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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

DIAMOND DRAKE 



DICTIONARY 



OF 






NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



LESLIE STEPHEN 



VOL. XV. 
DIAMOND DRAKE 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1888 




ag 



v.lS' 



LIST OF WRITERS 



IN THE FIFTEENTH VOLUME. 



J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER. 

G. F. R, B. G. F. KUSSBLL BARKER. 

R. B THE REV. RONALD BATNE. 

T. B THOMAS BAYNE. 

G. T. B. . . G. T. BETTANT. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 

B. H. B. . . THE REV. B. H. BLACKER. 

W. G. B. . . THE REV. PROFESSOR BLAIKIE,D.D. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 

G. W. B. . . G. W. BURNETT. 

H. M. C. . . H. MANNERS CHICHESTER. 

M. C-Y. . . . MILLER CHRISTY. 

J. W. C-K.. J. W. CLARK. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

T. C THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 

C. C CHARLES CREIGHTON, M.D. 

L. C LIONEL GUST. 

J. D JAMES DIXON, M.D. 

R. W. D. . . THE REV. CANON DIXON. 

A. D AUSTIN DOBSON. 

J. W. E. . . THE REV. J. W. EBSWORTH, F.S.A. 

F. E FRANCIS ESPINASSE. 

L. F Louis FAGAN. 



C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

J. G JAMES GAIRDNER. 

S. R. G. . . S. R. GARDINER, LL.D. 

R. Gr RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D. 

J. W.-G. . . J. WESTBY-GIBSON, LL.D. 
J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBEBT, F.S.A. 
G. G GORDON GOODWIN. 

A. G THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

R. E. G. . . . R. E. GRAVES. 

G. J. G. . . G. J. GRAY. 

W. A. G. . . W. A, GREENHILL, M.D. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 

R. H ROBERT HARRISON. 

W. J. H. . . PROFESSOR W. JEROME HARRISON. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 
G. J. H. . . . G. J. HOLYOAKE. 

J- H Miss JENNETT HUMPHREYS. 

R. H-T. . . . THE LATE ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S. 
W. H. ... THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 

A. J THE REV. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D. 

T. E. K. . . T. E. KEBBEL. 

C. K CHARLES KENT. 

J- K JOSEPH KNIGHT. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

S. L. L. . . S. L. LEE. 

H. R. L. . . THE REV. H. R. LUARD, D.D. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



N. McC. . . NORMAN MACCOLL. 

M. M. . . . JENEAS MACKAY, LL.D. 

N. M NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 

J. N PROFESSOR NICHOL. 

T. THE REV. THOMAS OLDEN. 

J. O JOHN ORMSBY. 

J. H. 0. . . THE REV. CANON OVERTON. 

H. P HENRY PATON. 

G. GK P. . . . THE KEV. CANON PERRY. 

N. P THE REV. NICHOLAS POCOCK. 

R. L. P. . . R. L. POOLE. 

S. L.-P. . . . STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 

A. W. R. . . A. WOOD RENTON. 

J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 

C. J. R.. . . THE REV. C. J. ROBINSON. 



J. M. S. . 
E. S. S. . . 
W. B. S. . 
L. S. . . . 
H. M. S. . 
C. W. S. . 
H. R. T. . 
T. F. T. . 

E. V. . . . 
A. V. ... 
J. R. W. . 
M. G. W.. 

F. W-T. . 
W. W. . 



. J. M. SCOTT. 

. E. S. SHUCKBURGH. 

. W. BARCLAY SQUIRE. 

. LESLIE STEPHEN. 

. H. MORSE STEPHENS. 

. C. W. SUTTON. 

. H. R. TEDDER. 

. PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 

. THE REV. CANON VENABLES. 

. ALSAGER VIAN. 

. THE REV. J. R. WASHBOURN. 

. THE REV. M. G. WATKINS. 

. FRANCIS WATT. 

. WARWICK WROTH. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Diamond 



Dibben 



DIAMOND, HUGH WELCH (1809- 
1886), photographer, eldest son of William 
Batchelor Diamond, a surgeon in the East 
India Company's service, was educated at 
Norwich grammar school under Dr. Valpy. 
His family claimed descent from a French 
refugee named Dimont or Demonte, who 
settled in Kent early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Diamond became a pupil at the Royal 
College of Surgeons in London 5 Nov. 1828, 
a student at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in 
1828, and a member of the College of Sur- 
geons in 1834. While a student he assisted 
Dr. Abernethy in preparing dissections for his 
lectures, and subsequently practised in Soho, 
where he distinguished himself in the cholera 
outbreak in 1832. He soon made mental 
diseases his speciality, and studied at Beth- 
lehem Hospital. From 1848 to 1858 he was 
resident superintendent of female patients at 
the Surrey County Asylum, and in 1858 he 
established a private asylum for female pa- 
tients at Twickenham, where he lived till his 
death on 21 June 1886. 

Diamond interested himself largely in the 
early success of photography. While im- 
proving many of the processes, he is said to 
have invented the paper or cardboard photo- 
graphic portrait ; earlier photographers pro- 
duced portraits only on glass. In 1853 he 
became secretary of the London Photographic 
Society, and edited its journal for many years. 
In 1853 and following years he contributed a 
series of papers to the first series of ' Notes 
and Queries ' on photography applied to ar- 
chaeology and practised in the open air, and 
on various photographic processes. He read a 
paper before the Royal Society t On the Appli- 
cation of Photography to the Physiognomic 
and Mental Phenomena of Insanity.' A com- 
mittee was subsequently formed among scien- 
tific men to testify their gratitude to Diamond 

VOL. xv. 



| for his photographic labours, and he was pre- 
sented, through Professor Faraday, with a 
1 purse of 3001. Collections made by Diamond 
| for a work on medical biography were incorpo- 
! rated by Mr. J. C. Jeaffreson in his ' Book about 
j Doctors.' Diamond was a genial companion 
I and an enthusiastic collector of works of art 
j and antiquities. Several valuable archseo- 
I logical memoirs by him appeared in the <Ar- 
; chaeologia.' 

[Athenaeum, 3 July 1886 ; Medical Directory, 
1886 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. passim.] 

DIBBEN, THOMAS, D.D. (d. 1741), 
Latin poet, a native of Manston, Dorsetshire, 
was admitted into Westminster School on the 
foundation in 1692, and thence elected in 
1696 to a scholarship at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, of which he became a fellow in 1698 
(B.A. 1699, M.A. 1703, B.D. 1710, D.D. 
1721). On 16 July 1701 he was instituted 
to the rectory of Great Fontmell, Dorsetshire. 
He was chaplain to Dr. John Robinson, bishop 
of Bristol and lord privy seal, with whom 
he went to the congress of Utrecht, and who 
| on being translated to the see of London col- 
lated him in 1714 to the precentorship of St. 
Paul's Cathedral. He represented the diocese 
of Bristol in the convocations of 1715 and 
1727. Afterwards he became mentally de- 
ranged, left his house and friends, spent his 
fortune, and died in the Poultry compter, 
London, on 5 April 1741. 

He published two sermons, one of which 
was preached at Utrecht before the pleni- 
potentiaries 9-20 March 1711 on the anni- 
versary of the queen's accession. As a Latin 
poet he acquired considerable celebrity. He 
wrote one of the poems printed at Cambridge 
on the return of William III from the conti- 
nent in 1697, and translated Matthew Prior's 
' Carmen Seculare ' for 1700 into Latin verse. 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



Of this translation Prior, in the preface to his 
' Poems ' (1733), says : ' I take this occasion 
to thank my good friend and schoolfellow, 
Mr. Dibben, for his excellent version of the I 
" Carmen Seculare," though my gratitude 
may justly carry a little envy with it ; for 
I believe the most accurate judges will find 
the translation exceed the original.' 

[Addit. MS. 5867, f. 64 ; Hutchins's Dorset- 
shire (1813), iii. 161; London Mag. 1741, p. 206; 
Welch's Alumni Westmon. (Phillimore), pp. 222, 
231, 232; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy); Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

DIBDIN, CHARLES (1745-1814), dra- 
matist and song-writer, was born at South- 
ampton on or before 4 March 1745. The date 
1748 is commonly but inaccurately given ; his 
baptismal register shows that he was privately 
baptised, being no doubt sickly at birth, on 
4 March, and christened on the 26th at Holy- 
rood Church, Southampton, where his father, 
Thomas Dibdin, was parish clerk. It is most 
improbable that Charles was, as he asserted, 
the eighteenth child of his father, ' a silver- 
smith, a man of considerable credit.' Charles 
had been intended for the church, but music 
alone delighted him ; his good voice in boy- 
hood won notice at Winchester College, and, 
through Fussell the organist, at the Cathedral, 
where he sang anthems, but the concert-rooms 
at the races and assizes ' echoed with his 
vocal fame ' (Professional Life, i. 14). When 
he was f twelve ' (or fifteen ?) years old he was 
kindly treated by Archdeacon Eden and John 
Hoadly (1711-1776) [q. v.], chancellor of the 
diocese. He became the principal singer at 
the Subscription Concerts ; but his popularity 
with the clergy and officers left him little 
leisure even for musical study. He was re- 
jected on account of his youth when he applied 
for the post of organist at Waltham, Hamp- 
shire. Invited to London, at free quarters, 
"by his elder brother Thomas the seaman, he 
visited the theatres, made a position for him- 
self by playing voluntaries at the churches, 
and often ' played out the congregation of St. 
Bride's ' before he was sixteen. He was em- 
ployed by Old Johnson, who kept a music-shop 
in Cheapside, but his sole employment was 
to tune harpsichords. His brother Tom had 
started in the Hope, West-Indiaman, and 
had been captured by a French seventy-four, 
so that no help could be expected from him. 
The Thompsons of St. Paul's Churchyard gave 
him his first three guineas for the copyright 
of six ballads, published at three halfpence 
each, after they had been sung by Kear at 
Finch's Grotto. He had not learnt music 
scientifically until he was sixteen, when he 
put in score Corelli's harmonies. He was in- 



troduced by Berenger to John Beard [q, v.], 
who accepted and produced for him a pastoral 
operetta, ' The Shepherd's Artifice,' 21 May 
1762, repeated next season, 1763. In the 
summer of the former year he had performed 
with Shuter, Weston, and Miss Pope at the 
Richmond Theatre, then called the Histrio- 
nic Academy. Next summer he went to Bir- 
mingham with Younger's company, and took 
some extra work at Vauxhall there ; visited 
Coventry to see the Lady Godiva pageant, 
and next season at Covent Garden played the 
part of Ralph in Isaac Bickerstafte's ' Love in 
a Village,' on Dunstall's incapacity becoming 
evident. He was encored in all the songs, 
and set the fashion of wearing ' Ralph hand- 
kerchiefs.' His salary was raised ten shil- 
lings a time in each of three successive weeks. 
He signed articles for three years, at 3/., 4/., 
and 5/. per week. Bickerstaffe's i Maid of the 
Mill ' ran fifty nights. Dibdin complains of 
the envy and opposition of brother actors, 
which gradually drove him away from the 
profession in disgust. His taste was for 
operatic music, not for acting. After a second 
season at Birmingham he performed at Love's 
new theatre at Richmond. In 1767 he was 
the original Watty Cockney in ' Love in the 
City /afterwards altered into ' The Romp,' for 
which he composed choruses and songs, in- 
cluding the popular ' Dear me ! how I long 
to be married ! ' Dr. T. A. Arne [q. v.] gene- 
rously saved him from the malignity of Simp- 
son the hautboy player, but the piece lasted 
one week only. He next composed two- 
thirds of the music for ' Lionel and Clarissa,' 
by Bickerstaffe [q. v.], altered speedily to ' The 
School for Fathers,' of which nearly all the 
music was Dibdin's. For this he got no more 
than 48/. He had already married the daugh- 
ter of a respectable tradesman, a woman 
without beauty, but a handsome portion ; and 
had deserted her when her fortune was dissi- 
pated. All his children by this marriage died 
young. She lived on a scanty pittance till 
1793 or later ; no imputation was thrown 
on her character (CKOSBY, p. 103). In 1767 
he had formed an illicit connection with a 
so-called Mrs. Davenet, a chorus-singer of 
Covent Garden. She was unmarried, and 
her real name was Pitt ; her children for 
many years bore that name : Charles I. M. 
was born in 1768, surviving until 1833 (see 
below) ; Thomas [q. v.], born in 1771, took 
his father's name about 1799. 

George Colman, succeeding Beard in the 
last year of Dibdin's articles, treated him 
harshly and with meanness. His benefit 
night was spoilt by the compulsory closing of 
the theatre on the death of Princess Matilda. 
In 1768 Bickerstaffe's ' Padlock,' produced at 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



the Haymarket, enabled Dibdin to make his 
* greatest hit ' as Mungo, after Moody had 
rehearsed and resigned the part. Twenty- 
eight thousand copies of the ' Padlock ' were 
sold ; whereby Bickerstaffe, as author of the 
words, realised fully 1,700/. by 1779 (G. 
HOGARTH); but Dibdin received only 43J. 
for having composed the music. His brother 
Thomas had been released from imprison- 
ment, and got an appointment for India 
through Sir William Young ; Charles having 
crippled himself to pay his brother's debts 
and assist his outfit. He secured good terms 
at Ranelagh Gardens, 100/., each season, for 
the music of l The Maid and Mistress,' ' Re- 
cruiting Sergeant,' and 'Ephesian Matron.' 
In September 1769 Garrick's Shakespeare 
Jubilee at Stratford gave him employment 
in setting and resetting music to the songs. 
Before the celebration came off Dibdin and 
'Garrick had quarrelled; Garrick, quoting 
Othello, threatened the composer, 'I can 
take down the pegs that make this music ! ' 
Dibdin capped the Othello verse by the happy 
rejoinder, * Yes, as honest as you are ! ' The 
breach was widened when Dibdin praised as 
Garrick's best work the rondeau * Sisters of 
the Tuneful Strain,' which proved to have 
been borrowed from Jerningham. The quarrel 
wellnigh interrupted the Stratford music, 
but Dibdin repented, composed l Let Beauty 
with the Sun arise ! ' hastened after Garrick, 
and caused the performers to serenade him 
with the piece, when it had been considered 
hopeless. A reconciliation followed, Dibdin 
receiving a reward of twenty guineas after 
having expended twenty-six in travelling. 
This, however, is Dibdin's unsupported ac- 
count. 

Dibdin got 50/. for music to < Dr. Ballardo,' 
but no more than 15/. for copyright from the 
Thompsons for resetting ' Damon and Phil- 
lida.' When Bickerstaffe absconded in 1771, 
Dibdin publicly rebuked Dr. Kenrick, author 
of the scurrilous libel on Garrick, ' Roscius's 
Lamentation.' He now composed an opera, 
4 The Wedding Ring,' 1773, but concealed 
the authorship. This led to a legal squabble 
with Newbery, publisher of the ' Public 
Ledger,' Dibdin having avowed himself the 
writer, to the anger of Garrick, after sur- 
mises that it was a work of Bickerstaffe. For 
King, purchaser of Sadler's Wells, Dibdin 
had composed two interludes, ' The Ladle ' 
and * The Mischance,' performed in the 
summer of 1772. Also a pantomime, ' The 
Pigmy Revels,' and some trifles to com- 
memorate the installation of new Garter 
knights. He wrote songs for ' The Deserter,' 
1773, and was ordered to set music to Garrick's 
* Christmas Tale,' 1774; but met increased 



animosity from him, chiefly on account of 
Dibdin's ill-usage of Miss Pitt, mother of at 
least three children by him, whom he deserted 
about this time. Garrick felt so indignant 
that he discharged him. He had transferred 
himself and his truant affections to a Miss 
Anne Wild, or Wyld, of Portsea, probably a 
relation of James Wild, the prompter, but 
was unable to marry her until long after- 
wards, when his neglected first wife died. 
Garrick rejected contemptuously Dibdin's 
' Waterman,' and Foote accepted it for the 
Haymarket, where it became instantly and 
lastingly popular. 'The Cobler' followed, 
memorable for the song of ' 'Twas in a Village 
near Castlebury,' but a clique secured its re- 
moval on the tenth night. ' The Quaker ' 
was sold to Brereton for 701. for his benefit ; 
and ultimately Garrick purchased it, but kept 
it back. Dibdin then spitefully wrote a 
pamphlet against him as ' David Little,' ad- 
vertised it, but withdrew it from publication 
in time. He satirised Garrick, nevertheless, 
in a puppet-play, ' The Comic Mirror,' at 
Exeter Change (Prof. Life, i. 153). En- 
tangled in debt, and with angry creditors 
threatening imprisonment, he sought flight 
to France, to stay two years, ' to expand my 
ideas and store myself with theatrical ma- 
terials,' as he himself declared. Sheridan 
avowed the impossibility of Dibdin's rein- 
statement at Drury Lane, where Linley now 
ruled, but affected to have prevailed on T. 
Harris to engage him at Covent Garden. Har- 
ris declined, saying, ' Surely Mr. Sheridan is 
mad.' Harris produced Dibdin's ' Seraglio ' in 
November 1776, which was favourably re- 
ceived, after Dibdin had left England. In it 
was sung ' Blow high, blow low,' the earliest 
of Dibdin's numerous sea songs. It was writ- 
ten in a gale of wind, during a thirteen-hours' 
passage from Calais. i Poor Vulcan ' was 
altered beyond recognition, and produced suc- 
cessfully 4 Feb. 1778, yielding the author 
above 200/. He disparaged Calais, but con- 
fessed that he ' muddled away five months 
there,' before moving with his irregular family 
to Nancy, the journey taking ten days. He felt 
happier at Nancy, often visiting Le Chartreux, 
two miles distant. He remained in France 
twenty-two months, but disliked the French 
with stubborn prejudice. Impending war 
caused Englishmen to be ordered out of the 
country. Early in June 1778 he returned from 
Calais to Dover, narrowly escaping an Ame- 
rican frigate. Harris engaged him at 10/. a 
week. To his after-piece/ The Gipsies,' written 
while in France, Thomas Arnold had set the 
music. Of six interludes which he had pre- 
pared abroad, his ' Rose and Colin ' and ' The 
Wives Revenged ' were injudiciously but 

u2 . 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



successfully produced together, 18 Sept. 1778, 
at Covent Garden. ' Annette and Lubin' fol- 
lowed, and on 3 Jan. 1779 ' The Touchstone.' 
But Fred. Pilon, Mrs. Cowley, Cumberland, 
and even Lee Lewis had been allowed to in- 
terlineate and spoil it. In a fit of impatient 
disgust Dibdin felt inclined to go to India 
and join his brother Tom at Nagore, but first 
wrote 'The Chelsea Pensioners.' He had 
wished his ' Mirror ' to be entitled ' Hell 
broke Loose ; ' it was a mythological bur- 
lesque of Tartarus. He at last prevailed on 
Harris to produce his ' Shepherdess of the 
Alps ' in 1780. His brother died at the 
Cape of Good Hope, when voyaging home- 
ward, after having been struck by lightning 
and been partially paralysed. Seeing India 
thus closed to him, Dibdin became reconciled 
to Harris, who produced for him * Harlequin 
Freemason ' at Covent Garden 1780, but 'The 
Islanders ' came out before it. His ' Amphi- 
tryon,' a musical adaptation of Dryden's, was 
a failure, and it probably deserved to be, but 
he had secured himself as to profits, and got 
285/. for it. ' Pretty well for an unsuccess- 
ful piece,' Dibdin said. This brought a fresh 
rupture with Harris. 

Dibdin now commenced giving musical 
entertainments at the Royal Circus, on the 
site of the present Surrey Theatre. He found 
enemies in Hughes and the elder Grimaldi, 
father of ' Joey,' the future clown [q. v.] But 
he was continually finding enemies, accord- 
ing to his own account. His numerous inter- 
ludes were sandwiched between equestrian 
feats in the circle. ' The Benevolent Tar,' 
' The Cestus,' and ' Tom Thumb ' were brought 
out in 1782. Troubles were incessant. His 
'Liberty Hall,' full of songs, was accepted 
at Drury Lane in 1784. By the destruction 
of another place of entertainment, named 
Helicon, he lost 290J., and 460/. by a Dub- 
lin misadventure, soon after the death of his 
mother at Southampton. He removed with 
one of his families to a village five miles 
off, and began his novel of ' The Younger 
Brother,' which was not published until 1793. 
Restarted a weekly satire called l The Devil,' 
which died within the half-year. His ' Har- 
vest Home ' was produced before he started 
in 1787 to give entertainments in various 
towns for fourteen months. He was the sole 
performer. Of this ' Musical Tour ' he pub- 
lished at Sheffield, in 4to, an account in 1788. 
He was continually embroiled with mana- 
gers, and again quarrelled with Harris in 
March that year. Even as his own master 
and servant he was dissatisfied, and he once 
more resolved to go to India, being again in 
danger of arrest. He left the Thames for 
Madeira, expecting to be ( picked up ' there. 



He sold all that he could, obtaining merely 
two guineas for his 'Poll and my Partner 
Joe,' which brought 200/. to the publisher, 
and ' Nothing like Grog ' for half a guinea. 
He got to Dunkirk with his family, but he 
had quarrelled with the captain, the crew 
were mutinous, and by stress of weather they 
were driven to Torbay, and never got nearer 
to India. Threatened by creditors he re- 
turned to London, took lodgings near the 
Old Bailey, and made a fresh start with one 
of his best entertainments, ' The Whim of 
the Moment,' in which he introduced his 
favourite song of 'Poor Jack.' This was 
parodied ruthlessly by John Collins, but held 
its ground. After this the entire interest of 
his life centres in his sea songs and various 
' entertainments sans souci.' He amused the 
public with anecdotes and gossip, interspersed 
with his ditties. He resided at St. George's 
Fields, and engaged the Lyceum for his 
' Oddities,' 1788-9, seventy-nine nights, and 
' The Wags,' 1790, for 108 nights : ' Private 
Theatricals ' and ' The Quizzes ' were the names- 
of entertainments given at the Royal Poly- 
graphic Rooms, Strand, 1791, followed by 
' Coalition,' 1792, and ' Castles in the Air, r 
1793. It was at this, his most successful time, 
that warm-hearted John O'Keeffe saw him,, 
and without any professional jealousy praised 
him generously : ' Dibdin's manner of coming 
on the stage was in happy style ; he ran on 
sprightly, and with nearly a laughing face, like 
a friend who enters hastily to impart to you 
some good news. Nor did he disappoint his 
audience ; he sang, and accompanied himself on 
an instrument, which was a concert in itself; 
he was, in fact, his own band. A few lines 
of speaking happily introduced his admir- 
able songs, full of wit and character, and his 
peculiar mode of singing them surpassed all 
I had ever heard.' 

Other sketches that followed were ' Nature 
in Nubibus' and ' Great News,' 1794. ' Will 
of the Wisp' and 'Christmas Gambols,' 1795. 
' Datchet Mead,' ' General Election ' (in which 
came ' Meg of Wapping ' and ' Nongtongpaw ') 
and ' The Sphynx,' 1797, were performed at 
Leicester Place, and he also produced there 
' The Goose and Gridiron ' and ' Tour to the 
Land's End,' 1798, founded on his own adven- 
tures ; ' King and Queen ' and ' Tom Wilkins,' 
1799, with his song of 'The Last Shilling.' He 
went to Bath and Bristol with success, and 
soon after to Scotland, making sketches with 
pen and pencil, and composing new sketches 
(' The Cake House,' 1800 ; ' The Frisk,' 1801 ; 
'Most Votes,' 1802; 'Britons Strike Home!' 
1803; ' Valentine's Day,' 'The Election," The 
Frolic,' and 'A Trip to the Coast,' 1804 ;' Heads 
or Tails 'and 'Cecilia' (1805). He now wished 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



to retire into private life, for he knew that 
he had lost power of voice and popularity. 
Government had granted him a pension of 
200/., June 1803. In 1805, being more than 
sixty, he retired from the theatre in Leices- 
ter Place, and sold his stock and copyright of 
three hundred songs to Bland and Weller, 
the music-sellers of Oxford Street, for 1,800/., 
and three years' annuities of 100/. a year for 
such songs as he might compose in that time. 
He removed to a quiet home at Cranford. 
His pension was withdrawn by the Grenville 
government, 1806-7. After this loss of in- 
come he returned to the Lyceum, adding other 
singers, and produced in 1808 ' Professional 
Volunteers ' and ' The Kent Day,' followed 
finally by ' A Thanksgiving ' and ' Commodore 
Pennant.' He also opened a music-shop oppo- 
site the theatre, but failure and bankruptcy fol- 
lowed. Mr. Oakley, of Tavistock Place, advo- 
cated in the ( Morning Chronicle' of 16 March 
1810 the openinga subscription for Dibdin. At 
a public dinner on 12 April the musicians of 
the day generously gave their valuable help, 
and 640/. was raised. Of this 80/. was paid 
to him at once, and the remainder invested 
in long annuities, to benefit his second wife 
and their daughter Anne thereafter. He re- 
moved to Arlington Street, Camden Town, 
where he remained until he died. He tried 
one more play, ' The Round Robin,' at the 
Haymarket, in 1811, but the public, caring 
nothing for a worn-out favourite, rejected it. 
and he composed a dozen songs for ''La Belle 
Assembler ' of his friend, Dr. Kitchener, after- j 
wards his biographer, obtaining 60/. for them, j 
Struck by paralysis in 1813, he lingered at 
Arlington Street until 25 July 1814, dying j 
about the age of sixty-nine. A stanza from | 
one of his most beautiful and unaffected j 
songs, ' Tom Bowling ' (from the ' Oddities,' j 
and said to have been intended as a descrip- 
tion of his own brother Tom), was carved on i 
his tombstone at St. Martin's burial-ground in 
Camden Town. His widow, Anne, and her 
daughter, also Anne, enjoyed a pension of 
lOO/. besides the annuity of 30/. ; three other 
children had died in infancy ; a son, John, was , 
drowned . Anne married an offi cer in the army. 
Her daughter (alive in 1870) appears to be 
the only legitimate descendant of Charles 
Dibdin. Dibdin left no provision for his il- 
legitimate offspring. 

Of these the eldest son was CHAKLES ISAAC 
MUNGO (so named after his father, Bicker- 
staffe, and the character in the ' Padlock ' 
which Dibdin performed in early life, and had 
set music for). The son's real surname was 
Pitt, but he is known generally as ' Charles 
Dibdin the younger ; ' he was born in 1768, 
and afterwards became a proprietor and acting 



manager of Sadler's Wells Theatre, for which 
he wrote many plays and songs. Among the 
plays printed were : ' Claudine,' a burlesque, 
1801 ; ' Goody Two-Shooes ' (sic), a panto- 
mime, n.d. ; ' Barbara Allen,' spectacle, n.d. ; 
'The Great Devil,' comic spectacle, 1801 ; 'Old 
Man of the Mountains,' spectacle, n.d. ; and, 
one of his best, ' The Farmer's Wife,' comic 
opera, after 1814. He also wrote a ' History 
of the London Theatres,' 1826. He was popu- 
lar and fairly successful. He died in 1833. 
His son, Henry Edward Dibdin, is separately 
noticed. 

Besides ' The Younger Brother,' 1793, the 
elder Charles Dibdin published in 1792 a 
novel entitled ' Hannah Hewit ; or the Fe- 
male Crusoe,' introducing the loss, of the 
Grosvenor, of which a dramatised version 
was acted for a benefit in 1797; ' The Devil,' 
2 vols., circa 1785 ; ' The Bystander,' in 
which he published one song and an essay 
each week, 1787 ; his ' Musical Tour ' in the 
same year; his ' History of the Stage,' 5 vols., 
i 1795, hurriedly written in scraps while tra- 
i veiling ; * Observations of a Tour through 
Scotland and England,' with views by him- 
| self, 1803 ; and his ' Professional Life,' with 
j the words of six hundred songs, 4 vols., 1803 
I (vide infra) ; besides many previous smaller 
! selections, 12mo, such as one in 1790. His 
irritating letter to Benjamin Crosby ought to 
be remembered as a proof of his cross-grained 
disposition. Crosby having courteously re- 
quested biographical information from him, as 
from others, in 1796, Dibdin replied : ' Mr. Dib- 
din is astonished at Mr. Crosby's extraordi- 
nary request ; he not only refuses it, but forbids 
Mr. Crosby to introduce anything concerning 
his life in his production. If he should, Mr. 
Dibdin may be under the necessity of publicly 
contradicting what, according to Mr. Crosby's 
own confession, cannot be authentic ' (CROSBY, 
p. 100). But the great merit of Dibdin's 
best songs, his sea-songs especially, words 
and music, is undeniable. His autobiography 
is dreary and egotistical in the extreme, and 
he is loose and inaccurate, whether by de- 
fect of memory or by intentional distortion 
of truth. His sea-songs are full of generous 
sentiment and manly honesty. Somehow he 
cared less for a practical fulfilment of the 
ethics that he preached so well. He invented 
his own tunes, for the most part spirited and 
melodious, and in this surpassed Henry Carey 
[q. v.] beyond all comparison. They were 
admirably suited to his words. He boasted 
truly: 'My songs have been the solace of 
sailors in long voyages, in storms, in battle ; 
and they have been quoted in mutinies to the 
restoration of order and discipline ' (Life, i. 
8). He brought more men into the navy in war 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



time than all the press-gangs could. Exclu- 
sive of the ' entertainments sans souci,' com- 
menced in 1797, with their 360 songs, he 
wrote nearly seventy dramatic pieces, and set 
to music productions of other writers. He 
claimed nine hundred songs as his own, of 
which two hundred were repeatedly encored, 
ninety of them being sea-songs, and un- 
doubtedly his master-work. He was a rapid 
worker. No one of his entertainments cost 
him more than a month; his best single songs 
generally half an hour, e.g. his ' Sailor's Jour- 
nal.' Music and words came together. His 
portrait was painted by Devis, showing his 
handsome face, his hearty boisterousness. It 
has been several times engraved. 

[Professional Life of Mr. Dibdin, written by 
Himself, with the "Words of Six Hundred Songs, 
4 vols., 1803; Benjamin Crosby's Pocket Com- 
panion to the Playhouses, pp. 99-105, 1796; 
Dibdin's own Eoyal Circus Epitomised, 1784, a 
full account of his difficulties and imprisonments 
in the Fleet and the Bench ; A Brief Memoir of 
Charles Dibdin, by (the late) Dr. William Kit- 
chener, with some Documents supplied by his 
(Dibdin's) Granddaughter, Mrs. Lovat Ashe, 
London, n.d. (1823), a very slight work, 24 pp. ; 
Kecollections of John 0'Keeffe,written by himself, 
ii. 322, 323, 1826 ; Biographia Dramatica, ed. 
1812, i. 187; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 415, 
4th ser. v. 155, &c.; The London Stage, 1826-7, 
4 vols. ; Bell's British Theatre ; Cumberland's 
Plays ; G. H. Davidson's Songs of Charles Dib- 
din, with Memoir by George Hogarth, 2 vols. 1 842 
and 1848, very inaccurate and ill-edited through- 
out, many songs being given that were written 
by Colley Gibber, long before Dibdin touched 
' Damon and Phillida,' and by other older and 
well-known writers; Annual Eegister, Ivi. 137; 
Dibdin's own books, above mentioned ; N. S. F. 
Hervey's Celebrated Musicians, Appendix, p. 32, 
1883-5; Musical Times, March 1886; Gent. Mag. 
Ixxxv. 285 (1815) ; European Mag. July 1810.] 

J. W. E. 

DIBDIN, HENRY EDWARD (1813- 
1866), musician, the youngest son of Charles 
Dibdin the younger [q. v.J, born at Sadler's 
Wells 8 Sept. 1813, was taught music by his 
elder sister, Mary Anne (b. 1800), afterwards 
Mrs. Tonna, who was an excellent harpist and 
musician, and the composer of several songs 
and instrumental pieces. Dibdin studied the 
harp with her, and afterwards with Bochsa. 
He also performed on the viola and organ. 
His first public appearance took place at Co- 
vent Garden Theatre on 3 Aug. 1832, when 
he played the harp at Paganini's last concert. 
In 1833 he settled at Edinburgh, where he 
remained for the rest of his life, holding the 
honorary post of organist of Trinity Chapel, 
and occupied with private teaching and com- 
position. In 1843 he published (in collabo- 



ration with J. T. Surenne) a collection of 
church music, a supplement to which ap- 
peared in the following year. His best known 
work is the { Standard Psalm Book ' (1857), an 
admirable collection, with a useful historical 
preface. In 1865 he also compiled another 
collection, ' The Praise Book.' His remain- 
ing published works, about forty in number, 
consist of songs, pianoforte and harp pieces, 
and a good many hymn tunes. Dibdin was 
also a skilled artist and illuminator. His 
death took place at Edinburgh 6 May 1866. 

[Information from Mr. E. B. Dibdin ; Craw- 
ford and Eberle's Biog. Index to the Church 
Hymnal, 3rd ed. 1878 ; Grove's Diet, of Music, 
i. 444.] W. B. S. 

DIBDIN, THOMAS FROGNALL(1776- 
1847), bibliographer, son of Thomas Dibdin,, 
elder brother of Charles Dibdin the song- 
writer [q. v.], was born in India in 1776. 
His mother's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Compton. His father, a captain in the navy, 
died in 1780 on his way to England ; his 
mother soon afterwards at Middelburg in 
Zeeland. Brought up by his uncle, William 
Compton, the boy was educated first at Read- 
ing, at a small school kept by a Mr. John 
Man, then at a school at Stockwell, and 
afterwards at a school near Brentford, kept 
by Mr. Greenlaw. From this he went to 
St. John's College, Oxford, and passed his 
examination for his degree in 1797, though 
he did not take it till March 1801. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. on 28 April 1825, and B.D. and 
D.D. on 9 July 1825. He at first chose the 
bar as his profession, and studied under Basil 
Montagu. He married early in life, and went 
to reside at Worcester, intending to establish 
himself as a provincial counsel. He, how- 
ever, soon abandoned all thoughts of the 
law, and determined to take holy orders. He- 
was ordained deacon in 1804, and priest in 
1805 by Bishop North of Winchester, to a 
curacy at Kensington, where he spent all 
the earlier portion of his life. 

While quite a young man he became an 
author; after some scattered essays in the 
' European Magazine,' and in a periodical 
called ' The Quiz,' put forth by Sir R. K. 
Porter and his sisters, which came to an un- 
timely end in 1798, he published a small vo- 
lume of poems in 1797, and two tracts on 
legal subjects. He began his career as a 
bibliographer in 1802 by an ' Introduction to 
the Knowledge of rare and valuable editions 
of the Greek and Latin Classics,' which was 
published in a thin volume at Gloucester. It is 
chiefly founded on Edward Harwood's ' View' 
of the classics (1790) ; but it was the means 
of introducing him to Lord Spencer, who 
even then was known as the possessor of one 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



of the most valuable private libraries in the 
country. Lord Spencer proved his patron 
through life, made him at one time his libra- 
rian, obtained church patronage for him, and 
made the Althorp library the wonderful col- 
lection it since became, very much under his 
direction. The ' Introduction to the Classics ' 
was reprinted in 1804, 1808, and 1827, each 
time with great enlargements, but its intrinsic 
value is very small. In 1809 appeared the 
first edition of the l Bibliomania,' which 
caught the taste of the time, and the second 
edition of which in 1811 had considerable in- 
fluence in exciting the interest for rare books 
and early editions, which rose to such a 
height at the Roxburghe sale in 1812. Soon 
afterwards he undertook a new edition of 
Ames's and Herbert's ' Typographical Anti- 
quities.' The first volume, which is confined 
to Caxton, appeared in 1810 ; the fourth, which 
goes down to Thomas Hacket, in 1819 ; the 
work was never finished. 

At the Roxburghe sale the edition of Boc- 
caccio printed by Valdarfer sold for the enor- 
mous sum of 2,260/., and to commemorate 
this Dibdin proposed that several of the lead- 
ing bibliophiles should dine together on the 
day. Eighteen met at the St. Alban's Tavern, 
in St. Alban's Street (now Waterloo Place), 
on 17 June 1812, with Lord Spencer as pre- 
sident, and Dibdin as vice-president. This 
was the beginning of the existence of the 
Roxburghe Club. The number of members 
was ultimately increased to thirty-one, and 
each member was expected to produce a re- 
print of some rare volume of English litera- 
ture. In spite of the worthless character of 
some of the early publications (of which it 
was said that when they were unique there 
was already one copy too many in existence), 
and of the ridicule thrown on the club by 
the publication of Haslewood's ' Roxburghe 
Revels,' this was the parent of the publish- 
ing societies established in this country, which 
have done so much for English history and 
antiquities, to say nothing of other branches 
of literature ; and Dibdin must be credited 
with being the originator of the proposal. 

Soon after this he undertook an elaborate 
catalogue of the chief rarities of Lord Spencer's 
library, and here his lamentable ignorance 
and unfitness for such a work are sadly con- 
spicuous. He could not even read the cha- 
racters of the Greek books he describes ; and 
his descriptions are so full of errors that it 
may be doubted if a single one is really 
accurate. On the other hand, the descrip- 
tions were taken bond fide from the books 
themselves, and thus the errors are not such 
as those of many of his predecessors in biblio- 
graphy, who copied the accounts of others, 



and wrote at second hand without having 
seen the books. The i Bibliotheca Spence- 
riana,' which is a very fine specimen of the 
printing of the time, has had the effect of 
making Lord Spencer's library better known 
out of England than any other library, and cer- 
tainly led many scholars to make a study of 
its rarities. In 1817 appeared the most amus- 
ing and the most successful (from a pecu- 
niary point of view) of his works, the ' Biblio- 
graphical Decameron,' on which a great sum 
was spent for engravings and woodcuts. The 
reader will find a great deal of gossip about 
books and printers, about book collectors and 
sales by auction ; but for accurate information 
of any kind he will seek in vain. In 1818 
Dibdin spent some time in France and Ger- 
many, and in his ' Bibliographical, Anti- 
quarian, and Picturesque Tour,' a very costly 
work from its engravings, which appeared in 
1821, he gives an amusing account of his 
travels, with descriptions of the contents of 
several of the chief libraries of Europe. But 
the style is flippant, and at times childish, and 
the book abounds with follies and errors. It 
would have been (it has been said) ( a capital 
volume, if there had been no letterpress. In 
1824 appeared his 'Library Companion,' the 
only one of his works which was fully (and 
very severely) reviewed at the time of its pub- 
lication. In 1836 he published his * Reminis- 
cences of a Literary Life,' which gives a full 
account of his previous publications, and the 
amount spent on them for engravings and 
woodcuts ; and in 1838 his ' Bibliographical, 
Antiquarian, and Picturesque Tour in the 
Northern Counties of England and Scotland,' 
amusing, as all his books are, but full of ver- 
biage and follies, and abounding with errors. 
Sometime before this he had projected a ' His- 
tory of the University of Oxford ' on a large 
scale (three folio volumes), with especially 
elaborate illustrations ; but this never was car- 
ried out, those who would have been inclined 
to patronise it knowing how unfit he was foi 
such an undertaking. It must be confessed 
that Mr. Dyce's words afford only a too just 
character of Dibdin : ' an ignorant pretender, 
without the learning of a schoolboy, who 
published a quantity of books swarming with 
errors of every description.' He is said to 
have been of pleasant manners and good- 
tempered, and to have had a great fund of 
anecdote. His preferments in the church 
were the preachership of Archbishop Tenison's 
chapel in Swallow Street, the evening lec- 
tureship of Brompton Chapel, preacherships 
at Quebec and Fitzroy chapels, the vicarage 
of Exning, near Newmarket (1823), and the 
rectory of St. Mary's, Bryanston Square, in 
1824. He was an unsuccessful candidate for 



Dibdin 



8 



Dibdin 



the librarianship of the Royal Institution in 
1804, and for one of the secretaryships of the j 
Society of Antiquaries in 1806. His two 
sons died before him ; a daughter survived 
him. His own death took place on 18 Nov. 
1847. 

The following, it is believed, is a complete 
list of his publications, in chronological order; 
those enclosed in brackets were issued pri- 
vately, from twenty-four to fifty copies only 
of each being printed : 1. Essays in the * Euro- 
pean Magazine,' and contributions to the 
'Quiz' (Nos. 20, 33), 1797. 2. * Poems,' 
1797. 3. * Chart of an Analysis of Blackstone 
on the Rights of Persons,' 1797. 4. 'The 
Law of the Poor Rate,' 1798. 5. ' Introduc- 
tion to the Knowledge of the Editions of 
the Greek and Latin Classics,' 1802; 2nd 
edition, 1804 ; 3rd edition, 1808 ; 4th edition, 
1827. 6. 'History of Cheltenham,' 1803. 
7. Translation of ' Fenelon's Treatise on the 
Education of Daughters,' 1805. 8. < The Di- 
rector,' a periodical which extends to 2 vols. 
Of this he wrote, perhaps, two-thirds, the 
' Bibliographiana ' and ( British Gallery,' 

1807. 9. Quarles's ' Judgment and Mercy for 
Afflicted Souls,' 1807, edited under the name 
of Reginald Wolfe. 10. [' Account of the 
first printed Psalter at Mentz, and the Mentz 
Bible of 1450-5 reprinted from Dr. Aikin's 
4 Athenaeum' and the 'Classical Journal'], 
1807-11. 11. ' More's Utopia,' translated by 
E. Robinson, 1808, reprinted, Boston, 1878. 
12. [' Specimen Bibliothecse Britannicse '], 

1808. 13. 'Bibliomania,' 1809; 2nd edition, 
1811 ; 3rd edition, 1842, with a supplement 
giving a key to the characters in the dia- 
logue ; 4th edition, 1876. 14. [' Specimen 
of an English De Bure'], 1810. 15. 'The 
Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain,' 

1810, 1812, 1816, 1819. 16. ' Rastell's Chro- 
nicle,' 1811. 17. [' The Lincolne Nosegay '], 

1811. 18. [' Book Rarities in Lord Spencer's 
Library,' consisting chiefly of an account of 
theDantes and Petrarchs at Spencer House], 
1811. 19. [' Bibliography, a Poem '], 1812. 

20. ' Bibliotheca Spenceriana,' 1814-15. 

21. ' Bibliographical Decameron,' 1817. 

22. [Feylde's ' Complaynt of a Lover's Life. 
Controversy between a Lover and a Jaye,' 
for the Roxburghe Club], 1818. 23. ' Ser- 
mons preached in Brompton, Quebec, and 
Fitzroy Chapels,' 1820. 24. 'Biographical, 
Antiquarian, and Picturesque Tour in France 
and Germany,' 1821. A second edition, in a 
smaller form and with fewer, but some addi- 
tional, illustrations, appeared in 1829. It was 
translated into French in 1825byLicquet and 
Crapelet. 25. There appeared also at Paris in 
1821, ' Lettre 9 me relative a la Bibliotheque 
publique de Rouen,' with notes by Licquet, 



and ' Lettre 30 me concernant 1'Imprimerie et 
la Librairie de Paris,' with notes by Crapelet. 
26. ['Roland for an Oliver,' an answer to 
Crapelet's notes on the 30th letter of the 
'Tour'],1821. 27. '^desAlthorpiaiie,'1822, 
with a supplement to the ' Bibliotheca Spen- 
ceriana.' 28. Contributions to a periodical 
called 'The Museum,' 1822-5. 29. 'Cata- 
logue of the Cassano Library,' with a general 
index to the Spencer Catalogue, 1823. 30. ['La 
Belle Marianne '], 1824. 31. ' Library Com- 
panion,' 1824; 2nd edition, 1825. 32. [A 
Reply to the Critiques on this in various 
re views], 1824. 33. ' Sermons preached in St. 
Mary's, Bryanston Square,' 1825. 34. Payne's 
Translation of Three Books of the De Imita- 
tione Christi, ascribed to T. a Kempis, with 
an introduction on the author, the editions, 
and the character of the work, 1828. 35. ' A 
Sermon on the Visitation of Archdeacon Cam- 
bridge,' 1831. 36. 'A Pastor's Advice to his 
Flock in Time of Trouble,' 1831. 37. 'Sunday 
Library,' 1831. 38. ' Bibliophobia,' 1832. 
39. ' Lent Lectures preached in St. Marys, 
Bryanston Square,' 1833. 40. Holbein's 
' Icones Biblicse,' with an introduction, 1834 ; 
2nd edition (in Bohn's Illustrated Library), 
1858. 41. 'Reminiscences of a Literary 
Life,' 1836. 42. ' Bibliographical, Antiqua- 
rian, and Picturesque Tour in the Northern 
Counties of England and Scotland,' 1838. 
43. ' Cranmer, a Novel,' 1839 ; 2nd edition, 
1843. This is utterly worthless, but it men- 
tions the price given by Lord Spencer for 
the ' Stuttgart Virgils,' which is studiously 
concealed in the ' Tour,' where the account 
of the transaction is told at length. 44. Ser- 
mons, 1843. 45. Three letters to the Bishop 
of Llandaff, 1843. 46. 'The Old Paths,' 
1844. 

Among his contemplated publications was 
a 'History of Dover,' of which one sheet 
was printed and some of the engravings 
finished, and he wrote a small portion of a 
'Bibliographical Tour in Belgium.' He pub- 
lished also a few single sermons, and a preface 
to a guide to Reading : these may be seen in 
a volume in the British Museum marked 
C. 28 i., formerly belonging to Dr. Bliss. It 
contains also several prospectuses of his lite- 
rary undertakings, and many autograph let- 
ters written to Dr. Bliss, which give a sad 
picture of the poverty and illness by which 
his latter days were harassed. 

[Dibdin's Eeminiscences of a Literary Life, 
Lond. 1836 ; Haslewood's Roxburghe Revels, pri- 
vately printed, Edinb. 1837; Gent.Mag.vol. xxix. 
new ser.pp. 87-92, 338, January 1848; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bonn), pp. 639-42 ; Jordan's Men I 
have Known, Lond. 1866, pp. 169-77.] 

H. R. L. 



Dibdin 



Dibdin 



DIBDIN, THOMAS JOHN (1771- 
1841), actor and dramatist, illegitimate son 
of Charles Dibdin the elder [q. v.], and 
younger brother of Charles Isaac Mungo Dib- 
din, by the same mother, who had taken the 
name of Mrs. Davenet at Covent Garden 
Theatre, but was the unmarried sister of 
Cecil Pitt, was born in Peter Street, Lon- 
don (now Museum Street, Bloomsbury), on 
21 March 1771. One of his godfathers was 
David Garrick, the other Frank Aiken, one 
of Garrick's company. Garrick warmly be- 
friended the family, and showed resentment 
when they were deserted. Mrs. Siddons led 
the boy, when four years old, before the audi- 
ence at Drury 'Lane, as Cupid in a revival of 
Shakespeare's ' Jubilee ' in 1775, she repre- 
senting Venus. His maternal grandmother, 
Mrs. A. Pitt, had been for half a century a 
popular actress at Covent Garden. In 1779 
he entered the choir of St. Paul's, under 
the tuition of Mr. Hudson. He was then 
removed, at his mother's expense, for a year 
to Mr. Tempest of Half-farthing Lane Aca- 
<lemy, Wandsworth ; next to Mr. Galland, 
a Cumberland man, classical scholar and dis- 
ciplinarian, who taught Virgil * Arma vi- 
rumque cano,' which a pupil translated feel- 
ingly into ' "With a strong arm and a thick 
stick.' He remained three years in the north 
country, at Durham, was recalled to London, 
and apprenticed in the city to his maternal 
uncle, Cecil Pitt of Dalston, upholsterer, but 
turned over to William Rawlins, afterwards 
Sir William and sheriff of London, who 
during four years declared him to be 'the 
stupidest hound on earth ; ' but who in later 
years always echoed the newspaper praise of 
the successful farce-writer by saying, ' That's 
a boy of my own, and I always said he 
was clever ! ' Thomas had seen many plays 
acted at Durham, and had constructed a toy 
theatre. An acquaintanceship with Jack Pal- 
mer, who built the Royalty in 1786, deve- 
loped his inherited dramatic instincts, and 
for rough treatment he summoned his master 
before John Wilkes, who acted with thorough 
justice and impartiality, sending him back 
to business. Forbidden to witness any plays 
he abstained for two months, when he went 
to the Royalty sixpenny gallery and was 
nearly detected by his master, who sat be- 
side him. At eighteen he fled to Margate, 
soon obtained an engagement with the Dover 
company at Eastbourne, assumed the name of 
S. Merchant, and made his first appearance 
as Valentine in O'Keeffe's ' Farmer,' singing 
' Poor Jack,' his father's ditty, which was quite 
new, and was repeated nearly every night in 
the season. Here he wrote the first of his 'two 
thousand ditties ' (M'C), a hunting song, and i 



his first burletta, l Something New,' also pros- 
pering in scene-painting with 'Tilbury Fort' 
i and the ' Spanish Armada ' of 1588 for ' The 
Critic/ including unlimited smoke. He had 
adventures with smugglers, and got a better 
engagement from Gardner of the Canterbury 
and Rochester circuit, parting on friendly 
terms with Russell ; they afterwards ex- 
changed compliments by playing for each 
, other's benefits. Dibdin acted at Deal, Sand- 
j wich, Canterbury, Beverley, Rochester, Maid- 
! stone, and Tunbridge Wells. At Beverley he 
' first met Miss Nancy Hilliar, a young actress, 
whom, three years later, he met again at 
Manchester, and married 23 May 1793. He 
got a Theatre Royal engagement at Liverpool 
in 1791, and appeared as Mungo in the ' Pad- 
lock ' at the opening of a new theatre at Man- 
chester, the old one having been burnt. Here 
he again met his Scotch godfather Aiken, 
| and was able to gain for his half-brother 
I Cecil Pitt the leadership of the orchestra, 
| in requital for hospitality at Eastbourne. 
He was scene-painter in chief, and produced 
' Sunshine after Rain.' Small provincial en- 
gagements, including some in Wales, followed. 
In 1794 an opening at Sadler's Wells, Isling- 
ton, presented itself, with a salary of five 
guineas a week, immediately after the birth 
of his daughter Maria. 

A farce called the ' Mad Guardian ' was 
published under the name of Merchant in 
1795. In 1796 he wrote for Sadler's Wells, 
of which his brother Charles T. M. Pitt was 
was now manager, many dramatic trifles. 
He had a fatal facility. More important were 
these : ' Sadak and Kalasrade, or the Waters 
of Oblivion,' and ' John of Calais,' in 1798, 
and an opera, ' II Bondocani,' from the ' Ara- 
bian Tales,' or Florian's 'New Tales,' ac- 
cepted by Harris, but not represented for five 
years. ' Blindman's Buif, or Who pays the 
Reckoning?' with 'The Pirates,' and two 
others, he sold to Philip Astley for fourteen 
guineas. Assured by Rawlins against pro- 
secution, he now dropped the name of S. Mer- 
chant, and assumed that of Dibdin (against 
the wish of Charles, his father), instead of 
resuming that of Pitt. Unlike his father, he 
was faithful in friendships, and at this time 
had such genial spirits that he was a favourite 
everywhere. In later life he became soured 
and more exacting. He became prompter and 
joint stage-manager at Sadler's Wells. With- 
out being a brilliant he was always a conscien- 
tious actor, of close study, letter-perfect, and 
paying attention to costume. On the Kent cir- 
cuit he never lost ground, and when the may or 
of Canterbury visited him in town (at Easter 
1804), Dibdin was able to take him round 
the chief theatres ; when at Covent Garden 



Dibdin 



10 



Dibdin 



three of his pieces were being acted the same 
night. At Canterbury he wrote * The British 
Raft/ ridiculing the threatened French in- 
vasion, and its one song, ' The Snug Little j 
Island,' attained astonishing popularity. It 



was first sung by ' Jew ' Davis at Sadler's 
Wells, on Easter Monday, 1797, while Dibdin 
was acting at Maidstone, where he himself 
sang it before Lord Romney, and it gained 
him the friendship of the Duke of Leeds. For 
Dowton he wrote a farce, ' The Jew and the 
Doctor/ but it was not produced until 1798, 
except for Dibdin's benefit, at the time of 
the state trials of O'Coigley and Arthur 
O'Conner. Harris wanted the l Jew and the 
Doctor' for Co vent Garden. Rumour arising 
of Nelson's victory at the Nile, June 1798, 
Richard Cumberland [q. v.] advised Dibdin 
to write a piece on it, with songs, and this 
was done with wonderful speed and suc- 
cess, as ' The Mouth of the Nile.' He was a 
most devoted son to his mother, allowing her 
an increased income of 100/., besides another 
allowance to her aged mother. He was proud 
of his father's abilities, but resented his cruel 
neglect of his family, and, from sympathy with 
his mother, avoided mention of his name. His 
engagement at Covent Garden lasted seven 
years, and his wife also joined him there, at a 
smaller salary. George III honoured Dibdin's 
' Birthday ' several times with a bespeak, as 
well as attending the performance of ' The 
Mouth of the Nile.' Tom paid fifty guineas, 
instead of the penalty, 50/., to Sir W. Raw- 
lins to cancel his indenture and make him 
free. He wrote 'Tag in Tribulation' for 
Knight's benefit. On 16 Sept. 1799 his wife 
made her first appearance as Aura in ' The 
Farm House/ at there-opening of Covent Gar- 
den. Among other merits she was an excellent 
under-study, and her versatility was displayed 
in becoming a substitute for Miss Pope as 
Clementina Allspice, for Mrs. Litchfield as 
Millwood, and for Mrs. Jordan as Nell in 
< The Devil to Pay.' On 7 Oct. 1799 Dibdin 
produced his musical l Naval Pillar/ in honour 
of victories at sea, Munden acting a quaker. 
In December old Mrs. Pitt died, in her seventy- 
ninth year, at Pentonville. On 19 Feb. one of 
his farces, ' True Friends/ failed, but crawled 
through five nights. He worked hard at a 
ballad-farce (two acts), 'St. David's Day/ 
and gained by it a lasting success. ' Her- 
mione ' followed, and l Liberal Opinions/ 
a three-act comedy, which brought him 200 /., 
which Harris prevailed on him to enlarge to 
five acts as ' The School for Prejudice ; ' he 
also wrote ' Of Age To-morrow/ and success- 
ful pantomimes each Christmas. 'Harlequin's 
Tour/ two nights before Christmas, pleased 
the public. His ' Alonzo and Imogine ' was 



revived for his wife's benefit. They usually 
spent summer-time at Richmond, profession- 
ally. At Colchester he joined Townsend in 
a musical entertainment, ' Something New/ 
followed next night by ' Nothing New/ with 
additions. He adapted the story of the old 
garland, 'The Golden Bull/ changing the 
bull into a wardrobe, and within three weeks 
composed his first and best opera, ' The 
Cabinet ; ' it was delayed by Harris, but ran 
thirty nights at the end of the season 1801-2. 
' II Bondocani, or the Caliph Robber/ opened 
the season September 1802, and brought him 
60/. His Jew's song, ' I courted Miss Levi/ &c., 
as sung by Fawcett (which was misunderstood 
by the Israelites as an attack on Jewesses), 
raised a riot, but the sale of the song-books 
brought him in 630Z. , and it triumphed over op- 
position. He himself wrote good-humouredly 
the parody on ' Norval ' 

My name 's Tom Dibdin : far o'er Ludgate Hill 
My master kept his shop, a frugal cit, &c. 

On 13 Dec. 1803 his opera of ' The English 
Fleet in 1342 ' appeared, running thirty-five 
nights, and repaying him with 550Z. A 
comedy, ' The "Will for the Deed/ brought 
him 320/., and on Easter Monday 1804 came 
his ' Valentine and Orson/ performed with 
it, and his ' Horse and Widow ; ' he had the 
whole playbill to himself. In this year he 
made 1,515/., of which 200 J. was for ' Guilty 
or Not Guilty.' He then began to traffic 
in risky investments, theatre shares, joining 
Colman and David Morris in the Haymarket. 
This fell through, and he recalled his 4,OOOJ. 
to lose it elsewhere. His opera ' Thirty Thou- 
sand ' brought him 360 guineas in 1805, soon 
followed by ' Nelson's Glory/ an unsuccess- 
ful farce, 'The White Plume/ and 'Five 
Miles Off/ on 9 July 1806, which last gave 
him 375/. By evil speculation in a Dublin 
circus he and his brother Charles lost nearly 
2.000/., but this loss inspired the wish to have 
Grimaldi at Covent Garden in his new panto- 
mime ' Mother Goose/ 1807, which brought 
to the management close on 20,000/. ' Two 
Faces under a Hood/ opera, gave him 360/. 
On 20 Sept. 1808 Covent Garden Theatre was 
burnt to the ground ; twenty-three lives were 
lost; but the proprietors opened the opera 
house with Dibdin's 'Princess or no Princess/ 
and his ' Mother Goose ' had a third run. On 
24 Feb. 1809 Drury Lane Theatre was burnt, 
while Dibdin was at a ball close by with his 
wife. The latter now retired from the stage 
and went to Cheltenham. Dibdin's ' Lady 
of the Lake ' came out at the Surrey, which 
he now managed at 15/. a week and two- 
benefits ; he stayed with Elliston for a year, 
till the autumn, 1812, at which time he 



Dibdin 



Dicconson 



adapted, as a pantomime for the Royal Amphi- 
theatre of Davis and Parker, his own father's 
' High-mettled Racer/ by which they cleared 
10,000/., and he himself got 50/. When 
new Drury Lane was almost finished he was 
engaged by Arnold on the annual salary of 
5201. as prompter and writer of the panto- 
mimes. The first of these was ' Harlequin 
and Humpo.' His ' Orange Bower ' was an- 
nounced for 8 Dec. 1813, but could not get 
licensed and appear till the 10th. In August 
1814 came his ' Harlequin Hoax.' He lost his 
daughter, his father, and his mother respec- 
tively in March, August, and on 10 Oct. the 
same year. Among his numerous remaining 
dramas are ' The Ninth Statue,' 1814, ' Zuma/ 
'The Lily of St. Leonards,' January 1819, 
'The Ruffian Boy,' dramatised from Mrs. 
Opie, and ' The Fate of Galas,' 1820. 

After the death of Samuel Whitbread, Dib- 
din was appointed manager at his prompter 
salary, but saddled with a colleague, Mr. Rae, 
and there were discomforts with the com- 
mittee. In 1816 he rashly took the Royal 
Circus, renamed the Surrey, of which his 
father had been first manager. This was dis- 
astrous. He opened it on 1 July, depending 
chiefly on his melodramas. The death of the 
Duke of Kent and of George III stopped the 
success of the theatre. On 19 March 1822 he 
closed the theatre, and gave the remainder of 
his lease to Watkyns Burroughs ; but all went 
wrong. Morris offered him the management 
of the Hay market at 200/. per season. Dibdin 
became insolvent. By the Surrey and Dublin 
ventures he had lost 18,000/. He scarcely 
succeeded at the Haymarket ; his temper was 
soured, and he had not his old command of 
resources. He entered into a lawsuit with 
Elliston, who had dismissed him from Drury 
Lane, and he quarrelled with D. E. Morris, 
was arrested and put in prison. The two law- 
suits he gained ; but his career was over, the 
remaining years passing in petty squabbles, 
inferior work, and discontent. He tried to be 
cheerful, and his retrospect was that of nearly 
two hundred plays ten only were failures, and 
sixteen had attained extraordinary success. 
Nearly fifty were printed, besides thirty books 



His * Reminiscences ' in 1827 were illus- 
trated with an excellent portrait by Wage- 
man, engraved by H. Meyer. In these volumes 
he far surpasses the ' Professional Life ' of his 
father ; Thomas's being, though necessarily 
egotistical and devoted to theatrical recol- 
lections, lively and amusing, full of inter- 
esting anecdotes of old companions : on the 
whole generous to all in the earlier portions, 
not embittered and abusive like his father's. 
Among his versatile literary employments 



were 'A Metrical History of England,' 2 vols., 
1813 (published at 18s.), begun at Cheltenham 
in 1809, anticipating G. A. a Beckett's ' Comic 
History ; ' Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress me- 
trically condensed,' 1834; and 'Tom Dibdin's 
Penny Trumpet,' a prematurely stifled rival 
to ' Figaro in London,' four penny numbers, 
October and November 1832, the least vi- 
perous of the many satires in the reform ex- 
citement. He claimed to have written nearly 
two thousand songs, of which a dozen or 
more were excellent, such as ' The Oak Table,' 
' Snug Little Island,' the duet of ' All's Well,' 
and most of those sung in 'The Cabinet/ 
' The British Fleet/ &c. It was ' feared that 
he died in indigence ' (Annual Register), but 
he had been fairly prudent, was of steady 
domestic habits, and had made money con- 
stantly until near his closing years, when his 
toilsome life had enfeebled him and made him 
querulous. He wrote his own epitaph in the 
Ad Libitum Club : 

Longing while living for laurel and bays, 
Under this "willow a poor poet ' lays ; ' 
With little to censure, and less to praise, 
He wrote twelve dozen and three score plays : 
He finish'd his ' Life/ and he went his ways. 

He died at his house in Myddleton Place, 
Pentonville, in his seventieth year, 16 Sept. 
1841, and was buried on the 21st in the burial- 
ground of St. James's, Pentonville, close by 
the grave of his old friend, Joseph Grimaldi 
[q. v.], and of his grandmother, Anne Pitt. 

[Reminiscences of Thomas Dibdin, of the 
Theatres Royal Covent Garden, Drury Lane, 
Haymarket, &c., and Author of The Cabinet, 
&c., 2 vols. 8vo, H. Col burn, 1827; Athenseum, 
September 1841, p. 749; Tom Dibdin's Penny 
Trumpet, 20 Oct. to 10 Nov. 1832 ; Annual Bio- 
graphy, 1841 ; Biographical Dictionary of Living 
Authors, 1816; Last Lays of the Three Dibdins, 
1833; Cumberland's edition of Operasand Farces, 
The Cabinet, &c., with Remarks by D.G.; works 
mentioned above, with anecdotes from family 
knowledge of personal acquaintance.] 

J. W. E. 

DICCONSON, EDWARD, D.D. (1670- 
1752), catholic prelate, was born in 1670, 
being the third son of Hugh Dicconson, esq. r 
of Wrightington Hall, Lancashire, by Agnes, 
daughter of Roger Kirkby, esq., of Kirkby in 
that county. He was educated in the Eng- 
lish college at Douay, and at the end of his 
course of philosophy, in 1691, returned to 
England. Subsequently he resumed his 
studies at Douay, where he took the oath on 
3 March 1698-9. He took priest's orders; 
became procurator of the college in 1701 ; 
and in 1708-9 he was professor of syntax 
and a senior. In 1709-10 he was professor 
of poetry, and in 1711-12 professor of philo- 



Diceto 



12 



Diceto 



sophy. He was made vice-president and pro- 
fessor of theology in 1713-14. 

He left Douay college to serve the English 
mission on 13 Aug. 1720, having been in- 
vited by Peter Gift'ard, esq., to take the minis- 
terial charge at Chillington, Staffordshire. ! 
While there he was Bishop Stonor's principal 
adviser and grand vicar. Afterwards he was 
sent to Rome as agent extraordinary of the 
secular clergy of England. On the death of 
Bishop Thomas Williams he was nominated 
vicar apostolic of the northern district of j 
England, by Benedict XIV, in September 
1740, and he was consecrated on 19 March 
1740-1 to the see of Malla in partibus infi- 
delium by the bishop of Ghent. Proceeding 
to his vicariate he fixed his residence at a 
place belonging to his family near Wright- 
ington, called Finch Mill. He died there on 
24 April (5 May N. S.) 1752, and was buried 
in the private chapel attached to the parish 
church of Standish, near Wigan. Francis 
Petre was his successor in the northern 
vicariate. 

He wrote : 1. A detailed account of his 
agency at Rome in four manuscript volumes, 
full of curious matter. 2. Reports and other 
documents relating to the state of his vicariate. 
Manuscripts preserved among the archives 
of the see of Liverpool. Six volumes of his 
papers were formerly in the possession of 
Dr. John Kirk of Lichfield. Dicconson copied 
for Dodd, the ecclesiastical historian, most of 
the records from Douay college, besides writ- 
ing other parts of his work. 

Dicconson's name was falsely affixed to a 
portrait of Bishop Bonaventure Giffard [q.v.], 
engraved by Burford from a painting by H. 
Hysing. 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 207, 250, 
255-9; Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; Bromley's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, p. 271 ; Chambers's Biog. 
Ilhistr. of Worcestershire, p. 592 ; Catholic Mis- 
cellany, vi. 251-4, 260; Addit. MSS. 20310 
if. 188, 190, 208, 20312 if. 139, 141, 20313 
if. 173, 175.] T. C. 

DICETO, RALPH DE (d. 1202?), dean 
of St. Paul's, bears a surname otherwise en- 
tirely unknown. The presumption is that 
it is derived from the place of Ralph's birth. 
This place has often been identified with Diss 
in Norfolk, but the conjecture is not sup- 
ported by any evidence either in the history 
of Diss or in the writings of Diceto, while it 
is contradicted by the mediaeval forms of 
spelling the name of the town (Dize, Disze, 
Disce, Dysse, Dice, Dicia, Dyssia). After an 
exhaustive investigation of the subject Bishop 
Stubbs leans towards the conclusion that De 
Diceto ' is an artificial name, adopted by its 



bearer as the Latin name of a place with which 
he was associated, but which had no proper 
Latin name of its own ; ' and this, he suggests, 
may probably be one of three places in Maine, 
Dissai-sous-Courcillon,Disse-sous-le-Lude,or 
Diss6-sous-Baillon. If this theory be correct, 
still Ralph de Diceto,who must have been born 
between 1120 and 1130, was probably brought 
at an early age into England, since, as Bishop 
Stubbs observes, * his notices of events touch- 
ing the history of St. Paul's begin in 1136, 
and certainly have the appearance of personal 
recollections.' His first known preferment 
was that of the archdeaconry of Middlesex, 
void by the election of Richard of Belmeis 
(the second of that name) as bishop of Lon- 
don. Richard's consecration took place on 
28 Sept. 1152 (STUBBS, note to Gervase of 
Canterbury, Chron. a. 1151 ; Hist. Works, 
i. 148, Rolls Series, 1879), and the appoint- 
ment of his successor in the archdeaconry 
was his first act as bishop, an act which the 
pope endeavoured to set aside in favour of 
a nominee of his own, and which he only 
sanctioned on the bishop's urgent petition, 
preferred through the mediation of Gilbert 
Foliot. From the fact of the appointment, 
and from the tenacity with which the bishop 
held to it, Dr. Stubbs conjectures that Diceto 
was a member of his family ; for it was the 
prevailing practice to confer the confidential 
post of archdeacon upon a near kinsman ; the 
family of Belmeis had long engrossed many 
of the most important offices in the chapter ; 
and it was thus natural that this hereditary 
tendency should affect the archdeaconry. If 
this assumption be accepted, it is not hard to 
go a step further and suppose that Ralph was 
son or nephew of Ralph of Langford, the 
bishop's brother, who was dean of St. Paul's 
from about 1138 to 1160. 

Diceto is described on his appointment as 
a * master,' and he is known to have studied 
at Paris at two periods of his life (ARNTTLF. 
LEXOV. ep. xvi. ; MIGNE, Patrol. Lat. cci. 29, 
30) ; the first time no doubt in his youth, the 
second some years after his preferment, pro- 
bably between 1155 and 1160. Besides his 
archdeaconry, which was poorly endowed, 
he held two rectories in the country, Aynhoe 
in Northamptonshire, and Finchingfield in 
Essex, but at what date or whether at the 
same time is unknown. He performed his 
duties in them by means of a vicar. Ap- 
parently also he was once granted and then 
dispossessed of a prebend at St. Paul's, since 
Foliot, soon after he became bishop of London 
in 1162, exerted his influence with the king 
in vain to secure its restitution. 

In the long conflict between Henry II and 
Thomas a Becket, Diceto's sympathies were 



Diceto 



Diceto 



divided. Himself on intimate terms with. 
Foliot, and loyally attached to the king, lie 
was careful to maintain friendly relations 
with the other side ; and his cautious reserve 
made him useful as an intermediary between 
the parties. In 1180 he was elected dean of 
St. Paul's and prebendary of Tottenhale in 
the same cathedral. His activity in his new 
position is attested by the survey of the capi- 
tular property, which he made so early as 
January 1181, and of which all that remains 
has been printed, among others, by Arch- 
deacon Hale (Domesday of St. Paul's, pp. 
109-17, Camden Society, 1857) ; not to speak 
of a variety of charters and other official 
documents, many of which are still preserved 
among the chapter muniments. The cathe- 
dral statute-book also contains abundant evi- 
dence of the dean's work (Registrum Sta- 
tutorum Ecclesice Sancti Pauli, pp. 33 n. 2, 
63, 109, 124, 125, &c., ed. W. Sparrow Simp- 
son, 1873). He built a deanery-house and a 
chapel within the cathedral precincts, which 
he bequeathed, together with the books, &c., 
with which he had furnished them, to his 
successors in office (see the bishop's confir- 
mation, Opera, ii. pref. p. Ixxiii). To the 
cathedral itself he gave a rich collection of 
precious reliques, as well as some books 
(DUGDALE, History of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
pp. 337, 320, 322, 324-8, ed. H. Ellis, 1818). 
Finally, in 1197 he instituted a 'fratery ' or 
guild for the celebration of religious offices 
and for the relief of the sick and poor (Re- 
gistrum, pp. 63-5). He died on 22 Nov. 
(SIMPSON, Documents, p. 72), in all proba- 
bility in 1202, though it is just possible that 
the date may be a year earlier or later. His 
anniversary was kept by the canons as that 
of ' Radulfus de Disceto, decanus bonus.' 

The historical writings by which Diceto 
is chiefly remembered were the work of his 
old age. The prologue to the ' Abbrevia- 
tiones Chronicorum ' (Opera, i. 18) seems to 
show that this book was already in process 
of transcription in 1188, and there are signs 
that it cannot have been composed before 
1181, and was probably begun a few years 
later. Some isolated passages, however, look 
as though they had been reduced to writing 
at an earlier time. The ' Abbreviationes,' 
which are based principally on Robert de 
Monte, run as far as 1147. Their continua- 
tion, the ' Ymagines Historiarum,' carries 
the history from 1149 to 25 March 1202, 
but Diceto's authorship cannot be extended 
with certainty beyond 27 May 1199, where 
the most valuable manuscript of the book 
stops short. As far as 1171, if not as far 
as 1183, Diceto seems to have continued to 
make use of the work of Robert de Monte, 



though in these later years it is quite pos- 
sible that the two historians exchanged notes. 
Besides Robert, Diceto derived much of his 
information down to the date of Becket's 
murder from the letters of Gilbert Foliot. In 
later years he was assisted in the collection 
of materials for his work by Richard FitzNeal, 
who was bishop of London from 1189 to 
1198, and was in all probability the author 
of the ' Gesta Henrici ' which pass under 
the name of Benedict of Peterborough, as 
well as by William Longchamp, the justiciar, 
and Walter of Coutances, bishop of Lincoln, 
and subsequently archbishop of Rouen. The 
peculiar advantages which Diceto thus pos- 
sessed for knowing the secrets of the govern- 
ment, while his position in the cathedral of 
London gave him facilities for hearing all 
the ordinary news of the day, makes his 
1 Ymagines ' an authority of the first rank 
for the latter part of Henry IPs reign, and 
for the whole of that of Richard I. < It 
seems clear,' says Bishop Stubbs, ' that Ralph 
de Diceto wrote with a strong feeling of 
attachment to Henry II and the Angevin 
family ; with considerable political insight 
and acquaintance with both the details and 
the moving causes of public affairs; in a 
temperate and business-like style, but with 
irregularities in chronology, arrangement, 
and proportion of detail which mark a man 
who takes up his pen when he is growing 
old ; now and then he gossips, now and then 
he attempts to be eloquent, but he is at his 
best in telling a straightforward tale.' 

Besides his two principal works Diceto 
wrote a variety of Opuscula, including reg- 
nal and pontifical lists and other historical 
abridgments and compendia, and a ' Series 
causse inter Henricum regem et Thomam 
archiepiscopum,' mainly taken from the 
1 Ymagines.' Of all his historical writings 
we have the rare advantage of possessing 
manuscripts not merely contemporaneous, but 
written at St. Paul's and under the author's 
direct supervision. The greater part of 
the 'Abbreviationes' and the whole of the 
'Ymagines' were printed by Twysden in the 
'Scriptores Decem' (1652); all his histori- 
cal works are collected by Bishop Stubbs, 
' Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundoniensis 
Opera Historica/ in 2 vols. (Rolls Series, 
1876). 

Besides these Diceto wrote ' Postilla super 
Ecclesiasticum et super librum Sapientise/ 
of which a copy was long preserved in the 
old library of St. Paul's (DUGDALE, p. 393). 
He is also credited by Bale, possibly as a 
matter of course, with ' Sermones ' (Scriptt* 
Brit. Cat. iii 62, pp. 255 et seq., ed. 1557). 
Bale further unduly extends the list of his 



Dick 



Dick 



historical works by separating portions of the 
1 Abbreviationes ' and ' Ymagines ' as distinct 
works. 

[Except that the references have been verified, 
this notice is almost entirely based upon the 
elaborate biography and the criticism of Diceto's 
works contained in Bishop Stubbs's prefaces to 
his edition. Compare also W. Sparrow Simp- 
son's Documents illustrating the History of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, Camden Society, 1880.] 

E. L. P. 

DICK, SIR ALEXANDER (1703- 
1785), physician, born in October 1703, was 
the third son of Sir William Cunyngham of 
Caprington, bart., by Janet, only child and 
heiress of Sir James Dick of Prestonfield near 
Edinburgh. Not sharing in the large fortunes 
inherited by his elder brother William, Alex- 
ander determined to qualify himself for a 
profession. He began the study of medicine 
at the university of Edinburgh, and afterwards 
proceeded to Leyden, where he became a pupil 
of Boerhaave, and proceeded M.D. 31 Aug. 
1725. His inaugural dissertation, ' De Epi- 
lepsia,' was published. A similar degree was 
conferred on him two years later by the 
university of St. Andrews. In 1727 he began 
practising as a physician in Edinburgh, and 
on 7 Nov. of the same year he was enrolled 
a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 
of Edinburgh. Ten years later he travelled 
on the continent with his friend Allan Ram- 
say the painter, son of the well-known Scot- 
tish poet. During his travels Cunyngham, 
as he was still called, added largely to his 
scientific acquirements, and on his return 
home he settled in Pembrokeshire, where he 
earned great reputation as a successful prac- 
titioner. Meanwhile he maintained a con- 
stant correspondence with Allan Ramsay the 
poet and other friends in Scotland. 

In 1 746, by the death of his brother William, 
he succeeded to the baronetcy of Dick, and 
took up his residence in the family mansion 
of Prestonfield, which lies at the foot of 
Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh. Abandoning 
his profession as a lucrative pursuit, he still 
cultivated it for scientific purposes, and in 
1756 was elected president of the College 
of Physicians of Edinburgh, an office which 
he continued to hold for seven successive 
years. He voluntarily relinquished the chair 
in 1763 on the ground ' that it was due to 
the merits of other gentlemen that there 
should be some rotation.' He continued to 
devote some portion of his time to the service 
of the college, and contributed liberally to the 
building of the new hall. His portrait was 
afterwards placed in the college library as a 
mark of respect. Dick helped to obtain a 
charter for the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 



and promoted the establishment of a medical 
school in the Royal Infirmary. When Dr. 
Mounsey of St. Petersburg first brought the 
seeds of the true rhubarb into Great Bri- 
tain, Dick, who probably knew the properties 
of the plant from his old master's nephew, 
A. K. Boerhaave, bestowed great care on its 
cultivation and pharmaceutical preparation. 
The Society of Arts presented him in 1774 
with a gold medal ' for the best specimen 
of rhubarb.' Dick corresponded with Dr. 
Johnson, who paid a visit to Prestonfield 
during his celebrated journey to Scotland. 
Dick married first, in 1736, Sarah, daughter 
of Alexander Dick, merchant, in Edinburgh, 
a relative on his mother's side ; secondly, in 
1762, Mary, daughter of David Butler, esq., 
of Pembrokeshire. He died at the age of 
eighty-two, on 10 Nov. 1785. A memoir of 
Dick, published soon after his death in the 
' Edinburgh Medical Commentaries,' was re- 
printed for private distribution, in 1849, by 
Sir Robert Keith Dick-Cunyngham, his third 
son. An account of his * Journey from Lon- 
don to Paris in 1736 ' was also printed pri- 
vately. 

[Gent. Mag. 1853, xxxix. 22 ; Irving's Book 
of Scotsmen ; Edinburgh Medical Commentaries, 
1785.] E. H. 

DICK, ANNE, LADY (d. 1741), verse 
writer, was a daughter of a Scotch law lord, 
Sir James Mackenzie (Lord Royston), a son of 
George Mackenzie, first earl of Cromarty. The 
date of Anne's birth does not appear, nor the 
date of her marriage to William Cunyngham, 
who adopted the name of Dick, and became 
Sir William Dick of Prestonfield, bart., in 
1728, on the death of his maternal grandfather 
without male issue. Lady Dick made herself 
notorious by many unseemly pranks. She 
was in the habit of walking about the Edin- 
burgh streets dressed as a boy, her maid with 
her, likewise in boy's attire. She also was 
known as a writer of coarse lampoons and 
epigrams in verse, which drew upon her the 
reproof of friends who admired her undoubted 
gifts and desired her to turn them to better 
purpose. Three specimens of her verse are in 
C. Kirkpatrick Sharpe's ' Book of Ballads.' 
She died in 1741, childless ; and her husband, 
who survived her till 1746, was succeeded in 
his baronetcy by his brother, Sir Alexander 
Dick, physician [q. v.] A portrait of Lady 
Dick in a white dress at Prestonfield is men- 
tioned by C. K. Sharpe. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 33 ; Sharpe's 
Ballad Book, pp. 118, 121, 131, 139.] J. H. 

DICK, JOHN, D.D. (1764-1833), theo- 
logical writer, was born on 10 Oct. 1764 at 
Aberdeen, where his father was minister of 



Dick i 

the associate congregation of seceders. His | 
mother's name was Helen Tolmie, daughter 
of Captain Tolmie of Aberdeen, a woman of 
well cultivated intellect and deep piety, who j 
exercised a strong influence over her son. [ 
Educated at the grammar school and King's ! 
College, Aberdeen, he studied for the ministry | 
of the Secession church, under John Brown \ 
of Haddington. In 1785, immediately after j 
being licensed as a probationer, he was called 
by the congregation of Slateford, near Edin- 
burgh, and ordained to the ministry there. 
His love of nature and natural objects was 
intense, and at Slateford he had the oppor- 
tunity of gratifying it abundantly. A few 
years after his settlement he married Jane, 
daughter of the Rev. G. Coventry, Stitchell, 
Roxburghshire, and sister of Dr. Andrew 
Coventry of Shanwell, professor of agricul- 
ture in the university of Edinburgh. 

At Slateford, Dick was a laborious student 
and a diligent pastor, and he began early to 
take an active share in the business of his 
church. In 1788, when Dr. M'Gill of Ayr 
alarmed the religious community of Scotland 
by an essay on the death of Christ, of uni- 
tarian tendencies, Dick published a sermon 
in opposition entitled ' The Conduct and 
Doom of False Teachers.' In 1796, when ob- 
jection had been tajjen by several ministers 
'in his church to the teaching of the confes- 
sion of faith on the duty of the civil magis- 
trate to the church, he preached and published 
a sermon entitled ' Confessions of Faith shown 
to be necessary, and the duty of churches 
with respect to them explained.' He vindi- 
cated the use of confessions, but inculcated the 
duty of the church to be tolerant of minor 
disagreements. In 1799 this controversy was 
ended by the synod enacting a preamble to 
the confession, declaring that the church re- 
quired no assent to anything which favoured 
the principle of compulsory measures in reli- 
gion. A minority dissented from this find- 
ing, and, withdrawing from their brethren, 
formed a new body entitled * The Original 
Associate Synod.' 

In 1800 he published an l Essay on the 
Inspiration of the Scriptures,' which gave him 
considerable standing as a theological writer. 
The occasion of this publication was, that in 
a dispute in the Secession church regarding 
the descending obligation of the Scottish cove- 
nants, it had been affirmed that those who 
were not impressed by arguments in its favour 
from the Old Testament, could not believe in 
the inspiration of the Old Testament books. 
Dick wrote his book to rebut this argument. 
The position assumed in it is thus stated by 
his biographer: 'He held the doctrine of 
plenary inspiration ; i.e. that all parts of scrip- 



; Dick 

ture were written by persons, moved, directed, 
and assisted by the Holy Spirit, his assistance 
extending to the words as well as to the 
ideas. But under the term t inspiration ' he 
included several kinds or degrees of super- 
natural influence, holding that sometimes a 
larger and sometimes a smaller degree of in- 
spiration was necessary to the composition 
of the books, according to the previous state of 
the minds of the writers and the matter of 
their writings.' 

In 1801 he became minister of an important 
and prominent congregation in Glasgow, now 
called Greyfriars, in which charge he con- 
tinued up to the time of his death. In 1815 
he received the degree of D.D. from Princeton 
College, New Jersey, one of the oldest colleges 
of America. In 1819 the death of Dr. Lawson 
of Selkirk left vacant the office of theological 
professor to the associate synod, which had 
been filled for a long time by him in a dis- 
tinguished manner, and in 1820 Dr. Dick was 
chosen to succeed him. In this charge he was 
eminently successful, enjoying at once the ap- 
proval of the church and the confidence and 
admiration of his students. He was now one 
of the leading men in his church. Regarding 
his theological standpoint, his son says : { He 
was distinguished from many theologians by 
the honour in which he held the scriptures, and 
by the strictness with which he adhered to 
the great protestant rule of making the Bible, 
in its plain meaning, the source of his reli- 
gious creed, and the basis of his theological 
system. His distrust of reason as a guide 
in religion was deeply sincere, and never 
wavered ; and so was his confidence in reve- 
lation. Both were the result of inquiry ; 
and the perfect reasonableness of his faith 
was in nothing more evident than in the 
limits which he set to it ; for he had taken 
pains to ascertain the bounds of revelation, 
and while within these he was teachable as 
a child, to everything beyond our own re- 
sources no man could apply the test of reason 
with more uncompromising boldness.' 

In politics Dick sympathised with the re- 
forming party, and he objected to church 
establishments. He combined the offices of 
professor of divinity and minister of Grey- 
friars Church up to the time of his death, 
which occurred rather suddenly on 25 Jan. 
1833. 

Besides the sermons already noticed, and 
his ' Essay on the Inspiration of the Scrip- 
tures,' Dick published during his lifetime 
' Lectures on some Passages of the Acts of 
the Apostles ; ' and, in 1833, after his death, 
his theological lectures were published in 
4 vols. 8vo, a second edition being published 
in 1838. 



Dick 



16 



Dick 



[Memoir of Dr. Dick, by his son, Andrew Co- 
ventry Dick, prefixed to Lectures in Theology ; 
McKerrow's Hist, of the Secession Church; Fune- 
ral Sermons by Rev. Andrew Marshall and Rev. 
Professor Mitchell, D.D. ; Memoir by Rev. W. 
Peddie, United Secession Mag. May 1833.1 

W. G. B. 

DICK, ROBERT (1811-1866), a self- 
taught geologist and botanist, son of an ex- 
ciseman, was born at Tulliboddy in Clack- 
mannanshire in January 1811, according to 
his tombstone, in 1810 according to his half- 
sister. Though an apt scholar he was not 
sent to college, but at the age of thirteen 
was apprenticed to a baker, mainly through 
the influence of his stepmother, who made 
his life miserable. Despite hard work he read 
largely, and acquired a knowledge of botany, 
and made a collection of plants while yet 
an apprentice. After serving as a journey- 
man in Leith, Glasgow, and Greenock, he 
went to Thurso in Caithness in 1830, where 
his father was then supervisor of excise, and 
set up as a baker, there being then only three 
bakers' shops in the county. While gradually 
making a business he began to study geology, 
and widened his knowledge of natural his- 
tory, making large collections of rocks, insects, 
and plants. He ultimately accumulated an 
almost perfect collection of the British flora 
by collection and exchange. About 1834 
he re-discovered the Hierochloe borealis, or 
northern holy-grass, an interesting plant 
which had been dropped out of the British 
flora ; of this he contributed a brief account 
to the Botanical Society of Edinburgh (Ann. 
Nat. Hist. October 1854). In 1841 the ap- 
pearance of Hugh Miller's ' Old Red Sand- 
stone ' led Dick to make further searches for 
fossils, and ultimately to commence a corre- 
spondence with the author, greatly to the 
advantage of the latter, who received from 
the poor baker fine specimens of holoptychius 
and many other remarkable fishes, besides 
much information possessed by no other man. 
The facts which Dick furnished led to con- 
siderable modifications in the ' Old Red Sand- 
stone,' and were of great assistance in build- 
ing up the arguments of ' Footprints of the 
Creator.' ' He has robbed himself to do me 
service,' wrote Miller. 

Dick's extreme modesty and bluff indepen- 
dence prevented him from writing for publi- 
cation, but he became a recognised authority 
on the geology and natural history of his 
county, and materially aided Sir Roderick 
Murchison and other scientific men in their 
researches. Among his intimate friends was 
Charles Peach [q. v.], a self-made naturalist 
and geologist like himself; His studies show 
a record of indefatigable perseverance under 



poverty, pain, illness, and fatigue not easily 
surpassed. He often walked fifty to eighty 
miles between one baking and another, eating- 
nothing but a few pieces of biscuit. Com- 
petition and a loss of flour by shipwreck at 
length practically ruined him, and his last 
years were passed in great privation. He- 
died on 24 Dec. 1866, prematurely old at' 
! fifty-five. A public funeral testified that his 
fellow-townsmen recognised his merits, if 
somewhat tardily. 

Dick was never married, and was very 
solitary in his habits. His character is best 
revealed by his letters, which show him to- 
have had a deep love of nature, both its- 
history and its beauties, and a stern resolve 
to get at facts at first hand. He would la- 
bour for weeks, at every possible moment, to 
chisel out a single important specimen from 
the hardest rock, or when crippled with rheu- 
matism would spend hours in emptying pond& 
on the sea shore to disinter fossils he could 
not otherwise obtain. ' I have nearly killed 
myself several times with over-exertion,' he 
says. He had considerable culture, derived 
from both religious and general literature. 
His biographer says : ' To those who knew 
him best he was cheerful and social. He 
had a vein of innocent fun and satire about 
him, and he often turned his thoughts into- 
rhyme.' His moral character was blameless ; 
indeed his integrity was sternly scrupulous. 
It was with the greatest difficulty that he 
was persuaded to sell his fossils when in 
great privation ; but he lavishly gave them 
away to those whom he conceived entitled to 
them by their scientific eminence. Strange 
to say, all reference to Dick was omitted in 
Hugh Miller's life. A portrait of Dick etched 
by Raj on forms the frontispiece to his life. 

[Smiles's Life of Robert Dick, 1878.] 

G. T. B. 

DICK, Sm ROBERT HENRY (1785 ?- 
1846), major-general, was the son of Dr. 
Dick of Tullimet, Perthshire, and, if a ro- 
mantic story be true, must have been born 
in India about 1785. It is said ( Gent. Mag. 
for May 1846) that when Henry Dundas 
and Edmund Burke were staying with the 
Duke of Athole at Dunkeld, they accidentally 
met a farmer's daughter, who gave them re- 
freshment during a walk. Upon hearing 
their names she asked Dundas if he could 
help a young doctor (Dick) to whom she was 
betrothed, and who was too poor to marry. ' 
Dundas, hearing a good report of Dick, gave 
him an assistant-surgeoncy in the East India 
Company's service. Dick at once married 
and went to India, where he soon made a 
large fortune, with which he retired and pur- 



Dick 



Dick 



chased the estate of Tullimet. Robert Dick, 
the son of this fortunate doctor, entered the 
army as an ensign in the 75th regiment on 
22 Nov. 1800, and was promoted lieutenant 
into the 62nd on 27 June 1802, and captain 
into the 78th, or Rosshire Buffs, on 17 April 
1804. He accompanied the 2nd battalion of 
this regiment to Sicily in 1806, and was 
wounded at the battle of Maida in the same 
year. In 1807 his battalion formed part of 
General Mackenzie Fraser's expedition to 
Egypt, and Dick was wounded again at Ro- 
setta. He was appointed major on 24 April 
1808, and exchanged into the 42nd High- 
landers (the Black Watch) on 14 July in that 
year. In June 1809 he accompanied the 
2nd battalion of his regiment to Portugal, 
and was soon after selected to command a 
light battalion of detachments, which he did 
efficiently, at the battle of Busaco, in the 
lines of Torres Vedras, in the pursuit after 
Massena, and at the battle of Fuentes de 
Onoro. He then returned to regimental duty, 
and acted as senior major of the 42nd, 2nd 
battalion, at the assault of Ciudad Rodrigo, 
and in command of the 1st battalion at the 
battle of Salamanca and in the attacks upon 
Burgos and the retreat from that city. For 
these services he was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel by brevet on 8 Oct. 1812. He then 
returned to the majority of the 2nd bat- 
talion, which he held till the end of the 
Peninsular war, when he was made a C.B. 
At the peace of 1814 the 2nd battalion of the 
42nd was disbanded, and Dick accompanied 
the only battalion left to Flanders, as senior 
major, in 1815. At Quatre Bras the 42nd 
bore the brunt of the engagement, and when 
Sir Robert Macara, K.C.B., the lieutenant- 
colonel, was killed, Dick, though severely 
wounded in the hip and the left shoulder, 
brought them out of action. He was neverthe- 
less present at the battle of Waterloo, and his 
commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 42nd 
was antedated to the day of that great battle, 
as a reward for his valour. He was pro- 
moted colonel on 27 May 1825, and soon 
after went on half-pay, and retired to his 
seat at Tullimet, which he had inherited on 
his father's death. In 1832 he was made a 
K.C.H., and on 10 Jan. 1837 was promoted 
major-general, and in 1838, in the honours con- 
ferred on the occasion of the queen's corona- 
tion, he was made a K.C.B. He now applied 
for employment on the general staff, and in 
December 1838 he was appointed to command 
the centre division of the Madras army, and 
as senior-general in the presidency he assumed 
the command-in-chief at Madras on the 
sudden death of Sir S. F. Whittingham in 
January 1841. This temporary post Dick 
VOL. xv. 



held for nearly two years, until September 
1842, when the Marquis of Tweeddale went 
out as governor and commander-in-chief to 
Madras. As it was thought undesirable to 
i send the general back to a divisional com- 
mand, he was transferred to the staff of the 
; Bengal army. He at first took command of 
the division on the north-west frontier; but 
j his sturdy independence in holding his own 
1 opinion as to an expected mutiny in certain 
of the regiments led to his removal by the 
governor-general, Lord Ellenborough, to the 
presidency division. He at once sent in his 
, resignation to the Horse Guards, but the 
I authorities refused to receive it. His old 
j comrade, Sir Henry Hardinge, went out as 
I governor-general, and the commander-in- 
! chief, Sir Hugh Gough, gave him the com- 
mand of the Cawnpore division. From this 
! post he was summoned by Sir Hugh Gough 
| in January 1846 to take command of the 
3rd infantry division of the army in the field 
against the Sikhs, in the place of Major-general 
Sir John M'Caskill, K.O.B., who had been 
killed at the battle of Moodkee in the pre- 
vious December. Dick had thus lost the 
opportunity of being present at the first two 
important battles of the first Sikh war ; but 
he played a leading part in the third and 
crowning victory of Sobraon. On the morn- 
ing of 10 Feb. 1846 Sir Hugh Gough deter- 
mined to attack the strong entrenchments of 
the Khalsa army, and Dick's division was 
ordered to head the assault. At four A.M. 
his men advanced to a ravine about a thousand 
yards from the Sikh entrenchments, and lay 
down while the English artillery played upon 
the enemy over their heads. By nine A.M. 
sufficient damage had been done for the in- 
fantry to charge, and Dick led his first bri- 
gade into the Sikh entrenchments. When 
it had effected a lodgment he returned to 
lead his second brigade, headed by the 80th 
regiment. While leading this brigade from 
battery to battery, taking them in flank, Dick 
was struck down by one of the last shots 
fired during the day, and only survived until 
six o'clock on the same evening. His funeral 
the next day at Ferozepore was attended by 
the whole army, and Lord Gough thus speaks 
of him in his despatch announcing the vic- 
tory of Sobraon : 1 1 have especially to lament 
the fall of Major-general Sir Robert Dick, 
K.C.B., a gallant veteran of the Peninsular 
and Waterloo campaigns. He survived only 
till the evening the dangerous grapeshot 
wound, which he received close to the enemy's 
entrenchments whilst personally animating, 
by his dauntless example, the soldiers of her 
majesty's 80th regiment in their career of 
noble daring.' 

C 



Dick 



18 



Dick 



[Gent. Mag. May 1846 ; Eoyal Military Calen- 
dar; Colburn's United Service Magazine, June 
1846, for his dispute with Lord Ellenborough, 
and Lord G-ough's Despatch for the battle of 
Sobraon ; information contributed by General 
Sir H. Bates.] H. M. S. 

DICK, THOMAS (1774-1857), scientific 
writer, was born in the -Hilltown, Dundee, 
on 24 Nov. 1774. He was brought up in 
the strict tenets of the Secession church, 
of Scotland, and his father, Mungo Dick, a 
small linen manufacturer, designed him for 
his own trade. But the appearance of a 
brilliant meteor impressed him, when in his 
ninth year, with a passion for astronomy ; 
he read, sometimes even when seated at the 
loom, every book on the subject within his 
reach ; begged or bought some pairs of old 
spectacles, contrived a machine for grinding 
them to the proper shape, and, having mounted 
them in pasteboard tubes, began celestial ob- 
servations. His parents, at first afflicted by 
his eccentricities, left him at sixteen to choose 
his own way of life. He became assistant in 
a school at Dundee, and in 1794 entered the 
university of Edinburgh, supporting himself 
by private tuition. His philosophical and 
theological studies terminated, he set up a 
school, took out a license to preach in 1801, 
and officiated as probationer during some 
years at Stirling and elsewhere. An invita- 
tion from the patrons to act as teacher in the 
Secession school at Methven led to a ten 
years' residence there, distinguished by efforts 
on his part towards popular improvement, 
including a zealous promotion of the study 
of science, the foundation of a ' people's li- 
brary,' and of what was substantially a mecha- 
nics' institute. Under the name of t Literary 
and Philosophical Societies, adapted to the 
middling and lower ranks of the community,' 
the extension of such establishments was 
recommended by him in five papers published 
in the ' Monthly Magazine ' in 1814 : and, a 
year or two later, a society was organised 
near London on the principles there laid 
down, of which he was elected an honorary 
member. 

On leaving Methven, Dick spent another 
decade as a teacher at Perth. During this 
interval he made his first independent ap- 
pearance as an author. 'The Christian Phi- 
losopher, or the Connexion of Science and 
Philosophy with Religion,' was published in 
1823. It ran quickly through several edi- 
tions, the eighth appearing at Glasgow in 
1842. Its success determined Dick's vocation 
to literature. He finally gave up school- 
teaching in 1827, and built himself a small 
cottage, fitted up with an observatory and 
library, on a hill overlooking the Tay at 



Broughty Ferry, near Dundee. Here he wrote 
a number of works, scientific, philosophical,, 
and religious, which, from their lucidity and 
unpretending style, acquired prompt and wide 
popularity both in this country and in the 
United States. Their author, however, made 
such loose bargains with his publishers, that 
he derived little profit from them, and his 
poverty was relieved in 1847 by a pension 
from the crown of 50J. a year, and by a local 
subscription, bringing in a further annual sum 
of 201. or 30/. He died, at the age of eighty- 
three, on 29 July 1857. An honorary degree 
of LL.D. was conferred upon him early in 
his literary career by Union College, New 
York, and he was admitted to the Royal As- 
tronomical Society 14 Jan. 1853. A paper 
on l Celestial Day Observations,' giving the 
results of a series of observations on stars 
and planets made during the daytime with 
a small equatoreal at Methven in 1812-13, 
was communicated by him in 1855 to the 
' Monthly Notices ' (xv. 222). He had writ- 
ten on the same subject forty-two years pre- 
viously in Nicholson's ' Journal of Natural 
Philosophy ' (xxxvi. 109). 

Among his works may be mentioned : 
1. 'The Mental Illumination and Moral Im- 
provement of Mankind,' New York, 1836, de- 
veloping a train of thought familiar to the 
writer during upwards of twenty-six years, 
and partially indicated in several contribu- 
tions to periodical literature. 2. ' Celestial 
Scenery, or the Wonders of the Heavens 
displayed,' London, 1837, New York, 1845. 
3. 'The Sidereal Heavens, and other subjects 
connected with Astronomy,' London,1840 and 
1850, New York, 1844 (with portrait of au- 
thor), presenting arguments for the plurality 
of worlds. 4. * The Practical Astronomer,' 
London, 1845, giving plain descriptions and 
instructions for the use of astronomical in- 
struments ; besides several small volumes 
published by the Religious Tract Society on 
' The Telescope and Microscope,' ' The At- 
mosphere and Atmospherical Phenomena,' 
and ' The Solar System.' Several of the 
above works were translated into Welsh. 
Dick edited the first three volumes of the 
' Educational Magazine and Journal of Chris- 
tian Philanthropy,' published in London in 
1835-6. 

[R. Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen (Thomson's 
ed. 1868); Monthly Notices, xviii. 98; Athe- 
naeum, 1857, p. 1008; Eoy. Soc. Cat. of Scientific 
Papers.] A. M. C. 

DICK, SIR WILLIAM (1680 P-1655), 
provost of Edinburgh, was the only son of 
John Dick, a large proprietor in the Ork- 
neys, who had acquired considerable wealth 
by trading with Denmark, and becoming a 



Dick 



Dick 



favourite of James VI, had taken up his resi- 
dence in his later years in Edinburgh. The 
son in 1618 advanced 6,000/. to defray the 
household expenses of James VI when he held 
<i parliament in Scotland in 1618. Through 
his influence with the government he greatly 
increased his wealth by farming the customs 
;and excise ; he extended the trade of the Firth 
of Forth with the Baltic and Mediterranean 
ports, and he had a lucrative business in ne- 
gotiating bills of exchange. Besides his ex- 
tensive estates in the Orkneys, he acquired 
several properties in the south of Scotland, 
including in 1631 the barony of Braid in 
Midlothian. He was elected lord provost of 
Edinburgh in the critical years 1638-9, and 
was a zealous covenanter. His fortune about 
this time was estimated at 200,000 /., and the 
Scottish estates were chiefly indebted to his 
advances for the support of the army to main- 
tain the cause of the covenant. For the equip- 
ment of the forces of Montrose, despatched to 
the north of Scotland in 1639, he advanced two 
hundred thousand merks, and he was equally 
liberal in his advances for the southern army 
under Leslie. Sir Walter Scott, in the ' Heart of 
Midlothian/represents David Deans as affirm- 
ing that his ' father saw them toom the sacks 
of dollars out o' Provost Dick's window in- 
till the carts that carried them to the army 
at Dunse Law.' When Charles I visited Scot- 
land in 1641, a hundred thousand merks were 
borrowed from Dick to defray the expenses, 
for which he obtained security on the king's 
revenue. In the following January he re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood, and shortly 
afterwards he was created a baronet of Nova 
Scotia. On 19 June 1644 he presented a 
petition to the estates desiring payment of 
a portion of the sum of 840,000 merks then 
due to him, expressing his willingness to 
take the remainder by instalments (BAL- 
FOUR, Annals, iii. 189), and after the matter 
had been under consideration for some time 
by a committee, the parliament assigned him 
40,OOOZ. sterling, ' owing of the brotherly as- 
sistance by the parliament of England,' and 
ordained him to have real execution upon his 
bond of two hundred thousand merks, in addi- 
tion to which they assigned him the excise of 
Orkney and Shetland, and also of the tobacco 
(ib. 291). These resolutions seem, however, to 
have had no practical effect, and in Decem- 
ber he again entreated them to ' take some 
serious notice of the debts owing to him by 
the public ' (id. 329). On 31 Jan. 1646 he was 
chosen one of the committee of estates as re- 
presenting Edinburgh. When the lord pro- 
vost of Edinburgh and several eminent citi- 
zens paid a visit to Cromwell at Moray 
House in October 1645, 'Old Sir William 



Dick in name of the rest made a great ora- 
tion ' (RUSHWORTH, Historical Collection, pt. 
iv. p. 1295). He advanced 20,000/. for the 
service of Charles II in 1-650, and he was 
one of the committee of estates during the 
war with Cromwell. By the parliamentary 
party he was therefore treated as a malig- 
nant, and subjected to heavy fines, amount- 
ing in all to 64,934^. Being reduced almost 
to indigence, he went to London to obtain 
payment of the moneys lent by him on go- 
vernment security, the total of which then 
amounted to 160,8547. (Lamentable State of 
Sir William Dick). His petition of 1 March 
1653 was referred to the Irish and Scotch 
committee (State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1652- 
1653, p. 196), and a second petition of 3 July 
to the committee at Haberdashers' Hall (ib. 
376), the result being that all he ever re- 
ceived was 1,000/. in August of that year. 
Continuing his residence in London to pro- 
secute his claims, he was more than once 
imprisoned for small debts. The common 
statement that he was thrown into prison 
by Cromwell is, however, erroneous, as is 
also the further assertion that he died in 
prison. His death took place at his lodg- 
ings in Westminster, 19 Dec. 1655, aged 75. 
Such were the straits to which he had been 
reduced, that money could not be raised 
sufficient to give him a decent funeral. The 
house of Sir William Dick in Edinburgh was 
situated in High Street, between Byre's and 
Advocates' Closes, and was subsequently oc- 
cupied by the Earl of Kintore. By his wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Morrison of 
Preston Grange and Saughton Hall, he had 
five sons and two daughters. His fourth 
son, Alexander, was father of James Dick, 
created a Nova Scotia baronet in 1677, M.P. 
for Edinburgh 1681-2, provost of Edinburgh 
1682-3, and a favourite of the Duke of York. 
He died in 1728, aged 85. By his wife, Anne 
Paterson, he had a daughter, Janet, married 
to Sir William Cunyngham, whose sons as- 
sumed the name of Dick [see DICK, ALEX- 
ANDER, and DICK, ANNE, LADY]. 

[The Lamentable Estate and Distressed Case 
of Sir William Dick, published in 1657, contains 
the petition of his family and other papers, the 
originals of which are included in the Lauder- 
dale Papers, Addit. MS. 23113. His case is set 
forth in verse as well as in prose, and is patheti- 
cally illustrated by three copperplates, one re- 
presenting him on horseback superintending the 
unloading of one of his rich argosies, the second 
as fettered in prison, and the third as lying in his 
coffin surrounded by disconsolate friends who 
do not know how to* dispose of the body. The 
tract, of which there is a copy in the British 
1 Museum, is much valued by collectors, and has 
I been sold for 521. 10s. ; Acts of the Parliament 

c2 



Dickens 



20 



Dickens 



of Scotland ; Balfour's Annals ; Spalding's Me- 
morials ; Gordon's Scots Affairs ; State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. 1652-3 ; Douglas's Baronage of Scot- 
land, i. 269-70 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 
457.] T. F. H. 

DICKENS, CHARLES (1812-1870), 
novelist, was born 7 Feb. 1812 at 387 Mile 
End Terrace, Commercial Road, Landport, 
Portsea. His father, John Dickens, a clerk 
in the navy pay office, with a salary of 80/. 
a year, was then stationed in the Portsmouth 
dockyard. The wife of the first Lord Hough- 
ton told Mr. Wemyss Reid that Mrs. Dickens, 
mother of John, was housekeeper at Crewe, 
and famous for her powers of story-telling 
(WEMYSS REID, in Daily News, 8 Oct. 1887). 
John Dickens had eight children by his wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Barrow, a lieu- 
tenant in the navy. The eldest,Fanny ,was born 
in 1810. Charles, the second,, was christened 
Charles John Huffam (erroneously entered 
Huffham in the register), but dropped the last 
two names. Charles Dickens remembered the 
little garden of the house at Portsea, though his 
father was recalled to London when he was 
only two years old. In 1816 (probably) the 
family moved to Chatham. Dickens was small 
and sickly; he amused himself by reading and 
by watching the games of other boys. His 
mother taught him his letters, and he pored 
over a small collection of books belonging to 
his father. Among them were ' Tom Jones,' 
the 'Vicar of Wakefield,' 'Don Quixote,' 
1 Gil Bias,' and especially Smollett's novels, 
by which he was deeply impressed. He wrote 
an infantine tragedy called ' Misnar,' founded 
on the ' Tales of the Genii.' James Lamert, 
the stepson of his mother's eldest sister, Mary 
(whose second husband was Dr. Lamert, an 
army surgeon at Chatham), had a taste for 
private theatricals. Lamert took Dickens to 
the theatre, in which the child greatly de- 
lighted. John Dickens's salary was raised to 
200/. in 1819, and to 350/. in 1820, at which 
amount it remained until he left the service, 
9 March 1825. It was, however, made in- 
sufficient by his careless habits, and in 1821 
he left his first house, 2 (now 11) Ordnance 
Terrace, for a smaller house, 18 St. Mary's 
Place, next to a baptist chapel. Dickens was 
then sent to school with the minister, Mr. 
Giles (see LANGTON, Childhood of Dickens}. 
In the winter of 1822-3 his father was re- 
called to Somerset House, and settled in 
Bayham Street, Camden Town, whither his 
son followed in the spring. John Dickens, 
whose character is more or less represented 
by Micawber, was now in difficulties, and 
had to make a composition with his creditors. 
He was (as Dickens emphatically stated) a 
very affectionate father, and took a pride in 



his son's precocious talents. Yet at this time 
(according to the same statement) he was en- 
tirely forgetful of the son's claims to a decent 
education. In spite of the family difficulties, 
the eldest child, Fanny, was sent as a pupil 
to the Royal Academy of Music, but Charles 
was left to black his father's boots, look after 
the younger children, and do small errands. 
Lamert made a little theatre for the child's 
amusement. His mother's elder brother, 
Thomas Barrow, and a godfather took notice 
of him occasionally. The uncle lodged in 
the upper floor of a house in which a book- 
selling business was carried on, and the pro- 
prietress lent the child some books. His lite- 
rary tastes were kept alive, and he tried his 
j hand at writing a description of the uncle's 
| barber. His mother now made an attempt 
j to retrieve the family fortunes by taking a 
house, 4 Gower Street North, where a brass 
! plate announced ' Mrs. Dickens's establish- 
ment,' but failed to attract any pupils. The 
father was at last arrested and carried to 
the Marshalsea, long afterwards described in 
'Little Dorrit.' (Mr. Langton thinks that 
the prison was the king's bench, where, as 
he says, there was a prisoner named Dorrett 
in 1824.) All the books and furniture went 
gradually to the pawnbroker's. James Lamert 
had become manager of a blacking warehouse,, 
and obtained a place for Dickens at 6s. or 7s. 
a week in the office at Hungerford Stairs. 
Dickens was treated as a mere drudge, and 
employed in making up parcels. He came 
home at night to the dismantled house in 
Gower Street till the family followed the 
father to the Marshalsea, and" then lodged in 
Camden Town with a reduced old lady, a 
Mrs. Roylance, the original of Mrs. Pipchin 
in l Dombey and Son.' Another lodging was 
found for him near the prison with a family 
which is represented by the Garlands in his 
' Old Curiosity Shop.' The Dickenses were 
rather better off in prison than they had been 
previously. The maid-of-all-work who fol- 
lowed them from Bayham Street became the 
Marchioness of the ' Old Curiosity Shop.' 
The elder Dickens at last took the benefit of 
the Insolvent Debtors Act, and moved first 
to Mrs. Roylance's house, and then to a house 
in Somers Town. Dickens's amazing faculty 
of observation is proved by the use made in 
his novels of all that he now saw, especially 
in the prison scenes of ' Pickwick ' and in the 
earlier part of ' David Copperfield.' That he 
suffered acutely is proved by the singular 
bitterness shown in his own narrative printed 
by Forster. He felt himself degraded by his 
occupation. When his sister won a prize at 
the Royal Academy, he was deeply humiliated 
by the contrast of his own position, though 




Dickens 



Dickens 



Jf <Picl 



le of envying her success. This was 
.atxmt April 1824. 

The family circumstances improved. The 
elder Dickens had received a legacy which 
helped to clear off his debts ; he had a pen- 
sion, and after some time he obtained em- 
ployment as reporter to the ' Morning Chroni- 
cle.' About 1824 Dickens was sent to a 
school kept by a Mr. Jones in the Hampstead 
Road, and called the Wellington House Aca- 
demy. His health improved. His school- 
fellows remembered him as a handsome lad, 
overflowing with animal spirits, writing 
stories, getting up little theatrical perform- 
ances, and fond of harmless practical jokes, 
but not distinguishing himself as a scholar. 
After two years at this school, Dickens went 
to another kept by a Mr. Dawson in Hen- 
rietta Street, Brunswick Square. He then 
became clerk in the office of Mr. Molloy in 
New Square, Lincoln's Inn, and soon after- 
wards (from May 1827 to November 1828) 
clerk in the office of Mr. Edward Blackmore, 
attorney, of Gray's Inn. His salary with 
Mr. Blackmore rose from 13s. 6d. to 15s. a 
week. Dickens's energy had only been stimu- 
lated by the hardships through which he had 
passed. He was determined to force his way 
upwards. He endeavoured to supplement 
his scanty education by reading at the British 
Museum, and he studied shorthand writing 
In the fashion described in ' David Copper- 
field.' Copperfield's youthful passion for 
Dora reflects a passion of the same kind in 
Dickens's own career, which, though hopeless, 
stimulated his ambition. He became re- 
markably expert in shorthand, and after two 
years' reporting in the Doctors' Commons and 
other courts, he entered the gallery of the 
House of Commons as reporter to the ( True 
Sun.' He was spokesman for the reporters 
in a successful strike. For two sessions 
he reported for the ' Mirror of Parliament/ 
started by a maternal uncle, and in the session 
of 1835 became reporter for the ' Morning 
Chronicle.' While still reporting at Doctors' 
Commons he had thoughts of becoming an 
actor. He made an application to George 
Bartley [q. v.], manager at Covent Garden, 
which seems to have only missed acceptance 
ly an accident, and took great pains to prac- 
tise the art. He finally abandoned this scheme 
on obtaining his appointment on the ' Morn- 
Ing Chronicle' (FORSTER, ii. 179). His powers 
were rapidly developed by the requirements 
of his occupation. He was, as he says (Let- 
ters, i. 438), 'the best and most rapid re- 
porter ever known.' He had to hurry to and 
from country meetings, by coach and post- 
chaise, encountering all the adventures in- 
cident to travelling in the days before rail- 



roads, making arrangements for forwr write 
reports, and attracting the notice^of P receiv 
ployer's by his skill, resource,^and ensyrigb 
John Black [q. v.], the editor, became a wai^Ni 
friend, and was, he says, his ' first hearty out- 



and-out appreciator.' 
He soon besra 



gan to write in the periodicals. 
The appearance of his first article, ' A Dinner 
at Poplar Walk ' (reprinted as ' Mr. Minns 
and his Cousin '), in the * Monthly Magazine ' 
for December 1833, filled him with exulta- 
tion. Nine others followed till February 
1835. The paper in August 1834 first bore 
the signature ' Boz.' It was the pet name of his 
youngest brother, Augustus, called ' Moses,' 
after the boy in the ' Vicar of Wakefield/ 
which was corrupted into Boses and Boz. 
An ' Evening Chronicle,' as an appendix to 
the ' Morning Chronicle,' was started in 1835 
under the management of George Hogarth, 
formerly a friend of Scott. The * Monthly 
Magazine ' was unable to pay for the sketches, 
and Dickens now offered to continue his 
sketches in the new venture. His offer wa& 
accepted, and his salary raised from five to 
seven guineas a week. In the spring of 
1836 the collected papers were published as 
' Sketches by Boz,' with illustrations by Cruik- 
shank, the copyright being bought for 150/. 
by a publisher named Macrone. On 2 April 
1836 Dickens married Catherine, eldest daugh- 
ter of Hogarth, his colleague on the * Morn- 
ing Chronicle.' He had just begun the ' Pick- 
wick Papers.' The ' Sketches,' in which it 
is now easy to see the indications of future 
success, had attracted some notice in their ori- 
ginal form. Albany Fonblanque had warmly 
praised them, and publishers heard of the 
young writer. Messrs. Chapman & Hall, 
then beginning business, had published a 
book called The Squib Annual' in November 
1835, with illustrations by Seymour. Sey- 
mour was anxious to produce a series of 
' cockney sporting plates.' Chapman & HXll 
thought that it might answer to punish 
such a series in monthly parts accompanied 
by letterpress. Hall applied to Dickens, 
suggesting the invention of a Nimroa Club, 
the members of which should get in\x> comic 
difficulties suitable for Seymour's illustra- 
tions. Dickens, wishing for a freer hand, 
and having no special knowledge of sport, 
substituted the -less restricted scheme of the 
Pickwick Club, and wrote the first number, 
:br which Seymour drew the illustrations. 
The first two or three numbers excited less 
attention than the collected ' Sketches/ which 
aad just appeared. Seymour killed himself 
Before the appearance of the second number. 
Robert William Buss [q. v.] illustrated the 
third number. Thackeray, then an unknow 



of Sco' 



Dickens 



1 



22 



Dickens 



orip \, applied to Dickens for the post of ilius- 
i < "?'. - : but Dickens finally chose Hablot 



Browne [q. v.], who illustrated the 
* < urth and all the subsequent numbers, as 
well as many of the later novels. 

The success of ' Pickwick ' soon became ex- 
traordinary. The binder prepared four hun- 
dred copies of the first number, and forty 
thousand of the fifteenth. The marked suc- 
cess began with the appearance of Sam Wel- 
ler in the fifth number. Sam Weller is in 
fact the incarnation of the qualities to which 
the success was due. Educated like his 
creator in the streets of London, he is the 

- ideal cockney. His exuberant animal spirits, 
humorous shrewdness, and kindliness under 
a mask of broad farce, made him the fa- 
vourite of all cockneys in and out of Lon- 
don, and took the grayest readers by storm. 
All that Dickens had learnt in his rough 
initiation into life, with a power of observa- 
tion unequalled in its way, was poured out 
witlt boundless vivacity and prodigality of 
invention. The book, beginning as farce, 
became admirable comedy, and has caused 
more hearty and harmless laughter than any 
book in the language. If Dickens's later works 
surpassed ' Pickwick ' in some ways, l Pick- 
wick ' shows, in their highest development, the 
qualities in which he most surpassed other 
writers. Sam Weller's peculiar trick of speech 

- has been traced with probability to Samuel 
Vale, a popular comic actor, who in 1822 
performed Simon Spatterdash in a farce called 
' The Boarding House/ and gave currency to 
a similar phraseology {Notes and Queries, 6th 
ser. v. 388 ; and Origin of Sam Weller, with 
a facsimile of a contemporary piratical imita- 
tion of 'Pickwick/ 1883). 

Dickens was now a prize for which pub- 
lishers might contend. In the next few years 
he undertook a great deal of work, with con- 
fidence natural to a buoyant temperament, 
'encouraged by unprecedented success, and 
achieved new triumphs without permitting 
himself to fall into slovenly composition. 
Each new book was at least as carefully 
written as its predecessor. ' Pickwick ' ap- 
peared from April 1836 to November 1837. 
4 Oliver Twist ' began, while ' Pickwick ' was 
still proceeding, in January 1837, and ran till 
March 1839. ' Nicholas Nickleby ' overlapped 
' Oliver Twist/ beginning in April 1838 and 
ending in October 1839. In February 1838 
Dickens went to Yorkshire to look at the 
schools caricatured in Dotheboys Hall (for 
the original of Dotheboys Hall see Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. vi. 245, and 5th ser. iii. 325). 
A short pause followed. Dickens had thought 
of a series of papers, more or less on the 
model of the old f Spectator/ in which there 



this time 



was to be a club, including the 
varied essays satirical and descriptive, 
occasional stories. The essays were to appear 
weekly, and for the whole he finally selected 
the title ' Master Humphrey's Clock.' The 
plan was carried out with modifications. It 
appeared at once that the stories were the 
popular part of the series ; the club and the 
intercalated essay disappeared, and ' Master 
Humphrey's Clock' resolved itself into the 
two stories, ' The Old Curiosity Shop ' and 
< Barnaby Rudge.' During 1840 and 1841 
' Oliver Twist ' seems to have been at first 
less popular than its fellow-stories ; but ' Ni- 
cholas Nickleby ' surpassed even ' Pickwick/ 
Sydney Smith on reading it confessed that 
Dickens had ' conquered him/ though he had - 
1 stood out as long as he could.' * Master 
Humphrey's Clock' began with a sale of 
seventy thousand copies, which declined when 
there was no indication of a continuous story, 
but afterwards revived. The * Old Curiosity 
Shop/ as republished, made an extraordinary 
success. ' Barnaby Rudge ' has apparently 
never been equally popular. 

The exuberant animal spirits, and the amaz- 
ing fertility in creating comic types, which 
made the fortune of ' Pickwick/ were now 
combined with a more continuous story. The 
ridicule of ' Bumbledom ' in < Oliver Twist/ 
and of Yorkshire schools in i Nicholas Nick- 
leby/ showed the power of satirical portrai- 
ture already displayed in the prison scenes 
of 'Pickwick.' The humorist is not yet 
lost in the satirist, and the extravagance of- 
the caricature is justified by its irresistible 
fun. Dickens was also showing the command 
of the pathetic which fascinated the ordinary - 
reader. The critic is apt to complain that 
Dickens kills his children as if he liked it, 
and makes his victims attitudinise before the 
footlights. Yet Landor, a severe critic, thought 
1 Little Nell ' equal to any character in fiction, 
and Jeffrey, the despiser of sentimentalism, 
declared that there had been nothing so good 
since Cordelia (FORSTER, i. 177, 226). Dickens 
had written with sincere feeling, and with 
thoughts of Mary Hogarth, his wife's sister, 
whose death in 1837 had profoundly affected 
him, and forced him to suspend the publica- 
tion of ' Pickwick ' (no number was published 
in June 1837). When we take into account 
the command of the horrible shown by the 
murder in ' Oliver Twist/ and the unvary- 
ing vivacity and brilliance of style, the se- 
cret of Dickens's hold upon his readers is 
tolerably clear. l Barnaby Rudge ' is remark- 
able as an attempt at the historical novel, 
repeated only in his ' Tale of Two Cities ; ' 
but Dickens takes little pains to give genuine 
local colour, and appears to have regarded the 



Dickens 



Dickens 



eighteenth century chiefly as the reign of 
Jack Ketch. 

Dickens's fame had attracted acquaintances, 
many of whom were converted by his ge- 
nial qualities into fast friends. In March 
1837 he moved from the chambers in Furni- 
val's Inn, which he had occupied for some 
time previous to his marriage, to 48 Doughty 
Street, and towards the end of 1839 he moved 
to a * handsome house with a considerable 
garden ' in Devonshire Terrace, facing York 
Gate, Regent's Park. He spent summer holi- 
days at Broadstairs, always a favourite water- 
ing-place, Twickenham, and Petersham, and 
in the summer of 1841 made an excursion 
in Scotland, received the freedom of Edin- 
burgh, and was welcomed at a public dinner 
where Jeffrey took the chair and his health 
was proposed by Christopher North. He was 
at this time fond of long rides, and delighted 
in boyish games. His buoyant spirit and 
hearty good-nature made himacharminghost 
and guest at social gatherings of all kinds 
except the formal. He speedily became 
known to most of his literary contemporaries, 
such as Landor (whom he visited at Bath in 
1841), Talfourd, Procter, Douglas Jerrold, 
Harrison Ainsworth, Wilkie, and Edwin 
Landseer. His closest intimates were Mac- 
ready, Maclise, Stanfield, and John Forster. 
Forster had seen him at the office of the I 
* True Sun,' and had afterwards met him at 
the house of Harrison Ainsworth. They had j 
become intimate at the time of Mary Ho- | 
garth's death, when Forster visited him, on ' 
his temporary retirement, at Hampstead. 
Forster, whom he afterwards chose as his 
biographer, was serviceable both by reading 
his works before publication and by helping 
his business arrangements. 

Dickens made at starting some rash agree- 
ments. Chapman & Hall had given him 
151. 15s. a number for ' Pickwick/ with ad- 
ditional payments dependent upon the sale. 
He received, Forster thinks, 2,500/. on the 
whole. He had also, with Chapman & Hall, 
rebought for 2,000/. in 1837 the copyright of 
the ' Sketches ' sold to Macrone in 1831 for 
150/. The success of ' Pickwick ' had raised 
the value of the book, and Macrone proposed 
to reissue it simultaneously with ' Pickwick ' 
and ' Oliver Twist.' Dickens thought that 
this superabundance would be injurious to his 
reputation, and naturally considered Macrone 
to be extortionate. When, however, Macrone 
died, two years later, Dickens edited the 
1 Pic-Nic Papers ' (1841) for the benefit of 
the widow, contributing the preface and a 
story, which was made out of his farce l The 
Lamplighter.' In November 1837 Chapman 
& Hall agreed that he should have a share 



after five years in the copyright of ' Pick- 
wick,' on condition that he should write a 
similar book, for which he was to receive 
3,000/., besides having the whole copyright 
after five years. Upon the success of ' Ni- 
cholas Nickleby,' written in fulfilment of this 
agreement, the publishers paid him an addi- 
tional 1,5001. in consideration of a further 
agreement, carried out by * Master Hum- 
phrey's Clock.' Dickens was to receive 50/. 
for each weekly number, and to have half the 
profits ; the copyright to be equally shared 
after five years. He had meanwhile agreed 
with Richard Bentley (1794-1871) [q. v.] 
(22 Aug. 1836) to edit a new magazine from 
January 1837, to which he was to supply a 
story ; and had further agreed to write two 
other stories for the same publisher. * Oliver 
Twist' appeared in ' Bentley's Miscellany' 
in accordance with the first agreement, and, 
on the conclusion of the story, he handed over 
the editorship to Harrison Ainsworth. In 
September 1837, after >some misunderstand- 
ings, it was agreed to abandon one of the 
novels promised to Bentley, Dickens under- 
taking to finish the other, ' Barnaby Rudge/ 
by November 1838. In June 1840 Dickens 
bought the copyright of ' Oliver Twist ' from 
Bentley for 2,250/., and the agreement for 
'Barnaby Rudge' was cancelled. Dickens 
then sold ' Barnaby Rudge ' to Chapman & 
Hall, receiving 3,000/. for the use of the copy- 
right until six months after the publication 
of the last number. The close of this series 
of agreements freed him from conflicting and 
harassing responsibilities. 

The weekly appearance of ' Master Hum- 
phrey's Clock 7 had imposed a severe strain. He 
agreed in August 1841 to write a new novel 
in the ' Pickwick ' form, for which he was to 
receive 200/. a month for twenty numbers, 
besides three-fourths of the profits. He stipu- 
lated, however, in order to secure the much- 
needed rest, that it should not begin until 
November 1842. During the previous twelve 
months he was to receive 150/. a month, to 
be deducted from his share of the profits. 
When first planning 'Master Humphrey's 
Clock ' he had talked of visiting America to 
obtain materials for descriptive papers. The 
publication of the ' Old Curiosity Shop ' had 
brought him a letter from Washington Ir- ' 
ving ; his fame had spread beyond the At- 
lantic, and he resolved to spend part of the 
interval before his next book in the United 
States. He had a severe illness in the autumn 
of 1841 ; he had to undergo a surgical opera- 
tion, and was saddened by the sudden death 
of his wife's brother and mother. He sailed 
from Liverpool 4 Jan. 1842. He reached 
Boston on 21 Jan. 1842, and travelled by 



Dickens 



Dickens 



New York and Philadelphia to Washington 
and Richmond. Returning to Baltimore, he 
started for the west, and went by Pittsburg 
and Cincinnati to St. Louis. He returned 
to Cincinnati, and by the end of April was j 
at the falls of Niagara. He spent a month i 
in Canada, performing in some private thea- 
tricals at Montreal, and sailed for England 
about the end of May. The Americans re- j 
ceived him with an enthusiasm which was 
at times overpowering, but which was soon 
mixed with less agreeable feelings. Dickens i 
had come prepared to advocate international 
copyright, though he emphatically denied, in 
answer to an article by James Spedding in 
the * Edinburgh Review ' for January 1843, 
that he had gone as a ' missionary ' in that 
cause. His speeches on this subject met with 
little response, and the general opinion was in 
favour of continuing to steal. As a staunch 
abolitionist he was shocked by the sight of 
slavery, and disgusted by the general desire in 
the free states to suppress any discussion of 
the dangerous topic. To the average English- 
man the problem seemed a simple question 
of elementary morality. Dickens's judgment 
of America was in fact that of the average 
Englishman, whose radicalism increased his 
disappointment at the obvious weaknesses of 
the republic. He differed from ordinary ob- 
servers only in the decisiveness of his utter- 
ances and in the astonishing vivacity of his 
impressions. The Americans were still pro- 
vincial enough to fancy that the first impres- 
sions of a young novelist were really of im- 
portance. Their serious faults and the super- 
ficial roughness of the half-settled districts 
thoroughly disgusted him; and though he 
strove hard to do justice to their good quali- 
ties, it is clear that he returned disillusioned 
and heartily disliking the country. The 
feeling is still shown in his antipathy to the 
northern states during the war (Letters, ii. 
203, 240). In the ' American Notes,' pub- 
lished in October 1842, he wrote under 
constraint upon some topics, but gave careful 
accounts of the excellent institutions, which 
are the terror of the ordinary tourist in Ame- 
rica. Four large editions were sold by the 
end of the year, and the book produced a good 
deal of resentment. When Macready visited 
America in the autumn of 1843, Dickens 
refused to accompany him to Liverpool, 
thinking that the actor would be injured by 
any indications of friendship with the author 
of the ' Notes ' and of ' MaVtin Chuzzlewit.' 
The first of the twenty monthly numbers of 
this novel appeared in January 1843. The 
book shows Dickens at his highest power. 
Whether it has done much to enforce its 
intended moral, that selfishness is a bad thing, 



may be doubted. But the humour and the 
tragic power are undeniable. Pecksniff and 
Mrs. Gamp at once became recognised types 
of character, and the American scenes, re- 
vealing Dickens's real impressions, are perhaps 
the most surprising proof of his unequalled 
power of seizing characteristics at a glance. 
Yet for some reason the sale was compara- 
tively small, never exceeding twenty-three 
thousand copies, as against the seventy thou- 
sand of l Master Humphrey's Clock.' 

After Dickens's return to England, his 
sister- in-law,Miss Georgina Hogarth, became, 
as she remained till his death, an inmate of his 
household. He made an excursion to Corn- 
wall in the autumn of 1842 with Maclise, 
Stanfield, and Forster, in the highest spirits, 
' choking and gasping, and bursting the buckle 
off the back of his stock (with laughter) all 
the way.' He spent his summers chiefly at 
Broadstairs, and took a leading part in many 
social gatherings and dinners to his friends. 
He showed also a lively interest in bene- 
volent enterprises,especially in ragged schools. 
In this and similar work he was often as- 
sociated with Miss Coutts, afterwards Baro- 
ness Burdett-Coutts, and in later years he 
gave much time to the management of a 
house for fallen women established by her 
in Shepherd's Bush. He was always ready 
to throw himself heartily into any philan- 
thropical movement, and rather slow to see 
any possibility of honest objection. His im- 
patience of certain difficulties about the rag- 
ged schools raised by clergymen of the esta- 
blished church led him for a year or two to 
join the congregation of a Unitarian minister, 
Mr. Edward Tagart. For the rest of his life 
his sympathies, we are told, were chiefly with 
the church of England, as the least sectarian 
of religious bodies, and he seems to have held 
that every dissenting minister was a Stiggins. 
It is curious that the favourite author of the 
middle classes should have been so hostile to 
their favourite form of belief. 

The relatively small sale of ' Chuzzlewit ' 
led to difficulties with his publishers. The 
' Christmas Carol,' which appeared at Christ- 
mas 1843, was the first of five similar books 
which have been enormously popular, as 
none of his books give a more explicit state- 
ment of what he held to be the true gospel 
of the century. He was, however, greatly 
disappointed with the commercial results. 
Fifteen thousand copies were sold,and brought 
him only 726/., a result apparently due to 
the too costly form in which they were pub- 
lished. Dickens expressed a dissatisfaction, 
which resulted in a breach with Messrs. Chap- 
man & Hall and an agreement with Messrs. 
Bradbury & Evans, who were to advance 



Dickens 



Dickens 



2,800/. and have a fourth share of all his 
writings for the next eight years. Dickens's 
irritation under these worries stimulated his 
characteristic restlessness. He had many 
claims to satisfy. His family was rapidly 
increasing ; his fifth child was born at the 
beginning of 1844. Demands from more dis- 
tant relations were also frequent, and though 
he received what, for an author, was a very 
large income, he thought that he had worked 
chiefly for the enrichment of others. He also 
"felt the desire to obtain wider experience 
natural to one who had been drawing so freely 
upon his intellectual resources. He resolved, 
therefore, to economise and refresh his mind 
in Italy. 

Before starting he presided, in February 
1844, at the meetings of the Mechanics' In- 
stitution in Liverpool and the Polytechnic in 
Birmingham. He wrote some radical articles 
in the ' Morning Chronicle.' After the usual 
farewell dinner at Greenwich, where J. M. W. 
Turner attended and Lord Normanby took 
the chair, he started for Italy, reaching Mar- 
seilles 14 July 1844. On 16 July he settled 
in a villa at Albaro, a suburb of Genoa, and 
set to work learning Italian. He afterwards 
moved to the Peschiere Palace in Genoa. 
There, though missing his long night walks 
in London streets, he wrote the ' Chimes/ 
and came back to London to read it to his 
friends. He started 6 Nov., travelled through 
Northern Italy, and reached London at the 
end of the month. He read the ' Chimes ' at 
Forster's house to Carlyle, Stanfield, Maclise, 
Laman Blanchard, Douglas Jerrold, Fox, 
Harness, and Dyce. He then returned to 
Genoa. In the middle of January he started 
with his wife on a journey to Rome, Naples, 
and Florence. He returned to Genoa for two 
months, and then crossed to St. Gothard, and 
returned to England at the end of June 1845. 
On coming home he took up a scheme for a 
private theatrical performance, which had 
been started on the night of reading the 
* Chimes.' He threw himself into this with 
his usual vigour. Jonson's ' Every Man in 
his Humour' was performed on 21 Sept. at 
Fanny Kelly's theatre in Dean Street. Dickens 
took the part of Bobadil, Forster appear- 
ing as Kitely, Jerrold as Master Stephen, 
and Leech as Master Matthew. The play 
succeeded to admiration, and a public per- ! 
formance was afterwards given for a charity. | 
Dickens is said by Forster to have been a very 
vivid and versatile rather than a finished 
actor, but an inimitable manager. His con- \ 
tributions to the ' Morning Chronicle ' seem 
to have suggested his next undertaking, the 
only one in which he can be said to have de- ! 
cidedly failed. He became first editor of the ! 



i ' Daily News,' the first number of which ap- 
| peared 21 Jan. 1846. He had not the neces- 
sary qualifications for the function of editor 
of a political organ. On 9 Feb. he resigned 
his post, to which Forster succeeded for a 
time. He continued to contribute for about 
three months longer, publishing a series of. 
letters descriptive of his Italian journeys. 
His most remarkable contribution was a 
series of letters on capital punishment. (For 
the fullest account of his editorship see WAKD, 
pp. 68, 74.) He then gave up the connection, 
resolving to pass the next twelve months in 
Switzerland, and there to write another book 
on the old model. He left England on 31 May, 
having previously made a rather singular 
overture to government for an appointment 
to the paid magistracy of London, and hav- 
ing also taken a share in starting the General 
Theatrical Fund. He reached Lausanne 
11 June 1846, and took a house called Rose- 
mont. Here he enjoyed the scenery and sur- 
rounded himself with a circle of friends, some 
of whom became his intimates through life. 
He specially liked the Swiss people. He now 
began ' Dombey,' and worked at it vigorously, 
though feeling occasionally his oddly cha- 
racteristic craving for streets. The absence of 
streets ' worried him * in a most singular 
manner,' and he was harassed by having on 
hand both ' Dombey ' and his next Christmas 
book, 'The Battle of Life,' For a partial remedy 
of the first evil he made a short stay at Geneva 
at the end of September. The 'Battle of 
Life' was at last completed, and he was 
cheered by the success of the first numbers 
! of 'Dombey.' In November he started for 
! Paris, where he stayed for three months. He 
1 made a visit to London in December, when he 
arranged for a cheap issue of his writings, 
which began in the following year. He was 
finally brought back to England by an illness 
of his eldest son, then at King's College 
School. His house in Devonshire Terrace 
was still let to a tenant, and he did not re- 
turn there until September 1847. ' Dombey 
and Son ' had a brilliant success. The first 
five numbers, with the death, truly or falsely 
pathetic, of Paul Dombey, were among his 
most striking pieces of work, and the book 
has had great popularity, though it after- 
wards took him into the kind of social satire 
in which he was always least successful. For 
the first half-year he received nearly 3,000/., 
and henceforth his pecuniary affairs were pro- 
sperous and savings began. Hefound time dur- 
ing its completion for gratifying on a large 
scale his passion for theatrical performances. 
In 1847 a scheme was started for the benefit 
of Leigh Hunt. Dickens became manager of 
a company which performed Jonson's comedy 



Dickens 



Dickens 



at Manchester and Liverpool in July 1847, ' 
and added four hundred guineas to the benefit i 
fund. In 1848 it was proposed to buy Shake- 
speare's house at Stratford-on-Avon and to , 
endow a curatorship to be held by Sheridan j 
u . Knowles. Though this part of the scheme | 
rich dropped, the projected performances were 
bout gi ven f or Knowles's benefit. The l Merry j 
61 Wives of Windsor/ in which Dickens played j 
Shallow, Lemon Falstaff, and Forster Master 
3 Ford, was performed at Manchester, Liver- 
pool, Edinburgh, Birmingham, and Glasgow, 
the gross profits from nine nights being 2,55 1/, i 
In November 1850 ' Every Man in his Hu- j 
mour ' was again performed at Knebworth, j 
Lord Lytton's house. The scheme for a 'Guild j 
of Literature and Art ' was suggested at j 
Knebworth. In aid of the funds, a comedy by j 
Lytton, * Not so bad as we seem,' and a farce j 
by Dickens and Lemon, ' Mr. Nightingale's j 
Diary,' were performed at the Duke of Devon- 
shire's house in London (27 May 1851), when 
the queen and prince consort were present. 
Similar performances took place during 1851 
and 1852 at various towns, ending with Man- 
chester and Liverpool. A dinner, with Lyt- 
ton in the chair, at Manchester had a great 
success, and the guild was supposed to be 
effectually started. It ultimately broke down, 
though Dickens and Bulwer Lytton were en- 
thusiastic supporters. During this period 
Dickens had been exceedingly active. The 
' Haunted Man or Ghostly Bargain,' the 
idea of which had occurred to him at Lau- 
sanne, was now written and published with 
great success at Christmas 1848. He then 
began ' David Copperfield,' in many respects 
the most satisfactory of his novels, and espe- 
cially remarkable for the autobiographical 
element, which is conspicuous in so many suc- 
^essful fictions. It contains less of the purely 
farcical or of the satirical caricature than 
most of his novels, and shows his literary 
genius mellowed by age without loss of spon- 
taneous vigour. It appeared monthly from 
May 1849 to November 1850. The sale did 
not exceed twenty-five thousand copies ; but 
the book made its mark. He was now ac- 
_ cepted by the largest class of readers as the 
~ undoubted leader among English novelists. 
While it was proceeding he finally gave shape 
to apian long contemplated for a weekly jour- 
nal. It was announced at the close of 1849, 
when Mr. W. H. Wills was selected as sub- 
editor, and continued to work with him until 
compelled to retire by ill-health in 1868. 
After many difficulties, the felicitous name, 
* Household Words/ was at last selected, and 
the first number appeared 30 March 1849, 
with the beginning of a story by Mrs. Gas- 
kell. During the rest of his life Dickens 



gave much of his energy to this journal and 
its successor, 'All the Year Round.' He 
gathered many contributors, several of whom 
became intimate friends. He spared no pains 
in his editorial duty ; he frequently amended 
his contributors' work and occasionally in- 
serted passages of his own. He was singularly 
quick and generous in recognising and en- 
couraging talent in hitherto unknown writers. 
Many of the best of his minor essays appeared 
in its pages. Dickens's new relation to his 
readers helped to extend the extraordinary 
popularity which continued to increase dur- 
ing his life. On the other hand, the excessive 
strain which it involved soon began to tell 
seriously upon his strength. In 1848 he had 
been much grieved by the loss of his elder 
sister Fanny. On 31 March 1851 his father, 
for whom in 1839 he had taken a house in 
Exeter, died at Malvern. Dickens, after at- 
tending his father's death, returned to town 
and took the chair at the dinner of the Gene- 
ral Theatrical Fund 14 April 1851. After 
his speech he was told of the sudden death 
of his infant daughter, Dora Annie (born 
16 Aug. 1850). Dickens left Devonshire Ter- 
race soon afterwards, and moved into Tavi- 
stock House, Tavistock Square. Here, in 
November 1851, he began i Bleak House/ 
which was published from March 1852 to 
September 1853. It was followed by ' Hard 
Times/ which appeared in ' Household Words' 
between 1 April and 12 Aug. 1854 ; and by 
1 Little Dorrit/ which appeared in monthly 
numbers from January 1856 to June 1857. 
Forster thinks that the first evidences of 
excessive strain appeared during the compo- 
sition of l Bleak House.' ' The spring/ says 
Dickens, ' does not seem to fly back again 
directly, as it always did when I put my own 
work aside and had nothing else to do.' The 
old buoyancy of spirit is decreasing ; the hu- 
mour is often forced and the mannerism more 
strongly marked ; the satire against the court 
of chancery, the utilitarians, and the * cir- 
cumlocution office' is not relieved by the 
irresistible fun of the former caricatures, 
nor strengthened by additional insight. It 
is superficial without being good-humoured. 
Dickens never wrote carelessly; he threw 
his whole energy into every task which he 
undertook ; and the undeniable vigour of his 
books, the infallible instinct with which he 
gauged the taste of his readers, not less than 
his established reputation, gave him an in- 
creasing popularity. The sale of l Bleak 
House ' exceeded thirty thousand ; * Hard 
Times ' doubled the circulation of ' House- 
hold Words ; ' and ' Little Dorrit ' ' beat even 
" Bleak House" out of the field; ' thirty-five 
thousand copies of the second number were 



Dickens 



Dickens 



d. * Bleak House ' contained sketches of ' 
Landor as Lawrence Boythorn, and of Leigh I 
Hunt as Harold Skimpole. Dickens defended 
himself for the very unpleasant caricature i 
of Hunt in ' All the Year Round,' after Hunt's 
death. While Hunt was still living, Dickens 
had tried to console him by explaining 
away the likeness as confined to the flatter- 
ing part ; but it is impossible to deny that 
he gave serious ground of offence. During 
this period Dickens was showing signs of 
increasing restlessness. He sought relief from 
his labours at ' Bleak House ' by spending ! 
three months at Dover in the autumn of 1852. 
In the beginning of 1853 he received a tes- 
timonial at Birmingham, and undertook in 
return to give a public reading at Christmas 
on behalf of the New Midland Institute. He 
read two of his Christmas books and made a 
great success. He was induced, after some 
hesitation, to repeat the experiment several 
times in the next few years. The summer 
of 1853 was spent at Boulogne, and in the 
autumn he made a two months' tour through 
Switzerland and Italy, with Mr. Wilkie Col- 
lins and Augustus Egg. In 1854 and 1856 
he again spent summers at Boulogne, gaining 
materials for some very pleasant descriptions ; 
and from November 1855 to May 1856 he was 
^ at Paris, working at ' Little Dorrit.' Dur- 
ing 1855 he found time to take part in some 
political agitations. 

In March 1856 Dickens bought Gadshill 
Place. When a boy at Rochester he had 
conceived a childish aspiration to become its 
owner. On hearing that it was for sale in 
1855, he began negotiations for its purchase. 
He bought it with a view to occasional occu- 
pation, intending to let it in the intervals ; 
but he became attached to it, spent much 
money on improving it, and finally in 1860 
sold Tavistock House and made it his per- 
manent abode. He continued to improve it 
till the end of his life. 

In the winter of 1856-7 Dickens amused 
himself with private theatricals at Tavistock 
House, and after the death of Douglas Jer- 
rold (6 June 1857) got up a series of per- 
formances for the benefit of his friend's family, 
one of which was Mr. Wilkie Collins's ' Frozen 
Deep,' also performed at Tavistock House. 
For the same purpose he read the ' Christmas 
Carol ' at St. Martin's Hall (30 June 1857), 
with a success which led him to carry out a 
plan, already conceived, of giving public read- 
ings on his own account. He afterwards 
made an excursion with Mr. Wilkie Collins 
in the north of England, partly described in 
1 A Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices.' 

A growing restlessness and a craving for 
any form of distraction were connected with 



domestic unhappiness. In the beginning of 
1858 he was preparing his public readings. 
Some of his friends objected, but he decided 
to undertake them, partly, it would seem, 
from the desire to be fully occupied. He 
gave a reading, 15 April 1858, for the benefit 
of the Children's Hospital in Great Ormond 
Street, in which he was keenly interested, 
and on 29 April gave the first public reading 
for his own benefit. This was immediately 
followed by the separation from his wife. The 
eldest son lived with the mother, whil e the rest 
of the children remained with Dickens. Car- 
lyle, mentioning the newspaper reports upon 
this subject to Emerson, says : ' Fact of separa- 
tion, I believe, is true, but all the rest is mere 
lies and nonsense. No crime and no misde- 
meanor specifiable on either side ; unhappy to- 
gether, these two, good many years past, and 
they at length end it' (CARLYLE and EMER- 
SON, Correspondence, ii. 269). Dickens chose 
to publish a statement himself in l Household 
Words,' 12 June 1858. He entrusted another 
and far more indiscreet letter to Mr. Arthur 
Smith, who now became the agent for his 
public readings, which was to be shown, if ne- 
cessary, in his defence. It was published with- 
out his consent in the ' New York Tribune.' 
The impropriety of both proceedings needs 
no comment. But nothing has been made ' 
public which would justify any statement 
as to the merits of the question. Dickens'^ 
publication in * Household Words,' and their 
refusal to publish the same account in 
' Punch,' led to a quarrel with his publishers, 
which ended in his giving up the paper. He 
began an exactly similar paper, called ' All 
the Year Round ' (first number 30 April 1859), 
and returned to his old publishers, Messrs. 
Chapman & Hall. Dickens seems to have 
thought that some public statement was made 
necessary by the quasi-public character which 
he now assumed. From this time his read- 
ings became an important part of his work. 
They formed four series, given in 1858-9, in 
1861-3, in 1866-7, and in 1868-70. They 
finally killed him, and it is impossible not ta 
regret that he should have spent so much 
energy in an enterprise not worthy of his 
best powers. He began with sixteen nights 
at St. Martin's Hall, from 29 April to 22 July 
1858. A provincial tour of eighty-seven read- 
ings followed, including Ireland and Scotland; 
He gave a series of readings in London in the 
beginning of 1859, and made a provincial tour 
in October following. He was everywhere 
received with enthusiasm ; he cleared 300/. a 
week before reaching Scotland, and in Scot- 
land made 500/. a week. The readings were 
from the Christmas books, ' Pickwick,' ' Dom- 
bey,' ' Chuzzlewit,' and the Christmas num- 



Dickens 



Dickens 



bers of ' Household Words.' The Christmas 
numbers in his periodicals, and especially in 

* All the Year Round,' had a larger circula- 
tion than any of his writings, those in All 
the Year Round ' reaching three hundred thou- 
sand copies. Some of his most charming 
papers appeared, as the ' Uncommercial Tra- 
veller,' in the last periodical. For his short 
story, * Hunted Down,' first printed in the 

* New York Ledger,' afterwards in ' All the 
Year Round,' he received 1,000/. This and a 
similar sum, paid for the ' Holiday Romance ' 
and 'George Silverman's Explanation' in a 
child's magazine published by Mr. Fields and 
in the ' Atlantic Monthly,' are mentioned 
by Forster as payments unequalled in the 
history of literature. 

In March 1861 he began a second series 
of readings in London, and after waiting to 
finish ' Great Expectations ' in ' All the Year 
Round,' he made another tour in the autumn 
and winter. He read again in St. James's 
Hall in the spring of 1862, and gave some 
readings at Paris in 'January 1863. The 
success was enormous, and he had an offer 
of 10,000/., ' afterwards raised,' for a visit to 
Australia. He hesitated for a time, but the 
plan was finally abandoned, and America, 
which had been suggested, was closed by 
the civil war. For a time he returned to 
writing. The 'Tale of Two Cities ' had ap- 
peared in ' All the Year Round ' during his 
first series of readings (April to Novem- 
ber 1859). ' Great Expectations ' appeared 
in the same journal from December 1860 
to August 1861, during part of the second 
series. He now set to work upon ' Our Mu- 
tual Friend,' which came out in monthly 
numbers from May 1864 to November 1865. 
It succeeded with the public ; over thirty 
thousand copies of the first number were 
sold a-'. Scarting, and, though there was a 
drop in the sale of the second number, this 
circulation was much exceeded. The gloomy 
river scenes in this and in ' Great Expecta- 
tions ' show Dickens's full power, but both 
stories are too plainly marked by flagging 
invention and spirits. Forster publishes ex- 
tracts from a book of memoranda kept from 
1855 to 1865, in which Dickens first began 
to preserve notes for future work. He seems 
to have felt that he could no longer rely upon 
spontaneous suggestions of the moment. 

His mother died in September 1863, and 
his son Walter, for whom Miss Coutts had 
obtained a cadetship in the 26th native in- 
fantry, died at Calcutta on 31 Dec. following. 

He began a third series of readings under 
ominous symptoms. In February 1865 he 
had a severe illness. He ever afterwards 
suffered from a lameness in his left foot, 




which gave him great pain and puzzled his\ 
physicians. On 9 June 1865 he was in a 
terrible railway accident at Staplehurst. The 
carriage in which he travelled left the line, 
but did not, with others, fall over the via- 
duct. The shock to his nerves was great and 
permanent, and he exerted himself excessively 
to help the sufferers. The accident is vividly 
described in his letters (ii. 229-33). In spite 
of these injuries he never spared himself; 
after sleepless nights he walked distances too 
great for his strength, and he now undertook 
a series of readings which involved greater 
labour than the previous series. He was 
anxious to make a provision for his large fa- 
mily,and, probably conscious that his strength 
would not long be equal to such performances, 
he resolved, as Forster says, to make the 
most money possible in the shortest time 
without regard to labour. Dickens was keenly 
affected by the sympathy of his audience, 
and the visible testimony to his extraordinary 
popularity and to his singular dramatic power 
was no doubt a powerful attraction to a man 
who was certainly not without vanity, and 
who had been a popular idol almost from 
boyhood. 

After finishing ' Our Mutual Friend,' he 
accepted (in February 1866) an offer, from 
Messrs. Chappell of Bond Street, of 507. a 
night for a series of thirty readings. The ar- 
rangements made it necessary that the hours 
not actually spent at the reading-desk or in 
bed should be chiefly passed in long railway 
journeys. He began in March and ended in 
June 1866. In August he made a new agree- 
ment for forty nights at 60/. a night, or 2,500/. 
for forty-two nights. These readings took 
! place between January and May 1867. The 
success of the readings again surpassed all 
precedent, and brought many invitations from 
America. Objections made by W. H. Wills 
and Forster were overruled. Dickens said 
that he must go at once if he went at all, to 
avoid clashing with the presidential election 
of 1868. He thought that by going he could 
realise ' a sufficient fortune.' He ' did not 
want money,' but the ' likelihood of making 
a very great addition to his capital in half a 
year ' was an ' immense consideration.' In 
July Mr. Dolby sailed to America as his 
agent. An inflam mation of the foot, followed 
by erysipelas, gave a warning which was not 
heeded. On 1 Oct. 1867 he telegraphed his 
acceptance of the engagement, and after a 
great farewell banquet at Freemasons' Hall 
(2 Nov.), at which Lord Lytton presided, he 
sailed for Boston 9 Nov. 1867, landing on 
the 19th. 

Americans had lost some of their pro- 
vincial sensibility, and were only anxious to 



^ckens 



Dickens 



show that old resentments were forgotten. ; (J. T. FIELDS, p. 24(5). He passed the ; 

Dickens first read in Boston on 2 Dec.; thence | at Gadshill, leaving it occasionally to atte! and 

he went to New York ; he read afterwards at 

Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, again 

at Philadelphia, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, 

Springfield, Portland, New Bedford, and 

finally at Boston and New York again. 

He received a public dinner at New York 

(18 April), and reached England in the first 

week of May 1868. He made nearly 20,0007. 

in America, but at a heavy cost in health. 

He was constantly on the verge of a break- 



a few meetings, and working at his 
His last readings were given at St. James's 
Hall from January to March. On 1 March 
he took a final leave of his hearers in a 
few graceful words. In April appeared the 
first number of ' Edwin Drood.' In the same 
month he appeared for the last time in public, 
taking the cha 



lair at the newsvendors' dinner, 
and replying for ' literature ' at the dinner of 
the Royal Academy (30 April), when he 

down. He naturally complimented Ameri- : spoke feelingly of the death of his old friend 
cans, not only for their generous hospitality, | Maclise. He was at work upon his novel at 
but for the many social improvements since Gadshill in June, and showed unusual fatigue, 
his previous visits, though politically he saw On 8 June he was working in the ' chalet/ 
little to admire. He promised that no future j which had been presented to him in 1859 by 
edition of his ' Notes ' or < Chuzzlewit ' should | Fechter, and put up as a study in his garden, 
be issued without a mention of the improve- He came into the house about six o'clock, 
ments which had taken place in America, or and, after a few words to his sister-in-law, 
in his state of mind. As a kind of thank- I fell to the ground. There was an effusion 
offering, he had a copy of the l Old Curiosity j on the brain; he never spoke again, and died 
Shop ' printed in raised letters, and presented ; at ten minutes past six on 9 June 1870. He 
it to an American asylum for the blind. was buried with all possible simplicity in 

Unfortunately Dickens was induced upon | Westminster Abbey 14 June following, 
his return to give a final series of readings Dickens had ten children by his wife : 
in England. He was to receive 8,0007. for a Charles, born 1837 ; Mary, born 1838 ; Kate, 
hundred readings. They began in October born 1839, afterwards married to Charles 

Allston Collins [q. v.], and now Mrs. Peru- 
gini; Walter Landor, born 1841, died 12 Dec. 
1863 (see above) ; Francis Jeffrey, born 1843; 
Alfred Tennyson, born 1845, settled in Aus- 
tralia ; Sydney Smith Haldemand, born 1847, 
in the navy, buried at sea 2 May 1867 ; Henry 
Fielding, born 1849 ; Dora Annie, born 1850, 
died 14 April 1851 ; and Edward Bulwer 
Lytton, born 1852, settled in Australia. 

Dickens's appearance is familiar by in- 
numerable photographs. Among portraits 



1868. Dickens had preferred as a novelty 
a reading of the murder in ' Oliver Twist.' 
He had thought of this as early as 1863, but 
it was ' so horrible ' that he was then ' afraid 
to try it in public ' (Letters, ii. 200). The 
performance was regarded by Forster as in 
itself ' illegitimate,' and Forster's protest led 
to a ' painful correspondence.' In any case, 
it involved an excitement and a degree of 
physical labour which told severely upon his 
declining strength. He was to give weekly 



readings in London alternately with readings ' maybe mentioned (1) by Maclise in 1839 (en- 



in the country. In February 1869 he was 
forced to suspend his work under medical 
advice. After a few days' rest he began again, 
in spite of remonstrances from his friends and 
family. At last he broke down at Preston. 
On 23 April Sir Thomas Watson held a con- 
sultation with Mr. Beard, and found that 
he had been l on the brink of an attack of 
paralysis of his left side, and possibly of 
apoplexy,' due to overwork, worry, and ex- 
citement. He was ordered to give up his 
readings, though after some improvement Sir 
Thomas consented to twelve readings with- 
out railway travelling, which Dickens was 
anxious to give as some compensation to 
Messrs. Chappell for their disappointment. 
In the same autumn he began f Edwin Drood.' 
He was to receive 7,5007. for twenty-five 
thousand copies, and fifty thousand were 
sold during his life. It ' very, very far 
outstripped every one of its predecessors' 



graved as frontispiece to l Nicholas Nickleby '), 
original in possession of Sir Alfred Jodrell of 
Bayfield, Norfolk ; (2) pencil drawing by 
Maclise in 1842 (with his wife and sister) ; 
(3) oil-painting by E. M. Ward in 1854 (in 
possession of Mrs. Ward); (4) oil-painting 
by Ary Scheffer in 1856 (in National Portrait 
Gallery) ; (5) oil-painting by W. P. Frith in 
1859 (in Forster collection at South Ken- 
sington). Dickens was frequently compared 
in later life to a bronzed sea captain. In 
early portraits he has a dandified appearance, 
and was always a little over-dressed. He pos- 
sessed a wiry frame, implying enormous ner- 
vous energy rather than 'muscular strength, 
and was most active in his habits, though 
not really robust. He seems to have over- 
taxed his strength by his passion for walk- 
ing. All who knew him, from Carlyle down- 
wards, speak of his many fine qualities : his 
generosity, sincerity, and kindliness. He 



bers of 



Dickens 



3 



fV^Sitensely fond of his children (see Mrs. 
^J^kens's interesting account in Cornhill 
' Magazine, January 1880) ; he loved dogs, 
and had a fancy for keeping large and even- 
tually savage mastiffs and St. Bernards ; 
and he was kind even to contributors. His 
weaknesses are sufficiently obvious, and are 
reflected in his writings. If literary fame 
could be safely measured by popularity with 
the half-educated, Dickens must claim the 
highest position among English novelists. 
It is said, apparently on authority (Mr. Mow- 
bray Morris in Fortnightly Review for De- 
cember 1882) that 4,239,000 volumes of his 
works had been sold in England in the twelve 
years after his death. The criticism of more 
severe critics chiefly consists in the assertion 
that his merits are such as suit the half- 
educated. They admit his fun to be irresis- 
tible ; his pathos, they say, though it shows 
boundless vivacity, implies little real depth or 
tenderness of feeling; and his amazing powers 
of observation were out of proportion to his 
powers of reflection. The social and political 
views, which he constantly inculcates, imply 
a deliberate preference of spontaneous in- 
stinct to genuine reasoned conviction; his 
style is clear, vigorous, and often felicitous, 
but mannered and more forcible than deli- 
cate ; he writes too clearly for readers who 
cannot take a joke till it has been well ham- 
mered into their heads ; his vivid perception 
of external oddities passes into something like 
hallucination ; and in his later books the 
constant strain to produce effects only legi- 
timate when spontaneous becomes painful. 
His books are therefore inimitable caricatures 
of contemporary ' humours ' rather than the 
masterpieces of a great observer of human 
nature. The decision between these and 
more eulogistic opinions must be left to a 
future edition of this dictionary. 

Dickens's works are : 1. ' Sketches by Boz, 
illustrative of Everyday Life and Everyday 
People,' 2 vols. 1835, 2nd series, 1 vol. De- 
cember 1836, illustrated by Cruikshank (from 
the ' Monthly Magazine,' the ' Morning ' and 
* Evening Chronicle,' ' Bell's Life in London,' 
and the ' Library of Fiction '). 2. ' Sunday 
under Three Heads : as it is ; as Sabbath-bills 
would make it ; as it might be. By Timothy 
Sparks,' illustrated by H. K. Browne, June 
1836. 3. 'The Strange Gentleman,' a comic 
burletta in two parts 1837 (produced 29 Sept. 
1836 at the St. James's Theatre). 4. ' The Vil- 
lage Coquettes,' a comic opera in two parts, 
December 1836 (songs separately in 1837). 

5. ' Is she his Wife ? or Something Singular ; ' 
a comic burletta acted at St. James's Thea- 
tre, 6 March 1837, printed at Boston, 1877. 

6. ' Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club,' 




i November 1837 (originally in monthly num- 
bers from April 1836 to November 1837), 
illustrated by Seymour, Bass, and H. K. 
Browne. 7. ' Mudfog Papers,' in ' Bentley's 
Miscellany ' (1837-9) ; reprinted in 1880. 

' 8. ' Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi ; edited by 
Boz,' 2 vols. 1838. 9. ' Oliver Twist ; or the 
Parish Boy's Progress,' 2 vols. October 1838 
(in 'Bentley's Miscellany,' January 1837 to 
March 1839), illustrated by Cruikshank. 

10. ' Sketches of Young Gentlemen,' illus- 
trated by H. K. Browne, 1838. 11. ' Life 
and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby,' Octo- 
ber 1839 (in monthly numbers April 1838 
to October 1839). 12. -'Sketches of Young 
Couples, with an Urgent Remonstrance to the 

I Gentlemen of England (being bachelors or 
widowers) at the present alarming Crisis,' 
1840, illustrated by H. K. Browne. 13. ' Mas- 
ter Humphrey's Clock,' in eighty-eight weekly 
numbers, from 4 April 1840 to 27 Nov. 1841, 
first volume published September 1840 ; se- 
cond volume published March 1841 ; third 
November 1841 ; illustrated by George Cat- 
termole and H. K. Browne (' Old Curiosity 
Shop ' from vol. i. 37 to vol. ii. 223 ; ' Barnaby 
Rudge' from vol. ii. 229 to vol. iii. 420). 
14. ' The Pic-Nic Papers,' by various hands, 
edited by Charles Dickens, who wrote the pre- 
face and the first story, ' The Lamplighter ' 
(the farce on which the story was founded was 
printed in 1879), 3 vols. 1841 (Dickens had 
nothing to do with the third volume, Letters, 

11. 91). 15. 'American Notes for General Cir- 
culation,' 2 vols. 1842. 16. 'A Christmas Carol 
in Prose ; being a Ghost Story of Christmas,' 
illustrated by Leech, 1843. 17. 'The Life 
and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit,' il- 
lustrated by H. K. Browne, July 1844 (ori- 
ginally in monthly numbers from January 
1843 to July 1844). 18. ' Evenings of a 
Working Man,' by John Overs, with a pre- 
face relative to the author by Charles Dickens, 
1844. 19. 'The Chimes; a Goblin Story of 
some Bells that Rang an Old Year out and a 
New Year in,' Christmas, 1844 ; illustrated 
by Maclise, Stanfield, R. Doyle, and J. Leech. 
20. 'The Cricket on the Hearth; a Fairy 
Tale of Home,' Christmas, 1845 ; illustrated 
by Maclise, Stanfield, C. Landseer, R. Doyle, 
and J. Leech. 21. ' Pictures from Italy,' 
1846 (originally in ' Daily News ' from Janu- 
ary to March 1846, where it appeared as a 
series of ' Travelling Letters written on the 
Road'). 22. 'The Battle of Life; a Love 
Story,' Ciiristmas, 1846 ; illustrated by Mac- 
lise, Stanfield, R. Doyle, and J. Leech. 
23. ' Dealings with the Firm of Dombey and 
Son, Wholesale, Retail, and for Exportation,' 
April 1848; illustrated by H. K. Browne 
(originally in monthly numbers from October 



Dickens 



Dickens 



1846 to April 1848). 24. 'The Haunted Man, 
and the Ghost's Bargain ; a Fancy for Christ- 
mas Time/ Christinas, 1848 ; illustrated by 
Stanfield, John Tenniel, Frank Stone, and 
J. Leech. 25. 'The Personal History of 
David Copperfield/ November 1850; illus- 
trated by H.K. Browne (originally in monthly 
parts from May 1849 to November 1850). 
26. 'Bleak House,' September 1853; illus- 
trated by H. K. Browne (originally in 
monthly numbers from March 1852 to Sep- 
tember 1853). 27. ' A Child's History of 
England/ 3 vols. 1854 (originally in ' House- 
hold Words ' from 25 Jan. 1851 to 10 Dec. i 
1853). 28. ' Hard Times for these Times/ 
August 1854 (originally in 'Household Words' 
from 1 April to 12 Aug. 1854). 29. ' Little 
Dorrit/ June 1857 ; illustrated by H. K. 
Browne (originally in monthly numbers from 
December 1855 to June 1857). 30. 'A Tale 
of Two Cities/ November 1859 ; illustrated 
by H. K. Browne (originally in 'All the 
Year Round/ from 30 April to 26 Nov. 1859). I 
31. ' Great Expectations/ 3 vols. August 
1861 ; illustrated (when published in one 
volume 1862) by Marcus Stone (originally 
in 'All the Year Round ; from 1 Dec. I860 
to 3 Aug. 1861). 32. 'Our Mutual Friend/ 
November 1865 ; illustrated by Marcus Stone , 
(originally in monthly numbers, May 1864 to 
November 1865). 33. 'Religious Opinions 
of the late Rev. Chauncy Hare Townshend/ 
edited by Charles Dickens, 1869. 34. ' The 
Mystery of Edwin Drood ' (unfinished) ; il- 
lustrated by S. L. Fildes (six numbers from 
April to September 1870). 

The following appeared in the Christmas 
numbers of ' Household Words ' and ' All the 
Year Round : ' ' A Christmas Tree/ in Christ- 
mas ' Household Words/ 1850 ; ' What 
Christmas is as we grow Older/ in ' What 
Christmas is/ ib. 1851 ; ' The Poor Rela- 
tion's Story' and 'The Child's Story/ in 

* Stories for Christmas/^. 1852 ; ' The School- 
boy's Story ' and ' Nobody's Story/ in ' Christ- 
mas Stories/ ib. 1853; 'In the Old City of 
Rochester/ ' The Story of Richard Double- 
dick/ and ' The Road/ in ' The Seven Poor 
Travellers/ #. 1854; 'Myself/ ' The Boots/ 
and ' The Till/ in ' The Holly Tree/ ib. 1855 ; 
4 The Wreck/ in ' The Wreck of the Golden 
Mary/ ib. 1856 ;' The Island of Silver Store ' 
and "' The Rafts on the River/ in ' The Perils 
of certain English Prisoners/ ib. 1857 ; 

* Going into Society/ in ' A House to Let/ ib. 
1 858 ; ' The Mortals in the House ' and ' The 
Ghost in Master B.'s Room/ in ' The Haunted 
House/ ' All the Year Round/ 1859 ; ' The 
Village' (nearly the whole), 'The Money/ 
and ' The Restitution/ in ' A Message from 
the Sea/ ib. 1860; 'Picking up Soot and 



Cinders/ ' Picking up Miss Kimmeens/ and 
' Picking up the Tinker/ in ' Tom Tiddler's 
Ground/ ib. 1861 ; ' His Leaving it till called 
for/ ' His Boots/ ' His Brown Paper Parcel/ 
and ' His Wonderful End/ in ' Somebody's 
Luggage/ ib. 1862 ; ' How Mrs. Lirriper 
carried on the Business/ and ' How the Par- 
lour added a few Words/ in ' Mrs. Lirriper's 
Lodgings/ ib. 1863 : ' Mrs. Lirriper relates 
how she went on and went over ' and ' Mrs. 
Lirriper relates how Jemmy topped up/ in 
'Mrs. Lirriper's Legacy/ ib. 1864; 'To be 
Taken Immediately/ ' To be Taken for Life/ 
and ' The Trial/ in ' Dr. Marigold's Prescrip- 
tions/ ib. 1865 ; ' Barbox Brothers/ 'Barbox 
Brothers & Co.' ' The Main Line/ the ' Boy 
at Mugby/ and ' No. 1 Branch Line : the 
Signalman/ in ' Mugby Junction/ ib. 1866 ; 
' No Thoroughfare ' (with Mr. Wilkie Collins), 
ib. 1867. 

Besides these Dickens published the ' Lazy 
Tour of Two Idle Apprentices ' (with Mr. 
Wilkie Collins) in ' Household Words ' for 
October 1857 ; ' Hunted Down ' (originally in 
the ' New York Ledger ') in ' All the Year 
Round/ August 1860 ; ' The Uncommercial 
Traveller ' (a series of papers from 28 Jan. 
to 13 Oct. 1860, collected in December 1860). 
Eleven fresh papers from the same were added 
to an edition in 1868, and seven more were 
written to 5 June 1869. A ' Holiday Ro- 
mance/ originally in ' Our Young Folks/ and 
' George Silverman's Explanation/ originally 
in the ' Atlantic Monthly/ appeared in ' All 
the Year Round/ from 5 Jan. to 22 Feb. 1868. 
His last paper in ' All the Year Round ' was 
' Lander's Life/ 5 June 1869. A list of various 
articles in newspapers, &c., is given in R. H. 
Shepherd's ' Bibliography/ 

The first collective edition of Dickens's 
works was begun in April 1847. The first- 
series closed in September 1852 ; a second 
closed in 1861 ; and a third in 1874. The first 
library edition began in 1857. The ' Charles 
Dickens ' edition began in America, and was 
issued in England from 1868 to 1870. ' Plays 
and Poems/ edited by R. H. Shepherd, were 
published in 1882, suppressed as containing 
copyright matter, and reissued without this 
in 1885. ' Speeches ' by the same in 1884. 

For minuter particulars see ' Hints to Col- 
lectors/ by J. F. Dexter, in 'Dickens Me- 
mento/ 18'70; ' Hints to Collectors . . /by C. 
P.Johnson, 1885; 'Bibliography of Dickens/ 
by R. H. Shepherd, 1880 ; and ' Bibliography 
of the Writings of Charles Dickens/ by James 
Cook, 1879. 

[Life of Dickens, by John Forster, 3 vols. 1872, 
1874 ; Letters (edited by Miss Hogarth and Miss 
Dickens), 2 vols. 1880, vol. iii. 1882; Charles 
Dickens, by G. A. Sala(1870); Charles Dickens 



Dickenson 



Dickinson 



as I Knew Him, by George Dolby, 1885 ; Yester- 
days -with Authors, by James T. Fields, 1872; 
Charles Kent's Charles Dickens as a Header, 
1872 ; Percy Fitzgerald's Recreations of a Lite- 
rary Man, 1882, pp. 48-172; E. Yates's Recol- 
lections and Experiences, 1884, pp. 90-128 ; 
Kate Field's Pen Photographs of C. Dickens's 
Readings, 1868 ; James Payn's Literary Recol- 
lections, 1884; Frith's Autobiography, 1887; 
Cornhill Mag. for January 1880, Charles Dickens 
at Home (by Miss Dickens) ; Macmillan's Mag. 
July 1870, In Memoriam, by Sir Arthur Helps; 
Macmillan's Mag. January 1871, Amateur Thea- 
tricals ; Gent. Mag. July 1870, In Memoriam, by 
Blanchard Jerrold; Gent. Mag. February 1871, 
Guild of Literature and Art, by R. H. Home; 
Dickensiana, by F. G. Kitton, 1886 ; Charles 
Dickens, by Frank T. Marzials, Great Writers 
series, 1887 ; Dickens, by A. W. Ward, in Men 
of Letters series, 1882 ; Childhood and Youth of 
Dickens, by Robert Langton, 1883.] L. S. 

DICKENSON, JOHN (/U594), romance- 
writer, was the author of: 1. 'Arisbas, Eu- 
phues amidst his Slumbers, or Cupids Journey 
to Hell,' &c., 1594, 4to, dedicated ' To the 
right worshipfull Maister Edward Dyer, Es- 
quire.' 2. ' Greene in Conceipt. N v ew raised 
from his graue to Write the Tragique His- 
torie of Faire Valeria of London,' &c., 1598, 
4to, with a woodcut on the title-page repre- 
senting Robert Greene in his shroud, writ- 
ing at a table. 3. ' The Shepheardes Com- 
plaint; a passionate Eclogue, written in 
English Hexameters : Wherevnto are an- 
nexed other Conceits,' &c., n. d. (circ. 1594), 
4to, of which only one copy (preserved at 
Lamport Hall) is extant. Dickenson was a 
pupil in the school of Lyly and Greene. He 
had a light hand for verse (though little can 
be said in favour of his 'passionate Eclogue') 
and introduced some graceful lyrics into his 
romances. Three short poems from ' The 
Shepheardes Complaint ' are included in 
1 England's Helicon,' 1600. 

There was also a John Dickenson who re- 
sided in the Low Countries and published : 
1. 'Deorum Consessus, siue Apollinis ac 
Mineruae querela,' &c., 1591, 8vo, of which 
there is a unique copy in the Bodleian Li- 
brary. 2. 'Specvlum Tragicvm, Regvm, Prin- 
cipvm & Magnatvm superioris saeculi cele- 
briorum ruinas exitusque calamitosos bre- 
viter complectens,' &c., Delft, 1601, 8vo, re- 
printed in 1602, 1603, and 1605. 3. ' Mis- 
cellanea ex Historiis Anglicanis concinnata,' 
&c.,Leyden, 1606, 4to. It is not clear whether 
this writer, whose latinity (both in verse and 
prose) has the charm of ease and elegance, is to 
be identified with the author of the romances. 
Dr. Grosart has included the romances among 
his ' Occasional Issues.' 

[Grosart's Introduction to Dickenson's Works ; 



I Collier's Bibl. Cat. i. 219-20; England's Helicon, 
ed. Bullen, p. xviii.] A. H. B. 

DICKIE, GEORGE, M.D. (1812-1882), 
botanist, born at Aberdeen 23 Nov. 1812, was 
educated at Marischal College in that city, 
where he graduated A.M. in 1830, and pro- 
secuted the study of medicine in the univer- 
sities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. From 1839 
he lectured on botany for ten years in King's 
College, Aberdeen, and in that university for 
shorter periods on natural history and materia 
medica. In 1849 he was appointed professor 
of natural history in Belfast, where he taught 
botany, geology, physical geography, and zoo- 
logy. From this he was transferred in 1860 
to the chair of botany at Aberdeen, which he 
held until 1877, when failing health caused 
his retirement. 

He was a fellow of the Royal and Linnean 
Societies, and was a constant contributor to 
many scientific journals, as may be seen by 
reference to the list given in the Royal So- 
ciety's * Catalogue of Scientific Papers.' His 
separate works are : 1. ' Flora of Aberdeen,' in 
1838. 2. ' Botanist's Guide to the Counties 
of Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine,' in 1860. 
3. ' Flora of Ulster,' in 1864. In conjunction 
with Dr. M'Cosh he wrote 'Typical Forms 
and Special Ends in Creation,' 1856 ; he also 
supplied much information to Macgillivray's 
( Natural History of Deeside and Braemar, r 
1855, and certain arctic narratives. His earlier 
articles deal with vegetable morphology and 
physiology, but from 1844 onwards his atten- 
tion was increasingly devoted to algae, and 
during his later years this group entirely en- 
grossed his attention. His knowledge of 
marine algae was very extensive, and collec- 
tions which were received at Kew were regu- 
larly sent to him for determination and de- 
scription. In 1861 a severe illness withdrew 
him from active fieldwork, while bronchial 
troubles and increasing deafness made him an 
invalid during his later years. He died at 
Aberdeen on 15 July 1882. 

[Proc. Linn. Soc. 1882-3, p. 40 ; Cat. Scientific 
Papers, H. 283, vii. 531.] B. D. J. 

DICKINSON, CHARLES (1792-1842), 
bishop of Meath, was born in Cork in August 
1792, being the son (the youngest but one of 
sixteen children) of a respectable citizen, 
whose father, an English gentleman from 
Cumberland, had in early life settled in that 
city. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Austen, was of an old family in the same part 
of Ireland. He was a precocious child, and 
his readiness at arithmetical calculation when 
only five or six years old was surprising. He 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1810, 
under the tutorship of the Rev. Dr. Mere- 



Dickinson 



33 



Dickinson 



dith. Here lie had some able competitors in 
his class, which was called ' All the Talents,' 
especially Hercules Henry Graves, son of Dr. 
Graves, fellow of the college, and subse- 
quently regius professor of divinity and dean 
of Ardagh, and James Thomas O'Brien, subse- 
quently a fellow, and bishop of Ossory, Ferns, 
and Leighlin. In 1813 Dickinson was elected 
a scholar, and about the same time he began 



Church Reform,' Dublin, 1833; 'An Appeal 
in behalf of Church Government,' London, 
1840; * Correspondence with the Rev. Maurice 
James respecting Church Endowments/ 1833 ; 
* Conversation with two Disciples of Mr. Ir- 
ving,' 1836 ; and ' Letter to two Roman Ca- 
tholic Bishops [Murray and Doyle] on the 
subject of the Hohenlo'he Miracles,' Dublin, 
1823. He was author likewise of the follow- 



to take a leading part in the College Histori- ' ing : l Obituary Notice of Alexander Knox 
cal Society. He graduated B. A. in 1815, and Esq.,' in the 'Christian Examiner' (July 



he stood for a fellowship unsuccessfully. A 
marriage engagement prevented him from 
again competing. In 1818 he entered into 
holy orders, and became curate of Castle- 



was awarded the gold medal for distinguished 1831), xi. 562-4 ; and ' Vindication of a Me- 
answering at every examination during his morial respecting Church Property in Ire- 
undergraduate course. He became M.A. in land,' &c., Dublin, 1836 

1820, and B.D. and D.D. in 1834. In 1817 m fT > , ^ ,- .., D . 

[Kemains of Bishop Dickinson, with a Biogra- 
phical Sketch by John West, D.D., London, 
1845; Dublin University Calendars; Todd's Ca- 
talogue of Dublin Graduates, 155 ; Cotton's Fasti 
, Ecclesise Hibernicse, iii. 125, v. 223; Slacker's 
knock, near Dublin, and in the following ; Contributions towards a proposed Bibliotheca 
year was appointed assistant chaplain of the ! Hibernica, No. vi.,in the Irish Ecclesiastical Ga- 
Magdalen Asylum, Dublin. In April 1820 I zette (April 1876), xviii. 115.] B. H. B. 

he married Elizabeth, daughter of Abraham 



Russell of Limerick, and sister of his friend 
and class-fellow, the late Archdeacon Rus- 
sell, by whom he had a numerous family. 
In the same year he succeeded to the chap- 
laincy of the Magdalen Asylum, which, how- 
ever, he resigned after a few months. In 
1822 he accepted the offer of the chaplaincy 
of the Female Orphan House, Dublin. In 
1832, while he held this chaplaincy, he first 
attracted the special notice of Archbishop 
Whately. The archbishop was frequently 
present at the lessons given by Dickinson in 
the asylum. Dickinson became one of the 
archbishop's chaplains, as assistant to Dr. 
Hinds ; and early in 1833, on Hinds's retire- 
ment, became domestic chaplain and secretary. 
In July 1833 the archbishop collated him to 
the vicarage of St. Anne's, Dublin, which 
he held with the chaplaincy. He was inti- 
mately associated with Whately till 1840. 
In October of that year he was promoted to 
the bishopric of Meath, and on 27 Dec. he 
was consecrated in Christ Church Cathedral, 
Dublin. He set about his new duties zeal- 
ously, but fell ill of typhus fever, and died 
12 July 1842. There is a monument in Ard- 
braccan churchyard, co. Meath, where he is 
buried, andan inscription in St. Anne's Church, 
Dublin. 

A memoir by his son-in-law, John West, 
D.D., has been published, with a selection 
from his sermons and tracts. It includes : 
' Ten Sermons ; ' ' Fragment of a Charge in- 
tended to have been delivered on 12 July 



DICKINSON or DICKENSON, ED- 
MUND, M.D. (1624-1707), physician and al- 
chemist, son of the Rev. William Dickinson, 
rector of Appleton in Berkshire, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Edmund Colepepper, was 
born on 26 Sept. 1624. He received his pri- 
mary education at Eton, and in 1642 entered 
Merton College, Oxford, where he was ad- 
mitted one of the Eton postmasters. He took 
the degree of B.A. 22 June 1647, and was 
elected probationer-fellow of his college, ' in 
respect of his great merit and learning.' On 
27 Nov. 1649 he had the degree of M.A. con- 
ferred upon him. Applying himself to the 
study of medicine, he obtained the degree of 
M.D. on 3 July 1656. About this time he made 
the acquaintance of Theodore Mundanus, a 
French adept in alchemy, who prompted him 
to devote his attention to chemistry. On 
leaving college he began to practise as a phy- 
sician in a house in High Street, Oxford, where 
he ' spent near twenty years practising in these 
parts ' (WooD, Athence, iv. 477). The wardens 
of the college made him superior reader of 
Linacre's lectures, in succession to Dr. Ly- 
dall, a post which he held for some years. 

He was elected honorary fellow of the 
College of Physicians in December 1664, but 
was not admitted a fellow till 1677. In 1684 
he came up to London and settled in St. Mar- 
tin's Lane. Among his patients here was the 
Earl of Arlington, lord chamberlain, whom 
he was fortunate enough to cure of an ob- 



stinate tumour. By him the doctor was re- 

' Pastoral Epistle from his Holiness commended to the king (Charles II), who 
'ope to some Members of the University appointed him one of his physicians in qrdi- 
ford,' 4th ed. London, 1836 ; ' Obser- j nary and physician to the household. The 
on Ecclesiastical Legislature and monarch being a great lover of chemistry took 
v. D 



Dickinson 



34 



Dickinson 



the doctor into special favour and had a 
laboratory built under the royal bedchamber, 
with communication by means of a private 
staircase. Here the king was wont to retire 
with the Duke of Buckingham and Dickin- 
son, the latter exhibiting many experiments 
for his majesty's edification. Upon the ac- 
cession of James II (1685), Dickinson was 
confirmed in his office as king's physician, 
and held it until the abdication of James 
(1688). 

Being much troubled with stone, Dickin- 
son now retired from practice and spent the 
remaining nineteen years of his life in study 
and in the making of books. He died on 
3 April 1707, aged 83, and was buried in the 
church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, where a 
monument bearing an elaborate Latin in- 
scription was erected to his memory. While 
still a young man he published a book under 
the title of ' Delphi Phoanicizantes,' Oxford, 
1665, in which he attempted to prove that 
the Greeks borrowed the story of the ' Pythian 
Apollo ' from the Hebrew scriptures. An- 
thony a Wood says that Henry Jacob, and 
not Dickinson, was the author of this book. 
This was followed by ' Diatriba de Noae in 
Italiam Adventu,' Oxford, 1655. In maturer 
age Dickinson published his notions of al- 
chemy, in which he seems to have believed, in 
* Epistola ad T. Mundanum de Quintessentia 
Philosophorum,' Oxford. 1686. The great 
work on which he spent his latest years was 
a system of philosophy set forth in a book 
entitled ' Physica vetus et vera,' Lond. 4to, 
1702. In this laborious work, on which years 
had been spent, and part of which he had to 
write twice in consequence of an accident by 
fire to the manuscript, the author pretends to 
establish a philosophy founded on principles 
collected out of the < Pentateuch.' In a very 
confused manner he mixes up his notions on 
the atomic theory with passages from Greek 
and Latin writers as well as from the Bible. 
The book, however, attracted attention, and 
was published in Rotterdam, 4to, 1703, and 
in Leoburg, 12mo, 1.705. Besides these he 
left behind him in manuscript a treatise in 
the Latin on the ' Grecian Games,' which 
Blomberg published in the second edition of 
his life of the author. Evelyn went to see 
him and thus records the visit : ' I went to 
see Dr. Dickinson the famous chemist. We had 
a long conversation about the philosopher's 
elixir, which he believed attainable and had 
seen projection himself by one who went 
under the name of Mundanus, who sometimes 
came among the adepts, but was' unknown as 
to his country or abode ; of this the doctor 
has written a treatise in Latin, full of very 
astonishing relations. He is a very learned 



person, formerly a fellow of St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, in which city he practised 
physic, but has now altogether given it over, 
and lives retired, being very old and infirm, 
yet continuing chymistry.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 45, iii. 331, 
477, 610, 1030; Fasti, ii. 103, 121, 193; Biog. 
Brit. (Kippis); Dickinson's Life and Writings by 
Blomberg, 1737, 2nd edit. 1739; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 394-6 ; Evelyn's 
Diary, ii. 375.] E. H. 

DICKINSON, JAMES (1659-1741), 
quaker, born in 1659 at Lowmoor House, 
Dean, Cumberland, was the son of quaker 
parents of fair means and position, both of 
whom he lost when very young. He seems 
to have had more than the average education, 
and from his earliest years to have been very- 
susceptible to religious influences and some- 
what of a visionary. When nineteen he felt 
it his duty to become a quaker minister, of 
which body he was a birthright member. His 
first effort was at a presbyterian meeting at 
Tallentire, near Cockermouth; when being 
put out of the conventicle he continued his 
discourse through the window until thrown 
down and injured by the congregation. Till 
1682 he chiefly laboured in the north of Eng- 
land, but in this year he visited Ireland and 
did much to strengthen the footing quakerism 
had already gained in Ulster. In 1669, after 
visiting Scotland, he went to New Jersey 
for a few months, and subsequently made a 
prolonged preaching excursion in England, 
frequently being ill-treated, but escaping im- 
prisonment. At an open-air meeting in the 
Isle of Portland he was seized by a constable 
and was dragged by the legs along the road 
and beaten till almost dead (see Piety Pro- 
moted}. On his recovery he visited Holland, 
being chased on the way by a Turkish ship. 
Dickinson claims to have had a ' sight of this 
strait ' and to have been assured that he should 
not be captured. As he could not speak Dutch, 
and was obliged to speak through an inter- 
preter, his visit was not successful. After 
another tour in England and Ireland he went 
into Scotland and laboured for some time with 
Robert Barclay of Ury, at whose death, which 
was occasioned by a disease contracted during 
this j ourney , he was present. Dickinson now 
sailed for Barbadoes in a ship which formed 
part of a convoy, the whole of which, with 
the exception of the ship he was in and two 
others, was captured by the French fleet, and 
these only escaped through a succession of 
fogs. After staying in Barbadoes a sufficient 
time to visit the different quaker meetings in 
the island, he went on to New York, and 
thence travelled through the New England 
states. Of this journey he gives a full and 



Dickinson 



35 



Dickinson 



graphic account in his ' Journal.' At Salem 
he was successful in partially healing the 
dissensions the defection of George Keith 
had caused among the Friends. In 1692 he 
left for Barbadoes in a ship so leaky that he 
barely escaped shipwreck. He returned to 
Scotland in 1693, and then visited most of 
the quaker meetings in the south of that 
country and England. He shortly after- 
wards married a quakeress, whose name is 
not positively known ; and a few weeks 
after his marriage he went to London, when, 
hearing of the death of Queen Mary, he was 
'commanded' to go through the streets, 
crying ' Wo, wo, wo from the Lord ! ' but 
does not appear to have been molested. In 
1696 he again visited America, returning 
the following year, and from that time till 
1702 chiefly laboured in Ireland. In 1713 
he visited America for the last time, re- 
turning to England at the end of the follow- 
ing year, and until 1726, when he lost his 
wife, was engaged in a series of preaching : 
excursions in England and Ireland. He I 
had for some time been in a weak state of 
health, and his grief at the death of his wife 
brought on an attack of paralysis, which 
closed his active ministry, although he con- 
tinued to attend to the affairs of the Society 
of Friends in the north, and on several oc- 
casions was present at the yearly meeting 
in London. Until about a year before his 
death an increase in his disorder totally in- 
capacitated him. He was buried on 6 June 
1741 in the Friends' burial-ground near his | 
house at Eaglesfield, Cumberland, having | 
been a minister for sixty-five years. He ' 
was a powerful and successful preacher, and ! 
his careful avoidance of party questions, his j 
humility, prudence, and blameless character 
caused him not only to escape persecution, 
but to be one of the most prominent and 
respected members of the second generation 
of quaker ministers. His writings, with the 
exception of his ' Journal 'published in 1745, 
are unimportant. 

[Dickinson's Journal, W. & T. Evans's edition, 
1848; George Fox's Journal, 1765; Besse's 
Sufferings; Smith's Catalogue of Friends' Books; 
Eutly's History of the Friends in Ireland ; 
Bowden's History of the Society of Friends in 
America.] A. C. B. 

DICKINSON, JOHN (1815-1876), writer 
on India, the son of an eminent papermaker 
of Nash Mills, Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire 
who with Henry Fourdrinier [q. v.] first 
patented a process for manufacturing paper of 
an indefinite length, and so met the increasing 
demands of the newspaper press was born 
-on 28 Dec. 1815. In due time he was sent to 
Eton, and afterwards invited to take part in 



his father's business. ' He had, however, no 
taste either for accounts or for mechanical 
processes ; and being in delicate health he 
was indulged in a wish to travel on the con- 
tinent, where, with occasional visits to nis 
friends at home, he spent several years, occu- 
pied in the study of languages, of art, and of 
foreign politics. His sympathies were en- 
tirely given to the struggling liberal party oi 
the continent, in whose behalf he wrote de- 
sultory essays in periodicals of no great note. 
It was not till 1850 that by an irresistible 
impulse he found his vocation as an inde- 
pendent Indian reformer. His Uncle, General 
Thomas Dickinson, of the Bombay engineers, 
and his cousin, Sebastian Stewart Dickinson, 
encouraged and assisted John in the prose- 
cution of this career. In 1850 and 1851 a 
series of letters appeared in the * Times ' on 
the best means of increasing the produce and 
promoting the supply to English manufac- 
turing towns of Indian cotton. These were 
from Dickinson's pen, and were afterwards 
published in a collected form, as * Letters on 
the Cotton and Roads of Western India' 
(1851). A public works commission was ap- 
pointed by Lord Dalhousie the next year to 
inquire into the deficiencies of administration 
pointed out by Dickinson and his friends. 

On 12 March 1853 a meeting was held in 
Dickinson's rooms, and a society was formed 
under the name of the India Reform Society. 
The debate in parliament that year on the 
renewal of the East India Company's charter 
gave the society and Dickinson, as its honorary 
secretary, constant occupation. Already in 
1852 the publication of ' India, its Govern- 
ment under a Bureaucracy ' a small volume 
of 209 pages had produced a marked effect. 
It was reprinted in 1853 as one of a series of 
1 India Reform Tracts,' and had a very large 
circulation. The maintenance of good faith 
and good will to the native states was the 
substance of all these writings. Public atten- 
tion was diverted from the subject for a time 
by the Crimean war, but was roused again 
in 1857 by the Indian mutiny. Dickinson 
wonked incessantly throughout the two years 
of mutiny and pacification and afterwards, 
when the transfer of the Indian government 
from the company to the crown was carried 
into effect. He spared neithertime nor money 
in various efforts to moderate public excite- 
ment, and to prevent exclusive attention to 
penal and repressive measures. With this 
view he organised a series of public meetings, 
which were all well attended. After 1859 
the India Reform Society began to languish, 
and at a meeting in 1861 Mr. John Bright 
resigned the chairmanship, and carried by a 
unanimous vote a motion appointing Dickin- 

D2 



Dickinson 



Dickinson 



son his successor. The publication in 1864-5 
of two pamphlets entitled ' Dhar not re- 
stored ' roused in Calcutta a feeling- of great 
indignation against the writer, Dickinson, 
who was stigmatised as a 'needy adven- 
turer.' 

On the death of his father in 1869 Dickin- 
son, who inherited a large fortune, was much 
occupied in the management of his property, 
and being in weak health he gave a less close 
attention to the business of the society than 
he had done. Still, he kept alive to the last 
his interest in India, corresponding with 
Holkar, maharajah of Indore, with great re- 
gularity. He indignantly repelled the accu- 
sation made against Holkar in the affair of 
Colonel Durand [see DURAND, SIK HENRY 
MARION]. 

In 1872 Dickinson was deeply grieved by 
the death of his youngest son, and in 1875 
felt still more deeply the loss of his wife, 
whom he did not long survive. On 23 Nov. 
1876 he was found dead in his study, at 
1 Upper Grosvenor Street, London. From 
the papers lying on the table it was evident 
that he had been engaged in writing a reply 
to Holkar's assailants, which was afterwards 
completed and published by his friend Major 
Evans Bell under the title of ' Last Counsels 
of an Unknown Counsellor.' 

The published works of Dickinson, chiefly 
in pamphlet form, are as follows : 1. 'India, 
its Government under Bureaucracy,' Lon- 
don, 1852, 8vo. 2. ' The Famine in the North- 
West Provinces of India,' London, 1861, 8vo. 
3. * Reply to the Indigo Planters' pamphlet en- 
titled "Brahmins and Pariahs," published by 
the Indigo manufacturers of Bengal,' London, 
1861, 8vo. 4. 'A Letter to Lord Stanley 
on the Policy of the Secretary of State for 
India/ London, 1863, 8vo. 5. ' Dhar not re- 
stored,' 1864. 6. 'Sequel to "Dhar not re- 
stored," and a Proposal to extend the Prin- 
ciple of Restoration,' London, 1865, 8vo. 

7. < A Scheme for the Establishment of Effi- 
cient Militia Reserves,' London, 1871, 8vo. 

8. ( Last Counsels of an Unknown Counsel- 
lor,' edited by E. Bell, London, 1877, 8vo, of 
which a special edition, with portrait, was 
published in 1883, 8vo. 

[Memoir by Major Evans Bell prefixed to 
Last Counsels of an Unknown Counsellor.] 

E. H. 

DICKINSON, JOSEPH, M.D. (d. 1865), 
botanist, took the degree of M.B. at Dublin 
1837, and proceeded M.A. and M.D. in 1843, 
taking also an ad eundem degree at Cambridge. 
About 1839 he became physician to the Liver- 
pool Royal Infirmary, and subsequently also 
to the Fever Hospital, Workhouse, and South 



Dispensary. He lectured on medicine and 
on botany at the Liverpool School of Medi- 
cine, and in 1851 published a small 'Flora 
of Liverpool,' to which a supplement was 
issued in 1855. He served as president of 
the Liverpool Literary and Philosophical 
Society, and was a fellow of the Royal and 
Linnean Societies, and of the Royal College 
of Physicians. He died at Bedford Street 
South, Liverpool, in July 1865. 

[Medical Directory, 1864; local press; Flora 
of Liverpool.] G. S. B. 

DICKINSON, WILLIAM (1756-1822), 
topographer and legal writer, whose origi- 
nal name was William Dickinson Rastall, 
was the only son of Dr. William Rastall, 
vicar-general of the church of Southwell. He 
was born in 1756, and became a fellow of 
Jesus College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1777, M.A. in l780(GmduatiCanta- 
brigienses, ed. 1856, p. 316). On leaving the 
university he devoted himself to the study 
of the law. In 1795, at the request of Mrs. 
Henrietta Dickinson of Eastward Hoo, he 
assumed the name of Dickinson only. His 
residence was at Muskam Grange, near New- 
ark, and he was a justice of the peace for the 
counties of Nottingham, Lincoln, Middlesex, 
Surrey, and Sussex. He died in Cumberland 
Place, New Road, London, on 9 Oct. 1822. 
By his wife Harriet, daughter of John Ken- 
rick of Bletchingley, Surrey, he had a nume- 
rous family. 

His works are : 1. ' History of the Anti- 
quities of the Town and Church of South- 
well, in the County of Nottingham,' London, 
1787, 4to ; second edition, improved, 1801-3, 
to which he added a supplement in 1819, and 
prefixed to which is his portrait, engraved by 
Holl, from a painting by Sherlock. 2. < The 
History and Antiquities of the Town of 
Newark, in the County of Nottingham (the 
Sidnaeester of the Romans), interpersed with 
Biographical Sketches,' two parts, Newark, 
1806, 1819, 4to. These histories of South- 
well and Newark form four parts of a work 
which he entitled : ' Antiquities, Historical,. 
Architectural, Chorographical, and Itinerary,, 
in Nottinghamshire and the adjacent Coun- 
ties,' 2 vols. Newark, 1 801-19, '4to. 3. ' A 
Practical Guide to the Quarter and other 
Sessions of the Peace,' London, 1815, 8vo ; 
6th edition, with great additions by Thomas 
Noon Talfourd and R. P. Tyrwhitt, London, 
1845, 8vo. 4. ' The Justice Law of the last 
five years, from 1813 to 1817,' London, 1818, 
8vo. 5. ( A Practical Exposition of the Law 
relative to the Office and Duties of a Justice 
of the Peace,' 2nd edition, 3 vols. London,. 
1822, 8vo. 



Dickinson 



37 



Dickons 



[Gent. Mag. Ivii. 424, Ixxi. 925, Ixxiii. 1045, 
Ixxvi. 1025, xcii. 376; Evans's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, No. 3141 ; Biogr. Diet, of Living Au- 
thors (1816), p. 94; Cat. of Printed Books in 
Brit. Mus. ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 2051 ; 
Clarke's Bibl. Legum, p. 120; Marvin's Legal 
Bibliography, p. 266; Upcott's English Topo- 
graphy, ii. 1062-5.1 T. C. 

DICKINSON, WILLIAM (1746-1823), 
mezzotint engraver, was born in London in 
1746. Early in life he began to engrave in 
mezzotint, mostly caricatures and portraits 
after R. E. Pine, and in 1767 he was awarded 
a premium by the Society of Arts. In 1773 
he commenced publishing his own works, and 
in 1778 entered into partnership with Thomas 
Watson, who engraved in both stipple and 
mezzotint, and who died in 1781. Dickinson 
appears to have been still carrying on the 
business of a printseller in 1791, but he after- 
wards removed to Paris, where he continued 
the practice of his art, and died in the sum- 
mer of 1823. 

Some of Dickinson's plates are among the 
most brilliant examples of mezzotint en- 
graving. -They are excellent in drawing and 
render with much truth the characteristics 
of Reynolds and other painters after whose 
works they were engraved. Fine proofs of 
these have become very scarce, and fetch 
high prices when sold by public auction. 
Dickinson's most important works are por- 
traits, especially those after Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, which include full-length portraits of 
George III in his coronation robes, Charles, 
duke of Rutland, Elizabeth, countess of Derby, 
Diana, viscountess Crosbie, Mrs. Sheridan as 
4 St. Cecilia,' Mrs. Pelham, Mrs. Mathew, Lord 
Robert Manners, and Richard Barwell and 
son; and three-quarter or half-length por- 
traits of Jane, duchess of Gordon, Emilia, 
duchess of Leinster, Lady Charles Spencer, 
Lady Taylor, Richard, earl Temple, Admiral 
Lord Rodney, Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Percy, 
bishop of Dromore, Soame Jenyns, and the 
Hon. Richard Edgcumbe. He engraved also 
portraits of John, duke of Argyll, after Gains- 
borough ; Lord-chancellor Thurlow (full- 
length), Admiral Lord Keppel, Thomas, lord 
Grantham, Sir Charles Hardy, Dr. Law, bi- 
shop of Carlisle, Isaac Reed, and Miss Ra- 
mus (afterwards Lady Day), after Romney ; 
George II (full-length), Ferdinand, duke of 
Brunswick, David Garrick, Miss Nailer as 
4 Hebe,' Mrs. Yates (full-length), John Wilkes 
{two plates), and James Worsdale, after Pine ; 
Richard, first earl Grosvenor (full-length), 
after Benjamin West ; the Duke and Duchess 
of York (two full-lengths), after Hoppner ; 
Mrs. Siddons as ' Isabella ' (full-length), after 
Beach ; Charles, second earl Grey, and Wil- 



liam, lord Auckland, after Sir Thomas Law- 
rence; Samuel Wesley when a boy (full- 
length), after Russell ; Mrs. Gwynne and Mrs. 
Bunbury as the ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' 
after D. Gardner ; Sir Robert Peel, after North- 
cote; Charles Bannister, after W. C. Lind- 
say ; Mrs. Hartley as ' Elfrida.' after Nixon ; 
Napoleon I, after Gerard (1815) ; Catharine, 
empress of Russia ; and others after Angelica 
Kauffmann, Dance, Wheatley, Gainsborough, 
Dupont, Stubbs, and Moiiand. Besides these 
he engraved a ' Holy Family,' after Correggio ; 
heads of Rubens, Helena Forman (Rubens's 
second wife), and Vandyck, after Rubens ; 
' The Gardens of Carlton House, with Nea- 
politan Ballad-singers,' after Bunbury ; ' The 
Murder of David Rizzio ' and ' Margaret of 
Anjou a Prisoner before Edward IV,' after 
J. Graham ; ' Lydia,' after Peters ; and * Ver- 
tumnus and Pomona ' and ; Madness,' after 
Pine, some of which are in the dotted style. 
Mr. Chaloner Smith, in his ' British Mezzo- 
tinto Portraits,' describes ninety-six plates 
by Dickinson. 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878; Chaloner Smith's British Mezzo- 
tinto Portraits, 1878-83, i. 171-203; Blanc's 
Manuel de 1' Amateur d'Estampes, 1854-7, ii. 
125-6.] E. E. GK 

DICKONS, MARIA (1770 P-1833), vo- 
calist, whose maiden name was Poole, is said 
to have been born in London about 1770, 
though the right date is probably a few years 
later. She developed a talent for music at 
an early age : when six she played Han- 
del's concertos, and when thirteen she sang 
at Vauxhall. She was taught singing by 
Rauzzini at Bath, and after appearing at the 
Antient concerts in 1792, was engaged at 
Covent Garden, where she made her debut 
as Ophelia on 9 Oct. 1793, introducing the 
song of 'Mad Bess.' On the 12th of the 
same month she appeared as Polly in the 
' Beggar's Opera,' in which part she was said 
to be delightful. After 1794 Miss Poole 
seems to have confined herself chiefly to the 
provinces. She was married in 1800, and for 
a time retired, but her husband having sus- 
tained losses in trade, she resumed her pro- 
fessional career, and reappeared at Covent 
Garden on 20 Oct. 1807 as Mandane in ' Ar- 
taxerxes.' In 1811 she joined the Drury 
Lane company, then performing at the Ly- 
ceum, where she appeared on 22 Oct. as 
Clara in the ' Duenna.' On 18 June 1812 
she sang the Countess in Mozart's ' Nozze 
di Figaro ' to the Susanna of Catalan!, on the 
production of the work at the King's Theatre 
for the first time in England. She also sang 
at the Drury Lane oratorios in 1813 and 1815. 
When Catalani left England she took Mrs. 



Dickson 



Dickson 



Dickons to sing with her at Paris, but the 
English soprano had no success there, and 
went on to Italy, where she was more ap- 
preciated. At Venice she was elected an 
honorary member of the Institute Filarmo- 
nico. She was engaged to sing with Velluti, 
but the death of a near relation recalled 
her to England, where she reappeared at 
Co vent Garden on 13 Oct. 1818 as Rosina 
in Bishop's perversion of Rossini's ( Barbiere 
di Siviglia.' She also sang the Countess 
in a similar version of the ' Nozze di Figaro ' 
on 6 March 1819, in which her success was 
brilliant. About 1820 she retired from the 
profession. The reason of her taking this step 
is said by some to have been ill-health, and 
by others a bequest which rendered her in- 
dependent. She is said to have suffered from 
cancer, and latterly from paralysis. She died 
at her house in Regent Street, 4 May 1833. 
Not many detailed accounts of Mrs. Dickons's 
singing are extant, but her voice seems to 
have been 'powerful and mellifluous,' and 
she possessed ' a sensible and impressive into- 
nation and a highly polished taste.' Another 
account says that when she sang sacred music 
' religion seemed to breathe from every note.' 
The following portraits of her were en- 
graved : 1. Full face, painted by Miss E. 
Smith, engraved by Woodman, junior, and 
published 1 May 1808. 2. Profile to the 
right, engraved by Freeman, and published 
1 July 1808. 3. Full face, holding a piece 
of music, engraved by M. A. Bourlier, and 
published 1 July 1812. 4. Full face, holding 
up the first finger of her left hand, painted 
by Bradley, engraved by Penry, and published 
1 May 1819. Mathews's theatrical gallery 
in the Garrick Club also contains a portrait. 
Her mother died at Newingtonin March 1807, 
and her father at Islington 17 Jan. 1812. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. ; Fetis's Biographie 
des Musiciens, iii. 16 ; Genest's Hist, of the 
Stage, via. 696 ; Pohl's Mozart und Haydn in 
London, i. 148 ; Busby's Anecdotes, iii. 21 ; 
Parke's Musical Memoirs, i. 136 ; Quarterly 
Musical Eeview, i. 62, 403, 406; Gent. Mag. 
for 1807, p. 283, 1812, p. 93, 1833, p. 649; 
Georgian Era, iv. 302 ; playbills and prints in 
Brit. Mus.] W. B. S. 

DICKSON, ADAM (1721-1776), writer 
on agriculture, son of the Rev. Andrew Dick- 
son, minister of Aberlady, East Lothian, was 
born in 1721 at Aberlady, and studied at 
Edinburgh University, where he took the 
degree of M. A. From boyhood he had been 
destined by his father for the ministry, and 
was in due time appointed minister of Dunse 
in Berwickshire in 1750, after a long lawsuit 
on the subject of the presentation. He soon 
lived down the opposition of a party which 



this raised in his parish. After residing' 
twenty years at Dunse, he was transferred 
in 1769 to Whittinghame in East Lothian, 
and died there seven years after in conse- 
quence of a fall from his horse on returning 
from Innerwick. He married, 3 April 1742, 
Anne Haldane. One of his two daughters 
gave a short biography of her father to the 
editor to be prefixed to his chief work, ' The 
Husbandry of the Ancients.' He had also a 
son, William. Dickson was a man of quick 
apprehension and sound judgment. He died 
universally regretted, not merely as a clergy- 
man and scholar, but still more on account 
of his benevolence and good works, and his 
readiness in counsel. He passed his life be- 
tween his cherished country employments on 
a large farm of his father's, where he lost no- 
opportunity of gathering experience from the 
conversation of the neighbouring farmers,. 
and the duties of his holy office. Having 
early shown a great taste for agriculture, 
he watched its processes carefully, and made 
rapid progress in it, as he always connected 
practice with theory. On moving to Dunse 
he found more real improvements in the art r 
and also more difficulties to be surmounted 
than had been the case in East Lothian. 
Observing that English works on agriculture 
were ill adapted to the soil and climate of 
Scotland, and consisted of theories rather 
than facts supported by experience, he de- 
termined to compose a ' Treatise on Agricul- 
ture ' on a new plan. The first volume of 
this appeared in 1762, and was followed by 
a second in 1770. This treatise is practical 
and excellently adapted to the farming of 
Scotland, its first four books treating of soils, 
tillage, and manures in general, the other 
four of schemes of managing farms, usual in 
Scotland at that time, and suggestions for 
their improvement. Dickson's^next publi- 
cation was an * Essay on Manures ' (1772), 
among a collection termed ' Georgical Es- 
says.' His views are quite in accordance 
with modern practice. It was directed against 
a Mr. Tull, who held that careful ploughing 
alone provided sufficient fertilisation for the 
soil, and is almost a reproduction, word for 
word, of a section in Dickson's ' Treatise.' 
He also wrote ' Small Farms Destructive to 
the Country in its present Situation,' Edin- 
burgh, 1764. 

Twelve years after his death (1788) the 
work by which Dickson is best known was; 
printed with a dedication to the Duke of 
Buccleuch. 'The Husbandry of the An- 
cients ' was composed late in life, and cost 
the author much labour. He collects the 
agricultural processes of the ancients under 
their proper heads, and compares them with 



Dickson 



39 



Dickson 



modern practice, in which his experience ren- 
ders him a safe guide. The first volume con- 
tains accounts of the Roman villa, crops, 
manures, and ploughs ; the second treats of 
the different ancient crops and the times of 
sowing. He translates freely from the * Scrip- 
tores Rei Rusticse,' and subjoins the origi- 
nal passages ; but if his practical knowledge 
enabled him to clear up difficulties which 
had been passed by in former commentators, 
his scholarship, according to Professor Ram- 
say {Diet, of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 
'Agricultura '), was so imperfect that in many 
instances he failed to interpret correctly the 
originals. The book was translated into 
French by M. Paris (Paris, 1802). 

[An account of the author, probably the one 
written by his daughter, is prefixed to the Hus- 
bandry of the Ancients, which forms the sub- 
stance of the notices of him in Didot, Nouvelle 
Biographie Generale, and the Biographic Uni- 
verselle; Dickson's own works ; Scott's Fasti 
Ecclesise Scoticanse; Presbytery Register and 
Aberlady Session Register ; Whittinghame Mi- 
nutes of Session.] M. G. W. 

DICKON, SIR ALEXANDER (1777- 

1840), major-general, royal artillery, was 
third son of Admiral William Dickson of 
Sydenham House, Roxburghshire, by his 
first wife, the daughter of William Colling- 
wood of Unthank, Northumberland, and 
brother of Admiral Sir Collingwood Dickson, 
second baronet (see FOSTER, Baronetage} . He 
was born 3 June 1777, and entered the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, as a cadet 
5 April 1793, passing out as second lieutenant 
royal artillery 6 Nov. 1794. His subsequent 
commissions in the British artillery were 
dated as follows : first lieutenant 6 March 
1795, captain-lieutenant 14 Oct. 1801, captain 
10 April 1805, major 26 June 1823, lieutenant- 
colonel 2 April' 1825, colonel 1 July 1836. 
As a subaltern he served at the capture of 
Minorca in 1798, and at the blockade of Malta 
and siege of Valetta in 1800, where he was 
employed as acting engineer. As captain he 
commanded the artillery of the reinforce- 
ments sent out to South America under Sir 
Samuel Auchmuty [q. v.],which arrived in the 
Rio Plate 5 April 1807, and captured Monte 
Video, and was afterwards present at, but not 
engaged in, the disastrous attempt on Buenos 
Ayres. For a time he commanded the artillery 
of the army, in which he was succeeded by 
Augustus Frazer (DUNCAN, Hist. Roy. Art. 
ii. 170, 176, 178). When Colonel Howorth 
arrived in Portugal to assume command of 
the artillery of Sir Arthur Wellesley's army 
in April 1809, Dickson, who was in hopes of 
obtaining employment in a higher grade in the 
Portuguese artillery under Marshal Beresford 



[q. v.], accompanied him, and served as his 
brigade-major in the operations before Oporto 
and the subsequent expulsion of Soult's army 
from Portugal. Soon after he was appointed 
to a company in the Portuguese artillery in 
the room of Captain (afterwards Sir John) 
May, returning home. He subsequently be- 
came major and lieutenant-colonel in the 
Portuguese service, which gave him prece- 
dence over brother officers who were his se- 
niors in the British artillery. In command 
of the Portuguese artillery he took part in 
the battle of Busaco in 1810, the affair of 
Campo Mayor, the siege and capture of Oli- 
venza, and the battle of Albuera in 1811. 
His abilities were recognised by Lord Wel- 
lington, and the artillery details at the various 
i sieges were chiefly entrusted to him (GuR- 
WOOD, Well. Desp. v. 91). He superintended 
the artillery operations in the first and second 
I sieges of Badajoz under the immediate orders 
I of Lord Wellington in 1811 ; also at the 
siege and capture of Ciudad Rodrigo, the 
siege and capture of Badajoz, the attack and 
capture of the forts of Almaraz, the siege and 
capture of the forts of Salamanca, and the 
siege of Burgos, all in 1812. He commanded 
the reserve artillery at the battle of Sala- 
manca and capture of Madrid in the same 
year. Dickson, a lieutenant-colonel in the 
Portuguese artillery, and brevet-major and 
first captain of a company of British artillery 
(No. 5 of the old 10th battalion R.A., which 
under its second captain, Cairns, did good 
service in the Peninsula, and was afterwards 
disbanded), became brevet lieutenant-colonel 
in the British service on 27 April 1812. 
Writing of him at the period of the advance 
into Spain in the spring of 1813, the historian 
of the royal artillery observes : * Whilst at 
Villa Ponte awaiting further advance his 
correspondence reveals more of the personal 
element than his letters, as a rule, allow to 
become visible. The alternate hoping and 
despairing as to orders to advance the 
ennui produced by forced idleness the im- 
petuous way in which he would fling himself 
into professional discussions with General 
Macleod (deputy adjutant-general of artil- 
lery), merely to occupy his leisure the spas- 
modic fits of zeal in improving the arrange- 
ments of his immense train, all unite to pre- 
sent to the reader a very vivid picture of 
him whose hand, so long still, penned these 
folded letters. His recurring attacks of fever, 
followed by apologies like the following: 
" The fact is when I am well I forget all, take 
violent exercise, and knock myself up ; but 
I am determined to be more careful in future," 
followed by the inevitable relapse proof of 
the failure of his good intentions combine 



Dickson 



Dickson 



to put before the reader a very lovable picture 
of a very earnest man ' (ib. ii. 311). In May 
1813 the Marquis of Wellington, whose re- 
lations with the commanding officers of royal 
artillery in Spain for some time past had 
been very unsatisfactory, invited Dickson to 
take command of the allied artillery, his 
brevet rank giving him the requisite seniority 
(GuRwoor, Well. Desp. vi. 472). Dickson, 
still a captain of artillery, thus succeeded 
to what properly was a lieutenant-general's 
command, having eight thousand men and 
between three thousand and four thousand 
horses under him (Evidence of Sir H. Har- 
dinge before Select Committee on Public Ex- 
penditure, 1828, p. 44). He commanded the 
allied artillery at Vittoria, and by virtue of his 
brevet rank was senior to Augustus Frazer, 
under whom he had served in South America, 
at the siege of St. Sebastian. Frazer in one 
of his letters alludes to the ' manly simpli- 
city ' of character of Dickson, to whom he 
refers in generous and chivalrous terms. 
Dickson commanded the allied artillery at 
the passage of the Bidassoa, in the battles on 
the Nivelle and Nive, at the passage of the 
Adour, and the battle of Toulouse. After 
the war the officers of the field train depart- 
ment who had served under him presented 
him with a splendid piece of plate, and the 
officers of the royal artillery who served under 
him in the campaigns of 1813-14 presented 
him with a sword of honour. 

Dickson commanded the artillery in the 
unfortunate expedition to New Orleans and 
at the capture of Fort Bowyer, Mobile. He 
returned from America in time to take part 
in the Waterloo campaign. At this time he 
was first captain of G (afterwards F) troop 
of the royal horse artillery, of whose doings 
its second captain, afterwards the late Gene- 
ral Cavallier Mercer, has left so graphic an 
account (see CAVALLIER MERCER, Waterloo). 
Dickson was present at Quatre Bras and Wa- 
terloo, in personal attendance on Sir George 
Wood, commanding the artillery (DUNCAN, 
ii. 435). He subsequently commanded the 
battering-train sent in aid of the Prussian 
army at the sieges of Maubeuge, Landrecies, 
Philipville, Marienburg, and Rocroy,in July- 
August 1815, but which the Duke of Wel- 
lington, disapproving of the acts of Prince 
Augustus of Prussia, directed later to with- 
draw to Mons (see GTJRWOOD, viii. 198, 208, 
227, 256). In all his campaigns Dickson was 
never once wounded. 

In 1822 Dickson was appointed inspector 
of artillery, and succeeded Lieutenant-general 
Sir John Macleod as deputy adjutant-general 
royal artillery on the removal of the latter 
to the office of director-general in 1827. On 



Macleod's death in 1833 Dickson succeeded 
him, and combined the offices of director- 
general of the field train department and 
deputy adjutant-general of royal artillery up 
to his death, a period during which all ar- 
tillery progress was stifled by parliamentary 
retrenchment. He became a major-general 
10 Jan. 1837. In 1838 Dickson, who had re- 
ceived the decorations of K.C.B. and K.C.H., 
was made G.C.B., being the only officer of 
royal artillery then holding the grand cross 
of the military division of the order. He was 
also aide-de-camp to the queen, and one of the 
commissioners of the Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst. He was one of the original fel- 
lows of the Royal Geographical Society and 
a fellow of other learned societies. He died 
at his residence, Charles Street, Berkeley 
Square, 22 April 1840, at the age of sixty- 
two, and was buried in Plumstead old church- 
yard. In 1847 a monument was erected to 
his memory by regimental subscription in 
the grounds of the Royal Military Repository, 
Woolwich. 

Dickson was not only a great artilleryman 
but also a most industrious and methodical 
collector and registrar of details which came 
under his notice. During the various sieges 
in the Peninsula which were conducted by 
him he kept diaries, mentioning even the 
most trifling facts, and on his return to Eng- 
land he procured from General Macleod the 
whole of the long series of letters he had 
written to him between 1811 and 1814. This 
mass of information was placed by the present 
possessor, General Sir Collingwood Dickson, 
V.C., in the hands of Colonel Duncan when 
that officer was preparing his ' History of the 
Royal Artillery,' and forms the basis of the 
narrative there given of the later Peninsula 
campaigns, the great intrinsic value of the 
memoranda being enhanced by the fact that 
many of the letter-books of the deputy ad- 
jutant-general's department for the period 
are or were missing (DUNCAN, vol. ii.) Seve- 
ral portraits of Dickson are extant, among 
which may be mentioned the figure (in spec- 
tacles) in Hayter's ' Waterloo Guests,' and a 
very spirited half-length photograph forming 
the frontispiece to the second volume of 
Colonel Duncan's ' History of the Royal Ar- 
tillery.' 

Dickson married, first, on 19 Sept. 1802, 
Eulalia, daughter of Don Stefano Briones of 
Minorca, and by her (who died 24 July 1830) 
had a numerous family of sons and daugh- 
ters; secondly, on 18 Dec. 1830, Mrs. Mea- 
dows, relict of Eustace Meadows of Conholt 
Park, Hampshire, who survived him and re- 
married Major-general Sir John Campbell 
[q. v.], Portuguese service. 






Dickson 



Dickson 



Dickson's third son by his first wife is the 
present General Sir Collingwood Dickson, 
V.O., K.C.B., royal artillery, late president of 
the ordnance select committee, an artillery 
officer who served with much distinction in 
the Crimea, and in India during the mutiny, 
and who, as before stated, is the holder of 
his father's professional memoranda, &c. 

[Foster's Baronetage, under 'Dickson ; ' Dun- 
can's Hist. Roy. Artillery ; Gurwood's Well. 
Desp. particiilarly vols. v. vi. and viii. ; Kane's 
List of Officers Roy. Artillery (revised ed. 1869) ; 
Gent. Mag. 1831, 1840.] H. M. C. 

DICKSON, ALEXANDER (1836-1887), 
botanist, descended from a family long the 
proprietors of Kilbucho, Lanarkshire, and 
Hartree, Peeblesshire, was born in Edinburgh 
on 21 Feb. 1836, and graduated in medicine at 
Edinburgh University in 1860. He had pre- 
viously written some papers for the * Trans- 
actions of the Edinburgh Botanical Society,' 
and he was selected in 1862 to lecture on 
botany at Aberdeen University during the 
illness of Professor George Dickie [q. v.] 
Having continued to study and write upon 
the development and morphology of flowers, 
Dickson was appointed professor of botany 
at Dublin University on the death of Dr. 
Harvey. In 1868 he became professor of 
botany at Glasgow, and in 1879 he suc- 
ceeded Dr. J. H. Balfour in the botanical 
chair at Edinburgh, and as regius keeper of 
the Royal Botanic Garden. He was a suc- 
cessful lecturer, having a very attractive and 
kind manner ; an excellent draughtsman and 
field botanist, and a skilled musician and col- 
lector of Gaelic airs. He was also a generous 
and improving landlord. He died suddenly, 
of heart disease, during an interval of a curl- 
ing match, in which he was a leading player, 
at Thriepland Pond, near Hartree, where he 
was spending the Christmas vacation, on | 
30 Dec. 1887. Dickson's very numerous papers 
on botany were published in the ' Transac- \ 
tions of the Edinburgh Botanical Society,' j 
4 Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal,' ! 
4 Proceedings ' and ' Transactions of Royal ! 
Society, Edinburgh,' and * Journal of Botany.' , 
Many of them are of considerable morpho- 
logical value, but Dickson was essentially a j 
cautious botanist. He also contributed a ! 
paper ' On Consanguineous Marriages viewed < 
in the light of Comparative Physiology ' to ! 
the < Glasgow Medical Journal,' iv. 1872. He ' 
was hon. M.D. Dublin, LL.D. Glasgow, F. R.S. ! 
Edinb., and had been twice president of the I 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

[Scotsman, 31 Dec. 1887, 5 Jan. 1888; Na- 
ture, 5 Jan. 1888; Athenaeum, 14 Jan. 1888.] 

G. T. B. 



DICKSON or DICK, DAVID (1583?- 
! 1663), Scottish divine, was the only son of 
| John Dick or Dickson, a wealthy merchant 
I in the Trongate of Glasgow, whose father 
was an old feuar of some lands called the 
Kirk of Muir, in the parish of St. Ninians, 
Stirlingshire. He was born in Glasgow about 
1583, and educated at the university, where 
he graduated M.A., and was appointed one 
of the regents or professors of philosophy. 
These regents, according to the recommenda- 
tions of the general assembly, only continued 
in office eight years, and on the conclusion of 
his term of office Dickson was in 1618 or- 
dained minister of the parish of Irvine. In 
1620 he was named in a leet of seven to be a 
minister in Edinburgh, but being suspected 
of nonconformity his nomination was not 
pressed (CALDERWOOD, History of the Kirk of 
| Scotland, vii. 448). Having publicly testi- 
I fied against the five articles of Perth, he was 
! at the instance of Law, archbishop of Glas- 
gow, summoned to appear before the high 
court of commission at Edinburgh, 9 Jan. 
1622, but having declined the jurisdiction of 
the court, he was subsequently deprived of his 
ministry in Irvine, and ordained to proceed 
to Turriff, Aberdeenshire, within twenty days 
(z'^.vii. 530-42). When about to proceed on his 
journey northward, the Archbishop of Glas- 
gow, at the request of the Earl of Eglinton, 
permitted him to remain in Ayrshire, at Eglin- 
ton, where for about two months he preached 
in the hall and courtyard of the castle. As 
great crowds went from Irvine to hear him, 
he was then ordered to set out for Turriff, but 
about the end of July 1623 was permitted to 
return to his charge at Irvine, and remained 
there unmolested till 1637. Along with 
Alexander Henderson and Andrew Cant, he 
attended the private meeting convened in 
the latter year by Lord Lome, afterwards 
Marquis of Argyll, at which they began to 
regret their dangerous estate with the pride 
and avarice of the prelates (SPALDING, Me- 
morials of the Troubles, i. 79). The same 
year he prevailed on the presbytery of Irvine 
for the suspension of the service-book, and 
he formed one of the deputation of noblemen 
and influential ministers deputed by the co- 
venanters to visit Aberdeen to ' invite the 
ministry and gentry into the covenant ' (GoR- 
DON, Scots Affairs, i. 82 ; SPALDING, Memo- 
rials, i. 91). The doctors and professors of 
Aberdeen proved, however, ' not easily to be 
gained,' and after various encounters with 
the covenanters published l General Demandis 
concerning the lait Covenant,' &c. 1638, re- 
printed 1662 (the latter edition having some 
copies with the title-page dated 1663), to 
which Henderson and Dickson drew up a 



Dickson 



Dickson 



reply entitled ' Ansueris of sum Bretheren 
of the Ministrie to the Replyis of the Minis- 
teris and Professoris of Divinity at Abirdein/ 
1638, reprinted 1663. This was answered 
by the Aberdeen professors in l Duplyes of 
the Minsteris and Professoris of Abirdein/ 
1638. At the memorable assembly which 
met at Glasgow in 1638 Alexander Hender- 
son was chosen in preference to Dickson to 
fill the chair, but Dickson distinguished him- 
self greatly in the deliberations, delivering a 
speech of great tact when the commissioner 
threatened to leave the assembly, and in the 
eleventh session giving a learned discourse 
on Arminianism (printed in ' Select Biogra- 
phies,' Wodrow Society, i. 17-27). The 
assembly also named him one of the four j 
inspectors to be set over the university cities, 
the city to which he was named being Glas- j 
gow (GORDON, Scots Affairs, ii. 169), but in ! 
his case the resolution was not carried out ; 
till 1640, when he was appointed to the 
newly instituted professorship of divinity. 
In the army of the covenanters, under Alex- 
ander Leslie, which encamped at Dunse Law 
in June 1639, he acted as chaplain of the 
Ayrshire regiment, commanded by the Earl 
of Loudoun, and at the general assembly 
which, after the pacification, met at Edin- 
burgh in August of the same year, was chosen 
moderator. In 1643 he was appointed, along 
with Alexander Henderson and David Cal- 
derwood, to draw up a ' Directory for Public 
Worship/ and he was also joint author with 
James Durham [q. v.], who afterwards suc- 
ceeded him in the professorship in Glasgow, 
of the ' Sum of Saving Knowledge/ fre- 
quently printed along with the ' Confession 
of Faith ' and catechisms, although it never 
received the formal sanction of the church. 
In 1650 he was translated to the divinity 
chair of the university of Edinburgh, where 
he delivered an inaugural address in Latin, 
which was translated by George Sinclair into 
English, and, under the name of ' Truth's 
Victory over Error/ was published as Sin- 
clair's own in 1684. The piracy having been 
detected, it was republished with Dickson's 
name attached and a ' Life ' of Dickson by 
Wodrow in 1752. In 1650 he was appointed 
by the committee of the kirk one of a deputa- 
tion to congratulate Charles II on his arrival 
in Scotland. For declining to take the oath of 
supremacy at the Restoration he was ejected 
from his chair, and the hardships to which he 
had to submit had such injurious effects that 
he gradually failed in health and died in the 
beginning of 1663. By his wife, Margaret 
Roberton, daughter of Archibald Roberton of 
Stonehall, a younger brother of the house of Er- 
nock, Lanarkshire, he had three sons, of whom 



John, the eldest, was clerk to the exchequer 
in Scotland, and Alexander, the second son, 
was professor of Hebrew in the university of 
Edinburgh. Besides the works already re- 
ferred to, he was the author of: 1. 'A Trea- 
tise on the Promises/ 1630. 2. 'Explana- 
tion of the Epistle to the Hebrews/ 1635. 
3. ' Expositio analytica omnium Apostoli- 
carum Epistolarum/ 1645. 4. ' A Brief Ex- 
position of the Gospel according to Matthew/ 
1651. 5. 'Explanation of the First Fifty 
Psalms/ 1653. 6. 'Explication upon the 
Last Fifty Psalms/ 1655. 7. ' A Brief Ex- 
plication of the Psalms from L to C/ 1655. 
8. * Therapeutica Sacra, seu de curandis Casi- 
bus Conscientiae circa Regenerationem per 
Fcederum Divinorum applicationem/ 1656,. 
of which an edition by his son, Alexander 
Dickson, entitled 'Therapeutica Sacra, or 
Cases of Conscience resolved/ was published 
in 1664; and an English translation, en- 
titled ' Therapeutica Sacra, or the Method of 
healing the Diseases of the Conscience con- 
cerning Regeneration/ in 1695. His various 
commentaries were published in conjunction 
with a number of other ministers, each of 
whom, in accordance with a project initiated 
by Dickson, had particular books of the ' hard 
parts of scripture ' assigned them. He was 
also the author of a number of ' short poems 
on pious and serious subjects/ which were 
' spread among country people and servants/ 
to ' be sung with the common tunes of the 
Psalms.' Among them were ' The Christian 
Sacrifice/ ' Mother dear, Jerusalem/ ' True 
Christian Love/ and ' Honey Drops, or Crys- 
tal Streams.' Several of his manuscripts 
were printed among his ' Select Works/ pub- 
lished with a life in 1838. 

[Life by Wodrow, prefixed to Truth's Victory, 
and reprinted in Select Biographies published 
by Wodrow Society in 1847, ii. 1-14 ; additional 
details in i. 316-20; Robert Baillie's Letters 
and Journals (Bannatyne Club) ; Calderwood's 
History of the Kirk of Scotland, vol. vii. ; Spal- 
ding's Memorials of the Troubles (Spalding Club) ; 
Gordon's Scots Affairs (Spalding Club) ; Sir 
James Balfour's Annals; Wodrow's History of 
the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland ; Lane's 
Memorials ; Life of Robert Blair ; Hew Scott's 
Fasti Eccles. Scot. ii. 8 ; Chambers's Eminent 
Scotsmen, i. 446-9.] T. F. H. 

DICKSON, DAVID, the elder (1754- 
1820), theologian, was born in 1754, at New- 
lands in Peeblesshire, where his father was 
minister. He studied at the universities of 
Glasgow and Edinburgh, and was ordained 
minister of Libberton, in his native county, in 
1777. ' There/ says his biographer in Kay's 
' Portraits/ ' he began that course of faithful 
and zealous labour among all classes of the- 



Dickson 



43 



Dickson 



people, not in the pulpit only, but from house 
to house, by which he was so peculiarly distin- 
guished throughout the remainder of his life.' 
In 1783 he was translated to Bothkennar 
in Stirlingshire ; in 1795 to the chapel in 
New Street, Edinburgh ; and thereafter to 
the College Church, and finally to the New 
North Church in the same city. After en- 
larging onthe qualities of his preaching, which 
was thoroughly in the evangelical spirit, the 
writer above quoted says : t Of this, the gene- 
ral strain of his sermons, more particularly 
the addresses at their conclusion, of which 
the volume that he published in 1817 fur- 
nishes a number of interesting and valuable 
specimens, afforded the most unequivocal 
proofs. But perhaps his correspondence by 
letter with a number of private individuals 
in every rank of society with youthful in- 
quirers and aged believers, with doubting and 
afflicted and sorrowful, as well as confirmed 
and prosperous and rejoicing believers 
attests the fact still more powerfully.' 

Dickson was a cordial supporter of the 
measures in the church of Scotland promoted 
by the evangelical party. He was one of 
those who voted in the general assembly 
against receiving the explanation of Dr. M'Gill 
of Ayr as a satisfactory explanation of the 
heresy with which he was charged. This 
was the case referred to in the well-known 
poem of Robert Burns, l The Kirk's Alarm.' 
' On two several occasions also, viz. the settle- 
ments of Biggar and Larbert, he actually 
braved the highest censure of the ecclesiasti- 
cal courts rather than surrender the dictates 
of his conscience to what he had thought 
their time-serving policy and unconstitu- 
tional decisions.' Dickson, who was also pro- 
prietor of the estate of Kilbucho in Peebles- 
shire, died in 1820. 

[Scott's Fasti ; Kay's Por traits, ii. 310 ; Sermons 
preached on different occasions, by the Rev. David 
Dickson, Edinb. 1818.] W. GK B. 

DICKSON, DAVID, the younger (1780- 
1842), presbyterian divine, was born in 1780 
at Libberton, N.B., of which parish his father, 
David Dickson the elder [q. v.], was minister, 
and was educated at the parish school of 
Bothkennar and afterwards at Edinburgh 
University. In 1801 he was accepted as a 
preacher in the established church of Scot- 
land, and appointed early in 1802 to a chapel 
at Kilmarnock, which he held until in 1803 
he was chosen junior minister of St. Cuth- 
bert's Church, Edinburgh. After the death 
of the Rev. Sir Henry Moncrieff in 1827 he 
was made senior minister, a position he held 
till his death. In 1808 he married Janet, 
daughter of James Jobson of Dundee, by whom 



he had a family of three sons and three 
daughters, and in 1824 the university of Edin- 
burgh conferred on him the degree of D.D. 
He had some reputation as a Hebrew scholar; 
his sermons were plain and sound ; in private 
life he was genial and benevolent, and he 
avoided mixing in the doctrinal disputes 
which culminated in the disruption of the 
Scotch church. On the occasion of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's funeral he was chosen to hold the 
service in the house at Abbotsford. Dickson 
was secretary of the Scottish Missionary So- 
ciety for many years ; wrote several articles 
in the ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia ' and in the 
1 Christian Instructor' and other magazines; 
and published f The Influence of Learning on 
Religion ' in 1814, and a small volume of 
sermons in 1818. ' Discourses, Doctrinal and 
Practical,' a collection of his homilies, was 
published in 1857. He also published five 
separate sermons (1806-31), and edited l Me- 
moir of Miss Woodbury,' 1826 ; Rev. W. F. 
Ireland's sermons, 1829; and lectures and 
sermons by the Rev. G. B. Brand, 1841. He 
died 28 July 1842, and was buried in St. 
Cuthbert's Church, where a monument was 
subsequently erected to his memory, which 
shows an accurate likeness of him in his 
later years. 

[Old and New Edinburgh, ii. 134; Hew Scott's 
Fasti Eccl. Scot. sect. i. 127, iii. 177 ; Crombie's 
Modern Athenians, p. 6 (with portrait).] 

A. C. B. 

DICKSON, ELIZABETH (1793?-1862) r 
philanthropist, was a daughter of Archibald 
Dalzel, author of ' The History of Dahomy r 
(1793), governor of Cape Coast Castle, and 
for many years connected with the commerce 
of West Africa. Elizabeth was probably born 
at Cape Coast Castle in 1793. When quite 
young she was sent to visit a brother, the 
British vice-consul at Algiers, and there the 
sufferings of the British captives all over 
Barbary made so deep an impression on her,, 
that about 1809, when still only sixteen 
years old, she wrote to the English press to 
make known what she had seen, and to en- 
treat that immediate steps might be taken to 
relieve the captives. Her communications 
attracted the attention of the Anti-Piratical 
Society of Knights and Noble Ladies, from 
whom she received the rights of membership 
and a gold medal. The matter roused public 
feeling, was taken up by parliament, and re- 
sulted in the despatch of Lord Exmouth's 
expedition [see PELLEW, EDWAKD]. 

Miss Dalzel married John Dickson, a sur- 
geon in the royal navy. She continued to 
reside in Africa, chiefly at Tripoli, where she 
was highly esteemed; and there she died, 
30 April 1862, aged about seventy. 



Dickson 



44 



Dickson 



[Gent. Mag. 1862, ii. 112, quoting from the 
Malta Times ; Dalzel's History of Dahomy.] 

J. H. 

DICKSON, JAMES (1737 P-1822), bo- 
tanist, was born at Kirke House, Traquair, 
Peeblesshire, of poor parents, in 1737 or 1738, 
and began life in the gardens of Earl Traquair. 
While still young he went to Jeffery's nur- 
sery-garden at Brompton,and in 1772 started 
in business for himself in Covent Garden. Sir 
Joseph Banks threw open his library to him, I 
and he acquired a wide knowledge of botany, 
and especially of cryptogamic plants. Sir 
J. E. Smith bears testimony in an epitaph 
(Memoir and Correspondence of Sir J. E. 
Smith, ii. 234) to his ' powerful mind, spot- 
less integrity, singular acuteness and ac- ! 
curacy/ and L'H6ritier dedicated to him ' 
the genus Dicksonia, among the tree-ferns. 
Dickson made several tours in the highlands 
in search of plants between 1785 and 1791, 
that of 1789 being in company with Mungo 
Park, whose sister became the second wife 
of the botanist. He published between 1785 
and 1801 four ' Fasciculi Plantarum Crypto- 
gamicarum Britannia,' 4to, containing in all 
four hundred descriptions ; between 1789 and 
1799, < A Collection of Dried Plants, named 
on the authority of the Linnrean Herbarium,' 
in seventeen folio fascicles, each containing 
twenty-five species ; in 1795, a ' Catalogus 
Plantarum Cryptogamicarum Britannia ;' and 
between 1793 and 1802, his ' Hortus Siccus 
Britannicus,' in nineteen folio fascicles, be- 
sides various memoirs in the ' Transactions 
of the Linnean Society.' Dickson in 1788 
became one of the original members of this 
society, and in 1804 was one of the eight 
original members and a vice-president of the 
Horticultural Society. He died at Broad 
Green, Croydon, Surrey, 14 Aug. 1822, his 
wife, a son, and two daughters surviving him. 
His portrait by H. P. Briggs, R.A. (1820), 
has been lithographed. 

[Trans. Hort. Soc. v. Appendix, pp. 1-3 ; Biog. 
TJniverselle, vol. Ixii. ; Koyal Society's Catalogue, 
ii. 285.] G. S. K 

DICKSON, ROBERT, M.D. (1804-1875), 
physician, was born at Dumfries in 1804, and 
educated at the high school and university 
of Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 
1826. Having settled in London, he became 
a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 
in 1855, and continued to practise there till 
1866, when he retired to the country. He 
was an accomplished botanist, and lectured 
on botany at the medical school in Webb 
Street, and afterwards at St. George's Hos- 
pital. All the articles on ' Materia Medica ' 
in the * Penny Cyclopaedia ' were by him, and 



he also published several articles on popular 
science in the ' Church of England Maga- 
zine.' He died on 13 Oct. 1875. In 1834 he 
married Mary Ann Coope, who also died in 
1875. There were six surviving children. 

[Medical Times and Gazette, 30 Oct. 1875.] 

J. D. 

DICKSON, SAMUEL, M.D. (1802- 

1869), author of the ' Chrono-thermal System 
of Medicine,' was born in 1802. He studied 
medicine at Edinburgh (where he attached 
himself to Liston in anatomy and surgery) 
and at Paris, qualifying at the Edinburgh 
College of Surgeons in 1825. Having obtained 
a commission as assistant-surgeon in the 
army, he went to India to join the 30th regi- 
ment of foot at Madras. During five years' 
service in India he acquired a large surgical 
experience (he speaks of performing forty 
operations for cataract in one morning), be- 
came distrustful of the current rules and 
maxims of medical treatment, and speculated 
on the nature of cholera. On his return home 
he graduated M.D. at Glasgow in 1833, and 
began private practice, first at Cheltenham 
and afterwards in Mayfair, London. His first 
published work was l Hints on Cholera and its 
Treatment/ Madras, 1829, in which he traced 
the phenomena of the disease to influences act- 
ing on the nervous centres and the pneumo- 
gastric nerve. An English edition, with new 
matter, appeared under the title ' The Epi- 
demic Cholera and other prevalent Diseases 
of India,' London, 1832. When the next 
epidemic came, he returned to the subject in 
'Revelations on Cholera,' Lond. 1848, and 
' The Cholera and how to cure it,' Lond. 
1849 (?). Shortly after settling in London, 
where he had no connection with medical 
corporations, societies, hospitals, or schools 
of medicine, he began a series of clever 
polemical writings, in which he cast ridicule 
both on the intelligence and on the honesty 
of contemporary practice by way of recom- 
mending his original views. The following 
is a list of them : 1. ' The Fallacy of Physic 
as taught in the schools, with new and 'im- 
portant Principles of Practice,' 1836. 2. ' The 
Unity of Disease analytically and syntheti- 
cally proved, with facts subversive of the 
received practice of physic,' 1838. 3. ' Fal- 
lacies of the Faculty, with the principles of the 
Chrono-thermal System,' 1839. 4. ' What 
killed Mr. Drummond the lead or the lan- 
cet?' 1843. 5. 'The History of Chrono- 
thermal Medicine ' (title quoted by himself 
without date ; not in catalogues). 6. ' The 
Destructive Art of Healing, or Facts for 
Families ; a sequel to the " Fallacies of the 
Faculty," ' 1853. 7. ' London Medical Prac- 



Dickson 



45 



Dickson 



tice and its Shortcomings,' 1860. - 8. ' Me- 
morable Events in the Life of a London 
Physician/ 1863. 9. The Medical Commis- 
sion now sitting at the Admiralty/ 1865. 
In 1850 he started a monthly journal, l The 
Chrono-thermalist, or People's Medical In- 
quirer/ which ran for twenty-two months, 
being entirely from his own pen, and, like 
all the rest of his writings, devoted to the 
dual purpose of advocating Dicksonian truth 
and exposing other people's errors. Several 
of his writings went through more than one 
edition, at home as well as in the United 
States ; under their various titles they all 
cover much the same ground. The central 
idea of the chrono-thermal system is the 
periodicity and intermittency of all vital ac- 
tions, ague being regarded as the type-disease. 
The system is, of course, very inadequate, 
both as an analysis and as a synthesis ; but 
its author's writings are often instructive, 
both for theory and practice, here and there 
truly profound, and always lively and enter- 
taining in style, some parts of his later polemic 
being in spirited rhymed couplets modelled 
on Pope. He was early in the field against 
blood-letting, and even got credit for his 
originality and sagacity in that matter in an 
article in the ' Brit, and For. Med.-Chir. Rev.' 
(1860). He was ignored by most of the 
leaders of medicine, several of whom he cir- 
cumstantially accused of plagiarising the ideas 
that he had long advocated on vital chrono- 
metry and other points. His tone towards 
the medicine of the schools was met by in- 
tolerance. According to his own statement, 
the leading medical journal refused even to 
insert the advertisement of his writings on 
the money being tendered ; and it is certain 
that none of the English journals of the pro- 
fession referred to his death, or gave any 
sketch of his career. Although he was not 
without supporters at home, his chief follow- 
ing was in the United States, where the 
Penn Medical College of Philadelphia was 
founded to teach his doctrines, the entire 
staff of ten professors subscribing a prospectus, 
or confession of faith, on behalf of * the sys- 
tem for which we are indebted to that master 
mind, Samuel Dickson of London.' He died 
at Bolton Street, Mayfair, on 12 Oct. 1869. 

[Dickson's Memorable Events in the Life of a 
London Physician (which contains little personal 
history), and the Medical Directory, 1869-70.] 

C. C. 

DICKSON, WILLIAM (1745-1804), 
bishop of Down and Connor, son of an Eng- 
lish clergyman, James Dickson, who was 
dean of Down from 1768 till 1787, was born 
in 1745, and educated at Eton, where he 



formed a lifelong friendship with Charles 
James Fox and several of Fox's nearest 
friends, one of whom, Lord Robert Spen- 
cer, became his executor. He entered Hert- 
ford College, Oxford, graduating B.A. 1767, 
M.A. 1770, and D.D. by diploma 1784. He 
was first chaplain to Lord Northington, who 
became lord-lieutenant of Ireland 3 June 
1783, and was promoted to the bishopric of 
Down and Connor by patent dated 12 Dec. 
following. He was indebted to Fox for this 
rapid promotion, and Bishop Mant says the 
intelligence was communicated to him in a 
letter to this effect : ' I have ceased to be 
minister, and you are bishop of Down ' (His- 
tory of the Church of Ireland, ii. 686). He 
was thus the official superior of his father, 
who was still dean of Down. He was too 
modest to push himself forward in public life ; 
but his manners were charming, his domestic 
life blameless, and he was admired by men 
of all parties. He married a Miss Symmes, 
and by her had six children, of whom one 
son, John, was archdeacon of Down 1796- 
1814 ; another, William, prebendary of Rat h- 
sarkan or Rasharkin, in the diocese of Connor, 
1800-50 ; and a third, Stephen, prebendary 
of Carncastle, in the same diocese, 1802-49. 
Dickson died at the house of his old friend 
Fox, in Arlington Street, London, 19 Sept. 
1804, and was buried in the cemetery of St. 
James's Chapel, Hampstead Road, where a 
monument has been erected to his memory. 

[Gent, Mag. (1804), Ixxiv. 890 ; Annual Re- 
gister (1804), xlvi. 501 ; Cat. of Oxford Gradu- 
ates (1851), 186 ; Cotton's Fasti EcclesiaeHiber- 
nicse, iii. 212, 228 ; Bishop Mant's History of the 
Church of Ireland, ii. 686, 760, 762.] B. H. B. 

DICKSON, WILLIAM GILLESPIE 

(1823-1876), legal writer, bom 9 April 1823, 
was the second son of Henry Gordon Dickson, 
writer to the signet in Edinburgh. He was 
educated at the Edinburgh Academy and Uni- 
versity, and destined for the legal profession. 
On 9 March 1847 he was 'admitted a member 
of the Faculty of Advocates, and practised 
at the bar of the supreme court of Scotland 
in Edinburgh for some years. His success 
as an advocate was moderate, and he em- 
ployed the leisure of his first years of prac- 
tice in preparing the work upon which his 
fame mainly depends 'A Treatise on the Law 
of Evidence in Scotland/ the first edition of 
which was published in July 1855. The work 
had immediate success. A second edition was 
published in 1864, but by this time the sphere 
of the author's labours was changed. In 
July 1856 he accepted the office of procureur 
and advocate-general of the Mauritius, where 
he remained for the next ten years. In 1867, 



Dickson 



4 6 



Dickson 



on account of the failing health of his wife, 
he obtained leave of absence, and while in 
this country in 1868 he was offered by Sheriff 
Glassford Bell, then sheriff-principal of La- 
narkshire, the office of sheriff-substitute in 
Glasgow. This he accepted, much to the 
regret of his friends in the Mauritius, by whom 
his labours were cordially appreciated, and 
where he was greatly liked, and on Sheriff 
Bell's death in 1874, he succeeded him as 
sheriff-depute (or principal sheriff) of the 
county. He was installed on 21 Jan. 1874, 
and shortly afterwards (in April 1874) he 
received from his alma mater the honorary 
degree of LL.D. He died suddenly on 21 Oct. 
1876. In Glasgow as in the Mauritius Dick- 
son made himself a general favourite. His 
great legal attainments and his extreme in- 
dustry gained him the respect of the members 
of his profession. As a judge he was consci- 
entious and painstaking in the highest degree. 
It is, however, by his legal writings, where 
his attainments as a scientific jurist had freer 
scope, that he will always be best known. His 
work on evidence is distinguished by thorough 
investigation, comprehensive grasp of the 
subject, and logical arrangement of its various 
branches. It rapidly became and still is the 
standard authority for the practising lawyer 
in Scotland, and a third edition, which, con- 
sidering the age of the work, is now much 
needed, is understood to be at present in 
course of preparation. Dickson's amiability 
and geniality made him popular in private 
life. 

[Journal of Jurisprudence, 1876 ; Scotsman 
and Glasgow Herald, 20 Oct. 1876; Dickson's 
Treatise on the Law of Evidence in Scotland.] 

Gr. W. B. 

DICKSON, WILLIAM STEEL, D.D. 

(1744-1824), United Irishman, eldest son of 
John Dickson, tenant farmer of Ballycraigy, 
parish of Carnmoney, co. Antrim, was born 
on 25 Dec. 1744, and baptised on 30 Dec. by 
the name of William. Jane Steel was his 
mother's maiden name, and on the death 
(13 May 1747) of his uncle, William Steel, 
family usage gave the addition to Dickson's 
name (improperly spelled Steele). In his 
boyhood Dickson went through the ' almost 
useless routine of Irish country schools,' but 
was grounded in scholarship and ' taught to 
think ' by Robert White, presbyterian minis- 
ter of Templepatrick. He entered Glasgow 
College in November 1761, and owns his 
great obligations to Moorhead, professor of 
Latin, Adam Smith, John Millar, professor 
of law, and Principal Leechman. From 
Leechman 'he derived his theological, and 
from Millar his political principles. On leav- 



| ing college he seems to have been employed 
I for a time in teaching ; his adoption of the 
ministry as a profession was due to the ad- 
I vice of White. In March 1767 he was li- 
! censed, but got no call till 1771, in which 
| year he was ordained to the charge of Bally- 
| halbert (now Glastry), co. Down, by Kille- 
! leagh presbytery, on 6 March. His social 
I qualities had ingratiated him during his pro- 
| bationary years with several of the leading 
i county families, and it was probably to the 
influence of Alexander Stewart, father of 
the first Lord Londonderry, that he owed 
his settlement at Ballyhalbert. Till the out- 
break of the American war of independence 
he occupied himself mainly in parochial and 
domestic duties, having become ' an husband 
and a farmer.' A sermon against cock-fight- 
ing (circulated in manuscript) had an appre- 
ciable effect in checking that pastime in his 
neighbourhood. His political career began 
in 1776, when he spoke and preached against 
the ' unnatural, impolitic and unprincipled ' 
war with the American colonies, denouncing 
it as a ' mad crusade.' On two government 
fast-days his sermons on 'the advantages 
of national repentance' (13 Dec. 1776), and 
on ' the ruinous effects of civil war ' (27 Feb. 
1778) created considerable excitement when 
published, and Dickson was reproached as a 
traitor. Political differences were probably 
at the root of a secession from his congrega- 
tion in 1777. The seceders formed a new 
congregation at Kirkcubbin, in defiance of 
the authority of the general synod. 

Dickson entered with zest into the volun- 
teer movement of 1778, being warmly in 
favour of the admission of Roman catholics 
to the ranks. This was resisted ' through 
the greater part of Ulster, if not the whole.' 
In a sermon to the Echlinville volunteers 
(28 March 1779) Dickson advocated the en- 
rolment of catholics, and though induced to 
modify his language in printing the dis- 
course, he offended ' all the protestant and 
presbyterian bigots in the country.' He was 
accused of being a papist at heart, ( for the 
very substantial reason, among others, that 
the maiden name of the parish priest's mother 
was Dickson.' 

On 1 Feb. 1780 Dickson resigned the charge 
of Ballyhalbert, having a call to the neigh- 
bouring congregation of Portaferry in suc- 
cession to James Armstrong (1710-1779), 
whose funeral sermon he had preached. He 
was installed at Portaferry in March, on a 
stipend of 100/., supplemented by some 91. 
(afterwards increased to 301.} from the re- 
gium donum. He realised another 100/. a 
year by keeping a boarding-school, and was 
not without private means. On 27 June 



Dickson 



47 



Dickson 



1780 he was elected moderator of the general 
synod of Ulster at Dungannon, co. Tyrone. 
Though the contrary has been stated, Dick- 
son was not a member of the volunteer con- 
ventions at Dungannon in 1782 and 1783. 
He threw himself heart and soul into the 
famous election for county Down in August 
1783, when the houses of Hill and Stewart, 
representing the court and country parties, 
first came into collision. Dickson, with his 
forty mounted freeholders, failed to secure 
the re-election of Robert Stewart, who even- 
tually took refuge ' under the shade of a 
peerage/ But in 1790 he successfully exerted 
himself for the return of Stewart's son (also 
Robert), better known as Lord Castlereagh. 
Castlereagh proved his gratitude by referring 
at a later date to Dickson's popularity in 
1790, as proof that he was ' a very dangerous 
person to leave at liberty.' In 1788 Dickson 
was a candidate for the agency of the regium 
donum, but the post was conferred on Robert 
Black [q. v.] 

As early as December 1791, Dickson, who 
was now a D.D. of Glasgow, took the test as 
a member of the first society of United Irish- 
men, organised in October at Belfast by Theo- 
bald Wolfe Tone. He labours to prove that 
lie attended no further meetings of this body, 
devoting himself to spreading its principles 
among the volunteer associations, in opposi- 
tion to the l demi-patriotic ' views of the 
whig clubs. At a great volunteer meeting 
in Belfast on 14 July 1792 he opposed a re- 
solution for the gradual removal of catholic 
disabilities, and assisted in obtaining a una- 
nimous pledge in favour of total and imme- 
diate emancipation. Parish and county meet- 
ings were held throughout Ulster, culminating 
in a provincial convention at Dungannon on 
15 Feb. 1793. Dickson had been a leading 
spirit at many of the preliminary meetings, 
and, as a delegate from the barony of Ards, 
he had a chief hand in the preparation of the 
Dungannon resolutions. Their avowed ob- 
ject was to strengthen the throne and give 
vitality to the constitution by ' a complete 
and radical reform.' Dickson was nominated 
on a committee of thirty to summon a na- 
tional convention. Before he left Dungan- 
non he was called upon for a sermon to the 
times, and had an immense audience, the es- 
tablished and catholic clergy being present. 
The Irish parliament went no further in the 
direction of emancipation than the Relief 
Act (33 Geo. Ill, c. 21), which received the 
royal assent on 9 April, and remained unex- 
tended till 1829 ; while the passing of Lord 
Clare's Convention Act (33 Geo. Ill, c. 29), 
still in force, made illegal all future as- 
semblies of delegates ' purporting to repre- 



sent the people, or any description of the 
people.' 

The Convention Act put an end to the 
existence of the volunteers as a political 
party ; those who were disinclined to accept 
the situation became more and more identi- 
fied with the illegal operations of the United 
Irishmen. Dickson got up political meetings 
and preached political sermons, which were 
considered * fraught with phlogistick prin- 
ciples ' (MTJSGKAVE). He maintains that he 
exerted himself to prevent outbreak, and that 
' reform alone was sought for.' In October 
1796 several members of his congregation 
were arrested, and a reward of 1,000/. was 
offered to one Carr, a weaver, for evidence 
which would secure Dickson's conviction. 
The suspects were liberated without trial at 
the summer assize in Downpatrick, 1797 ; 
and Dickson, though a watch was kept on 
his movements, would have been safe but for 
his own folly. In March and April 1798 he 
was in Scotland arranging family affairs. 
During his absence the plan of the northern 
insurrection was digested, and Dickson soon 
after his return agreed to take the place of 
Thomas Russell as ' adjutant-general of the 
United Irish forces for county Down.' This 
appointment he does not deny, though with 
great ingenuity he disposes of the insufficient 
evidence brought forward in proof of it : ' I 
may have been a general for aught that ap- 
pears to the contrary ; and I may not have 
been a general, though people said I was.' 
A few days before the projected insurrection 
he was arrested at Ballynahinch. The date 
of the arrest has been variously stated, but 
his own very circumstantial narrative fixes 
it on Tuesday evening, 5 June. He was con- 
veyed to Belfast, and lodged in the ' black 
hole ' and other prisons, till on 12 Aug. he 
was removed to the prison ship, and de- 
tained there amid considerable discomfort 
till 25 March 1799. From Ireland he was 
transferred to Fort George, Inverness-shire, 
arriving there on 9 April. Here, with his 
fellow-prisoners, he was exceedingly well 
treated. His liberty was offered him on con- 
dition of emigration, but he demanded a 
trial, which was never granted. At length, 
on 30 Dec. 1801, he was brought back from 
Fort George, and given his freedom in Bel- 
fast on 13 Jan! 1802. 

Dickson returned to liberty and misfor- 
tune. His wife had long been a helpless 
invalid, his eldest son was dead, his pro- 
spects were ruined. With fierce humour he 
reckons his losses at 3,61 8/., and sets down 
his compensation as 0,000/. His congrega- 
tion at Portaferry had been declared vacant 
on 28 Nov. 1799. William Moreland, who 



Dickson 



4 8 



Dicuil 



had been ordained as his successor on 16 June j 
1800, at once offered to resign, but Dickson 
would not hear of this. He had thoughts of j 
emigration, but decided to stand his ground, j 
Overtures from the congregation of Donegore : 
were frustrated by hints of the withdrawal | 
of the regium donum. At length he was \ 
chosen by a seceding minority from the con- | 
gregation of Keady, co. Armagh, and in- 
stalled minister of Second Keady on 4 March | 
1803, on a stipend of 50/., without regium \ 
donum. He soon became involved in syno- | 
dical disputes with Black, the leader of j 
synod, and on the publication of his ' Narra- ' 
tive ' (1812) he narrowly escaped suspension 
ab ojficio. His political career closed with 
his attendance on 9 Sept. 1811 at a catholic 
meeting in Armagh, on returning from which 
he was cruelly beaten by Orangemen. In 

1815 he resigned his charge in broken health, 
and henceforth subsisted on charity. Joseph 
Wright, an episcopalian lawyer, gave him a j 
cottage rent free in the suburbs of Belfast, j 
and some of his old friends made him a \ 
weekly allowance. He lived to exult in j 
Black's fall from power. At the synod in ; 

1816 William Neilson, D.D., of Dundalk, j 
proposed Dickson as a fit person to fill the 
divinity chair which was about to be erected, 
but the suggestion was not entertained. He 
acted on the committee for examining theo- 
logical students till April 1824. His last 
appearance in the pulpit was early in 1824. 
Robert Acheson of Donegall Street, Belfast 
(d. 21 Feb. 1824), failed to meet his congre- | 
gation : Dickson, who was present, gave out 
a psalm and prayed, but did not preach. He 
died on 27 Dec. 1824, having just passed his 
eightieth year, and was buried ' in a pauper's 
grave ' at Clifton Street cemetery, Belfast. 
He married in 1771 Isabella Gamble, who 
died at Smylodge, Mourne, co. Down, on 
15 July 1819 ; she appears to have had some 
means, which died with her. Dickson's eldest > 
son, a surgeon in the navy, died in 1798 ; his 
second son was in business ; of other two j 
sons, one was an apothecary ; Dickson had 
also two daughters, but seems to have sur- 
vived all his children. A grandson was a 
struggling physician in Belfast. 

Dickson was a man of genius, a wit, and a 
demagogue ; his writings give the impres- 
sion that he would have shone at the bar ; 
as a clergyman he was strongly anticalvi- 
nistic in doctrine, assiduous in pastoral duties, 
and of stainless character. 

He published : 1. 'A Sermon . . .before the 
Echlinville Volunteers,' &c., Belfast, 1779, 
4to. 2. ' Funeral Sermon for Armstrong,' 
Belfast, 1780, 4to. 3. < Sermons,' Belfast 
[1780], 12mo. (two fast sermons and two 



others). 4. ' Psalmody,' Belfast, 1792, 12mo 
(an address to Ulster presbyterians, issued 
with the approbation of nine presbyteries). 
5. ' Three Sermons on the subject of Scrip- 
ture Politics,' Belfast, 1793, 4to (reprinted 
as an appendix to No. 6). 6. ' A Narrative 
of the Confinement and Exile,' &c., Dublin, 
1812, 4to ; 2nd edition same year (both edi- 
tions were published by subscription; the 
second was of two thousand copies at a guinea, 
but it fell flat, and is exceedingly scarce). 
7. f Speech at the Catholic Dinner, 9 May, 7 
Dublin, 1811, 8vo. 8. ' Retractations,' &c., 
Belfast, 1813, 4to (a defence of No. 6 against 
Dr. Black). 9. < Sermons,' Belfast, 1817, 4to. 

[For Dickson's life the main authority is his 
own Narrative, amended on some minor points- 
in his Retractations, but bearing evident marks 
of genuineness and truth. A short biography is 
given in Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of 
Presb. in Ireland, 2ndser. 1880, p. 226 sq.; Classon 
Porter, in Irish Presb. Biog. Sketches, 1883, 
p. 1 sq., is fuller, but often inaccurate. Northern 
Star, 14 July 1792, 16 and 20 Feb. 1793 ; Re- 
port from the Committee of Secrecy, 1798, App. 
pp. cxxv, cxxix ; Musgrave's Mem. of the different 
Rebellions in Ireland, 2nd ed. 1801, pp. 123 sq., 
183 ; Northern Whig, 30 July 1819 ; Teeling's 
Personal Narrative of the Irish Rebellion, 1828, 
p. 226 sq. ; Montgomery's Outlines of the Hist, 
of Presb. in Ireland, in Irish Unit. Mag. 1847, 
p. 333 sq. ; Madden's United Irishmen, 2nd ser. 
ii. 431; Reid's Hist. Presb. Church in Ireland 
(KiUen), 1867, iii. 396 sq. ; Killen's Hist. Congr. 
Presb. Church in Ireland, 1886. pp. 148, 163, 
215 sq. ; Minutes of Gen. Synod ; information 
from Rev. C. J. M'Alester, Holywood, and Mr. 
A. Hill, Ballyearl, Carnmoney.] A. G-. 

DICUIL (fl. 825), Irish geographer, is 
only known by his work, l Liber de Men- 
sura Orbis terrae.' That he was an Irishman 
by birth, if not by residence, is proved by his 
phrases, ' heremitae ex nostra Scottia navi- 
gantes ' (p. 44), and ' circum nostram insulam 
Hiberniam ' (p. 41) ; for Scottia was not used 
as the equivalent of the modern Scotland till 
a century after Dicuil's time at the very 
earliest. In the same direction tends his 
accurate knowledge of the islands near Bri- 
tain and Ireland, ' in alias quibus ipsarum 
habitavi, alias intravi, alias tantumvidi, alias 
legi ' (p. 41). On the other hand it has been 
plausibly maintained that he was a member 
of one of the numerous Irish monasteries 
that in his days still flourished in different 
parts of the Frankish empire (WEIGHT, i, 
372, &c.) This theory may perhaps be sup- 
ported by his allusion to the Gallic poet 
Sedulius, ' auctoritate aliorum poetarum et 
maxime Virgilii, quern in talibus causis nos- 
ter simulavit Sedulius, qui in heroicis car- 
minibus,' &c. ; but hardly on the lines of 



Dicuil 



49 



Dicuil 



"Wright's argument that only within the 
bounds of Charles's empire could he have ' 
found copies of the authors whom he quotes.' 
Even in the phrase just cited it is not un- 
likely that Dicuil uses the ' noster ' for the 
sake of supporting the practice of a heathen 
poet like Virgil by that of i our own ' Chris- 
tian epic ' poet Sedulius,' and not as token of 
community of race. 

From Dicuil's ' Liber de Mensura ' we learn 
that he was a pupil of a certain Suibneus, 
'cui, si profeci quicquid, post Deum imputo' 
(p. 25), in whose presence our author heard 
brother Fidelis describe his pilgrimage to the 
Pyramids and Jerusalem. This Suibneus 
Letronne has attempted to identify with a 
Suibhne whose death the Irish annals assign 
to 776 A.D., and on this somewhat slender 
foundation proceeds to argue along a chain 
of inferences to the conclusion that Dicuil 
was born between 755 and 760 A.D. Dicuil 
himself he tentatively identifies with a Di- 
chullus, abbot of Pahlacht, whose date the 
Irish annals do not indicate (LETRONNE, Pro- 
legom. pp. 23-5). Accepting these dates, Dicuil 
must have been from thirty-five to forty years 
old when in 795 A.D. he received the visit of 
the clerks who had spent six months in Ice- 
land (Liber de Mem. pp. 42-4). It has been 
surmised that he was in France during the 
lifetime of the great elephant sent by Haroun 
Al Raschid to Charlemagne. If this surmise 
were true, he must have been there between 
the years 802 and 810 A.D., the date of the 
animal's arrival at Aix and its death : but 
there is nothing in Dicuil's own phrase to 
imply that he himself saw the elephant, but 
rather the contrary (Liber de Mens. p. 55 ; 
LETRONNE, pp. 150-2). Of the other details 
of his life we are ignorant, except that in 
825 A.D., 

Post octingentos viginti quinque peractos 
Summi annos Domini terrse ethrae carceris atri, 

he completed his only remaining work, the 
' Liber de Mensura Orbis terrae,' after he had 
already issued an l Epistola de quaestionibus 
decem artis grammatics,' now lost (Liber de 
Mens.-p-p. 1, 85). 

The ' Liber de Mensura ' is a short treatise 
on the geography of the world. It professes 
to be based on a survey of the world, ordered 
and carried out by the Emperor Theodosius 
in the fifteenth year of his consulship or the 
fifteenth of his reign. It is uncertain whether 
the Theodosius alluded to is Theodosius I or 
II. Dicuil's latest editor (PARTHEY, pp. xii- 
xiii) seems to incline to Theodosius II ; but 
that our author attributed the survey to 
Theodosius I appears evident by his use of 
the words ' Sanctus Theodosius imperator.' 

VOL, XV. 



Dicuil's work is divided into nine sections : 
(1) Europe, (2) Asia, (3) Africa, (4) Egypt 
and Ethiopia, (5) on the length and breadth 
of the world, (6) on the five great rivers, &c., 
(7) on certain islands, (8) on the breadth and 
length of the Tyrrhene Sea, (9) on the six 
(highest) mountains. Of these sections the 
first five are derived from the Theodosian 
survey, which he chose for the basis of his 
work, because, though vitiated by false manu- 
scripts, it was less faulty than Pliny, espe- 
cially in its measurements. The last books 
are mostly excerpts from Pliny, Solinus, and 
Isidore ; with, however, interesting additions 
of his own when touching on the Pyramids 
and the Nile, on the islands round Britain 
and Ireland, on Iceland (Thile), and a few 
other places. These additions he derived 
from the trustworthy accounts of certain, 
possibly Irish, monks who had visited these 
lands. Specially interesting is his story of 
Fidelis's adventure near the Pyramids, where 
the narrator saw the corpses of eight men 
and women lying on the desert sand, all slain 
by a lion who lay dead beside them ; and the 
account of the Iceland nights at the summer 
solstice, which were so bright that a man 
could see to do what he would ( vel peducu- 
los de camisia abstrahere tamquam in prae- 
sentia solis ' (pp. 26, 42-3). The first of 
these passages is relied on by Letronne for 
fixing the time of Dicuil's birth : for Fidelis, 
the narrator, had journeyed in a ship along 
the canal connecting the Nile with the Red 
Sea ; and as this canal is known to have been 
blocked up by Abou Giafar Almansor in 967 
the voyage of Fidelis must have been ante- 
rior to this (see LETRONNE, Proleg. 10-22). 
Dicuil was a cautious writer, especially as 
regards statistics. From this spirit he left 
blank spaces in which his readers might in- 
sert the length of rivers where he could not 
trust the figures of Pliny or of Theodosius's 
missi. This system has produced some sur- 
prising results, e.g., where the length of the 
Tiber is put at 495 miles, and that of the Ta- 
gus at 302 ; or where the Jordan is reckoned 
722 miles long, and the Ganges only 453 
(Liber de Mens. pp. 4, 31, 36, 38). Dicuil 
also draws upon certain works now lost, e.g. 
a t Cosmography ' (' nuper in meas manus 
veniens ' ), drawn up under the consulship of 
Julius Caesar and Mark Antony (ib. pp. 28, 
36, &c. ; but cf. BUNBTJRY, Hist, of Ancient 
Geogr. pp. 177-9, 693, 701) ; and a < Choro- 
grafia ' drawn up by command of Augustus 
(p. 5). The list of authors from whom he 
borrows is very large, including, in addition 
to those already mentioned, Virgil, Orosius, 
and Servius (pp. 68, 72, 81) ; but Hecatseus, 
Homer, Herodotus, and other Greek writers 



Diest 5 

he seems always to refer to at second hand 
(pp. 22, 46, 78 ; for a full list see PARTHEY'S 
Preface, pp. vi and vii). 

The ' Liber de Mensura ' was first printed 
as a whole by Walckenaer (Paris, 1807) ; 
next, with copious prolegomena, historical 
and geographical, by Letronne (Paris, 1814). 
Lastly, the text has been carefully edited 
and furnished with a minute index and a 
Short critical preface, by Gust. Parthey (Ber- 
lin, 1870). There are two manuscripts be- 
longing to the tenth century or thereabouts, 
viz., one at Dresden (Regius D. 182), another 
at Paris (Biblioth. Nation. 4806) ; of these 
the first forms the basis of Parthey's edition, 
the second that of Walckenaer's and Le- 
tronne's. Other but later manuscripts are to 
be found at Venice (fifteenth century), Ox- 
ford, Rome, Vienna, Munich, and Cambridge. 

[Prefaces to Parthey's and "Walckenaer's edi- 
tions ; Hardy's Biog. Literaria, i.] T. A. A. 

DIEST, ABRAHAM VAN (1655-1704), 
painter. [See VANDIEST.] 

DIGBY, EVERARD (fl. 1590), divine 
and author, was nearly related to the Rut- 
land family of that name. He is said to have 
been great-grandson of Everard Digby, sheriff 
of Rutlandshire, a Lancastrian who was killed 
at Towton in 1461. It is also usually stated 
that his father was Kenelm Digby of Stoke 
Dry, Rutland, and his mother Mary, daughter 
of Sir Anthony Cope [q. v.] Everard was un- 
doubtedly the name of their eldest son, who 
married Maria, daughter of Francis Neale of 
Keythorpe, Leicestershire ; was the father of 
Sir Everard Digby [q. v.], the conspirator in 
the Gunpowder plot ; and died 24 Jan. 1592. 
But the inquisitio post mortem expressly styles 
this Everard Digby as an ' esquire,' which 
makes it plain that he is not identical with 
the divine and author, who, as a fellow of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, must have been 
unmarried at the time of Sir Everard's birth 
in 1578. The divine's parentage cannot be 
precisely stated. Born about 1550, he ma- 
triculated as a sizar of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 25 Oct. 1567; was admitted a 
scholar 9 Nov. 1570; proceeded B. A. 1570-1, 
M.A. 1574, and B.D. 1581 ; and became a 
Lady Margaret fellow on 12 March 1572-3, 
and senior fellow 10 July 1585. He was 
principal lecturer in 1584. Digby took part 
in the college performance of Dr. Legge's 
* Richardus Tertius ' in 1580. He petitioned 
Lord Burghley for the rectory of Tinwell, 
Rutlandshire, 26 Jan. 1581-2 (Lansd. MS. 
34, art. 12), but the request does not seem 
to have been granted, and before the end of 
1587 he was deprived of his fellowship. In a 



> Digby 

letter to Burghley, William Whitaker, master 
of St. John's College (4 April 1 588), explained 
that this step had been rendered necessary 
by Digby's arrears with the college steward. 
He added that Digby had preached voluntary 
poverty, a ' popish position,' at St. Mary's ; 
had attacked Calvinists as schismatics ; was 
in the habit of blowing a horn and hallooing 
in the college during the daytime, and re- 
peatedly spoke of the master to the scholars 
with the greatest disrespect. Burghley and 
Whitgift ordered Digby's restitution ; but 
Whitaker stood firm, and with Leicester's 
aid obtained confirmation of the expulsion. 

Digby's best known book is a treatise on 
swimming, the earliest published in England. 
The title runs : ' De Arte Natandi libri duo, 
quorum prior regulas ipsius artis, posterior 
vero praxin demonstrationemque continet/ 
Lond. 1587, dedicated to Richard Nourtley. 
It is illustrated with plates, and was trans- 
lated into English by Christopher Middleton 
in 1595. Digby also wrote ' De Duplici me- 
thodo libri duo, unicam P. Rami methodum 
refutantes : in quibus via plana, expedita & 
exacta, secundum optimos autores, ad scientia- 
rum cognitionem elucidatur,' London, Henry 
Bynneman, 1580; 'Theoria analytica viam 
ad monarchiam scientiarum demoiistrans . . . 
totius Philosophise & reliquarum scientiarum,' 
dedicated to Sir Christopher Hatton, 1579. 
William Temple of King's College, afterwards 
provost of Trinity College, Dublin, wrote, 
under the pseudonym of Franciscus Milda- 
pettus, an attack on Digby's criticism of 
Ramus, to which Digby replied in 1580. 
Temple replied again in 1581. As the pro- 
ductions of a predecessor of Bacon, Digby's 
two philosophical books are notable. Al- 
though clumsy in expression and overlaid 
with scholastic subtleties, Digby tried in his 
' Theoria Analytica ' to classify the sciences, 
and elsewhere ventures on a theory of per- 
ception based on the notion of the active 
correspondence of mind and matter. M. de 
Remusat sees in Digby's theory an adumbra- 
tion of Leibnitz's intellectus ipse and a re- 
flection of the Platonic idea. Otherwise 
Digby is a disciple of Aristotle. Digby was 
also author of ' Everard Digbie, his Dissuasive 
from taking away the Ly vings and Goods of 
the Church,' with ' Celsus of Verona, his 
Dissuasive, translated into English/ London, 
1589, dedicated to Sir Christopher Hatton. 
The British Museum possesses a copy of 
* Articuli ad narrationes nouas pertinformati ' 
(Berthelet, 1530) which belonged to Digby. 
It contains his autograph and many notes 
in his handwriting. 

[Biog. Brit. (Kippis) s.n. ' Sir Everard Digby ; ' 
Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 146, 546; Baker's 



Digby 

Hist, of St. John's College (Mayor), pp. 167, 599, 
<300 ; Strype's Annals ; Strype's Whit gift, i. 520 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Hey wood and Wright's Camb. 
Univ. Transactions, i. 506-23 ; Remusat's Philo- 
sophic Anglaise depuis Bacon jusqu'a Locke, i. 
110-16, where Digby's philosophical position is 
fully expounded.] S. L. L. 

DIGBY, SIR EVERARD (1578-1606), 
conspirator, son of Everard Digby of Stoke 
Dry, Rutland, by Maria, daughter and co- 
heiress of Francis Neale of Keythorpe, Leices- 
tershire, was born on 16 May 1578, and was 
in his fourteenth year when his father died 
on 24 Jan. 1592. It is a common error to 
identify his father with Everard Digby, 
divine and author [q. v.] His wardship was 
purchased from the crown by Roger Man- 
ners, esq., of the family of the Earl of Rut- 
land, and probably re-sold at an advanced 
Erice to young Digby's mother. The heir to 
trge estates in Rutland, Leicestershire, and 
Lincolnshire, and connected with many of 
the most considerable families in England, 
it was only to be expected that he should 
present himself at the queen's court. While 
still a youth he was appointed to some office 
in the household, which John Gerard, the 
Jesuit father [q. v.], probably erroneously, 
describes as ' being one of the queen's gentle- 
men-pensioners.' His great stature and bodily 
strength, however, made him an adept at all 
field sports, and he spent the greater part of 
his time in the country hunting and hawk- 
ing. In 1596 he married Mary, only daugh- 
ter and heiress of William Mulsho of Goat- 
hurst, Buckinghamshire, and obtained with 
her a large accession of fortune. About 1599 
Digby fell under the influence of John Gerard, 
who soon acquired an extraordinary sway 
over him. They became close friends and 
companions, their friendship being strength- 
ened by the conversion of Digby to the ' ca- 
tholic doctrine and practice/ which was soon 
followed by the adhesion of Digby's wife and 
his mother. When James I came to Eng- 
land, Digby joined the crowd of those who 
welcomed the new king at Belvoir Castle, 
and received the honour of knighthood there 
on 23 April 1603. How bitterly the Ro- 
mish party were disappointed by the attitude 
assumed by James in the following year; 
how their bitterness and anger made a small 
section of them furious and desperate; how 
the Gunpowder plot grew into more and more 
definite shape, and how the mad scheme 
exercised a kind of fascination over the im- 
agination of the small band of frenzied 
gentlemen who were deeply implicated in it, 
may be read in the histories of the time, and 
best of all in Mr. Gardiner's first volume. 
Unlike Catesby, Rookwood, Tresham, and 



5 1 



Digby 



others more or less cognisant of the con- 
spiracy, Digby had never had anything to 
complain of in the shape of persecution at the 
hands of the government. It is probable that 
both his parents were catholics, but they had 
never been disturbed for their convictions, 
and their son had evidently suffered no great 
inconvenience for conscience' sake. In the 
arrangements that were made by the con- 
spirators Digby was assigned a part which 
kept him at a distance from London, and 
there are some indications that he was not 
trusted so implicitly as the rest. The plan 
agreed upon was that Faux should fire the 
train with a slow match, and at once make 
off to Flanders. Percy was to seize the per- 
son of Prince Henry or his brother Charles, 
with the co-operation of the others, who were 
all in London or the suburbs, and was to 
carry him off with all speed to Warwickshire. 
Meanwhile Digby was to co-operate by pre- 
paring for a rising in the midlands when the 
catastrophe should have been brought about ; 
and it was settled that he should invite a 
large number of the disaffected gentry to 
meet him at Dunchurch in Warwickshire, 
and join in a hunting expedition onDunsmoor 
Heath (near Rugby), where, it was whispered, 
strange news might be expected. This gather- 
ing was fixed for Tuesday, 5 Nov. 1605. 
On Monday the 4th, about midnight, Faux 
was apprehended by Sir Thomas Knyvett 
as he was closing the door of the cellar 
under the parliament house, where thirty- 
six barrels of gunpowder had been placed in 
readiness for the explosion intended on the 
morrow. The game was up ; and before day- 
break some of the conspirators had taken 
horse ; and all were riding furiously to the 
place of meeting before the great secret had 
become common property. The meeting of 
the catholic gentry at Dunchurch had evi- 
dently not been a success, and when, late in 
the evening, Catesby, Rookwood, Percy, and 
the Wrights burst in, haggard, travel-soiled, 
and half dead with their astonishing ride [see 
CATESBY, ROBERT], it became clear that there 
had been some desperate venture which had 
ended only in a crushing failure, the gentry 
who were not in the plot dispersed rapidly to 
their several homes, and the plotters were left 
to take their chance. The almost incredible 
strength and endurance of Catesby and his 
accomplices appears from the fact that on 
that very night (after a ride of eighty miles in 
seven or eight hours, for Rookwood had not 
left London till eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing) they started again before ten o'clock, 
and were at Huddington in Worcestershire 
by two o'clock the next afternoon, having 
broken into a cavalry stable at Warwick in 

E2 



Digby 



Digby 



the middle of the night and helped themselves 
to fresh horses for the distance that lay before 
them. On Thursday night, the 7th, they 
had reached Plolbeach House in Stafford- 
shire, and then it was determined to make 
a stand and sell their lives as dearly as they 
could. Next morning Digby deserted his com- 
panions ; he says his object was to make a 
diversion elsewhere, and to attempt to bring 
up some assistance to prop, if possible, the 
falling cause. Shortly after he had gone the 
terrible explosion of gunpowder occurred, and 
the fight which ended in the death or appre- 
hension of the whole band. Meanwhile Digby 
soon found that it was impossible to escape 
the notice of his pursuers, who were speedily 
upon his track, and thinking it best to dismiss 
his attendants, he told his servants they ' 
might keep the horses they were riding, and 
distributed among them the money they were 
carrying let each man shift for himself. 
Two of them refused to leave him, one being 
his page, William Ellis by name, who eventu- 
ally became a lay brother of the Society of 
Jesus. The three struck into a wood where 
there was a dry pit, in which they hoped to 
conceal themselves and their horses. They 
were soon discovered, and a cry was raised, 
f Here he is ! here he is ! ' Digby, altogether 
undaunted, answered, l Here he is indeed, 
what then ? ' and advanced his horse in the 
manner of curvetting, which he was expert 
in, and thought to have borne them over, and 
so to break from them. Seeing, however, 
that resistance was useless, he gave himself 
up, and before many days found himself a 
prisoner in the Tower. Two miserable months 
passed before the prisoners were brought to 
trial. At last, on 27 Jan. 1606, Digby, with 
eight others who had been caught red-handed, 
was brought to Westminster Hall. He be- 
haved with some dignity during the trial, but 
there could be no doubt about the verdict, 
and on Thursday, the 30th, he was drawn upon 
a hurdle, with three of his accomplices, to 
St. Paul's Churchyard, and there hanged and 
slaughtered with the usual ghastly barbari- 
ties. On the scaffold he had confessed his 
guilt with a manly shame for his infatuation, 
and a solemn protest that Father Gerard had 
never known of the plot, adding, i I never 
durst tell him of it, for fear he would have 
drawn me out of it.' It is impossible for any 
candid reader of all the evidence that has 
come down to us to doubt the truth of this 
protest. Garnett's, complicity cannot be ques- 
tioned, and his subsequent equivocation was 
as impolitic as it was discreditable. Father 
Gerard was a very different man. If the plot 
had been revealed to him, it would never have 
been permitted to go as far as it did. 



Digby left two sons behind him ; the elder,, 
Sir John Digby, was knighted in 1635 and 
became a major-general on the king's side 
during the civil war. He is said to have been 
slain 9 July 1645. The younger son was the 
much more famous Sir Kenelm Digby, of 
whom an account will be found sub nomine. 
Digby's wife survived him many years, as 
did his mother, and neither appears to have 
married again. 

[Chancery Inquisitiones post mortem, 34th 
Eliz. pt. i. No. 64 (Rutland), in the Record 
Office ; Books of the Court of Wards and Liveries, 
No. 158, u. s.; Harl. MS. 1364; Cal. State 
Papers, Domestic, 1603-10; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
8th Rep. 434 ; Foley's Records of the English 
Province S. J., vol. ii.; John Morris's Condition 
of Catholics under James I., 1872, vol. ii., and the 
same writer's Life of Father John Grerard, 3rd 
edit. 1881 ; Bishop Robert Abbot's Antilogia, 
1613 ; Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 146; Jardine'& 
Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot, 1857 ; Gardi- 
ner's Hist, of England, vol. i. Digby's mother is- 
called Maria in the usual pedigrees of the family, 
but in the Inq. post mort. she is called Mary 
Ann, probably by a clerical error.] A. J. 

DIGBY, GEOKGE, second EAKL OP 
BEISTOL (1612-1677), was the eldest son of 
John Digby, first earl of Bristol [q. v.], by his 
wife Beatrix, daughter of Charles Walcot of 
Walcot, Shropshire, and widow of Sir John 
Dy ve of Bromham, Bedfordshire. He was born 
at Madrid in October 1612, during his father's 
first embassy to Spain. When only twelve- 
years old he appeared at the bar of the House 
of Commons with a petition on behalf of his 
father, who, through the instrumentality of 
the D uke of Buckingham, had been committed 
to the Tower. His self-possession and fluency 
of speech on that occasion attracted the at- 
tention of the members, and gave great promise 
of a brilliant career in the future. He wa& 
admitted to Magdalen College, Oxford, on 
15 Aug. 1626, where he distinguished himself 
by his remarkable abilities, and became inti- 
mately acquainted with Peter Heylin, the 
well-known historian and divine, who was a 
fellow of that college. After travelling in 
France, at the conclusion of his university 
career, he lived for some years with his father 
at Sherborne Castle, where he applied himself 
to the study of philosophy and literature. 
On 31 Aug. 1636 he was created a master of 
arts. It was during this period of retirement 
in the country that the ' Letters between the 
Lord George Digby and Sir Kenelm Digby, 
Knt. , concerning Religion ' were written. The 
first letter is dated from ' Sherburn, Novem- 
ber 2, 1638,' and the last from ' Sherborn, 
March 30, 1639.' These letters, in which the 
Roman catholic church is attacked by Lord 



Digby 



53 



Digby 



Digby, and defended by his kinsman, Sir 
Kenelm, were afterwards published in 1651. 
On one of his short occasional visits to Lon- 
don, Digby quarrelled with a gentleman of the 
court, whom he wounded and disarmed within 
the precincts of the palace of Whitehall. For 
this offence he was imprisoned and treated 
with considerable severity. Upon his release 
he vowed vengeance against the court for the 
indignities which he had suffered. His op- 
portunity soon came, for in March 1640 he 
was elected as one of the members for the 
county of Dorset, and was again returned for 
the same constituency at the general election 
which occurred a few months afterwards. On 
9 Nov. 1640 he moved for a select committee 
to draw up a remonstrance to the king on 
'the deplorable state of this his kingdom' 
{Parl. History, u. cols. 651-4), and on 11 Nov. 
he was appointed a member of the committee 
instructed to undertake the impeachment of 
the Earl of Strafford. Though at first very 
eager in prosecuting the charges against the 
unfortunate earl, Digby gradually changed 
his tactics, and at length, on 21 April 1641, 
he vigorously opposed the third reading of the 
Attainder Bill (ib. cols. 750-4). His speech 
gave great offence to those with whom he had 
been lately acting, and on the next day he was 
called upon to explain. No further proceedings 
were then taken, but the speech having been 
.afterwards printed, the House of Commons 
-on 13 July ordered that it should be publicly 
burnt by the common hangman (ib. col. 883). 
Many months afterwards appeared 'Lord 
Digbie's Apologie for Himselfe, Published the 
fourth of January, Ann. Dom. 1642,' in which 
he affirmed that Sir Lewis Dive had given the 
directions for printing this speech without 
asking his consent. Meanwhile on 9 June 
1641 Digby was called up to the House of 
Lords in his father's barony of Digby, and 
took his seat on the following day. Much 
was expected from his accession to the court 
party at this critical period ; but his restless 
disposition and untrustworthy character pre- 
vented him from being of real use to any 
party in the state. Though he had himself 
urged the prosecution of the five members 
upon the king, he actually whispered into 
Lord Kimbolton's ear, while sitting next to 
him in the House of Lords, that * the king 
was very mischievously advised ; and that it 
should go very hard but he would know 
whence that counsel proceeded ; in order to 
which, and to prevent further mischief, he 
would go immediately to his majesty' (CLA- 
RENDON, Hist, of the Rebellion, i. 508'). Fur- 
thermore, upon the retreat of the five members 
and Lord Kimbolton to the city, Digby sug- 
gested that they should be followed and 



seized by armed force. Though his proposal 
was rejected by the king, it soon got to be 
generally known, and Digby became one of 
the most unpopular men in the country. One 
day in the beginning of January 1642 he went 
to Kingston-upon-Thames upon business for 
the king * in a coach with six horses, and no 
other equipage with him, save only a servant 
riding by him, and a companion in a coach' 
(WooD, Athena Oxon. iii. col. 1101). Wood's 
account of this journey, however, materially 
differs from that received by parliament. It 
was asserted that Digby and Colonel Lunds- 
ford had collected some troops of horse, and 
had appeared in arms at Kingston. Digby was 
ordered to attend in his place in the House 
of Lords to answer for himself, and Lunds- 
ford was committed to the Tower. Instead 
of obeying the summons, Digby fled to Hol- 
land, and on 26 Feb. 1642 was impeached of 
high treason in the House of Commons (Parl. 
History, ii. cols. 1103-5). Owing, however, 
to the confusion of the times, the prosecution 
of the impeachment was not carried through. 
Unable to remain quietly in Holland, Digby 
came over to York, where he stayed some 
days in disguise. Upon his return voyage 
he was captured by one of the parliamentary 
cruisers, and taken to Hull. There he made 
himself known to Sir John Hotham, the go- 
vernor, whom he attempted to gain over to 
the royal cause. Though Hotham refused to 
be persuaded to desert his party, he connived 
at Digby's escape. Upon the breaking out 
of the civil war, Digby took part in the battle 
of Edgehill. He greatly distinguished him- 
self by his gallantry at the taking of Lich- 
field, and was shot through the thigh while 
leading an assault upon that city. Falling 
out with Prince Rupert soon afterwards, 
Digby threw up his command, and returned 
to the court, which was then at Oxford. On 
28 Sept. 1643 he was appointed by the king 
one of the principal secretaries of state in 
place of Lord Falkland, and on the same day 
was admitted to the privy council. On the 
last day of the following month he became 
high steward of Oxford University, in the 
room of William Lord Say, who had been 
removed on account of his adherence to the 
parliament. Digby's conduct of affairs as 
secretary of state was both unfortunate and 
imprudent. His visionary project for a treaty 
between the king and the city of London 
was quickly frustrated by the interception of 
Digby's letter to Sir Basil Brooke. His 
lengthy negotiations with Major-general Sir 
Richard Brown for the betrayal of Abingdon 
terminated in his utter discomfiture, while 
his correspondence with Lesley and the other 
commanders of the Scotch army in England 



Digby 



met with. 110 better success. On 16 Oct. 1645 
he succeeded Prince Rupert as lieutenant- 
general of the king's forces north of the Trent ; j 
but meeting with several reverses, and being | 
unable to effect a junction with the army of 
the Marquis of Montrose, he fled after his 
defeat by Sir John Brown at Carlisle Sands, | 
with Sir Marmaduke Langdale and other j 
officers, to the Isle of Man. Thence he went j 
to Ireland, where he conceived the plan of j 
bringing the Prince of Wales over to that | 
country, and of making one more effort for | 
the royal cause. With this object in view j 
he visited the Scilly Islands, Jersey, and 
France, but had at length to return to Ireland . 
without being able to accomplish his che- j 
rished design. Upon the surrender to the i 
parliamentary commissioners Digby escaped j 
with some difficulty to France. He then en- | 
listed as a volunteer in the French king's 
service, and took part in the war of the Fronde. 
His conspicuous bravery soon attracted at- 
tention, and he was taken into favour by the 
king and Cardinal Mazarin. 

In August 1651 he became a lieutenant- 
general in the French army, and was in the 
same year appointed commander of the royal 
troops in Normandy. Upon the death of his 
father on 6 Jan. 1653 he succeeded as the 
second Earl of Bristol, and was nominated a 
knight of the Garter in the same month. In 
consequence of the failure of a political in- 
trigue, by which he endeavoured to supplant 
Mazarin, Digby was dismissed from his com- 
mands in the French army, and ordered to 
leave the country. After paying a short visit 
to Charles at Bruges he retired to the Spanish 
camp in the Netherlands, where he gained the 
friendship of Don John of Austria, and ren- 
dered himself useful to the Spaniards in the 
negotiations with the garrison of St. Ghislain, 
near Brussels, which finally resulted in the 
surrender of that town by Marshal Schom- j 
berg. On 1 Jan. 1657 Digby was reappointed 
secretary of state. While staying at Ghent j 
he became a convert to the Roman catholic i 
faith, and was, much to his surprise, ordered 
by Charles to give up his seals, and at the same 
time was forbidden to appear at the council ( 
board in the future. Digby, however, accom- ; 
panied Charles on his secret expedition to 
Spain, and afterwards went to Madrid, where ! 
he was well received and liberally treated 
by the Spanish king. Upon the Restoration, \ 
Digby returned to England, but was installed ; 
at Windsor as a knight of the Garter by ; 
proxy in April 1661, being at that time abroad. ! 
Though he took an active interest in public . 
affairs, and spoke frequently in parliament, his ' 
religion precluded him from being offered any j 
of the high offices of state. In the interest of ! 



54 Digby 

Spain Digby vehemently opposed the nego- 
tiations for the king's marriage with the in- 
fanta of Portugal. In spite of his opposition 
they were successfully carried through, and 
Digby thereupon became conspicuous for his 
enmity against Clarendon, who had foiled his 
designs of an Italian marriage for the king. 
On 10 July 1663 he brought a charge of high 
treason against the lord chancellor in the 
House of Lords (Parl. History, iv. cols. 276- 
280). The judges, to whom the articles of 
impeachment were referred, decided that (1) a 
' charge of high treason cannot by the laws 
and statutes of this realm be originally ex- 
hibited by any one peer against another unto- 
the house of peers ; and that therefore the 
charge of high treason by the Earl of Bristol 
against the lord chancellor hath not been 
regularly and legally brought in. 2. And if 
the matters alledged were admitted to be 
true (although alleged to be traiterously 
done), yet there is not any treason in it ' (ib- 
col. 283). Though the house unanimously 
adopted the opinion of the judges, Digby once- 
more brought forward his accusation against 
Clarendon, but with no better success than 
before. His conduct so displeased the king, 
that a proclamation was issued for his appre- 
hension, and for the space of nearly two years 
he was obliged to live in concealment. Upon 
the fall of Clarendon, Digby reappeared at 
court and in parliament. Though still a pro- 
fessed Roman catholic, he spoke in the House 
of Lords on 15 March 1673 in favour of the- 
Test Act, declaring that he was ' a catholic 
of the church of Rome, not a catholic of the 
court of Rome; a distinction he thought 
worthy of memory and reflection, whenever 
any severe proceedings against those they 
called papists should come in question, since 
those of the court of Rome did only deserve 
that name' (ib. iv. col. 564). This is his 
last recorded speech. He died at Chelsea 
on 20 March 1677, in his sixty-fifth year. 
He is said to have been buried in Chelsea 
Church, but Lysons could find ' no memorial 
of him, nor any entry of his interment in the 
parish register' (Environs of London, 1795, 
'ii. 87-8). Digby married Lady Anne Russell, 
second daughter of Francis, fourth earl of 
Bedford, by whom he had four children. His 
elder son, John, who succeeded him as the 
third earl of Bristol, married, first, Alice, 
daughter and heiress of Robert Bourne of 
Blackball, Essex; and secondly, Rachael,. 
daughter of Sir Hugh Windham, kt. John 
had no issue by either marriage, and the 
barony of Digby and the earldom of Bristol be- 
came extinct upon his death in 1 698. Francis,, 
the younger son, was killed in a sea-fight 
with the Dutch on 28 May 1672. Diana, the 



Digby 



55 



Digby 



elder daughter, who like her father became a 
convert to the Roman catholic faith, married 
Baron Moll, a Flemish nobleman. Anne, the 
younger daughter, on whom the family estates 
devolved on her brother John's death, became 
the wife of Robert, earl of Sunderland. Digby 
was a man of extraordinary ability, and one 
of the greatest orators of his day. Ambi- 
tious and headstrong, he was utterly wanting 
in steadiness of principle and consistency of 
purpose. Horace Walpole has smartly de- 
scribed Digby's character in the following 
words : ' A singular person, whose life was 
one contradiction. He wrote against popery, 
and embraced it ; he was a zealous opposer 
of the court, and a sacrifice for it ; was con- 
scientiously converted in the midst of his 
prosecution of Lord Straftbrd, and was most 
unconscientiously a persecutor of Lord Cla- 
rendon. With great parts, he always hurt him- 
self and his friends ; with romantic bravery, 
he was always an unsuccessful commander. 
He spoke for the Test Act, though a Roman 
catholic, and addicted himself to astrology 
on the birthday of true philosophy' (Cata- 
logue of Royal and Noble Authors, iii. 191-2). 
His house at Chelsea, formerly Sir Thomas 
More's, and afterwards known as Bucking- 
ham House, was sold by his widow in Ja- 
nuary 1682 to Henry, marquis of Worcester, 
afterwards duke of Beaufort. It then ac- 
quired the name of Beaufort House, and in 
1736 was purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, by 
whom it was pulled down in 1740. The gate, 
which was built by Inigo Jones, was given 
to the Earl of Burlington, who erected it in 
an avenue near his house at Chiswick. Be- 
sides a number of speeches and letters, Digby 
published ' Elvira : or the Worst not always 
True. A Comedy. Written by a Person of 
Quality' (London, 1667, 4to). According 
to Downes, he wrote, with Sir Samuel Tuke, 
' The Adventures of Five Hours,' which was 
published in 1663, and, being played at Sir 
William D'Avenant's theatre in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, ' took successively thirteen days 
together, no other play intervening' (Rostius 
Anglicanus, 1789, pp. 31-2). According to 
the same authority, Digby adapted two co- 
medies from the Spanish, viz. ''Tis better 
than it was,' and * Worse and Worse,' which 
were also acted at the same theatre between 
1662 and 1665 (ib. p. 36). Neither of these 
plays appears to have been printed, but it is 
possible that one of them may have been the 
comedy of ' Elvira ' under a new title. It is 
also worthy of notice that the title-page of 
the first edition of ' The Adventures of Five 
Hours' bears no author's name, while in the 
third 'impression' (1671) it is stated that 
the play had been ' revised and corrected by 



the author, Samuel Tuke, kt. and bart.' Ac- 
cording to W f alpole, Digby translated from 
the French the first three books of ' Cassan- 
dra,' and was said to have been the author of 
j l A true and impartial Relation of the Battle 
I between his Majesty s Army and that of the 
I Rebels near Ailesbury, Bucks, Sept. 20, 1643.' 
Walpole also states that he found under 
Digby's name, ' though probably not of his 
1 writing,' ' Lord Digby's Arcana Aulica : or 
Walsingham's Manual of Prudential Maxims 
for the Statesman and the Courtier, 1655.' 
Digby's name, however, does not appear upon 
the title-page of either of the editions of 1652 
and 1655, and it seems from the preface that 
the book owed its existence to one Walsing- 
ham, who, * though very young, in a little time 
grew up, under the wings and favour of the 
Lord Digby, to such credit with the late king, 
that he came to be admitted to the greatest 
trusts.' Digby is also said to have left a manu- 
script behind him entitled ' Excerpta e diversis 
operibus Patrum Latinorum.' From the fact 
that his name appears in the third verse of 
Sir John Suckling's ' Sessions of the Poets/ 
it is evident that he must have been known 
as a verse writer before Suckling's poem was 
written. But few of his verses, however, 
have come down to us, and the song extracted 
from ' Elvira' is the only piece of his which 
is included in Ellis's ' Specimens of the Early 
English Poets' (1811, iii. 399-400), while 
some lines addressed to 'Fair Archabella,' 
taken from a manuscript in Dr. Rawlinson's 
collection in the Bodleian Library, are given 
in 'Athense Oxon.' A portrait of Digby, 
with his brother-in-law, William, fifth earl of 
Bedford, by Vandyck, was exhibited by Lord 
Spencer at the first exhibition of national 
portraits in 1866 (Catalogue, No. 728). This 
was the picture which Evelyn records seeing 
'in the great house' at Chelsea, when dining 
with the Countess of Bristol on 15 Jan. 1679. 
Bliss says that ' the best head of Lord Digby 
is that by Hollar, in folio, dated 1642 ; there 
is a small one by Stent, which is curious, and 
one by Houbraken, from a picture of Van- 
dyke's.' A strikingly handsome portrait, en- 
graved by Bocquet, probably after Vandyck's 
picture, will be found in the third volume of 
Walpole's ' Royal and Noble Authors ' (opp. 
p. 191). 

[Clarendon's History of the Rebellion (1849) ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss, 1817), iii. cols. 
1100-5; BiographiaBritannica(1793),v. 210-38; 
Walpole's Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors 
(Park, 1806), iii. 191-200; Lodge's Portraits 
(1850), vi. 23-39 ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. (1813), 
xii. 79-82 ; Cunningham's Lives of Eminent and 
Illustrious Englishmen (1 837), iii. 29-32 ; Baker's 
Biographia Dramatica (1812), i. 190; Burke's 



Digby 



Digby 



Extinct Peerage (1883), p. 171 ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage of England (1886), pp. 235-6 ; Official 
Return of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. i. 
481, 488; Faulkner's Chelsea (1829), i. 120, 
131-3, ii. 15 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

DIGBY, JOHN, first EABL OF BEISTOL 
(1580-1654), diplomatist and statesman, was 
born in February 1580. He was the son of 
Sir George Digby of Coleshill, Warwickshire, 
and of Abigail, daughter of Sir Arthur Heving- 
ham. In 1595 he became a fellow commoner of 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. In 1605, upon 
the failure of the plan for the seizing of Eliza- 
beth, daughter of James I, by the Gunpowder 
plotters, Digby was sent by Lord Harrington, 
who was in charge of the princess, to convey 
the news to the king. James took a fancy to 
the young man, made him a gentleman of the 
privy chamber and one of his carvers, and 
knighted him on 16 March 1607. Digby 
married Beatrix, daughter of Charles Wai- 
cot of Walcot in Shropshire, and widow of 
Sir John Dyve of Bromham in Bedfordshire 
(DUGDALE, Baronage}. 

In 1611 Digby was sent as ambassador to 
Madrid, with instructions to obtain a settle- 
ment of the claims of the English merchants 
in the Spanish law-courts, and to negotiate 
a marriage between Prince Henry and the 
Infanta Anne, the daughter of Philip III, 
which had already been suggested by the 
Spanish ambassador in England. He arrived 
in Spain in June, but he soon learned that the 
infanta was already engaged to Louis XIII 
of France, and he regarded an offer made to 
him of Philip's younger sister, the Infanta 
Maria, as illusory, she being a child under 
six years of age, and recommended his master 
to give up all thoughts of a Spanish match. 

In procuring redress for the merchants 
Digby found an opportunity of showing his 
ability. In 1613 he succeeded in discovering 
the secret of the pensions which had been 
paid by the Spanish court to English politi- 
cians, and in 1614 he returned to England 
to lay his discoveries before the king. From 
this time his fortune was made, and when, 
before the close of the year, James made 
up his mind to propose a marriage between 
Prince Charles, who had become heir to the 
crown after the death of his brother Henry, 
and the Infanta Maria, Digby was sent back 
to Spain to carry on the negotiation. Be- 
fore going, he left on record his opinion that 
it would be better that the future queen of 
England should be a protestant, but having 
thus freed his conscience he resolved to carry 
out the negotiation on which he was sent 
with all honesty and vigour. Digby was in 
fact one of the best examples of the reaction 
against puritanism which set in at the be- 



ginning of the seventeenth century. He was 
himself an attached son of the church of 
England, but he saw no reason why differ- 
ence of religion should divide Europe into 
two hostile camps, and he conceived, some- 
what too sanguinely, the hope that a good 
understanding between England and the 
catholic powers of the continent might be 
made a basis for the continuance of peace. 
If there was to be a catholic marriage, he 
preferred an alliance with Spain to one with 
France. 

On Digby's arrival at Madrid the marriage 
negotiation was opened, though not yet in an 
avowed manner. In 1616 he was again sum- 
moned home, upon Somerset's disgrace, to 
state what he knew of the fallen favourite's 
connection with the Spanish government. 
He reached England in March. On 3 April 
he was made vice-chamberlain, and about 
the same time he took his seat as a privy 
councillor. He probably owed this fresh 
advancement to the freedom with which he 
expressed his opinion to James that it was 
unwise to proceed further in the Spanish 
treaty, on the ground that the king of Spain 
would be unable to dispose of his daughter's 
hand without the consent of the pope. In 
the course of the year he received a grant of 
the estate of Sherborne, which had passed 
from the hands of Raleigh to those of Somer- 
set, and which had now returned to the 
crown through Somerset's attainder. 

In April 1617 James resolved to despatch 
Digby once more to Madrid, formally to open 
negotiations for the marriage. Digby, having 
done his duty by remonstrating, now threw 
himself heart and soul into the work of ob- 
taining the best terms possible, especially in 
the matter of the bride's portion, which James 
wished to fix at not less than 500,000/. At 
the same time he was to give his support to 
a plan for a joint English and Spanish ex- 
pedition against the pirates of Algiers. 

On Digby's arrival at Madrid some months 
were spent in settling the arrangements of 
the infanta's future household. The ques- 
tion of liberty of conscience to be granted to 
English catholics was reserved for James's 
own decision, but in May 1618 Digby was 
able to come back to England with the an- 
nouncement that all other matters were con- 
cluded, and that the infanta's portion would 
be as much as 600,0007. James, however, 
could not content the Spaniards on the point 
of liberty of conscience, and the whole nego- 
tiation was suspended on his refusal. Digby, 
however, was no loser. On 25 Nov. 1618 
he was raised to the peerage as Lord Digby. 

Early in 1620 Digby was called on to ad- 
vise his master on the difficult questions 



Digby 



57 



Digby 



which arose out of the election of the king's 
son-in-law, Frederick, elector palatine, to the 
Bohemian throne. He appears to have ad- 
vocated an attempt to come to an under- 
standing with Spain while preparations were 
simultaneously made to procure money and 
allies for the defence of the Palatinate ; so 
that if Frederick were driven out of Bohemia, 
it might still be possible to maintain him in 
his hereditary possessions. It is always diffi- 
cult in the case of a diplomatist to know how 
far he is personally associated with schemes 
which he is directed to carry out, but it 
must at least be noted that in June 1620 
Digby accompanied Buckingham on a visit 
to the Spanish ambassador Gondomar, when 
a project for the partition of the Dutch Ne- 
therlands between England and Spain was 
discussed. Whatever Digby may have thought 
about the matter, it must be remembered 
that ill-feeling towards the Dutch as the op- 
ponents of England in trade was always 
most powerful with those who were ready 
to smooth over the religious differences be- 
tween England and Spain. In supporting 
the Spanish alliance, however, Digby had no 
notion of making England simply subser- 
vient to Spain, and in March 1621, after the 
expulsion of Frederick from Bohemia, he was 
sent to Brussels to urge the Archduke Albert 
to direct a suspension of arms in the Palati- 
nate as a preliminary to a negotiation for 
peace which he was subsequently to under- 
take at Vienna. As far as words went the 
.archduke was ready to give satisfaction, and 
Digby, after his return to England, received 
instructions on 23 May for his mission to the 
emperor, Ferdinand II. 

On 4 July Digby reached Vienna. He 
was authorised to procure a suspension of j 
the ban of the empire, which had been pro- ! 
nounced against Frederick, and to make peace ; 
on the basis of the abandonment by Frederick j 
of his claims to Bohemia, and the abandon- 
ment by Ferdinand of any attempt to inflict 
Eunishment on Frederick. Verbally satis- 
iction was given to the ambassador's de- 
mands, but it was evident that neither party | 
had any real wish to terminate the strife. I 
Before the end of September the Duke of 
Bavaria had made himself master, in the em- 
peror's name, of the Upper Palatinate, and 
Mansfeld, who commanded Frederick's un- ! 
paid troops in that district, was obliged to ' 
retreat to the Lower Palatinate. Digby bor- 
rowed money and melted his plate to provide j 
10,000/. for the temporary defence of Heidel- I 
berg, and hastened back to England to sup- 
port James in asking supplies from parlia- 
ment to enable him to intervene for the 
protection of Frederick's dominions. On 



31 Oct. he was in England. On 21 Nov. he 
laid his policy before the houses. Money, 
he said, must be sent to pay the forces in the 
Lower Palatinate during the winter, and an 
army must be sent thither in the spring, 
which would cost 900,000/. The question of 
adopting or rejecting Digby's proposal was 
never fairly discussed. James quarrelled with 
his parliament on constitutional grounds, and 
a speedy dissolution put an end to all hopes 
of regaining the lost ground, except so much 
as might be allowed by the mere clemency of 
Spain. 

With the dissolution of 1621 Digby's chance 
of bringing an independent policy to a suc- 
cessful result was at an end. He returned to 
Spain in 1622 to carry out James's plan of 
trusting to the goodwill of Spain, and to put 
once more into shape that marriage treaty 
which had been allowed to sleep in 1618. 
The government of Philip IV (who had suc- 
ceeded in 1621) was chiefly anxious to gain 
time, and met Digby in the most friendly 
way ; and James was so pleased with the 
progress of events that on 15 Sept. 1622 he 
created his ambassador Earl of Bristol. 

It was not long before James took alarm 
at the capture of Heidelberg by Tilly. Bristol 
was at once ordered to obtain the assurance 
that the town and castle should be restored. 
As might have been expected, the Spaniards 
would give no such assurance. Bristol, how- 
ever, pushed on the marriage treaty, and the 
articles, with the exception of the important 
one relating to the English catholics, were in 
such a state of forwardness that in January 
1623 they were accepted by James. Bristol 
seems to have felt that, as matters stood, there 
was no hope of recovering the Palatinate ex- 
cept by the goodwill of Spain, and to have 
conceived it to be impossible that Philip 
should agree to the marriage treaty unless 
he wanted to help in the restoration of the 
Palatinate. 

The arrival of Charles and Buckingham at 
Madrid on 7 March 1623 took the negotiation 
out of Bristol's hands. Before long the am- 
bassador gave deep offence to the prince by 
believing too easily a rumour that Charles 
had come with the purpose of declaring him- 
self a catholic, and by assuring him that, 
though he was not in favour of such a pro- 
ceeding, he was ready to place himself at his 
disposal in the matter. During the latter 
part of Charles's visit Bristol's influence was 
thrown on the side of keeping up friendly re- 
lations with Spain, and he drew upon himself 
the ill-will of the prince by supporting a 
scheme for the education of the eldest son of 
the elector palatine at Vienna. On 29 Aug. 
he wrote to the king, setting forth plainly 



Digby j 

the ill-feeling of the Spanish ministers against 
Buckingham, and thereby made the favourite 
an enemy for life. 

When the prince quitted Madrid he left in 
Bristol's hands a proxy authorising him to 
appear for him in the marriage ceremony; 
but within a few days he despatched a letter 
to the ambassador, telling him not to use this 
proxy without further orders, lest the infanta 
should go into a nunnery after the marriage 
had taken place. During the remainder of 
the year Bristol did his best to avert the 
breach with Spain, on which Charles and 
Buckingham were bent, and it was only 
against his will that he informed Olivares 
that the marriage must be postponed until 
satisfactory assurances about the Palatinate 
had been given. 

Bristol had offended too deeply to be al- 
lowed to remain in Spain. On 28 Jan. 1624 
he took leave of Philip. Before he left Oli- 
vares told him that nothing he could ask 
would be denied him as a mark of the king 
of Spain's gratitude. Bristol replied that all 
that he had done had been done for his own 
master, and that he had rather offer himself 
to the slaughter in England than be Duke of 
Infantado in Spain. 

On Bristol's return he was ordered into 
confinement in his own house at Sherborne. 
It was not that James was in any way angry 
with him, but that Charles and Buckingham 
were now the masters of the old king. Bristol 
at once began a course of that respectful but 
constitutional resistance, the merits of which 
neither Charles nor Buckingham was ever 
able to understand. He was ready to stand a 
trial in parliament, but he would not acknow- 
ledge himself to have been in the wrong. 
After the end of the session he was subjected 
to a series of interrogatories, but he could be 
brought no further than to acknowledge that 
he might have committed an error of judg- 
ment, and he was sent down to confinement 
in his house at Sherborne. In the beginning 
of 1625 he answered fully afresh set of ques- 
tions (' The Earl of Bristol's Defence,' in the 
Camden Miscellany, vol. vi.) After James's 
death Charles removed his name from the 
list of privy councillors, and continued his 
restraint at Sherborne, on the ground that 
though he had not been dishonest he would 
not acknowledge his error in trusting the 
Spanish ministers too much. 

Bristol remained quietly at Sherborne for 
some months longer. In January 1626 he 
asked to be present at the coronation. Charles 
replied by an angry charge against the earl 
of having tried to pervert him from his re- 
ligion when he was in Spain, a charge which 
Bristol met by a renewed application for a 



Digby 



trial. Bristol received no writ of summons 
either to the first or the second parliament of 
the reign. On 22 March 1626, soon after the 
opening of the second parliament, he applied 
to the House of Lords to mediate with the 
king for a trial or the acknowledgment of his 
right to sit. Charles, to get out of the dif- 
ficulty, sent him the writ, with an intima- 
tion in a letter from Lord-keeper Coventry 
that he was not to use it. Bristol, replying 
that the king's writ was to be obeyed rather 
than a letter from the lord keeper, took his 
seat, and craved justice against Buckingham, 
against whom he was prepared to bring an 
accusation. To anticipate the blow, Charles 
ordered the attorney-general to accuse Bristol, 
and on 1 May Bristol was brought to the bar. 
The lords, however, gave the king no assist- 
ance in this attempt to close his subject's 
mouth, and ordered that the charges of the 
king against Bristol and those of Bristol 
against Buckingham were to proceed simul- 
taneously. Before either of the investigations 
had proceeded, for they were brought to an 
end on 15 June by the dissolution, Bristol 
was then sent to the Tower, and ordered to 
prepare for a Star-chamber prosecution. Be- 
fore long he fell ill, and as he seemed likely 
to make awkward revelations if the trial were- 
allowed to proceed, his illness was taken as 
affording an excuse for postponing the pro- 
ceedings indefinitely. When on 17 March 
1628 Charles's third parliament met, one of 
the first acts of the House of Lords was to 
insist on his restoration to liberty and to his 
place in parliament. 

In the debates upon the king's powers of 
imprisoning without showing cause which 
preceded the introduction of the Petition of 
Right, Bristol was the first to propose a com- 
promise. On 22 April he suggested that 
while limits might be fixed to the king's legal 
power there was behind it a regal power on 
which he might fall back in an emergency. 
'As Christ,' he said, ' upon the Sabbath, 
healed, so the prerogative is to be preserved 
for the preservation of the whole.' The prin- 
ciple of this proposal was embodied in the 
propositions adopted by the upper house on 
29 April ; but it was rejected by the commons. 
When late in the session the petition of right 
was sent up to the lords, Bristol again tried 
to steer a middle course, but he evidently 
preferred the acceptance of the petition as it 
stood to its rejection. His final suggestion, 
made on 20 May, was that the petition should 
be accompanied by a mere verbal declaration 
that the houses had no intention of infringing 
the prerogative. On 7 June, after the king's 
first and unsatisfactory answer to the petition,, 
he demanded a fuller and better answer. 



Digby 



59 



Digby 



When the session was at an end, Bristol 
was restored to a certain amount of favour, 
but during the troubled years which followed 
he took no part in politics, till the summons 
to the peers to take part in the expedition 
against the Scots in 1639 drew him from his 
seclusion. He pointed out the danger of ad- 
vancing to Berwick with an undisciplined 
army. After the dissolution of the Short 
parliament in 1640 he urged the necessity of 
calling another parliament, and when the 
great council met at York in September he 
was practically accepted as its leader. 

At the beginning of the Long parliament 
Bristol associated himself with those who 
wished to see a thorough change in the sys- 
tem of government, and on 19 Feb. 1641 he 
was summoned to a seat at the council board 
together with Bedford and five other reform- 
ing peers. He did his best to save Strafford's 
life, though he wished him to be incapacitated 
from office, and was consequently exposed to 
the insults of the mob. When the final vote 
was taken on the attainder bill, he was ex- 
cused from voting on the ground that he had 
appeared in the trial as a witness. The course 
which he took gained him favour at court, 
and when the king set out for Scotland he 
named him gentleman of the bedchamber. 

When parliament met again after the short 
autumn adjournment, the feeling between 
king and parliament had gone too far to be 
allayed by any statesmanship which Bristol 
possessed. We find him on 17 Dec. moving 
an amendment to a declaration against any 
toleration of the catholics, sent up by the 
commons, to the effect that no religion of 
any kind should be tolerated ' but what is or 
shall be established by the laws of this king- 
dom.' It is to be supposed that he was un- 
willing to see any considerable ecclesiastical 
change. At all events, on 27 Dec. he was 
named by the House of Commons as an evil 
counsellor. On the 28th Cromwell moveo^ 
an address to the king to remove him from 
his counsels on the ground that in the pre- 
ceding spring he had recommended that the 
northern army should be brought up against 
parliament. No evidence exists for or against 
this statement, but it is probable that Bristol 
suffered for the misdeeds of his mercurial 
son. 

On 28 March 1642 Bristol was sent to the 
Tower on the ground that he had refrained 
from informing parliament of the Kentish 
petition, a copy of which had come into his 
hands. He was, however, liberated after a 
short confinement, and spoke twice in the 
House of Lords in favour of an accommoda- 
tion. Finding his efforts fruitless, he shortly 
afterwards joined the king. He was with 



him at Oxford for some time after the battle 
of Edgehill, and was constantly spoken of by 
the parliamentary writers as being a warm 
advocate of the prolongation of the war. It 
is probable that his former connection with 
Spain did him harm, but too little is known of 
the working of parties at Oxford to pronounce 
on his conduct with any certainty. In January 
1644 he advocated the policy of winning the 
support of the independents against the im- 
position of presbyterian uniformity (' A Secret 
Negotiation with Charles I,' Camden Miscel- 
lany, vol. vi.) 

By the parliament Bristol was regarded 
with an abhorrence out of all proportion to 
any misdeeds of which evidence has reached 
us. In the propositions for peace presented 
at Oxford on 1 Feb. 1643, he and Lord 
Herbert of Raglan were named as the two 
persons to be removed from the king's coun- 
sels, to be restrained from coming within the 
verge of the court, and to be debarred from 
holding any office or employment (RusH- 
WORTH, v. 166). In the propositions laid 
before the king in November 1644 as a basis 
for the negotiation to be held at Uxbridge, 
Bristol's name appears on a long list of those 
who were to expect no pardon (ib. 851). The 
increase of indignation perceptible in this de- 
mand is perhaps accounted for by the discovery 
of Bristol's part in the negotiation with the 
independents. He had, however, some time 
before these propositions were drawn up, re- 
moved from Oxford, in order to separate 
himself from those who were the advocates 
for the prolongation of the war. At first, he 
took refuge at Sherborne, but in the spring 
of 1644 he removed to Exeter, where he re- 
mained for about two years, till that city 
capitulated to Fairfax on 13 April 1646 
(Lords' Journals, viii. 342). After the sur- 
render of Exeter he petitioned to be allowed 
to compound for his estate by paying a com- 
position, and to remain in England (ib. 343, 
402); but his petition was rejected, and on 
11 July the houses ordered a pass for him 
to go beyond the seas. The remainder of his 
life was passed in France. In 1647 he pub- 
lished at Caen a defence of his conduct in 
taking the king's part in the civil war under 
the title of < An Apology of John, Earl of 
Bristol.' He died at Paris on 16 Jan. 1653-4 
(DuGDALE, Baronage). 

[The history of Bristol's diplomacy is to be 
found in his own despatches, most of which are 
among the Foreign State Papers in the Public 
Kecord Office. To these, and to the statements 
respecting his conduct in parliament, embodied 
in the journals, and other accounts of parlia- 
mentary debates, references will be found in 
Gardiner's History of England, 1603-42, and in 



Digby 



'The Great Civil War. A copy of the Apology 
mentioned at the end of this article is among the 
Thomasson Tracts in the British Museum Li- 
brary.] S. K. G-. 

DIGBY, SIB KENELM (1603-1665), 
author, naval commander, and diplomatist, 
was the elder of the two sons of Sir Everard 
Digby [q. v.], executed for his share in the ! 
Gunpowder plot. His mother, Mary, was 
daughter and coheiress of William Mulsho | 
of Gayhurst (formerly Gothurst), Bucking- j 
hamshire. That 1603 is the year of his birth 
is undoubted. Ben Jonson, in lines addressed , 
to Sir Ken elm's wife, and Richard Ferrar, in | 
verses written on his death, state that his 
birthday was 11 June the day both of 'his 
.action done at Scanderoon ' and of his death. 
An astrological scheme of nativity in Digby's 
handwriting (Ashmol. MS. 174, f. 75) posi- 
tively asserts that Digby was born, ' accord- '. 
ing to the English account, the 11 of July be- 
tweene five and six of the clocke in the morn- 
ing.' After some litigation he inherited lands 
to the value of 3,000/. which the crown had 
not confiscated with the rest of his father's 
estate. For a time he resided with his mo- 
ther at Gayhurst. It is certain that he .was I 
brought up in the Roman catholic faith which | 
his father adopted. Wood states that he 
was i trained up in the protestant religion.' 
But in his ' Private Memoires ' Digby writes 
that when in Spain and only twenty years j 
old he was very intimate with the Arch- 
bishop of Toledo because * their religion was 
the same.' At the same time, Digby tells \ 
us, his kinsman, Sir John Digby (afterwards 
earl of Bristol) [q. v.], expressed regret at 
his adherence to a religion contrary to l what 
now reigneth ' in England. ' I wish we may 
not be long in different [religious] opinions,' 
Kenelm replied, 'but I mean by your embrac- 
ing of mine and not I of yours.' 

On 28 Aug. 1617 Digby sailed for Spain 
with his kinsman, Sir John, who was Eng- 
lish ambassador at Madrid. They returned 
together 27 April 1618. A month or two 
later Digby entered Gloucester Hall (now j 
Worcester College), Oxford, as a gentleman 
commoner, and was committed to the care 
of Thomas Allen (1542-1632) [q. v.], the 
well-known mathematician and student of 
the occult sciences. Digby left the university 
in 1620 without a degree. He was already in 
love with VENETIA, daughter of Sir Edward 
Stanley of Tonge Castle, Shropshire, a lady 
of rare beauty and great intellectual attain- 
ments, who had been his playmate in child- 
hood. She was three years his senior ; her 
mother, Lucy, daughter of Thomas Percy, 
.seventh earl of Northumberland, died in her 
infancy, and she was brought up by relatives 



> Digby 

residing in the neighbourhood of Digby's 
house. Digby's mother opposed the match, 
and the young man was induced to go abroad 
in April 1620, but before leaving he bound 
himself to Yenetia by the strongest vows. 
After spending some months in Paris he re- 
moved to Angers to escape the plague. There 
the queen-mother (Marie de Medicis), whom 
he met at a masqued ball, made immodest 
advances : to avoid her importunities he 
spread a report of his death and went to 
Italy by sea. For two years he remained at 
Florence. At the end of 1622 his kinsman, 
the English ambassador in Spain, invited 
him to revisit Madrid. Within a few days 
of Digby's arrival, Prince Charles and Buck- 
ingham reached the city (7 March 1622-3). 
Kenelm made himself agreeable to the royal 
party and was admitted to the prince's 
household. His curiosity was greatly ex- 
cited at the Spanish court by the successful 
attempt of a Benedictine monk (John Paul 
Bonet) to teach a deaf mute to speak by ob- 
serving the movement of the lips, and he 
interested Prince Charles in the experiment 
(DiGBY, Of Bodies, 1669, p. 320). Lord Ken- 
sington reproached him with indifference to 
the charms of Spanish ladies, whereupon 
Digby began a flirtation with Donna Anna 
Maria Manrique, the Duke of Maqueda's 
sister (Epist. Jfoel. p. 238). He afterwards 
wrote in rapturous terms of her beauty to 
Sir Tobie Matthew, whose acquaintance he 
first made at Madrid (MATTHEW, Letters, 
1660, p. 216). Sir Tobie and James Howell, 
the letter-writer, both of whom were in at- 
tendance on Prince Charles in Spam, were 
among Digby's most intimate friends in later 
life. Digby arrived with his royal master 
at Portsmouth on 5 Oct. 1623. After a brief 
illness and a visit to his mother at Gayhurst, 
he presented himself to James I at Hinchin- 
brooke and was knighted (23 Oct.) During 
the ceremony the king, according to Digby 
(Powder of Sympathy, p. 105), turned away 
his face from the naked sword owing to 
constitutional nervousness, and would have 
thrust the point into Digby's eye had not 
Buckingham interposed. At the same time 
Digby became gentleman of the privy cham- 
ber to Prince Charles. 

Difficulties had meanwhile sprung up be- 
tween Digby and Yenetia Stanley. The 
false news of his death reached her, but his 
letters explaining the true state of the case 
miscarried. The lady was living alone in 
London, and scandal made free with her re- 
putation. Digby credited the worst rumours 
and contemplated a breach of the engage- 
ment. But an accidental meeting in De- 
cember renewed his passion. After visiting 



Digby 



61 



Digby 



her frequently and behaving on one occasion 
with a discreditable freedom, which she re- 
sented, he was secretly married to her early 
in 1625. Digby attributed this denouement 
to astrological influence. Their first child 
(Kenelm) was born in October 1625. Digby's 
devotion to his wife was thoroughly sincere, 
and she proved herself worthy of it. An 
elaborate justification of his conduct in par- 
doning her prenuptial indiscretions occupies 
the greater part of his ' Private Memoirs.' 
Aubrey says that she was at one time the 
mistress of Richard, earl of Dorset, son of 
the lord treasurer, by whom she had several 
children; that the earl allowed her 500/. 
a year, which Digby insisted on his pay- 
ing her after her marriage, and that the 
earl dined once a year with her when she 
was Lady Digby. Sir Harris Nicolas dis- 
puted the statement on the ground that 
Richard, (third) earl of Dorset, died in 1624, 
and consequently could not have met his 
alleged mistress 'after her marriage, which 
took place in the following year. But Mr. 
G. F. Warner has proved that Sir Edward 
Sackville, brother of the third earl and his 
successor in the earldom, was in all proba- 
bility Venetia Stanley's lover ; he was friendly 
with Digby both before and after the marriage 
(Poems from Digby's Papers, Roxb. Club). 

At court Digby was occasionally employed 
by his kinsman, now Earl of Bristol, in nego- 
tiations between him and the king. Bucking- 
ham was at deadly enmity with Bristol, and 
Sir Kenelm had little chance of preferment 
while the favourite lived. But his happy 
married life reconciled him to exclusion from 
public employment. He made the acquaint- 
ance of many men of letters and rising states- 
men, including Ben Jonson and Edward 
Hyde (afterwards Earl of Clarendon). The 
latter describes him at the time as excep- 
tionally handsome, with ' a winning voice/ 
' a flowing courtesy and civility, and such a 
volubility of language as surprised and de- 
lighted.' About 1627 Bristol strongly ad- 
vised Digby ' to employ himself on some gene- 
rous action.' Digby resolved upon a priva- 
teering expedition in the Mediterranean with 
the final object of seizing the French ships 
usually anchored in the Venetian harbour of 
Scanderoon. The plans were laid before 
James I while Buckingham was in the Isle 
of Re. James promised a commission under 
the great seal. But Buckingham's secretary, 
Edward Nicholas, protested that such a 
commission infringed the jurisdiction of his 
master, the lord high admiral. Heath, at- 
torney-general, suggested that the omission 
of a clause vesting power to execute martial 
law in Digby would meet the objection. 



Lord-keeper Coventry argued for other al- 
terations, and finally a royal license was 
issued merely authorising Digby to under- 
take the voyage 'for the increase of his 
knowledge.' Before Digby departed Buck- 
ingham returned, and on 13 Dec. 1627 Digby 
took out letters of marque from him. Reduced 
to the position of a private adventurer, Digby 
sailed from Deal on 22 Dec. Two ships, the 
Eagle of 400 tons, under Captain Milborne, 
and the George and Elizabeth of 250 tons,, 
under Captain Sir Edward Stradling, formed 
the expedition. At the time of his departure 
Digby's second son, John, was born, and 
Digby left instructions with his wife to make 
their marriage public. 

On 18 Jan. 1627-8 Digby arrived off Gi- 
braltar. He captured several Flemish and 
Spanish ships in the neighbourhood after 
some sharp fighting. But his men sickened, 
and from 15 Feb. to 27 March he anchored 
off Algiers, where he was hospitably received, 
and afterwards claimed to have made arrange- 
ments for future friendly dealings between 
Algerine and English ships. On 30 March 
he seized a rich Dutch vessel near Majorca. 
Off Sicily in April a terrible storm threatened 
his ships and prizes. After visiting Zante, 
Digby arrived at Scanderoon on 10 June, and 
on 11 June gave battle to the French and 
Venetian ships in the harbour. Three hours' 
fierce fighting gave Digby the victory. The 
news of the engagement was received in 
England with great enthusiasm. ' I do not 
remember,' wrote Howell, ' to have read or 
heard that those huge galeazzores of St. Mark 
were beaten afore.' The English vice-consul 
at Scanderoon complained, however, that 
Digby's presence in the Levant jeopardised 
the position of English merchants at Aleppo 
and elsewhere, and Digby was entreated to 
depart. On his return he spent some time 
at Milo, Delos, and Micino, searching for an- 
tiquities. He refitted at Zante ; was at Gi- 
braltar on 1 Jan. 1628-9 ; came in sight of 
England 25 Jan. after a great storm ; and 
landed at Woolwich on 2 Feb. 1628-9. 

Digby was well received by the king, but 
in August 1628 the Venetian ambassador 
complained of his conduct in the Adriatic, 
and it was disavowed by the government 
(Salvetti Corresp.in Hist.MSS. Comm. llth 
Rep. pt. i; p. 159). On 23 Oct. 1630 Digby's 
old tutor Allen made a codicil to his will, 
bequeathing to Digby his valuable books and 
manuscripts. Digby consulted Sir Robert 
Cotton and Laud, and when the library became 
his property at the end of 1632 soon pre- 
sented it to the Bodleian Library. Laud was 
formally thanked (December 1634) by the 
Oxford convocation for his share in the 



Digby 



arrangement (LAUD, Works, v. 104-7). The 
Digby MSS. are all on vellum, and are 
chiefly the work of English mediaeval scribes. 
They number 238, and are bound in volumes 
stamped with Digby's arms. Writing to Dr. 
Langbaine (7 Nov. 1654), Digby says that the 
university is to place his gift at the service 
of all students, and he has no objection to the 
loan of the manuscripts outside the library. 
Two additional volumes of Digby's manu- 
scripts were purchased in 1825. Digby pro- 
mised to make a further donation to the Bod- 
leian, but never did so, although he gave Laud 
many Arabic manuscripts to send to the uni- 
versity or St. John's College Library, of which 
nothing more was heard. 

In February 1632 there was some fruitless 
talk of making Digby a secretary of state in the 
place of Lord Dorchester, lately dead. Early 
in 1633 he and Lord Bothwell were present 
at a spiritualist seance given by the astro- 
loger Evans in Gunpowder Alley (LILLY, 
Autobiog.} On 1 May 1633 Lady Digby died 
suddenly. Absurd reports were circulated that 
Digby killed her by insisting on her drink- 
ing viper-wine to preserve her beauty. His 
grief was profound, and he erected an elabo- 
rate monument in Christ Church, Newgate, 
which was destroyed in the great fire. Ben 
Jonson wrote in her praise a fine series of 
poems, which he entitled t Eupheme,' and 
dedicated to Sir Kenelm (issued in Under- 
woods}, and Thomas May, Joseph Rutter (in 
'Shepheard's Holiday,' 1635), Owen Fell- 
tham (in < Lusoria,' 1696), William Ha- 
bington, Lord George Digby, and Aurelian 
Townshend also commemorated in verse 
Digby's loss (cf. Addit. MS. 30259, and 
BRIGHT, Poems from Digby's Papers}. The 
widower retired to Gresham College, and 
spent two years there in complete seclusion, 
amusing himself with chemical experiments. 
* He wore a long mourning cloak, a high-cor- 
nered hat, his beard unshorn, looked like a 
hermit, as signs of mourning for his beloved 
wife ' (AUBREY). 

After 1630 Digby professed protestantism, 
and gave Archbishop Laud the impression that 
he had permanently abandoned Roman Ca- 
tholicism (LATJD, Works, iii. 414). A letter 
from James Howell to Strafford shows, how- 
ever, that before October 1635 Digby had re- 
turned to Rome (STRAFFORD, Letters, i. 474). 
On 27 March 1636 Laud acknowledged a 
letter, no longer extant, in which Digby ac- 
counted for his reconversion, which caused 
the archbishop regret, but did not hinder 
their friendly relations (LAUD, vi. 447-55). 
Digby was in France at the time (1636), and 
published in Paris in 1638 l A Conference with 
a Lady about Choice of a Religion,' in which 



2 Digby 

he argued that a church must prove uninter- 
rupted possession of authority to guarantee 
salvation to its adherents, but might allow 
liberty of opinion in subsidiary matters. In 
I letters to Lord George Digby [q. v.], Bristol's 
1 son, dated 2 Nov. 1638 and 29 March 1639, he 
defended the authority of the fathers on the 
articles of faith. These were published with 
Lord George's reply in 1651. In 1637 he 
learned of Ben Jonson's death, and wrote to 
urge Duppa to issue the collection of mourn- 
ing verses known as * Jonsonus Virbius ' (Harl. 
MS. 4153, f. 21). 

In 1639 Digby was again in England. He 
saw much of Queen Henrietta Maria and 
her catholic friends, Walter Montague, En- 
dymion Porter, and Sir Tobie Matthew. At 
her suggestion he and Montague appealed to 
the English catholics (April 1639) for money 
to support Charles I's military demonstration 
in Scotland ; and their letter of appeal was 
widely circulated (cf. A Coppy of the Letter 
sent by the Queene's Majestie concerning the 
collection of the Recusants' Money, &c., &c., 
London, 1641). The scheme failed to meet 
with papal favour, and it was reported early 
in 1640 that Digby was going to Rome to 
negotiate personally with the pope (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 81 a, 4th Rep. 294 a]. 
On 11 Sept. 1640 Secretary Vane wrote that 
Digby was making unseasonable and imprac- 
ticable proposals to Charles I. His suspicious 
conduct led the Long parliament to summon 
him to the bar on 27 Jan. 1640-1, and on 
16 March the commons petitioned the king 
to remove him and other popish recusants 
from his councils. On 22 June 1641 he was 
examined by the committee of recusants as 
to the circulation of his letter to the catho- 
lics. He was soon afterwards again at Paris, 
where his knight-errant disposition made 
itself very apparent. He challenged a French 
lord, named Mount le Ros, for insulting 
Charles I in his presence, and killed his oppo- 
nent. But the king of France pardoned him, 
and gave him a safe-conduct and military 
escort into Flanders. In September 1641 
Evelyn met him there, whence Digby seems 
to have soon returned to London. On 24 Nov. 
an inquiry was ordered into the publication 
of a pamphlet by Digby describing his French 
duel. Early in 1642, at the suggestion of the 
lord mayor of London, the House of Commons 
ordered Digby to be imprisoned. The sergeant- 
at-arms at first confined him at ' The Three 
Tobacco Pipes nigh Charing Cross,' where Sir 
Basil Brooke and Sir Roger Twysden were his 
companions, and his charming conversation, 
according to Twysden, made the prison ' a 
place of delight ' (Archceologia Cantiana, ii. 
190). Subsequently Digby was removed to 



Digby 



Digby 



Winchester House, and in February 1642-3 
the lord mayor petitioned for his release, but 
the proposal was negatived by the commons 
(ayes 32, noes 52). In July Queen Henri- 
etta Maria's mother, the queen-dowager of 
France, addressed a letter to parliament, beg- 
ging for Digby's freedom. After both houses 
had discussed the appeal, Digby was dis- 
charged from custody 30 July 1643, on con- 
dition that he left immediately for France, 
and promised not to return without parlia- 
ment's leave. Before quitting his confine- 
ment he was rigorously examined as to his 
intimacy with Laud, and an endeavour was 
made to extract a declaration from him that 
Laud was anxious to obtain a cardinal's hat. 
But Digby insisted that his friend had always 
been, so far as he knew, a sincere protestant. 
He was allowed to carry with him his pictures 
and four servants. The French queen-dow- 
ager thanked parliament (6 Sept.), and on 
18 Oct. the French ambassador requested 
the House of Lords to spare Digby's estate. 
Three witnesses deposed on oath that Digby 
had gone to church regularly while in Eng- 
land, and had great affection for the parlia- 
ment ; but on 1 Nov. 1643 the commons re- J 
solved to confiscate his property. When 
leaving London Digby published two recent j 
literary efforts. One was ' Observations on ! 
the 22nd Stanza in the Ninth Canto of the 
Second Book of Spenser's " Faery Queene " ' 
a mysterious passage which Digby had dis- ! 
cussed with Sir Edward Stradling on their ' 
Mediterranean expedition. The other was 
* Observations,' from a Roman catholic point 
of view, on the newly published ' Religio Me- 
dici ' of Sir Thomas Browne, of which the Earl 
of Dorset had supplied Digby with an early 
copy. Digby wrote his ' Observations ' in 
twenty-four hours. Browne heard of his ex- 
ploit, and begged him to withdraw his criti- 
cism, but Digby explained that it was in type 
before Browne's remonstrance was received 
[see BKOWNE, SIK THOMAS]. 

In Paris Digby continued his studies, and 
in 1644 there appeared his chief philosophical 
books, < Of Bodies,' and ' Of the Immortality 
of Man's Soul.' The dedication of the former 
to his son Kenelm is dated 31 Aug. 1644, and 
the license from the French king to print the 
book 26 Sept. following. Queen Henrietta 
Maria appointed Digby her chancellor, and in 
1645 the English catholic committee sitting 
at Paris sent him to Rome to collect money 
for the royal cause. In July 1645 Digby was 
in frequent intercourse with Pope Innocent X, 
and obtained twenty thousand crowns from 
the papal curia. The papal legate Rinuccini 
was meanwhile on his way to Ireland, with a 
view to raising a new royalist army, and to 



preparing the way for a free exercise of the 
catholic religion there and in England. The 
latter was the main object of all Digby's poli- 
tical efforts. Digby was consulted by the 
papal authorities on the details of Rinuccini's 
expedition, but he gained the reputation of ' a 
useless and restless man with scanty wisdom.' 
His intimacy with Thomas White, an English 
catholic priest and metaphysician, whose phi- 
losophical ' extravagances ' were at the time 
the talk of Rome, did not improve his position. 
At length he openly insulted the pope, who 
is said to have charged him with misappro- 
priating the money entrusted to him. He 
left Rome in 1646 (cf. Cal Clarendon State 
Papers, ii. 66 ; Rinuccini's Mission, English 
translation, 548, 556, 560). He paid a second 
visit to Rome in 1647, when in an address 
to the pope he pointed out that the former 
schemes had failed owing to Rinuccini's ' punc- 
tiliousness and officiousness ; ' but Digby's 
second mission proved as abortive as the first 
(cf. Digby's address to Pope Innocent X, in 
Westminster MS. Archives, xxx. 65, kindly 
communicated by Mr. S. R. Gardiner). 

In August 1649 Digby suddenly returned 
to England. The council of state denounced 
him as dangerous. He declined to explain his 
reappearance, and was banished for the second 
time. In November he wrote to Conway from 
Calais, expressing a desire to live again be- 
neath ' smiling English skies.' Sir Richard 
and Lady Fanshawe met him at Calais in De- 
cember, and were much amused by his con- 
versation (FANSHAWE, Memoirs, 83-4). On 
1 March 1649-50 Lord Byron saw Digby, ac- 
companied by some other Romanists, and one 
Watson, an independent, at Caen. They 
were bound for England, and intended, if 
possible, to come to terms with the regi- 
cides, in order to secure the free exercise of 
the Roman catholic religion in England. At 
Rouen Digby told a catholic physician named 
Winsted that if he declined to recognise the 
new rulers in England, ' he must starve.' 
Queen Henrietta knew, he said, of his going, 
and he travelled with a passport from the 
French king. Nothing is known of this visit 
to England. In November 1651 Evelyn vi- 
sited Digby in Paris, witnessed some of his 
chemical experiments, and attended with him 
Febur's chemical lectures. Digby was already 
intimate with Descartes, to whom he had 
introduced himself at Egmond some years 
before. On 14 Nov. 1653 the council of state 
gave him permission to return to England, on 
his promising to do nothing prejudicial to the 
government. Early in 1654 he took advan- 
tage of this order, and on 6 April 1654 stayed 
with Evelyn at Wotton. 

There can be no doubt that Digby while in 



Digby 



6 4 



Digby 



England at this time was in close intercourse 
with Cromwell. Hyde, writing in January 
1653-4, mentions the report that Digby had 
long held correspondence with Cromwell, and 
had done him good offices at Paris. In No- 
vember 1655 a correspondent of Thurloe de- 
scribes Digby as Cromwell's agent, and raises 
suspicions of his honesty. In letters dated 
February and March 1655-6 he is spoken of 
as Cromwell's confidant and pensioner. It 
seems certain that Digby thought to obtain 
from Cromwell full toleration for the catho- 
lics, and freely discussed the matter with him. 
In September 1655 a passport was granted 
him to leave England. In December he wrote 
to Thurloe in behalf of Calais merchants tra- 
ding with England, and in March 1656, when 
complaining of the slanders of Sir Robert 
Welsh, expresses himself in full sympathy 
with Cromwell's government. At the time he 
was certainly engaged in diplomatic business 
on Cromwell's behalf, and was reported to be 
seeking to prevent an agreement between 
France and Spain. Digby's relations with 
Cromwell were bitterly denounced by Holies 
in ' A Letter from a true and lawful Member 
of Parliament' in 1656, and by Prynne in his 
' True and Perfect Narrative,' 1659, p. 240. 
In the summer of 1656 Digby was at Toulouse, 
and in 1658 lectured (according to his own 
account) at Montpellier on his ' sympathetic 
powder.' He afterwards visited Germany, 
but was in 1660 in Paris, whence he returned 
to England after the Restoration. 

In spite of his compromising relations with 
Cromwell, Digby was well received by the 
royalists, and continued to hold the office of 
Queen Henrietta's chancellor. On 14 Jan. 
1660-1 he received a payment of 1,3257. Qs. 8d. 
in consideration of his efforts to redeem cap- 
tives in Algiers, apparently on his Scanderoon 
voyage. On 23 Jan. 1660-1 he lectured at 
Gresham College on the vegetation of plants. 
He was on the council of the Royal Society 
when first incorporated in 1663. In the fol- 
lowing year he was forbidden the court. He 
gathered scientific men about him at his house 
in Covent Garden, and often 'wrangled' with 
Hobbes there. He died on 11 June 1665. 
The eulogistic elegy by Richard Ferrar is in 
error in stating that he died on his birthday. 
By his will dated 9 Jan. 1664-5 he directed 
that he should be buried at the side of his 
wife in Christ Church, Newgate, and that no 
mention of him should be made on the tomb. 
He gave all his lands in Herefordshire (lately 
purchased of the Duke of Buckingham), in 
Huntingdonshire, and on the continent to 
Charles Cornwallis, for the payment of his 
debts. His kinsman, George, earl of Bristol, 
received a burning-glass j his uncle, George 



Digby, a horse, and his sister a mourning- 
gown. His library was still in Paris, and 
was sold by the authorities for ten thousand 
crowns. The Earl of Bristol repurchased it. 

Digby had five children, a daughter (Mar- 
gery, married to Edward Dudley of Clopton, 
Northamptonshire) and four sons. Keiielm, 
the eldest, born 6 Oct. 1625, was killed at the 
battle of St. Neots while fighting under the 
Earl of Holland against Adrian Scrope, on 
7 July 1648. John, born 19 Dec. 1627, mar- 
ried, first, Katherine, daughter of Henry, earl 
of Arundel ; and secondly, Margaret, daughter 
of Sir Edward Longueville of Wolverton in 
Buckinghamshire, by whom he had two daugh- 
ters. The elder daughter, Margaret Maria, 
| married Sir John Conway of Bodrhyddan, 
I Flintshire, and her granddaughter, Honora, 
married Sir John Glynne. The children of' 
I Sir Stephen Glynne, Sir John's great-grand- 
| son, are the only living descendants of Sir 
Kenelm Digby. Sir Kenelm's two other sons 
(Everard, born 12 Jan. 1629-30, and George, 
17 Jan. 1632-3) died young. 

Digby's works in order of publication are 
as follows : 1. ( A Conference with a Lady 
about Choice of Religion,' Paris, 1638 ; Lon- 
don, 1654. 2. < Sir Kenelm Digby's Honour 
maintained ' (an account of the duel in France), 
London, 1641. 3. ' Observations upon Religio 
Medici, occasionally written by Sir Kenelme 
Digby, Knt.,' London, 1643, frequently re- 
printed in editions of Browne's ' Religio Me- 
dici.' 4. ' Observations on the 22nd Stanza 
in the Ninth Canto of the Second Book of 
Spenser's " Faery Queene," ' London, 1644. 
5. ' A Treatise of the Nature of Bodies,' Paris, 
1644; London, 1658, 1665, and 1669. 6. 'A 
Treatise declaring the Operations and Nature- 
of Man's Soul, out of which the Immortality 
of reasonable Souls is evinced/ Paris, 1644 ; 
London, 1645, 1657, 1669. 7. 'Institutionum 
Peripateticorumlibri quinque cum Appendice 
Theologicade Origine Mundi,'Paris,1651, pro- 
bably for the most part the work of Thomas 
White [q. v.] 8. l Letters between the Lord 
George Digby and Sir Kenelme Digby,Knight, 
concerning Religion,' London, 1651. 9. 'A 
Discourse concerning Infallibility in Religion, 
written by Sir Kenelme Digby to the Lord 
George Digby, eldest sonne of the Earle of 
Bristol/ Paris, 1652. 10. < A Treatise of Ad- 
hering to God, written by Albert the Great, 
Bishop of Ratisbon, put into English by Sir 
Kenelme Digby, Kt./ 1653-4. Dedicated to 
Digby's mother. 11. 'A late Discourse made 
in aSolemne Assembly of Nobles and Learned 
Men at Montpellier in France, by Sir Kenelme 
Digby, Knight, &c. Touching the Cure of 
Wounds by the Powder of Sympathy. With 
Instructions how to make the said Powder. 



Digby 



. . . Rendered faithfully out of French into 
English by R. White, Gent. The second edi- 
tion . . .' London, 1658. Dedicated by R. 
White to Digby's son, John. * The second edi- 
tion ' is the only one known, and is probably 
the original. A French version appeared in 
1659. De Morgan believed < R. White ' to be 
identical with Digby's friend and disciple, 
Thomas White. 12. 'A Discourse concern- 
ing the Vegetation of Plants, spoken by Sir 
Kenelme Digby at Gresham College, 23 Jan. 
1660-1, at a Meeting for Promoting Philoso- 
phical Knowledge by Experiment/ London, 
1661 ; republished with 'Of Bodies' in 1669. 

13. ' Private Memoirs,' printed by Sir H. N. 
Nicolas from Harl. MS. 6758 in 1827, with 
a privately printed appendix of castrations. 

14. l Journal of the Scanderoon Voyage in 
1628,' printed from a manuscript belonging 
to Mr. W. W. E. Wynne by John Bruce for 
the Camd. Soc. 1868. 15. ' Poems from Sir 
Kenelm Digby's Papers in the possession of 
Henry A. Bright,' with notes by Mr. G. F. 
Warner (Roxb. Club, 1877). This volume 
includes a translation by Digby of ' Pastor 
Fido,' act ii. sc. 5, one or two brief poems on 
his wife, and reprints of many transcripts in 
his own beautiful handwriting of the poems 
by his friends Ben Jonson and others on his 
wife's death. Aubrey ascribes to Digby an 
imprinted translation of Petronius, and he 
is also credited with designing a new edition 
of Roger Bacon's works. An autograph copy 
of his treatises ' Of Bodies ' and ' The Soul ' is 
in the Bibliotheque Ste.-Genevieve, Paris. 

Although a shrewd observer of natural 
phenomena, Digby was a scientific amateur 
rather than a man of science. Astrology and 
alchemy formed serious parts of his study, 
and his credulity led him to many ludicrous 
conclusions. But he appreciated the work 
of Bacon, Galileo, Gilbert, Harvey, and Des- 
cartes, and Wallis, Wilkins, and Ward speak 
respectfully of him. He is said to have been 
the first to notice the importance of vital air 
or oxygen to the life of plants (see his Vege- 
tation of Plants}. His extraordinary accounts 
of his chemical experiments exposed him to 
much ridicule. Evelyn concludes a descrip- 
tion of his Paris laboratory with the remark 
that he was ' an errant mountebank.' Lady 
Fanshawe refers to his ' infirmity ' of lying 
about his scientific experiments, ' though 
otherwise/ she avers, 'he was a person of 
excellent parts and a very fine-bred gentle- 
man ' (Memoirs, p. 84). In 1656 he circulated 
a description of a petrified city in Tripoli, 
which Fitton, the Duke of Tuscany's English 
librarian, was said to have sent him. He con- 
trived to have it published in the ' Mercurius 
Politicus,' and was liberally abused for his 

VOL. XV. 



5 Digby 

credulity. Henry Stubbes, referring to these 
circumstances, characterised him as ( the very 
Pliny of our age for lying ' {Animadversions 
upon Glanvil}; but Robert Hooke, in his 
posthumously published ' Philosophical Ex- 
periments ' (1726), shows that Digby knew 
what he was talking about. On 20 March 
1661 Oldenburgh sent to Robert Boyle a 
report on Digby's alchemical experiments in 
the transmutation of metals (BOYLE, Works, 
v. 302). Digby first described his well-known 
weapon-salve, or powder of sympathy, in the 
discourse alleged to have been delivered at 
Montpellier in 1658. Its method of em- 
ployment stamps it as the merest quackery. 
The wound was never to be brought into 
contact with the powder, which was merely 
powdered vitriol. A bandage was to be taken 
! from the wound, immersed in the powder, 
and kept there till the wound healed. Digby 
gives a fantastic account of the ' sympathetic ' 
principles involved. He says that he learned 
j how to make and apply the drug from a Car- 
melite who had travelled in the East, and 
whom he met at Florence in 1 622. He first em- 
ployed it about 1624 to cure James Ho well of 
a wound in his hand, and he adds that James! 
| and Dr. Mayerne were greatly impressed by 
its efficacy, and that Bacon registered it in 
his scientific collections. All this story is 
doubtful. There is no evidence that Bacon 
knew of it, or that it was applied to Howell's 
wound, or that Digby had learned it at so 
j early a date as the reign of James I. In his 
I treatise ' Of Bodies ' (1644) he makes the 
j vaguest reference to it, and in 1651 Nathaniel 
j Higham, M.D., appended to his ' History of 
j Generation ' (dedicated to Robert Boyle) t a 
I discourse of the cure of wounds by sym- 
pathy/ in which he attributes the dissemina- 
tion of the remedy to Sir Gilbert Talbot, 
speaks of the powder as ' Talbot's powder/ 
and ignores Digby's claim to it, although in 
the earlier pages of his work he repeatedly 
refers to Digby's investigations, and criticises 
his theory of generation. Digby's originality 
is thus very questionable. After 1658 his 
name is very frequently associated with ( the 
powder of sympathy. ' In an advertisement ap- 
pended by the bookseller, Nathaniel Brookes, 
to ' Wit and Drollery ' (1661) it is stated 
that Sir Kenelm Digby's powder is capable 
of curing ' green wounds ' and the toothache, 
and is to be purchased at Brookes's shop in 
Cornhill. George Hartmann, who described 
himself as Digby's steward and laboratory 
assistant, published after Digby's death two 
quack-medical volumes purporting to be ac- 
counts of Digby's experiments, ' Choice and 
Experimental Receipts in Physick and Chi- 
rurgery ' (1668) and ' Chymical Secrets and 



Digby 



66 



Digby 



Rare Experiments in Phy sick and Philosophy ' 
(1683) ; the latter concludes with an elabo- 
rate recipe for the manufacture of Digby's 
powder (see PETTIGREW, Medical Supersti- 
tions, pp. 156-7). 

As a philosopher Digby was an Aristotelian, 
and had not extricated himself from the 
confused methods of the schoolmen. He 
undoubtedly owed much to Thomas White 
(1582-1676) [q. v.], the catholic philosopher, 
who lived with him while in France. White 
issued three Latin volumes expounding what 
he called l Digby's peripatetic philosophy/ 
and covered far more ground than Digby oc- 
cupied in the treatises going under his name. 
While arriving at orthodox catholic conclu- 
sions respecting the immortality of the soul, 
free will, and the like, Digby's and White's 
methods are for the most part rationalistic, 
and no distinct mention is made of Chris- 
tianity. White's books were consequently 
placed on the Index. Digby doubtless owed 
his political notions, which enabled him to 
regard Charles I, Cromwell, and Charles II 
as equally rightful rulers, to White as well 
as his philosophy . Alexander Ross in l Medi- 
cus Medicatus/ Higham in his f History of 
Generation,' (1651), and Henry Stubbes in 
his * Animadversions upon Glanvil ' attack 
Digby's philosophic views, and Butler has 
many sarcastic remarks upon him in ' Hudi- 
bras ' and the ' Elephant and the Moon.' 

Vandyck painted several portraits of both 
Sir Kenelm and Lady Digby. Vandyck's 
finest portrait of Lady Digby is at Althorpe. 
Another picture of Lady Digby, by Cornelius 
Janssen, is at Althorpe. Vandyck's best- 
known portraits of Sir Kenelm are those in 
the National Portrait Gallery and the Oxford 
University Picture Gallery. A portrait of 
Sir Kenelm, belonging to the Right Hon. 
W. E. Gladstone, was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in the winter of 1887. A painting 
of St. Francis, at Mount St. Bernard Monas- 
tery, Charnwood Forest, bears the inscrip- 
tion l Kenelmus Digbseus pinxit, 1643.' The 
painter was, perhaps, Sir Kenelm's son. 

[The chief authorities for Digby's life are his 
own Memoirs, first published in 1827, which only 
take his career down to 1629, and mainly deal 
with his courtship of Venetia Stanley. The 
characters and places appear under fictitious 
names: thus, Sir Kenelm calls himself Theagenes, 
his wife Stelliana, Sir Edward Sackville Mar- 
don tius, London Corinth, and so forth. For 
these identifications see Sir H. N. Nicolas's in- 
troduction, several papers by J. GK Nichols in 
Gent. Mag. for 1829, and Mr. Warner's notes in 
Poems from Digby's Papers, 1877. Digby's 
Journal of the Scanderoon Voyage, published 
by the Camden Society (1868), has a useful in- 
troduction by John Bruce. The Biog. Brit. 



| (Kippis) has an exhaustive life. See also Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. iii. 688 ; Aubrey's Lives, ii. 323 ; 

i Macray's Annals of the Bodleian Library; Cal. 
State Papers, 1635-65; Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. vi. 174, 2nd ser. vii. 299, viii. 395, 3rd ser. 
ii. 45 ; Clarendon's Life, i. 18 ; Bright's Poems 
from Digby's Papers (published by Koxburghe 
Club, 1877); Evelyn's Diary; Lords' Journals, 
vol. vi. ; Commons' Journals, vi. vii. viii. ; Laud's 
Works; Thurloe's State Papers ; Hallam's Lit. of 
Europe ; Epist. Hoelianse. R6musat's Philosophie 
Anglaise depuis Bacon jusqu'a Locke, 1875, has 
some valuable comments on Digby's philosophy ; 
other authorities are cited above.] S. L. L. 
. 

DIGBY, KENELM HENRY (1800- 
I 1880), miscellaneous writer, born in 1800, 
was the youngest son of the Very Rev. Wil- 
| liam Digby, dean of Clonfert, who belonged 
to the Irish branch of Lord Digby's family, 
and was descended from the ancient Leices- 
tershire family of the same name. He received 
his education at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he took the degree of B.A. in 1819 
(Graduati Cantab, ed. 1873, p. 116). While 
a student at the university he entered into an 
examination of the antiquities of the middle 
ages, and subsequently made a searching in- 
quiry into the scholastic system of theology, 
the result being that at an early age he be- 
came a convert to Roman Catholicism. Most 
of his subsequent life was spent in literary 
leisure in the metropolis, and he died at his 
residence, Shaftesbury House, Kensington, 
on 22 March 1880. 

By his wife, Jane Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Dillon of Mount Dillon, co. Dublin, he left 
an only son, Kenelm Thomas Digby, formerly 
M.P. for Queen's County. 

His principal works are: 1. 'The Broad- 
stone of Honour, or Rules for the Gentlemen 
of England,' Lond. 1822, 12mo, 2nd edition, 
enlarged, 1823 ; both these editions are anony- 
mous. Afterwards he rewrote the book, 
omitting its second title, and enlarging it into 
four closely printed volumes, to which he 
gave the titles respectively of ' Godefridus,' 
' Tancredus/ ' Morus,' and ' Orlandus.' These 
appeared in 1826-7, and other editions in 
3 vols. 1828-9 and 1845-8. An edition de luxe 
in 5 vols. 8vo was published at London 1876- 
1877. Julius Hare characterises the ' Broad- 
stone of Honour ' as ' that noble manual for 
gentlemen, that volume which, had I a son, 
I would place in his hands, charging him, 
though such admonition would be needless, 
to love it next to his bible ' ( Guesses at Truth, 
1st edit. i. 152). 2. ' Mores Catholic!; or 
Ages of Faith/ 11 vols. Lond. 1831-40: Cin- 
cinnati, 1840, &c., 8vo ; 3 vols. Lond. 1845- 
1847. 3. ' Compitum ; or the Meeting of 
the Ways at the Catholic Church/ 7 vols. 



Digby 



Digby 



Lond. 1848-54,- 6 vols. 1851-5. 4. 'The 
Lover's Seat. Kathemerina ; or Common 
Things in relation to Beauty, Virtue, and 
Faith/ 2 vols. Lond. 1856, 8vo. 5. < The 
Children's Bower ; or What you like/ "2 
vols. Lond. 1858, 8vo. 6. ' Evenings on the 
Thames ; or Serene Hours, and what they 
require/ 2 vols. Lond. 1860, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
Lond. 1864, 8vo. 7. ' The Chapel of St. John; 
or a Life of Faith in the Nineteenth Century/ 
Lond. 1861, 1863, 8vo. 8. 'Short Poems/ 
Lond. 1865, 1866, 8vo. 9. < A Day on the 
Muses' Hill/ Lond. 1867, 8vo. 10. ' Lit- 
tle Low Bushes, Poems/ Lond. 1869, 8vo. 
11. < Halcyon Hours, Poems/ Lond. 1870, 
8vo. 12. ' Ouranogaia/ a poem in twenty 
cantos, Lond. 1871, 8vo. 13. 'Hours with 
the First Falling Leaves/ in verse, Lond. 
1873, 8vo. 14. ' Last Year's Leaves/ in verse, 
Lond. 1873, 8vo. 15. < The Temple of Me- 
mory/ a poem, Lond. 1874, 1875, 8vo. 

[Academy, 1880, i. 252; Allibone's Diet, of 
Engl. Lit. ; Athenaeum, 1880, i. 411, 440; Cat. 
of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Cotton's Fasti 
Eccl. Hibern. iv. 179 ; Life of Ambrose Phillipps 
de Lisle (privately printed), 1878, p. 6; Dublin 
Review, xxv. 463, xlviii. 526; Gillow'sBibl.Dict.; 
Men of the Time (1879) ; Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. iii. 264, 6th ser. i. 292, vi. 375, vii. 256, 
314; Tablet, 27 March 1880, p. 403 ; Times, 
24 March 1880,p.ll ; Weekly Register, 2 7 March 
1880, p. 403.] T. C. 

DIGBY, LETTICE, LADY (1588P-1658), 
created BARONESS OFFALEY, became heiress- 
general to the Earls of Kildare on the death 
of her father, Gerald FitzGerald, lord Offaley. 
About 1608 she married Sir Robert Digby 
of Coleshill, Warwickshire. In 1618 Sir 
Robert died at Coleshill, and in 1619 Lady 
Digby received the grant of her barony, which 
was regranted to her on 26 June 1620. She 
then returned to Ireland, inhabiting Geashill 
Castle, where she was besieged by the Irish 
rebels in 1642. She resisted them with spirit, 
though they sent four messages to remind her 
that the castle was only garrisoned by women 
and boys. The besiegers' guns burst upon them- 
selves, and she was at last rescued, in October 
of the same year, by Sir Richard Grenville. 
She retired to Coleshill, where she died on 
1 Dec. 1658, aged about seventy, and was 
buried with her husband. She was the mother 
of ten children seven sons and three daugh- 
ters. A portrait of her at Sherborne Castle 
represents her with a book inscribed Job 
xix. 20 (' I am escaped with the skin of my 
teeth'). 

[Hutchins's History of Dorset, iv. 134; Lodge's 
Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), vi. 280 et seq. 
notes.] J. H. 



DIGBY, ROBERT (1732-1815), admiral, 
son of Edward Digby, grandson of William, 
fifth baron Digby [q. v.], and younger brother 
of Henry, first earl Digby, was born on 20 Dec. 
1732. In 1755 he was promoted to be captain 
of the Solebay frigate, and in the following 
year was advanced to command the Dunkirk 
of 60 guns, in which ship he continued till 
the peace in 1763, serving for the most part 
on the home station, and being present in 
i the expedition against Rochefort in 1757 and 
I in the battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759. In 
1778 he was appointed to the Ramilli-es of 
74 guns, which he commanded in the action 
off Ushant on 27 July 1778. Having been 
stationed in Palliser's division, he was sum- 
moned by Palliser as a witness for the prose- 
cution, and thus, though his evidence tended 
distinctly to Keppel's advantage [see KEP- 
PEL, AUGUSTUS, LORD ; PALLISER, SIR HUGH], 
he came to be considered as a friend of Pal- 
liser and of the admiralty, and, being pro- 
1 moted in the following March to the rank of 
i rear-admiral, was ordered at once to hoist 
! his flag on board the Prince George, so that 
he might as was affirmed by the opposition 
sit on Palliser's court-martial. During 
the summer of 1779 he was second in com- 
mand of the Channel fleet under Sir Charles 
Hardy [q. v.], and in December was second 
' in command of the fleet which sailed under 
Sir George Rodney for the relief of Gibraltar 
[see RODNEY, GEORGE BRYDGES]. It was 
at this time that he was first appointed also 
governor of Prince William Henry, who be- 
gan his naval career on board the Prince 
| George. When, after relieving Gibraltar, 
[ Rodney, with one division of the fleet, went 
i on to the West Indies, Digby, with the other, 
returned to England, having the good for- 
tune on the way to disperse a French convoy 
and capture the Proth6e of 64 guns. He 
continued as second in command of the 
Channel fleet during the summers of 1780 
and 1781, and in the second relief of Gibral- 
tar by Vice-admiral George Darby [q. v.] 
In August 1781 he was sent as commander- 
in-chief to North America. He arrived just 
as his predecessor [see GRAVES, THOMAS, 
LORD] was preparing to sail for the Chesa- 
peake in hopes, in a second attempt, to effect 
the relief of Cornwallis ; and, courteously 
refusing to take on himself the command at 
this critical juncture, remained at New York 
while Graves sailed on his vain errand. 
Afterwards, when he had assumed the com- 
mand, he removed into the Lion, a smaller 
ship, in order to allow the Prince George, as 
well as most of his other ships, to accompany 
Sir Samuel Hood to the West Indies [see 
HOOD, SAMUEL, VISCOUNT]. The tide of the 

F2 



Digby 



68 



Digges 



war rolled away from North America, and 
in any case Digby had no force to undertake 
any active operations. His command was 
therefore uneventful, and he returned home 
at the peace. He held no further appoint- 
ment, though duly promoted to be vice-ad- 
miral in 1787 and admiral in 1794, and living 
to see the end of the great war. He died on 
25 Feb. 1815. He married in 1784 Mrs. 
Jauncy, the daughter of Andrew Elliot, 
brother of Sir Gilbert Elliot, third baronet, 
and of Admiral John Elliot [q. v.], and for- 
merly lieutenant-governor of New York. She 
died on 28 July 1830, leaving no children. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 119; Ralfe's Nav. 
Biog. i. 189 ; Beatson's Mil. and Nav. Memoirs, 
vols. iii. and vi. ; Foster's Peerage.] J. K. L. 

DIGBY, VENETIA, LADY (1600-1633). 
[See under DIGBY, SIB KENELM.] 

DIGBY, WILLIAM, fifth LORD DIGBY 
(1661-1752), was the third son of the second 
Lord Digby, and Mary, daughter of Robert 
Gardiner of London. He was educated at 
Magdalen College, Oxford, where he gra- 
duated B.A. on 5 July 1681. He succeeded 
as fifth Lord Digby in 1685. On 13 July 
1708 he received the degree of D.C.L. from 
the university. In April 1733 he was made 
a member of the common council for Georgia, 
and he was also a member of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel. In 1689 he 
represented Warwickshire, and he was in- 
cluded in the great Act of Attainder passed 
by James's parliament at Dublin. He died 
in December 1752, and was buried at Sher- 
borne. By his wife Jane, second daughter of 
Edward, earl of Gainsborough, he had four 
sons and eight daughters. He was succeeded 
by his grandchild Edward, son of his third 
son, Edward. At Sherborne there is a poetical 
inscription by Pope to the memory of Robert, 
his second son, and Mary, his eldest daughter. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812, iv. 380-3 ; Oxford 
Graduates ; Pope's Works.] T. F. H. 

DIGGES, SIB DUDLEY (1583-1639), 
diplomatist and judge, son of Thomas Digges 
[q.v.] of Digges Court, Barham, Kent, by 
Agnes, daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger, 
entered University College, Oxford, as a 
gentleman commoner in 1598, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1601. His tutor was Dr. 
George Abbot, afterwards archbishop of Can- 
terbury [q. v.] After taking his degree he 
is said to have spent some years in foreign 
travel. In 1607 he was knighted at White- 
hall. Digges early became a shareholder in 
the East India Company, and was much in- 
terested in the north-west passage project, 



being one of the founders of a company in- 
corporated in 1612 for the purpose of trading 
by that route then supposed to have been 
discovered with the East. In 1614 he was 
one of the candidates for the governorship of 
the East India Company. He took an active 
part in the parliamentary debates of that 
year, giving so much offence to the king that 
he was imprisoned for a short time. From 
certain statements made by him in evidence 
on the trial of Weston for the murder of Sir 
John Overbury in 1615, it seems probable 
that for a time he was in the service of the 
Earl of Somerset. In 1618 the emperor of 
Russia, who was then engaged in a war with 
Poland, being desirous of negotiating a loan, 
James ordered the Muscovy and East India 
Companies to furnish the money, and des- 
patched Digges to Russia to arrange the 
terms. He left England in April, taking 
with him 20,000^, and on reaching Russia 
sent his secretary, Finch, to Moscow with 
10,OOOZ. and letters from the king. The em- 
peror would hear of no terms, but compelled 
Finch to hand over the money. Digges re- 
turned to England with the balance in Oc- 
tober. An account of this journey, written 
by John Tradescant, who accompanied Digges 
in the capacity of naturalist, is preserved in 
manuscript in the Ashmolean Museum (MS. 
824, xvi). In 1620 Digges was sent to Hol- 
land with Maurice Abbot, governor of the 
East India Company [q. v.], to negotiate a 
settlement of the disputes between the Eng- 
lish and Dutch East India Companies. The 
negotiations fell through, owing, according 
to Digges, to the duplicity of the Dutch. He 
returned to England early in 1621, and was 
elected member of parliament for Tewkes- 
bury. In the debates of this year he ener- 
getically attacked the abuse of monopolies 
and the pernicious system of farming the 
customs, and strongly asserted the sacred 
and inalienable character of the privileges of 
the commons. Accordingly he was placed, 
with Sir Thomas Crewe [q. v.] and other 
leaders of the popular party, on a commis- 
sion of inquiry sent to Ireland in the spring 
of 1622. On his return in October he at- 
tended (so Chamberlain informs us) with 
much assiduity at court l in hope somewhat 
would fall to his lot,' but was not rewarded. 
He again represented Tewkesbury in the par- 
liaments of 1624, 1625, and 1626. In 1626 
he addressed a long letter to the king coun- 
selling him with some frankness, as one who 
had served his father for twenty years, to 
act with moderation and firmness. The same 
year he opened the case against the Duke of 
Buckingham on his impeachment in a speech 
of elaborate eloquence. In this speech mat- 



Digges 6 

ter derogatory to the king's honour was dis- 
covered, and he was committed to the Fleet ; 
but the commons exhibiting much indigna- 
tion he was released after three days' con- 
finement. He absolutely denied having used 
the words on which the charge was founded. 
He was again committed to the Fleet in 
January 1627 for certain 'unfit language' 
used by him at the council, but was released 
in the following month after making an 
apology. Archbishop Abbot, who lived on 
terms of great intimacy with him, says that 
he was at one time in the service of the 
Duke of Buckingham, but had quitted it on 
account of ' some unworthy carriage ' on the 
part of that nobleman towards him. In the 
parliament of 1628 Digges sat for Kent. He 
was one of a deputation Littleton, Sel- 
den, and Coke being his colleagues to the 
House of Lords to confer with them on the 
best means of securing the liberty of the 
subject. Of this conference, in which Digges 
took an active part, the Petition of Right was 
the result. In the debate of June 1628 on 
the king's message forbidding the commons 
to meddle in matters of state, the speaker 
having interrupted Sir John Eliot, bidding 
him not to asperse the ministers of state, 
and Eliot having thereupon sat down, Digges 
exclaimed, ' Unless we may speak of these 
things in parliament let us rise and be gone, 
or else sit still and do nothing,' whereupon, 
after an interval of deep silence, the debate 
was resumed. In 1630 Digges received a 
grant of the reversion of the mastership of 
the rolls, expectant on the death of Sir Julius 
Csesar [q. v.] In 1633 he was placed on the 
high commission. In 1636 Sir Julius Caesar 
died, and Digges succeeded to his office. He 
died on 18 March 1638-9, and was buried at 
Chilham, near Canterbury. Through his wife 
Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Kempe of Ol- 
lantigh, near Wye, Kent, to whose memory he 
erected in 1620 an elaborate marble monument 
in Chilham church, he acquired the manor and 
castle of Chilham. He also held estates near 
Faversham, which he charged by his will 
with an annuity of 20/. to provide prizes for 
a foot-race, open to competitors of both sexes, 
to be run in the neighbourhood of Faversham 
every 19th of May. The annual competition 
was kept up until the end of the last century. 
Of four sons who survived him, the third, 
Dudley [q. v.], achieved some distinction as 
a political pamphleteer on the royalist side. 
His eldest son, Thomas, married a daughter 
of Sir Maurice Abbot and had one son, 
Maurice,who was created a baronet on 6 March 
1665-6, but died without issue. Digges had 
also three daughters, of whom one, Anne, mar- 
ried William Hammond of St. Alban's Court, 



> Digges 

near Canterbury, and was the ancestress of 
James Hammond, the elegiac poet [q. v.] An- 
thony a Wood says of Digges that ' his un- 
derstanding few could equal, his virtues fewer 
would.' He adds that his death was con- 
sidered a * public calamity.' This is certainly 
exaggerated eulogy. Whatever may have 
been Digges's virtues, political integrity can 
hardly have been among them, or he woulc! 
not have accepted office under the crown at 
the very crisis of the struggle for freedom. 
His style of oratory is somewhat laboured 
and pedantic. 

Digges published in 1604, in conjunction 
with his father, ' Foure Paradoxes or Politique 
Discourses, two concerning militarie disci- 
pline, two of the worthiness of war and war- 
riors.' He contributed some lines to the 
collection of ' Panegyricke Verses ' prefixed 
to 'Coryat's Crudities' (1611). He pub- 
lished a pamphlet in defence of the East 
India Company's monopoly, entitled ' The 
Defence of East India Trade,' in 1615, 4to. 
A tractate entitled ' Right and Privileges of 
the Subject,' published in 1642, 4to, is also 
i ascribed to Digges. His speech on the im- 
j peachment of the Duke of Buckingham was 
published by order of the Long parliament 
in 1643, 4to. From copies found among 
! his papers the correspondence of Elizabeth 
with Leicester, Burghley, Walsingham, and 
Sir Thomas Smith, relative to the negotia- 
tions for a treaty of alliance with France 
(1570-1581), was published in 1655 under 
the title of l The Compleat Ambassador,' fol. 
A memorial to Elizabeth, concerning the de- 
fences of Dover, found among the papers in 
the ordnance office by Sir Henry Sheers, was 
published by him in 1700, and attributed to 
either Digges or Sir Walter Raleigh. 

[W. Berry's County Genealogies (Kent), p. 
143 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 208, 635 ; 
Fasti (Bliss), i. 290 ; Rushworth, i. 451 ; Nichols's 
Progresses (James I), ii. 126; Parl. Hist. i. 973, 
1171, 1207, 1280, 1283-4, 1290, 1303, 1348, 
ii. 260, 402 ; Cobbett's State Trials, ii. 916, 919, 
1321, 1370, 1375 ; Rymer's Fcedera (Sanderson), 
xvii. 257; Cal. State Papers (Col. 1513-1616), 
pp. 240, 302, (Col. 1574-1660) pp. 98, 130, 
(Col. East Indies, 1617-21) pp. 147,394, 409-11, 
413, 421, (Dom. 1619-23) pp. 365, 469, (Dom. 
1625-6) pp. 243, 330, 331, (Dom. 1627-8) pp. 
2, 64, (Dom. 1633-4) p. 326 ; Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. iii. 392 ; Hardy's Cat. of Lord Chancel- 
lors, p. 70 ; Lists of Members of Parliament, Offi- 
cial Return of; Commons' Debates, 1625 (Cam- 
den Soc.), pp. 29, 33; Court and Times of James I, 
i. 153, 324, ii. 238, 298, 339, 351, 444, 452; 
G-ent. Mag. Ixx. pt. ii. p. 825 ; Hasted's Kent, 
iii. 130; Addit. MS. 30156; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Allibone's Dictionary of Bibliography; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 



Digges j 

DIGGES, DUDLEY (1613-1643), poli- 
tical writer, third son of Sir Dudley Digges 
[q. v.], was born at Chilhana, Kent, in 1613. 
He entered University College, Oxford, in 
1629, proceeded B.A. on 17 Jan. 1632, M.A. 
on 15 Oct. 1635. In 1633 he was elected 
fellow of All Souls. In September 1642 he 
is mentioned a, one of a ' delegacy ' appointed 
to provide means for defending Oxford against 
the parliament during the civil war (WooD, 
History and Antiquities of the University of 
Oxford, ed. Gutch, ii. 447). He died at Ox- 
ford on 1 Oct. 1643 of the malignant camp 
fever then raging there, and was buried in 
the outer chapel of All Souls. Digges was 
a devoted royalist, and all his important 
writings were in defence of Charles I. His 
works were: 1. 'Nova Corpora Regularia,' 
1734. This is a demonstration of certain 
mathematical discoveries made about 1674 
by his grandfather, Thomas Digges. 2. ' An 
Answer to a Printed Book intituled Observa- 
tions upon some of His Maj estie's lat e Answers 
and Expresses,' Oxford, 1642. 3. ' A Review 
of the Observations upon some of His Ma- 
j estie's late Answers and Expresses,' York, 
1643. 4. ' The Unlawfulnesse of Subjects 
taking up arms against their Soveraigne in 
what case soever,' 1643. This defence of 
the doctrine of passive obedience was widely 
popular among the royalists and went through 
several editions. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. cols. 65, 
66 ; Biographia Britaiinica, iii. 1717-18.] 

F. W-T. 

DIGGES, LEONARD (d. 1571?), mathe- 
matician, was the son of James Digges of 
Digges Court, in the parish of Barham, Kent, 
by Philippa, his second wife, daughter of 
John Engham of Chart in the same county. 
The family was an ancient and considerable 
one. Adomarus Digges was a judge under 
Edward II; Roger served in three parlia- 
ments of Edward III ; James Digges was a 
justice of the peace many years, and sheriff 
in the second of Henry VIII. He left Digges 
Court to his eldest son John, and the manor 
of Brome to Leonard, who sold it, and pur- 
chased in 1547 the manor of Wotton, like- 
wise in Kent, where he resided. We hear 
of an act passed in the fifth year of Elizabeth 
' for the restitution of Leonard Digges,' but 
it is not printed among the statutes. He 
married Bridget, daughter of Thomas "Wil- 
ford of Hart ridge, Kent, and had by her 
Thomas [q. v.], a distinguished mathemati- 
cian, and the editor of several of his works. 
The elder Digges died about 1571. He studied 
at University College, Oxford, but took no 
degree, though his ample means and leisure 



Digges 

! w r ere devoted to scientific pursuits. He be- 
came an expert mathematician and land sur- 
veyor, and (according to Fuller) ' was the 
best architect in that age, for all manner of 
buildings, for conveniency, pleasure, state, 
j strength, being excellent at fortifications/ 
Lest he should seem to have acquired know- 
j ledge selfishly, he printed in 1556, for the 
; public benefit, ' A Booke named Tectonicon, 
i briefly showing the exact measuring, and 
speedie reckoning all manner of Land,Squares,. 
Timber, Stone, etc. Further, declaring the 
perfect making and large use of the Carpen- 
ter's Ruler, containing a Quadrant geometri- 
call ; comprehending also the rare use of the 
Square.' The next edition was in 1570, and 
numerous others followed down to 1692. 
The author advised artificers desirous to profit 
by this, or any of his works, to read them 
thrice, and ' at the third reading, wittily to- 
practise.' 

A treatise, likewise on mensuration, left in 
manuscript, was completed and published by 
his son in 1571, with the title, ' A Geome- 
tricall Practise, named Pantometria, divided 
into Three Bookes, Longimetria, Planimetria, 
and Stereometria, containing Rules manifolde 
for Mensuration of all Lines, Superficies, and 
Solides.' The first book includes a very early 
description of the theodolite (chap, xxvii.), 
and the third book, on Stereometry, is espe- 
cially commended for its ingenuity by Pro- 
fessor De Morgan. In the dedication to Sir 
Nicholas Bacon, Thomas Digges speaks of 
his father's untimely death, which was then 
apparently a recent event, and of the favour 
borne to him by the lord keeper. A second 
revised edition was issued in 1591. Th& 
twenty-first chapter of the first book in- 
cludes a remarkable description of ' the mar- 
vellous conclusions that may be performed 
by glasses concave and convex, of circular 
and parabolical forms.' He practised, we 
are there informed, the ' multiplication of 
beams ' both by refraction and reflection j 
knew that the paraboloidal shape ' most per- 
fectly doth unite beams, and most vehe- 
mently burneth of all other reflecting glasses,' 
and had obtained with great success magni- 
fying effects from a combination of lenses. 
' But of these conclusions,' he added, 1 1 
mind not here more to intreat, having at 
large in a volume by itself opened the mi- 
raculous effects of perspective glasses.' The 
work in question never was made public. 
Especially he designed to prosecute, after the 
example of Archimedes, the study of burn- 
ing-glasses, and hoped to impart secrets ' no 
less serving for the security and defence of 
our natural country, than surely to be mar- 
velled at of strangers.' The assertion that 



Digges 



Digges 



Digges anticipated the invention of the tele- Spanish and French, and was a good classical 
scope is fully justified, as well by the above scholar. He published in 1617 a verse trans- 
particulars as by the additional details given lation from Claudian entitled ' The Rape of 
by his son in the ' Preface to the Header.' ; Proserpine ' (printed by G. P. for Edward 
He states elsewhere that his father's profi- j Blount). It is dedicated to Digges's sister 

(1587-1619), wife of Sir Anthony Palmer, 
K.B. (1566-1630), who had recently nursed 
him through a dangerous illness. In 1622 
he issued a translation of a Spanish novel, en- 



ciency in optics was in part derived from an 
old written treatise by Friar Bacon, which, 
' by strange adventure, or rather destiny, 
came to his hands ' (Encycl. Metropolitana, 
iii. 399, art. 'Optics'). 

' An Arithmeticall Militare Treatise, named 
Stratioticos : compendiously teaching the 
Science of Numbers . . . and so much of the 
Rules and Aequations Algebraicall, and Arte 
of Numbers Cossicall, as are requisite for the 
Profession of a Soldier/ was begun by Leonard 
Digges, but augmented, digested, and pub- 
lished with a dedication to the Earl of Lei- 
cester, by Thomas in 1579 (2nd ed. 1590). 
Digges wrote besides : A Prognostication 
Everlasting : Contayning Rules to judge the 
Weather by the Sunne, Moone, Starres, 
Comets, Rainbows, Thunder Clouds, with 
other extraordinary Tokens, not omitting the 
Aspects of the Planets ' (London, 1553, 1555, 
1556, &c., corrected by Thomas Digges, 1576, 
&c.) This little manual of astrological me- 
teorology gives the distances and dimensions 
of sun, moon, and planets, according to the 
notions of the time, and includes tables of 
lucky and unlucky days, of the fittest times 
for blood-letting, &c., and of the lunar do- 
minion over the various parts of man's body. 
Digges's writings show an inventive mind, 
and considerable ingenuity in the application 
of , arithmetical geometry. 

[Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
(Bliss), i. 414; Fuller's Worthies (1662), 'Kent,' 
p. 82 ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent, iii. 130, 756, 762; 
Harris's Hist, of Kent, p. 35, &c.; Philipott's 
Villare Cantianum, p. 60 ; Stow's Survey of Lon- 
don (1720), iii. 71 ;Pits, De Angliae Scriptoribus 
(1619), i. 751 ; Bale's Scriptt. Brit. Cat. x. 110; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Poggen- 
dorff's Biog. Lit. Handworterbuch ; Companion 
to Brit. Almanac, 1837, p. 40, 1839, p. 57, 1840, 
p. 27 (A. De Morgan); Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. iv. 282, x. 162, 6th ser. x. 368, 515; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] A. M. C. 

DIGGES, LEONARD (1588-1635), poet 
and translator, son of Thomas Digges [q.v.], 
by Agnes, daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger, 
was born in London in 1588, and went to 
University College, Oxford, in 1603, aged 
fifteen. He proceeded B. A. 31 Oct. 1606, and 
travelled abroad, studying at many foreign 
universities. In consideration of his con- 
tinental studies he was created M.A. at Ox- 
ford on 20 Nov. 1626, and allowed to reside 
at University College. He died there 7 April 
1635. Digges was well acquainted with both 



titled ' Gerardo, the Unfortunate Spaniard/ 
by G. de Cespedes y Meneses, and dedicated 
it to the brothers William, earl of Pem- 
broke, and Philip, earl of Montgomery. It 
was republished in 1653. Verses by Digges 
are prefixed toAleman's 'Rogue '(1623), and 
to Giovanni Sorriano's 'Italian Tutor' (1640). 
Greater interest attaches to two pieces of verse 
by Digges in praise of Shakespeare, one of 
which was prefixed to the 1623 edition of 
Shakespeare's plays, and the other to the 1640 
edition of his poems. Few contemporaries 
wrote more sympathetically of Shakespeare's 
greatness. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ii. 592-3; Wood's 
Fasti, i. 316, 428; Shakespeare's Century of 
Prayse (New Shaksp. Soc.), 157, 231 ; Hunter's 
MS. Chorus Vatum in Addit. MS. 24488, ff. 
181-2.] S. L. L. 

DIGGES, THOMAS (d. 1595), mathema- 
tician, son of Leonard Digges (d. 1571) [q.v.] r 
by his wife, Bridget, daughter of Thomas Wil- 
ford, esq., was born in Kent, probably at the 
residence of his father. He says he spent his 
youngest years, even from his cradle, in the 

tudy of the liberal sciences. Wood's state- 
ment that he received his education at Ox- 
ford appears to be wholly without founda- 
tion. He matriculated in the university of 
Cambridge, as a pensioner of Queens' College, 
in May 1546, proceeded B.A. in 1550-1, and 
commenced M.A. in 1557 (CooFEE, Athence 
Cantab, ii. 184). He became very proficient 
in mathematical and military matters, having 
spent many years ' in reducing the sciences 
mathematical from demonstrative contem- 
plations to experimental actions/ in which 
he was aided by his father's observations, and 
by conferences with the rarest soldiers of his 
time. His intimacy with Dr. John Dee was 
doubtless of considerable advantage to him. 
In a letter written in December 1573 Dee 
styles him * charissimus mihi juvenis, mathe- 
maticusque meus dignissimus haeres ' (Addit. 
MS. 5867, f. 25). 

He sat for W T allingford in the parliament 
which met 8 May 1572. On 14 April 1582 
the privy council informed the commissioners 
of Dover Haven that they had appointed Sir 
William Wynter, Digges, and Burroughs to 
confer with the commissioners on the choice 
of a plan for the repair of the harbour, adding 



Digges 



that Digges was to be overseer of the works 
and fortifications. A week later the com- 
missioners wrote to the council that after 
consultation they had finally resolved on a 
* platt ' for the making of a perfect and safe 
harbour, and had chosen officers to execute 
it. Digges was engaged on the works at 
Dover for several years. In the parliament 
which assembled 23 Nov. 1585 he repre- 
sented the town of Southampton. In 1586 
he was, through the influence of the Earl of 
Leicester, made muster-master-general of the 
English forces in the Netherlands (Stratio- 
ticos, ed. 1590, p. 237). In that capacity he 
seems to have made strenuous exertions, and 
to have evinced marked ability. Writing from 
London to Lord Burghley on 2 May 1590 
he says : ' I am forced to beseech your favour 
that I may have my pay so long fo'rborn, after 
others by whom her majesty has been damaged 
are fully paid or overpaid, whereas I, that j 
never increased her charge one penny, but 
have saved her many thousands, am yet un- t 
satisfied by 1,000/., and have for want thereof [ 
received such hindrance that I had better 
have accepted a moiety than my full due i 
now.' In or about 1590 the queen issued a 
commission to Richard Greynevile of Stow, | 
Cornwall, Piers Edgecombe, Digges, and 
others, authorising them to fit out and equip 
a fleet for the discovery of lands in the ant- ; 
arctic seas, and especially to the dominions | 
of the great ' Cam of Cathaia.' Digges was 1 
discharged from the office of muster-master- 
general of her majesty's forces in the Low 
Countries on 15 March 1593-4, when, as he i 
shortly afterwards complained to the coun- ! 
cil, the entire moiety of his entertainment, 
and four or five months of his ordinary im- 
prest, were detained by the treasurer at war. 
He died in London on 24 Aug. 1595, and was 
buried in the chancel of the church of St. 
Mary, Aldermanbury, where a monument 
was erected to his memory with an inscrip- 
tion which describes him as ' a man zealously 
affected to true religion, wise, discreete, cour- 
teous, faithfull to his friends, and of rare 
knowledge in geometric, astrologie, and other 
mathematical sciences ' (SxowE, Survey of 
London, ed. 1720, i. 71, 72). 

He married Agnes, daughter of Sir William 
[Warham ?] St. Leger, knight, and of Ursula 
his wife, daughter of George Neville, lord 
Abergavenny, and had issue, Sir Dudley 
Digges [q. v.J, Leonard Digges the younger 
[q. v.], Margaret, and Ursula (who were alive 
at the date of his decease), besides William 
and Mary, who died young. 

Tycho Brahe had a high opinion of Digges's 
mathematical talents (HALLIWELL, Letters 
illustrative of the Progress of Science in Eng- 



; Digges 

land, p. 33). John Davis, in his * Seaman's 
Secrets ' (1594), speaking of English mathe- 
matical ability, asks ' What strangers may be 
compared with M. Thomas Digges, esquire, 
our countryman, the great master of arch- 
mastrie ? and for theoretical speculations and 
most cunning calculation, M. Dee and M. 
Thomas Heriotts are hardly to be matched.' 
Mr.Halliwell observes : ' Thomas Digges ranks 
among the first English mathematicians of 
the sixteenth century. Although he made 
no great addition to science, yet his writings 
tended more to its cultivation than perhaps 
all those of other writers on the same subjects 
put together.' 

His works are: 1. ( A Geometrical Prac- 
tise, named Pantometria, divided into three 
Bookes, Longimetra, Planimetra, and Sterio- 
metria, containing Rules manifolde for men- 
suration of all lines, Superficies, and Solides 
. . . framed by Leonard Digges, lately finished 
by Thomas Digges his sonne. Who hath also 
thereunto adjoyiied a Mathematicall treatise 
of the five regulare Platonicall bodies and 
their Metamorphosis or transformation into 
five other equilater unifoorme solides Geo- 
metricall, of his owne invention, hitherto 
not mentioned by any Geometricians,' Lond. 
1571, 4to; 2nd edition, ' with sundrie addi- 
tions,' Lond. 1591, fol. Dedicated to Sir 
Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper. 2. Epistle to 
the reader of John Dee's ' Parallacticse Com- 
mentationis Praxeosq . Nucleus quidam,' 1573. 
3. ' Alas seu Scalse Mathematics, quibus vi- 
sibilium remotissima Cseloriirn Theatra con- 
scendi, et Planetarum omnium itinera novis 
et inauditis Methodis explorari : turn huius 
portentosi Syderis in Mundi Boreal i plaga in- 
solito fulgore coruscantis, Distantia et Mag- 
nitudo immensa, Situsq. protinus tremendus 
indagari, Deiq. stupendum ostentum, Terri- 
colis expositum, cognosci liquidissime possit,' 
Lond. 1573, 1581, 4to. Dedicated to Lord 
Burghley, by whose orders he wrote the trea- 
tise. 4. ' A Prognostication . . . contayning 
. . . rules to judge the Weather by the 
Sunne, Moone, Stars . . . with a briefe judge- 
ment for ever, of Plenty, Lacke, Sickenes, 
Dearth, Warres, &c., opening also many na- 
tural causes worthy to be knowen,' published 
by Leonard Digges, and corrected and aug- 
mented by his son Thomas, Lond. 1578, 4to. 
Other editions, 1596 and 1605. 5. 'An 
Arithmeticall Militare Treatise, named Stra- 
tioticos : Compendiously teaching the Science 
of Numbers. . . . Together with the Moderne 
Militare Discipline, Offices, Lawes, and Due- 
ties in every wel governed Campe and Annie 
to be observed. Long since attempted by 
Leonard Digges. Augmented, digested, and 
lately finished by Thomas Digges. Whereto 



Digges 



73 



Digges 



he hath also adjoyned certaine Questions of 
great Ordinaunce,' Lond. 1579, 1590, 4to. 
Dedicated to Robert Dudley, earl of Leices- 
ter. To the second edition is appended ' A 
briefe and true Report of the Proceedings of 
the Earle of Leycestre, for the Reliefe of the 
Towne of Sluce, from his arrival at Vlishing, 
about the end of June 1587, until the Surren- 
drie thereof 26 Julii next ensuing. Whereby 
it shall plainelie appeare his Excellencie was 
not in anie Fault for the Losse of that 
Towne.' Robert Norton, gunner, published 
at London in 1624 a treatise ' Of the Art of 
Great Artillery, viz. the explanation of the 
Definitions and Questions, pronounced and 
propounded by Thomas Digges, in his Stra- 
tiaticos and Pantometria, concerning great 
Ordinance, and his Theorems thereupon.' 
6. ' England's Defence : A Treatise concern- 
ing Invasion ; or a brief discourse of what 
orders were best for the repulsing of foreign 
enemies, if at any time they should invade 
us by sea in Kent or elsewhere,' at the end 
-of the second edition of ' Stratioticos,' and 
Lond. 1686, fol. 7. Plan of Dover Castle, 
Town, and Harbour, drawn in 1581, by, or 
for the use of, Thomas Digges. Copy in 
Addit. MS. 11815. 8. 'A briefe discourse 
declaringe how honorable and profitable to 
youre most excellent majestie . . . the making 
of Dover Haven shalbe, and in what sorte 
. . . the same may be accomplyshed.' About 
1582. Printed by T. W. Wrighte, M.A., in 
* Archaeologia,' xi. 212-54, from a manuscript 
bequeathed to the Society of Antiquaries by 
John Thorpe. 9. ' Letter to the Earl of Leices- 
ter, with a Platt of military Ordnance for 
the Army he is to conduct into the Low 
Countries . . .' Harleian MS. 6993, art. 49. 
10. * Instructio exercitus apud Belgas,' 1586, 
MS. 1 1 . An augmented edition of his father's 
-< Boke named Tectonicon,' Lond. 1592, 4to, 
and again in 1605, 1614, 1625, 1630, 1634, 
1637, 1647, 1656. 12. < Perfect description 
of the celestial orbs, according to the most 
antient doctrine of the Pythagoreans,' Lond. 
1592, 4to. 13. ' Foure Paradoxes, or politique 
Discourses : two concerning militarie Disci- 
pline wrote long since by Thomas Digges ; 
two of the Worthinesse of War and Warriors. 
By Dudley Digges his sonne,' Lond. 1604, 4to. 
14. 'Nova Corpora regularia seu quinque cor- 
porum regularium simplicium in quinque alia 
regularia composita metamorphosis inventa 
ante annos 60 a T. Diggseio . . . jam, pro- 
blematibus additis nonnullis, demonstrata a 
Nepote,' Lond. 1634, 4to. Besides the above 
works he had begun the following, with the 
intention of completing and publishing them, 
4 had not the infernall furies, envying such 
his felicitie and happie societie with his mathe- 



matical muses, for many yeares so tormented 
him with lawe-brables, that he hath bene 
enforced to discontinue those his delectable 
studies.' 15. ' A Treatise of the Arte of Navi- 
gation.' 16. 'A Treatise of Architecture 
Nauticall.' 17. ' Commentaries upon the Re- 
volutions of Copernicus.' 18. 'A Booke of 
Dialling.' 19. ' A Treatise of Great Artil- 
lerie and Pyrotechnic.' 20. ' A Treatise of 
Fortification.' 

[Addit. MSS. 5867, f. 25, 11815 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert) ; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; 
Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Halliwell's 
Letters illustrative of the Progress of Science in 
England, 6, 30, 33 ; Hasted's Kent, iii. 130, 762, 
iv. 35 ; Leigh's Treatise of Religion and Learn- 
ing, 180 ; Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 
(1547-80) 454, 577, (1581-90) 42, 44, 49-51, 
101, 110, 111, 173, 180, 184, 214, 706, (1591- 
1594) 198, 234, 235, 316, 474, (1595-7) 263, 
275, 293, 294, Addenda, (1580-1625) 306, 308, 
309; Penny Cyclopaedia, iii. 244, xxiv. 163; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 227 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
(Bliss), i. 415, 636, ii. 592.] T. C. 

DIGGES, WEST (1720-1786), actor, has 
been variously stated to have been the son 
of Colonel Digges, an officer of the guards, 
whose fortune was lost in the South Sea 
scheme, and the illegitimate son of the second 
John West, earl of Delawarr. A commission 
was obtained for him, and he was sent to 
Scotland, where he encumbered himself with 
a burden of debt of which he was never able 
to get rid. Theophilus Gibber, on his visit 
to Dublin, introduced Digges to Sheridan, 
manager of the Smock Alley Theatre. On 
27 Nov. 1749, as Jaffier in ' Venice Pre- 
served,' he made at that house his first ap- 
pearance on the stage. His success was com- 
plete. He remained in Dublin for some years, 
playing such characters as Lothario, Lear, 
Antony, Macheath, and Hamlet. He paid 
frequent visits to Edinburgh, where, 14 Dec. 
1756, he was the original Young Norval in 
Home's tragedy of ' Douglas.' Having a 
wife still living, he went through the cere- 
mony of marriage with George Ann Bel- 
lamy [q. v.], and acted in Scotland for a 
time (1763) under the name of Bellamy. In 
Edinburgh he was imprisoned for debt, but 
succeeded in effecting his escape. His first 
appearance in London took place at the Hay- 
market as Cato, 14 Aug. 1777. Foote was 
present, and with characteristic cruelty caused 
a laugh and disconcerted the actor by saying 
aloud in reference to Digges's costume, 'A 
Roman chimney-sweeper on May day ! ' He 
appeared at Covent Garden, 25 Sept. 1778, 
as Sir John Brute in the * Provoked Wife.' 
In 1779 he returned to the Haymarket, and 
was the original Earl of Westmoreland in 



Dighton 



74 



Dighton 



Mrs. Cowley's ' Albina, Countess Raimond.' 
At the close of 1781 lie quitted London per- 
manently, and acted in Dublin. Rehearsing 
in July 1784 Pierre in ' Venice Preserved/ 
with Mrs. Siddons as Belvidera, he had a 
stroke of paralysis from which he never re- 
covered. He died in Cork 10 Nov. 1786, and 
was buried in the cathedral. Digges was a 
well-formed and handsome man, portly in 
his later years, but with much natural grace. 
He was, however, rather formal in style, and 
his voice was imperfectly under control. In 
London he made no great reputation. Davies, 
speaking of his Wolsey, says, ' Mr. Digges, if 
he had not sometimes been extravagant in 
gesture and quaint in elocution, would have 
been nearer the resemblance of the great 
minister than any actor I have seen represent 
it ' {Dramatic Miscellanies^ i. 351). Colman 
the younger accords him high praise. Victor 
says his ' Lear was a weak imitation of Gar- 
rick,' and esteems him a better actor in tra- 
gedy than in comedy, as he was t a much 
easier fine gentleman off the stage than on.' 
Boaden says of his Wolsey that it was a 
masterly performance (Life of Mrs. Siddons, 
i. 127), and of his performance of Caratach 
in the ' Bonduca ' of Fletcher, altered by Col- 
man, Haymarket, 30 July 1778, that 'it was 
quite equal to Kemble's Coriolanus in bold, 
original conception and corresponding feli- 
city of execution' (ib. i. 164), and O'Keeffe 
says that he was the best Macheath he ever 
saw. 

[Books cited ; Genest's Account of the Stage ; 
Victor's Hist, of the Theatres of London and 
Dublin; Hitchcock's Historical View of the Irish 
Stage ; Colman's Random Records ; Peake's Me- 
moirs of the Colman Family; Jackson's Hist, of 
the Scottish Stage.] J. K. 

DIGHTON, DENIS (1792-1827), battle 
painter, was born in London in 1792. When 
young he became a student in the Royal 
Academy of Arts. Having in his early career 
attracted the notice of the Prince of Wales, 
he received, at the age of nineteen, through 
the prince's favour, a commission in the 90th 
regiment, which, however, he resigned in 
order to marry and settle in London. He was 
appointed military draughtsman to the prince 
in 1815, and occasionally made professional 
excursions abroad by desire of his royal pa- 
tron. He exhibited seventeen pictures at the 
Royal Academy between 1811 and 1825. His 
first work was entitled < The Lace Maker ; ' he 
then resided at No. 4 Spring Gardens. Digh- 
ton died at St. Servant 8 Aug. 1827. His 
wife painted fruit and flower pieces, and ex- 
hibited sixteen pictures at the Academv be- 
tween 1820 and 1835, and eight at the British 



Institution, and was appointed flower-painter 
to the queen. Dighton etched several plates, 
among which is a whole-length portrait of 
Denis Davidoft', ' The Black Captain,' 1814. 
There are in the department of prints and 
drawings, British Museum, four Indian-ink 
drawings, which have been engraved in Lady 
Callcott's works on Chili and Brazil, and also 
several lithographs, viz. ' Chinois,' ' Turk/ 
' Chinese,' ' Bedouin Arab,' published in 1821,. 
and ' Drawing Book for Learners.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. E. 

DIGHTON, ROBERT (1752 P-1814), por- 
trait-painter, caricaturist, and etcher, was 
born about 1752, and styled himself ' draw- 
ing-master.' He first exhibited at the Free 
Society of Artists in 1769, and continued to- 
do so till 1773, when he sent some portraits in 
chalk. In 1775 he had at the Royal Academy 
' a frame of stain'd drawings,' and his address, 
was * at Mr. Glanville's, opposite St. Clement's- 
Church.' Two years later he exhibited ' A 
Conversation, small whole-lengths,' and ' A 
Drawing of a Gentleman from memory ; ' he 
then resided at 266 High Holborn, and in 
1785 at Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. In 
1795 Dighton etched ' A Book of Heads,' pub- 
lished by Bowles & Carver of 69 St. Paul's 
Churchyard, London, and also his portrait ; 
he is seen in left profile, in his right hand a 
crayon-holder, and under his left arm a port- 
folio inscribed ' A Book of Heads by Robert 
Dighton, Portrait Painter and Drawing Mas- 
ter.' His etchings, which are numerous and 
tinted by hand, are chiefly satirical portraits 
of the leading counsel then at the bar, mili- 
tary officers, actors and actresses, and he 
signed himself t R. Dighton ' and ' Dighton/ 
whereas his son Richard wrote his name in 
full. In 1794 he lived at No. 12 Charing 
Cross ; he then moved to No. 6, and finally, 
in 1810, to No. 4 Spring Gardens, Charing 
Cross, where he died in 1814. In 1806 it 
was discovered that Dighton had abstracted 
from the British Museum a number of etch- 
ings and prints. The first meeting of the 
trustees of the British Museum for conside- 
ration of the matter was held 21 June 1806. 
The discovery of the theft was due to Samuel 
Woodburn, the art dealer, who, having been 
summoned to attend the board, stated that 
about May 1806 he bought of Dighton, Rem- 
brandt's ' Coach Landscape' for twelve guineas, 
and, receiving information that there was rea- 
son to suppose it might be a copy, took the 
etching to the museum on 18 June to com- 
pare it with the Museum impression. This- 
he found to be missing, and only a coloured 
copy remaining. Shortly afterwards the cul- 
prit made the following disclosures : that he 



Dignum 



75 



Dilke 



first visited the British Museum in 1794, and 
finding one of the officials very obliging drew 
for him gratuitously his portrait and that of 
his daughter. The prints were at that time 
slightly pasted in guard-books, from which 
Dighton was able to remove them unnoticed, 
and to carry them away in a portfolio. These 
he sold, but they were nearly all recovered. 
There is in the department of prints and 
drawings, British Museum, a good set of 
Dighton's etchings, and a lithograph repre- 
senting a boy at an easel and the following 
water-colour drawings : ' Glee Singers exe- 
cuting a Catch,' ' The Reward of Virtue/ 
' Cornme ce Corse nous mene,' ' There is gal- 
lantry for you ! ' ' Men of War bound for the 
Port of Pleasure.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists; Fagan's 
Collectors' Marks, p. 24, No. 131 ; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. vi. 187.] L. F. 

DIGNUM, CHARLES (1765 P-1872), 
vocalist, son of a master tailor, was born at 
Rotherhithe about 1765. His father, who 
was a catholic, moved his business to Wild 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, and young 
Dignum became a chorister at the Sardinian 
Chapel, where his fine voice attracted the 
attention of Samuel Webbe, the organist, 
who undertook his musical education. Dig- 
num, however, wished to become a priest, 
and was only prevented by his father being 
too poor to pay for his training. He was 
therefore placed under a carver and gilder 
named Egglesoe, with whom he remained for 
nine months, when a quarrel with his master 
prevented his being definitely apprenticed. 
Linley [q. v.] made his acquaintance, and, 
persuading him to adopt the musical pro- 
fession, undertook his education. Linley 
would not let him sing in public until his 
powers were thoroughly matured. His first 
appearance took place at Drury Lane, as 
young Meadows in ' Love in a Village,' on 
14 Oct. 1784; according to the advertise- 
ments he was received by a very crowded 
house with unbounded applause. He ap- 
peared in Michael Arne's 'Cymon' on 26 Nov. 
following, and as Damon in Boy ce's ' Chaplet ' 
on 18 Dec. Dignum remained associated 
with Drury Lane during the greater part of 
his life. He had a fine tenor voice, but his 
figure was clumsy, and though extremely 
good-natured, he seems to have been a some- 
what stupid man. He succeeded to Charles 
Bannister's parts on the latter's secession to 
the Royalty Theatre (1787) ; he was particu- 
larly successful as Tom Tug in the ' Water- 
man,' and as Crop in ' No Song, no Supper.' 
He also sang a t the Drury Lane Oratorios, 
and on 28 Marc v i 1800 took part at Covent 



Garden in the first performance of Haydn's. 
'Creation.' During the summer Dignum 
sang at Vauxhall, where he was a great 
favourite. In 1786 he married a Miss Rennett, 
the daughter of an attorney ; she died at 
23 New North Street, Red Lion Square, in 
1799, and of their children only one daughter 
survived. Dignum's name disappears from 
the theatre bills after 1812, but he continued 
to be a favourite member in musical society 
until his death. He died of inflammation 
of the lungs, at his house in Gloucester Street, 
29 March 1827. He is said to have accumu- 
lated, together with his wife's property, a 
fortune of over 30,000/. Dignum wrote the 
tunes of several of his own songs, but he was 
a poor musician, and the harmonies were 
generally added by his friends. Several of 
his compositions appeared shortly after 1801, 
in a volume dedicated to the Prince of Wales, 
to which a portrait of the composer is pre- 
fixed. The other engraved portraits of him 
are the following: (1) Vignette, full face, 
engraved by Ridley after Drummond, and 
published in the ' European Magazine ' for 
December 1798 ; (2) vignette, full face, the 
same as (1) but said to be engraved by 
Mackenzie from a drawing by Deighton ; 
(3) full-length, as Tom Tug. engraved by 
Bond after De Wilde, published 26 July 
1806; (4) full-length, caricature, ' Ease and 
Elegance,' published 1805. 

A notice in the ' European Magazine '(1798) 
announces that Dignum was then writing a 
two-act piece, but it is not known whether 
this was ever played. 

[European Mag. December 1798 ; Public Ad- 
vertiser, 14, 15 Oct., 26 Nov., 18 Dec. 1784; 
Portraits and Music in the British Museum ; 
Morning Post, 30 March 1827 ; Parke's Musical 
Memoirs, i. 91, 176, ii. 5, 63 ; Gent. Mag. 1799, 
i. 258 ; Genest's Hist, of the Stage ; Georgian 
Era, iv. 286 ; Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 447.] 

W. B. S. 

DILKE, ASHTON WENTWORTH 

(1850-1883), traveller and politician, younger 
son of Sir Charles Went worth Dilke [q. v.] , was 
educated privately, and went to Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, of which he was a scholar, but left 
without taking his degree, being anxious to 
travel in Russia and acquire a knowledge of 
the condition of that empire. He visited a 
great part of Russia and Central Asia ; and 
resided for some months in a Russian village, 
studying the language and also examining the 
condition of the peasantry. On his return 
he read a paper on Kuldja before the Geo- 
graphical Society, and commenced a work 
on Russia, one or two chapters of which 
appeared in the ' Fortnightly Review/ but it 
was never published, as his energies were 



Dilke 



Dilke 



absorbed for a time in editing the ' Weekly 
Dispatch/ which he purchased within a year 
after his return home; and when he had 
leisure to return to his book he conceived 
that its place had been supplied by Mr. (now 
Sir) D. Mackenzie Wallace's volumes. A 
translation of TourgueniefF's ' Virgin Soil ' 
was published by Dilke in 1878. In 1880 
he was returned for Newcastle as an ad- 
vanced liberal, and seemed likely to play a 
considerable part in politics ; but his health, 
never robust, gradually gave way and he 
resigned his seat. He died at Algiers on 
12 March 1883. 

[Athenseum, 17 March 1883.] N. McC. 

DILKE, CHARLES WENTWORTH 

(1789-1864), antiquary and critic, was born 
on 8 Dec. 1789. At an early age he entered 
the navy pay office, but his leisure hours were 
devoted to reading, and, sharing the enthu- 
siasm for the Elizabethan dramatists which 
was created by the publication of Lamb's 
' Specimens of the English Dramatic Poets,' 
he turned his attention in that direction. 
Gifford, who had edited Massinger, and was 
in the midst of his edition of Ben Jonson, 
'encouraged him, and between 1814 and 1816 
he brought out his continuation of Dodsley's 
* Old Plays,' a very acute and careful piece 
of editing. He had by this time married and 
settled at Hampstead, and there made the ac- 
quaintance of Charles Armitage Brown [q.v.], 
and of what was then termed the cockney 
school, Keats, to whom he proved both a 
sympathetic and judicious friend, Leigh Hunt, 
J. H. Reynolds, and Hood. Shelley was also 
known to him. He was busy contributing 
to the periodicals which sprang up within a 
few years of the peace, such as the ' London 
Review,' the ' London Magazine,' and ' Col- 
burn's New Monthly,' and naturally enough 
when the ' Retrospective Review' was started 
he became one of its chief supporters. His 
articles were mainly on literary topics, but in 
1821 he produced a political pamphlet in the 
shape of a letter addressed to Lord John Rus- 
sell, which was distinctly radical in tone, and 
pleaded for the repeal of the corn laws. 

An event which formed a turning-point in 
Dilke's life was his becoming connected, about 
the end of 1829, with the ' Athenaeum,' which, 
founded by James Silk Buckingham [q. v.] at 
the beginning of the previous year, had been 
purchased by John Sterling, and had subse- 
quently passed into the hands of its printer and 
a number of men of letters. In the middle of 
1830 Dilke became the supreme editor, and the 
effect of a firm hand on the management of 
the paper was speedily seen. Early in 1831 
he reduced the price of the journal to four- 



pence, a measure which resulted in a marked 
increase in its sale and a corresponding re- 
duction in the circulation of the 'Literary 
Gazette,' which adhered to the then customary 
price of a shilling. Meanwhile his co-pro- 
prietors, Reynolds, Hood, and Allan Cunning- 
ham, alarmed by the change, gave up their 
shares in the paper, although they continued 
to write largely for it, and the financial respon- 
sibility fell entirely upon the printer and the 
editor, who obtained the co-operation of Lamb, 
Barry Cornwall,Chorley [q.v.],George Darley, 
and others of his friends, and as soon as he had 
the opportunity enlisted the aid of Sainte- 
Beuve, Jules Janin, and other continental 
writers of repute, quite an unheard-of thing 
for a British journalist to do in those days. 
Although the circulation of the paper quickly 
developed, the heavy duty prevented the 
growth of advertisements, and for' several 
years there was no surplus profit from which 
to pay Dilke a salary. The main principle 
of his editorship was to preserve a complete 
independence, and to criticise a book without 
caring who was the writer or who was the 
publisher, a principle which at the time was 
a startling novelty, and to maintain it Dilke 
withdrew altogether from general society, and 
avoided as far as possible personal contact 
with authors or publishers. In 1836 the navy 
pay office was abolished, and Dilke conse- 
quently retired on a pension, and devoted all 
his energies to the improvement of the paper. 
In the forties the ' Athenaeum ' had be- 
come an established success, and no longer 
required the constant exertions which had 
been necessary in earlier days. Dilke con- 
sequently handed over the editorship to the 
late T. K. Hervey, and listened to the over- 
tures of the 'Daily News,' which, started 
with great expectations of success under 
Charles Dickens, signally failed at first to 
realise the hopes of its proprietors. They 
therefore naturally turned to one who was 
politically in sympathy with them, and had 
proved his business faculty by converting a 
struggling journal into a paper of recognised 
influence and large circulation. Called in 
at first as a ' consulting physician,' he became 
in April 1846 manager of the ' Daily News,' 
John Forster being the editor, and applied to 
it the same policy that had proved success- 
ful in the case of the ' Athenaeum,' reducing 
the price of the ' Daily News ' by one-half. 
The capital of the paper proved, however, in- 
sufficient to meet the heavy expenses which 
the competition for news with the ( Times,' 
the ' Herald,' and the ' Morning Chronicle ' 
involved, and another great stumbling-block 
was that, the proprietors belonging to various 
sections of the liberal party, each of them 



Dilke 



77 



Dilke 



expected his own views to be advocated in 
the journal. In consequence, when the three 
years during which he had undertaken to 
superintend the * Daily News ' came to an 
end, Dilke withdrew from its management. 
It was not till several years afterwards that, 
by resuming his policy and reducing its price 
to a penny, the journal succeeded in obtain- 
ing the assured position it has held for the last 
seventeen years. 

A third period in Dilke's career began with 
his retirement from newspaper management, 
and the articles on which his reputation rests 
are all of them subsequent to 1847. While 
editing the ' Athenaeum ' he had on principle 
avoided writing in it ; having ceased to edit 
it he became a contributor. Although he 
preserved his early partiality for the Eliza- 
bethan drama a couple of articles on Shake- 
speare were among his later contributions to 
the paper 'he had studied the literary his- 
tory of the seventeenth century, and still 
more carefully that of the eighteenth. The 
mystery attaching to the authorship of the 
' Letters of Junius ' especially fascinated him, 
and he acquired with his wonted thorough- 
ness a knowledge of everything bearing on 
the problem that none of his contemporaries 
could rival. Unlike other students of the 
riddle, he was not so anxious to find out who 
Junius was as to show who he was not : and 
although he is said to have had his own 
ideas of the identity of the unknown, his 
published criticisms were entirely destruc- 
tive. He commenced in the 'Athenaeum ' of 
July 1848 by demolishing Britton's theory 
that Colonel Barre was Junius, and in the 
course of the five following years he wrote a 
series of reviews which form the most weighty 
contribution to the perennial controversy 
that has yet appeared. The study of Junius 
led inevitably to the study of Burke and 
Wilkes, and he was the first to rescue Wilkes 
from the obloquy that attached to his name. 
He also became the apologist of Peter Pindar. 

To Dilke's papers on Junius succeeded his 
articles on Pope. He had been long interested 
in Pope, but his investigations were much 
aided by the purchase by the British Museum 
in 1853 of the Caryll papers, which revealed 
the manner in which Pope prepared his cor- 
respondence for publication. In a series of 
contributions to the 'Athenaeum' and 'Notes 
and Queries ' Dilke was able to explain the 
mystery of the publication of the letters by 
Curll, to make clear the poet's parentage, to 
settle several matters in his early life, to iden- 
tify the ' Unfortunate Lady,' and in various 
other points to throw fresh light on Pope's 
career and his poetry. These articles brought 
the writer into controversy with Peter Cun- 



ningham, the late Mr. Carruthers, Mr. Kers- 
lake, and other students of Pope, but his con- 
clusions remained unshaken by his assailants, 
and have been adopted by Mr. Elwin and Mr. 
Courthope in their elaborate edition of Pope, 
an edition in which Dilke was invited to take 
part, but owing to his advancing years he was 
obliged to decline. One of his last articles 
in the ' Athenaeum ' was devoted to Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu and her quarrel with 
Pope, an article prompted by the appearance 
of Mr. Moy Thomas's edition of her works in 
1861. 

In his later life the affairs of the Literary 
Fund occupied a large part of Dilke's at- 
tention. As early as 1836 he began to 
scrutinise the management of the fund ; but 
it was not till 1849 that the controversy 
became open and violent. In 1858 he joined 
with Dickens and Forster in the manifesto 
called ' The Case of the Reformers of the 
Literary Fund,' which will be found in the 
'Athenaeum ' for 6 March of that year. The 
reformers, although they had the best of the 
argument, had the worst of the voting, and, 
finding it impossible to convert their mino- 
rity into a majority, they attempted, with 
the aid of Lord Lytton, to found the Guild 
of Art and Literature, a scheme which did 
not meet with the success anticipated. 

Dilke in 1862 withdrew altogether from 
London and settled at Alice Holt in Hamp- 
shire, where he died after a few days' illness 
on 10 Aug. 1864. The best comments on his 
character and his literary work were those 
of his old friend Thorns in ' Notes and 
Queries : ' ' The distinguishing feature of his 
character was his singular love of truth, and 
his sense of its value and importance, even 
in the minutest points and questions of lite- 
rary history.' 

[The articles on Pope, Junius, &c. of Dilke 
were collected and published in 1875, under 
the title of ' Papers of a Critic,' by the present 
Sir C. W. Dilke, who prefixed to them a memoir 
of his grandfather, from which the facts of the 
above notice have been derived.] N. McC. 

DILKE, SIR CHARLES WENT- 
WORTH (1810-1869), the son of Charles 
Wentworth Dilke [q. v.], was born in 1810. 
He was educated at Westminster School and 
at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, taking his degree 
in 1834. He became connected with the 
Royal Horticultural Society, and, along with 
Professor Lindley, founded the ' Gardener's 
Chronicle.' He was also an active member of 
the Society of Arts, and was for several years 
chairman of its council. He was among the 
first to propose the International Exhibition of 
1851, and, as one of the executive committee, 
he worked with more zeal and persistence than 



Dilkes 



Dilkes 



any one else to bring the project to a successful 
issue. In 1853 he went to New York as an 
English commissioner to the Industrial Ex- 
hibition, and in 1855 he visited Paris on a 
similar errand. He was one of the five royal 
commissioners for the exhibition of 1862, and 
was made a baronet in the same year. He 
sat as a liberal for Wallingford in the par- 
liament of 1865, but lost his seat at the 
general election of 1868. At this time his 
health was failing, and having gone to Russia 
as English commissioner at a Horticultural 
Exhibition, he died on 10 May 1869 at St. 
Petersburg. 

[Times, 12 May 1869 ; Athenaeum, 15 May 
1869.] N. McC. 

DILKES, SIB THOMAS (1667 P-1707), 
rear-admiral, a lieutenant and commander 
under James II, was advanced to post rank 
in 1692 and appointed to the Adventure of 
50 guns, in which he shared in the glories of 
Barfleur and La Hogue. In different ships 
he continued actively employed in the Chan- 
nel, on the coast of Ireland, in the Bay of 
Biscay, or on the coast of Portugal, till in 
1696, being then in the Rupert of 60 guns, he 
went to the West Indies, in the squadron 
under Vice-admiral John Nevell. Nevell and 
Meese, the rear-admiral, and almost all the 
other captains having died, Dilkes succeeded 
to the command, and brought the squadron 
home in October 1697. In 1702 he com- 
manded the Somerset of 70 guns, in the 
fleet under Sir George Rooke, who, in the 
attack on the combined fleets in Vigo har- 
bour, leaving his flagship the Royal Sove- 
reign outside, as too large, hoisted his flag 
in the Somerset. In the following March 
Dilkes was promoted to be rear-admiral of 
the white,, and during the summer of 1703, 
with his flag in the Kent, he had command 
of a squadron on the coast of France. On 
26-7 July he drove on shore near Gran- 
ville and Avranches, and captured or de- 
stroyed almost the whole of a fleet of forty- 
five merchant ships and three frigates which 
formed their escort a service for which the 
queen ordered gold medals to be struck and 
presented to the admirals and captains. Dur- 
ing the rest of the year Dilkes was employed 
cruising in the chops of the Channel, return- 
ing to Spithead just in time to escape the 
fury of the great storm on 26 Nov. The 
following year, with his flag still in the Kent, 
he sailed with Sir Clowdisley Shovell to join 
Sir George Rooke at Lisbon, and afterwards 
took a prominent part in the battle of Malaga 
as rear-admiral of the white squadron, in 
acknowledgment of which he was knighted 
by the queen, 22 Oct., shortly after his re- 



turn to England. In February 1704-5 he 
sailed again for the Straits, with his flag in 
the Revenge ; and having joined Sir John 
Leake [q. v.] in the Tagus, had, on 10 March, 
a principal share in capturing and destroying 
the French squadron that was blockading 
Gibraltar (BUKCHETT, p. 683). He remained 
through the summer with the grand fleet 
under the Earl of Peterborough and Sir Clow- 
disley Shovell, and with the latter returned 
to England in November. During 1706 he 
appears to have been employed chiefly in the 
blockade of Dunkirk, but in January 1706-7 
sailed in company with Sir Clowdisley Shovell 
[q. v.] for the Mediterranean, and took part 
in the operations there, including the siege 
of Toulon, which, though commonly spoken 
of as a failure, effected at least the temporary 
ruin of the French navy. Immediately after 
the siege was raised, Shovell left for England. 
Dilkes remained as commander-in-chief, and 
after conferring with King Charles at Barce- 
lona sailed for Leghorn, where he anchored 
on 19 Nov. On this occasion there arose 
a curious question as to priority of saluting, 
Dilkes claiming to be saluted first by the 
castle ; but the answer was that the castle 
never had saluted any flag first, except admi- 
rals or vice-admirals. With this precedent 
Dilkes was compelled to be content ; but to 
show that there was nothing personal in this 
refusal, he was invited to a public dinner on 
shore, 1 Dec. It would seem probable that, 
in going off to his ship from the heated 
room, he got a chill, followed by a fever, of 
which he died 12 Dec. 1707 ; but his death, 
so soon after his dispute with the grand-ducal 
court, led to a rumour that he had been poi- 
soned. For this there appear no grounds 
whatever. He married Mary, daughter of 
the first Earl of Inchiquin, widow of Mr. 
Henry Boyle of Castle Martyr, and, after 
Dilkes's death, wife of Colonel John Irwin. 
By her he had two sons, Michael O'Brien 
Dilkes, who died a lieutenant-general in 1774; 
and William Dilke (CHARLOCK, Biog. Nav. ii. 
252), a captain in the navy, who was, 5 Dec. 
1745, cashiered for misconduct, as captain 
of the Chichester, in the battle of Toulon, 
11 Feb. 1743-4. The blame, according to a 
statement made by Admiral Mathews, lay not 
on Dilke, but on the Chichester, an 80-gun 
ship, so crank that she could not open her 
lower deck ports. Possibly this consideration 
had weight with the government, for the sen- 
tence on Dilke was so far remitted that he 
was restored to half-pay. He died 30 May 
1756. 

It may, however, be doubted whether Char- 
nock is right in assigning this relationship to 
Captain William Dilke. Sir Thomas Dilkes 



Dillenius 



79 



Dillingham 



.-always wrote his name with the final s ; and | 
the names of his eldest son and of that son's i 
son, both generals in the army, are so printed j 
in the official lists. William Dilke, on the i 
-other hand, very certainly wrote it without | 
the s ; and the question whether or in what 
degree Sir Thomas Dilkes and Captain Wil- 
liam Dilke were related to each other, or to 
the family of Maxstocke in Warwickshire, 
does not admit of any positive answer (Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 449, xi. 52). 

[Charnock'sBiog. Nav. ii. 242, v. 87; Burchett's 
Nav. Hist. ; Lediard's Nav. Hist.] J. K. L. 

DILLENIUS, JOHN JAMES, M.D. 

-(1687-1747), botanical professor at Oxford, 
was born in 1687 at Darmstadt. The name 
of his family had formerly been Dill and 
Dillen (PULTENEY, Progress of Botany, ii. 
154). He was educated at the university 
of Giessen, where he seems to have taken 
the degree of M.D. He became a member of 
the Academia Curiosorum Germanise, and 
contributed several papers, mostly botanical, 
to their ephemerides. In 1719 he published 
4 Catalogus Plantarum sponte circa Gissam 
nascentium,' enumerating 980 species of the 
higher plants, 200 of ' mosses ' and 160 fungi 
from the immediate environs of Giessen. The 
work also contained many descriptions of 
new genera and sixteen plates drawn and 
engraved by the author. It attracted much 
attention, and Dillenius was persuaded by 
Consul William Sherard to come to England 
in August 1721. He stayed with William 
Sherard at Oxford and afterwards in Lon- 
don, and with James Sherard, the consul's 
brother, at Eltham, but had lodgings of his 
own in London, these in 1728 being in 
Barking Alley. His first work in England 
was the preparation of the third edition of 
Ray's ' Synopsis Stirpium Britannicarum,' to 
which he added many species and twenty-four 
plates of rare plants. It was published in 
1724. In 1728 Consul Sherard died, be- 
queathing his herbarium and library and 
3,000/. to the university of Oxford, to pro- 
vide a salary for the professor of botany, on 
condition that Dillenius should be the first 
professor. In 1732 Dillenius published the 
1 Hortus Elthamensis,' fol. pp. 437, illustrated 
by 417 drawings of plants etched with his 
own hand, of which Linnaeus wrote * est 
opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non 
vidit.' In 1735 Dillenius was admitted M.D. 
of Oxford, as of St. John's College, and in 
the summer of the following year Linnaeus 
spent a month with him at Oxford, after 
which the Swedish naturalist dedicated his 
4 Critica Botanica ' to the Oxford professor. 
After assisting in the preparation of the cata- 



logue of Dr. Shaw's oriental plants, Dille- 
nius completed his greatest work, the ' His- 
toria Muscorum,' 4to, 1741 , pp.552, illustrated 
by eighty-five plates ; and he prepared at least 
two hundred and fifty coloured drawings of 
fungi, which, however, were never published. 
He was somewhat corpulent, and in March 
1747 was seized with apoplexy, from which he 
died on 2 April. He was buried at St. Peter' s- 
in-the-East, Oxford. A portrait of him is 
preserved at the Oxford Botanic Garden, 
which was engraved in Sims and Konig's 
1 Annals of Botany,' vol. ii., and Linnaeus com- 
memorated him in the genus Dillenia. His 
drawings, manuscripts, books, and mosses 
were purchased from his executor, Dr. Seidel, 
by his successor, Dr. Humphrey Sibthorp, 
and added to the Sherardian Museum, where 
they now are. 

[Pulteney's Sketches of the Progress of Botany, 
ii. 153-84; Rees's Cyclopaedia; Druce's Flora of 
Oxford, pp. 381-5.] G. S. B. 

DILLINGHAM, FRANCIS (ft. 1611), 
divine, was a native of Dean, Bedfordshire. 
He matriculated as a pensioner of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, in June 1583, proceeded 
B.A. in 1586-7, was elected a fellow of his 
college, commenced M.A. in 1590, and took 
the degree of B.D. in 1599. Fuller says l he 
was an excellent linguist and subtle dispu- 
tant. My father was present in the bachil- 
lors-scholes when a Greek act was kept be- 
tween him and William Allabaster, of Trinity 
Colledge, to their mutuall commendation ; a 
disputation so famous that it served for an 
sera or epoche for the scholars in that age, 
thence to date their seniority ' ( Worthies of 
England, ed. Nichols, i. 118). He was richly 
beneficed at Wilden, in his native county, 
and died a bachelor, though in what year is 
not stated, leaving a fair estate to his brother 
Thomas, who was one of the Assembly of 
Divines. 

He was one of the translators of the au- 
thorised version of the Bible (1611). His 
works are : 1. ' A Disswasive from Poperie, 
containing twelve effectual reasons by which 
every Papist, not wilfully blinded, may be 
brought to the truth, and every Protestant 
confirmed in the same,' Cambridge, 1599, 8vo. 
2. 'A Quartron of Reasons composed by Dr. 
Hill unquartered, and prooved a Quartron of 
Follies,' Cambridge, 1603, 4to. 3. ' Dispu- 
tatio de Natura Pcenitentiae adversus Bellar- 
minum,' Cambridge, 1606, 8vo. 4. 'Progresse 
in Piety,' Cambridge, 1606, 8vo. 5. 'A 
Golden Key, opening the Locke to Eternal 
Happinesse,' London, 1609, 8vo. 6. Funeral 
sermon on Lady Elizabeth Luke, London, 
1609, 8vo; dedicated to Sir Oliver Luke, 



Dillingham 



Dillingham 



knight. 7. ' Christian (Economy, or House- 
hold Government, that is, the duties of hus- 
bands and wives, of parents and children, 
masters and servants,' London, 1609, 8vo. 
8. 'A Probleme propounded, in which is 
plainely showed that the Holy Scriptures have 
met with Popish arguments and opinions,' 
London [1615 ?], 16mo. 

[Lewis's Hist, of Translations of the Bible 
(1818), 31 1 ; Cole's Athense Cantab. D 7 ; Mus- 
grave's Obituary ; Notes and Queries, 3rd series, 
iv. 380 ; Carter's Univ. of Camb. 231, 322 ; Peck's 
Desid. Cur. (1779), i. 333.] T. C. 

DILLINGHAM, THEOPHILUS, D.D. 

(1613-1678), master of Clare Hall, Cam- 
bridge, son of Thomas Dillingham, was born 
at Over Dean, Bedfordshire, in 1613. He was 
admitted a pensioner of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, 13 Sept. 1629, and graduated B. A. 
in 1633, M. A. in 1637. He was elected a fellow 
of Sidney College in 1638, and subsequently 
took the degree of D.D. In 1654 he was chosen 
master of Clare Hall, and he was thrice vice- 
chancellor of the university, in 1655, 1656, 
and part of 1661 . At the Restoration he was 
ejected from the mastership, and Thomas 
Paske,oneof his predecessors, was readmitted, 
but as Dillingham had married a daughter of 
Paske, the latter resigned in favour of his 
son-in-law, who was re-elected by the fellows 
in 1661. On 29 Jan. 1661-2 Dillingham be- 
came prebendary of Ulskelf in the church of 
York on Paske's resignation of that dignity, 
and on 3 Sept. 1667 he was installed arch- 
deacon of Bedford. He also held the rectory 
of OiFord Cluny, Huntingdonshire. He died 
at Cambridge on 22 Nov. 1678, and was buried 
in St. Edward's Church. 

Extracts from his diaries and other papers 
are preserved in Baker's MSS. at Cambridge, 
vol. xx. no. 6, p. 72, and vol. xxxvi. no. 15. 

[Addit. MSS. 5803, p. 40, 5821, p. 131, 5867, 
p. 7 ; Kennett's MSS. lii. 220 ; Kennett's Ee- 
gister and Chronicle, pp. 222, 615, 646; Le 
Neve's Fasti (Hardy), ii. 75, iii 220, 607, 671 ; 
Le Neve's Mon. Angl. (1650-79), p. 190; Carters 
Univ. of Camb. p. 413 n.~] T. C. 

DILLINGHAM, WILLIAM, D.D. 
(1617 P-1689), Latin poet and controver- 
sialist, son of Thomas Dillingham, rector of 
Barnwell All Saints, Northamptonshire, by 
Dorothy his wife, was born in that parish 
about 1617. He was admitted a sizar of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, 22 April 1636, 
proceeded B. A. in 1 639, was elected a fellow 
of his college in 1642, commenced M.A. in 
1643, and subsequently graduated B.D. in 
1650, and D.D. in 1655. As an undergra- 
duate he shared chambers with William San- 
croft, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, 



with whom he maintained throughout life an 
uninterrupted friendship and correspondence. 
Sancroft was deprived of his fellowship for 
refusing to subscribe the ' engagement,' but 
Dillingham, being inclined to puritanism, re- 
mained at Cambridge, and his acquiescence 
in the new order of things was rewarded in 
1653 by his appointment to the mastership of 
Emmanuel College on the nomination of the 
Earl of Manchester, chancellor of the univer- 
sity. In 1659 he was chosen vice-chancellor, 
and he discharged the duties of that office 
with credit and ability at the critical period of" 
the Restoration. The college did not nourish 
under his government, as it was distracted by 
religious dissensions among the fellows. 

When the Act of Uniformity was passed 
he had scruples about taking the oath, not on 
the ground of objections to the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, but because he could not affirm 
that the ' solemn league and covenant ' was 
an unlawful oath which imposed no obliga- 
tion on those who had voluntarily subscribed 
it. His refusal to comply with the injunc- 
tions of the statute ipso facto deprived him 
of his university preferment, and on 31 Aug. 
1662 his old friend Sancroft was unanimously 
elected master in his place. He retired ta 
Oundle, Northamptonshire, of which parish 
his brother was vicar, and there he lived for 
ten years in literary seclusion. After the 
death of his first wife he was induced to con- 
form, and he was presented by Sir Thomas 
Alston in May 1672 to the rectory of Wood- 
hill, now called Odell, Bedfordshire, where 
he passed the remainder of his life. In 1673, 
being then a widower with two sons, he mar- 
ried a widow named Mary Toller, who had 
already been thrice married and had seven 
children. She is said to have made an ex- 
cellent wife. Dillingham was buried at Odell 
on 28 Nov. 1689. His wife survived him 
little more than six months ; she was buried 
at Horbling, Lincolnshire, on 21 June 1690. 

His works are : 1. ' The Commentaries of 
Sir Francis Vere; being diverse pieces of ser- 
vice, wherein he had command, written by 
himself in way of commentary/ Camb. 1657, 
fol., dedicated to Sir Horace Townshend,bart. 
2. ' Poemata varii argumenti,partim e Georgio 
Herberto Latine (utcunque) reddita, partim 
conscripta aWilh. Dillingham S. T.D., Lond. 
1678. Most of the pieces in this volume 
were corrected by Sancroft, and one (p. 155) 
was certainly from his pen. It is entitled 
1 Hippodromus,' and is a translation of an 
epigram by Thomas Bastard, first printed in 
1598, and beginning, 

I mett a courtier riding on the plaine 
(Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 323). 3. ' Ser- 



Dillingham 



81 



Dillon 



mon at the Funeral of the Lady Elizabeth 
Alston, preached in the parish church of 
Woodhill,Septemb. 10, 1677,' Lond. 1678, 4to 




Anger,' a translation from Plutarch. In ' Plu- 
tarch's Morals : translated from the Greek by 
several hands,' 1684, &c. 6. < Protestant Cer- 
tainty ; or a short Treatise shewing how a 
Protestant may be well .assured of the Ar- 
ticles of his Faith' (anon.), Lond. 1689, 4to. 
7. 'The Mystery of Iniquity anatomized,' 
Lond. 1689, 4to. 8. ' Sphseristerium Suleia- 
num,' in Latin verse. Printed in ' Examen 
Poeticum Duplex,' Lond. 1698, p. 29. 9. ' Vita 
Laurentii Chadertoni S. T. P., & Oollegii 
Emmanuelis apud Cantabrigienses Magistri 
Primi. Una cum Vita Jacobi Usserii Archie- 
piscopi Armachani, tertia fere parte aucta,' 
Cambridge, typis academicis, 1700, 8vo. To 
this work, which was edited by his son 
Thomas, are appended the ( Conciones ad 
Clerum,' preached by Dillingham on taking 
his degrees of B.D. and D.D. The original 
manuscript is in the Harleian collection, 
No. 7052. Mr. E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A., pub- 
lished a ' free and abbreviated translation ' of 
the life of Chaderton, Cambridge, 1884, 8vo. 
10. Latin verses in the university collection 
on the Restoration, and on the death of 
Thomas Gataker. The latter are reprinted 
in Beloe's ' Anecdotes/ vi. 103. Other speci- 
mens of his Latin and English verses from 
his unpublished correspondence are given in 
Waters's ' Genealogical Memoirs of the Fa- 
mily of Chester.' 11. Letters. His corre- 
spondence with Sancroft, extending over a 
period of forty-nine years, is preserved among 
the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford. Some of these letters are printed in 
Waters's < Family of Chester.' 

He also edited Nathaniel Culverwell's 
< Discourse of the Light of Nature,' 1652; 
Philip Ferrari's ' Lexicon Geographicum,' 
1657 ; Arrowsmith's * Chain of Principles, 
wherein the chief heads of the Christian 
Religion are asserted,' 1660 (conjointly with 
Dr. Thomas Horton) ; Horton's * Sermons on 
Ihe Epistle to the Romans,' 1674 ; and Hor- 
ton's ' Practical Expositions on four select 
Psalms,' 1675. 

[Bridges's Northamptonshire, ii. 216; Cat. of 
Printed Books in Brit. Mus. ; Carter's Univ. of 
Camb. 360, 413; Cole's Athense Cantab. D. 7 ; 
Gough's British Topography, i. 246 ; Hackman's 
Cat. of Tanner MSS. ; Hill's Hist, of Langton, 
47 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy) ; Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. vii. 427, 486, 5th "ser. viii. 167 ; Cat. of 
Sloane MSS. 756, 788 ; Waters's Geneal. Memoirs 
of the Family of Chester, ii. 637-47.] T. C. 

VOL. XV. 



DILLON, ARTHUR (1670-1733), a 
general in the French service, younger son 
of Theobald, seventh viscount Dillon, out- 
lawed as a Jacobite in 1690, was born in 
Roscommon in 1670, and apparently accom- 
panied to Brest in May 1690 a Jacobite regi- 
ment raised by his father, which, with two 
others, Louis XIV had asked for in exchange 
for the French troops sent to Ireland. He 
was appointed colonel of the regiment on 
1 June 1690, served in Spain 1693-7, in 
Germany under Villeroy, 1701 ; and in Italy, 
1702. He was promoted brigadier in 1702, 
and marechal de camp (brigadier-general) in 
1704. In 1705 he distinguished himself at 
the siege of Mirandola and the battle of 
Cassano, and in the following year at Casti- 
glione. In 1707, as lieutenant-general, he com- 
manded the left wing under Tess6 in Provence, 
and forced the enemy to false the siege of 
Toulon. In 1709 he was under Berwick in 
DauphinS, and gallantly repelled an attack 
by the Piedmontese general, Rhebinder, near 
Briancon. Rhebinder had expected to sur- 
prise him in his camp, but was repulsed with 
great loss, and Louis XIV, in a letter to Ber- 
wick, complimented Dillon on his prowess. 
In 1713 he had the command-in-chief at the 
siege of Kaiserslautern, which soon capitu- 
lated. He wrote thence to Madame de Main- 
tenon that peace was impending, and bespoke 
her interest for obtaining some appointment. 
Peace, however, was not quite so near as 
he anticipated, and in the following year, as 
lieutenant-general under Berwick, he super- 
intended the entrenchments at the siege of 
Barcelona. This was his last campaign. He 
then became the Pretender's agent at Paris, 
and on Saint-Simon writing a letter of sym- 
pathy to the prince at Albano, Dillon was de- 
puted to convey his thanks and acknowledg- 
ment. In 1723 the Due de Lauzun on his 
deathbed sent for Dillon to hand over to him 
the collar of the Garter, to be returned to the 
Pretender. In 1728 Dillon resigned the com- 
mand of his regiment in favour of his eldest 
son Charles (afterwards tenth viscount), and 
he died at St. Germain, leaving the reputa- 
tion of ' a brave soldier, good officer, and 
most estimable man.' The Pretender on learn- 
ing his death directed that such papers as 
related to himself should be deposited at the 
Scotch College, Paris, and he wrote to the 
widow to thank her for her prompt compli- 
ance. Mrs. Dillon was Christina, daughter 
of Ralph Sheldon, and had been lady in wait- 
ing to Mary of Modena. On becoming a 
widow she took lodgings at the English Austin 
nunnery, Paris, where she expired in 1757 at 
the age of seventy-seven,, and was buried in 
the cloisters. Dillon had five sons, Charles 

G 



Dillon 



Dillon 



(1701-1741), who, on his uncle's death in 
1733, inherited the title and estates, and died 
in London ; Henry, who succeeded his brother 
in the colonelcy in 1733, and in the title in 
1741, but resigned the former in 1744 on the 
passing of an act confiscating the possessions 
of British subjects in foreign service ; James, 
a knight of Malta, colonel of Dillon's regi- 
ment in 1744 and killed at Fontenoy in 1745 
(his banner is still preserved at Ditchley) ; 
Edward (1720-1747), who succeeded to the 
colonelcy, and was killed at Laufeld ; and 
Arthur 'Richard [q. v.], archbishop of Nar- 
bonne. 

[Ditchley MSS. ; ChronologieMilitaire,iv. 622 ; 
Memoires de Saint- Simon ; Observations sur les 
Officiers irlandais, par M. A. D. (Arthur Dillon), 
Depute a 1'Assemblee Nationale, a pamphlet pub- 
lished at Paris, c. 1790.] J. Gr. A. 

DILLON, ARTHUR RICHARD (1750- 

1794), general in the French service, son of 
Henry, eleventh viscount, and nephew of 
Archbishop Dillon [q. v.], was born in 1750 at 
Braywick, Berkshire. Sub-lieutenant in Dil- 
lon's regiment, he was in 1767 appointed to the 
colonelcy, which Louis XV, reluctant to see 
it pass from the family, had kept vacant from 
1747. He served in the West Indies during 
the American war, was governor of St. Kitt's 
during its brief occupancy by the French, 
visited London on the peace of 1783, and was 
complimented by the lord chancellor on his 
administration of that island. He became 
brigadier-general in 1784 with a pension of 
l,000f.,was three years governor of Tobago, 
was deputy for Martinique in the National 
Assembly, and was a frequent speaker on 
colonial questions. In June 1792 he received 
the command of the army of the north, 
offended the Jacobins by a general order re- 
probating the capture of the Tuileries, was 
supplanted by Dumouriez, under whom he 
distinguished himself in the Argonne passes, 
fell again under suspicion on account of a 
letter offering the landgrave of Hesse an 
unmolested retreat, was imprisoned for six 
weeks in 1792, and again for eight months 
in 1793-4. Condemned as a ringleader in 
the alleged Luxembourg prison plot, he was 
guillotined on 14 April with twenty others, 
including Lucile Desmoulins, with whom 
and her husband he had been on intimate 
terms. He was twice married, and left two 
daughters, one of whom, Fanny, married 
General Bertrand, and was with Napoleon 
at Elba and St. Helena. 

[Moniteur and other Paris newspapers, 1789- 
94; Revolution frangaise, March 1884; Obser- 
vations sur les Officiers irlandais.] J. Gr. A. 



DILLON, ARTHUR RICHARD (1721- 
1806), a French prelate, youngest son of Gene- 
ral Arthur Dillon [q. v.], was born in 1721 
at St. Germain. He was a priest at Elan, near 
Mezieres, when on his brother Edward's death 
at Laufeld Louis XV said he should have the 
first vacant benefice. He accordingly became 
in 1747 vicar-general of Pontoise, and gain- 
ing rapid promotion was appointed in 1753 
bishop of Evreux, in 1758 archbishop of Tou- 
louse, and in 1763 archbishop of Narbonne 
and primate of the Gauls. This last post 
made him virtual viceroy of Languedoc, the 
province enjoying the largest measure of self- 
government, and he actively promoted roads, 
bridges, canals, harbours, and other improve- 
ments. President of the assembly of the 
clergy in 1788, he publicly applauded the 
legal recognition of protestant marriages. The 
revolution reduced his income from 350,000f. 
(insufficient for his style of living) to 30,000f. 
He migrated to Coblenz at the end of 1790, 
thence went to London, and refused to re- 
cognise the concordat by which his diocese 
was abolished. He was buried in St. Pancras 
churchyard, London. 

[Audibert, le Dernier President des Etats de 
Languedoc, 1868; Lavergne, Assemblies Provin- 
ciales sous Louis XVI ; Tocqueville, Ancien R6- 
gime et la Revolution.] J. Gr. A. 

DILLON, EDOUARD (1751-1839), a 
French general and diplomatist, was born in 
1751 at Bordeaux, where his father, Robert 
Dillon, formerly a banker at Dublin, had 
settled. Known as f le beau Dillon,' and one 
of the queen's chief favourites, he served in 
the West Indies and America, afterwards 
visited the Russian court, was colonel of the 
Provence regiment, and gentleman in waiting 
to the Comte d'Artois. On the revolution 
breaking out he quitted France, and in 1791, 
with his brothers, formed at Coblenz a new 
Dillon regiment. At the restoration he be- 
came lieutenant-general 1814, ambassador to 
Saxony 1816-18, and to Tuscany 1819. He 
married Fanny, daughter of Sir Robert Har- 
land; she died in 1777. Three of his bro- 
thers, Theobald, Robert Guillaume, and Fran- 
cis, were French officers ; a fourth, Roger 
Henri (1762-1831), was a priest, a curator 
of the Mazarin Library, Paris, and author 
of some theological pamphlets ; and a fifth, 
Arthur, likewise a priest, advocated in 1805 
the introduction of foot pavements into 
Paris, but died about 1810, long before this 
improvement was adopted. 

[Roche's Essays by an Octogenarian ; An- 
nuaire de la Noblesse, 1870; Nouvelle Biogra- 
phie Gfenerale.] J. G-. A. 



Dillon 



Dillon 



DILLON, SIB JAMES (Jl. 1667), the 
first Dillon who served in foreign armies, 
eighth son of Theobald, first viscount Dillon, 
was probably born about 1580. In 1605 he 
signed a petition to the government for tole- 
ration of Roman catholic worship, and was 
one of the two delegates who presented it, 
both being imprisoned. A lessee of crown 
lands in Meath, a burgess of Trim, and a 
'near dweller and principal man there/ he 
took an active part in Irish politics and war- 
fare. He was one of the organisers of the 
rising of 1641, and often acted with another 
Sir James Dillon, called the younger, from 
whom it is difficult to distinguish him in 
later operations. At the siege of Ballynakill 
(April-May 1643) he seems to have com- 
manded a regiment of foot on the rebel side. 
He afterwards became lieutenant-general and 
governor of Athlone and Connaught. But 
in the dissensions between the native and the 
Anglo-Irish catholics he naturally sided with 
the latter, refused to join in O'Neill's expe- 
dition of 1646, and was anxious with others 
in 1647 to enter the French service; but the 
dilatoriness both of the Long parliament and 
of Mazarin frustrated the project of an Irish j 
military exodus. His regiment of two hun- 
dred men formed part of the garrison of Drog- | 
heda, but it is not clear whether he was him- | 
self in the captured town. In 1652 he was j 
among the Leinster insurgents who agreed to i 
lay down their arms and remain in fixed j 
places of surety (Mullingar in Dillon's case) 
until they received passes for returning home 
or going beyond the seas. By the Act of 
Settlement, passed 12 Aug. 1652, he was 
excepted from pardon for life or estate. He 
is next heard of as a brigadier-general in the 
service of Spain and the Fronde. His regi- 
ment of 575 Irishmen was probably the force 
whose arrival at Bordeaux in May 1653 was 
notified to Conde" at Brussels by Lenet. It 
was quartered in the archiepiscopal castle of 
Lormont, two miles below Bordeaux, but on 
26 May it surrendered this stronghold, with- 
out firing a shot, to Vendome. A Paris letter 
addressed to Thurloe professes to give par- 
ticulars of the compact between Dillon and 
the French government. Certain it is that 
Conde had had warning that l a Franciscan 
named George Dulong' (Dillon) had gone 
over from Paris to win his brother over to 
the French side, and George seems to have 
carried with him a brevet of brigadier-gene- 
ral dated 26 March. The ' Gazette de France/ 
which eulogises their prowess at Bourg and 
Libourne, represents Dillon and his troop as 
resenting their having been 'sold like slaves' 
to the Bordeaux Fronde. They served in 
Flanders till the peace of 1663, and Dillon 



is said to have distinguished himself at the 
battle of the Dunes, but there is no mention 
of this in contemporary documents. By an 
order of 29 Feb. 1664 his regiment was dis- 
banded, in consequence, according to the 
French military archives, of his death ; but 
this is a mistake, for he was still living in 
1667. In August 1662 Charles II conferred 
on him an Irish pension of 500/. ' in considera- 
tion of his many good and acceptable services 
to King Charles I/ and this proving a dead 
letter, a second order of 8 Feb. 1664 directed 
the payment of pension and arrears. Dillon 
had doubtless by this time returned from 
France. In 1666 he obtained a pass for 
Flanders for himself and his son. In 1667, 
with two associates, he was- granted a four- 
teen years' license for ' making balls of earth 
and other ingredients, as a sort of fuel, being 
a public convenience in this juncture, when 
other kinds of fuel are dear and becoming 
more scarce.' There is no further trace of 
him. Dillon married (1) Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Plunket of Rathmore, co. 
Meath, by whom he had two sons, Ulick and 
James. Both died without issue. (2) Mary, 
daughter of Roger Jones of Sligo, and widow 
of Major John Ridge of Roscommon, by whom 
he had no issue. 

[Information from Viscount Dillon ; Calen- 
dars of State Papers ; Beling and other historians 
of the Irish Rebellion ; Thurloe Papers, i. 286 ; 
Memoires de Lenet; Gazette de France, 1653; 
Book of Pensions, Dublin Castle ; Lodge's Peer- 
age, v. 182-4.] J. G. A. 

DILLON, JOHN BLAKE (1816-1866), 
Irish politician, was born in county Mayo 
in 1816. He went at the age of eighteen 
to Maynooth intending to take orders, but 
turning to the bar he entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, where he graduated, became a 
good mathematician, and held the post of 
moderator. He was also a prominent mem- 
ber of the Historical Society. He was called 
to the Irish bar in 1841, wrote for the ' Morn- 
ing Register/ was a member, with his college 
friend Davis, of the repeal, and afterwards of 
the Young Ireland party, and joined him and 
Gavan Duffy in founding the 'Nation' to 
supersede O'Connell's < Pilot ' in 1842. Though 
at first he deprecated an appeal to force in 
the frequent speeches which he made at the 
meetings of the Irish confederation in the 
Music Hall, Abbey Street, Dublin, he even- 
tually followed O'Brien and led the rebel party 
at Mullinahone and Killenance. After their 
defeat he was concealed by peasants in the 
Aran Islands, and in spite of the 300 reward 
offered by the government for his capture he 
escaped with the assistance of friends at May- 
nooth to France. Thence he went to the 

G 2 



Dillon 



8 4 



Dillon 



United States, where he was at once called 
to the bar with other Irish exiles, and prac- 
tised in partnership with Richard O'Gorman. 
The amnesty in 1855 permitted him to return 
to Dublin, where he resumed his practice. 
For some time he played no political part, but 
was at length induced to enter the Dublin 
corporation as alderman for Wood Quay ward. 
He helped Martin and the O'Donoghue to 
found the National Association, became its 
secretary, and at its first meeting on 21 Feb. 
1865 strongly advocated the disestablishment 
of the Irish church. He was returned in 1865 
for Tipperary free of expense, and endeavoured 
to effect a union between the English radicals 
and the Irish national party. Though not a 
good speaker, he was well received in the 
House of Commons, and made a special study 
of the financial relations of England and Ire- 
land. He also possessed the confidence of the 
Roman catholic bishops. He always remained 
a repealer, but he denounced fenianism. 
He died suddenly of cholera at Killarney on 
15 Sept. 1866, and was buried at Glasnevin 
on the 17th. He was much respected by all 
parties. There is a portrait of him in the 
' Nation,' 6 Oct. 1866. 

[Times, 18 and 20 Sept. 1866 ; Webb's Com- 
pendium of Irish Biography ; Ward's Men of the 
Reign ; A. M. Sullivan's New Ireland, i. 148 ; 
Nation, 22 Sept. 1866 ; Freeman's Journal, 
17 Sept. 1866.] J. A. H. 

DILLON, SIE JOHN TALBOT (1740?- 
1805), of Lismullen, co. Meath, Ireland, tra- 
veller, critic, and historical writer, was son 
of Arthur Dillon, and grandson of Sir John 
Dillon of Lismullen, knight, M.P. for the | 
county of Meath. He was returned in 1776 j 
as member for Blessington in the Irish parlia- i 
ment, and held the seat until 1783. For a i 
great part of this period, however, he was j 
abroad, travelling in Italy and Spain, or re- 
siding in Vienna, where he enjoyed the favour 
of the emperor Joseph II, from whom he re- 
ceived the dignity of free baron of the Holy 
Roman Empire. In a short obituary notice 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' for September 
1805 it is said that this honour, which was 
accompanied by a very flattering letter from 
the emperor, was conferred upon him in recog- 
nition of his services in parliament on behalf 
of his Roman catholic fellow-subjects : and the 
date is given as 1782, which is repeated in the 
' Baronetages ' of Betham and Foster. He is, 
however, described as ' baron of the Sacred 
Roman Empire ' on the title-page of his 
'Travels in.Spain,' printed in 1780, as well as 
in the notes to the Rev. John Bowie's edition 
of ' Don Quixote/ which came out early in the 
next year ; and possibly the mistake may have 



arisen from the adoption of the date of the 
royal license authorising him to bear the title 
in this country. On his return from the con- 
tinent he published his ' Travels in Spain/ 
in which he incorporated with his own the ob- 
servations of the eminent Spanish naturalist, 
William Bowles [q. v.], whose ' Introduc- 
tion to the Natural History and Physical 
Geography of Spain ' had appeared in 1775, 
and to these he says himself the book is- 
largely indebted for any value and interest 
it possesses. It passed through four or five 
editions, was translated into German in 1782, 
and to a certain extent is still an authority 
on the condition of Spain in the reign of 
Charles III. It was followed the next year 
by his ' Letters from an English Traveller in 
Spain in 1778, on the Origin and Progress of 
Poetry in that Kingdom,' a book to which 
Ticknor has done some injustice in a note 
printed in the catalogue of his library (Bos- 
ton, 1879), in which he says 'large masses 
of it are pilfered from Velazquez's " Origenes 
de la Poesia Castellana," and I doubt not 
much of the rest from Sarmientb's and Se- 
dano's prefaces." ' He must have overlooked 
Dillon's preface, where his ' particular obli- 
gations ' to these very three writers are ex- 
pressly and fully acknowledged. It does not 
profess to be anything more than a mere out- 
line sketch of the literary history of Spain, 
but, though not of unimpeachable accuracy 
any more than the authorities on which it 
relies, it is in the main correct, and is, more- 
over, written in a pleasant, lively style. It 
was translated, with additions, into French 
in 1810, under the title ' Essai sur la Littera- 
ture Espagnole.' During the next few years 
Dillon produced several works : ' A Political 
Survey of the Sacred Roman Empire/ deal- 
ing with the constitution and structure of 
the empire rather than with its history ; 
1 Sketches on the Art of Painting/ a transla- 
tion from the Spanish of Mengs's letter to 
Antonio Ponz ; a ( History of the Reign of 
Pedro the Cruel/ which was translated into 
French in 1790 ; t Historical and Critical Me- 
moirs of the General Revolution in France 
in the year 1789;' a treatise on 'Foreign 
Agriculture/ translated from the French of 
the Chevalier de Monroy ; ' Alphonso and 
Eleonora, or the Triumphs of Valour and Vir- 
tue/which last is a history of Alfonso VIII 
(or, as he, for some reason of his own, reckons 
him, IX) of Castile, in which, among other 
things, he endeavours to exonerate his hero 
from the charge generally brought against 
him of having risked the disastrous battle 
of Alarcos single-handed, out of jealousy of 
his allies, the kings of Leon and Navarre. 
Of these the most interesting now is the 



Dillon 



85- 



Dillon 



' Memoirs of the French Revolution/ not 
only as a collection of original documents, 
but as giving the views of a contemporary 
while the revolution was yet in its first stage. 
Dillon was an ardent advocate of religious 
liberty, and an uncompromising enemy of 
intolerance in every shape. His admiration 
of the Germanic empire was mainly due to 
the spirit of toleration that pervaded it. He 
was a firm believer in the moderation of the 
revolution. With all his enthusiasm for li- 
berty, however, he was not disposed to extend 
it to the negroes in the West Indies. ' God 
forbid,' he says, ' I should be an advocate for 
slavery as a system ; ' but in their particular 
case he regarded it as a necessary evil, and 
believed that upon the whole they were far 
better off as slaves than they would be if set 
free. His contributions to literature were not 
very important, or marked by much origi- 
nality, but they are evidence of a cultivated 
taste and an acute and active mind. Bowie, in 
the preface and notes to his elaborate edition 
of ' Don Quixote,' repeatedly acknowledges his 
obligations to Baron Dillon for sound criti- 
cal suggestions received during the progress 
of his work, and Baretti speaks of him with 
respect in his ferocious attack upon Bowie, 
printed in 1786, under the title of ' Tolondron.' 
He was created a baronet of the United King- 
dom in 1801, and died in Dublin in August 
1805. 

Dillon's published works were : 1. 'Travels 
through Spain ... in a series of Letters, in- 
cluding the most interesting subjects con- 
tained in the Memoirs of Don G. Bowles and 
other Spanish writers,' London, 1780, 4to. 

2. ( Letters from an English Traveller in 
Spain in 1778 . . . with illustrations of the 
romance of Don Quixote,' London, 1781, 8vo. 

3. ' A Political Survey of the Sacred Roman 
Empire, &c./ London, 1782, 8vo. 4. < Sketches 
on the Art of Painting, translated from the 
Spanish by J. T. Dillon,' London, 1782, 12mo. 
5. ' History of the Reign of Pedro the Cruel, 
King of Castile and Leon,' London, 1788, 2 
vols.Svo. 6. 'Historical and Critical Memoirs 
of the General Revolution in France in the 
year 1789 . . . produced from authentic papers 
communicated by M. Hugon de Bassville,' 
London, 1790, 4to. 7. ' Foreign Agriculture, 
being the result of practical husbandry, by 
the Chevalier de Monroy ; selected from com- 
munications in the French language, with 
additional notes by J. T. Dillon,' London, 
1796, 8vo. 8. ' Alphonso and Eleonora, or 
the triumphs of Valour and Virtue,' London, 
1800, 2 vols. 12mo. 

[Gent. Mag. for September 1805; Betham's 
and Foster's Baronetages ; Nichols's Illustr. of 
Lit. Hist. vol. viii.] J. 0. 



DILLON, ROBERT CRAWFORD, D.D. 

(1795-1847), divine, was born in the rectory 
house of St. Margaret's, Lothbury, in the 
city of London, 22 May 1795. After a pri- 
vate education he entered at St. Edmund 
Hall, Oxford, in the Michaelmas term of 
1813. He took his B.A. 16 May 1817, M.A. 
3 Feb. 1820, and B.D. and D.D. 27 Oct. 1836. 
He was ordained 20 Dec. 1818 to the curacy 
of Poorstock and West Milton, Dorsetshire. 
Here he stayed but a very short time, and, 
having received priest's orders, in 1819 he was 
appointed assistant minister of St. John's 
Chapel, Bedford Row, the recognised centre 
of evangelical teaching, of which Daniel Wil- 
son, afterwards bishop of Calcutta [q. v.], 
was at that time the incumbent in succession 
to Richard Cecil [q. v.] Here he became a 
popular preacher, and was much run after, 
especially by ladies. Dillon removed in 1824 
to the curacy of Willesden and Kingsbury, 
Middlesex, and the next year to that of St. 
James, Clerkenwell, the following year, 1826, 
obtaining an appointment at St. Matthew's 
Chapel, Denmark Hill. In 1822 Dillon was 
chaplain to Alderman Venables during his 
shrievalty, and filled the same office during 
that gentleman's mayoralty in 1826-7. In the 
latter year he accompanied the lord mayor and 
corporation on an official visit to Oxford, of 
which he published a too notorious account. 
In 1828 he was elected by a large majority 
morning preacher of the Female Orphan 
Asylum, a post which he resigned the next 
year for a proprietary chapel in Charlotte 
Street, Pimlico, to which he was licensed 
24 July 1829. From 1829 to 1837 he was 
early morning lecturer at St. Swithin's, Lon- 
don Stone, where he attracted large congre- 
gations. During this period Dillon continued 
his evening lectureship at St. James's, Clerk- 
enwell, and in 1839, on the vacancy of the rec- 
tory, which was in the gift of the parishioners, 
he became candidate for the benefice. The 
contest which ensued was marked with the 
opening of public-houses, bribery, and all the 
worst evils of a popular election. Dillon's 
private life was narrowly inquired into, and 
very grave scandals were brought to light, 
and he deservedly lost his election in spite of 
zealous female support. A brisk pamphlet 
war ensued, in which a ' ladies' committee/ in- 
cluding several ladies of rank, took an active 
and not very creditable part. The charges of 
immorality having been fully proved, Blom- 
field, bishop of London, revoked his license, 
and suspended him from his ministry in Char- 
lotte Street, 29 Feb. 1840. In defiance of the 
inhibition, Dillon continued to officiate in the 
chapel, and a suit was brought against him 
in the consistory court in April of the same 



Dillon 



86 



Dillon 



year, when he was condemned in costs. On 
this Dillon left the church of England, and, 
by the aid of his female followers, set up a 
' reformed English church ' in Friar Street, 
Blackfriars, in which, we are told, he in- 
troduced a new system of discipline and a 
reformed liturgy. His congregation increas- 
ing, Dillon removed to a large building in 
White's Row, Spitalfields,where he appointed 
himself ' first presbyter ' or l bishop ' of his 
new church, and ordained ministers to serve 
branch-churches in various parts of London. 
During this period Dillon repeatedly came 
before the public in a viery damaging way, 
as the defendant in suits for the restitution 
of conjugal rights brought against him by 
the woman whom he had been compelled to 
marry. In spite of all Dillon continued to 
enjoy great popularity as a preacher, and at 
the time of his sudden death, 8 Nov. 1847, 
in the vestry of his chapel in Spitalfields, he 
had received large promises of pecuniary sup- 
port towards establishing branches of his 
church in some of our large manufacturing 
towns. Dillon was buried in the churchyard 
of his native parish, St. Margaret's, Loth- 
bury, in which church a mural slab has been 
erected to his memory. 

Dillon published several separate sermons 
' On the Evil of Fairs in general, and of 
Bartholomew Fair in particular,' 1 830 ; ( On 
the Funeral of George IV,' 1830 ; ' On the 
Funeral of William IV,' 1837 ; '' Lectures 
on the Articles of Faith,' 1835. His last 
written sermon, 'intended to be delivered by 
him on the morning of his sudden demise,' 
was issued in facsimile by his admirers in 
1840. Dillon's fame, however, as an author, 
albeit a most unenviable one, is derived from 
his unfortunate narrative of ' The Lord 
Mayor's Visit to Oxford '(London, 1826, 8vo). 
The lord mayor requested Dillon, who accom- 
panied him as chaplain, to keep a diary of 
the visit made in his official capacity as 
conservator of the Thames, intending to have 
it privately printed. Dillon's performance 
was written in so inflated and bombastic 
a style that the lord mayor requested its 
suppression. This Dillon refused, except on j 
the condition of being reimbursed for the ! 
whole cost of the book, which, in disregard 
of the original stipulation for private print- ( 
ing, he had prepared for publication. These ! 
terms being rejected, the book came out, j 
covering its author with well-deserved dis- j 
grace, and making the lord mayor and his 
companions ridiculous. The book was shown i 
up in his most amusing style by Theodore 
Hook in l John Bull/ the review being sub- | 
sequently revived in the second part of ' Gil- 
bert Gurney,' and for a time it enjoyed a most 



unhappy celebrity. Dillon too late sought 
to retrieve his credit by buying up the edi- 
tion and destroying it. The narrative is so 
supremely ridiculous that it is difficult to 
believe it was written seriously. Such, how- 
ever, was the fact. The book still finds 
a place on the shelves of book collectors, 
from whom, being rare, it commands a high 
price. 

[Private information ; newspapers of the day.} 

E. V. 

DILLON, THEOBALD (1745-1792), 
general in the French service, erroneously de- 
scribed by French writers as brother of Gene- 
ral Arthur Richard Dillon [q. v.], whereas he 
was only a distant relation, was born at Dub- 
lin in 1745, being probably the son of Thomas 
Dillon, naturalised by the parliament of Paris 
in 1759. He entered Dillon's regiment as a 
cadet in 1761, gradually rose to be lieute- 
nant-colonel (1780), took part in the attack 
on Grenada and the siege of Savannah in 
1779, was appointed a knight of St. Louis 
1781, was authorised to wear the order of 
Cincinnatus 1785, and was awarded a pen- 
sion of 1500f., 1786. He became brigadier- 
general in 1791, and in the following year 
had a command under Dumouriez in Flan- 
ders. He was ordered to make a feigned 
attack on Tournay to prevent its assisting 
Mons, to be attacked the same day by Biron. 
On his ordering a retreat, according to in- 
structions, a panic seized the cavalry, the 
whole force fled in confusion, cries of l trea- 
chery ' were raised, and Dillon was murdered 
by his troops under circumstances of great 
barbarity. The convention voted a pension 
to Josephine Viefville, with whom he had co- 
habited nine years, but, as he stated in his will 
made the previous day, had not had time to 
marry, as also to their three children, whose 
descendants took the name of Dillon, and 
are still living in France with the title of 
counts. 

[Archives de la Guerre, Paris; Mercure Fran- 
9ais, 1792; Memoires de Carnot; Annuaire de 
la Noblesse, 1870.] J. G. A. 

DILLON, THOMAS, fourth VISCOUNT 
DILLON (1615 P-1672P), was the second son 
of Sir Christopher Dillon, president of Con- 
naught, and Lady Jane, eldest daughter of 
James, first earl of Roscommon. He was 
bred a Roman catholic, but when, at the age 
of fifteen years, he succeeded his nephew, 
Theobald, the third viscount, 13 May 1630, he 
declared himself a protestant. He was pre- 
sent in the parliament of Dublin 16 March 
1639-40, and in 1640 was made a lord of the 
privy council. In November 1641 he was ap- 



Dillon 



Dillon 



pointed, along with Lord Viscount Mayo, joint 
governor of county Mayo. On 13 Feb. 1641-2, 
he was chosen, along with Lord Tuffe, by the 
Irish parliament to present their grievances 
to the king (' Apology of the Anglo-Irish for 
Kising in Arms ' in GILBERT, Contemporary 
History of the Irish Confederation, i. 246-53). 
Soon after landing in England they were 
imprisoned by the parliament there as ' agents 
employed by the rebels of Ireland to the 
king,' but gradually obtaining the liberty of 
London, they made their escape after four 
months, and came to York, whither a mes- 
senger from the House of Commons followed 
them and demanded them as prisoners. The 
king, however, took no notice of their escape, 
and having volunteered to serve with the 
troops, ' they behaved themselves with good 
courage, and frankly engaged their persons 
in all dangerous enterprises ' ("CLARENDON, 
History of the Rebellion, Oxford edition, 
ii. 218). After his return home, Dillon 
was made a lieutenant-general, and, along 
with Viscount Wilmot, was appointed lord 
president of Connaught. Subsequently he 
joined the Marquis of Ormonde in command 
of the army of the confederates, and was 
left by him with two thousand foot and five 
hundred horse to block up the city of Dub- 
lin in the north. He maintained Athlone 
till 18 June 1651, when articles of agreement 
were arranged between him and Sir Charles 
Coote. At the time of the Commonwealth his 
estates were sequestrated. In consideration 
of a sum. of money he resigned in 1662 the 
presidency of Connaught to Charles II, by 
whom he was appointed custos rotulorum. 
He died in 1672 or 1673. By his wife, Fran- 
ces, daughter of Nicholas White of Leixlip, 
he had six sons. 

[Borlace's Eeduction of Ireland ; Gilbert's His- 
tory of the Confederation, vols. i. and ii. ; Con- 
temporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1641-52, 
ed. Gilbert; Clarendon's History of the Eebel- 
lion; Gardiner's Hist, of England, vol. x. ; Lodge's 
Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), iv. 184-9.] 

T. F. H. 

DILLON or DE LEON, THOMAS 

(1613-1676 ?), Jesuit, was born in Ireland in 
1613 and educated in Spain. He entered 
the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Se- 
ville in 1627 and afterwards became a pro- 
fessed father. He taught philosophy for six 
years and scholastic and moral theology for 
twenty-two years in the colleges of his order 
at Seville and Granada. In 1640 he was 
professor of humanities at Cadiz. He was 
residing in the college at Granada in 1676, 
being then in ill-health and afflicted with 
dimness in the eyes. Dillon was skilled in 
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, and Athanasius 



}iTcheT((EdipussEgyptiacus,vol. ii. class, xi. 
sect. 4) pronounced him to be ' linguarum 
orientalium et abstrusioris doctrinae veterum 
explorator eximius.' Probably he is the per- 
son whom Peter Talbot, archbishop of Dub- 
lin, calls Thomas Talbot, alias De Leon, ' the 
oracle of all Spain, not only for his profound- 
ness in divinity, but for his vast extent of 
knowledge in other sciences, and his great 
skill in the languages ' ( The Frier Disciplined, 
p. 45). 

He was the author of: 1. ' Leccion sacra 
en la fiesta celebre que hizo el collegio de la 
Compagnia de Jesus de la ciudad de Cadiz 
en hazimiento de gracias a Dios Nuestro 
Senor por el complimiento del primer siglo 
de su sagrada religion,' Seville, 1640, 4to. 
2. ' Commentary on the Books of Maccabees. 
MS.' 

[Antonio'sBibl.HispanaNova, ii. 307; Backer's 
Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus 
(1869), i. 1599; Foley's Eecords, vii. 203; Oli- 
ver's Jesuit Collections, p. 243 ; Southwell's Bibl. 
Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 762 ; Ware's Writers 
(Harris), p. 164.] T. C. 

DILLON, WENTWORTH, fourth EARL 
OF ROSCOMMON (1633?-! 685), was born in 
Ireland about 1633. Thomas Wentworth, 
earl of Strafford, then lord deputy, was his 
uncle, his father, Sir James Dillon, the third 
earl of Roscommon, having married Eliza- 
beth, third and youngest daughter of Sir 
William Wentworth of Wentworth Wood- 
house, Yorkshire, and sister to the Earl of 
Strafford. He was educated in the protestant 
faith, as his father had been i reclaimed from 
the superstitions of the Romish church' by 
Ussher, primate of Ireland (WooD, Fasti 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 389). When he was very 
young, Strafford sent him to study under a Dr. 
Hall at his own seat in Yorkshire . He learnt to 
write Latin with elegance, although, it is said, 
he was never able to retain the rules of gram- 
mar. Upon the impeachment of Strafford, 
he was by Archbishop Ussher's advice sent to 
the learned Samuel Bochart at Caen in Nor- 
mandy, where the protestant"s had founded a 
university. During his residence there his 
father was killed at Limerick in October 1649, 
by a fall downstairs. Aubrey states that 
Dillon suddenly exclaimed, ' My father is 
dead ! ' and that the news of the death arrived 
from Ireland a fortnight later (AUBREY, Mis- 
cellanies, ed. 1784, p. 162). 

After leaving Caen he made the tour of 
France and Germany, accompanied by Lord 
Cavendish, afterwards duke of Devonshire. 
They also made a considerable stay at Rome, 
and Roscommon learnt the language so well 
as to be taken for a native. He also acquired 
great skill as a numismatist. 



Dillon 



Dillon 



Soon after the Restoration he returned to 
England, and had a favourable reception at 
the court of Charles II. An act of parlia- 
ment restoring to him all the honours, castles, 
lordships, lands, &c., whereof his great-grand- 
father, grandfather, or father was in posses- 
sion on 23 Oct. 1641, was read a first time 
in the English House of Lords on 18 Aug. 
1660, and received the royal assent on 29 Dec. 
following (Historical MS8. Commission, 7th 
Rep. 127 ; Lords' Journals, xi. 133, &c.) By 
virtue of this statute he became seised of 
several estates in the counties of Meath, 
Westmeath, King's, Mayo, Galway, Sligo, 
Roscommon, and Tipperary. Captain Valen- 
tine Jowles, writing to the navy commis- 
sioners, 26 June 1661, states that the lords 
justices of Ireland had sent him to Chester 
to fetch the Earl of Roscommon, whom they 
much needed at their councils (Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. Car. II, 1661-2, p. 18). He 
took his seat in the Irish parliament by proxy 
on 10 July 1661, and on 16 Oct. following 
he had a grant of the first troop of horse 
that should become vacant, pursuant to privy 
seal dated 23 Sept. preceding. In 1661 he 
addressed to the king a petition in which he 
says that his father and grandfather being 
protestants, and having from the beginning 
of the rebellion constantly adhered to the 
royal cause, lost at least 50,000/. or 60,000/. 
for their loyalty to Charles I. His father, 
he adds, died about 1648, leaving him de- 
pendent upon the charity of his friends, and 
in conclusion he asks for part of the money 
which the king had to receive from the ad- 
venturers and soldiers of Ireland (Egerton 
MS. 2549, f. 120). By the interest of the 
Duke of York he became captain of the band 
of gentlemen pensioners. In April 1662 he 
married Lady Frances Boyle, eldest daughter 
of Richard, earl of Burlington and Cork, and 
widow of Colonel Francis Courtenay. 

Shortly after his return to England at the 
Restoration he made friends who led him 
into gambling. His gaming led to duels, 
though he used to say that he was more fear- 
ful of killing others than of losing his own 
life. 

At length, having a dispute with the lord 
privy seal about part of his estate, he found 
it necessary to return to Ireland, and soon 
after his arrival in Dublin the Duke of Or- 
monde made him a captain in the guards. 
During his residence in Ireland Roscommon 
had many disputes, both in council and par- 
liament, with the lord privy seal, then lord- 
lieutenant, who was considered one of the 
best speakers in that kingdom. The earl 
was generally victorious, and the Marquis of 
Halifax said 'that he was one of the best 



orators, and most capable of business too, 
if he would attend to it, in the three king- 
doms.' 

Having settled his affairs in Ireland he re- 
turned to London, and received the appoint- 
ment of master of the horse to the Duchess 
of York. He now attempted the formation 
of a literary academy, in imitation of that 
at Caen. The members of this little body 
included the Marquis of Halifax (who un- 
dertook the translation of Tacitus), Lord 
Maitland (who here began his translation of 
Virgil), and Roscommon himself (who wrote 
his ' Essay on Translated Verse '). The Earl 
of Dorset, Lord Cavendish, Colonel Finch, 
Sir Charles Scarborough, Dryden, and others 
occasionally joined the meetings of the aca- 
demy. On the occasion of the visit of the 
Duchess of York to Cambridge (28 Sept .1680), 
Roscommon had the honorary degree of LL.D. 
conferred upon him. On 22 May 1683 he 
received the degree of D.C.L. from the uni- 
versity of Oxford. 

Dr. Johnson, following Fenton, relates that 
after the accession of James II the earl re- 
solved to retire to Rome- on account of the 
religious contentions which then took place, 
telling his friends that ' it would be best to 
sit next to the chimney when the chamber 
smoked.' The date of the earl's death, which 
took place at his house near St. James's in 
January 1684-5, about three weeks before 
the death of Charles II, proves the incorrect- 
ness of this statement. Luttrell notes on 
16 Jan. 1684-5 that ' the Earl of Roscommon 
was lately dead.' A few days before his death 
he requested a friend a clergyman perhaps 
Dr. Knightly Chetwood [q. v.], to preach a 
sermon to him at St. James's Chapel. He 
went in spite of warnings, saying that, like 
Charles V, he would hear his own funeral 
oration. Returning home he remarked to 
the preacher that he had not left one paper 
to perpetuate the memory of their friendship. 
He thereupon wrote what Dr. Chetwood calls 
1 an excellent divine poem,' which, however, 
the physicians would not allow him to finish. 
The fragments of this poem were delivered 
by Chetwood to Queen Mary. A few stanzas 
have been printed {Gent. Mag. new ser. 
xliv. 604). Just before he expired the earl 
pronounced with intense fervour two lines 
of his own version of the ' Dies Irse : ' 

My God, my Father, and my Friend, 
Do not forsake me at my end. 

He was buried with great pomp in West- 
minster Abbey, ' neare y e Shrine staires,' on 
21 Jan. 1684-5 (CHESTEK, Westminster Abbey 
Eegisters, private edit. 1876, p. 212 ; Collect. 
Topogr. et Geneal. viii. 6). There were about 



Dillon 



8 9 



Dillon 



120 coaches-and-six at his funeral, and an 
epitaph in Latin was prepared ; but as no 
money was forthcoming the proposed monu- 
ment was not erected. 

The earl's second wife, whom he married 
in November 1674, was Isabella, daughter of 
Matthew, second son of Sir Matthew Boyn- 
ton,bart., of Barmston, Yorkshire (CHESTEE, 
London Marriage Licences, p. 403) . She after- 
wards married Thomas Carter, esq., of Ro- 
bertstown, co. Meath, and died in September 
1721. The earl had no children, and the title 
consequently devolved on his uncle. 

His works are : 1. A translation in blank 
verse of Horace's ' Art of Poetry/ London, 
1680, 4to, and again in 1684 and 1709. 
2. < Essay on Translated Verse,' London, 1684, 
4to, 2nd edit, enlarged 1685, his principal pro- 
duction, to which were prefixed some encomi- 
astic verses by Dryden. A Latin translation 
of the ' Essay ' was made by Laurence Eusden, 
and is printed in the edition of Roscommon's 
poems which appeared in 1717, together with 
the poems of the Duke of Buckingham and 
Richard Duke. 3. Paraphrase on the 148th 
Psalm. 4. A translation of the sixth ec- 
logue of Virgil and of two odes of Horace. 
5. An ode on solitude. 6. ' A Prospect of 
Death : a Pindarique Essay,' London, 1704, 
fol. 7. Verses on Dryden's ' Religio Laici.' 

8. The Prayer of Jeremiah paraphrased. 

9. A Prologue spoken to the Duke of York 
at Edinburgh. 10. Translation of part of a 
scene of Guarini's 'Pastor Fido.' 11. Pro- 
logue to l Pompey,' a tragedy, translated by 
Mrs. Catherine Philips from the French of 
Corneille. 12. Verses on the death of a 
lady's lapdog. 13. The Dream. 14. A 
translation of the 'Dies Irae.' 15. Epi- 
logue to * Alexander the Great ' when acted 
at Dublin. 16. 'Ross's Ghost.' 17. 'The 
Ghost of the old House of Commons to the 
new one appointed to meet at Oxford.' 
18. Traitte" touchant 1'obeissance passive,' 
London [1685], 8vo. This French transla- 
tion of Dr. Sherlock's essay was edited by Dr. 
Knightly Chetwood. Roscommon's poems 
appeared in a collected form at London in 
1701, 1709, and 1719, and at Glasgow in 
1753. They are also in various collections of 
the works of the British poets. 

Dr. Johnson, in his ' Life of Roscommon,' 
says that ' he improved taste, if he did not 
enlarge knowledge, and may be numbered 
among the benefactors to English literature.' 
Pope has celebrated him as the only moral 
writer of the reign of Charles II : 

Unhappy Dryden ! in all Charles's days 
Roscommon only boasts unspotted lays. 

He was the first critic who publicly praised 



Milton's ' Paradise Lost.' With a noble en- 
comium on that poem, and a rational recom- 
mendation of blank verse, he concludes his 
' Essay on Translated Verse,' though this 
passage was not in the first edition. His 
portrait, painted by Carlo Maratti, is in the 
collection of Earl Spencer. It has been en- 
graved by Clint and Harding. 

[MS. Life by Dr. Knightly Chetwood (Baker's 
MSS. xxxvi. 27) ; Fenton's Observations on some 
of Waller's Poems, p. Ixxv (appended to Waller's 
Works), ed. 1729; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; John- 
son's Lives of the Poets (Cunningham), i. 199; 
Gent. Mag. May 1 748 (another memoir by Dr. 
Johnson), and for December 1855, new ser. xliv. 
603 ; Gibber's Lives of the Poets, ii. 344 ; Lodge's 
Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), iv. 165; Addit. 
MS. 5832, f. 224 ; Nichols's Select Collection of 
Poems, vi. 53 ; Luttrell's Hist. Relation of State 
Affairs, i. 301, 325 ; Kennett's Funeral Sermon 
on the Duke of Devonshire, p. 173 ; Dublin Univ. 
Mag. Ixxxviii. 601 ; Cat. of MSS. in Univ. Lib. 
Cambridge, v. 428 ; Walpole's Royal and Noble 
Authors (Park), v. 199 ; Harding's Portraits to 
illustrate Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors 
(1803); Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 5th 
ed. i\r. 229 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 
i. 297 ; Hist. MSS. Commission, Rep. i. 70, iii. 429, 
iv. 551, 559, 560, vi. 773, vii. 125, 127, 782, 784, 
789, 801, 803, 804, 807, 818,826, viii. 501, 537, 
Append, pt. iii. p. 16, x. 346, Append, pt. v. 
pp. 49, 89, 94, xi. Append, pt. ii. p. 220.] T. C. 

DILLON, SIR WILLIAM HENRY 

(1779-1857), admiral, son of Sir John Talbot 
Dillon [q. v.], by a daughter of Henry Col- 
lins, was born in Birmingham on 8 Aug. 1779. 
Entering the navy in May 1790, he served as 
a midshipman under Captain Gambier in the 
Defence, and was stunned by a splinter in the 
action of 1 June 1794. He was present in 
Lord Bridport's action off He de Groix on 
23 June 1795, and at the reduction of St. 
Lucie in May 1796, when he carried a flag of 
truce to take possession of Pigeon Island. 
Having become an acting-lieutenant in the 
Glenmore (1798), he co-operated with the 
army at Wexford during the rebellion, where 
he succeeded in arresting the Irish chief 
Skallian. As senior-lieutenant of the Afri- 
caine, with a flag of truce from Lord Keith 
to the Dutch commodore, Valterbach, at 
Helvoetsluys, he was (20 July 1803) made, 
most unjustifiably, a prisoner, handed over to 
the French, and detained in captivity until 
September 1807. In the meantime (8 April 
1805) he had' been made a commander, and 
on obtaining his release he took the command 
of the sloop Childers, carrying only fourteen 
12-pound carronades and sixty-five men, and 
in her on 14 March 1808, on the coast of Nor- 
way, after a long action, drove off a Danish 



Dillon-Lee 



9 o 



Dillwyn 



man-of-war brig of sixty guns and two hun- 
dred men. In this service he was severely 
wounded, and his gallant conduct was ac- 
knowledged ty the Patriotic Fund at Lloyd's 
by the presentation of a sword valued at one 
hundred guineas. After obtaining his post 
commission (21 March 1808) he served at 
Walcheren, on the coasts of Portugal and 
Spain, at Newfoundland, in China, India, and 
finally in the Mediterranean, in command of 
the Russell, 74, when he rendered much ser- 
vice to the Spanish cause. He obtained flag 
rank on 9 Nov. 1846. He was nominated 
K.C.H. on 13 Jan. 1835, on 24 June follow- 
ing was knighted by William IV at St. 
James's Palace, and in 1839 received the 
good-service pension. He was gazetted a 
vice-admiral of the red on 5 March 1853, and 
died on 9 Sept. 1857, leaving in manuscript 
an account of his professional career, with a 
description of the many scenes in which he 
had been engaged. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. p. 290 ; Gent. Mag. 
October 1857, p. 460; Times, 22 Sept. 1857, p. 12.] 

G-. C. B. 

DILLON-LEE, HENRY AUGUSTUS, 

thirteenth VISCOUNT DILLON (1777-1832), 
writer, eldest son of Charles, twelfth vis- 
count Dillon, K.P., by the Hon. Henrietta- 
Maria Phipps, only daughter of Constantine, 
first lord Mulgrave, was born at Brussels on 
28 Oct. 1777. On 1 Oct. 1794 he obtained 
the rank of colonel in the Irish brigade, and 
on a vacancy occurring in 1799 he was re- 
turned to parliament for the borough of Har- 
wich. At the last general election of 1802 
he was chosen one of the knights for the 
county of Mayo, and was re-elected in 1806, 
1807, and 1812, and continued a member of 
the House of Commons till 9 Nov. 1813, 
when he succeeded to his father's title. He 
became colonel of the Duke of York's Irish 
regiment (101st foot) in August 1806. 

Dillon inherited through his grandmother, 
Lady Charlotte Lee, daughter of the second 
of the extinct Earls of Lichfield, the estate 
of Dytchley, with its beautiful hall built on 
the site of the mansion once occupied by 
Sir Henry Lee of Dytchley. He married in 
1807 Henrietta Browne, sister of the first 
Lord Oranmore, by whom he had five sons 
and two daughters. He died, after much 
suffering, on 24 July 1832, at Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square, London. 

Dillon published the following works : 
1. 'A Short View of the Catholic Question, 
1801, a pamphlet advocating the catholic 
claims. 2. ' A Letter to the Noblemen and 
Gentlemen who composed the Deputation 
of the Catholics of Ireland/ 1805. 3. ' A 



Commentary on the Military Establishments 
and Defence of the British Empire,' 2 vols. 
8vo, 181 1-] 2. 4. An edition of ' The Tactics- 
of ^Elian,' with notes, 4to, 1814. 5. <A 
'Ommentary on the Policy of Nations,' Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 8vo, 1814. 6. 'A Discourse- 
upon the Theory of Legitimate Government,' 
London, 12mo, 1817. 7. ' Rosaline de Vere,. 
a Romance,' 2 vols. post 8vo. 8. ' The Life and 
Opinions of Sir Richard Maltravers, an Eng- 
lish Gentleman of the 17th Century,' Lon- 
don, 1822, 2 vols. 8vo, a fiction in which 
the author endeavoured to show the difference 
of manners at the time in which he lived and 
those of which he wrote, a comparison not 
very flattering to the Georgian era. 9. ' Ec- 
celino da Romano,' a poem, 1828, 2 vols. 
8vo. 

[Lodge's Genealogical Peerage; Gent. Mag. 
1832, vol. cii. pt. ii. p. 175 ; notice on fly-leaf of 
Life and Opinions of Sir Richard Maltravers ; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Literature.] R. H. 

DILLWYN, LEWIS WESTON (1778- 
1855), naturalist, son of William Dillwyn 
of Higham Lodge, Walthamstow, descended 
from an old Breconshire family, was born 
at Ipswich in 1778. He received his early 
education at a Friends' school at Tottenham, 
his father being a member of that body. At 
this school he became acquainted with his- 
lifelong friend, Mr. Joseph Woods, with whom 
he was sent to Folkestone on account of his 
then weak health. In 1798 he went to Dover 
and there began his study of plants, the first- 
fruits of which were a list of plants observed 
by him, read before the Linnean Society in 
March 1801. At this time he was living at 
Walthamstow, but in 1802 his father pur- 
chased the Cambrian pottery at Swansea, 
placing his son at the head, although it was 
1803 before he settled in that town. His 
principal botanical work was begun to be pub- 
lished in 1802, the ' Natural History of Bri- 
tish Confervas,' while in 1805, the joint pro- 
duction of himself and Mr. Dawson Turner 
of Yarmouth, the ( Botanist's Guide through 
England and Wales ' was published in two- 
small octavo volumes. His favourite pur- 
suits were turned to good account in busi- 
ness, and the porcelain of his manufacture- 
soon became celebrated for the true and spi- 
rited paintings on it of butterflies, flowers, 
birds, and shells, besides the beauty of the 
material itself. It attained its greatest re- 
nown about 1814, after which its production 
was abandoned for the ordinary earthenware,, 
the staple product of the works. 

In 1809 he completed his ' British Con- 
fervse,' and soon afterwards he married the 
daughter of John Llewellyn of Penllergare- 



Dilly 



9 1 



Dilly 



in Glamorganshire. Eight years later, in 
1817, he brought out 'A Descriptive Cata- 
logue of British Shells,', in 2 vols. 8vo, fol- 
lowed in 1823 by ' An Index to the Historia 
Conchyliorum of Lister,' folio, printed at the 
Oxford Clarendon Press at the cost of the 
university, which on this occasion offered 
him the honorary degree of D.C.L., which 
honour he declined. 

In 1832 he was returned to the first re- 
formed parliament as member for Glamorgan- 
shire, of which he had been a magistrate for 
some years > and high sherift'in 1818. The free- 
dom of the borough of Swansea was presented 
to him in 1834, and from 1835 to 1840 he 
served as alderman and mayor. He gave up 
parliamentary duties in 1841. In the previous 
year his ' Contribution towards a History of 
Swansea ' produced 150/. for the benefit of the 
Swansea infirmary, the profit of three hundred 
copies which he gave for that purpose. He 
cordially welcomed the British Association 
to Swansea in 1848, was one of the vice-pre- 
sidents of that meeting, and produced for the 
occasion his ' Flora and Fauna of Swansea.' 
This was his last literary production ; his 
health gradually declined, and for some years 
before his death he withdrew from outside 
pursuits. He died at Sketty Hall on 31 Aug. 
1855, leaving two sons and two daughters. 
He was thoroughly upright in all his dealings, 
and a liberal and active country gentleman. 
He apparently ceased to be a Friend in marry- 
ing out of the society. Besides several minor 
papers, the following may be specially men- 
tioned: 1. * British Confervse,' London, 1802- 
1809, 4to, (part) translated into German by 
Weber and Mohr, Goett. 1803-5, 8vo. 2. < Co- 
leopterous Insects found in the neighbour- 
hood of Swansea.' 3. ' Catalogue of more Rare 
Plants in the environs of Dover.' 4. ' Eeview 
of the references to the Hortus Malabaricus of 
RheedetotDrakensheim,' Swansea, 1839, 8vo. 
4. ' Hortus Collinsonianus,' Swansea, 1843, 
8vo (an account of Peter Collinson's garden 
at Mill Hill in the eighteenth century, from 
the unpublished manuscript). 

[Proc. Linn. Soc. 1856, p. 36 ; Jackson's Lit. of 
Botany, p. 540 ; Cat. Scientific Papers, ii. 205 ; 
Smith's Friends' Books, i. 582-3.] B. D. J. 

DILLY, CHARLES (1739-1807), book- 
seller, was born 22 May 1739 at Southill in 
Bedfordshire, of a good yeoman family which 
had been settled in that county for a couple 
of centuries. After making a short trip to 
America; he returned to London, his elder 
brother, Edward [q. v.], took him into part- 
nership, and the business was carried on under 
their joint names. They published Bos- 
well's ' Corsica,' Chesterfield's ' Miscellaneous 



Works,' and many other standard books. 
Being staunch dissenters they naturally dealt 
much in the divinity of that school. In their 
dealings with authors they were liberal, and 
Charles in particular was known for his kind- 
ness to young aspirants. They were ex- 
tremely hospitable, and gave excellent dinners 
described in the memoirs of the period. John- 
son was frequently their guest, and as such 
had his famous meeting with Wilkes, 15 May 
1776, with whom he dined a second time, 
8 May 1781, at the same table (BOSWELL, 
Life, iii. 67-79, iv. 101-7). Johnson, Gold- 
smith, Boswell, Wilkes, Cumberland, Knox, 
Reed, Parr, Rogers, Hoole, Priestley, Thom- 
son, and Sutton Sharpe were among those 
frequently to be found at the Poultry dinners. 
On the death of his brother Edward in 1779, 
Charles Dilly continued the business alone, 
and kept up the hospitality for which the 
two had been famous. He published Bos- 
well's * Tour to the Hebrides ' in 1780, the 
first edition of the ' Life of Johnson ' in 1791, 
the second in 1793, and the third in 1799. 
Boswell wrote an 'Horatian Ode' to him 
(NICHOLS, Illustrations, ii. 664). He was in- 
vited to become an alderman for the ward of 
Cheap in 1782, but retired in favour of Boy- 
dell. A plea of nonconformity excused him 
from the office of sheriff'. The extent and 
variety of his publications are shown in the 
contents of ' a catalogue of books printed for 
and sold by Charles Dilly,' 32 pp. 12mo, issued 
in 1787. In 1803 he was master of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. After a prosperous career 
of more than forty years he retired in favour 
of Joseph MawmanJ who had been in business 
in York. He continued his literary dinner- 
parties at his new house in Brunswick Row, 
Queen Square, and lived here a few years 
before his death, which took place at Rams- 
gate, while on a visit to Cumberland, on 
4 May 1807. He was buried 12 May, in 
the cemetery of St. George the Martyr, 
Queen Square. He left a fortune of nearly 
60,000/. 

DILLY, JOHN (1731-1806), the eldest ot 
the three brothers, Boswell's ( Squire Dilly,' 
had no direct connection with the business, 
and lived upon the family property at South- 
ill, where he was visited on a well-known 
occasion by Johnson and Boswell, in "June 
1781 (Life of Johnson, iv. 118-32 ; other re- 
ferences to him, i. 260, ii. 247, iii. 396). He 
was high sheriff in 1783, and died 18 March 
1806, aged 75, at Clophill in Bedfordshire, 
a kind of model farm purchased by Charles 
a few years before. He, his two brothers, 
and an only sister were unmarried. Martha, 
the sister, died 22 Jan. 1803, in her sixty- 
second year. 



Dilly 



Dimsdale 



A writer in ' Notes and Queries ' (5th ser. 
xi. 29) says that portraits of the Dillys are 
in existence. 

[G-ent. Mag. vol. Ixxvii. pt. i. pp. 478-80 ; Bos- 
bell's Life of Johnson (G. Birkbeck Hill), 6 vols. 
numerous references ; Letters of Boswell to Tem- 
ple, 1857; Boswelliana, ed. by Dr. Ch. Kogers, 
1874 ; Memoirs of Kichard Cumberland, ii. 200, 
226 ; Forster's Life of Goldsmith, 2nd ed. 1854, 
i. 299, ii. 214, 416 ; Memoirs of J. C. Lettsom, 
1817, i. 151, 152; Nichols's Illustrations, ii. 
664, 672, v. 777 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 
190-2, 756; W. Granger's New Wonderful Mu- 
seum, vi. 3133; W. Dyce's Porsoniana in Recol- 
lections of S. Rogers, 1856, pp. 318-19; P. W. 
Clayden's Early Life of Rogers, 1887, 242, 243, 
268 ; Timperley's Encyclopaedia, pp. 745, 830.] 

H. K. T. 

DILLY, EDWARD (1732-1779), book- 
seller, the second of the three brothers, was 
born at Southill, Bedfordshire, 25 July 1732. 
He had an extensive business at 22 in the 
Poultry, London, and carried on a large 
American export trade, especially in dissent- 
ing theology. On the return of his brother 
Charles [q. v.] from a trip to America he took 
him into partnership. He was an admirer of 
the politics (as well as the person, it is said) 
of Catherine Macaulay, and published her 
writings. Boswell includes a couple of his 
letters, one descriptive of the origin of the 
edition of the poets, in his ' Life of Johnson,' 
and in a communication to Temple (Letters, 
p. 240) describes his death, which took place 
11 May 1779, at his brother John's house at 
Southill. He was a pleasant companion, but 
so loquacious and fond of society that * he 
almost literally talked himself to death,' says 
Nichols (Literary Anecd. iii. 191). 

[Gent. Mag. xlix. 271; Boswell's Life of 
Johnson (G. Birkbeck Hill), iii. 110, 126, 396; 
Boswelliana, ed. by Dr. Ch. Rogers, 1874; 
Nichols's Literary Anecd. iii. 190-2 ; Timperley's 
Encyclopaedia, p. 744.] H. R. T. 

DIMOCK, JAMES (d. 1718), catholic 

divine. [See DYMOCKE.] 

DIMSDALE, THOMAS (1712-1800), 
physician, was born on 6 May 1712. His 
grandfather, Robert Dimsdale, accompanied 
William Penn to America in 1684. His 
father was Sir John Dimsdale, a member 
of the Society of Friends, of Theydon Ger- 
non, Essex, in which county the family 
have held property for centuries. His mother 
was Susan, daughter of Thomas Bowyer 
of Albury Hall, near Hertford. He was a 
younger son, and educated in the medical pro- 
fession at St. Thomas's Hospital. He began 
practice at Hertford in 1714, and married the 



only daughter of Nathaniel Brassey, who died 
in 1744. In 1745 he offered his services gra- 
tuitously to the Duke of Cumberland, and ac- 
companied the English army as far north as 
Carlisle, on the surrender of which he re- 
turned home. In 1746 he married Anne lies, 
a relation of his first wife. He retired from 
practice on inheriting a fortune, but having a 
large family by his second wife resumed prac- 
tice and took the M.D. degree in 1761. In 

1767 he published a work upon inoculation, 
' The Present Method of Inoculation for the 
Small Pox,' which passed through very many 
editions ; and in 1768 he was invited to St. 
Petersburg by the Empress Catharine to in- 
oculate herself and the Grand Duke Paul, 
her son. The empress herself seems to have 
placed perfect reliance on the Englishman's 
good faith. But she could not answer for 
her subjects. She had therefore relays of 
post-horses prepared for him all along the 
line from St. Petersburg to the extremity 
of her dominions, that his flight might be 
instant and rapid in case of disaster. For- 
tunately both patients did well, and the phy- 
sician was created a councillor of state, with 
the hereditary title of baron, now borne by his 
descendant. He received a sum of 10,000/. 
down, with an annuity of 500/., and 2,000. 
for his expenses. The empress presented him 
with miniatures of herself and her son set in 
diamonds, and granted him an addition to 
his family arms in the shape of a wing of the 
black eagle of Russia. The patent, embel- 
lished with the imperial portrait and other 
ornaments, is carefully preserved at Essendon, 
the family seat in Hertfordshire. In 1784 
he went to Russia to inoculate the Grand 
Duke Alexander and his brother Constantine, 
when the empress presented him with her 
own muff, made of the fur of the black fox, 
which only the royal family are allowed to 
wear. On his first return journey he paid 
a visit to Frederick the Great at Sans-Souci, 
and on his second to the Emperor Joseph at 
Vienna. 

When Prince Omai came to England with 
Captain Cook in 1775, he was much caressed 
by what Johnson called ' the best company,' 
and among other marks of distinction was 
inoculated by Dimsdale. A long account of 
him is to' be found in Cowper's ' Task,' but 
no reference to his physician. Dimsdale was 
member for Hertford in two parliaments, 
namely 1780 and 1784, and was the author of 
several medical works : ' Thoughts on General 
and Partial Inoculation,' 1776; ' Observations 
on the Plan of a Dispensary and General In- 
oculation,' 1780 ; and ' Tracts on Inoculation,' 
written and published at St. Petersburg in 

1768 and 1781. At Hertford he opened an 



Dineley-Goodere 93 Dineley-Goodere 



1 inoculating house,' under his own immediate 
superintendence, for persons of all ranks. 
He died on 30 Dec. 1800, in the eighty- 
ninth year of his age, and was buried in the 
quakers' burial-ground at Bishop's Stortford 
in Essex. There is an engraved portrait by 
Tulley. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 232-4; Gent. Mag. 
for 1801, i. 88, ii. 669 ; European Mag. August 
1802 ; Smith's List of Friends' Books ; informa- 
tion from the family.] T. E. K. 

DINELEY-GOODERE, SIR JOHN (d. 

1809), poor knight of Windsor, was the se- 
cond son of Samuel Goodere, captain of the 
Ruby man-of-war, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
a Mr. Watts of Leauinguian and Terrew, 
Monmouthshire (NASH, Worcestershire, i. 
272). His father lived on bad terms with 
his elder brother Sir John Dineley-Goodere, 
bart., of Burhope in Wellington, Hereford- 
shire, who having no surviving children 
threatened to disinherit him in favour of 
his nephew John Foote of Truro, Cornwall 
(brother of Samuel Foote the dramatist). To 
prevent the execution of this threat, Captain 
Samuel Goodere [q. v.] caused his brother to be 
kidnapped at Bristol, and then to be strangled 
by two sailors on board the man-of-war which 
he commanded. The murder took place on 
the night of Sunday, 18 Jan. 1740-1, and on 
15 April following the fratricide was hanged 
with his two accomplices at Bristol. His 
eldest son Edward succeeded as fourth ba- 
ronet, but dying insane in March 1761, aged 
32, the title passed to his brother John. What 
little remained of the family estates he soon 
wasted ; about 1770 he was obliged to part 
with Burhope to Sir James Peachey (created 
Lord Selsey in 1794), and he lived'for a time 
in a state bordering on destitution. At length 
his friendship with the Pelhams, coupled with 
the interest of Lord North, procured for him 
the pension and residence of a poor knight of 
Windsor. Thenceforward he seems to have 
used the surname of Dineley only. He ren- 
dered himself conspicuous by the oddity of 
his dress, demeanour, and mode of life. He 
became in fact one of the chief sights of Wind- 
sor. Very early each morning he locked up 
his house in the castle, which no one entered 
but himself, and went forth to purchase pro- 
visions. ' He then wore a large cloak called 
a roquelaure, beneath which appeared a pair 
of thin legs encased in dirty silk stockings. 
He had a formidable umbrella, and he stalked 
along upon pattens. All luxuries, whether 
of meat, or tea, or sugar, or butter, were re- 
nounced. . . . Wherever crowds were as- 
sembled wherever royalty was to be looked 
upon there was Sir John Dineley. He then 



wore a costume of the days of George II 
the embroidered coat, the silk-flowered waist- 
coat, the nether garments of faded velvet 
carefully meeting the dirty silk stocking, 
which terminated in the half-polished shoe 
surmounted by the dingy silver buckle. The 
old wig, on great occasions, was newly pow- 
dered, and the best cocked hat was brought 
forth, with a tarnished lace edging. He had 
dreams of ancient genealogies, and of alliances 
still subsisting between himself and the first 
families of the land. A little money to be ex- 
pended in law proceedings was to put him in 
possession of enormous wealth. That money 
was to be obtained through a wife. To secure 
for himself a wife was the business of his 
existence ; to display himself properly where 
women most do congregate was the object of 
his savings. The man had not a particle of 
levity in these proceedings ; his deportment 
was staid and dignified. He had a wonder- 
ful discrimination in avoiding the tittering 
girls, with whose faces he was familiar. But 
perchance some buxom matron or timid 
maiden who had seen him for the first time 
gazed upon the apparition with surprise and 
curiosity. He approached. With the air of 
one bred in courts he made his most profound 
bow ; and taking a printed paper from his 
pocket, reverently presented it and withdrew ' 
(abbreviated from Penny Mag. x. 356-7, with 
woodcut). Specimens of these marriage pro- 
posals, printed after the rudest fashion with 
the author's own hands, are given in Burke's 
1 Romance of the Aristocracy ' (edit. 1855), 
ii. 23-5. Occasionally he advertised in the 
newspapers. He also printed some extraordi- 
nary rhymes under the title of ' Methods to 
get Husbands. Measure in words and sylla- 
bles . . . With the advertised marriage offer 
of Sir John Dineley, Bart., of Charleton, near 
Worcester, extending to 375,000/., to the 
Reader of this Epistle, if a single lady, and 
has above One Hundred Guineas fortune.' A 
copy survives in the British Museum. The 
writer cited above states that though un- 
doubtedly a monomaniac, in other matters 
Dineley was both sane and shrewd. Twice 
or thrice a year he visited Vauxhall and the 
theatres, taking care to apprise the public of 
his intention through the medium of the 
most fashionable daily papers. Wherever he 
went the place was invariably well attended, 
especially by women. Dineley persevered in 
his addresses to the ladies till the very close 
of his life, but without success. He died 
at Windsor in November 1809, aged about 
eighty. At his decease the baronetcy became 
extinct. 

[Pamphlets relating to Trial, &c. of Captain 
S. G-oodere in Brit. Mus. ; Newgate Calendar 



Dingley 



94 



Dingley 



(edit. 1773), iii. 233-8; Kobinson's Manor Houses 
of Herefordshire, p. 284; Gent. Mag. Ixxix. ii. 
1084, 1171, xcv. ii. 136 ; Burke s Extinct Baronet- 
age, p. 221 ; Burke's Romance of the Aristocracy 
(edit. 1855), ii. 19-25 ; New, Original, and Com- 
plete Wonderful Museum (April 1803), i. 422-8, 
with whole-length portrait ; True Briton, 5 July 
1803.] G - G - 

DINGLEY, ROBERT (1619-1660), a 
puritan divine, second son of Sir John Dingley, 
by a sister of Dr. Henry Hammond, was born 
in 1619. In 1634 he entered Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford. Having finished his university 
career and taken his degree of M. A., he took 
holy orders. On the outbreak of the civil 
war he took the parliamentary side. Dingley 
was presented to the rectory of Brightstone 
in the Isle of Wight during the governor- 
ship of his kinsman, Colonel Hammond, 
and enjoyed a high reputation as a preacher. 
He gave active assistance to the commis- 
sioners of Hampshire in rejecting ignorant 
and scandalous ministers and schoolmasters. 
He died at Brightstone on 12 Jan. 1659- 
1660. 

Dingley's works were: 1. -'The Spiritual 
Taste Described, or a Glimpse of _ Christ 
Discovered,' 1649, republished as ' Divine Re- 
lishes of matchless Goodness,' 1651. 2. ' The 
Deputation of Angels,' 1654, London. 3. ' Mes- 
siah's Splendour, or the Glimpsed Glory of a 
Beauteous Christian,' 1654. 4. ' Divine Op- 
tics, or a Treatise of the Eye discovering the 
Vices and Virtues thereof,' 1655. 5. ' Vox 
Cceli, or Philosophicall, Historicall, and Theo- 
logical Observations of Thunder,' 1658. 6. < A 
Sermon on Jobxxvi. 14/1658. For expressing 
himself unfavourably about the quakers he 
was attacked by George Fox in his ' Great 
Mystery,' 1659, p. 361. A portrait by T. 
Cross is prefixed to ' The Spiritual Taste,' 
1649. 

[Brook's Puritans, iii. 314; Granger's Biog. 
Hist (1779), iii. 35 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
(Bliss), iii. 487. As to the Hampshire Commis- 
sion see The Country's Concurrence with the 
London United Ministers in their late Heads of 
Agreement, by Samuel Chandler, D.D., 1691.] 

DINGLEY or DINELEY, THOMAS 

(d. 1695), antiquary, was the son and heir of 
Thomas Dingley, controller of customs at 
Southampton and the representative of a 
family of some position in the place (Her. Visit, 
of Hampshire, made in 1622). He was born 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, 
and, as he himself tells us, educated by James 
Shirley, the dramatist, who for some years 
kept a school in Whitefriars, London. In 1670 



he was admitted a student of Gray's Inn (Adm. 
Book, 6 Aug.), but does not appear to have 
pursued his studies very regularly, as in the 
following year he became one of the suite of 
Sir George Downing, then returning as am- 
bassador to the States-General of the United 
Provinces. He has left in manuscript a jour- 
nal of his ' Travails through the Low Coun- 
treys, Anno Domini 1674,' illustrated by 
some spirited sketches in pen and ink of the 
places he visited. Subsequently he made a 
tour in France, and wrote a similar record 
of his journey, copiously illustrated. In 1680 
he visited Ireland, perhaps in a military 
capacity, and the account of what he there 
saw, and his observations on the history 
of the country, were published in 1870, as a 
reprint from the pages of the journal of the 
Kilkenny and South-east of Ireland Archaeo- 
logical Society. The manuscripts of all these 
accounts of travel are in the possession of 
Sir F. S. Wilmington at Stanford Court, 
Worcestershire. Henry Somerset, first duke 
of Beaufort, the lord president of the Prin- 
cipality, took Dingley with him in 1684 on an 
official progress through Wales. While thus 
engaged, Dingley was made an honorary free- 
man of the boroughs of Brecknock and Mon- 
mouth, and employed his pen and pencil with 
great industry and good effect. The manu- 
script of his journal is in the possession of 
the duke. Part of it, under the title of 
' Notitia Cambro-Britannica,' was edited by 
Mr. Charles Baker in 1864, and printed for 
private circulation by the Duke of Beaufort. 
A reprint of the whole was privately issued 
in 1888. 

Dingley lived much at Dilwyn in Here- 
fordshire, and some fragments in his hand- 
writing are to be seen in the register of that 
parish, but he was evidently a man of active 
habits and fond of travel. The ' History 
from Marble,' a collection of epitaphs, church 
notes, and sketches of domestic and other 
buildings (published by the Camd. Soc. 1867- 
1868), shows that he was well acquainted 
with most of the midland and western coun- 
ties, and, from the administration of his effects, 
granted in May 1695, we learn that he was 
at Louvaine in Flanders when death over- 
took him. Dingley's notes and sketches are 
extremely valuable, and were known to Nash 
and Theophilus Jones, who made use of them 
in their respective histories of Worcestershire 
and Brecon. The manuscript is in the posses- 
sion of Sir F. S. Winnington at Stanford 
Court. There seems to be no doubt that 
Dingley's collections formed the groundwork 
of Rawlinson's l History and Antiquities of 
the Cathedral Church of Hereford,' and they 
are certainly entitled to rank not far below 



Diodati 



95 



Dircks 



the ' Funerall Monuments ' of John Weever 
in interest and importance. 

[Introduction and postscript to Hist, from 
Marble, Camd. Soc., published 1867-8 ; Herald | 
&nd Genealogist, vi. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st Rep. j 
53-4 ; Gent. Mag. new ser. xliii. 45.] C. J. K. 

DIODATI, CHARLES (1608P-1638), 
friend of Milton, was born about 1608. His 
father, THEODOEE DIODATI, brother of Gio- 
vanni Diodati, a distinguished divine of Ge- 
neva (1576-1649), was born in all probability | 
at Geneva in 1574. The family belonged to 
Lucca. Charles's father emigrated to England 
when a youth ; was brought up as a doctor ; j 
lived at Brentford aboutl 609 ; attended Prince 
Henry and Princess Elizabeth ; graduated as 
a doctor of medicine at Leyden, 6 Oct. 1615 ; 
became a licentiate of the College of Phy- i 
sicians, London, 24 Jan. 1616-17 ; practised j 
in the parish of St. Bartholomew the Less, 
and was buried in the church there on 12 Feb. 
1650-1. Florio when dedicating his transla- 
tion of Montaigne to Lucy, countess of Bed- 
ford, acknowledged assistance from Theodore 
Diodati. Hakewill prints a letter of his, dated 
30 Sept. 1629, describing a case of phlebotomy j 
{Apology, 1630). Some of his medical recipes 
are in Egerton MS. 2214, ff. 46, 51, and fre- j 
quent mention is made of him as ' Doctor 
Deodate ' in i Lady Brilliana Harley's Corre- 
spondence ' (published by Camden Soc.) His 
first wife was an Englishwoman, and by her 
he had two sons, Charles and John, and a 
daughter, Philadelphia. When well advanced 
in life the doctor married again, much to the 
annoyance of his children. 

Charles gained a scholarship at St. Paul's 
School, and while there made Milton's ac- 
quaintance. In February 1621-2 he went to 
Trinity College, Oxford, and graduated M, A. 
in July 1628. A year later he was incor- 
porated M.A. at Cambridge. He was a good 
classical scholar, contributed some Latin 
alcaics to the volume published at Oxford 
on Camden's death in 1624, and wrote to 
Milton two letters in Greek, which are pre- 
served in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 
5016, f. 64). Subsequently he practised physic 
in the neighbourhood of Chester, removed to 
the parish of St. Anne's, Blackfriars, lodged 
therewith his sister Philadelphia in the house 
of one Dollar, quarrelled with his father 
about his second marriage, and was buried at 
St. Anne's Church 27 Aug. 1638. His sister 
was buried at the same place seventeen days 
earlier, and his sister-in-law, Isabella, wife 
of his brother John, on 29 June of the same 
year. 

Diodati's friendship with Milton gives him 
his chief interest. Milton's Latin poems 



prove how warm was his affection for his 
friend. To Diodati Milton addressed the first 
and sixth of his elegies, written respectively 
in 1626 and 1629, and first published in 1645. 
In September 1637 Milton wrote two Latin 
letters to Diodati, which are printed in the 
poet's ' Epistolse Familiares,' and early in 1 639, 
when Milton was in Italy, he addressed Dio- 
dati in an Italian sonnet (No. v.) At Geneva 
Milton spent a fortnight with his friend's 
uncle, Giovanni Diodati, and on learning of 
Diodati's death he gave his most striking 
testimony to his affectionate regard for him 
in his ' Epitaphium Damoiiis.' In the intro- 
duction to the * Epitaphium ' Diodati is de- 
scribed as ( ingenio, doctrina cseterisque 
clarissimis virtutibus juvenis egregius.' The 
poem in pathetic and poetic expression almost 
equals ' Lycidas,' and had it been written in 
English instead of Latin would doubtless have 
been as popular. It was first published in 
1645. Diodati also seems to have been in- 
timate with Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who 
entrusted him with a copy of his <De Veri- 
tate ' to present to the philosopher Gassendi 
at Paris (HEKBERT, Autobiog. 1886, p. Iv, 
292 n.} 

Diodati had a first cousin named, like his 
father, Theodore, who practised medicine in 
England. He was the son of the learned 
Genevan, Giovanni Diodati, proceeded M.D. 
at Leyden 4 Feb. 1643, was admitted a mem- 
ber of the London College of Physicians in 
December 1664, was residuary legatee under 
his uncle Theodore's will, and died after many 
years' residence in London in 1680. Diodati's 
name was often spelt Deodate, Dyodate, and 
Diodate. A son of Charles's "brother. John, 
who called himself William Diodate, is said 
to have settled at New Haven, Connecticut, 
in 1717. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 169 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. xii. 348 ; R. F. Gardiner's St. 
Paul's School Register, p. 34; Masson's Life of 
Milton, i. ii. ; Chester's Registers of St. Anne's, 
Blackfriars ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum in 
Addit. MS. 24492, ff 74-5; Todd's Milton; 
E. E. Salisbury's Mr. William Diodate and his 
Italian Ancestry, reprinted from the Archives 
of the New Haven Colony (Hist. Soc.), 1875.1 

S. L. L. 

DIRCKS, HENRY (1806-1873), civil 
engineer and author, born at Liverpool on 
26 Aug. 1806, was in early life apprenticed 
to a mercantile firm of that town, but gave 
his leisure time to the study of practical me- 
chanics, chemical science, and general litera- 
ture, and before he was twenty-one delivered 
courses of lectures on chemistry and electri- 
city, and wrote literary articles in the local 
press and scientific papers in the ' Mechanics' 



Dircks 



9 6 



Disibod 



Magazine ' and other journals. In 1837 
he became a life member of the British Asso- , 
ciation, and afterwards contributed papers 
to its proceedings. He wrote a pamphlet 
relative to a proposed union of mechanics' 
and literary institutions, 1839, and a short 
treatise entitled ' Popular Education, a series : 
of Papers on the Nature, Objects, and Ad- 
vantages of Mechanics' Institutions/ which j 
was printed at Liverpool in 1840, and re- : 
printed at Manchester in 1841. On relin- 
quishing mercantile pursuits he became at j 
first a practical engineer, conducting railway, 
canal, and mining works, and subsequently 
practised as a consulting engineer. He took 
out patents for several inventions between 
1840 and 1857, and was the inventor of a 
curious optical delusion, originally intended 
as an illustration of Dickens's 'Haunted 
Man,' which was exhibited at the Polytechnic 
under the name of ' Pepper's Ghost.' Of this 
invention he read a notice before the British 
Association in 1858. He joined the Royal 
Society of Literature and the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, and other scientific bodies, 
and in 1868 procured the title of LL.D. from 
the so-called college of Tusculum in Ten- 
nessee, U.S.A. 

He published the following separate works : 
1. ' Jordantype, otherwise called Electrotype : 
its Early History, being a vindication of the 
claims of C. A. Jordan as the Inventor of Elec- 
tro-Metallurgy,' 1852, 8vo. 2. 'Perpetuum Mo- 
bile, or a History of the Search for Self-motive 
Power,' 1861 (8vo, pp. 599), which was fol- 
lowed by a second series in 1870. 3. 'Joseph 
Anstey,' a novel, 1863, published under the 
pseudonym of D. Henry. 4. ' Contributions 
towards a History of Electro-Metallurgy,' 
1863 ; part of this was published as early as 
1844. 5. 'The Ghost, as produced in the 
Spectre-Drama, popularly illustrating the 
marvellous optical illusions obtained by the 
Apparatus called the Dircksian Phantasma- 
goria,' 1863, 12mo. 6. ' A Biographical Me- 
moir of Samuel Hartlib, Milton's familiar 
friend, with Bibliographical Notices,' 1865. 
7. ' The Life, Times, and Scientific Labours 
of the Second Marquis of Worcester,' 1865, 
8vo, pp. 648. 8. ' Worcesteriana, a Collec- 
tion of Literary Authorities relating to Ed- 
ward Somerset, Marquis of Worcester,' 1866, 
8vo. 9. 'Inventions and Inventors,' 1867, 
8vo. 10. ' Scientific Studies, two Popular 
Lectures on the Life of the Marquis of 
Worcester and on Chimeras of Science,' 
1869, 8vo. 11. ' Nature-Study, or the Art 
of attaining those excellencies in Poetry and 
Eloquence which are mainly dependent on 
the manifold influences of Universal Nature ' 
1869, 8vo, pp. 456. He issued an abridgment 



of this ' system ' in pamphlet form at Edin- 
burgh in 1871. 12. ' Patent Law considered 
as affecting the Interests of the Million,' 
1869, 8vo, being a reprint of three pam- 
phlets previously issued. 13. ' Naturalistic 
Poetry, selected from Psalms and Hymns 
of the last three centuries, in four Essays 
developing the progress of Nature-Study in 
connection with Sacred Song,' 1872, 8vo r 
pp. 332. A portrait of Dircks is given 
in the books numbered 11 and 13 above. 
He died at Brighton on 17 Sept. 1873, 
aged 67. 

[Men of the Time, 1875, p. 529; Report of 
Roy. Soc. of Literature, 1874, p. 31 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1885, 6th ser. xii. 309, 477 ; Catalogue 
of the Libr. of the Patent Office, 1881, i. 193.] 

C. W. S. 

DIROM, ALEXANDER (d. 1830), lieu- 
tenant-general, was the son of Alexander 
Dirom of Muiresk, BaniFshire, by his wife,. 
Ann Fotheringham (BTJEKE, Landed Gentry, 
1882, i. 461). His name occurs in the 'Army 
List' for the first time as a lieutenant in 
the 88th foot of 13 Oct. 1779. In 1790 he 
was acting as deputy adjutant-general of the 
forces engaged in the second Mysore war, 
which was brought to an end by the signing 
of the treaty of Seringapatam on 8 March 
1792. During the voyage home he drew up 
'A Narrative of the Campaign in India, which 
terminated the war with Tippoo Sultan in 
1792. With maps and plans, &c.' [and an ap- 
pendix], 4to, London, 1793. On 7 Aug. 1793 he 
married Magdalen, daughter of Robert Pas- 
ley of Mount Annan, Dumfriesshire, by whom 
he had a family (Scots Mag. Iv. 412). He 
died at Mount Annan on 6 Oct. 1830 (Army 
List, November 1830, p. 88). Besides the 
above-mentioned work, Dirom published : 
1. ' An Inquiry into the Corn Laws and Corn 
Trade of Great Britain, and their influence 
on the prosperity of the Kingdom . . . To 
which is added a Supplement, by Mr. W. 
Mackie, &c.' (appendix), two parts, 4to, 
Edinburgh, 1796. 2. ' Plans for the Defence 
of Great Britain and Ireland,' 8vo, Edin- 
burgh, 1797. 3. ' Account of the Improve- 
ments on the Estate of Mount Annan,' 8vo, 
Edinburgh, 1811. He was elected a fellow 
of .the Royal Society on 10 July 1794, and 
was also a fellow of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh and a member of the Wernerian 
Society of the same city. 

[Army Lists.] G . G-. 

DISIBOD, SAINT (594P-674), bishop, was 
the son of one of the lesser chieftains in Ire- 
land. In his boyhood, a warlike ruler having 
subjugated the neighbouring chieftains, his 



Disibod 



97 



Disibod 



parents removed for safety to a distant part of 
bhe territory, ' near a river flowing from the 
sea.' Here they placed the boy in charge of 
some religious men to be instructed in 'letters 
and other liberal arts.' When arrived at the 
age of thirty he was ordained, and shortly 
after, as it would seem, the bishop of the place 
died, and an assembly of the people of all 
ranks was held, according to custom, to elect 
a successor. Disibod was chosen in spite of 
objections to his taciturn and ascetic habits, 
and was compelled against his will to accept 
bhe office. According to his life, by the Ab- 
bess Hildegardis, ' great scandals prevailed all 
aver Ireland at this time ; some rejected the 
Old and New Testament and denied Christ ; 
others embraced heresies ; very many went 
over to Judaism ; some relapsed into paganism, 
and others desired to live like beasts, not 
men.' Disibod contended for many years with j 
these evils, * not without bodily danger,' but 
at length he was wearied out and resolved 
to resign his bishopric. Collecting a few 
religious men, he left Ireland and travelled i 
through many regions. At length he arrived 
in Alemannia, which corresponded nearly to 
the present territory of Baden. In a vision 
of the night he was told he should find a ! 
suitable place for settlement. Hearing a good 
report of the people dwelling on the left bank 
of the Rhine, he went in that direction, and, 
crossing the river Glan, perceived a lofty hill ' 
clothed with forest. Here, after ten years' ! 
wandering, he resolved to settle with his [ 
three friends, and forming a separate place of 
abode for himself he led the life of a hermit, ! 
subsisting on roots and herbs. His dress was 
the same as that he wore when leaving Ire- ] 
land, of coarse material, and his food scarcely 
sufficient to sustain life. The tidings of his ' 
strange manner of life spread abroad. He : 
had been a diligent student of the language j 
of the people since his arrival in Germany, 
and now he was able to speak to his visitors 
' the word of life and salvation.' When his 
community was finally established, the monks 
occupied a range of huts in Irish fashion on 
the brow of the declivity, while he dwelt in 
his cell lower down and apart from them. 
The reason assigned for this is that they fol- 
lowed the rule of St. Benedict, while he, living 
according to the much severer Egyptian man- 
ner, did not wish to have a contrast drawn 
to the disadvantage of his brethren. Though 
a bishop in his own country, he never after 
his expulsion celebrated the eucharist < after 
the order appointed for bishops, but according 
to the usage of poor presbyters.' He still, 
however, according to the custom in such 
cases, acted as a bishop in his own monastery, 
being, according to Dr. Todd, an episcopus 
VOL. xv. 



regionarius, or abbot-bishop, without juris- 
diction out of his abbacy. He frequently 
wished to appoint a head over the commu- 
nity, but the monks strenuously objected, 
and would have none while he lived. Thirty 
years he served God on that mountain, and 
when his death was manifestly at hand, he 
was permitted by his sorrowing monks to 
place an abbot over them. He was buried 
at his own desire, not on the higher ground, 
but in the lowly shade of his oratory, where 
as a solitary he had served God. His death 
took place in the eighty-first year of his age. 
His remains were enshrined in the following 
century by Boniface, archbishop of Mentz. 
Some continental writers have questioned his 
right to the title of bishop because Hilde- 
gardis only terms him ' an anchorite and a soli- 
tary,' and Rabanus Maurus only * a confessor ; ' 
but bishops in Ireland occupied a different 
position from those abroad, where diocesan 
episcopacy existed, and they were very often 
hermits. He is, however, expressly styled 
a bishop, not only by Hildegardis. but in the 
chronicle of Marianus Scotus. There is also 
incidental evidence of it in the representa- 
tions of the saint on a curious bronze frame 
discovered in the seventeenth century, and 
which is figured in the ' Acta Sanctorum.' 
In this work, supposed to be of the twelfth 
century, he appears wearing a crown, which 
was the episcopal headdress in Ireland, as also 
in the eastern church. Some uncertainty has 
been expressed as to his date, chiefly in con- 
sequence of the statement of Hildegardis that 
when he arrived in Germany St. Benedict 
had died ' quite lately ' (nuperrime), and as 
that event took place in 534, the inference 
would be that Disibod flourished in the sixth 
century. But the life written by the Abbess 
Hildegardis is not such a composition as in- 
spires the reader with confidence in her ac- 
curacy. She was an enthusiast who heard 
a divine voice desiring her to write, and the 
life is a mere rhapsody, giving fantastic in- 
terpretations of scripture, and leading to the 
conclusion that she was scarcely sane. At 
any rate, it cannot outweigh the testimony 
of Marianus Scotus, if his words are rightly 
interpreted. The entry in his * Chronicle ' at 
the year 674 is ' egi-essio S 1 Disibodi.' This 
is understood by Colgan and others to mean 
his death, and no doubt correctly. If so he 
must have been born about 594.' The exten- 
sive ruins of Disibodenberg may still be seen. 
They are situated on the tongue of land south 
of the rivers Nahe and Glan, affluents of the 
Rhine, and about two miles south-east of 
Creuznach. 

[Bollandists' Acta Sanct. Julii, ii. 581, &c. ; 
Dr. Todd's St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, p. 109 ; 

H 



Disney 



9 8 



Disney 



Sunns, iv. 141 ; Warren's Liturgy and Ritual of 
the Celtic Church, p. 128,] T. 0. 

DISNEY, JOHN (1677-1730), divine, 
was born at Lincoln on 26 Dec. 1677, and 
received his early education at the grammar 
school in that city. His parents, being dis- 
senters, removed him thence to a private 
academy for dissenters at Lincoln. As soon, 
however, as he reached manhood, he became 
a churchman and communicant. In May 
1698 he married Mary, daughter and heiress 
of William Woodhouse. He was entered at 
the Middle Temple, with no view to his prac- 
tising at the bar, but in order to make him 
sufficiently acquainted with the laws to be 
able to act as a competent magistrate. As a 
magistrate he was so efficient and impartial, 
that he was more than once publicly compli- 
mented by the judges of circuit for the services 
which he rendered to his country. He was 
removed from the commission of the peace in 
1710, but restored next year. He was a warm 
supporter of the societies for the reformation 
of manners which were formed at the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century, and which 
met with much opposition on various grounds. 
He supported them, not only in his magisterial 
capacity, and by his personal influence, but 
also with his pen, his writings on this sub- 
ject being the best known and most effective 
part of his literary work. After having lived 
to the age of forty-two as a pious and active 
lay churchman, many bright examples of 
which character were to be found in the early 
part of the eighteenth century, he formed a 
desire of entering holy orders, and was warmly 
encouraged to do so by the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, William Wake, who had been bishop 
of Lincoln in Mr. Disney's early days, and 
had probably then learned to know his worth. 
He was accordingly ordained deacon and priest 
in 1719 by the bishop of Lincoln (Edmund 
Gibson), and was immediately afterwards pre- 
sented to the livings of Croft and Kirkby-on- 
Bain, both in his native county. In 1722 he 
resigned his country benefices, and was ap- 
pointed to the important living of St. Mary's, 
Nottingham. There he lived until his death 
on 3 Feb. 1729-30. He left behind him a 
widow and eight children, five sons and three 
daughters. 

Disney was a somewhat voluminous writer, 
though most of his works, with the exception, 
at least, of those relating to the societies for 
the reformation of manners, have now passed 
into oblivion. The list of his works is as fol- 
lows: 1. 'Primitive Sacrse,or the Reflections 
of a Devout Solitude,' in prose and verse, 
London, 1701 and 1703. 2. < Flora,' a poem 
in admiration of the ' Gardens ' of Rapin, an- 



nexed to Sub-dean Gardiner's translation of 
that work. 3. ' An Essay upon the Execu- 
tion of the Laws against Immorality and 
Profaneness, with a Preface addressed to Her 
Majesty's Justices of the Peace,' London, 1708 
and 1710. 4. < A Second Essay' upon the 
same subject, ( wherein the case of giving in- 
formation to magistrates is considered, and 
objections against it answered,' London, 1710. 
These essays are written in the form of a dia- 
logue, and ably meet the different objections 
urged against the writer's favourite societies. 
5. * Remarks on a Sermon preached by Dr. 
Henry Sacheverell at the Derby Assizes, 
15 Aug. 1709. In a Letter addressed to him- 
self, containing a just and modest Defence of 
the Societies for the Reformation of Manners 
against aspersions cast upon them in that 
Sermon,' London, 1711. 6. 'A View of An- 
cient Laws against Immorality and Profane- 
ness,' an elaborate work, dedicated to Lord 
King, afterwards lord chancellor. Cambridge, 
1729. 7. Several occasional sermons. 8. 'The 
Genealogy of the most Serene and Illustrious 
House of Brunswick-Lunenburgh, the pre- 
sent Royal Family of Great Britain,' 1714. 
9. Proposals for the publication of a great 
work which he designed, under the title of 
'Corpus Legum de Mori bus Reformandis.' 
He collected the materials for this work, but 
died before it was finished. He also published 
several sermons. 

[Works ; Life by grandson, John Disney, 1 746- 
1816 [q. v.], in Biog. Brit. An elaborate pedi- 
gree of the Disney family is in Hutchins's Dor- 
setshire, ii. 99-102.] J. H. 0. 

DISNEY, JOHN, D.D. (1746-1816), 
Unitarian clergyman, third son of John Dis- 
ney of Lincoln, was born 28 Sept. 1746. His 
grandfather, John Disney (1677-1 730) [q. v.], 
was rector of St. Mary's, Nottingham, but 
his remoter ancestors were zealous noncon- 
formists. Disney was at Wakefield grammar 
school, under John Clark, and subsequently 
at Lincoln grammar school. He was in- 
tended for the bar, but his health broke 
down under the preliminary studies, and he 
turned to the church. He entered at Peter- 
house in 1764 (admitted pensioner 15 June 
1765), and after graduation was ordained in 
1768; in 1770 he proceeded LL.B. His 
sympathies with ' the latitudinarian party 
were early shown ; he appeared as a writer 
in April 1768 in defence of the l Confes- 
sional,' by Francis Blackburne (1705-1787) 
[q. v.] Immediately after his ordination he 
was appointed honorary chaplain to Edmund 
Law [q. v.], master of Peterhouse and bishop 
of Carlisle. In 1769 he was presented to 
the vicarage of Swinderby, Lincolnshire, and 
soon afterwards to the rectory of Panton, in 



Disney 



99 



Disney 



another part of the same county ; he held 
both livings, residing at Swinderby. 

Disney became an active member of the 
association formed on 17 July 1771 to pro- 
mote a petition to parliament for relief of 
the clergy from subscription. The petition 
was rejected by the House of Commons on 
6 Feb. 1772. Disney did not immediately 
follow the example of his friend Theophilus 
Lindsey [q. v.], who resigned his benefice 
in the following year. On his way to Lon- 
don in December 1773, Lindsey stayed for 
more than a week at Swinderby. Like some 
others, Disney accommodated the public ser- 
vice to suit his special views. The Athana- 
sian Creed he had always ignored ; he now 
omitted theNicene Creed and the Litany, and 
made other changes in reading the common 
prayer. On 5 June 1775 the university of 
Edinburgh made him D.D., through the in- 
fluence of Bishop Law with Principal Robert- 
son ; in 1778 he was admitted a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries. For a time Dis- 
ney found in secular duties and political 
action a sedative for his scruples. He was 
an energetic magistrate, arid while staying 
at Flintham Hall, near Newark, the seat of 
his eldest brother, he joined in 1780 the 
Nottingham county committee for retrench- 
ment and parliamentary reform. But in 
November 1782 he threw up his preferments, 
and offered his services as colleague to his 
friend Lindsey. At the end of December he 
came to London with his family, having been 
engaged at a stipend of 150/. In 1783 Dis- 
ney became the first secretary of a Unitarian 
Society for Promoting the Knowledge of the 
Scriptures. On the retirement of Lindsey 
from active duty in July 1793, Disney became 
sole minister. The services at Essex Street 
had been conducted by means of a modified 
common prayer-book, on the basis of a re- 
vision made by Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) 
[q. v.] In 1802 Disney introduced an en- 
tirely new form of his own composition ; the 
congregation, on his retirement, immediately 
reverted to the old model. Disney's resig- 
nation of office was occasioned by a large 
bequest of property, which reached him in a 
curious way. Thomas Hollis (d. 1 Jan. 1774) 
left his estates in Dorsetshire to his friend 
Thomas Brand of the Hyde, near Ingate- 
stone, Essex, who took the name of Hollis. 
T. Brand Hollis (d. 2 Sept. 1804), by will 
dated 1792, left both estates, worth about 
5,000/. a year, to Disney, who resigned his 
ministry on 25 March 1805, on the ground 
of ill-health, and in the following June left 
London and took up his residence at the 
Hyde. He was succeeded at Essex Street 
by Thomas Belsham [q. v.] The rest of his 



life was spent in literary leisure, but his 
most important publications belong to an 
earlier period. He amused himself with 
agriculture, and took part in the various 
applications to parliament which resulted in 
the act of 1813 * to relieve persons who im- 
pugn the doctrine of the Holy Trinity from 
certain penalties.' Falling into declining 
health, he resided for a time at Bath. He 
died at the Hyde on 26 Dec. 1816, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Fryerning, Essex. 
He married, in 1774, Jane (d. October 1809), 
eldest daughter of Archdeacon Blackburne, 
and left three children, John [q. v.], Algernon, 
who entered the army, and Frances Mary, 
who married the Rev. Thomas Jervis. A 
valuable collection of controversial literature 
occasioned by the ' Confessional,' arranged by 
Disney in fourteen volumes, is deposited in Dr. 
Williams's library, Grafton Street, London, 
W.C., of which he had been a trustee from 
1796 to 1806. Disney was a careful and exact 
writer, but not a man of much intellectual 
force. Of his publications Jervis enumerates 
thirty-two ; to complete the list nine must be 
added, which are given in Watt, two more in 
' Living Authors ' (1816), and two added by 
Turner. The most important are : 1. t A Short 
View of the Controversies occasioned by the 
Confessional and the Petition to Parliament,' 
&c., 1775, 8vo. 2. 'Reasons for ... quitting 
the Church of England,' &c., 1782, 8vo ; 2nd 
edit. 1783, 8vo. 3. 'Memoirs of the Life 
and Writings of Arthur Ashley Sykes,D.D.,' 
&c., 1785, 8vo. 4. ' The W r orks .' . . of John 
Jebb, M.D., with Memoirs,' &c., 1787, 3 vols. 
8vo. 5. ' Arranged Catalogue of Publica- 
tions on Toleration, Corporation, and Test 
Acts,' &c., 1790, 8vo. 6. ' Memoirs of the 
Life and Writings of John Jortin, D.D.,' 
1792, 8vo. 7. 'Short Memoir of Bishop 
Edmund Law,' 1800, 8vo. 8. ' Short Memoir 
of Michael Dodson,' 1800, 8vo (reprinted 
without the notes in Aikin's ' Gen. Biog. ; ' 
and in full, with additions by J. T. Rutt, in 
1 Monthly Repos.' 1818, p. 601 sq. ; Dodson 
had made Disney his residuary legatee, on the 
death of his widow). 9. * Memoirs of Thomas 
Brand Hollis,' 1808, 4to. 10. ' Short Memoir 
of the late Rev. Robert Edward Garnham,' 

1814, 8vo (reprinted in 'Monthly Repos. ' 

1815, p. 13 sq.) 11. ' Short Memoir of the 
Rev. William Hopkins,' 1815, 8vo. Besides 
these separate memoirs he contributed a few 
others to various publications, including the 
memoir of his grandfather in the ' Biographia 
Britannica' (Kippis). Two volumes of Dis- 
ney's ' Sermons' were published in 1793, 8vo ; 
two others, in 1816, 8vo. Disney edited, with 
biographical preface, the ' Discourses ' of his 
cousin, Samuel Disney, LL.B., 1788, 8vo; and, 

H 2 



Disney 



IOO 



Disney 



in conjunction with Charles Butler (1750- 
1832) [q.v.], he edited 'A New Translation 
of the Book of Psalms/ &c. 1807, 8vo, from 
the manuscript of Alexander Geddes, LL.D. 
[q.v.] 

[Memoir (dated 1 Jan. 1817) in Monthly Ke- 
pository, 1817, p. 55 sq., by G. W. M. (George 
Wilson Meadley of Sunderland) ; Funeral Sermon, 
by T. Jervis, 1817; the biographical part with 
catalogue of his works is reprinted in Monthly 
Rep. 1817, p. 257 sq. ; see also p. 54 for Elegy by 
Jervis ; Turner's Lives of Eminent Unitarians, 
1 843, ii. 178 sq. (based on the foregoing, with ad- 
ditional particulars from Mrs. Jervis and Mr. Dis- 
ney) ; Univ. Theol. Mag. December 1804, p. 342; 
Belsham's Memoirs of Lindsey, 1812, pp. 47, 53, 
92, &c. (an interleaved copy, in the possession of 
L. M. Aspland, LL.D., has manuscript notes by 
Disney, throwing light on his own biography, 
and showing strong animus against Mrs. Lind- 
sey, his wife's half-sister, and Belsham, his suc- 
cessor at Essex Street) ; T. M. Harris's Sermon on 
Christian Sensibility, 181 1, preface, gives a pleas- 
ing view of Disney's life at the Hyde; Kutt's Me- 
moirs of Priestley, 1831, i. 84, 365, 3SU; Nichols's 
Illustrations, 1831, vi. 478 sq. ; Wiyiams's Me- 
moirs of Belsham, 1833, p. 541 V S q. ; Murch's 
Hist. Presb. and Gen. Bapt. Churches in West of 
Eng., 1835, p. 362; Catalogue of Graduates of 
Edinb. University, 1858 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian 
Fund, 1885, pp. 129, 177-1 A - G - 

DISNEY, JOHN (1779-1857), collector 
of classical antiquities, born at Flintham 
Hall, Nottinghamshire, on 29 May 1779, was 
the eldest son of the Rev. John Disney, D.D. 
(1746-1816) [q. v.], by Jane, daughter of 
Archdeacon Blackburne. On 26 Dec. 1816 
he came into possession of his father's estate, 
the Hyde, Ingatestone, Essex, inheriting 
with it the collection of antiquities formed 
in Italy by Hollis and Brand, chiefly from 
1748 to 1753. Disney made additions to this 
collection, acquiring many of the smaller 
antiquities from Pompeii through a relative. 
In 1818 he began a catalogue of it, which he 
completed after his return from Roi$e in 
1827, and afterwards published with correc- 
tions as l Museum Disneianum,' IJondon, 4to, 
pt. i. 1846 (sculptures) ; pt. ii. 1648 ; pt. iii. 
1849. The book contains numerous engrav- 
ings, but the text is not very critical : thus, 
PI. Ixvii., a mirror with handle, is described 
as ' A stew-pan ' (cp. GERHARD, Arch. Zeitung, 
1849, pp. 157-60; WIESELER, Gottingische 
gel. Anzeig. 1849, 441-62 ; Classical Museum, 
v. 262-72, vi. 71-91). Nearly all the marbles 
were bequeathed by Disney to the university 
of Cambridge, and they now form one of the 
principal sections of the Fitzwilliam Mu- 
seum. The bronzes, terra-cottas, glass ob- 
jects, vases, &c., remained at the Hyde. Pro- 
fessor Michaelis, who has redescribed (Anc. 



Marbles} the sculptures, considers that Disney 
showed more zeal than discernment as a col- 
lector, for, though a friend of Flaxman, 
Combe, and Christie, he acquired many poor 
or spurious marbles. Michaelis thinks the 
' Statuette of a Youthful Satyr ' the most 
graceful piece of statuary in the collection. 
In 1851 Disney founded the Cambridge Uni- 
versity chair of archaeology, called by his 
name. The professor is required to deliver 
at least six lectures annually on some subject 
connected with classical and other antiquities 
and the fine arts. The original endowment, 
amounting to 1000A, was increased in 1857 Jay 
Disney's bequest to 3250/. Disney held the 
honorary degree of LL.D. (Cambridge), and 
was a fellow of the Royal Society. He was 
barrister-at-law of the Inner Temple, and 
published : 1. ' A Collection of Acts of Parlia- 
ment relative to County and Borough Elec- 
tions,' &c., London, 1811, 8vo. 2. ' Outlines 
of a Penal Code,' London, 1826, 8vo. He 
unsuccessfully contested Harwich in 1832 
and North Essex in 1835. He died at the 
Hyde on 6 May 1857. Disney married on 
22 Sept. 1802 his cousin-german Sophia, 
youngest daughter of Lewis Disney-Ffytche,. 
of Swinderby, Lincolnshire, and had issue : 
John (d. 1819), Edgar (his successor, d. 1881) r 
Sophia. 

[Burke's Hist, of the Landed Gentry (1837), ii. 
151 ; Walford's County Families (1886) ; Gent. 
Mag. 1857, 3rd ser. ii. 741'; Annual Eeg. xcix. 
307 ; Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in Great Bri- 
tain, 41, 87, 91, pp. 241, 255-67, 333 ; Cam- 
bridge Univ. Calendar (1885), pp. 328-9; Mus. 
Disneianum ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

DISNEY, SIR MOORE (1766 P-1846), 
general, eldest son of Moore Disney, esq., 
of Churchtown, co. Waterford, one of the 
Irish descendants of the family of Disney 
of Norton Disney in Northamptonshire, en- 
tered the army as an ensign in the 1st Grena- 
dier guards on 17 April 1783. He served 
in America for the last few months of the 
American war of independence, and 'was pro- 
moted lieutenant and captain on 3 June 
1791. He served with the guards through- 
out the campaign in the Netherlands under 
the Duke of York from 1793 to May 1795, 
and was promoted captain and lieutenant- 
colonel on 12 June 1795. He was promoted 
colonel on 29 April 1802, and served for a 
short time as a brigadier-general in the home 
district in 1805, but threw up that appoint- 
ment in July 1806, in order to proceed to> 
Sicily in command of the 3rd battalion of the 
1st guards. He was made a brigadier-general 
in Sicily in August 1807, and was comman- 
dant of Messina from January to July 1808, 
when he started home to take command of a 



Disney 



101 



Disraeli 



forigade in England. On his way, however 
he touched at Lisbon on 6 Oct., and was at 
once begged by General Cradock to land and 
take command of a brigade consisting of the 
2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 50th regiments, which 
Cradock wished to send to join the army of 
Sir John Moore in Spain. This brigade 
he led safely to Castello Branco by way of 
Abrantes, and there halted on 27 Nov., when 
he was ordered to hand over his brigade to 
Major-general Alan Cameron, and to join 
the main army under Sir John Moore. He 
reached Toro in safety, and was at once put 
in command of a brigade of Edward Paget's 
reserve, consisting of the 28th and 91st regi- 
ments. The reserve had to cover the famous 
retreat of Sir John Moore, and Disney greatly 
distinguished himself both at the action at 
Betanzos on 11 Jan. 1809, and in the battle 
of Corunna. For his services at that battle 
he received a gold medal, and was pro- 
moted major-general on 25 April 1809. In 
that year he commanded the first brigade of 
guards, attached to Hope's division, in the 
Walcheren expedition, and on his return to 
England was given the command of the home 
district. In 1810 he went out to Cadiz to 
act as second in command to General Graham, 
afterwards Lord Lynedoch, and in June 1811 
he succeeded that general in the chief com- 
mand there. He handed over the command 
&t Cadiz to Major-general George Cooke in 
November 1811, and returned to England, 
and never again went on active service. He 
was promoted lieutenant-general on 4 June 
1814, became colonel of the 15th regiment on 
23 July 1814, was made a K.C.B. in 1815, 
and promoted general on 10 Jan. 1837. He 
died at his house in Upper Brook Street, Lon- 
don, on 19 April 1846, at the age of eighty. 

[SirF. W. Hamilton's History of the Grenadier 
Guards ; Eoyal Military Calendar ; Hart's Army 
List; Gent. Mag. for July 1846.] H. M. S. 

DISNEY, WILLIAM, D.D. (1731-1807), 
son of the Rev. Joseph Disney, M.A., vicar 
of Cranbrook and Appledore with the chapel 
of Ebony in Kent, was born 29 Sept. 1731. 
He was educated at the Merchant Taylors' 
School under Mr. Creech, and was entered 
as a pensioner at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
26 Jan. 1748. He graduated as B.A. in 1753 
(when he was senior wrangler), M.A. 1756, 
and D.D. 1789. He was admitted minor fel- 
low in 1754, major fellow in 1756, and third 
sub-lector in 1757. From 1757 to 1771 he 
was regius professor of Hebrew. In 1777 he 
became vicar of Pluckley in Kent, a living 
in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
where he died in 1807. 

He published two sermons : 1. * Sermon 



preached before the University of Cambridge, 
28 June 1789, with some strictures on the 
licentious notions avowed or enumerated in 
Mr. Gibbon's " History of Rome," ' Lond. 1709, 
4to. 2. ' The Superiority of Religious Duties 
to Worldly Considerations,^ 1800, 8vo. 

[Bibliotheca Britannica ; Robinson's Register 
of Merchant Taylors' School ; Register of Trinity 
College ; Cooper's Memorials.] E. S. S. 

DISRAELI, BENJAMIN, first EARL OF 
BEACONSFIELD (1804-1881)] statesman and 
man of letters, was born at 6tfohn Street, Bed- 
ford Row, London, on 21 Dec. 1804 (Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. x. 457). He was the son of 
Isaac D'Israeli [q. v.], whose family consisted 
of four sons and one daughter. Benjamin, 
who was baptised at St. Andrew's, Holborn 
(31 July 1817), was privately educated, and 
at the age of seventeen was articled to Messrs. 
Swain & Stevenson, solicitors in the Old 
Jewry. He entered Lincoln's Inn in 1824, 
and kept nine terms, but removed his name 
in 1831. He soon, however, discovered a 
taste for literature, and in 1826 contributed 
a forgotten poem, * The Modern Dunciad,' 
to a forgotten magazine, called 'The Star 
Chamber.' In the same year he burst upon 
the town with ' Vivian Grey ' (of which a 
second part appeared in 1827), a novel more 
remarkable perhaps for a youth of twenty 
than even Congreve's ' Old Bachelor.' Ex- 
travagant, audacious, and sparkling, rather 
than truly brilliant, it achieved at once a great 
success ; but the young author, as if to show 
his contempt for popularity, quitted England 
soon after its publication, and spent the next 
three years (1828-31) in Spain, Italy, the 
Levant, and the south-east of Europe, which 
he described to his sister in the first series of 
letters edited by Mr. Ralph Disraeli. On his 
return to England in 1831 , the brother and 
sister still continued regular correspondents, 
and his 'Letters' from 1832 to 1852 form 
the contents of a second volume lately pub- 
lished by the same editor. They do not add 
much to what was already known, and, though 
amusing and interesting, are coloured by a 
strain_of egotism, which, if Intended for a 
JbTie in writing to a near relative, is not one 
of those jokes which every one is bound to 
understand. 

It was not till the general election of 1837 
that Disraeli obtained a seat in parliament, 
having previously contested without success 
both High Wycombe (twice in 1832, and 
again in 1834), and Taunton (in 1835), in- 
volving himself in squabbles of no very dig- 
nified character with Joseph Hume and Daniel 
O'Connell. At Taunton he attacked O'Con- 
nell, who had written a complimentary letter 



Disraeli 



IO2 



Disraeli 



about him when he stood for Wycombe. 
O'Connell retorted by comparing Disraeli to 
the- ' impenitent thief.' There was some talk 
of a duel with O'Connell's son, Morgan, 
O'Connell having made a vow against the 
practice ; but nothing came of it. In a letter 
to the ' Times ' of 31 Dec. 1835 Disraeli gave 
his own version of the quarrel. While will- 
ing to accept the assistance of these influential 
politicians against whig dictation, he had dis- 
tinctly disavowed all sympathy with their 
peculiar principles. His support of the ballot 
and triennial parliaments he justified by the 
example of Bolingbroke and Sir William 
Wyndham. But the public of that day knew 
nothing of either, and the historical toryism 
of Disraeli was entirely beyond their grasp. 
During the five years that elapsed between 
his return to England and his entrance into 
parliament Disraeli's pen was constantly em- 
ployed. Besides 'What is He?' (1833), a 
reply to a reported sneer of Earl Grey, and 
'The Present Crisis Examined' (1834), he 
published in 1835 his ' Vindication of the 
British Constitution,' a copy of which he 
forwarded to Sir Robert Peel, who thanked 
him for the gift in a very complimentary 
letter, and in 1836 the < Letters of Runny- 
mede,' an attack on the government of Lord 
Melbourne. In pure literature he was still 
more prolific. Within the same period he 
published 'The Young Duke' (1831), 'Con- 
tarini Fleming' (1832), ' The Wondrous Tale 
of Alroy' (1833), 'The Rise of Iskander,' 
'The Revolutionary Epic' (1834), 'Venetia' 
(1837), and ' Henrietta Temple ' (1837). We 
learn from the ' Letters ' that he was received 
in the best society, and mingled in all the 
gaieties of the fashionable world. A hun- 
dred exaggerated stories of his dress, his 
manners, and his conversation at this period 
of his life were long current in London. One 
^dy declared that she had seen him at a party 
in green velvet trousers and a black satin 
shirt. He was said to have delighted in 
shocking the respectability of decorous cele- 
brities by the most startling moral paradoxes, 
and in short to have done everything that 
he ought not to have done, if he really hoped 
to be, what he told Lord Melbourne in 1835 
that he wished to be, < prime minister of Eng- 
land.' He himself was so far nettled by the 
revival of some of this gossip many years 
afterwards that he wrote to the editor of an 
evening paper to declare that he never pos- 
sessed a pair of green trousers in his life. His 
great friend at this time was Lord Lyndhurst, 
and much was made of the fact that in 1835 
the two were seen pacing the Opera Colon- 
nade together at half-past twelve o'clock at 
night, engaged in the most animated con- 



versation. Lord Lyndhurst had before that 
date interested himself in Mr. Disraeli's par- 
liamentary prospects; but whether he had 
any share in procuring his return for Maid- 
stone we are unable to say. 

On the death of William IV, parliament 
was again dissolved, and Disraeli received an 
invitation to stand for the borough of Maid- 
stone in conjunction with Mr. Wyndham 
Lewis. They were both returned (27 July 
1837) ; and Disraeli was now to measure him- 
self in reality against the statesmen and ora- 
tors with whom he had often contendB^in 
imagination, and in his own opinion TOth 
success. That he was not cowed by the failure 
of his first attempt might have convinced his 
contemporaries that his confidence was not 
ill-founded. The thin, pale, dark-complex- 
ioned young man. with the long black ringlets 
and dandified costume, rising from below the 
gangway, delivering an ambitious and eccen- 
tric speech, received with shouts of derision,, 
and finally sitting down with the defiant as- 
sertion that the time will come when they 
will hear him, is the central figure of a group 
destined one day, we hope, to be enrolled 
i among the great historic paintings which 
i illustrate the life of English politics. The 
I subject of his speech (7 Dec 1837) was a. 
I motion made by Mr. Smith O'Brien for a select 
| committee to inquire into the existence of an 
! alleged election subscription in Ireland for 
promoting petitions against the return of 
certain members of parliament. O'Connell 
spoke against the motion and Disraeli replied 
to him. In this famous speech there is nothing 
outrageously bombastic, nothing more so, cer- 
tainly, than what was listened to with ap- 
| plause when the orator had won the ear of the 
house. But the language, the manner, and 
the appearance of the new member, neither 
j of which by itself would have provoked the 
i reception which he experienced, combined 
together to produce an irresistible effect, 
which, heightened by the knowledge of his 
rather singular antecedents, may excuse, 
though they cannot justify, the roars of laugh- 
ter amid which he was compelled to sit down. 
At the same time it should be remembered 
that this derisive clamour proceeded only from 
a portion of the house, and chiefly from a 
knot of members congregated below the bar. 
Two such judges as Mr. Sheil and Sir Robert 
Peel thought very different ly of the young 
orator ; both delected in his speech the germs 
of future excellence, and Sheil gave him somt 
excellent advice, by which he seems to have 
profited. 

Of the impression which his appearance,, 
manner, and inode of speaking fifty years ago 
produced upon a wholly disinterested spec- 



Disraeli 



103 



Disraeli 



tator an interesting record has been preserved 
by perhaps the only surviving eye-witness of a 
memorable scene which occurred in the court 
of queen's bench on 22 Nov. 1838. Disraeli 
tad published a libel on Mr. Charles Austin, 
the celebrated parliamentary counsel, who 
instructed his solicitor to file a criminal in- 
formation against him. Disraeli did not 
appear, either personally or by counsel, and 
in due time was called up to receive judg- 
ment. The gentleman who was then under 
articles to M* Austin's solicitors was in 
court that morning, and as soon as he entered 
he saw Disraeli sitting in the solicitors' ' well,' 
dressed in the height of the fashion. When 
Sir John Campbell rose to pray the judg- 
ment of the court, Disraeli begged permission 
to say a few words, and then spoke for about 
ten minutes with an eloquence, propriety, 
and dignity which the young clerk never 
forgot, and long loved to describe. His 
apology was accepted as both ample and 
honourable, and the future prime minister of 
England was dismissed with a fine of one 
shilling. 

The year 1839 was an eventful one in 
Disraeli's life. j[n July he made his famous 
speech on the chartist petition, alluded to 
with justifiable pride in 'Sybil/ in which he 
declared ' that the rights of labour were as 
sacred as the rights of property.' In the same 
month he published the ' Tragedy of Count 
Alarcos,' which was no success ; and in the fol- 
lowing August he married Mrs. Wyndham 
Lewis, the widow of his former colleague, 
whose acquaintance he had made six years 
before at Leeds, when he described her as 
' pretty and a flirt.' Witn her fortune he 
was enabled to purchase the estate of Hugh- 
enden from the executors of the Young family 
and to assume the style and poBkpf an 
English country gentleman. In 
moreover, he found not only 
which he required, but the sympathy, the 
courage, and the' devotion of which he stood 
little less in need 'the perfect wife,' ever 
ready to console him under every disappoint- 
ment, to enliven him in his darkest hours, 
and to rekindle his hopes when they seemed 
almost reduced to ashes. In illustration 
of her courage it may be mentioned that 
once when she was driving down with her 
husband to the House of Commons, her hand 
was crushed in the door of the carriage, and 
she suppressed every indication of the pain 
that she was suffering till she Aad seen 
him safe into Westminster Hall, for fear of 
distracting his mind from the very impor- 
tant speech which he was about to deliver. 
Those who were admitted to the intimacy of ! 
Mr. and Mrs. Disraeli used to say that he 




was fond of telling her in joke that he had 
married her for her money, to which she 
would invariably reply, 'Ah! but if you had 
to do it again, you would do it for love,' a 
statement to which he always smilingly as- 
sented. Only a few years before he had as- 
sured his sister Sarah that he would never 
marry for love, for that all the men who did 
so either beat their wives or ran away from 
them. 

In 1841 Disraeli was returned for Shrews- 
bury, one of the ' great conservative party ' 
which Sir Robert Peel had led to victory. 
The accepted version of the controversy 
between Disraeli and Sir Robert Peel is 
derived, for the most part, from the friends 
of Sir Robert and the enemies of Disraeli. 
It is likewise to be remembered that the 
public opinion of England has declared in 
favour of free trade, a result which was by 
no means certain forty-three years ago ; and 
that the material aspects of the question have 
been allowed, as was inevitable, to colour 
very deeply the moral ones. ' The present 
generation,' says the editor of Lord Beacons- 
field's speeches, 'seems inclined to admit 
that the provocation given by Sir Robert Peel,, 
especially by the style in which he lectured 
his former supporters for adhering to the 
principles in which he himself had so long 
and so sedulously trained them, was, if not 
sufficient to justify every one of these attacks, 
far greater than the victorious converts were 
either willing to acknowledge, or perhaps 
even able to appreciate. Their success, their 
talents, and the popularity of the cause they 
had expounded, dazzled the public eye, and 
neutralised for a time all the efforts of a 
beaten party to vindicate the justice of its 
anger. But we may learn from Mr. Morley's 
" Life of Mr. Cobden " that the old free-traders, 
at all events, were doubtful of the political 
morality which sanctioned the carriage of 
free trade in a parliament dedicated to pro- 
tection, and that they saw little to condemn 
and something to applaud in Mr. Disraeli's 
satire.' 

It was not, however, till 1843 that Dis- 
raeli saw anything to find fault with in the 
commercial policy of Sir Robert Peel, which, 
as he declared, was only a continuation of 
the system begun by Bolingbroke and car- 
ried 011 by Pitt, Liverpool, and Canning. 
And he himself, in a speech which he de- 
livered at Shrewsbury on 9 May 1843, stated 
emphatically that his support of the corn laws j 
was based not on economical but on social and ' 
political grounds. Our territorial constitution 
was the foundation of our greatness, and as 
far as protection to agriculture was necessary 
to that constitution he was a protectionist. 



Disraeli 



104 



Disraeli 



From this position Disraeli never swerved : it 
was his firm conviction that the preponderance 
of the landed interest was as much for the 
benefit of the whole labouring population of 
the country as it was for that of farmers and 
landowners. The year 1843, however, did 
not pass over without some, indication of a 
change in the feelings of the conservative 
party towards the statesman whom they had 
so long venerated. The first symptoms of 
insubordination broke out on 9 Aug. on 
the introduction of the Irish Arms Bill, 
when Disraeli, Lord John Manners, Smy the, 
Baillie Cochrane, and the little party whom 
it was the fashion to style Young England, 
condemned the policy of the government as 
a violation of tory traditions, and, what was 
more, of the system to which the ministry 
had pledged itself. A violent attack was 
made upon them from the treasury bench, 
and in evidence that it was wholly unjusti- 
fiable we have the testimony of both the 
' Times ' and the ' Morning Chronicle,' which 
denounced this attempt to l cow and bully ' 
the rising talent of the house in no measured 
terms. Disraeli always maintained in regard 
to his quarrel with Sir Robert Peel that the 
provocation came from the prime minister, 
and whoever will take the trouble to refer 
to the newspapers we have mentioned under 
the aforesaid date will see that he had some 
warrant for the assertion. Whatever change 
of tone came over the metropolitan press at 
a subsequent period, it is clear that at the 
commencement of the misunderstanding be- 
tween the two men the leading organs of 
opinion on both sides recognised the justice 
of Disraeli's protests. 

He was not the man to forgive or to for- 
get such treatment ; and the hour of ven- 
geance was at hand. The further develop- 
ment of Sir Robert Peel's financial system 
by degrees made it clear to his supporters 
that the principle of protection was doomed; 
and it is a moot question to this day whether 
a more confidential and conciliatory attitude 
on the part of the prime minister might not 
have overcome their resistance ta a change 
which he himself had so rigorously and per- 
sistently opposed. Disraeli's chance in life 
now came to him. He became the spokes- 
man of the malcontents two years before the 
great change was ^announced : and during 
that interval he poured forth speech after 
speech each bristling with sarcasms which 
went the round of Europe. Conservatism 
was an ' organise^ hypocrisy.' Peel ' had 
caught the whigs bathing, and run away 
with their clothes/ an image perhaps sug- 
gested by a copy of verses in the ' Craftsman.' 
His mind was a huge appropriation clause. 



The agricultural interest was likened to a 
cast-off mistress who makes herself trouble- 
some to her late protector, and then ' the 
right honourable gentleman sends down his 
valet who says in the genteelest manner " We 
: can have no whining here." ' Sir Robert 
' was like the Turkish admiral who had steered 
; his fleet right into the enemy's port. He 
1 'was no more a great statesman than the 
man who gets up behind the carriage is a 
great whip.' There was just that element 
of truth in all these taunts which would 
have made it difficult for the most imper- 
! turbable of mankind to hear them with in- 
difference. Peel writhed under them ; and, 
! whatever his original offence, it is impossible 
to excuse the severity of the punishment in- 
flicted. 

The Maynooth grant, on which Disraeli 
opposed and Lord John Manners supported 
' the government, broke up the Young England 
party ; but its spirit survived and lives still 
iii the pages of 'Coningsby' and ' Sybil.' These 
works were published in 1844 and 1845, just 
before the repeal of the corn laws, and while 
the conservative party was outwardly still 
unbroken. The sensation which they created 
was enormous, and the effect which they 
r produced was lasting. The political views 
expounded in these famous novels had already 
/ been broached in the ' Vindication of the Bri- 
tish Constitution,' but there they attracted 
little notice ; and for this reason perhaps the 
author decided to recast them in the form of 
fiction. The pith and marrow of the theory 
which they embodied was that from 1688 to 
1832 the government of the country had been 
j a close oligarchy, 'the Venetian constitution/ 
and that by theReformBill of 1832the crown, 
I having been delivered from the aristocratic 
| connections which had usurped its preroga- 
' ti ves, might perhaps be destined to regain some 
of its suspended powers, and that herein might 
lie the best solution of many of our modern 
difficulties. 

The tories had fought bravely for the old 
constitution, which with all its faults was a 
reality, as the ' Edinburgh Review ' admitted 
in reviewing Disraeli's novels. But now that 
this was gone what had they in its place P 
Peel had not supplied a substitute, or a creed 
which could inspire faith. Could such, a 
substitute Joe found in the revival of the 
monarchical principle, combined with the 
great Anglican movement which had already 
taken root at Oxford ? In this question lies 
the key to ' Coningsby ' and ' Sybil.' Disraeli 
looked bacFto^Bolingbroke and Wyndham, as 
Newman and his friends looked back to Laud 
' and Andrewes, and asked himself whether 
the tory idea of monarchy, as it existed in 



Disraeli 



Disraeli 



the reign of George I, was capable of being 
revived in the reign of Queen Victoria ' on 
& large sphere of action,' and as ' a sub- 
stantive religion.' He would pass over the 
long and dreary interval of pseudo-toryism, 
the toryism of Eldon and Wetherall, which 
was purely materialistic and obstructive, and 
seek his inspiration at the 'fountain-head ; 
among men who, while conforming themselves 
to the parliamentary constitution of the eigh- 
teenth century, still kept alive the chivalrous 
spirit of the seventeenth, and touched with 
one hand the traditions of the cavaliers. 

It is impossible to say, even after the 
lapse of half a century and with Disraeli's 
whole subsequent career unfolded before us, 
to what extent these suggestions were in- 
tended to be practical, and how far they 
were prompted by that love of effect which 
he shared with Lord Chatham. That his 
earliest sympathies were with the Stuart 
monarchy, and that he firmly believed such 
a system to be better adapted for securing 
the happiness of the whole people than the 
oligarchical monarchy which succeeded it, 
seems to be indisputable. But how far he 
really believed in the possibility of restor- 
ing it is another question. He saw what 
others saw, that the downfall of the old 
constitution in 1832 had been followed, as 
all revolutions are followed, by an age of 
infidelity, and he wished, as others wished, 
to see a revival of political faith. Here, too, 
he was perfectly sincere. But who and what 
was to be the object of it ? Disraeli said an 
emancipated sovereign. But did he really 
believe it ? The Jews, he tells us, are essen- 
tially monarchical, and the instincts of his 
race, combined with the bias imparted to his 
mind by the researches of his father, may 
certainly have rendered him less sceptical of 
such a consummation than an ordinary Eng- 
lishman. The very conservative reaction 
which followed the Reform Bill, instead of 
the revolution that was anticipated, may have 
contributed to the illusion. He makes Si- 
donia point out to Coningsby that the press 
is a better guarantee against abuses than the 
House of Commons. What experiments he 
might have tried, had power come to him 
twenty years sooner than it did, it is difficult 
to say. His speeches on Ireland during his 
earlier career in parliament are very remark- 
wable. ' A starving people, an alien church, 
Bland an absentee aristocracy,' that, said he, in 
H\1844, < is the Irish question.' That he would 
in those days have preferred a solution of one 
part of this question by the establishment of 
the Romish church in Ireland is pretty clear. 
Even four-and-twenty years afterwards he 
spoke of that as an ' intelligible policy' not 



one that he approved of himself, but one that 
might be entertained, and which at all events 
respected the sanctity of ecclesiastical pro- 
perty. But, whatever he may have believed 
forty years ago, he probably discovered soon 
afterwards that his favourite ideas could not 
be embodied in action, and he then seems to 
have made up his mind to do the best he could 
for the constitution as it actually existed. 

There was, however, another side to Young 
England toryism which admitted of a far 
more practical application, and which has 
been attended by far other fortunes. What 
' Coningsby ' had to some extent done for the 
English peasantry by calling attention to their 
ancient rights, and to the degree in which 
they had been invaded by the new poor law, 
that ' Sybil ' did far more effectually for both 
peasantry and artisans. * Sybil ' was founded 
on the experience of the factory system which 
Disraeli acquired during a tour through the 
| north of England in 1844 in company with 
Lord John Manners and the Hon. G. Smythe. 
The graphic pictures of the misery and squalor 
of the factory population, which imparted to 
its pages so vivid a dramatic interest, lent a 
powerful impetus to the cause of factory re- 
form first initiated by Mr. Sadler, and after- 
wards carried forward by Lord Ashley. With- 
j out it the working classes would probably have 
| had longer to wait for that succession of re- 
' medial measures which realised his own pre- 
diction and ' broke the last links in the chain 
i of Saxon thraldom.' But something more is 
! still wanted to round off the Young England 
system. In ' Sybil ' the church plays the part 
! which is played in Coningsby by the~ crown. 
The youth of England see in the slavery of 
! the church as potent an instrument for evil as 
: in the bondage of the sovereign or the serf- 
l dom of the masses. All these things must be 
amended. This was the triple foundation f 
the church, the monarchy, and the people 
I on which the new toryism was based ; and! 
if it was a partial failure, it was certainly 
not a complete one, for it can hardly be dis- 
puted that the labouring classes are largely 
indebted to the sympathy inspired by Young 
England for their present improved condi- 
tion, while both the monarchy and the church 
have profited to some extent by the novel and 
striking colours in which their claims were 
represented. 

With the publication of <Tancred'(1847) 
Disraeli bade farewell to fiction for a quarter 
of a century. On the death of Lord George 
Bentinck in the September of 1848, he was 
chosen leader of the party in the House of 
Commons, in consequence, as he said him- 
self, of a speech on the labours of the ses- 
sion, which was delivered on 30 Aug. It 



Disraeli 



106 



Disraeli 



is an able and impressive one, though to ap- 
preciate its full effect at the moment we 
must remember accurately the state of public 
business at the period, and the disorganised 
condition of the House of Commons, which 
Peel declared to be, as far as he knew, with- 
out precedent, except perhaps during the 
short administration of Lord Shelburne from 
^September 1782 to February 1783. 

In the next three years Disraeli was en- 
gaged in building up a new conservative party 
out of the demoralised fragments of the old 
one, and right well did he perform the task. 
The best explanation of his policy at this 
time is to be found in his own speeches, and 
from those of 8 March 1849, 2 July 1849, 
19 Feb. 1850, and 11 Feb. 1851 we may learn 
all that we require to know. He gradually 
brought back the Peelites to the conservative 
ranks, and so well did he set before parliament 
the claims of the landed interest to the reduc- 
tion of those burdens which had been only 
imposed on it while protection existed, and 
could not be justified after it was abolished,, 
that they have never been disputed since, 
though the two parties have differed very 
widely as to the best method of satisfying 
them. On Lord John Russell's resignation in 
1851 the queen sent for the late Lord Derby, 
on which occasion Disraeli offered to give up 
the leadership of the party in the lower house 
to Mr. Gladstone if he chose to rejoin his 
old colleague. Both Mr. Gladstone and 
Lord Palmerston, however, declined to do 
so on the ground that the conservatives had 
not yet washed their hands of protection, and 
the government went on another year. Then 
Lord John Russell resigned again, and Lord 
Derby had no alternative but to form a mi- 
nistry out of the materials at his own dis- 
posal, which, however, were much better 
than he imagined. Lord Derby, it is said, 
was anxious to make Herries chancellor of 
the exchequer and leader of the House of 
Commons (Gremlle Papers, new series, vol. 
iii.) But there is no trace of any such pro- 
posal in the life of Herries himself, and it is 
unlikely that in 1852 Disraeli, who had been 
working so long at the reconstruction of the 
party, and had almost raised it from the dead 
to renewed health and vigour, should have 
been asked to serve under Herries./ Lord 
Derby dissolved in 1852 and gainejl about 
thirty seats, but this was not enough, and, 
being defeated on the budget in the follow- 
ing November, gave way to the famous coali- 
tion. The two principal features of Disraeli's 
first budget which caused its rejection by 
the house were the extension of the house 
tax to houses of 10Z. a year rateable value, 
and the extension of the income tax to in- 



comes of 100/. a year precarious income, and 
50/. a year fixed. In his speech on this occa- 
sion he uttered his memorable dictum that 
' England does not love coalitions,' and the 
doings of the coalition which dethroned him 
seemed to prove that England was in the right. 

In 1849, Disraeli published an edition 
of the ' Curiosities of Literature,' in the pre- 
face to which he gave an interesting account 
of his own family; and in 1852 he found time 
to write the ' Life of Lord George Bentinck/ 
a political study of the highest interest and 
value. It is not only a most vivid and 
picturesque account of the great battle be-^ 
tween the protectionists and free traders : 
it is there and there alone that we catch 
the true spirit of the opposition to Peel, and 
understand what it was that stung the pro- 
tectionists to the quick, and palliated tactics 
which perhaps no provocation could have al- 
together justified. In this volume, too, is to 
be found the whole story of Peel and Canning^ 
whom Peel was accused by Lord G. Bentinck 
of having ' chased and hunted to death ; ' and 
the whole attack and defence on the great 
question whether Peel had admitted in 1829 
that he had changed his opinions on the catho- 
lic question as early as 1825. But possibly r 
to many readers, the most valuable and inte- 
resting chapter in the whole book will be that 
upon the Jews, in which the author sums up 
both with eloquence and conciseness all that 
he had said upon the same subject in his three 
great novels. 

In 1853, Disraeli considered that the coali- 
tion which turned him out of office had 
been aimed at himself; that it was a coalition, 
against a person and- not against a principle ; 
that in this it re'sembled the coalition of 1783 
rather than the coalition of 1794, and he 
determined therefore to provide himself with 
an organ in the press specially devoted to- 
writing down the Aberdeen administration. 
In the summer of 1853 appeared the ' Press r 
newspaper, a weekly journal containing the 
usual number of leading articles and reviews 
of books, but combined with squibs, poetry, 
and humorous essays, after the manner of the 
( Anti-Jacobin.' The first editor is believed to 
have been Mr. Francis. He, however, was 
in a very short time, succeeded by Mr. Samuel 
Lucas, and he in turn by David Trevena 
Coulton [q. v.], who conducted the paper 
till his death in 1857, and in whom Dis- 
raeli reposed the greatest confidence. The 
first leading article in the first number was 
written by Disraeli himself, and the pre- 
sent Lord Derby, then Lord Stanley, was for 
some time a regular contributor. For their 
verses, dialogues, and comic articles in gene- 
ral, the management relied chiefly on Shirley 



Disraeli 



107 



Disraeli 



Brooks [q. v.] But Disraeli himself con- 
tinued to be the inspiring spirit of the paper 
down to 1858. He kept it constantly sup- 
plied with the best political information ; and 
on Thursday afternoons he might often be seen 



tism, with a decided bias towards the latter, 
In the ' Life of Bishop Wilberforce ' may be 
found sufficient proof of this assertion. All 
that they wanted was some kind of guarantee 
that in joining Lord Derby they would not 



coming out of Mr. Coulton's house in Little ] be on the losing side ; and a general election 

' 'in 1855 or 1856 would have afforded it. This 
was Disraeli's own view of the situation, 
and that the immediate result would have 
been what he foresaw may be regarded as 
certain. This was probably the greatest dis- 
appointment which Disraeli ever encountered. 
He was then just forty-five, and might have 
looked forward to a long career of usefulness 
and greatness. When next the conservatives 
appealed to the country, the reform question 
had become the question of the day ; foreign 
affairs had gone against them; and when 
after the short-lived ministry of 1858 they 
returned to the opposition benches their pro- 
spects had never looked more hopeless. 

In the meantime, however, important events 
had taken place the Peace of Paris, the Chi- 



Queen Anne Street with the stealthy step 
and furtive glance of one who is on secret ser- 
vice. But governments are not to be written 
down any more than individuals, except by 
themselves ; and what neither the logic nor the 
satire of the 'Press ' could perhaps have done for 
Lord Aberdeen, was done for him effectually 
by his ' good friend ' the emperor of Russia. 
During all the negotiations which preceded 
the Crimean war, and during the progress of 
the siege of Sebastopol, it has been allowed 
that the attitude of Disraeli as leader of 
the opposition was honourable and patriotic. 
He gave the government the support which 
it required, and it was not till after the fall 
of the coalition and the capture of Sebastopol 
that he again became a hostile censor. He 

was at this time smarting under a great dis- | nese war, the Indian mutiny ; while the, 
appointment. On the resignation of Lord * Conspiracy to Murder Bill, the Government 
Aberdeen, Lord Derby declined to take office | of India Bill, and the first conservative Re- 
without the assistance of Lord Palmerston or form Bill had greatly affected the position 
Mr. Gladstone, thereby casting a slur upon 
his own supporters which some of them felt 



very acutely. They had been turned out of 
office, as they thought, by an unscrupulous 
combination, after having administered pub- 
lic affairs with recognised efficiency. The 
country, thought Disraeli, was prepared to 
welcome them ; and to the last hour of his 
life he deplored the timidity of Lord Derby 
which threw away the best chance he ever 
had. It was not, however, merely timidity 
which made Lord Derby pause. Lord Derby 
had a very strong sense of duty ; and he pro- 
bably thought that a government formed by 
Lord Palmerston and supported by the con- 
servative opposition would be a stronger 
government than his own. Disraeli thought 
he was mistaken. Had Lord Derby taken 
office, he used to say, he would have had 
at his back little short of three hundred 
followers, which a dissolution of parlia- 
ment would, it might reasonably be sup- 
posed, have converted into a majority of the 
house. The conservative party never had 
such a chance again for many years. They 
had outlived the taint of protection. A 
vigorous prosecution of the war and the nego- 
tiation of an honourable peace were the two 
objects on which the whole mind of the nation 
was concentrated. An appeal to the people 
to strengthen the hands of Lord Derby for 
these purposes would almost certainly have 
been successful. The Peelites were still 
hovering between liberalism and conserva- 



of parties in parliament. Disraeli's relations 
with his own party were not improved by 
the part which he took in some of these affairs. 
It was thought, for instance, by many con- 
servatives that the support given to Mr. Mil- 
ner Gibson's vote of censure on the govern- 
ment for upholding the action of Sir John 
Bowring in China was a great mistake ; and it 
certainly turned out badly, for Lord Palmers- 
ton, appealing to the country on the ground 
that public servants must be supported, 
carried all before him, and came back with a 
triumphant majority. In the following year 
Disraeli, in the opinion of many persons, made- 
a similar mistake in combining to attack the 
government on the Conspiracy to Murder 
Bill, which they had brought in without 
first sending a proper reply to the peremp- 
tory despatch written by Count Walewski. 
But this time the attack was at all events 
successful. The country had been justly irri- 
tated by the language of the French colonels r 
and Lord Palmerston's followers deserting 
him, he was defeated by a majority of nine- 
teen, and at once resigned. Lord Derby 
formed a new government, and Disraeli was 
again chancellor of the exchequer and leader 
of the House of Commons. 

The first thing which demanded the at- 
tention of the new government was the 
suppression of the Indian mutiny and the 
reconstruction of the Indian government, 
and on 26 March 1858 Disraeli introduced 
the India Bill (No. 1), which, however, never 



Disraeli 



1 08 



Disraeli 



reached a second reading ; and it was then 
determined to proceed by resolutions, which 
were carried through the House of Com- 
mons with conspicuous ability by Lord 
Stanley, the present Lord Derby, who had 
succeeded Lord Ellenborough as president 
of the board of control. The change was 
caused by the publication of a despatch 
addressed by Lord Ellenborough to Lord 
Canning, then governor-general of India, in 
which he censured Lord Canning's procla- 
mation addressed to the landowners of Oude 
as harsh and impolitic, and not unlikely to 
rekindle the flames of rebellion. In India 
Sir James Outram strongly disapproved of 
it. But Lord Canning had a large party of 
friends in England, and before Sir James 
Outram's opinion was known in this country 
they raised a storm which threatened the 
existence of the government. Lord Ellen- 
borough resigned ; but that was not sufficient, 
and Mr. Cardwell gave notice of a vote of 
censure in the House of Commons, the col- 
lapse of which has been immortalised by Dis- 
raeli's brilliant description of it at the me- 
morable ' Slough banquet.' The same year 
was distinguished by the final concession of 
the Jewish claims in accordance with a com- 
promise suggested by Lord Lucan, to the effect 
that each house of parliament should have 
the power of modifying the form of oath to 
be taken at its own pleasure, and Disraeli 
had the satisfaction of taking part in this 
settlement of the question as member of a 
conservative administration/ 

The popular excitement which was roused 
in the north of England by Mr. Bright dur- 
ing the autumn of 1858 made.it absolutely 
necessary for Lord Derby to deal with the 
question of parliamentary reform, and ac- 
cordingly, on 28 Feb., Disraeli introduced 
the bill which caused Mr. Henley and Mr. 
Walpole to retire from office. Its princi- 
pal features were the equalisation of the 
town and county franchise, both being fixed 
at a 101. rental, and the restriction of the 
borough freeholders to vote for the borough 
in which their freeholds were situated. On 
21 March Lord John Russell moved an amend- 
ment condemning < the disfranchisement,' as 
it was called, of the borough freeholders, and 
the non-reduction of the borough franchise, 
which was carried by a majority of 330 to 
291. Disraeli now paid the penalty of the 
error which he had committed in 1857. Had 
he still possessed the votes which he lost at the 
general election in that year, he would have 
carried his bill. His strategy on the China 
question cost the conservatives twenty-six 
seats, and had these been available in 1859 
the ayes for the government bill would have 




been 317 and the noes 304. He could then 
have appealed to his new constituencies with 
almost a certainty of success ; but his sin had 
found him out, and it was long ere he ceased 
to feel its consequences. Lord Derby, as it 
was, dissolved parliament, but without ob- 
taining a clear majority, though Disraeli was 
again at the head of a numerically powerful ^ 
party, numbering 302 votes. A vote of want J^ 
of confidence was at once proposed by Lord 
Hartington, and then happened one of the * 
strangest things in the whole of Disraeli's life- 
time. War had broken out between France 
and Austria in May, and ' failure to preserve 
the peace of Europe ' was one of the charges 
brought against the conservative government. 
In Lord Malmesbury's despatches lay an easy 
refutation of the charge ; but, although they 
were printed and ready for delivery long 
before the end of the debate, Disraeli, for >? i 
reasons which have never been explained, - 
would not allow them to be placed on the 
table of the house. Members voted in igno- 
rance of their contents, and the amendment 
was carried against the government by 323 to 
310 votes, a majority of thirteen. Mr. Hors- 
man and others declared afterwards that 
they seen the blue book first they would have 
voted with ministers. Nobody knew then, an 
nobody knows now, by what motive Disraeli ^ 
was actuated ; and it was as much a riddle^, 
to his colleagues as it was to every one else.^ 
The second administration of Lord Pal- 
merston constitutes a kind of landing-place 
in the career of Disraeli. In the fifth volume 
of the life of the late prince consort a con- 
versation is mentioned which took place in 
January 1861 between the prince and the 
leader of the opposition, in which Disraeli 
declared that the conservative party did not 
wish to take advantage of the weakness of 
the government, but on the contrary were 
willing to support them provided they plunged 
into no system of l democratic finance/ as 
they had shown an inclination to do in 1860. 
This ' time-honoured rule of an honourable 
opposition/ says Sir Theodore Martin, was 
strictly observed in the session of 1861. But 
when the condition on which it rested was 
violated, Disraeli did not find his own party 
very willing to reverse their attitude. Their 
confidence in his leadership had been some- 
what shaken by the events of the past five 
years. The reform agitation, which had re- 
vived immediately on Lord Palmerston's resig- 
nation, subsided again, curiously enough, as 
soon as he returned to office ; and many tory 
members considered that the prime minister 
was a better representative of conservative 
opinions than the leader of the opposition. 
Disraeli at this time often sat alone upon the 



Disraeli 



109 



Disraeli 



front bench, and in 1862, when an opportunity 
occurred of defeating the government, on Lord 
Palmerston declaring that he would make it 
a cabinet question, Mr. AValpole, who had 
charge of the hostile resolution, positively re- 
fused to go on with it. Disraeli's imperturb- 
ability under every kind of attack or disap- 
pointment has often been remarked ; but it was 
sometimes more apparent than real. And men 
who sat exactly opposite to him at this period 
of his life used to say that they could tell when 
he was moved by the darkening of his whole 
face. Not a muscle moved ; but gradually his 
pale complexion assumed a' swarthier hue, and 
it was plain that he was struggling with emo- 
tions which he was anxious to avoid betraying. 
At this particular stage of his career he had 
perhaps some reason for despondency. He had 
begun well. He had completely lived down 
the ill effects of his first appearance and his 
early eccentricities. He had reconstructed 
the conservative party, and made it once 
more as powerful an opposition as it had been 
under Sir Robert Peel. Down to 1855 all had 
gone on favourably, but since that time his 
fortune seemed to have deserted him. The 
party for which he had done so much were 
insubordinate and suspicious, and talked of 
finding another leader. This was eminently 
unjust to Disraeli, since it was impossible in 
those days to make head against the popu- 
larity of Lord Palmerston, and no other leader 
whom the party could have chosen was likely 
to have shown more courage and confidence 
in adversity. But there is no doubt that this 
feeling of dissatisfaction prevailed widely in 
the conservative ranks, and that Disraeli at 
times felt it deeply. 

It was at this very time, however, that 
he made some of his best speeches. Two of 
them, delivered on 24 Feb. 1860 and 7 April 
1862 respectively, contain a criticism of Mr. 
Gladstone's financial system, on which the 
last word has not yet been spoken, and are 
well worth studying at the present day ; 
while his annual surveys of Lord John Rus- 
sell's foreign policy are among the ablest, as 
well as the most humorous, speeches which 
he ever made. Lord Palmerston, however, 
was ' in for his life ; ' his personal influence 
was unrivalled, and, fortified by Mr. Glad- 
stone's budgets, his position was impreg- 
nable. The opposition was condemned to the 
dreary occupation of waiting for dead men's 
shoes. And no wonder they grew restless 
and dissatisfied. The general election of 1865 
did nothing to improve their temper. They 
lost some twenty seats, and had Lord Pal- 
merston been a younger man they would have 
had another six or seven years of the cold 
shade to look forward to. > 



The prime minister, however, died in Oc- 
tober 1865, and a new chapter in the life of 
Disraeli was opened. Lord Palmerston was 
succeeded by Earl Russell, Mr. Gladstone 
leading the House of Commons. A reform 
bill was introduced by the government, di- 
vided into two parts, and the house was in- 
vited to consent to the extension of the fran- 
chise before it was made acquainted with the 
scheme for the distribution of seats. In op- 
position to this proposal a considerable section 
of the liberal party made common cause with 
the conservatives, and acquired thereby the 
title of ' the Cave ' bestowed on them by Mr. 
Bright. The government were compelled to 
bring in an entire measure, but this did not 
save them from ultimate discomfiture. They 
fixed the borough occupation franchise at 7/., 
and the question arose whether it should be 
a rental or a rating franchise ; that is to say, 
whether the 71. should be what the tenant 
actually paid to his landlord, or what he was. 
assessed at to the poor rate. If he was as- 
sessed at 71., his actual rent would be a trifle 
higher. The government adopted the former 
of these two views, Disraeli and his new 
allies the latter, and the result was that, on 
a resolution moved by Lord Dimkellin, the 
ministers were defeated by a majority of 
eleven, and Lord Russell immediately re- 
signed. It was not to the amount of the 
qualification that Disraeli objected so much 
as to the inferiority of a rental to a rating 
franchise, and his reasons for thinking so, for 
' making the rate-book the register,' were ex- 
plained by himself, even in 1859, when he 
thought the practical difficulties in the way 
of it were too great to be overcome. It is 
important to remember this, because of the 
discussions that ensued in the following year 
when he brought in his own Reform Bill, 
and endeavoured to base the franchise on the 
personal payment of rates. This was the old 
constitutional qualification ; the ratepayer 
was simply the old scot-and-lot voter, and 
though the franchise might be limited to men 
who paid a certain amount of rates, it should 
be the payment of rates and not the payment 
of rent which entitled him to a vote. This 
was the position contended for by Lord Dun- 
kellin, Sir Hugh Cairns, and other speakers ; 
and it is an entire mistake to suppose that 
the objection to the government proposal was 
that a 71. qualification was too low. Lord 
Dunkellin was in favour of a lower one, and it 
was admitted by the whole opposition that 
this was a question of detail. The principle ) 
at issue was that the right to the franchise 1 
should rest on the contribution to the poor / 
^rate. Thus when in the following year Dis- 
raeli proposed to give the franchise to all 



Disraeli 



no 



Disraeli 



ratepayers there was no such change of front, 
no such ' unparalleled betrayal,' as Mr. Lowe 
charged him with. The conservative party 
had never taken their stand on any particular 
figure. And in point of fact the necessity of a 
rating suffrage pure and simple had long been 
\ contemplated by the two conservative leaders. 
^ The cabinet, however, was divided on the 
subject, Lord Derby, Disraeli, and the ma- 
jority being in favour of a measure on which 
*the two leaders of the party had for some 
time been agreed, while Lords Cranborne and 
Carnarvon and General Peel considered that 
it went too far. In deference to their opinions, 
and to avert their resignation, a measure of 
a different character was devised on the spur 
of the moment and subsequently submitted 
to the house. Disraeli, who had at one time 
tendered his own resignation, which of course 
was not to be heard of, was observed to be 
labouring under very unwonted depression 
while discharging this unwelcome duty. But 
the l ten minutes' bill,' as it was named, was 
only born to perish. The ministry soon found 
their new position untenable. Their own 
followers demanded the original scheme. The 
resignation of the dissentients was accepted : 
and on 18 March 1867 the more popular bill 
was introduced. 

On 12 April Mr. Gladstone moved an amend- 
ment which struck at the principle of the bill 
by proposing to give the franchise to the house- 
holder who compounded for the rates as well 
as to the householder who paid them. This 
debate was the first real trial of strength be- 
tween the government and the opposition, and 
when the numbers were read out, for Glad- 
stone's amendment 289^ against it 310, a scene 
was witnessed in the house such as few of its 
oldest members recollected. The bursts of 
cheering were again and again renewed ; and 
none crowded to shake hands with the leader 
of the house more heartily than the very tory 
country gentlemen whom he was absurdly 
said to have betrayed. The younger mem- 
bers of the party extemporised a supper at 
the Carlton and begged of him to join them. 
But, as Lady Beaconsfield was never tired of 
repeating, { Dizzy came home to me,' and then 
she would add how he ate half the raised 
pie and drank the whole of the bottle of 
champagne which she had prepared in anti- 
cipation of his triumph. 

Perhaps the best defence of the conserva- 
tive Reform Bill within a narrow compass is 
to be found in Disraeli's speech at Edinburgh 
on 29 Oct. 1867, celebrated for its comparison 
of the * Edinburgh ' and l Quarterly' Reviews 
to the boots at the Blue Boar and the cham- 
bermaid at the Red Lion. While regretting 
that the settlement of 1832 had not been re- 



spected by its authors, he had always reserved 
to the conservative party the full right of 
dealing with the question now that their op- 
ponents had reopened it, and of redressing 
the anomalies which confessedly existed in 
Lord Grey's Reform Bill. In 1859 both Lord 
Derby and himself had come to the conclu- 
sion that between the existing 101. franchise 
and household suffrage there was no trust- 
worthy halting-place. In their first Reform 
Bill they chose to abide by the former, and, 
that alternative having been rejected, they 
could in their second essay only have recourse 
to the latter. It is pretty clear that they were 
right, and that any intermediate franchise of 
71., 61., or 5/. would have been swept away 
within a very few years of its creation. But 
at the time the experiment was regarded with, 
considerable distrust and apprehension, which 
the results of the general election of 1868 
were not calculated to allay. But, whatever 
the policy of the measure, there could not be 
two opinions of the extraordinary ability dis- 
played by Disraeli in the conduct of it. Nor 
must the fact be forgotten that in the intro- 
duction of a measure repugnant to the pre> 
judices and connections of conservatives in 
general, Disraeli, unlike Peel, carried hjsj}arty 



s 
eReform Bill became law in August 

1867, and then, his work being done, Lord 
Derby, who had long been a great sufferer 
from the gout, retired from office, and Mr. 
Disraeli realised the dream of his youth, and 
became prime minister of England. But the 
popularity of the tory party did not ripen all 
at once. The Reform Bill of 1867 was not 
so inconsistent with the principles of toryism 
as many people supposed who took only the 
narrow view of tory principles which was 
fashionable about the middle of the century. 
The late Sir Robert Peel always regretted the 
extinction of those popular franchises which 
the first Reform Bill had abolished. And in 
1831 Lord Aberdeen suggested household suf- 
frage to the Duke of Wellington as quite a 
natural and feasible principle for the tory 
party to adopt without incurring either re- 
monstrance or reproach. But the tory party 
were not at first accredited with the change. 
The people were told that it had been wrung 
from a reluctant aristocracy by the liberals, 
and the liberals reaped the whole benefit of it 
when the appeal to the people came. At the 
Guildhall dinner on 9 Nov., Disraeli spoke 
confidently of the organisation and prospects 
of the conservatives. 'Arms of precision' 
would, he said, tell their tale. But he was 
doomed to disappointment, and Mr. Gladstone 
returned to power with a majority of 170. 
Now began the last long phase of tlie Irish 



Disraeli 



Disraeli 



question. Disraeli had always sympathised | 
with Ireland. We have seen what he said j 
of her in 1837 and again in 1844. But he | 
seems to have thought that the Irish famine 
had really settled the Irish question ( by the 
act of God ; ' and he used to point to the 
growing prosperity of Ireland between -1850 
and 1 865 in proof of his assertion. He always 
contended that the Fenian conspiracy, which 
so alarmed Mr. Gladstone, was a foreign con- 
spiracy ; and that, when this had been effec- 
tually crushed, England might have left Ire- 
land to proceed tranquilly along the path of 
improvement without further interference. 
Mr. Gladstone's Irish policy merely raked into 
a flame the embers which were all but extinct, 
revived hopes and aspirations which, except by 
a small party of conspirators, had been practi- 
cally forgotten, and created a new Irish ques- 
tion- for the present generation which other- 
wise would never have arisen. These were his 
general views. In 1871, two years after the 
passing of the ChurclTGill, and one year after 
the passing of the Land Act, the condition of 
Ireland was worse than ever. A coercion bill 
was passed, and the Habeas Corpus Act was 
suspended. It was impossible to explain away 
such facts as these, and in his speech on the 
4 Westmeath committee,' 27 Feb. 1871, Dis- 
raeli ' woke up,' as it was said, and delivered 
a speech in his old style which delighted the 
opposition benches. Mr. Gladstone's Irish 
legislation, just or unjust, had not only failed 
in its avowed object the removal, namely, of 
Irish discontent but had rendered it still 
more rancorous. A darker and fiercer spirit 
had taken possession of Ireland than the one 
which had been driven out, and Mr. Gladstone 
had beckoned it to come in. 

The Black Sea conference, the treaty of 
Washington, the affair of Sir Spencer Eobin- 
son, Sir Robert Collier, and Ewelme Rectory 
continued to furnish him with materials for 
sarcasm during the next two years, and in 
1872 he delivered two of his most famous 
speeches, one at Manchester on 3 April, and 
another at the Crystal Palace on 24 June. 
It was in the first of these that he likened 
the heads of departments in Mr. Gladstone's 
government, as he sat opposite to them in the 
House of Commons, to ( a range of extinct 
volcanoes.' But in the same speech is to be 
found also the best explanation and vindica- 
tion of the working of the English monarchy 
with which we are acquainted, and which 
may now be called the locus classicus on the 
subject. It has been quoted, and repeated, 
and borrowed, and abridged, and expanded 
over and over again. In the speech at the 
Crystal Palace he dwelt on his favourite dis- 
tinction between national and cosmopolitan 



principles as the distinctive creeds of toryism 
and liberalism, and claimed for the former 
that its watchwords were the constitution, 
the empire, and the people. The year, how- 
ever, which witnessed this revival of energy 
in the leader of the opposition, did not pass 
over without a severe domestic calamity 
which robbed his existence of its sunshine. On 
15 Dec. 1872 his wife, who had been created 
Viscountess Beaconsfield, 30 Nov.J.868, died, 
and he felt ' that he had no longer a Home.' 
In 1873 Mr. Gladstone, being defeated on 
the Irj sjj^XJn i versity Education Bill, resigned 
office, anu ^er majesty sent for Disraeli, who 
declined to form a government, and Mr. 
Gladstone returned to his seat. In the fol- 
lowing January, however, he dissolved parlia- 
ment rather suddenly. The opposition was 
placed in a clear majority ; Disraeli no longer 
hesitated, and the.-Qxv_-government o_JL874 
came into being. It was the first time 
that the tories had commanded a majority 
since 1841, and Disraeli was now at length\ 
to reap the fruits of his long and patientj 
devotion to the interests of his party. But\ 
the triumph had come too late, when it was 
impossible for him to carry out measures 
which, had he been ten years younger, he 
would certainly have adopted. 'The enfran- 
chisement of the peasantry and the reform 
of our provincial administration would as- 
suredly have been anticipated by the author 
of f Coningsby ' and ' Sybil,' the consistent 
upholder of local authority and jurisdiction, 
had his health and strength been adequate to 
so arduous an undertaking. But though 
Disraeli was a man of naturally strong con- 
stitution, his strength had been severely tried. 
When he became prime minister for the 
second time he was in his sixty-ninth year, 
and these were not the piping days of peace 
when Lord Palmerston could slumber tran- 
quilly through his duties up to eighty years 
of age. The strain of leading the House of 
Commons had doubled since his 'time, and at 
the end of the session ofj.876 Disraeli found 
it necessary to exchange that arduous position 
for the less trying duties which devolve on 
the leader of the House of Lords. On 11 Aug. 
1876 he made his last speech in the House of 
Commons. But the public had no suspicion 
of the truth till the next morning, when it 
was officially announced that he was to be 
created Earl of Beaconsfield, and that his 
place in the lower house was to be taken by 
Sir Stafford Northcote. The English House 
j of Commons may have known more subtle 
j philosophers, more majestic orators, more 
I thoroughly consistent politicians, but never 
I one who loved it better or was more zealous 
i for its dignity and honour. 



Disraeli 



112 



Disraeli 



The tory administration from 1874 to 1880 
will probably be remembered in history rather 
by the strongly marked features of its foreign 
and colonial policy than by any less imposing 
records. At the same time it would be a 
mistake to overlook the fact that in the field 
of domestic legislation it accomplished nu- 
merous reforms of a useful and popular de- 
scription, and effected a satisfactory settle- 
ment of more than one long-vexed question 
in which the working class was deeply inte- 
rested. We need only name such measures as 
the Factory Acts of 1874 and 1878, the Em- 
ployers and Workmen Act (abolishing impri- 
sonment for breach of contract), the Conspi- 
racy and Protection to Property Act (enlarg- 
ing the right of combination), the Poor Law 
Amendment Act, the Public Health Act, the 
Artisans' Dwellings Act, the Commons Act, 
and, last but not least, the Factories and 
Workshops Act. On 29 March 1878, Mr. Mac- 
donald, the labour representative, said of this 
bill, that it would redound to the honour and 
credit 'of the government. On 16 July 1875, 
Mr. Mundella thanked the home secretary, on 
behalf of the working men of England, ' for the 
very fair way in which he had met the repre- 
sentations of both masters and men.' But it 
is rather by the policy which he pursued in the 
east of Europe and in India that Disraeli's 
claim to distinction during the last tenyears of 
his life will generally be judged. Before, how- 
ever, we pass on to these questions, we must 
notice one act of his administration which 
cost him nearly a third of his popularity at a 
single stroke : we mean the Public Worship 
Regulation Act.. This act, though really less 
stringent in its provisions than the Church 
Discipline Act, and though Disraeli himself 
was personally averse to it, was made odious 
to the clergy by an unfortunate phrase which 
he applied to it. He said it was a bill ' to 
put down ritualism.' This unlucky expres- 
sion brought a hornets' nest about his ears, 
and alienated a considerable body of sup- 
porters who had transferred their allegiance 
from Mr. Gladstone to the leader of the con- 
servative party, when this unpardonable 
offence drove them away from him for ever. 

Macaulay complains of the war policy 
of Mr. Pitt, that it halted between two 
opinions. ' Pitt should either,' he says, ' have 
thrown himself heart and soul into Burke's 
conception of the war, or else liave abstained 
altogether.' This criticism represents perhaps 
to some slight extent what future historians 
will say of the policy of Lord Beaconsfield, 
as we must in future style him, though 
not of Beaconsfield himself. He avoided 
the mistakes of Lord Aberdeen, and, by his 
courage and decision at a critical moment. 



saved England from war and Turkey from 
destruction. But it will probably be thought 
hereafter that the same courage and decision 
exhibited at an earlier stage of the negotia- 
tions would have produced still more satis- 
factory results, and have prevented the cam- 
paign of 1877 altogether. When Russia made 
a casus belli of Turkey's refusal to sign the 
protocol submitted to her in the spring of 
that year, then, it may be thought, was Eng- 
land's real opportunity for the adoption of 
decisive measures. Lord Derby declared the 
conduct of Russia to be a gross breach of treaty 
obligations, yet resolved to remain neutral 
unless certain specific British interests were 
assailed or threatened. But for the neglect 
of this opportunity Beaconsfield was not re- 
sponsible. The cabinet was divided in opinion, 
and the party of compromise prevailed. 

In favour of this policy there are indeed 
several arguments to be adduced. Public 
opinion had been violently excited against 
j Turkey by what will long be remembered as 
I the * Bulgarian atrocities,' or the outrages 
| said to have been committed by the bashi- 
| bazouks in the suppression of the Bulgarian 
j insurrection. These outrages were discovered 
| shortly afterwards to have been either gross 
! exaggerations or pure inventions. But the 
j effect of them had not subsided by the spring 
of 1877 ; and the violent and inflammatory 
harangues poured like torrents of lava on the 
heads of a government which could be base 
I enough to sympathise with the authors of 
them intimidated some of Beaconsfield's col- 
j leagues, and made Lord Derby's answer to 
the Russian announcement the only one pos- 
i sible. In the second place it may be said that 
the time for maintaining the integrity of the 
Turkish empire by force of arms had in 1877 
already gone by ; that when Russia violated 
the treaty of Paris in 1871, then was the 
time for England and the other powers to 
have taken up arms in its defence ; and that 
their refusal to do so amounted to a tacit ad- 
mission that the treaty was obsolete. ' Turn 
decuit metuisse tuis,' Russia may have said 
with some reason ; and on this view of the 
situation it might of course be maintained 
fairly that in case of any future quarrel be- 
tween Turkey and Russia the intervention 
of England was limited to the protection of" 
her own interests. The only doubt that re- 
mains is whether the same end could not 
have been better served by exhibiting in 
1877 the attitude which we reserved for 1878, 
and whether to have maintained the Turkish 
empire as it then stood would not have been 
a better guarantee for British interests than 
the treaty of Berlin. Beaconsfield would 
have said yes. But he was overruled as we 



Disraeli 



Disraeli 



have seen ; and that being so, history will not 
deny that he made the best of a bad bargain. 
The war between Russia and Turkey ended 
with the treaty of San Stephano, by which 
the empire of Turkey in Europe was effaced, 
and a new state, the mere tool of Russia, was 
to stretch from the Danube to the ^Egean. 
Beaconsfield instantly demanded that the 
treaty should be submitted to the other Euro- 
pean powers. The refusal of Russia brought 
the English fleet to the Dardanelles, and a 
division of our Indian army to Malta. Then 
at last Russia submitted to the inevitable. 
The congress assembled at Berlin, and Bea- 
consfield and Lord Salisbury went out as 
the English plenipotentiaries. The object 
of this country was to bar the advance of 
Russia to the Mediterranean, either by the 
northern or the southern route, either by Bul- 
garia or by Asia Minor. The treaty of Ber- 
lin and the Anglo-Turkish convention com- 
bined were supposed to have effected these 
objects. And when the plenipotentiaries re- 
turned to London on 15 May 1878, bringing 
'peace with honour,' the popularity of Bea- 
consfield reached its culminating point. This 
was allowed by Mr. Gladstone himself in the 
eloquent tribute which he paid to a deceased 
rival. But Beaconsfield lived to show him- 
self even greater in adversity than he had 
been in prosperity, and by the dignity with 
which he bore the loss of power to win even 
more admiration and respect than he had ever 
known when he possessed it. 

/In view of quite recent circumstances it^ 
may be well to point out that, as the main* 
object of the treaty of Berlin was to exclude 
Russia from the Mediterranean, so one of the 
best means of effecting that obj ect was thought 
to lie in the constitution of a strong and in- 
dependent state between the Adriatic and 
the Black Sea. But though the materials for 
such a barrier might ultimately be found in 
Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Roumelia, they 
did not exist in 1878; and what Beacons- 
field designed by the provisional settlement 
then effected was to place the people in a 
position to develop^ them. To this end it 
was necessary to loose these provinces from 
the grasp of Russia, to protect them in the 
cultivation of their internal resources, to en- 
courage them in the accumulation of wealth, 
and, generally, to gain time for those habits 
and instincts to mature themselves which are 
essential to permanent independence. It was 
hoped that by the treaty of Berlin these 
ends would be attained, and that the concep- 
tion itself is worthy of a great statesman is 
surely not to be disputed. 
_ Beaconsfield's policy on the Eastern ques- 
tion was constantly ascribed by his enemies 
VOL. xv. 



to his ' Semitic instincts,' which were sup- 
posed to taint all his views of the relations 
between Turkey and her Christian subjects. 
But they could know little of Beaconsfield 
who supposed that his Semitic instincts led 
him to any partiality for the Turks. On 
the contrary, he always describes them in 
' Tancred ' as the great oppressors of the 
Arabs, with whom lay his real sympathies, 
and as a tribe of semi-barbarous conquerors, 
who, with many of the virtues of a dominant 
race to recommend them, were without any 
true civilisation, literature, or science. When 
he said in the House of Commons that he <3id 
not much believe in the stories of the Turks 
torturing their prisoners, as they generally 
had a much more expeditious mode of dis- 
posing of them, he was simply stating that 
to give quarter to rebels was not one of the 
Turkish traditions ; and for this, forsooth, he 
was accused of ' flippancy ' in dealing with a 
grave subject. This charge, however, was. 
scarcely so absurd as the suggestion made in. 
some quarters that his summons of Indian 
troops to Malta was a precedent for bringing 
them to England and overthrowing our liber- 
ties by force ! The lawyers in both houses 
of parliament got up long debates on the 
technical construction of the statute by which 
the English and Indian armies were amalga- 
mated, and it was contended by the opposi- 
tion that this employment of the Indian army 
was a direct breach of it. The case was 
argued with equal ability on behalf of the 
government ; but the people of England took 
a broader view, deciding, on the principle of 
salus populi suprema lex, that government 
was justified by circumstances, and were n^t 
sorry perhaps at the same time to discove)* 
that they were a greater military power than 
they had supposed, v 

Beaconsfield's policy in India was based 
on the principle ofjnaterial guarantees. He . 
did not think it sate to trust entirely to 
moral ones : to friendships, which are depen- 
dent upon interests, or to interests which 
are necessarily fluctuating with every move- 
ment of the world around us. Especially was 
this true in his opinion of Indian states and 
rulers. There are those who think that the 
contingent benefits of insurance are not worth 
the certain cost, and there is an influential 
school of foreign policy in England which 
inculcates this belief. To this it is suffi- 
cient to say that Beaconsfield was diametri- 
cally opposed. The occupation of Cyprus, 
predicted, by the bye, in * Tancred,' the re- 
tention of Candahar, and the scheme of the 
1 scientific frontier,' show that he cherished 
the traditions of Pitt, Canning, and Palmers- 
ton, who desired England to be a great empire 



Disraeli 



114 



Disraeli 



as well as a prosperous community. But 
it was in the advice tendered to her majesty 
to assume the title of Empress of India that 
Beaconsfield was supposed to have given 
the rein most freely to his heated imagina- 
tion and innate sympathy with despotism. 
We notice the charge, not because we believe 
that there was a particle of truth in it, but 
because no biography of this eminent man 
would be complete without some further re- 
ference to his supposed sympathy with per- 
sonal government./^ 

Beaconsfield was the first to perceive that 
one tendency of the Reform Bill of 1832 
was to increase the power of individuals, and 
that he would have been well pleased to see 
it turned to the advantage of the crown may 
readily be granted. He saw that with the 
removal of those restraints which are imposed 
on the most powerful of ministers by an oli- 
garchical constitution one guarantee against 
personal supremacy had vanished. Unless 
some substitute for it could be^found in the 
royal prerogative, we seemed threatened with 
a septennial dictatorship. Democracy is fa- 
vourable to tribunes, and tribunes are not 
celebrated for their moderation, disinterest- 
edness, or love of constitutional liberty. 
With each enlargement of our electoral sys- 
tem the danger would grow worse, as great 
masses of people, especially uneducated 
masses, can only comprehend simplicity, and 
are impatient of all the complicated machi- 
nery, the checks and counter-checks on which 
constitutional systems are dependent. It may 
not have seemed impossible to Beaconsfield at 
one time that the crown might come to repre- 
sent that personal element in the govern- 
ment of the country which democracies love. 
It is said that one of his colleagues who 
disagreed with him, conversing with an ac- 
quaintance on her majesty's known attach- 
ment to Beaconsfield, said : ' He tells her, sir, 
that she can govern like Queen Elizabeth.' 
But whatever he told his sovereign it did not 
go beyond what has been already explained. 
And considering that a minister who is a 
dictator is really more powerful than either 
king or queen, and that the mischief which he 
may accomplish in seven years is incalculable, 
it is after all a question perhaps whether some 
increase in the direct power of the crown 
might not be for the public good. 

By his removal to the House of Lords the 
government was decidedly weakened, but 
Beaconsfield's own abilities were as conspicu- 
ous in the one house as in the other, and 
some of his greatest speeches were delivered 
during the last five years of his life. But the 
clouds which had been dispersed by the treaty 
of Berlin and the successful termination of 



the Afghan war began once more to gather 
round his administration. A war with the 
Zulus in South Africa, attended by serious 
disasters, and the continued depression of the 
agricultural and commercial interests, com- 
bined to create that vague discontent through- 
out the country which always portends a 
change of government. It is remarkable, in- 
deed, that the most sanguine member of the 
opposition did not look forward to more than 
a bare majority, and that most of the whig 
leaders despaired of their fortunes altogether. 
Beaconsfield himself, perhaps, foresaw what 
was likely to happen more clearly than any 
one. ' I think it very doubtful whether you will 
find us here this time next year,' was his re- 
mark to a friend who came to take leave of 
him in Downing Street before leaving Eng- 
land for a twelvemonth. But neither he nor 
any one else expected so decisive a defeat. 
Encouraged for the moment by great electoral 
successes at Liverpool, Sheffield, and South- 
wark, the cabinet determined to dissolve par- 
liament in March 1880, and the result was 
that the tory party lost a hundred and eleven 
seats. Beaconsfield at once resigned when 
he saw that the day was irretrievably lost, 
and Mr. Gladstone returned to power for the 
second time with an immense majority. 

During the brief period of political leader- 
ship that still remained to him, Beaconsfield 
conducted himself with great wisdom and 
moderation. It was owing to his advice that 
the House of Lords accepted both the Burials 
Bill and the Ground Game Bill, reserving 
their strength for the more important and 
mischievous proposals which he believed to 
be in store for them. Thus when government, 
to please their Irish supporters, passed the 
Compensation for Disturbance Bill through 
the commons, he was able to secure its rejec- 
tion in the House of Lords with less strain 
on their lordships' authority than might 
otherwise have been occasioned. In'the fol- 
lowing session and within six weeks of his 
death he spoke with great eloquence and 
earnestness against the evacuation of Can- 
dahar (4 March), and it was in this speech 
that he uttered the memorable words which 
will long live in English history : ' But, my 
lords, the key of India is not Herat or Can- 
dahar; the key of India is London.' This, 
though not the last time that his voice was 
heard in the House of Lords, was the last of 
his great speeches. About three weeks after- 
wards he was known to be indisposed, and 
though his illness fluctuated almost from day 
to day, and was not for some time supposed 
to be dangerous, he never left the house 
again. For the space of four weeks the public 
anxiety grew daily more intense ; and from 



Disraeli 



Disraeli 



every class of society, and from all quarters 
of the kingdom, came ever-increasing demon- 
strations of his deep and widespread popula- 
rity. All his errors were forgotten, and men 
thought only of the wit that had so long de- 
<| lighted them, of the eloquence which had so 
often thrilled them, and of those lofty concep- 
tions of public duty which, if sometimes mis- 
taken in particulars, were always instinct 
with the proudest traditions of English states- 
manship. The unanimous voice of the Eng- 
lish nation confessed in a moment the great 
.genius and the true patriot who was about 
to be taken from them ; and when the fatal 
termination of his illness on 19 April was 
made known to the nation it was followed 
by a general burst of sorrow, such as was 
scarcely elicited even by the death of the Duke 
of Wellington. 

He does not sleep among the heroes and 
the statesmen by whose side he was worthy 
to be laid. He had left express directions 
that his last resting-place should be next to 
Lady Beaconsfield's at Hughenden, and there, 
accordingly, on 26 April, he was lowered to 
his grave in the presence of an illustrious 
group of mourners of all ranks and parties. 
A few days afterwards the queen in person, 
accompanied by the Princess Beatrice, placed 
a wreath of flowers on the tomb of her de- 
ceased servant, and with that ceremony the 
vault was finally closed, and the name of 
Beaconsfield passed into the possession of 
history. 

That he was a great man who scaled the 
heights of fortune and won the battle of life 
against odds which seemed to be irresistible, 
and who at the gloomiest moments of his ca- 
reer never lost heart or hope, can no longer be 
a matter of controversy. A combination of 
genius, patience, intrepidity, and strength of 
will, such as occurs only at intervals of centu- 
ries, could alone have enabled him to succeed, 
and that combination is greatness. Of the 
means by which he rose to power, and the 
extent to which he was favoured by chance, 
different opinions will probably long be en- 
tertained, but as far as we can judge at pre- 
sent, his errors seem rather to have sprung 
from a reliance upon false analogies than 
from any deliberate design to make a tool of 
party, or rise by the profession of principles 
which he was prepared at any moment to 
abandon. It is most provable that he really 
believed in the popular toryism which he 
preached, and that he did not make sufficient 
allowance for the force of modern radicalism 
which was already in possession of the field. 
At the same time it is necessary to remember 
that the democratic Reform Bill, which Dis- 
raeli carried twenty years ago, has proved 



the existence of a conservative spirit among 
the working classes, in which it may be said, 
perhaps, that he alone of all his contem- 
poraries believed ; that under that franchise 
we had the first tory majority which had 
been returned for a whole generation ; and 
that under a still more enlarged franchise we 
have seen a tory party returned to parlia- 
ment numbering nearly half the House of 
Commons. These are facts to which their due 
weight must be allowed in estimating the 
politicaljoresight which proclaimed that tory 
principles ^ould, if properly explained, be 
supported by the English masses. 

To the foreign policy of which Beacons- 
field was the exponent justice could hardly 
be done, except under a system of govern- 
ment more stable than our own has now be- 
come. Beaconsfield no doubt carried popular 
opinion with him on the Eastern question, 
and it is possible that if he had been al- 
lowed his own way he might have obtained 
such a hold upon the working classes as 
to have averted the defeat which overtook 
him in 1880. But all this is matter of con- 
jecture. We only see that, notwithstanding 
the enthusiasm which his foreign policy had 
inspired, the people were ready on very slight 
provocation to depose him in favour of a 
statesman by whom it was sure to be re- 
versed. It is enough to affirm that Beacons- 
field was a great statesman^ though history 
may still decide that his policy, both foreign 
and domestic, was founded on a miscalcula- 
tion of the forces at his command, as well as 
of those that were opposed to him. 

Beaconsfield has been described as rather a 
debater than an orator. If concise and lumi- 
nous argument, felicitous imagery, satire un- 
equalled both for its wit and its severity, and 
the power of holding an audience enchained 
for many hours at a time, do not constitute an 
orator, the description may be just. But it 
is one that will exclude from the list of ora- 
tors a multitude of great names which the 
common consent of mankind has enrolled in 
it ; nor can the quality of moral earnestness, 
resulting from a sincere belief in the justice 
of his own cause, very well be denied to that 
eloquent vindication of a suffering interest 
which won the assent of Mr. Gladstone. His 
great speeches on the monarchy and the . 
empire breathe the ripened conviction of a 
lifetime. 

That Beaconsfield, had he not forsaken lite- 
rature for politics, might have equalled the 
fame of some of our greatest English writers, is 
an opinion which has been expressed by very 
competent and impartial critics. And we 
doubt, as it is, whether the non-political parts 
of ' C&ningsby ' and ' Sybil ' are either as well 



12 



Disraeli 



116 



Disraeli 



known or as much admired as they deserve I 
to be. His three best novels, considered only 
from a dramatic point of view, are the two 
just mentioned and ' Henrietta Temple,' pub- 
lished in 1837. Of these three the plots are 
skilfully constructed, the characters admi- 
rably drawn, and the style in the more col- 
loquial and humorous passages fresh, lively, 
and piquant. In ' Henrietta Temple,' indeed, 
there is not much character, except perhaps 
in the Roman catholic priest, Glastonbury, 
a portrait which we would not willingly have 
missed. But the story of the lovers is told 
with great sweetness and beauty, though the 
author does not affect to touch those deeper 
chords of passion which awaken tears and pity. 
In l Sybil ' he may have intended to do so ; 
and in the passion of Stephen Morley for the 
heroine he has made the nearest approach to 
it which we find in any of his works. But 
he has only partially succeeded even here, and 
it is evident that his strength did not lie in 
the delineation of this class of emotions. The 
plot in 'Coningsby' is perhaps the best of all, 
but both in this story and in the one which 
immediately succeeded it we have a proces- 
sion of characters which would have amply 
atoned for the worst plot that ever was con- 
structed. The best painters of character in 
our literature might be proud of two such 
portraits as Lord Marney and Mr. Ormsby. 

In ' Coningsby ' Disraeli first gave to 
the world that eloquent vindication of the 
Jewish race which has been rightly considered ! 
to reflect so much honour on himself. In j 
* Tancred ' he leads his readers into ' the 
Desert,' the cradle of the Arabs, from which ; 
they spread east and west, and became known j 
as the Moors in Spain and the Jews in Pales- ; 
tine. Nothing can be more interesting than ; 
his account of the manners and the men, of j 
which neither are much changed since the 
days of the patriarchs nothing finer than i 
his picture of the rocks and towers of Jeru- 
salem, or the green forests of the Lebanon^ 

His other novels, both his earlier and his 
later ones, are decidedly inferior to these. 
Of ' Vivian Grey ' neither the plot nor the 
characters are really good. In this, far more 
than in either ' Coningsby ' or ' Sybil,' it was 
the political satire which took the world by j 
storm ; but we doubt if any one could read 
it now without weariness. ' Venetia ' and ! 
the l Young Duke ' are not political, and they | 
narrowly miss being dull. l Lothair ' (1870) I 
and ' Endymion' (1880) are of very different ! 
degrees of merit, and though we cannot call 
the latter dull, most of Disraeli's admirers 
will wish that it had never been published. 

Of those which have not already been 
mentioned, 'Contarini Fleming 'has been the * 



most admired. Neither this, however, nor 
'Alroy ' (1833), nor the 'Rise of Iskander,'' 
nor ' Count Alarcos ' (1839), nor the l Revo- 
lutionary Epick ' (1834), are worthy of the 
author's genius. He seems at one time to 
have fancied that nature had intended him for 
a poet. But even as a writer of poetical prose- 
he is not to be admired. His writings where 
he essays this style afford too many instances 
of the false sublime, and of stilted rhetoric 
mistaken for the spontaneous utterance of 
the imagination, to be entitled to any but 
very qualified commendation. Of a style 
exactly suited to the description of what we- 
call society, of its sayings and its doings, its 
sense and its folly, its vices and its virtues, 
Disraeli was a perfect master. In the three 
burlesques which he wrote in his youth, t The 
Infernal Marriage,' 'Ixion in Heaven,' and 
' Popanilla ' (1828), this talent is displayed 
to great advantage. The second is perhaps 
the best. The dinner party at Olympus, with 
Apollo for Byron, and Jupiter for George IV, 
is excellent. Proserpine in Elysium, where 
she developed a taste for society, and her re- 
ceptions were the most brilliant of the sea- 
son, is also most diverting. 

In private life he is said to have been kind 
and constant in his friendships, liberal in hi$ 
charities, and prompt to recognise and assist 
struggling merit wherever his attention was 
directed to it. In general society he was not 
a great talker, and few of his witticisms have- 
been preserved which were not uttered on 
some public occasion. He usually had rather 
a preoccupied air, and though he was a great 
admirer of gaiety and good spirits in those 
who surrounded him, he was incapable of 
abandoning himself to the pleasures of the 
moment, whatever they might be, like Lord 
Derby or Lord Palmerston. He was no 
sportsman; and though he records in his 
letter to his sister that he once rode to hounds, 
and rode well, he seems to have been satis- 
fied with that experience of the chase. Though 
a naturalist and a lover of nature in all her 
forms, he had neither game nor gamekeepers 
at home. He preferred peacocks to pheasants, 
and left it to his tenants to supply his table 
as they chose. In his own woods and gardens 
he found a constant source of interest and 
amusement, while few things pleased him 
better than a walk or drive through the 
beautiful woodland scenery of the Chiltern 
Hills, with some appreciative companion to 
whom he could enlarge on the great conspi- 
racy of the seventeenth century which was 
hatched in the midst of them. He has added 
one more to the historical associations in which 
they are so rich ; and no tourist who pays 
his homage to Great Hampden and Checquers 



D'Israeli 



117 



D'Israeli 



Court will henceforth think his pilgrimage 
complete without a visit to the shades of 
Hughenden and the tomb of Lord Beacons- 
field. 

[The chief authorities are Sir Theodore Mar- 
tin's Life of the Prince Consort, 1880 ; The Right 
Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, a Biography, 1854 ; Me- 
morials of Lord Beaconsfield, 1881 ; Speeches of 
LordBeaconsfield, ed.T.E.Kebbel, 1881 ; Life of 
Bishop Wilberforce, 1879-83; Sir Theodore Mar- 
tin's Life of Lord Lyndhurst, 1883; the Earl of 
Malmesbury's Memoirs of an exrMinister, 1884 ; 
Wit and Wisdom of Lord Beaconsfield ; Greville 
Papers, 1874-85; Croker Papers, 1884; Kebbel's 
Tory Administration, 1886. Lord Beaconsfield, - 
by T. P. O'Connor, of which a 6th edition ap- 
peared in 1884, gives a hostile account of his 
political career. An elaborate sketch, arriving at 
very favourable conclusions, by Georg Brandes, 
was issued at Copenhagen in 1878. It was trans- 
lated from the Danish into German in 1879 and 
into English in 1880. Mr. G. C. Thompson in 
1886 published Public Opinion and Lord Bea- 
consfield, 1875-80, an exposition of the fluctua- 
tions of public opinion as expressed in newspapers 
and published speeches regarding Lord Beacons- 
field's foreign policy.] T. E. K. 

D'ISRAELI, IS A AC (1766-1848), author, 
was born at Enfield, Middlesex, in May 1766. 
His ancestors were Jews who had been driven 
from Spain on account of their religion, and 
had taken refuge in Venice late in the 
fifteenth century. His father, Benjamin 
D'Israeli, was born 22 Sept. 1730 ; settled in 
England in 1748, prospered as a merchant, 
.and was made an English citizen by act of 
denization 24 Aug. 1801. In the act he is 
described as ' formerly of Cento in Italy.' He 
was a member of the London congregation of 
.Spanish and Portuguese Jews, and married 
at their synagogue in Bevis Marks : first, on 
2 April 1756, Rebecca Mendez, daughter of 
Gaspar Mendez Furtado ; and secondly, on 
28 May 1765, Sarah Siprut or Seyproot de 
Gabay . By his first wife,who died 1 Feb. 1765, 
he had one daughter, Rachel, who married, 
4 July 1792, Mordecai, alias Angelo Tedesco 
of Leghorn. Isaac was the sole issue of the 
second marriage. Benjamin D'Israeli died on 
28 Nov. 1816, at his house in Church Street, 
Stoke Newington, where he had lived since 
1801, and was buried in the cemetery of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Jews at Mile End. 
It is curious to note that another Benjamin 
D'Israeli or Disraeli was a public notary in 
Dublin from 1788 to 1796, and subsequently 
until 1810 a prominent member of the Dublin 
Stock Exchange. He built a house called 
Beechey Park, co. Carlow, in 1810, and in 
the same year became sheriff of co. Carlow. 
He died at Beechey Park 9 Aug. 1814, aged 
48, and was buried in St. Peter's church- 



yard, Dublin (FosTEK, Collectanea Genealo- 
ffica,pp. 6-16, 60; Notes and Queries, 5th 
ser. vi. 47, 136, xi. 23, 117). 

Isaac was sent at an early age to a school 
near Enfield, kept by a Scotchman named 
Morison. Before 1780 he was staying with 
his father's agent at Amsterdam, and study- 
ing under a freethinking tutor. He returned 
home in 1782, determined to become a poet 
and a man of letters. His mother ridiculed 
his ambition, and his father arranged to place 
him in a commercial house at Bordeaux. The 
youth jf^^ested, and for a time was left to 
his own devices. He wrote a poem con- 
demning commerce, and left it at Bolt Court 
for Dr. Johnson's inspection, but the doctor 
was ill and the manuscript was returned un- 
opened. In April 1786 he implored Vice- 
simus Knox [q. v.], master of Tunbridge 
grammar school, whom he only knew through 
his writings, to receive him into his house as 
an enthusiastic admirer and disciple (see 
letters in Gent. Mag. 1848, pt. ii. p. 29). In 
December 1786 he first appeared in print with 
a vindication of Dr. Johnson's character signed 
' I. D. I.' in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ 
Some poor verse addressed to Richard Gough 
[q.v.], the well-known topographer, then an 
Enfield neighbour, was printed in the t St. 
James's Chronicle ' on 20 Nov. 1787. Gough 
made a sarcastic acknowledgment, and tem- 
porarily damped the writer's poetic ardour. 
His father, dissatisfied with his studious 
habits, sent him to travel in France, and at 
Paris D'Israeli read largely and met many men 
of letters. He was home again in 1789, when 
he published in the ( Gentleman's Magazine ' 
for July an anonymous attack on Peter Pin- 
dar (Dr. John Wolcot), entitled l An Abuse 
of Satire.' Wolcot attributed the attack to 
William Hayley, and virulently abused him. 
D'Israeli avowed himself the author, and 
was applauded by those who had suffered 
from Wolcot's lash. Henry James Pye [q. v.] 
patronised him, and finally led the elder 
D'Israeli to consent to his son's adoption of 
a literary career. In 1790 D'Israeli's first 
volume, a ' Defence of Poetry ' in verse, was 
dedicated to Pye. He became intimate, 
through Pye, with James Pettit Andrews 
[q. v.], who introduced him to Samuel Rogers, 
and he made the acquaintance of W olcot, who 
received him kindly. In 1791 and 1801 
D'Israeli wrote the annual verses for the 
Literary Fund (cf. Gent. Mag. Ixxi. 446), 
and in 1803 published a volume of ' Narra- 
tive Poems.' As a poet he showed little 
promise. 

From an early period D'Israeli read re- 
gularly at the British Museum, where he met 
Douce, who encouraged him in his literary 



Disraeli 



118 



D' Israeli 



researches. In 1791 he issued anonymously 
an interesting collection of ana in a single 
volume entitled ' Curiosities of Literature, 
consisting of Anecdotes,Characters, Sketches, 
and Observations, Literary, Critical, and His- 
torical.' D'Israeli was folio wing the example 
of his friend Andrews and of William Seward, 
each of whom had lately issued collections of 
literary anecdotes. He presented the copy- 
right to his publisher, John Murray, of 32 j 
Fleet Street (father of John Murray of Albe- j 
marie Street), but the book had an immediate j 
success, and D'Israeli repurchased the copy- | 
right at a sale a few years later. A second 
volume was added in 1793, a third in 1817, 
two more in 1823, and a sixth and last in 
1834. The work was repeatedly revised and 
reissued in D'Israeli's lifetime (3rd edit. 1793, 
7th edit. 1823, 9th edit. 1834, 12th edit. 1841). 
Similar compilations followed, and achieved 
like success. ' A Dissertation on Anecdotes' 
appeared in 1793, ' An Essay on the Literary 
Character' in 1795 (3rd edit. 1822, 4th 1828), 
' Miscellanies, or Literary Recollections,' de- 
dicated to Dr. Hugh Downman [q. v.], in 
1796, ' Calamities of Authors ' in 1812-13, 
'Quarrels of Authors' in 1814. D'Israeli 
also tried his hand at romances, but these 
were never very popular. No less than three 
were published in 1797, viz.: 'Vaurien: a 
Sketch of the Times,' 2 vols.; 'Flim-Flams, 
or the Life of My Uncle;' and 'Mejnoun 
and Leila, the Arabian Petrarch and Laura.' 
The first two, published anonymously, in- 
cluded general discussions on contemporary 
topics, and were condemned as Voltairean in 
tone. ' Mejnoun and Leila ' is doubtfully 
stated to be the earliest oriental romance in 
the language. Sir William Ouseley seems 
to have drawn D'Israeli's attention to the 
Persian poem whence the plot was derived, 
and he acknowledges assistance from Douce. 
This tale was translated into German (Leip- 
zig, 1804). With two others ('Love and 
Humility ' and ' The Lovers ' ), and ' a poeti- 
cal essay on romance,' it was republished in 
1799; a fourth tale ('The Daughter ') was 
added to a second edition of the collection in 
1801. D'Israeli's last novel, 'Despotism, or 
the Fall of the Jesuits,' appeared in 1811. 

In 1795 D'Israeli's health gave way, and 
he spent three years in Devonshire, chiefly at 
Mount Radford, the house of John Baring, 
M.P. for Exeter. Dr. Hugh Downman of Exe- 
ter, a man of literary tastes, attended him, 
and doctor and patient became very intimate 
'tf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser. v. 508). On 
Feb. 1802 D'Israeli married Maria, sister 
of George Basevi, whose son George [q. v.] 
was a well-known architect. Although no 
observer of Jewish customs, D'Israeli was 



until the age of forty-seven a member, like 
his father, of the London congregation of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, and an annual 
contributor to its funds. On 3 Oct. 1813 the 
elders of the synagogue without consulting 
him elected him warden. D'Israeli declined 
to serve, and in a letter dated December 1813 
expressed astonishment that an office whose 
duties were 'repulsive to his feelings' should 
have been conferred on ' a man who has lived 
out of the sphere of your observations . . . 
who can never unite in your public worship 
because, as now conducted, it disturbs instead 
of exciting religious emotions ' (PicClOTTO,. 
Sketches of Anglo-Jewish Hist.} For refusal 
to accept the office of warden D'Israeli was 
fined by the elders 40/. In March 1814 he 
repudiated this obligation, but wrote that he 
was willing to continue the ordinary contri- 
butions. In 1817 the elders insisted on the- 
payment of the fine, and D'Israeli resigned 
his membership of the congregation. His 
withdrawal was not formally accepted till 
1821, when he paid up all arrears of dues 
down to 1817. His brother-in-law, George 
Basevi the elder, withdrew at the same time. 
D'Israeli's children were baptised at St. An- 
drew's, Holborn, in July and August 1817. 

Meanwhile D'Israeli's reputation was grow- 
ing. In 1816 he wrote, as ' an afiair of lite- 
rary conscience,' an apologetic ' Inquiry into 
the Literary and Political Character of 
James I.' In 1820 he noticed ' Spence's Anec- 
dotes ' in the ' Quarterly Review,' and sought 
to vindicate Pope's moral and literary cha- 
racter. The article excited the controversy 
about Pope in which Bowles, Campbell, 
Roscoe, and Byron took part. Between 1828 
and 1830 appeared in five volumes D'Israeli's. 
'Commentaries on the Life and Reign of 
Charles I.' This is D'Israeli's most valuable 
work, and marked a distinct advance in the- 
methods of historical research. He here con- 
sulted many diaries and letters (then unpub- 
lished), including the Eliot and Conway MSS. 
and the papers of Melchior de Sabran, French 
envoy in England in 1644-5. The ' Mercure 
Franois ' was also laid under contribution. 
Southey says that in one of his ' Quarterly ' 
articles he obscurely recommended such an 
undertaking to Dr. Christopher Wordsworth,, 
who had written on the ' Eikon Basilike,' and 
that D'Israeli, assuming the hint to be ad- 
dressed to himself, began his book (SouTHET, 
Correspondence with C. Bowles, ed. Dowden, 
p. 239). Lord Nugent contested D'Israeli's 
royalist conclusions in his 'Memorials of 
Hampden ' (1832), and D'Israeli replied in 
the same year in ' Eliot, Hampden, and Pyrn. ? 
As the biographer of Charles I, D'Israeli was- 
created D.C.L. at Oxford 4 July 1832. 



D'Israeli 



D'Israeli 



In 1833 D'Israeli issued anonymously the 
' Genius of Judaism,' in which he wrote en- 
thusiastically of the past history and suffer- 
ings of the Jews, but protested against their 
social exclusiveness in his own day, and their 
obstinate adherence to superstitious practices 
and beliefs. He had written in a like vein 
in ' Vaurien ' (1797), and in an article on 
' Moses Mendelssohn ' in ' Monthly Review ' 
for July 1798. In 1837 Bolton Corney [q. v.] 
savagely attacked his ' Curiosities ' in a pri- 
vately printed pamphlet (' Curiosities of 
Literature Illustrated '). Many inaccuracies 
were exposed, and D'Israeli's reply, 'The 
Illustrator Illustrated,' was met by Corney's 
'Ideas on Controversy' (1838), which was 
issued both separately and as an appendix to 
a second edition of the original pamphlet. 
Towards the close of 1839 D'Israeli suffered 
from paralysis of the optic nerve, and he was 
totally blind for the rest of his life. With 
the efficient aid of his daughter Sarah he was 
able to complete his ' Amenities of Litera- 
ture ' (1840), which he at first intended to 
call f A Fragment of a History of English 
Literature.' He had long meditated a com- 
plete history of English literature, but his 
only remaining works were a paper in the 
* Gentleman's Magazine ' for January 1840 
on the spelling of Shakespeare's name, which 
excited much controversy, and a revised edi- 
tion of the ' Curiosities' in 1841. 

In 1829 D'Israeli removed from Blooms- 
bury Square, where he had lived since 1818, 
to Bradenham House, Buckinghamshire. He 
died at Bradenham, 19 Jan. 1848, aged 82, 
and was buried in the church there. The 
wife of his son Benjamin erected a monu- 
ment to his memory on a hill near Hughen- 
den Manor in 1862. D'Israeli's wife died 
21 April 1847, aged 72, and also lies buried 
in Bradenham Church. By her he had four 
sons and a daughter. Benjamin, the eldest 
son, was the well-known statesman ; Naph- 
tali, the second, born 5 Nov. 1807, died 
young. Ralph, born 9 May 1809, is deputy 
clerk of parliament, and'is still (1888) alive. 
James, born 21 Jan. 1813, was commissioner 
of inland revenue, died 23 Dec. 1868, and was 
buried at Hughenden. Sarah, born 29 Dec. 
1802, died unmarried 19 Dec. 1859, and was 
buried in Paddington cemetery. She was 
engaged to be married to William Meredith, 
who travelled with her brother Benjamin in 
the East in 1830, and died at Cairo in 1831 
(BEACONSFIELD, Home Letters, p. 138). 

D'Israeli was very popular with the lite- 
rary men of his day. Sir Walter Scott is 
said to have repeated one of D'Israeli's for- 
gotten poems when they first met, and to have 
added, ' If the writer of these lines had gone 



I on, he would have been an English poet.' 
I The poem was printed by Scott in his ' Min- 
i strelsy,' i. 230. Byron wrote to Moore 
! (17 March 1814) that he had just read ' " The 
Quarrels of Authors," a new work by that 
most entertaining and researching writer, 
Israeli' (BTEO^, Works, iii. 15). In 1820 
Byron dedicated to D'Israeli his ' Observa- 
tions on " Blackwood's Magazine."' Southey, 
I to whom D'Israeli inscribed the 1828 edition 
i of his t Literary Character,' was always a firm 
friend (cf. pref. to SOUTHEY, Doctor). Moore 
| frequ*m^ly met him at the house of Murray 
! the publisher (MooRE, Diaries, iv. 23, 26). 
| Bulwer Lytton was a devoted admirer (BEA- 
CONSFIELD, Corresp. p. 13). Samuel Rogers, 
another intimate friend, said of him, accord- 
ing to Southey, 'There's a man with only half 
an intellect who writes books that must live.' 
I Charles Purton Cooper [q. v.] dedicated to 
! him his 'Lettres sur la Cour de la Chan- 
| cellerie ' in 1828, and D'Israeli's letter ac- 
knowledging the compliment was privately 
1 printed in 1857. John Nichols frequently ac- 
i knowledges his assistance in his ' Literary 
j Anecdotes,' and S. W. Singer, Basil Montagu, 
I and Francis Douce often mention their in- 
! debtedness to him. John Murray, the pub- 
lisher of Albemarle Street, whose father was 
j the original publisher of the ' Curiosities,' re- 
peatedly consulted him in his literary under- 
takings, until a quarrel caused by Murray's 
arrangement in 1826 to issue the ' Representa- 
tive ' newspaper in conj unction with Benj amin 
Disraeli interrupted their friendship. 

As a populari ser of literary researches 
D'Israeli achieved a deserved reputation, but 
he was not very accurate, and his practice 
of announcing small literary discoveries as 
' secret histories ' exposed him to merited 
ridicule. He is described by his son as a ner- 
vous man of retiring disposition. Benjamin 
Disraeli edited a new edition of 'Charles I' 
in 1851, and a collected edition of his father's 
other works in 1858-9 (7 vols.) The ' Curi- 
osities ' has been repeatedly reissued in cheap 
editions both here and in America. 

Engraved portraits after an Italian artist 
(1777) and from a .painting by S. P. Denning 
appear respectively in the first and third 
volumes of the 1858-9 edition. There are 
other drawings by Drummond, in 'Monthly 
Mirror,' January 1797; by Alfred Crowquill 
in ' Fraser's Magazine ; ' and by Count D'Orsay, 
whence an engraving was made for the ' Il- 
lustrated London News,' 29 Jan. 1848. 

[A sketch by Benjamin Disraeli, earl of Bea- 
consfield, was prefixed to the 1849 edition of 
the Curiosities, and has been often reprinted. See 
also Gent. Mag. 1848, ii. 96-8 ; Lord Beacons- 
field's Home Letters, 1831-2 (1885), and his Cor- 



Diss 



Diss 



respondence with his sister 1832-52 (1886) ; Pic- 
ciotto's Sketches of Anglo-Jewish Hist. ; Foster's 
Collectanea Grenealogica ; Southey's Letters to 
Caroline Bowles, ed. Prof. Dowden.] S. L. L. 

DISS or DYSSE, WALTER (d. 1404 ?), 
Carmelite, is supposed to have been a native 
of the town of Diss, twenty-two miles south- 
west of Norwich, and to have been educated 
in the Carmelite house of the latter city (BALE, 
m>tt.^n'.to.vii.26,pp.527f.) He studied 
at Cambridge, where he proceeded to the de- 
gree of doctor of divinity. So much is gathered 
from his subscription to the condemnation 
of the twenty-four conclusions of Wycliffe i 
passed by the council held at the Blackfriars, 
London, 21 May 1382 (Fasciculi Zizaniorum, I 
p. 286, ed. W.W. Shirley). Leland conjectures ; 
( Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, cdl. j 
p. 393) that he was a student also at Paris j 
and Rome. That at least he belonged to j 
Cambridge and was an opponent of "Wycliffe 
appears certain. Nevertheless it has been 
maintained by Anthony a Wood and by others 
after him that Diss is the same person with 
Walter Dasch, who is mentioned as fellow of 
Oriel College, Oxford, in 1373, and who served 
as proctor in that university in 1382, this 
being the very year in which Diss is described 
in the proceedings of the Blackfriars coun- 
cil as ' Cantabrigiee ' (Wood thinks he only 
went to Cambridge at a later time), and in 
which Dasch took up an attitude of distinct 
friendliness to the Wycliffite party in Oxford ; 
for at a later session of the same council, 
12 June 1382, 'inventus est suspectus can- 
cellarius (Thomas Bryghtwell) de favore et 
credentia hseresum et errorum, et prgecipue 
Philippi (Repyndon) et Nicolai (Hereford) 
et Wycclyff . . . ; et nedum ipse, sed etiam 
procurators universitatis Walterus Dasch 
et Johannes Hunteman ' (Fasc. Ziz. p. 304). 
It is safe therefore to distinguish these two 
persons hitherto identified, and to leave Ox- 
ford the credit of the Lollard proctor, while 
Cambridge is to be held to have produced 
the catholic friar, Walter Diss. 

A few years later Diss was employed by 
Urban VI, in whose allegiance, as against 
Clement VII, England continued unshaken. 
He had been for some time confessor to John 
of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and to his wife 
Constance, through whom this prince pre- 
tended to the crown of Castile, and Pope 
Urban seized the opportunity of using this 
claim as a means of asserting his own autho- 
rity in Spain, where that of his rival was 
generally acknowledged. In 1386 indulgences 
were offered to those who should support John 
of Gaunt's expedition (see Richard IPs pro- 
clamation on the subject, dated 11 April, in 
RTMEE, Feedera, vii. 507 f. ed. 1709), and 



Diss was named papal legate to give it the 
character of a crusade. He was authorised, 
according to Walsingham (a. 1387) and the 
other St. Albans chronicler, to grant certain 
privileges, ' non sine pecunia,' and to appoint 
papal chaplains on the same footing as those 
holding office in the Roman curia also, it 
seems, in return for a considerable payment 
to assist his mission. No less than fifty were 
to be thus appointed, and there was a rush 
of applicants which filled the more sober 
Benedictines with jealous disgust (WALSING- 
HAM, Gest. Abbot. Monast. S. Albani, ii. 417 
et seq. ed. Riley, 1867). Among those, how- 
ever, so appointed was an Austin friar named 
Peter Pateshull, who made considerable sen- 
sation by at once attaching himself to the 
Lollards, and in consequence of this mishap, if 
we are to believe Walsingham, Diss never 
proceeded to Spain at all. The common 
account, on the other hand, repeated from 
Tritthemius (who ascribes his commission to 
Boniface IX), makes him papal legate in Eng- 
land, Spain (i. e. Castile), Portugal, Navarre, 
Aragon, and Gascony,where he was deputed to 
counteract the influence of schismatics (mean- 
ing adherents of Clement VII), and also of 
heretics in general. A Carmelite sermon 
preached in 1386, and printed in the appendix 
to the ' Fasciculi Zizaniorum,' p. 508, confirms 
the opinion that Diss's mission was not con- 
fined to Spain, but does not state that the 
mission was actually carried out. Of the rest 
of Diss'^ career nothing is recorded. He seems 
to have retired to the Carmelite monastery at 
Norwich, where he was buried about 1404 
(5 Hen. IV). 

Diss's eminence as a preacher is commemo- 
rated by his biographers ; it may indeed be 
guessed from his appointment as legate in 
circumstances of much difficulty. He is said 
by Tritthemius to have written commentaries 
' Super quosdam Psalmos,' ' Sermones de Tern- 
pore,' ' Sermones de Sanctis/ ' Contra Lol- 
hardos,' and 'De Schismate.' This last is 
apparently the ' Carmen de schismate ecclesise ' 
(inc. ' Helyconis rivuio modice dispersus ') 
possibly only three fragments of a larger poem 
bearing his name, and printed by J. M. 
Lydius in his edition of ' Nicolai de Clemangiis 
Opera,' pp. 31-4 (Leyden, 1613, quarto). An- 
other work by Diss, entitled 'Qusestiones 
Theologie,' was found by Bishop Bale in the 
library at Norwich (see his manuscript col- 
lections, JBodl. Lib?'. Cod. Selden., supra, 64, 
f. 50). In his printed < Scriptt. Brit. Cat.' 
Bale ascribes to him also the following writ- 
ings : ' Lectura Theologise,' ' Ex August ino 
et Anselmo,' ' Determinationes V arise,' ' Ad 
Ecclesiarum Prsesides,' and ' Epistolee ad Ur- 
banum et Bonifacium.' 



Ditton 



121 



Dive 



[Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, ii. 157 f. 
ed. H. T. Eiley, Eolls Series, 1864; Monach. 
Evesh. Vita R. Ricardi IT, pp. 79 f. ed. Hearne, 
1729; Walsingham's Ypodigma Neustrise, p. 348, 
ed. Riley, 1876 ; Chronicon Anglise a Monacho 
S. Albani, pp. 376 f. ed. E. M. Thompson, Rolls 
Series, 1874; J. Tritthemius, De ortu et pro- 
gressu ac viris illustribus ordinis de Monte Car- 
mel, p. 48, ed. Cologne, 1643 ; Leland's Comm. 
de Scriptt. Brit, pp. 385, 393 f . ; Anthony a 
Wood's Hist, et Antiq. Univ. Oxon. ii. 106, 400 
{Latin ed., 1674, folio); Wood's Fasti Oxon. 31, 
32 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. '229. Peter Lucius 
(Carmelitana Bibliotheca, f. 80 verso, 1593) adds 
nothing to our information about Diss.] 

R. L. .P. 

DITTON, HUMPHREY (1675-1715), 
mathematician, was born at Salisbury on 
29 May 1675, being, it is said, the four- 
teenth of the same name in a direct line. 
His mother belonged to the family of the 
Luttrells of Dunster Castle, Taunton, and 
trough t a fortune to his father, who nearly 
ruined himself by contending in support of 
the nonconformists. He sent his only son, 
however, to be educated by a clergyman, Dr. 
Olive. The younger Ditton afterwards be- 
came a dissenting preacher at his father's 
desire, and preached for some years at Tun- 
bridge. Here he married a Miss Ball. His 
energy injured his health, and after his 
father's death he gave up the ministry. In 
1705 he published a short exposition of the 
fundamental theorems of Newton's ' Prin- 
cipia.' In 1706 he was appointed through 
Newton's influence master of a new mathe- 
matical school at Christ's Hospital. The 
school was discontinued after his death as a 
failure. William Whiston [q. v.] happened 
to mention in Ditton's company that he had 
heard at Cambridge the guns fired in the ac- 
tion off Beachy Head. This suggested a 
scheme for determining the longitude, to 
which an addition was made by Whiston on 
seeing the fireworks for the peace of Utrecht, 
7 July 1713. The longitude might be ascer- 
tained by firing a shell timed to explode at a 
height of 6,440 feet. The time between the 
flash and the sound would give the distance to 
any ships within range. As the Atlantic, ac- 
cording to their statement, is nowhere more 
than three hundred fathoms deep 1 , fixed sta- 
tions might be arranged. The friends adver- 
tised their invention in the ' Guardian ' of 
14 July and the ' Englishman ' of 10 Dec. 1713. 
They laid their scheme before Newton, Samuel 
Clarke, Halley, and Cotes. A committee of the 
house sat upon the question, and an act was 
passed in June 1714 offering a reward of from 
10,000/. to 20,000/. for the discovery of a me- 
thod successful within various specified de- 



grees of accuracy. Arbuthnot, in a letter to 
Swift on 17 July 1714, ridicules the plan, de- 
claring that it anticipated a burlesque proposal 
I of his own intended for the ' Scriblerus Papers,' 
j and Swift made it the occasion of a song with 
! unsavoury rhymes upon Whiston and Ditton. 
The plan, however, was laid before the board 
of longitude, which rejected it. Though it is 
said that the principle has been applied to 
determine the distance between Paris and 
Vienna, its absurdity for practical purposes 
in navigation is sufficiently obvious. The 
Germ^Jranslator of Ditton's book on the 
' Resurree don ' says that he corresponded with 
Leibnitz upon the use of chronometers in de- 
termining the longitude, and sent him the 
design for a piece of clockwork. This method, 
however, is pronounced to be hopeless in his 
pamphlet. Ditton died on 15 Oct. 1715, when 
the matter was still unsettled (see 2nd ed. 
of New Method) ; it is therefore more pro- 
bable that he died of ' a putrid fever ' than of 
disappointment. The * Gospel Magazine ' for 
September 1777 (pp. 393-403, 537-41) gives 
a diary of Ditton's, consisting exclusively of 
religious meditations. 

Ditton's works are : 1. t On Tangents of 
Curves deduced from Theory of Maxima 
and Minima,' ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
vol. xxiii. p. 1333. 2. ' Spherical Catoptrics' 
(ib. x'xiv. 1810) ; translated in ' Acta Erudi- 
torum ' for 1705, and l Memoirs of Academy of 
Sciences at Paris.' 3. ' The General Laws of 
Nature and Motion,' 1705. 4. ' An Institution 
of Fluxions, containing the first principles, 
operations, and applications of that admir- 
able method as invented by Sir Isaac New- 
ton,' 1706 (2nd ed. revised by John Clarke, 
1726). 5. ' A Treatise of Perspective, demon- 
strative and practical,' 1712 (superseded by 
Brook Taylor's treatise, 1715). 6. ' A Dis- 
course concerning the Resurrection of Jesus 
Christ ' (a discussion of the principles of 
' moral evidence,' with an appendix arguing 
that thought cannot be the product of mat- 
j ter), 1714, 4th ed. 1727, and German and 
I French translations. 7. ' The new Law of 
j Fluids, or a discourse concerning the Ascent 
of Liquids, in exact geometrical figures, be- 
tween two nearly contiguous .surfaces,' 1714. 
To this is appended a tract, printed in 1713, 
entitled * Matter not a Cogitative Substance,' 
and an advertisement about the longitude 
project. 8. ' New Method for .discovering the 
Longitude both at Sea and Land ' (by Whis- 
ton and Ditton), 1714, 2nd ed. 1715. 

[Biog. Brit. ; Trollope's Hist, of Christ's Hos- 
pital ; Whiston's Memoirs.] L. S. 

DIVE or DIVES, SIR LEWIS. [See 
DYVE.] 



Dix 



122 



Dixie 



DIX, JOHN, alias JOHN Ross (1800?- 
1865?), the biographer of Chatterton, was 
born in Bristol, and for some years practised 
as a surgeon in that city. He early showed 
talent in writing prose and verse, and pub- 
lished in 1837 a ' Life of Chatterton,' 8vo, 
which gave rise to great and bitter contro- 
versy. Prefixed to the volume was a so- 
called portrait of the ' marvellous boy,' en- 
graved from a portrait found in the shop of 
a Bristol broker. On the back of the original 
engraving was found written the word ' Chat- 
terton.' It was, says one of the opponents 
of Dix, ' really taken from the hydrocephalous 
son of a poor Bristol printer named Morris ' 
(Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 294). Why 
the printer's boy should have his portrait en- 
graved is not stated. Mr. Skeat, in the me- 
moir of Chatterton prefixed to his edition of 
the poet's works, speaks highly of the ap- 
pendix to Dix's ' Life ' and its various con- 
tents. An account of the inquest held on 
the body of Chatterton, discovered by Dix, 
but which his assailants declare to be abso- 
lutely fictitious, appeared in ' Notes and 
Queries' (1853, p. 138). Leigh Hunt cha- 
racterised Dix's biography as ' heart-touching,' 
adding that in addition to what was before 
known the author had gathered up all the 
fragments. Still, it is a fact that the disputed 
portrait was omitted from the second edition 
of Dix's biography, 1851. The report of the 
inquest was subjected to the criticism of Pro- 
fessor Masson and Dr. Maitland. 

Dix went about 1846 to America, where he 
is supposed to have died, at a time not pre- 
cisely ascertained. He published ' Local 
Letterings and Visits in Boston^ by a Looker- 
on,' 1846. Other works attributed to him 
are : ' Lays of Home ; ' < Local Legends of 
Bristol ; ' ' The Progress of Intemperance,' 
1839, obi. folio ; ' The Church Wreck,' a 
poem on St. Mary's, Cardiff, 1842 ; < The Poor 
Orphan ; ' < Jack Ariel, or Life on Board an 
Indiaman/ 2nd edit. 1852, 3rd edit. 1859. 
In 1850 he sent forth < Pen-and-ink Sketches 
of Eminent English Literary Personages, by 
a Cosmopolitan;' in 1852 'Handbook to 
Newport and Rhode Island,' as well as ' Lions 
Living and Dead:' and in 1853 < Passages 
from the Diary of a Wasted Life' (an account 
of Gough, the temperance orator). The list 
of his known publications closes with ' Pen 
Pictures of Distinguished American Divines,' 
Boston, 1854. He is treated very severely 
as a literary forger by Mr. Moy Thomas in 
the ' Athenaeum ' (5 Dec. 1887 and 23 Jan. 
1888), and by W. Thornbury and Mr. Buxton 
Forman in ' Notes and Queries.' 

[Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 294, 365 x 
55 -] R. H. 



DIXEY, JOHN (d. 1820), sculptor and 
modeller, was born in Dublin, but came when 
young to London and studied at the Royal 
Academy. Here, from the industry and talent 
he showed, he was one of those selected from 
the students to be sent to finish their educa- 
tion in Italy. He is stated to have exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1788, but his name 
cannot be traced, unless he is identical with 
John Dixon of Red Lion Street, Clerkenwell, 
who exhibited a design for a ceiling. In 1789,. 
when on the point of leaving for Italy, he was 
offered advantages in America, which were 
sufficient to induce him to emigrate thither at 
once. Here he devoted himself with assiduity 
! to the promotion and resuscitation of the arts 
in the United States, and after residing some 
years at New York was elected in 1810 or 
j 1812 vice-president of the Pennsylvania Aca- 
{ demy of Fine Arts. He died in 1820. Dixey's 
I labours were principally employed in the or- 
! namental and decorative embellishment of 
! public and private buildings, such as the City 
1 Hall at New York, the State House at Al- 
bany, &c. ; but he executed some groups in 
sculpture as well. He married in America, 
and left two sons, George and John V. Dixey r 
who both adopted their father's profession 
as modellers, but the latter subsequently 
turned his attention to landscape-painting. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Dunlap's History 
of the Arts of Design in the United States, i. 
329, ii. 299.] L. C. 

DIXIE, Sin WOLSTAN (1525-1594), 
lord mayor of London, son of Thomas Dixie 
and Anne Jephson, who lived at Catworth 
in Huntingdonshire, was born in 1525. His 
ancestors had been seated at Catworth for 
several generations, and had considerable 
estates. Wolstan, however, was the fourth 
son of his father, and was destined to a life 
of business. He appears to have been ap- 
prenticed to Sir Christopher Draper of the 
Ironmongers' Company, who was lord mayor 
in 1566, and whose daughter and coheiress, 
Agnes, he married. Sir Christopher was of 
Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire, and hence 
no doubt Dixie's acquirement of property in 
that county. He was a freeman of the Skin- 
ners' Company, was elected alderman of Broad 
Street ward 4 Feb. 1573, and became one of 
the sheriffs of London in 1575, when his col- 
league was Edward Osborne, ancestor of the 
dukes of Leeds. Agnes Draper is said to have 
been his second wife ; his first was named 
Walkedon, but he left no family by either. 
In 1585 he became lord mayor, and his in- 
stallation was greeted by one of the earliest 
city pageants now extant, the words being 
composed by George Peele [q. v.] On 8 Feb. 



Dixie 



123 



Dixon 



1591-2 he became alderman of St. Michael 
Bassishaw ward in exchange for that of Broad 
Street. He had a high character as an active 
magistrate and charitable citizen, and died 
8 Jan. 1593-4, possessed not only of the manor 
of Bosworth, which he had purchased in 1567 
from Henry, earl of Huntingdon, but of many 
other ' lands and tenements in Bosworth, Gil- 
morton, Coton, Carleton, Osbaston, Bradley, 
and North Kilworth.' These estates devolved 
upon his brother Richard, except the manor 
of Bosworth, which he settled upon Richard's 
grandson, his own great-nephew, Wolstan. 
Dixie was buried in the parish church of St. 
Michael Bassishaw. His heir, Wolstan, was 
knighted, was sheriffof Leicestershire in 1614, 
and M.P. for the county in 1625. His son, 
a well-known royalist, was made a baronet 
4 July 1660. The baronetcy is still extant. 

Dixie left large charitable bequests to 
various institutions in London an annuity 
to Christ's Hospital, of which he was elected 
president in 1590 ; a fund for establishing a 
divinity lecture at the church of St. Michael 
Bassishaw, in which parish he resided ; 500/. 
to the Skinners' Company to lend at a low 
rate of interest to young merchants; money 
for coals to the poor of his parish ; annuities 
to St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas's Hos- 
pitals ; money for the poor in Bridewell, 
Newgate, and the prisons in Southwark ; for 
the two compters, and to Ludgate and Bed- 
lam ; 100/. to portion four maids ; 501. to the 
strangers of the French and Dutch churches ; 
200/. towards building a pesthouse ; besides 
provision for the poor of his parish and of 
Baling, w r here he had a house, on the day of 
his funeral. He had subscribed 50/. towards 
the building of the new puritan college of 
Emmanuel in Cambridge (1584), and in his 
will he left 600/. to purchase land to endow 
two fellowships and two scholarships for the 
scholars of his new grammar school at Market 
Bosworth. This fund for many years accord- 
ingly supported these fellows and scholars, 
while the surplus was employed in purchas- 
ing livings. It has recently been devoted to 
the foundation of a Dixie professorship of 
ecclesiastical history. At the time of his 
death he was engaged in erecting the gram- 
mar school at Bosworth, which he had en- 
dowed with land of the yearly value of 20/. 
This was completed by his great-nephew and 
heir. 

One portrait of Dixie hangs in the court- 
room of Christ's Hospital, of which an en- 
graving is given by Nichols in his ' History 
of Leicestershire,' and another in the parlour 
of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. There are 
two other engravings of him one in ' A Set 
of Lord Mayors from the first year of Queen 



Elizabeth to 1601,' and another head by H. 
Holland, 1585. 

[Stowe's Survey of London (fol. ed. 1633), 
pp. 106, 138, 298, 590; Nichols's Leicestershire 
(fol. 1811), vol. iv. pt. ii. pp. 495-7; Orridge's 
Citizens of London, p. 230 ; Transactions of Lon- 
don and Middlesex Archaeol. Soc. vol. ii. pt. iv. 
pp. 25-36 ; Visitation of Leicester (Harl. Soc.), 
p. 116 ; Overall's Remembrancia ; Burke's Baro- 
netage.] E. S. S. 

DIXON, GEORGE (d. 1800?), naviga- 
tor, served as a pe.tty officer of the Resolution 
durin^Qook's last voyage [see COOK, JAMES]. 
He wouiJ seem to have afterwards had the 
command of a merchant ship, and in May 
1785 was engaged by the King George's 
Sound Company, formed for the develop- 
ment and prosecution of the fur trade of the 
north-western parts of America. Dixon was 
appointed to command the Queen Charlotte, 
and sailed from St. Helen's on 17 Sept. 1785 
in company with the King George, whose 
captain, Nathaniel Portlock [q. v.], had been 
his shipmate in the Resolution, and was now 
the commander of the expedition. Doubling 
Cape Horn and touching at the Sandwich 
Islands, they sailed thence on 13 June 1786, 
and on 18 July made the coast of America, 
near the mouth of Cook's River, in lat. 59 N. 
In that neighbourhood they remained some 
weeks, and then worked their way south- 
wards towards King George's, or, as it is now 
more commonly called, Nootka Sound, off 
which they were on 24 September ; but being 
prevented by baffling winds and calms from 
entering the Sound, they returned to the 
Sandwich Islands, where they wintered. 

On 13 March 1787 they again sailed for 
the coast of. America, and on 24 April an- 
chored offMontague Island. Here on 14 May 
the two vessels separated, it being considered 
more likely to lead to profitable results if 
they worked independently. During the next 
three months Dixon was busily employed 
southward as far as King George's Sound, 
trading with the natives, taking eager note 
of their manners and customs, as well as of 
the trade facilities, and making a careful 
survey of the several points which came 
within his reach. Cook had already denoted 
the general outline of the coast, but the de- 
tail was still wanting, and much of this was 
now filled in by Dixon, more especially the 
important group of Queen Charlotte Islands, 
which, in the words of their discoverer's 
narrative, * surpassed our most sanguine ex- 
pectations, and afforded a greater quantity of 
furs than perhaps any place hitherto known/ 
It may be noticed, however, that though he 
sighted and named Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
he missed the discovery that it was a passage 



Dixon 



124 



Dixon 



to the southward ; but indeed he made no pre- 
tence at finality. The first object of the voy- 
age was trade, and as the Queen Charlotte 
Islands seemed to more than answer all im- 
mediate wants, he was perhaps careless of 
other discoveries, and, ' while claiming to have 
made considerable additions to the geography 
of this coast,' contented himself with the re- 
mark that ' so imperfectly do we still know 
it that it is in some measure to be doubted 
whether we have yet seen the mainland. 
Certain it is that the coast abounds with 
islands, but whether any land we have been 
near is really the continent remains to be 
determined by future navigators.' An ex- 
amination of Dixon's chart shows in fact that 
most of his work lay among the islands. 
On leaving King George's Sound the Queen 
Charlotte returned to the Sandwich Islands, 
whence she sailed on 18 Sept. for China, 
where it had been agreed she was to meet 
her consort. On 9 Nov. she anchored at 
Macao, and at Whampoa on the 25th was 
joined by the King George. Here they sold 
their furs, of which the Queen Charlotte more 
especially had a good cargo, and having taken 
on board a cargo of tea they dropped down to 
Macao and sailed on 9 Feb. 1788 for England. 
In bad weather off the Cape of Good Hope 
the ships parted company, and though they 
met again at St. Helena, they sailed thence 
independently. The Queen Charlotte arrived 
off Dover on 17 Sept., having been preceded 
by the King George by about a fortnight. 

Of Dixon's further life little is known, but 
he has been identified, on evidence that is 
not completely satisfactory, with a George 
Dixon who during the last years of the cen- 
tury was a teacher of navigation at Gosport, 
and author of * The Navigator's Assistant ' 
(1791). Whether he was the same man or 
not, we may judge him, both from the work 
actually performed and from such passages 
of the narrative of his voyage as appear to 
have been written by himself (e.g. the greater 
part of letter xxxviii.), to have been a man 
of ability and attainments, a keen observer, 
and a good navigator. He is supposed to have 
died about 1800. 

[A Voyage round the World, but more par- 
ticularly to the North- West Coast of America, 
performed in 1785-88 ... by Captain George 
Dixon (4to, 1789). This, though bearing Dixon's 
name on the title-page, was really written by the 
supercargo of the Queen Charlotte, Mr. William 
Beresford. Another 4to volume with exactly the 
same general title was put forth in the same year 
by Captain Nathaniel Portlock, but the voyages, 
though beginning and ending together, were essen- 
tially different in what was, geographically, their 
most important part ; Meares's Voyages, 1788-9, 



from China to the North-West Coast of North 
America (4to, 1790)1. J. K. L. 

DIXON, JAMES, D.D. (1788-1871), 
Wesleyan minister, born in 1788 at King's 
Mills, a hamlet near Castle Donington in 
Leicestershire, became a Wesleyan minister 
in 1812. For some years he attracted no par- 
ticular notice as a preacher, and after tak- 
ing several circuits he was sent to Gibraltar, 
where his work was unsuccessful. It was 
after his return that his remarkable gifts 
began to be observed. Thenceforth he rose 
to celebrity among the leading preachers of 
the Wesleyan body. In 1841 he was elected 
president of the conference, and on that 
occasion he preached a sermon on ( Methodism 
in its Origin, Economy, and Present Posi- 
tion/ which was printed as a treatise, and is 
still regarded as a work of authority. In 
1847 he was elected representative of the 
English conference to the conference of the 
United States, and also president of the con- 
ference of Canada. In this capacity he 
visited America, preaching and addressing 
meetings in many of the chief cities. His 
well-known work, ' Methodism in America/ 
was the fruit of this expedition. Dixon re- 
mained in the itinerant Wesleyan ministry 
without intermission for the almost unex- 
ampled space of fifty years, travelling in Lon- 
don, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, 
and other great towns. His preaching was 
entirely original, and was marked by grandeur, 
thought, and impassioned feeling. His repu- 
tation as a platform speaker was equally 
high. His speeches at the great Wesleyan 
missionary anniversaries, and on the slave 
trade, popery, and other such questions as 
then stirred the evangelical party in Eng- 
land, were celebrated ; and he was selected 
several times to represent the methodist com- 
munity at mass meetings that were held upon 
them. In consequence of the failure of his 
sight he retired from the full work of the 
ministry in 1862, and passed the closing years 
of his life in Bradford, Yorkshire, where he 
died in 1871 . With him might perhaps be said 
to expire the middle period of methodism, the 
period to which belong the names of Bunting, 
Watson (whose son-in-law he was), Lessy, 
and Jackson. Besides the works above men- 
tioned, Dixon was author of a ' Memoir of the 
Rev. W. E. Miller/ and of several published 
sermons, charges, and lectures. He also wrote 
occasionally in the ' London Quarterly Re- 
view/ in the establishing of which he took 
part. But the great work of his life was 
preaching, and his sermons were among the 
most ennobling and beautiful examples of the 
modern evangelical pulpit. 

[Personal knowledge.] E. W. D. 



Dixon 



125 



Dixon 



DIXON, JOHN (d. 1715), miniature and 
crayon painter, a pupil of Sir Peter Lely, was 
appointed by William III ' keeper of the king's 
picture closet,' and in 1698 was concerned in 
a bubble lottery. The whole sum was to be 
40,000/., divided into 1,214 prizes, the highest 
prize in money 3,000/., the lowest 20/. This 
affair turned out a great failure, and Dixon, 
falling in debt, removed for security from St. 
Martin's Lane,where he lived, to King's Bench 
Walk in the Temple, and afterwards to a small 
estate at Thwaite, near Bungay in Suffolk, 
where he died in 1715. The two following 
pictures by Dixon were sold at the Strawberry 
Hill sale : a miniature of the Lady Anne Clif- 
ford, daughter and heiress to George, earl of 
Cumberland, first married to Richard, earl 
of Dorset, and afterwards to Philip, earl of 
Pembroke and Montgomery ; and a portrait 
of Queen Henrietta Maria, with a landscape 
background. 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting in England 
(1862), ii. 535.] L. F. 

DIXON, JOHN (1740P-1780?), mezzo- 
tint engraver, was born in Dublin about 1740. 
He received his art training in the Dublin 
Society's schools, of which Robert West was 
then master, and began life as an engraver 
of silver plate. Having, however, run through 
a small fortune left to him by his father, he 
removed to London about 1765, and in the 
following year became a member of the In- 
corporated Society of Artists, with whom he 
exhibited until 1775. His portraits of Dr. 
Carmichael, bishop of Meath (afterwards arch- 
bishop of Dublin), after Ennis, and of Nicho- 
las, viscount Taaffe, after Robert Hunter, ap- 
pear to have been engraved before he left 
Ireland ; but soon after his arrival in London 
he became known by his full-length portrait 
of Garrick in the character of ' Richard III,' 
after Dance. Some of his best plates were 
executed between 1770 and 1775 ; they are 
well drawn, brilliant, and powerful, but oc- 
casionally rather black. Dixon was a hand- 
some man, and married a young lady with 
an ample fortune, whereupon he retired to 
Ranelagh, and thenceforward followed his 
profession merely for recreation. He after- 
wards removed to Kensington, where he died 
about 1780. 

Dixon's best engravings are after the works 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and include full- 
length portraits of Mary, duchess of Ancaster, 
and Mrs. Blake as < Juiio,' and others of Wil- 
liam, duke of Leinster, Henry, tenth earl of 
Pembroke, Elizabeth, countess of Pembroke, 
and her son, the Misses Crewe, Charles Towns- 
hend, chancellor of the exchequer, William 
Robertson, D.D., Nelly O'Brien, and Miss 



Davidson, a young lady whose death in 1767 
caused her parents so much grief that they 
are said to have destroyed the plate and all 
the impressions they could obtain. Besides 
the portraits above mentioned, Dixon en- 
graved a group of David Garrick as ' Abel 
Drugger,' with Burton and Palmer as ' Subtle ' 
and ' Face,' after Zoffany ; a full-length of 
Garrick alone, from the same picture ; a half- 
length of Garrick, after Hudson ; William, 
earl of Ancrum, afterwards fifth marquis of 
Lothian, full-length, after Gilpin and Cos- 
way I'^'^nry, third duke of Buccleuch and 
Queensberry, and Joshua Kirby, after Gains- 
borough ; Rev. James Hervey, after J. Wil- 
liams ; Sir William Browne, M.D., after 
Hudson ; { Betty,' a pretty girl who sold 
fruit near the Royal Exchange, after Fal- 
conet ; and William Beckford, both full- 
length and three-quarter reversed, after a 
drawing by himself. Other plates by him 
are ' The Frame Maker,' after Rembrandt ;. 
< The Flute Player,' after Frans Hals ; and 
'The Arrest ' and ' The Oracle,' after his own 
designs. Forty plates by him are described 
by Mr. Chaloner Smith. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878; Chaloner Smith's British Mezzo- 
tinto Portraits, 1878-83, i. 203-18 ; Catalogues 
of the Exhibition of the Society of Artists, 1766- 
1775.] R. E. G. 

DIXON, JOSEPH, D.D. (1806-1866), 
Irish catholic prelate, born at Cole Island, 
near Dungannon, county Tyrone, on 2 Feb. 
1806, entered the Royal College of St. Patrick, 
Maynooth, in 1822. He was ordained priest 
in 1829, and after holding the office of dean 
in the college for five years was promoted to- 
the professorship of Sacred Scripture and 
Hebrew. On the translation of Dr. Paul 
Cullen [q. v.] to Dublin he was chosen to 
succeed him as archbishop of Armagh and 
primate of all Ireland. His appointment by 
propaganda, 28 Sept. 1852, was confirmed 
by the pope on 3 Oct., and he was consecrated 
on 21 Nov. He died at Armagh on 29 April 
1866. 

He was the author of: 1. 'A General In- 
troduction to the Sacred Scriptures in a series 
of dissertations, critical, hermeneutical, and 
historical,' 2 vols. 8vo, Dublin, 1852. A re- 
view by Cardinal Wiseman of this learned 
work appeared in 1853 under the title of 
' The Catholic Doctrine of the Use of the 
Bible.' 2. ' The Blessed Cornelius, or some 
Tidings of an Archbishop of Armagh who 
went to Rome in the twelfth century and did 
not return [here identified with Saint Con- 
cord], prefaced by a brief narrative of a visit 
to Rome, &c., in 1854,' Dublin, 1855, 8vo. 



Dixon 



126 



Dixon 



[Brady's Episcopal Succession, i. 232; Tablet, 
5 May 1866, p. 278; Cat. of Printed Books in 
Brit. Mus. ; Freeman's Journal, 30 April and 
3 May 1866; Catholic Directory of Ireland 
(1867), p. 421.1 T. C. 

DIXON, JOSHUA, M.D. (d. 1825), bio- 
grapher, an Englishman by birth, took the 
degree of M.D. in the university of Edinburgh 
in 1768, on which occasion he read an inau- 
gural dissertation, ' De Febre Nervosa.' He 
practised his profession at Whitehaven, where 
he died on 7 Jan.1825. He wrote several useful 
tracts and essays, acknowledged and anony- 
mous, but his chief work is ' The Literary 
Life of William Brownrigg, M.D., F.R.S., 
to which are added an account of the Coal 
Mines near Whitehaven : and observations 
on the means of preventing Epidemic Fevers,' 
Whitehaven, 1801, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1825, i. 185 ; Biog. Diet, of Liv- 
ing Authors (1816), 96 ; Cat. of Printed Books 
in Brit. Mus.] T. C. 

DIXON, ROBERT, D.D. (d. 1688), royal- 
ist divine, was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1634-5 and M.A. in 1638. He was or- 
dained on 21 Sept. 1639, and afterwards, it 
would seem, obtained a benefice in Kent. In 
1644, as he was passing through the Crown 
yard in Rochester, on his return from preach- 
ing a funeral sermon at Gravesend, he was 
taken prisoner and conveyed to Knole House, 
near Sevenoaks, and subsequently to Leeds 
Castle, Kent, where he was kept in close con- 
finement for about fourteen months, on ac- 
count of his refusal to take the solemn league 
and covenant. After regaining his liberty 
he was presented in 1647 to the rectory of 
Tunstall, Kent, from which, however, he was 
sequestered on account of his adherence to the 
royalist cause. On the return of Charles II 
he was restored to his living and instituted 
to a prebend in the church of Rochester 
(23 July 1660). He was created D.D. at 
Cambridge, per literas regias, in 1668. In 
1676 he resigned the rectory of Tunstall to 
his son, Robert Dixon, M. A., and afterwards 
he was presented to the vicarage of St. Nicho- 
las, Rochester. He died in May 1688. His 
portrait has been engraved by J. Collins, from 
a painting by W. Reader. 

He wrote : 1. ' The Doctrine of Faith, Jus- 
tification, and Assurance humbly endeavoured 
to be farther cleared towards the satisfac- 
tion and comfort of all free unbiassed spirits. 
With an appendix for Peace,' London, 1668, 
4to. 2. * The Degrees of Consanguinity and 
Affinity described and delineated,' London, 
1674, 12mo. 3. 'The Nature of the two 



Testaments ; or the Disposition of the Will 
and Estate of God to Mankind for Holiness 
and Happiness by Jesus Christ, concerning 
things to be done by Men, and things to be 
had of God, contained in His two great Tes- 
taments of the Law and the Gospel ; demon- 
strating the high spirit and state of the Gospel 
above the Law,' 2 vols. London, 1676, folio. 

In 1683 there appeared an eccentric volume 
of verse entitled ' Canidia, or the Witches, 
a Rhapsody in five parts, by R. D.' Biblio- 
graphers ascribe this crazy work to a Robert 
Dixon, and it has been suggested that the 
divine was its author. The character of the 
book a formless satire on existing society 
does not support this suggestion, although no 
other Robert Dixon besides the divine and 
his son of this date is known (cf. COKSER, 
Collectanea). 

[Eowe-Mores's Hist, of Tunstall, in Bibliotheca 
Topographica Britannica, pp. 56-8 ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 231 ; Granger's Biog. 
Hist, of England (1824), iii. 326; Evans's Cat. 
of Engraved Portfpi,ts, No. 15144; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy), ii. 583 '' r "Addit. MS. 5867, f. 276 ; 
Hasted's Kent (1782), ii. 527, 583; information 
from the Rev T f V R. Luard, D.D.] T. C. 

DIXON, THOMAS, M.D. (1680P-1729), 

nonconformist tutor, was probably the son of 
Thomas Dixon,* Anglus e Northumbria,'who 
graduated M.A. at Edinburgh on 19 July 
1660, and was/ejected from the vicarage of 
Kelloe, county : Durham, as a nonconformist. 
Dixon studied at Manchester under John 
Chorlton [q. v.] and James Coningham [q. v.] 
probably from 1700 to 1705. He is said 
to have gone to London after leaving the 
Manchester academy. In or about 1708 he 
succeeded Roger Anderton as minister of 
a congregation at Whitehaven, founded by 
presbyterians from the north of Ireland, and 
meeting in a ' chapel that shall be used so 
long as the law will allow by protestant dis- 
senters from the church of England, whether 
presbyterian or congregational, according to 
their way and persuasion.' In a trust-deed 
of March 1711 he is described as ' Thomas 
Dixon, clerk.' Dixon established at White- 
haven an academy for the education of stu- 
dents for the ministry. He probably acted 
under the advice of- Dr. Calamy, whom he 
accompanied on his journey to Scotland in 

1709. During his visit to Edinburgh, Dixon 
received (21 April 1709) the honorary degree 
of M.A. The academy was in operation in 

1710, and on the removal of Coningham from 
Manchester in 1712, it became the leading 
nonconformist academy in the north of Eng- 
land. Mathematics were taught (till 1714) 
by John Barclay. Among Dixon's pupils 



Dixon 



127 



Dixon 



were Jolin Taylor, of the Hebrew concordance, 
George Benson, the biblical critic, Caleb Ro- 
theram, head of the Kendal academy, and 
Henry Winder, author of the * History of 
Knowledge.' 

In 1723 (according to Evans's manuscript ; 
Taylor, followed by other writers, gives 1719) 
Dixon removed to Bolton, Lancashire, as sue- ! 
cessor to Samuel Bourn (1648-1719) [q. v.] I 
He still continued his academy, and educated ! 
several ministers ; but took up, in addition, 
the medical profession, obtaining the degree 
of M.D. from Edinburgh. He is said to have 
attained considerable practice. Probably this 
accumulation of duties shortened his life. He 
died on 14 Aug. 1729, in his fiftieth year, 
and was buried in his meeting-house. A 
mural tablet erected to his memory in Bank 
Street Chapel, Bolton, by his son, R. Dixon, 
characterises him as l facile medicorum et 
theologorum princeps.' 

THOMAS 'DIXON (1721-1754), son of the 
above, was born 16 July 1721, and educated 
for the ministry in Dr. Rotheram's academy 
at Kendal, which he entered \i 1738. His 
first settlement was at Thaine, Oxfordshire, 
from 1743, on a salary of 251. ? ~ear. On 
13 May 1750 he became assistant 3r. John 
Taylor at Norwich. Here, at Taylor's sug- 
gestion, he began a Greek concordance, on I 
the plan of Taylor's Hebrew one, but the 
manuscript fragments of the work show that \ 
not much was done. He found 't difficult 
to satisfy the demands of a fastidious con- 
gregation, and gladly accepted, in August 
1752, a call to his father's old flock at Bolton. 
He was not ordained till 26 April 1753. With 
John Seddon of Manchester, then the only 
Socinian preacher in the district, he main- 
tained a warm friendship, and is believed to 
have shared his views, though his publica- 
tions are silent in regard to the person of our 
Lord. He died on 23 Feb. 1754, and was 
buried beside his father. Joshua Dobson of 
Cockey Moor preached his funeral sermon. 
His friend Seddon edited from his papers a 
posthumous tract, ' The Sovereignty of the 
Divine Administration ... a Rational Ac- 
count of our Blessed Saviour's Temptation/ 
&c., 2nd edition, 1766, 8vo. In 1810,William 
Turner of Newcastle had two quarto volumes, 
in shorthand, containing Dixon's notes on the 
New Testament. Dr. Charles Lloyd, in his 
anonymous ' Particulars of the Life of a Dis- 
senting Minister ' (1813), publishes (pp. 178- 
184) a long and curious letter, dated ' Norwich, 
28 Sept. 1751,' addressed by Dixon to Leeson, 
travelling tutor to John Wilkes, and pre- 
viously dissenting minister at Thame ; from 
this Browne has extracted an account of the 
introduction of methodism into Norwich. 



[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 288; Calamy's 
Hist. Account of my own Life, 1830, ii. 192, 
220; Monthly Repository, 1810, p. 326 (article 
by V. F., i.e. William Turner) ; Taylor's Hist. 
Octagon Chapel, Norwich, 1848, pp. 20, 40; 
Baker's Nonconformity in Bolton, 1854, pp. 43, 
54, 106 ; Cat. Edinburgh Graduates (Bannatyne 
Club), 1858; Autobiog. of Dr. A. Carlyle, 1861, 
p. 94 ; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scotic. 1866, i. 
340 ; James's Hist. Li tig. Presb. Chapels, 1867, 
p. 654 (extract from Dr. Evans's manuscript, in 
Dr. Williams's Library) ; Browne's Hist. Congr. 
Novf. and Suff. 1877, p. 190; extracts from 
Whiteh^sen Trust-deeds, per Mr. H. Sands ; 
from records of Presbyterian Fund, per Mr. 
W. D. Jeremy ; and from the Winder manuscripts 
in library of Kenshaw Street Chapel, Liverpool.] 

A. G, 

DIXON, WILLIAM HENRY (1783- 
1854), clergyman and antiquary, son of the 
Rev. Henry Dixon, vicar of Wadworth in 
the deanery of Doncaster, was born at that 
place on 2 Nov. 1783. His mother was 
half-sister to the poet Mason, whose estates 
came into his possession, together with va- 
rious interesting manuscripts by Mason and 
Gray, some of which are now preserved in 
the York Minster Library. Dixon attended 
the grammar schools of Worsborough and 
Houghton-le-Spring, and in 1801 matricu- 
lated at Pembroke College, Cambridge. In 
January 1805 he graduated B.A., proceeding 
M.A. in 1809, and in 1807 entered into orders. 
His first curacy was at Tickhill, and he suc- 
cessively held the benefices of Mapleton, 
Wistow, Cawood, TopclifFe, and Sutton-on- 
the-Forest. He was canon of Ripon, and at 
the time of his decease prebendary of Weigh- 
ton, canon-residentiary of York, rector of 
Etton, and vicar of Bishopthorpe. He also 
acted as domestic chaplain to two archbishops 
of York. In all his offices he worthily did 
his duty, and endeared himself to his ac- 
quaintance. He had ample means, which he 
spent without stint, and he left memorials 
of his munificence in nearly all the parishes 
named. 

He was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries 31 May 1821. In 1839 he pub- 
lished two occasional sermons, and in 1848 
wrote ' Synodus Eboracensis ; or a short ac- 
count of the Convocation of the Province of 
York, with reference to the recent charge of 
Archdeacon Wilberforce/ 8vo. For many 
years he worked assiduously in extending 
and shaping James Torre's manuscript annals 
of the members of the cathedral of York. On 
the death of Dixon at York in February 1854 
the publication of his ' Fasti ' was projected as 
a memorial of the author, and the manuscript 
was placed in the hands of the Rev. James 
Raine, who, after spending nearly ten years in 



Dixon 



T2S 



Dixon 



further researches, published a first Tolume 
of * Fasti Eboracenses ; Laves of the Arch- 
bishops of York ' (1863, 8vo), which includes 
the first forty-four primates of the northern 
province, ending with John de Thoresby, 
1373. This learned and valuable work is 
almost wholly written by Canon Raine, the 
materials left by Dixon" being inadequate. 
The remainder of the work, for which Dixon's 
manuscript collections are more full, has not 
yet appeared. 

[Raine's preface to Fasti Ebor. ; Fowler's Me- 
morials of Ripon (Surtees Soe.), 1886, ii. 340 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 225, 332 ; Graduati 
Cantab. ; a short memoir of Dison was privately 
printed by his nephew, the Rev. C. B. NorelifFe, 
8vo,York, 1860; information from Canon Raine.] 

c. w. a 

DIXON, WILLIAM HEPWORTH 
(1821-1879), historian and traveller, was 
born on 30 June 1821, at Great Ancoats in 
Manchester. He came of an old puritan ftr- 
mily, the Dixons of Heaton Royds in Lan- 
cashire. His father was Abner Dixon of 
Holmfirth and Kirkburton in the West Rid- 
ing of Yorkshire, his mother being Mary j 
Over. His boyhood was passed in the hill ! 
country of Over Darwen, under the tuition j 
of his grand-uncle, Michael Beswick. As a 
lad he became clerk to a merchant named 
Thompson at Manchester. Before he was 
of age he wrote a five-act tragedy called 
1 The Azamoglan/ which was even privately 
printed. In 1842-3 he wrote articles signed 
W. H. D. in the ' North of England Maga- 
zine. 7 In December 1843 he first wrote under 
his own name in Douglas Jerrold's ' Illumi- 
nated Magazine.' Early in 1846 he tecMed 
to attempt a literary career. He was for two 
months editor of the ' Cheltenham Journal' 
While at Cheltenham he won two prin- 
cipal essay prizes in Madden's ' Prize Essay 
Magazine.* In the summer of 1846, on the 
strong recommendation of Douglas Jerrold, 
he moved to London. He soon entered aft 
the Inner Temple, but was not called to the 
bar until 1 May 18-S4. He never practised. 
He became contributor to the * Athenaeum ' 
and the ' Daily News/ In the latter he pub- 
lished a series of startling papers on i The 
Literature of the Lower Orders,' which pro- 
bably suggested Henry Mayhew's ' London 
Labour and the London Poor/ Another 
series of articles, descriptive of the * Tondon 
Prisons," led to his first work, ' John Howard 
and the Prison World of Europe/ which 
appeared in 1849, and though declined bv 
many publishers passed through three edi- 
tions. In 1850 Dixon brought out a volume 
descriptive of i The London Prisons/ At 



about the same time he was appointed a 
deputy-commissioner of the first great inter- 
national exhibition, and helped to start more 
than one hundred out of three hundred com- 
mittees then formed. His ' Life of William 
Penn ' was published in 1851 ; in a supple- 
mentary chapter ' Macaulay's charges against 
Penn/ eight in number/ were elaborately 
answered [see PESTS, WIIXIAM]. Macaulay 
never took any notice of these criticisms, 
though a copy of Dixon T s book was found 
close by him at his death. 

During a panic in 1851 Dixon brought 
out an anonymous pamphlet, ' The French in 
England, or Both Sides of the Question on 
Both Sides of the Channel/ arguing against 
the possibility of a French invasion. In 1852 
Dixon published a life of ' Robert Blake, 
Admiral and General at Sea, based on Family 
and State Papers' [see BLAKE, ROBERT!. It- 
was more successful with the public than 
with serious historians. After a long tour in 
Europe he became, in January 1853,^editor of 
the ' Athenaeum/ to which he had been a con- 
tributor for some years. In 1854 Dixon began 
his researches in regard to Francis Bacon, lord 
Yerulam. He procured, through the interven- 
tion of Lord Stanley and Sir Edward Bulwer 
Lytton, leave to inspect the 'State Papers,* 
which had been hitherto jealously guarded 
from the general viewby successive secretaries 
of state. He published four articles criticis- 
ing Campbell's < Life of Bacon ' in the * Athe- 
naeum 'for January 1860. These were enlarged 
and republished as * The Personal History 
of Lord Bacon from Unpublished Papers ' in 
1861. He published separately as a pamph- 
let in 1861 < A Statement of "the Facts in 
regard to Lord Bacon's Confession, 7 and a 
more elaborate volume called ' The Story of 
Lord Bacon's Life/ 1862. Dixon's books 
upon Bacon obtained wide popularity both 
at home and abroad, but have not been highly 
valued by subsequent investigators (see SPED- 
Drse's remarks in Bacon, L 386). Some of 
his papers in the ' Athenaeum ' led to the 
publication of the ' Auckland Memoirs * and 
of i Court and Society/ edited by the Duke 
of Manchester. To the last he contributed a 
memoir of Queen Catherine. In 1861 Dixon 
travelled in Portugal, Spain, and Morocco, and 
edited the * Memoirs of Lady Morgan,' who 
had appointed him her literary executor. In 
1863 Dixon travelled in the East, and on his 
return helped to found the Palestine Explo- 
ration Fund. Dixon was an active member 
of the executive committee, and eventually 
became chairman. In 1865 he published 
' The Holy Land,' a picturesque handbook to 
Palestine" In 1866 Dixon travelled through 
the United States, going as far westward as 



Dixon 



129 



Dixon 



the Great Salt Lake City. During this tour 
he discovered a valuable collection of state 
papers, originally Irish, belonging to the na- 
tional archives of England, in the Public 
Library at Philadelphia. They had been 
missing since the time of James II, and upon 
Dixoii's suggestion were restored to the Bri- 
tish, government. With them was found the 
original manuscript of the Marquis of Clan- 
ricarde's ' Memoirs' from 23 Oct. 1641 to 
30 Aug. 1643, -??hich were long supposed to 
have been destroyed,- .and of which especial 
mention had been made in Mr. Hardy's 
'Report on the Carte and Carew Papers.' 
In 1867 Dixon published his ' New America.' 
It passed through eight editions in England, 
three in America, and several in France, 
Russia, Holland, Italy, and Germany. In 
the autumn of that year he travelled through 
the Baltic provinces. In 1868 he published 
two supplementary volumes entitled ' Spiri- 
tual Wives.' He was accused of indecency, 
and brought an action for libel against the 
' Pall Mall Gazette,' which made the charge 
in a review of ' Free Russia.' He obtained a 
verdict for one farthing (29 Nov. 1872). His 
previous success had led him into grave error, 
though no man could be freer from immoral 
intention. At the general election of 1868 
Dixon declined an invitation to stand for 
Marylebone. He shrank from abandoning his 
career as a man of letters, although he fre- 
quently addressed political meetings. In 1869 j 
he brought out the first two volumes of ' Her 
Majesty's Tower,' which he completed two 
years afterwards by the publication of the 
third and fourth volumes. In August 1869 j 
he resigned the editorship of the ' Athenaeum.' j 
Soon afterwards he was appointed justice of j 
the peace for Middlesex and Westminster, j 
and in the latter part of 1869 travelled for j 
some months in the north, and gave an ac- j 
count of his journey in ' Free Russia,' 1870. j 
During that year he was elected a member j 
of the London School Board. In direct | 
opposition to Lord Sandon he succeeded in j 
carrying a resolution which thenceforth es- 
tablished drill in all rate-paid schools in the 
metropolis. During the first three years of | 
the School Board's existence Dixon's labours 
were really enormous. The year 1871 was 
passed by him for the most part in Switzer- 
land, and early in 1872 he published < The 
Switzers.' Shortly afterwards he was sent 
to Spain upon a financial mission by a 
council of foreign bondholders. On 4 Oct. 
1872 he was created a knight commander of j 
the Crown by the Kaiser W T ilhelm. While j 
in Spain Dixon wrote the chief part of his ! 
' History of Two Queens,' i.e. Catherine of 
Arragon and Anne Boleyn. The work ex- 
VOL. xv. 



panded into four volumes, the first half of 
which was published in 1873, containing 
the life of Catherine of Arragon, and the 
second half in 1874, containing the life of 
Anne Boleyn. Before starting upon his 
next journey he began a movement for open- 
ing the Tower of London free of charge to 
the public. To this proposal the prime mini- 
ster, Mr. Disraeli, at once assented, and on 
public holidays Dixon personally conducted 
crowds of working men through the building. 
In the September of 1874 he travelled through 
Canada anTS<he United States. In March 
1875 he gave tne results in ' The White Con- 
quest,' In the latter part of 1875 he travelled 
once more in Italy and Germany. During 
the following year he wrote in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' ' The Way to Egypt,' as well 
as two other papers in which he recommended 
the government to purchase from Turkey its 
Egyptian suzerainty. In 1877 he published 
his first romance, in 3 vols., ' Diana, Lady 
Lyle.' Another work of fiction followed it 
in 1878, in ' Ruby Grey,' in 3 vols. In 1878 
appeared the first two volumes of his four- 
volumed work, ' Royal Windsor.' Before 
the close of 1878 he visited the island of 
Cyprus. There a fall from his horse broke 
his shoulder-bone, and he was thenceforth 
more or less of an invalid. ' British Cyprus ' 
was published in 1879. His health was fur- 
ther injured by the loss of most of his savings, 
imprudently invested in Turkish stock. On 
2 Oct. 1874 his house near Regent's Park, 
6 St. James's Terrace, was completely wrecked 
by an explosion of gunpowder on the Regent's 
Canal. He was saddened by the death of his 
eldest daughter and the sudden death at 
Dublin, on 20 Oct. 1879, of his eldest son, Wil- 
liam Jerrold Dixon. He was revising the proof 
sheets of the concluding volumes of 'Royal 
Windsor,' and on Friday, 26 Dec. 1879, made 
a great effort to finish the work. He died in 
his bed on the following morning from an 
apoplectic seizure. On 2 Jan. 1880 he was 
buried in Highgate cemetery. If occasionally 
deficient in tact, he was looked upon by those 
who knew him best as faultless in temper. 
His sympathies were with the people, and 
he took a leading part in establishing the 
Shaftesbury Park and other centres of im- 
proved dwellings for the labouring classes. 
Although a student of state papers and other 
original authorities, Dixon was no scholar. 
He was always lively as a writer, and there- 
fore popular, but inaccuracies and miscon- 
ceptions abound in his work. He was a fel- 
low of the Royal Geographical Society, of the 
Society of Antiquaries, of the Pennsylvania 
Society, and of several other learned associa- 
tions. 



Dixwell 



130 



Dobbs 



[A memoir by the present writer appeared in 
the Illustrated Keview, 11 Sept. 1873, vi. 226- 
228. See also Portraits of Distinguished London 
Men, pt. i. ; In Memoriam Hepworth Dixon, 
1878; Times, 29 and 31 Dec. 1879; Daily Tele- 
graph, same dates ; Men of the Time, 10th edit. 
1879, pp. 321, 322; Athenaeum, 3 Jan. 1880, 
pp. 19, 20 ; Annual Eegister for 1879, p. 236.1 

C. K. 

J DIXWELL, JOHN (d. 1689), regicide,' 
was a member of the family of that name 
settled in Warwickshire and Kent. In pedi- 
grees of the family he is usually ignored, as, 
for instance, in those contained in ' Burke's 
Extinct Baronetage/ and he is also passed 
over in the account of the Dixwell family 
given in Hasted's ' Kent.' Yet the documents 
contained in the life of Dixwell by Stiles, and 
the position held by him in the county of 
Kent, leave little doubt of the fact of this re- 
lationship. John was a younger son of Wil- 
liam Dixwell of Coton Hall in Warwick- 
shire. In 1641 his elder brother, Mark Dix- 
well, succeeded to the estates of their uncle, 
Sir Basil Dixwell, at Brome, Folkestone, and 
elsewhere in Kent. Mark Dixwell died in 
1643, constituting his brother guardian of 
his infant children, and making over his 
estates to him in trust for his eldest son 
Basil (Polyanihea, p. 155). As temporary 
holder of these estates John enjoyed great 
local influence, and on 28 Aug. 1646 was 
elected member for Dover, vice Sir Ed- 
ward Boys deceased (Names of Members re- 
turned to serve in Parliament, 1878, p. 497). 
He was appointed one of the commissioners 
for the trial of Charles I, attended the court 
with great regularity, was present when sen- 
tence was pronounced, and signed the death- 
warrant (NALSON, Trial of Charles I, 1684, 
pp. 3, 86, 110). In 1650 he was colonel of 
militia in Kent, commanding a regiment of 
foot (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650, pp. 340, 
450). On 25 Nov. 1651 he was elected a 
member of the council of state, and filled that 
office from 1 Dec. 1651 to 30 Nov. 1652 (ib. 
1651-2, p. 43 ; Commons' Journals, 25 Nov. 
1651 ). When the Dutch war broke out, Dix- 
well was sent into Kent with powers to raise 
the county to guard the coast (9 July 1652, 
Cal. State Papers, Dom., p. 325). During 
the protectorate he disappeared altogether 
from public life ; but when the Rump was 
recalled to power he became again a member 
of the council of state (19 May 1659, ib. 1658- 
1659, p. 349). He took part with the par- 
liament against Lambert, and in the first two 
months of 1660 was very active as governor 
of Dover Castle. As a regicide he was ex- 
cluded from the Act of Indemnity at the Re- 
storation. On 17 May an order was issued 



to seize him and sequester his estates. On 
20 June 1660 the speaker informed the House 
of Commons that he had received a petition 
from a relative of Colonel Dixwell, stating 
that Dixwell was ill, and begging that he 
might not lose the benefit of the king's pro- 
clamation by his inability to surrender him- 
self within the time fixed (KEKNET, Register, 
p. 185). The request was granted, but Dix- 
well, instead of surrendering, fled to the con- 
tinent, in consequence of which, instead of 
being included in the class of persons excepted 
from the Act of Indemnity with respect to 
their estates only, his name was added to the 
list of those excepted for life as well (ib. p. 
240 ; MASSON, Milton, vi. 44). According to 
Ludlow's ' Memoirs ' Dixwell resided some 
time at Hanau, and even became a burgess of 
that city (ed. 1751, p. 377). In 1664 or 1665 
he took refuge in America, joining his fellow- 
regicides, Goffe and Whalley, at Hadley in 
New England in February 1665 (Polyanthea, 
ii. 133). After a short stay with them he 
settled at New Haven, Connecticut, calling 
himself by the name of James Davids. At 
Newhaven he married, first, Joanna Ling 
(3 Nov. 1673), and, secondly, BathshebaHow 
(23 Oct. 1677, ibid. p. 136). By the latter 
he had three children, whose descendants 
were living in New England in the eighteenth 
century. In the records of the parish church 
of New Haven occurs an entry of the admis- 
sion into church fellowship of Mr. James 
Davids, alias John Dixwell (29 Dec. 1685, 
ibid. p. 137). Dixwell died at New Haven on 
18 March 1689, according to his tombstone, 
in the eighty-second year of his age (ibid. 
p. 148). 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; Nalson's Trial of 
Charles I, 1684 ; Noble's Lives of the Regicides, 
1798, i. 180; Ezra Stiles's History of Three of 
the Judges of Charles I, Major-general Whalley, 
Major-general Goffe, and Colonel Dixwell, 1794; 
Polyanthea, or a Collection of Interesting Frag- 
ments in Prose and Verse, 1804, ii. 132-94 ; Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. ix. 466.] C. H. F. 

DOBBS, ARTHUR (1689-1765), of 
Castle Dobbs, county Antrim, governor of 
North Carolina 1754-65, eldest son of Richard 
Dobbs of Castletown, who was high sheriff of 
Antrim in 1694, by his first wife Mary, daugh- 
ter of Archibald Stewart of Ballintoy, was 
born 2 April 1689. He succeeded to the 
family property on the death of his father in 
1711, was high sheriff of Antrim in 1720, and 
in 1727 was returned for Carrickfergus in the 
Irish parliament of 1727-60. He married 
Anne, daughter and heir of Captain Osborne 
of Timahoe, county Kildare, and relict of 
Captain Norbury, by whom he had a family 
(see BTJKKE, Landed Gentry). 



Dobbs 



Dobbs 



Dobbs was appointed engineer- in-chief and 
surveyor-general in Ireland by Sir Robert 
Walpole, to whom he was introduced, in 
1730, by Dr. Hugh Boulter, archbishop of 
Armagh [q. v.l, as ' one of the members of 
our House of Commons, where he on all oc- 
casions endeavours to promote his majesty's 
service. He . . . has for some time applied 
his thoughts to the trade of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and to the making of our co- 
lonies in America of more use than they have 
hitherto been ' (Boulter's Letters, ii. 17). He 
appears to have been a man of wealth and 
broad and liberal views as well as consider- 
able attainments. He wrote an 'Account 
of an Aurora Borealis, with a Solution of 
the Phenomenon,' in ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions,' 1726 (' Abridg.' vii. 155). His next 
effort was his 'Essay on the Trade and Im- 
ports of Ireland' (Dublin, 1st part, 1729, 
2nd part, 1731), a work ' designed to give 
a true state of the kingdom, that may set us 
upon thinking what may be done for the good 
and improvement of one's country, and to 
rectify mistakes many in England have fallen 
into by reason of a prevailing opinion that 
the trade and prosperity of Ireland are detri- 
mental to their wealth and commerce, and 
that we are their rivals in trade \Essay, con- 
clusion of pt. ii.) The author advocated an 
improved system of land tenure, a measure 
he also pressed on the Irish House of Com- 
mons, being of opinion that Ireland was suf- 
fering ' from the commonalty's having no fixed 
property in their land, the want of which de- 
prives them of a sufficient encouragement to 
improvements and industry ; ' and that ' the 
present short tenures serve only as a snare to 
induce the nobility and gentry to be extrava- 
gant, arbitrary, and in some cases tyrannical, 
and the commonalty to be dejected, dispirited, 
and, in a sense, slaves in some places ' (Essay, 
ii. 81). This essay contains much valuable in- 
formation from official sources respecting the 
actual state of Irish trade and of the popula- 
tion at the time, which has been neglected 
by later controversialists. A copy of the work 
is in the British Museum Library, and a re- 
print appeared in Dublin in I860.' Dobbs also 
took a very active part in promoting the 
search for a north-west passage to India and 
China. He states that he prepared an abs- j 
tract of all the voyages for that purpose 
known to him, and submitted it to Colonel j 
Bladen [q. v.] in the hope that the South Sea \ 
Company, then whale-fishing in Davis' Straits, i 
would take up the enterprise. This was in i 
1730-1, when the Hudson's Bay Company's 
privileges were unknown to him. On the 
occasion of a visit to London in 1734-5, he 
laid the matter before Admiral Sir Charles 



Wager, and appears to have been in communi- 
cation with the Hudson's Bay Company and 
the admiralty on the subject. Eventually 
the admiralty provided two small vessels, the 
Furnace bomb and the Discovery pink, for the 
service. On Dobbs's recommendation, Cap- 
tain Christopher Middleton, a Hudson's Bay 
Company's captain, who had commanded an 
unsuccessful voyage of discovery for the com- 
pany in 1737, was appointed to command. 
The vessels left England in May 1741, win- 
tered at Churchill River in Hudson's Bay, 
and the year after penetrated further north 
than any ot J^eir predecessors. They dis- 
covered Cape Dobbs, beside Welcome Bay, 
and entering Wager River ascended as far 
as 88 west Greenwich, returning along the 
north-east, and examining all openings. At 
Repulse Bay they were stopped by the ice, and 
returned home in September 1742. Middle- 
ton reported that the great opening seen be- 
tween the 65 and the 66 parallels of north 
latitude was only a large river, and that the 
set of the tide in the bay was from the east- 
ward, not from the north, on which Dobbs's 
hopes of the existence of a passage had been 
largely based. He made some magnetic ob- 
servations, afterwards confirmed by Sir Ed- 
ward Parry. Dobbs at first accepted the 
report as correct, but an anonymous letter 
changed his views, and he accused Middleton 
to the admiralty of making false statements 
at the instance of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. The admiralty called on Middleton for 
explanations, and a most acrimonious dispute 
followed. Middleton's ' Vindication of the 
Conduct of Captain Christopher Middleton ' 
(London, 1743) was followed by ' Remarks 
on Capt. Middleton's Defence. By A. Dobbs ' 
(London, 1744), and this by Middleton's 'A 
Rejoinder,' &c. (London, 1745). The public, 
with the national dislike to monopolies, sided 
with Dobbs, and without much difficulty a 
company was started to send out a new ex- 
pedition. Dobbs in the meantime published 
'An Account of the Countries adjoining Hud- 
son's Bay, containing a description of the 
Lakes and Rivers, Soil and Climate, &c.' 
(London, 1744, 4to). Apart from the con- 
troversial portions, the work contains much 
valuable and interesting information. The 
author states that it was compiled from ac- 
counts published by the French and communi- 
cations received from persons who had resided 
there and been employed in the trade, and par- 
ticularly from Joseph de la France, a French- 
Canadian half-breed, who came over to Eng- 
land in 1742. Dobbs strongly urged that the 
trade should be thrown open, alleging that 
the rapacity of the Hudson's Bay Company 
in dealing with the Indians had thrown the 



Dobbs 



132 



Dobbs 



fur trade into the hands of the French in 
Canada. The new expedition, consisting of 
two small vessels under the command of G. 
Moor, who had been master of the Discovery 
with Middleton. left England in 1746. An 
account of the voyage was published by Henry 
Ellis [q. v.] under the title ' Voyage to Hud- 
son's Bay in the Dobbs and California ' (Lon- 
don, 1748, 8vo). The results, disproving the 
existence of a passage in the locality supposed, 
served to rehabilitate Middleton in the eyes 
of the public. Dobbs then dropped the sub- 
ject altogether, as appears from some remarks 
in a paper on ' Bees, and the mode of taking 
Wax and Honey,' which he wrote in 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' 1750 (' Abridg.' x. 78). 

In 1754 Dobbs was appointed governor of 
North Carolina, a post worth 1,000/. a year. 
He arrived out in the fall, attended, the his- 
torian of the state relates, by numerous rela- 
tives, all full of hope of places and prefer- 
ment. He was one of the colonial governors 
who attended the council at Hampton, Vir- 
ginia, summoned by General Braddock in 
April 1755. He brought out as gifts from 
the king to the province several pieces of 
cannon and a thousand stand of muskets ; 
but he also brought a more powerful advo- 
cate than arms, a printer, who was to be 
encouraged to carry on his calling. Dobbs 
adopted a conciliatory policy with the Indian 
tribes, and commissioned Colonel Waddell of 
Rowan county to treat with the Catawbas and 
Cherokees. In a despatch of December 1757 
he gave a deplorable account of the quit- 
rents in the province, with some curious par- 
ticulars of ' Mr. Starkey, the treasurer, who 
governs the council by lending them money ' 
(WHEELEK, i. 47). During Dobbs's govern- 
ment the administration of justice in the 
province was much improved, but its chief 
characteristic was an interminable series of 
petty squabbles with the legislature, arising 
from a somewhat high-handed assertion of 
the royal prerogative on the part of the go- 
vernor and stubborn resistance on the part of 
the colonists (ib.) Dobbs died at his seat, 
Town Creek, N.C., 28 March 1765. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry; Returns of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, vol. i. ; Watt's Bibliotheca 
Brit. ; Dobbs's Works ; McCulloch's Literature 
of Political Economy, p. 46 ; Diet. Universelle, 
under ' Christopher Middleton ' and ' H. Ellis; ' 
Parkman'sMontcalm and Wolfe (London, 1884), 
i. 191-5 ; Carolina Papers in Public Kecord 
Office, London ; Wheeler's Hist, of North Caro- 
lina (Philadelphia, 1851), i. 46-7; Notes and 
Queries, Srdser. v. 63, 82, 104, 6th ser. viii. ] 28.] 

H. M. C. 

DOBBS, FRANCIS (1750-1811), Irish 
politician, was a descendant of Richard Dobbs, 



fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, and second 
son of Richard Dobbs of Castletown, whose 
elder son, Arthur Dobbs [q. v.], was the go- 
vernor of North Carolina. He was born on 
27 April 1750, and after taking his degree 
at Trinity College was called to the Irish 
bar in 1773, and in the following year pro- 
duced a tragedy, The Patriot King, or the 
Irish Chief.' It was published in London, 
but does not seem ever to have been acted. 
On his return to Dublin, after publishing 
this tragedy, he took a leading part in the 
brilliant social life of the Irish capital, and 
was noted for his wit and poetical ability, 
and also for a growing eccentricity. He took 
a keen interest in the independent political 
life of Ireland which existed during the last 
quarter of the last century, and published his 
first political pamphlets during the volunteer 
agitation. The pamphlets are all worth read- 
ing, and all essentially the author's : they are : 
'A Letter to Lord North,' 1780; 'Thoughts 
on Volunteers,' 1781 ; ' A History of Irish 
Affairs from 12 Oct. 1779 to 15 Sept. 1782/ 
1782 ; and i Thoughts on the present Mode of 
Taxation in Great Britain,' 1784. Throughout 
this stirring period he was a noted political 
personage, a leading volunteer, a friend of 
Lord Charlemont, and the representative of 
a northern volunteer corps at the Dungannon 
convention in 1782. Dobbs then turned for a 
time from politics, and his eccentricity taking 
the shape of a belief in the millennium, he 
published in 1787 four large volumes of a 
' Universal History, commencing at the Crea- 
tion and ending at the death of Christ, in 
letters from a father to his son,' in which 
he exerted himself to prove historically the 
exact fulfilment of the Messianic prophecies. 
He also published in 1788 a volume of poems, 
most of which had appeared in various perio- 
dicals, and many of which possess great 
merit. Dobbs was fanatically opposed to the 
legislative union with England, and believed 
it not only inexpedient but impious. Lord 
Charlemont and the other national leaders de- 
termined to make use of him, and in 1799 he 
was returned to the Irish House of Commons 
for Lord Charlemont's borough of Charlemont. 
He soon delivered an important speech and 
submitted five propositions for tranquillising 
the country , which were published in 1799, but 
the success of that speech was quite over- 
shadowed by the enormous popularity of his 
great speech delivered against the Union Bill 
on 7 June 1800, of which, it is said, thirty thou- 
sand copies were immediately sold. This popu- 
larity was due as much to the eccentric nature 
of Dobbs's arguments against the union as to 
its eloquence, for he devoted himself to proving 
that the union was forbidden by scripture, by 



Dobell 



133 



Dobell 



quoting texts from Daniel and the Revela- 
tion. This popular speech was published 
by Dobbs as * Substance of a Speech delivered 
in the Irish House of Commons 7 June 1800, 
in which is predicted the second coming of 
the Messiah/ and he took advantage of the 
attention he had attracted to publish in the 
same year his ' Concise View of the Great Pre- 
dictions in the SacredWritings,' and his ' Sum- 
mary of Universal History,' in nine volumes, 
on which he had been long engaged. With 
the passing of the Act of Union Dobbs sank 
into obscurity ; he could not get any more of 
his books published, his circumstances became 
embarrassed, his eccentricities increased to 
madness, and he died in great pecuniary 
difficulties on 11 April 1811. 

[Barrington's Historic Anecdotes of the Union; 
Hardy's Life of Lord Charlemont ; Coote's His- 
tory of the Union.] H. M. S. 

DOBELL, SYDNEY THOMPSON 

(1824-1874), poet and critic, born 5 April 
1824 at Cranbrook in Kent, was the eldest 
son of John Dobell, author of a remarkable 
pamphlet, ' Man unfit to govern Man,' and 
a daughter of Samuel Thompson, known in 
his day as a leader of reforming movements 
in the city of London. His father, a wine 
merchant, removed in 1836 from Kent to 
Cheltenham, where the poet maintained, with 
various degrees of activity, till his death, his 
connection with the business and the district. 
Sydney, whose precocious juvenile verses had 
already attracted notice, was, with results in 
some respects unfortunate, educated by pri- 
vate tutors and his own study, and never went 
to either school or university. To this fact 
he makes an interesting reference in the course 
of some humorous lines on Cheltenham Col- 
lege, which date from his eighteenth year. 
At home he was overworked, especially over- 
strained by the fervour of inherited religious 
zeal, and his genius, in the absence of social 
checks, soon showed a tendency to eccentri- 
city of expression, from which in later life he 
partially, but never entirely, shook himself 
free. From first to last he lived more among 
the heights of an ideal world than the beaten 
paths of life. Hence the elevation and the 
limitations of his work. His training during 
this crucial period made him a varied, but pre- 
vented him from becoming a precise, scholar, 
a result patent alike in his prose and verse. 

In 1839 he became engaged to a daughter 
of George Fordham of Odsey House. Cam- 
bridge ; in 1844 they were married, and were 
never, as stated in Dobell's biography, thirty 
hours apart during the thirty years of their 
union. The early period of their wedded life 
was divided between residence at Chelten- 



ham and country places among the hills. A 
meeting at one of these, Coxhorn House, 
in the valley of Charlton Kings, with Mr. 
Stansfield and Mr. George Dawson, is said to 
have originated the Society of the Friends of 
Italy. Previously, at Hucclecote, on the Via 
Arminia, he had begun l The Roman,' which 
appeared in 1850, under the pseudonym of 
Sydney Yendys. Inspired by the stirring 
events of the time, this dramatic poem, from 
its intrinsic merit and its accord with a popu- 
lar enthusiasm, had a rapid and decided suc- 
cess, and while establishing his reputation 
enlarged the circle of the author's friends, 
among whom were numbered leading writers 
like Tennyson and Carlyle, artists like Hoi- 
man Hunt and Rossetti, prominent patriots 
like Mazzini and Kossuth. The poet's de- 
votion to the cause of ' the nationalities ' 
Italian, Hungarian, Spanish never abated ; 
it remained, as evinced by one of his latest 
fragments, ' Mentana,' a link between his 
adolescent radical and his mature liberal-con- 
servative politics. Shortly afterwards Dobell's 
elaborate and appreciative criticism of Currer 
Bell in ' The Palladium ' led to an interesting 
correspondence between the two authors. 
The August of 1850 he spent in North Wales, 
the following summer in Switzerland, and 
their mountain scenery left an impress on all 
his later work. ' Balder,' finished in 1853 at 
Amberley Hill, was with the general public 
and the majority of critics less fortunate than 
' The Roman.' It is harder to read, as it was 
harder to write. The majority of readers, in 
search of pleasure and variety, recoiled from 
its violences, were intolerant of its monotony, 
and misunderstood the moral of its painful 
plot. The book is incomplete, as it stands a 
somewhat chaotic fragment of an unfulfilled 
design, but it exhibits the highest flights of 
the author's imagination and his finest pic- 
tures of Nature. The descriptions of Cha- 
mouni, of the Coliseum, of spring, and of the 
summer's day on the hill, almost sustain the 
comparisons which they provoke. To most 
readers ' Balder ' will remain a portent, but it 
has stamina for permanence as a mine for 
poets. 

In 1854 Dobell went to Edinburgh to seek 
medical advice for his wife, and during the 
next three years resided in Scotland, spend- 
ing the winters in the capital, the summers 
in the highlands. During this period he made 
the acquaintance, among others, of Mr. Hunter 
of Craigcrook, Dr. Samuel Brown, Dr. John 
Brown, Edward Forbes, W. E. Aytoun, Sir 
Noel Paton, Mr. Dallas, and Sir David Brew- 
ster. In conjunction with Alexander Smith, 
to whom he was united in close ties of lite- 
rary brotherhood, he issued in 1855 a series 



Dobell 



134 



Dobree 



of sonnets on the Crimean war. This was 
followed in 1856 by a volume of dramatic and 
descriptive verses on the same theme, en- 
titled ' England in Time of War,' which had 
a success only inferior to that of ' The Roman.' 
The best pieces in this collection, as ' Keith 
of Ravelston,' ' Lady Constance,' ' A Shower 
in War Time,' < Grass from the Battle-field,' 
' Dead Maid's Pool,' l An Evening Dream,' 
' The Betsy Jane,' &c., have, from their depth 
of sympathy and lyric flow, found a place in 
our best popular treasuries. Dobell's residence 
in Edinburgh was marked, as was all his life, 
by acts of kindness to struggling men of 
letters, notable alike for their delicacy and 
the comparatively slender resources of the 
benefactor. In the case of all deserving as- 
pirants, among whom may be mentioned David 
Gray of Merklands, his advice and encourage- 
ment were as ready as his substantial aid. In 
1857 he delivered a long lecture to the Philo- 
sophical Institution on ' The Nature of Poetry,' 
and the exhaustion resulting from the effort 
further impaired his already weak health. 
Advised to seek a milder climate, he spent 
the winters of the four following years at 
Niton in the Isle of Wight, the summers 
among the Cotswolds. Regular literary work 
being forbidden by his physicians, he turned 
his thoughts to another channel of usefulness, 
and, taking a more active part in the business 
of his firm, was one of the first to introduce 
and apply the system of co-operation. All 
who knew Gloucester associated his name 
with every movement in the direction of so- 
cial progress and with every charitable enter- 
prise in the town. After 1862 increasing 
delicacy of health rendered it necessary for 
Dobell to pass the winters abroad ; in that 
of 1862-3 his headquarters were near Cannes, 
in 1863-4 in Spain, in 1864-6 in Italy. The 
summers of those years were still spent in 
Gloucestershire, and in 1865 he gave evidence 
of his political interests by the pamphlet on 
* Parliamentary Reform,' advocating gradu- 
ated suffrage and plurality of votes, that ap- 
pears among his prose fragments. 

In 1866 a serious fall among the ruins of 
Pozzuoli and, three years later, a dangerous 
accident with his horse, further reduced his 
strength, if not his energies, and the rest o 
his life was, though diversified by literary 
efforts as the pamphlet on ' Consequential 
Damages,' 'England's Day,' and elaborate 
plans for the continuation of ' Balder 'that 
of a more or less confirmed, though always 
cheerful, invalid. From 1866 to 1871 he re- 
sided mainly at Noke Place, on the slope of 
Chosen Hill, though he passed much of the 
colder season at Clifton, where he benefited 
by the advice of his friend, Dr. Symonds. 



In 1871 he removed to Barton-end House, 
fourteen miles on the other side of Glouces- 
ter, in a beautiful district above the Stroud 
Valley. There he continued to write occa- 
sional verses and memoranda, and was fre- 
quently visited by friends attracted by his 
gracious hospitality and brilliant conversa- 
tional powers. In 1874 unfortunate circum- 
stances, involving a mental strain to which 
he was then physically inadequate, hastened 
his death, which took place in the August of 
that year. He was buried in Painswick ceme- 
tery. 

Dobell's character was above criticism. 
The nature of his work has been indicated ; 
its quality will be variously estimated. Ori- 
ginal and independent of formulae to the 
verge of aggressiveness, he shared by nature, 
by no means through imitation, in some of 
the defects, occasional obscurity, involved 
conceits, and remoteness, of the seventeenth- 
century school which Dr. Johnson called me- 
taphysical ; but in loftiness of thought and 
richness of imagery his best pages have been 
surpassed by few, if any, of his contempora- 
ries. His form is often faulty, but his life 
and writings together were in healthy pro- 
test against the subordination of form to 
matter that characterises much of the effemi- 
nate sestheticism of our age. Manliness in 
its highest attributes of courage and courtesy 
pervaded his career ; his poetry is steeped in 
that keen atmosphere to which it is the aim 
of all enduring literature to raise our spirits. 
A radical reformer in some directions, he held 
the tyranny of mobs and autocrats in equal 
aversion. Though his politics had a visionary 
side, he was far from being a dreamer. Of 
practical welldoing he was never weary, and 
of jealousy he had not a tinge. His criticisms, 
if not always sound, were invariably valuable, 
for he awoke in his hearers a consciousness 
of capacities as well as a sense of duties. 

A complete edition of his poems was pub- 
lished in 1875 (2 vols.), of his prose in 1876. 
His ' Life and Letters ' appeared in 1878, 2 vols. 
A selected edition of his poems, edited by Mr. 
W. Sharp, appeared in February 1887 in one 
small volume. 

[Dobell's Life and Letters ; family records.] 

J. N. 

DOBREE, PETER PAUL (1782-1825), 
Greek scholar, son of William Dobree of 
Guernsey, was born in Guernsey in 1782, and, 
after being educated under Dr. Valpy at 
Reading School, matriculated as a pensioner 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in December 
1800. He graduated as fourth senior optime 
in 1804, was elected fellow of Trinity in 
1806, proceeded M.A. in 1807, and took holy 



Dobree 



135 



Dobree 



orders in due course. Charles Burney gave 
him an introduction to Person (PORSON, Cor- 
respondence, p. 105), and thus began an ac- 
quaintanceship which led to Dobree's follow- 
ing closely the steps of his illustrious master. 
His first appearance as an author was in the 
' Monthly Review,' where he wrote the re- 
view of Bothe's ' JEschylus ' (app. to vol. lii. 
1807), the collation of Person's edition of 
the ' Choephori ' with another published by 
Foulis (June 1807), the review of Burney's 
' Bentleii Epistolse ' (April 1808), and that 
of Hodgkin's ' Pcecilographia Greeca ' (July 
1808). On Person's death he came forward 
as a candidate for the Greek professorship at 
Cambridge, and was to have read his proba- 
tionary lecture on Aristophanes ; but finding 
the electors unanimous, or nearly so, in favour 
of Monk, he withdrew from the contest ; the 
same was done by Kaye (afterwards bishop 
of Lincoln), and Monk was elected without 
opposition. On Monk's resignation in June 
1823, Dobree was the only candidate for the 
post, and was elected on June 26, after read- 
ing a preelection on the funeral oration as- 
cribed to Lysias. This is published in the 
first volume of the ' Adversaria.' His health 
gave way almost immediately afterwards, 
and he died in his rooms in Trinity College 
on 24 Sept. 1825. He was buried close to 
Porson in the chapel, where a bust and 
tablet to his memory were erected ; the in- 
scription is given in the preface to the ' Ad- 
versaria.' 

Though a man of varied acquirements, Do- 
bree's life was spent on classical, chiefly Greek, 
literature ; vast stores were laid up for future 
years ; besides a large body of notes on the 
Greek dramatists and Atheneeus, he left very 
extensive collections on the historians and 
orators, and probably had meditated an edi- 
tion of Demosthenes. To Greek inscriptions 
he gave a great deal of attention. When the 
annotated portion of Porson's library was 
bought by Trinity College, he was selected, 
with two of his brother-fellows, Monk and 
Blomfield, to edit the manuscripts. He was 
at first prevented by illness from taking a 
share in the work, and shortly after his re- 
covery set out on a journey to Spain ; and 
thus the volume of 'Person's ' Adversaria ' 
was edited by his two colleagues. But the 
whole of the papers on Aristophanes was en- 
trusted to his care ; and in 1820 he produced 
Porson's ' Aristophanica,' with the Plutus 

Prefixed, chiefly from Porson's autograph, 
n 1822 he edited the lexicon of the patri- 
arch Photius, from Porson's transcript of the 
Gale MS. in the library of Trinity College, 
which Porson had twice copied out, the first 
transcript having perished in the fire at 



Perry's. To this he added an edition of a 
rhetoric lexicon, from the margin of one of 
the Cambridge MSS. Dobree had a share in 
the founding of Valpy's ' Classical Journal ' 
in 1810, and occasionally wrote in it. He 
reviewed there Burney's ' Tentamen de Metris 
^Eschyli' (September 1810), the paper in 
which his splendid emendation of ya^dpo> for 
y fvpolpav (Eumen. 888) appears. His other 

npers are : ' Inscription at Damietta ' (No. 
f , ' Inscription at Fenica ' (No. 10), * Classi- 
cal Criticism ' (No. 14), ' Fragment of Lon- 
gus ' (No. 16), ' De Hesychio Milesio ' (No. 18), 
' Epitaphium in Athenienses ' (No. 27), ' Or- 
chomenian inscription' (No. 32) (see on this 
his remarks in CLARKE, Travels, vii. 191-6, 
8vo), ' On a passage in Plato's Meno ' (No. 33) ; 
they are usually signed 0. or Stelocopas. 
To Mr. Kidd's ' Tracts and Criticisms of Por- 
son ' (1815) he added the ' Auctarium ' (pp. 
381-93), and to Mr. Rose's ' Inscriptiones 
Grsecse ' the letter on the Greek marbles in 
Trinity College Library. Thus, if the notes 
on inscriptions be excepted, everything he 
published in his lifetime was due to his re- 
verence for Porson. 

He bequeathed one thousand volumes to 
the library of his college, but his books with 
manuscript notes to that of the university ; 
from these his successor, Professor Schole- 
field, published two volumes of ' Adver- 
saria' (1831-3), containing very large se- 
lections from his notes on the Greek and 
Latin writers, especially the orators, and sub- 
sequently (1834-5) a small volume of notes 
on inscriptions, and a reissue of the ' Lexi- 
con Rhetoricum Cantabrigiense ' which he 
had appended to Photius. These amply jus- 
tify his being classed in the first rank of 
English scholars. It was said of him : ' Of 
all Porson's scholars none so nearly re- 
sembles his great master. His mind seems to 
have been of a kindred character ; the same 
unweariable accuracy, the same promptness 
in coming to the point, the same aversion to 
all roundabout discussions, the same felicity 
in hitting on the very passage by which a 
question is to be settled, which were such 
remarkable features in Porson, are no less 
remarkable in Dobree. Both of them are 
preserved by their wary good sense from ever 
committing a blunder ; both are equally 
fearful of going beyond their warrant, equally 
| distrustful of all theoretical speculations, 
j equally convinced that in language usage 
I is all in all. Nay, even in his knowledge of 
! Greek, of the meaning and force of all its 
i words and idioms, Dobree is only inferior to 
j Porson; his conjectural emendations, too, 
i are almost always sound, and some of them 
' may fairly stand by the side of the best of 



Dobson 



136 



Dobson 



Person's' (HAKE, Philological Museum, i. 
205-6). 

[Documents in the Cambridge University Re- 
gistry ; Museum Criticum, i. 116; Kidd's Pre- 
face to Dawes's Miscellanea Critica, 2nd ed. pp. 
xxxvii-xxxviii ; Preface to Dobraei Adversaria, 
vol. i. ; Catalogue of Adversaria in the Cambr. 
Univ. Library, pp. 66-80 ; information from the 
late A. J. Valpy.] H. R. L. 

DOBSON", JOHN (1633-1681), puritan 
divine, was born in 1633 in Warwickshire, 
in which county his father was a minister. 
He became a member of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, in 1653, taking his B.A. degree in 
October 1656, proceeding M.A. in 1659, and 
in 1662 being made perpetual fellow. He had 
prior to 1662 taken orders, and speedily be- 
came known as an eloquent preacher. His 
memory was so good that at Easter 1663 he 
repeated four Latin sermons in St. Mary's 
Church, Oxford. In September of that year 
he was expelled from the university for being 
the author of a libel vindicating Dr. Thomas 
Pierce against the strictures of Dr. Henry 
Yerbury, although Wood alleges that he 
did not write the libel, but only took the re- 
sponsibility on himself to shield Dr. Pierce. 
Dobson was soon after restored, and in De- 
cember 1667 obtained the degree of B.D., and 
in the year following was instituted to the 
rectory of Easton Neston in Northampton- 
shire. In 1670 he was presented to the rec- 
tory of Corscombe in Dorsetshire, and about 
four years later to that of Cold Higham in 
Northamptonshire, by Sir William Farmer 
of Easton Neston, who had been his pupil at 
Magdalen College. He died in 1681 at Cors- 
combe, where he was buried and a monu- 
mental tablet erected to his memory. He 
wrote : 1. ' Queries upon Queries, or En- 
quiries into certain Queries upon Dr. Pierce's 
Sermon at Whitehall, February the first,' 
1663. 2. < Dr. Pierce, his Preaching confuted 
by his Practice.' 3. 'Doctor Pierce, his Preach- 
ing exemplified by his Practice ; or an Anti- 
dote to the Poison of a Scurrilous Pamphlet 
sent by N. G. to a Friend in London,' 1663. 
4. ' Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Mary 
Farmer, relict of Sir William Farmer, bart.,' 
1670. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 1 ; Hutchins's 
Hist, of Dorset, vol. i. ; Salisbury's Account of 
First-fruits ; Bloxam's Registers of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, i. 46, ii. 197, v. 164.] 

A. C. B. 

DOBSON, JOHN (1787-1865), architect, 
was born in 1787 at Chirton, North Shields. 
From an early age he manifested a great power 
of design, and at fifteen he was placed as a 



pupil in the office of Mr. David Stephenson, 
the leading builder and architect in New- 
castle-on-Tyne. On the completion of his 
studies he repaired to London, and sought 
the instruction of John Varley, the father of 
English water-colour, who was so struck with 
his ability as to agree to give him lessons at 
the early hour of five in the morning, the 
rest of his day being fully occupied. One of 
Varley's pictures, exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, was a curious monument of their 
intercourse. It was an airy landscape, with 
buildings, wood, and water, which was ac- 
tually composed by the master from a sketch 
noted down by the pupil on awakening from 
sleep, and bore the title of ' Dobson's Dream.' 
After some time spent in London Dobson 
returned to Newcastle, where he settled him- 
self permanently, and became the most noted 
architect of the north of England. He died, 
8 Jan. 1865, in his seventy-seventh year. It 
has been claimed for him that he was the real 
author of the modern Gothic revival in actual 
practice, and that the earliest Gothic church 
of this century was built by him. He was 
the restorer of a great number of churches, 
and acted with judgment and knowledge 
where he was not overruled. In domestic 
architecture he was perhaps even more suc- 
cessful. His work is to be seen in many of 
the great seats of the gentry of the north, 
as Lambton Castle, Unthank Hall, Seaton 
Delaval, in which last place the difficulties 
that he overcame were extraordinary. In engi- 
neering architecture his greatest achievement 
was the Newcastle central station, the curved 
platform of which has been imitated through- 
out the kingdom, and the design of which, 
if it had been carried out as he gave it, would 
have been very fine. In prison architecture 
he applied the radiating system, which was for 
many years the favourite scheme of Jeremy 
Bentham. Bentham, however, was unable 
to secure the adoption of his ' Panopticon.' 
An early example of this structure was given 
by Dobson in his building of Newcastle gaol. 
His great monument, indeed, is the city of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, the greatest part of the 
public buildings of which, and the finest new 
streets, were designed or erected by him. If 
the corporation of Newcastle could have ac- 
cepted his designs absolutely, their town 
would now be the finest in the empire. The 
characteristics of this architect were adap- 
tability, ingenuity, patience, constructive 
imagination, and an instinctive intelligence 
of the genius loci. 

[Life by his daughter, Memoirs of John Dob- 
son, 1885 ; an account of his architectural pro- 
jections is given in Mackenzie's Hist, of New- 
castle.] E. W. D. 



Dobson 



137 



Dobson 



DOBSON, SUSANNAH, nee DAWSON 
(d. 1795), translator, came from the south of 
England. She married Matthew Dobson, 
M.D., F.R.S., of Liverpool, author of several 
medical treatises, who died at Bath in 1784. 
In 1775 she published her ' Life of Petrarch, 
collected from Memoires pour la vie de Pe- 
trarch' (by de Sade), in 2 vols. 8vo. It was 
reprinted in 1777, and several times up to 
1805, when the sixth edition was issued. Her 
second work was a translation of Sainte- 
Palaye's 'Literary History of the Trouba- 
dours,' 1779, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1807. In 1784 
she translated the same author's * Memoirs 
of Ancient Chivalry,' and in 1791 Petrarch's 
* View of Human Life ' (' De Remediis Utri- 
usque Fortunee'). To her also is ascribed 
an anonymous ' Dialogue on Friendship and 
Society' (8vo, no date), and ' Historical Anec- 
dotes of Heraldry and Chivalry.' The latter 
was published in quarto at Worcester about 
1795. Madame d'Arblay mentions that in 
1780 Mrs. Dobson was ambitious to get into 
Mrs. Thrale's circle, but the latter * shrunk 
from her advances.' She died 30 Sept. 1795, 
and was buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 

[Smithers's Liverpool, 1825, p. 418; Gent. 
Mag. 1795, pt. ii. p. 881 ; D'Arblay's Diary, &c., 
1842, i. 336 ; Moule's Bibliotheca Heraldica, 1 822, 
p. 480; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed Books.] 

C. W. S. 

DOBSON, WILLIAM (1610-1646), por- 
trait-painter, was born in London, in the 
parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, in 1610. His 
father, who was master of the Alienation 
Office, had been a gentleman of good position 
in St. Albans, but having squandered his 
estate, he apprenticed his son to Robert Peake, 
a portrait-painter and dealer in pictures, who 
was afterwards knighted by Charles I. He 
appears, however, to have learned more of 
the elder Cleyn. According to Walpole, he 
acquired great skill by copying pictures by 
Titian and Vandyck, and one of his pictures 
exposed in the window of a shop on Snow 
Hill, London, attracted the attention of Van- 
dyck, who found him at work in a garret, 
and introduced him to the notice of the king. 
On the death of Vandyck in 1641, Dobson 
was appointed sergeant-painter to Charles I, 
whom he accompanied to Oxford, where the 
king, Prince Rupert, and several of the no- 
bility sat to him. Dobson stood high in the 
favour of Charles, by whom he was styled 
the ' English Tintoret.' He is said to have 
been so overwhelmed with commissions that 
he endeavoured to check them by obliging his 
sitters to pay half the price before he began, 
a practice which he was the first to intro- 
duce. The decline of the fortunes of Charles, 



however, coupled with his own imprudence 
and extravagance, involved him in debt to 
such an extent that he was thrown into 
prison, and obtained his release only through 
the kindness of a patron. He died soon after 
in London on 28 Oct. 1646, and was buried 
in the church of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
He was of middle height, possessing ready 
wit and pleasing conversation, and was twice 
married. There are two epigrams on portraits 
by him in Elsum's ' Epigrams,' 1700, and an 
elegy upon him in a collection of poems called 
' Calanthe.' 

Dobson was the first English painter, except 
Sir Nathaniel Bacon [q. v.J, who distinguished 
himself in portrait and history. He was an 
excellent draughtsman and a good colourist, 
and although his portraits resemble some- 
what those of Vandyck and Lely, his style 
is distinct enough to prevent his works being 
mistaken for theirs. 

The principal subject picture by him is the 
' Beheading of St. John/ in the collection of the 
Earl of Pembroke at Wilton House. Among 
his chief works in portraiture are the fine 
painting of himself and his wife at Hampton 
Court, and of which there are one or two 
1 replicas ; a picture containing the portraits 
, of ' Two Gentlemen,' also at Hampton Court, 
I and of which a replica is said to be at Cobham 
Hall ; a picture containing half-length por- 
traits of Sir Charles Cotterell, Sir Balthazar 
Gerbier, and himself, in the possession of the 
Duke of Northumberland ; the Family of Sir 
Thomas Browne, the author of ' Religio Me- 
dici,' in the collection of the Duke of Devon- 
shire at Devonshire House ; John Cleveland, 
j the poet, in that of the Earl of Ellesmere 
at Bridgewater House ; William Cavendish, 
' first duke of Newcastle, in that of the Duke 
j of Newcastle ; Margaret Lemon, the mistress 
i of Vandyck, in that of Earl Spencer at 
' Althorp ; James Graham, marquis of Mont- 
| rose (ascribed also to Vandyck), in that of 
' the Earl of Warwick ; Bishop Rutter, in that 
| of the Earl of Derby at Knowsley Hall ; 
John Thurloe, .secretary of state, in that of 
Lord Thurlow; John, first Lord Byron, in 
that of Lord De Tabley ; the Tradescant Fa- 
i mily, Sir John Suckling, the poet, and the 
artist's wife, in the Ashmolean Museum at 
I Oxford ; a fine head of Abraham Vander- 
i dort, the painter, formerly in the Houghton 
Gallery, and now in the Hermitage at St. Pe- 
tersburg ; and those of Lord-keeper Coventry, 
. Colonel William Strode, one of the five mem- 
bers arrested by Charles I, Cornet Joyce, who 
carried off the king from Holmby House and 
delivered him up to the army, Sir Thomas Fair- 
| fax, afterwards third Lord Fairfax, Thomas 
Parr (' Old Parr '), and Nathaniel Lee, the 



Dobson 



138 



Docharty 



mad poet, all of which were in the National 
Portrait Exhibition of 1866, and a fine half- 
length of a sculptor (unknown), exhibited by 
the Earl of Jersey at the Royal Academy in 
1888. There are in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery heads by Dobson of Sir Henry Van the 
younger, Endymion Porter, Francis Quarles, 
the poet, and that of himself, which was 
engraved by Bannerman for the Strawberry 
Hill edition of Walpole's ' Anecdotes,' and 
by S. Freeman for Wornum's edition of the 
same work. Dobson's portrait, after a painting 
by himself, was also engraved in mezzotint by 
George White. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting in England, 
ed. Wornum, 1849,ii. 351-4; Eedgraves' Century 
of Painters of the English School, 1866, i. 29 ; 
Seguier's Critical and Commercial Dictionary of 
the Works of Painters, 1870; D'Argenville's 
Abrege de la vie des plus fameux Peintres, 1762, 
iii. 411-13; Scharfs Historical and Descriptive 
Cat. of the National Portrait Gallery, 1884; 
Law's Historical Cat. of the Pictures at Hampton 
Court, 1881 ; Waagen's Treasures of Art in Great 
Britain, 4 vols., 1854-7; Catalogues of the Exhi- 
bitions of National Portraits on loan to the South 
Kensington Museum, 1866-8 ; Catalogues of the 
Exhibitions of Works of Old Masters at the Royal 
Academy, 1871-88.] K. E. G. 

DOBSON, WILLIAM (1820-1884),jour- 
nalist and antiquary, came of a family of 
agriculturists seated at Tarleton in Lanca- 
shire. His father was Lawrence Dobson, a 
stationer and part proprietor with Isaac Wil- 
cockson of the ' Preston Chronicle.' He was 
born at Preston in 1820, and educated at the 
grammar school of that town. He afterwards 
engaged in the various branches of newspaper 
work. On the retirement of Wilcockson he 
acquired a partnership interest in the ' Chro- 
nicle/ and was for some years the editor. 
His career as a journalist came practically to 
an end in March 1868, when the proprietor- 
ship of the 'Chronicle' was transferred to 
Anthony Hewitson. He continued, how- 
ever, along with his brother, to carry on the 
stationery business in Fishergate. In August 
1862 he first entered the town council, with 
the especial object of opening up more fully 
for the public the advantages of Dr. Shep- 
herd's library. He remained in the town 
council until November 1872, and subse- 
quently sat from 1874 to November 1883. 
Dobson, who was a member of the Chetham 
Society, possessed an extensive knowledge of 
local history and antiquities. He was the 
author of: 1. ' History of the Parliamentary 
Representation of Preston during the last 
Hundred Years,' 8vo, Preston, 1856 (second 
edition), 12mo, Preston [printed], London, 
1868. 2. 'Preston in the Olden Time; or, 



Illustrations of the Manners and Customs in 
Preston in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Centuries. A Lecture,' 12mo, Preston, 1857. 

3. ' An Account of the Celebration of Pres- 
j ton Guild in 1862,' 12mo, Preston [1862]. 

4. * Rambles by the Ribble,' 3 series, 8vo, 
Preston, 1804-83, 3rd edition, 8vo, Preston, 
1877, &c. 5. ' The Story of our Town Hall,' 
8vo, Preston, 1879. His other writings were : 
1 A Memoir of John Gornall,' ' A Memoir of 
Richard Palmer, formerly Town Clerk of 

| Preston,' ' The Story of Proud Preston,' ' A 
History and Description of the Ancient 
Houses in the Market Place, Preston,' ' A 

I History of Lancashire Signboards,' and a 
useful work on ' The Preston Municipal Elec- 
tions from 1835 to 1862.' He also published 
' Extracts from the Diary of the Rev. Peter 
Walkden, Nonconformist Minister, for the 
years 1725, 1729, and 1730, with Notes/ 

I 12mo, Preston [printed], London, 1866, an 
interesting scrap of local biography, and 

i joined John Harland, F.S.A., of Manchester, 
in writing ' A History of Preston Guild ; the 
Ordinances of various Guilds Merchant, the 
Custumal of Preston, the Charters to the 
Borough, the Incorporated Companies, List 
of Mayors from 1327,' &c., 12mo, Preston 
[1862], followed by two other editions. Dob- 
son died on 8 Aug. 1884, aged 64, at Churton 
Road, Chester, and was buried on the llth 

| in Chester cemetery. 

[Preston Guardian, 13 Aug. 1884, p. 4, col. 4; 
Preston Chronicle, 16 Aug. 1884, p. 5, col. 6; 
Palatine Note-book, iv. 180 ; Athenaeum, 16 Aug. 
1884,p.210 ; Sutton's List of Lancashire Authors, 
p. 31 ; Fishwick's Lancashire Library, pp. 164, 
165, 166, 170, 237.] G. G. 

DOCHARTY, JAMES (1829-1878), 
landscape-painter, born in 1829 at Bonhill, 
Dumbartonshire, was the son of a calico 
printer. He was trained as a pattern de- 
signer at the school of design in Glasgow, 
after which he continued his studies for some 
years in France. Returning to Glasgow he 
began to practise on his own account, and 
| succeeded so well that when he was about 
j thirty-three years of age he was able to give 
up designing patterns and to devote himself 
exclusively to landscape-painting, which he 
had long been assiduously cultivating in his 
leisure hours. His earlier works were for 
the most part scenes from the lochs of the 
Western Highlands, which he exhibited at 
! the Glasgow Fine Art Institute. Afterwards 
i he extended his range of subjects to the Clyde, 
I and to other highland rivers and lochs, which 
he treated with vigour and thorough uncon- 
I ventionality of style. He was an earnest 
student of nature, and his latest and best 
works are distinguished by the quiet harmony 



Docking 



139 



Dockwray 



of their colour. Most of his works appeared 
in Glasgow, but he was also a constant ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Scottish Academy, and 
from 1865 to 1877 his pictures were fre- 
quently seen at the Royal Academy in Lon- 
don. Among the best of these works were: 
* The Haunt of the Red Deer on the Dee, 
Braemar' (1869), 'The Head of Loch Lo- 
mond ' (1873), < Glencoe' (1874), < The River 
Achray, Trossachs' (1876), 'A Good Fishing- 
day, Loch Lomond ' (1877), and his last ex- 
hibited works, ' The Trossachs ' (1878), in the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and a ' Salmon 
Stream ' in the Glasgow Institute exhibition 
of 1878. All his works are in private collec- 
tions. In 1876 failing health compelled him 
to leave home, and he made a lengthened 
tour in Egypt, Italy, and France, without, 
however, deriving much benefit from it. Late 
in 1877 he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy. He died from 
consumption at Pollokshields, Glasgow, on 
5 April 1878, and was buried in Cathcart 
cemetery. 

[Scotsman, Edinburgh Courant, and Glasgow 
Herald, 6 April 1878 ; Art Journal, 1878, p. 155 ; 
Armstrong's Scottish Painters, 1888, p. 73 ; Cata- 
logues of the Exhibition of the Royal Academy, 
1865-77.] R. E. G. 

DOCKING, THOMAS OF (ft. 1250), 
Franciscan, is stated in the Royal MS. 3 B. 
xii. in the British Museum to have been 
really named * Thomas Gude, i.e. Bonus,' but 
called ' Dochyng ' from the place of his birth 
(CASLEY, Catalogue of the Manuscripts of the 
King's Library, p. 43, London, 1734), evi- 
dently the village of Docking in the north of 
the county of Norfolk. The same manuscript 
describes him as doctor of divinity at Oxford. 
Of the character he bore while a student there 
we have testimony in a letter of Adam de 
Marisco, written between 1240 and 1249, in 
which the writer asks the Franciscan provin- 
cial, William of Nottingham, that the Bible 
of a deceased brother may be conferred on 
Thomas of Dokkyng, ' quern et suavissimse 
conversationis honestas, et claritas ingenii 
perspicacis, et litteraturae provectioris emi- 
nentia, et facundia prompti sermonis illus- 
trant insignius ' (ep. cc. in BREWER, Monu- 
menta Franciscana, p. 359). Adam was the | 
first Franciscan reader in divinity in the uni- j 
versity, and Docking, in due course, became 
the seventh in order ; Archbishop Peckham 
was the eleventh (ib. p. 552). The statement 
made by Oudin ( Comm. de Scriptt. Eccles. iii. 
526) that Docking became chancellor of Ox- 
ford seems to rest upon no evidence, and is 
perhaps due to a confusion with Thomas de 
Bukyngham, whose 'Qusestiones Ixxxviii/ 
preserved in an Oxford manuscript (CoxE, 



Catal. Cod. MS8., New College, cxxxiv. p. 49), 
have been conjecturally ascribed to Docking 
by Sbaralea (suppl. to Wadding, Scnptores 
Ordinis Min. p. 675 a, 1806). But the manu- 
script itself describes the author as ' nuper 
ecclesiee Exoniensis cancellarium,' and we 
know that Thomas of Buckingham was col- 
lated to that office in 1346 (LE NEVE, Fasti 
EccL Angl. i. 418, ed. Hardy). From Thomas 
the confusion has extended to John Buck- 
ingham (or Bokingham), who was bishop of 
Lincoln from 1363 to 1397, and the latter's 
' Quaestiones in quattuor libros Sententiarum,' 
published at Paris in 1505, have been accord- 
ingly transferred to our author's bibliography. 
Docking's genuine works consist mainly of 
commentaries. Those on Deuteronomy, Isaiah 
(imperfect), and the Pauline epistles exist in 
manuscripts of the fifteenth century in the 
| library of Balliol College, Oxford (Codd. 
\ xxviii-xxx), and the extent of the writer's 
, popularity is shown by the fact that the first 
of these was transcribed in 1442 by a German, 
Tielman, the son of Reyner. Other manu- 
scripts of some of these works are at Magdalen 
| College, Oxford, in the British Museum, and 
in Lincoln Cathedral. One is apparently that 
on Deuteronomy, mentioned by Tanner under 
' Bokking ' (p. 110). Docking is also said to 
have expounded the book of Job (GASCOIGNE, 
Liber Veritatis, manuscript; ap. WOOD, Hist. 
[ et Antiqq. i. 73, Latin ed.), St. Luke, and 
! the Apocalypse, his work upon this last 
! being possibly (according to an old marginal 
i note) the commentary contained in the Bal- 
i liol MS. cxlix. A commentary on the ten 
commandments according to Deuteronomy, 
bearing Docking's name, is contained in the 
j Bodleian MS. 453, f. 57, and thus a presump- 
| tion arises that the treatise preceding it in 
the manuscript, ' De sufficiencia articulorum 
in simbolo contentorum,' going on to another 
; exposition of the decalogue (also found in 
Laud. MS. Misc. 524, f. 26), is also by Dock- 
ing ; but no name is given, and the character 
of the work argues a later date. Further, a 
' Tabula super Grammaticam ' by Docking is 
', mentioned by Tanner as being in the cathe- 
I dral library at Lincoln. Other works as- 
' signed to Docking, but no longer known to 
I exist, are : 1. 'Lecturse Bibliorum Liber i/ 
| 2. ' Queestiones ordinaries.' 3. ' Correctiones 
in S. Scripturam.' 4. ' In Posteriora Aris- 
[ totelis Libri ii.' 

[Leland's Collect, ii. 343, Comm. de Scriptt. 
Brit, cccxi. pp. 314 et seq. ; Bale's Scriptt. Brir. 
Catal. iv. 29. p. 324 f; Tanners Bibl. Brit. 229 f.] 

R. L. P. 

DOCKWRAY or DOCKWRA, WIL- 
LIAM (d. 1702 ?), was a merchant in Lon- 
don in the later half of the seventeenth cen- 



Dockwray 



140 



Docwra 



tury 
sug 



In 1683, improving upon an idea 
gested, and already partially carried out, 
by Robert Murray, an upholsterer, Dock- 
wray established a penny postal system in 
the metropolis. There existed at this time 
no adequate provision for the carriage of 
letters and parcels between different parts of 
London. Dockwray set up six large offices 
in the city, a receiving-house was opened in 
each of the principal streets, every hour the 
letters and parcels taken in at the receiving- 
houses were carried to ' the grand offices ' by 
one set of messengers, sorted and registered, 
and then delivered by another set of mes- 
sengers in all parts of London. In the prin- 
cipal streets near the Exchange there were 
six or eight, in the suburbs there were four, 
deliveries in the day. All letters and parcels 
not exceeding one pound in weight, or any 
sum of money not exceeding 10/., or any 
parcel not more than 10. in value, were 
carried to any place within the city for a 
penny, and to any distance within a given ten- 
mile radius for twopence. Dockwray's enter- 
prise, so far as he personally was concerned, 
was unsuccessful. The city porters, com- 
plaining that their interests were attacked, 
tore down the placards from the windows and 
doors of the receiving-houses. Titus Gates 
affirmed that the scheme was connected with 
the popish plot. The Duke of York, on 
whom the revenue of the post office had been 
settled, instituted proceedings in the king's 
bench to protect his monopoly, and Dock- 
wray was cast in slight damages and costs. 
In 1690, however, he received a pension of 
500/. a year for seven years, and this was 
continued on a new patent till 1700. Dock- 
wray appears to have been a candidate for 
the chamberlainship of the city of London 
in October 1695 (LUTTRELL), with what re- 
sult is not stated. In 1697 he was appointed 
comptroller of the penny post. A poem on 
Dockwray's ' invention of the penny post ' is 
in ' State Poems ' (1697). In 1698 the officials 
and messengers under his control memo- 
rialised the lords of the treasury to dismiss 
him from his office on the grounds inter alia 
that he had (1) removed the post office from 
Cornhillto a less central station ; (2) detained 
and opened letters ; and (3) refused to take 
in parcels of more than a pound in weight, 
thereby injuring the trade of the post-office 
porters. The charges were investigated be- 
fore Sir Thomas Frankland and Sir Robert 
Cotton, postmasters-general, in August 1699, 
and on 4 June 1700 Dockwray was dismissed 
from his position. In 1702 he petitioned Queen 
Anne for some compensation for his losses, 
stating that six out of his seven children were 
unsettled and unprovided for in his old age. 



[Macaulay's Hist. i. 338 ; Knight's London, 
iii. 282 ; Luttrell's Brief Historical Relation 
of State Affairs, ii. and iv. ; Thornbury's Old 
and New London, ii. 209 ; Le win's Her Majesty's 
Mails, pp. 54, 59 ; Stow's Survey of London, 
ii. 403-4.] A. W. E. 

DOCWRA, SIB HENRY (1560P-1631), 
also spelt Dowkra, Dockwra, Dockwraye, 
Dockquerye, and by Irish writers Docura, 
general, afterwards Baron Docwra of Cul- 
more, was born in Yorkshire about 1568 of 
a family long settled in that county. At 
an early age he became a soldier, and served 
under Sir Richard Bingham [q. v.] in Ireland, 
where he attained the rank of captain, and 
was made constable of Dungarvan Castle 
20 Sept. 1584. The campaign began 1 March 
1586, with the siege of the castle of Clonoan 
in Clare, then held by Mathgamhain O'Briain 
(Annala RioghachtaEireann, v. 1844). After 
a siege of three weeks the castle was taken, 
and the garrison slain. The victorious army 
marched into Mayo, and took the Hag's 
Castle, a mediaeval stronghold built upon an 
ancient crannog in Loch Mask. Bingham next 
laid siege to the castle of Annis, near Ballin- 
robe . The Joyces of Dubhthaigh-Shoigheach 
and the MacDonnels of Mayo rose in arms to 
support the fugitives from the Hag's Castle. 
Docwra's services seem to have commenced 
at this siege. On 12 July 1586 the force was 
encamped atBallinrobe,and afterwards made 
a series of expeditions till the tribes of Mayo 
were reduced. A force of Scottish highlanders 
having landed in alliance with the Burkes, 
it was necessary to march to Sligo to prevent 
their advance. Some of the O'Rourkes joined 
them on the Curlew mountains with McGuires 
from Oriel, and Art O'Neill, who afterwards 
went over to Docwra, gave these clans some 
support. After an action in which the high- 
landers and their allies were victorious, 
Bingham's force was obliged to retire, but 
afterwards defeated them at Clare, co. Sligo. 
The Burkes, however, continued in arms, 
and Bingham accomplished nothing more of 
importance. Docwra left Ireland, and com- 
manded a regiment in the army of the Earl 
of Essex in Spain and the Netherlands ; he 
was present at the siege of Cadiz (LODGE, 
Peerage of Ireland,!. 237) and was knighted 
in Spain. In 1599 his regiment, with that 
of Sir Charles Percy, was sent to Ireland to 
aid in suppressing the rebellion of Tyrone. 
Docwra took a prominent part in the war, 
and was appointed in 1600 to reduce the 
north; his army consisted of four thousand 
foot and two hundred horse, three guns, and 
a regular field hospital of one hundred beds. 
He touched at Knockfergus (now Carrickfer- 
giis) 28 April 1600, and remained there for 



Docwra 



141 



Docwra 



eight days. On 7 May he sailed for Lough 
Foyle, which he did not reach till the 14th. 
He landed at Culmore, where he found the 
remains of a castle abandoned by the English 
in 1567, which he immediately converted by 
earthworks into a strong position. While 
these were being made he marched inland to 
Elogh, and garrisoned the then empty castle, 
the ruins of which remain on a small hill | 
commanding the entrance from the south to [ 
Innisho wen, Donegal. On 22 May he possessed ; 
himself of the hill now crowned by the cathe- 
dral of Deny. He must be regarded as the 
founder of the modern city of Derry, for he 
built streets as well as ramparts on the hill top. 
O'Kane with his tribe lurked in the woods, 
and cut off any stragglers. On 1 June Docwra 
received the submission of Art O'Neill, and 
on 28 June he fought his first serious engage- 
ment with the natives under O'Dogherty near 
Elogh (A. 7?. E. vi. 2188). Docwra's force 
consisted of forty horse and five hundred foot, 
and his lieutenant, Sir John Chamberlain, 
was unhorsed, and while the general endea- 
voured to rescue him, his own horse was 
shot under him. The Irish captured some 
horses, and retired from a battle in which 
what advantage there was rested with them. 
Docwra's courage won their respect, and a 
local Gaelic historian says * he was an illus- 
trious knight of wisdom and prudence, a 
pillar of battle and conflict.' A more serious 
battle was fought on 29 July with the O'Don- 
nells and MacSwines, and the general him- 
self was struck in the forehead by a dart cast 
by Hugh the Black, son of Hugh the Red 
O'Donnell. He was confined to his room with 
his wound for three weeks, and many com- j 
panics in his army were reduced by disease 
and wounds to less than a third of their com- 
plement. On 16 Sept. he was nearly sur- 
prised by a night attack of O'Donnell, and 
next day received a much-needed supply of 
victuals by sea. 

Continued expeditions into the country em- 
ployed the whole winter, and he penetrated 
to the extremity of Fanad. In April 1601 
he reduced Sliocht Airt, and in July and 
August made expeditions towards the river 
Ban, conquering O'Kane's country, and in 
April 1602 obtained possession of the castle 
of Dungiven, commanding a great part of the 
mountain country of the present county of 
Londonderry. Besides warlike expeditions he 
was engaged in endless negotiations with the 
natives. The war ended at the beginning of 
1603, though it was only by great watch- 
fulness that Docwra prevented a rising on 
Elizabeth's death. He remained as governor 
of Derry, with a garrison of about four hun- 
dred men, and immediately devoted himself 



to the improvement of the city. He received 
a grant 12 Sept. 1603 to hold markets on 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, and for a fair. 
On 11 July 1604 he was appointed provost for 
life, and received a pension of 20s. a day for . 
life. In 1308-he sold his house, appointed a ' 
vice-governor, and returned to England. He 
published in 1614 <A Narration of the Services 
done by the Army employed to Lough Foyle 
under the leading of me, Sir Henry Docwra, 
knight.' He had previously written ' A Re- 
lation of Service done in Ireland,' being an 
account of Bingham's campaign. Two of his 
letters from Ireland are printed by Moryson. 
In 1606 he applied for the presidency of 
Ulster, but did not obtain it. He was ap- 
pointed treasurer of war in Ireland in 1616, 
returned to live there, and was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Docwra of Culmore 15 May 
1621. He married Anne, daughter of Francis 
Vaughan of Sutton-upon-Derwent, York- 
shire, and had three daughters and two sons. 
His elder son Theodore succeeded him in the 
title, but died without issue, when the barony 
became extinct. On 15 July 1624 he was ap- 
pointed keeper of the peace in Leinster and 
Ulster, and on 13 May 1627 joint keeper of 
the great seal of Ireland. He was one of the 
fifteen peers appointed 4 June 1628 to try 
Lord Dunboyne, and he was the only one 
who voted for a conviction. He died in 
Dublin 18 April 1631, and was buried in the 
cathedral of Christ Church. Docwra resem- 
bled the soldiers who in later times increased 
the British dominion in India. He was a 
skilful commander,whose personal intrepidity 
won the respect of his own men and of the 
enemy, and he followed a consistent plan of 
wearing out the hostile tribes by constant 
activity, by preventing their junction, and 
defeating them in detail. At the same time 
he took advantage of every quarrel in the 
native families, and was ready to support 
as the rightful one whichever claimant sub- . 
mitted to England, and without scruple as 
to the real merits of the case. Except in 
this respect his conduct was invariably 
honourable, and he showed more public spirit 
and less anxiety for his own emolument than 
was common in his age and field of service. 

[Dockra's Narration and Relation in Celtic 
Society's Miscellany, Dublin, 1849; Ordnance 
Survey of Ireland, 1837, vol. i. ; Annala Riogh- 
achta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan, vols. v. and vi. ; 
a Generalle Description of Ulster, facsimile; 
Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, 1754 ; Burdy's Hist, 
of Ireland, 1817 ; Calendar of State Papers, Ire- 
land ; Russell and Prendergast, i. 9, 14, 17, 23, 
24, 90, 92, 141, 185, 189, 395, 452, 524, 529, 
549, ii. 191, 397, 402, 481, iii. 59, 65, 168; Fynes 
Moryson's Itinerary.] N. M. 



Docwra 



142 



Docwra 



DOCWRA, SIB THOMAS (d. 1527), 
prior of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem 
in England, was descended from an old West- 
moreland family, the Docwras of Docwra 
Hall in Kendal ; but he came of a younger 
branch which had been for some generations 
settled in Hertfordshire. According to an old 
pedigree his father's name was Richard, and 
his mother was Alice, daughter of Thomas 
Green of Gresingham, presumably Gressing- 
ham in Lancashire. He succeeded Sir John 
Kendal as prior of the knights of St. John at 
Clerkenwell on 1 May 1502 (DTJGDALE, Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 799, Caley's edit. 1817). That 
he had property at this time in Hertfordshire 
is shown by a sculptured stone still preserved 
in some buildings of a later date at High- 
down, the old family seat near Hitchin, 
bearing the arms of the family with the in- 
scription ' Thomas Docwra, miles, 1504 ' 
(CussANS, Hertfordshire, ii. 18). Shortly 
after this we begin to meet with notices of 
him as engaged in diplomatic missions. He 
was one of the commissioners employed by 
Henry VII to negotiate with Philip, king of 
Castile in 1506, during the period of Philip's 
enforced stay in England, when he was driven 
by tempest on the coast, that treaty of com- 
mercial intercourse with the Low Countries 
which the merchants there stigmatised as the 
4 intercursus malus.' He also negotiated at 
the same time a treaty for the English king's 
marriage with Margaret of Savoy (RYMEK, 
xiii. 132 ; BERGENROTH, Spanish Cal. i. 455). 
Next year he was one of a body of commis- 
sioners who went over to Calais in the end 
of September, and were met there by a great 
embassy from Flanders to settle the terms 
of an alliance with Philip, and a treaty for 
the marriage of Charles, prince of Castile 
(afterwards the emperor Charles V), with 
Mary, the king of England's daughter. They 
returned just before Christmas, having con- 
cluded both treaties at Calais on 21 Dec. 
(RYMEK, xiii. 173, 189, 201). In February 
following (1508) it is mentioned that he ' 
paid visits of courtesy to Fuensalida, the 
newly arrived ambassador from Spain. After 
Henry VIII's accession he and Nicholas West 
were sent to France (20 June 1510), and on : 
23 July they received from Louis XII a for- 
mal acknowledgment of the sum in which 
he stood indebted to the king of England for 
arrears of tribute (Cal. Henry VIII, vol. i. 
Nos. 1104, 1182). While on this mission he ! 
received ' diets ' or allowances at the rate of j 
forty shillings a day (ib. ii. 1446). 

About this time his services were very 
much desired at Rhodes by the grand-master, I 
the head of his order, in consequence of their 
danger from the Turks ; but the king of 



England could not spare him for such a dis- 
tant expedition (ib. vol. i. Nos. 540, 4562). 
As prior of St. John's his name appears in 
numerous commissions in the early years of 
Henry VIII, among which is one of gaol 
delivery for Newgate (ib. No. 1942) ; one to 
inquire of alleged extortions by preceding 
masters of the mint (No. 3006) ; several of 
sewers for Lincolnshire, where the order had 
important interests (Nos. 663, 1716, 1979, 
3137, 5691) ; and one for the Thames from 
Greenwich to Lambeth (No. 4701). On 
4 Feb. 1512 he was appointed one of the king's 
ambassadors to the council to be held at the 
I Lateran on 19 April following (Nos. 2085, 
3108). But he certainly could not have gone 
thither, and indeed the appointment seems 
| to have been superseded by a new commis- 
sion to the Bishop of Worcester and Sir 
1 Robert Wingfield only (No. 3109). On 2 May 
! following he was one of those appointed to 
I review and certify the numbers of the force 
1 sent to Spain under Dorset for the invasion 
' of Guienne (No. 3173). Next year (1513) 
' on 22 Feb. he received a summons to be 
ready before April to attend the king with 
three hundred men (No. 3942). He crossed 
with the army to Calais in May, and on 
6 June entered the French territory with 205 
men under the Earl of Shrewsbury (Nos. 
3277, 4070 ; the former of these two docu- 
ments is clearly placed a year too early). In 
a catalogue of the badges borne in the stan- 
dards in that expedition we read : * The lord 
of St. John's' (i.e. the prior) 'beareth gold 
half a lion sable gotted gold ramping out of 
a wrayth gules and sable, with a platte be- 
tween his feet voided ; the same platte gules 
par pale' (Cotton MS. Cleop. C.v. 59). In 
some naval accounts of this time we find 
mention made of ' my lord of St. John's ship ' 
of two hundred tons burden, commanded by 
Lord Edmund Howard (Cal. i. 553, vol. iii. 
No. 2488). This was probably a ship belong- 
ing to the order put in requisition for service 
in the war. 

That Docwra was a man of valour we may 
take for granted from the position which he 
filled, and from the desire repeatedly ex- 
pressed by the grand-master for his presence 
at Rhodes (ib. vol. ii. Nos. 1138, 3607, vol. iii. 
No. 2324) ; but we do not hear of any special 
actions by which he distinguished himself in 
this war. It was soon over, however ; and 
in August of next year, on the conclusion of 
peace, he, with the Earl of Worcester and Dr. 
Nicholas West, afterwards bishop of Ely, was 
sent over to France to obtain the ratification 
of Louis XII, and witness his marriage to 
Henry VIII's sister Mary (ib. vol. i. Nos. 
5335, 5379, 5391, 5441, &c.) They also re- 



Docwra 



143 



Docwra 



rnained to witness her coronation at St. Denis 
on 5 Nov. (ib. No. 5560). In February 1515, 
on the meeting of parliament, Docwra was 
made a trier of petitions from Gascony (ib. 
vol. ii. No. 119). Next month it was again 
proposed to send him, with Fisher, bishop of 
Rochester, Sir Edward Poynings, and Dr. 
Taylor, to Rome. 10 March was fixed as the 
date of their departure, and, what is still 
more extraordinary, large sums are entered 
in ' the king's book of payments ' for their 
costs, paid in advance (800/. apiece to Fisher, 
Docwra, and Poynings, and 266/. 13s. 4<#. to 
Dr. Taylor), when this embassy also was 
stopped, evidently, as Polydore Vergil ex- 
pected that it would be, by Wolsey's inter- 
ference (ib. No. 215, and pp. 1466-7) ; for 
on 1 May following we find, from a letter of 
the Venetian ambassador Pasqualigo, that 
Docwra dined with the king at Greenwich 
(No. 411). In November he was among those 
present at Westminster Abbey when Wolsey 
received his cardinal's hat (No. 1153). On 
21 Feb. 1516 he obtained for himself and the 
hospital a license to hold the prebend of 
Blewbury, Berkshire, in mortmain (No. 1575). 
In May 1516 he ismentionedas attending on 
the Scotch ambassadors (No. 1870), and also 
as acting as interpreter in an interview be- 
tween the Venetian ambassador and the Puke 
of Suffolk ( Venet. Cal vol. ii. No. 730). In the 
end of April 1517 he seems to have been at 
Terouenne, on a commission which he had 
along with others to settle mercantile dis- 
putes with the French (Cal. Henry VIII, 
vol. ii. Nos. 3197, 3861). 40/. was paid by 
the king for his expenses on this occasion 
(ib. p. 1475). In September 1518, on the 
arrival of a French embassy in England, he ! 
was one of the lords appointed to meet with ! 
them (No. 4409). Next month he was one 
of a return embassy sent to France charged 
to take the oath of Francis I to the new 
treaty of alliance, by which the dauphin was 
to marry the Princess Mary (Nos. 4529,4564). | 
They crossed from Dover to Calais in twenty- 
six ships in November (ib. vol. iii. No. 101), 
and received the French king's oath at Notre 
Dame on 14 Dec. (vol. ii. No. 4649). The 
' diets ' allowed to Docwra on this occasion 
were 100/. for fifty days (ib. pp. 1479-80). 
He was also one of the commissioners who 
redelivered Tournay to the French in Fe- 
bruary 1519 on receipt of fifty thousand francs 
from Francis I (ib. vol. iii. Nos. 58, 64, 71). 
On 8 July 1519 a search was ordered to be 
made for suspicious characters in London and 
the suburbs, the districts in and about the 
city being parcelled out among different com- 
missioners appointed to conduct it. The prior 
of St. John's was made responsible for the 



work in Islington, Holloway, St. John Street, 
Cowcross, Trille Mylle Street (now Turnmill 
Street), and Charterhouse Lane. The search 
was actually made on Sunday night, 17 July, 
and led only in this district to the apprehen- 
sion of two persons at Islington, and eleven 
in places nearer the city (ib. No. 365 (1, 6)). 
Docwra's name also occurs about this time 
in a list of councillors appointed by Wolsey 
to sit at Whitehall and hear causes of poor 
men who had suits in the Star-chamber. 

In 1520 he went over with Henry VIII to 
the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and was ap- 
pointed ' to ride with the king of England 
at the embracing of the two kings' (ib. p. 236). 
Thence he accompanied Henry to Grave- 
lines to his meeting with the emperor (No. 
906). In 1521 he was one of the peers by 
whom the unfortunate Duke of Buckingham 
was found guilty of treason (ib. p. 493). In 
August of the same year he went with Wol- 
sey to Calais, where the cardinal sat as um- 
pire between the French and the imperialists, 
and afterwards was despatched by him along 
with Sir Thomas Boleyn to the emperor at 
Oudenarde, where they kept up a correspond- 
ence with the Earl of Worcester and West, 
bishop of Ely, in France, with a view to ar- 
ranging a truce (ib. Nos. 1669, 1693-4,1705- 
1706). Their efforts in this being unsuc- 
cessful, they took leave of the emperor in 
November, and Docwra fell ill at Bruges on 
his return (No. 1778). Next year he went 
in the king's company to meet the emperor 
on his visit to England between Dover and 
Calais (No. 2288). A little later he was 
appointed one of the commissioners for rais- 
ing a forced loan in the county of Middlesex 
(ib. No. 2485, iv. 82), which was a regular 
assessment upon property; and he himself 
was assessed at 1,000/. 

In the parliament which met in April 1523 
he was once more appointed a trier of peti- 
tions from Gascony rather a sinecure, pro- 
bably, when Gascony had been for seventy 
years lost to the English crown (No. 2956). 
On 2 Nov. following he was appointed one of 
the commissioners for the subsidy granted in 
that parliament (No. 3504). On 25 May 1524, 
having received a commission from the king 
for the purpose, he drew up, with the imperial 
ambassador De Praet, a treaty for a joint in- 
vasion of France (vol. iv. Nos. 363, 365). On 
12 Feb. 1525 he was again appointed to con- 
duct a search for suspicious characters in the 
north of London (No. 1082). The next we 
hear of him is that in the beginning of April 
1527 he had fallen dangerously 111 (Nos. 3035- 
3036), and it is probable that he died within 
the month : for by 30 June Sir William Wes- 
ton, at Corneto in Italy, had received intelli- 



Dod 



144 



Dod 



gence not only of his decease but of his own 
election as his successor (No. 3208). 

That he was a man of proved capacity is 
certain even from the fact of his having been 
prior of St. John's, and it is confirmed by the 
frequent use made of his services by two suc- 
cessive kings. But beyond this we know 
nothing of his mental characteristics. 

A seal of Docwra is preserved in the French 
archives, appended to the receipt given by 
the king's commissioners to Francis I for the 
money agreed on for the surrender of Tour- 
nay. It is in the form of a .shield bearing 
the device of a lion issant holding a pome- 
granate, with the initials ' T. D.' (' Collection 
de Sceaux,' par M. Douet d'Arcq, No. 10252, 
in Inventaires et Documents publics par ordre 
de VEmpereur, vol. iii., 1868). 

[Besides the authorities cited in the text, see 
Chauncy's Hertfordshire, p. 406 ; Cambridge- 
shire Visitation, ed. Phillipps, p. 13 ; Memorials 
of Henry VII, pp. 100, 103, 110 (Rolls Series); 
Venetian Calendar, vols. i. ii.] J. G. 

DOD, CHARLES ROGER PHIPPS 

(1793-1855), author of the ' Parliamentary 
Companion/ only son of the Rev. Roger Dod, 
vicar of Drumlease, Leitrim, by his second 
wife, Margaret, daughter of Matthew Phipps 
of Spurrtown, was born at Drumlease 8 May 
1793. He entered King's Inns, Dublin, 30 July 
1816, with the intention of studying for the 
bar, but soon devoted his undivided attention 
to literature. After having been part pro- 
prietor and editor of a provincial journal, he 
settled in London in 1818, where for twenty- 
three years he was connected with the ' Times.' 
Under his guidance the reports of parliamen- 
tary debates were improved, while his manage- 
ment of the reporters was marked by firmness 
and courtesy. He succeeded Mr. Tyas as the 
compiler of the summary of the debates for 
the ; Times,' a most useful compilation origi- 
nated by Horace Twiss. Dod contributed to 
the same newspaper obituary memoirs, often 
very hurriedly composed. The life of Lord 
George Bentinck was written in a railway 
carriage between Ramsgate and London, 
whence Dod was summoned by telegraph on 
the death becoming known, 22 Sept. 1848, 
and it received only the addition of a few 
dates before it was printed. Dod's name 
was universally known as the compiler of the 
'Parliamentary Companion ' and the * Peerage, 
Baronetage, and Knightage,' both of which he 
originated. The former dates from the winter 
of 1832 and includes the first reformed par- 
liament, since which period it has been re- 
vised and continued annually, with special 
editions for each new parliament and for 
great ministerial changes. The latter pub- 
lication dates from the winter of 1841, and 



its revision is annual only. In both cases 
the type has been kept standing since the 
first day of publication. Until 1847 he spelt 
his name Dodd, but after that time he resumed 
his proper name, Dod, as borne by his father 
and his ancestors, the Dods of Cloverley, 
Shropshire. He died at 5 Foxley Road, North 
Brixton, Surrey, 21 Feb. 1855, having married, 
24 Oct. 1814, Jane Eliza, eldest daughter of 
John Baldwin of Cork. He was the writer 
of : 1. ' The Parliamentary Pocket Compa- 
ion,' 1832, which became l The Parliamentary 



Companion ' on its eleventh issue in 1843. 

2. ' The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage 

I of Great Britain and Ireland,' 1841. 3. ' A 

| Manual of Dignities, Privileges, and Prece- 

; dence,' 1842. 4. < The Annual Biography, 

! being lives of eminent or remarkable persons 

who have died within the year 1842 ; ' only 

i one volume appeared. 5. ' Electoral Fact& 

from 1832 to 1852, impartially stated,' 1852. 

2nd ed. 1853. 

Dod's only son was ROBERT PHIPPS DOD, 
who was educated at King's College, Lon- 
don, entered the 54th Shropshire regiment of 
militia, and served as a captain in that regi- 
ment from 26 Jan. 1855 to his decease. He 
assisted his father in the compilation of ' The 
Parliamentary Companion ' and ' The Peerage, 
Baronetage, and Knightage,' and took the 
chief part in the management of these works 
after 1843. < Birth and Worth, an Enquiry 
into the Practical Use of a Pedigree,' was 
printed by him in 1849 for presentation to his 
friends. He died at his residence, Nant Issa 
Hall, near Oswestry, Shropshire, 9 Jan. 1865, 
from the effects of an accident while shooting 
in the previous December. He married, 9 Feb. 
1859, Catherine Emma, eldest daughter of the 
Rev. John Robert Nathaniel Kinchant. 

[Gent. Mag. April 1855, pp. 431-2, February 
1865, p. 260 ; Times, 24 Feb. 1855, p. 10, 18 Jan. 
1865, p. 11.] G. C. B. 

DOD, HENRY (1550 P-1630?), poet, was 
of the old family of Dod, or Doddes, Cheshire. 
For the use of his own family he versified nine 
psalms. They were published in London in 
1603 as ' Certaine Psalmes of David in meter,' 
by H. D. The undertaking was sanctioned 
by James I, and the impression was quickly 
sold. Afterwards, at the request of some of 
the puritan clergy, Dod undertook a metrical 
re-cast of the entire psalter, published as ' Al 
the Psalmes of David, with certaine Songes and 
Canticles,' &c. It is dedicated to JohnBrewen 
[see BRTJEN, JOHN], John Dod of Tussing- 
ham, and John Dod of Broxon, all of Cheshire. 
It has no name of author, printer, or place. 
It is dated 1620, and the initials H. D. are 
appended to its Address to the Christian 
Reader. It was perhaps printed abroad, and 



Dod 



Dod 



Wither was possibly right when he said it 
was condemned here by authority to the fire. 
With it Dod printed his metrical version of 
the Act of Parliament for ordering a Gun- 
powder Plot Thanksgiving Service. The book 
is rare. Out of the three known copies, two 
(Brit. Mus. and Bodleian) were in Dod's own 
possession, and contain his manuscript notes 
and errata. The only known copy of his 
' Certaine Psalmes,' 1603, is in the University 
Library, Cambridge. 

Dod has been described as a silk mercer, 
on the strength of Wither's phrase, ' Dod the 
silkman.' He may have been the Henry Dod 
who was incumbent of Felpham, Sussex, in 
1630; and possibly the <H. D.' for whom 
Gregory Seaton printed ' A Treatise of Faith 
and Workes,' &c., in 1583. Nothing is known 
of his death. 

[Dod's Address to Al the Psalmes ; Wither's 
Schollers Purgatory, 33 ; Corser's Collectanea, 
v. 210-13 ; Cotton's Editions of the Bible, 2nd ed. 
159 note, 165 ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. iii. 1326 ; 
Dallaway's Western Sussex, 1832 ed. ii. pt. i. 9; 
Earwaker's East Cheshire, i. 174.] J. H. 

DOD, JOHN (1549 P-1645), puritan di- 
vine, born at Shotlidge,near Malpas, Cheshire, 
in or about 1549, was the youngest of a family 
of seventeen. His parents were possessed 
of a moderate estate, and after he had re- 
ceived his early education at Westchester 
sent him when about fourteen to Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was elected scholar 
and afterwards fellow. He was a learned 
man, a good Hebraist, and, it is said, witty 
and cheerful. When on one occasion he * op- 
posed' at the philosophy act, he acquitted 
himself so well that the Oxford masters of 
arts who were present, finding him ' faceti- 
ously solid,' begged him to become a member 
of their university; to this, however, he would 
not agree (FuLLEK, Church History, iv. 305). 
A false accusation brought against him of 
having defrauded the college of a sum of money 
due from one of his pupils was the cause of a 
fever which almost cost him his life. During 
his illness he received strong religious im- 
pressions, and after his recovery, his cha- 
racter being fully cleared, he preached at a 
weekly lecture set up by some 'godly' people 
of Ely. When he was probably past thirty 
he was instituted to the living of Hanwell, 
Oxfordshire, where he remained for twenty 
years. While there he married Anne, daughter 
of Dr. Nicholas Bound, by whom he had twelve 
children [see DOD, TIMOTHY], The John Dod, 
proctor of the university of Cambridge in 
1615 (FULLEE, Hist, of Cambridge, 139), was 
probably one of his sons, though it is sug- 
gested that he was Dod himself (Memorials}. 

VOL. xv. 



His second wife was a Mistress Chilton. At 
Hanwell he worked diligently , preaching twice 
each Sunday besides catechising and supply- 
ing, in conjunction with four others, a weekly 
lectureship at Banbury. He was a noncon- 
formist, and after being frequently cited was 
suspended by Bridges, bishop of Oxford (cons. 
1604). After his suspension he preached for 
some time at Fenny Compton, Warwickshire. 
He then removed to Canons Ashby, North- 
amptonshire, and while there was * silenced ' 
by Archbishop Abbot, 24 Nov. 1611 (Abbot's 
letter to the Bishop of Peterborough, COLLIER, 
JEccl. Hist. ix. 371). In 1624 he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Fawsley in the same 
county, where he remained until his death. 
In the course of the civil war he is said to 
have been troubled by the royalist soldiers. 
He died at Fawsley, and was there buried on 
19 Aug. 1645. Dod is the reputed author of the 
famous ' Sermon on Malt.' According to the 
edition of 1777 (the manuscript versions, 
Sloane MSS. 3769, f. 21, and 619, f. 43, and 
Ashmolean MS. 826, f. 102, do not mention 
Dod's name), he had preached strongly at 
Cambridge against the drinking indulged in 
by the students, and had greatly angered 
them. One day some of them met ' Father 
Dod,' as he was called, passing through a 
wood, seized him, and set him in a hollow 
tree, declaring that he should not be released 
until he had preached a sermon on a text of 
their choosing. They gave him the word 
' malt ' for a text, and on this he preached, 
beginning, i Beloved, I am a little man, come 
at a short warning to deliver a brief discourse, 
upon a small subject, to a thin congregation, 
and from an unworthy pulpit,' and taking 
each letter as a division of his sermon. He 
is also said to have approved the action of 
Henry Jacob in forming a separatist congre- 
gation (WILSON). 

His works are : 1 . ' Two Sermons on 3rd chap, 
of the Lamentations of Jeremie,' preached 
at Hanwell, by J. D. and Richard Cleaver, 
1602. 2. 'A Plaine and Familiar Exposi- 
tion of the Ten Commandments with a ... 
Catichism,' also with Cleaver, 1604, newly 
corrected and enlarged, 1615, 19th edit. 1635. 
From his authorship of this book Dod was 
often called < Decalogue Dod.' 3. 'A Re- 
medy against Contentions,' a sermon, 1609, 
1618. 4. 'Ten Sermons. . . for the worthy 
receiving of the Lord's Supper,' by J. D. and 
R. C., 1633, with life and portrait of Dod, 
1661 ; also by the same two, * Three godlie 
and fruitful sermons,' and * Seven . . . ser- 
mons.' 5, also with Cleaver, ' A Plaine and 
Familiar Exposition of the Ninth and Tenth 
Chapters of the Proverbs of Solomon,' 1606, 
1612 ; < First and Second Chapters,' 1614 

L 



Dod 



146 



Dod 



(Brit. Mus.) Other small volumes on two or 
three chapters of the Proverbs were pub- 
lished at different dates and passed through 
many editions. These were collected and 
published together as ' A brief Explanation 
of the whole book ... of Solomon/ signed 
J.D. and R.O., 1615. 6. < Bathshebaes In- 
struction to her Sonne Lemvel,' by J. D. and 
William Hinde. 7. ' A Plaine and Familiar 
Exposition on the Lord's Prayer,' 1635. 
8. Editorial work in Cleaver's 'Godlie Forme 
of Householde Government . . . newly pe- 
rused and augmented by J. D. and R. C.,' 
and by the same 'Patrimony of Christian 
Children . . . with consent of J. D. ; ' also 
in ' Bowels Opened, or a Discovery of the 
neere and deere Love ... by Dr. Sibs . . . 
master of Katharine Hall, Cambridge.' Anec- | 
dotes of Dod have been published as ' Old ' 
Mr. Dod's Sayings,' 12mo, b. 1. 1680, and fol. j 
single sheet, 1667 ; ' A second sheet of ... I 
Sayings,' 1724 ; l Sayings in Two Parts,' 1786, ! 
and other editions with slight variations of 
title ; * A Sermon upon the word Malt . . . 
by the Rev. J. D., Author of the Remarkable 
and Approved Sayings,' 1777, and in Taylor's 
' Memorials,' which also contains life and 
bibliography with portrait of 1661, 8vo, 1875, 
reissued as part of Taylor's l Northampton- ' 
shire Tracts,' 2nd series, 1881. 

[Taylor's Mem. of Rev. J. Dod; Fuller's Church \ 
Hist.(Brewer),vi. 305-8 ;Worthies,i. 181; Clarke's ; 
Martyroloepe, Lives, 168 ; Brook's Puritans, iii. 1 ; ' 
"Wilson's Diss. Churches, i. 39 ; Neal's Puritans, iii. I 
270; Collier's Eccles. Hist. (Lathbury), ix. 371 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. i. 309 ; Notes and Queries, 
1855, 1st ser. xii. 383, 497.] W. H. 

DOD, PEIRCE (1683-1754), medical 
writer, the fourth of the five sons of John 
Dod, citizen and mercer of London, by his 
wife Mary, daughter of Richard Thorowgood, 
alderman of London, was born in 1683, pro- 
bably at Hackney (Bodl. MS. Rawl. 4, f. 276 ; 
LYSONS, Environs, ii. 471). John Dod was 
allied to one of the numerous Cheshire fami- 
lies of that name, for by his will, bearing 
date 26 Nov. 1687, and proved 12 June 1688, 
he bequeathed f to the parish of Malpas in 
Cheshire fifty pounds, either to the poore or 
repaires of Chad Chappell,' and his brother, 
Thomas Dod, was seated at Tushingham, a 
township in the same parish (Will reg. in 
P. C. C. 127, Exton). His son matriculated 
.at Brasenose College, Oxford, 19 March 1697, 
and proceeded B.A. on 14 Oct. 1701 ; but 
being soon afterwards elected a fellow of All 
Souls, he graduated M.A. as a member of 
that society on 6 June 1705, M.B. on 22 March 
1710, and M.D. on 29 Oct. 1714. Admitted 
a candidate of the College of Physicians on 
30 Sept. 1719, and a fellow on 30 Sept. 1720, 



he was Gulstoniaii lecturer in 1720, Harveian 
orator in 1729 (his oration was published at 
London in the following year), and censor in 
1724, 1732, 1736, and 1739. He was ap- 
pointed physician to St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital on 22 July 1725, and continued in that 
office until his death, which occurred at his 
house in Red Lion Square on 6 Aug. 1754 
(Affidavit appended to Will reg. in P. C. C., 
225, Pinfold; Gent. Mag. xxiv. 387). Dr. 
Munk (Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 70) wrongly 
gives the date as 18 Aug. He was buried in 
the ground of St. George the Martyr, Queen 
Square. In the church is an altar-tomb to 
his memory. By his wife Elizabeth he had 
four children, Peirce, Jacky, Elizabeth, and 
another daughter, who died in his lifetime. 
The eldest son, Peirce (B.A. University Col- 
lege, Oxford, 17 Dec. 1756, incorporated at 
Cambridge and M.A. Corpus Christi College, 
1762), was vicar of Godmersham, Kent, from 
1772 to 1778, and died at Clifton on 7 Oct. 
1797 ( Gent. Mag. Ixvii. pt. ii. 900). Elizabeth, 
the daughter, married, 15 Nov. 1760, John 
Alexander Stainsby of Lincoln's Inn, bar- 
rister-at-law and a commissioner in bank- 
ruptcy, and died at the end of 1802, aged 71 
(ib. xxx. 542, Ixxii. pt. ii. 1168). 

Dod was a steady opponent of inoculation, 
and sought to throw discredit on the new 
practice in a little work entitled ' Several 
Cases in Physick, and one in particular, giving 
an account of a Person who was Inoculated 
for the Small-Pox . . . and yet had it again. 
With . . . other remarkable Small-Pox Cases, 
&c. To which is added a Letter giving an 
Account of a Letter of Dr. Freind's concern- 
ing that Fever which infested the Army 
under . . . the Earl of Peterborough . . . anno 
1705, in Spain ; together with the said Let- 
ter,' 8vo, London, 1746. He was quickly 
answered and unsparingly censured in a sati- 
rical pamphlet with the title ' A Letter to 
the real and genuine Pierce Dod, M.D., . . . 
exposing the low Absurdity ... of a late 
spurious Pamphlet falsely ascrib'd to that 
learned Physician. With a full Answer to 
the mistaken Case of a Natural Small-Pox, 
after taking it by Inoculation. By Dod Pierce, 
M.S.,' 8vo, London, 1746. According to Dr. 
Munk the authors of this letter, which is 
said to have done considerable damage to 
Dod's professional reputation and practice, 
were Dr. Kirkpatrick, author of ' The Analy- 
sis of Inoculation,' Dr. Barrowby, and one 
of the Schombergs. Dod, who had been ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society on 
19 March 1729-30, contributed two papers to 
the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 
[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), ii. 70-1.] 

a. G. 



Dod 



147 



Dodd 



DOD, TIMOTHY (d. 1665), nonconformist 
divine, was the son of the Rev. John Dod of 
Fawsley, Northamptonshire [q. v.] No par- 
ticulars as to the date of his birth or his educa- 
tion are known, but he was publicly ordained 
at Daventry subsequently to 1640, and settled 
there as a preacher. Although he was merely 
afternoon lecturer at the church, the people 
liked him so much that they made up his 
income to 40/. per annum, practically the 
value of the vicarage, and he is said to have 
charged the collectors never to take any con- 
tribution from the poor. During the latter 
part of his life he was much celebrated as a 
preacher, but being excessively stout was 
unable to get into the pulpit, and had to 
preach from a pew or the desk. He was one 
of the ejected ministers of 1662. On the 
occasion of an epidemic at Daventry he re- 
moved to the neighbouring village of Ever- 
don. During the latter part of his life he 
was afflicted with a number of painful dis- 
orders, and, dying in December 1665, was 
buried at Everdon, where a tablet to his 
memory was erected in the church. He is 
affirmed to have been a melancholy, humble, 
andaft'able man, and to have been accustomed 
to pray seven times a day, twice with his 
family, twice with his wife only, and three 
times alone. 

[Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, iii. 30; 
Bridges's Hist, of Northamptonshire, ' Ever- 
don.'] A. C. B. 

DODD, CHARLES (1672-1 743), catholic 
divine, whose real name was HUGH TOOTEL, 
born in 1672 at Durton-in-Broughton, near 
Preston, Lancashire, was confirmed at Euxton 
Burgh Chapel, the property of the Dalton 
family, 13 Sept. 1687, by John Leybum, vicar- 
apostolic of the London district. After 
studying the classics under the tuition of his 
uncle, the Rev. Christopher Tootel of Lady- 
well Chapel at Fernyhalgh, in his native 
county, he was sent to the English college 
at Douay, where he arrived 23 July 1688, 
and immediately began to study philosophy. 
He publicly defended logic in July 1689, 
physics on 8 March 1689-90, and universal 
philosophy in July 1690. On 16 July 1690 
he took the college oath, and on 22 Sept. fol- 
lowing received the minor orders at Cambray 
from James Theodore de Bayes. He studied 
part of his divinity under Dr. Hawarden at 
Douay, being afterwards admitted into the 
English seminary of St. Gregory at Paris, 
where he took the degree of B.D. During 
what was called the vacation preparatory to 
the license he returned to Douay, where he 
arrived on 18 Dec. 1697, and where he re- 
mained during the greater part of 1698. Then 



he came upon the English mission, and had 
the charge of a congregation at Fernyhalgh, 
Lancashire. 

In 1718 he was again at Douay collecting- 
materials for his l Church History of England,' 
in which undertaking he was very ably as- 
sisted by the Rev. Edward Dicconson [q. v.], 
vice-president of the college, and by Dr. In- 
gleton, of the seminary at Paris. On his re- 
turn to England, Dr. John Talbot Stonor, 
vicar-apostolic of the midland district, re- 
commended him in August 1722 to Sir Robert 
Throckmorton, bart., as a proper person to 
assist Mr. Bennett, alias Thompson, alias 
Temple, in the charge of the congregation at 
Harvington, Worcestershire, and on the death 
of Bennett in September 1726 Dodd succeeded 
him. During his residence at Harvington he 
arranged his materials, and finished his great 
work, the * Church History.' The cost of its 
publication was in a great measure defrayed 
by Edward, duke of Norfolk, Sir Robert 
Throckmorton, Cuthbert Constable [q. v.], 
and Bishops Stonor and Hornyold. As late 
as 1826 the house was still shown in Wol- 
verhampton where Dodd resided, during the 
printing of the work, for the purpose of cor- 
recting the press. He died on 27 Feb. 1742- 
1743, and was buried on 1 March at Chaddes- 
ley Corbett, Worcestershire, in which parish 
Harvington is situate. The Rev. James 
Brown, who attended him in his last illness, 
made a solemn protestation in writing on the 
day of the funeral, to the effect that Dodd on 
his deathbed expressed an earnest desire to 
die in charity with all mankind, and par- 
ticularly with the Society of Jesus, as he had 
been ' suspected to be prejudiced in their re- 
gard.' He said that if he had done them any 
wrong in writing or otherwise he desired 
pardon and forgiveness as he forgave them 
for any injury either supposed or received by 
him. 

His works are : 1. i The History of the 
English College at Do way, from its first foun- 
dation in 1568 to the present time. . . . By 
R. C., Chaplain to an English Regiment that 
march'd in upon its surrendering to the 
Allies,' Lond. 1713, 8vo. This anonymous 
work elicited from Mr. Keirn, a member of 
the college, a reply entitled * A Modest De- 
fence of the Clergy and Religious in a Dis- 
course directed to R. C. about his History of 
Doway College,' 1714, 8vo. 2. 'The Secret 
Policy of the English Society of Jesus, dis- 
covered in a series of attempts against the 
clergy. In eight parts and twenty-four let- 
ters, directed to their Provincial,' Lond. 1715, 
8vo (anon.) An answer to this work, which 
is sometimes called Dodd's ' Provincial Let- 
ters,' was written by Thomas Hunter, a Jesuit, 

L2 



Dodd 



148 



Dodd 



and is preserved in manuscript at Stonyhurst 
College. In the same collection there is 
another manuscript by Hunter, entitled ' A 
Letter to the Author of " The Secret Policy of 
the Jesuits,'" 4to, pp. 322 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
3rd Kep. 234, 340). 3. 'Pax Vobis, an 
Epistle to the three Churches/ Lond. 1721. 
In imitation of ' Pax Vobis, or Gospel and 
Liberty,' by Robert Brown, a Scotch priest. 
4. l Certamen utriusque Ecclesise ; or a list 
of all the eminent "Writers of Controversy, 
Catholics and Protestants, since the Refor- 
mation. With an historical idea of the poli- 
tick attempts of both parties ... to support 
their respective interests ' (Lond. ?), 1724. Re- 
printed in the ' Somers Tracts ' and in Jones's 
1 Catalogue of Tracts for and against Popery ' 
(Chetham Soc.) 5. ' The Church History of 
England, from the year 1500 to the year 
1688. Chiefly with regard to Catholicks, 
being a complete account of the Divorce, 
Supremacy, Dissolution of Monasteries, and 
first attempts for a Reformation under King 
Henry VIII, the unsettled state of the Re- 
formation under Edward VI, the interruption 
it met with from Queen Mary ; with the last 
hand put to it by Queen Elizabeth, together 
with the various fortunes of the Catholick 
Cause during the reigns of King James I, 
King Charles I, King Charles II, and King 
James II. Particularly the Lives of the most 
eminent Catholicks, Cardinals, Bishops, Infe- 
rior Clergy, Regulars, and Laymen . . . with 
the foundation of all the English Colleges 
and Monasteries abroad/ 3 vols., Brussels, 
1737-39-42, fol. This history, the result of 
thirty years' labour, is believed to have been 
really printed in this country, as the paper 
and type are of English manufacture. For 
many years it was almost unknown, but it is j 
now a costly and rare work. It contains 
many particulars, with copies of original i 
documents not to be found elsewhere, relating 
to the affairs of the English catholics, and 
the biographical memoirs are particularly | 
valuable. Dodd's severe strictures on the 
Jesuits and their policy led to an embittered 
controversy between him and John Constable 
(1676-1744) [q. v.] The publication of Dodd's 
work also elicited from George Reynolds, 
archdeacon of Lincoln, ' An Historical Essay 
upon the Government of the Church of Eng- 
land, with a vindication of the measures of 
Henry VIII from the calumnies of a Popish 
writer/ Lond. 1743, 8vo. The Rev. Thomas 
Eyre, a Douay priest, who for fifteen years was 
chaplain at Stella, in the parish of Ryton, co. 
Durham, began in 1791 to circulate queries 
and to collect materials for a continuation of 
the ' Church History/ but the events of the 
French revolution and the destruction of 



the English colleges abroad called him to a 
more active life, and prevented him from pro- 
ceeding with the work. His manuscripts are 
preserved at Ushaw College. The Rev. John 
Kirk, D.D., of Lichfield, was occupied for 
upwards of forty years in collecting materials 
i for an improved edition and a continuation 
| of Dodd's ' Church History.' He transcribed 
! or collected, and methodically arranged, docu- 
ments forming more than fifty volumes in 
folio and quarto. Of these he gave a detailed 
account in the ' Catholic Miscellany ' for Oc- 
tober 1826. The pressure of years, however r 
deterred him from attempting actual publi- 
cation, and after restoring to the bishops, 
colleges, and private owners their respective 
portions he assigned what was properly his 
own to the Rev. Mark Aloysius Tierney of 
Arundel, who brought out a new edition of 
Dodd's work, ' with notes, additions, and a 
continuation/ 5 vols., Lond. 1839-43, 8vo. 
This edition is unfortunately incomplete, 
ending with the year 1625, and of course no 
portion of the projected continuation ever 
appeared. On Tierney's death in 1862 his 
manuscript materials were bequeathed to Dr. 
Thomas Grant, bishop of Southwark, and they 
are now in the possession of that prelate's 
successor, Dr. John Butt. 6. ' Annals of the 
Reign of Henry VIII ; ' a very thick quarto. 
7. ' Annals of the Heptarchy, Normans/ &c. 
The preceding works are in print ; the fol- 
lowing remain in manuscript. 8. f The Free 
Man, or Loyal Papist ; ' some fragments of 
this are printed in the ' Catholicon/ 1817, iv. 
161, 275. 9. 'An Historical and Critical 
Dictionary, comprising the Lives of the most 
eminent Roman Catholics, from 1500 to 1688 r 
with an appendix and key to the whole ' (pp. 
1280), 3 vols., in large folio. The lives are 
much enlarged and different from those 
printed in the ' Church History.' The first 
volume of this work, containing 492 closely 
written pages and extending only to the 
letter L, is among the manuscripts belonging 
to the catholic chapter of London, and is pre- 
served at Spanish Place (Royal Historical 
MSS. Commission, 5th Rep. 467). 10. Part I. 
of Catholic Remains, or a Catholic History of 
the Reformation in England/ fol. pp. 191. 
11. Part II. of 'Catholic Remains, or the 
Lives of English Roman Catholics, Clergy, 
Regulars, and Laymen from 1500/ pp. 748, 
preserved at St. Mary's College, Oscott (ib. 
1st Rep. 90). 12. 'Introductory History/" 
fol. pp. 137. It only comes down to the year 
600, and was the first form or draft of his 
' Church History.' 13. ' Christian Instruc- 
tions, general and particular, delivered in 
eighty Discourses, methodised by way of Ser- 
mons/ fol. pp. 370. 14. ' The Creed, Lord's 



Dodd 



149 



Dodd 



Prayer, Commandments, and Sacraments Ex- 
plained,' 4to, pp. 238. 15. t A Polemical 
Dictionary.' 16. ' A Philosophical and Theo- 
logical Dictionary,' in 44 nos. 17. l Life of Dr. 
Oliver Buckridge, Vicar of Bray.' 18. 'Dictio- 
narium Etymologicum undecim Linguarum.' 
19. Many other minor manuscript treatises 
on historical and theological subjects. These 
are enumerated in the ' Catholicon/ iv. 120, 
v.60. 

He also edited John Goter's ' Sincere Chris- 
tian's Guide in the Choice of Religion,' and 
the same writer's ' Confutation of the Lati- 
tudinarian System.' 

[Butler's Hist. Memoirs of the English Ca- 
tholics, 3rd ed. iv. 451 ; Butler's Reminiscences, 
4th ed. i. 319; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit. 
Mus. ; Catholic Directory, 1853, p. 134; Catholic 
Miscellany, 1826, vi. 250, 328, 405; Catholicon, 
iii. 128, iv. 120, 161, 275, v. 60 (articles by Dr. 
John Kirk) ; Chambers's Biog. Illustr. of Wor- 
cestershire, p. 591; Dublin Review, vi. 395; 
Foley's Records, ii. 57, 59, iv. 714 n. vii. pt. i. 
p. 384; Gent. Mag. ccxii. 509; Hardwick's 
Preston, p. 664 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. Rep. i. 90, iii. 
233, 234, 340, v. pp. xii, 465-9, 476 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 654; Mackintosh's Mis- 
cellaneous Works, 1851, pp. 304 w. 324 n.; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 347, 451, iii. 496, iv. 11 ; 
Panzani's Memoirs, preface ; Sutton's Lancashire 
Authors, p. 127 ; Whittle's Preston, ii. 207.] 

T. C. 

DODD, DANIEL (jl. 1760-1790), pain- 
ter, was a member of the Free Society of 
Artists, and first appears as an exhibitor at 
Spring Gardens in 1761. He continued to 
contribute many works to the same exhibi- 
tion up to 1780. He resided first at Old 
Ford, near Bow, but subsequently moved 
into London. His works were principally 
portraits in crayons on a small scale, and 
sometimes in oil. Among them may be men- 
tioned a copy in crayons of ' Garrick between 
Tragedy and Comedy,' portraits of Mr. Dar- 
ley, Mr. Fielding, Mrs. Rudd, and of Nathan 
Potts of the ' Robin Hood ' Society (engraved 
in mezzotint by Butler Clowes). He also 
etched a few portraits, one being a portrait 
of Leveridge the actor, after Frye. Buck- 
horse the pugilist was a favourite subject of 
his ; besides painting his portrait, he engraved 
it in mezzotint himself. He designed illus- 
trations for Harrison's ' Novelists,' Raymond's 
* History of England,' and similar publica- 
tions. He also drew scenes of fashionable 
life, crowded with figures, with some success, 
such as * A View of the Ball at St. James's 
on Her Majesty's Birthnight ' (engraved by 
Tukey), l A View of the Exhibition of the 
Royal Academy at Somerset House' (en- 
graved by Angus), l The Royal Procession to 



St. Paul's,' < The Exhibition of Copley's Pic- 
ture of the Death of Lord Chatham at the 
Exhibition Room in Spring Gardens' (en- 
graved by Angus), &c. He had a son and a 
daughter, who were both artists, and exhi- 
bited with the Free Society of Artists in 1768 
and the following years. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Catalogues of the Free 
Society of Artists ; Bromley's Catalogue of En- 
graved British Portraits.] L. C. 

DODD, GEORGE (1783-1827), engineer, 
son of Ralph Dodd [q. v.], was educated 
by his father as a civil engineer and archi- 
tect, practising with considerable distinc- 
tion. He is stated to have been the projector 
and designer of Waterloo Bridge. This error 
arises from the fact of his being the resident 
engineer under John Rennie, to whose genius 
this work is entirely due. Dodd was so ' im- 
prudent as to resign this situation.' He is 
said to have been the first projector of steam- 
boats on the Thames, but his connection with 
the scheme was soon broken off, and he was 
much depressed by this disappointment, and 
by the want of encouragement for a plan for 
extinguishing fires at sea. He took to drink 
and was found in a state of complete destitu- 
tion in the streets in September 1827. At his 
own request he was committed to the compter, 
where he refused to take medicine and died 
of exhaustion on 25 Sept. 1827. He left a 
son and daughter. 

[Blackie's Popular Encyclopaedia, 1841 ; Elihu 
Rich's Cyclopaedia of Biography, 1854; Weale's 
London and its Vicinity; Gent. Mag. for 1827, 
ii. 468.] R. H-T. 

DODD, GEORGE (1808-1881), miscel- 
laneous writer, was born in 1808, and died on 
21 Jan. 1881. During nearly half a century 
he was known as an industrious and pains- 
taking writer. An aptitude for presenting 
statistics in an attractive form made him a 
useful assistant to Charles Knight. He wrote 
numerous articles on industrial art in the 
* Penny Cyclopaedia,' the ' English Cyclo- 
paedia,' and supplements. He edited and 
wrote largely in the ' Cyclopaedia of the In- 
dustry of all Nations,' 1851. He contri- 
buted to the ' Penny Magazine,' to ' London,' 
1 The Land we live in,' and to several other 
of Mr. Knight's serial publications. Some 
of his papers were collected and published 
in volumes, under the titles of * Days at the 
Factories,' 12mo, London, 1843, of which 
one series only appeared, and ' Curiosities ot 
Industry,' 8vo, London, 1852. For Knight's 
' Weekly Volumes' he furnished an account of 
' The Textile Manufactures of Great Britain 
(British Manufactures. Chemical. Metals. 



Dodd 



15 



Dodd 



British Manufactures, Series 4-6),' 6 vols., 
12mo, London, 1844-6. The work by which 
he was probably best known was an elabo- 
rate volume on 'The Food of London; a 
sketch of the chief varieties, sources of supply 
. . . and machinery of distribution, of the 
food for a community of two millions and a 
half,' 8vo, London, 1856. On Mr. Knight's 
retirement as a general publisher, Dodd be- 
came associated with Messrs. Chambers, and 
contributed largely to their serial publica- 
tions. He also compiled for the same firm 
' Chambers's Handy Guide to London,' &c., 
8vo, London and Edinburgh [printed], 1862, 
and ' Chambers's Handy Guide to the Kent 
and Sussex Coasts, in six routes or districts 
. . . [Preface signed G. D.], illustrated, with 
a clue map, &c.,' 8vo, London and Edinburgh 
[printed], 1863. For over thirty years he 
contributed one or more papers to the ' Com- 
panion to the [British] Almanac.' His other 
writings are : 1. ' Rudimentary Treatise on 
the Construction of Locks, [from materials 
furnished by A. C. Hobbs ; compiled by G. 
Dodd, and] edited by C. Tomlinson/ 12mo, 
London, 1853. 2. ' Pictorial History of the 
Russian War,' 1854-5-6. [Preface signed 
G. D.] With maps, plans, and wood en- 
gravings, 8vo, Edinburgh [printedl, and Lon- 
don, 1856. 3. ' A Chronicle of the Indian 
Revolt and of the Expeditions to Persia,China, 
and Japan, 1856-7-8. [Preface signed G. D.] 
With maps, plans, &c.,' 8vo, London, Edin- 
burgh [printed], 1859. 4. ' Where do we get 
it, and how is it made ? A familiar account 
of the mode of supplying our every-day wants, 
comforts, and luxuries. . . . With illustra- 
tions by W. Harvey,' 8vo, London [1862]. 
5. ' Railways, Steamers, and Telegraphs ; a 
glance at their recent progress and present 
state,' 8vo, Edinburgh, 1867. 6. ' Dictionary 
of Manufactures, Mining, Machinery, and 
the Industrial Arts,' &c., 8vo, London [1871]. 

[Athenaeum, 29 Jan. 1881, p. 167; Bookseller, 
2 Feb. 1881, p. 103 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Cat. of 
Printed Books in Library of Faculty of Advo- 
cates.] G. G-. 

DODD, JAMES WILLIAM (1740?- 
1796), actor, born, in London about 1740, is 
said to have been the son of a hairdresser. 
He was educated at ' the grammar school in 
Holborn ' ( Theatrical Biography, 1772). His 
success as Davus in a school performance of 
the ' Andria ' of Terence decided his choice of 
the life of an actor. When only sixteen years 
of age he is said to have appeared at Sheffield 
as Roderigo in ' Othello.' He was met by Tate 
W T ilkinson (Memoirs, iii. 114) in Norwich in 
1763. He then played in comedy and tragedy, 
and was, according to Wilkinson, ' a reigning 



favourite.' An engagement in Bath followed, 
and proved as usual a stepping-stone to Lon- 
don. Dr. Hoadly, who saw him in the ' Jealous 
Wife ' and other pieces, recommended him to 
Garrick, by whom and Lacy he was engaged. 
Hoadly says, in a letter to Garrick, that ' his 
person is good enough, but his motion is too 
much under restraint and form : more the stalk 
and menage of a dancing-master than the ease 
of a gentleman. ... He has a white, calf-like 
stupid face that disgusted me much till I heard 
him speak, and throw some sensibility into it. 
His voice is good and well heard everywhere. 
... I fear there must be a dash of the coxcomb 
in every part in which you would see him in 
perfection. . . . He sings agreeably, and with 
more feeling than he acts with. . . . One ex- 
cellence I observed in him, that he is not in a 
hurry, and his pauses are sensible, and filled 
with proper action and looks ' (GARRICK, Cor- 
respondence, i. 184). This eminently judi- 
cious criticism secured his engagement for 
Drury Lane. Mrs. Dodd, who was acting 
with him as Polly to his Macheath, in Lady 
Townley, Mrs. Oakley, &c., was also en- 
gaged, and appeared at Drury Lane, where on 
29 Jan. 1766 she played Lady Lurewell in 
the * Constant Couple.' Martha Dodd died in 
the latter end of October 1769 (REED, Notitia 
Dramatica MS.} Dodd's first appearance at 
Drury Lane took place 3 Oct. 1765 as Faddle 
in Moore's comedy, ' The Foundling.' From 
this time until the close of the season pre- 
ceding his death, a period of thirty-one years, 
Dodd remained at Drury Lane, in the case of 
an actor of equal position an almost unique 
instance of fidelity. During this long period 
he played a very large number of parts. These 
chiefly consisted of beaux and coxcombs, in 
which he was regarded as a successor to 
Colley Gibber. He played also in low comedy, 
sang occasionally, and sometimes, chiefly for 
his benefit, took serious characters, appear- 
ing on one occasion as Richard III. During 
his first year's engagement he was seen as 
Jack Meggott in the ' Suspicious Husband/ 
Osric in 'Hamlet/ Lord Trinket in the 
' Jealous Wife/ Lord Plausible in the ' Plain 
Dealer/ Slender in the 'Merry Wives of 
Windsor/ Sir Harry Wildair in the 'Con- 
stant Couple/ Roderigo in ' Othello/ Alexas 
in ' All for Love/ Sparkish in the ' Country 
Wife/ Sir Novelty Fashion in ' Love's Last 
Shift/ and Marplot in ' The Busybody/ with 
other characters. He was especially excel- 
lent as Sir Andrew Aguecheek and Abel 
Drugger. Of the many characters of which 
Dodd was the first exponent the most note- 
worthy are Sir Benjamin Backbite in the 
' School for Scandal/ Dangle in the ' Critic/ 
Lord Foppington in the ' Trip to Scarborough/ 



Dodd 



Dodd 



and Adam Winterton in the l Iron Chest.' 
The first of these performances stamped his 
reputation, the last brought him great dis- 
couragement. The * Iron Chest ' was a failure ; 
Colman, the author, laid the blame upon 
Kemble, who played Sir Edward Mortimer. 
The public, however, hissed Dodd, whose part 
was long and tedious. Dodd was greatly 
shocked, and after the close of the season 
1795-6 he acted no more. His last appear- 
ance was as Kecksey in the ' Irish Widow ' 
of Garrick, 13 June 1796. He died in the 
following September. Of the brilliant com- 
pany assembled by Garrick Dodd was a con- 
spicuous member. Lamb's praise of Dodd 
will not be forgotten : ' What an Aguecheek 
the stage lost in him ! . . .In expressing slow- 
ness of apprehension this actor surpassed all 
others. You could see the first dawn of an 
idea stealing slowly over his countenance, 
climbing up by little and little with a pain- 
ful process, till it cleared up at last to the 
fulness of a twilight conception, its highest 
meridian. He seemed to keep back his in- 
tellect as some have the power to retard their 
pulsation.' Dodd left at his death a collection 
of books, largely dramatic, which formed a 
nine days' sale at Sotheby's, and realised large 
prices. He also collected the weapons of the 
North American Indians. Like his predecessor 
Gibber, he had a weak voice. Mrs. Mathews, 
who speaks of him as ' the high red-heeled stage 
dandy of the old school of comedy,' says he 
was ' a very pompous man ' ( Tea Table Talk, 
ii. 222). Dibdin (History of the Stage,v. 349) 
says, rather nebulously, ' his great merit was 
altogether singularity,' but credits him with 
; a perfect knowledge of his profession.' Dodd's 
connection with Mrs. Bulkeley extended over 
many years, and ended in a separation and a 
scandal by which for a time the lady suffered. 
Boaden's ' Life of Mrs. Inchbald,' i. 29, tells 
a story greatly to the discredit of Dodd, whose 
behaviour to Mrs. Inchbald appears to have 
been infamous. Dodd had a son James (d. 
1820, see Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 289), 
who was a clergyman, and was usher of the 
fifth form at Westminster. Portraits of Dodd 
as Abel Drugger in ' The Alchemist,' as Lord 
Foppington in the t Trip to Scarborough ' 
(Dighton), and in private dress are in the 
Mathews collection of pictures in the Garrick 
Club. 

[Authorities cited; Genest's Account of the 
English Stage ; Theatrical Biography; Thespian 
Dictionary, 1805; Button Cook's Hours with 
the Players, 1881 ; Isaac Eeed's Notitia Drama- 
tica MS.] J. K. 

DODD, JAMES SOLAS (1721-1805), 
surgeon, lecturer, and actor, was born in 
London in 1721. His maternal grandfather, 



John Dodd, who had been < master in the 
navy during Queen Anne's wars,' was ill 
1719 commander of the St. Quintin, a mer- 
chantman trading from London to Barce- 
lona. At Barcelona he became acquainted 
with a young Spanish officer named Don Jago 
Mendozo Vasconcellos de Solis, a younger 
brother of Don Antonio de Solis, author of 
' Historia de la Conquista de Mexico.' Don 
Jago having had a duel with the son of the 
governor of Barcelona, and left him for dead, 
took shelter in Captain Dodd's ship, and 
| sailed in it for London that very evening. 
j Don Jago put up at Captain Dodd's house 
j ' whilst his pardon was soliciting from the 
I king of Spain,' and in 1720 married Miss 
! Rebecca Dodd, daughter of his host. On his 
marriage Don Jago took the name of Dodd 
' in order to perpetuate to his issue a small 
' estate near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. His only 
| child was baptised James Solis, after his 
| family, but by the error of the parish clerk 
I the name was entered on the register as 
' James Solas, which mode of spelling Dodd 
| afterwards adopted. In 1727 Don Jago died 
j in London, having failed to reconcile his 
father, Don Gaspard de Solis, to his mar- 
! riage with a protestant, by which he lost his 
' patrimony and commission. Young Dodd 
received a good education, it being his 
mother's wish that he should take orders, 
but * on some family reasons ' he was ulti- 
mately put apprentice to John Hills, a sur- 
geon practising in the Minories, London, 
with whom he continued seven years. In 
1745 he entered the navy as surgeon's mate 
j of the Blenheim hospital-ship, and served 
till the end of the war in the Devonshire, 
the principal royal storeship, and the St. 
Albans. He continued for some months 
! after the peace in the St. Albans, it being 
then stationed at Plymouth as a guardship. 
He took up his diploma as- a member of the 
Corporation of Surgeons, London, in 1751, 
and practised in Gough Square, Fleet Street, 
and afterwards in Suffolk Street, Haymarket. 
In 1752 he commenced authorship with 'An 
Essay towards a Natural History of the 
Herring,' 8vo, London, written to promote 
the industry as advocated by the Society of 
the Free British Fishery. He was indebted 
to Dr. Thomas Birch for assistance in his 
literary projects (cf. his letter to Birch, dated 
14 April 1752, in Addit. MS. 4305, f. 2). 
The next year he took part in the great 
Canning controversy by publishing 'A Phy- 
sical Account of the Case of Elizabeth Can- 
ning, with an Enquiry into the probability 
of her subsisting in the manner therein as- 
serted,' &c., 8vo, London, 1753, in which 
he argues strongly for the truth of the girl's 



Dodd 



152 



Dodd 



story. Towards the close of January 1754, 
1 on account of some deaths in his family,' 
Dodd set out for the continent, returning in 
May following. In 1759 he again entered 
the navy ; ' came as supernumerary in the 
Sheerness from Leghorn to Gibraltar ; ' there 
went on board the Prince, and continued in 
her till June 1762. In the same year he 
qualified at Surgeons' Hall as master-surgeon 
of any ship of the first rate, and was war- 
ranted for the Hawke, in which he served 
till she was paid off at the peace, February 
1763. He then settled once more in London, 
1 chiefly,' as he says, ' in the literary line.' 
One of these literary undertakings was a 
series of lectures first delivered in 1766 in 
the great room of Exeter Exchange, and 
afterwards published with the title 'A Saty- 
rical Lecture on Hearts, to which is added a 
Critical Dissertation on Noses,' 8vo, London, 
1767 (second edition the same year). In his 
preface Dodd disclaimed all notion of having 
imitated G. A. Stevens's lectures on heads, 
asserting ' that both the heads and hearts 
were first thought on in consequence of the 
beau and coquette in the " Spectator.'" The 
reviewer of the book in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' (xxxvii. 73-4) attributes to Dodd 
the authorship of a periodical essay published 
some years before under the title of ' The 
Scourge.' On 7 Feb. 1767 the house in which 
he lodged, adjoining the gateway of the Sara- 
cen's Head inn on Snow Hill, suddenly fell 
to the ground, but he and his family escaped 
with the loss only of their belongings (ib. 
xxxvii. 92). His wife's head being affected 
by this accident, Dodd left London and went 
to Bath and Bristol for her recovery ; thence 
he wandered to Ireland, where he ' followed 
his business and literary employments ' in 
Dublin. In March 1779 he was ' invited ' 
to return to London. He brought with him 
a play founded on ' Le Naufrage ' of J. de 
Lafont, which held the boards at Covent 
Garden for exactly one night. It was pub- 
lished the same year as l Gallic Gratitude ; 
or, the Frenchman in India,' a comedy in 
two acts, 8vo, London, 1779, and was re- 
issued as having been acted in Dublin, with 
a new title-page, ' The Funeral Pile,' 12mo, 
Dublin, 1799 ( BAKER, BiographiaDramatica, 
ed. 1812, i. 191, ii. 254, 255). At the end 
of the first issue are some i Critical Remarks 
on Mrs. Jackson's Performance of Lady 
Randolph in the Tragedy of "Douglas," &c.' 
Another undertaking was 'The Ancient and 
Modern History of Gibraltar. . . . With an 
accurate Journal of the Siege ... by the 
Spaniards . . . 1727, translated from the 
original Spanish, published by authority at 
Madrid,' 8vo, London, 1781. In 1781 he 



became intimate with a Major John Savage, 
who styled himself Baron Weildmester, and 
had, he alleged, pressing claims on Lord 
North. This adventurer, on undertaking to 
defray all expenses, induced Dodd to embark 
with his family with him for Russia, where, 
he said, he had a plan to propose from a 
foreign power to the empress to enter into 
a treaty of alliance, and thus he and Dodd 
would be sent as ambassadors ; ' that Mrs. 
Dodd, &c. should remain under the czarina's 
protection, and that on their return they 
would be decorated with the order of St. 
Catherine & have 1,000/. a year pension.' 
Charmed with this proposal, Dodd cheerfully 
bore the expense until Riga was reached, 
where he learned Savage's true character. 
Accordingly he was glad to take passage in 
a vessel bound to Bowness on the Firth of 
Forth. He landed at Leith in December 
1781 almost destitute of means. In the fol- 
lowing year he appeared at Edinburgh as 
actor and lecturer. David Stewart Erskine, 
eleventh earl of Buchan [q.v.], was interested 
in him, and among Buchan's manuscripts is 
a paper in Dodd's handwriting relating the 
story of his career from his earliest years. A 
verbatim transcript is given in ' Notes and 
Queries,' 6th ser. vii. 483-4. He died in 
Mecklenburgh Street, Dublin, in the spring 
of 1805, aged 84, l a gentleman of amiable 
and entertaining manners, whose converse 
with the literary world and fund of anec- 
dote rendered his company extremely agree- 
able.' In the obituaries of Walker's ' Hiber- 
nian Magazine,' 1805, p. 256, and of the 
1 Gentleman's Magazine,' vol. Ixxv. pt. i. p. 388, 
his age is foolishly asserted to have been 104. 
According to the ( European Magazine,' xlvii. 
402, Dodd 'was a great frequenter of the 
disputing societies and a president of one 
of them.' 

[Authorities as above.] Gr. G. 

DODD, PHILIP STANHOPE (1775- 
1852), divine, son of the Rev. Richard Dodd, 
rector of Cowley, Middlesex, author of a 
translation of Formey's ' Ecclesiastical His- 
tory,' who died in 1811, was born in 1775. He 
was educated at Tunbridge School, and hav- 
ing entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
was elected a fellow, and proceeded B.A. in 
1796, and M. A. in 1799. In 1798 he published 
anonymously 'Hints to Freshmen, from a 
Member of the University of Cambridge,' of 
which the third edition was printed in 1807. 
In early life he was for some years curate of 
Camberwell, Surrey, which appointment he 
exchanged in 1803 for the ministry of Lam- 
beth Chapel, retaining the afternoon lecture 
at Camberwell. 



Dodd 



153 



Dodd 



In 1806 he was chaplain to the lord mayor, 
Sir William Leighton, and published five ser- 
mons preached in that capacity . The fourth of | 
these, on ' The Lawfulness of Judicial Oaths 
and on Perjury/ preached at St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral 31 May 1807, produced ' A Reply to 
so much of a sermon by Philip Dodd as re- 
lates to the scruples of the Quakers against 
all swearing. By Joseph Gurney Bevan.' 
He was rewarded for his civic services by the 
valuable rectory of St. Mary-at-Hill in the 
city of London in 1807, where he was one of 
the most popular divines of the metropolis. 

In 1812 he was presented by his college to 
the sinecure rectory of Aldrington in Sussex, 
the church of which had been destroyed. 
.Sir J. S. Sidney, bart., in 1819 gave him the 
rectory of Penshurst, Kent, worth 766/. per 
annum, which was his last church prefer- 
ment. In 1837 he wrote ' A View of the 
Evidence afforded by the life and ministry 
of St. Paul to the truth of the Christian Re- 
velation.' He died at Penshurst Rectory 
22 March 1852, aged 77. He married Martha, 
daughter of Colonel Wilson of Chelsea Col- 



[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 96; 
Gent. Mag. June 1852, pp. 626-7.] G. C. B. 

DODD, RALPH (1756-1822), civil en- 
gineer, appears to have been born in 1756 in 
London, and after receiving the ordinary rou- 
tine education he studied practical mechanical 
engineering, and devoted much of his atten- 
tion to architecture. The earliest published 
work by which Dodd is known is his ' Account 
of the principal Canals in the known World, 
with reflections on the great utility of Canals,' 
which was published in London in 1795. 
Shortly after this he was engaged in project- 
ing a dry tunnel from Gravesend in Kent to 
Tilbury in Essex. He endeavoured to de- 
monstrate in a pamphlet which he circulated 
the practicability of this undertaking and 
the great importance of it to the two coun- 
ties and to the nation at large. In 1798 he 
proposed to construct a canal from near 
Gravesend to Strood. In 1799 he published 
* Letters on the Improvement of the Port of 
London without making Wet Docks,' but 
there is no evidence that those letters led to 
the adoption of any of his schemes. In 1805 
he was giving great attention to the water 
supply of London, and in connection with 
this subject he published ' Observations on 
Water, with a recommendation of a more 
convenient and extensive supply of Thames 
water to the metropolis and its vicinity, as a 
]ust means to counteract pestilential or per- 
nicious vapours.' Many striking facts were 
recorded in this work, and several remedies 



of the disgraceful state of things which then 
existed are recommended. The time, how- 
ever, was not yet ripe enough for their adop- 
tion. 

In 1815 he issued his * Practical Observa- 
tions on the Dry Rot in Timber.' He was a 
promoter of steam navigation. Dodd was in- 
jured by the bursting of a steam vessel at 
Gloucester. He was advised to go to Chelten- 
ham for his health, and from want of means 
went on foot. He died the day after reach- 
ing Cheltenham, 11 April 1822, when only 
21. 5s. was found on his body. He left a 
widow, a son, George Dodd [q. v.], and two 
other children. 

[Gent. Mag. for 1822, i. 474 ; Dodd's Works.] 

E. H-T. 

DODD, ROBERT (1748-1816?), marine 
painter and engraver, commenced his artistic 
career as a landscape-painter, and is stated to 
have attained some success in that line at the 
age of twenty-three. In 1779 he was living 
at 33 Wapping Wall, near St. James's Stairs, 
Shadwell, and at the same place there also 
lived a painter, Ralph Dodd. It would seem 
that they were brothers, and it is difficult to 
distinguish their paintings, as they exhibited 
concurrently from 1779 to 1782, when Robert 
Dodd removed to 32 Edgware Road. It 
would also seem that Ralph Dodd should not 
be identified with Ralph Dodd the engineer 
[q. v.] Residing as he did in the midst of 
the greatest shipping centre of the world, 
Dodd found plenty of opportunity for prac- 
tice as a painter of marine subjects, a line in 
which he attained great excellence. His 
pictures of sea-fights and tempests were very 
much admired. Many of them he engraved 
or aquatinted and published himself. He 
first appears as an exhibitor in 1780 at the 
Society of Artists in Spring Gardens, con- 
tributing ' A Group of Shipping in a Calm,' 
* Evening with a Light Breeze,' and t An En- 
gagement by Moonlight.' He first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1782, sending 
' Captain McBride in the Artois frigate cap- 
turing two Dutch Privateers on the Dogger- 
bank ' and ' A View of the W T hale-fishery in 
Greenland ' (engraved and published by him 
in 1789). He continued to exhibit numerous 
pictures at the Royal Academy up to 1809. 
Towards the close of his life Dodd resided at 
41 Charing Cross, where he was still living 
in 1816. Among the marine subjects painted 
by him the most remarkable were some sets 
of pictures representing the events of the 
terrible storm on 16 Sept. 1782 which befell 
Admiral Graves's squadron on its return as 
convoy to prizes from Jamaica, and which 
resulted in the loss of H.M.S. Ramillies and 



Dodd 



154 



Dodd 



Centaur and the French prizes La Ville de 
Paris, Le Glorieux, and Le Hector. These 
pictures were very much admired for the 
skill and truthfulness shown in depicting 
the fury of the tempest. Among his ex- 
hibited works may be noted two pictures re- 
presenting ' The Capture of the French ship 
L'Amazonne by H.M. frigate Santa Marga- 
ritta' (Royal Academy, 1784), ' The Spanish 
Treachery at Nootka Sound ' (Society of Ar- 
tists, 1791), 'H.M.S. Victory sailing from 
Spithead with a Division ' (Royal Academy, 
1792), < The Dutch Fleet defeated on 11 Oct. 
1797 by Admiral Lord Duncan ' (Royal Aca- [ 
demy, 1798), two pictures of the ' Battle of j 
Trafalgar ' (Royal Academy, 1 806), < View of ! 
the River from Westminster Bridge during ' 
the Conflagration of Drury Lane Theatre ' j 
(Royal Academy, 1809), &c. Many of his 
pictures were engraved also by R. Pollard, 
C. Morrison, and others, or aquatinted by 
F. Jukes. Dodd also published views of 
the dockyards at Black wall, Chatham, Dept- 
ford, and Woolwich, < The Loss of the East 
Indiaman Halsewell,' ' The Mutineers turn- 
ing Lieutenant Bligh adrift from H.M.S. 
Bounty/ and many others. As an instance 
of a different style may be noted two views 
of Highbury Place and two of Grosvenor and 
Queen Squares. A collection of these en- 
gravings may be seen in the print-room at 
the British Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1882; Catalogues of the Koyal 
Academy and Society of Artists; Biographie 
Universelle.] L. C. 

DODD,SiRSAMUEL(1652-1716),judge, 
of a Cheshire family settled at Little Bud- 
worth, but born in London in 1652, was the 
son of Ralph Dodd. He is probably identical 
with the ' Saml. Dod ' who entered Merchant 
Taylors' School 11 Sept. 1664 (ROBINSON, ' 
Merchant Taylors' School Reg. i. 269). He \ 
entered the Inner Temple in 1670, was called 
in 1679, and became a bencher in 1700. He ! 
seems not to have been in parliament at any | 
time. He was employed for various bankers ' 
against the crown upon a question of the j 
liability of the crown for interest on loans to i 
Charles II, 29 June 1693 and 20 Jan. 1700, ! 
and for the New East India Company upon a I 
bill to incorporate the old company with it on | 
1 Feb. 1700. He negotiated an agreement I 
for the fusion of the two on behalf of the new | 
company in October 1701. Between 1700 , 
and 1706 he on several occasions advised the | 
treasury. In 1710 he was assigned by the 
House of Lords as counsel for Sacheverell, 
14 Feb., appeared for him on his trial, and , 
led the defence on the last three articles of [ 



the impeachment ; and on the accession of 
George I he was knighted, 11 Oct. 1714, made 
a serjeant 20 Oct., and sworn lord chief baron 
22 Nov. He held the office but seventeen 
months, died 14 April 1716, and was buried 
in the Temple Church. He married Isabel,, 
daughter of Sir Robert Croke of Chequers, 
Buckinghamshire, and had by her two sons.. 
A volume of his manuscript reports of cases 
is in the 'Hargrave Collection' in the British 
Museum. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; State Trials, xv. 
213; Redington's Treasury Papers; Luttrell's 
Diary ; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire.] 

J. A. H. 

DODD, THOMAS (1771-1850), auc- 
tioneer and printseller, the son of Thomas 
Dodd, a tailor, was born in the parish of 
Christ Church, Spitalfields, London, on 7 July 
1771. When he was ten years old his father 
forsook his home, and his mother was com- 
pelled to take the boy from the school which 
he attended, kept by M. Dufour, at Shooter's 
Hill. Soon afterwards young Dodd nar- 
rowly escaped drowning while bathing in the 
Thames. His first employment was in the ser- 
vice of an Anglo-American colonel named De 
Vaux, and by that eccentric adventurer he was 
taken about the country as a member of his 
band of juvenile musicians. After a time the 
colonel left the lad with a butcher, at whose 
hands he endured ill-treatment for a twelve- 
month. He ran away in quest of the colonel, 
going penniless and on foot from London to* 
Liverpool, and thence to Matlock Bath. At 
another time he was left with an itinerant 
harper at Conway. The harper's bad usage 
induced him to seek the protection of a Welsh 
innkeeper ; then he lived awhile with a sport- 
ing parson, ultimately returning to London in 
1788, and taking a menial position in the shop 
of his uncle, a tailor, named Tooley, in Buck- 
lersbury. His next place was that of a foot- 
man, when he found leisure to indulge a taste 
for reading and drawing. In 1794 he married 
his employer's waiting-maid, and opened a 
day-school near Battle Bridge, St. Pancras. 
Being now possessed of considerable skill as 
a penman and copyist, he gave up his school 
to accept a situation as engrossing clerk in 
the enrolment office of the court of chan- 
cery. His spare hours were devoted to the 
study of engravings, and in 1796 he took a 
small shop in Lambeth Marsh for the sale of 
old books and prints. Two years afterwards 
he removed to Tavistock Street, Co vent Gar- 
den. By dint of hard study and careful ob- 
servation he acquired a remarkable know- 
ledge of engravings, and began an elaborate 
biographical catalogue of engravers, which 
eventually formed thirty folio volumes of 



Dodd 



155 



Dodd 



manuscript. His dealings in prints gradually 
extended, and his stock assumed immense 
proportions. In 1806 he opened an auction- 
room in St. Martin's Lane, and there he sold 
some famous collections, among them being 
that of General Dowdeswell in January 1809. 
In the course of his business he had large 
sales of prints and books at Liverpool, Ports- 
mouth, and elsewhere. When he was at Lud- 
low in 1812, he found in the possession of an 
innkeeper a copy of Holland s ' Basioloogia ' 
(1618), but it was not till seven years after 
that he was able to get the owner to part 
with this rare volume of portraits for 100/. 
In 1817 he spent much time over a dictionary 
of monograms, which might have been pro- 
fitable had not a similar work by Brulliot 
been published about that time. From this 
period his good fortune deserted him and his 
stock dwindled. He settled in Manchester 
about 1819 as an auctioneer, and in 1823 
projected a scheme which led to the esta- 
blishment of the Royal Manchester Institu- 
tion in Mosley Street, and the holding of 
annual exhibitions of pictures, which have 
been continued ever since. The Royal In- 
stitution building, with its contents, was 
transferred by the goA r ernors in 1882 to the 
Manchester corporation. Before leaving Man- 
chester at the end of 1825 he began to pub- 
lish his work entitled ' The Connoisseur's Re- 
pertorium ; or a Universal Historical Record 
of Painters, Engravers, Sculptors, and Archi- 
tects, and of their Works,' &c. The first two 
volumes were published in 1825, and the w r ork 
was continued to the name * Barraducio ' in 
a sixth volume, issued in 1831, when lack of 
support compelled the author to abandon 
it. Some copies have the title 'The Con- 
noisseur's Repertory ; or a Biographical His- 
tory,' &c. 

Returning to London he had a sale-room 
for two years in Leicester Street, Leicester 
Square, and then became for several years 
foreman for Mr. Martin Colnaghi, from whose 
establishment he was engaged by the Earl of 
Yarborough to arrange and complete his col- 
lection of prints. In 1839-41 he made a 
catalogue, yet in manuscript, of the Douce 
collection of fifty thousand prints in the 
Bodleian Library. This is perhaps his most 
important work. He also arranged and cata- 
logued Horace Walpole's prints, which were 
sold by George Robins for 3,840/. In 1844, 
being then a \vidower, he was elected a 
brother of the Charterhouse. He died on 
17 Aug. 1850 at the residence of Mr. Joseph 
Mayer, Liverpool, to whom he bequeathed 
his manuscript compilations and other col- 
lections, extending to about two hundred 
folios, and including his l Account of En- 



gravers.' He was buried in St. James's ceme- 
tery, Liverpool. 

[Gent. Mag. November 1850, p. 480, with por- 
trait ; Temple Bar, July 1876, and same article in 
Memoirs of Thomas Dodd, William Upcott, and 
George Stubbs, K.A. (by Boyle), printed for 
Joseph Mayer, 1879, 8vo ; Evans's Cat. of Por- 
traits, ii. 125; several of Dodd's sale catalogues 
in the Manchester Free Library.] C. W. S. 

DODD, WILLIAM (1729-1777), forger, 
born 29 May 1729, was son of William Dodd, 
vicar of Bourne in Lincolnshire (d. 1756, 
aged 54). He was entered as a sizar at Clare 
Hall, Cambridge, in 1746. In 1749-50 he 
was fifteenth in the mathematical tripos. He 
had already published some facetious poems. 
He now went to London to try his hand at 
authorship, and indulged in the gaieties of 
the town. On 15 April 1751 he married 
Mary Perkins, whose reputation was perhaps 
doubtful (WALPOLE, Letters, vi. 55). Her 
father was a verger at Durham. Dodd took 
a house in Wardour Street, published an 
elegy on the death of Frederick, prince of 
Wales, and wrote a comedy. His friends, 
however, persuaded him to return the money 
received from a manager and to resume a 
clerical career. He was ordained deacon on 
19 Oct. 1751, and became curate at West 
Ham, Essex. He was appointed to a lecture- 
ship at West Ham in 1752 and to a lecture- 
ship at St. James's, Garlick Hill, in May 
1753, exchanging the last for another at St. 
Olave's, Hart Street, in April 1754. A rather 
loose novel called ' The Sisters,' published in 
the same year, seems to have been written 
by him, though it has been attributed to 
W. Guthrie [q.v.] (see Gent. Mag. 1777 ? 
p. 389). He was at this time inclined to 
the ' Hutchinsonians,' with two of whom, 
Bishop Home and Parkhurst, a college con- 
temporary, he had some acquaintance. He 
became a popular preacher, and his sermons 
on behalf of charities were very successful. 
Upon the opening of the ' Magdalen House * 
in 1758 he preached the inaugural sermon. 
He acted as chaplain, and in 1763 a regular 
salary of 100/. a year was voted to him. The 
new charity was popular ; princes and fine 
ladies came to hear the sermons, and Dodd, ac- 
cording to Horace AValpole (Letters, iii. 282), 
preached ' very eloquently and touchingly ' 
in the ' French style.' The * lost sheep,' says 
Walpole, wept ; Lady Hertford followed their 
example, and Dodd wrote a poem upon the 
countess's tears. He published a variety of 
edifying books, and became the chief writer 
or editor of the ' Christian Magazine ' (1760- 
1767). Some of his letters to Newbery, the 
proprietor, are in Prior's ' Life of Goldsmith ' 
(i. 410-14). He contributed a weekly paper 



Dodd 



156 



Dodd 



called ' The Visitor' to Newbery's 'Public 
Ledger.' In 1763 he was appointed chaplain 
to the king and also to Bishop Samuel Squire 
of St. David's, who in the same year gave him 
a prebend at Brecon. He published a com- 
mentary on the Bible from manuscripts at- 
tributed to Locke, which appeared in monthly 
parts (1765-70), and was collected in the 
last year in 3 vols. fol. Through Squire he 
had obtained the tutorship of Philip Stan- 
hope, nephew to Lord Chesterfield. In 1766 
he took the LL.D. degree. He resigned West 
Ham and his lectureships. He took a house 
in Southampton Row and a country house at 
Baling, to receive pupils of good families, to 
accommodate whom he changed his chariot 
for a coach. His wife received a legacy of 
1,500/. about this time, and a lottery ticket 
given to her brought a prize of 1,000/. (Gent. 
Mag. 1790, p. 1066). Dodd invested these 
sums in a chapel in Pimlico, called Charlotte 
Chapel, after the queen. He attracted a 
fashionable congregation, and had the assis- 
tance of Weeden Butler the elder [q. v.], 
who had been his amanuensis from 1764. He 
also took turns with a Dr. Trusler in preach- 
ing at a chapel in Charlotte Street, Blooms- 
bury. He 'fell into snares,' wrote dainty 
verses to ladies, attended city feasts, and in- 
curred debts. Scandals began to attach to 
him, though his congregation still believed 
in him, and he was nicknamed the ' macaroni 
parson ' ( Town and Country Magazine, 1773). 
In 1772 he was preferred to the rectory of 
Hoekliffe, Bedfordshire, worth about 160/. a 
year, to which was joined the vicarage of 
Chalgrove. In 1774 Mrs. Dodd wrote an 
anonymous letter to Lady Apsley, wife of 
the lord chancellor [see BATHURST, HENRY, 
1714-1794], offering 3,000/. and an annuity 
of 500/. for a promise of the living of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, vacated by the 
promotion of Dr. Moss to the see of Bath 
and Wells, and said to be worth 1,500/. a 
year. The letter was soon traced to the 
writer. Dodd was struck off the list of 
chaplains, and wrote a weak letter to the 
papers (10 Feb. 1774) protesting that the 
matter would be cleared up in time. Foote 
introduced ' Mrs. Simony ' into his farce ' The 
Cozeners.' Dodd went abroad for a time, 
visited his pupil, now Lord Chesterfield, at 
Geneva, was well received by his patron, and 
presented to the living of Wing in Bucking- 
hamshire. He returned to London, and his 
portrait was soon afterwards presented to 
the Magdalen House and placed in the board- 
room (FITZGERALD, p. 88). In August, how- 
ever, he ceased to be chaplain (ib. p. 92). He 
was deeply involved in debt, and it was 
doubtless to raise some ready money that in 



1776 he disposed of Charlotte Chapel, re- 
taining an interest in l the concern.' He is 
even said to have ' descended so low as to 
become the editor of a newspaper/ On 1 Feb. 

1777 he offered a bond for 4,200/. in the 
name of Lord Chesterfield to a stockbroker 
named Robertson. Robertson procured the 
money, for which, according to Dodd, Ches- 
terfield would pay an annuity of 700/. Dodd 
then brought the bond apparently signed by 
the earl. The bond was transferred to the 
lender's solicitor, who noticed some odd marks 
on the document, saw the earl personally, 
learnt that the signature was a forgery, and 
instantly obtained warrants from the lord 
mayor against Dodd and Robertson. Dodd 
was at once arrested, returned 3,OOOZ. of the 
money received, and promised 500/. more. 
He offered security for the rest, and the 
parties concerned apparently wished to ar- 
range the matter. The mayor, however, in- 
sisted upon going into the case, and Dodd 
was committed for trial. Extraordinary in- 
terest was excited by the charge. Dodd put 
forth a piteous appeal protesting his good 
intentions. He was tried on 22 Feb. and 
convicted upon the clearest evidence. A 
legal point had been raised which was not 
decided against him till the middle of May. 
Attempts were meanwhile made to obtain 
a pardon, especially by Dr. Johnson, who 
composed several papers for him, although' 
thev had only once met (CROKER, Boswell, 
vi. 275-87, vii. 121). Dodd was sentenced 
on 26 May. He had written ' Prison Thoughts ' 
in the interval, and had applied to Woodfall 
the printer to get his old comedy ' Sir Roger de 
Coverley ' produced on the stage. ' They will 
never hang me,' he said, in answer to Wood- 
fall's natural comment (TAYLOR, Records 
of my Life, ii. 250). Petitions (one signed 
by twenty-three thousand people) and pamph- 
lets swarmed ; but the king finally decided 
to carry out the sentence, under the influ- 
ence, it was said, of Lord Mansfield, or be- 
cause, in words attributed to himself, l If I 
pardon Dodd, I shall have murdered the 
Perreaus ' (executed on 17 Jan. 1776). Dodd 
preached to his fellow-prisoners^ in Newgate 
chapel (6 June) a sermon written by John- 
son. He sent a final petition to the king, 
also composed by Johnson, who wrote a very 
sensible and feeling letter to Dodd himself, 
and also wrote in his own name an appeal to 
Jenkinson, the secretary at war. The sen- 
tence, however, was carried out on 27 June 
1777. Dodd spoke some last words to the 
hangman which, it is said, were connected 
with a plan for preventing fatal effects. It 
is added that the body was carried to a sur- 
geon, who tried to restore life ; but the delay 



Doddridge 



157 



Doddridge 



caused by the enormous crowd made the at- 
tempts hopeless {Gent. Mag. 1777, p. 346, 
1790, pp. 1010, 1077). Dodd was buried at 
Cowley, Middlesex. His widow lived in 
great misery at Ilford in Essex, and died on 
24 July 1784. 

A list of fifty-five works by Dodd is given 
in the 'Account' appended to his 'Thoughts 
in Prison.' They include : 1. ' Diggon Davie's 
Resolution on the Death of his Last Cow,' 
1747. 2. ' The African Prince in England,' 
1749. 3. 'Day of Vacation in College, a 
Mock Heroic Poem,' 1750. 4. ' Beauties of 
Shakespeare,' 1752 (often reprinted till 1880). 
(It was through this collection that Goethe 
first acquired a knowledge of Shakespeare.) 
5. 'The Sisters' (?), 1754. 6. 'Hymns of 
Callimachus translated,' 1754. 7. 'Sinful 
Christian condemned by his own Prayers' 
(sermon, 1755). 8. ' Account of Rise and 
Progress of the Magdalen Charity,' 1759. 
9. ' Conference between a Mystic, an Hut- 
chinsonian,aCalvinist,'&c.,1761. 10. 'Three 
Sermons on the Wisdom and Goodness of 
God in the Vegetable Creation,' 1760-1. 
11. ' Reflections on Death/ 1763 (many edi- 
tions till 1822). 12. ' Commentary on the 
Bible,' 1765-70. 13. < Collected Poems,' 1767. 
14. ' Frequency of Capital Punishments in- 
consistent with Justice, Sound Policy, and 
Religion,' 1772. 15. ' Thoughts in Prison,' 
in 5 parts, 1777. 16. ' Selections from " Ros- 
sell's Prisoners' Director "for the . . .comfort 
of Malefactors,' 1777 ; besides many sermons, 
4 vols. of which were collected in 1755 and 
1756. 

[A Famous Forgery, being the Story of the 
unfortunate Dr. Dodd, by Percy Fitzgerald, 
1865, collects all the information. Original 
authorities are : Historical Memoirs of the Life 
and "Writings of Dr. Dodd (attributed to Isaac 
Heed), 1777 ; Account of Life and Writings, &c., 
1777 (read by Dodd himself, but suppressed by 
advice of his friends till after his death) ; Ac- 
count of the author, prefixed to edition of Prison 
Thoughts in 1779 ; Genuine Memoirs, with ac- 
count of Trial, 1777 ; Account of Behaviour and 
Dying Words, by John Villette, ordinary of New- 
gate, 1777. See also Gent. Mag. xlvii. 92-4, 
116, 136, 227, 293, 339-41, 346, 421, 489, li. 234, 
Ix. 1010, 1066, 1077; Nichols's Illustrations, 
vol. v. (correspondence of Weeden Butler) ; Ar- 
chenholtz's Pictures of England,1797, pp. 249-52; 
Thicknesse's Memoirs and Anecdotes, 1788, i. 220- 
230 ; Hawkins's Life of Johnson, pp. 434, 520-6 ; 
Wraxall's Posthumous Memoirs (1836), ii. 24-6.] 

L. S. 

DODDRIDGE or DODERIDGE, SIR 
JOHN (1555-1628), judge, son of Richard 
Doddridge, merchant, of Barnstaple, born 
in 1555, was educated at Exeter College, 



Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on 16 Feb. 
1576-7, entering the Middle Temple about 
the same time. He early became a member 
of the Society of Antiquaries, then lately 
founded (Archceologia, i. ; HEARNE, Curious 
Discourses'). In 1602 and 1603 he delivered 
some lectures at New Inn on the law of ad- 
vowsons. In Lent 1603 he discharged the 
duties of reader at his inn. On 20 Jan. 1603-4 
he took the degree of serjeant-at-law. About 
the same time he was appointed Prince 
Henry's Serjeant. He was relieved of the 
status of Serjeant and appointed solicitor- 
general on 29 Oct. 1604. Between 1603 and 
1611 he sat in parliament as member for 
Horsham, Sussex. He took part in the cele- 
brated conference in the painted chamber at 
Westminster, held 25 Feb. 1606, on the 
question whether Englishmen and Scotch- 
men born after the accession of James I to 
the English throne were naturalised by that 
event in the other kingdom. Doddridge 
adopted the common-law view that no such 
reciprocal naturalisation took place, and the 
majority in the conference were with him. 
The question was, however, subsequently 
decided in the opposite sense by Lord-chan- 
cellor Ellesmere and twelve judges in the 
exchequer chamber (Calvin's Case, State 
Trials, ii. 658). Doddridge was knighted 
on 5 July 1607, and created a justice of the 
king's bench on 25 Nov. 1612. On 4 Feb. 
1613-14 the university of Oxford, in requital 
for services rendered by him in connection 
with some litigation in which the university 
had been involved, conferred upon him the 
degree of M.A., the vice-chancellor and proc- 
tors attending in Serjeants' Inn for the pur- 
pose. Unlike Coke, he showed no reluctance 
to give extra-judicial opinions. Thus Bacon 
writes to the king (27 Jan. 1614-15) with re- 
ference to Peacham's case that Doddridge 
was ' very ready to give an opinion in secret/ 
Nevertheless he signed the letter refusing to 
stay proceedings at the instance of the king 
in the commendam case (27 April 1616). On 
being summoned to the king's presence, all 
the judges except Coke receded from the posi- 
tion they had taken in the letter. Doddridge, 
however, went still further in subserviency, 
promising that ' he would conclude for the 
king that the church was void and in his 
majesty's gift,' adding ' that the king might 
give a commendam to a bishop either before 
or after consecration, and that he might give 
it him during his life or for a certain number 
of years.' Doddridge sat on the commission 
appointed in October 1621 to examine into the 
right of the archbishop (Abbot) to install the 
newly elected bishops Williams, Davenant, 
and Gary who objected to be consecrated by 



Doddridge 



158 



Doddridge 



him on account of his accidental homicide. 
Being directed (August 1623) by warrant 
under the great seal to soften the rigour of the 
statutes against popish recusants a conces- 
sion to Spain intended to facilitate the con- 
clusion of the marriage contract Doddridge, 
according to Yonge, was hopeful of discover- 
ing a way to dispense with the statutes alto- 
gether. He concurred in the judgment de- 
livered by Chief-justice Hyde on 28 Nov. 
1627 refusing to admit to bail the five knights 
committed to prison for refusing to subscribe 
the forced loan of that year, and was ar- 
raigned by the House of Lords in April of 
the following year to justify his conduct. 
His plea was that the ' king holds of none 
but God.' He added somewhat querulously, 
1 1 am old and have one foot in the grave, 
therefore I will look to the better part as 
near as I can. But omnia habere in memoria 
et in nullo errare divinum potius est quam 
humanum.' 

He died on 13 Sept. 1628, at his house, 
Forsters, near Egham, and was buried in 
Exeter Cathedral. He married thrice, his 
last wife being Dorothy, daughter of Sir 
Amias Bampfield of North Molton, Devon- 
shire, relict of Edward Hancock of Combe 
Martin. He left no issue. Fuller observes 
that l it is hard to say whether he was better 
artist, divine, civil or canon lawyer,' and that 
'he held the scales of justice with so steady 
an hand that neither love nor lucre, fear nor 
flattery, could bow him to either side/ praise 
which is hardly borne out by his conduct in 
the commendam case and the five knights' 
case. Hearing him pleading at the bar, 
Bacon is said to have remarked, ' It is done 
like a good archer, he shoots a fair compass.' 
From a habit of shutting his eyes while lis- 
tening intently to a case, he acquired the 
sobriquet of ' the sleeping judge.' A curious 
incident occurred at the Huntingdon assizes 
in 1619. Doddridge having severely anim- 
adverted on the quality of the jurors, the 
sheriff gave to the next panel a fictitious set 
of names, such as Mamilian, prince of Toz- 
land ; Henry, prince of Godmanchester, and 
the like, which being read over with great 
solemnity, Doddridge is said not to have 
detected the imposition. 

Doddridge is the author of the following 
posthumous works : 1 . ' The Lawyer's Light ' 
(a manual for students), London, 1629, 4to. 
2. 'History of Wales, Cornwall, and Chester' 
(chiefly from records at the Tower), London, 
1630, 4to. 3. ' A Oompleat Parson ' (based 
on the lectures on advowsons referred to in 
the text), London, 1630, 4to ; 2nd ed. 1641. 
4. 'The English Lawyer' (including a re- 
print of the 'Lawyer's Light' and a treatise 



for practitioners and judges), London, 1631, 
4to. 5. ' Law of Nobility and Peerage,' Lon- 
don, 1658, 8vo. Hearne's ' Curious Dis- 
courses ' contain two brief tracts by Dodd- 
ridge : (1) ' Of the Dimensions of the Land of 
England;' (2) ' A Consideration of the Office 
and Duty of the Heralds in England.' A 
' Dissertation on Parliament ' was published 
as the work of Doddridge by his nephew 
John Doddridge of the Middle Temple, in 
a volume entitled ' Opinions of sundry 
learned Antiquaries touching the Antiquity, 
Power, &c. of the High Court of Parliament 
in England,' London, 1658, 12mo: reprinted 
in 1679, 8vo. It is of doubtful authenticity. 
The original edition of the work on deeds 
known as ' Sheppard's Touchstone of Com- 
mon Assurances,' and the work on the ' Office 
of Executor,' assigned by Wood to Thomas 
Wentworth, both of which were published 
anonymously in 1641, have been ascribed to 
Doddridge. A small treatise on the royal 
prerogative (Harl. MS. 5220) also purports 
to be his work. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 201, 355 ; Spel- 
man's Four Terms of the Year (Preface) ; Dug- 
dale's Orig. 219 ; Dugdale's Chron. Ser. 99, 100 ; 
Willis's Not. Parl. iii. 1 56 ; Cobbett's State Trials, 
iii. 51, 163 ; Metcalfe's Book of Knights, 158 ; 
Cnl. State Papers (1611-18), 158; Spedding's 
Letters and Life of Bacon, v. 100, 360; Yonge's 
Diary (Camd. Soc.), 44, 69 ; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. ii. 463 ; Whitelocke's Liber Famel. 
(Camd. Soc.), 109; Manningham's Diary (Camd. 
Soc.), 63 ; Harl. Misc. iii. 499 ; Fuller's Worthies 
(Devon).] J. M. R. 

DODDRIDGE, PHILIP, D.D. (1702- 
1751), nonconformist divine, was born in Lon- 
don on 26 June 1702. His father, Daniel 
Doddridge (d. 17 July 1715), a prosperous 
oilman, was a son of an ejected minister, 
John Doddridge, and a grandson of Philip 
Doddridge, younger brother of Sir John 
Doddridge [q. v.] Daniel Doddridge married 
the daughter of John Bauman, a Lutheran 
preacher at Prague, who fled from perse- 
cution in 1626, and eventually kept a pri- 
vate school at Kingston-on-Thames. Philip 
was the twentieth and last issue of the 
marriage ; so few were the signs of life at 
his birth that at first he was given up for 
dead; his constitution was always extremely 
delicate. But one other of the twenty chil- 
dren reached maturity, Elizabeth (d. March 
1735), who married John Nettleton, dissent- 
ing minister at Ongar, Essex. 

Doddridge told Orton that his education 
was begun by his mother, who taught him 
Bible history from the pictures on the Dutch 
tiles of the chimney. He learned his Latin 
grammar at a private school kept by Stott, 



Doddridge 



159 



Doddridge 



a dissenting minister. In 1712 he was re- j 
moved to the school at Kingston-on-Thames j 
established by his grandfather, and then j 
taught by Daniel Mayo [q. v.] His holidays j 
he spent with his uncle, Philip Doddridge, I 
solicitor, and steward to the first Duke of 
Bedford, thus forming acquaintances with 
members of the Russell family, which be- 
came friendships in later life. In 1715, after j 
the deaths of his father and uncle, he was ! 
transferred to a school at St. Albans, where I 
Downes, who had assumed the office of his 
guardian, lived. His teacher was Nathaniel 
Wood, D.D., a scholarly nonconformist, who 
ministered to a neighbouring village congre- 
gation. Clark, or Clarke, of the i Scripture 
Promises' [see CLARKE, SAMUEL, D.D., 1684- 
1750], was presbyterian minister at St. Al- 
bans, and in him Doddridge found a second 
father. As early as 1716 he began to keep a 
diary, already having thoughts of the ministry. 
Two years later Downes, who seems to have 
been a man of kindly impulses, but a hare- 
brained speculator, lost the whole of the 
Doddridge property as well as his own, and 
was got out of a debtor's prison solely by the 
sacrifice of his young ward's family plate. 

Doddridge at once left school, and went 
to consult about his future with his sister, 
then newly married and residing at Hamp- 
stead. The Duchess of Bedford offered him 
an education at either university, and pro- 
vision in the church. But he scrupled about 
conformity. He appealed to Edmund Calamy, 
D.D. (1671-1732) [q.v.], to forward his de- 
sire of entering the dissenting ministry, but 
Calamy advised him to turn his thoughts to 
something else. It has been suggested that 
Calamy saw the dissenting interest was de- 
clining ; yet this was before the rent in non- 
conformity at Salters' Hall (1719) which 
began the decline afterwards lamented by 
Calamy. Doddridge's extreme youth and 
consumptive tendency supply the natural 
explanation of Calamy 's advice. Doddridge 
was recommended by Horseman, a leading 
conveyancer, to Sir Robert Eyre [q. v.] with 
a view to his studying for the bar. But a 
letter from Clark, opening his house to him 
if he still preferred the dissenting ministry, 
decided his future. 

His theological preparation was begun by 
Clark, who admitted him as a communicant 
on 1 Feb. 1719. In October of that year 
he entered the academy of John Jennings 
[q. v.] at Kibworth, Leicestershire. Jennings 
was an independent, but a few of his students, 
including Doddridge, were aided by grants 
from the presbyterian fund. Other small 
grants reduced the burden of expense, which 
fell on Clark, to about l'2l. a year. This 



Doddridge seems to have ultimately repaid. 
He supplies, in his correspondence, some very 
interesting details of the course of study. 
The spirit of the academy was decidedly 
liberal. Jennings encouraged ' the greatest 
freedom of inquiry ' (Corresp. i. 155), and 
was not wedded to a system of doctrine, 
' but is sometimes a Calvinist, sometimes 
a remonstrant, sometimes a Baxterian, and 
sometimes a Socinian, as truth and evidence 
determine him ' (ib. p. 198). As a student 
Doddridge was diligent and conscientious, 
gaining a wide acquaintance with the prac- 
tical outfit of his profession, but showing 
no turn for research. 

The academy was removed to Hinckley, 
Leicestershire, in July 1722, and on 22 July 
Doddridge preached his first sermon in the 
old meeting-house taken down in that year. 
The state of his finances made it necessary 
for him to seek a settlement as soon as pos- 
sible. On 25 Jan. 1723 he passed an ex- 
amination before three ministers, qualifying 
him for a certificate of approbation from the 
j county meeting in May. He had already 
taken the oaths and made the subscription 
; required by the Toleration Act (ib. i. 173), 
though, as a term of communion among dis- 
senters, he was resolved never to subscribe 
(ib. pp. 200, 335). At the beginning of June 
1723 he became minister at Kibworth to a 
congregation of 150 people with a stipend of 
357. Stanford prints an extract from what 
he supposes to be Doddridge's confession of 
faith on this occasion. But at Kibworth he 
I was not ordained, and made no confession. 
l The document in question is believed by Prin- 
I cipal Newth to be the confession of Dodd- 
; ridge's pupil, Thomas Steffe, ordained 14 July 
I 1741 ; Doddridge wrote his life, prefixed to 
| posthumous sermons, 1742, 12mo. 

Almost simultaneously with the invitation 
to Kibworth, Doddridge had been sought by 
the presbyterian congregation at Coventry, 
I ' one of the largest dissenting congregations 
j in England,' as an assistant to John Warren. 
j He would gladly have accepted this position 
had the offer been perfectly unanimous ; but 
Warren favoured another man. The result 
was a split in the congregation and the erec- 
tion of a new meeting-house. Doddridge 
was invited (February 1724) to become its 
I first minister ; he unhesitatingly declined to 
i go in opposition to Warren. Overtures from 
Pershore, Worcestershire (October 1723), 
and from Haberdashers' Hall, London (No- 
vember 1723), he had already rejected, partly 
because he did not wish to be ordained so 
soon, chiefly because in the first case they 
were 'a very rigid sort of people ' (ib. i. 286), 
and in the second he thought it probable that 



Doddridge 



160 



Doddridge 



he might have been ' required to subscribe ' 
(Corresp. i. 335). 

Doddridge's correspondence is remarkable 
at this period for its lively play of sportive 
vivacity, its absence of reserve, and its per- 
vading element of healthy good sense. What- 
ever he did was done with zest ; and the 
elasticity of his spirits found vent in playful 
letters to his female frien/ls. At Coventry 
he was charged with ' some levities,' accord- 
ing to William Tong (ib. ii. 6). The use 
of tobacco (ib. p. 39) was a lawful form of 
dissipation for divines; but cards, 'a chap- 
ter or two in the history of the four kings ' 
(ib. p. 139), were somewhat unpuritanical. 
While at Kibworth, he boarded for a short 
time with the Perkins family at Little Stret- 
ton ; then for a longer period at Burton 
Overy, in the family of Freeman, related to 
William Tong. To the only daughter, Cathe- 
rine, owner of the 'one hoop-petticoat' in 
his ' whole diocess' (ib. i. 245), Doddridge 
speedily lost his heart. His sister's warnings 
were met with the query, * Did you ever know 
me marry foolishly in my life? ' (ib. p. 432). 
The lady seems to have used him badly, and 
finally discarded him, in September 1728. 
On 29 May 1730 Doddridge wrote a proposal 
to Jane Jennings (mother of Mrs. Barbauld), 
then in her sixteenth year (ib. iii. 20, cor- 
rected by Le Breton, p. 201). Nothing came 
of this, and in the following August he be- 
gan the addresses which ended in his singu- 
larly happy marriage with Mercy Maris. 

Meantime Doddridge had left Kibworth. 
In October 1725 he had removed his resi- 
dence to Market Harborough, where his 
friend, David Some, was minister. By ar- 
rangement, the friends entered into a kind 
of joint pastorate of the two congregations. 
He had received (August 1727) an invitation 
to Bradfield, Norfolk, but the people there 
were ' so orthodox ' that he had ' not the 
least thought of accepting it.' In December 
1727 he was offered the charge of the presby- 
terian congregation in New Court, Carey 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, but declined it. 
In November 1728 he was invited by the in- 
dependent congregation at Castle Gate, Not- 
tingham, and went thither to preach. While 
at Nottingham, the presbyterian congrega- 
tion of the High Pavement offered him a 
colleagueship. But he rejected both over- 
tures ; among the independents there was 
too much ' high orthodoxy,' the presbyterians 
were broken into parties (ib. ii. 440, 448 ; see 
STANFOKD for a correction of dates). 

The death of Jennings in his prime (8 July 
1723) had created a void in the dissenting 
institutions for theological training. Need 
was felt of a midland academy at once liberal 



and evangelical. The Derbyshire academy r 
under Ebenezer Latham, M.D., was favoured 
by the presbyterian board, but did not meet 
the wants of the time. Jennings, it was 
known, had looked to Doddridge as likely 
i to take up his work. An account of Jen- 
nings's method, drawn up by Doddridge, was 
; submitted to Dr. Isaac Watts, who thought 
the scheme might fairly be entrusted to one 
who had ' so admirably described ' it. On 
10 April 1729, at a ministers' meeting in 
Lutterworth, Some broached the design of 
establishing an academy at Market Har- 
borough, and the approval of Doddridge as 
its first tutor was unanimous. He opened 
the institution at the beginning of July, with 
three divinity students and some others. On 
28 Sept. a call to the pastorate was forwarded 
to him from the independent congregation 
at Castle Hill, Northampton. Doddridge ac- 
cepted it on 6 Dec. ; removing with hia 
academy to Northampton, he began his minis- 
try there on Christmas day. He was t or- 
dained a presbyter' on 19 March 1730 by 
j eight ministers (five of them presbyterians), 
two others being ' present and consenting.' 
His confession of faith is given in Wadding- 
ton. 

Early in the same year (1730) appeared an 
anonymous * Enquiry ' into the causes of the 
| decay of the dissenting interest, which made 
: some stir. The author was Strickland Gough 
[q. v.], a young dissenting minister, wha 
shortly afterwards conformed. The ' Enquiry ' 
1 provoked many replies, and among them was 
| Doddridge's first publication. His ' Free 
Thoughts on the most probable means of re- 
viving the Dissenting Interest,' by ' a minister 
in the country,' was issued on 11 July 1730 
(according to the British Museum copy). 
i Warburton, who was uncertain of its author- 
ship, describes it as ' a masterpiece ' (ib. iii. 
392). Doddridge observes that in his neigh- 
| bourhood l the number of dissenters is greatly 
increased within these twenty years.' Like 
i Calamy, he has an eye to the political import- 
! ance of a united nonconformist body. He re- 
; commends a healing and unifying policy. The 
I problem was to retain the liberal and culti- 
vated element among nonconformists, with- 
out losing hold of the people. Separation into 
congregations of diverse sentiments Dodd- 
ridge thought suicidal. Union might be 
preserved by an evangelical ministry which 
combined religion with prudence. Bigotry, 
he observes, ' may be attacked by sap, more 
successfully than by storm.' 

Doddridge carried out his own ideal with 
great fidelity and with conspicuous success, 
doing more than any man in the last cen- 
tury to obliterate old party lines, and to 



Doddridge 



161 



Doddridge 



unite nonconformists on a common religious 
ground. He did not escape the criticisms 
both of the zealots who maintained a higher 
standard of ' orthodoxy,' that is to say of 
Calvinism, and of the class of thinkers who 
practically met the deism of the age halfway. 
According to Kippis (p. 307), the self-styled 
1 rational dissenters ' especially regarded him 
as a trimmer, and thought his true place was 
with them. Yet he early defined his posi- 
tion (4 Nov. 1724) as ' in all the most im- 
portant points a Calvinist,' and his later 
writings leave the same impression. He had 
been affected as a young man by the current 
discussions on the doctrine of the Trinity, 
and confesses that for some time he leaned 
towards the Arian view. His riper conclu- 
sion, according to Stoughton (pp. 110-11), 
' somewhat resembled the scheme of Sabel- 
lius/ with the addition of a belief, which he 
shared with Dr. Isaac Watts, in the pre- 
existence of the human soul of our Lord. 
His tolerance extended to a recognition of 
the evangelical standing of the Exeter here- 
tic, James Peirce (ib. ii. 144) ; and he de- 
clared that he would lose ( his place and even 
his life ' rather than exclude from the com- 
munion ' a real Christian ' on the ground of 
Arian proclivities (Kippis, ut sup.) On the 
other hand, he admitted Whitefield to his 
pulpit, a step which subjected him to strong 
remonstrance from the London supporters 
of his academy (Corresp. iv. 274 sq.) His 
daughter said in after life, f The orthodoxy 
my father taught his children was charity ' 
(ib. v. 63 ft.) In church government Dodd- 
ridge expresses himself (7 Dec. 1723) as 
* moderately inclined ' to Congregationalism ; 
but he was not tied to forms, and his example 
did much to render nugatory for a long period 
the ecclesiastical distinction between the 
English presbyterians and congregationalists. 
At Northampton he was relieved of some of 
his pastoral work by the appointment (26 Feb. 
1740) of four l elders,' of whom two were 
young ministers (JobOrton was one of them). 
His congregation did not increase under his 
ministry ; there were 342 church-members 
at the date of his first communion in North- 
ampton ; by the end of 1749 the number stood 
at 239, and it seems to have still further 
declined under his immediate successors. 

The truth is, Doddridge had too many irons 
in the fire. Orton laments (Letters, i. 4) ' his 
unhappy inclination to publish so much,' and 
' his almost entirely neglecting to compose 
sermons and his preaching extempore.' Dodd- 
ridge's manuscripts include many sermons 
written out in full. His correspondence 
heavily taxed his time, as he had no ama- 
iiuensis ; on one occasion he says that after 

VOL. XV. 



writing as many letters as he could for a fort- 
night, he had still 106 to answer. 

At an early stage in his career as a tutor 
Doddridge came into conflict with the eccle- 
siastical authorities. Wills, vicar of Kings- 
thorpe, Northamptonshire, complained that 
one of his students had preached in a barn 
in his parish. Reynolds, the diocesan chan- 
cellor, directed the churchwardens to present 
Doddridge unless he held the bishop's license. 
Doddridge refused to accept any license, and 
was cited to appear in the consistory court on 
6 Nov. 1733. In the following December his 
house was attacked by a mob. This drew 
expressions of sympathy from Lord Halifax 
and other public men. Aided by the London 
committee of dissenting deputies, Doddridge 
carried the legal question to Westminster 
Hall, where on31 Jan. 1734 the judges granted 
a prohibition in his favour. The case was re- 
newed in June, when Reynolds pleaded that 
the prohibition had been illegally issued. Pro- 
ceedings, however, were stopped by a message 
from the king, George II. In 1736 he re- 
ceived the degree of D.D. from the two uni- 
versities at Aberdeen. From 1738 his aca- 
demy was subsidised by the Coward trustees 
[see COWARD, WILLIAM, d. 1738]. 

Doddridge's equipment for the work of his 
academy was serviceable rather than pro- 
found. He had a great and discriminating 
knowledge of books. Wesley consulted him 
on a course of reading for young preachers, 
and received a very detailed reply (18 June 
1746). He knew and understood his public ; 
his influence on his pupils was stimulating 
and liberalising. Doddridge made the use 
of shorthand, already common, imperative, 
adapting the system of Jeremie Rich. Each 
student carried away a full transcript in short- 
hand of his lectures, as well as of illustrative 
extracts. The mathematical form of his lec- 
tures (in philosophy and divinity), with the 
neat array of definitions, propositions, and 
corollaries, was borrowed from Jennings. 
Jennings, however, lectured in Latin ; Dodd- 
ridge was one of the first to introduce the 
practice of lecturing in English. A very ela- 
borate system of rules for the academy exists 
in manuscript (dated December 1743, and 
subsequently revised). Orton complains (ib. 
ut sup.) that the rules were not enforced, 
that Doddridge did not keep up his own au- 
thority, but left it to an assistant to maintain 
regularity. He assigns this as the reason for 
his quitting the post of assistant. Owing to 
Doddridge's numerous engagements, ' all the 
business of the day ' was thrown too late ; and 
the students ' lived too well,' which was partly 
due to Doddridge's hospitality to visitors. 
The total number of his students was about 



Doddridge 



162 



Doddridge 



two hundred ; lists are given in the ' Corre- 
spondence ' (v. 547) and in the ' Monthly Re- 
pository' (1815, p. 686), from Orton's manu- 
script; both lists need correction. None of his 
pupils turned out great scholars or thinkers, 
but among them were men of superior at- 
tainment, and a large number of useful minis- 
ters. Several became tutors of academies, 
e.g. John Aikin, D.D. [q. v.], Samuel Meri- 
vale, Caleb Ashworth, D.D. [q. v.], Andrew 
Kippis, D.D., Stephen Addington,D.D. [q. v.], 
and James Robertson, professor of oriental 
languages at Edinburgh (1751-92). Adding- 
ton and Ashworth retained through life the 
Calvinistic theology ; a majority of Dodd- 
ridge's students ultimately held or inclined 
to the Arian type of doctrine, but in an 
undogmatic form, and with much infusion 
of the evangelical spirit. As a theological 
writer, Hugh Farmer [q. v.] was the most 
influential of Doddridge's pupils. Eight or 
nine conformed, but some of these, though 
placed for a time with Doddridge, were always 
intended for the established church. The 
last survivor of his theological students was 
Richard Denny of Long Buckby, Northamp- 
tonshire, who died in 1813 ; Thomas Tayler 
(d. 1831), who is often counted as Doddridge's 
last surviving student, l had the advantage of 
his acquaintance and friendship/ but was not 
admitted to the academy until after Dodd- 
ridge had left England to die ; Humphreys 
has confused him (Corresp. v. 183 ra.) with 
James Taylor, a lay student. 

At Northampton Doddridge ' set up a cha- 
rity school' (1737) for teaching and clothing 
the children of the poor, an example set him 
by Clark, and followed elsewhere. He had 
an important share in the foundation of the 
county infirmary (1743). He proposed the 
formation of a society for distributing bibles 
and other good books among the poor. His 
scheme for the advancement of the gospel at 
home and abroad, presented to three different 
assemblies of ministers in 1741, has been de- 
scribed as the first nonconformist project of 
foreign missions ; it was probably suggested 
by his correspondence with Zinzendorf. In 
1748 he laid before Archbishop Herring a 
proposal for occasional interchange of pulpits 
between the established and dissenting clergy. 

The religious genius of Doddridge is seen 
at its best in the powerful addresses which 
make up his volume ' On the Rise and Pro- 
gress of Religion in the Soul,' 1745. This 
work was planned and prompted by Isaac 
Watts, who revised a portion of it. Its popu- 
larity has been steadily maintained ; it has 
been rendered into a great variety of lan- 
guages, including Tamil and Syriac. His 
* Family Expositor/ of which the first volume 



appeared in 1739, is a didactic comment on 
the New Testament, suited to the taste of a 
past generation, but too colourless and diffuse 
to be of permanent value. His divinity lec- 
1 tures have nothing original, but they possess 
! the merit of skilful selection, and an. arrange- 
ment which is convenient, if artificial. The 
' same may be said of his courses on the kin- 
' dred topics of pneumatology (psychology) and 
ethics. 

Doddridge is justly admired as a writer of 
; hymns. Here Watts was his model, and if 
he never rises so high as Watts, he never 
; sinks so low. In his versified epitome of 
Christian instruction for children (1743) he 
invaded a province which Watts had made 
peculiarly his own ; this l light essay ' cannot 
j be called very successful, though it is said to 
! have been a favourite with George III as a 
boy. His hymns were chiefly composed on 
the basis of some scriptural text ; they were 
circulated in manuscript, and often sung in 
worship, being given out line by line in the 
old dissenting way ; a few were printed in 
connection with the sermons on which they 
bore, but they were never collected till after 
Doddridge's death. Their use has by no 
means been confined to dissenters ; a Christ- 
mas hymn and a communion hymn (said to 
have been inserted by a dissenting printer) 
at the end of the Book of Common Prayer 
are by Doddridge ; the paraphrases of the 
| church of Scotland have borrowed from him. 
I Dr. Johnson pronounces his ' Live while you 
j live ' to be ^ one of the finest epigrams in the 
English language.' 

Doddridge's multifarious labours had made 
too great demands on the vitality of a slender 
constitution. On his way to the funeral of 
his early benefactor, Clark, in December 
1750, at St. Albans, he caught a severe cold, 
! and could not shake off its effects. His last 
sermon at Northampton was preached on 
14 July 1751 ; he delivered a charge at 
Bewdley, Worcestershire, on 18 July, visited 
Orton at Shrewsbury, and in August went to 
Bristol for the hot wells. Maddox, bishop of 
Worcester, called on him, and offered the use 
of his carriage. A sum of 300/., to which 
Lady Huntingdon contributed one-third, was 
raised by his friends to enable him to try a 
voyage to Lisbon. He left Bristol on 17 Sept., 
stayed a short time with Lady Huntingdon 
at Bath, and sailed from Falmouth on 30 Sept., 
accompanied by his wife and a servant. At 
Lisbon he was the guest of David King, son 
of a member of his Northampton flock. His 
spirits revived, but his strength was gone. 
He died on 26 Oct. 1751, and was buried in 
the English cemetery at Lisbon. His con- 
gregation erected a monument to his memory 



Doddridge 



163 



Doddridge 



(with an inscription by Gilbert West) in the 
meeting-house at Northampton. His tomb 
at Lisbon was cleaned and recut, at the ex- 
pense of Miller, the British chaplain, in 1814. 
In June 1828 it was replaced by a new marble 
tomb at the cost of Thomas Tayler (mentioned 
above) ; this was renovated in 1879, along 
with the tomb of Henry Fielding, by the 
then chaplain, the Rev. Godfrey Pope. 

Doddridge was tall, slight, and extremely 
near-sighted. His portrait was several times 
painted, and has often been engraved. The 
engraving by Worthington, prefixed to the 
' Correspondence,' is from a portrait finished 
10 Aug. 1750, and regarded by his family as 
the best likeness. He married, on 22 Dec. 
1730, Mercy Maris, an orphan, born at Wor- 
cester, but brought up by an uncle, Ebenezer 
Hanldns, at Upton-on-Severn ; she died at 
Tewkesbury, 7 April 1790, aged 82. In his 
letters to his wife, Doddridge, after many years 
of married life, writes with all the warmth and 
sometimes with all the petulance of a lover. 
Among his manuscripts is a letter (1741) 
superscribed ' To my trusty and well-beloved 
Mrs. Mercy Doddridge, the dearest of all 
dears, the wisest of all my earthly coun- 
cellors, and of all my governours the most 
potent, yet the most gentle and moderate.' 
For the dates of birth of his three sons and six 
daughters see ' Correspondence,' v. 531 n. Five 
of his children died in infancy. He left one 
son, Philip, ' his unhappy son ' (ORTOX, Let- 
ters, ii. 56), who died unmarried on 13 March 
1785, aged 47 ; and three daughters, Mary, who 
became the second wife of John Humphreys 
of Tewkesbury, and died on 8 June 1799, aged 
66 ; Mercy, who died unmarried at Bath on 
20 Oct. 1809, aged 75; and Anna Cecilia, who 
died at Tewkesbury on 3 Oct. 1811, aged 74. 

Doddridge's will (dated 11 June 1741) with I 
codicils (dated 4 July 1749) is printed with 
the ' Correspondence.' The original docu- 
ment is entirely in Doddridge's hand, and i 
there are interlineations in the will, made 
subsequent to 1741. Of these the most im- 
portant is the substitution of Ashworth for 
Orton as his nominated successor in the aca- 
demy and (if approved by the congregation) 
in the pastoral office. 

His works were collected in 10 vols. Leeds, 
1802-5, 8vo ; reprinted 1811, 8vo. The chief I 
items are the following : 1. 'Free Thoughts ! 
on the most probable means of reviving 
the Dissenting Interest,' 1730, 8vo (anon.) . 

2. ' Sermons on the Religious Education of 
Children,' 1732, 12mo (preface by D. Some). | 

3. ' Submission to Divine Providence in the ! 
Death of Children,' 1737, 8vo (sermon on 
2 K. iv. 25, 26, said to have been written j 
on the coffin of his daughter Elizabeth). 



4. ' The Family Expositor,' 1739-56, 6 vols. 
4to (the last volume was published pos- 
thumously by Orton ; Doddridge finished the 
exposition on 31 Dec. 1748, and the notes on 
21 Aug. 1749 ; he had prepared a similar 
exposition of the Minor Prophets, which was 
completed 5 June 1751, and is still in manu- 
script). 5. ' The Evil and Danger of Ne- 
glecting the Souls of Men,' 1742, 8vo (ser- 
mon on Prov. xxiv. 11, 12, prefaced by his 
plan of a home and foreign mission). 6. * The 
Principles of the Christian Religion, ex- 
pressed in plain and easy verse,' 1743, 12mo. 

7. ' The Rise and Progress of Religion in the 
Soul,' 1745, 8vo and 12mo (the 8vo is the 
earlier issue) ; in French, by J. S. Vernede, 
Bienne, 1754, 8vo ; Welsh, by J. Griffith, 
1788, 12mo: Gaelic, Edinb. 1811, 12mo ; 
Italian, 1812, 12mo ; Tamil, Jaffna, 1848, 
12mo ; Syriac, by J. Perkins, Urumea, 1857, 
4to; also in Dutch, German, and Danish. 

8. ' Some Remarkable Passages in the Life 
of the honourable Colonel James Gardiner 
. . . with an appendix relating to the 
antient family of the Munros of Fowlis,' 
1747, 8vo (with portrait of Gardiner [q. v.J). 
Posthumous were 9. ' Hymns,' Salop, 1755, 
12mo (contains 370 hymns, edited by Or- 
ton) ; reissued by Humphreys, as ' Scriptural 
Hymns,' 1839, 16mo (some copies have title 
' The Scripture Hymn-book,' and no date) ; 
Humphreys gives 397 hymns ; he claims to 
have restored in some places the true readings 
from Doddridge's manuscripts, but in others 
he admits having made what he considers 
improvements, but no suppressions. 10. < A 
Course of Lectures on Pneumatology, Ethics, 
and Divinity,' 1763, 4to (edited by S. Clark) : 
2nd edit. 1776, 4to; 3rd edit. 1794, 8vo, 
2 vols. (edited by Kippis). 11. ' Lectures 
on Preaching ' (edited from four manuscript 
notebooks; another recension was printed in 
the ' Universal Theological Magazine,' August 
1803 and following issues, by Edmund 
Butcher [q. v.] ; the first separate issue is 
1821, 8vo). Not included in the collected 
works are 12. ' A Brief and Easy System of 
Short-hand : first invented by Jeremiah Rich, 
and improved by Dr. Doddridge,' 1799, 12mo 
(in this first edition the characters are ' made 
with a pen'). 13. 'The Leading Heads of 
Twenty-seven Sermons,' Northampton, 1816, 
8vo (transcribed from a hearer's notes by 
T. Hawkins). 14. 'The Correspondence and 
Diary of Philip Doddridge,' 1829-31, 8vo, 
5 vols. (edited by his great-grandson, John 
Doddridge Humphreys, who has been at- 
tacked for his mode of editing ; he details 
his plan, iv. 570 n. ; he claims to have 
omitted no passage bearing on Doddridge's 
personal history or theological opinions). 

M2 



Dodds 



164 



Dodds 



The ' Works ' contain only such of the letters 
as had been edited by the Rev. Thomas Sted- 
man of Shrewsbury, 1790, 8vo. 

[Orton's Memoirs, 1766, are stiffly written, 
and broken into sermonising sections. They are 
expanded, at inordinate length, by Kippis, in 
Biog. Brit. 1793. Prefixed to the Works is a 
reprint of Orton, with notes taken from Kippis. 
Orton's Letters to Dissenting Ministers, 1806, 
supply some interesting bints ; but the real Dodd- 
ridge was first unveiled in the Correspondence, 
1829-31. Stanford's Philip Doddridge, 1880, is 
the best life at present, yet a better is desirable ; 
Stanford has worked in valuable materials from 
unpublished sources, but his book needs revision. 
Use has been made above of Stough ton's Philip 
Doddridge ... a Centenary Memorial, 1851; 
Coleman's Memorials of Indep. Churches in 
Northamptonshire, 1853, pp. 13 sq. ; Sibree's In- 
dependency in Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 37 sq.; 
Carpenter's Presby terianism in Nottingham ,1862, 
p. 143 sq. (extracts from unpublished letters) ; 
Christian Reformer, 1866, p. 552 sq. ('Ecclesiasti- 
cal Proceedings against Dr. Doddridge') ; Miller's 
Our Hymns, 1866, p. 113 sq. ; Hunt's Religious 
Thought in England, 1873, iii. 245 sq. ; Le Bre- 
ton's Mem. of Mrs. Barbauld, 1874 ; Wadding- 
ton's Congregational History, 1700-1800, 1876, 
p. 280 ; Christian Life, 3 Nov. 1877, p. 535 
(communication from the Rev. J. S. Porter re- 
specting Thomas Tayler, his predecessor in the 
ministry at Carter Lane, Doctors' Commons) ; 
Stoughton's Hist, of Religion in England, 1881, 
vi. 96, 351 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, 
p. xi ; Westby- Gibson's Dr. Doddridge's Non- 
conformist Academy and Education by Short- 
hand, reprinted from Phonetic Journal, 3 April 
1886, and following issues ; many original letters 
of Doddridge are printed only in the volumes of 
the Monthly Repository and Christian Reformer; 
some use also has been made of the large collec- 
tion of Doddridge's original manuscripts in the 
library of New College, South Hampstead (the 
existing representative of Doddridge's academy), 
and of the wills of Doddridge and his wife at 
Somerset House.] A. G-. 

DODDS, JAMES (1813-1874), lecturer 
and poet, was born in 1813 at Softlaw, near 
Kelso, and, having lost his father in child- 
hood, was brought up under his grandfather, a 
devout seceder, of the same type of character 
as James Carlyle. From his earliest years he 
showed great abilities, a very impulsive na- 
ture, and a daring- spirit, which sometimes 
prompted wild and foolish freaks. He was 
enabled by the kindness of friends to attend 
the university of Edinburgh, where he be- 
came well known among his companions for 
his remarkable powers of speech. Determined, 
in a moment of offended vanity, to earn his 
own living, he attached himself to a company 
of strolling players, but being rescued by 
his friends from this mode of life, he settled 



down to quieter pursuits. He was in suc- 
cession schoolmaster at Sandyknowe ; ap- 
prentice for five years to a Melrose lawyer, 
who seems to have tried the experiment how 
to extract from a clerk the largest amount 
of work for the smallest amount of pay; 
then in the employment of a high-class Edin- 
burgh firm ; and finally in successful busi- 
ness in London as a solicitor, chiefly in con- 
nection with railway bills and cases of appeal. 
The freakishness of his early youth was well 
subdued by hard toil and many sufferings 
both of mind and body. In early manhood, 
after much tossing on the sea of doubt, he 
settled down to the calm, steady faith of his 
grandfather; and in his maturer years he 
was eminent for the sobriety of his judgment 
and the steadfastness of his whole character. 

Throughout life Dodds was intensely de- 
voted to literature, and for many years was 
in relations of intimacy with many of our fore- 
most literary men. In Edinburgh he served 
in the office of a firm of which the late Mr. 
John Hunter, W.S., a connection of Lord 
Jeffrey, and well known in the literary circles 
of Edinburgh, was a member. Mr. Hunter 
treated him as a friend, and introduced him 
to many literary men. About the beginning 
of his clerkship in Edinburgh he communi- 
cated his literary ambition to Thomas Car- 
lyle, and asked advice as to his chances in 
London. Carlyle entered most cordially into 
his case, but advised him not to sacrifice 
an assured salary for the uncertain gains 
of a litterateur. The friendship with Car- 
lyle continued for many years, and on re- 
moving to London Dodds was often at Cheyne 
Row. With Leigh Hunt his relations were 
very intimate. Hunt being constantly in pe- 
cuniary and other difficulties found in Dodds 
a most valuable friend. ' More than once he 
took the management of his affairs, giving 
him legal advice, conferring with his credi- 
tors, and arranging about the payment or 
partial payment of his debts.' ' Hunt,' wrote 
Dodds, ' is a glorious creation. . . . As he 
speaks to you, what he says is all so momen- 
tarily inspired, so pure and simply flowing, 
but all so ethereal, so wise of the world, yet 
not mere worldly wise, and so heavenly tinc- 
tured, that one sometimes feels as if he were 
about to unveil his radiant wings, and, with 
a farewell look of enchanting sweetness, fly 
to the orb which is his home.' 

From an early period he was fascinated 
by the struggle of the Scottish covenanters. 
His first contributions to literature were 
' Lays of the Covenanters,' which appeared 
first in the 'Free Church Magazine ' and other 
journals, and after his death were gathered 
into a volume, edited by his cousin, the late 



Dodds 



165 



Dodgson 



Rev. James Dodds of Dunbar. They have 
much of the form of the lays of Macaulay 
and Aytoun, fine flowing rhythm, and fear- 
less military ring ; what is peculiar to them 
is their intense sympathy with the pious 
loyalty of the covenanters. 

The covenanters were the subject, too, of 
liis first prose volume. It was his habit to 
deliver lectures here and there on subjects 
that greatly interested him. Usually these 
were given in Scottish towns, but occa- 
sionally to metropolitan audiences ; one of 
his lectures, in which he combined prose and 
poetry, lays and lecture, being delivered to 
an enthusiastic London assemblage of three 
thousand persons. The covenanters were his 
favourite topic, and the lectures bearing on 
them were composed with scrupulous care. 
When they came to be published, under the 
characteristic title, * The Fifty Years' Struggle 
of the Covenanters,1638-1688,' renewed pains 
were taken to make sure of accuracy. The 
book has been very popular, and has passed 
through several editions. It was his inten- 
tion to give lectures of the same kind on the 
Scottish reformation, but of these only two 
were written. The graphic power and great 
natural eloquence of Dodds, and his way of 
throwing his soul into the delivery, gave him 
great popularity and power as a lecturer. A 
lecture on Dr. Chalmers, for whom he had an 
intense admiration, developed into a volume 
of great interest and power ' Thomas Chal- 
mers, a Biographical Study.' Dodds died 
very suddenly at Dundee on 12 Sept. 1874. 

[Memoir of James Dodds ( 1 40 pp.), prefixed to 
his Lays of the Covenanters, by the Rev. James 
Dodds, Dunbar; Scotsman, September 1874.] 

W. G. B. 

DODDS, JAMES (1812-1885), religious 
and general writer, was born at Annan in 
Dumfriesshire in 1812, and educated at the 
university of Edinburgh, where he obtained 
the highest distinction in the class of Profes- 
sor Wilson (< Christopher North '). Studying 
for the ministry in the established church, he 
was first appointed to the parish of Humble 
in East Lothian, but in 1843, joining the Free 
church, was called to Dunbar, where he re- 
mained to the close of his life. As a Dum- 
friesshire man he early became acquainted 
with Thomas Carlyle, and had much corre- 
spondence with liim. Dodds was of lite- 
rary habits, and when other engagements per- 
mitted made much use of his pen. ' Famous 
Men of Dumfriesshire' consists of sketches of 
honourable names in the annals of his native 
country, marked by the strong local sympa- 
thies of one born and brought up on its soil. 
' The Lily of Lammermoor ' is a story of dis- 
ruption times, and ' A Century of Scottish 



Church History ' is a sketch of the religious 
history of Scotland from the first secession to 
the disruption in 1843. He was the author 
of a brief biographical sketch of his friend, 
Dr. Patrick Fairbairn, principal of the Free 
Church College in Glasgow, and author of 
the * Typology of Scripture,' ' Coast Missions, 
a Memoir of the Kev. Thomas Rosie/ 1862, 
and other well-known theological works. He 
wrote also the memoir of his cousin, James 
Dodds [q. v.], prefixed to his posthumous 
volume ' Lays of the Covenanters/ which he 
edited and annotated. He was a frequent 
contributor to various periodicals, the ( Chris- 
tian Treasury,' * Sunday at Home/ ' Leisure 
Hour/ &c. Though neither original nor bril- 
liant, he was a sensible and useful writer, and 
personally was held in great esteem by those 
among whom he lived. He died in 1885. 

[Haddingtonshire Advertiser, 11 Sept. 1885 ; 
Scott's Fasti ; personal acquaintance.] W. Gr. B , 

DODGSON, GEORGE HAYDOCK 

(1811-1880), water-colour painter, was born 
at Liverpool, 16 Aug. 1811. After receiving 
the usual middle-class education he was ap- 
prenticed to George Stephenson, the cele- 
brated engineer, who employed him in sur- 
veying and drawing up specifications. Among 
other work he prepared the plans for the 
Whitby and Pickering railway. In 1836 ap- 
peared ' Illustrations of the Scenery on the 
Line of the Whitby and Pickering Railway/ 
from drawings made by him, and engraved 
byJ. T. W T illmore, Challis, Stephenson, and 
others. Before long his health gave way, and 
he gratified his youthful ambition by aban- 
doning the desk for the easel. Removing to 
London about 1835, he turned to account 
his architectural knowledge in making pictu- 
resque drawings for several eminent architects. 
One of these, a ' Tribute to the Memory of Sir 
Christopher Wren/ being a group of Wren's 
principal works arranged by Charles Robert 
Cockerell, R.A., was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1838, and afterwards engraved. 
He also made drawings on wood for the ' Illus- 
trated London News ' and other publications. 
His love for the beauties of nature, however, 
led him by degrees to devote his whole at- 
tention to landscape-painting, and in 1842 
he was elected an associate of the New Society 
of Painters in Water-colours, of which he 
became a full member in 1844 ; but this 
position he resigned in 1847, in order that 
he might be eligible for the older Society of 
Painters in Water-colours, of which he was 
elected an associate in 1848, and a full mem- 
ber in 1852. He was never out of England, 
and returned again and again to paint at 
Whitby and Richmond in Yorkshire ; Gower, 
Swansea, and the Mumbles in South Wales, 



Dodington 



166 



Dodington 



the Lake district, Haddon Hall, Knole, and 
the Thames. Beech trees were objects of 
great attraction to him, and a special fa- 
vourite at Knole was known as ' Dodgson's 
Beech.' He exhibited occasionally at the 
Royal Academy between 1838 and 1850, and 
sent a few drawings to the British Institu- 
tion and Society of British Artists. He died 
in London on 4 June 1880. There are two 
drawings byDodgson in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, an ' Interior of a Cathedral' 
and ' Solitude,' a scene in Newgate Street, 
with a figure of a tired-out tramp crouching 
on the pavement. 

[Athenaeum, 1880, i. 831 ; Art Journal, 1880, 
p. 300 ; Catalogues of the Exhibition of the Royal 
Academy, 1838-50; Catalogues of the Exhibi- 
tion of the Society of Painters in Water-colours, 
1848-80; Catalogues of the Exhibition of the 
New Society of Painters in Water-colours, 1842- 
1847.] R. E. G. 

DODINGTON, BARTHOLOMEW 

(1536-1595), Greek scholar, born in Middle- 
sex in 1536, was admitted a scholar of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, on the Lady Mar- 
garet's foundation, 11 Nov. 1547, and pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1551-2. On 8 April 1552 he 
was admitted a fellow of his college on the 
foundation of the Lady Margaret. In 1555 
he commenced M.A., subscribing the Roman 
catholic articles then imposed on all gra- 
duates. He was convened in February 1556- 

1557 before Cardinal Pole's delegates for the 
visitation of the university. On 18 Nov. 

1558 he was elected one of the senior fellows 
of his college, andheserved the office of proctor 
for the academical year commencing 10 Oct. 
1559. In or about 1560 he was appointed 
a fellow of Trinity College. He was elected 
in 1562 to the regius professorship of Greek, 
which he appears to have resigned in 1585. 
At one period he held the office of auditor of 
the imprest. He died on 22 Aug. 1595, and 
was buried in the north, transept of West- 
minster Abbey. 

Dodington, who was a profound Greek 
scholar, wrote : 1. 'Gratulatio in adventum 
clarissimi Domini Roberti Dudlei facta a 
coetu studiosorum Collegii Trinitatis, 1564,' 
in Nichols's ' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth,' 
iii. 49. 2. ' Greek and Latin Orations on the 
Queen's visit to Trinity College,' 1564, in the 
same vol., pp. 83-6. 3. i Epistola de vita et 
obitu clarissimi viri medici et philosophise 
prsestantissimi D. Nicholai Carri,' printed 
with Carr's * Demosthenes,' 1571. 4. Greek 
verses on the death of Anne, countess of Ox- 
ford, 1588, in Lansdowne MS. 104, art. 78. 
5. Greek verses prefixed to Carr's l Demo- 
sthenes,' Camden's ' Britannia,' and other 
works. 



[Addit. MSS. 5832, p. 97, 5867, p. 31 ; Bakers 
St. John's (Mayor), i. 286,325 ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantab, ii. 183, 547; Harl. MS. 6350, art. 8 ; 
Keepe's Monumenta Westmon. p. 1 74 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy), iii. 618, 660 ; Monk's Memoir of 
Duport, p. 15; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 
196 ; Calendar of State Papers (Dom.), 1547-80, 
pp. 187, 248,292, 599, 1581-90, p. 613; Tanner's 
Bibliotheca Britannica ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
(Bliss), i. 209.] T. C. 

DODINGTON, GEORGE BUBB, LORD 
MELCOMBE (1691-1762), represented the old 
Somersetshire family the Dodingtons of Dod- 
ington. A John Dodington (d. 1663) held 
an office under Thurloe, and married Hester, 
the daughter of Sir Peter Temple. By her he 
had a son, George Dodington (d. 1720), who 
was a lord of the admiralty under George I, 
and a daughter who married Jeremias Bubb, 
variously described as an Irish fortune-hunter 
and an apothecary at Weymouth or Carlisle. 
George Bubb, the son of this marriage, was 
born in 1691, and is said to have been at 
Oxford. In 1715 he was elected M.P. for 
Winchelsea, a borough which was controlled 
by his family. He was sent as envoy ex- 
traordinary to Spain, succeeding Sir Paul 
Methuen in May 1715 in the conduct of the 
troublesome disputes which preceded the war 
of 1718, and remained there till 1717. A 
large collection of documents relating to this 
mission is in the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 2170-5). In 1720 the death of his uncle, 
George Dodington, put him in possession of 
a fine estate. He took the name Dodington. 
He spent 140,000/. on completing a magnifi- 
cent mansion, begun by his uncle at Eastbury 
in Dorsetshire, of which Vanbrugh was the 
architect. Sir James Thornhill painted a 
ceiling in 1719 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. 
App. iii. p. 8), and afterwards represented 
Weymouth as Dodington's nominee. Dod- 
ington's parliamentary influence was con- 
siderable, as he could command Winchelsea, 
Weymouth and Melcombe Regis (which then 
returned four members), and generally Bridge- 
water. He was appointed lord-lieutenant of 
Somersetshire in 1721, and from 1722 to 1754 
he sat for Bridgewater. In April 1724 he be- 
came a lord of the treasury, succeeding Henry 
Pelhani, who became secretary at war, and 
he also held the sinecure, tenable for life, of 
the clerkship of the pells in Ireland. 

Dodington began as an adherent of Wai- 
pole, to whom in 1726 he addressed com- 
plimentary poems. He afterwards made court 
to Frederick, prince of Wales, to whom he 
abused Walpole privately. According to 
Horace Walpole, the prince played rough 
practical jokes upon him, and made money 
out of him. ' Dodington,' he said, * is reckoned 



Dodington 



167 



Dodington 



a clever man, and yet I have got 5,000/. from 
him which he will never see again.' Doding- 
ton, however, was ousted from the prince's 
favour by Chesterfield and Lyttelton about 
1734, to the general satisfaction, according 
to Lord Hervey (Memoirs, i. 431-3). He 
next formed a special connection with the 
(second) Duke of Argyll. In 1737 the Prince 
of Wales, supported by the opposition, de- 
manded that his allowance from the civil list 
should be increased from 50,000/. to 100,000/. 
He applied personally to Dodington before 
Walpole or any others of the ministry had 
heard of the proposal. This was virtually 
an attempt to induce Dodington to change 
patrons again. He was not yet prepared to 
desert, and, after vainly protesting against 
the proposed step, voted Against the motion 
for its adoption made by Pulteney (22 Feb. 
1737). In 1739, however,Dodington's patron, 
Argyll, separated from Walpole, and Doding- 
ton followed him, lost his place at the trea- 
sury in 1740, and joined the opposition now 
gathered round the Prince of Wales. He is 
represented in a caricature of the time as a 
spaniel between the legs of Argyll, who is 
coachman of the opposition chariot. Sir C. 
Hanbury Williams ridiculed his subservience 
to Argyll in a versified dialogue between 
* Giles Earle and George Bubb Dodington.' 
A long letter of his, advising Argyll as to 
the best tactics for attacking Walpole, is 
printed by Coxe (WALPOLE, iii. 565-80). In 
the great debate of 21 Jan. 1^42 he attacked 
the ' infamous administration ' of Walpole, 
who, in replying, taunted the l self-mortify- 
ing gentleman ' who had quietly taken his 
share of the infamy for sixteen years. Doding- 
ton did not immediately profit by Walpole's 
fall. His patron, Argyll, was unable to en- 
force his own claims, and soon resigned in 
disgust the office which he had received. 
Dodington's attack on his old friends brought 
him into special contempt (WALPOLE, Letters, 
Cunningham, i. 137, 217). The opposition 
gradually declined ; Argyll had lost all influ- 
ence before his death in October 1743. Upon 
the expulsion of Granville and the forma- 
tion of the ' broad bottom administration ' 
in December 1744, Pelham made Dodingtou 
treasurer of the navy, while other members 
of the prince's party received offices. In March 
1749 the Prince of Wales resolved to over- 
look Dodington's last desertion (see Ralph's 
account appended to DODINGTON'S Diary), 
and made overtures to him through James 
Ralph [q. v.], a well-known hack author. 
Ralph had been already in Dodington's em- 
ployment, and composed a pamphlet upon 
' The Use and Abuse of Parliaments ' in 1744 
under his direction. Dodington, after two 



days' reflection, accepted the proposals and > 
resigned his office. To protect his character 
he avoided receiving any definite promise 
from the prince until 18 July, when the 
prince promised that upon coming to the 
crown he would give Dodington a peerage, 
and the secretaryship of state. Doding- 
ton's new position at Leicester House was 
not easy, as he was opposed by many of the 
prince's household. He was supported by 
hopes of the king's death ; but on 20 March 
1751 the prince most provokingly died him- 
self, and Dodington was left to his own re-' 
sources. He kept upon friendly terms with 
the Princess of Wales, and joined with her* 
in abusing the Pelhams, now in power. He 
also applied without loss of time to the ' 
Pelhams, promising to place himself entirely 
at their disposal. Henry Pelham listened to 
him, but told him that the king had a pre- 
judice against him for his previous desertions. 
Pelham was anxious, however, to deal for 
Dodington's ( merchantable ware/ five or six 
votes in the House of Commons. On Pel- 
ham's death (6 March 1754) Dodington made 
assiduous court to the Duke of Newcastle. " 
He returned members for Weymouth in New- 
castle's interest, and did his best to retain \ 
Bridgewater, even at the peril of ' infa- 
mous and disagreeable compliance with the 
low habits of venal wretches,' the electors, 
which vexed his righteous soul. He was 
beaten at Bridgewater by Lord Egmont, but* 
assured Newcastle of his sincerity, as proved 
by an expenditure which gradually rose in 
his statements from 2,500/. to 4,OOOJ. He 
swore that he must be disinterested, because 
he had ' one foot in the grave,' and declared 
in the same breath that he was determined 
* to make some figure in the world ' if pos- 4 
sible under Newcastle's protection, but in any 
case to make a figure (Diary, pp. 297, 299). 
He now sat for Weymouth. Throughout- 
the complicated struggles which preceded 
Pitt's great administration Dodington in- 
trigued energetically, chiefly with Lord Hali-' 
fax. During 1755 even Pitt condescended to 
make proposals to Dodington with (if Dod- 
ington may be believed) high expressions of 
esteem (ib. 376). Pitt was dismissed soon 
afterwards from the paymastership, and on 
22 Dec. 1755 Dodington kissed hands as 
treasurer of the navy under Newcastle and 
Fox. He tried to explain his proceedings to 
the Princess of Wales, but she ' received him 
very coolly' (ib. 379). He lost his place 
again in November 1756, when Pitt, on taking . 
office under the Duke of Devonshire, de- 
manded it for George Grenville. The most 
creditable action recorded of him was what 
Walpole calls a humane, pathetic, and bold 



Dodington 



168 



Dodington 



speech in the House of Commons (22 Feb. 
1757) against the execution of Byng. He 
returned to office for a short time from April 
to June 1757, during the interregnum which 
> followed Pitt's resignation, but was again 
turned out for George Grenville when Pitt 
formed his great administration with New- 
castle. To Dodington's great disgust his 
friend Halifax consented to resume office, but 
Dodington remained out of place until the 
king's death. He then managed to ally him- 
self with the new favourite, Lord Bute, and 
^ in 1761 reached the summit of his ambition. 
In April of that year he was created Baron 
Melcombe of Melcombe Regis in Dorsetshire. 
He received no official position, however, and 
died in his house at Hammersmith 28 July 
1762. 
Besides his political activity Dodington 

* aimed at being a Maecenas. He was the last 

- of the ' patrons,' succeeding Charles Mont- 
agu (Lord Halifax) in the character. It 
is curious that Pope's 'Bufo ' in the epistle to 
Arbuthnot was in the first instance applied 
to Bubb or Dodington, who is also mentioned 
in the epilogue to the Satires, along with Sir 
W. Yonge, another place-hunter (COTJRTHOPE, 
Pope, iii. 258-61, 462). Dodington was com- 
plimented by many of the best-known writers 
of his day. About 1726 Young (of the < Night 
Thoughts ') addressed his third satire to Dod- 
ington ; he received verses from Dodington 
in return. Thomson's ' Summer ' (1727) was 
dedicated to Dodington. Fielding addressed 
to him an epistle on ' True Greatness ' (Mis- 
cellanies, 1743). Dodington was the patron 
of Paul Whitehead, who addresses a poem to 
the quack Dr. Thompson, another sycophant 
of Dodington's (HAWKINS, Johnson, pp. 329- 
340). Richard Bentley (1708-1782) [q. v.] 
published an epistle to him in 1763. He 
offered his friendship to Johnson upon the 
appearance of the ' Rambler,' but Johnson 
seems to have scorned the proposal. ' Leo- 
nidas' Glover was another of his friends, and 
was returned for Wey mouth when Dodington 
himself accepted a peerage. The first Lord 
Lyttelton also addresses an ' eclogue ' to 
Dodington. 

Dodington was himself a writer of occa- 
sional verses, and had a high reputation for 
wit in his day. The best description of him is 
in Cumberland's ' Memoirs ' (1807, i. 183-96). 
Cumberland, as secretary to Lord Halifax, 
was concerned in the negotiations between 
them about 1757. He visited Dodington at 

Eastbury, at his Hammersmith villa, called 
by reason of the contrast La Trappe, and at 
his town house in Pall Mall. All these houses 

. were full of tasteless splendour, minutely 
described by Cumberland and Horace Wai- 



pole. Dodington's state bed was covered 
with gold and silver embroidery, showing by ' 
the remains of pocket-holes that they were 
made out of old coats and breeches. His vast 
figure was arrayed in gorgeous brocades, some* 
of which ' broke from their moorings in a 
very indecorous manner ' when he was being 
presented to the queen on her marriage to 
George III. After dinner he lolled in his 
chair in lethargic slumbers, but woke up to 
produce occasional flashes of wit or to read 
selections, often of the coarsest kind, even to 
ladies. He was a good scholar, and especially 
well read in Tacitus. 

In 1742 Dodington acknowledged that he 
had been married for seventeen years to a 
Mrs. Behan, who had been regarded as his 
mistress. According to Walpole he had been 
unable to acknowledge the marriage until the 
death of a Mrs. Strawbridge, to whom he had 
given a bond for 10,000/. that he would marry 
no one else (WALPOLE, Letters, i. 216, 296 ; 
ix. 91). Mrs. Dodington died about the end 
of 1756 (ib. iii. 54). Dodington left no child- 
ren, and upon his death Eastbury went to Lord 
Temple, with whom he was connected through 
his grandmother (see above). All but one 
wing was pulled down in 1795 by Lord Temple 
(created Marquis of Buckingham in 1784),who 
had vainly offered 200/. a year to any one who 
would live in it. Dodington left all his dis- 
posable property to a cousin, Thomas Wynd- 
ham of Hammersmith. The Hammersmith 
villa was afterwards the property of the mar- 
grave of Anspach. His papers were left to 
Wyndham on condition that those alone 
should be published which might ' do honour 
to his memory.' They were left to Wyndham's 
nephew, Henry Penruddocke Wyndham, who 
published the diary in 1784, persuading him- 
self by some judicious sophistry that the 
phrase in the will ought not to hinder the 
publication. It is the most curious illustra- 
tion in existence of the character of the ser- 
vile place-hunters of the time, with unctuous 
professions of virtuous sentiment which serve 
to heighten the effect. It also contains some 
curious historical information, especially as 
to the Prince and Princess of Wales during 
the period 1749-60. 

Dodington more or less inspired various 

political papers and pamphlets, including the 

I * Remembrancer,' written by Rudolph in 1745 ; 

I the ' Test,' attacking Pitt in 1756-7 ; and 

some, it is said, too indelicate for publication. 

He addressed a poem to Sir R. Walpole on 

his birthday, 26 Aug. 1726 ; and an epistle 

I to Walpole is in Dodsley's collection (1775, 

iv. 223, vi. 129). A manuscript copy of the 

last is in Addit. MS. 22629, f. 1841. A line 

from it, f In power a servant, out of power a 



Dods 



169 



Dodsley 



friend,' is quoted in Pope's ' Epilogue to the 
Satires ' (dialogue ii. 1. 161). It has been said 
that this poem is identical with an epistle ad- 
dressed to Bute and published in 1776 with 
corrections by the author of 'Night Thoughts.' 
In fact, however, the two poems are quite 
different. 

[Dodington's Diary ; Walpole's Memoirs of 
George II, i. 87, 88, 437-42, ii. 320 ; H.Walpole's 
Letters ; Coxe's Wai pole ; Coxe's Pelham Admi- 
nistration ; Fitzmaurice's Shelburne, i. 120-2; 
Chesterfield's Letters (1853), v. 385; Harvey's 
Memoirs, i. 431-4; Seward's Anecdotes (under 
'Chatham'), vol. ii. ; Collinson's Somersetshire, 
iii. 518.] L. S. 

DODS, MARCUS, D.D. (1786-1838), 
theological writer, was born near Gifford in 
East Lothian in 1786, and educated at Edin- 
burgh. In 1810 he was ordained presbyterian 
minister at Belford in Northumberland, and 
in that charge he remained till his death in 
1838. He was a man of deep theological 
scholarship, and at the same time of irrepres- 
sible wit. As a leading contributor to the 
' Edinburgh Christian Instructor/ under the 
editorship of the distinguished Dr. Andrew 
Thomson, it fell to him to write a critique on 
the views of Edward Irving on the incarna- 
tion of our Lord (January 1830). Irvingwrote 
a very characteristic letter to Dods, frankly 
stating that he had not read his paper, but 
that he understood it was severe, and inviting 
him to correspond with him on the subject. 
Mrs. Oliphant, not having read the critique 
any more than Irving, writes as if Dods had 
been a malleus hereticorum, and mistakes the 
character of the man. Dods published his 
views at length in a work entitled ' On the 
Incarnation of the Eternal Word, the second 
edition of which appeared after his death with 
a strongly recommendatory notice by Dr. 
Chalmers. A monument to Dods erected at 
Belford bears an inscription written by the 
late Professor Maclagan, D.D., which has been 
greatly admired both for truthful delineation 
and artistic power: 'A man of noble powers, 
nobly used, in whom memory and judgment, 
vigour and gentleness, gravity and wit, each 
singly excellent, were all happily combined, 
and devoted with equal promptitude and per- 
severance to the labours of Christian godli- 
ness and the deeds of human kindness. The 
delight of his household, the father of his 
flock, the helper of the poor, he captivated 
his friends by his rich converse, and edified 
the church by his learned and eloquent pen. 
The earthly preferment which he deserved 
but did not covet, the earth neglected to be- 
stow ; but living to advance and defend, he 
died in full hope to inherit, the everlasting 
kingdom of Christ Jesus, our Lord.' 



[Christian Instructor, 1838 ; Oliphant's Life of 
Irving ; information from family.] W. Gr. B. 

DODSLEY, JAMES (1724-1797), book- 
seller, a younger brother of Robert Dodsley 
[q. v.], was born near Mansfield in Notting- 
hamshire in 1724. He was probably em- 
ployed in the shop of his prosperous brother, 
Robert, by whom he was taken into partner- 
ship the firm trading as R. & J. Dodsley 
in Pall Mall and whom he eventually suc- 
ceeded in 1759. In 1775 he printed 'A 
Petition and Complaint touching a Piracy of 
" Letters by the late Earl of Chesterfield," ' 
4to. Dr. Joseph Warton told Malone that 
Spence had sold his Anecdotes ' to Robert 
Dodsley for a hundred pounds. Before the 
matter was finally settled both Spence and 
Dodsley died. On looking over the papers 
Spence's executors thought it premature to 
publish them, and ' James Dodsley relin- 
quished his bargain, though he probably would 
have gained 400/. or 500/. by it ' (PRIOR, Life 
of Malone, pp. 184-5). A list of forty-one 
works published by him is advertised at the 
end of Hull's ' Select Letters,' 1778, 2 vols. 
8vo. In 1780 he produced an improved edi- 
tion of the ' Collection of Old Plays,' 12 vols. 
8vo, edited by Isaac Reed, who also edited 
for him anew, two years later, the ' Collec- 
tion of Poems,' 6 vols. 8vo. He was a mem- 
ber of the ' Congeries,' a club of booksellers 
who produced Johnson's ' Lives of the Poets' 
and other works. Dodsley was the puzzled 
referee in the well-known bet about Gold- 
smith's lines, 

For he who fights and runs away 
May live to fight another day, 

which George Selwyn rightly contended were 
not to be found in Butler's ' Hudibras ' (Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 61-3). The plan of 
the tax on receipts was suggested by him to 
the Rockingham administration in 1782. On 
7 June 1787 he lost 2,500/. worth of quire- 
stock, burnt in a warehouse (NICHOLS, Illustr. 
vii. 488). He paid the usual fine instead of 
serving the office of sheriff of London and 
Middlesex in 1788. Dodsley carried on an 
extensive business, but does not seem to 
have possessed all his brother's enterprise 
and energy. Writing from Woodstock on 
26 July 1789 Thomas King refers to his 
farming and haymaking (Add. MS. in British 
Museum, No. 15932, ff. 20-2). Eighteen 
thousand copies of Burke's ' Reflections on 
the Revolution in France ' were sold by him 
in 1790. 

He enjoyed a high character in commer- 
cial affairs, but was somewhat eccentric in 
private life. He always led a reserved and 
secluded life, and for some years before his 



Dodsley 



170 



Dodsley 



death gave up his shop and dealt wholesale 
in his own publications. The retail business 
was taken over by George Nicol. i He kept 
a carriage many years, but studiously wished 
that his friends should not know it, nor did 
he ever use it on the eastern side of Temple 
Bar' (Gent. Mag. vol. Ixvii. pt. i. p. 347). 
He left the bulk of his fortune, estimated at 
70,000/., to nephews and nieces. He died 
on 19 Feb. 1797 at his house in Pall Mall in 
his seventy-fourth year, and was buried in 
St. James's Church, Westminster. 

[Chalmers's Life of Robert Dodsley ; Gent. 
Mag. Ivii. (pt. ii.) 634, Ixvii. (pt. i.) 254, 346-7 ; 
Walpole's Letters (Cunningham), vols. vi. vii. viii. 
and ix. ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. vols. ii. iii. v. and 
vi. ; Boswell's Life of Johnson (G. B. Hill), i. 
182, ii. 447 ; Timperley's Encyclopaedia, pp. 746, 
793-4, 806, 815, 911; agreements and corre- 
spondence with authors in Add. MSS. in British 
Museum, Nos. 12116, 19022, 28104, 28235, 

H. R. T. 



DODSLEY, ROBERT(1703-1764), poet, 
dramatist, and bookseller, was born in 1703, 
probably near Mansfield, on the border of 
Sherwood Forest,Nottinghamshire ; but there 
is no record of his birth in the parish register 
of Mansfield (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 
237). His father, Robert Dodsley, kept the 
free school at Mansfield, and is described as a 
little deformed man, who, having had a large 
family by one wife, married when seventy-five 
a young girl ,of seventeen, by whom he had a 
child. One son, Alvory, lived many years, 
and died in the employment of Sir George 
Savile. Isaac died in his eighty-first year, 
and was gardener during fifty-two years to 
Ralph Allen of Prior Park, and Lord Wey- 
mouth of Longleat. The name of another 
son, John, was, with those of the father and 
Alvory, among the subscribers to ' A Muse 
in Livery.' A younger son was James [q. v.], 
afterwards in partnership with his elder 
brother. Harrod states that Robert Dodsley 
the younger was apprenticed to a stocking- 
weaver at Mansfield, but was so starved 
and illtreated that he ran away and entered 
the service of a lady (History of Mansfield, 
1801, p. 64). At one time he was footman 
to Charles Dartiquenave [q. v.] While in 
the employment of the Hon. Mrs. Lowther 
he wrote several poems; one 'An Entertain- 
ment designed for the Wedding of General 
Lowther and Miss Pennington.' The verses 
were handed about and the writer made 
much of, but he did not lose his modest 
self-respect. In the ; Country Journal, or 
the Craftsman,' of 20 Sept. 1729 was ad- 
vertised ' Servitude, a poem,' Dodsley's first 
publication. It consists of smoothly written 
verses on the duties and proper behaviour of 



servants. An introduction in prose, cover- 
ing the same ground, is considered by Lee 
to have been written by Defoe (Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 141-2, and Daniel Defoe, 
his Life, i. 449-51). Dodsley appears to have 
been sent by the bookseller to whom he first 
showed his verses to Defoe, who consented 
to write the title, preface, introduction, and 
postscript, the latter bantering his own tract, 
1 Every Body's Business is No Body's Busi- 
ness.' Eighteen months afterwards, when 
Mrs. Lowther and her friends were getting 
subscribers for Dodsley's next volume, it was 
thought desirable to bring out ' Servitude ' with 
a new title-page, ' The Footman's Friendly 
Advice to his Brethren of the Livery ... by 
R. Dodsley, now a footman.' Two short 
' Entertainments ' were printed in pamphlet 
form, and in 1732 included in l A Muse in 
Livery,' a volume of verse with one trifling 
exception. A second edition was issued in 
the same year as ' by R. Dodsley, a footman 
to a person of quality at Whitehall.' His 
lady patrons exerted themselves, and the list 
of subscribers exhibits a remarkable array of 
names, including three duchesses, a duke, and 
many other fashionable people. 

Dodsley next composed a dramatic satire, 
' The Toy-shop.' There must have been great 
charm in his manner. It captivated Defoe, 
and even Pope, perhaps influenced by the 
duchesses, received the young footman in 
a very friendly way. When asked to read 
the manuscript he answered, 5 Feb. 1732-3, 
' I like it as far as my particular judgment 
goes,' and recommended it to Rich. ' This 
little piece was acted [at Covent Garden, 
3 Feb. 1735] with much success ; it has great 
merit, but seems better calculated for perusal 
than representation ' (GENEST, Account of the 
English Stage, iii. 460) . The hint of the plot 
was taken from Thomas Randolph's ' Con- 
ceited Pedlar ' (1630), who, like the toyman, 
makes moral observations to his customers 
on the objects he sells. 

With the profit derived from his books and 
play, and the interest of Pope, who assisted 
him with 100/. (JOHNSON, Lives in Works, 
1823, viii. 162), and other friends, Dodsley 
opened a bookseller's shop at the sign of 
Tally's Head in Pall Mall in 1735. 'The 
King and the Miller of Mansfield ' was acted 
at Drury Lane 1 Feb. 1737, 'a neat little 
piece . . . with much success ' (GENEST, iii. 
492). The plot turns upon the king losing 
his way in Sherwood Forest, when John 
Cockle, the miller, receives and entertains his 
unknown guest, and is ultimately knighted 
for his generosity and honesty. A sequel, 
' Sir John Cockle at Court,' was produced at 
the same theatre 23 Feb. 1738. During this 



Dodsley 



171 



Dodsley 



time Dodsley was active in his new business. 
In April 1737 he published Pope's 'First 
Epistle of the Second Book of Horace Imi- 
tated/ and in the following month Pope made 
over to him the sole property in his letters. 
Curll, in a scurrilous epistle to Pope, 1737, 
says : 

Tis kind indeed a ' Livery Muse' to aid, 
Who scribbles farces to augment his trade. 
Young and Akenside also published with him. 
In May 1738, through Cave, he issued John- 
son's ' London, a poem,' and gave ten guineas 
for it (BoswELL, Life, i. 121-4). Next year 
he printed l Manners,' a satire by Paul White- 
head, which ' was voted scandalous by the 
lords, and the author and publisher ordered 
into custody, where Mr. Dodsley was a week, 
but Mr. Paul Whitehead absconds ' ( Gent. 
Mag. 1739, ix. 104). Dodsley had to pay 701. \ 
in fees for his lodgings (BEN VICTOR, Letters, \ 
i. 33), and was only released on the petition 
of the Earl of Essex. Many influential per- 
sons made offers of assistance. 

There was published in 1740 ' The Chro- 
nicle of the Kings of England written by ! 
Nathan Ben Saddi/the forerunner of a swarm 
of sham chronicles in mock-biblical style. 
Among them are ' Lessons of the Day/ 1742 ; 
' The Chronicle of James the Nephew/ 1743 ; 
< Chronicles of the Duke of Cumberland/ 1746 ; 
and < Chronicles of Zimri the Refiner/ 1753. 
Nathan Ben Saddi was said to be a pseudonym 
of Dodsley, and his chronicle, a continuation 
of which appeared in 1741, is, like the ' Eco- ! 
nomy of Human Life/ reprinted in his col- 
lected ' Trifles.' It contains the much-quoted 
sentence about Queen Elizabeth, ' that her 
ministers were just, her counsellors were sage, ; 
her captains were bold, and her maids of 
honour ate beefstakes to breakfast.' Dodsley j 
could not have written a work showing so 
much wit and literary force, and Chesterfield 
is usually credited with the authorship. The i 
first number of the * Publick Register/ one of j 
the many rivals of the ' Gentleman's Maga- | 
zine/came out on 3 Jan. 1741, and it appeared \ 
for twenty-four weeks. The reason given by j 
Dodsley for its discontinuance was 'the addi- \ 
tional expense he was at in stamping it; and j 
the ungenerous usage he met with from one of i 
the proprietors of a certain monthly pamph- | 
let, who prevailed upon most of the common j 
newspapers not to advertise it.' One novel 
feature is a description of the counties of Eng- 
land, with maps by J. Cowley, continued 
week after week. Genest says ' The Blind 




neatness' (Account, iii. 629-30). It was only 
represented once. The songs have merit. 



Dodsley attempted literary fame in many 
branches, but among all his productions no- 
thing is so well known as his ' Select Collec- 
tion of Old Plays/ 1744, dedicated to Sir 
Clement Cotterel Dormer, who probably con- 
tributed some of its contents. The great 
j ladies who first patronised Dodsley had not 
forgotten him, and the subscription list dis- 
plays a host of aristocratic names. The art 
of collation was then unknown, and when he 
first undertook the work the duties of an 
editor of other than classical literature were 
not so well understood as in more recent 
times. ' Rex et Pontifex, a new species of 
pantomime/ was not accepted by any manager, 
and thoauthpipMnfid it in 1745. ' The Mu- 
| seum/ of which the first number was issued 
29 March 1746, was projected by Dodsley. 
He had a fourth share of the profits, the re- 
mainder belonging to Longman, Shewell, 
Hitch, and Rivington. It consists chiefly of 
historical and social essays, and possesses 
considerable merit. Among the contributors 
were Spence, Warburton, Horace Walpole, 
Joseph and Thomas Warton, Akenside, 
Lowth, Smart, Merrick, and Campbell, whose 
political pieces were augmented and repub- 
lished as 'The Present State of Europe/ 1750. 
It was continued fortnightly to 12 Sept. 1747. 
Another specimen of Dodsley's commercial 
originality was ' The Preceptor/ ' one of the 
most valuable books for the improvement of 
young minds that has appeared ' (BoswELL, 
Life, i. 192). Johnson supplied the preface, 
and * The Vision of Theodore the Hermit/ 
which he considered the best thing he ever 
wrote. The work is a kind of self-instructor, 
with essays on logic, geometry, geography, 
natural history, &c. Johnson says : ' Dodsley 
first mentioned to me the scheme of an Eng- 
lish dictionary ' (Life, iii. 405, i. 182, 286) ; 
but Pope, who had some share in the original 
proposals, did not live to see the prospectus 
issued in 1747. The firm of Robert & James 
Dodsley was one of the five whose names ap- 
pear on the first edition in 1755. The first 
edition of ' A Collection of Poems ' came out 
in 1748, and the publisher took great pains 
to obtain contributions from nearly every 
fashionable versifier of the day. It has been 
frequently reprinted and added to, and forms 
perhaps the most popular collection of the 
kind ever produced. In the same year Dodsley 
collected his dramatic and some other pieces 
under the title of * Trifles ' in two volumes, 
dedicated ' To Morrow/ who is asked to 
take into 'consideration the author's want 
of that assistance and improvement which a 
liberal education bestows/ the writer hoping 
his productions ' may be honoured with a fa- 
vourable recommendation from you to your 



Dodsley 



172 



Dodsley 



worthy son and successor, the Next Day.' 
To celebrate the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle he 
composed a masque, which was performed at 
Drury Lane on 21 Feb. 1749, with music by 
Dr. Arne, and Mrs. Olive as first shepherdess. 
Johnson's ' Vanity of Human Wishes ' and 
' Irene ' were published by him in the same 
year. 

The first edition of l The Economy of 
Human Life ' came out in 1750, and was for 
some time attributed to Dodsley. It has long 
been recognised to have been written by the 
Earl of Chesterfield (Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. x. 8, 74, 318). Dodsley 's connection with 
the publication of the first separate edition 
of Gray's * Elegy ' in February 1751 has been 
investigated by the late E. Solly (The Biblio- 
grapher, 1884, v. 57-61). He suggested the 
title of the ' World,' a well-printed miscel- 
lany of the ' Spectator' class, for a new periodi- 
cal established with the help of Moore in 1753 
and produced for four years. It was extremely 
successful, both in its original form and when 
reprinted. Chesterfield, Horace Walpole, 
Soame Jenyns, the Earl of Bath, and Sir C. H. 
Williams were among the contributors. The 
iast number is signed by Mary Cooper, who 
published many of Dodsley's books. He had 
long meditated an ambitious poem on agricul- 
ture, commerce, and the arts, entitled ' Public 
Virtue,' of which the first part alone was 
published in 1753. This laboured didactic 
treatise in blank verse was not very favour- 
ably received, although the author assured 
the world that * he hath taken some pains to 
furnish himself with materials for the work ; 
that he hath consulted men as well as books.' 
It was sent to Walpole, who answered, 4 Nov. 
1753: 'I am sorry you think it any trouble 
to me to peruse your poem again ; I always 
read it with pleasure ' (Letters, ix. 485). 

Johnson wrote to Warton, 21 Dec. 1754 : 
' You know poor Mr. Dodsley has lost his 
wife ; I believe he is much affected ' (Life, 
i. 277). Johnson wrote for Dodsley the in- 
troduction to the ' London Chronicle ' in 1756. 
' Melpomene,' an ode, which was published 
anonymously in 1758, is on a much higher 
level of thought than any other of his compo- 
sitions. On 2 Dec. of the same year his tra- 
gedy of ( Cleone ' was acted for the first time 
at Co vent Garden. Garrick had rejected it 
as ' cruel, bloody, and unnatural ' (DAVIES, 
Life, i. 223), and Johnson, who supported it, 
' for Doddy, you know, is my patron, and I 
would not desert him,' thought there was 
1 more blood than brains ' in it (Life, i. 325-6, 
iv. 20-1). The night it was produced Garrick 
did his best to injure it by appearing for 
the first time as Marplot in the ' Busybody,' 
and his congratulations were accordingly re- 



sented by Dodsley (Garrick Correspondence, 
vol. i. pp. xxxv, 79-80). Warburton, how- 
ever, writing to Garrick, 18 Jan. 1759, accuses 
Dodsley of being ' a wretched fellow, and no 
man ever met with a worse return than you 
have done for your endeavours to serve him ' 
(ib. i. 96). The play ran sixteen nights, owing 
much of its popularity to the acting of Mrs. 
Bellamy (Apology, 1786, iii. 105-12; GENEST, 
iv. 559-60). Two thousand copies of the first 
printed edition were sold at once, and five 
weeks later the fourth edition was being pre- 
pared. It is based upon the legend of Ste. 
Genevieve, translated by Sir William Lower. 
The original draft in three acts had been 
shown to Pope, who said that he had burnt 
an attempt of his own on the same subject, 
and recommended Dodsley to extend his own 
piece to five acts. Mrs. Siddons revived it 
with much success at Drury Lane, 22 and 
24 Nov. 1786. His most important commer- 
cial achievement was the foundation of the 
'Annual Register' in 1758, which is still pub- 
lished with no great variation from its early 
form. Burke was paid an editorial salary of 
100/. for some time, and had a connection 
with it for thirty years. In this year Dodsley 
accompanied Spence on a tour through Eng- 
land to Scotland. On their way they stayed 
a week at the Leasowes. 

TheDodsleys published Goldsmith's ' Polite 
Learning' in 1759, and, with Strahan and 
Johnson, Johnson's * Rasselas ' in March or 
April of the same year. Kinnersley having 
produced an abstract of ' Rasselas ' in the 
( Grand Magazine of Magazines,' an injunc- 
tion was prayed for by the publishers, and 
refused by the master of the rolls, 15 June 
1761, on the ground that an abridgment is 
not piracy (AMBLEE, Reports of Chancery 
Cases, 1828, i. 402-5). In 1759 Dodsley re- 
tired in favour of his brother, whose name had 
been for some time included in the firm as 
Robert & James Dodsley, and gave himself 
up to the preparation of his ' Select Fables,' 
which were tastefully printed by Baskerville 
two years later. The volume is in three 
books, the first consisting of ancient, the se- 
cond of modern, and the third of * newly in- 
vented ' fables ; with a preface, and a life from 
the French of M. de Meziriac. The fables 
are decidedly inferior to those of Samuel 
Croxall [q. v.] Writing to Graves. 1 March 
1761, Shenstone says : * What merit I have 
there is in the essay ; in the original fables, 
although I can hardly claim a single fable as 
my own ; and in the index, which I caused 
to be thrown into the form of morals, and 
which are almost wholly mine. I wish to 
God it may sell ; for he has been at great ex- 
pence about it. The two rivals which he has 



Dodsley 



173 



Dodsley 



to dread are the editions of Richardson and 
Croxall ' ( Works, iii. 360-1). In a few months 
two thousand were disposed of, but even this 
sale did not repay the outlay. He then be- 
gan to prepare for a new edition, which was 
printed in 1764. Among 1 the contributors 
to the interesting collection of ' Fugitive 
Pieces ' edited by him in 1761 were Burke, 
Spence, Lord Whitworth, and Sir Harry 
Beaumont. When Shenstone died, 11 Feb. 
1763, Dodsley erected a pious monument to 
the memory of his old friend in an edition of 
his works, 1764, to which he contributed a 
biographical sketch, a character and a de- 
scription of the Leasowes. He had long been 
tormented by the gout, and died from an 
attack while on a visit to Spence at Durham 
on 25 Dec. 1764, in his sixty-first year. He 
was buried in the abbey churchyard at Dur- 
ham. 

1 Mr. Dodsley (the bookseller) ' was among 
Sir Joshua Reynolds's sitters in April 1760 
(0. R. LESLIE and TOM TAYLOK'S Life, 1865, 
i. 187). Writing to Shenstone 24 June he 
says : ' My face is quite finished and I be- 
lieve very like' (HuLL, Select Letters, ii. 110). 
The picture was engraved by Ravenet and 
prefixed to the collected * Trifles,' 1777. 

He only took one apprentice, who was 
John Walter (d. 1803) of Charing Cross, not 
to be confounded with the founder of the 
' Times ' of the same name. Most of the pub- 
lications issued by the brothers came from the 
press of John Hughs (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. 
v. 35). 

Personally Dodsley is an attractive figure. 
Johnson had ever a kindly feeling for his 
' patron,' and thought he deserved a biogra- 
pher. His early condition lent a factitious 
importance to some immature verse, and his 
unwearied endeavours for literary fame gained 
him a certain contemporary fame. Some of 
his songs have merit ' One kind kiss before 
we part ' being still sung and the epigram 
on the words ' one Prior ' in Burnet's * His- 
tory ' is well known. As a bookseller he 
showed remarkable enterprise and business 
aptitude, and his dealings were conducted 
with liberality and integrity. He deserves 
the praise of Nichols as ' that admirable pa- 
tron and encourager of learning' (Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 402). ( You know how decent, humble, 
inoffensive a creature Dodsley is ; how little 
apt to forget or disguise his having been a 
footman.' writes Walpole to George Montagu 
4 May 1758 (Letters, iii. 135). A volume 
of his manuscript letters to Shenstone in the 
British Museum has written in it by the latte r 
22 May 1759, that Dodsley was l a person 
whose writings I esteem in common with the 
publick ; but of whose simplicity, benevolence, 



i humanity, and true politeness I have had 

j repeated and particular experience.' 

The following is a list of his works : 1. ' Ser- 

| vitude, a Poem, to which is prefixed an in- 
troduction, humbly submitted to the con- 
sideration of all noblemen, gentlemen, and 
ladies who keep many servants ; also a post- 

! script occasioned by a late trifling pam- 
phlet, entitled "Every Body's Business is No 

! Body's " [by D. Defoe], written by a Foot- 
man in behalf of good servants and to excite 
the bad to their duty,' London, T. Worrall 
[1729], 8vo. 2. 'The Footman's Friendly 
Advice to his Brethren of the Livery . . . 
by R. Dodsley, now a footman,' London 
[1731], 8vo (No. 1 with a new title-page). 

| 3. ' An Entertainment designed for Her Ma- 
jesty's Birthday,' London, 1732, 8vo. 4. 'An 
Entertainment designed for the Wedding of 
Governor Lowther and Miss Pennington,' 
London, 1732, 8vo. 5. ' A Muse in Livery, 
or the Footman's Miscellany,' London, printed 
for the author, 1732, 8vo (second edition 
1 printed for T. Osborn and T. Nourse,' 1732, 
8vo, not so well printed as the first). 6. ' The 
Toy-shop, a Dramatick Satire,' London, 1735, 
8vo (reprinted). 7. * The King and the Miller 
of Mansfield, a Dramatick Tale,' London, 
printed for the author at Tully's Head, Pall 
Mall [1737], 8vo (reprinted). 8. ' Sir John 
Cockle at Court, being the sequel of the King 
and the Miller of Mansfield,' London, printed 
for R. Dodsley and sold by M. Cooper, 1738, 
8vo. 9. ' The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green,' 
London, 1741, 8vo. 10. 'The Publick Re- 
gister, or the Weekly Magazine,' London, 1741, 
4to (Nos. 1 to 24, from Saturday, 3 Jan. 1741 
to 13 June 1741). 11. ' Pain and Patience, a 
Poem,' London, 1742, 4to (dedicated to Dr. 
Shaw). 12. ' Colin's Kisses, being twelve new 
songs design'd for music,' London, 1742, 4to 
(see Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 220 ; the 
words reprinted by Chalmers). 13. 'A Se- 
lect Collection of Old Plays,' London, 1744, 
12 vols. 12mo (with introduction on the his- 
tory of the stage reprinted in ' second edition, 
corrected and collated with the old copies, 
with notes by Isaac Reed,' London, J. Dods- 
ley, 1780, 12 vols. 8vo, twelve plays rejected 
and ten added, see Gent. Mag. 1. 237-8. 'A 
new edition [the third] with additional notes 
and corrections by the late Isaac Reed, Octa- 
vius Gilchrist, and the editor ' [J. P. Collier], 
London, 1825-8, 13 vols. sm. 8vo, including 
supplement. ' Fourth edition, now first chro- 
nologically arranged, revised, and enlarged, 
with the notes of all the commentators and 
new notes, by W. Carew Hazlitt,' London, 
1874-6, 15 vols. 8vo). 14. ' Rex et Pontifex, 
being an attempt to introduce upon the stage 
a new species of pantomime,' London^fl.745, 



bf Between ' London ' 

and ' 1745 ' insert ' Printed for M. Cooper 
at the Globe in Pater-Noster-Row ' (Birrell 



Dodsley 



174 



Dodson 



4to. 15. ' The Museum, or the Literary and 
Historical Register,' London, 1746-7, 3 vols. 
8vo (No. 1, Saturday, 29 March 1746, to 
No. 39, 12 Sept. 1747). 16. < The Preceptor, 
containing a general course of education/ 
London, 1748, 2 vols. 8vo (reprinted). 17. ' A 
Collection of Poems by Several Hands,' Lon- 
don, 1748, 3 vols. 12mo (a second edition 
with considerable additions and some omis- 
sions the same year ; a fourth volume was 
added in 1749. A fourth edition, 4 vols., 
appeared in 1755. The fifth and sixth volumes 
were added in 1758; other editions, 1765, 
1770, 1775, 1782. Pearch, Mendez, Fawkes, 
and others produced supplements. For the 
contributors see Gent. Mag. 1. 122-4, 173-6, 
214, 406-8, and Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
xi. 172 ; see also 1st ser. ii. 264, 343, 380, 
485; 2nd ser. i. 151, 237, ii. 274, 315). 
18. ' The Art of Preaching, in imitation of 
Horace's Art of Poetry,' London, n. d. folio 
(anonymous, but attributed to Dodsley by 
Chalmers, who includes it in his collection ; 
the authorship is doubtful). 19. 'Trifles,' 
London, 1748, 2 vols. 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1777, 
2 vols. 8vo, with portrait (reprint of pieces 
issued separately). 20. < The Triumph of 
Peace, a masque perform'd at the Theatre 
Royal in Drury Lane on occasion of the Ge- 
neral Peace concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle,' 
London, 1749, 4to (Chalmers was unable to 
obtain a copy). 21. ' The World,' London, 
1753-6, 4 vols. fol. (No. 1, Thursday, 4 Jan. 
1753, to No. 209, 30 Dec. 1756 ; frequently 
reprinted in 8vo ; No. 32 by Dodsley ; for 
an account of the contributors see N. DBAKE, 
Essays illustrative of the Rambler, &c. 1810, 
ii. 253-316). 22. < Public Virtue, a Poem, 
in three books i. Agriculture, ii. Commerce, 
iii. Arts,' London, 1753, 4to (only book i. pub- 
lished). 23. ' Melpomene, or the Regions of 
Terror and Pity, an Ode,' London, 1757, 4to 
(without name of author, printer, or pub- 
lisher). 24. ' Cleone, a Tragedy as it is acted 
at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden/ Lon- \ 
don, 1758, 8vo (5th edit, 1786). 25. ' Select 
Fables of Esop and other Fabulists, in three 
books/ Birmingham, printed by J. Baskerville 
for R. & J. Dodsley, 176], 12mo (2nd edit. | 
1764, by Baskerville, eighteen pages less and , 
inferior in appearance). 26. l Fugitive Pieces , 
on various subjects/ by several authors, Lon- j 
don, 1761, 2 vols. 8vo (reprinted; see NICHOLS, J 
Lit. Anecd. ii. 373-80). 27. < The Works in j 
Verse and Prose of William Shenstone, most 
of which were never before printed/ London, I 
1764, 2 vols. 8vo. 

[Most of the biographical notices are full of j 
errors; the best is by Alex. Chalmers, who knew 
Dodsley ; it is prefixed to a selection of his poems 
in Chalmers's English Poets, 1810, xv. 313-23, 



reprinted in Gen. Biogr. Diet. xii. 167-78. A 
somewhat different selection and biography are 
in Anderson's British Poets, 1795, xi., and R. 
Walsh's Works of the British Poets, New York, 
1822, vol. xxvi. Kippis, in Biogr. Brit. 1793, 
v. 315-19, and Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 
1812, i. 192-3. The re are numerous references in 
H. Walpole's Letters, Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
and Nichols's Lit. Anecd. and Illustrations. See 
also Gent. Mag. 1. 237, Ixvii. (pt. i.) 346 ; Ben 
Victor's Letters, 1776, 3 vols.; T. Hull's Select 
Letters, 1778, 2 vols. (containing correspondence 
between Dodsley and Shenstone); Timperley'sEn- 
cydopsedia, 1842, pp. 71 1-13, 815; P. Fitzgerald's 
Life of Garrick, i. 376-8 ; W. Roscoe's Life of 
Pope, 1824, pp. 488, 505; K. Carruthers's Life 
of Pope, 1857, pp. 350, 409; Forster's Life of 
Goldsmith, 1854, i. 96, 180, 191, 282, 316. In 
the British Museum are original agreements be- 
tween him and various authors (1743-53), Eger- 
ton MS. 738, and an interesting correspondence 
with Shenstone (1747-59), Addit. MS. 28959.] 

H. E. T. 

DODSON, JAMES (d. 1757), teacher of 
the mathematics and master of the Royal 
Mathematical School, Christ's Hospital, is 
known chiefly by his work on i The Anti- 
Logarithmic Canon ' and ' The Mathematical 
Miscellany.' Of his early life nothing is 
known, except that his contemporary, Dr. 
Matthew Maty, in his ' Membire sur la vie 
et sur les ecrits de M. A. de Moivre/ enume- 
rated Dodson among ' les disciples qu'il a 
formes.' In 1742 Dodson published his most 
important work, ' The Anti-Logarithmic 
Canon. Being a table of numbers consist- 
ing of eleven places of figures, corresponding 
to all Logarithms under 100,000, with an 
Introduction containing a short account of 
Logarithms.' This was unique until 1849. 
The canon had been actually calculated, it is 
asserted, by Walter Warner and John Pell, 
about 1630-40, and Warner had left it to 
Dr. H. Thorndyke, at whose death it came 
to Dr. Busby of Westminster [q. v.], and 
finally was bought for the Royal Society ; 
but for some years it has been lost. From a 
letter of Pell's, 7 Aug. 1644, written to Sir 
Charles Cavendish, we find that Warner be- 
came bankrupt, and Pell surmises that the 
manuscript would be destroyed by the credi- 
tors in ignorance. In 1747 Dodson published 
'The Calculator . . . adapted to Science, 
Business, and Pleasure.' It is a large collec- 
tion of small tables, with sufficient, though 
not the most convenient, seven-figure loga- 
rithms. This he dedicated to William Jones. 
The same year he commenced the publication 
of ' The Mathematical Miscellany/ contain- 
ing analytical and algebraical solutions of a 
large number of problems in various branches 
of mathematics. His preface to vol. i. is 



Dodson 



Dodson 



dated 14 Jan. 1747, the title giving 1748. 
This volume is dedicated to A. de Moivre, 
and a second edition was issued by his pub- 
lisher in 1775. Vol. ii. (1753) is dedicated 
to David Papillon, and contains a contribu- 
tion by A. de Moivre. Vol. iii. (1755) he 
dedicated ' to the Right Hon. George, Earl 
of Macclesfield, President, the Council, and 
the rest of the Fellows of the Royal Society.' 
This volume is devoted to problems relating 
to annuities, reversions, insurances, leases on 
lives, &c., subjects to which Dodson devoted 
special attention. His l Accountant, or a 
Method of Book-keeping,' was published 1750, 
with a dedication to Lord Macclesfield. In 
1751 he edited Wingate's f Arithmetic/ which 
had previously been edited by John Kersey 
and afterwards by George Shelley. Dodson's 
edition is considered the best. Another work, 
4 An Account of the Methods used to describe 
Lines on Dr. Halley's Chart of the terra- 
queous Globe, showing the variation of the 
magnetic needle about the year 1756 in all 
the known seas, &c. By Wm. Mountaine 
and James Dodson,' was published in 1758, 
after Dodson's death. 

He was elected a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety 16 Jan. 1755, and was admitted 23 Jan. 
1755, probably on the merits of his published 
works, with the patronage of his friend, Lord 
Macclesfield, who not long before was elected 
president of the society. On 7 Aug. of the 
same year he was elected master of the Royal 
Mathematical School, Christ's Hospital, which 
post he held until his death. Before his elec- 
tion to this mastership he seems to have been 
an ' accomptant and teacher of the mathe- 
matics.' 

Having been refused admission to the 
Amicable Life Assurance Society, because 
they admitted none over forty-five years of 
age, he determined to form a new society 
upon a plan of assurance more equitable than 
that of the Amicable Society. After Dod- 
son's vain attempts to procure a charter from 
1756 to 1761, the scheme was taken in hand 
by Edward Rowe Mores and others, who by 
deed in 1762 the year following Dodson's 
death started the society now known as the 
Equitable Society. 

Dodson died 23 Nov. 1757, being over forty- 
seven years of age. He lived at Bell Dock, 
Wapping. His children were left ill provided 
for. At a meeting of the general court holden 
in Christ's Hospital 15 Dec. 1757 a petition 
was read from Mr. William Mountaine, where 
it was stated that Dodson died ' in very mean 
circumstances, leaving three motherless chil- 
dren unprovided for, viz. James, aged 15, 
Thomas, aged 11 and three quarters, and 
Elizabeth, aged 8.' The two youngest were 



admitted into the hospital. After the Equi- 
table Society had started, and fifteen years or 
more after Dodson's death, a resolution was 
put in the minutes for giving 300/. to the 
children of Dodson, as a recompense for the 
* Tables of Lives ' which their father had pre- 
pared for the society. Dodson's eldest son, 
James the younger, succeeded to the actuary- 
ship of the society in 1764, but in 1767 left 
for the custom house. 

Augustus De Morgan [q. v.] was the great- 
grandson of Dodson, his mother being the 
daughter of James Dodson the younger. In 
De Morgan's * Life ' is the following : ' But 
he was mathematical master at Christ's Hos- 
pital, and some of his descendants seem to 
have thought this a blot on the scutcheon, 
for his great-grandson has left on record the 
impression he had of his ancestor. When 
quite a boy he asked one of his aunts "who 
James Dodson was," and received for answer, 
"We never cry stinking fish." So he was 
afraid to ask any more questions, but settled 
that somehow or other James Dodson was 
the " stinking fish " of his family : but he had 
to wait a few years to find out that his great- 
grandfather was the only one of his ancestors 
whose name would be deserving of mention.' 

[C. Button's Dictionary, 1815; Memoir by 
Nicollet in the Biographie Universelle; A. de 
Morgan's Life by his wife, 1 882 ; F. Bailey's 
Account of Life Assurance Companies, 1810 ; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. v. 1812; in- 
formation supplied by M. S. S. Dipnall, and 
original manuscript collections by A. De Morgan, 
communicated by his son, Wm. I)e Morgan ; and 
the books mentioned.] Gr. J. Or. 

DODSON, SIR JOHN (1780-1858), judge 
of the prerogative court, eldest son of the Rev. 
Dr. John Dodson, rector of Hurstpierpoint, 
Sussex, who died in July 1807, by Frances, 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Dawson, was born 
at Hurstpierpoint 19 Jan. 1780. He en- 
tered Merchant Taylors' School in 1790, and 
proceeded to Oriel College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. 1801, M.A. 1804, and D.C.L. 
1808. He was admitted an advocate of the 
College of Doctors of Laws 3 Nov. 1808, 
and acted as commissary to the dean and 
chapter of Westminster. From July 1819 
to March 1823 he represented Rye in parlia- 
ment as a tory member. On 11 March 1829 

I he was appointed by the Duke of Wellington 
to the office of advocate to the admiralty 

J court, and on being named advocate-general, 
15 Oct. 1834, was knighted at St. James's 
Palace on the 29th of the same month. He 
was called to the bar at the Middle Temple 
8 Nov. 1834, and in the following year was 
elected a bencher of his inn. He became 
master of the faculties in November 1841, and 



Dodson 



176 



Dodsworth 



vicar-general to the lord primate in 1849. 
He held the posts of judge of the prerogative 
court of Canterbury and dean of the arches 
court from February 1852 until the abolition 
of both these jurisdictions, 9 Dec. 1857. He 
was sworn a privy councillor 5 April 1852, 
and diedat6SeamorePlace,Mayfair, London, 
27 April 1858. By his marriage, 24 Dec. 1822, 
to Frances Priscilla, eldest daughter of George 
Pearson, M.D. of London, he left an only son, 
John George Dodson, barrister, of Lincoln's 
Inn, who was elected M.P. for East Sussex 
in April 1857. Sir John Dodson was con- 
cerned in the following works : 1. ' A Report 
of the Case of Dalrymple the Wife against 
Dairy mple the Husband,' 1811. 2. 'Reports 
of Cases argued and determined in the High 
Court of Admiralty,' 1811-22, London, 1815- 
1828, another ed. 1853. 3. ' A Report of the 
Case of the Louis appealed from the Admiralty 
Court at Sierra Leone, and determined in the 
High Court of Admiralty,' 1817. 4. 'A Di- 
gested Index of the Cases determined in the 
High Court of Admiralty, contained in the 
Reports of Robinson, Edwards, and Dodson/ 
by Joshua Greene, 1818. 5. ' A Report of the 
Judgment in the Case of Sullivan against Sul- 
livan, falsely called Oldacre,' 1818. 6. ' Law- 
ful Church Ornaments, by J. W. Perry. With 
an Appendix on the Judgment of the Right 
Hon. Sir J. Dodson in the appeal Liddell v. 
Westerton,' 1857. 7. ' A Review of the Judg- 
ment of Sir John Dodson in the case of Liddell 
?>. Westerton,' by C.F.Trower, 1857. 8. 'The 
Judgment of the Right Hon. Sir J. Dodson, 
also the Judgment of the Judicial Committee 
of the Privy Council in the case of Liddell 
and Home against Westerton,' by A. F. Bay- 
ford, 1857. 

[Law Times, 26 Dec. 1857, p. 198, and 1 May 
1858, p. 87 ; Times, 10 Dec. 1857, p. 11, 19 Dec. 
1857, p. 9, and 29 April 1858, p. 9 ; Gent. Mag. 
June 1858, p. 670.] G-. C. B. 

DODSON, MICHAEL (1732-1799), 
lawyer, only son of Joseph Dodson, dissent- 
ing minister at Marlborough, Wiltshire, was 
born there in September 1732. He was 
educated at Marlborough grammar school, 
and then, in accordance with the advice of 
Sir Michael Foster, justice of the king's 
bench, was entered at the Middle Temple 
31 Aug. 1754. He practised for many years 
as a special pleader (some of his opinions are 
among the Museum manuscripts, Add. MS. 
6709, ff. 113, 131), but was finally called to 
the bar 4 July 1783. In 1770 he had been 
appointed one of the commissioners of bank- 
ruptcy. This post he held till his death, 
which took place at his house, Boswell Court, 
Carey Street, 13 Nov. 1799. In 1778 Dod- 



son married his cousin, Elizabeth Hawkes of 
Marlborough. 

Dodson's legal writings were an edition 
with notes and references of Sir Michael 
Foster's * Report of some Proceedings on the 
Commission for the Trial of Rebels in the year 
1746 in the County of Surrey, and of other 
crown cases ' (3rd edition 1792). In 1795 
Dodson wrote a ' Life of Sir Michael Foster.' 
This, originally intended for the new edition 
of the ' Biographia Britannica,' was pub- 
lished in 1811 with a preface by John Disney. 

Dodson, who was a Unitarian in religion, 
took considerable interest in biblical studies. 
In 1790 he published ' A New Translation of 
Isaiah, with Notes Supplementary to those 
of Dr. Louth, late Bishop of London. By a 
Layman.' This led to a controversy, con- 
ducted with good temper and moderation, 
with Dr. Sturges, nephew of the bishop, who 
replied in ' Short Remarks ' (1791), and was 
in turn answered by Dodson in a ' Letter 
to the Rev. Dr. Sturges, Author of " Short 
Remarks," on a New Translation of Isaiah/ 
Dodson wrote some other theological tracts. 

[G-eneral Biog. 1802, iii. 416 et seq., contri- 
buted by Disney ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] F. W-T. 

DODSWORTH, ROGER (1585-1654), 
antiquary, son of Matthew Dodsworth, regis- 
trar of York Cathedral, was born at Newton 
Grange, Oswaldkirk, Yorkshire, in the house 
of his maternal grandfather, Ralph Sand with. 
The date, according to his own account, was 
24 July 1585, but the parish register of 
Oswaldkirk states that he was baptised on 
24 April. In 1599 Dodsworth was sent to 
Archbishop Hutton's school at Warton, Lan- 
cashire, under Miles Dawson, afterwards vicar 
of Bolton. In 1605 he witnessed the execu- 
tion of Walter Calverley [q. v.] at York. At 
an early age Dodsworth became an antiquary. 
In 1605 he prepared a pedigree, which is still 
extant. His father's official connection with 
York Cathedral gave Dodsworth opportu- 
nities of examining its archives, and he seems 
to have made in his youth the acquaintance 
of the Fairfaxes of Denton, Yorkshire, who 
encouraged him to persevere in his antiqua- 
rian pursuits. In September 1611 he married 
Holcroft, widow of Lawrence Rawsthorne of 
Hutton Grange, near Preston, Lancashire, and 
daughter of Robert Hesketh of Rufford, by 
Mary, daughter of Sir George Stanley. Dods- 
worth took up his residence at his wife's house 
at Hutton Grange, and only left it on anti- 
quarian expeditions. He visited nearly all 
the churches of Yorkshire ; studied in Lon- 
don in the library of Sir Robert Cotton ; 
paid a first visit to the Tower of London in 
1623, and in 1646 examined the Clifford 



Dodsworth 



177 



Dodsworth 



papers at Skipton Castle. About 1635 Thomas, 
first lord Fairfax of Cameron, settled on him 
a pension of 50/. a year, and in September 
1644 he was staying with Francis Nevile 
at Chevet, Wakefield. Lord Fairfax's son 
Charles [q. v.] worked with him in his anti- 
quarian researches. On 2 Oct. 1652 the coun- 
cil of state gave Dodsworth free access to the 
records in the Tower, ' he having in hand some- 
thing of concernment relating to the public ' 
(Cat. State Papers, 1652, p. 427). He died 
in August 1654, and was buried at Rufford, 
Lancashire. His wife died before him. He 
had by her four children, Robert, Eleanor, 
Mary, and Cassandra. Robert was educated 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, and held a 
benefice at Barton, North Riding of York- 
shire. 

Dodsworth published nothing in his life- 
time, but he designed three works, an Eng- 
lish baronage, a history of Yorkshire, and a 
Monasticon Anglicanum. He collected volu- 
minous notes for all three, but he only put 
those for the last into shape. While stay- 
ing with Francis Nevile in 1644 he wrote 
that he intended to restrict the work to the 
north of England, and to entitle it a ' Monas- 
ticon Boreale.' But in his will dated 30 June 
1654 he says that his ' Monasticon ' was then 
at press, and begs John Rushworth to direct 
its publication. He had borrowed money 
for this purpose of Lady Wentworth, and 
ordered his executors to pay to her the yearly 
pension of 50 which Lord Fairfax had pro- 
mised to continue for three years after his 
death. Dodsworth desired the published 
book to be dedicated to Lord Fairfax, and 
suggested that l my good friend Mr. Dugdale ' 
should be invited to frame ' the said epistle 
and dedication.' This is the sole reference 
which Dodsworth is known to have made to 
Dugdale. But Rushworth induced Dugdale 
to edit Dodsworth's papers, and when the 
first volume of the ' Monasticon ' was pub- ! 
lished in 1655, his name is joined with Dods- 
worth's as one of the compilers. 'A full 
third part of the collection is mine,' wrote 
Dugdale, 10 Dec. 1654 (NICHOLS, Illustra- 
tions, iv. 62), but he hesitated to put his 
name on the title-page until Rushworth in- 
sisted on it. The second volume, which was 
issued in 1661, likewise had both Dodsworth's 
and Dugdale's names on, the title-page, but 
the third and last volume bears the name of 
Dugdale alone, and the whole work is in- 
variably quoted as Dugdale's. There can, 
however, be no doubt that Dodsworth de- 
serves the honour of projecting the great 
book. 

Dodsworth's manuscripts were bequeathed 
to Thomas, third lord Fairfax, the well- 

VOL. XV. 



known parliamentary general. In September 
1666 Dugdale borrowed eighteen of them, and 
in 1673 Fairfax deposited 160 volumes in the 
Bodleian Library. It has been stated that 
Henry Fairfax, dean of Norwich, son of Dods- 
worth's fellow-worker Charles Fairfax, was 
chiefly instrumental in procuring this pre- 
sentation to Oxford (Atterbury Correspon- 
dence). The manuscripts were wet when 
they arrived, and Anthony a Wood, out of 're- 
spect to the memory of Mr. Dodsworth,' spent 
a month in drying them ( WOOD, Autobiog. ed. 
Bliss, Ixxv). They include transcripts of docu- 
ments and pedigrees, chiefly relating to York- 
shire churches and families. Extracts from 
them appear in the Brit. Mus. Harl. MSS. 793- 
804. Under the general title of < Dodsworth's 
Yorkshire Notes ' Dodsworth's notes for the 
wapentake of Agbrigg were published by the 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society in 1884. 
Copies of Lancashire post-mortem inquisi- 
tions (in Dodsworth's collections) were made 
by Christopher Towneley, and these have 
been printed by the Chetham Society (2 vols. 
1875-6). Besides the volumes in the Bod- 
leian, Thoresby possessed a quarto volume of 
Dodsworth's manuscript notes (Ducat. Leod. 
p. 533). A second volume is in Queen's 
College Library, Oxford; a third belonged to 
George Baker, the Northamptonshire his- 
torian, and several others were in the pos- 
session of the last Earl of Cardigan. Drake, 
the York historian, gave the Bodleian an 
additional volume in 1736. Thoroton used 
Dodsworth's manuscripts in his l History of 
Nottinghamshire,' and Dr. Nathaniel John- 
ston examined them with a view to writing 
a history of Yorkshire. Wood describes Dods- 
worth as l a person of wonderful industry, but 
less judgment.' Heariie speaks extravagantly 
of his judgment, sagacity, and diligence (LE- 
LAND, Collectanea, 1774, vi. 78). Gough and 
Whittaker are equally enthusiastic. 

[Rev. Joseph Hunter's Three Catalogues (in- 
cluding a catalogue of the Dodsworth MSS. and 
a Memoir), 1838 ; Gough's British Topography, 
ii. 395 ; Whittaker's Richmondshire, ii. 76 ; 
Dugdale's Correspondence and Diary ; Markham's 
Life of the Great Lord Fairfax (1870) ; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 24 ; information from the Rev. 
T. Ward, Gussage St. Michael, Cranborne, Dor- 
setshire. See art. CHARLES FAIRFAX, 1597-1673, 
infra.] S. L. L. 

DODSWORTH, WILLIAM (1798-1861), 
catholic writer, born in 1798, received his 
education at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1820, M.A. in 
1823 (Graduati Cantab, ed. 1873, p. 118). 
He took orders in the established church, and 
at first held ' evangelical ' doctrines, but in 



Dodwell 



178 



Dodwell 



course of time, having been drawn to tracta- 
rianism, he became minister of Margaret 
Street Chapel, Cavendish Square, London, 
where he was a popular preacher, his sermons 
being marked by much stress of thought and 
simplicity of manner. About 1837 he was 
appointed perpetual curate of Christ Church, 
St. Pancras, London. His faith in the church 
of England was so rudely shaken by the judg- 
ment in the Gorham case, that he resigned 
his preferment and joined the Roman catholic 
church in January 1851. Being married he 
could not take orders in the church of his 
adoption, and after his conversion he led a 
quiet and unobtrusive life as a layman of 
that community. He died in York Terrace, 
Regent's Park, on 10 Dec. 1861, leaving seve- 
ral children by his wife Elizabeth, youngest 
sister of Lord Churston. 

Among his numerous works are : 1. ' Ad- 
vent Lectures,' Lond. 1837, 8vo. 2. < A few 
Comments on Dr. Pusey 's Letter to the Bishop 
of London,' Lond. (three editions), 1851, 8vo. 
3. ' Further Comments on Dr. Pusey's re- 
newed Explanation,' Lond. 1851, 8vo. 4. 'An- 
glicanism considered in its results,' Lond. 
1851, 8vo. 5. ' Popular Delusions concerning 
the Faith and Practice of Catholics,' Lond. 

1857, 8vo. 6. * Popular Objections to Catho- 
lic Faith and Practice considered,' Lond. 

1858, 8vo. 

His portrait has been engraved by W. 
Walker from a painting by Mrs. Walker. 

[Tablet, 14 Dec. 1861, p. 801, and 21 Dec. 
p. 810 ; Browne's Annals of the Tractarian Move- 
ment, 3rd edit. pp. 175, 193; Oakeley's Hist. 
Notes on the Tractarian Movement, p. 60 ; Gon- 
don's Les Recentes Conversions de 1'Angleterre, 
p. 235 ; Cat. of Printed Books in Brit, Mus. ; 
Gent. Mag. ccxii. 109 ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, No. 15153.] T. C. 

DODWELL, EDWARD (1767-1832), 
traveller and archaeologist, born in 1767, 
was the only son of Edward Dodwell of 
Moulsey (d. 1828), and belonged to the same 
family as Henry Dodwell the theologian. He 
was, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and graduated B.A. in 1800. He had private 
means and adopted no profession. In 1801 
and again in 1805 and 1806 he travelled in 
Greece, part of the time in company with Sir 
W. Gell. He left Trieste in April 1801 , and 
in his first tour visited Corcyra, Ithaca, Ce- 
phalonia, &c. Starting from Messina in 
February 1805 he visited Zakynthus, Patras, 
Delphi, Lebadeia, Chseronea, Orchomenus, 
Thebes, &c. At Athens he obtained access 
to the Acropolis by bribing the Turkish go- 
vernor and the soldiers, and acquired the 
name of ' the Frank of many " paras." ' He 



found vases and other antiquities in several 
graves opened by him in Attica. He also 
visited ^Egina, Thessaly, and the Pelopon- 
nese (including Olympia, Mycenae, Tiryns, 
and Epidaurus). He opened tombs near 
Corinth and procured the well-known ' Dod- 
well Vase ' (with a representation of a boar- 
hunt on its cover) from a Jew at Corinth. 
Near Megalopolis he had an encounter with 
brigands. He had been allowed leave of 
absence to travel by the government of Bona- 
parte, in whose hands he was a prisoner, but 
was compelled to surrender himself at Rome 
on 18 Sept. 1806. His l Classical Tour,' de- 
scribing his travels, was not published till 
1819. In Greece, Dodwell made four hundred 
drawings, and Pomardi, the artist who ac- 
companied him, six hundred. He collected 
numerous coins in Greece, and formed during 
his lifetime a collection of classical antiqui- 
ties (see BRATJN, Notice sur le Musee Dod- 
well, Rome, 1837), including 115 bronzes 
and 143 vases. All or most of the vases (in- 
cluding the ' Dodwell Vase ') went by pur- 
chase to the Munich Glyptothek. He also 
sold to the Crown Prince of Bavaria the 
remarkable bronze reliefs from Perugia and 
an archaic head of a warrior. A marble head 
from the west pediment of the Parthenon 
was once in Dodwell's possession, but has 
now disappeared. 

From 1806 Dodwell lived chiefly in Italy, 
at Naples and Rome. He married Theresa, 
daughter of Count Giraud, a lady who was 
at least thirty years his junior, and who after- 
wards married in 1833 the Count de Spaur. 
Moore says that he saw in society at Rome 
(October 1819) ' that beautiful creature, Mrs. 
Dodwell . . . her husband used to be a great 
favourite with the pope, who always called 
him < Caro Doodle.' " Dodwell died at Rome 
on 13 May 1832 from the effects of an illness 
contracted in 1830 when exploring in the 
Sabine mountains. Dodwell visited Greece 
at a time when it had been but little explored, 
and his ' Tour,' though diffusely written, and 
not the work of a first-rate archaeologist, con- 
tains much interesting matter. His publica- 
tions are: 1. 'AlcuniBassirilievidellaGrecia 
descritti e pubblicati in viii tavole,' Rome, 
1812, fol. 2. ' A Classical and Topographical 
Tour through Greece,' 2 vols. London, 1819, 
4to (a German translation byF.K. L. Sickler, 
Meiningen, 1821-2). 3. < Views in Greece, 
from drawings by E. Dodwell,' coloured plates, 
with descriptions in English and French, 
2 vols. London, 1821, fol. 4. < Views and 
Descriptions of Cyclopian orPelasgic Remains 
in Greece and Italy . . . from drawings by 
E. D.,' London, 1834, fol. (with French text 
and title, Paris, 1834, fol.) 



Dodwell 



179 



Dodwell 



[Gent. Mag. 1828, vol. xcviii. pt. ii. p. 573, 
.and 1832, vol. cii. pt. i. p. 649; Dodwell's 
Classical Tour; Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in 
Great Britain, 72, 87 ; Encyclop. Britannica, 
9th ed. ; Larousse's Diet. Universel, art. ' Dod- 
well ; ' T. Moore's Memoirs, iii. 52, 64 ; South 
Kensington Mus. Univ. Cat. Works on Art. ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

DODWELL, HENRY, the elder (1641- 
1711), scholar and theologian, was born in 
1641 at Dublin, though both his parents were 
of English extraction. His father, William 
Dodwell, was in the army ; his mother was 
Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Francis Slings- 
by. At the time of his birth the Irish rebel- 
lion, which resulted in the destruction of a 
large number of protestants, was going on ; 
and for the first six years of his life he was 
confined, with his mother, within the city of 
Dublin, while his father's estate in Connaught 
was possessed by the rebels. In 1648 the 
Dodwells came over to England in the hope 
of finding some help from their friends. They 
settled first in London and then at York, in 
the neighbourhood of which city Mrs. Dod- 
well's brother, Sir Henry Slingsby, resided. 
For five years Dodwell was educated in the 
free school at York. His father returned 
to Ireland to look after his estate, and died 
of the plague at Waterford in 1650; and 
his mother soon afterwards fell into a con- 
sumption, of which she died. The orphan 
boy was reduced to the greatest straits, from 
which he was at last relieved, in 1654, by 
his uncle, Henry Dodwell, the incumbent of 
Hemley and Newbourne in Suffolk. This 
kind relation paid his debts, took him into 
his own house, and helped him in his studies. 
In 1656 he was admitted into Trinity College, 
Dublin, and became a favourite pupil of Dr. 
John Steam, for whom he conceived a deep 
attachment. He was elected in due time 
first scholar, and then fellow of the college ; 
but in 1666 he was obliged to resign his fel- 
lowship because he declined to take holy 
orders, which the statutes of the college 
obliged all fellows to do when they were 
masters of arts of three years' standing. 
Bishop Jeremy Taylor offered to use his in- 
fluence to procure a dispensation to enable 
Dodwell to hold his fellowship in spite of 
the statute ; but Dodwell refused the offer 
because he thought it would be a bad prece- 
dent for the college. His reasons for declining 
to take orders were, his sense of the responsi- 
bility of the sacred ministry, the mean opinion 
he had of his own abilities, and, above all, 
a conviction that he could be of more service 
to the cause of religion and the church as a 
layman than he could be as a clergyman, 
who might be suspected of being biassed by 



self-interest. In 1674 he settled in London, 
' as being a place where was variety of 
learned persons, and which afforded oppor- 
tunity of meeting with books, both of ancient 
and modern authors ' (BROZESBY). In 1675 
he made the acquaintance of Dr. William 
Lloyd, afterwards bishop of St. Asaph, and 
subsequently of Worcester ; and when Dr. 
Lloyd was made chaplain to the Princess of 
Orange, he accompanied him into Holland. 
He was also wont to travel with his friend, 
when he became bishop, on his visitation 
tours, and on other episcopal business ; but 
when Lloyd took the oath of allegiance to 
William and Mary, and Dodwell declined 
to do so, there was a breach between the 
friends which was never healed. He also 
spent much of his time with the famous 
Bishop Pearson at Chester. In 1688 he was 
appointed, without any solicitation on his 
part, Camden professor or praelector of his- 
tory at Oxford, and delivered several valuable 
' preelections ' in that capacity. But in 1691 
he was deprived of his professorship because 
he refused to take the oath of allegiance to 
William and Mary. He was told ' by learned 
counsel that the act seemed not to reach his 
case, in that he was prelector, not professor ; ' 
but Dodwell was not the man to take advan- 
tage of such chances, and, as he had refused 
to retain his fellowship when he could not 
conscientiously comply with its conditions, 
so also he did in the case of the professorship 
or praelectorship. He still continued to live 
for some time at Oxford, and then retired to 
Cookham, near Maidenhead. Thence he re- 
moved to Shottesbrooke, a village on the 
other side of Maidenhead. He was persuaded 
to take up his abode there by Francis Cherry 
[q. v.], the squire of the place. Cherry and 
Dodwell used to meet at Maidenhead, whither 
they went daily, the one from Cookham and 
the other from Shottesbrooke, to hear the news 
and to learn what books were newly pub- 
lished. Being kindred spirits, and holding 
the same views on theological and political 
topics, they struck up a great friendship, and 
Mr. Cherry fitted up a house for his friend 
near his own. At Shottesbrooke Dodwell 
spent the remainder of his life. In 1694 he 
married Ann Elliot, a lady in whose father's 
house at Cookham he had lodged ; by her he 
had ten children, six of whom survived him. 
Cherry and Dodwell, being nonjurors, could 
not attend their parish church ; they there- 
fore maintained jointly a nonjuring chaplain, 
Francis Brokesby [q. v.], who afterwards be- 
came Dodwell's biographer. But in 1710, on 
the death of Bishop Lloyd of Norwich, the last 
but one of the surviving nonjuring prelates, 
and ' the surrendry of Bishop Ken, there being 



Dodweli 



1 80 



Dodvvell 



not now two claimants of the same altar of 
which the dispossessed had the better title/ 
Dodweli, with Cherry and Mr. Robert Nelson, 
returned to the communion of the established 
church. They were admitted to communion 
at St. Mildred's, Poultry, by the excellent 
Archbishop Sharp. In 1711 Dodweli caught 
cold in a walk from Shottesbrooke to London, 
and died from the effects of it. He was uni- 
versally esteemed as a most pious and learned 
man ; his views were those of a staunch An- 
glican churchman, equally removed from 
puritanism on the one side and Romanism 
on the other. Thomas Hearne, the antiquary, 
was brought up at Shottesbrooke partly under 
his instruction, and constantly refers in his 
' Diary ' to ' the great Mr. Dodweli ' as an 
unimpeachable authority on all points of 
learning. He speaks of the ' reputation he 
[Dodweli] had deservedly obtained of being 
a most profound scholar, a most pious man, 
and one of y e greatest integrity ; ' and yet 
more strongly: 'I take him to be the greatest 
scholar in Europe when he died ; but, what 
exceeds that, his piety and sanctity were be- 
yond compare.' His extensive and accurate 
knowledge won the admiration of some "who 
had less sympathy than Hearne with his 
theological and political opinions. Gibbon, 
for instance, in his * Entraits raisonn^s de mes 
Lectures,' writes : ' Dodwell's learning was 
immense ; in this part of history especially 
(that of the upper empire) the most minute 
fact or passage could not escape him ; and his 
skill in employing them is equal to his learn- 
ing.' This was a subject on which the great 
historian could speak with authority. That 
Dodwell's character and attainments were 
very highly estimated by his contemporaries 
is shown by testimonies too numerous to be 
quoted. That he was mainly instrumental 
in bringing back Robert Nelson to the esta- 
blished church is one out of many proofs. But 
that, in spite of his vast learning, his nume- 
rous works have now fallen into comparative 
oblivion is not to be wondered at. Gibbon 
gives one reason : ' The worst of this author 
is his method and style the one perplexed 
beyond imagination, the other negligent to 
a degree of barbarism.' Other reasons may 
be that the special interest in many of the sub- 
jects on which Dodweli wrote has died away, 
and that he was fond of broaching eccentric 
theories which embarrassed his friends at 
least as much as his opponents. Bishop Ken, 
for instance, notices with dismay the strange 
ideas of 'the excellent Mr. Dodweli,' and 
even Hearne cannot altogether endorse them. 
Dodweli had a great veneration for the Eng- 
lish clergy, and might himself have been de- 
scribed, with more accuracy than Addison 



was, as 'a parson in a tye-wig.' All his 
tastes were clerical, and his theological at- 
tainments were such as few clergymen have 
reached. Hearne heard that he was in the 
habit of composing sermons for his friend 
Dr. Lloyd ; whether this was so or not, his 
writings show that he would have been quite 
in his element in so doing. 

Dodweli was a most voluminous writer 
on an immense variety of subjects, in all of 
which he showed vast learning, great inge- 
nuity, and, in spite of some eccentricities, 
great powers of reasoning. His first publica- 
tion was an edition of his tutor Dr. Steam's 
work * De Obstinatione,' that is, ' Concerning 
Firmness and not sinking under Adversities.' 
Dr. Steam finished the work just before his 
death, and expressed his dying wish that it 
should be published under the direction of 
his old pupil, Dodweli, who accordingly gave 
it to the world with prolegomena of his own. 
He next published ' Two Letters of Advice, 
(1) for the Susception of Holy Orders, (2) for 
Studies Theological.' These were written in 
the first instance for the benefit of a son of 
Bishop Leslie, and a brother of the famous 
Charles Leslie, who was a friend of Dodwell's 
at Shottesbrooke. His next publication (1673) 
was an edition of Francis de Sales's * Intro- 
duction to a Devout Life.' Dodweli wrote 
a preface, but did not put his name to the 
work. In 1675 he wrote ' Some Considera- 
tions of present Concernment,' in which, like 
all the high churchmen of the day, he com- 
bated vehemently the position of the Roman- 
ists ; and in the following year he published 
' Two Discourses against the Papists.' His 
next publication was an elaborate work, en- 
titled in full, ' Separation of Churches from 
Episcopal Government, as practised by the 
present Nonconformists, proved schismati- 
cal,' but shortly termed his ' Book of Schism/ 
This work, of course, stirred up great oppo- 
sition. Among its opponents was the famous 
Richard Baxter, who called forth in 1681 
Dodwell's ' Reply to Mr. Baxter,' and various 
other tracts. In 1683 he published ' A Dis- 
course of the One Altar and the One Priest- 
hood insisted on by the Ancients in their 
Disputes against Schism.' This was also oc- 
casioned by his dispute with Baxter. Two 
years earlier he added,, to his ' Two Letters 
of Advice' a tract concerning Sanchonia- 
thon's * Phoenician History.' In 1682 he pub- 
lished his ' Dissertations upon St. Cyprian,' 
undertaken at the desire of the well-known 
Dr. Fell, bishop of Oxford and dean of Christ 
Church, the editor of St. Cyprian's works. 
In 1685 he published a treatise 'De Sa- 
cerdotio Laicorum' (Of the Priesthood of 
Laics, against Grotius), again occasioned by 



Dodwell 



181 



Dodwell 



the writings of Baxter; and in 1686 some j 
dissertations added to those of his deceased I 
friend, Bishop Pearson, on the succession of 
the bishops of Rome ; and in 1689, again at 
the instigation of Dr. Fell, f Dissertations on 
Irenseus/ which, however, was only a frag- 
ment of what he intended. In the interval 
between the suspension and the deprivation 
of the nonjuring bishops, Dodwell put forth 
1 A Cautionary Discourse of Schism, with a 
particular Regard to the Case of the Bishops 
who are Suspended for refusing to take the 
New Oath,' the title of which work tells its 
own tale. Of course Dodwell's ' caution ' in 
his ' Cautionary Discourse ' was not heeded ; 
the bishops were deprived, and Dodwell pre- 
sently put forth a ' Vindication of the De- 
prived Bishops.' Next followed a tract which 
was intended as a preface to the last work, 
but was afterwards published separately, 
and entitled ' The Doctrine of the Church of 
England concerning the Independence of the 
Clergy in Spirituals,' &c. In 1704 appeared 
his ' Parsenesis to Foreigners concerning the 
late English Schism ; ' in 1705, 'A Case in 
View considered/ ' to show that in case the 
then invalidly deprived fathers should all 
leave their sees vacant, either by death or 
resignation, we should not then be obliged 
to keep up our separation from those bishops 
who are in the guilt of that unhappy schism.' 
In 1710-11 the supposed event occurred, and 
Dodwell wrote ' The Case in View, now in 
Fact,' urging the nonjurors to return to the 
national church; and there is little doubt 
that these two treatises induced many non- 
jurors (among whom Dodwell was much 
looked up to and reverenced) to give up their 
separation. The last treatise was preceded 
by * A farther Prospect of the Case in View/ 
in which Dodwell answers some objections 
to his first work, especially those which re- 
lated to joining in what were termed ' im- 
moral prayers.' For convenience' sake the 
works of Dodwell which relate to the non- 
juring controversy have been placed in order ; 
but he wrote a vast quantity of books bearing 
upon historical, classical, and theological sub- 
jects, the principal of which are : ' An Invita- 
tion to Gentlemen to acquaint themselves 
with Ancient History ' (1694), being a pre- 
face to the ' Method of History' by his prede- 
cessor in the Camden professorship ; ' Annales 
Thucydideani/ to accompany Dr. Hudson's 
edition of Thucydides, and ' Annales Xeno- 
phontiani/ to accompany Dr. Edward Wells's 
edition of Xenophon (1696) ; ' Annales Vel- 
leiani, Quintiliani, with two appendices on 
Julius Celsus and Commodianus ' (1698) ; 
1 An Account of the lesser Geographers ' 
(vol. i. 1698, vol. ii. 1703, vol. iii. 1712, after 



his death) ; * A Treatise on the Lawfulness 
of Instrumental Musick in Churches' (1698), 
occasioned by a dispute about the setting 
up of an organ in Tiverton church in 1696 ; 
'An Apology for Tully's (Cicero's) Philo- 
sophical Writings ' (1702) ; * A Discourse 
against Marriages in different Communions ' 
(1702), in support of his friend Charles 
Leslie's views on the subject ; also in 1702 a 
work ' De Cyclis/ being an elaborate account 
of the Greek and Roman cycles ; ' A Discourse 
concerning the Time of Phalaris' (1704), a 
contribution towards the great controversy 
between Bentley and Boyle on the subject, 
and also ' A Discourse concerning the Time 
of Pythagoras ; ' a treatise ' Against Occa- 
sional Communion ' (1705), when the famous 
1 occasional conformity '* dispute was raging ; 
'Incense no Apostolical Tradition' (dated 
1709, published 1711) ; 'An Epistolary Dis- 
course concerning the Soul's Immortality/ in 
which he maintains that the soul was made 
immortal in holy baptism ; ' Notes on an 
Inscription on Julius Vitalis and that on 
Menonius Calistus, and on Dr. Woodward's 
Shield.' This last was published after Dod- 
well's death, as were also the letters which 
passed between him and Bishop Burnet. He 
also left several other unfinished works. 

[Life of Mr. Henry Dodwell, with'an Account 
of his Works, &c., by Francis Brokesby, B.D., 
1715; Thomas Hearne's Diaries passim, and Dod- 
well's Works passim ; information from the Rev. 
H. Dodwell Moore, vicar of Honington, and others 
connected with the Dodwell family.] J. H. 0. 

DODWELL, HENRY, the younger (d. 
1784), deist, fourth child and eldest son of 
Henry Dodwell [q. v.], was born at Shottes- 
brooke, Berkshire, probably about the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century. He was 
educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where 
he proceeded B.A. 9Feb. 1726. Subsequently 
he studied law. He is said to have been ' a 
polite, humane, and benevolent man/ and to 
have taken a very active part in the early 
proceedings of the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. 
But the one circumstance which alone has 
rescued his name from oblivion was the pub- 
lication of a very remarkable pamphlet in 
1742, entitled l Christianity not founded on 
Argument.' The work was published anony- 
mously, but Dodwell was well known to be the 
author. It was professedly written in defence 
of Christianity, and many thought at the time, 
and some think even still, that it was written 
in all seriousness. But its tendency obviously 
is to reduce Christianity to an absurdity, and, 
judging from the internal evidence of the work, 
the writer appears to have been far too keen- 
sighted a man not to perceive that this must 



Dodwell 



182 



Dodwell 



be the conclusion arrived at by those who ac- 
cept his arguments. To understand his work, 
it must be remembered that ' reasonableness ' 
was the keynote to all the discussions re- 
specting theology in the first half of the 
eighteenth century. The pamphlet appeared 
towards the close of the deistical controversy, 
after the deists had been trying to prove for 
half a century that a belief in revealed reli- 
gion was unreasonable, and the orthodox that 
it was reasonable. In opposition to both, 
Dodwell maintained that ' assent to revealed 
truth, founded upon the conviction of the 
understanding, is a false and unwarrantable 
notion;' that ' that person best enjoys faith 
who never asked himself a question about it, 
and never dwelt at all on the evidence of 
reason ; ' that ' the Holy Ghost irradiates the 
souls of believers at once with an irresistible 
light from heaven that flashes conviction in 
a moment, so that this faith is completed in 
an instant, and the most perfect and finished 
creed produced at once without any tedious 
progress in deductions of our own ; ' that ' the 
rational Christian must have begun as a scep- 
tic; must long have doubted whether the 
gospel was true or false. And can this,' he 
asks, ' be the faith that overcometh the world ? 
Can this be the faith that makes a martyr ? ' 
After much more to the same effect, he con- 
cludes, ' therefore, my son, give thyself to the 
Lord with thy whole heart, and lean not to 
thy own understanding.' 

At the time when Dodwell wrote the re- 
action had begun to set in against this ex- 
altation of * reason ' and a ( reasonable Chris- 
tianity.' William Law had written his ' Case 
of Reason,' &c., in which he strives to show 
that reason had no case at all, and Dodwell's 1 
pamphlet seems like a travesty of that very 
able work. The methodists had begun to ! 
preach with startling effects the doctrines of 
the ' new birth ' and instantaneous conversion, 
and some of them hailed the new writer as a 
valuable ally, and recommended him as such 
to John Wesley. But Wesley was far too 
clear-sighted not to see the real drift of the 
work. ' On a careful perusal,' he writes, ' of 
that piece, notwithstanding my prejudice in 
its favour, I could not but perceive that the 
great design uniformly pursued throughout 
the work was to render the whole of the 
Christian institution both odious and con- 
temptible. His point throughout is to prove 
that Christianity is contrary to reason, or 
that no man acting according to the princi- 
ples of reason can possibly be a Christian. It 
is a wonderful proof of the power that smooth 
words may have even on serious minds that 
so many have mistook such a writer as this 
for a friend of Christianity' (Earnest Appeal 



to Men of Reason and Reliffion, p. 14). This- 
was the general view taken of the work, 
though Seagrave (a Cambridge methodist of 
repute), as well as other methodists, thought 
otherwise, and some mystics, John Byrom for 
instance, and even so powerful a reasoner as 
William Law, were doubtful about the writer's 
object. He was answered by Philip Dod- 
dridge, who calls the work ' a most artful 
attempt, in the person of a methodist, but 
made indeed by a very sagacious deist, to sub- 
vert Christianity,' and says ' it is in high re- 
putation among the nobility and gentry ; ' by 
John Leland, who not only devoted a chapter 
to it in his 'View of the Deistical Writers/ 
but also wrote a separate work on it, entitled 
1 Remarks on a late Pamphlet entitled Chris- 
tianity not founded on Argument' (1744) ; by 
Dr. George Benson, in an elaborate work, en- 
titled ' The Reasonableness of the Christian. 
Religion as delivered in the Scriptures ' (1743) ; 
by Dr. Thomas Randolph, in ' The Christian 
Faith a Rational Assent ' (1744), and by the 
writer's own brother, William Dodwell [q. v.] r 
in two sermons preached before the university 
of Oxford (1745). The work is undoubtedly 
a very striking one, and hits a blot in th& 
theology both of the deists and their anta- 
gonists. He died in 1784. 

[Dodwell's Christianity not founded on Argu- 
ment ; Hunt's Religious Thought in England ; 
Abbey and Overton ; information privately re- 
ceived from the Rev. Henry Dodwell Moore, vicar 
of Honington, and others connected with the 
Dodwell family.] J. H. 0. 

DODWELL, WILLIAM (1709-1785), 
archdeacon of Berks and theological writer, 
born at Shottesbrooke, Berkshire, on 17 June 
1709, was the second son and fifth child of 
Henry Dodwell the elder, the nonjuror [q. v.] 
He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford, 
where he took his degree of M.A. in 1732. On 
27 Nov. 1740 he was married at Bray Church 
to Elizabeth Brown, by whom he had a large 
family, one of whom married Thomas Ridding, 
a relation of the present bishop of South- 
well. Dodwell became rector of his native 
place, Shottesbrooke, and vicar of White 
Waltham and Bucklesbury. Dr. Sherlock, 
when bishop of Salisbury, gave him a pre- 
bendal stall in Salisbury Cathedral, and he 
afterwards obtained a residentiary canonry 
in the same church. Another bishop of Salis- 
bury, Dr. Thomas, made him archdeacon of 
Berks ; and some years before this (23 Feb. 
1749-50 Dr. Thomas did not become bishop- 
of Salisbury until 1761 ) the university of Ox- 
ford conferred upon him the degree of D.D 
by diploma, in recognition of his services 
to religion by his answer to Dr. Middletoiu 



Dodwell 



183 



Dogget 



Dodwell, like his father, was a keen contro- 
versialist, and measured swords with some 
of the most eminent men of his day, such 
as Conyers Middleton, William Romaine, 
"William Whiston, and others. He was also 
a voluminous writer on other subjects, all 
connected with religion, though his own 
writings have now all passed out of remem- 
brance. He died 23 Oct. 1785. His works, 
so far as can be ascertained, were as fol- 
lows : 1. l Two Sermons on the Eternity of 
Future Punishment,' in answer to William 
Whiston, Oxford, 1743. 2. ' A Visitation Ser- 
mon on the desirableness of the Christian 
Faith,' published at the request of Bishop 
Sherlock, Oxford, 1744. 3. 'Two Sermons 
on 1 Pet. iii. 15 on the Nature, Procedure, 
and Effects of a Rational Faith, preached be- 
fore the University of Oxford, 11 March and 
24 June 1744,' published at Oxford 1745; 
these were written specially in answer to his 
brother's ' Christianity not founded on Argu- 
ment.' 4. ' Sermon on the Practical Influence 
of the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity,' Oxford, 
1745. 5. ' Dissertation on Jephthah's Vow, 
occasioned by Rev. William Romaine's Ser- 
mon on the subject,' London, 1745. 6. ' Prac- 
tical Discourses (14) on Moral Subjects,' vol. i. 
London, 1748, dedicated to his patron, Arthur 
Vansittart, esq., of Shottesbrooke ; vol. ii. 
1749, dedicated to Bishop Sherlock, ' whose 
unsolicited testimony of favour to him laid him 
under personal obligations. ' 7 . ' Free Answer 
to Dr. Middleton's Free Inquiry into the 
Miraculous Powers of the Primitive Church,' 
London, 1749. 8. ' Assize Sermon on Human 
Laws,' Oxford, 1750. 9. ' Reply to Mr. Toll's 
Defence of Dr. Middleton's Free Inquiry,' 
London, 1751. 10. ' Sermon on St. Paul's 
wish,' Oxford, 1752. 11. ' Two Sermons on 
Superstition,' Oxford, 1754. 12. ' Letter to 
the Author of Considerations on the Act 
to prevent Clandestine Marriages,' with a 
postscript occasioned by Stebbing's ' En- 
quiry into the Annulling Clauses in Lon- 
don,' 1755, by a country clergyman. 13. ' Two 
Sermons on the Doctrine of Divine Visita- 
tion by Earthquakes,' Oxford, 1756. 14. ' As- 
size Sermon on the equal and impartial dis- 
charge of Justice,' Oxford, 1756. 15. * Assize 
Sermon on the False Witness,' Oxford, 1758. 
16. ' Sermon at the Meeting of the Charity 
Schools,' London, 1758. 17. ' Two Sermons 
on a Particular Providence,' Oxford, 1760. 
18. ' Sermon before the Sons of the Clergy,' 
London, 1760. 19. < Charge to the Clergy of 
the Archdeaconry of Berks,' London, 1764. 

20. * Sermon at the Consecration of Bishop 
Moss (St. David's) in 1766,' London, 1767. 

21. 'The Sick Man's Companion; or the 
Clergyman's Assistant in Visiting the Sick, 



with a Dissertation on Prayer,' London, 1767. 

22. ' Prayer on Laying the Foundation Stone 
of Salisbury Infirmary,' subjoined to Dean 
Graves's Infirmary Sermon,' Salisbury, 1767. 

23. ' Infirmary Sermon,' Salisbury, 1768. 

24. ' Three Charges on the Athanasian Creed/ 
Oxford University Press, 1802, published by 
Dodwell's eldest son, the Rev. Henry Dod- 
well, rector of Harlaxton and Colsterworth 
in Lincolnshire, at the request of some Oxford 
friends. 

[ William Dodwell's Works passim ; G ent. Mag. 
1803, pt. ii. 1138-9 (where the fullest list of 
works is given by Dr. Loveday) ; information 
privately given by the Rev. H. Dodwell Moore, 
vicar of Honington, and others connected with the 
Dodwell family.] J. H. 0. 

DOGGET, JOHN (d. 1501), provost of 
King's College, Cambridge, a native of Sher- 
borne, Dorsetshire, was a nephew of Cardinal 
Bourchier. From Eton he passed to King's 
College in 1451, and on 22 Sept. 1459, being 
then M.A. and fellow of his college, he was 
ordained acolyte and subdeacon by William 
Grey, the then bishop of Ely. Having been 
admitted to full orders in 1460, he became 
prebendary of Roscombe in the church of 
Sarum, and on 22 Jan. 1473-4 prebendary of 
Clifton in the church of Lincoln (LE NEVE, 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 132) ; was collated pre- 
bendary of Rampton in the church of South- 
well on 18 Feb., and admitted on 16 March 
1474-5, a preferment he resigned in February 
1488-9 (ib. iii. 453), and was advanced to the 
stall of Chardstock in the church of Sarum 
in 1475. Elected treasurer of the church of 
Chichester in 1479 (ib. i. 268), he was ap- 
pointed on 17 April in that year one of four 
ambassadors to the pope, Sixtus IV, and the 
princes of Sicily and Hungary, and on 5 July 
1480 was employed in an embassy to the 
king of Denmark, being the first person 
named in the commission (HARDY, Syllables 
ofRymer's Fcedera, ii. 7 1 1 ) . On 8 Feb. 1485-6 
he became chancellor of the church of Sarum 
(LE NEVE, ii. 651), on which occasion he re- 
signed the prebend of Bitton in that church. 
In 1483 he was chaplain to Richard III, and 
vicar-general of the diocese of Sarum, and 
became chancellor of the church of Lich- 
field on 13 Feb. 1488-9 (ib. i. 585). He 
was created doctor of canon law at Bo- 
logna, and obtained in 1489 a grace for his 
incorporation at Cambridge ' whensoever he 
should return thereto.' In 1 491, when rector 
of Eastbourne, Sussex, his rectory-house 
and buildings were burnt to the ground and 
he lost 600/. About 1494 he was master 
of the Holy Trinity at Arundel (TiERNEr, 
Hist, of Arundel, pp. 639-40). On 10 April 



Doggett 



184 



Doggett 



1499 he was elected provost of King's College 
(LE NEVE, iii. 683), and during the same 
year was, it is said, archdeacon of Chester. 
Dogget died in April 1501, and was buried 
in Salisbury Cathedral. His will, bearing 
date 4 March 1500-1, was proved on the 
following 22 May (reg. in P. C. C. 16, Moone). I 
Therein he mentions his nephew John Huet. 
He founded a chapel at Sherborne, on the 
south side of St. Mary's churchyard (LELAND, 
Itinerary, ed. Hearne, 2nd edit. ii. 49, iii. 
110), and was a benefactor to King's College. 
He is author of ' Examinatorium in Phae- 
donem Platonis,' a vellum manuscript of, 
ninety-seven leaves, inscribed to Cardinal 
Bourchier. It is Addit. MS. 10344. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantab., i. 5, 520, and au- 
thorities cited ; Harwood's Alumni Eton., pp. 35, 
108.] GK G. 

DOGGETT, THOMAS (d. 1721), actor, 
was born in Castle Street, Dublin. After an 
unsuccessful appearance at Dublin he joined 
a travelling company, and found his way to 
London, playing among other places at Bar- 
tholomew Fair, at Parker and Doggett's booth 
near Hosier End, in a droll entitled * Fryar 
Bacon, or the Country Justice.' His first 
recorded appearance took place in 1691 at 
Drury Lane, then the Theatre Royal, as Nin- 
compoop in D'Urfey's ' Love for Money, or 
the Boarding School.' The following year 
he was the original Solon in the ' Marriage 
Hater Match'd ' of the same author. In these 
two parts he established himself in public 
favour. In 1693 he appeared as Fondle- 
wife in the ' Old Bachelor ' of Congreve. 
Other parts in forgotten plays of Bancroft, 
Southerne, Crowne, &c., followed. When in 
1695 the theatre in Little Lincoln's Inn Fields 
was opened by Betterton [q.v.], Doggett 'cre- 
ated' in the opening performance Ben in 
* Love for Love,' which Congreve is reported 
to have shaped with a view to Doggett. 
Downes says of him : ' On the stage he's very 
aspectabund, wearing a farce on his face, his 
thoughts deliberately framing his utterance 
congruous to his look. He is the only comic 
original now extant. Witness Ben, Solon, 
Nikin, the Jew of Venice, &c.' (Roscius An- 
glicanus, 1708, p. 52). In 1696 he played, 
among other parts, Young Hob in his own 
solitary dramatic production, ' The Country 
Wake,' Vaunter in the 'She Gallants' of 
George Gran ville, lord Lansdowne, Sapless in 
Dilke's ' Lover's Luck,' and in 1697, at Drury 
Lane, Mass Johnny, a schoolboy, in Gibber's 
1 Woman's Wit,' Bull Senior in ' A Plot and No 
Plot,' by Dennis, and Learchus in Vanbrugh's 
' ^Esop.' For the three following years he 
disappears from London. It seems probable 



that this time was spent in revisiting Dublin. 
Hitchcock (7mA Stage, i. 23) states that many 
performers of eminence, including Doggett, 
visited Ireland during the management of 
Ashbury subsequent to 1692. In 1701 at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields he played Shylock to the 
Bassanio of Betterton in the ' Jew of Venice,' 
an adaptation by Lord Lansdowne of the 
' Merchant of Venice,' in which Shylock is 
exhibited as a comic character. Between this 
period and 1706 he was the original of several 
characters. Duringthe seasons 1706-7, 1707- 
1708 he was not engaged, and was possibly 
on tour. Tony Aston met him in Norwich. 
On 1 March 1708, for Cibber's benefit, he 
played at Drury Lane Ben in ' Love for Love,' 
and was announced on the bills as to act but 
six times. On 13 April 1709 he took part in 
the famous benefit of Betterton, playing once 
more Ben, acting on one occasion only. 

In 1709-10 Doggett with Cibber and Wilks 
joined Swiney in the management of the Hay- 
market. To Doggett's objection it was due 
that Mrs. Oldfield was not also in the manage- 
ment. Doggett, who looked after the finances 
of the partnership, now recommenced to act, 
the parts he played at the Haymarket in this 
season comprising Marplot, Tom Thimble in 
the f Rehearsal,' Dapper in the ' Alchemist,' 
First Gravedigger in ' Hamlet,' &c. At 
Drury Lane, in the management of which he 
was associated with Collier, and afterwards 
with Steele, and at the Haymarket he con- 
tinued to play until 1713, whenhe retiredfrom 
the stage, the last part he ' created ' being Major 
Cadwallader in Charles Shadwell's ' The Hu- 
mours of the Army,' 29 Jan. 1713. 

When, at the beginning of the season 1713- 
1714, a new license was issued in which the 
name of Barton Booth was by order added to 
those of Wilks, Cibber, and Doggett, a diffi- 
culty arose with regard to the disposal of the 
property belonging to the original partners. 
On this question Doggett dissociated himself 
from his fellows, and ceased to act. He in- 
sisted, however, on his full share of the profits. 
Refusing the half share offered him by Wilks 
and Cibber, he commenced proceedings in 
chancery, and after two years' delay got a 
verdict, by which, according to Cibber, he ob- 
tained much less than had been offered him. 
On 11 Nov. 1713 he played at Drury Lane 
Sir Tresham Cash in the ' Wife's Relief of 
Charles Johnson. In 1717 he appeared three 
times at Drury Lane. He played Ben, by 
command of George I, in ' Love for Love,' 
25 March, and, again by royal command, Hob 
in his own comedy, 'The Country Wake,' 
1 April. In the latter part of October 1721, ac- 
cording to Genest, 21 Sept. according to Reed's 
'MS. Notitia Dramatica,' 22 Sept. according to 



Doggett 



185 



Dogmael 



Bellchambers's * Notes to Gibber's Apology,' 
lie died, and was buried at Eltham. Doggett 
was a strong Hanoverian. On 1 Aug. 1716 
appeared a notice : * This being the day of his 
majesty's happy accession to the throne, there 
will be given by Mr. Doggett an orange colour 
livery with a badge representing liberty, to 
be rowed for by six watermen that are out 
of their time within the year past. They 
are to row from London Bridge to Chelsea. 
It will be continued annually on the same 
day for ever,' The custom is still maintained, 
the management of the funds left by Doggett 
being in the disposition of the Fishmongers' 
Company. Colley Cibber bears a handsome 
tribute toDoggett's merits as an actor, stating 
that i he was the most an original and the 
strictest observer of nature of all his contem- 
poraries. He borrowed from none of them, 
his manner was his own ; he was a pattern to 
others whose greatest merit was that they 
had sometimes tolerably imitated him. In 
dressing a character to the greatest exactness 
he was remarkably skilful. . . . He could be 
extremely ridiculous without stepping into 
the least impropriety to make him so ' {Apo- 
logy, ed. Bellchambers, 422-3) . Cibber speaks 
of the great admiration of Congreve for Dog- 
gett. In private affairs Doggett is said to 
have been ' a prudent, honest man' (p. 323), 
and obstinate in standing upon his rights. 
A story is told of his resisting successfully 
an attempted act of oppression on the part of 
the lord chamberlain. Tony Aston, in his 
' Supplement to Colley Cibber,' pp. 14, 15, tells 
of an attempt of Doggett to play Phorbas 
in 'CEdipus,' which was interrupted by laugh- 
ter, and closed his progress in tragedy. He 
calls him l a lively, spract man, of very good 
sense, but illiterate.' Steele in a letter tells 
him, ' I have always looked upon you as the 
best of comedians/ Numerous references to 
Doggett are found in the 'Tatler'and the 
* Spectator.' Doggett's one comedy, ' The 
Country Wake,' 4to, 1690, is a clever piece, 
the authorship of which, on no good autho- 
rity, has been assigned to Cibber. It was re- 
duced by Cibber into a ballad farce, entitled 
' Flora, or Hob in the Well,' which was played 
so late as 1823. 

According to George Daniel (Merrie Eng- 
land, ii. 18), the only portrait known is a 
small print representing him dancing the 
Cheshire Round, with the motto * Ne sutor 
ultra crepidam.' This print Daniel repro- 
duces. A memoir appears in Webb's ' Com- 
pendium of Irish Biography,' Dublin, 1878, 
p. 153. A portrait of Doggett is in the read- 
ing-room of the Garrick Club. It shows him 
with a fat face and small twinkling eye, but 
is of dubious authority. 



[Books cited ; Genest's Account of the English 
Stage ; Biographia Dramatica ; Doran's Their 
Majesties' Servants ; Notes and Queries, 2ndser. 
v. 237, vii. 409, 471, 6th ser. ii. 269, x. 349,437, 
xi. 319.] J. K. 

DOGHERTY. [See also DOCHARTY and 
DOUGH ARTY.] 

DOGHERTY, THOMAS (d. 1805), legal 
writer, was an Irishman of humble origin, 
educated at a country school, who removed 
to England, and became clerk to Mr. Foster 
Bower, an eminent pleader. After passing 
upwards of sixteen years in this capacity, 
studying law industriously, and making from 
his master's manuscripts, and those of Sir 
Joseph Yates and Sir Thomas Davenport, 
vast collections of precedents and notes, 
he, on Bower's advice, became a member of 
Gray's Inn and special pleader about 1785. 
For some years he held the office of clerk of 
indictments on the Chester circuit. He wore 
himself out with hard work, and died at his 
chambers in Clifford's Inn 29 Sept. 1805, 
leaving a large family ill provided for. He 
wrote, in 1787, the ' Crown Circuit Assistant,' 
in 1790 and 1799 edited the sixth and seventh 
editions of the ( Crown Circuit Companion,' 
and in 1800 brought out an edition of Hale's 
* Pleas of the Crown.' 

[Law List ; Gent. Mag. 1805.] J. A. H. 

DOGMAEL, also called DOGVAEL, SAINT 
(6th cent.), was an early Welsh saint. Of 
his life and date no authentic particulars are 
recorded, though the numerous churches de- 
dicated to and reputed to be founded by him 
are ample evidence of the fact of his exist- 
ence. He is said in the ' Achau y Saint ' to 
have been the son of Ithael, the son of Cere- 
dig, the son of Cunedda, the famous legen- 
dary Gwledig. He was the founder, as was 
said, of St. Dogmael's in Cemmes, opposite 
Cardigan, on the left bank of the lower Teivi ; 
but the Benedictine priory at that place was 
the foundation of Martin of Tours, the Nor- 
man conqueror of Cemmes, in the earlier 
half of the twelfth century. This does not pre- 
vent an early Celtic foundation from having 
been on the same spot. The other churches con- 
nected with Dogmael's name are St. Dogwel's 
in Pebidiog, Monachlogddu, and Melinau, all, 
like the more famous foundation, in the mo- 
dern Pembrokeshire, which may therefore be 
regarded as the region of the saint's life and 
chief cultus. He is said to have been also 
the patron saint of Llanddogwel in Anglesey. 
His festival is on 14 June. 

[K. Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 211; Achau y 
Saint in W. J. Rees's Lives of Cambro-British 
Saints, p. 265 ; Acta Sanctorum (June), iii. 436 
(Paris, 1867); Dugdale's Monasticon, iv. 128- 
132, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel.] T. F. T. 



Doharty 



186 



Doig 



DOHARTY, JOHN (1677-1755), ma- ! Cat. of Dublin Graduates ; Smyth's Law Officers 
thematician. [See DOTJGHARTY.] ! of Ireland.] B. H. B. 



DOHERTY, JOHN (1783-1850), chief 
justice of Ireland, born in 1783, son of John 
Doherty of Dublin, was educated in Trinity 
College, where he graduated B.A. 1806, and 
LL.D. 1814. He was called to the Irish bar 
in 1808, joining the Leinster circuit, and re- 
ceived his silk gown in 1823. His progress 
in the legal profession was not rapid, though 
he was generally allowed to be a man of very 
clear intellect, with great powers of wit and 
oratory. From 1824 to 1826 he was repre- 
sentative in parliament for the borough of 
New Ross, county Wexford; and at the 
general election in the latter year he was 
returned, by the influence of the Ormonde 
family, for the city of Kilkenny, in opposi- 
tion to Pierce Somerset Butler. He became 
solicitor-general on 18 June 1827, during the 
administration of Canning, to whom he was 
related on his mother's side, and was re- 
elected for Kilkenny against the same op- 
ponent as before ; in 1828 he was elected a 
bencher of the King's Inns, Dublin ; and on 
23 Dec. 1830 he was appointed lord chief 
justice of the court of common pleas, with 
a seat in the privy council, on the promotion 
of Lord Plunket to the lord chancellorship of 
Ireland. As a judge he was calm and pains- 
taking, but his knowledge of the law as a 
science was not thought to be very profound. 
He was much more in his element in the 
House of Commons, and there he had soon 
become a successful debater, taking a leading 
part on all Irish questions, and gaining the 
commendation of such men as Brougham, 
Wilberforce, and Manners Sutton. He had a 
commanding figure, a fine voice, elegant dic- 
tion, and great fluency. His encounters in 
the house with O'Connell were frequent. 
He especially distinguished himself against 
O'Connell in the debate on ' the Doneraile 
conspiracy,' 15 May 1830. An overwhelm- 
ing majority pronounced in his favour, and 
Lord Althorp and other good judges of the 
question expressed their firm conviction of 
the injustice of the charges advanced against 
him. Sir Robert Peel in 1834 wished him to 
retire from the judicial bench, with the view 
of resuming his position in the house, and 
subsequently a rumour very widely prevailed 
of his own anxiety to try his debating powers 
in the House of Lords. Unsuccessful specu- 
lations in railways suddenly deprived him 
of a large fortune, and he never fairly rallied 
from the consequent depression. He died at 
Beaumaris, North Wales, 8 Sept, 1850. 

[Gent. Mag. 1850, xxxiv. new ser. pt. ii. 658; 
Annual Register, 1850, xcii. chron. 266 ; Todd's 



DOIG, DAVID (1719-1800), philologist, 
| was born at Monifieth, Forfarshire, in 1719. 
1 His father, who was a small farmer, died 
while he was an infant, and his mother 
married again. The stepfather, however, 
1 treated him kindly. From a defect of eye- 
, sight he did not learn to read till his twelfth 
! year, but such was his quickness that in three 
[ years he was successful in a Latin competi- 
tion for a bursary at the university of St. 
Andrews. Having finished the classical and 
philosophical course with distinction and 
1 proceeded B.A., he commenced the study of 
divinity, but scruples regarding the West- 
minster Confession of Faith prevented him 
from entering the ministry. He had taught, 
! from 1749, the parochial schools of Monifieth, 
his birthplace, and of Kennoway and Falk- 
land in Fifeshire, when his growing reputa- 
tion gained for him the rectorship of the 
grammar school of Stirling, which office he 
continued to fill with rare ability for upwards 
of forty years. In addition to Greek and 
Latin Doig had mastered Hebrew and Arabic, 
and was generally well read in the history 
and literature of the East. The university 
of Glasgow conferred on him the honorary 
i degree of LL.D., and on the same day he 
! received from St. Andrews his diploma as 
| M.A. He was also elected a fellow of the 
1 Royal Society of Edinburgh, and a fellow of 
! the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Doig's first known appearance in print was 

some twenty pages of annotation on the 

1 ' Gaberlunzie-man,' inserted in an edition of 

1 that and another old Scottish poem, 'Christ's 

1 Kirk on the Green,' which was published in 

! 1782 by his friend and neighbour John Cal- 

| lander of Craigforth. After an interval of 

I ten years he published ' Two Letters on the 

Savage State, addressed to the late Lord 

1 Kaims,'4to, London, 1792, in which he seeks 

I to refute the judge's not very original views 

as to the primitive condition of the human 

race, propounded in the l Sketches of the 

; History of Man,' 1774. The first of these 

! letters, written in 1775, was sent to Lord 

! Kaimes, who was passing the Christmas vaca- 

i tion at Blair Drummond, a few miles from 

i Stirling, and who was much struck with the 

i learning, ability, and fairness of his anony- 

1 mous correspondent. Having soon discovered 

the writer, he invited him to dinner next 

i day, ; when,' writes Ty tier (Lord Woodhouse- 

J lee), a mutual friend, ' the subject of their 

controversy was freely and amply discussed ; 

and though neither of them could boast of 

making a convert of his antagonist, a cordial 



Doket 



187 



Doket 



friendship took place from that day, and a 
literary correspondence began, which suffered 
no interruption during their joint lives' 
(TYTLER, Memoirs of Lord Kaimes, 2nd edit., 
ii. 185-93). Lord Kaimes survived until 
1782. Doig's next publication was entitled 
* Extracts from a Poem on the Prospect from 
Stirling Castle. I. The Vision. II. Carmore 
and Orma, a love tale. III. The Garden. 
IV. The King's Knot. V. Three Hymns, 
Morning, Noon, and Evening,' 4to, Stirling, 
1796. Besides his separate works Doig con- 
tributed to vol. iii. of the ' Transactions ' of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh a dissertation 
' On the Ancient Hellenes/ A continuation 
which he forwarded to the society was lost 
and never appeared. He also wrote in the 
third edition of the 'Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica' the articles on ' Mythology,' ' Myste- 
ries,' and ' Philology.' They attracted great 
attention, and brought their author into cor- 
respondence with some of the most eminent 
scholars of that day, among whom were Dr. 
William Vincent, afterwards dean of West- 
minster, and Jacob Bryant. 

Doig, who was married and left issue, died 
at Stirling on 16 March 1800, aged 81. A 
mural tablet, with an inscription in com- 
memoration of his virtues and learning, was 
raised by his friend John Ramsay of Ochter- 
tyre. The town of Stirling also erected a , 
marble monument to his memory, which | 
contains a Latin epitaph written by himself. | 

Besides Latin and English poems Doig left 
many treatises in manuscript. A list of the j 
more important is given in t Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' 8th edit. viii. 92. 

[Dr. David Irving in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
8th edit., viii. 90-2, reprinted in the same author's 
Lives of Scottish Writers, ii. 313-24 ; The New 
Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. viii. (Stir- 
ling) 422, ix. (Fife) 933, xi. (Forfar) 556 ; Tytler's 
Memoirs of Lord Kaimes, 2nd edit. ii. 185-93; 
Nimmo's Hist, of Stirlingshire, 3rd edit. ii. 63- 
65 ; Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scots- 
men (ed. Thomson), i. 449-50 ; Anderson's Scot- 
tish Nation, ii. 39-40 ; Conolly's Biog. Diet, of 
Eminent Men of Fife.] G. G. 

DOKET or DUCKET, ANDREW (d. 

1484), first president of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, was, according to Dr. Caius and Arch- 
bishop Parker, principal of St. Bernard's 
Hostel, of which he may probably have been 
the founder, and certainly was the owner. 
Before 1439 he was presented by Corpus 
Christi College to the vicarage of St. Botolph, 
Cambridge, of which, on the restoration of the 
great tithes, he became rector 21 Oct. 1444. 
He resigned the rectory in 1470. Subse- 
quently he was made one of the canons or pre- 
bendaries of the royal chapel of St. Stephen's, 



Westminster,which preferment he exchanged 
in 1479 with Dr. Walter Oudeby for the pro- 
vostship of the collegiate church of Cotter- 
stock, near Oundle. In July 1467 Doket was 
collated to the prebend of Ryton in Lichfield 
Cathedral, which he exchanged for the chan- 
cellorship of the same church in 1470, an 
office which he resigned 6 July 1476 (LE 
NEVE, ed. Hardy, i. 584, 622). Fuller calls 
him ' a friar,' but for this there appears to 
be no foundation beyond the admission of 
himself and his society into the confraternity 
of the Franciscans or Grey Friars in 1479. 
The great work of Doket's life was the foun- 
dation of the college, which, by his prudent 
administration and his adroit policy in se- 
curing the patronage of the sovereigns of the 
two rival lines, developed from very small 
beginnings into the well-endowed society of 
Queens' College, Cambridge. The founda- 
tion of King's College by Henry VI in 1440 
appears to have given the first impulse to 
Doket's enterprise. In December 1446 he 
obtained a royal charter for a college, to 
consist of a president and four fellows. Eight 
months later, Doket having in the mean- 
while obtained a better site for his proposed 
buildings, this charter was cancelled at his 
own request, and a second issued by the king 
21 Aug. 1447, authorising the refoundation 
of the college on the new site, under the 
name of ' the College of St. Bernard of Cam- 
bridge.' With a keen sense of the advan- 
tages of royal patronage, Doket secured the 
protection of the young queen Margaret of 
Anjou for his infant college, which was a 
second time refounded by her, and, with an 
emulation of her royal consort's noble bounty, 
received from her the designation of 'the 
Queen's College of St. Margaret and St. Ber- 
nard.' There is no direct evidence of Mar- 
giret having given any pecuniary aid to 
oket's design, but Henry VI granted 200/. 
to it as being the foundation of his 'most 
dear and best beloved wife,' and the names 
of some of her court appear on the roll of 
benefactors. 

The foundation-stone was laid for the 
queen by Sir John Wenlock, her chamber- 
lain, 15 April 1448, and the quadrangle was 
approaching completion when the outbreak 
of the wars of the Roses put a temporary 
stop to the undertaking. Upon the resto- 
ration of tranquillity, Doket, opportunely 
transferring his allegiance to the house of 
York, succeeded in persuading the new queen, 
Elizabeth Woodville [q. v.], to replace the 
support he had lost by accepting the patro- 
nage of the foundation of her unfortunate 
predecessor and former mistress. Doket was 
no stranger to the new queen, who must 



Doket 



188 



Dolben 



have felt a woman's pride in carrying to a 
conclusion a scheme in which Margaret had 
exhibited so much interest, and which had 
naturally spread to the ladies of her household. 
Elizabeth described herself as ' vera funda- 
trix jure successionis,' and though there is no 
documentary evidence of her having helped 
it with money, the prosperity of the college 
was due to her influence with her husband, 
and she gave it the first code of statutes in 
1475. As owing its existence to two queens- 
consort, the college was henceforth known as 
' Queens' College,' in the plural. Doket's 
policy in steering his young foundation so 
successfully through the waves of contend- 
ing factions fully warrants Fuller's character 
of him as ' a good and discreet man, who, 
with no sordid but prudential compliance, so 
poised himself in those dangerous times be- 
twixt the successive kings of Lancaster and 
York that he procured the favour of both, 
and so prevailed with Queen Elizabeth, wife 
to King Edward IV, that she perfected what 
her professed enemy had begun' (Hist, of 
Univ. of Cambr. ed. 1840, p. 162). Doket 
also succeeded in ingratiating himself with 
the king's brother, Richard, and obtained 
his patronage and liberal aid. As Duke of 
Gloucester, he founded four fellowships, and 
during his short tenure of the throne largely 
increased the emoluments of the college by 
grants of lands belonging (in right of her 
mother) to his Queen Anne, who had accepted 
the position of foundress and patroness of 
this college. These estates were lost to the 
college on the accession of Henry VII. The 
endowments were also augmented by Doket's 
offer to place the names of deceased persons 
on the bede-roll of the college in return for 
a gift of money. Doket governed his college 
prudently and successfully for thirty-eight 
years, having lived long enough to see his small 
foundation of four fellows grow into a flourish- 
ing society of seventeen, and his college richly 
endowed and prosperous under the patronage 
of three successive sovereigns. Hedied4Nov. 
1484. His age is not stated, but he was pro- 
bably about seventy-four. His will, dated 
2 Nov. of the same year, is printed by Mr. 
Searle in his history of the college (p. 56). 
He was buried by his desire in the choir of his 
college chapel, ' where the lessons are read.' 
His gravestone with the matrix of his incised 
effigy existed in Cole's time (c. 1777), but 
it has now disappeared (Cole MSS. ii. 17, 
viii. 124). As he is styled ' magister ' to 
the last, he was probably not doctor either in 
divinity or in any other faculty. Mr. Mullin- 
ger writes of him : ' We have evidence which 
would lead us to conclude that he was a 
hard student of the canon law, but nothing 



to indicate that he was in any way a pro- 
moter of the new learning, which already 
before his death was beginning to be heard 
of at Cambridge ' ( Univ. of Cambr. i. 317). In 
spite of the great names which add dignity 
and ornament to the foundation of the college, 
there can be no doubt that Doket must be re- 
garded as the true founder of Queens' College, 
and that the words of Caius express the simple 
truth, that ' his labour in building the college 
and procuring money was so great that there 
are those who esteem the magnificent work to 
have been his alone' (Hist.Acad. Cant. 70), 
so that he is justly styled in the history of 
benefactors 'primus presidens ac dignissimus 
fundator hujus collegii.' He made a catalogue 
of the library of his college, consisting of 
299 volumes, in 1472, and also an inventory 
of the chapel furniture in the same year. 

[Searle's Hist, of the Queens' College of St. 
Margaret and St. Bernard, pp. 2-104, issued by 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1867 ; Mul- 
linger's Univ. of Cambr. vol. i. ; Fuller's Hist, of 
Univ. of Cambr. pp. 161-3 ; Willis and Clark's 
Architectural Hist, of Univ. of Cambr. i. Ixii-v, 
ii. 1-11, iii. 438.] E. V. 

DOLBEN, DAVID (1581-1633), bishop 
of Bangor, born in 1581 at Segrwyd, near 
Denbigh, was of a respectable family of some 
position, whose names constantly occur in 
the municipal and commercial records of that 
town. His father's name was Robert Wynn 
Dolben. In 1602 he was admitted into St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where he still re- 
mained in 1606, when he wrote some verses 
on the death of a former fellow, Sir Edward 
Lewknor. In 1609 he proceeded master of 
arts. On 18 Jan. 1618 he was appointed vicar 
of Hackney in Middlesex, which benefice he 
held until May 1633. In 1621 he was made 
vicar of Llangerniew in his native county. 
In 1625 he became prebendary of Vaynol, or 
the golden prebend, in the cathedral of St. 
Asaph, a post he held until 1633, just before 
his death. In 1626 he was sworn capital 
burgess of Denbigh . In 1 627 he became doctor 
of divinity. Towards the end of 1631 he was 
appointed bishop of Bangor. He was elected 
on 18 Nov., and the temporalities restored on 
the same day. He was consecrated on 4 March 
1631-2 by Archbishop Abbot at Lambeth, on 
which occasion he distributed four pounds 
to the archbishop's servants. A Mr. Austin 
preached the sermon. Dolben was, however, 
in failing health. In June 1633 hunters after 
bishoprics declared that he was ' crazy and 
very sickly,' and intrigued for the succession 
to his post. In the autumn of the same year 
he was seized with a mortal sickness at the 
town house of his see in Shoe Lane, Holborn, 
where he died on 27 Nov. He was buried 



Dolben 



189 



Dolben 



in Hackney parish church, where his monu- 
ment, containing a half-length statue and a 
eulogistic description of him, still remains. 
On 11 Nov., just before his death, he left 
30/. to repair the ' causeway or path that 
runs from Hackney Church to Shoreditch, 
for the benefit of the poorest sort of people, 
that maintain their livelihood by the carriage 
of burdens to the city of London.' The sur- 
plus was to be devoted to the poor of the 
parish in which most of his active life was 
spent. He also left 201. to buy Hebrew books 
for St. John's College Library. His successor 
as bishop, Edward Griffith, dean of Bangor, 
was recommended by Dolben himself for the 
post. Dr. Dolben, archbishop of York, be- 
longed to the same family, to which Arch- 
bishop Williams was also related. 

[Baker's Hist, of St. John's Coll. Cambridge, 
ed. Mayor, pp. 264, 339, 677; D. E. Thomas's 
Hist, of St. Asaph ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 
1631-3 pp. 84, 283, 1633-4 pp. 110, 318; Wood's 
Athehse Oxon., ed. Bliss, ii. 88 1 ; Browne Willis's 
Survey of Bangor, pp. 111-12; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccles*. Angl. ed. Hardy, i. 85, 106 ; Kobinson's 
Hist, of Hackney, ii. 22, 108, 157, 364 ; J. Wil- 
liams's Records of Denbigh and its Lordship, 
v. 130.] T. F. T. 

DOLBEN, SIR GILBERT (1658-1722), 
judge, eldest son of John Dolben [q. v.], 
archbishop of York, born in 1658, was edu- 
cated at Westminster School and at Oxford, 
taking, however, no degree, and was called 
to the bar of the Inner Temple in 1681. He 
sat for Ripon in the parliament of 1685, and 
for Peterborough in the Convention parlia- 
ment of 1688-9. In the debate on the state 
of the nation (January 1689) he argued with 
great learning, force, and reasonableness that 
the conduct of the king in quitting the realm 
amounted to an abdication. He represented 
Peterborough in almost every parliament be- 
tween 1689 and 1707. He opposed Sir J. 
Fenwick's attainder in 1696, on the ground 
that his conduct, though treasonable, was 
not heinous enough to justify parliamentary 
proceedings, but ought to be tried by a court 
of law. He was appointed to a puisne judge- 
ship in the court of common pleas in Ireland 
in 1701. In the debate on the Aylesbury 
election case (Ashby v. White) in 1704, he 
supported the claim of the House of Com- 
mons to exclusive jurisdiction in all questions 
arising out of elections. He was created a 
baronet in 1704, and elected a bencher of his 
inn in 1706, and reader in 1708. In 1710 
and 1714 he was returned to parliament for 
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight. Concerning his 
life in Ireland little is known except that he 
was on bad terms with the Earl of Wharton 
during that nobleman's viceroyalty. He re- 



tired from the bench in 1720, and died in 
1722. He seems to have had scholarly tastes, 
as Dryden mentions in the postscript to his 
translation of the ' ^Eneid ' that Dolben had 
made him a ' noble present of all the several 
editions of Virgil, and all the commentaries 
of these editions in Latin.' Dolben married 
Anne, eldest daughter of Tanfield Mulso of 
Finedon, Northamptonshire, by whom he 
had one son, John [q. v.], who succeeded to 
the title. 

[Welch's Alumni Westmonast.; Inner Temple 
Books ; Wotton's Baronetage ; Smyth's Law Offi- 
cers of Ireland ; Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs, 
iii. 543, v. 49; Parl. Hist. iv. 1347, v. 30, 37, 
545, 962, 1123-6, 1230, 1327, vi. 43, 290-4,448, 
593, 923, 1252 ; Swift's Works, ed. Scott, iv. 
165.] J. M. R. 

DOLBEN, JOHN (1625-1686), arch- 
bishop of York (1683-6), was the eldest son 
of Dr. William Dolben [q. v.], prebendary of 
Lincoln and rector of Stanwick, Northamp- 
tonshire, where he was born 20 March 1625. 
His mother was niece to Lord-keeper Wil- 
liams, on whose nomination when twelve 
years of age he was admitted king's scholar 
at Westminster, and educated there under 
Dr. Busby [q. v.] In 1640, at the early age 
of fifteen, he was elected student of Christ 
Church, Oxford, and was ' the second in order 
of six succeeding generations of one family 
who passed through the same course of edu- 
cation, and did good service in their day to 
church and state.' Two years after his elec- 
tion he composed a set of Latin iambics to 
celebrate the return of Charles I from Scot- 
land in 1641, which were published in a work 
entitled ' Oxonia Eucharistica.' When two 
years later Oxford became the central posi- 
tion of the royal military operations, twenty 
of the hundred students of Christ Church be- 
came officers in the king's army ( WOOD, An- 
nals, ed. Gutch, ii. 478). Of these Dolben 
was one of the most ardent. He joined the 
royal forces as a volunteer, accompanied the 
army on their northward march, and rose 
to the rank of ensign. At Marston Moor, 
2 July 1644, while carrying the colours, he 
was wounded in the shoulder by a musket ball. 
This, however, did not prevent his taking an 
active part in the defence of the city of York, 
then beleaguered by Fairfax. During the 
siege he received a severe shot-wound in the 
thigh, the bone of which was broken, and he 
was confined to his bed for twelve months. As 
a reward for his bravery he was promoted to 
the rank of captain and major. But in 1646, 
the royal cause becoming hopeless, the army 
was disbanded, and Dolben returned to Christ 
Church to pursue the studies which had been 
thus rudely interrupted. Being now of M. A. 



Dolben 



190 



Dolben 



standing he took that degree 9 Dec. 1647, by 
accumulation, without the usual preliminary 
of the B.A. degree (WooD, Fasti, ii. 103). 
On the parliamentary visitation of the uni- 
versity the following year, he replied to the 
demand whether he would submit to the au- 
thority of parliament, 3 May 1648, that ' as 
to his apprehension there was some ambiguity 
in the words of the question ; until it was 
further explained he could not make any direct 
categorical answer to it ' (Register of the Visi- 
tors of the Univ. of Oxford, ed. Burrows, Cam- 
den Soc., p. 32). He was deprived of his stu- 
dentship, and his name was removed from the 
books of the house. Of the next eight years of 
Dolben's life we have no record. In 1656 he 
was ordained by Bishop King of Chichester, 
and the next year he married Catherine, 
daughter of Ralph Sheldon, esq., of Stanton, 
Derbyshire, the niece of Dr. Sheldon, after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury. Mr. Sheldon 
had a house in St. Aldates, Oxford, where 
Dolben found a home until after the Restora- 
tion. During this period Dolben shares with 
Fell [q. v.] and Allestree [q. v.] the honour of 
having privately maintained the service and 
administered the sacraments of the proscribed 
church of England in defiance of the penal 
laws. The place of meeting was the house 
of Dr. Thomas Willis [q. v.], the celebrated 
physician (whose sister Fell had married), 
opposite to Merton College, to which, writes 
Wood, 'most of the loyalists in Oxford, es- 
pecially scholars ejected in 1648, did daily 
resort' (Athence Oxon. iii. 1050). This 
courageous act of loyalty to their church was 
commemorated by the pencil of Sir Peter 
Lely in two pictures, one hanging in the 
deanery at Christ Church, and a copy of the 
other, which belongs to Dolben's descendants 
at Finedon Hall, in the hall of the same col- 
lege. The three divines are painted seated 
at a table, in their gowns and bands, with 
open prayer-books before them, Dolben oc- 
cupying the centre, with Allestree on the 
right hand and Fell on the left. These pri- 
vate services were continued until the Re- 
storation. Dolben's services insured honour- 
able recognition. But preferment was hardly 
rapid enough to satisfy his expectations. As 
early as April 1660 Dolben and Allestree peti- 
tioned the crown for canonries at Christ 
Church (State Papers, Dom. p. 86), to which 
they were appointed within ten days of one 
another, Allestree on the 17th, Dolben on 
27 July ; in the words of South's consecration 
sermon, ' returning poor and bare to a col- 
lege as bare, after a long persecution.' The 
bareness of his college he did his best to re- 
trieve as soon as he had the means, contri- 
buting largely to the erection of the north 



side of the great quadrangle undertaken by 
Dr. Fell. In commemoration of this muni- 
ficence his arms as archbishop of York are 
carved on the roof of the great gateway 
erected by Sir Christopher Wren. On 3 Oct. 
of the same year he took his D.D. degree, in 
company with their loyal colleagues Allestree 
and Fell. Dolben was also appointed about 
the same time to the living of Newington-cum- 
Britwell, Oxfordshire, on the king's presenta- 
tion. On 7 Feb. 1661 he writes to Williams, as 
secretary to Sir Edward Nicholson, secretary 
of state, thanking him for the care of his busi- 
ness, which he begs he will expedite, adding 
that he ' will send any money that may be 
wanted.' Such powerful advocacy was not 
in vain. On the 29th of the following April 
he was installed prebendary of Caddington 
Major in the cathedral of St. Paul's, his wife's 
uncle, Sheldon, being bishop of London, and 
the following year, 11 April 1662, became 
on his nomination archdeacon of London, 
and shortly afterwards vicar of St. Giles's, 
Cripplegate. The next year he rose to the 
higher dignity of the deanery of Westmin- 
ster, being installed 5 Dec. 1662. It is re- 
corded to his credit that on his appointment 
as dean he at once gave up his parochial bene- 
fices, and in 1664 resigned his archdeaconry. 
His stall he held till he was advanced to the 
episcopate in 1666. Canon Overton remarks : 
1 Perhaps the fact of Dolben having married 
Sheldon's niece was no hindrance to his pro- 
motion; but he deserved it by his merits. 
He was a man of great benevolence, gene- 
rosity, and candour, noted as an excellent 
preacher, described by Hickes (Memoirs of 
Comber, p. 189) as very conversable and 
popular, and such every way as gave him a 
mighty advantage of doing much good,' &c. 
(Life in the English Church, p. 33). Com- 
ber himself speaks of him as ' a prelate of 
great presence, ready parts, graceful conversa- 
tion, and wondrous generosity ' (Memoirs, u. s. 
p. 212). In October 1660, when the regicides 
were lying under sentence of death, Dolben 
was commissioned, in conjunction with Dr. 
Barwick [q. v.], dean of St. Paul's, to visit 
them in the hope of persuading them to con- 
demn their act. They began with the mili- 
tary divine, Hugh Peters, in the hope that 
he might use his influence with his com- 
panions, by whom ' his prophecies were re- 
garded as oracles.' Their exhortations, how- 
ever, entirely failed (Barwictts Life, p. 295). 
Dolben was elected prolocutor of the lower 
house of convocation, in succession to Dr. Bar- 
wick in 1664, and appointed clerk of the closet 
in the same year, a position of great diffi- 
culty in so licentious a court, which he filled 
with courage and dignity (State Papers, Dom. 



Dolben 



191 



Dolben 



p. 617). Dolben's tenure of the deanery of 
Westminster was marked by the frank energy, 
sound good sense, transparent candour, geni- 
ality, and generosity which rendered him one 
of the most popular of the ecclesiastics of his 
day. On the very day of his installation he 
prevailed with a somewhat reluctant chapter 
to make the abbey an equal sharer with them- 
selves in all dividends, a plan which secured 
the proper repair of the building, till the change 
of system in the present century. As dean he 
also resolutely maintained the independence 
of the abbey of all diocesan control. As a 
preacher he rivalled in popularity the most 
celebrated pulpit orators of his day. People 
crowded the abbey when it was known he was 
to preach, and Dryden has immortalised him 
in his 'Absalom and Achitophel' (vv. 868-9) 
as 

Him of the western dome, whose weighty sense 
Flows in fit words and heavenly eloquence. 

The few sermons which exist in print prove 
that this popularity was by no means un- 
deserved. They are * clear and plain, written 
in a pure and terse style, with something of 
the downright abruptness of the soldier in 
the subject, argued out admirably in a very 
racy and practical fashion ' (OVERTON, Life 
in the English Church, pp. 243-4). He at 
first preached from a manuscript, but a hint 
from Charles II induced him to become an 
extempore preacher, and ' therefore his preach- 
ing was well liked of (Woor, Life, cxii). 
During his residence at Westminster as dean 
the great fire of London broke out (1666), 
and the dean, ' who in the civil wars had often 
stood sentinel/ gathered the Westminster 
scholars in a company, and marched at their 
head to the scene of the conflagration, and 
kept them hard at work for many hours 
fetching water from the back of St. Dun- 
stan's Church, which by their exertions they 
succeeded in saving {Autobiography of J. 
Taswell, Camd. Soc. p. 12). 

On the death of Bishop Warner, Dolben 
was chosen to succeed him in the see of Ro- 
chester, to which he was consecrated at Lam- 
beth Chapel by his uncle, Archbishop Shel- 
don, 25 Nov. 1666, the sermon being preached 
by his old friend and fellow-student, Dr. Ro- 
bert South, from Tit. ii. 15 (SOUTH, Sermons, 
i. 122 ff). The income of the see being very 
small, he was allowed to hold the deanery of 
Westminster in commendam (State Papers, 
Dom. p. 257), thus inaugurating a system 
which continued till the time of Horsley, by 
which the income of a poor suburban bishopric 
was augmented, and a town residence provided 
for its occupant. He occupied the deanery for 
twenty years till his translation to York, being 



' held in great esteem by the inhabitants of 
Westminster,' and spoken of as ' a very good 
dean ' (STANLEY, Memoirs of Westminster Ab- 
bey, p. 451). Dolben at once began at his own 
cost to repair the episcopal palace at Brom- 
ley, which had suffered severely during the 
Commonwealth, a work recorded by Evelyn, 
who more than once speaks in his ' Diary ' 
with much esteem of his ' worthy neigh- 
bour ' (Diary, 23 Aug. 1669, ii. 43 ; 19 Aug. 
1683, ib. p. 183; 15 April 1686, ib. p. 252). 
Dolben had been scarcely bishop a year when 
the fall of Clarendon involved him in tem- 
porary disgrace at court. Pepys mentions 
in his 'Diary,' 23 Dec. 1667, the suspension 
of the Bishop of Rochester, who, together 
with Morley of Winchester, ' and other great 
prelates,' was forbidden the court, and de- 
prived of his place as clerk of the closet. He 
also records a visit paid to Dolben at this 
time at the deanery, 24 Feb. 1668, in com- 
pany with Dr. Christopher Gibbons, for the 
purpose of trying an organ which he was 
thinking of purchasing, when he found him, 
though ' under disgrace at court,' living in 
considerable state ' like a great prelate.' ' I 
saw his lady,' he continues, ' of whom the 
Terrse Filius at Oxford was once so merry, 
and two children, one a very pretty little boy 
like him (afterwards Sir Gilbert Dolben 

.1), so fat and black' (PEPYS, Diary, ii. 
:;: oon QOQ oaa OQK\ T<U<. T~IH _ 



, iii. 329, 333, 366, 385). That Dolben's 
disgrace with Charles was not lasting is proved 
by his appointment as lord high almoner in 
1675, and when five years later the death of 
Archbishop Sterne of York vacated that see, he 
was selected as his successor. He was elected 
' in a very full chapter ' 28 July, and enthroned 
26 Aug. 1683, amidst the universal acclama- 
tion of the citizens. Burnet, who disliked 
him as having, as he believed, when engaged 
on the 'History of the Reformation,' used 
his influence to hinder his researches in the 
Cottonian Library, under the apprehension 
that he would 'make an ill use of it' (Own 
Time, i. 396, fol. edit.), and who sneers at 
him as ' a man of more spirit than discretion, 
an excellent preacher, but of a fine conver- 
sation, which laid him open to much censure 
in a vicious court ' records that ' he proved 
a much better archbishop than bishop' (ib. 
p. 590). Beyond the commendation of men 
such as Evelyn, we have little if any evi- 
dence of his administration of the see of 
Rochester. His short archiepiscopate was 
one of much vigour. Thoresby tells us that 
' he was much honoured as a preaching bishop, 
visiting the churches of his diocese, and 
addressing the people in his plain, vigor- 
ous style^ (Diary, 1 May 1684). His first 
business was to reform hi