 July he was knighted and made 
solicitor-general, and when Sir John Romilly 
was appointed master of the rolls early in 
1851 Cockburn succeeded him as attorney- 
general. He resigned with the rest of the 
ministry in February 1852, resumed office 
with them in December, and continued to be 
Lord Palmerston's attorney-general until No- 
vember 1856. Meantime he was in the full 
tide of a prosperous professional career. He 
conducted the prosecution on behalf of the 
customs department against the dock com- 
panies, and fought before a parliamentary 
committee the cause of the narrow gauge 
against Austin and Thesiger, who appeared 
for the broad gauge system. In June 1852 
he led for the defence in Dr. Achilli's libel 
action against Dr. Newman, which was tried 
before Lord-chief-justice Campbell. New- 
man, in his ' Letters on the Present Position 



of the Catholics in England/ had spoken of 
Achilli, who had joined the reformed church, 
as ' a profligate under a cowl' and ' a scanda- 
lous friar.' The defence was a plea that the 
libel was true, and the evidence in support 
of this plea lasted for four days. In the 
end a verdict was given for the plaintiff, 
and the defendant having obtained a rule 
for a new trial the litigation was brought to 
an end. Others of his causes celebres were 
a suit of the Duke of Manchester's at King- 
ston ; an issue directed by Vice-chancellor 
Page Wood to be tried at Liverpool in 1855, 
as to the validity of the will of Mr. R. Gregg 
Hopwood, which, as executor, the Earl of 
Sefton propounded ; the great Swynfen will 
case, in which Mrs. Swynfen, the plaintiff, after 
repudiating a settlement effected on the first 
trial by her counsel, Sir F. Thesiger, obtained 
a new trial, which she won, chiefly through 
the exertions of Mr. Charles Rann Kennedy 
[q. v.], her counsel. Cockburn also led the 
prosecution of William Palmer in the Ruge- 
ley poisoning case with Edwin James, Q.C., 
Bodkin, Welsby, and Huddleston. For the 
defence were Serjeant Shee, Grove, Q.C., Gray, 
and Kenealy. The case lasted twelve days 
at the central criminal court, and turned 
exclusively upon circumstantial evidence. 
Though far from being the strongest case, 
Cockburn elected to have Palmer tried on 
the indictment in Cook's case, and at the 
end of the case replied without a single note. 
Chiefly by his advocacy Palmer was convicted 
and hanged on 14 June 1856. So thorough 
was Cockburn in his work that in getting up 
the evidence he had experimented with and 
studied poisons to a considerable degree. In 
1853 he was elected treasurer of the Middle 
Temple, and in 1854 was appointed recorder 
of Bristol. During the Crimean war he proved 
himself a very efficient debater, and his 
finished advocacy, aided by his powerful and 
melodious voice, dignified bearing, and keen 
humour, made him unrivalled at the bar. At 
length in 1856, after the death of Sir John 
Jervis on 2 Nov., Cockburn, though loth to 
abandon his huge professional income, suc- 
ceeded him as chief justice of the common 
pleas, and was sworn of the privy council. 
' Sir Alexander Cockburn,' writes Lord Camp- 
bell in his journal (HAKDCASTLE, Life of Lord 
Campbell, ii. 347), ' has frequently declared 
that he would not acceptany judicial appoint- 
ment, that he would prefer a political office, 
and that he would rather remain at the bar 
without office than become a judge.' His next 
entry continues : ' As I suspectedj'Cockburn's 
abjuration of the bench turns out to be only 
nolo episcopari. . . . He is a man of great 
intellectual ability; he is capable of keen, 

K2 



Cockburn 



1 80 



Cockburn 



though not as yet of continuous application ; 
he is ambitious of fame, and he has very cour- 
teous manners both in public and in private.' 
When Lord Palmerston came into power in 
1859, Cockburn was ambitious to receive 
the great seal, but Lord Campbell becoming 
chancellor, he succeeded him on 24 June 1859 
as lord chief justice of England. In the pre- 
vious year, upon the death of the dean of 
York, he had succeeded to the baronetcy. 
He now, as afterwards on his return from the 
Geneva arbitration, declined a peerage ; but 
on the latter occasion accepted the grand 
cross of the Bath. 

As an advocate Cockburn's knowledge of 
the law was not profound ; before his death 
he certainly was a good lawyer. He is said 
to have acquired his knowledge by sitting on 
the bench with Mr. Justice Blackburn. In 
style, however, his charges and considered 
judgments were masterpieces, and his sum- 
ming up in the Matlock will case was espe- 
cially eloquent. He preferred to take an ad- 
journment in order to obtain time to throw 
his judgments into good form. It was his 
great pleasure to try all the most notorious 
cases himself. Thus the motion for a criminal 
information made by the Earl of Cardigan in 
the case of Reg. v. Calthorpe in order to vin- 
dicate his character, the action in 1865 in 
which Mrs. Ryves sought to prove that she 
was of the blood royal, the Jamaica rebellion 
case in 1867, the Roman catholic convent 
scandal of Saurin v. Starr (an action by a nun 
against the superior of her convent for con- 
spiracy), the prosecution of those concerned 
in the Clerkenwell explosions in 1867, the 
second Tichborne trial in 1873, the Wain- 
wright murder in 1875, and the Franconia 
collision case (Reg. v. Keyes) in 1876 all 
came before him. His charge to the grand 
jury at the central criminal court on the in- 
dictment against Brigadier-general Nelson 
and Lieutenant Brand for their conduct on 
Gordon's trial during the Jamaica rebellion 
occupied six hours in delivery, and was a 
masterly disquisition upon the whole field of 
martial law. Subsequently it was published 
with notes by Mr. Frederick Cockburn. The 
jury threw out the bill. The trial at bar of 
Orton or Castro in the court of queen's bench 
for perjury committed during the trial of the 
action of ejectment, Tichborne v. Lushington, 
took place before the lord chief justice, Mr. 
Justice Mellor, and Mr. Justice Lush. Sir John 
(now Lord) Coleridge and (the present Sir 
Henry) Hawkins, Q.C., were for the crown, 
and Dr. Kenealy defended the prisoner. 
During the trial, which lasted 1 88 days the 
longest except that of Warren Hastings upon 
record Dr. Kenealy, who had owed much to 



Cockburn's patronage, behaved to the court in 
the most unprofessional manner, and after the 
trial libelled the chief justice in his paper, the 
' Englishman.' During the whole trial Cock- 
burn assiduously perused his notes of the day 
night by night, and his charge to the jury 
occupied eighteen days in delivery, and was 
afterwards published in 1874 in two volumes 
of eight hundred pages each with his own cor- 
rections. On 23 April 1875 Dr. Kenealy, 
having been elected for the borough of Stoke, 
moved for a royal commission to inquire into 
the conduct of the Tichborne trial, and during 
the debate Mr. Disraeli, the prime minister, 
said of Cockburn : ' He is a man of transcen- 
dent abilities ; his eloquence is remembered in 
this house, and when he left it to ascend the 
highest tribunal almost within the realm, he 
sustained the reputation which he had at- 
tained here and in the courts of his country 
with learning and majesty ' (Hansard, vol. 
ccxxiii. col. 1598). Shortly after this trial 
the freedom of the city of London was con- 
ferred on the chief justice. 

At the same time Cockburn played a con- 
spicuous part in public life. The same over- 
flowing energy which led him to elaborate 
his judgments perpetually precipitated him 
into pamphlet controversy or stray publica- 
tions. He published in 1869 a pamphlet on 
' Nationality,' in which he discussed the re- 
port of the Nationalisation Commission. He 
published also a letter of remonstrance to 
the lord chancellor upon the judges being 
required to try election petitions ; an attack 
on the then projected Judicature Act, under 
the title of ' Our Judicial System,' being a 
letter to Lord-chancellor Hatherly, dated 
4 May 1870 ; a remonstrance on Sir Robert 
Collier's appointment to the judicial com- 
mittee of the privy council in 1871 ; and a 
letter, dated 10 Dec. 1878, to Lord Penzance, 
in reply to the latter's animadversion in his 
judgment in the case of Combe v. Edwards 
upon the conduct of the chief justice and Mr. 
Justice Mellor in issuing a prohibition against 
his proceedings as ecclesiastical judge in the 
case of Martin v. Mackonochie. 

But his most conspicuous public appear- 
ance consisted in representing the British 
Government under the treaty of Washington 
at the Alabama arbitration held at Geneva. 
For this duty his knowledge of international 
law, his perfect mastery of French, and his 
courtly demeanour peculiarly fitted him. The 
American claims were excessive and not very 
fairly urged, and as he dissented from the 
award, he explained his reasons in an elabo- 
rate report, dated 14 Sept. 1872, and pre- 
sented to parliament with the award in 1873. 
He held the British government liable for 



Cockburn 



181 



Cockburn 



the depredations of the Alabama, though 
on grounds different from those of the other 
arbitrators, but considered that in the case 
of the Florida want of due diligence was 
not sufficiently proved, and that in the case 
of the Shenandoah no blame attached to 
the British government at all. The English 
translation of the Act of Decision was pre- 
pared by him, with Mr. C. F. Adams, and 
after the decision of the majority had been 
read and signed, he presented his reason for 
dissenting. In a letter dated 4 Oct. 1872 to 
Lord Granville, expressing his gratitude for 
the queen's acknowledgment of his services, 
he said : ' When I undertook the office of arbi- 
trator I believed that the only question would 
be whether her majesty's government had by 
any oversight or omission failed to fulfil the 
obligation admitted by the treaty of Wash- 
ington to have been binding on it. When I 
found that, with a view to a favourable deci- 
sion on this question, charges involving the 
honour and good faith of the queen's govern- 
ment and the country were put forward in 
the pleadings of the United States, and saw 
plainly that these charges were unfounded 
and unjust, I thought it my duty not to 
pass them over in silence.' In 1877 and 1878 
he was chairman of the Cambridge University 
Commission, and he received at various times 
the degrees of D.C.L. and LL.D. In the sum- 
mer of 1878, at the Exeter assizes, his health 
began to fail, and signs appeared of fatty de- 
generation of the heart. He took relaxation 
by means of a voyage in his yacht, the Zouave, 
an amusement of which he was very fond, 
and, having spent the autumn according to his 
custom at Spa, returned to his duty. In the 
summer of 1880 he went the south-eastern 
circuit, and again visited Spa in the autumn. 
On 18 and 19 Nov. he sat to try special jury 
causes, on the 20th presided with all his 
usual brilliancy in the court of crown cases 
reserved, walked home to his house, 40 Hert- 
ford Street, Mayfair, dined, was seized with 
an attack of angina pectoris near midnight, 
and died in fifteen minutes, in the seventy- 
eighth year of his age. He was buried in 
bis family vault at Kensal Green, attended 
by a great number of the bench and the bar, 
all the courts adjourning for the day. At 
the time of his death he had material in 
hand, very carefully prepared, for a work on 
the authorship of the ' Letters of Junius,' 
which was to have been published in the 
' Academy,' and was writing a series of 
articles on the ' History of the Chase ' in the 
' Nineteenth Century.' He was at work upon 
these so late as the afternoon of the day 
on which he died. In private life he was 
very fond of society, was a good musician, 



I an admirable host and raconteur, and an 
; equally good listener. He was an intimate 
friend of Dickens, and a constant attendant 
at his readings in London. To him Dickens, 
it is said, used to direct all the best points 
in each piece (DOLBY, Dickens as I knew him, 
p. 28). He was not a great judge like Parke 
or St. Leonard's, or an authority on mercantile 
usage like Willes; he had not a retentive legal 
memory, and got up his law very often for the 
occasion ; but his grasp of facts made him an 
admirable judge at nisi prius, and although 
he sat for twenty-four years on the bench he 
never lost interest in the cases before him. 
His best judgments are those in the Franconia 
case and in the newspaper libel case Camp- 
bell v. Spottiswoode, and the law of libel as 
now laid down is largely bis creation. He 
was a small man, but carried himself so well 
that he never looked small. Though always 
kind and courteous he was never garrulous 
or familiar in court, but stood up for the dig- 
nity of his office and took a wide view of the 
law of contempt of court. He entertained a 
particular prejudice against the Judicature 
Act, and restricted its operation as much as 
possible. The Cockburn baronetcy became 
extinct on his death. 

[Law Magazine, 1851, p. 193, and 4th series, 
vi. 191 ; Solicitors' Journal, 27 Nov. 1880 ; 
Times, 22 Nov. 1880 ; Law Times, Ixx. 68-88 ; 
Academy, 27 Nov. 1880, p. 383; Ballantine's 
Experiences of a Barrister, ii. 30, 113; Ashley's 
, Life of Palmerston, i. 224 ; Greville Memoirs, 
2nd series, ii. 251, iii. 346.] J. A. H. 

COCKBUBN, ALICIA or ALISON 

(1712 P-1794), authoress of the exquisite 
: Scottish lyric, ' I've seen the smiling of for- 
tune beguiling ' (printed in the ' Lark,' Edin- 
burgh, 1765), one of the sets of the 'Flowers 
of the Forest,' was a daughter of Robert Ru- 
therford of Fairnalee, Selkirkshire, and was 
born about 1710 or 1712. She was distantly 
| related to the mother of Sir Walter Scott, 
' with whom she lived on terms of intimate 
friendship. In her youth she is said to have 
been very beautiful, and in a book by Mr. 
Fairbairn, published at Edinburgh in 1727, 
entitled ' L'Eloge d'Ecosse et des Dames 
Ecossoises,' her name appears among a list 
of the most charming ladies of Edinburgh 
society. In 1731 she married Patrick Cock- 
burn, advocate (son of Adam Cockburn of Or- 
miston, lord justice clerk of Scotland) [q. vj, 
commissioner of the Duke of Hamilton. He 
died 29 April 1753. She had an only son, a 
captain of dragoons, who died in 1780. In De- 
cember 1777 Mrs. Cockburn spent an evening 
in George Square, the house of Sir Walter 
Scott's father, and, writing to Dr. Douglas of 



Cockburn 



182 



Cockburn 



Galashiels, describes the future romancist as 
' the most extraordinary genius of a boy I 
ever saw.' The admiration was mutual, for 
when taken to bed that night the boy told his 
aunt he liked that lady, and on being asked 
what lady answered, ' Why, Mrs. Cockburn, 
for I think she is a virtuoso like myself' 
(LOCKHART, Life of Scott). Lockhart prints 
in the ' Life of Scott ' a copy of verses found 
among his mother's papers, headed ' Lines to 
Mr. Walter Scott on reading his poem of 
Guiscard and Matilda,' inscribed to Mrs. Keith 
of Ravels ton, which he supposes to have come 
' from the pen of his old admirer, Mrs. Cock- 
burn.' She also wrote lines on Sir Walter 
Scott's father, printed in the ' Life of Scott.' 
' They made,' says Lockhart, ' one among a 
set of poetical characters which were given 
as toasts among a few friends, and we must 
hold them to contain a striking likeness, since 
the original was recognised as soon as they 
were read aloud.' Mrs. Cockburn is stated 
to have cultivated poetry from a very early 
period, and to have indulged in it to nearly 
the close of her life, but only comparatively 
few of her compositions have ever been pub- 
lished. In Stenhouse's notes to Johnson's 
'Scots Musical Museum ' it is stated that she 
composed the lyric to the air of the ' Flowers 
of the Forest ' at the request of a gentleman, 
who had heard the air played by a shepherd 
on a flute while passing through a sequestered 
glen. According to Sir Walter Scott, ' the 
occasion of the poem was a calamitous period 
in Selkirkshire or Ettrick Forest, when no 
fewer than seven lairds or proprietors, men 
of ancient family and inheritance, having been 
engaged in some imprudent speculations, be- 
came insolvent in one year.' Burns, in a letter 
to Thomson in 1793, expresses high admiration 
of the verses, and his sincerity in doing so is 
proved by the fact that he had imitated them 
closely in a poem ' I dreamed I lay,' written 
in 1776. Mrs. Cockburn met Burns in 1786, 
and wrote of him, he ' has a most enthusiastic 
heart of love.' In Stenhouse's edition of John- 
son's ' Scots Musical Museum ' two other songs 
of Mrs. Cockburn are inserted, both to the 
tune of ' All you ladies now at land ; ' the 
one entitled ' A Copy of Verses wrote by 
Mrs. Cockburn on the back of a picture by 
Sir Hew Dalrymple,' and the other a drink- 
ing song beginning ' All health be round 
Balcarras board.' During the rebellion of 
1745 Mrs. Cockburn was a strong adherent 
of the government, and wrote a song on the 
Pretender's manifesto to the tune ' Clout the 
Caldron.' She is described in the following 
eulogistic terms by Sir Walter Scott : ' She 
was one of those persons whose talents for 
conversation made a stronger impression on 



her contemporaries than her writings can be 
expected to produce. In person and features 
she somewhat resembled Queen Elizabeth, 
but the nose was rather more aquiline. She 
was proud of her auburn hair, which remained 
unbleached by time even when she was up- 
wards of eighty years old. She maintained 
the rank in the society of Edinburgh which 
French women of talents usually do in that of 
Paris, and in her little parlour used to assemble 
a very distinguished and accomplished circle, 
among whom David Hume, John Home, Lord 
Monboddo, and many other men of name were 
frequently to be found. Her evening parties 
were very frequent, and included society dis- 
tinguished both for condition and talents. 
The petit souper, which always concluded the 
evening, was like that of Stella, which she 
used to quote on the occasion : 

A supper like her mighty self, 
Four nothings on four plates of ,'delf. 

But they passed off more gaily than many 
costlier entertainments. She spoke both 
wittily and well, and maintained an extensive 
correspondence, which, if it continues to ex- 
ist, must contain many things highly curious 
and interesting. My recollection is that her 
conversation brought her much nearer to a 
French woman than to a native of England.' 
Three letters of Mrs. Cockburn are published 
in ' Letters of Eminent Persons addressed to 
David Hume,' edited by J. Hill Burton, 1849. 
Their frank directness and playful wit indi- 
cate that she was with Hume on terms of cor- 
dial intimacy, and there are many expressions 
of warm esteem, notwithstanding a wide di- 
vergence from him in her religious views. 
She died at Edinburgh 22 Nov. 1794, when 
she was above eighty. ' Even at an age,' says 
Sir Walter Scott, ' advanced beyond the usual 
bounds of humanity, she retained a play of 
imagination and an activity of intellect which 
must have been attractive and delightful in 
youth, but were almost preternatural at her 
period of life.' In her will, an interesting 
document, confirmed 23 Jan. 1795, she be- 
queaths to Sir Walter Scott's mother her 
emerald ring. A letter from a lady to Charles 
Kilpatrick Sharpe, printed in Stenhouse's 
edition of Johnson's ' Scots Musical Museum,' 
thus describes her : ' She had a pleasing coun- 
tenance and piqued herself upon always dress- 
ing according to her own taste, and not ac- 
cording to the dictates of fashion. Her brown 
hair never grew grey, and she wore it combed 
up upon a toupee, no cap, a lace hood tied 
under her chin, and her sleeves puffed out in 
the fashion of Queen Elizabeth, which is not 
uncommon now, but at that time was pecu- 
liar to herself.' 



Cockburn 



183 



Cockburn 



[Lockhart's Life of Scott ; Scott's Minstrelsy 
of the Scottish Border; Stenhouse's edition of 
Johnson's Scots Musical Museum ; Scots Maga- 
zine, Ivi. 735 ; Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent 
Scotsmen, i. 378-9 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
ix. 298-300. Large quotations are given from 
Mrs. Cockburn's unpublished letters in Song- 
stresses of Scotland, i. 52-196.] T. F. H. 

COCKBURN, ARCHIBALD (ft. 1722), 
divine, describes himself as being ' M.A., 
rector of the parishes of St. Mary Cayon 
and Christ's Church, Nichola Town, in St. 
Christopher's.' At the request of the Hon. 
William Matthew, lieutenant-governor of the 
Leeward Caribbee Islands, he wrote ' A Phi- 
losophical Essay concerning the intermediate 
State of Blessed Souls,' London, 1722, 8vo, 
which is curious from the author's profound 
belief in apparitions. The extracts which 
Noble professes to give would be highly in- 
teresting were they only to be found in the 
book. Cockburn's portrait was engraved by 
Gerard Vandergucht. 

[Noble's Continuation of Granger, iii. 140-1.] 

G. G. 

COCKBURN, CATHARINE (1679- 
1749), dramatist and philosophical writer, 
was born in London on 16 Aug. 1679. Her 
father was David Trotter, a naval commander, 
who died during her infancy, leaving a wi- 
dow, Sarah (Ballenden), with two daugh- 
ters. Mrs. Trotter, who was connected with 
noble Scotch families, was left in distress, and 
received a pension of 20/. a year under Queen 
Anne. Catharine was remarkably precocious. 
She wrote verses at the age of fourteen, and 
her first tragedy, ' Agnes de Castro,' was pro- 
duced at the Theatre Royal in 1695, and 
published (anonymously) next year. In 1697 
she made acquaintance with Congreve, upon 
whose ' Mourning Bride ' she had written 
some verses ; and in 1698 her tragedy of the 
' Fatal Friendship ' was successfully produced 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields. Farquhar sent her 
his ' Love and a Bottle ' ' to stand its trial 
before one of the fairest of the sex (whom 
he was accused of affronting) and the best 
judge.' She contributed to the ' Nine Muses ; 
or Poems written by as many Ladies upon 
the Death of the late famous John Dryden, 
Esq.' (1 May 1700) ; and in the same year 
her comedy ' Love at a Loss ' was written but 
apparently not acted. Her last play, the 
' Revolutions of Sweden,' upon which Con- 
greve had given her some hints, was acted 
and published in 1706. She had meanwhile 
studied philosophy. At an early period she 
had been converted to Catholicism, through 
an intimacy with some distinguished families 
of that persuasion. She afterwards studied 



Locke's essay, and in May 1702 published an 
anonymous defence of his theories against 
Thomas Burnet of the Charterhouse [q. v.], 
repelling the charge of materialism. Locke 
warmly acknowledged her advocacy, and 
sent her a present of books. She was still a 
catholic, and even injured her health by a 
strict observance of the fasts. Sympathy 
with Locke and acquaintance with Bishop 
Burne were not favourable to her faith, and 
about the beginning of 1707 she returned to 
the church of England, publishing an ex- 

S^anation of her reasons in the same year, 
urnet added a preface, and the book had 
been shown to Samuel Clarke. 

She had received several offers of marriage, 
and made up her mind to take a clergyman. 
After rejecting a Mr. Fenn, she was married in 
the beginning of 1708 to Patrick Cockburn 
[q. v.], who in the same year became curate of 
Nayland, Suffolk. He was soon afterwards 
curate of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street. On the 
accession of George I he had scruples about 
taking the oaths, and maintained himself by 
teaching in an academy. Having surmounted 
his scruples, he became minister to an episcopal 
congregation at Aberdeen in 1726. The lord 
chancellor, King, then presented him to the 
living of Long Horsley, near Morpeth. After 
holding it for some time as an absentee, Bishop 
Chandler called upon him to reside, and he 
left Aberdeen to settle in his living in 1737. 
A growing family with narrow means had 
forced Mrs. Cockburn to give up literature 
for some years after her marriage. In 1726 
and 1727 she again appeared in defence of 
Locke against a Dr. Holdsworth. In 1737 she 
wrote an essay upon moral obligation, for 
which she could find no publisher. It appeared 
in August 1743 in the ' History of the Works 
of the Learned.' Rutherforth's ' Essay on the 
Nature and Obligations of Virtue,' advocating 
a system of egoistic utilitarianism, brought 
her once more into the field in a treatise 
which was published in 1747, with a preface 
by Warburton. Mrs. Cockburn here accepts 
and defends the ethical theory of Clarke, and 
it is not much to the credit of her philosophi- 
cal acuteness that she does not perceive it to 
be inconsistent with the theories of her old 
teacher Locke. She now proposed to publish 
her works by subscription. Her health was 
declining, and the death of her husband in 
his seventy-first year (4 Jan. 1748-9) gave 
her a fatal shock. She died on 11 May 1749, 
and was buried by the side of her husband 
and youngest daughter at Long Horsley. 

She was celebrated for beauty in her youth, 
small in stature, with bright eyes and deli- 
cate complexion. Her character was irre- 
proachable. Her plays are: 1. 'Agnes de 



Cockburn 



184 



Cockburn 



Castro,' 1696. '2. ' Fatal Friendship,' 1698. 

3. ' Love at a Loss, or most Votes carry it,' 
1701 ; revised as 'The Honourable Deceivers,' 
but never brought out. 4. 'The Unhappy 
Penitent,' 1701. 5. 'The Eevolution of Swe- 
den,' 1706. 

Her philosophical writings are : 1. In de- 
fence of Locke. 2. ' A Discourse concerning 
a Guide in Controversies, in two Letters,' 
1707. 3. ' A Letter to Dr. Holdsworth,' 1726. 

4. 'A Vindication of Mr. Locke's Christian 
Principles from the injurious imputations of 
Dr. Holdsworth ' (published in posthumous 
works). 5. ' Remarks upon some Writers in 
the Controversy concerning the foundations 
of Moral Duty . . . particularly (E. Law and 
Warburton . . . ) in Works of the Learned,' 
1743. 6. ' Remarks upon the Principles . . . 
of Dr. Rutherforth's Essay ... in vindication 
of the contrary principles ... of the late Dr. 
Samuel Clarke,' 1747. Her collected prose 
works were published in 1751 by Dr. Birch, 
with a life. Some of her .poems, including 
the lines upon ' the busts in the Queen's Her- 
mitage,' originally published in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' for May 1737, will be found 
in ' Poems by Eminent Ladies,' 1755, i. 228-38. 

[Life by Birch prefixed toWorks; Biog. Dram. ; 
Genest's History of the Stage, ii. 72, 155, 234, 
347; Forbes's Life of Beattie, ii. 349, iii. 62.] 

L. S. 

COCKBURN, SIB GEORGE (1763- 

1847), general and pamphleteer, eldest son 
of George Cockburn, by a sister of Admiral 
Sir Benjamin Caldwell, G.C.B., was born in 
Dublin in 1763. He was gazetted an ensign in 
the 1st, afterwards the Grenadier, guards on 
9 May 1781, and in the following year went to 
Gibraltar, where he acted as aide-de-camp to 
General Eliott during the famous siege. For 
his services he was promoted captain-lieu- 
tenant into the 105th regiment in 1784, and 
transferred in the following year to the 65th, 
which was then quartered in Dublin. His new 
colonel, the Earl of Harrington, took a great 
fancy to the young man, and instead of letting 
him go to Canada with the rest of the regiment 
in June 1785, he kept him at home for recruit- 
ing duties, and sent him to study the Prus- 
sian autumn manoeuvres. In the following 
years he went to Austria, France, and in 
1788 to Spain for the same reason, and in 
March 1790 he was promoted captain into 
the 5th (Royal Irish) light dragoons. In the 
same year he was made major of the Royal 
Irish Independent Invalids, and in Novem- 
ber 1793 was transferred to the 92nd regi- 
ment, of which he purchased the lieutenant- 
colonelcy in the following month, and soon 
after went upon half-pay. In 1797 he was 



promoted colonel, and in 1803 major-general, 
and from 1806 to 1810 he held a command 
in the northern district. In April 1810 he 
was appointed to the command of a division 
in the army of occupation in Sicily, and took 
charge of Messina, but his tenure of command 
was not long, and in November, on the news 
arriving that he had been promoted lieutenant- 
general, he had to resign. Before that time, 
however, he had been present at the defeat 
of Cavaignac's division when it attempted 
to land in Sicily, but the chief credit of the 
action is due to the adjutant-general, James 
Campbell. Cockburn then proceeded to tra- 
vel about Sicily, and on his return to Eng- 
land published two elaborate volumes with 
illustrations, which he called ' A Voyage to 
Cadiz and Gibraltar, up the Mediterranean 
to Sicily and Malta in 1810 and 1811, in- 
cluding a description of Sicily and the Lipari 
Islands, and an Excursion in Portugal.' He 
then settled down at his seat, Shanganah 
Castle, near Bray, county Wicklow, which 
he had purchased, and began to devote him- 
self to politics. He began as a violent re- 
former and an admirer of Cobbett,and erected 
a column in his grounds in memory of the 
Reform Bill, which he speedily knocked 
down when the whigs ceased to please him. 
In 1821 he was made a K.C.H. by George IV, 
and in 1837 William IV made him a G.C.H., 
rather in recognition of his activity as a magi- 
strate than for his military services. In 1843 
he published a pamphlet, which was praised 
at the time, ' A Dissertation on the State of 
the British Finances,' in which he advocated 
that bank notes should be issued by govern- 
ment and not the Bank of England, and in 
1846 he issued a still more curious one, in 
which he examined such historical puzzles as 
Hannibal's passage over the Alps, and the 
authorship of the ' Letters of Junius,' which 
he ascribed, on the testimony of Dr. Parr, to 
Charles Lloyd. In 1821 Cockburn had been 
promoted general, and when he died at Shan- 
ganah Castle, on 18 Aug. 1847, he was fourth 
general in seniority in the British army. 

[Gent. Mag. November 1847, and Cockbnrn's 
own pamphlets.] H. M. S. 

COCKBURN, SIE GEORGE (1772- 
1853), admiral of the fleet, second son of 
Sir James Cockburn, bart., was at the age 
of nine entered as captain's servant on the 
books of the Resource frigate and after- 
wards of the William and Mary yacht ; he 
did not really go to sea till 1786, and after 
serving in the East Indies, Channel, and 
Mediterranean, was confirmed in the rank 
of lieutenant on 2 Jan. 1793. In June he 
was appointed as one of the lieutenants of 



Cockburn 



185 



Cockburn 



the Victory, Lord Hood's flagship offToulon ; 
in October he was promoted to the command 
of the Speedy sloop ; and on 20 Feh. 1794 
was posted to the Meleager frigate, which 
served as a repeating ship in Hotham's two 
actions off Toulon, 14 March and 13 July 
1795. For the following twelve months the 
Meleager was employed in the Gulf of Genoa, 
under the immediate orders of Captain Nel- 
son, whose friendship Cockburn won by his 
zeal during an irksome period of service. 
In August 1796 Cockburn was moved into 
the Minerve, a large frigate lately captured | 
from the French, and on board which Nel- ' 
son hoisted his broad pennant when, in De- 
cember 1796, he was sent back from Gibraltar 
to relieve the garrison of Elba, and to obtain 
the latest news of the movements of the 
French and Spanish fleets. On the way up, 
off Cartagena, on 20 Dec. she captured the 
Spanish frigate Sabina, commanded by Don 
Jacobo Stuart, a descendant of the Duke of 
Berwick [see NELSON, HORATIO, VISCOUNT], 
and on her return, passing the Straits of 
Gibraltar, ran through the Spanish fleet and 
joined the fleet under Sir John Jervis the 
day before the battle of Cape St. Vincent 
(DRINKWATER-BETHUNE, Narrative of the 
Battle of Cape St. Vincent), in which the | 
Minerve was present, though without any 
active participation. With but a short in- j 
terval the Minerve, under Cockburn's com- j 
mand, continued in the Mediterranean till 
the peace, and captured, or assisted in cap- 
turing, several of the enemy's privateers and 
smaller ships of war, and more especially the ; 
Succes and Bravoure frigates, which were 
driven ashore on the coast of Italy, 2 Sept. 
1801 (JAMES, Naval History, 1860, iii. 79). ' 
She returned to England and was paid off 
in February 1802. 

In July 1803 Cockburn was appointed to 
the Phaeton, which he commanded for the 
next two years in the East Indies. In July 
1806 he was appointed to the Captain, and 
in March 1808 to the Pompee, in which in 
September he went out to the West Indies, 
where in the following February he had an 
important share in the reduction of Marti- 
nique, flying a broad pennant with a captain 
under him, by the appointment of the com- 
mander-in-chief, Sir Alexander Cochrane 
[see BRENTON, EDWARD PELHAM]. He after- 
wards shifted his pennant to the Belle-Isle, 
and returned to Europe in charge of the 
prizes, carrying the captured garrison of Mar- 
tinique, which he took in the first instance 
to Quiberon Bay, intending there to exchange 
them. The French authorities, however, 
would not give up an equal number, and 
after a vexatious correspondence Cockburn 



quitted the place in disgust and carried the 
prisoners to Portsmouth. He afterwards 
commanded the flotilla of gunboats and 
bomb-vessels which in July and August co- 
operated with the army in the reduction of 
Flushing, and in September covered its re- 
treat as it withdrew from the Scheldt. In 
February 1810 Cockburn was appointed to 
the Indefatigable and ordered to Quiberon 
Bay, where on 7 March he landed two agents 
who had undertaken to effect the escape of 
the king of Spain, then imprisoned in the 
castle of Valencay. Cockburn's share in the 
business was merely to land the agents and 
wait for their return with the king ; but as 
these men were speedily arrested, Cockburn 
went back to England. The Indefatigable, 
with Sir Richard Keats's flag on board, next 
went to Cadiz, then besieged by the French, 
against whom Cockburn, in command of the 
boats of the fleet, rendered important assis- 
tance. He was afterwards sent to the Ha- 
vana, in charge of two Spanish three-deckers, 
and on his return was, in November 1811, 
appointed to act as a commissioner in the 
attempted mediation between Spain and her 
South American colonies. The Cortes proved 
impracticable, and the commission returned 
to England in August 1812. A few days 
later (12 Aug.) he was advanced to be rear- 
admiral, and, hoisting his flag on board the 
Marlborough, was sent to command the 
squadron before Cadiz. In November, how- 
ever, in consequence of the war with the 
United States, he was ordered to proceed to. 
Bermuda, where he was joined by Sir J. B. 
Warren, the commander-in-chief, and by 
him was sent with a small squadron to at- 
tack the enemy in the Chesapeake. Here 
the war resolved itself into numerous desul- 
tory skirmishes between boats or small land- 
ing parties and the American militia. The 
expedition forced its way up the northern 
branch of the Chesapeake to the Head of Elk, 
burning or destroying government stores 
wherever they were found, and being in 
almost daily conflict with the enemy, more 
especially at Havre de Grace, Georgetown, 
and Frederickstown. 

In the following year (1813), after the 
battle of Bladensburg, 24 Aug., in which 
Cockburn himself took part, in concert with, 
his friend Major-general Ross, the joint naval 
and military force entered the city of Wash- 
ington, virtually without resistance, and re- 
tired unmolested, after having destroyed 
government stores of a value differently es- 
timated at from half a million to three mil- 
lions sterling. Cockburn was the guiding 
spirit throughout the campaign, and was 
actually engaged on most occasions. The 



Cockburn 



1 86 



Cockburn 



capture of Washington seems to have been 
entirely suggested and planned by him. and 
though, from the preponderance of the land 
forces engaged, the larger share of the credit 
publicly awarded fell to Ross ' of Bladens- 
burg,' Ross himself, in reporting the success, 
properly wrote : ' To Rear-admiral Cockburn, 
who suggested the attack upon Washington, 
and who accompanied the army, I confess 
the greatest obligations for his cordial co- 
operation and advice.' Still co-operating 
with General Ross, Cockburn, at his special 
request, accompanied him on his advance 
against Baltimore, and was with him in the 
paltry skirmish in which Ross received his 
death-wound, 12 Sept. During the rest of 
the year he continued the operations in the 
Chesapeake in the same desultory but dash- 
ing manner, while Sir Alexander Cochrane, 
with the greater part of the force at his dis- 
posal, attempted to carry New Orleans. He 
was just arranging an expedition against 
Savannah when, on 25 Feb. 1815, he received 
intelligence that peace had been concluded. 
On 2 Jan. he had been nominated a K.C.B., ! 
and, being now recalled to England, anchored 
at Spithead on 4 May, in time to find that war 
with France had again broken out. He was 
therefore ordered to hold himself ready for ; 
immediate service. It came, but of a nature 
very different from what he could have ex- ! 
pected. He was ordered to hoist his flag on 
board the Northumberland and convey Gene- 
ral Bonaparte to St. Helena. He accord- 
ingly went round to Plymouth, whence, 
with the general on board, he sailed on 
8 Aug. On 15 Oct. he arrived at St. Helena, 
and having landed his prisoner, remained in 
the twofold character of governor of the 
island and commander-in-chief of the sta- 
tion, the duties of which posts were rendered 
extremely irksome by the necessity of un- 
ceasing vigilance. In the summer of 1816, 
however, he was relieved by Sir Hudson 
Lowe and Sir Pulteney Malcolm, and arrived 
in England on 1 Aug. He was made G.C.B. 
on 20 Feb. 1818, and became vice-admiral on 
12 Aug. 1819, but had no employment till 
December 1832, when he was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief on the North American and 
West India station. His return from that 
command in February 1836 was the end of 
his service afloat. He became admiral on 
10 Jan. 1837, and admiral of the fleet on 
1 July 1851. In 1820 he was elected F.R.S. 
In 1818 he was returned to parliament for 
Portsmouth, in 1820 for Weobley, in 1826 
for Plymouth, and in 1841 for Ripon. He 
was repeatedly a junior lord of the admiralty, 
and first naval lord, 1841-6. In April 1827 
he was nominated a privy councillor. On 



26 Feb. 1852, by the death of his brother 
James without a son, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy, a dignity which he enjoyed for 
only a short time. He died on 19 Aug. 
1853, also without a son, and was succeeded 
in the baronetcy by his brother William, 
dean of York. He married in 1809 his cousin 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Cockburn, and left 
issue one daughter, who married in 1856 
Commander J. C. Hoseason. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Burke's Genea- 
logical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage 
and Baronetage.] J. K. L. 

COCKBURN, HENRY THOMAS, LOE 

COCKBUKN (1779-1854), Scotch judge, was 
born, probably in Edinburgh, 26 Oct. 1779. 
His father, successively sheriff of Midlothian, 
judge admiral, and baron of the Scottish 
court of exchequer, was a rigid tory, and his 
mother's sister was the wife of Henry Dun- 
das, afterwards Viscount Melville, long the 
tory autocrat of Scotland. At the high school 
and university of Edinburgh he received an 
education of which he said in old age, ' We 
were kept about nine years at two dead 
languages which we did not learn.' He ac- 
knowledges, however, his obligations at the 
university to Dugald Stewart's lectures on 
moral philosophy, and to the free discussion 
of the academic debating societies which he 
joined, and of one of which Brougham, Francis 
Horner, and Jeffrey were active members. 
Cockburn became a zealous whig, and formed 
a lifelong intimacy with Jeffrey. Admitted in 
December 1800 to the Faculty of Advocates, 
in 1806 he was appointed one of the advocates- 
depute by his tory relatives, the Dundases. 
He was assured that his acceptance of the office 
need not involve infidelity to whig principles, 
but on his exhibition of political independence 
he was dismissed from it in 1810. In 1811 he 
married and settled at Bonaly, near Edin- 
burgh, at the northern base of the Pentlands, 
his new home consisting of ' a few square 
yards and a scarcely habitable farmhouse/ 
His whiggism prevented official preferment, 
but he soon shared with Jeffrey the leadership 
of the Scottish bar. Cockburn shone in crimi- 
nal cases, especially as counsel for the defence. 
He retained his Scottish accent, and was fond 
of Scotch allusions. His manner was ex- 
tremely homely, and he spoke with an air of 
sincerity which gave him a singular influence 
over Scottish juries. In ' Peter's Letters to 
his Kinsfolk ' Lockhart has given a graphic 
description of Cockburn's early forensic style 
and its contrast to Jeffrey's. One of the most 
effective of his speeches was that in which he 
opened the defence for Stuart of Dunearn, 
tried (10 June 1822) for killing Sir Alexander 



Cockburn 



187 



Cockburn 



Boswell [q. v.] in a duel. Sir James Mackin- 
tosh said of it in the House of Commons that 
it ' had not* been surpassed in the whole range 
of ancient or modern forensic eloquence.' 

After 1815 Cockburn was engaged as coun- 
sel for the defence of prisoners accused of 
political offences, and was a prominent speaker 
at whig public meetings. He also advocated 
the extension of the parliamentary and mu- 
nicipal franchises of Edinburgh in the follow- 
ing pamphlets : (1) 'A Letter to the Inhabi- 
tants of Edinburgh on the New Police Bill,' 
1822 ; (2) ' Considerations submitted to the 
Householders of Edinburgh on the State of 
their Representation in Parliament,' 1823 ; 
(3) ' An Explanation of the State of the Case 
ot the Edinburgh Representation in Parlia- 
ment,' 1826. They were issued anonymously, 
but on the flyleaf of each of them in the 
library of the British Museum appears the 
statement, inCockburn's handwriting, ' Writ- 
ten by me, H. C.' Another pamphlet of Cock- 
burn's similarly acknowledged by him is en- 
titled ' Observations on the Mode of Choosing 
Juries in Scotland,' 1822, a protest against 
the now long-abolished practice which al- 
lowed the judge in a criminal case to select 
at his pleasure from the jury-lists jurors who 
were to try it. To the ' Edinburgh Review ' 
for January 1824 he contributed the article, 
' Office of Lord Advocate of Scotland,' ob- 
jecting to that official's combination of the 
functions of an English home secretary with 
those of an English attorney-general. An 
article, ' Criminal Law of Scotland,' in the 
' Edinburgh ' for January 1825, enforced the 
same view, which was virtually adopted by 
the legislature sixty years later. He con- 
tributed another article on the Scottish poor 
laws in October 1824. In 1825 he presided 
at the Edinburgh banquet (5 April) to Henry 
(afterwards Lord) Brougham fq. v.] 

In the ' Edinburgh Review ' for April 1830 
Cockburn wrote upon ' Scottish Judicial Re- 
forms : the Law of England and Scotland,' 
and in the October number a trenchant article 
on ' The Parliamentary Representation of 
Scotland.' On the formation of the Grey 
ministry in the following December he was ap- 
pointed solicitor-general for Scotland, Jeffrey 
becoming lord advocate, and he was summoned 
to London the same month to confer with a 
committee of the whig cabinet upon a measure 
of Scottish parliamentary reform. During a 
second visit to London in September 1831 the 
draft, mainly Cockburn's handiwork, of the 
first Scotch Reform Bill was completed. In 
1831 he was elected lord rector of the univer- 
sity of Glasgow in preference to Joseph Hume 
and John Gibson Lockhart, delivering his in- 
augural address 6 Jan . 1 832 . In 1 833, the votes 



of the four ' nations ' being equally divided 
between himself and Sir Daniel Sandford, the 
professor of Greek, he gave his casting vote 
in favour of his own re-election, explaining 
his reasons for the step (see his Journal, i. 
55) in a printed ' Letter by the late Rector 
of the University of Glasgow to the Electors, 
November 1833.' In November 1834 he was 
appointed, as Lord Cockburn, one of the judges 
of the court of session, and in 1837 he became a 
lord of justiciary . As a judge he was more emi- 
nent in criminal than in civil cases, having 
been always somewhat deficient in a tech- 
nical knowledge of the law. His decisions 
in civil cases were therefore often reversed 
by his brethren, but often, too, confirmed on 
appeal, by the House of Lords, a result said 
to have been due to the 'utterly untechnical 
character of his mind, which made his ex- 
ceptionally terse and lucid judgments read 
in the eyes of a foreign lawyer with a force 
not due to their intrinsic merits' (North 
British Review for November 1856, art. 
'Cockburn's Memorials'). He strenuously 
co-operated with some of his whig brethren 
in judicially upholding those claims of the 
Scottish kirk to independence of the state 
which, repelled by a majority of the judges 
of the court of session and rejected by parlia- 
ment, led to the disruption of 1843 and the 
formation of a free kirk of Scotland. Appa- 
rently his one contribution during his judge- 
ship to the ' Edinburgh Review ' was the ar- 
ticle in the number for January 1846, ' Scottish 
Criminal Jurisprudence and Procedure.' In 
1852 appeared, in two volumes, his agreeable 
and sympathetic work, ' The Life of Lord 
Jeffrey, with Selections from his Correspon- 
dence,' a second edition of which was called 
for immediately. Cockburn's last appearance 
in print, made a few weeks before his death, 
was as the writer of letters in a local news- 
paper, suggesting a scheme for the architec- 
tural improvement of Edinburgh. He was 
fond of protesting against such acts of van- 
dalism and projects for defacing the Scottish 
capital as are chronicled in his ' Letter to the 
Lord Provost on the best ways of Spoiling the 
Beauty of Edinburgh' (reprinted as an appen- 
dix to his 'Journal '). One of its chief modern 
educational institutions, the Edinburgh Aca- 
demy, was (in or about 1823) projected by 
Cockburn in conjunction with Leonard Hor- 
ner, and its citizens have given his name to 
the most picturesque of the streets built in 
Edinburgh since his death. Cockburn died 
26 April 1 854 at Bonaly , the house and grounds 
of which he had greatly improved, extended, 
and embellished, and he was buried in the 
Dean cemetery, Edinburgh, near the grave 
of his friend, Lord Jeffrey. He was below 



Cockburn 



188 



Cockburn 



the middle height, with a handsome and in- 
tellectual face, fond of outdoor exercises, and j 
a devoted lover of nature. Among friends 
he was a delightful companion, and his gene- 
ral unconventionality and genial familiarity 
with his countrymen of every class contri- ' 
buted to make him one of the most personally 
popular of Scotchmen. On hearing of his j 
death, a few weeks after that of John Wil- 
son, 'Christopher North,' Carlyle wrote of 
him in his ' Journal 'as 'in all respects the 
converse or contrast of Wilson ; rustic Scotch 
sense, sincerity and humour, all of the prac- 
tical Scotch type. . . . Cockburn, small, solid, 
.and genuine, was by much the wholesomer 
product; a bright, cheery- voiced, hazel-eyed 
man ; a Scotch dialect with plenty of good 
logic in it, and of practical sagacity ; vera- 
cious, too. A gentleman, I should say, and 
perfectly in the Scotch type, perhaps the very 
last of that peculiar species' (FROTJDE, Thomas 
Carlyle, a History of his Life in London, ii. 
158). In 1856 appeared Cockburn's posthu- 
mous volume of ' Memorials of his Time,' con- 
taining his autobiography up to his appoint- 
ment to the solicitor-generalship, interspersed 
with sketches of Scottish social and political 
history, and with characteristic anecdotes of 
Edinburgh notables. Its graphic sketches of 
men and manners were accompanied by re- 
flections on the social changes which Cock- 
burn had witnessed in Scotland and Edin- 
burgh, and the volume was very successful. 
In some strictures on it, above all in those 
contained in an article in the ' Law Review 
and Magazine' for August and November 
1856, then generally attributed to Brougham, 
Cockburn's veracity was seriously impugned. 
It was successfully defended in the ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' for January 1857 in an article, 
' Scottish Lawyers and English Critics,' which 
also gave an interesting description of Cock- 
burn's personal appearance, habits, and pecu- 
liarities, with an excellent estimate of his cha- 
racter and career. In 1874 was issued in two 
volumes Cockburn's ' Journal . . . 1831-44,' 
a work resembling the ' Memorials,' of which 
it is a continuation, though its interest, if the 
same in kind, is less in degree. Among its 
contents is a valuable contemporary record 
of the development of the strife which issued 
in the disruption of the Scottish kirk. A 
number of letters of Cockburn's on Scotch 
politics and law reform, addressed to a Scotch 
whig M.P., and latterly a minor minister and 
government official, are published in a volume 
of ' Letters chiefly connected with the affairs 
of Scotland from Henry Cockburn to T. F. 
Kennedy, M.P., with other Letters from emi- 
nent persons during the same period, 1818- 
1852 ' (1874). The copy in the British Mu- 



seum Library of ' The Chronicle of the City ' 
(by Douglas Cheape), a squib produced by the 
Edinburgh election of May 1834, when Sir 
John, afterwards Lord, Campbell was re- 
turned, contains explanatory manuscript notes 
by Cockburn. The publication of an edition 
of ' Lord Cockburn's Works,' begun at Edin- 
burgh in 1872, stopped with the reissue of 
the ' Life of Jeffrey ' and the ' Memorials.' 

[Cockburn's writings, especially the Memo- 
rials and the Journal ; Chambers' s Biog. Diet, of 
Eminent Scotsmen ; Cassell's Old and New Edin- 
burgh ; authorities cited.] F. E. 

COCKBURN, JAMES (fl. 1783), colo- 
nel 35th foot, commandant at St. Eustatius 
in 1781, was second son of Dr. James Cock- 
burn, and grandson of Dr. William Cockburn 
[q. v.], physician-general to the British army 
in the Duke of Marlborough's campaigns. 
During a long and meritorious service of 
thirty-six years, mostly in the 35th foot, of 
which he was adjutant from 1757 to 1772, he 
was several times wounded, and fought under 
Wolfe at Quebec, in the subsequent conquest 
of Canada, and in the American campaigns 
of 1775-6, including the battles of Bunker's 
Hill and White Plains. He was in com- 
mand at St. Eustatius when that island, gar- 
risoned by detachments of the 13th and 15th 
foot and a few artillery, was surprised and 
captured by a small French naval squadron 
on 26 Nov. 1781. For this he was tried by 
a general court-martial, held at the Horse 
Guards 31 May 1783, which sentenced him 
to be cashiered. He died soon afterwards. 
Cockburn married Lsetitia Little, heiress of 
the ancient Irish houses of Rossiter and Deve- 
reux, and by her had several children. His 
eldest son, William, succeeded his uncle in the 
baronetcy and estates of Cockburn of Cockburn 
and Ryslaw, Berwickshire, and served with 
distinction in the army in India [see COCK- 
BUKif, SIR WILLIAM, lieutenant-general]. 

Printed copies of the court-martial pro- 
ceedings, one edition with numerous notes 
(London 1783), will be found in the British 
Museum Library. The Egerton MSS. also 
contain two letters, one from Cockburn to 
I Brigadier Christie announcing the capture of 
St. Eustatius, and the other from Mrs. Lsetitia 
Cockburn, dated Greenwich, 18 March 1781, 
to General Vaughan, thanking him for having 
appointed her husband to the post of quarter- 
master-general (in the W'est Indies), an ap- 
pointment he appears never to have taken up. 
[Burke's Baronetage ; British Museum Cata- 
logues.] H. M. C. 

COCKBURN, JAMES PATTISON 

(1779?-! 847), major-general royal artillery, 
; was born about 1779. He entered the Royal 



Cockburn 



189 



Cockburn 



Military Academy, Woolwich, as a cadet, 
19 March 1793, and passed out, as a second 
lieutenant royal artillery, 2 March 1795, the 
dates of his subsequent commissions being 
as follows : First lieutenant 1803, captain 
1806, brevet-major 1814, lieutenant-colonel 
1825, brevet-colonel 1837, major-general 

9 Nov. 1846. He served at the capture of the 
Cape of Good Hope in 1795, in the expedition 
which was sent against Manilla in 1798, but 
recalled when on its passage owing to the 
threatening aspect of affairs in the Carnatic, 
and also at the siege and capture of Copen- 
hagen in 1807. He held the post of director 
of the Royal Laboratory, Woolwich, from 

10 Oct. 1838 to 31 Dec. 1846. As a cadet 
Cockburn had been a pupil of Paul Sandby, 
royal academician (who was many years 
professor of landscape-drawing at the Royal 
Military Academy), and became a very ac- 
complished artist. During periods of leave 
from Malta and Woolwich, where he was 
stationed after the peace, he executed many 
drawings of continental scenery, which were 
engraved and published under the titles of 
' Swiss Scenery ' (London, 1820) ; ' Views of 
the VaUey of Aosta ' (London, 1822); 
' Views to illustrate the Simplon Route ' 
(London, 1822) ; ' Views to illustrate the 
Mont Cenis Route ' (London, 1822). These 
drawings supplied the continental ' scenes ' 
for illustrated editions, annuals, and similar 
works of various descriptions for long after- 
wards. He also executed the landscapes in 
Professor T. L. Donaldson's fine work ' Pom- 
peii Illustrated ' (London, 1829), which from 
a preface by the artist appear to have been 
executed in 1819. A notice in SpohrV Auto- 
biography,' quoted in ' Notes and Queries,' 
3rd series, viii. 309, suggests that Cockburn 
was in the habit of using the camera lucida 
to insure exactness of landscape detail. 

Cockburn, who had long been in feeble 
health, died at his residence, Woolwich Com- 
mon, 10 March 1847. 

[Kane's Lists of Officers K. Art. (revised ed. 
1869); Brit. Mus. Cat.; Gent. Mag. new series, 
xxvii. 350.] H. M. C. 

COCKBURN, JOHN, D.D. (1652-1729), 
Scottish divine, son of John Cockburn, a gen- 
tleman of some estate in the north of Scotland, 
who married a sister of Patrick Scougall of 
Salton, afterwards bishop of Aberdeen, was 
born on 20 April 1652. In 1666 he was en- 
tered at Edinburgh University, but was taken 
thence by his uncle the bishop, and entered 
in November 1668 at King's College, Aber- 
deen, as ' Joh. Cobron, Edinb.,' pursuing his 
studies under Scougall's eye, and graduating 
A.M. on 20 June 1671. In 1673 he became 



tutor to Lord Keith, son of George, earl Ma- 
rischall, and remained in this situation till 
1675, when he was ordained by his uncle, 
who presented him on 14 Feb. 1676 to the 
living of Udny, Aberdeenshire. He was in- 
stituted on 21 (or 31) May, but not without 
' great tumult,' the laird of Udny claiming 
the right to present. In the following Au- 
gust (before the 15th) his cousin Cockburn, 
laird of Langton, Berwickshire (a presbyte- 
rianwhom the bishop of Edinburgh had much 
difficulty in getting to present any ' orderly 
person '), presented him to the living of Lang- 
ton, but he did not accept. He was trans- 
lated from Udny to Old Deer (a parish partly 
in Aberdeenshire, partly in Banffshire), be- 
tween 10 Aug. and 7 Sept. 1681, on the pre- 
sentation of George, earl Marischall. On 
31 Aug. the Test Act was passed, compelling 
the holders of all offices, civil and ecclesias- 
tical, to swear adherence to the confession of 
faith of 1560, and to pledge themselves to 
support the existing government of church 
and state. Cockburn refused the test (of 
which his uncle the bishop was one of the 
strongest opponents), but early next year 
(1682) he complied with the act, being among 
the last of the clergy of Aberdeen diocese to 
do so. On 13 June 1683 he was translated 
to the living of Onniston, Haddingtonshire, 
of which Sir A. Cockburn was patron. This 
living had been vacant since the deprivation 
of John Sinclair in December 1682 for refusing 
the test. During his occupancy Cockburn,. 
though assiduous in the duties of his charge, 
got into many difficulties. He was obnoxious 
to the presbyterians, and could not until 
25 Nov. get any of his parishioners to act as 
elders and ' keep session with him.' Wodrow 
states that the Scottish bishops issued blank 
warrants to their clergy for the appointment 
of elders, leaving them to fill in the names of 
men who, it was known, would not serve, for 
the purpose of mulcting them in the courts. 
As a specimen he prints a warrant from John 
Patterson, bishop of Edinburgh, to Cockburn,. 
dated 20 May 1685, which had never been 
filled up. Cockburn's first literary enterprise 
was a spirited project of a monthly maga- 
zine of literature; but the first number (for 
January 1688) contained passages unpalatable 
to members of the Roman catholic church, 
which was now tolerated by the king's pro- 
clamation, and the publication was stopped. 
Nevertheless Cockburn was not prepared to 
transfer his allegiance to William of Orange 
In August 1689 he was ' cited before the 
privie council! at the desyre of some within 
the paroch, to witt, Alexander Wight and 
Alexander Ramsay, for not reading the pro- 
clamation which forfaulted King James/ 



Cockburn 



190 



Cockburn 



This he should have done on 21 April. The 
privy council deprived him on 29 Aug., and 
he lay in prison ' upwards of half a year.' On 
his release he bade farewell to his native land ; 
indeed, he is said to have been banished, and 
went to London, which he was obliged to 
leave ' for writing of pamphlets.' He crossed 
to France and attended the court of King 
James at St. Germain ; but here he was im- 
portuned to change his religion, and declining 
to do so was sent off as a dangerous man. 
From France he proceeded to Rotterdam, 
where, according to the account of his repre- 
sentatives, he ' set on foot ' the English epi- 
scopal church. Steven says there was no 
stated minister of the church of England at 
Rotterdam from 1656 till 1700. It is pos- 
sible that Cockburn started the movement for 
erecting St. Mary's English church (of which 
the records date from 1699). He seems to 
have been in London in 1697, and had by this 
time got the degree of D.D. ; he returned to 
Rotterdam early in 1698. From Rotterdam 
he removed to Amsterdam, where he was ap- 
pointed by Henry Compton, bishop of Lon- 
don, English episcopal chaplain in 1698 (after 
April). In 1708 he obtained from the bur- 
gomasters for the English chaplain the privi- 
lege of celebrating marriages according to the 
English form. He left Amsterdam in 1709, 
and during the next five years he was probably 
in London. The account of his representa- 
tives is that ' upon the troubles of those times 
ceasing by the revolution taking place ' he 
had been presented to two livings in Somer- 
setshire. But it must have been after swearing 
allegiance to Anne that he obtained these 
preferments. As he was ' preparing to take 
up his residence at one of them,' the vicarage 
of Northolt, Middlesex (then called Northall), 
fell vacant, and at the instance of Queen 
Anne, Robinson, bishop of London, the pa- 
tron, presented Cockburn, somewhat unwil- 
lingly, on 8 June 1714. He was for some 
time kept out of the house and, as he com- 
plains, otherwise injured by the representa- 
tives of Alston, the deceased vicar. Anne 
designed him as one of the bishops for the 
American colonies, had the scheme of an 
episcopate for America been carried out. As 
a parish clergyman Cockburn was business- 
like and diligent, compiling in a register (be- 
gun 22 April 1715, ' on which day there hapned 
a Totall Eclipse of ye Sun ') a very exact ac- 
count of the state and history of the parish ; 
and providing during his life for the educa- 
tion of ten boys and six girls of his parishion- 
ers. His efforts were not seconded as he ex- 
pected. He died on 20 Nov. 1729, and was 
buried in the chancel of St. Mary's, Northolt. 
He married first, on 15 Nov. 1677, a daughter 



of Alexander Gairden or Garden, minister of 
Forgue, and sister of James Garden, D.D., 
professor of divinity, and of George Garden, 
D.D., minister at Aberdeen, and had by her 
nine children, of whom Patrick [q. v.] was 
the eldest (a daughter Marie was baptised on 
3 Dec. 1681 at Old Deer) ; secondly, during 
his residence abroad, he married a daughter of 
Sir J. Littlepage of Buckinghamshire, and had 
by her also nine children (a daughter Esther 
was buried on 14 March 1728 at Northolt). 
He published : 1. ' Jacob's Vow,' Edin. 
1686, 8vo (ScoiT). 2. ' Bibliotheca Univer- 
salis, or an Historical Accompt of Books and 
Transactions of the Learned World begun 
Anno Dom. M.D.C.LXXXVIH.' Edin. 1688, 
12mo (published about 20 Jan. ; the first and 
only number of a magazine which was to be 
issued monthly, and to consist of six duode- 
cimo sheets at the price of sevenpence ; Cock- 
burn had got a license from the privy council, 
I but for the reason stated above the license 
j was recalled on 13 March by the chancellor, 
I the Earl of Perth, who said ' he would cause 
his own churchmen do it better '). 3. ' Eight 
Sermons,' &c., Edin. 1691, 8vo (dedicated to 
the Faculty of Advocates ; some were preached 
in St. Giles', Edinburgh, and one before the 
clergy at Dalkeith). 4. ' An Enquiry into 
the Nature, Necessity, and Evidence of Chris- 
tian Faith,' pt. i. 1696, 8vo (by J. C., D.D.) ; 
pt. ii. 1697, 8vo ; 2nd ed., both parts, 1699, 
8vo ; a third part was intended. 5. ' Fifteen 
Sermons,' &c., 1697, 8vo (includes the con- 
tents of No. 3). 6. ' Bourignianism detected 
. . . Narrative I,' 1 698, 4to. 7. Ditto, 'Nar- 
rative II,' 1698, 4to. 8. 'A Letter . . . 
giving an Account, why the other Narratives 
. . . are not yet published,' &c., 1698, 4to 
(Cockburn was led to examine the tenets of 
Anthoinette Bourignon, of whom he gives 
some interesting particulars, both from his 
residence in Holland and from the fact that 
his brothers-in-law were promulgating them 
in Scotland ; George Garden, in his ' Apology 
for M. Antonia Bourignon,' 1699, 8vo, twits 
Cockburn with a former leaning to writings 
of a kindred spirit, instancing those of his 
cousin, Henry Scougall). 9. ' Right Notions 
of God and Religion,' &c., 1708, 8vo. 10. 'The 
Dignity and Duty of a Married State,' 1708, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. n. d. (sermon at Amsterdam 
from Heb. xiii. 4, on occasion of the first 
marriage celebrated in the English form). 

11. ' A Discourse of Self-murder,' 1716, 8vo. 

12. ' Answers to Queries concerning some 
important points of Religion,' &c., 1717, 8vo 
(against Hoadly). 13. 'A ... Review of 
the Bishop of Bangor's Sermon,' &c., 1718, 
8vo. 14. ' An History and Examination of 
Duels,' &c., 1720, 8vo. 16. A Specimen of 



Cockburn 



191 



Cockburn 



some free and impartial Remarks on publick 
Affairs and particular Persons, especially re- 
lating to Scotland, occasioned by Dr. Burnet's 
"History of his own Times'" [1724], 8vo 
{Cockburn was at one time intimate with 
Burnet, who had succeeded Patrick Scougall 
at Salton ; he gives an account of Burnet's 
.antecedents and early training, and traverses 
Burnet's statement of the proceedings against 
him (Burnet) in 1665). 16. ' A Defence of 
Dr. Cockburn against ... A Vindication of 
the late Bishop Burnet . . .' 1724, 8vo. Also 
.seven separate sermons, including a funeral 
sermon for Bishop Compton, 1713,4to. Cock- 
burn ' left behind him divers manuscripts 
which he intended for the press, but these 
since his death have been mislaid and lost.' 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot. i. 301, iii. 617, 
620 ; A View of the Court of St. Germain, 1696, 
p. 15; Fountainhall's Decisions, 1759, i. 502; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. 1824; Wodrow's Hist. Ch. of 
Scotland, 1829, iii. 361, iv. 178; Steven's Hist. 
Scottish Ch. at Kotterdam, 1832, pp. 282, 326 ; 
Grub's Eccl. Hist, of Scotland, 1861, iii. 224, 270, 
300, 339 ; Abbot's Lit. Doctrine of a Future Life 
appended to Alger's Grit. Hist. 1864, p. 823, No. 
3487 ; Manuscript Biography of Cockburn in 
Eegister Book at Northolt, communicated by 
Her. D. H. Gordon ; Extracts from University 
Records of Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and from 
Parochial and Presbytery Records of Old Deer, 
Ellon Presbytery, Langton and Ormiston, com- 
municated by their custodians ; information from 
Rev. St. J. F. Michell, Rotterdam.] A. G. 

COCKBURN, PATRICK (1678-1749), 
Scottish divine, eldest son of John Cock- 
burn, D.D. [q. v.], was born in 1678 at Udny, 
Aberdeenshire. It is not known whether 
lie accompanied his father to France as a 
child, or where he was educated, but he was 
in Holland in 1705, for on 17 Aug. he re- 
ceived the degree of M.A. from the Edin- 
burgh University, he being then ' in Batavia 
agens.' Early in 1708 he married Catharine 
Trotter [see COCKBURN, CATHARINE], and is 
said to have shortly afterwards obtained the 
perpetual curacy of Nayland, Suffolk, but he 
was probably only a temporary curate-in- 
charge. He went to Nayland in June 1708. 
The sole reference to him in the Nayland 
registers is the entry of the baptism on 
13 April 1712 of < Mary, daughter of Patrick 
Cockburn, curate, and Catharine his wife.' 
From Nayland he removed to London, where 
he was curate at St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, 
but soon lost this employment through re- 
fusing the oath of abjuration in 1714 (he is 
not mentioned in the list at the end of 
Kettlewell's ' Life,' 1718, 8vo). For a time he 
made a scanty living by teaching Latin at a 
school in Chancery Lane. On 29 Nov. 1726 



(having taken the oath) he was appointed 
minister of St. Paul's episcopal chapel, Aber- 
deen (erected 1722). He resigned this in- 
cumbency on 1 June 1739. Soon after his 
Aberdeen settlement he had been preferred 
to the vicarage of Long Horsley, Northum- 
berland, but did not reside until compelled 
to do so in 1737. He died on 4 Jan. 1748-9, 
and was buried on 7 Jan. at Long Horsley. 
He published : 1. ' A Penitential Office,' &c., 
1721, 8vo. 2. 'The Duty and Benefit of 
Praying for our Governors,' &c., 1728, 8vo 
(sermon from 1 Tim. ii. 1-4, on accession of 
George II). 3. ' The Lawfulness and Duty 
of Praying for our present King and Gover- 
nor,' &c., 1735, 8vo (in reply to a pamphlet 
criticising No. 2 ; there were later pamphlets 
in the controversy, which Cockburn does not 
seem to have answered). 4. ' An Enquiry 
into the Truth and Certainty of the Mosaic 
Deluge,' &c., 1750, 8vo (defends the univer- 
sality of the flood). He published also, ac- 
cording to Birch, in the ' Weekly Miscellany,' 
a ' defence of prime ministers in the character 
of Joseph.' But Cockburn's chief service to 
literature was his edition (the 6th) in 1726, 
8vo, of Henry Scougall's ' Life of God in the 
Soul of Man,' with brief preface, dated from 
St. John's, Clerkenwell, and the addition of 
Scougall's ' Nine Discourses ' (all, but two, 
previously unprinted) and the funeral ser- 
mon by George Garden, D.D. (then first 
printed), of much moment for Scougall's 
biography. Garden was Cockburn's uncle, 
and Scougall his father's first cousin. Cock- 
burn's edition was reprinted, 1735, 8vo, ' the 
second edition.' 

[Birch's Life of Catharine Cockburn, prefixed 
to her Works, 1751, i. xxxiii sq. ; also Works, 
ii. 206; Watt's Bibl. Brit. 1824; Cat. of Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh, 1873, vol. ii. ; infor- 
mation from the late David Laing, from Rev. S. 
Clark, of St. Paul's Chapel, Aberdeen, and from 
the vicars (in 1873) of Nayland and Long Hors- 
ley.] A. G. 

COCKBURN, WILLIAM or PIERS 

(d. 1529), a renowned border freebooter, re- 
sided at the old square tower of Henderland, 
of which there are still some vestiges, near the 
mouth of the river Megget, which falls into 
St. Mary's Loch in Selkirkshire. According to 
Bishop Lesley, Cockburn of Henderland and 
Adam Scott of Tushielaw, called the king 
of thieves, were brought before a great con- 
vention of the lords with the king at Edin- 
burgh on 10 May 1529, and having been 
convicted of theft, reset, and maintenance 
of thieves, slaughter, and other crimes, were 
beheaded, and their heads fixed upon the 
Tolbooth of Edinburgh. Another account 



Cockburn 



192 



Cockburn 



states that Coekburn was surprised by James V 
while sitting at dinner, and hanged over the 
gate of his own tower. The latter version 
harmonises better with the exquisitely pa- 
thetic ballad ' The Border Widow's Lament,' 
which is founded on the circumstances at- 
tending his death, and in which his widow 
narrates : 

I took his body on my back, 

And whiles I gaed and whiles I sat 

I digged a grave and laid him in, 

And happed him with the sod sae green. 

According to Sir Walter Scott the ballad 
was long current in Ettrick. The wife of 
Cockburn on learning his capture is stated 
to have retreated into the recesses of the 
Dowglen, to a place still pointed out as the 
Lady^s Seat, where amid the roar of the foam- 
ing cataract she strove to drown the sounds 
attending his execution. At a spot called the 
Chapel Knowe, lately enclosed and planted, 
the grave of Cockburn is still pointed out, 
marked with a slab sculptured with armorial 
bearings, and having an inscription, now legi- 
ble with difficulty : ' Here lyis Perys of Cok- 
burne and hys wyfe Mariory.' 

[Bishop Lesley's History of Scotland (Banna- 
tyne Club), 1830, pp. 141-2 ; Sir Walter Scott's 
Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border; Ordnance 
Gazetteer of Scotland, under ' Henderland.'] 

T. F. H. 

COCKBURN, WILLIAM, M.D. (1669- 
1739), physician, was second son of Sir Wil- 
liam Cockburn, baronet, of Ryslaw and Cock- 
burn. He proceeded M. A. at Edinburgh. His 
name occurs in the register of the university of 
Leyden as a student of medicine under date 
29 May 1691, he being then in his twenty- 
third year. He probably took his M.D. degree 
at Leyden. On 2 April 1694 he became a li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians in Lon- 
don (he never got promotion in the college 
hierarchy), and about the same time was ap- 
pointed physician to the fleet. His first book, 
' Economia Corporis Animalis,' was published 
the year after. It was a sort of scheme of general 
pathology, or first principles of physic. In 1 696 
he brought out a small work on the 'Nature 
and Cure of Distempers of Seafaring People, 
with Observations on the Diet of Seamen in 
H.M.'s Navy.' This was a record of his two 
years' experience as ship's doctor on the home 
station. Among other things, it points out 
that chills are due to the suppression of the 
perspiration, and it contains remarks on the 
cause of scurvy: the 'boatswain's favourites,' 
he points out, suffered much more from scurvy 
than the men set to do the hard work, a diet 
of salt beef and pork requiring active exer- 
cise to carry it on. He had no notion, how- 



ever, of the importance of succulent vege- 
tables in the victualling. Scurvy was not 
effectually banished from the fleet until 
Blane's rules of victualling in 1795, and Cock- 
burn was inclined to despise the ignorance of 
those who, 'at the name of scurvy, fly to 
scurvy-grass, water-cresses, and horse-ra- 
dishes, but to what advantage may be easily 
understood by our foregoing theory.' He was 
sensible enough to see that land-scurvy, which 
the dogmatists of the 'scorbutic constitution' 
discovered under many guises, ' is not so very 
frequent as it is commonly imagined, and 
that so-called cases of it are something- 
else.' 

Through his connection with the fleet Cock- 
burn was able to introduce his secret remedy 
for dysentery, which made his fortune. The 
account given (pamphlet on a ' Medicine 
against Looseness,' by La Touche, 1757) is 
that in July 1796 he was dining on board 
one of the ships in the company of